Chlaib, Hussein Khalefa
Levees are important engineering structures that build along the rivers to protect the human lives and shield the communities as well as agriculture lands from the high water level events. Animal burrows, subsurface cavities, and low density (high permeability) zones are weakness features within the levee body that increase its risk of failure. To prevent such failure, continuous monitoring of the structure integrity and early detection of the weakness features must be conducted. Application of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and Capacitively Coupled Resistivity (CCR) methods were found to be very effective in assessing the levees and detect zones of weakness within the levee body. GPR was implemented using multi-frequency antennas (200, 400, and 900 MHz) with survey cart/wheel and survey vehicle. The (CCR) method was applied by using a single transmitter and three receivers. Studying the capability and the effectiveness of these methods in levee monitoring, subsurface weakness feature detection, and studying the structure integrity of levees were the main tasks of this dissertation. A set of laboratory experiments was conducted at the Geophysics Laboratory of the University of Arkansas at Little Rock (UALR) to analyze the polarity change in GPR signals in the presence of subsurface voids and water-filled cavities. Also three full scale field expeditions at the Big Dam Bridge (BDB) Levee, Lollie Levee, and Helena Levee in Arkansas were conducted using the GPR technique. This technique was effective in detecting empty, water, and clay filled cavities as well as small scale animal burrows (small rodents). The geophysical work at BDB and Lollie Levees expressed intensive subsurface anomalies which might decrease their integrity while the Helena Levee shows less subsurface anomalies. The compaction of levee material is a key factor affecting piping phenomenon. The structural integrity of the levee partially depends on the density/compaction of the soil layers. A
significant dam safety issue in the United States . The purpose of this Technical Manual on the Effects of Tree and Woody Vegetation Root Penetrations on...nationwide inspection of levee systems in 2007, many deficiencies were attributed to woody vegetation located within 15-ft of the levee toe as required...maintenance, operation, or flood-fight activities. International guidance documents and manuals Several countries other than the United States have guidance
Jones, C. E.; Bawden, G. W.; Deverel, S. J.; Dudas, J.; Hensley, S.; Yun, S.
Remote sensing offers the potential to augment current levee monitoring programs by providing rapid and consistent data collection over large areas irrespective of the ground accessibility of the sites of interest, at repeat intervals that are difficult or costly to maintain with ground-based surveys, and in rapid response to emergency situations. While synthetic aperture radar (SAR) has long been used for subsidence measurements over large areas, applying this technique directly to regional levee monitoring is a new endeavor, mainly because it requires both a wide imaging swath and fine spatial resolution to resolve individual levees within the scene, a combination that has not historically been available. Application of SAR remote sensing directly to levee monitoring has only been attempted in a few pilot studies. Here we describe how SAR remote sensing can be used to assess levee conditions, such as seepage, drawing from the results of two levee studies: one of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta levees in California that has been ongoing since July 2009 and a second that covered the levees near Vicksburg, Mississippi, during the spring 2011 floods. These studies have both used data acquired with NASA's UAVSAR L-band synthetic aperture radar, which has the spatial resolution needed for this application (1.7 m single-look), sufficiently wide imaging swath (22 km), and the longer wavelength (L-band, 0.238 m) required to maintain phase coherence between repeat collections over levees, an essential requirement for applying differential interferometry (DInSAR) to a time series of repeated collections for levee deformation measurement. We report the development and demonstration of new techniques that employ SAR polarimetry and differential interferometry to successfully assess levee health through the quantitative measurement of deformation on and near levees and through detection of areas experiencing seepage. The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta levee study, which covers
Dalton, Laura M.
Shallow slough slides have occurred along the river side slope of Mississippi River Levees for over sixty years. Shallow slough slides also occur along smaller levees that protect tributaries of the Mississippi River. This investigation takes place along a section of the Coldwater River Levee, a tributary levee of the Mississippi River. Field observation, soil samples, and geophysical data were collected at two field sites located on the border of Tate and Tunica County, MS. The first site consists of a developed shallow slough slide that had occurred that has not yet been repaired and the second site is a potential slide area. Electromagnetic induction and electrical resistivity tomography were the geophysical methods used to define subsurface conditions that make a levee vulnerable to failure. These electrical methods are sensitive to the electrical conductivity of the soil and therefore depend upon: soil moisture, clay content, pore size distribution as well as larger scale structures at depth such as cracks and fissures. These same physical properties of the soil are also important to assessing the vulnerability of a levee to slough slides. Soil tests and field observations were also implemented in this investigation to describe and classify the soil composition of the levee material. The problem of slough slide occurrence can potentially be reduced if vulnerabilities are located with the help of geophysical techniques.
Hui, Rui; Jachens, Elizabeth; Lund, Jay
Traditional risk-based analysis for levee planning focuses primarily on overtopping failure. Although many levees fail before overtopping, few planning studies explicitly include intermediate geotechnical failures in flood risk analysis. This study develops a risk-based model for two simplified levee failure modes: overtopping failure and overall intermediate geotechnical failure from through-seepage, determined by the levee cross section represented by levee height and crown width. Overtopping failure is based only on water level and levee height, while through-seepage failure depends on many geotechnical factors as well, mathematically represented here as a function of levee crown width using levee fragility curves developed from professional judgment or analysis. These levee planning decisions are optimized to minimize the annual expected total cost, which sums expected (residual) annual flood damage and annualized construction costs. Applicability of this optimization approach to planning new levees or upgrading existing levees is demonstrated preliminarily for a levee on a small river protecting agricultural land, and a major levee on a large river protecting a more valuable urban area. Optimized results show higher likelihood of intermediate geotechnical failure than overtopping failure. The effects of uncertainty in levee fragility curves, economic damage potential, construction costs, and hydrology (changing climate) are explored. Optimal levee crown width is more sensitive to these uncertainties than height, while the derived general principles and guidelines for risk-based optimal levee planning remain the same.
Johnson, E.; Sustainable; Resiliency in Levee Scour Protection
Earnest Johnson, Firat Y. Testik *, Nadarajah Ravichandran Civil Engineering, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, USA * Contact author email@example.com Levee failure due to scouring has been a prominent occurrence among intense storm surges and waves, giving rise to the implementation of various scour protection measures over the years. This study is to investigate the levee scour and to compare different scour protection measures on a model-levee system in a laboratory wave tank. The protection measures that are tested and compared for their effectiveness in this study include turf reinforcement mats, woven geotextiles, and core-locs. This is an ongoing research effort and experiments are currently being conducted with model levees constructed based upon the United States Army Corps of Engineers' levee design and construction guidelines under various simulated storm conditions. Parameters such as wave elevations, deformation time history of the floodwall, and the scour depth are measured in each test. The finding of this research will be translated to provide effective scour protection measures for robust levee designs.
Dorrell, Robert M.; Burns, Alan D.; McCaffrey, William D.
New analytical models demonstrate that under aggradational flow conditions, seafloor channel-levee systems are inherently unstable; both channel area and stability necessarily decrease at long timescales. In time such systems must avulse purely through internal (autogenic) forcing. Although autogenic instabilities likely arise over long enough time for additional allogenic forcing to be expected, channel-levee sensitivity to variations in flow character depends on the prior degree of system evolution. Recalibrated modern Amazon Fan avulsion timings are consistent with this model, challenging accepted interpretations of avulsion triggering.
Skonberg, E.R.; Berry, C.W.
Shell Pipe Line Corp. recently commenced construction of its 20-inch Delta Loop Pipeline Project in south Louisiana. This line will transport crude oil from Main Pass No. 69 to the existing Shell pump station at Nairn in Plaquemines Parish. NBH, Inc. of New Orleans is prime contractor for this project which involves offshore pipe lay, shallow water marsh lay and a 4,100-foot horizontal directional crossing of the Mississippi River at Nairn which was undertaken by Land and Marine, Inc. of Houston. For past directionally drilled crossings, the New Orleans district of the US Army Corps of Engineers has only allowed drilling operations inside its Mississippi River flood protection levees. No drilling has been undertaken beneath the levees out of concern that the drilling operations could in some way damage their structural integrity. Unfortunately, at this particular location, the drill profile could not be designed placing drilling equipment inside the levee and achieve sufficient burial depth for the installed pipeline. If not allowed to bore beneath the levee, significant additional costs would have been incurred in routing the pipeline to a more suitable location. This paper reviews the design of this drilling operation showing the locations and construction of relief wells and piezometers used to monitor the directional drilling.
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Levee owner's manual. 203.51... Program § 203.51 Levee owner's manual. (a) Authority. In accordance with section 202(f) of Public Law 104-303, the Corps will provide a levee owner's manual to the non-Federal sponsor of all flood...
Newman, A. E.; Keim, R. F.
Natural levees are potentially locally important zones of lateral seepage between stream channels and floodplain backswamps, because their relatively coarser soils provide pathways of high hydraulic conductivity in an otherwise low conductivity system. Therefore, understanding the rates and mechanisms of subsurface exchange of water and solutes through natural levees may be necessary for understanding biogeochemical cycling in floodplains. We measured imposed hydraulic gradients and solute tracers in 19 shallow monitoring wells within a 580 m3 volume of natural levee in the Atchafalaya Basin, Louisiana. We modeled residence time distributions of pressure and tracers using a simple linear system to quantify spatially variable transport velocities and infer dominant flow mechanisms at a mesoscale. The spatial mean velocity of pressure transport was faster than the mean velocity of tracer transport by two orders of magnitude (1.7 × 10-2 and 4.6 × 10-4 m s-1, respectively), and the variance of pressure velocities was less than the variance of tracer velocities by seven orders of magnitude (1.4 × 104 min2 and 7.9 × 1011 min2, respectively). Higher spatial variability of tracer velocities compared to pressure velocities indicates different functioning mechanisms of mass versus energy transport and suggests preferential flow. Effective hydraulic conductivities, which ranged in magnitude from 10-1 to 103 m d-1, were higher than would be predicted by soil texture. We conclude that, in this fine-grained system, preferential flow paths control water and solute exchange through natural levees. These findings are important for future studies of water and solute cycling in riverine wetlands, and rates of exchange may be particularly useful for modeling water and nutrient budgets in similar systems.
Newman, A. E.; Keim, R. F.
Natural levees are potentially locally important zones of lateral seepage between stream channels and floodplain backswamps because their relatively coarser soils provide pathways of high hydraulic conductivity in an otherwise low conductivity system. Therefore, understanding the rates and mechanisms of subsurface exchange of water and solutes through natural levees may be necessary for understanding biogeochemical cycling in floodplains. We measured imposed hydraulic gradients and solute tracers in 19 shallow monitoring wells within a 580 m3 volume of natural levee in the Atchafalaya Basin, Louisiana. We modeled residence time distributions of pressure and tracers using a simple linear system to quantify spatially variable transport velocities and infer dominant flow mechanisms at a mesoscale. The spatial mean velocity of pressure transport was faster than the mean velocity of tracer transport by two orders of magnitude (1.7 × 10-2 and 4.6 × 10-4 m s-1, respectively), and the variance of pressure velocities was less than the variance of tracer velocities by seven orders of magnitude (1.4 × 104 min2 and 7.9 × 1011 min2, respectively). Higher spatial variability of tracer velocities compared to pressure velocities indicates different functioning mechanisms of mass versus energy transport and suggests preferential flow. Effective hydraulic conductivities, which ranged in magnitude from 10-1 to 106 and from 10-1 to 103 m d-1 for pressure and tracers, respectively, were higher than would be predicted by soil texture. We conclude that, in this fine-grained system, preferential flowpaths control water and solute exchange through natural levees. These findings are important for future studies of water and solute cycling in riverine wetlands, and rates of exchange may be particularly useful for modeling water and nutrient budgets in similar systems.
Florsheim, J.L.; Dettinger, M.D.
Even in heavily engineered river systems, climate still governs flood variability and thus still drives many levee breaks and geomorphic changes. We assemble a 155-year record of levee breaks for a major California river system to find that breaks occurred in 25% of years during the 20th Century. A relation between levee breaks and river discharge is present that sets a discharge threshold above which most levee breaks occurred. That threshold corresponds to small floods with recurrence intervals of ???2-3 years. Statistical analysis illustrates that levee breaks and peak discharges cycle (broadly) on a 12-15 year time scale, in time with warm-wet storm patterns in California, but more slowly or more quickly than ENSO and PDO climate phenomena, respectively. Notably, these variations and thresholds persist through the 20th Century, suggesting that historical flood-control effects have not reduced the occurrence or frequency of levee breaks. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.
Barbetta, Silvia; Camici, Stefania; Maccioni, Pamela; Moramarco, Tommaso
A properly designed and constructed levees system can often be an effective device for repelling floodwaters and provide barriers against inundation to protect urbanized and industrial areas. However, the delineation of flooding-prone areas and the related hydraulic hazard mapping taking account of uncertainty (Apel et al., 2008) are usually developed with a scarce consideration of the possible occurrence of levee failures along river channels (Mazzoleni et al., 2014). Indeed, it is well known that flooding is frequently the result of levee failures that can be triggered by several factors, as: (1) overtopping, (2) scouring of the foundation, (3) seepage/piping of levee body/foundation, and (4) sliding of the foundation. Among these failure mechanisms that are influenced by the levee's geometrical configuration, hydraulic conditions (e.g. river level and seepage), and material properties (e.g. permeability, cohesion, porosity, compaction), the piping caused by seepage (ICOLD, http://www.icold-cigb.org) is considered one of the most dominant levee failure mechanisms (Colleselli F., 1994; Wallingford H. R., 2003). The difficulty of estimating the hydraulic parameters to properly describe the seepage line within the body and foundation of the levee implies that the study of the critical flood wave routing is typically carried out by assuming that the levee system is undamaged during the flood event. In this context, implementing and making operational a National Levee Database (NLD), effectively structured and continuously updated, becomes fundamental to have a searchable inventory of information about levees available as a key resource supporting decisions and actions affecting levee safety. The ItaliaN LEvee Database (INLED) has been recently developed by the Research Institute for Geo-Hydrological Protection (IRPI) for the Civil Protection Department of the Presidency of Council of Ministers. INLED has the main focus of collecting comprehensive information about
significant wave height at the toe of the slope, Hmo, the Iribarren number, xo, and various coefficients relating to the roughness and other levee character...factor for influence of levee roughness, gb the reduction factor for influence of oblique wave attack, xo the Iribarren number ¼ tana
Recent flood events in Austria have reawakened practical and scientific interest in the stability of levees. One focus amongst others has been taken on the relationship between vegetation and levee stability with special reference to the role of woody plants. The effects of woody plants are undoubtedly manifold: On the one hand they can potentially have a negative influence and endanger levees, which is why many guidelines ban woody vegetation to preserve stability, visual inspection and unhindered flood-fight access. On the other hand woody vegetation can have several positive impacts on soil stability and which effects prevail depends largely on types and characteristics of plants. This shows how controversially woody plants on levees can be discussed and the strong need for further research in this field. In order to obtain new insights and widen horizons for this controversial issue, a research project carried out by the Institute of Soil Bioengineering and Landscape Construction - at the University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna - was launched. This project deals with several aspects of effects of woody plants have on levees and focuses particularly on shrubby woody plants. The examined vegetation type is a dense stand of willows - Purple-Willows (Salix purpurea L.) - commonly used for stabilization of river embankments. The proposed contribution discusses the gained results with reference to levee stability and existing levee vegetation guidelines and gives design suggestions for compatible woody vegetation on levees.
Jones, Cathleen E.
Radar remote sensing offers great potential for high resolution monitoring of ground surface changes over large areas at one time to detect movement on and near levees and for location of seepage through levees. Our NASA-funded projects to monitor levees in the Sacramento Delta and the Mississippi River have developed and demonstrated methods to use radar remote sensing to measure quantities relevant to levee health and of great value to emergency response. The DHS-funded project will enable us is to define how to optimally monitor levees in this new way and set the stage for transition to using satellite SAR (synthetic aperture radar) imaging for better temporal and spatial coverage at lower cost to the end users.
Dunbar, Joseph B.
This research is the first known application into using airborne geophysical methods to evaluate and classify levees. This research is an important step toward developing new technologies and methods to rapidly screen and evaluate earthen flood control levees for safety against flooding. An investigation of airborne geophysical methods was conducted on levees in the lower Rio Grande Valley and involved electromagnetic induction, magnetometer, and LiDAR surveys of the levee system. Airborne EM signatures were analyzed by geologic mapping of floodplain depositional environments, examination of published soils data, and drilling of borings. A geographic information system was developed to manage the various data sets and evaluate historic land use changes and development of the flood control systems to better understand the signatures using airborne methods. This research presents information about the historic basis for evaluating and classifying levees, which is based primarily on the federal perspective and flood control experiences in the lower Mississippi River Valley, where national floodplain engineering methods and standards were developed. This research examines the evolution of today's flood control policy, and the development of engineering assessment procedures, and the application of geophysical methods to provide critical information about levee failure mechanisms and assessment of flood control systems. This research demonstrates that topographic base maps and Sengpiel sections showing the results of electrical conductivity or resistivity surveys at different frequencies along the levee corridor provide accurate and valuable information to determine the composition of floodplain soils and the foundation stratigraphy to assess modes of levee failure, to aid in the placement of borings to obtain material properties of the levee and foundation, and to determine the extent of levee reaches with similar properties for the engineering analysis. The main
Aanstoos, J. V.; O'Hara, C.; Prasad, S.; Dabbiru, L.; Nobrega, R.; Lee, M.
Earthen levees protect large areas of populated and cultivated land in the US from flooding. As shown recently with hurricanes Katrina and Ike and the recent floods in the Midwest, the potential loss of life and property associated with the catastrophic failure of levees can be extremely large. Over the entire US, there are over 100,000 miles of levee structures of varying designs and conditions. Currently, there are limited processes in place to prioritize the monitoring of large numbers of dam and levee structures. Levee managers and federal agencies need to assess levee health rapidly with robust techniques that identify, classify and prioritize levee vulnerabilities with lower costs than traditional soil-boring programs, which can cost many of millions of dollars and provide information about the subsurface only in the immediate vicinity of a small-diameter borehole. This paper reports preliminary results of a project studying the use of airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) as an aid to the levee screening process. The SAR sensor being studied is the NASA UAVSAR (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle SAR), a fully polarimetric L-band SAR which is specifically designed to acquire airborne repeat track SAR data for differential interferometric measurements. The instrument is capable of sub-meter ground sample distance. NASA has imaged with this instrument 230 km of levees along the lower Mississippi River for use in this study. SAR interferometric mode is capable of identifying vertical displacements on the order of a few millimeters. Its multipolarization measurements can penetrate soil to as much as one meter depth. Thus it is valuable in detecting changes in levees that will be key inputs to a levee vulnerability classification system. Once vulnerable levee reaches have been identified, further actions such as more detailed examination or repairs can be focused on these higher-priority sections. We report on the use of various feature detection algorithms being applied
Wei, Hongyan; Yu, Minghui; Wang, Dangwei; Li, Yitian
Experiments were conducted in a bend flume to study the overtopping breaching process and the corresponding overflow rates of river levees constructed with cohesive sediments. The river and land regions were separated by the constructed levee in the bend flume. Results showed that the levee breaching process can be subdivided into a slope erosion stage, a headcut retreat stage and a breach widening stage. Mechanisms such as flow shear erosion, impinging jet erosion, side slope erosion and cantilever collapse were discovered in the breaching process. The erosion characteristics were determined by both flow and soil properties. Finally, a depth-averaged 2-D flow model was used to simulate the levee breaching flow rates, which is well expressed by the broad-crested weir flow formula. The deduced discharge coefficient was smaller than that of common broad-crested rectangular weirs because of the shape and roughness of the breach.
Mueller, G.A.; Carpenter, J.; Marsh, P.C.; Minckley, C.O.
Bonytail and razorback sucker have once again spawned and produced swim-up larvae in Cibola High Levee Pond (CHLP). CHLP continues to support annual recruitment of bonytail while recent razorback sucker recruitment remains elusive. Thus far, razorbacks have experienced intermittent years of spawning success. Both native species were observed spawning on, or near, the riprap on the river levee. Razorbacks spawned from late January until mid-March over gravel and large cobble along the levee toe (2-3 m depth) and bonytail spawned along the levee shoreline during mid-April. Razorback suckers rapidly fin during the reproductive act, which flushes fines from the substrate and leaves gravel relatively clean. Bonytail on the other hand, appear to spawn over or on substrate that has been disturbed by beaver activity. Substrate scour or disturbance appears to be an important factor in spawning site selectiona?|
Hui, R.; Lund, J. R.; Madani, K.
Risk-based analysis has been developed for optimal levee design for economic efficiency. Along many rivers, two levees on opposite riverbanks act as a simple levee system. Being rational and self-interested, land owners on each river bank would tend to independently optimize their levees with risk-based analysis, resulting in a Pareto-inefficient levee system design from the social planner's perspective. Game theory is applied in this study to analyze decision making process in a simple levee system in which the land owners on each river bank develop their design strategies using risk-based economic optimization. For each land owner, the annual expected total cost includes expected annual damage cost and annualized construction cost. The non-cooperative Nash equilibrium is identified and compared to the social planner's optimal distribution of flood risk and damage cost throughout the system which results in the minimum total flood cost for the system. The social planner's optimal solution is not feasible without appropriate level of compensation for the transferred flood risk to guarantee and improve conditions for all parties. Therefore, cooperative game theory is then employed to develop an economically optimal design that can be implemented in practice. By examining the game in the reversible and irreversible decision making modes, the cost of decision making myopia is calculated to underline the significance of considering the externalities and evolution path of dynamic water resource problems for optimal decision making.
Kim, Sooyoung; Yang, Jiro; Song, Chang Geun; Lee, Seung Oh
Lack of the freeboard of levee has been occurred due to abnormally peaked flood events. Thus, the risk from overtopping of earthfill levee has been remarkably increased. When overflow on levee starts to occur, the breaching gap suddenly grows up at initial stage. As the breach width is extended, the discharge from breached section is also nonlinearly increased. Moreover, if the levee is located through multiple cities, the related damage cannot be predictable. However, researches about the breach mechanism have been focused on the breached shape of levee on the equilibrium state and the study on the development of levee breach is not enough to utilize the prediction of damage itself and select its countermeasure. In this study, the formula for breach discharge was presented to be able to predict that based on hydraulic experimental results. All experiments have been conducted with the movable levee which was the crown width of 0.3 m, the height of 0.3 m, the landside slope of 2:1 (H:V). Breach was induced by the lateral overflow for Froude numbers in main channel from 0.15 to 0.35 with the increment of 0.05. Based on the dimensional analysis with significant parameters such as main channel depth, breach width and discharge coefficient, temporal variation of each parameter was estimated with 25 experimental cases. Finally, the formula for prediction of breach flow due to overtopping failure of levee was presented considering the elapsed time for each Froude number after combing all significant parameters. When Froude number was less than 0.3, the breach discharge occurred to increase with Froude number while it became decreased with Froude number exceeding 0.3, which means the maximum breach discharge was occurred at Froude number = 0.3. It would be explained with the flow diversion caused by the collision of breach flow on the breached section downstream, which decreased the breach discharge into landside for higher Froude number of 0.3. As a future works, when the
Dierauer, Jennifer; Pinter, Nicholas; Remo, Jonathan W. F.
SummaryOne-dimensional hydraulic modeling and flood-loss modeling were used to test the effectiveness of levee setbacks for flood-loss reduction along the Middle Mississippi River (MMR). Four levee scenarios were assessed: (1) the present-day levee configuration, (2) a 1000 m levee setback, (3) a 1500 m levee setback, and (4) an optimized setback configuration. Flood losses were estimated using FEMA's Hazus-MH (Hazards US Multi-Hazard) loss-estimation software on a structure-by-structure basis for a range of floods from the 2- to the 500-year events. These flood-loss estimates were combined with a levee-reliability model to calculate probability-weighted damage estimates. In the simplest case, the levee setback scenarios tested here reduced flood losses compared to current conditions for large, infrequent flooding events but increased flood losses for smaller, more frequent flood events. These increases occurred because levee protection was removed for some of the existing structures. When combined with buyouts of unprotected structures, levee setbacks reduced flood losses for all recurrence intervals. The "optimized" levee setback scenario, involving a levee configuration manually planned to protect existing high-value infrastructure, reduced damages with or without buyouts. This research shows that levee setbacks in combination with buyouts are an economically viable approach for flood-risk reduction along the study reach and likely elsewhere where levees are widely employed for flood control. Designing a levee setback around existing high-value infrastructure can maximize the benefit of the setback while simultaneously minimizing the costs. The optimized levee setback scenario analyzed here produced payback periods (costs divided by benefits) of less than 12 years. With many aging levees failing current inspections across the US, and flood losses spiraling up over time, levee setbacks are a viable solution for reducing flood exposure and flood levels.
Hui, Rui; Lund, Jay R.; Madani, Kaveh
Optimal risk-based levee designs are usually developed for economic efficiency. However, in river systems with multiple levees, the planning and maintenance of different levees are controlled by different agencies or groups. For example, along many rivers, levees on opposite riverbanks constitute a simple leveed river system with each levee designed and controlled separately. Collaborative planning of the two levees can be economically optimal for the whole system. Independent and self-interested landholders on opposite riversides often are willing to separately determine their individual optimal levee plans, resulting in a less efficient leveed river system from an overall society-wide perspective (the tragedy of commons). We apply game theory to simple leveed river system planning where landholders on each riverside independently determine their optimal risk-based levee plans. Outcomes from noncooperative games are analyzed and compared with the overall economically optimal outcome, which minimizes net flood cost system-wide. The system-wide economically optimal solution generally transfers residual flood risk to the lower-valued side of the river, but is often impractical without compensating for flood risk transfer to improve outcomes for all individuals involved. Such compensation can be determined and implemented with landholders' agreements on collaboration to develop an economically optimal plan. By examining iterative multiple-shot noncooperative games with reversible and irreversible decisions, the costs of myopia for the future in making levee planning decisions show the significance of considering the externalities and evolution path of dynamic water resource problems to improve decision-making.
Levees By Joseph B. Dunbar, Gustavo Galan- Comas , Lucas A. Walshire, Ronald E. Wahl, Donald Yule, Maureen K. Corcoran, Jose Llopis, and Amber L...by Dr. Joseph B. Dunbar, Gustavo Galan- Comas , Lucas A. Walshire, Ronald E. Wahl, Donald Yule, Dr. Maureen K. Corcoran, Jose Llopis, and Amber L...and Coastal Storm Damage Reduction Program. This technical note should be cited as follows: Dunbar, J.B., G. Galan- Comas , L. A. Walshire, R. E. Wahl
Bishop, Michael J.; McGill, Thomas E.; Taylor, Stacy R.
Using LiDAR data collected on the levees along the Rio Grande River in New Mexico and Texas, an algorithm has been developed to automatically extract longitudinal elevation profiles. This algorithm consists of a series of filters, interpretation of geophysical properties, and digitized levee centerlines. The series of filters, in order of operation, include an alignment buffer filter, bare-earth filter, sampling filter and a maximum value filter. The result of the filter configuration is a 3-D polyline that models the levee crest. This algorithm allows for efficient identification of portions of levee that are lower than original design specifications. A comparison between the LiDAR levee crown extraction filter and a least-cost-path technique are offered.
Brauneck, J.; Pohl, R.; Juepner, R.
During floods technical protection facilities are subjected to high loads and might fail as several examples have shown in the past. During the major 2002 and 2013 floods in the catchment area of the Elbe River (Germany), some breaching levees caused large inundations in the hinterland. In such situations the emergency forces need comprehensive and reliable realtime information about the situation, especially the breach enlargement and discharge, the spatial and temporal development of the inundation and the damages. After an impressive progress meanwhile unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) also called remotely piloted aircraft systems (RPAS) are highly capable to collect and transmit precise information from not accessible areas to the task force very quickly. Using the example of the Breitenhagen levee failure near the Saale-Elbe junction in Germany in June 2013 the processing steps will be explained that are needed to come from the visual UAV-flight information to a hydronumeric model. Modelling of the breach was implemented using photogrammetric ranging methods, such as structure from motion and dense image matching. These methods utilize conventional digital multiple view images or videos recorded by either a moving aerial platform or terrestrial photography and allow the construction of 3D point clouds, digital surface models and orthophotos. At Breitenhagen, a UAV recorded the beginning of the levee failure. Due to the dynamic character of the breach and the moving areal platform, 4 different surface models show valid data with extrapolated breach widths of 9 to 40 meters. By means of these calculations the flow rate through the breach has been determined. In addition the procedure has been tested in a physical model, whose results will be presented too.
mountainous region between Mount St. Helens and Mt. Rainier to the Columbia River at Longview, WA. The upstream-most levee is at Castle Rock where a... Mount St. Helens Project Cowlitz River Levee Systems 2009 Level of Flood Protection Update Summary Cowlitz River at Longview... Mount St. Helens Project. Cowlitz River Levee Systems, 2009 Level of Flood Protection Update Summary 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM
Thatcher, Cindy; Lim, Samsung; Palaseanu-Lovejoy, Monica; Danielson, Jeffrey J.; Kimbrow, Dustin R.
Flood protection in south Louisiana is largely dependent on earthen levees, and in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina the state’s levee system has received intense scrutiny. Accurate elevation data along the levees are critical to local levee district managers responsible for monitoring and maintaining the extensive system of non-federal levees in coastal Louisiana. In 2012, high resolution airborne lidar data were acquired over levees in Lafourche Parish, Louisiana, and a mobile terrestrial lidar survey was conducted for selected levee segments using a terrestrial lidar scanner mounted on a truck. The mobile terrestrial lidar data were collected to test the feasibility of using this relatively new technology to map flood control levees and to compare the accuracy of the terrestrial and airborne lidar. Metrics assessing levee geometry derived from the two lidar surveys are also presented as an efficient, comprehensive method to quantify levee height and stability. The vertical root mean square error values of the terrestrial lidar and airborne lidar digital-derived digital terrain models were 0.038 m and 0.055 m, respectively. The comparison of levee metrics derived from the airborne and terrestrial lidar-based digital terrain models showed that both types of lidar yielded similar results, indicating that either or both surveying techniques could be used to monitor geomorphic change over time. Because airborne lidar is costly, many parts of the USA and other countries have never been mapped with airborne lidar, and repeat surveys are often not available for change detection studies. Terrestrial lidar provides a practical option for conducting repeat surveys of levees and other terrain features that cover a relatively small area, such as eroding cliffs or stream banks, and dunes.
result for the shape factor was the relationship 343.0 0 10.8 ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ ⎛ = pm s THg qb (5) where qs is estimated from the broad - crest weir ...needed for more effective design of levee slope protection alternatives. The time series measurements of overtopping flow discharge acquired near...the landward-side edge of the levee crest were analyzed to determine the cumulative distribution of instantaneous discharge over the levee crest . The
P.O. Box 678, 200 W. Church St., C::a:.v-;ux, i- Colonel Gay E. Jester District Engineer U. S. Army Corps of Engineers 210 North 12th Street St. Louis...Missouri 63101 Dear Colonel Jester : We have reviewed the Draft Ew7Tronmental ?tateueuo; McGee Creek Drainage and Levee District, i] n , , warded...8217-_.. ..... .... . ... ... ,i "Ř. ., Cdlone! Guy E. Jester , 9/> /72 We appreciate the opportwdity to review and corme .t proposed project. Sincerely, Howard W. Busch , State
Gee, Hugo K.W.; King, Sammy L.; Keim, Richard F.
Flooding is a defining disturbance in floodplain forests affecting seed germination, seedling establishment, and tree growth. Globally, flood control, including artificial levees, dams, and channelization has altered flood regimes in floodplains. However, a paucity of data are available in regards to the long-term effects of levees on stand establishment and tree growth in floodplain forests. In this study, we used dendrochronological techniques to reconstruct tree recruitment and tree growth over a 90-year period at three stands within a ring levee in the Mississippi River Alluvial Valley (MAV) and to evaluate whether recruitment patterns and tree growth changed following levee construction. We hypothesized that: (1) sugarberry is increasing in dominance and overcup oak (Quercus lyrata) is becoming less dominant since the levee, and that changes in hydrology are playing a greater role than canopy disturbance in these changes in species dominance; and (2) that overcup oak growth has declined following construction of the levee and cessation of overbank flooding whereas that of sugarberry has increased. Recruitment patterns shifted from flood-tolerant overcup oak to flood-intolerant sugarberry (Celtis laevigata) after levee construction. None of the 122 sugarberry trees cored in this study established prior to the levee, but it was the most common species established after the levee. The mechanisms behind the compositional change are unknown, however, the cosmopolitan distribution of overcup oak during the pre-levee period and sugarberry during the post-levee period, the lack of sugarberry establishment in the pre-levee period, and the confinement of overcup oak regeneration to the lowest areas in each stand after harvest in the post-levee period indicate that species-specific responses to flooding and light availability are forcing recruitment patterns. Overcup oak growth was also affected by levee construction, but in contrast to our hypothesis, growth actually
Harteveld, Casper; Guimaraes, Rui; Mayer, Igor S.; Bidarra, Rafael
Most serious games have been developed without a proper and comprehensive design theory. To contribute to the development of such a theory, this article presents the underlying design philosophy of LEVEE PATROLLER, a game to train levee patrollers in the Netherlands. This philosophy stipulates that the design of a digital serious game is a…
Glaze, L. S.; Baloga, S. M.; Mouginis-Mark, P.; Crisp, J.
Channelized lava flows on Mars and the Earth often feature levees and collateral margins that change in volume along the path of the flow. Consistent with field observations of terrestrial flows, this suggests that the rate of levee formation varies with distance and other factors. Previous models have assumed a constant rate of levee growth, specified by a single parameter, lambda. The rate of levee formation for lava flows is a good indicator of the mass eruption rate and rheology of the flow. Insight into levee formation will help us better understand whether or not the effusion rate was constant during an eruption, and once local topography is considered, allows us to look at cooling and/or rheology changes downslope. Here we present a more realistic extension of the levee formation model that treats the rate of levee growth as a function of distance along the flow path. We show how this model can be used with a terrestrial flow and a long lava flow on Mars. The key statement of the new formulation is the rate of transfer from the active component to the levees (or other passive components) through an element dx along the path of the flow. This volumetric transfer equation is presented.
Orlandini, Stefano; Moretti, Giovanni; Albertson, John D.
A levee failure occurred along the Secchia River, Northern Italy, on 19 January 2014, resulting in flood damage in excess of $500 million. In response to this failure, immediate surveillance of other levees in the region led to the identification of a second breach developing on the neighboring Panaro River, where rapid mitigation efforts were successful in averting a full levee failure. The paired breach events that occurred along the Secchia and Panaro Rivers provided an excellent window on an emerging levee failure mechanism. In the Secchia River, by combining the information content of photographs taken from helicopters in the early stage of breach development and 10 cm resolution aerial photographs taken in 2010 and 2012, animal burrows were found to exist in the precise levee location where the breach originated. In the Panaro River, internal erosion was observed to occur at a location where a crested porcupine den was known to exist and this erosion led to the collapse of the levee top. This paper uses detailed numerical modeling of rainfall, river flow, and variably saturated flow in the levee to explore the hydraulic and geotechnical mechanisms that were triggered along the Secchia and Panaro Rivers by activities of burrowing animals leading to levee failures. As habitats become more fragmented and constrained along river corridors, it is possible that this failure mechanism could become more prevalent and, therefore, will demand greater attention in both the design and maintenance of earthen hydraulic structures as well as in wildlife management.
Czuba, Christiana R.; Williams, Byron K.; Westman, Jack; LeClaire, Keith
Many undocumented and commonly unmaintained levees exist in the landscape complicating flood forecasting, risk management, and emergency response. This report describes a pilot study completed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to assess two methods to identify undocumented levees by using remotely sensed, high-resolution topographic data. For the first method, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers examined hillshades computed from a digital elevation model that was derived from light detection and ranging (lidar) to visually identify potential levees and then used detailed site visits to assess the validity of the identifications. For the second method, the U.S. Geological Survey applied a wavelet transform to a lidar-derived digital elevation model to identify potential levees. The hillshade method was applied to Delano, Minnesota, and the wavelet-transform method was applied to Delano and Springfield, Minnesota. Both methods were successful in identifying levees but also identified other features that required interpretation to differentiate from levees such as constructed barriers, high banks, and bluffs. Both methods are complementary to each other, and a potential conjunctive method for testing in the future includes (1) use of the wavelet-transform method to rapidly identify slope-break features in high-resolution topographic data, (2) further examination of topographic data using hillshades and aerial photographs to classify features and map potential levees, and (3) a verification check of each identified potential levee with local officials and field visits.
Jones, Cathleen E.; Bawden, Gerald; Deverel, Steven; Dudas, Joel; Hensley, Scott
We have studied the utility of high resolution SAR (synthetic aperture radar) for levee monitoring using UAVSAR (Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar) data collected along the dikes and levees in California's Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta and along the lower Mississippi River. Our study has focused on detecting and tracking changes that are indicative of potential problem spots, namely deformation of the levees, subsidence along the levee toe, and seepage through the levees, making use of polarimetric and interferometric SAR techniques. Here was present some results of those studies, which show that high resolution, low noise SAR imaging could supplement more traditional ground-based monitoring methods by providing early indicators of seepage and deformation.
Auble, Gregor T.; Hamilton, David B.; Roelle, James E.
Do not maintain a levee so that the Refuge will flood directly with river stage. Repair of the major breaks in the levee, but not the more general wave damage, was considered as a short term alternative. Participants first specified the habitats and management controls desired at Clarence Cannon National Wildlife Refuge. These were centered around attaining the maximum feasible development and management of moist soil units. Levee alternatives were evaluated in terms of their ability to provide the desired habitats and management controls. Preliminary cost estimates were prepared for each alternative, and the qualitative consequences of each alternative identified for the full set of outputs from the Refuge Master Plan. The alternative of improving the existing levee by raising the height was unanimously preferred on purely “biological” grounds (with cost not considered). Repairing the levee with no change in elevation was unanimously selected as the most cost effective alternative.
Condition Assessment of Levees, U.S. Section of the International Boundary and Water Commission. Report 5: Flood Simulation Study of Retamal Levee, Lower Rio Grande Valley, Texas, Using Seismic and Electrical Geophysical Models
site visit at site #2 ( oxbow lake site). Notable changes in both com- pressional and shear velocity can be associated with the infiltration of water...through-levee tomography receiver locations at the oxbow lake site (Figure 39). The location of the pond meant no through-levee tomography was possible...and very shallow water table as evident by the oxbow lake just 100 ft north of the levee (Figure 3). Open fissures along the surface on the levee
Baloga, Steve M.; Glaze, Lori, S.
The dynamics of lava flow movement are controlled by the fluid interior. Crust, solids, and nondeformable material can only retard the advance or spreading of a lava flow. Figure 1 shows a typical large, channelized lava flow found on the Mars plains. It has been suggested in [I] that such large leveed flows on the Mars plains were emplaced by a balance between the formation and shedding of crust as the flow advances. For the prototypical flow north of Pavonis Mons (Fig. I), such a balance leads to a flow morphology that approximately self-replicates at all locations along the flow path [2,3]. Moreover, most quantitative characteristics of emplacement (e.g., viscosity, volumetric flow rate) of the prototype flow at Pavonis Mons resembled those of large channelized lava flows on Earth. The exception was the relatively long, sustained supply of lava, on the order of a year as opposed to hours or days for terrestrial analogs.
Orlandini, S.; Moretti, G.; Albertson, J. D.
A levee failure occurred along the Secchia River, Northern Italy, on January 19, 2014, resulting in flood damage in excess of $500 Million (Figure). In response to this failure, immediate surveillance of other levees in the region led to the identification of a second breach developing on the neighboring Panaro River, where rapid mitigation efforts were successful in averting a full levee failure. The paired breach events that occurred along the Secchia and Panaro Rivers provided an excellent window on an emerging disturbance of levees and related failure mechanism. In the Secchia River, by combining the information content of photographs taken from helicopters in the early stage of breach development and 10-cm resolution aerial photographs taken in 2010 and 2012, animal burrows were found to exist in the precise levee location where the breach originated. In the Panaro River, internal erosion was observed to occur at a location where a crested porcupine den was known to exist and this erosion led to the collapse of the levee top. Evidence collected suggested that it is quite likely that the levee failure of the Secchia River was of a similar mechanism as the observed failure of the Panaro River. Detailed numerical modeling of rainfall, river flow, and variably saturated flow occurring in disturbed levees in response to complex hydroclimatic forcing indicated that the levee failure of the Secchia River may have been triggered by direct river inflow into the den system or collapse of a hypothetical den separated by a 1-m earthen wall from the levee riverside, which saturated during the hydroclimatic event. It is important to bring these processes to the attention of hydrologists and geotechnical engineers as well as to trigger an interdisciplinary discussion on habitat fragmentation and wildlife shifts due to development and climate pressures. These disturbances come together with changes in extreme events to inform the broader concern of risk analysis due to floods.
Brandimarte, Luigia; Martina, Mario; Dottori, Francesco; Mazzoleni, Maurizio
The aim of this study is to propose a statistical method to assess the outflowing water volume through a levee breach, due to overtopping, in case of three different types of grass cover quality. The first step in the proposed methodology is the definition of the reliability function, a the relation between loading and resistance conditions on the levee system, in case of overtopping. Secondly, the fragility curve, which relates the probability of failure with loading condition over the levee system, is estimated having defined the stochastic variables in the reliability function. Thus, different fragility curves are assessed in case of different scenarios of grass cover quality. Then, a levee breach model is implemented and combined with a 1D hydrodynamic model in order to assess the outflow hydrograph given the water level in the main channel and stochastic values of the breach width. Finally, the water volume is estimated as a combination of the probability density function of the breach width and levee failure. The case study is located in the in 98km-braided reach of Po River, Italy, between the cross-sections of Cremona and Borgoforte. The analysis showed how different counter measures, different grass cover quality in this case, can reduce the probability of failure of the levee system. In particular, for a given values of breach width good levee cover qualities can significantly reduce the outflowing water volume, compared to bad cover qualities, inducing a consequent lower flood risk within the flood-prone area.
Reed, Denise J; Peterson, Mark S; Lezina, Brian J
Dredged material levees in coastal Louisiana are normally associated with pipeline canals or, more frequently, canals dredged through the wetlands to allow access to drilling locations for mineral extraction. The hydrologic impact on marshes behind the levee is of concern to coastal resource managers because of the potential impact on sediment transport and deposition, and the effect on estuarine organism access to valuable nursery habitat. This study examined the effects of gaps in dredged material levees, compared to continuous levees and natural channel banks, on these two aspects of marsh function. Field studies for sediment deposition were conducted biweekly for a year, and nekton samples were collected in spring and fall. Variation in nekton density among study areas and landscape types was great in part because of the inherent sampling gear issues and in part because of differences in characteristics among areas. Nekton densities were generally greater in natural compared to leveed and gapped landscapes. Differences in landscape type did not explain patterns in sediment deposition. The gaps examined appear to be too restrictive of marsh flooding to provide efficient movements of floodwaters onto the marsh during moderate flooding events. The "trapping" effect of the levees increases sediment deposition during extreme events. Gapping material levees may be an effective method of partially restoring upper marsh connection to nekton, but this method may work best in lower elevation marshes where nekton use is greater.
Collins, Brian D.; Kayen, Robert; Minasian, Diane L.; Reiss, Thomas
Hurricane Katrina made landfall with the northern Gulf Coast on August 29, 2005, as one of the strongest hurricanes on record. The storm damage incurred in Louisiana included a number of levee failures that led to the inundation of approximately 85 percent of the metropolitan New Orleans area. Whereas extreme levels of storm damage were expected from such an event, the catastrophic failure of the New Orleans levees prompted a quick mobilization of engineering experts to assess why and how particular levees failed. As part of this mobilization, civil engineering members of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) performed terrestrial lidar topographic surveys at major levee failures in the New Orleans area. The focus of the terrestrial lidar effort was to obtain precise measurements of the ground surface to map soil displacements at each levee site, the nonuniformity of levee height freeboard, depth of erosion where scour occurred, and distress in structures at incipient failure. In total, we investigated eight sites in the New Orleans region, including both earth and concrete floodwall levee breaks. The datasets extend from the 17th Street Canal in the Orleans East Bank area to the intersection of the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway (GIWW) with the Mississippi River Gulf Outlet (MRGO) in the New Orleans East area. The lidar scan data consists of electronic files containing millions of surveyed points. These points characterize the topography of each levee's postfailure or incipient condition and are available for download through online hyperlinks. The data serve as a permanent archive of the catastrophic damage of Hurricane Katrina on the levee systems of New Orleans. Complete details of the data collection, processing, and georeferencing methodologies are provided in this report to assist in the visualization and analysis of the data by future users.
Much of the modern upper (proximal) Monterey fan is a channel-levee complex, the Upper Turbidite Sequence (UTS), that was deeply eroded after the channel breached a volcanic ridge to reach a deeper base level. Ages of sediment samples collected with the ALVIN submersible from the deepest outcrop within the channel-levee system, 390 m below the adjacent western levee crest, indicate that the UTS deposits accumulated at ???1 m ka-1 during the last 500 ka. Neogene and Early Pleistocene sediment accumulation on the fan prior to the UTS was much slower (<0.03 m ka-1), and underlying turbidite systems(?) had substantially different morphologic expression(s).
Davis, March 1973 36. Evaluation of Drought Effects at Lake Atitlan, Arlen D. Feldman 37. Downstream Effects of the Levee Overtopping at Wilkes-Barre, Pa., During Tropical Storm Agnes, Arlen D. Feldman, April 1973
..., channels, or shore-line or river-bank protection systems such as revetments, sand dunes, and barrier islands. b. New federally authorized cost-shared levee projects shall be designed to meet the...
Vincent, K. R.
Many arroyos that formed by incision more than a century ago in the southwestern United States are currently filling with sediment. This reversal of processes is important because it causes changes in riparian ecology, erosion hazards, ground water recharge, and sediment supply to downstream. Along the Rio Puerco and Chaco Wash in New Mexico, we examined the geometry and facies of channel and floodplain stratigraphy exposed in trenches, used high-resolution dating of the sedimentary beds, and used photographs and other historical evidence to investigate the processes of aggradation in naturally leveed channels within arroyos. Prior to the onset of aggradation, the streambeds were composed of sand and had low relief, and arroyo walls retreated rapidly due to stream undermining. Aggradation began with the formation of sand levees at the margins of the streambeds, followed by formation of newer levees increasingly closer to the thalweg. These levees coincide with rows of woody shrubs (tamarisk and willow), plants that germinated in moist sand along the high-water marks of moderate flows, and survived because subsequent periods lacked flows large enough to remove them. Flow entering a row of woody shrubs decelerates, promoting deposition of suspended sand. Stream flows in this setting are always turbid but do not have the rheology of debris flows. The rows of shrubs probably are a requirement for initial formation of sand levees on low relief streambeds in this setting. As new levees formed closer to the thalweg the channel effectively narrowed, and smaller discharges overtopped the levees adjacent to the channel. Those closer levees accumulated sand most rapidly, leaving the suspended sand concentration depleted by the time water reached more distant ones. All levees aggraded vertically. As the main channel narrowed it acquired a roughly trapezoidal-shape (Top Width/Depth ~ 9 to 5) with banks inclined close to the angle of repose. In addition, sediment deposited on
woodlands with pasture and hayland in Iowa greatly reduced bird species S diversity, while Geier and Best (1980) determined that conversion of a tall...areas in Iowa to pasture led to a decline in wildlife .. species diversity, while a number of other studies in riparian woodlands indicate that grazing...trees preserved on the landside of the Clinton, Iowa , levee .. .......... . 27 6 : 4 Tree screen preserved through careful consideration of levee
Hossain, A. K. M. Azad; Easson, Greg
The objective is to develop methods to detect and monitor levee slides using commercially available high resolution multispectral imagery. High resolution multispectral imagery like IKONOS and QuickBird are suitable for detecting and monitoring levee slides. IKONOS is suitable for visual inspection, image classification and Tasseled Cap transform based slide detection. Tasseled Cap based model was found to be the best method for slide detection. QuickBird was suitable for visual inspection and image classification.
Robinson, J. D.; Vahedifard, F.; AghaKouchak, A.
California is currently suffering from a multiyear extreme drought and the impacts of the drought are anticipated to worsen in a warming climate. The resilience of critical infrastructure under extreme drought conditions is a major concern which has not been well understood. Thus, there is a crucial need to improve our understanding about the potential threats of drought on infrastructure and take subsequent actions in a timely manner to mitigate these threats and adopt our infrastructure for forthcoming extreme events. The need is more pronounced for earthen levees, since their functionality to protect limited water resources and dryland is more critical during drought. A significant amount of California's levee systems are currently operating under a high risk condition. Protracted drought can further threaten the structural competency of these already at-risk levee systems through several thermo-hydro mechanical weakening processes that undermine their stability. Viable information on the implications of these weakening processes, particularly on California's earthen levees, is relatively incomplete. This article discusses, from a geotechnical engineering perspective, how California's protracted drought might threaten the integrity of levee systems through the imposition of several thermo-hydro mechanical weakening processes. Pertinent facts and statistics regarding the drought in California are presented and discussed. Catastrophic levee failures and major damages resulting from drought-induce weakening processes such as shear strength reduction, desiccation cracking, land subsidence and surface erosion, fissuring and soil softening, and soil carbon oxidation are discussed to illustrate the devastating impacts that the California drought might impose on existing earthen levees. This article calls for further research in light of these potential drought-inducing weakening mechanisms to support mitigation strategies for reducing future catastrophic levee failures.
Ivanov, J.; Miller, R.D.; Stimac, N.; Ballard, R.F.; Dunbar, J. Joseph; Smullen, S. Steve
The primary objective of this work was to measure changes in compressional- (Vp) and shear-wave (Vs) velocities in an earthen levee during a ponding experiment designed to simulate flood conditions on the Rio Grande in south New Mexico. Although similar to such experiment, performed an year earlier on the Rio Grande in south Texas, the levee seismic response results are different. This work was similar to previous Preliminary testing at three levee sites, all within a 1 km radius and each with unique physical, EM, and core characteristics, was completed and a single low-conductivity, highly fractured site was selected for investigation. Several different types of seismic data were recorded. Seismic data analysis techniques appraised included P-refraction tomography and Rayleigh surface-wave analysis using multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW). P-wave velocity change (decrease) was rapid and isolated to one section within the pool confines, which already had anomalously high velocity most likely related to burrowing animals modification of the levee structure. S-wave velocity change was gradual and could be observed along the whole width of the pond within and below the levee. The results within the levee sand core were consistent with the observations of sand S-wave velocity changed due to saturation. ?? 2005 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.
A two-dimensional, cross-sectional, finite-difference, ground-water flow model and a simple application of Darcy?s law were used to quantify ground-water flow (from a wetlands) beneath Levee 30 in Miami-Dade County, Florida. Geologic and geophysical data, vertical seepage data from the wetlands, canal discharge data, ground-water-level data, and surface-water-stage data collected during 1995 and 1996 were used as boundary conditions and calibration data for the ground-water flow model and as input for the analytical model. Vertical seepage data indicated that water from the wetlands infiltrated the subsurface, near Levee 30, at rates ranging from 0.033 to 0.266 foot per day when the gates at the control structures along Levee 30 canal were closed. During the same period, stage differences between the wetlands (Water Conservation Area 3B) and Levee 30 canal ranged from 0.11 to 1.27 feet. A layer of low-permeability limestone, located 7 to 10 feet below land surface, restricts vertical flow between the surface water in the wetlands and the ground water. Based on measured water-level data, ground-water flow appears to be generally horizontal, except in the direct vicinity of the canal. The increase in discharge rate along a 2-mile reach of the Levee 30 canal ranged from 9 to 30 cubic feet per second per mile and can be attributed primarily to ground-water inflow. Flow rates in Levee 30 canal were greatest when the gates at the control structures were open. The ground-water flow model data were compared with the measured ground-water heads and vertical seepage from the wetlands. Estimating the horizontal ground-water flow rate beneath Levee 30 was difficult owing to the uncertainty in the horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the main flow zone of the Biscayne aquifer. Measurements of ground-water flows into Levee 30 canal, a substantial component of the water budget, were also uncertain, which lessened the ability to validate the model results. Because of vertical
The effect of woody vegetation on levee stability is discussed controversially. On the one hand woody plants improve slope stability, prevent erosion failures and may aid in levee stability. On the other hand it is believed that woody vegetation has negative impacts which are largely related to the rooting system. Hence, root penetration can facilitate water movement - seepage or piping - as well as living and decaying roots can lead to voids and threaten the structural integrity of levees. In general root architecture is known for many plant species, but specific root characteristics and their interaction with soils are influenced by many factors, and therefore poorly understood. Consequently the current research investigates the rooting performance of woody vegetation by singling out a special type of vegetation which is often used within soil bioengineering techniques at river embankments. This vegetation type is a dense stand of shrubby willows (Salix purpurea L.), implemented with brush mattresses. The data is collected from a test site constructed in 2007, 5 km northeast of Vienna, Austria. Part of the test site is a research levee built true to natural scale. The fill material of the levee is a mineral silt-sand-gravel compound classified as silty sand, which was compacted to a dry density of 1.86 g/cm3. The planting of vegetation was applied directly to the compacted levee body using only a thin layer (2-4 cm) of humus topsoil. In 2009 the studies were supplemented with a lysimeter-like setup consisting of a total of 20 containers. The lysimeters were filled homogenously with the same soil as the levees and were consolidated to the same degree of compaction. They were planted similar to the research levees. Within the investigations a comprehensive annual vegetation monitoring program was carried out. Measured aboveground parameters were shoot diameter, shoot length, biomass and leaf area index (LAI). Monitored rooting parameters - examined by excavation
Gillip, Jonathan A.; Payne, Jason
A geophysical characterization of Lollie Levee near Conway, Arkansas, was conducted in February 2011. A capacitively coupled resistivity survey (using Geometric's OhmMapper) was completed along the top and toe of the 6.7-mile levee. Two-dimensional inversions were conducted on the geophysical data. As a quality-control measure, cores and direct push logs were taken at approximately 1-mile intervals along the levee. The capacitively coupled resistivity survey, the coring, and the direct push logs were used to characterize the geologic materials. Comparison of the cores and the direct push log data, along with published resistivity values, indicates that resistivity values of 200 Ohm-meters or greater represent relatively clean sand, with decreasing resistivity values occurring with increasing silt and clay content. The cores indicated that the levee is composed of a heterogeneous mixture of sand, silt, and clay. The capacitively coupled resistivity sections confirm that the levee is composed of a heterogeneous mixture of high and low resistivity materials and show that the composition of the levee varies spatially. The geologic materials underlying the levee vary spatially as a result of the geologic processes that deposited them. In general, the naturally deposited geologic materials underlying the levee contain a greater amount of low resistivity materials in the southern extent of the levee.
Glaze, Lori S.; Baloga, Stephen M.; Garry, W. Brent; Fagents, Sarah A.; Parcheta, Carolyn
Many cehannelized lava flows on the plains of Mars have substantial embanking margins and levees inferred to have been stationary while the central channel was active. Levee formation can be attributed to two end-member processes during emplacement; construction during passage of the flow front and growth along the entire length of the flow while it is active. It is shown here that the amount of lava that can be deposited by the flow front alone is limited. Estimates of the levee volume for many Mars plains flows exceed this limit and must have formed by processes that continued after the passage of the front. Experimental studies of analogous laboratory flows also indicate a combination of both modes of emplacement. A model that combines both modes of levee formation. is presented, including a method for estimating volumetric flow rate, eruption duration, and viscosity. Six lava flows on the plains of the Tharsis volcanic province are used as illustrative examples. Crustal thicknesses for the six flows examined range from 9 to 23 m. Estimated emplacement times required to cool crusts of these thicknesses range from I year to 10 years. Correspondini viscosities are on the order of 10 5-106 Pa s. Effusion rates range from 25 to 840 m 3 s - and are all within the range of terrestrial observations. Therefore, the large leveed plains flows on Mars are not dramatically different in eruption rate or lava viscosity from large terrestrial analogs.
Chlaib, Hussein K.; Mahdi, Hanan; Al-Shukri, Haydar; Su, Mehmet M.; Catakli, Aycan; Abd, Najah
Levees are civil engineering structures built to protect human lives, property, and agricultural lands during flood events. To keep these important structures in a safe condition, continuous monitoring must be performed regularly and thoroughly. Small rodent burrows are one of the major defects within levees; however, their early detection and repair helps in protecting levees during flooding events. A set of laboratory experiments was conducted to analyze the polarity change in GPR signals in the presence of subsurface voids and water-filled cavities. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) surveys using multi frequency antennas (400 MHz and 900 MHz) were conducted along an 875 meter section of the Lollie Levee near Conway, Arkansas, USA, to assess the levee's structural integrity. Many subsurface animal burrows, water-filled cavities, clay clasts, and metallic objects were investigated and identified. These anomalies were located at different depths and have different sizes. To ground truth the observations, hand dug trenches were excavated to confirm several anomalies. Results show an excellent match between GPR interpreted anomalies and the observed features. In-situ dielectric constant measurements were used to calculate the feature depths. The results of this research show that the 900 MHz antenna has more advantages over the 400 MHz antenna.
Marapareddy, Ramakalavathi; Aanstoos, James V; Younan, Nicolas H
Fully polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (polSAR) data analysis has wide applications for terrain and ground cover classification. The dynamics of surface and subsurface water events can lead to slope instability resulting in slough slides on earthen levees. Early detection of these anomalies by a remote sensing approach could save time versus direct assessment. We used L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) to screen levees for anomalies. SAR technology, due to its high spatial resolution and soil penetration capability, is a good choice for identifying problematic areas on earthen levees. Using the parameters entropy (H), anisotropy (A), alpha (α), and eigenvalues (λ, λ₁, λ₂, and λ₃), we implemented several unsupervised classification algorithms for the identification of anomalies on the levee. The classification techniques applied are H/α, H/A, A/α, Wishart H/α, Wishart H/A/α, and H/α/λ classification algorithms. In this work, the effectiveness of the algorithms was demonstrated using quad-polarimetric L-band SAR imagery from the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL's) Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR). The study area is a section of the lower Mississippi River valley in the Southern USA, where earthen flood control levees are maintained by the US Army Corps of Engineers.
Marapareddy, Ramakalavathi; Aanstoos, James V.; Younan, Nicolas H.
Fully polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (polSAR) data analysis has wide applications for terrain and ground cover classification. The dynamics of surface and subsurface water events can lead to slope instability resulting in slough slides on earthen levees. Early detection of these anomalies by a remote sensing approach could save time versus direct assessment. We used L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) to screen levees for anomalies. SAR technology, due to its high spatial resolution and soil penetration capability, is a good choice for identifying problematic areas on earthen levees. Using the parameters entropy (H), anisotropy (A), alpha (α), and eigenvalues (λ, λ1, λ2, and λ3), we implemented several unsupervised classification algorithms for the identification of anomalies on the levee. The classification techniques applied are H/α, H/A, A/α, Wishart H/α, Wishart H/A/α, and H/α/λ classification algorithms. In this work, the effectiveness of the algorithms was demonstrated using quad-polarimetric L-band SAR imagery from the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory’s (JPL’s) Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR). The study area is a section of the lower Mississippi River valley in the Southern USA, where earthen flood control levees are maintained by the US Army Corps of Engineers. PMID:27322270
Koś, Karolina; Zawisza, Eugeniusz
Stability analysis of a levee made of the bottom sediments from Czorsztyn-Niedzica Reservoir is presented in the paper. These sediments were classified as silty sands and, based on the authors' own research, their geotechnical parameters were beneficial, so the possibility of using this material for the hydraulic embankments was considered. Stability and filtration calculations were carried out for a levee that had the same top width - 3 m, slope inclinations 1:2 and different heights: 4, 6 and 8 m. Two methods were used: analytical and numerical. Calculations were carried out without and with a steady and unsteady seepage filtration. Based on the analysis carried out it was stated that the levee made of the bottom sediments is stable even at the height of 8.0 m, although because of the seepage on the downstream side it is recommended to use a drainage at the toe of the slope.
Rowland, J. C.; Dietrich, W. E.
Self-formed leveed channels constructed by deposition of suspended sediment from sediment-laden flows entering still water are common features in nature. Such channels drive delta progradation, develop at tidal inlets and occur where mainstem river flows empty into oxbows and blocked valley lakes. Presently there is no theory for the formation of such channels. This lack of theory is partly due to a lack of field or laboratory studies that provide insight about the mechanism controlling these self-formed, propagating channels. The creation of such features in the laboratory, have proved illusive to date. Our ongoing experiments aimed at modeling the formation of floodplain tie channels provide insight into the necessary conditions for levee formation and channel growth. Under conditions of steady water discharge, constant sediment feed rate, unimodal sediment distribution and invariant basin stage we are able to create subaqueous lateral bars (submerged levees) along the margins of a sediment laden jet. Our results highlight the sensitivity of channel formation to issues of scaling and experimental design. In the laboratory, levee formation has only been possible with the use of plastic particles (specific gravity ~1.5); complete bed alluviation and dune formation results from the use of particles with specific gravities of ~ 2.65 across a range grain diameters and shapes. We hypothesize this effect is related to high entrainment thresholds relative to suspension thresholds of small (< 100 mm) natural particles under conditions of reduced turbulence in laboratory scaled flows. Additionally, both the width to depth ratio and the form of the outlet channel introducing the sediment laden flow into the experimental basin exert a strong control on sedimentation pattern and levee growth. Continuing experiments are focused on generating emergent channel levees and a basin ward propagation of the channel by adjusting the form of the feed channel, varying basin stage, and
Brackett, Thomas C.
The Great Flood of 2011 caused moderate to severe seepage and piping along the Mississippi River levees in Northwest Mississippi. The aim of this thesis was to implement geophysical techniques at two seepage locations in order to give a better understanding of the causes of underseepage and information on how to mitigate the problem. Sites near Rena Lara in Coahoma County and near Francis in Bolivar County were chosen to conduct this survey. Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) and Electromagnetic Induction (EM) surveys were conducted on and adjacent to levees to identify seepage pathways and any dominant geological features at the sites. Results from geophysical surveys revealed that Francis and Rena Laura each had a prominent geomorphologic feature that was attributing to underseepage. Seepage at Francis was the result of a sand filled channel capped by a clay overburden. Permeable materials at the base of the channel served as a conduit for transporting river water beneath the levee. The seepage surfaced as sand boils where the overlying clay overburden was thin or non-existent. Investigations at the Rena Lara site revealed a large, clay-filled swale extending beneath the levee. The clay within the swale has relatively low horizontal permeability, and concentrated the seepage flow towards more permeable zones on the flanks of the swale. This resulted in the formation of sand boils at the base of the levee. Both geomorphic features at Francis and Rena Lara were identified as surface drainages using remote sensing data. With the assistance of borehole and elevation data, geophysics was successfully used to characterize the features at each site. Properties such as permeability and clay content were derived from responses in electrical conductivity and used to build seepage models at each site. These models will hopefully be considered when determining seepage conditions and mitigation techniques at other sites along the levee.
18 DISCHARGE-SETBACK CURVE 129 19 DISCHARGE VS. LEVEE HEIGHT CURVE 130 20 SETBACK VS. LEVEE HEIGHT CURVE 131 21 ROTATIONAL LANDSLIDE 135 22 POTENTIAL...ftOO G% F0 OSO -64NDFOK 29L C _z __W- -m-C C -- - -- - - - - :7__ _ __ __ ---- ---- sew -0 n DRY - SL Ir - LV-RA00 3z’ 33~. T-^ = Fiure 2a Naxziumare...bottom and very low river elevation). Landslides of the type in question are usually deep-seated. When the failing earth mass breaks away from the lake
Newmark, R L; Hanemann, M; Farber, D
The Center for Catastrophic Risk Management (CCRM) and the California Center for Environmental Law and Policy (CCELP) at UC Berkeley and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) joined together to cosponsor a workshop to define research requirements to mitigate the hazards facing the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta Levee system. The Workshop was intended to provide a forum to (1) Report assessments of current vulnerabilities facing the levees, such as structural failure, seismic loading, flooding, terrorism; (2) Consider longer term challenges such as climate change, sea level rise; and (3) Define research requirements to fill gaps in knowledge and reduce uncertainties in hazard assessments.
Modeling Codes Co as ta l a nd H yd ra ul ic s La bo ra to ry Hwai-Ping Cheng, Stephen M. England, and Clarissa M. Murray June 2016...Flood & Coastal Storm Damage Reduction Program ERDC/CHL TR-16-6 June 2016 Seepage and Piping through Levees and Dikes Using 2D and 3D Modeling Codes ...TYPE Final Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Seepage and Piping through Levees and Dikes using 2D and 3D Modeling Codes
Palaseanu-Lovejoy, Monica; Thatcher, Cindy A.; Barras, John A.
This study explores the feasibility of using airborne lidar surveys to construct high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) and develop an automated procedure to extract levee longitudinal elevation profiles for both federal levees in Atchafalaya Basin and local levees in Lafourche Parish, south Lousiana. This approach can successfully accommodate a high degree of levee sinuosity and abrupt changes in levee orientation (direction) in planar coordinates, variations in levee geometries, and differing DEM resolutions. The federal levees investigated in Atchafalaya Basin have crest elevations between 5.3 and 12 m while the local counterparts in Lafourche Parish are between 0.76 and 2.3 m. The vertical uncertainty in the elevation data is considered when assessing federal crest elevation against the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers minimum height requirements to withstand the 100-year flood. Only approximately 5% of the crest points of the two federal levees investigated in the Atchafalaya Basin region met this requirement.
According to the National Inventory of dams (NID, 2009), out of the 84,134 dams in the US, more than 87% (73,423) are earthen dams. The majority of these earthen dams are past or approaching their design life expectancy of 50 years. According to the National committee on Levee Safety (NCLS, 2009),...
... terms of its feasibility, flexibility, and collaborative nature. DATES: Comments must be received by... revise the mapping procedures for non-accredited levees. This approach works within the confines of existing federal regulations, yet is more flexible, collaborative and feasible. FEMA is replacing...
with grout. An electromagnetic (EM) induction survey using a Geonics EM31 terrain conductivity meter was conducted along the crest, slopes, and...other New Orleans levees, was the electromagnetic (EM) induction survey method. The general process employed for field data collection was to... Electromagnetic terrain conductivity measurements at low induction numbers. Technical Note TN-6. Mississauga, Ontario, Canada:Geonics Limited. Llopis, J
The earth levees commonly used for irrigation reservoirs are subjected to significant embankment erosion due to wind-generated waves. Large seasonal fluctuations in water level make vegetative bank protection impractical, and other stabilization methods, such as the use of stone or discarded tires, ...
... requesting a variance from vegetation standards for levees and floodwalls to reflect organizational changes... docket number COE-2010-0007. All comments received will be included in the public docket without change... change based on the comments received through this public notice and should not be viewed...
... those levee systems that meet, and continue to meet, minimum design, operation, and maintenance... operation and maintenance systems are in place to provide reasonable assurance that protection from the base... exterior flooding and the capacity of facilities (such as drainage lines and pumps) for evacuating...
... those levee systems that meet, and continue to meet, minimum design, operation, and maintenance... operation and maintenance systems are in place to provide reasonable assurance that protection from the base... exterior flooding and the capacity of facilities (such as drainage lines and pumps) for evacuating...
Prada, Sergio I.; Salkever, David; MacKenzie, Ellen J.
Background: Injury is the leading cause of death for persons aged 1-44 years in the United States. Injuries have a substantial economic cost. For that reason, regional systems of trauma care in which the more acutely injured patients are transported to Level-I (L-I) trauma centers (TCs) has been widely advocated. However, the cost of TC care is…
Thermal imaging has many potential uses from aerial platforms. A thermal imaging camera was brought into service to detect potential leakage and sand boils at the Mississippi River levee during the flood period of April and May, 2011. This camera was mounted on an agricultural aircraft and operated ...
Planès, Thomas; Rittgers, Justin B.; Mooney, Michael A.; Kanning, Wim; Draganov, Deyan
Internal erosion, a major cause of failure of earthen dams and levees, is often difficult to detect at early stages using traditional visual inspection. The passive seismic-interferometry technique could enable the early detection of internal changes taking place within these structures. We test this technique on a portion of the sea levee of Colijnsplaat, Netherlands, which presents signs of concentrated seepage in the form of sandboils. Applying seismic interferometry to ambient noise collected over a 12-hour period, we retrieve surface waves propagating along the levee. We identify the contribution of two dominant ambient seismic noise sources: the traffic on the Zeeland bridge and a nearby wind turbine. Here, the sea-wave action does not constitute a suitable noise source for seismic interferometry. Using the retrieved surface waves, we compute time-lapse variations of the surface-wave group velocities during the 12-hour tidal cycle for different frequency bands, i.e., for different depth ranges. The estimated group-velocity variations correlate with variations in on-site pore-water pressure measurements that respond to tidal loading. We present lateral profiles of these group-velocity variations along a 180-meter section of the levee, at four different depth ranges (0m-40m). On these profiles, we observe some spatially localized relative group-velocity variations of up to 5% that might be related to concentrated seepage.
Newman, A.; Keim, R.
In riverine wetlands, river channels are separated from backswamps by natural levees that form adjacent to the channel by sediment deposition during floods. The conventional conceptual framework is that backswamp water is impounded and disconnected from surface flow; however, layered sediments, shrink-swell clays, roots and decayed organic matter, and animal burrows likely form preferential pathways for subsurface flow and may substantially affect water and solute exchange between wetlands and river channels. To test the hypothesis that preferential flow is an important pathway of subsurface water movement through natural levees, we measured hydraulic gradients and solute tracers in a 5 x 5 m grid of 19 shallow (2m) monitoring wells within a large representative elementary volume (300 m3) of natural levee in the Atchafalaya Basin, Louisiana. In addition to measuring transient responses to precipitation, we constructed a small reservoir on the backswamp side of the levee to simulate a seasonal hydraulic gradient from the swamp to the adjacent river channel. Results indicate rapid response of water levels in all monitoring wells to the imposed hydraulic gradient as well as rain events, which included two tropical cyclones. In contrast, tracer response was highly variable, both spatially and across events, indicating a complex relationship between subsurface flow processes and water chemistry. Groundwater chemistry indicated spatially variable flowpaths. In some wells, hydraulic response coincided with a chemical shift toward low-conductivity surface water; however, other wells showed similar hydraulic responses but no change in tracer concentrations or even a shift toward higher-conductivity water that was presumably stored in the soil matrix. This spatial variation in tracer response indicates multiple mechanisms of hydraulic response, each of which has important implications for biogeochemical interactions between backswamps and channels in the shallow subsurface
Johnson, C.G.; Kokelaar, B.P.; Iverson, R.M.; Logan, M.; LaHusen, R.G.; Gray, J.M.N.T.
Data from large-scale debris-flow experiments are combined with modeling of particle-size segregation to explain the formation of lateral levees enriched in coarse grains. The experimental flows consisted of 10 m3 of water-saturated sand and gravel, which traveled ~80 m down a steeply inclined flume before forming an elongated leveed deposit 10 m long on a nearly horizontal runout surface. We measured the surface velocity field and observed the sequence of deposition by seeding tracers onto the flow surface and tracking them in video footage. Levees formed by progressive downslope accretion approximately 3.5 m behind the flow front, which advanced steadily at ~2 m s-1 during most of the runout. Segregation was measured by placing ~600 coarse tracer pebbles on the bed, which, when entrained into the flow, segregated upwards at ~6–7.5 cm s-1. When excavated from the deposit these were distributed in a horseshoe-shaped pattern that became increasingly elevated closer to the deposit termination. Although there was clear evidence for inverse grading during the flow, transect sampling revealed that the resulting leveed deposit was strongly graded laterally, with only weak vertical grading. We construct an empirical, three-dimensional velocity field resembling the experimental observations, and use this with a particle-size segregation model to predict the segregation and transport of material through the flow. We infer that coarse material segregates to the flow surface and is transported to the flow front by shear. Within the flow head, coarse material is overridden, then recirculates in spiral trajectories due to size-segregation, before being advected to the flow edges and deposited to form coarse-particle-enriched levees.
Johnson, C.G.; Kokelaar, B.P.; Iverson, Richard M.; Logan, M.; LaHusen, R.G.; Gray, J.M.N.T.
Data from large-scale debris-flow experiments are combined with modeling of particle-size segregation to explain the formation of lateral levees enriched in coarse grains. The experimental flows consisted of 10 m3 of water-saturated sand and gravel, which traveled ∼80 m down a steeply inclined flume before forming an elongated leveed deposit 10 m long on a nearly horizontal runout surface. We measured the surface velocity field and observed the sequence of deposition by seeding tracers onto the flow surface and tracking them in video footage. Levees formed by progressive downslope accretion approximately 3.5 m behind the flow front, which advanced steadily at ∼2 m s−1during most of the runout. Segregation was measured by placing ∼600 coarse tracer pebbles on the bed, which, when entrained into the flow, segregated upwards at ∼6–7.5 cm s−1. When excavated from the deposit these were distributed in a horseshoe-shaped pattern that became increasingly elevated closer to the deposit termination. Although there was clear evidence for inverse grading during the flow, transect sampling revealed that the resulting leveed deposit was strongly graded laterally, with only weak vertical grading. We construct an empirical, three-dimensional velocity field resembling the experimental observations, and use this with a particle-size segregation model to predict the segregation and transport of material through the flow. We infer that coarse material segregates to the flow surface and is transported to the flow front by shear. Within the flow head, coarse material is overridden, then recirculates in spiral trajectories due to size-segregation, before being advected to the flow edges and deposited to form coarse-particle-enriched levees.
Lorenzo, J. M.; Hicks, J.; Vera, E. E.
Both deep- and near-surface hydrogeologic processes can contribute to the structural failure of artificial earthen levees. Recently, seismic geophysical methods have attempted to develop a proxy for engineering shear strength, by mapping changes in the transmission velocity of shear waves. High fluid content may indicate both weak, under-compacted materials and/or organic-rich sediments. In the absence of electromagnetic methods, Vp/Vs ratios can be used as good indicators of variations in the fluid (water, and air or gas) saturation. Cone penetration borehole tests measure the resistance of soils to penetration of the cone tip and its frictional sliding that can be correlated to sediment types and their physical properties. A distressed section of an artificial earthen levee, suitable for seismic investigation, lies ~15 km S of the city of New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. Open curvilinear fissures, 10 cm wide, 30 cm deep, and up to 100 m in length, exist along the crest at two sites. Between September 2007 and February 2008 we collect horizontally (SH) polarized shear and compressional wave (P) data in pseudo-walkaway tests for the upper 100 m of the subsurface along the protected (west) side of the earthen levee, within 30 m of its crest. One profile lies parallel and adjacent to the damaged levee crest and, for reference, two profiles lie nearby adjacent to undamaged portions of the artificial earthen levee. In the first ~30 m of sediment below the lower delta plain of the Greater New Orleans area, a complex and dynamic interaction of freshwater and marine sedimentary environments juxtaposes a diverse set of facies. We combine of Vp and Vs velocity maps, sedimentary environment interpretations, and cone-penetration-derived sediment/soil and laboratory-derived physical properties to locate possible zones of high fluid concentration, (and perhaps seepage), weak engineering materials, and natural foundation soil shear strength. Under the distressed portion of the
LOUISIANA 70160-0267 REPLY TO SrTEN TION OF Planning Division Environmental Analysis Branch To The Reader: This cultural resources effort was designed...November 1987. Analysis of the collected data and report preparation took place in December 1987 and January 1988. Although the hurricane protection levee...for radiocarbon dating and that the analysis should attempt a "geomorphic reconstruction for tile project area" and develop a "time-depth" estimate
crest , the discharge per unit width of levee is computed by the generally accepted equation for flow over a broad - crested weir given by open...presented an empirical form of the broad - crested weir discharge formula that compensates for frictional losses across the paved crest , i.e., /fq C...might be laminar in a small-scale physical model. Surface friction is another potential scale effect . Surface roughness affects water
damage from the hurricane cost the federal government more than $16 billion in disaster relief, according to data from the Federal Emergency Management ...Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) have made little progress in implementing key national levee-safety-related activities required in the Water Resources...Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) information. | GAO-16-709 View GAO-16-709. For more information- contact Anne-Marie Fennell at (202) 512-3841 or
Nearly 1% of Louisiana's coastal land becomes water each year. This land loss affects everything from wildlife, fisheries, and recreation to the economy and culture. A part of this loss results from natural, unmanageable factors, but manageable factors are also responsible. This report discusses one of the manageable factors: canals and their dredged-material levees. In coastal Louisiana wetlands, canals are constructed primarily to facilitate navigation and oil and gas recovery. The density of canals in this region is now about equal to the natural network of bayous and creeks. The primary effect of these canals and associated levees is to alter the process of flooding and drainage. The influence of canals and their levees on coastal Louisiana erosion rates are modified by local geologic, hydrologic, and biologic interactions. The empirical relationship between canals and erosion is, however, clear; land loss is directly related to canal density. Comparisons with mosquito ditches, which are smaller analogues of canals, reveal similar patterns of wetland changes and suggest management options.
Although levee deposits make up a significant part of modern and ancient deep-marine slope systems, details of their internal lithological composition and stratal architecture remain poorly documented. At the Castle Creek study area, strata of the Neoproterozoic Isaac Formation (Windermere Supergroup) crop out superbly in a kilometre-scale section through a sinuous deep-water channel-levee system (ICC3). Levee deposits near the outer bend of the channel consist of sandstone-rich (sandstone-to-mudstone ratio of 68:42), medium- to thick-bedded turbidites interstratified with thinly-bedded turbidites. Structureless sandstone (T a), planar laminated sandstone (Tb), non-climbing ripple cross-stratified sandstone (Tc) and massive and laminated siltstone (Td) are common. Thick beds generally thicken and then thin and fine laterally over about 300 m. Thin-bedded strata, in contrast, thin and fine negligibly over similar distances. In the distal part of the outer-bend levee (up to 700 m laterally away from the channel) strata consist predominantly of thin-bedded Tcd turbidites with a much lower sandstone-to-mudstone ratio (35:65). On the opposite side of the channel, inner-bend levee deposits are mudstone-rich, locally as low as 15:85, and consist mostly of thin-bedded, Tcd turbidites, although thicker-bedded, Ta-d turbidites are more common in the lower part of the section. Lateral thinning and fining of beds is more rapid than their outer-bend counterpart. Levee deposits of ICC3 comprise three stacked decametre-scale upward-thinning and -fining successions. Each is interpreted to record a depositional history consisting of lateral channel migration, levee deposition, channel filling, and distal levee deposition. During the early stage of increasing levee relief it is proposed that the termini of individual beds progressively backstep towards the channel margin resulting in an overall lateral thinning of the stratal profile. This interpretation notably contrasts the common
Gianetta, Ivan; Schwarz, Massimiliano; Glenz, Christian; Lammeranner, Walter
In recent years the effects of roots on river banks and levees have been the subject of major discussions. The main issue about the presence of woody vegetation on levees is related to the possibility that roots increase internal erosion processes and the superimposed load of large trees compromise the integrity of these structures. However, ecologists and landscape managers argue that eliminating the natural vegetation from the riverbanks also means eliminating biotopes, strengthening anthropisation of the landscape, as well as limiting recreations areas. In the context of the third correction of the Rhone in Switzerland, the discussion on new levee geometries and the implementation of woody vegetation on them, lead to a detailed analysis of this issue for this specific case. The objective of this study was to describe quantitatively the processes and factors that influence the root distribution on levees and test modeling approaches for the simulation of vertical root distribution with laboratory and field data. An extension of an eco-hydrological analytic model that considers climatic and pedological condition for the quantification of vertical root distribution was validated with data provided by the University of Vienna (BOKU) of willows' roots (Salix purpurea) grown under controlled conditions. Furthermore, root distribution data of four transversal sections of a levee near Visp (canton Wallis, Switzerland) was used to validate the model. The positions of the levee's sections were chosen based on the species and dimensions of the woody vegetation. The dominant species present in the sections were birch (Betula pendula) and poplar (Populus nigra). For each section a grid of 50x50 cm was created to count and measure the roots. The results show that vertical distribution of root density under controlled growing conditions has an exponential form, decreasing with increasing soil depth, and can be well described by the eco-hydrological model. Vice versa, field
Physical Modeling G eo te ch n ic al a n d S tr u ct u re s La b or at or y Wipawi Vanadit-Ellis, Eric W. Smith , Landris T. Lee, and Jared S. Case...Solutions to Levee and Floodwall Construction and Retrofitting – Physical Modeling Wipawi Vanadit-Ellis, Eric W. Smith , and Landris T. Lee...Manager for Water Resources Infrastructure. The Project Leader was Wipawi Vanadit-Ellis, assisted by Eric W. Smith , and Landris T. Lee, all of the
Lorenzo, J. M.; Goff, D.; Hayashi, K.
Unconsolidated Holocene deltaic sediments comprise levee foundation soils in New Orleans, USA. Whereas geotechnical tests at point locations are indispensable for evaluating soil stability, the highly variable sedimentary facies of the Mississippi delta create difficulties to predict soil conditions between test locations. Combined electrical resistivity and seismic shear wave studies, calibrated to geotechnical data, may provide an efficient methodology to predict soil types between geotechnical sites at shallow depths (0- 10 m). The London Avenue Canal levee flank of New Orleans, which failed in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, 2005, presents a suitable site in which to pioneer these geophysical relationships. Preliminary cross-plots show electrically resistive, high-shear-wave velocity areas interpreted as low-permeability, resistive silt. In brackish coastal environments, low-resistivity and low-shear-wave-velocity areas may indicate both saturated, unconsolidated sands and low-rigidity clays. Via a polynomial approximation, soil sub-types of sand, silt and clay can be estimated by a cross-plot of S-wave velocity and resistivity. We confirm that existent boring log data fit reasonably well with the polynomial approximation where 2/3 of soil samples fall within their respective bounds—this approach represents a new classification system that could be used for other mid-latitude, fine-grained deltas.
Marapareddy, Ramakalavathi; Anastoos, James V.; Younan, Nicolas H.
The dynamics of surface and subsurface water events can lead to slope instability resulting in slough slides or other anomalies on earthen levees. These slough slides are the primary cause for creating levee areas which are vulnerable to seepage and failure during high water events. Early detection of these anomalies by a remote sensing approach could save time versus direct assessment. In this paper, we implemented a supervised classification algorithm the minimum distance classifier with a majority filter and morphology filter for the identification of anomalies on levees using polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (polSAR) data. This study employed remote sensing data from the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL's) Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) instrument, using its fully quad-polarimetric L-band polSAR data. The study area is a section of the lower Mississippi River in the southern USA.
Florsheim, J. L.; Dettinger, M.; Malamud-Roam, F.; Ingram, B.; Mount, J.
Geomorphic processes in rivers are likely to be influenced by global warming through alterations of flood, erosion, and sedimentation processes and rates. In California's Sierra Nevada, warming scenarios imply future increases in magnitudes and durations (and changes in timing) of floods as snow packs diminish and rainfall runoff increasingly dominates flow into the Central Valley fluvial system. Geomorphic processes are likely to differ from processes that dominated during the Holocene due to the influence both of projected global warming and land use alterations including levee construction that narrows and separates Sacramento-San Joaquin Rivers and tributaries from floodplains and flow regulation downstream of numerous large dams. Whereas Holocene floods induced overbank flow and avulsion processes that led to vertical floodplain accretion and variability of stages in aggrading multiple-channel systems, modern floods largely transport flow and sediment within incised channels confined by levees. Because the scenarios of warming are developed at coarse scales, only an understanding of the relations between large-scale hydrology and climate on the one hand, and the incidence of levee breaches on the other, will make it possible to project likely geomorphic responses to future warming and flooding. A historical record of catastrophic levee breaks on the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers has been developed to allow analyses of these connections. In the current work, we develop statistical relations between historical levee break events and flow discharge, as well as with climatic phenomena such as El Nino and La Nina phases of the ENSO cycle, positive and negative phases of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, and seasonal propensities towards "pineapple-express" storms. Preliminary results suggest strong relations between levee breaches and discharge, but poor relations to ENSO. Further investigation of these data will provide insight to help inform models and river
Duval, Rodolphe; Fauchard, Cyrille; Antoine, Raphael
We study the influence of the topography of a levee on the electric and magnetic signals obtained with the Radio-Magnetotelluric method (RMT) and the Slingram method, respectively. For the RMT method, field measurements have been modelled with a finite element commercial software (AC/DC and Radio-Frequency modules of Comsol Multiphysics). A levee situated in Orléans (France) along the Loire river has been considered in order to design a model taking into account the skin depth and the incident wavelength. The effect of the incident electromagnetic field direction has been assessed with two different incident wave directions: BBC 5 from Salford (UK) and France-Inter from Allouis (France). The simulations highlight the tri-dimensional effects of the topography in the apparent resistivity, observed on the crest of the levee, depending on the incident field direction and topography. For the Slingram method, the magnetic field has been simulated using the AC/DC module of Comsol. The ratio of the primary magnetic field on the secondary one, received in a loop is determined above a straight levee. The study aims to show the various responses obtained in function of both vertical and horizontal coil configurations. We show that the signal also depends on the topography and the right configuration of the coils alignment with respect to the levee stretch direction. In this study, a buried gas pipe is also characterized by the two methods. Numerical modelling of 3D electromagnetic effects on geophysical signals helps to interpret the field measurements and offers to the stakeholder an optimized methodology for geophysical surveys on levees.
Asch, Theodore H.; Deszcz-Pan, Maria; Burton, Bethany L.; Ball, Lyndsay B.
A geophysical characterization of a portion of American River levees in Sacramento, California was conducted in May, 2007. Targets of interest included the distribution and thickness of sand lenses that underlie the levees and the depth to a clay unit that underlies the sand. The concern is that the erosion of these sand lenses can lead to levee failure in highly populated areas of Sacramento. DC resistivity (Geometric?s OhmMapper and Advanced Geosciences, Inc.?s SuperSting R8 systems) and electromagnetic surveys (Geophex?s GEM-2) were conducted over a 6 mile length of the levee on roads and bicycle and horse trails. 2-D inversions were conducted on all the geophysical data. The OhmMapper and SuperSting surveys produced consistent inversion results that delineated potential sand and clay units. GEM-2 apparent resistivity data were consistent with the DC inversion results. However, the GEM-2 data could not be inverted due to low electromagnetic response levels, high ambient electromagnetic noise, and large system drifts. While this would not be as large a problem in conductive terrains, it is a problem for a small induction number electromagnetic profiling system such as the GEM-2 in a resistive terrain (the sand lenses). An integrated interpretation of the geophysical data acquired in this investigation is presented in this report that includes delineation of those areas consisting of predominantly sand and those areas consisting predominantly of clay. In general, along most of this part of the American River levee system, sand lenses are located closest to the river and clay deposits are located further away from the river. The interpreted thicknesses of the detected sand deposits are variable and range from 10 ft up to 60 ft. Thus, despite issues with the GEM-2 inversion, this geophysical investigation successfully delineated sand lenses and clay deposits along the American River levee system and the approximate depths to underlying clay zones. The results of
Jones, C.; Bawden, G.; Deverel, S.; Dudas, J.; Hensley, S.
The islands of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta have been subject to subsidence since they were first reclaimed from the estuary marshlands starting over 100 years ago, with most of the land currently lying below mean sea level. This area, which is the primary water resource of the state of California, is under constant threat of inundation from levee failure. Since July 2009, we have been imaging the area using the quad-polarimetric UAVSAR L-band radar, with eighteen data sets collected as of April 2011. Here we report results of our polarimetric and differential interferometric analysis of the data for levee deformation and land surface change. ?? 2011 IEEE.
Water samples were collected from the Mississippi River, from sand boils near the toe of the levee on the Mississippi side of the river, and from actively flowing relief wells shortly after peak stage of the 2011 Mississippi River flood. Two distinct pathways for seepage under the levee were identif...
Normark, W.R.; Piper, D.J.W.; Posamentier, H.; Pirmez, C.; Migeon, S.
Fine-grained sediment waves have been observed in many modern turbidite systems, generally restricted to the overbank depositional element. Sediment waves developed on six submarine fan systems are compared using high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, sediment core samples (including ODP drilling), multibeam bathymetry, 3D seismic-reflection imaging (including examples of burried features), and direct measurements of turbidity currents that overflow their channels. These submarine fan examples extend over more than three orders of magnitude in physical scale. The presence or absence of sediment waves is not simply a matter of either the size of the turbidite channel-levee systems or the dominant initiation process for the turbidity currents that overflow the channels to form the wave fields. Both sediment-core data and seismic-reflection profiles document the upslope migration of the wave forms, with thicker and coarser beds deposited on the up-current flank of the waves. Some wave fields are orthogonal to channel trend and were initiated by large flows whose direction was controlled by upflow morphology, whereas fields subparallel to channel levees resulted from local spillover. In highly meandering systems, sediment waves may mimic meander planform. Larger sediment waves form on channel-levee systems with thicker overflow of turbidity currents, but available data indicate that sediment waves can be maintaned during conditions of relatively thin overflow. Coarser-grained units in sediment waves are typically laminated and thin-bedded sand as much as several centimetres thick, but sand beds as thick as several tens of centimetres have been documented from both modern and buried systems. Current production of hydrocarbons from sediment-wave deposits suggests that it is important to develop criteria for recognising this overbank element in outcrop exposures and borehole data, where the wavelength of typical waves (several kilometres) generally exceeds outcrop
Normark, W.R.; Hess, G.R.; Stow, D.A.V.; Bowen, A.J.
A detailed survey of a 30 km2 area of abyssal-depth sediment waves associated with the levee of the Monterey fan valley shows a pattern of sinuous crests and troughs with parallel, well-bedded internal structure. Material in the upper 1 m of sediment consists predominantly of bioturbated, muddy coccolith ooze. A single thin, silty horizon can be correlated between adjoining waves. The sediment waves are considered to be formed most likely by low-velocity (10 cm/s), low-concentration turbidity flows approximately 100-800 m thick. This interpretation emphasizes the role of low-speed, low-concentration turbidity currents in the downslope movement of fine-grained material.- from Authors
Uchikawa, Yoshiyuki; Kimura, Kazuhiro; Hirata, Ayumi
A growing number of terraced paddy fields in Japan are being conserved as cultural assets like places of scenic beauty. This has meant that the task of weeding levee slope of these terraced paddy fields has become increasingly important, not only for general maintenance of the terraced paddy fields, but also because of the impact landscape, vegetation and the surrounding environment. However, the steep gradient of the levee slope and lack of footholds mean that the workability and safety associated with this weeding work is problematic. In addition, in the event that an area has been designated as a cultural asset, there are restrictions regarding how it can be modified and local farmers are reluctant to change their traditional farming methods in such cases. This study therefore sought to clarify the actual condition of the levee slope weeding work undertaken in the places of scenic beauty Obasute Tanada district. Empirical validations of potential measures for reforming the work environment were evaluated based on the findings of this investigation. We demonstrated that it is possible to modify current work practices while still maintaining and preserving the terraced paddy fields, even in designated scenic locations. To improve the working environment for levee slope weeding, we propose creating berms to serve as footholds at the toes of slopes.
Garrett, H. James
The author explores the articulations of six social studies student/teachers after a viewing of "When the Levees Broke: A Requiem in Four Acts". The film, a documentary about the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina on the people in and around New Orleans, constitutes an encounter with what Deborah Britzman (1998) calls "difficult…
filled and spurted through channels and conduits in the levees ( Cedergren 1967). Channels left by either rotted roots or burrowing animals were...1925-1940, Boston Society of Civil Engineers, Boston, MA, pp 295-335. Cedergren , H. R. 1967. Seepage, Drainage and Flcw Nets, 1st ed., John Wiley
Burwell, Robert W; Beasley, Jeffrey S; Gaston, Lewis A; Borst, Steven M; Sheffield, Ron E; Strahan, Ron E; Munshaw, Gregg C
Nutrient and sediment runoff from newly constructed levee embankments pose a threat to water quality during soft armor vegetation establishment. Research was initiated in 2008 and 2009 to evaluate the effect of bermudagrass ( L.) coverage and N source on nutrient and sediment runoff from levee embankments during establishment. Bermudagrass plots were seeded at 195.3 kg pure live seed ha and fertilized at 50 kg N ha using a water-soluble N source, urea or NH-NO, or slow-release N source, S-coated urea (SCU) or urea formaldehyde (UF), with controls unfertilized. Vegetative cover percentage, time until the onset of runoff, runoff volume, and total solids (TS), NO-N, and NH-N concentrations were measured from simulated and natural rainfall events for 70 d in 2008 and 56 d in 2009. Bermudagrass at 90% grass cover delayed the onset of runoff an additional 441 to 538 s and reduced runoff volumes 74 to 84% of that exhibited at 10% grass cover. Nitrogen fertilizers did not accelerate bermudagrass growth sufficiently, however, to reduce TS loading compared with unfertilized bermudagrass in either year of the study. The application of urea and SCU resulted in cumulative N losses of 2.45 and 3.13 kg ha compared with 1.59 kg ha from the unfertilized bermudagrass in 2008, and 1.73 kg ha from NH-NO vs. 0.24 kg ha from controls in 2009. Only UF increased bermudagrass establishment without increasing cumulative N losses compared with unfertilized bermudagrass. Therefore, the benefit of greater erosion and runoff resistance expected from N-accelerated vegetative growth did not occur but had the unintended consequence of higher N losses when water-soluble N and SCU fertilizers were applied.
Bakuła, K.; Ostrowski, W.; Szender, M.; Plutecki, W.; Salach, A.; Górski, K.
This paper presents the possibilities for using an unmanned aerial system for evaluation of the condition of levees. The unmanned aerial system is equipped with two types of sensor. One is an ultra-light laser scanner, integrated with a GNSS receiver and an INS system; the other sensor is a digital camera that acquires data with stereoscopic coverage. Sensors have been mounted on the multirotor, unmanned platform the Hawk Moth, constructed by MSP company. LiDAR data and images of levees the length of several hundred metres were acquired during testing of the platform. Flights were performed in several variants. Control points measured with the use of the GNSS technique were considered as reference data. The obtained results are presented in this paper; the methodology of processing the acquired LiDAR data, which increase in accuracy when low accuracy of the navigation systems occurs as a result of systematic errors, is also discussed. The Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm, as well as measurements of control points, were used to georeference the LiDAR data. Final accuracy in the order of centimetres was obtained for generation of the digital terrain model. The final products of the proposed UAV data processing are digital elevation models, an orthophotomap and colour point clouds. The authors conclude that such a platform offers wide possibilities for low-budget flights to deliver the data, which may compete with typical direct surveying measurements performed during monitoring of such objects. However, the biggest advantage is the density and continuity of data, which allows for detection of changes in objects being monitored.
Mahrooghy, M.; Aanstoos, J. V.; Hasan, K.; Nobrega, R. A.; Younan, N. H.
Earthen levees protect large areas of land in the US from flooding. Timely inspection and repairs can reduce the potential for catastrophic failures. Changes in spatial and temporal patterns of soil moisture can reveal signs of instability and help identify zones of weakness. Since analytical and empirical models have shown a relationship between SAR backscatter and soil moisture, we are using SAR to classify soil moisture on levees. Estimation of soil moisture from SAR is challenging when the surface has any significant vegetation. For the levee application, the soil is typically covered with a uniform layer of grass. Our methodology is based on a supervised soil moisture classification using a back propagation neural network with four classes of low, medium, high, and very high soil moisture. Our methodology consists of the following steps: 1) segmentation of the levee area from background and exclusion of tree-covered areas; 2) extracting the backscattering and texture features such as GLCM (Grey-Level Co-occurrence Matrix) and wavelet features; 3) training the back propagation neural network classifier; and 4) testing the area of interest and validation of the results using ground truth data. Two sources of SAR imagery are tested with this method: (1) fully polarimetric L-band data from NASA's UAVSAR; and (2) dual-polarimetric X-band data from the German TerraSAR-X satellite. The study area is a 4 km stretch of levee along the lower Mississippi River in the United States. Field data collected simultaneously with image acquisition are utilized for training and validation. Preliminary results show classification accuracies of about 50% for the UAVSAR image and 30% for the TerraSAR-X image in vegetated areas. The figure below shows a soil moisture classification using UAVSAR on April 28, 2011.
Nemeth, Mark S.; Wilcox, Walter M.; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M.
A coupled ground- and surface-water model (MODBRANCH) was developed to estimate ground-water flow beneath Levee 31N in Miami-Dade County, Florida, and to simulate hydrologic conditions in the surrounding area. The study included compilation of data from monitoring stations, measurement of vertical seepage rates in wetlands, and analysis of the hydrogeologic properties of the ground-water aquifer within the study area. In addition, the MODBRANCH code was modified to calculate the exchange between surface-water channels and ground water using a relation based on the concept of reach transmissivity. The modified reach-transmissivity version of the MODBRANCH code was successfully tested on three simple problems with known analytical solutions. It was also tested and determined to function adequately on one field problem that had previously been solved using the unmodified version of the software. The modified version of MODBRANCH was judged to have performed satisfactorily, and it required about 60 percent as many iterations to reach a solution. Additionally, its input parameters are more physically-based and less dependent on model-grid spacing. A model of the Levee 31N area was developed and used with the original and modified versions of MODBRANCH, which produced similar output. The mean annual modeled ground-water heads differed by only 0.02 foot, and the mean annual canal discharge differed by less than 1.0 cubic foot per second. Seepage meters were used to quantify vertical seepage rates in the Everglades wetlands area west of Levee 31N. A comparison between results from the seepage meters and from the computer model indicated substantial differences that seemed to be a result of local variations in the hydraulic properties in the topmost part of the Biscayne aquifer. The transmissivity of the Biscayne aquifer was estimated to be 1,400,000 square feet per day in the study area. The computer model was employed to simulate seepage of ground water beneath Levee 31N
Three-dimensional imaging, change detection, and stability assessment during the centerline trench levee seepage experiment using terrestrial light detection and ranging technology, Twitchell Island, California, 2012
Bawden, Gerald W.; Howle, James; Bond, Sandra; Shriro, Michelle; Buck, Peter
A full scale field seepage test was conducted on a north-south trending levee segment of a now bypassed old meander belt on Twitchell Island, California, to understand the effects of live and decaying root systems on levee seepage and slope stability. The field test in May 2012 was centered on a north-south trench with two segments: a shorter control segment and a longer seepage test segment. The complete length of the trench area measured 40.4 meters (m) near the levee centerline with mature trees located on the waterside and landside of the levee flanks. The levee was instrumented with piezometers and tensiometers to measure positive and negative porewater pressures across the levee after the trench was flooded with water and held at a constant hydraulic head during the seepage test—the results from this component of the experiment are not discussed in this report. We collected more than one billion three-dimensional light detection and ranging (lidar) data points before, during, and after the centerline seepage test to assess centimeter-scale stability of the two trees and the levee crown. During the seepage test, the waterside tree toppled (rotated 20.7 degrees) into the water. The landside tree rotated away from the levee by 5 centimeters (cm) at a height of 2 m on the tree. The paved surface of the levee crown had three regions that showed subsidence on the waterside of the trench—discussed as the northern, central, and southern features. The northern feature is an elongate region that subsided 2.1 cm over an area with an average width of 1.35 m that extends 15.8 m parallel to the trench from the northern end of the trench to just north of the trench midpoint, and is associated with a crack 1 cm in height that formed during the seepage test on the trench wall. The central subsidence feature is a semicircular region on the waterside of the trench that subsided by as much as 6.2 cm over an area 3.4 m wide and 11.2 m long. The southern feature is an elongate
Black, Robert W.; Czuba, Christiana R.; Magirl, Christopher S.; McCarthy, Sarah; Berge, Hans; Comanor, Kyle
Watershed restoration is the focus of many resource managers and can include a multitude of restoration actions each with specific restoration objectives. For the White River flowing through the cities of Pacific and Sumner, Washington, a levee setback has been proposed to reconnect the river with its historical floodplain to help reduce flood risks, as well as provide increased habitat for federally listed species of salmonids. The study presented here documents the use of a modeling framework that integrates two-dimensional hydraulic modeling with process-based bioenergetics modeling for predicting how changes in flow from reconnecting the river with its floodplain affects invertebrate drift density and the net rate of energy intake of juvenile salmonids. Modeling results were calculated for flows of 25.9 and 49.3 cubic meters per second during the spring, summer, and fall. Predicted hypothetical future mean velocities and depths were significantly lower and more variable when compared to current conditions. The abundance of low energetic cost and positive growth locations for salmonids were predicted to increase significantly in the study reach following floodplain reconnection, particularly during the summer. This modeling framework presents a viable approach for evaluating the potential fisheries benefits of reconnecting a river to its historical floodplain that integrates our understanding of hydraulic, geomorphology, and organismal biology.
Ozeren, Y.; Wren, D. G.; Alonso, C. V.
Earth levees for catfish ponds and irrigation water storage experience significant embankment erosion due to wind generated waves. Large seasonal fluctuations in water level make vegetative bank protection impractical, and other stabilization methods such as the use of old tires or riprap are not acceptable due to ecological and economic concerns. The goal of the present work is to define configurations and construction techniques for inexpensive floating breakwaters made of polyethylene irrigation tubing. Based on wave characteristics measured in an irrigation pond near Lonoke, Arkansas, a laboratory scale wave generating flume was designed, constructed, and used to test multiple wave barrier configurations for regular waves in deep and transitional water depths. Wave transmission characteristics were investigated for the following breakwater arrangements: (1) fully restrained, (2) vertically restrained with a single mooring line, (3) horizontally restrained with a rigid arm hinged at one end, and (4) horizontally restrained with piles at both sides of the breakwater. The test results show that cylindrical pipes can be used effectively as floating breakwaters and that wave transmission characteristics strongly depend on the draft of the breakwater and the mooring configuration. The use of multiple small cylinders instead of a single large one can reduce cost while maintaining the same level of wave attenuation. The wave characteristics measured in the field and the results of laboratory testing resulted in a final design that is to be tested at the prototype scale in an irrigation pond.
Jones, Cathleen; Bawden, Gerald; Deverel, Steven; Dudas, Joel; Hensley, Scott
The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta is one of the primary water sources for the state of California and represents a complex geographical area comprised of tidal marshland, levee rimmed islands that are used primarily for agriculture, and urban encroachment. Land subsidence has dropped many of the Delta islands 3 to >7 meters below mean sea level and requires nearly 1700 km of levees to maintain the integrity of the islands and flow of water through the Delta. The current average subsidence rates for each island varies, with 1.23 cm/yr on Sherman Island and 2.2 cm/yr for Bacon Island, as determined by ground-based instruments located at isolated points in the Delta. The Delta's status as the most critical water resource for the state, an endangered ecosystem, and an area continuously threatened with levee breakage from hydrostatic pressure and the danger of earthquakes on several major faults in the San Francisco area make it a focus of monitoring efforts by both the state and national government. This activity is now almost entirely done by ground-based efforts, but the benefits of using remote sensing for wide scale spatial coverage and frequent temporal coverage is obvious. The UAVSAR airborne polarimetric and differential interferometric L-band synthetic aperture radar system has been used to collected monthly images of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta and much of the adjacent Suisun Marsh since July 2009 to characterize levee stability, image spatially varied subsidence, and assess how well the UAVSAR performs in an area with widespread agriculture production.
The SILDD is protected from the Mississippi River by a Corps of Engineers local flood protection levee most recently raised in 1969. The SILDD would...District, Corps of Engineers , report entitled, Upper Mississippi River Basin, Mississippi River -Nine Foot Channel, Appendix 22, Master Reservoir...pumping stations, diversions for five upland streams, retarding/ desilting reservoirs, and a closing levee to prevent Mississippi River backup in the lower
Tanajewski, Dariusz; Bakuła, Mieczysław
This paper analyses the possibility of using integrated GPS (Global Positioning System) surveys and ground penetrating radar surveys to precisely locate damages to levees, particularly due to the activity of small fossorial mammals. The technology of intercommunication between ground penetrating radar (GPR) and an RTK (Real-Time Kinematic) survey unit, and the method of data combination, are presented. The errors which may appear during the survey work are also characterized. The procedure for processing the data so that the final results have a spatial character and are ready to be implemented in digital maps and geographic information systems (GIS) is also described.
Rowland, Joel C; Hilley, George E; Fildani, Andrea
Leveed submarine channels play a critical role in the transfer of sediment from the upper continental slopes to interslope basins and ultimately deepwater settings. Despite a reasonable understanding of how these channels grow once established, how such channels initiate on previously unchannelized portions of the seafloor remains poorly understood. We conducted a series of experiments that elucidate the influence of excess density relative to flow velocity on the dynamics of, and depositional morphologies arising from, density currents undergoing sudden unconfinement across a sloped bed. Experimental currents transported only suspended sediment across a non-erodible substrate. Under flow conditions ranging from supercritical to subcritical (bulk Richardson numbers of 0.02 to 1.2) our experiments failed to produce deposits resembling or exhibiting the potential to evolve into self-formed leveed channels. In the absence of excess density, a submerged sediment-laden flow produced sharp crested lateral deposits bounding the margins of the flow for approximately a distance of two outlet widths down basin. These lateral deposits terminated in a centerline deposit that greatly exceeded marginal deposits in thickness. As excess density increased relative to the outlet velocity, the rate of lateral spreading of the flow increased relative to the downstream propagation of the density current, transitioning from a narrow flow aligned with the channel outlet to a broad radially expanding flow. Coincident with these changes in flow dynamics, the bounding lateral deposits extended for shorter distances, had lower, more poorly defined crests that were increasingly wider in separation than the initial outlet, and progressively became more oblong rather than linear. Based on our results, we conclude that leveed channels cannot initiate from sediment-laden density currents under strictly depositional conditions. Partial confinement of these currents appears to be necessary to
Kuwabara, James S.; Topping, Brent R.; Carter, James L.; Parcheso, Francis; Cameron, Jason M.; Asbill, Jessica R.; Fend, Steven V.; Duff, John H.; Engelstad, Anita C.
Four sampling trips were coordinated after planned levee breaches that hydrologically reconnected both Upper Klamath Lake and Agency Lake, Oregon, to adjacent wetlands. Sets of nonmetallic pore-water profilers were deployed during these trips in November 2007, June 2008, May 2009, and July 2009. Deployments temporally spanned the annual cyanophyte bloom of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (AFA) and spatially involved three lake and four wetland sites. Profilers, typically deployed in triplicate at each lake or wetland site, provided high-resolution (centimeter-scale) estimates of the vertical concentration gradients for diffusive-flux determinations. Estimates based on molecular diffusion may underestimate benthic flux because solute transport across the sediment-water interface can be enhanced by processes including bioturbation, bioirrigation and groundwater advection. Water-column and benthic samples were also collected to help interpret spatial and temporal trends in diffusive-flux estimates. Data from these samples complement taxonomic and geochemical analyses of bottom-sediments taken from Upper Klamath Lake (UKL) in prior studies. This ongoing study provides information necessary for developing process-interdependent solute-transport models for the watershed (that is, models integrating physical, geochemical, and biological processes) and supports efforts to evaluate remediation or load-allocation strategies. To augment studies funded by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR), the Department of the Interior supported an additional full deployment of pore-water profilers in November 2007 and July 2009, immediately following the levee breaches and after the crash of the annual summer AFA bloom. As observed consistently since 2006, benthic flux of 0.2-micron filtered, soluble reactive phosphorus (that is, biologically available phosphorus, primarily as orthophosphate; SRP) was consistently positive (that is, out of the sediment into the overlying water column) and
Janik, Grzegorz; Dawid, Małgorzata; Walczak, Amadeusz; Słowińska-Osypiuk, Joanna; Skierucha, Wojciech; Wilczek, Andrzej; Daniel, Anna
Failures of earthen flood protection structures cause enormous material loss. Despite this, in the majority these are structures that were built decades ago. As an example, in Poland, the time of operation of approximately three quarters of existing levees and embankments is over 40 years. A similar situation exists in many other European countries. In the period 1998–2009 the economic losses caused by floods amounted to over 60 thousand million Euro. This accounts for approximately one third of the total losses caused by environmental factors. Ruptures of embankments or levees occur as a result of long-lasting elevated water levels in rivers, and such events are always preceded by changes in their internal structure. Such changes cannot be detected from the outside. This paper presents a new method, never used before, for the determination of changes in the internal structure of the body of a levee. The dynamics of the displacements is described by means of new mathematical formulae. The input data necessary for their application include the dynamics of changes in the value of volumetric moisture that is measured with a freely selected short time step by means of the time-domain-reflectrometry technique. The formulae were created on the basis of hitherto unnoticed and uninterpreted drops in moisture a moment before and a moment after the saturation of inner spaces of the levee body. The results obtained from calculations were compared with data from measurements on a physical model of a levee. The settlement values calculated using the method proposed are convergent with those of the true settlement. The maximum relative error was as low as 19%. The method proposed permits the location of changes in the internal structure of a levee before its rupture. Its application is the main component of a system of early warning against floods.
Sherwood, James M.; Huitger, Carrie A.; Ebner, Andrew D.; Koltun, G.F.
The USGS, in cooperation with the Ohio Emergency Management Agency, conducted a study in the Wheeling Creek Basin to (1) evaluate and contrast land-cover characteristics from 2001 with characteristics from 1979 and 1992; (2) compare current streambed elevation, slope, and geometry with conditions present in the late 1980s; (3) look for evidence of channel filling and over widening in selected undredged reaches; (4) estimate flood elevations for existing conditions in both undredged and previously dredged reaches; (5) evaluate the height of the levees required to contain floods with selected recurrence intervals in previously dredged reaches; and (6) estimate flood elevations for several hypothetical dredging and streambed aggradation scenarios in undredged reaches. The amount of barren land in the Wheeling Creek watershed has decreased from 20 to 1 percent of the basin area based on land-cover characteristics from 1979 and 2001. Barren lands appear to have been converted primarily to pasture, presumably as a result of surface-mine reclamation. Croplands also decreased from 13 to 8 percent of the basin area. The combined decrease in barren lands and croplands is approximately offset by the increase in pasture. Stream-channel surveys conducted in 1987 and again in 2006 at 21 sites in four previously dredged reaches of Wheeling Creek indicate little change in the elevation, slope, and geometry of the channel at most sites. The mean change in width-averaged bed and thalweg elevations for the 21 cross sections was 0.1 feet. Bankfull widths, mean depths, and cross-sectional areas measured at 12 sites in undredged reaches were compared to estimates determined from regional equations. The mean percentage difference between measured and estimated bankfull widths was -0.2 percent, suggesting that bankfull widths in the Wheeling Creek Basin are generally about the same as regional averages for undisturbed basins of identical drainage area. For bankfull mean depth and cross
The survey of interview, resource acquisition, photographic operation, and questionnaire were carried out in the “n” Community in the “y” District in Hakusan City in Ishikawa Prefecture to investigate the actual condition of paddy field levee maintenance in the area where land-renting market was proceeding, large-scale farming was dominant, and the problems of geographically scattered farm-land existed. In the study zone, 1) an agricultural production legal person rent-cultivated some of the paddy fields and maintained the levees, 2) another agricultural production legal person rent-cultivated some of the soy bean fields for crop changeover and land owners maintained the levees. The results indicated that sufficient maintenance was executed on the levees of the paddy fields cultivated by the agricultural production legal person, the soy bean fields for crop changeover, and the paddy fields cultivated by the land owners. Each reason is considered to be the managerial strategy, the economic incentive, the mutual monitoring and cross-regulatory mechanism, etc.
Camici, Stefania; Moramarco, Tommaso; Brocca, Luca; Melone, Florisa; Lapenna, Vincenzo; Perrone, Angela; Loperte, Antonio
On 1st January 2006, during an ordinary flood event, a levee failure along the Foenna stream caused the flooding in the urban area of Sinalunga, a small town located in Tuscany region (Italy). The event was monitored by a public agency with the responsibility for the control and maintenance of the natural channel networks. Long time before of flooding, people living in the surrounding area of the stream blamed the presence of wild animals and of numerous burrows along the levees. Although the numerous actions of maintenance along the levees mainly for removing the burrows, a levee seepage occurred during that flood. The presence of an outflow located on the downstream face, almost 2 m below the levee top, caused the spurt of brown water denoting the presence of sediment erosion. On the upstream face of levee, a little hole of about 30 cm at the same height of the outflow was discovered. Although the agency workers tried to close the hole by using appropriate blankets, in short time the top of the levee subsided and the overtopping flow caused a trapezoidal breach typical for an earth-fill embankment. The formation of breach was so fast that in a little more of one hour the urban area near to the Foenna stream was flooded causing high economic damages. Mechanisms triggered the levees failure are the object of this work. The analysis of the event has been first addressed to assess the state of-fact of levees conditions along the Foenna stream, thus to understand how much the activity of wild animals, in particular that of porcupine, may have affected the hydraulic safety of the embankment. At the purpose, after the event, topographical surveys of cross sections have been done along with tomographic surveys by geoelectric technique for investigating the possible presence, besides of burrows, also of tunnels dug into the levees by animals. Then, the analysis of hydrometeorological conditions of the event has allowed to better understand the evolution of the flood and
Kuwabara, J. S.; Topping, B. R.; Carter, J. L.; Parchaso, F.; Cameron, J. M.; Asbill, J. R.; Carlson, R. A.; Fend, S. V.; Engelstad, A. C.
Nonmetallic pore-water profilers were deployed during four sampling trips between November 2007 and July 2009 after engineered levee breaches on 30 October 2007, hydrologically reconnected both Upper Klamath Lake and Agency Lake, Oregon, to adjacent wetlands. Centimeter-scale measurements of the vertical dissolved-nutrient concentration gradients from the profilers served as the basis for diffusive-flux determinations. Wetland areas undergoing restoration and those being used for water storage around these lakes function very differently than nearby established wetlands within the Upper Klamath National Wildlife Refuge. Consistent with previous results from Upper Klamath Lake, benthic flux of soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) in the wetlands was consistently positive, and when areally and seasonally averaged over the 13 km2 newly restored wetlands, an SRP flux to the overlying water column (~87,000 kg over the 3-month cyanophyte bloom of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (AFA)) exceeded the magnitude of riverine inputs (42,000 kg for that season). SRP benthic flux at a site within the restored wetland area ~0.5 km from the breach was elevated relative to all other lake and wetland sites (including another wetland site <0.1 km from the breached levee) in 2009 suggests that the restored wetlands, at least chemically, remain in a transition period following the hydrologic reconnection of the lake and wetland environments. Ammonium fluxes to the water column remained consistently positive throughout the sampling period, generating a toxicological concern for endangered fish populations at elevated summer pH. Soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) concentrations were lower than detection limits (<0.03 mg-P/L) at all lake and wetland sites following the levee breaches. As indicated in previous studies, SRP concentrations for 2009 sampling trips indicated higher concentrations at the end of the annual AFA bloom relative to its beginning, suggesting a limiting factor or factors other
Nath, Haradhan Deb; Tandon, Vivek; Mahapatra, Ashok Kumar; Gupta, Deepak Kumar
Objective: Patients with head injury who are not identified at admission are a challenge to manage and in this backdrop we decided to analyze our data of such pediatric patients for their outcome. Materials and Methods: It was a retrospective study conducted at the level-I trauma center. A total of 12 consecutive pediatric (<20 years) age group patients whose identities were not known at the time of admission were included in the study. Results: All 12 patients were male. The road traffic accident was the most common cause of injury (8, 67%). Mean age of the patients were 16.75 ± 4.45 years. Computerized tomography (CT) scan showed cerebral contusion in four (33%) patients. Six (50%) patients needed surgery and others were treated conservatively. During the course of hospital treatment, one (8%) patient died, two (16%) had good recovery, and four (33%) were moderately disabled. Among the 12 patients identity, eight (67%) could be ascertained. Seven (58%) patients were sent home with their relatives, one (8%) was referred to a district hospital and three (25%) remained as unknown and were referred to destitute home for rehabilitation. Conclusion: Unidentified patients of pediatric age group have better outcome if proper care is provided in time. PMID:26396599
Wells, Mathew; Cossu, Remo
Submarine channel-levee systems are among the largest sedimentary structures on the ocean floor. These channels have a sinuous pattern and are the main conduits for turbidity currents to transport sediment to the deep ocean. Recent observations have shown that their sinuosity decreases strongly with latitude, with high-latitude channels being much straighter than similar channels near the Equator. One possible explanation is that Coriolis forces laterally deflect turbidity currents so that at high Northern latitudes both the density interface and the downstream velocity maximum are deflected to the right-hand side of the channel (looking downstream). The shift in the velocity field can change the locations of erosion and deposition and introduce an asymmetry between left- and right-turning bends. The importance of Coriolis forces is defined by two Rossby numbers, RoW=U/Wf and RoR=U/Rf, where U is the mean downstream velocity, W is the width of the channel, R is the radius of curvature and f is the Coriolis parameter. In a bending channel, the density interface is flat when RoR∼-1, and Coriolis forces start to shift the velocity maximum when |RoW|<5. We review recent experimental and field observations and describe how Coriolis forces could lead to straighter channels at high latitudes.
Wells, Mathew; Cossu, Remo
Submarine channel-levee systems are among the largest sedimentary structures on the ocean floor. These channels have a sinuous pattern and are the main conduits for turbidity currents to transport sediment to the deep ocean. Recent observations have shown that their sinuosity decreases strongly with latitude, with high-latitude channels being much straighter than similar channels near the Equator. One possible explanation is that Coriolis forces laterally deflect turbidity currents so that at high Northern latitudes both the density interface and the downstream velocity maximum are deflected to the right-hand side of the channel (looking downstream). The shift in the velocity field can change the locations of erosion and deposition and introduce an asymmetry between left- and right-turning bends. The importance of Coriolis forces is defined by two Rossby numbers, Ro(W) = U/Wf and Ro(R) = U/Rf, where U is the mean downstream velocity, W is the width of the channel, R is the radius of curvature and f is the Coriolis parameter. In a bending channel, the density interface is flat when Ro(R) - -1, and Coriolis forces start to shift the velocity maximum when [Row] < 5. We review recent experimental and field observations and describe how Coriolis forces could lead to straighter channels at high latitudes.
prayers, herbs and ritual behavior to cure. The former reported that she received her training from an Indian man who lived on Bayou Sauvage many years...once existed (Cagliano and Van Beak 1975:58). This natural levee habitat, complete with edible herbs , vegetables, young shoots, ripening weeds ind...competance was greater for woody constituents than for grasses and herbs . Animal components were identified by direct sightings, by calls, and by tracks
gaVmin/ft "*" Dewatering at Melvin Price Locks and Dam ongoing throughout Phase 1. Resulting cone of depression increased in depth toward higher numbered...Dam ongoing #hroughout Phase 2. Resulting cone of depression increased in depth toward higher numbered wells, but groundwater leves were similar to...following rewatering at Melvin Price Locks and Dam between Stage 2 and 3 construction, so that no cone of depression affected water levels. "** Groundwater
Hai, Pham T; Magome, J; Yorozuya, A; Inomata, H; Fukami, K; Takeuchi, K
In order to assess the effects of climate change on flood disasters in urban areas, we applied a two dimensional finite element hydrodynamic model (2D-FEM) to simulate flood processes for the case analysis of levee breach caused by Kathleen Typhoon on 16 September 1947 in Kurihashi reach of Tone River, upstream of Tokyo area. The purpose is to use the model to simulate flood inundation processes under the present topography and land-use conditions with impending extreme flood scenarios due to climate change for mega-urban areas like Tokyo. Simulation used 100 m resolution topographic data (in PWRI), which was derived from original LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) data, and levee breach hydrographic data in 1947. In this paper, we will describe the application of the model with calibration approach and techniques when applying for such fine spatial resolution in urban environments. The fine unstructured triangular FEM mesh of the model appeared to be the most capable of introducing of constructions like roads/levees in simulations. Model results can be used to generate flood mapping, subsequently uploaded to Google Earth interface, making the modeling and presentation process much comprehensible to the general public.
Densmore, Brenda K.; Burton, Bethany L.; Dietsch, Benjamin J.; Cannia, James C.; Huizinga, Richard J.
During the 2011 Mississippi River Basin flood, the U.S. Geological Survey evaluated aspects of critical river infrastructure at the request of and in support of local, State, and Federal Agencies. Geotechnical and hydrographic data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey at numerous locations were able to provide needed information about 2011 flood effects to those managing the critical infrastructure. These data were collected and processed in a short time frame to provide managers the ability to make a timely evaluation of the safety of the infrastructure and, when needed, to take action to secure and protect critical infrastructure. Critical infrastructure surveyed by the U.S. Geological Survey included levees, bridges, pipeline crossings, power plant intakes and outlets, and an electrical transmission tower. Capacitively coupled resistivity data collected along the flood-protection levees surrounding the Omaha Public Power District Nebraska City power plant (Missouri River Levee Unit R573), mapped the near-subsurface electrical properties of the levee and the materials immediately below it. The near-subsurface maps provided a better understanding of the levee construction and the nature of the lithology beneath the levee. Comparison of the capacitively coupled resistivity surveys and soil borings indicated that low-resistivity value material composing the levee generally is associated with lean clay and silt to about 2 to 4 meters below the surface, overlying a more resistive layer associated with sand deposits. In general, the resistivity structure becomes more resistive to the south and the southern survey sections correlate well with the borehole data that indicate thinner clay and silt at the surface and thicker sand sequences at depth in these sections. With the resistivity data Omaha Public Power District could focus monitoring efforts on areas with higher resistivity values (coarser-grained deposits or more loosely compacted section), which typically are
Konrad, C.P.; Black, R.W.; Voss, F.; Neale, C. M. U.
Setback levees, in which levees are reconstructed at a greater distance from a river channel, are a promising restoration technique particularly for alluvial rivers with broad floodplains where river-floodplain connectivity is essential to ecological processes. Documenting the ecological outcomes of restoration activities is essential for assessing the comparative benefits of different restoration approaches and for justifying new restoration projects. Remote sensing of aquatic habitats offers one approach for comprehensive, objective documentation of river and floodplain habitats, but is difficult in glacial rivers because of high suspended-sediment concentrations, braiding and a lack of large, well-differentiated channel forms such as riffles and pools. Remote imagery and field surveys were used to assess the effects of recent and planned setback levees along the Puyallup River and, more generally, the application of multispectral imagery for classifying aquatic and riparian habitats in glacial-melt water rivers. Airborne images were acquired with a horizontal ground resolution of 0.5 m in three spectral bands (0.545-0.555, 0.665-0.675 and 0.790-0.810 ??m) spanning from green to near infrared (NIR) wavelengths. Field surveys identified river and floodplain habitat features and provided the basis for a comparative hydraulic analysis. Broad categories of aquatic habitat (smooth and rough water surface), exposed sediment (sand and boulder) and vegetated surfaces (herbaceous and deciduous shrub/forest) were classified accurately using the airborne images. Other categories [e.g. conifers, boulder, large woody debtis (LWD)] and subdivisions of broad categories (e.g. riffles and runs) were not successfully classified either because these features did not form large patches that could be identified on the imagery or their spectral reflectances were not distinct from those of other habitat types. Airborne imagery was critical for assessing fine-scale aquatic habitat
Kuwabara, James S.; Topping, Brent R.; Carter, James L.; Wood, Tamara M.; Parcheso, Francis; Cameron, Jason M.; Asbill, Jessica R.; Carlson, Rick A.; Fend, Steven V.
Eight sampling trips were coordinated after engineered levee breaches hydrologically reconnected both Upper Klamath Lake and Agency Lake, Oregon, to adjacent wetlands. The reconnection, by a series of explosive blasts, was coordinated by The Nature Conservancy to reclaim wetlands that had for approximately seven decades been leveed for crop production. Sets of nonmetallic porewater profilers (U.S. Patent 8,051,727 B1; November 8, 2011; http://www.uspto.gov/web/patents/patog/ week45/OG/html/1372-2/US08051727-20111108.html.) were deployed during these trips in November 2007, June 2008, May 2009, July 2009, May 2010, August 2010, June 2011, and July 2011 (table 1). Deployments temporally spanned the annual cyanophyte bloom of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and spatially involved three lake and four wetland sites. Spatial and temporal variation in solute benthic flux was determined by the field team, using the profilers, over an approximately 4-year period beginning 3 days after the levee breaches. The highest flux to the water column of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was detected in the newly flooded wetland, contrasting negative or insignificant DOC fluxes at adjacent lake sites. Over the multiyear study, DOC benthic fluxes dissipated in the reconnected wetlands, converging to values similar to those for established wetlands and to the adjacent lake (table 2). In contrast to DOC, benthic sources of soluble reactive phosphorus, ammonium, dissolved iron and manganese from within the reconnected wetlands were consistently elevated (that is, significant in magnitude relative to riverine and established-wetland sources) indicating a multi-year time scale for certain chemical changes after the levee breaches (table 2). Colonization of the reconnected wetlands by aquatic benthic invertebrates during the study trended toward the assemblages in established wetlands, providing further evidence of a multiyear transition of this area to permanent aquatic habitat (table 3). Both the
O'Connell, S.; Ryan, William B. F.; Normark, W.R.
Six submarine slope canyons in an area of the northwestern Mediterranean, offshore from the Ebro River and Delta, were surveyed with bathymetric swathmapping (SeaBeam) and mid-range side-looking sonar (SeaMARC I). All of the canyons have slightly winding paths with concave-upwards gradients that are relatively steep shallower than 1,200 m. Two major types of canyons are identified on the basis of their morphologic character at the base of the slope; Type-I canyons lead to an unchannelled base-of-slope deposit and Type-II canyons are continuous with channel-levee systems that cross the rise. Four Type-I canyons were surveyed in the area. Two of these are broad, U-shaped, steep (average gradients of 1:14), do not indent the shelf, and terminate downslope at debris-flow deposits. These two canyons, the most northern in the area, have rounded heads with extensive gullies separated by knife-edge ridges. Relief of the canyon walls is about equal on both sides of the canyons, although the right-hand walls (looking downslope) are generally steeper. The other two Type-I canyons in the area are similar in that they do not indent the shelf, but they are much smaller and shallower and coalesce before terminating in the base-of-slope region. The two Type-II canyons that feed leveed-channels are U-shaped with flatter floors, longer profiles and gentler gradients than Type-I canyons. They are closer to the Valencia Valley and have relatively small cross-sectional areas. We propose a four-stage evolutionary sequence to explain the development of the canyons observed in this section on the prograding Ebro margin. During the initial stage, slumping and erosion on the slope creates a network of small gullies. During the next stage, headward growth of one (or more) gully leads to a major indentation of the shelf. This is the critical factor for developing a channel that will incise the slope and provide a major conduit for moving sediment to the basin. Stage 3 is characterized by the
Fork Channel and Levee Improvement Increment .p I ON0TRACT OR GRANT NUMBER.) US Army Corps of Engineers u l F t W o r t h , T X .... .- - -- 9...the abaract ontered in Blook 20 I dlfforent be- r Report) IS. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES IS. KEY WORDS (Continue on reovere side It necosary and Idontdir by...0 ’ ’ % I N" ’S S S S S I S I S S S I S I S / S - S S I 5 I S IIN I S / S aeAf"- d"b* mm AR r -kp ’ r do~ -dC -4W% P* ~ qbb IELEVATION IN 360 I (1 It
Holmes, R. R.; Koenig, T. A.; McDonald, R. R.; Nelson, J. M.; Simoes, F. J.
During 2011, record flooding has occurred in many parts of the central United States. As the flooding reached record levels for the Mississippi-Ohio River confluence at Cairo, Illinois, the 61 kilometer long and 8 kilometer wide Birds Point-New Madrid Floodway (Floodway) was activated to provide a lowering of upstream water levels through a controlled demolition of approximately 3,300 meters of levee at 10:00 PM on May 2, 2011. Prior to activation of the Floodway, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) deployed 38 self-contained stage sensors throughout the Floodway to capture the change in water elevation through time at various locations. From April 29, 2011 to May 24, 2011, daily streamflow measurements were made upstream of the confluence of the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers, within the Floodway opening and outlets, and on the Mississippi River downstream of the Floodway opening. Additionally, velocity and bathymetric data were collected immediately downstream of the Floodway opening at Birds Point to characterize scour in the Floodway. The data provide a unique look at the impact of a controlled levee breach on river flows and hydraulics. The activation of the Floodway lowered the water level at Cairo, Illinois by 0.44 meters in the first 14 hours, while increasing the streamflow of the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers in vicinity of Cairo, Illinois by 9,200 cubic meters per second. On May 2, prior to the activation of the Floodway, the measured combined streamflow of the upper Mississippi and Ohio Rivers at Cairo, Illinois was 52,900 cubic meters per second with the Ohio River contributing 27,700 cubic meters per second. Following the controlled breach of the Birds Point levee (immediately downstream of Cairo, Illinois on the right descending bank) the night of May 2, 2011, the measured combined streamflow at Cairo, Illinois on May 3, 2011 increased to 62,100 cubic meters per second with the Ohio River increasing to 38,100 cubic meters per second, an increase of 10
Archeological Investigations at the Fox Pup and Gravity Sites, Nutwood Levee and Drainage District, Jersey and Greene Counties, Illinois. Phase 2. St. Louis District Cultural Resource Management Report Number 6
been possible. The cooperation of the landowners and tenant farmers on whose land the sites were located is greatly appreciated. These individuals...dominant vegetation types at that time. A vegetation reconstruction for four contiguous levee districts provided by David Asch and Nancy Asch (i.e
Retrogressive Failures in Sand Deposits of the Mississippi River. Report 2. Empirical Evidence in Support of the Hypothesized Failure Mechanism and Development of the Levee Safety Flow Slide Monitoring System
30 Empirical Evidence of a Runout Angle ............................... 30 NOD Levee Safety Flow Slide Monitoring System ...................... 51...14 illustrates the retrogression mechanism. Two most important questions relative to the runout angle concept are: a. Is there empirical evidence...ranging variable for flow slides below Baton Rouge? Empirical Evidence of a Runout Angle 19. For several years the author was involved in the
Cultural Resources Intensive Survey and Testing of Mississippi River Levee Berms Crittenden and Desha Counties, Arkansas and Mississippi, Scott, Cape Girardeau and Pemiscot Counties Missouri. Item R-752 Lambethville; Crittenden County, Arkansas
Behavior and the Organization of Hunting Bands. Journal of Anthropological Research 29:1-31. WOBST, M. H. 1974 Boundary Conditions for Paleolithic Social...from the centerline of the levee between the same stations as above. Heartfield, Price and Greene, Inc. began background research for the pro- ject on...addi- tionally tested for significance between March 15 and March 24, 1984. Additional archival research was conducted concerning 3CT228, 3CT229, 3CT230
Shallowly Buried Archaeological Deposits and Geologic Context: Archaeological Survey in the Eldred and Spankey Drainage and Levee District, Greene County, Illinois. St. Louis District Cultural Resource Management Report Number 8
Site ....................... 31 i I i I I I I I I I I I i I Acknowledgements The cooperation from farmers and landowners whose fileds were surveyed...century vegetation patterns for the Eldred and Spankey Drainage and Levee District have been interpolated by Asch and Asch (1982) from U.S. Government...alluviation or erosion, light intensity, and vulnerability to forest and prairie fires. According to Asch and Asch (1982) early nineteenth century
lateritic site, absorption of 32P from a lateral distance of 75- and 30-cm depth was much greater than from 150- and 225-cm lateral distance and 60- and...the root activity percentage. Vegetation: Wild jack tree (Artocarpus hirsutus Lamk.) Soil Properties: Lateritic oxisol with a pH of 6.7
Pascoletti, F. C.; Masson, D.; Innocenti, C.
The west Iberian margin is indented by a network of submarine canyons that create rugged seafloor morphology and act as major pathways for the transport of sediment from land to the abyssal plains. The Setúbal and Nazaré Canyons are part of this complex environment and strongly influence sediment distribution, capturing sediments from the Tagus River and the littoral cell transport respectively. Deep submarine sedimentary sequences thus reflect changes in sediment input and depositional environments. The high-resolution sedimentological study here presented was applied in four cores of the deep water levees of Nazaré and Setúbal Canyons in order to explore how sediment input to the canyons changed during the last glacial - interglacial transition, and how this reflects changing environmental conditions on land. By means of non-destructive corelogger measurements and analyses of spectral signatures, geochemical compositions and colour variations, it was possible to identify ice-rafted debris (IRD) deposits, to characterize hemipelagic and turbidite layers and to investigate terrestrial-derived sediments input variation during the last 26 ka. Preliminary results from the sedimentological and turbidite frequency analyses show that highest turbidite occurrence is recorded during the glacial stage, confirming that the generation of turbidity flows in submarine canyons is tightly related to low sea-level stands. We found that major peaks in frequency and thickness of turbidite deposits in the deep Portuguese margin are mainly coeval with abrupt climatic (H2 and 1) and sea-level changes (~ 19 and ~ 23 ka BP), as a consequence of which a major amount of continentally-derived material was transported into the deep sea. During the Holocene, the inception of sea-level rises, independent of their magnitude, has been found to be sufficient to generate turbidity currents, particularly in the Nazaré system. Moreover, a multiple regression analysis was attempted in order to
Wain, Louise V; Shrine, Nick; Miller, Suzanne; Jackson, Victoria E; Ntalla, Ioanna; Artigas, María Soler; Billington, Charlotte K; Kheirallah, Abdul Kader; Allen, Richard; Cook, James P; Probert, Kelly; Obeidat, Ma'en; Bossé, Yohan; Hao, Ke; Postma, Dirkje S; Paré, Peter D; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Mägi, Reedik; Mihailov, Evelin; Reinmaa, Eva; Melén, Erik; O'Connell, Jared; Frangou, Eleni; Delaneau, Olivier; Freeman, Colin; Petkova, Desislava; McCarthy, Mark; Sayers, Ian; Deloukas, Panos; Hubbard, Richard; Pavord, Ian; Hansell, Anna L; Thomson, Neil C; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Morris, Andrew P; Marchini, Jonathan; Strachan, David P; Tobin, Martin D; Hall, Ian P
Summary Background Understanding the genetic basis of airflow obstruction and smoking behaviour is key to determining the pathophysiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We used UK Biobank data to study the genetic causes of smoking behaviour and lung health. Methods We sampled individuals of European ancestry from UK Biobank, from the middle and extremes of the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) distribution among heavy smokers (mean 35 pack-years) and never smokers. We developed a custom array for UK Biobank to provide optimum genome-wide coverage of common and low-frequency variants, dense coverage of genomic regions already implicated in lung health and disease, and to assay rare coding variants relevant to the UK population. We investigated whether there were shared genetic causes between different phenotypes defined by extremes of FEV1. We also looked for novel variants associated with extremes of FEV1 and smoking behaviour and assessed regions of the genome that had already shown evidence for a role in lung health and disease. We set genome-wide significance at p<5 × 10−8. Findings UK Biobank participants were recruited from March 15, 2006, to July 7, 2010. Sample selection for the UK BiLEVE study started on Nov 22, 2012, and was completed on Dec 20, 2012. We selected 50 008 unique samples: 10 002 individuals with low FEV1, 10 000 with average FEV1, and 5002 with high FEV1 from each of the heavy smoker and never smoker groups. We noted a substantial sharing of genetic causes of low FEV1 between heavy smokers and never smokers (p=2·29 × 10−16) and between individuals with and without doctor-diagnosed asthma (p=6·06 × 10−11). We discovered six novel genome-wide significant signals of association with extremes of FEV1, including signals at four novel loci (KANSL1, TSEN54, TET2, and RBM19/TBX5) and independent signals at two previously reported loci (NPNT and HLA-DQB1/HLA-DQA2). These variants also showed
Mueller, Gordon A.; Carpenter, Jeanette; Marsh, Paul C.
Remaining work will be finished this coming summer and a final report describing CHLP and the ecology of these fish will be completed by the end of 2005. We offer our assistance to the Fish and Wildlife Service in the pond’s renovation and support for the creation of additional refuge ponds. Funding for this work ends September 2005.
Kaskaskia Island because of its association with man. It produces a painful bite which is very slow to heal. The black widow spider, Latrodectus ... mactans (Fabricius) also prefers upland forest situations, but may be a possible inhabitant of the island. Two ticks, Dermacentor variabilis (Say), the
Rep. Matsui, Doris O. [D-CA-6
01/24/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Water Resources and Environment. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.3080, which became Public Law 113-121 on 6/10/2014. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:
an acceptable level of accuracy, the solution is said to have converged. Mathematically , Equation 3.3 governing steady- state flow requiring this...Finite element method Soil mechanics Computer programs Mathematical analysis
aggradation on nearby Yuba River at Marysville was delayed until 1905, where a total of nearly 6.5 m of aggradation was observed. By the late 1860s... aggradation was so extreme that the beds of the Yuba and Feather Rivers were higher than the city streets in Marysville. After mining ceased, the sediment...when the bed began to rest upon pre-hydraulic material that was more resistant to erosion. As a result of the rapid aggradation and subsequent incision
Res monochrome’ INPUT chip$ IF chip$S ’E6AC’ OR chip$ ’eqac’ THEN chip$ =’egac’ sandcolor r8 claycolor 6 leveecolor =4 watercolor =3 F-2 ELSEIF chip...Row3S + RowSS + Row5$ 5andcolor =7 claycolor = 7 leveecolor =7 watercolor =7 ELSEIF chip$ ’CGA’ OR chip$ z ’cga’ THEN chip$ = ’cga’ sandcolor =I sandtile...CHRS(O) + CHRS(O) + CHRS(16) + CHRS(O) + CHRS(O) claycolor =I leveecolor 1 watercolor =1 ELSE SOTO setchip END IF .Sit SECOND SCREEN - INPUT Itt
As a teaching artist in public schools, the author is paired with classroom teachers to teach poetry and to give students an opportunity to experience their academic curriculum through the arts. At the beginning of the school year, she gave her students the on-going, yearlong assignment to watch the news, to pay attention. Knowing many of them…
Mwangi, M. W.
Climate change and vulnerability are major challenges in ensuring household food security. Climate information services have the potential to cushion rural households from extreme climate risks. However, most the probabilistic nature of climate information products is not easily understood by majority of smallholder farmers. Despite the probabilistic nature, climate information have proved to be a valuable climate risk adaptation strategy at the farm level. This calls for innovative ways to help farmers understand and apply climate information services to inform their farm level decisions. The study endeavored to co-design and test appropriate innovation systems for climate information services uptake and scale up necessary for achieving climate risk development. In addition it also determined the conditions necessary to support the effective performance of the proposed innovation system. Data and information sources included systematic literature review, secondary sources, government statistics, focused group discussions, household surveys and semi-structured interviews. Data wasanalyzed using both quantitative and qualitative data analysis techniques. Quantitative data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software. Qualitative data was analyzed using qualitative techniques, which involved establishing the categories and themes, relationships/patterns and conclusions in line with the study objectives. Sustainable livelihood, reduced household poverty and climate change resilience were the impact that resulted from the study.
Increasing demands on limited groundwater resources have created a growing need for the development of surface water resources for irrigation. On-farm reservoirs, along with tailwater recovery systems, can provide a means for reducing dependence on groundwater supplies. These reservoirs are surrou...
orchids. Southern Illinois Univ. Press, Carbondale, Illinois. 288 pp. Mohlenbrock, R. H. 1972. The illustrated flora of Illinois: Grasses : Bromus to... Paspalum . Southern Illinois Univ. Press, Carbondale, Illinois. 332 pp. Mohlenbrock, R. H. 1973. The illustrated flora of Illinois: Grasses : Panicum to...75%. Manna grass (Glyceria striata) and yellow buttercup (Ranunculus septentrionalis) are most frequent, with a frequency of 67%. Next frequent, at 50
overtopping example ........................................................................ 46 ERDC/CHL TR-11-3 iv Equivalent steady flow ...Relationship Between Flow Work and Stream Power ........................................... 123 Report Documentation Page ERDC/CHL TR-11-3 vi Figures...Figure 2. Erosion resistance of grass-lined spillways ................................................................................ 7 Figure 3
flowed into six 54 in. diameter pipes that carried it into the catch basin. A 10% slope of the pipe was used to achieve the vertical drop that provided...basin capable of holding 6.5 ft of water before it would flow over the spillway . This was done as a result of the discovery in recent 1/8-scale model...6 2.1.3 Basic Concepts for Stopping the Flow Using Fabrics
In this thesis, a new GPR tomographic method based on geostatistical cokriging and cosimulation is proposed. Commonly used crosshole radar velocity tomography algorithms estimate 2D slowness models (reciproqual velocity) in the plane between the boreholes using the measured direct wave travel times from the transmitter (located in one of the hole) to the receivers (located in the other hole). In this study, three classical tomography algorithms are used (LSQR, CG, SIRT). These algorithms do not explicitly consider the spatial structure of the slowness field and the correlation between the travel times. Using the straight ray approximation, a method to estimate the slowness covariance model by using the experimental covariances of the travel times is presented. The slowness covariance model is chosen to provide a close match between the computed and the experimental time covariances. Then cokriging of the slowness field using time data is performed. The cokriging provides a smooth interpolation. To obtain inverted fields with more realistic variations, conditional geostatistical simulations are realized. This enables identifying stable features of the inverted fields. Cells with known velocities, for example the cells crossed by the holes, provide velocity constraints which are easily implemented. The proposed approach is compared to the classical LSQR algorithm using a synthetic model and real data collected for geotechnical evaluation in a karstic area. In each case, constrained and non-constrained LSQR, cokriging and simulation were performed. The tomographies on synthetic model show that geostatistical methods provide comparable to or better results than LSQR. The geostatistical simulations also allow computing the standard deviation of the slowness within each cell of the inverted field. Stable characteristics and uncertain features of the inverted models can then be easily identified. The linear relation between travel time and slowness is valid until the true raypaths are known. At first iteration, it is not the case, because the raypath depends on the velocity field distribution. A well known technique is to update the raypath after each iteration taking into account the velocity cell constrasts. The raypath are used to compute a new cokriging and simulation estimate. The iterative process ends as the difference between computed and measured travel times becomes small enough. It is possible to linearize the relation between amplitude and attenuation. The same algorithms developped for velocity tomography are used. For both method, additional velocity constraints reduce uncertainty and improve spatial resolution of the inverted velocity field. Also, the simulation on synthetic model increases the spatial resolution compared to LSQR. It is demonstrated that the method is robust with regard to an acceptable level of random noise on velocity constraints. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)
Le Moyne d’lberville and a small expedition encountered a Bayougoula-Mugulasha village. Iberville was accompanied by Father Paul Du Ru, a Jesuit ...Prepared for the City of Covington, Covington, Kentucky. Glardino, Marco J. 1984 Documentary evidence from the location of historic Indian villages
negative results. Given the paucity of documentary evidence, the historic background study concentrated on areas contiguous or adjacent to the survey items...aristocracy had great effect on the cultural and economic development of Louisiana. Initial production of sugar had begun in the French period. Jesuits in New
Burcharth and Hughes 2002). 9 ERDC/CHL CHETN-III-77 January 2008 First, calculate the Iribarren number (surf-similarity parameter) for the given wave...sec) 328 ft 2 2op p gL T π π = = =2 (15) and the corresponding Iribarren number is 0 tan 0.25 1.85 / (6 ft) / (328 ft)op m opH L θξ = = = (16...to the value of Iribarren number. For ξop ≤ 2: 2% 01.5u opR mHξ= ⋅ (17) (0 3 0 tan 1ln 5.2 0.06 m op w c opm H qR g H )r b h β ξ θ γ γ γ γ ξ
Carya illinoensis ...Sambucus canadensis ə Ilex decidua Cornus drummondii ə Quercus alba ə Overstory 40% Celtis occidentalis ញ Acer saccharinum 10 Carya illinoensis ...seedling) ə Carex sp. ə Saururus cernuus ə Understory 40% Ulmus americana 25 Quercus palustrus ə Carya illinoensis ə Acer saccharinum 10 flex
technology, which has demonstrated a payback of around 4 to 5 years. • In the Spray Painting operations, instead of the Conventional Non- HVLP ...Carpentry Shop The Carpentry Shop is used for packaging and shipping, special order projects, and construction of skids. It has compressed air, a spray ...waste solvents. Use of a Paint Gun washer to do this operation should be considered, including recy- cling of solvent in-house. • TYAD has a year
A major oil spill occurred at the Murphy Oil Corporation in Chalmette when a storage tank slid from its foundation during the flood. To address...storage tank at the Murphy Oil Corporation site was breached and completely failed, and the entire site was flooded. Near the ERDC/EL TR-07-7 11...contaminants in the Lower Ninth Ward and the Chalmette area. Undisturbed sediment cores were collected from ditches draining the Murphy Oil
... Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers Process for Requesting a Variance From Vegetation Standards for... of Engineers (Corps), published its proposed update to its current process for requesting a variance... stated that written comments must be submitted on or before March 11, 2010. Instructions for...
8217 a. of80-.-I ft are k-omm. ! acca -i-Cn wt the srty zig~,s-"ffr are practically Lirviv.Wpc e-mles of,- oi b ar depms-t exist -at Commerce and Lower...ProjeI CCt Project L- e!Im Values Factor 19 Flood P1 __o 1950Flood Flomd St_______ 5_a_ _ Ste n3 -- l I River stage (crest) 167.6 182.6 167.6 182.6 12.6...ne. the dashed line.. After selecting LB_ 2- - (57",i (37): 1 1c3kf d cB -An exam le of the-design -of a riverside blafk-t -based- on case :6 in- fig
impacts on wildlife habitat and other biological resources in surrounding areas. These experiments were conducted as part of the Interagency...estuarine amphipod , Leptocheirus plumulosus. ...................................................................................... 8 Table 3. Summary of...chemical analyses. Whole sediment acute (10-day) toxicity tests were conducted using the estuarine amphipod , Leptocheirus plumulosus. Samples were
encompasses the reach of the Red River that flows through Walsh and Pembina Counties. North Dakota. The tQtlr,, y -f r I rw-lprh- inah pn -f. DO 4"m 147l. E...82174 -’ ’a w a ti.~tI(i Ci ILEl 0- -!04 3 A 41 4 4 2b 4 44 Z4 . 0 in~ ULN -60 % 0 r" n 0% k :0 cm- 0 m 3 000 C Aj 0N 2a0 0 0 0. LU I.C NY i N~- C- Y 0...8217i 0%-0 00’ c 0 o~~~~~~~ 1 Q 00 0 0 0 ’’ 4 LU 0 a 00 goo 0 00 0M 00CL a. 08 - Y 0 o0 0 ~ c i 9Vi- 00 MA’- 010% AS%0 0 L 0 I.~~~~0 toaa ~ a~..11 0
Rowe, Cynthia L.; Liddle, Howard A.
Hurricane Katrina brought to the surface serious questions about the capacity of the public health system to respond to community-wide disaster. The storm and its aftermath severed developmentally protective family and community ties; thus its consequences are expected to be particularly acute for vulnerable adolescents. Research confirms that…
protection represents 51 percent of the population of the project area or about 34,000 people . The proposed plans will not prevent flooding from rain- fall...developable, of people . Increased community cohesion Increased noise levels during from increased hurricane flood construction and maintenance...urbanized area-some displacement of people . Stimulation of economic base with continued area growth Increased noise levels during 3-14 Table 3.3
Dente, Christopher J; Feliciano, David V
Injuries to the great vessels of the torso are commonly seen and managed in busy urban trauma centers. This same injury complex is rarely seen in military conflicts, likely because of the high kinetic energy of weapons causing the wounds seen in this setting. Although most of the great advancements in trauma surgery over the past century have generally resulted from our wartime experience, civilian centers have contributed greatly to the understanding and management of torso vascular injuries. This article reviews the presentation and management of injuries to the great vessels of the torso from major penetrating and blunt trauma.
0.00 HR, HL 1000.00 50.00 3000.00 LI, L2, L3 10.0 20.0 60.0 ZI, Z2, D .0002 0.0100 0.0400 KV1, KV2, KV3 .00100 0.0500 0.2000 KH1, KH2, KH3 .005 500 TOL...feet or any consistent units. KVI, KV2, and KV3 are the vertical permeabilities of the top blanket, middle stratum, and substratum, respectively, in
1959); Hustedt (1930); Huber- Pestalozzi (1938) Cryptophyta Huber- Pestalozzi (1968) Euglenophyta Huber- Pestalozzi (1955) Chrysophyta Huber- Pestalozzi ...10 pp. () duber- Pestalozzi , G. 1938. Das Phytoplankton des Susswassers: Systematik and Biologie. Blaualgen, Bakter1.on. Die Binnengewasser. Band XVI
34Protections and Enhancement of the Cultural Enviornment ," Executive Order 11593; the Procedures for the Protection of Historic and Cultural Properties, 36...locate and inventory the cultural resources within the areas that may be affected by the project, (2) to evaluate the potential significance of...likely to affect each individual survey item, and to outline a regional prehistoric and historic framework for the study area. Map information available
Herrmann , former and present Chiefs of the Hydraulics Laboratory, and M. B. Boyd, Chief of the Hydraulic Analysis Division. The project engineer for this...scale of 200 ft/in. Spot elevations were added in flat areas and at points of interest. ORH hydraulic design personnel determ! ned appropriate
zone. The general low relief produces little variation in the regional climate and local microclimates are rare. The area is situated between two...occurs during July, averaging 17.1 centimeters (6.72 inches); the monthly low occurs in October, averaging 7.2 centimeters (2.84 inches). With extremely...or not covered with additional sediment, is very low . While the regional potential for the existence of very old discoverable prehistoric sites is
lnviw Mape wit cops n- ae OAK TI TALL GRASaES HACKBERRY TREE 41 240 METERS TO PIPELINE N 161V13 %MOUND 2" 0 2 4 meters Figure 23. 16IV13 mound 2 plan...Recent deltaic deposits of the Mississippi: their development and chronology. Gulf Coast Association of Geological Societies Trans -cti- 7:287-315
Ivanov, J.; Miller, R.D.; Xia, J.; Dunbar, J.B.
We apply the joint analysis of refractions with surface waves (JARS) method to several sites and compare its results to traditional refraction-tomography methods in efforts of finding a more realistic solution to the inverse refraction-traveltime problem. The JARS method uses a reference model, derived from surface-wave shear-wave velocity estimates, as a constraint. In all of the cases JARS estimates appear more realistic than those from the conventional refraction-tomography methods. As a result, we consider, the JARS algorithm as the preferred method for finding solutions to the inverse refraction-tomography problems. ?? 2007 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.
samples. As can be seen from this table, the Chlorophyta (Green algae) were most common from the standpoint of number of taxa collected. However, the... Chlorophyta , with periodic abundance of diatoms (Axtell and Humes, 1981; WAPORA, Inc., 1981). The most common diatom taxa collected were the general
ethical decision making, personal/professional 21 ethics, bioethics , organizational ethics, individual behavior, group dynamics, conflict...100.00%) Bioethics 16 (51.61%) 10 (32.26%) 4 (12.90%) 1 (3.23%) Org. Ethics 31 (100.0%) Individual Behavior 29 (93.55%) 2 (6.45%) Group Dynamics 27...75.00%) Add. Labor Law 3 (42.86%) 4 (57.14%) Add. Health Law 1 (100.00%) Add. National Dis. 1 (50.00%) 1 (50.00%) Add. Bioethics 2 (100.00
..., the freeboard must be established at one foot above the height of the one percent wave or the maximum wave runup (whichever is greater) associated with the 100-year stillwater surge elevation at the site.... Particular emphasis must be placed on the effects of wave attack and overtopping on the stability of...
..., the freeboard must be established at one foot above the height of the one percent wave or the maximum wave runup (whichever is greater) associated with the 100-year stillwater surge elevation at the site.... Particular emphasis must be placed on the effects of wave attack and overtopping on the stability of...
..., the freeboard must be established at one foot above the height of the one percent wave or the maximum wave runup (whichever is greater) associated with the 100-year stillwater surge elevation at the site.... Particular emphasis must be placed on the effects of wave attack and overtopping on the stability of...
Illinois: Grasses - Bromus to Paspalum . Southern Ill. Univ. Press, Carbondale, Ill. 332 pp. Mohleubrock, R.K. 1973. The Illustrated Flora of Illinois: Grasses ... Grass ) Paspalum ciliatifolium Hichx. (Hairy Lens Grass ) Phalaris arundinacea L. (Reed Canary Grass ) Poa annua L. (Mnus1 Blue Grass ) Poa Pratensis L...broad bottom- lands of this section. On the mesic prairie Andropogon gerardii Vitman. (Big Bluestem), Sorghastrum nutans (L.) Nash. (Indian Grass
destroyed with Plan A have an inherent ecological value to the specific study area which could not be compensated for by land acquisition elsewhere...agricultural lands are significant because they constitute the most important resource through which the prison managi eae attempts to achieve a self...hardwoods that would be destroyed with Plan A have an inherent ecological value to the specific study area which could not be compensated for by land
sugarcane, soybeans, and corn . American sycamore, sweetgum, eastern cottonwood, green ash, and pecan also grow well on this soil. Within the Jefferson...widespread, fiber-tempered pottery marked the initial manufacture and utilization of pottery In the region. Numerous clay cooking balls , called Poverty Point...objects, also are recovered from sites associated with the Poverty Point culture. These balls , which exhibit a variety of shapes, sizes, and
Li, G.; Zhu, P.; Yang, K.; Jiang, J.
The dangerous control engineering often stacks stones, named the footstone, outside the sediment matrix to resist the scour erosion in lower Yellow River. In order to ensure the stability of the bank, the footstones are stacked in the certain proportion. Due to the effect of the seasonal changes and the adjustment of the upstream reservoir, the water depth of the Yellow River near the lobes of banks changes constantly. The scouring erosion in flood season and depositing in dry season make the stacked footstones to be washed away. The thickness and the location of the maximum burial depth of the footstones are the important supporting data for calculating the river scour. Thus, it is significant to investigate the location, thickness and slope of the footstones. This study proposed a new method to distinguish the silt and footing stones according to their frequency differences by applying time-frequency analysis to the sub-bottom profiler data, and to estimate the thickness of the footstones by using the messy reflection waves formed by the riprap, and then to has solved the estimation of the maximum scour depth.
Drive and Topaz Street. It is an urbanized area that has a great deal of metallic clutter that interfered with the EM31. The survey areas within...with Topaz Street to the west bank of the Orleans Avenue Canal. The site is divided into five sections designated LPV102_A through LPV102_E for
the use of such commercial products. - ’ % : -4. -4 -. Uncl aifid SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (When Dae Entered) _L__ _ _ READ ...LNREP. The investigation was conducted under the direction of the President of the Mississippi River Commission, MG William E. Read , CE. CONES MPAT I... readings (±0.l m) were taken at each of the sampling stations. 25. 8enthi a invertratma. Two 0.023-si2 samples were collected at each station using a
Figure 63: Photo showing front view of remains of Cottage Plantation (16EBR57) ................................... 126 ix LIST OF FIGURi (CONTOIUD...Figure 64: Photo Showing front view of remains of Cottage Plantaton (16EM 57) .................................. 126 Fig•u 65: Photo showing remains of...analysis of historical, and g amnorphol- l research for portions of land near the east bank of the Mississippi River in East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana
Advisory Committee for Flood Defence in the Netherlands. TAW. 2004. De veiligheid van de primaire waterkeringen in Nederland . Voorschrift Toetsen op...Netherlands. TAW VTV. 2004. De veiligheid van de primaire waterkeringen in Nederland . Voorschrift Toetsen op Veiligheid voor de tweede toetsronde 2001
The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...
element descriptions below contain qualifications essential * to proper application of the system. Certain special considerations are dis- cussed that...similar sites this fac- tor is not used, since these areas have essentially been stabilized since the 1940’s (Tuttle and Pinner 1982); that is, no new...Certain sites (sed- imentation areas, shrubfields, disturbed soils, lower banks) are essentially arrested in early or mid-developmental stages for the
strategies or, as in historic and modern times, artificial control structures in order to exploit the resources of this alluvial plain. As a result...woody peat often are also intercalated within the clays. Faunal remains present within poorly drained swamp sediments consist primarily of pulmonate ...while it was an active delta complex from 4,600 to about 400 radiocarbon years B.P. Until artificially blocked in 1904, a very minor 15 portion of the
... approximately 3.5 miles north of the communities of Dover and New Philadelphia. The dam was constructed by the... concluded that Zoar was ``the most successful communist experiment ever conducted in the United...
Thesis. George Allen and Unwin, London, UK. Althusser , Lewis 1971 Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuese. In Lenin and Philosophy and Other Essays...edited by Lewis Althusser , pp. 127-186, Monthly Review Press, New York. Altschul, Jeffery H. 1978 Archaeological Survey of the Proposed Terrebonne
PAGE CHAPTER VI - ENVIRONMENTAL COORDINATION 26 Environmental Coordination 64 CHAPTER VII - LOCAL COOPERATION AND VIEWS OF PUBLIC INTERESTS 27 Local... ENVIRONMENTAL COORDINATION 26. Environmental Coordination. - An Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared for this project. The EA, along with the draft... Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, National Park Service, National Marine Fisheries Service, Solano County, and the following
red- winged blackbird (Agelaius phoenicews), common crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos), common night hawk (Chordeiles minor), screech owl (Otus asio), black...softer cancellous bones, such as the sternum, scapulae , vertebrae, and portions of the cranium, were very poorly preserved. Stratum II consisted of 10YR
process-imitating rules. The model aggrades an alluvial floodplain, creating floodplain architecture by differentiating between sediment deposited by...meandering rivers. The results suggest that the channel aggradation rate influenced heavily the relative channel avulsion frequency during floodplain...composition and organization of the river basin and its floodplain (Schumm 1968). In an actively building ( aggrading ) floodplain, the river channel is
Puerto Rico. Freeboard design has played an important role in several notable example that are briefly discussed below. Portugues and Bucana Channels...The Cerrillos Dam on the Cerrillos and Bucana Rivers is complete. After completion of the Portugues Dam in 2002, the Portugues and Bucana (P&B) channels
schist, and various Precambrian metamorphic rocks. The granite, granodiorite , and diorite predominate in samples from these suppliers, along with...produced at the C. L. Pharris plant is predominantly Mesozoic diorite, granodiorite , and gabbro, along with Precambrian schist. A small proportion of...by this supplier is composed primarily of Mesozoic granite, granodiorite , gabbro, and diorite. Pelona schist is also present, as well as gneiss and
late Pleistocene fauna. These are the well-known Clovis and Folsom cultures associated with extinct mammoth and bison, respectively. Culturally...because of the 14 association of their hunting tools with now extinct megafauna (e.g., New World horse, camel, mammoth , and bison), recent...undoubtedly low population densities (Ford 1974:388). Haynes (1980:119) depicts Clovis peoples as nomadic foragers exploiting mammoth and bison, yet
Sen. Hoeven, John [R-ND
07/23/2012 On motion to suspend the rules and pass the bill Failed by the Yeas and Nays: (2/3 required): 126 - 254 (Roll no. 500). (text: CR H5105) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Failed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:
Little Leaf , the only remaining notable fugitive chief involved in the uprising, avoided capture along with his family and about a dozen followers...percent, random sample of farmsteads within each of the three physiographic communities was made. The random samples were selected by extracting ...stopper 1 porcelain Bottle glass 2 complete clear post-1903, 1 screw top and embossed: "Hinds/Honey/ and/ Almond / Cream/A.S. Hinds Co./ Bloomfield/ N.J
persons in the Shawnee Bend opposite the mouth of the Grand River (Lay 1876:10). It is also believed that a band of Kickapoo occupied the present site of...Boonville to Kickapoo Prairie crossed the Osage River. One of the remaining swinging bridges noted above, which is the former river crossing for
winter months. They indicated no important habitat preferences except for larger pools of permanent water. 60. Yellow-billed cuckoos were very common in... cuckoos , greater roadrunners,* chimney swifts, rock doves, ruby-throated hummingbirds, and budgerigars.* * Songbirds (perching land birds) 61. Ninety...species introduced to the study area. 29 especially white-throated, white-crowned, field, swamp, song , and savannah sparrows, were abundant in winter months
unidentified sherds 5 chert flakes 1 biface mid section Historic 3 stoneware 3 whiteware 3 redware; 2 coarse with caramel colored slip, 1 coarse with white...bowl sherds (?), Total I I I . R e d w a r e ----.. . . . A. Body sherds 3 Coarse redware with caramel colored slip; 18th century (Good 1972:72) and...2 A. Coarse earthenware. Redware. White slip with green tin glaze B. Coarse earthenware. Caramel colored glaze R-357 C. Redware D. Refined earthenware
No affects to interior least tern or piping plover would occur as a result of the proposed project. Western prairie fringed orchid (Platanthera...praeclara) – This orchid occurs in mesic to wet unplowed tallgrass prairies. The project site is located in the city of Omaha on a bank with...grasses and weeds that are regularly maintained. The orchid does not occur on-site. No affects to orchids would occur as a result of the proposed
aqua rectangular lip (N880, E1000); (d) amethyst -colored rectangular flange lip (N940, E970); (e) green round lip (N970, E1000); (f) dark green...flattened side lip (N790, E1000); (g) very light blue down-tooled lip (N760, E1030); (h) amethyst -colored down-tooled lip (N760, El000); (I) very light...3 dark brown silt. The stratum contained a moderate quantity of historic materials including bottle glass, an amethyst -colored bottle neck fragment
Amethyst glass 14 19 33 Cobalt blue glass 7 5 12 Brown glass 47 41 88 Light green glass 3 3 Milk glass 1 1 2 Clear glass 57 59 116 Total Glass 264 226 490...three pieces of amethyst glass and a piece of dark green bottle glass. Two pieces of coal, one indeterminate nail fragment and a 12-gauge shotgun shell...pieces of dark green bottle glass, four pieces of brown glass and one sherd each of amethyst glass, light green glass and clear pressed glass. Clothing
Virginia willow (Itea virginica), alligatorweed (Alternanthera philoxeroides), water hyssop ( Bacopa monnien), Frogbit (Limnobium spongia), swamp lily...uwdus spp.), and dodder (Cuscuta geonovi) (Gibson 1978:106). Additional fresh water marsh species include Carolina bacopa ( Bacopa caroliniana
marsh. Other characteristic species include roseau cane (Phragmites communis), bulltongue (Sagittaria lancifolia), coastal water hyssop ( Bacopa monnien...Spartina patens), roseau cane (Phragmites communis), coastal water hyssop ( Bacopa monnien), coontail (Ceratophyllum demursum), fragrant flatsedge
importance of hunting, fishing, and gathering aspects of subsistence in relation to agriculture may have been overstated. A fairly high level of social...construction again suggests Mesoamerican influence. Population growth and areal expansion were made possible by increasing reliance on productive maize... agriculture . The seasonal exploitation of coastal areas supplemented the maize economy of large inland sites, and small non-mound farmsteads were present
Paspalum boscianum Bull paspalum Paspalum dilatatum Dallis grass Paspalum distichum Knotgrass Paspalum ...notatum Bahia grass Paspalum urvillei Vasey grass Passiflora incarnata Maypop Phoradendron flavescens Mistletoe Physalis heterophylla Ground cherry...mixed of Johnson grass and Bermuda grass pasture, while the river side exhibits typical marsh vegetation and bottomland hardwood characteristics
Environmental Impact Statement FONSI – Finding of No Significant Impact MBTA - Migratory Bird Treaty Act NDEQ - Nebraska Department of Environmental Quality...Completion. Potential Impacts to Migratory Birds Depending on Season of Construction. No impacts to Bald Eagles. Construction-Related Disturbances...Causing Temporary Avoidance of the Area. Species could Return upon Project Completion. No Impacts to Migratory Birds or Bald Eagles as Pre
Environmental Impact Statement FONSI – Finding of No Significant Impact MBTA - Migratory Bird Treaty Act NDEQ - Nebraska Department of Environmental...Completion. Potential Impacts to Migratory Birds Depending on Season of Construction. No impacts to Bald Eagles. Construction-Related...Disturbances Causing Temporary Avoidance of the Area. Species could Return upon Project Completion. No Impacts to Migratory Birds or Bald Eagles as Pre
7 3.3 Migratory Birds ...Water Quality, wetlands, migratory birds , threatened and endangered species, and cultural resources are included in this site specific analysis. Other...9 3.3 Migratory Birds The habitat in the proposed project area consists of trees and grasses adjacent to Mosquito Creek (Figure 6). It is
Family) Hydrophyllum sp. (Waterleaf) 1-0 SOLANACEAE (Nightshade Family) Solanum nigrum (Black nightshade) 1-0 SCROPHULARIACEAE ( Figwort Family...Scrophularia lanceolata (Early figwort ) i-O Penstemon pallidus (Beards tongue) 1-o BIGNONIACEAE (Bigno ia Famil Catalpa sp. (CatEpa) 1-0 RUBIACEAE (Madder
1111ijor A. LACARRIERF. LATOUR , C, 1 1 _j JAw priacipal Ynxia r 7(h Xliurt District, U. Army, 1815. Scale f Miles C I P R E S S S ll- t ’if A N.. J" ri...Pierre Ste. Pe in 1815 (Bezou 1986:vi). The 1815 LaTour map shows this canal on the Derbigny property (Figure 8). The 1834 Zimpel plan (Figure 2) shows...New Orleans area, such as J.J. Krebs and Sons, and Gandolpho, Kuhn , Luecke and Associates, also have historic surveys of the Gretna project area. These
To ensure that Federal assistance provided under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act for the construction of certain emergency levees is not conditioned on the subsequent dismantlement of those levees, except as provided for in a status certificate, and for other purposes.
Rep. Kline, John [R-MN-2
10/25/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Economic Development, Public Buildings and Emergency Management. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:
... Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for Arroyo Colorado South Levee Rehabilitation... for Arroyo Colorado South Levee Rehabilitation Project located in Cameron and Hidalgo Counties,...
... Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for Arroyo Colorado South Levee Rehabilitation... for Arroyo Colorado South Levee Rehabilitation Project located in Cameron and Hidalgo Counties,...
Archeological Investigations Along the Lower Illinois River Floodplain: Cultural Resource Surveys fo the Hartwell and Nutwood Levee and Drainage Districts, Jersey and Greene Counties, Illinois. St. Louis District Cultural Resource Management Report Number 4
cooperation from th3 farmers and landowners whose fields were surveyed is greatly appreciated. Terry Norris, Army Corps of Engineers, St. Louis District...assistance provided by Harold Hassen, Marilyn J. Bender and David Morgan. David Asch and Nancy Asch provided a vegetation summary including the...forests 26 occupied slopes greater than 4% ( Asch , Ford, and Asch 1972:22). Dry forests, daninated by black oak, white oak, and hickory, (see Appendix
Costura Basica (Principios Basicos para el Estudiante con Impedimentos Leves y Moderados) Documento de Trabajo Guia Curricular para el Curso. Basic Sewing (Basic Principles for the Student with Light and Moderate Disabilities. Course Curriculum Guide. Working Document).
Puerto Rico State Dept. of Education, Hato Rey. Office of Special Education.
This guide has been prepared by the Puerto Rico Department of Public Instruction for special education teachers teaching domestic sewing. It includes informative and easy to comprehend material for students of both sexes with mild to moderate disabilities. The material is developed through varied strategies and activities that relate to the…
Cultural Resources Intensive Survey and Testing of Mississippi River Levee Berms, Crittenden and Desha Counties, Arkansas and Mississippi, Scott, Cape Girardeau and Pemiscot Counties, Missouri Item R-618 Knowlton; Desha County, Arkansas.
water facies of sands anrd carbooaceous chocolate - colored silts and clays. In subsurface formations, the alternations of the lithologic group which...green glass sherd is an undiagnostic basal edge of a bottle; most likely a Coco -Cola bottle. This could date to most of the 20th century. The amber
Phase II Archaeological Testing of the Helmkamp Site (11MS2025) in Support of the Proposed Grassy Lake Pump Station and Associated Ditch Work, Wood River Drainage and Levee District, Madison County, Illinois
Archeology , Inc. (if applicable) US Army Engineer District, St. Louis 6c. ADDRESS (City, State, and ZIP Code) 7b. ADDRESS (City, State, and ZIP Code...NO. NO. ACCESSION NO. St. Louis, Missouri 63103-2833 11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) Phase II Archeological Testing of the Helmkamp Site (1...identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP Phase II Archeological Testing of the Helmkamp Site (1 1MS2025) in Support of the Proposed Grassy Lake
Cultural Resources Intensive Survey and Testing of Mississippi River Levee Berms Crittenden and Desha Counties, Arkansas and Mississippi, Scott, Cape Girardeau and Pemiscot Counties, Missouri. Item R-846 Caruthersville, Pemiscot County, Missouri
denizens and occurred in the study area. Maps presented by Simpson (1945) indicate that the genus Tapirus ( tapirs ) occurred in the study area...Museum of Natural History, No. 1136, pp. 20-27. 1945 Notes on Pleistocene and Recent Tapirs . Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural Histo y, Vol. 86
Archeological and Historical Research on Avoca Plantation: Testing of Site 16 SMY 130 and Survey of Proposed Borrow Areas for EABPL (East Atchafalaya Basin Protection Levee) Item E-96, Saint Mary Parish, Louisiana
are baked clay balls or Poverty Point objects, microlith and lapidary industries, and earthworks (Webb 1977). Pottery is not abundant, but fiber...yielded decorated ceramics only of the late Marksville period: Marksville Incised, var . Yokena and Marksville Stamped, var . Manny. It is interesting...al. 24 II ,, I -n - ~ i~a/ i I (1978:Tables 29-30, Fig. 63) reported a ceramic assemblage composed of Coles Creek Incised, var . Stoner, Larto Red, vars
Cuaderno de Recetas Ilustradas para Jovenes con Impedimentos--Para Estudiantes con Impedimentos Leves v Moderados (Notebook of Illustrated Recipes for Youth with Disabilities--For Students with Light and Moderate Disabilities).
Puerto Rico State Dept. of Education, Hato Rey. Office of Special Education.
This collection of recipes has been prepared with attention to the needs of students with disabilities who lack reading skills sufficient to be able to use ordinary cookbooks. Presentation in this illustrated form helps them understand the processes of food preparation as it introduces a basic culinary vocabulary. The teacher can use this…
the Great River in boats constructed with nails forged from their weapons. They were harassed by t•he Indians in large fleets of canoes all the way to...or dowrn Crowley’s Ridge. That is, people did not penetrate or live in this envirornment unless they were equipped with boats , lines and other tools...500 Kilovolt Transmission Line Archeological Surveys byv Robert H. Lafferty III, D.D. Shaw, T.J. Padgett, N.L. Trubowitz, D.D. Jurney , S. Imhoff, and
..., canals, levees, pumps, water control structures, and seepage management facilities; the removal of canals, levees, pumps, and water control structures; and operational changes. Comprehensive Everglades..., maintenance, repair, rehabilitation, and replacement of a project. Project Delivery Team means the...
alternatives are presented. In summary, the extension of the Avoca Island Levee to Deer Island (Reach 2) resulted in an approximate 8 percent increase...elevations within areas east of the levee increased from 3.4 to 6.0 ft by year 2030. In each case tested, the Avoca Island Levee Extension to Reach 2...42 Effects of Avoca Island Levee Extension .......................... 43 Effect of Wax Lake Outlet Flow Control
Principios de Nutricion y Alimentacion del Adolescente (Para Estudiantes con Impedimentos Leves y Moderados). Guia Curricular para el Curso Documento de Trabajar. Principles of Nutrition and Food for the Adolescent (For Students with Light and Moderate Disabilities. Course Curriculum Guide. Working Document).
Puerto Rico State Dept. of Education, Hato Rey. Office of Special Education.
This curriculum guide, in Spanish, consists of a compilation of concepts, activities, and skills for the student with disabilities who receives services from the special education programs of Puerto Rico. Lesson plans cover the basic principles of nutrition, food handling, and food preparation for adolescents. The following units are presented…
An Archeological Survey Along the Eastern Floodplain of the Lower Illinois River: Cultural Resource Survey of Selected Portions of the Meredosia and Meredosia Lake Drainage and Levee Districts, Scott, Cass and Morgan Counties, Illinois. St. Louis District Cultural Resource Management Report Number 19
Youngblood typed the manu- script under the somewhat stressful conditions of producing multiple reports simultaneously. Additional typing was provided...or small trees. In the prairies of the American Bottoms east of St. Louis, Flagg (1838:188) described groves of wild plum and crabapple , as well as...unretouched and retouched artifacts. The majority of these are non-diagnostic and are probably items used and/or produced during any number of prehistoric
Cultural Resources Intensive Survey and Testing of Mississippi River Levee Berms Crittenden and Desha Counties, Arkansas and Mississippi, Scott, Cape Girardeau and Pemiscot Counties, Missouri. Item R-48.87 A.C. Nash; Missouri, Relief Well Ditches Cape Girardeau and Scott Counties, Missouri
denizens and occurred in the study area. Maps presented by Simpson (1945) indicate that the genus Tapirus ( tapirs ) occurred in the study area. Mosimann and...Felines in North America. The American Museum of Natural History, No. 1136, pp. 20-27. 1945 Notes on Pleistocene and Recent Tapirs . Bulletin of the
such as the St. Francis River and occasional distributary streams. Natural levees are highest (the crest of a levee) near the river channel, and they...lakes, based on their interpretations of geomorphic and ecologic changes which follow a cut-off. m The backswamp in the study area lies between the...flow to cut and maintain a continuous, actively meandering course flanked by natural levees. The St. Francis River joins the course near Marked Tree
ft section of floodwall con- structed on the landside berm of the Item E-99 East Atchafalaya Basin Protection Levee (EABPL) on Avoca Island, just...section of floodwall con- structed on the landside berm of the Item E-99 East Atchafalaya Basin Protection Levee (EABPL) on Avoca Island just south...structed on the landside berm of the Item E-99 East Atchafalaya Basin Protection Levee (EABPL) on Avoca Island just south of Morgan City, Louisiana. The
modification, levee construction , side ditch inlet modifications, lateral ditch inlet modifications and implementat- ion of a wildlife corridor plan for certain...Description of Action: The proposed project includes channel modifi- cation, levee construction , side ditch inlet modifications, lateral ditch inlet...naturally existing biotic communities. Construction of a wildlife corridor along the modified reaches of the South Branch and Felton Ditch would increase
... the levee on the east bank of the Delta-Mendota Canal in section 35, T5S, R7E; then (3) Proceed southeast approximately 0.3 miles along the Delta-Mendota Canal levee road to its intersection with...
... the levee on the east bank of the Delta-Mendota Canal in section 35, T5S, R7E; then (3) Proceed southeast approximately 0.3 miles along the Delta-Mendota Canal levee road to its intersection with...
... the levee on the east bank of the Delta-Mendota Canal in section 35, T5S, R7E; then (3) Proceed southeast approximately 0.3 miles along the Delta-Mendota Canal levee road to its intersection with...
1. OVERALL VIEW OF INTAKE PIER AND ACCESS BRIDGE, LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM WESTERN LEVEE OF THE SACRAMENTO RIVER. - Sacramento River Water Treatment Plant Intake Pier & Access Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River approximately 175 feet west of eastern levee on river; roughly .5 mile downstream from confluence of Sacramento & American Rivers, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA
Catastrophic floods resulting from the failure of dam and levee infrastructures can paralyze the economy and social life of large populations for long periods of time. The United States has over 100,000 miles of levees and the National Inventory of Dams lists approximately 79,000 U.S. dams. The de...
.... grading or specification regulations; and (3) a HACCP-Quality Management Program (QMP), under which the establishment's quality program is enhanced to meet the ISO 9001 quality management standards. An establishment... deeper than levee ponds and can efficiently nourish more fish per acre than levee ponds. Water...
An erosion law has been implemented in TELEMAC 2D to represent the surface erosion process to model the breach formation of a levee. We focus on homogeneous and earth fill levee to simplify this first implementation. The first part of this study reveals the ability of this method to represent simu...
... for the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta Islands and Levees Feasibility Study AGENCY: Department of the... Islands and Levees Feasibility Study (Delta Study). The EIS will be prepared in accordance with the... agency for compliance with NEPA. The Delta Study will evaluate alternatives to meet the study goals...
South city limits to Almonte Avenue. This reach includes the Belmont Coulee and Belmont Road areas from the southern city limits to near the upstream...end of the Lincoln Park levee/floodwall project. Reach 2 - Almonte Avenue to Seventh Avenue South extended. This reach covers the Lincoln Park levee
..., canals, levees, pumps, water control structures, and seepage management facilities; the removal of canals, levees, pumps, and water control structures; and operational changes. Comprehensive Everglades... purposes of the Plan, as further defined in section 1.6.1 of the Water Resources Council's “Economic...
..., canals, levees, pumps, water control structures, and seepage management facilities; the removal of canals, levees, pumps, and water control structures; and operational changes. Comprehensive Everglades... purposes of the Plan, as further defined in section 1.6.1 of the Water Resources Council's “Economic...
... destruction, and the levee system from destruction, loss or injury due to hazards associated with rising flood... the general public, levee system, vessels and tows from the hazards associated with rising flood water... associated with rising flood water in the Atchafalaya River. Basis and Purpose Captain of the Port...
Dams and levees are an integral part of the fluvial system in watersheds. Their stability is of utmost concern to the Nation and to those directly impacted should failure occur. There are some 88,000 dams and 110,000 miles of levees in the USA. Many of those are earthen embankments and structures su...
The primary objective of the study was to assess the effects of pipeline canals on the habitat function of inside-levee marshes. The degree to which inside-levee marshes function as nursery habitat for nekton residing in canals was examined by comparing densities of nekton on marshes adjacent to pipeline canals (inside-levee marshes) and natural tidal creeks. In addition, shallow subtidal habitats in the two environments (canals and natural channels) were compared by sampling nekton along the marsh edge at low tide and measuring predator encounter rates in both habitats.
urban arces, including 904 residet .ial, 227 businesses, and 11 public structures, The plan includ-s 4.0 miles of earthen levee, 1854 feet of concrete ...and to Iowa Concrete Products. The levee continues to follow the railroad tracks until it reaches STA 70+00 (plates 7-9). At this location the levee...activity in the area. The spur line is used to tring in bulk materials that are supplied to local concrete companies. A ramp had been propost.d in this area
FCP) project on the Wax Lake Outlet, Avoca Island Levee extension to Deer Island (Figure 20), channel area, and lock operations. Table 3 presents a...Indicates that the feature was not activated. Er Indicates that the LAR/WLO channels were allowed to erode. 2 Indicates that the Avoca Island Levee was...impacts in the areas east of the Avoca Island Levee. The quasi-2D results of water-surface pro- files for LAR and WLO were computed for the 1973, 1975, and
7 ii Abstract Fish behavior in response to levee repairs at River Mile 85.6 of the Sacramento River was monitored using 60 VR2W 180-kHz and 45...arrays of VR2W 69-kHz receivers were installed in the river adjacent to levee repair sites and natural areas. This initial effort at 2-D tracking...a levee repair site was located on the outside of a river bend. The site was located at RM 85, just south of Knights Landing, California. The study
Sacramento River Water Treatment Plant Intake Pier & Access Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River approximately 175 feet west of eastern levee on river; roughly .5 mile downstream from confluence of Sacramento & American Rivers, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA
Aerobic biological filtration systems employing nitrifying bacteria to remediate excess ammonia and nitrite concentrations are common components of recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). However, significant water exchange may still be necessary to reduce nitrate concentrations to acceptable leve...
Pyayt, Alexander L.; Kozionov, Alexey P.; Mokhov, Ilya I.; Lang, Bernhard; Meijer, Robert J.; Krzhizhanovskaya, Valeria V.; Sloot, Peter M. A.
Detection of early warning signals for the imminent failure of large and complex engineered structures is a daunting challenge with many open research questions. In this paper we report on novel ways to perform Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) of flood protection systems (levees, earthen dikes and concrete dams) using sensor data. We present a robust data-driven anomaly detection method that combines time-frequency feature extraction, using wavelet analysis and phase shift, with one-sided classification techniques to identify the onset of failure anomalies in real-time sensor measurements. The methodology has been successfully tested at three operational levees. We detected a dam leakage in the retaining dam (Germany) and “strange” behaviour of sensors installed in a Boston levee (UK) and a Rhine levee (Germany). PMID:24625740
9. VIEW OF THE PRESSURE CULVERT STILLING BASIN, LOOKING NORTH. NOTE THE LEVEE TO THE RIGHT. - Wyoming Valley Flood Control System, Woodward Pumping Station, East of Toby Creek crossing by Erie-Lackawanna Railroad, Edwardsville, Luzerne County, PA
88. (Credit CBF) Twelve Mile Bayou Pumping Station and force main for pumping water over levee and into the canal (Blind Bayou), March 1913. - McNeil Street Pumping Station, McNeil Street & Cross Bayou, Shreveport, Caddo Parish, LA
..., and reducing future risks to the Delta from earthquakes, levee failure, and climate change. National.... Tuesday, January 28, 2014, 5 p.m. to 9 p.m., Hilton Garden Inn, 2200 Gateway Court, Fairfield, CA 94533....
Design of constructed wetlands in the Kankakee watershed, Indiana, include pumping and distribution ditches leaving former channelized river levees intact. Resultant changes in shallow ground water - surface water interactions may be contributing elevated sulfate to wetland ponds...
di Prinzio, Monica; Bittelli, Marco; Castellarin, Attilio; Rossi Pisa, Paola
Non-destructive investigations and controls of civil structures are improving day by day, however the scientific literature reports only a few documented cases of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) applications to the detection of voids and discontinuities in hydraulic defense structures such as river embankments and levee systems. GPR can assist decision making in a number of fields by enhancing our knowledge of subsurface features. We applied successfully GPR to the monitoring of river levees for the detectioning of animal burrows in river levees, which may trigger levee failures by piping. The manageability and the non-invasivity of GPR have resulted to be particularly suitable for this application. First because GPR is an extensive investigation method that enables one to rapidly cover a wide area, locating voids that are difficult and costly to locate using other intrusive methods. Second, GPR returns detailed information about the possible presence of voids and discontinuities within river embankments.
Nelson, C.H.; Maldonado, A.; Coumes, F.; Got, H.; Manaco, A.
The Ebro Fan System consists of en echelon channel-levee complexes, 50??20 km in area and 200-m thick. A few strong reflectors in a generally transparent seismic facies identify the sand-rich channel floors and levee crests. Numerous continuous acoustic reflectors characterize overbank turbidites and hemipelagites that blanket abandoned channel-levee complexes. The interlobe areas between channel complexes fill with homogeneous mud and sand from mass flow and overbank deposition; these exhibit a transparent seismic character. The steep continental rise and sediment 'drainage' of Valencia Trough at the end of the channel-levee complexes prevent the development of distributary channels and midfan lobe deposits. ?? 1984 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.
Conservation of natural resources has implications for international, national, and local citizens. The creation of natural resource management and conservation strategies can be affected by engagement with local citizens and competing interests between agencies and stakeholders at the varying leve...
6. Typical top chord connection at hip vertical, east end on north side, facing northeast - Campbell's Levee Bridge, Spanning South Fork, Forked Deer River at Westover Road, Jackson, Madison County, TN
... (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS NATIONAL OIL AND HAZARDOUS...) Chutes and downpipes. (D) Levees. (E) Seepage basins and ditches. (F) Sedimentation basins and...
treatment for this site is to chemically stabilize the clay (CH) material using hydrated lime, Ca(OH)2 , stabilization techniques. This technique has...outer slope material, the lime treatment will create a capping effect that will make the upper levee material resistant to seasonal cracking and...berm, a seepage stability berm with toe drain, levee crown restoration, a slurry trench cutoff wall, lime treatment , relocation of drainage ditches
400,000 to 670,000 Acre-feet Variable Space Control Diagram viii 4 Peak Discharge Frequency Relationships 5 PFP, PNP , and Lower American River Water Surface...probable failure point PGCC Pleasant Grove Creek Canal pH hydrogen-ion concentration PMF probable maximum flood PNP probable nonfailure point PROSIM...points" ( PNP ) and "probable failure points" (PFP) were defined along the levees. The PNP is the highest water-surface elevation at which levee failure
Ecological Data in Large River Ecosystems Report 8: Summary Unclassified SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE(Wn D.t. En- rod ) PREFACE The work described in...The study reach is confined on both sides by main-line levees constructed by the Corps of Engineers for flood control purposes. Leveed floodplain... constructed of 3-in. square mesh netting, outer panels were 12-in. square mesh. 12 Hoop nets 29. These traplike nets capture fish in standing and slowly flow
project work Levees, revetments, dredging, dikes, and wave wash protection. Levee. Retaining dikes and approach fill. Barge channel and turning basin...million kilowatts, represents 20 percent of the national hydroelectric capacity, or 4 percent of, the total generating capacity, of the Nation’s utility...navigation, inland waterways for commercial barge navigation, and the Great Lakes harbors and con- necting waterways. Construction. During the fiscal year 1959
destructive floodwaters are adopted and authorized to be prosecuted by the Secretary substantially in accordance with the plans and subject to the conditions...is centered over most of this existing levee; however, due to exten- sive tree growth, the existing levee will be degraded to avoid potential seepage... potential over- flows are limited to the non-damaging areas.) Upstream of Fuller Road, the Jordan Creek valley narrows with steep topography confining
for 2-3 years o Sites - FFP sites: Tunica, Vicksburg, Baton Rouge; several control sites o Analysis - compare data by species, reach, season, river...will rise if velocity goes down Need to determine what this will be - effect on levees, etc. Construction between levee and river ( batture ...RIVERS -WEST COAST / MISSISSIPPI RIVER / ME / FL • WIND -WHERE THE WIND IS -OFFSHORE -EAST COAST AND GREAT LAKES EXAMPLES AUTHORITY-RESPONSIBILITY
western Terrebonne marshes, and to study various alternatives, particularly those concerning the Avoca Island Levee. The New Orleans District authorized...of existing Avoca Levee 2.10 2.68 3.10 Bayou Beouf at Amelia 2.35 2.93 5.06 GIW near Houma 2.29 2.86 4.10 Lake Decade 2.40 2.55 3.69 Bayou Penchant
good portion of the library to Pullman. Maynard Hoffer searched the Records Holding Area for applicable materials, while Alice Zbinden and Judee ...ment of equipment. Repairs were made to levees the District had cons tructed in the Hei se-Roberts portion of the Snake River and to levees...34You can compute flood water hei ght, but you can compute it wrong. You get the right climatological occurrences and you’ll get water that you never
bends form natural levees, alluvial ridges composed principally of fine sand and silt which slope away from the river. Natural levees coalesce and...surfaces, as on the convex side of the meander bend . Bayou Dupre is one of several bayous that drains into Lake Borgne in the vicinity of the project area...canoes, came across an English corvette of ten guns, commanded by William Lewis Bond. The English ship was anchored in a bend of the river, about 25
former height. The revised levee plan called for a standard levee grade capable of accommodating a comparable discharge of the 1882 flood with a 3...the then Secretary of Commerce, called it “the greatest peace-time calamity in the history of the country.” The flood prompted an overhaul of...magnitude. The Bird Point-New Madrid Floodway was in operation for 38 days. The Bonnet Carré Spillway was also placed in operation and successfully
Biostratigraphic appli- cation and ecology of agglutinated foraminifera in Gulf of Mexico Basin Cenozoic exploration. GCAGS Transactions, 52:65-76, 2002. S.Q...Using seismic data from the Fisk Basin, Gulf of Mexico , I find that, during periods of broadly distributed, sheet-like deposition, equilibrium time is on...time scales for channel/levee com- plexes and sheet-like deposits: Fisk Basin, Gulf of Mexico 97 3.1 Introduction - Channel/levee complexes and
Dorrell, R. M.; McCaffrey, W. D.; Burns, A. D.
Seafloor channel avulsion events recorded in the stratigraphic architecture of submarine fans are often identified as signals of boundary change of the associated sediment supply system. However, interpretation of such signals that are persevered in the rock record is complicated by the interplay between internal (autogenic) forcing and external (allogenic) forcing on the system which may have caused the avulsion of the channel. To investigate the importance of autogenic forcing on seafloor channel evolution, novel models have been constructed which calculate the width-averaged growth of a channel levee system with progressive deposition. These models demonstrate that seafloor channel-levee systems are inherently unstable and will avulse purely subject to autogenic forcing. It is demonstrated that this instability arises as a function of geometric constraints on the cross-sectional shape of the evolving channel and its bounding levees under aggradational flow conditions. Analytical solutions to these simplified models demonstrate that change in the area of the channel is given by the comparative rate at which the bounding outer levee and channel are built up. Whilst the outer levee is built up faster than the channel, there is a relative increase in channel size - increasing the degree by which a flow is confined and thus the decreasing the likelihood of an avulsion. However, if the channel is built up faster than the outer levee the degree by which the flow is confined by the channel will decrease, and thus the likelihood of avulsion will increase. It is seen that as bounding levees become large, and thus cannot be built up as fast as the channel, the evolution of the channel is inherently limited. However, autogenic channel-levee instability likely arises over very long time periods, with the half-life of channel decay proportional to the channel-levee system size. Thus, it is expected that additional external (allogenic) forcing, such as boundary condition
Di Baldassarre, Giuliano; Viglione, Alberto; Carr, Gemma; Kuil, Linda; Yan, Kun; Brandimarte, Luigia; Blöschl, Günter
In flood risk assessment, there remains a lack of analytical frameworks capturing the dynamics emerging from two-way feedbacks between physical and social processes, such as adaptation and levee effect. The former, "adaptation effect", relates to the observation that the occurrence of more frequent flooding is often associated with decreasing vulnerability. The latter, "levee effect", relates to the observation that the non-occurrence of frequent flooding (possibly caused by flood protection structures, e.g. levees) is often associated to increasing vulnerability. As current analytical frameworks do not capture these dynamics, projections of future flood risk are not realistic. In this paper, we develop a new approach whereby the mutual interactions and continuous feedbacks between floods and societies are explicitly accounted for. Moreover, we show an application of this approach by using a socio-hydrological model to simulate the behavior of two main prototypes of societies: green societies, which cope with flooding by resettling out of flood-prone areas; and technological societies, which deal with flooding also by building levees or dikes. This application shows that the proposed approach is able to capture and explain the aforementioned dynamics (i.e. adaptation and levee effect) and therefore contribute to a better understanding of changes in flood risk, within an iterative process of theory development and empirical research.
Gee, Hugo K.W.; King, Sammy L.; Keim, Richard F.
We used tree-ring analysis to examine radial growth response of a common, moderately flood-tolerant species (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall) to hydrologic and climatic variability for > 40 years before and after hydrologic modifications affecting two forest stands in the Mississippi River Alluvial Valley (USA): a stand without levees below dams and a stand within a ring levee. At the stand without levees below dams, spring flood stages decreased and overall growth increased after dam construction, which we attribute to a reduction in flood stress. At the stand within a ring levee, growth responded to the elimination of overbank flooding by shifting from being positively correlated with river stage to not being correlated with river stage. In general, growth in swales was positively correlated with river stage and Palmer Drought Severity Index (an index of soil moisture) for longer periods than flats. Growth decreased after levee construction, but swales were less impacted than flats likely because of differences in elevation and soils provide higher soil moisture. Results of this study indicate that broad-scale hydrologic processes differ in their effects on the flood regime, and the effects on growth of moderately flood-tolerant species such as F. pennsylvanica can be mediated by local-scale factors such as topographic position, which affects soil moisture.
Furey, John S; Fredrickson, Herbert; Foote, Chris; Richmond, Margaret
Fecal material entrained in New Orleans flood waters was pumped into the local environment. Violet Marsh received water pumped from St. Bernard Parish and the Lower Ninth Ward. Sediment core samples were collected from canals conducting water from these areas to pump stations and from locations within Violet Marsh. Viable indicator bacteria and fecal sterols were used to assess the levels of fecal material in sediment deposited after the levee failures and deeper sediments deposited before. Most of the cores had fecal coliform levels that exceed the biosolids criterion. All of the cores had fecal sterols that exceeded the suggested environmental quality criterion. Our data show both a long history of fecal contamination in Violet Marsh and an increase in fecal loading corresponding to the failure of the levee system. The work was performed as part of the Interagency Performance Evaluation Task Force investigation into the consequences of the failures of the New Orleans levee system.
Quintela, I; Barros-Angueira, F; Perez-Gay, L; Dacruz, D; Castro-Gago, M; Carracedo, A; Eiris-Punal, J
Introduccion. Los sindromes de microdelecion y microduplicacion 3q29 se caracterizan por una marcada heterogeneidad fenotipica, y el retraso del desarrollo y la discapacidad intelectual de grado leve-moderado son las manifestaciones clinicas mas frecuentes. Casos clinicos. Dos pacientes con aberraciones cromosomicas reciprocas en la region 3q29. La paciente con la microdelecion 3q29 presenta dificultades de aprendizaje, microcefalia limite, dismorfismo facial leve, deficit atencional e impulsividad, y rasgos ansiosos y obsesivos. El paciente con la microduplicacion 3q29 reciproca presenta dificultades de aprendizaje, dismorfismo facial leve y un perfil conductual disruptivo no asociado previamente con esta duplicacion. Conclusion. Se comparan los fenotipos de estos pacientes y se revisa la bibliografia de pacientes pediatricos con microdeleciones y microduplicaciones 3q29.
Matsuo, Yuji; Yatunaga, Kazuo; Nakano, Susumu
The authors analyzed the hydraulic features of the Daijuu Weir and neighboring levee of the Yoshino River in the historical perspective, as the structures are important factors of flood control for the river. Firstly, the authors analyzed the precious data of water level observations around the Weir started by De Rijke, a Dutch engineer in 1883. Then using a river survey map surveyed in 1901, they restored the status of levees of the Yoshino River before modern improvement works. Thirdly they analyzed a relationship between the Yoshino River Levee and the Daijuu Weir based on the newspaper articles of the fifty years of period from 1878 through 1927. As the conclusion they reevaluated the flood and flood control plan of the Yoshino River around the Daijuu Weir.
Guida, Ross J; Remo, Jonathan W F; Secchi, Silvia
During the latter half of the 19th Century and first half of the 20th Century, the Illinois River was heavily altered through leveeing off large portions of its floodplain, draining wetlands, and the construction of dams and river-training structures that facilitated navigation. As a result of these alterations, flood stages continue to rise, increasing flood risk and threatening to overtop levees along the La Grange Segment (LGS) of the Illinois River. Over the last two decades, more emphasis has been placed on reconnecting portions of floodplains to rivers in order to solve the long-term problem of rising flood heights attributed to continual heightening of levees to provide flood protection. Multiple studies have suggested that strategically reconnecting larger portions of the LGS could result in more sustainable floodplain management. However, the true costs and benefits of reconnecting the floodplain are not known. We use a novel hydrodynamic, geospatial, economic, and habitat suitability framework to assess the tradeoffs of strategically reconnecting the Illinois River to its floodplain in order to decrease flood risk, improve floodplain habitats, and limit the costs of reconnection. Costs include building-associated losses, lost agricultural profits, and levee removal and construction costs. Tested scenarios demonstrate that while flood heights and environmental benefits are maximized through the most aggressive levee setbacks and removals, these scenarios also have the highest costs. However, the tradeoff of implementing lower-cost scenarios is that there is less flood-height reduction and less floodplain habitat available. Several individual levee districts have high potential for reconnection based on limiting potential damages as well as providing floodplain habitat. To implement large-scale strategic floodplain reconnection, costs range from $1.2-$4.3 billion. As such, payments for ecosystem services will likely be necessary to compensate landowners for
bank at Big Mar are: o a 100-foot-long multi- cell box culvert control structure with nine 5- by 20-foot cells in the Mississippi River levee, o an...Davis Pond are: o a 240-foot-long multi- cell box culvert control structure with six 15- by 15-foot cells In the Mississippi River levee, o an inlet...salinity in Mobile Bay. Proc. 23rd Annual Conf. Southeastern Assoc. of Game and Fish Comm. 519-521pp. Montz, G.N. 1975a. Master List of Herbs , Ferns
Oak County, Texas Nueces River Three Rivers Local Flood Protection Project 20. AD6TRACT (C-Iut. u m ~ "d if ne~em and ~ideif by block nutbr...Environmental impact statement/report purposes to construct a levee system to protect the city of Three Rivers, Texas from flooding of Frio and Nueces Rivers. No...Construct levee system to protect the city of Three Rivers, Texas, from flooding of Frio and Nueces Rivers. 3. a. Environmental Impacts: The project
Hatton, R.S.; DeLaune, R.D.; Patrick, W.H. Jr.
Vertical accretion and sediment accumulation rates were determined from the distribution of /sup 137/Cs in cores collected from fresh water, intermediate, brackish, and salt marshes in the Barataria Basin, Louisiana. Vertical accretion rates vary from about 1.3 cm.yr/sup -1/ in levee areas to 0.7 in backmarshes. Mineral sediment content of the marsh soil profile decreased with distance from the coast. Except in natural levee areas, marsh accretion rates are less than subsidence measured by water level data, however this alone cannot account for observed land-loss patterns in the basin area.
Leone, Harold A.
Eight core-material-sampling sites were chosen by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers as possible borrow areas for fill material to be used in levee contruction near Buras, La. Eleven receiving-water sites also were selected to represent the water that will contact the porposed levees. Analyses of selected nutrients, metals, pesticides, and other organic constitutents were performed upon these bed-material and native-water samples as well as upon elutriate samples of specific core material-receiving water systems. The results of these analyses are presented without interpretation. (Woodard-USGS)
Leone, Harold L.
Seven core-material-sampling sites were chosen by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers as possible borrow areas for fill material to be used in levee construction near Galliano La. Four receiving-water sites also were selected to represent the water that will contact the proposed levees. Analyses of selected nutrients, metals, pesticides, and other organic constituents were performed upon these bed-material and native-water samples as well as upon elutriate samples of specific core material-receiving water systems. The results of these analyses are presented without interpretation. (Woodard-USGS)
9. VIEW OF INTAKE PIER AND MAIN SPAN OF ACCESS BRIDGE FROM WATER LEVEL, LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Sacramento River Water Treatment Plant Intake Pier & Access Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River approximately 175 feet west of eastern levee on river; roughly .5 mile downstream from confluence of Sacramento & American Rivers, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA
....; residential; fair conditions; mold, asbestos, & lead Arizona Caretaker's Residence County 11th and Levee Rd...; termite infest.; asbestos; mold & lead; contact Interior for more info. Tract 103-162, Eggbeer Property....; extensive damage; asbestos; contact Interior for more info. Iowa Y11Q0 Camp Dodge Johnston IA...
The objective of this research was to investigate differences in the kinetics of fatty acids (FA) deposition in fillets of market-sized (approximately 450g) rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed diets containing commercial Alaskan fish oils versus menhaden oil. Comparisons were made with FA leve...
SHARE OF ESTIMATE > o M X M PROJECT NAME CATEGORY I...OC/GAO-ID ELK CREEK LAKE CON OR 34 CHAWANESQUE LAKE CON PA 26 PORTUGUES ...MILL CREEK 50 MO. LEVEE SYSTEM 51 NEW ORLEANS TO VENICE 52 PAINTSVILLE LAKE 53 PHOENIX & VICINITY 54 PORT ARTHUR VICINITY 55 PORTUGUES & BUCANA
Ingebritsen, S.E.; Ikehara, M.E.; Galloway, D.L.; Jones, D.R.
The Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta of California once was a great tidal freshwater marsh blanketed by peat and peaty alluvium. Beginning in the late 1800s, levees were built along the stream channels, and the land thus protected from flooding was drained, cleared, and planted. Although the Delta is now an exceptionally rich agricultural area (over a $500 million crop value in 1993), its unique value is as a source of freshwater for the rest of the State. It is the heart of a massive north-to-south waterdelivery system. Much of this water is pumped southward for use in the San Joaquin Valley and elsewhere in central and southern California. The leveed tracts and islands help to protect water-export facilities in the southern Delta from saltwater intrusion by displacing water and maintaining favorable freshwater gradients. However, ongoing subsidence behind the levees reduces levee stability and, thus, threatens to degrade water quality in the massive north-to-south water-transfer system.
1944 and May 1950 and incorporated under Sacramento River and Major and Minor Tributaries. Although construction of the project was initiated in 1918...many of the levees were originally constructed by local interests prior to that time and subsequently modified and adopted as part of the project...6-1 6.02. Reconstruction Plans .. ................................... 6-2 6.03. Construction Considerations
The Kabu-ido system was a customary institution for groundwater management in a ring levee area of the Tokai region in Japan. It consists of three programs, a permit system for groundwater pumping, groundwater pricing, and economic compensation. The purpose of this paper is to clarify characteristics of the Kabu-ido as a groundwater management institution.
break of the New Orleans levees, thereby selectively flooding poor areas and saving financial institutions.108 This event lives on in the memories and...discourse, and 3) with the preferred forms of autobiographic telling, which may influence the types of stories people tell themselves about
Osofsky, Joy D.; Osofsky, Howard J.; Harris, William W.
Hurricane Katrina resulted in a disaster of proportions not previously known in the United States. The traumatic experiences of children and families during Hurricane Katrina, the flooding that resulted from the breach of the levees, the evacuation, and the aftermath are unprecedented. In responding to the enormous mental health needs of children…
Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a perennial warm-season grass identified as a model species for bioenergy feedstock. Established switchgrass stand are very resilient to environmental fluctuations, however, seed dormancy and weak seedling vigor make establishment difficult. Seeds with high leve...
... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accounts held by government depositors. 330.15 Section 330.15 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF..., improvement, levee, sanitary, school or power districts, and bridge or port authorities and other...
Chandler, Thomas; Marri, Anand R.
This collective case study examined how three educators (a high school social studies teacher, a university social studies teacher educator, and minister teaching an adult population) used a multimedia based curriculum guide, "Teaching the Levees", to teach about climate change to examine public priorities in relation to the environment.…
When the levees broke during Hurricane Katrina in 2005, eighty percent of New Orleans flooded, and the citizens who returned to the evacuated city had to rebuild their homes, cultural institutions, and school system. This article records how The Ogden Museum of Southern Art, University of New Orleans, was able to collaborate with a charter school…
Harris, Douglas N.
What happened to the New Orleans public schools following the tragic levee breeches after Hurricane Katrina is truly unprecedented. Within the span of one year, all public-school employees were fired, the teacher contract expired and was not replaced, and most attendance zones were eliminated. The state took control of almost all public schools…
In August 2005, the world witnessed one of the most destructive natural disasters on America's mainland. Hurricane Katrina, followed a month later by Hurricane Rita, brought more than broken levees, flooded streets and homes, and destroyed businesses. It caused changes in the dynamics and the demographic and cultural makeup of the region. One of…
Morris, Jerome E.
The torrential rains from Hurricane Katrina, the breaking of the levees, and the subsequent flooding of New Orleans resulted in another Black Diaspora. This article focuses on Black children and families who were displaced by Hurricane Katrina but now reside in cities, towns, and suburbs outside of the Crescent City. Informed by the author's…
navigation, flood and coastal storm damage reduction, hydropower , and water supply, among other things. Established in 1902, Reclamation constructed...Adaptation infrastructure, including reservoirs, hydropower facilities, commercial inland waterways, harbors, and levee systems. In June 2011, in response...following: navigation, flood and coastal storm damage reduction, environment, hydropower , regulatory, recreation, emergency management, and water
L. R. Beard (Aug 1972) #35 COMPUTER MODELS FOR RAINFAt.L-RU11OFF AND RIVER HYDRAULIC ANALYSIS, Darryl W. Davis (Mar 1973) #36 EVALUATION OF DROUGHT ... EFFECTS AT LAKE ATITLAN, Arlen D. Feldman (Sep 1972) #37 DOWNSTREAM EFFECTS OF THE LEVEE OVERTOPPING AT WILKES-BARRE, PA, DURING TROPICAL STORM AGNES
R. Beard, August 1972 35. Computer Models for Rainfall-Runoff and River Hydraulic Analysis, Darryl W. Davis, March 1973 36. Evaluation of Drought ... Effects at Lake Atitlan, Arlen D. Feldman 37. Downstream Effects of the Levee Overtopping at Wilkes-Barre, Pa., During Tropical Storm Agnes, Arlen D. Feldman, April 1973 I
10. DETAIL VIEW OF LOWER LEVEL OF INTAKE PIER SHOWING THE RIVER HEIGHT INDICATOR, ONE OF THE FIVE GATE OPENINGS, AND MOORINGS, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Sacramento River Water Treatment Plant Intake Pier & Access Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River approximately 175 feet west of eastern levee on river; roughly .5 mile downstream from confluence of Sacramento & American Rivers, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA
canals of New Orleans. Failures of floodwalls along those canals and overtopping of levees in the east left 80% of the city flooded for weeks. Of some... Blanco asked for 40,000 federal troops.4 Once the governors of the affected states requested federal assistance, the Federal Emergency Management Agency
Bachle, Leo; And Others
This field guide gives pictures and descriptions of plants that can be found along the San Francisco Bayshore, especially along the Hayward shoreline. The plants are divided into three categories, those of the mud-flat zone, the drier zone, and the levee zone. Eighteen plants are represented in all. The guide is designed to be used alone, with an…
Capabilities & Limitations Any lower level system item limitations? START NO NONO YES YES YES Determine system item capabilities. All lower level...is Unresolved All measure standards met? END Document Mission Task Capabilities and Limitations Any system item limitations? START NO NONO YES YES
The Clean Air Act (CAA) requires that the United States (U.S.) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) set National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for pollutants considered harmful to human health and the environment. Previous research has shown that high ambient ozone leve...
7. CLOSEUP VIEW OF THE PUMP DISCHARGE CHANNEL, AND THE DISCHARGE WEIR OF THE FOR PUMPS NO. 2 AND 3, LOOKING NORTHEAST. THE SERVICE BRIDGE PROVIDED ACCESS TO THE LEVEE OVER TOBY CREEK. - Wyoming Valley Flood Control System, Woodward Pumping Station, East of Toby Creek crossing by Erie-Lackawanna Railroad, Edwardsville, Luzerne County, PA
4. VIEW OF THE WEST FACADE. NOTE THE BRIDGES FROM THE D.L. & W. R.R. WOODWARD SIDING AND MAIN LINE IN THE LEFT FOREGROUND. PHOTO IS FROM THE LEVEE CROSSING TOBY CREEK FACING EAST. - Wyoming Valley Flood Control System, Woodward Pumping Station, East of Toby Creek crossing by Erie-Lackawanna Railroad, Edwardsville, Luzerne County, PA
Brown, Alicia D.; Brooks, Julia G.; Gunzenhauser, Michael G.
In this essay, the authors note a particular air of apathy in relation to the post-Katrina era expressed in teacher education classes. They are concerned with what the cultural levees mean for justice-oriented educators. How might they find ways to foster in their students connections of empathy and solidarity with those experiencing these…
article title: Wetlands of the Gulf Coast ... web of estuarine channels and extensive coastal wetlands that provide important habitat for fisheries. The city of New Orleans ... or below sea level. The city is protected by levees, but the wetlands which also function as a buffer from storm surges have been ...
Cover crops are important components of copping systems due to their beneficial effects on soil physical, chemical and biological properties. A green house experiment was conducted to evaluate influence of phosphorus (P) fertilization on nutrient use efficiency of 14 tropical cover crops. The P leve...
Kastens, K.A.; Shor, A.N.
A continuous, meandering, leveed channel traverses the Mississippi fan from the continental slope to the abyssal plain. Using water-gun seismic reflection profiling, 3.5- and 4.5-kHz profiling, and SeaMARC I side-scan sonar, the authors surveyed a 30-km (16-nmi) long channel segment midway between the slope break and channel terminus, where the channel bends through a tight meander with a 2.8-km (1.5-nmi) radius of curvature. At the entrance to each meander bend, the outer levee is unusually low, similar to the crevasses observed in rivers. The levees are constructed of an acoustically opaque unit and draped with an acoustically laminated unit; these are interpreted as coarser and finer grained overbank deposits, respectively. A series of high-amplitude seismic reflectors underlying the channel axis are interpreted as coarse sediments deposited from the base of turbidity currents. When last active, the channel was more than 100 m (300 ft) deep, but it has been filled to the brim by acoustically transparent units, leaving a levee crest/thalweg relief of as little as 5 m (16 ft). These channel-filling units are interpreted as debris flows. The upper surface of the debris flows is sculpted by flowline-parallel, side-scan lineations where the flow was unimpeded and by arcuate ridges transverse to the flow where bathymetric obstacles constrained the flow. 10 figures.
Aflatoxins are toxic secondary metabolites of the fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, among others. Aflatoxin contaminated corn is toxic to domestic animals when ingested in feed and is a known carcinogen associated with liver and lung cancer in humans. Consequently, aflatoxin leve...
Aflatoxins are toxic secondary metabolites predominantly produced by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. Aflatoxin contaminated corn is toxic to domestic animals when ingested in feed and is a known carcinogen associated with liver and lung cancer in humans. Consequently, aflatoxin leve...
serious trouble in the wind. Back along the canals, entrepreneurs from the bottom of the market got up tea stalls on the levee tops, while...buffalo with a nice belly and shining coat costs about three thousand dollars, with the price of prized albino buffalo several times that. Now
absolute requirement for removal of caspase-6 prodomain. Cell Death Differ. 9, 1046–1056. Dabrowska, M.I., Becks , L.L., Lelli Jr., J.L., Levee, M.G...Breton, P., Bren- ner, C., Boisvieux- Ulrich , E., Marano, F., 2006. Inhibition of caspase-dependent mitochondrial permeability transition protects airway
Both maternal undernutrition and exposure of the fetus to above normal levels of GLC impair skeletal muscle growth. The degree to which the effects of maternal undernutrition on fetal skeletal muscle growth are a direct result of nutrient deficit or secondary to the presence of above normal GLC leve...
National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, 2011
According to the Federal Emergency Management Agency, flooding is the nation's most common natural disaster. Some floods develop slowly during an extended period of rain or in a warming trend following a heavy snow. Flash floods can occur quickly, without any visible sign of rain. Catastrophic floods are associated with burst dams and levees,…
21. COMPLETION OF INTAKE CONDUITS REVISED, PIPE SECTIONS AND PLANS, SHEET 117 OF 117, 1922. - Sacramento River Water Treatment Plant Intake Pier & Access Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River approximately 175 feet west of eastern levee on river; roughly .5 mile downstream from confluence of Sacramento & American Rivers, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA
A school-year research experiment using primary resources to teach an important national issue--protest movements against the Vietnam War at the local level--is an excellent way to motivate students and energize classroom teaching. Every local community in America has its own story to tell about the war in Vietnam. Whether it is about a local son…
Following the discovery of the West Nile virus (WNv) in Brazos County, TX in 2002, mosquito research personnel at Texas A&M University established a routine WNv mosquito vector surveillance program in the county. In 2004, a map of Brazos County was created depicting areas that had a heightened leve...
Experimental toxicity data alone lack ecological relevance to assess more realistic situations, such as variable exposure to a contaminant and long-term impact. Evaluating the implications of sublethal effects or behavioral response to exposure requires long-term, population-leve...
... 404 of the Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. 1344) for placement of fill into jurisdictional waters of the... walls, constructing seepage berms, and constructing setback levees. 3. Scoping Process. a. A public... and hydraulics; water quality; biological resources (i.e., fisheries, vegetation and...
17. INTAKE PIER, BRIDGE STRESS SHEET, SHEET 8 OF 117, 1920. - Sacramento River Water Treatment Plant Intake Pier & Access Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River approximately 175 feet west of eastern levee on river; roughly .5 mile downstream from confluence of Sacramento & American Rivers, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA
... WATER COMMISSION, UNITED STATES AND MEXICO United States Section; Final Environmental Impact Statement... portions of the Presidio FCP levees. An Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) was prepared to evaluate... USIBWC to minimize potential environmental impacts and fulfill the project goal of flood protection....
Cook, Daniella Ann
When Hurricane Katrina slammed into New Orleans on August 29, 2005, the failure of the levees resulted in the largest single human-made disaster in the United States. In addition to the physical devastation of the city, the landscape of public schools in New Orleans was permanently altered, as was the national dialogue about school reform in the…
Data obtained over four adjacent fields of differing management practices in Zimbabwe illustrate the role of atmospheric intermittency as a mechanism for transferring CO2 between the surface and the atmosphere above. At night, limited atmospheric mixing permits CO2 concentrations to increase to leve...
... reasonable time frame or for other reasons identified by the State Conservationist. Any type or class of..., installation of structures, or planting of cover crops. (b) Exemptions for wetlands and converted wetlands—(1... of maintenance of drainage, dikes, levees, or similar structures, (B) The lack of management of...
Flooding due to dam or levee breach often results in detrimental impact on the people and their properties in the flooding zone. The embankment breach process is often caused by overtopping or internal erosion due to excessive water in a reservoir or a river. This study is to develop a practical nu...
Greenhouse tests were conducted to evaluate 1) the effect of Meloidogyne incognita infection in cotton on plant growth and physiology including the height-to-node ratio, chlorophyll content, dark adapted quantum yield of photosystem II, and leaf area, and 2) the extent to which moderate or high leve...
8217 .’" ,*." .. ",**.% ,;.\\ ., " ’. " - ’ .* . "- SAMPLIE # 84 AE:12-2"-8 14 TEST TYPE: SIDE DROnP - R Y- - SMPZ~~O OtURATION: 98#1001_5 QOjg1 LID -98 AYQT~. Iý’ LEVE CO-MMENTS - ~ -,Very s lighbi
Water samples were collected from 20 catfish ponds in 2015 to obtain data useful in predicting copper toxicity and chemical behavior. Ponds were located in major catfish producing areas of west Alabama, east Arkansas, and Mississippi. Pond types included traditional levee ponds, split-ponds, water...
A large number of embankment structures, including dams, levees, dikes, and barriers, have been built by humans. These structures play a very important role in flood defense, while many are also used for water supply, power generation, transportation, sediment retention, etc. Since these structure...
This paper presents the development and application of a three-dimensional numerical model for simulating the flow field and pollutant transport in a flood zone near the confluence of the Mississippi River and Iowa River in Oakville, Iowa. Due to a levee breaching along the Iowa River during the US ...
Recounts a trip down the Lower Mississippi River starting in Memphis, describing the features of the river at different stops along the way. Aspects of life along the river discussed include the levee system built to contain the waters, flooding on the river, and travel on the river. (MDH)
Hundreds of higher education faculty lost their jobs in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina. New Orleans' colleges and universities were forced to cancel fall semester classes after the city's levee system failed, submerging 80 percent of the city just weeks before the academic year began. Damage assessments began even before the deadly storm's…
Luna, Ronaldo; Summers, David; Hoffman, David; Rogers, J. David; Sevi, Adam; Witt, Emitt C.
This article presents the post-Hurricane Katrina conditions of the flood-protection system of levees and floodwalls that failed in the environs of the Mississippi River Delta and New Orleans, La. Damage conditions and suggested mechanisms of failure are presented from the geotechnical point of view.
Di Prinzio, Monica; Bittelli, Marco; Castellarin, Attilio; Pisa, Paola Rossi
Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) can assist decision making in a number of fields by enhancing our knowledge of subsurface features. Non-destructive investigations and controls of civil structures are improving day by day, however the scientific literature reports only a few documented cases of GPR applications to the detection of voids and discontinuities in hydraulic defense structures such as river embankments and levee systems. We applied GPR to the monitoring of river levees for detecting animal burrows, which may trigger levee failures by piping. The manageability and the non-invasiveness of GPR have resulted to be particularly suitable for this application. First because GPR is an extensive investigation method that enables one to rapidly cover a wide area, locating voids that are difficult and costly to locate using other intrusive methods. Second, GPR returns detailed information about the possible presence of voids and discontinuities within river embankments. We document a series of successful GPR applications to detect animal burrows in river levees.
Conference of Dec. 10, 1962." Dept of State Bulletin, Vol. 47, 31 Dec. 1962, p. 998. (Statement of recent US efforts on Kashmir.) 65. Salam , Abdus ...34 RoyaJ Central Asaln Journal, Viii. 51, Oct. 1964, p. 223. 39 Abdus Sal am, !Pak i sLa I- -The Case for Tecict I Cal leve I plmielt , BHlleLtln of
Some 2200 ecologists turned out for the 78th annual meeting of the Ecological Society of America (ESA), held in Madison, Wisconsin, 31 July to 4 August. Among the offerings: reports on the effect of dams and levees on large river ecology, predator-prey interactions, how parasites might control evolution, and the impact of clearcutting on soil organisms.
OBLIQUE VIEW OF REAR (NORTH) AND EAST SIDES OF GENERATOR HOUSE, DIESEL TANK IN FOREGROUND, LOCKTENDER'S HOUSE AND LEVEE ON RIGHT, FIRE PUMP HOUSE AND MAINTENANCE DEPOT SLIP ON LEFT - Moore Haven Lock, Generator House, Cross-State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Moore Haven, Glades County, FL
13. INTERIOR VIEW OF GATE OPERATOR ROOM, SHOWING UNFINISHED CONCRETE WALLS AND SLIDE GATE OPERATORS, LOOKING NORTH. - Sacramento River Water Treatment Plant Intake Pier & Access Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River approximately 175 feet west of eastern levee on river; roughly .5 mile downstream from confluence of Sacramento & American Rivers, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA
2. OVERALL VIEW OF INTAKE PIER AND ACCESS BRIDGE, LOOKING NORTH. - Sacramento River Water Treatment Plant Intake Pier & Access Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River approximately 175 feet west of eastern levee on river; roughly .5 mile downstream from confluence of Sacramento & American Rivers, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA
... Salado was filed with the Council on Environmental Quality in 1977. An SEIS evaluating the effects of the... withstand long- duration floods and evaluating effects to recently listed endangered species was filed with... draft SEIS is being developed to evaluate effects of revised levee design and additional...
... ``political subdivision'' in the nonmember deposit rule are defined in paragraphs (c) and (d) of Sec. 745.1... exclusive use and control. It also includes drainage, irrigation, navigation improvement, levee, sanitary... 701.36(d), 742.4(a)(3). The Board proposes to amend the fixed assets rule to extend the...
Betkouski, Marianne B.; McDonald, Sandra Kirk
This study investigated how students processed information obtained by reading a passage related to inertial reference frames. Two groups of 10th-grade students (one group consisting of students identified as potential National Merit Scholars and another consisting of students enrolled in level-I biology) read a science text passage and answered a…
... Game Bird Hunting. We allow hunting of duck, goose, coot, snipe, woodcock, and dove on designated areas... bird hunting. 15. We allow waterfowl hunting from refuge roads and levees. 16. Any hunter born after... supervise up to two youths for migratory bird and upland game hunting but may supervise only one youth...
... Game Bird Hunting. We allow hunting of duck, goose, coot, snipe, woodcock, and dove on designated areas... bird hunting. 15. We allow waterfowl hunting from refuge roads and levees. 16. Any hunter born after... supervise up to two youths for migratory bird and upland game hunting but may supervise only one youth...
... Game Bird Hunting. We allow hunting of duck, goose, coot, snipe, woodcock, and dove on designated areas... bird hunting. 15. We allow waterfowl hunting from refuge roads and levees. 16. Any hunter born after... supervise up to two youths for migratory bird and upland game hunting but may supervise only one youth...
¿Qué es el mentol? El mentol es una sustancia encontrada naturalmente en las plantas de menta, tales como la menta fresca y la hierbabuena. Deja una sensación refrescante y se usa frecuentemente para aliviar el dolor y la irritación leve, y para prevenir infecciones .
... Definitions. For the purposes of this part, the following terms are defined: Adaptive management means the..., canals, levees, pumps, water control structures, and seepage management facilities; the removal of canals... engineering information, and includes the appropriate NEPA document. Concurrence means the issuance of...
The Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) and Agricultural Policy/Environmental eXtender (APEX) models have been developed to assess a wide variety of agricultural water resource, water quality, and other environmental problems. The EPIC model is designed to be applied at a field-scale leve...
... boundary. At Savannah NWR, the focus would increase on acquiring lands from willing sellers by any viable... alternative, we would protect and maintain all refuge lands, primarily focusing on the needs of threatened and... open lands. All ponds, levees, moist-soil water management units, and water control structures...
Objective: In addition to the recognized/classic species within the pestivirus genus there are putative species. One of these is pronghorn virus (PHV). PHV was first isolated from an immature, blind pronghorn antelope in the state of Wyoming. The objectives of these studies were to determine leve...
channel improve- ments, including strengthening the main stem levees. The 1928 act adopted the plan proposed by Major General Edgar Jadwin, Chief of...Fish Commis- sion, Memphis Engineer District, St. Francis Pumping Station File, December 8, 1976. 4Major Rovert A. Morin , Jr., Acting District Engineer
New Orleans to Venice, Louisiana, Hurricane Protection Project: Draft Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act Report on Reach C and Barrier Features. Supplement 2. Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement. Appendixes,
tree species where appropriate. The configuration of borrow pits proposed for the batture area could be modified to maximize sedimentation rates and thus...bottomland hardwood species where conditions would be conducive to their growth . -’ -*,.. 4. Unavoidable impacts to Resource Category 2 bottomland hardwood... duckweed , frogbit, bladderwort, coontail, and widgeon grass. Upland developed habitat consists of existing levees, roads, agricultural areas
Elliott, Cynthia B.; Taylor, Denny
On Monday, August 29, 2005, Hurricane Katrina and the floodwaters from the breeched levees destroyed all 14 schools in Louisiana's St. Bernard Parish. Although most residents had been evacuated before the hurricane hit, 1,500 men, women, and children rode out the storm in Chalmette High School. The district superintendent and the school leadership…
Taylor, L.L.; Shikashio, R.
The purpose of this document is to identify requirements to be met by the Producer/Shipper of Spent Nuclear Fuel/High-LeveL Waste SNF/HLW in order for DOE to be able to accept the packaged materials. This includes defining both standard and nonstandard waste forms.
Building relationships and community collaborations--especially on an institutional level--is a slow and long-term process. These types of innovative, experimental, and long-term collaborations with community organizations and groups often lead art institutions to reflect on the value and place of their institutional structures when engaging in…
... subapplicant must demonstrate that it has consulted with the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) regarding the subject land's potential future use for the construction of a levee system. The subapplicant... modifications, improvements, or enhancements to Federal aid systems are under consideration that will affect...
... and tows from destruction, loss or injury due to hazards associated with rising flood water. DATES... the general public, levee system, vessels and tows from the hazards associated with rising flood water... hazards associated with rising flood water on the Morgan City-Port Allen Route. Basis and Purpose...
14. PROJECT PLAN, INTAKE PIER, RAW WATER CONDUITS, PUMPING STATION FORCE MAINS, TREATED WATER PIPELINES, AND FILTRATION PLANT, SHEET 1 OF 117, 1920. - Sacramento River Water Treatment Plant Intake Pier & Access Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River approximately 175 feet west of eastern levee on river; roughly .5 mile downstream from confluence of Sacramento & American Rivers, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA
McHargue, T.R.; Webb, J.E.
The Indus Fan, the second largest submarine fan in the world, covers 1,250,000 km/sup 2/ (500,000 mi/sup 2/) and contains sediment more than 7 km (23,000 ft) thick. Multichannel (24-fold) CDP seismic data provide the bases for evaluating the Indus Fan and consist of four seismic facies. Of these, only the high-amplitude, discontinuous (H-D) facies is thought to contain reservoir-quality sandstones. The H-D facies is confined to the axes of leveed channels. Canyon-channel systems that fed the fan in the past can be divided into three zones. The degradational zone is composed of an erosional canyon complex filled by prodelta mud. The transitional zone, located near the canyon mouth, consists of superimposed channels that initially were erosional but eventually aggraded and developed levees. The headward termination of the H-D facies occurs in this zone. The aggradational zone consists of superimposed leveed channels confined solely by their own levees. The proximal termination of the H-D facies near canyon mouths implies the presence of reservoir-quality sandstone surrounded by source/seal mudstone in the transitional zone. This stratigraphic trapping geometry and structural leads may represent a vast, untapped petroleum province.
1941 Crusader and 1942 Bustard Hunt operations - in order to identify insights and lessons applicable to center of gravity at the operational level...I II. ANALYSIS OF OPERATION CRUSADER ................. 9 III. ANALYSIS OF OPERATION BUSTARD HUNT ............ 19 S, IV. CONCLUSIONS...28 APPENDIX A (MAPS FOR CRUSADER) ................. 31 APPENDIX B (MAPS FOR BUSTARD HUNT) ............. 35 ENDNOTES
This wrap-up presentation to the workshop covers several topics concerning how lead and copper compliance under the Lead and Copper Rule should be integrated into an overall “simultaneous compliance” framework with other organizations. The LCR requires “optimization” of lead leve...
Hass, H. Christian; Klages, Johann P.; Kuhn, Gerhard; Forwick, Matthias
We investigated seafloor morphology and sedimentary processes at the continental margin in the western Riiser Larsen Sea, Antarctica, to reconstruct processes of channel/levee development, and to evaluate the influence of climate through the past 5 marine isotope stages on these processes. Shallow seismic (parametric subbottom profiler) investigations reveal that channels and associated levees form the principal morphological structures in the western Riiser Larsen Sea. The channels are up to several kilometers wide and hundreds of meters deep. They stretch from the upper continental slope towards the Enderby Abyssal Plain. Sediment cores (taken from levee tops) reveal increased amounts of sand and coarser silt during warmer climate phases (MIS 1, 3, 5). The sand is mainly composed of planktic foraminifers and IRD, both suggesting seasonally open waters (interglacials). The carbonate-free sortable silt mean grain size suggests increased bottom current speed during the warmer climate phases. We postulate, that the occurrence of coastal polynyas and strong sea-ice formation through katabatic winds promote the formation of cold waters and brines. These are channeled on the continental slope and intensify turbidity currents that occur on the steep slopes. Alternatively, the newly formed dense waters can be taken up by westward flowing contour currents and thus support the formation of turbidity currents. It is suggested that either process supports downslope sediment transport and levee growth during warm climate phases. Under cold climates a permanent ice cover is suggested at least for the positions of the sediment cores (seasonally open waters today). These reveal significantly IRD and carbonate-depleted sediments during the cold climate phases. Hence, polynyas may have formed further to the north over deeper waters. The volume of the cooled-down waters and brines was likely smaller and probably not able to reach the sea floor due to mixing with upwelling warmer
Reddy, Sheila M W; Guannel, Gregory; Griffin, Robert; Faries, Joe; Boucher, Timothy; Thompson, Michael; Brenner, Jorge; Bernhardt, Joey; Verutes, Gregory; Wood, Spencer A; Silver, Jessica A; Toft, Jodie; Rogers, Anthony; Maas, Alexander; Guerry, Anne; Molnar, Jennifer; DiMuro, Johnathan L
Businesses may be missing opportunities to account for ecosystem services in their decisions, because they do not have methods to quantify and value ecosystem services. We developed a method to quantify and value coastal protection and other ecosystem services in the context of a cost-benefit analysis of hurricane risk mitigation options for a business. We first analyze linked biophysical and economic models to examine the potential protection provided by marshes. We then applied this method to The Dow Chemical Company's Freeport, Texas facility to evaluate natural (marshes), built (levee), and hybrid (marshes and a levee designed for marshes) defenses against a 100-y hurricane. Model analysis shows that future sea-level rise decreases marsh area, increases flood heights, and increases the required levee height (12%) and cost (8%). In this context, marshes do not provide sufficient protection to the facility, located 12 km inland, to warrant a change in levee design for a 100-y hurricane. Marshes do provide some protection near shore and under smaller storm conditions, which may help maintain the coastline and levee performance in the face of sea-level rise. In sum, the net present value to the business of built defenses ($217 million [2010 US$]) is greater than natural defenses ($15 million [2010 US$]) and similar to the hybrid defense scenario ($229 million [2010 US$]). Examination of a sample of public benefits from the marshes shows they provide at least $117 million (2010 US$) in coastal protection, recreational value, and C sequestration to the public, while supporting 12 fisheries and more than 300 wildlife species. This study provides information on where natural defenses may be effective and a replicable approach that businesses can use to incorporate private, as well as public, ecosystem service values into hurricane risk management at other sites.
Leonard, C.; Legleiter, C. J.
Encroachment of human development onto river floodplains creates a need to stabilize rivers and provide flood protection. Structural interventions, such as levees, often perturb hydrologic and sediment regimes and thus can initiate morphological responses. An understanding of how human activities affect river morphodynamics and trigger channel change is needed to anticipate future river responses and facilitate effective restoration. This study examines approximately 66 km of the Snake River, WY, USA, and links sediment transport processes to channel form and behavior by developing a morphological sediment budget that spans both a natural, unconfined reach and a reach confined by artificial levees. Sediment transport rates are inferred from the morphological sediment budget and a bed mobility study is used to estimate entrainment thresholds that allow us to link the hydrological regime during the sediment budget period to the observed channel changes. Results indicate that lateral constriction by levees triggers a positive feedback mechanism by incising the bed, focusing flow energy, thus increasing transport capacity, and leading to armoring of the bed. In other systems, armoring promotes widening of the channel but in this case levees prevent widening and the channel instead migrates across the braidplain rapidly, producing further erosion of bars and vegetated islands that is expressed as negative net volumetric changes and increased sediment transport rates. Furthermore, decreased slopes and reduced discharges due to dam regulation in the upstream unconfined reach cause gravel sheets to stall on bars and in other areas of storage, creating a spatial discontinuity in sediment conveyance downstream, and thus contributing to the sediment deficit within the leveed reach.
In recent years, non-destructive investigations and management of civil engineering structures is increasingly improving, and assessments are now supported by national and international standards. However, the literature on the applicability of different geophysical techniques to the problem of levee and river embankment monitoring is still limited. Accurate flood levee embankment stability assessment is critically important because embankments and earth dams are subject to water infiltration and internal erosion, which may lead to mechanical weakness and breaching. This study includes a 2D analysis of the instability of an earthen levee, using multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) and electrical resistivity imaging (ERI), along with direct observations of the site engineering geology and geomorphology. Both the modeled Vs and Ω indicate a horizontally-layered subsurface with rapid vertical transitions in both stiffness and conductivity. This conclusion is supported by a covariance analysis of Vs and Ω at varying depths and chainages along the levee. Together with a geomorphic assessment, this indicates that the structure is being destabilized by water infiltration, which is causing erosional-piping, leading to surface subsidence. While the key reason for applying various types of geophysical methods to embankment stability assessment is to undertake a safety examination of the embankment, a secondary reason is to compare and contrast the efficacy of the geophysical methods. To this end, it was found that the integration of covariance analysis of 2D geophysical datasets, alongside sedimentary and topographic data, can help the rapid location of anomalous zones in sub-levee soils between geotechnical boreholes.
Florsheim, J.L.; Dettinger, M.D.
Global warming and attendant sea-level rise may soon impact geomorphic processes in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River and San Francisco Bay Delta systems. During the past two centuries, dramatic anthropogenic changes in sediment supply and pervasive structural controls on rivers and floodplains have altered geomorphic responses to floods throughout a zone that extends upstream from tidally influenced areas to dams that regulate flow. Current geomorphic responses to floods differ from natural responses due to historical actions that concentrated the pre-disturbance multiple-channel and flood-basin system into single channels isolated by levees from increasingly developed floodplains and flood bypass channels, altered flow and sediment regimes, and caused subsidence of leveed Delta Islands. A review of historic and current geomorphic responses to floods illustrates the dominance of structural controls on geomorphic changes in the lowland part of the Sacramento-San Joaquin system. Current climate-change projections for CA suggest that the total volume of snowmelt runoff that may be shifted from spring and added to winter flows is roughly 5 maf/yr, similar to the volume currently available for flood storage in Sierra Nevadan reservoirs. Changes in timing of reservoir releases to accommodate these changes could add to either the magnitude or duration of winter flood peaks, each causing different geomorphic responses. Increased wintertime flows that accompany already large floods could increase overbank flood extent, erosion, and sedimentation, or alternatively increase the depth and strength of confined flows and increase the risk of levee failures. Runoff released from reservoirs as a relatively constant addition to winter baseflow would increase the duration of bankfull or possibly "levee-full" flows. This scenario could lead to bank and levee failure through increased saturation and seepage erosion. Projected sea level rise of 1-2 m would compound vulnerability of
Strupczewski, W. G.; Kochanek, K.; Bogdanowicz, E.; Markiewicz, I.
The Flood Frequency Analysis (FFA) concentrates on probability distribution of peak flows of flood hydrographs. However, examination of floods that haunted and devastated the large parts of Poland lead us to revision of the views on the assessment of flood risk of Polish rivers. It turned out that flooding is caused not only by overflow of the levees' crest but mostly due to the prolonged exposure to high water on levees structure causing dangerous leaks and breaches that threaten their total destruction. This is because, the levees are weakened by long-lasting water pressure and as a matter of fact their damage usually occurs after the culmination has passed the affected location. The probability of inundation is the total of probabilities of exceeding embankment crest by flood peak and the probability of washout of levees. Therefore, in addition to the maximum flow one should consider also the duration of high waters in a river channel. In the paper the new two-component model of flood dynamics: "Duration of high waters-Discharge Threshold-Probability of non-exceedance" (DqF), with the methodology of its parameters estimation was proposed as a completion to the classical FFA methods. Such model can estimate the duration of stages (flows) of an assumed magnitude with a given probability of exceedance. The model combined with the technical evaluation of probability of levees breach due to the d-days duration of flow above alarm stage gives the annual probability of inundation caused by the embankment breaking. The results of theoretical investigation were illustrated by a practical example of the model implementation to the series of daily flow of the Vistula River at Szczucin. Regardless promising results, the method of risk assessment due to prolonged exposure of levees to high water is still in its infancy despite its great cognitive potential and practical importance. Therefore, we would like to point out the need for and usefulness of the DqF model as
Strupczewski, W. G.; Kochanek, K.; Bogdanowicz, E.; Markiewicz, I.
The Flood Frequency Analysis (FFA) concentrates on probability distribution of peak flows of flood hydrographs. However, examination of floods that haunted and devastated the large parts of Poland lead us to revision of the views on the assessment of flood risk of Polish rivers. It turned out that flooding is caused not only by the overflow of the levee crest but also due to the prolonged exposure to high water on levees structure causing dangerous leaks and breaches that threaten their total destruction. This is because the levees are weakened by long-lasting water pressure and as a matter of fact their damage usually occurs after the culmination has passed the affected location. The probability of inundation is the total of probabilities of exceeding embankment crest by flood peak and the probability of washout of levees. Therefore, in addition to the maximum flow one should also consider the duration of high waters in a river channel. In the paper the new two-component model of flood dynamics: "Duration of high waters-Discharge Threshold-Probability of non-exceedance" (DqF), with the methodology of its parameter estimation was proposed as a completion to the classical FFA methods. Such a model can estimate the duration of stages (flows) of an assumed magnitude with a given probability of exceedance. The model combined with the technical evaluation of the probability of levee breaches due to the duration (d) of flow above alarm stage gives the annual probability of inundation caused by the embankment breaking. The results of theoretical investigation were illustrated by a practical example of the model implementation to the series of daily flow of the Vistula River at Szczucin. Regardless of promising results, the method of risk assessment due to prolonged exposure of levees to high water is still in its infancy despite its great cognitive potential and practical importance. Therefore, we would like to point out the need for and usefulness of the DqF model as
Lauer, J. W.; Parker, G.
Eroding streambanks are sometimes cited as net sources of sediment for rivers. If generally true, this presents an obvious mass balance problem: If rivers continually remove material from active floodplains without replacing all of it, then the floodplains should eventually disappear. For graded river/floodplain systems, then, deposition on the floodplain must, over the long term, balance what is eroded. However, there are at least two reasons why the net erosion due to bank migration, defined as the volume eroded from cut banks minus the volume deposited on point bars, should usually be positive. First, rivers generally migrate into natural levees that are somewhat higher in elevation than the rest of the floodplain. Since point bars are not built as high as natural levees, this represents a net loss of material from the floodplain. Second, river bends tend to migrate outwards, expanding over time. Since the eroding bank is invariably longer than the depositional bank, more material is eroded than deposited, even if the elevation at the top of both banks is constant. This leads to a steady increase in channel sinuosity over time until a cutoff occurs. For a floodplain that is in equilibrium, the erosion caused by natural levee recycling should be balanced primarily by overbank deposition, while the erosion caused by the systematic sinuosity increase should be balanced primarily by depositional processes in abandoned stream courses or oxbow lakes. Until now, it has not been clear which of the two processes is generally more important. This study presents a comparison of their relative importance, as well as system-wide net erosion rates, for portions of three U.S. rivers: a 91 km reach of the Pearl River in Louisiana, a 62 km reach of the Bogue Chitto River in Louisiana, and a 35 km reach of the Neuse River in North Carolina. The study is made possible by high resolution LIDAR datasets along these systems that represent the topography of the natural levees and
Moody, John A.
The flood wave on the upper Mississippi River started downstream near St. Paul, Minnesota, in June 1993. The maximum discharge propagated downstream at about 50 kilometers per day and was 5 to 7 times the mean daily discharge at streamgaging sites on the river. The propagation speed of the flood wave was influenced more by hydrologic factors such as tributary inflow and flood-plain storage than by hydraulic factors. The maximum discharge at St. Louis, Missouri (29,700 m3/s) occurred on August 1, 1993; but because of flood-plain storage resulting from levee failures and seepage through and under levees downstream, the maximum discharge at Thebes, Illinois, (27,700 m>3/s) did not occur until August 7 which was about 4 days later than normal.
Leone, Harold L.
When a hurricane approaches the New Orleans, Louisiana area, the accompanying tides and heavy rainfall increase the level of water in Lake Borgne, Mississippi Sound, and Lake Pontchartrain and pose a major threat of water damage to the populated areas. During Hurricane Betsy (1965), for example, the level of Lake Pontchartrain rose as much as 13 feet. Nineteen core-material-sampling sites were chosen by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers as possible borrow areas for fill material to be used in levee construction for flood protection around Lake Pontchartrain. Twenty-three receiving-water sites were also selected to represent the water that will contact the proposed levees. Selected nutrients, metals, pesticides, and other organic constituents were analyzed from bed-material and native-water samples as well as upon elutriate samples of specific core material-receiving water systems. The results of these analyses are presented without interpretation. (Woodard-USGS)
Fink, J.; Zimbelman, J.
Theoretical models used in the remote determination of lava flow rheology and compositions rely on estimates of such geometric and flow parameters as volume flow rates, levee heights, and channel dimensions, as well as morphologic and structural patterns on the flow surfaces. Quantitative measures of these variables are difficult to obtain, even under optimum conditions. Detailed topographic profiles across several Hawaiian lava flows that were carefully monitored by the U.S. Geological Survey during their emplacement in 1983 were surveyed in order to test various flow emplacement models. Twenty two accurate channel cross sections were constructed by combining these profiles with digitized pre-flow topographic measurements. Levee heights, shear zone widths, and flow depths could then be read directly from the cross sections and input into the models. The profiles were also compared with ones constructed for some Martian lava flows.
Harris, Andrew J. L.; Favalli, Massimiliano; Mazzarini, Francesco; Hamilton, Christopher W.
We use a kinematic GPS and laser range finder survey of a 200 m-long section of the Muliwai a Pele lava channel (Mauna Ulu, Kilauea) to examine the construction processes and flow dynamics responsible for the channel-levee structure. The levees comprise three packages. The basal package comprises an 80-150 m wide 'a'a flow in which a ˜2 m deep and ˜11 m wide channel became centred. This is capped by a second package of thin (<45 cm thick) sheets of pahoehoe extending no more than 50 m from the channel. The upper-most package comprises localised 'a'a overflows. The channel itself contains two blockages located 130 m apart and composed of levee chunks veneered with overflow lava. The channel was emplaced over 50 h, spanning 30 May-2 June, 1974, with the flow front arriving at our section (4.4 km from the vent) 8 h after the eruption began. The basal 'a'a flow thickness yields effusion rates of 35 m3 s-1 for the opening phase, with the initial flow advancing across the mapped section at ˜10 m/min. Short-lived overflows of fluid pahoehoe then built the levee cap, increasing the apparent channel depth to 4.8 m. There were at least six pulses at 90-420 m3 s-1, causing overflow of limited extent lasting no more than 5 min. Brim-full flow conditions were thus extremely short-lived. During a dominant period of below-bank flow, flow depth was ˜2 m with an effusion rate of ˜35 m3 s-1, consistent with the mean output rate (obtained from the total flow bulk volume) of 23-54 m3 s-1. During pulses, levee chunks were plucked and floated down channel to form blockages. In a final low effusion rate phase, lava ponded behind the lower blockage to form a syn-channel pond that fed 'a'a overflow. After the end of the eruption the roofed-over pond continued to drain through the lower blockage, causing the roof to founder. Drainage emplaced inflated flows on the channel floor below the lower blockage for a further ˜10 h. The complex processes involved in levee-channel construction
de Leeuw, Jan; Eggenhuisen, Joris T; Cartigny, Matthieu J B
Submarine channels are ubiquitous on the seafloor and their inception and evolution is a result of dynamic interaction between turbidity currents and the evolving seafloor. However, the morphodynamic links between channel inception and flow dynamics have not yet been monitored in experiments and only in one instance on the modern seafloor. Previous experimental flows did not show channel inception, because flow conditions were not appropriately scaled to sustain suspended sediment transport. Here we introduce and apply new scaling constraints for similarity between natural and experimental turbidity currents. The scaled currents initiate a leveed channel from an initially featureless slope. Channelization commences with deposition of levees in some slope segments and erosion of a conduit in other segments. Channel relief and flow confinement increase progressively during subsequent flows. This morphodynamic evolution determines the architecture of submarine channel deposits in the stratigraphic record and efficiency of sediment bypass to the basin floor.
de Leeuw, Jan; Eggenhuisen, Joris T.; Cartigny, Matthieu J. B.
Submarine channels are ubiquitous on the seafloor and their inception and evolution is a result of dynamic interaction between turbidity currents and the evolving seafloor. However, the morphodynamic links between channel inception and flow dynamics have not yet been monitored in experiments and only in one instance on the modern seafloor. Previous experimental flows did not show channel inception, because flow conditions were not appropriately scaled to sustain suspended sediment transport. Here we introduce and apply new scaling constraints for similarity between natural and experimental turbidity currents. The scaled currents initiate a leveed channel from an initially featureless slope. Channelization commences with deposition of levees in some slope segments and erosion of a conduit in other segments. Channel relief and flow confinement increase progressively during subsequent flows. This morphodynamic evolution determines the architecture of submarine channel deposits in the stratigraphic record and efficiency of sediment bypass to the basin floor. PMID:26996440
Pierce, Charles E.; Gassman, Sarah L.; Huffman, Jeffrey T.
This paper describes the development, implementation, and assessment of instructional materials for geotechnical engineering concepts using the Environments for Fostering Effective Critical Thinking (EFFECTs) pedagogical framework. The central learning goals of engineering EFFECTs are to (i) improve the understanding and retention of a specific set of concepts that provide core knowledge and (ii) encourage students to recognise and develop critical thinking skills that lead to growth in engineering judgement. The practice of geotechnical engineering deals with complex and uncertain soil conditions, where critical thought and judgement are imperative. Three geo-EFFECTs were created in the context of levee reconstruction, levee permeability, and settlement of a tower structure. Students often provided inaccurate estimates to driving questions set in those contexts; when given opportunities for self-exploration and self-correction in the EFFECT structure, students often achieved more accurate final solutions. Overall, results suggest that EFFECTs have a measurable, positive impact on student learning.
Pinter, N.; Jemberie, A.A.; Remo, J.W.F.; Heine, R.A.; Ickes, B.S.
Along >4000 km of the Mississippi River system, we document that climate, land-use change, and river engineering have contributed to statistically significant increases in flooding over the past 100-150 years. Trends were tested using a database of >8 million hydrological measurements. A geospatial database of historical engineering construction was used to quantify the response of flood levels to each unit of engineering infrastructure. Significant climate- and/or land use-driven increases in flow were detected, but the largest and most pervasive contributors to increased flooding on the Mississippi River system were wing dikes and related navigational structures, followed by progressive levee construction. In the area of the 2008 Upper Mississippi flood, for example, about 2 m of the flood crest is linked to navigational and flood-control engineering. Systemwide, large increases in flood levels were documented at locations and at times of wing-dike and levee construction. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.
heavily impacted by levee construction. 6 0 :0 As a result of earlier work at the Romeville Revetment site (16SJ5), the Woodstock Landing site (16EBR35...passim; Sherwood M. Gagliano, et al., "Cultural Resource Testing Along the Mississippi Riverbank of Woodstock Plantation, . - East Baton Rouge Parish...the Mardi Gras festivities without incident. So peaceful became the occupation that Sheridan withdrew all cavalry units from the department. Yet
plain, where plant and animal communities are highly sensitive to changes in elevation and salinity , changing shorelines and stream patterns can...material accumulates, shallow bodies of water and intertidal mudflats are created. Along the seaward edge, brackish and saline marshes develop. The...old lobe allow the salinity of inland swamps to increase, causing them to die out. The natural levees of the abandoned distributaries, in the absence
last successional stage plant communities. Research using soils and plant communities to model prehistoric occupation in northeast Arkansas (Dekin et al...floods) since their formation. Levee/Swamp Ecotone This modeled macrobiotic coimmunity is what Lewis (1974:24-25) has called the Sweetgum-Elm-Cypress...especially cypress, would have been exploitable in this environment with land- based technology. 15 Included in these modeled strata are the different
successional stage plant communities. Research using soils and plant communities to model prehistoric occupation in northeast Arkansas (Dekin et al. 1978; Morse...major floods) since they were laid down. Levee/Swamp Ecotone This modeled macrobiotic community is what Lewis (1974:24-25) has called the Sweetgum-Elm...this modeled stratum are the different environments that were under water prior to drainage, as defined by the soils deposited in slackwater conditions
C .. -- 0’ r ’ 00 -’ -~ r_ .V 0 WV--> -rL-) 0 - NJ LAJ (Jq 0 LA) CJ r- -4 .-O)C 0 f 4- ) r_ S- ra C) CI C-4 .- 4j I 0-. CD 01- euQ C t Lio -0 M. 4- LL...NARRW RSAND NOISE IUNMASKED NR No RESPONSE 60I so SOUND) FIELD 5 SLSOUND PRESSUME LEVELI I SPIN SPEECH NOISE I IEIIAMPLE O TD THRESHOL.D OFDISCOMFORT
are the dominant trees found on levee crests adjacent to rivers and streams. A variety of lesser trees and herbs follow. Particularly conspicuous are...Mangrum where Klinger (1982:129) suggest that Dunklin phase subsistence at both Zebree and Mangrum was "dominated primarily by gathering wild flora...of wild plant foods continued to be an important food resource. Evidence obtained from some large Mississippian sites, such as Parkin (P. Morse 1981
Pneuma pump developed by SIRSI, Inc.). 5. A barge- mounted clamshell dredge (the Hauser). Major factors in selecting these five methods were the... mounted backhoe were added after cost information was available (see the Channel Maintenance Appendix). Costs were determined for bucket-chain and...States. 11. Barge- mounted hydraulic backhoes were observed at small harbor clearing and large levee construction projects. The Mudcat dredge was used
elevation from west to east. Road crossings of the levee would utilize ramps. Sandbag closures in the freeboard range would be included at all road ramps and...Provide, without cost to the United States, all lands, easements, and rights-of-way necessary for construction of the project including ponding areas. b...equivalent pumping capacity. e. Provide without cost to the United States all relocations of buildings and utilities, highway bridges and roads, sewers, and
Viroulet, Sylvain; Edwards, Andrew; Kokelaar, Peter; Gray, Nico
Particle size-segregation in geophysical mass flows can have a profound feedback on their local mobility, leading to the formation of resistive bouldery flow fronts, which spontaneously degenerate into leveed channels [1,2] that constrain the flow and enhance run-out. By including particle segregation , a composition dependent frictional coupling can be incorporated into depth-averaged geophysical mass flow models to capture both levee formation and flow fingering . However, the channel wavelengths are crucially dependent on the underlying rheology of the flow, which is a second order effect that is still not fully understood. In this paper we analyze a simpler, but closely related, mono-disperse flow in which the granular rheology plays a crucial part in the formation, growth and coarsening of roll waves. Two regimes have been found experimentally:- (i) a classical continuous roll wave regime, and (ii) a novel discrete roll wave regime where the troughs between the wave peaks become completely stationary. This latter behaviour has been observed in debris flows in Fully, Switzerland, and the Jiangjia Gully, China. Grain-size segregation and levee formation in geophysical mass flows, Johnson, C.G., Kokelaar, B.P., Iverson, R.M., Logan, M., LaHusen, R.G. & Gray, J.M.N.T. (2012) J. Geophys. Res. 117, F01032. Fine-grained linings of leveed channels facilitate runout of granular flows, Kokelaar, B.P., Graham, R.L., Gray, J.M.N.T. & Vallance, J.W. (2014) Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 385, 172-180. Large particle segregation, transport and accumulation in granular free-surface flows. Gray, J.M.N.T. & Kokelaar, B.P. (2010) J. Fluid Mech. 652, 105-137. Segregation-induced fingering instabilities in granular free surface flows, Woodhouse, M.J., Thornton, A.R., Johnson, C.G., Kokelaar, B.P. & Gray, J.M.N.T. (2012) J. Fluid Mech. 709, 543-580.
Hess, G.R.; Normark, W.R.
There are three major fan valleys on upper Monterey fan. Deep-tow geophysical profiles and 40 sediment cores provide the basis for evaluation of the sedimentation histories of these valleys. Monterey fan valley leads from Monterey canyon to a major suprafan and is bounded by levees that crest more than 400 m above the valley floor. The valley passes through a large z-bend or meander. Monterey East fan valley joins Monterey fan valley at the meander at about 150 m above the valley floor, and marks an earlier position of the lower Monterey fan valley. Ascension valley, a hanging contributary to the Monterey fan valley, appears to have once been the shoreward head of the lower part of the present Monterey fan valley. The relief of Monterey fan valley appears from deep-tow profiles to be erosional. The valley is floored with sand. Holocene turbidity currents do not overtop the levees 400 m above the valley floor, but do at times overflow and transport sand into Monterey East valley, producing a sandy floor. An 1100 m by 300 m dune field was observed on side scan sonar in Monterey East valley. Ascension fan valley was floored with sand during glacial intervals of lowered sea level, then was cut off from its sand source as sea level rose. A narrow (500 m), erosional, meandering channel was incised into the flat valley floor; the relief features otherwise appear depositional, with a hummocky topography perhaps produced in the manner of a braided riverbed. The sand is mantled by about 6 m of probable Holocene mud. Hummocky relief on the back side of the northwestern levees of both Ascension and Monterey valleys is characteristic of many turbidite valleys in the northeast Pacific. The hummocky topography is produced by dune-like features that migrate toward levee crests during growth. ?? 1976.
hydraulic excavator, crane, concrete pumps , loader, transit mixer, water trucks, and miscellaneous equipment. g. For other construction items, drainage...Flood Control Acts of December 1944 and May 1950 and incorporated under Sacramento River and Major and Minor Tributaries. Although construction of the...project was initiated in 1918, many of the levees were originally constructed by local interests prior to that time and subsequently modified and
description of the laboratory techniques that is presented in Finally, I would like to thank the distinguished peer the chapter on methodology...historic black cemetery (ca 1834-1927). RESULTS OF TESTING Construction techniques that were revealed in excavation profiles indicate that the levee was...Plant food preparation techniques archeology in North America has increased rapidly in the suggested by dental characteristics (dental pathology and
Ivanov, M.K.; Konyukhov, A.I.
The Danube fan has a classical structure. It is clearly expressed in the bottom relief and traced by reflection profiles for more than 200 km. The fan body is levee valley, which splits in a mid-fan area into numerous meandering distributaries. The fan consists of gravity and hemipelagic deposits. These are mainly turbidites of various compositions. Channels are filled with grain-flow deposits (sand), debris-flow deposits (sandy clay with shells), and slides from valley walls (mud, sapropelic mud). Levees in upper and mid-fan areas are formed by specific turbidite sequences: mudstone crumbs in the base, thinly laminated silt and clays in the middle, blue mud on the top. Hemipelagic sediments increase noticeably on outer slopes of the levees. In the Pleistocene sequences these are mud; in the Holocene, sapropelic mud and coccolith-diatom ooze. Distal turbidites are widespread in the lower fan areas. In the base of each cycle is a thin sand-silt layer with unclear graded bedding; the upper part is represented by mud. Reflection profiles demonstrate an ancient fan system with buried channels and levees. Configurations of these bodies are very similar to those of the modern fans. The sedimentary lens on the sea floor opposite the mouths of submarine canyons of the Rioni, Inguri, Kodori, Supsa, and Chorokh Rivers was formed by overlapped modern and ancient fans. The Inguri and Rioni produced a practically single submarine fan, the largest in this area. It is rather well expressed morphologically and traced by reflection profiles for more than 100 km. In its lower part it overlays a number of small fans. The Rioni-Inguri fan is smaller than the Danube, but the whole system of overlapped fans occupies an area of about 17,000 km/sup 2/, being more than 3 km thick. The composition and structure of sediments in this deep-sea system change sharply, depending on the geomorphological position.
Table 1 Example objectives and assessment endpoints for ANS Objective • Prevent establishment of phragmites in wetlands habitat restoration on...2006 9 anthropogenic stressors (e.g., climate change, fishing fleets, alteration of habitats , eradication efforts) can be used to eliminate sources...may undermine earthen levees or interfere with habitat Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the
A08873 MARINE CORPS WASHINGTON DC F/B 5/9 DATA SYSTEMS TASK ANALYSIS. (U) "CLASSIFIEO. -%mm . LEVELIs DATA SYSTEMS O0 TASK ANALYSIS DCI) OO JF AUG 28...TECI-NICIAN jl. CCMPUTER SYSTEMS EVALLATOR ,13. LCMPUTER SYSTEMS MANAGER 314. LCMPUTER SYSTEMS MCNITOR A5o LCMPUTER TERMINAL OPERATOR j16. LCNFIGURATION...OPERATOR )27. DATA PROCESSING NCO )28. DATA PROCESSINIG TECHNICIAN 329e DATA SYSTEMS LIBRARIAN )35* DATA SYSTEMS OPERATICNS Cl-IEF 331. DATA SYSTEMS
herbaceous uplands ( Cogon grass ), and 29 acres of tidal marsh. The entire area includes about 183 acres. 3. Alternative 3 is similar to Alternative 2...acres of tidal wetlands outside of the old Tenneco dike 61 acres of scrub/shrub uplands 21 acres of herbaceous uplands ( Cogon grass ) While wetlands...shrub wetlands exist within the old levees at the Tenneco site. Wetland grasses include such species as threesquare (Sciryus spp.), black needlerush
revetments, dikes, dredging and wave wash protection. Ensley Levee. Harbor channel, approach navigation channel and industrial fill. Barge channel and...severe earthquakes in the history of the United States struck the Rocky Mountain region in the vicinity of Yellowstone National Park . Nine persons are...construction of small flood control projects. 4. This program continues to provide widespread and large-scale benefits at the regional and national
Robertson, T.; Whittington, A. G.; Soldati, A.; Sehlke, A.; Beem, J. R.; Gomez, F. G.
Lava flow morphology is often utilized as an indicator of rheological behavior during flow emplacement. Rheological behavior can be characterized by the viscosity and yield strength of lava, which in turn are dependent on physical and chemical properties including crystallinity, vesicularity, and bulk composition. We are studying the rheology of a basaltic lava flow from a monogenetic Holocene cinder cone in the Cima lava field (Mojave Desert, California). The flow is roughly 2.5 km long and up to 700m wide, with a well-developed central channel along much of its length. Samples were collected along seven different traverses across the flow, along with real-time kinematic (RTK) GPS profiles to allow levee heights and slopes to be measured. Surface textures change from pahoehoe ropes near the vent to predominantly jagged `a`a blocks over the majority of the flow, including all levees and the toe. Chemically the lava shows little variation, plotting on the trachybasalt-basanite boundary on the total alkali-silica diagram. Mineralogically the lava is dominated by plagioclase, clinopyroxene and olivine phenocrysts, with abundant flow-aligned plagioclase microcrystals. The total crystal fraction is ~50% near the vent, with higher percentages in the distal portion of the flow. Vesicularity varies between ~10 and more than ~60%. Levees are ~10-15m high with slopes typically ~25-35˚, suggesting a yield strength at final emplacement of ~150,000 Pa. The effective emplacement temperature and yield strength of lava samples will be determined using the parallel-plate technique. We will test the hypothesis that these physical and rheological properties of the lava during final emplacement correlate with spatial patterns in flow morphology, such as average slope and levee width, which have been determined using remote sensing observations (Beem et al. 2014).
or better and enclosing it where possible in a belt of fresh water cypress tree swamps. For the Pontchartrain Basin: either creating a closed or semi...waves and to close the proposed belt of fresh water swamps. For the Barataria Basin: (re-)creating an open system with wetland stabilization measures...better. The strategy is composed of the following elements: For New Orleans: upgrade the levee system and enclose it where possible in a belt of fresh
where possible in a belt of fresh water cypress tree swamps of between 1 and 6 miles wide (wetland revitalization and creation of 140...and waves and to close the proposed belt of fresh water swamps. July 2007 Second Interim Report A Dutch Perspective on Coastal Louisiana Flood Risk...The stabilization and creation of wetlands, and in particular the restoration of a belt of fresh-water cypress swamps around the levee rings
approximately 35 feet high and 750 feet long. A concrete-lined broad - crested spillway capable of discharging a maximum probable flood would be built on the...The effectiveness of the upstream levee is questionable, however. During the September 1976 flood, an estimated peak discharge of - 800 cfs broke...cover and surface characteristics affecting basin response to effective rainfall. Synthetic unit hydrographs were determined from the S-graph shown on
fixed- and variable- crest weirs , single- and double-flapgated culverts, and sluice gates. These structures can be operated to allow juvenile marine...effects. From an overall perspective, there seems to be a broad consensus on what measures might be appropriate to at least achieve a part of the...armoring on slopes and crest , it is relatively easy (and cheap) to heighten the eco-levee when required in case of further subsidence and/or higher
businesses and antique malls at the I-75/Ringgold Road exit along Mack Smith Road North; 2). the Fountainbleu Apartments, a gas station, and medical...of Spring Creek; 4). the K-Mart shopping area between Interstate 24 and Spring Creek; and 5). various commercial structures along Ringgold Road at...two commercial structures, a multi-use structure, a florist shop , and ten residential structures which would lie on the right bank outside the Levee
approach to evaluate the performance of navigation and flooding projects to advance coastal and hydraulic engineering practice and guidance. This...decision support technology maybe used in design/repair of ports/harbors and costal infrastructures, flood levees, flooding and inundation of...Mississippi River Gulf Outlet, New Orleans Flood Control Gates, LA; Buffalo Harbor, NY; Tau Harbor, and Faleasao Harbor, American Samoa. BMT helps
Review Plan Using the NWD Model Review Plan for Continuing Authorities Program Section 14, 107, 111, 204, 206, 208, 1135 and Projects Directed by Guidance to Use CAP Procedures: Sheridan, Wyoming, Section 1135 Project
existing Sheridan, Wyoming flood control project, authorized for construction by the Flood Control Act of 1950 (P.L. 516), consists of levees, channel... flood discharges in Goose and Little Goose Creeks. Construction of the Sheridan Project was completed in two stages. Stage 1 was started in August...1995. Figure 1 shows the entire study reach and the various flood risk management features that were constructed as part of the existing project
GAO Did This Study The Corps plans, designs, and constructs water resources infrastructure, such as dams and levees. According to the U.S. Global...years ago and may not be designed to operate within current climate patterns, according to the U.S. Geological Survey. The Water Resources Reform...and Development Act of 2014 included a provision for GAO to study the Corps’ management of water resources in preparation for extreme weather
arid to semiarid, although some of the higher mountains along the southern edge of the basin receive substantial precipitation. The isohyets of... basin to around 2 inches in the higher mountains forming the southern boundary of the drainage. The peak flow on the Little Colorado River at Holbrook...the right bank of the Little Colorado River at Holbrook, Arizona. A "Definite Project Report on Colorado liver Basin , Little Colorado River Levee
Photographic copy of 10 x 15, black and white, proof photograph. Located loose in oversized box at the National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, Archives Center, Work and Industry Division, Washington, D.C. Photographer, The Billings Studio. PROOF PHOTOGRAPH OF COMPLETED BRIDGE TAKEN FROM WEST BANK LEVEE LOOKING NORTH DOWN RIVER TOWARD EAST BANK. - Huey P. Long Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River approximately midway between nine & twelve mile points upstream from & west of New Orleans, Jefferson, Jefferson Parish, LA
I - NEAR-INFRA RED RFETANCE OF SNOW-COVERED SUBSTRATES.IU) INoV SL H B RIEN, . KOH UNCLASSIF IED CRREL-8-21N L ~~LEVE REPORT 81-21 Near-infrared...that more than half of the radiant The condition of the snow cover at the time energy transmitted by the so-called 1.3-,um filter may explain the shape
technologically advanced countries. Of course, many of the findings would apply to domestic disasters, particularly those involving support to emergency managers...in technologically advanced countries. Likewise, because the project was done for CINCPACFLT, we do not dwell on disasters and situations (for...this means building dikes and levees to channel flooding, or storm shelters against cyclones, or, in the case of technolog - ically advanced societies
between the levels of intensity of nursing care found in the emergency department compared to the leve’s found in outpatient clinics. CONCLUSION: The...requirements for nursing care personnel. The planned methodology of Phases II and III are discussed further in Appendix B. An extensive review of the...be generalizable across a variety of ambulatory settings (Verran, 1986, p. 250). The ACCCI quantifies the complexity of nursing care in the ambulatory
of the country. However, the DHS 2007 Spills of National Significance exercise is aligned with the New Madrid Seismic Zone through the Midwestern...levees protecting New Orleans to break. Communications were disrupted by failed circuits and cellular towers, as well as by the loss of electrical...assistance to others, many emergency responders became disaster victims themselves.Flooding in New Orleans after Hurricane KatrinaU.S . C oa st G ua rd (K
of application such as levee failure, dam breaching and tsunamis . Although these methods provide first insights in the range of loss of life that...generally expressed as a function of flood characteristics, such as depth, flow velocity and rise rate, and outputs of hydrodynamic flood simulations are...Breach zone: Due to the inflow through the breach in a flood defence high flow velocities generally occur behind the breach. This leads to collapse
Haines, S. S.; Hart, P. E.; Collett, T. S.; Shedd, W. W.; Frye, M.
High-resolution 2D seismic data acquired by the USGS in 2013 enable detailed characterization of the gas and gas hydrate system at lease block Green Canyon 955 (GC955) in the Gulf of Mexico, USA. Earlier studies, based on conventional industry 3D seismic data and logging-while-drilling (LWD) borehole data acquired in 2009, identified general aspects of the regional and local depositional setting along with two gas hydrate-bearing sand reservoirs and one layer containing fracture-filling gas hydrate within fine-grained sediments. These studies also highlighted a number of critical remaining questions. The 2013 high-resolution 2D data fill a significant gap in our previous understanding of the site by enabling interpretation of the complex system of faults and gas chimneys that provide conduits for gas flow and thus control the gas hydrate distribution observed in the LWD data. In addition, we have improved our understanding of the main channel/levee sand reservoir body, mapping in fine detail the levee sequences and the fault system that segments them into individual reservoirs. The 2013 data provide a rarely available high-resolution view of a levee reservoir package, with sequential levee deposits clearly imaged. Further, we can calculate the total gas hydrate resource present in the main reservoir body, refining earlier estimates. Based on the 2013 seismic data and assumptions derived from the LWD data, we estimate an in-place volume of 840 million cubic meters or 29 billion cubic feet of gas in the form of gas hydrate. Together, these interpretations provide a significantly improved understanding of the gas hydrate reservoirs and the gas migration system at GC955.
Dortch, Mark S; Zakikhani, Mansour; Kim, Sung-Chan; Steevens, Jeffery A
Levee failure and overtopping as a result of Hurricane Katrina caused major flooding of New Orleans, Louisiana. Floodwaters, which were contaminated with heavy metals, organic chemicals, and fecal coliform bacteria (FCB), were pumped into neighboring Lake Pontchartrain during dewatering. The impact of levee failure on water and benthic sediment concentrations in the lake was investigated by applying a numerical water quality model coupled to a three-dimensional, numerical hydrodynamic model. The model was used to compute water and benthic sediment concentrations throughout the lake for lead, arsenic, benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (DDE), and water concentrations for FCB. Computed concentrations resulting from actual pumped discharges with levee failure and overtopping were compared to computed concentrations resulting from pumped discharges without levee failure or overtopping, and concentrations from both sets of conditions were compared to ecological water and sediment quality screening guideline values. The model indicated that incremental increases above pre-Katrina benthic sediment concentrations are about a factor of 10 greater with dewatering of the floodwaters than with dewatering of storm water without flooding. However, these increases for the metals are small relative to pre-Katrina concentrations. The results showed that the ecological screening-level sediment quality guideline values were exceeded for BaP and DDE in areas near the south shoreline of the lake as a result of floodwater pump-out, whereas, this was not the case for storm water removal without flooding. The model showed that lake water column concentrations should be about the same during both dewatering conditions regardless of whether there is flooding or not.
data transfer from branch site to home base ............................... 36 20. Schematic of on-line data retrieval at branch site...abandon their ing as well as ice-related flooding. Because there homes as a huge ice gorge was forming six miles is no gage or large settlement near...east bank (Sarpy 21 February 1982. According to Civil Defense re- County) and a levee on the west bank (Saunders ports, a number of homes were
Hori, Kazuaki; Usami, Shogo; Ueda, Hiroki
Floodplains are a major component of present near-coastal fluvial systems that have evolved in response to postglacial changes in climate and sea level. Knowledge of sedimentary facies and deposition rates on a centennial to millennial time scale is required for considering floodplain evolution. Two cores, AP1 and AP2, were acquired from an abandoned channel of the Ibi River and its natural levee on the Nobi Plain, central Japan. Sediment facies analysis, electrical conductivity, and radiocarbon dating of borehole samples showed that in both cores organic-rich dark gray floodbasin mud overlies deltaic deposits dating to after approximately 3200 years calibrated radiocarbon age (cal BP) in relation to delta progradation. The accumulation of floodbasin mud continued at the both sites until about 400 cal BP. Around 400 cal BP, the mud was eroded by the overlying channel sand and gravel at AP1 and was covered by fine-grained natural levee deposits at AP2 with an abrupt contact. This timing is concordant with the historical record of avulsion of the Ibi River during the Keicho Era (AD 1596-1615). Averaged aggradation rates at the AP1 and AP2 sites were approximately 2.2 and 3.2 mm/yr, respectively. Faulting-related subsidence along the western edge of the plain has influenced these rates by creating accommodation. Averaged deposition rates differed greatly between the floodbasin and the levee, suggesting that rapid aggradation of the natural levee also occurred on a centennial to millennial scale. These empirical data may be useful for testing models of the architecture and evolution of near-coastal fluvial systems.
destroys some cultural resources, the levee system played an integral part in the historic development of the region, and is necessary for protecting life...cash crop , sugar cane, a crop grown successfully in Louisiana for some fifty years. The attractiveness of sugar cane greatly increased as problems...Manufacturing Company. Association for Preservation Technology , Baltimore, Maryland. Unabridged reprint of the 1865 edition. Russell, Richard J. 1938 Physiography
layout for the wax masking area is shown in Figures 8.1-1, 8.1-2, and 8.1- 3. The double walled tanks are oil filled for uniform heating and are steam... oils . HAZARDOUS: Caution: Contains Chlorinated hydrocarbons. Read the precautionary information carefully before opening. Open containercarefuty to avoid...systems. INHALATION : Dizziness may occur at 200 ppm; progressively higher leves -ay also cause nasal irritation, nausea, incoordihation, arunmenness; and
LaGory, K. E.; Walston, L. J.; Weber, C. C.
This report presents the results of floodplain wetland connection surveys conducted in 2014 at six priority floodplain wetland sites along the middle Green River between Jensen and Ouray, Utah. Surveys were conducted at levee breaches and within channels leading from the breaches to the wetlands (referred to here as connection channels) to characterize the flows needed to connect the river’s main channel with the floodplain wetlands.
LaGory, Kirk E.; Walston, Leroy J.; Weber, Cory C.
This report presents the results of floodplain wetland connection surveys conducted in 2012 at eight priority floodplain wetlands along the middle Green River between Jensen and Ouray, Utah. Surveys were conducted at levee breaches and within channels leading from the breaches to the wetlands (referred to here as connection channels) to characterize the flows needed to connect the river's main channel with the floodplain wetlands.
Project Average Manpower Requirements By Year 1-8 1.1-2 Total Jobs, Local and Regional Hires, and Inmigration 1-8 for the Employment Demand Region of...No Action Alternative, mitigation measures, and unavoidable impacts. It c)ntains detailed definitions of each potential leve of impact (negligible, low ...jobs including those which are considered to be filled by available labor; as well as those filled by weekly commuters and inmigrants , on an annual
successfully along the Gulf coast because of the climate. Rice was preferable to maize as a substitute for wheat. In a letter to the King dated May 12, 1733...Williamson 1940:11). Row rice was grown on the outer edge of the natural levee, where the wet clay soils prohibited the growing of sugar or maize . The...Another variation of upland rice farming involved planting the rice between rows of maize . This practice remained common 47 along Bayou Teche and
Delta, LA Prototype data acquisition Avoca Island Levee Terrebonne Marsh, LA Numeric mdel ,redictions 19. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary and...the data collected fo use in development and verification of numerical models to predict the effects of the Avoca Island Extension and delta evolution...These sediment-laden waters of the Atchafa- laya River can reach Terrebonne marsh by going around the southern tip of the existing Avoca Island
accessible to multiple users concurrently. 7 V tebl’ t 1I, y wkIy sum 11 to mod ium oca e Ivetuter syst um atrv toarkeLed tor use as letivral purposut...Many military asid government evi itronments have experienced increasitig denainds to proecst" cotieurrent v infortlWion at multiple leves of...inforniation store Into multiple levels of cliaeifiedaion and to confine each information object to its associated partition, and thereby preventing the
and puoitirtes %WS gi- instists the fishing induqtrn’ thritogh marketing servie and orennoff.e analysis pirograms. and moortglagor inanrfo. & ---d c...onsrsatmnnnnd m~oap,.’tnt Publicationn that reniwn in conniderablo detail and at a high technialI leve’lcertain brand arm. of remoearr app.. notinta wrivot...A. S. Cla,*..l& 125 4P WHITE-BEAKED DOLPHIN (T) Lagenorhynchts albirostris Gray 1846 Other Common Names features by which the two species may be
base of operations until after the Battle at Chalmette. In December 1814 , the British land forces made their way to St. Bernard Parish and advanced...City Price to Tropical Bend ......... ............ 102 Reach B-1: Tropical Bend to Fort Jackson and Reach B-2: Fort Jackson to Venice...NOV Area boundaries and the locations of the reaches and levees. 3 Price to Tropical Bend , Louisiana (River miles 30.4 to 44.9)" (Davis et al. 1978:2
Mississippi River and the Inner Harbor Navigation Canal (IHNC) on the west, the Mississippi state border on the east, and the Lake Pontchartrain shoreline...the Forty Arpent Canal , and Paris Road, makes up the “Impoundment Area” AU (IA AU). This AU consists of outfall-related impoundments in the west and...east by the MRGO Canal , the north by Bayou Bienvenue, the west by the containment levee, and on the south by the St. Bernard ridge. Additional
Leonard, Christina M.
This study examined approximately 66 km of the Snake River, WY, USA, spanning a natural reach within Grand Teton National Park and a reach immediately downstream that is confined by artificial levees. We linked the channel adjustments observed within these two reaches between 2007 and 2012 to sediment transport processes by developing a morphological sediment budget. A pair of digital elevation models (DEMs) was generated by fusing LiDAR topography with depth estimates derived from optical image data within wetted channels. Errors for both components of the DEMs (LiDAR and optical bathymetry) were propagated through the DEM of difference and sediment budget calculations. Our results indicated that even with the best available methods for acquiring high resolution topographic data over large areas, the uncertainty associated with bed elevation estimates implied that net volumetric changes were not statistically significant. In addition to the terrain analysis, we performed a tracer study to assess the mobility of different grain size classes in different morphological units. Grain sizes, hydraulic conditions, and flow resistance characteristics along cross-sections were used to calculate critical discharges for entrainment, but this bulk characterization of fluid driving forces failed to predict bed mobility. Our results indicated that over seasonal timescales specific grain classes were not preferentially entrained. Surface and subsurface grain size data were used to calculate armoring and dimensionless sediment transport ratios for both reaches; sediment supply exceeded transport capacity in the natural reach and vice versa in the confined reach. We used a conceptual model to describe channel adjustments to lateral constriction by levees. Initially we suggest levees focused flow energy and incised the bed, resulting in bed armoring. Bed armoring promoted channel widening, but levees prevented this and instead the channel migrated more rapidly within the
any event, the 2AFC type of task is preferable and should be used whenever possible. 4.1 Method of Adjustment The method of adjustment (MOA) is the...itself to use with a 2AFC (iesSpatial or temporal) indicator, but results unfortunately require many trials. However, the data obtained by this method... 2AFC response indicator. 4 5. CONTRAST SENSITIVITY The eye, or visual system if one wishes to consider higher leve! processing, responds primarily to
namely the use of vehicle and personal armor and explosive ordnance disposal robots .”9 Throughout this period, the other services established similar...above for Marines assigned to operate and/or le.ad/supetvi~. metal detector operation:; (8 how·s). • Operate a Robot in an IED Environment Course for... robot operators in units equipped with robots (3 hours). • Homemade Explosives (HME) av..-areness c.ourse for Marines at company leve 1 and below in
rest of the treeline zone; this is reflected by the herbaceous vegetation which is mostly "wet site" species such as sedges ( Cyperaceae ), lizard’ tail...Amaranthaceae, since their grains are too similar to separate into taxa. Cyperaceae pollen, another wind pollinated type, comes from weeds of the sedge (rush...smartweed, lizard’s tail and sedges . In drier areas, the vege- tation is much the same as that on the levee being composed mostly of grasses, clovers
was separated into six separate reaches as listed below and shown on figure 1. Reach I - South city limits to Almonte Avenue. This reach includes...project. Reach 2 - Almonte Avenue to Seventh Avenue South extended. This reach covers the existing Lincoln Park levee/floodwall project. Reach 3...floodwall  with an average height of 5.4 feet extending from Almonte Avenue extended eastward to the existing Lincoln Park floodwall. They would also
number, or the work content , of following work packages. This can get very complicated to manage by hand, but the necessary arit- hmetic is trivial to a...Ship Producibility Research Program managed by the Bath Iron Works Corporation under the National Shipbuilding Research Program - a program jointly...control intended for treatise on planning and production use by the middle leveI managers and supervisors in a commercial shipyard. The basic theme is
months. Monetary losses were in the millions of dollars. Interim repairs to the existing levee and desilting of a portion of a river channel were...STATES ........... TAB "G" . UNSPECIFIED MINOR CONSTRUCTION ............................. TAB "H" ARCHITECTURAL AND ENGINEERING SERVICES AND...REPLACEMENT 5,600 5,600 60 17 023 BACHELOR ENLISTED QUARTERS 12,000 12,000 60 15 010 RIVER FLOOD CONTROL - SANTA 21,869 21,869 60 19 MARGARITA Subtotal
January. Down- stream from the Safe Harbor Dam , the Conowingo Dam , and eventually the City of Port Deposit, Maryland, also were affected by the wave of... dams , bridges, dikes, levees, and wingwalls; block hydropower and water supply intakes; and decrease downstream discharge. Roads may be flooded and...Bulletins, CRREL trip reports, and newspaper articles. Only three of the entries for the Susquehanna River Basin (for 1832, 1904, and 1996) provide dam
Recommended Minimum Dam Top Widths (from Soil Conservation Service (1969)) ................... 23 Table 3. Fill and Drain Times for Warmwater Fish Culture...Recommended Minimum Dam Top vice should be sought when levees are to Widths (from Soil Conservation be raised more than 3 m. Service (1969)) Side slopes...are a function of the type Height of Dam , m Top Width, m of soil used. The most commonly used slope is 3:1 (horizontal to vertical). Under3 2.4 Highly
shows, coca - cola , motorized transportation--the enemy was bel leved able to subsist on some- thing 1 ike one-fourth or one-fifth of the daily tonnage...concept is equally applicable to tactical situations in which the ingredients that made for its success in certain World War I I cam- paigns are absent...All we can do here is to identify the ingredients that were necessary for its success. How their absence would change the concept of interdiction
through the levees or even pump stations would be required to handle high-magnitude floods. The Preliminary Assessment Report plan was dropped from further...elevations for existing conditions and the resulting differences due to the various alternatives, as determined at the Index River Station 22.82...Alternative I is shown on Figure 2. For the 2-year event, the cumulative decrease computed at the Index Station 22.82 is -0.7 feet. At the same station
Rowland, Joel C; Dietrich, William E; Day, Geoff; Parker, Gary
Tie channels connect rivers to floodplain lakes on many lowland rivers and thereby play a central role in floodplain sedimentology and ecology, yet they are generally unrecognized and little studied. here we report the results of field studies focused on tie channel origin and morphodynamics in three contrasting systems: the Middle Fly River, Papua New Guinea, the Lower Mississippi River, and Birch Creek in Alaska. Across these river systems, tie channels vary by an order of magnitude in size but exhibit the same characteristic morphology and appear to develop and evolve by a similar set of processes. In all three systems, the channels are characterized by a narrow, leveed single-thread morphology with maximum width approximately one tenth the width of the mainstem river. The channels typically have a V shaped cross-section, unlike most fluvial channels. These channels develop as lakes become isolated from the river by sedimentation. Narrowing of the connection between river and lake causes a sediment-laden jet to develop. Levees develop along the margins of the jet leading to channel emergence and eventual levee aggradation to the height of the mainstem levees. Bi-directional flow in these channels is common. Outflows from the lake scour sediment and prevent channel blockage. We propose that channel geometry and size are then controlled by a dynamic balance between channel narrowing by suspended sediment deposition and incision and widening by mass failure of banks during outflows. Tie channels are laterally stable and may convey flow for hundreds to a few thousand of years.
Rowland, J. C.; Dietrich, W. E.; Day, G.; Parker, G.
Tie channels connect rivers to floodplain lakes on many lowland rivers and thereby play a central role in floodplain sedimentology and ecology; yet they are generally unrecognized and little studied. Here we report the results of field studies focused on tie channel origin and morphodynamics in the following three contrasting systems: the Middle Fly River (Papua New Guinea), the Lower Mississippi River, and Birch Creek in Alaska. Across these river systems, tie channels vary by an order of magnitude in size but exhibit the same characteristic morphology and appear to develop and evolve by a similar set of processes. In all three systems, the channels are characterized by a narrow, leveed, single-thread morphology with maximum width approximately one tenth the width of the mainstem river. The channels typically have a V-shaped cross section, unlike most fluvial channels. These channels develop as lakes become isolated from the river by sedimentation. Narrowing of the connection between river and lake causes a sediment-laden jet to develop. Levees develop along the margins of the jet leading to channel emergence and eventual levee aggradation to the height of the mainstem levees. Bidirectional flow in these channels is common. Outflows from the lake scour sediment and prevent channel blockage. We propose that channel geometry and size are then controlled by a dynamic balance between channel narrowing by suspended sediment deposition and incision and widening by mass failure of banks during outflows. Tie channels are laterally stable and may convey flow for hundreds to a few thousand of years.
Failure B tes leve (85 %) 80 I 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 LOG CYCIES Figure 4. Stiffness and Residual Strength Versus Life The process of damage development around...arbitrary, but are chosen to reflect transitions in the damage growth process as represented by stiffness change. In region I, the stiffness decreases at a...Thermally induced stresses are imitated in a laminate during the curing process when it reaches a temperature at which the resin changes from a
Leveed fissures and gutters, small scale (<1m) depositional and erosional features that have been imaged at several locations in the equatorial Meridiani Planum region by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity, occur in loose, dark basaltic sands that partly cover exposures of light-toned bedrock. Leveed fissures appear to have been formed by venting from beneath; possible explanations include wind creating blowholes near crater margins, volcanic fumarole activity, or gas/vapour escape resulting from the decomposition of small pockets of ground ice, methane clathrates or hydrated sulphate minerals. Some leveed fissures cross-cut and are therefore younger than aeolian ripples which are thought to have last been active c. 50,000 years ago. Some gutters are sharply defined and fresh, internally terraced, have a hole or hollow at or near one end, and in one case seem to give way to small depositional fans downslope; they have the appearance of having been formed by liquid flow rather than by wind erosion. There is evidence elsewhere that contemporary ground-ice thaw and consequent transient surface run-off may occur occasionally under present conditions in low, near-equatorial latitudes on Mars; short-lived (even for just a few minutes) meltwater emission and flow at the surface could erode gutters before evaporating. The decomposition of buried pockets of methane clathrates, which theoretical considerations suggest might be present and stable even in equatorial regions, could give rise to both methane venting (leveed fissures) and transient surface water (gutters). Yet another possibility is the decomposition, in response to local changes in thermal conditions, of hydrated magnesium sulphate minerals in the bedrock, which could release liquid water to the surface. Whatever their explanation, these features hint at previously unrecognized, young (perhaps even contemporary) martian surface processes.
been converted into a useful navigation and commerce tool with ’many industrial and agricultural centers spreading behind newly strengthened levees...opportunity to expand her colonial boundaries. Her Canadian voyageurs pushed into the upper reaches of the Mississippi throughout the latter half of the...introduction of the steamboat to the Mississippi River exploded even this figure. With the expansion of agriculture and commerce in the lower
R. ToplisekJRock Island District, Corps of Engineers Contributors: Rick Papasso - Upper Mississippi River Wildlife & Fish Refuge Dick Baker - Rock ...Island District, COE Larry Cuddaback - Rock Island District, COE Dr. George Hawker - Western Illinois University Robert Jack - Iowa Conservation...Commissiou Kent Oetken - Iowa River/Flint Creek Levee District Photographs by: Illinois Dept. of Conservation - IDOC U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service - MTNWR Rock
Di Baldassarre, G.; Viglione, A.; Carr, G.; Kuil, L., Jr.; Brandimarte, L.; Yan, K.; Bloeschl, G.
In disaster risk reduction, there is still a lack of methods capturing the dynamics of risk emerging from the complex interplay between physical and social processes. Two examples of these dynamics are the learning and levee effects. The learning effect is about the empirical evidence that more frequent hazardous events are often associated with decreasing societal vulnerability, e.g. human adaptation. The levee effect is about the stylized fact (discussed already by White in the 1940s) that less frequent hazardous events (sometimes paradoxically due to the implementation of risk prevention structures, such as levees) often lead to increasing societal vulnerability. We posit that current projections of future flood risk are not realistic because most analytical frameworks do not capture the aforementioned dynamics. Then, we propose an interdisciplinary approach whereby two-way interactions and feedbacks between social and physical processes are explicitly accounted for (Di Baldassarre et al., 2014; 2015). Here we show an application of this approach with a focus on flood risk changes, and demonstrate its capability to capture and explain the dynamics emerging from socio-techno-nature interactions. Lastly, the potentials and limitations of the proposed approach to assess risk dynamics in a rapidly changing environment are critically discussed.
Bouma, A.H.; Goddard, D. )
Excellent data sources may not answer all pertinent questions and multifold seismic data usually cannot resolve internal characteristics of channel fills, even when it can detect the channel. Well log correlations can be wrong, especially when dealing with thin channel fills and outcrops are seldom sufficiently large to reveal a complete channel fill. In the final analysis, integration of all these types of data is necessary. Although not well understood, a lot of similarities exist between the channel fills from submarine fans and those from deltas. It is definitely beneficial to compare data from both environments. Channels and their fills can be: (1) primarily the result of major erosion forming an incisement that becomes gradually filled; (2) primarily the result of deposition, maintaining a channel, gradually filling it and simultaneously building its levees; (3) massive fill; (4) a bedded fill with or without an upward and/or lateral thinning or fining; or (5) a combination of thick bedded and thin bedded. Many channels alternate between erosional and depositional activities. Often an erosional cut is lined with shale, reducing fluid flow between channel sandstones and those of the levees. Also, a thorough knowledge of all of these varied processes is essential for the understanding of why [open quotes]massive[close quotes] channel fills can be wet and [open quotes]thin-bedded levees[close quotes] deposits oil prone.
Foraging behavior often reflects food availability in predictable ways. For example, in habitats where food availability is high, predators should attack prey more often and move more slowly than in habitats where food availability is low. To assess relative food availability and habitat quality, I studied the foraging behavior of breeding Prothonotary Warblers (Protonotaria citrea) in two forest habitat types, cypress-gum swamp forest and coastal-plain levee forest. I quantified foraging behavior with focal animal sampling and continuous recording during foraging bouts. I measured two aspects of foraging behavior: 1) prey attack rate (attacks per minute), using four attack maneuvers (glean, sally, hover, strike), and 2) foraging speed (movements per minute), using three types of movement (hop, short flight [???1 m], long flight [>1 m]). Warblers attacked prey more often in cypress-gum swamp forest than in coastal-plain levee forest. Foraging speed, however, was not different between habitats. I also measured foraging effort (% time spent foraging) and relative frequency of attack maneuvers employed in each habitat; neither of these variables was influenced by forest type. I conclude that Prothonotary Warblers encounter more prey when foraging in cypress-gum swamps than in coastal-plain levee forest, and that greater food availability results in higher density and greater reproductive success for birds breeding in cypress-gum swamp.
Shu, Li; Finlayson, Brian
The Yellow River, known also as "China's Sorrow", has a long history of channel changes and disastrous floods in its lower reaches. Past channel positions can be identified from historical documentary records and geomorphological and sedimentological evidence. Since 1947, government policy has been aimed at containing the floods within artificial levees and preventing the river from changing its course. Flood control is based on flood-retarding dams and off-stream retention basins as well as artificial levees lining the channel. The design flood for the system has a recurrence interval of only around 60 years and floods of this and larger magnitudes can be generated downstream of the main flood control dams at Sanmenxia and Xiaolangdi. Rapid sedimentation along the river causes problems for storage and has raised the bed of the river some 10 m above the surrounding floodplain. The present management strategy is probably not viable in the long term and to avoid a major disaster a new management approach is required. The most viable option would appear to be to breach the levees at predetermined points coupled with advanced warning and evacuation of the population thus put at risk.
Morton, R.A.; Nava, R.C.; Arhelger, M.
Shoaling in the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway of Laguna Madre, Tex., is caused primarily by recycling of dredged sediments. Sediment recycling, which is controlled by water depth and location with respect to the predominant wind-driven currents, is minimal where dredged material is placed on tidal flats that are either flooded infrequently or where the water is extremely shallow. In contrast, nearly all of the dredged material placed in open water >1.5 m deep is reworked and either transported back into the channel or dispersed into the surrounding lagoon. A sediment flux analysis incorporating geotechnical properties demonstrated that erosion and not postemplacement compaction caused most sediment losses from the placement areas. Comparing sediment properties in the placement areas and natural lagoon indicated that the remaining dredged material is mostly a residual of initial channel construction. Experimental containment designs (shallow subaqueous mound, submerged levee, and emergent levee) constructed in high-maintenance areas to reduce reworking did not retain large volumes of dredged material. The emergent levee provided the greatest retention potential approximately 2 years after construction.
Pierik, Harm Jan; Cohen, Kim; Stouthamer, Esther
Geological-geomorphological reconstructions are important for integrating diverse types of data and improving understanding of landscape formation processes. This works especially well in densely populated Holocene landscapes, where large quantities of raw data are produced by geotechnical, archaeological, soil science and hydrological communities as well as in academic research. The Rhine-Meuse delta, The Netherlands, has a long tradition of integrated digital reconstruction maps and databases. This contributed to improve understanding of delta evolution, especially regarding the channel belt network evolution. In this contribution, we present a new generation of digital map products for the Holocene Rhine-Meuse delta. Our reconstructions expand existing channel belt network maps, with new map layers containing natural levee extent and relative elevation. The maps we present have been based on hundreds of thousands of lithological borehole descriptions, >1000 radiocarbon dates, and further integrate LIDAR data, soil maps and archaeological information. For selected time slices through the Late Holocene, the map products describe the patterns of levee distribution. Additionally, we mapped the palaeo-topography of the levees through the delta, aiming to resolve what parts of the overbank river landscape were the relatively low and high positioned areas in the past landscape. The resulting palaeogeographical maps are integrative products created for a very data-rich research area. They will allow for delta-wide analysis in studying changes in the Late Holocene landscape and the interaction with past habitation.
An, K.; Jones, C. E.; Blom, R. G.; Kent, J. D.; Ivins, E. R.
More than half of Louisiana's drinking water is dependent on groundwater, and extraction of these resources along with high oil and gas production has contributed to localized subsidence in many parts of New Orleans. This increases the vulnerability of levee failure during intense storms such as Hurricane Katrina in 2005, before which rapid subsidence had already been identified and contributed to the failing levees and catastrophic flooding. An interferogram containing airborne radar data from NASA's UAVSAR was combined with local geographic information systems (GIS) data for 2009-12 to help identify the sources of subsidence and mask out unrelated features such as surface water. We have observed the highest vertical velocity rates at the NASA Michoud Assembly Facility (high water use) and Norco (high oil/gas production). Many other notable features such as the: Bonnet-Carre Spillway, MRGO canal, levee lines along the Lower 9th Ward and power plants, are also showing concerning rates of subsidence. Even new housing loads, soil type differences, and buried beach sands seem to have modest correlations with patterns seen in UAVSAR. Current hurricane protection and coastal restoration efforts still have not incorporated late 20th century water level and geodetic data into their projections. Using SAR interferometry and local GIS datasets, areas of subsidence can be identified in a more efficient and economical manner, especially for emergency response.
Maslin, Mark; Knutz, Paul C.; Ramsay, Tony
The Late Quaternary Amazon deep-sea fan provides a modern analogue to ancient fan systems containing coarse-grained hydrocarbon reservoirs. Sand lenses deposited within the Amazon Fan, due to abrupt shifts in channel pathways called avulsion events, were drilled as part of ODP Leg 155. The hemipelagic sediment directly on top of the avulsion sands was dated using primarily AMS radio carbon dating. This dating shows that these large sand lobes (˜1 km 3) are triggered by relatively small, millennial scale changes in marine transgression and regression (±5-10 m). Relative sea level also controls the architecture of the Channel-levee distributive systems within the Amazon Fan. For example prior to 22 k calendar years BP there is a tripartite channel system. After 22 ka there is only one active Channel-levee system. Transitions between the multi-channel and single channel configurations are related to variations in the volume of sediment supply resulting in aggradation or erosion of channel floor and levee growth in the canyon-channel transition area. The sensitivity of the Amazon deep-sea Fan sedimentation to relatively small changes in sea level supports one of the central assumptions of the theory of Sequence Stratigraphy. In addition this study demonstrates how traps for hydrocarbons may have been formed in ancient fan systems.
Conner, W.H.; Day, J.W. Jr.
The Barataria Basin lies entirely in Louisiana between the natural levees of the active Mississippi River and the abandoned Bayou Lafourche distributary. It is characterized by a network of interconnecting water bodies which allows transport of water, materials, and migrating organisms throughout the basin. Natural and artificial levees and barrier islands are the only high, well-drained ground in the basin, which is otherwise characterized by extensive swamp forests and fresh, brackish, and salt marshes. These wetlands and water bodies are extremely productive biologically and provide valuable nursery habitat for a number of commercial and recreational fish and shellfish, as well as habitat for wintering waterfowl and furbearers. The basin is a dynamic system undergoing constant change because of geologic and human processes. The network of bays, lakes, and bayous has gradually enlarged over time due to natural subsidence and erosion. Superimposed on these natural processes has been the construction of levees for flood control and network of canals constructed for oil and gas exploration and extraction. These human activities have altered natural hydrologic patterns in the basin and may directly or indirectly contribute to wetland losses. Controlling wetland deterioration in the basin is a major management concern.
Hartman, Christopher; Ackerman, Josh; Herzog, Mark
Coastal waterbird populations are threatened by habitat loss and degradation from urban and agricultural development and forecasted sea level rise associated with climate change. Remaining wetlands often must be managed to ensure that waterbird habitat needs, and other ecosystem functions, are met. For many waterbirds, the availability of island nesting habitat is important for conserving breeding populations. We used linear mixed models to investigate the influence of pond and island landscape characteristics on nest abundance and nest success of American avocets (Recurvirostra americana), black-necked stilts (Himantopus mexicanus), and Forster's terns (Sterna forsteri) in San Francisco Bay, California, USA, based on a 9-year dataset that included >9,000 nests. Nest abundance and nest success were greatest within ponds and on individual islands located either <1 km or >4 km from San Francisco Bay. Further, nest abundance was greater within ponds with relatively few islands, and on linear-shaped, highly elongated islands compared to more rounded islands. Nest success was greater on islands located away from the nearest surrounding pond levee. Compared to more rounded islands, linear islands contained more near-water habitat preferred by many nesting waterbirds. Islands located away from pond levees may provide greater protection from terrestrial egg and chick predators. Our results indicate that creating and maintaining a few, relatively small, highly elongated and narrow islands away from mainland levees, in as many wetland ponds as possible would be effective at providing waterbirds with preferred nesting habitat.
Droz, L.; Bellaiche, G.; Coutellier, V.
The continental rise of the northern Mediterranean margin is dominated by a coalescing fan-type sedimentation characterized by the complex stacking of interbedded sedimentary bodies, including symmetrical channel-levee complexes organized off the mouth of major canyons, curved ridges probably representing underdeveloped levees of asymmetrical systems, and widespread mass-movement deposits. Fan-type sedimentation in the Mediterranean basin began during the Pliocene. It first appeared ubiquitous on the deep margin and related to the Messinian paleodrainage system. Later, possibly in the early Quaternary, the sedimentation became more focused and organized off major canyons of the margin. The construction of the channel-levee complexes is inferred to have been active mainly during the drops of sea level linked with the Quaternary glaciations. In contrast, mass-movement processes are thought to have been favored during the rise of sea level characterizing the interglacial periods. On the grounds of the relative chronology of the construction of the different types of sedimentary bodies, we tentatively correlate the major active periods of the fan systems with the paleohydrographic network draining, at those times, the southern part of France. These correlations indicate that various successive regions of the Alps provided detritus to the basin through shifting feeding paths (rivers and canyons).
Schneider, James J.; Waller, Bradley G.
The East Everglades area in south-central Dade County, Fla., occupies approximately 240 square miles. The area is flat and low lying with elevations ranging from sea level in the southeast part to 10 feet at Chekika Hammock with an average elevation of about 6 feet. Rainfall in the area averages 57.9 inches a year with about 80% of the total falling during the May to October wet season. There is some residential development and farming in the east-central part of the area where land elevations are slightly higher. Pressure by agricultural, commerical, and housing interests to develop the area is increasing. Historically, most of the area was flooded for extended periods of time. The construction of canals, levees, and controls has lowered the average water levels of the area. This has reduced the extent and decreased the time of flooding. Long-term hydrographs show graphically the effects that the water control works have had on the hydrologic system. The change in discharge into the north end of the East Everglades through the Tamiami Canal outlets, Levees 30 to 67A, due to construction is very pronounced. Maps showing the altitude of the water table for wet and dry periods indicate that Levee 67 Extended Canal greatly influences the water levels and shape of the water-table contours in the northwestern part of the East Everglades. (USGS)
Zander, Timo; Haeckel, Matthias; Berndt, Christian; Chi, Wu-Cheng; Klaucke, Ingo; Bialas, Joerg; Klaeschen, Dirk; Koch, Stephanie; Atgın, Orhan
High-resolution 2D seismic data reveal the character and distribution of up to four stacked bottom simulating reflectors (BSR) within the channel-levee systems of the Danube deep-sea fan. The theoretical base of the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ) calculated from regional geothermal gradients and salinity data is in agreement with the shallowest BSR. For the deeper BSRs, BSR formation due to overpressure compartments can be excluded because the necessary gas column would exceed the vertical distance between two overlying BSRs. We show instead that the deeper BSRs are likely paleo BSRs caused by a change in pressure and temperature conditions during different limnic phases of the Black Sea. This is supported by the observation that the BSRs correspond to paleo seafloor horizons located in a layer between a buried channel-levee system and the levee deposits of the Danube channel. The good match of the observed BSRs and the BSRs predicted from deposition of these sediment layers indicates that the multiple BSRs reflect stages of stable sealevel lowstands possibly during glacial times. The observation of sharp BSRs several 10,000 of years but possibly up to 300,000 yr after they have left the GHSZ demonstrates that either hydrate dissociation does not take place within this time frame or that only small amounts of gas are released that can be transported by diffusion. The gas underneath the previous GHSZ does not start to migrate for several thousands of years.
Pierce, Michael J.; Johnson, Karen L.
The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta is formed at the confluence of the two major rivers that drain the Central Valley of California. The Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers and many interconnecting sloughs meandered back and forth across the tidelands, frequently overflowing their banks. Approximately 1 ,100 miles of levees were constructed to form about 60 tracts or islands that protect these lands from periodic flooding. The levees were constructed of sand, silt, and peat dredged from the channel bottom and are subject to erosion and failure. Owing to compaction, oxidation of the peat, and other related conditions, the islands are subsiding at rates of up to 0.25 ft/yr. The altitude of the land surface of the islands is often below sea level and below the surface water level in the channel. This condition causes stresses that may contribute to high groundwater levels and levee failure. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers requested that the U.S. Geological Survey install and maintain continuous recorders to monitor water levels in each of four wells. Monitoring which began in July 1983 also provided data to show the relation between surface water levels in the channel and groundwater levels in the wells. Dredging began in the area of the Rindge Tract site during the latter part of July 1983. Water levels in all four wells dropped 1.5 to 2 ft between September 1983 and September 1984 and continued to drop thorough December 1984. (Lantz-PTT)
Honda, Kenichi; Fujihira, Kei; Asada, Norichika; Fukushima, Ayumi; Mushiake, Naruo
In this study, focusing on the flood damages in Joso City in Ibaraki Prefecture, we estimated the extent of inundation using multiple SAR satellites and examined their varied results depending on observational bands. We further examined the potential utilization of combined different SAR data for initial responses to disasters. For classification of the inundated areas, a binary classification was used with a threshold of backscatter coefficient and the difference in backscatter coefficient between the usual condition and the situation after the breach. In the extraction of inundation after the breach of the levee, COSMO-SkyMed showed the accuracy of 72.6%, while ALOS-2 PALSAR-2 indicated the accuracy of 66.1%. The extent of inundation were extracted by difference of backscatter coefficient using the data taken by Sentinel-1 and ALOS-2 PALSAR-2 before the breach of the levee, and the comparison analysis results showed that the extent of inundation expanded after the breach of the levee. From the above results, we graded the characteristics of the satellites by their observational bands and spatial resolution.
Ralph, Timothy; Larkin, Zacchary; Hesse, Paul; Westaway, Kira; Heijnis, Henk
Anthropogenic impacts on hydrology and sediment supply are recognized as leading factors contributing to change in many rivers and wetlands. However it is difficult to distinguish between key causes and forms of channel adjustment in fluvial systems where intrinsic geomorphic processes lead to change on a timeframe similar to that of human disturbance. In the Macquarie Marshes, a large (circa 2,500 square kilometres) floodplain wetland in southeastern Australia, intermittent flooding drives sedimentation and erosion leading to levee development, avulsion and floodout. Some contemporary channel change is attributed to human disturbance in the system (e.g. channel incision), which, together with river regulation and recent droughts, have left much of the floodplain high and dry. Distributary channels formed since European settlement in the early 19th century have low sinuosity (1.1 to 1.2), show little evidence of lateral migration, accumulate fine sediment rapidly (0.5 to 10 mm/yr) in levees and floodouts, and avulse or terminate in wetlands. Avulsion appears to occur rapidly; within 100 years. In contrast, the older, discontinuous trunk stream of the lower Macquarie River is more sinuous (1.3 to 1.5) and there is abundant evidence of lateral migration over time followed by levee development on top of ridges and swales. ITRAX core scanning and XRF from sediment profiles in a Macquarie River meander abandoned around 1 ka and subsequently filled with overbank fines revealed no laminations and no evidence of significant geochemical enrichment near the surface that is usually associated with anthropogenic sources (e.g. Pb and Cu). These results indicate a transition in depositional regime and channel adjustment processes from lateral migration to vertical accretion with greater levee development and avulsion in the late Holocene. A clear anthropogenic signal was not found in the sediment record, despite earthworks and other activities contributing to channel change. We
Niebur, Curt Stanley
The Great Flood of 1993 damaged the floodplain of the Lower Missouri River when over 500 levees failed. These levee failures created large scours and deposited massive amounts of sediment on the agricultural floodplain. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service acquired areas heavily damaged by the 1993 floods and incorporated them into the Big Muddy Fish and Wildlife Refuge. One purpose of this refuge system is to restore the Missouri River system within the refuge from its highly engineered state to a more natural form. Analysis of a combination of remote sensing data, fieldwork, and finite element flow models was used to investigate the biogeomorphic evolution of one of these new wetlands refuges, the Lisbon Bottoms/Jameson Island Refuge. Four landcover mapping techniques were used to track changes with time: (1) geomorphic mapping, (2) maximum likelihood classification of Landsat TM data, (3) a linear spectral unmixing model using Landsat TM data, and (4) polarimetric and minimum distance classification of AIRSAR radar scattering data. Research showed that a biogeomorphic feedback loop in which the flow field, geomorphology, sediment, and vegetation interactions controlled the rapid evolution of the refuge after 1993. The 1993 flood first entered the area through levee breaks, forming scour zones, sweeping away most non-woody vegetation, and leaving behind a largely uniform, sand-covered floodplain. Field and remote sensing data showed that xeric sparse vegetation species encroached on high, dry sands, whereas mesic species populated lower, wetter scours. Smaller floods after 1993 entered the levee breaks, extended the scours into chutes, and draped silt and clay over the sand, allowing vegetation to spread rapidly. Remnant levees protected most of the area from fast flows, allowing cottonwood and willow saplings to spread across the study area and dominate the landscape, except in floodplain chutes. Expansion of saplings and the absence of flooding in 1999
Klaucke, I.; Zander, T.; Klaeschen, D.; Papenberg, C. A.; Bialas, J.
Batumi Seep and Kerch Flare are two methane seep areas located in 900-1000 m water depth in the Black Sea, i.e. within the zone gas hydrate stability. Both seeps, however, show the presence of both gas hydrates and free gas bubbles. A number of scenarios explaining such observations have been proposed and suggest either fresh pore water being unavailable or being inaccessible. Batumi Seep, which is located offshore Georgia and shows high fluxes of biogenic gas out of the uppermost hundreds of metres of the sedimentary succession, could well be a case, where the gas flux exceeds the availability of pore water. Kerch Flare, on the other hand, is located on the Don-Kuban Fan offshore Crimea and shows only limited and localised gas flux and most likely represents a case, where fresh pore water is inaccessible. Recently acquired sidescan sonar, water-column imaging and 3D-reflection seismic data around Kerch Flare show little impact of seep activity on the seafloor while a few gas bubble streams are present at the periphery of a central, slightly domed structure of a few hundreds of metres in diameter. Chirp subbottom profiler data do not penetrate this central area, but high-resolution seismic data indicate that Kerch Flare is fuelled from gas reservoirs at greater depth, i.e. several hundreds of metres below seafloor and below the gas hydrate stability zone. Kerch Flare is located on the flanks and not the top of a levee of one of the channels of the Don-Kuban deep-sea fan. Kerch Flare is, however, located right above the top of an older levee that might constitute the source level for the flare. The youngest levee is intensely faulted by sub-vertical faults of which one serves as a conduit for Kerch Flare. We interpret the sub-vertical faults as the result of strengthening of the levee deposits by gas hydrate cementation. Rising gas has to pass through the gas hydrate stability zone and even small amounts of gas within the faults would consequently be efficiently
Pizzuto, J.E.; Moody, J.A.; Meade, R.H.
Centimeter-scale measurements on several Powder River floodplains provide insights into the nature of overbank depositional processes that created the floodplains; during a 20-year period after a major flood in 1978. Rising stages initially entered across a sill at the downriver end of the floodplains. Later, as stages continued to rise, water entered the floodplains through distinct low saddles along natural levees. The annual maximum depth of water over the levee crest averaged 0.19 in from 1983 through 1996, and the estimated flow velocities were approximately 0.15 m s-1. Water ponded in the floodplain trough, a topographic low between the natural levee and the pre-flood riverbank, and mud settled as thin layers of nearly constant thickness. Mud layers alternated with sand layers, which were relatively thick near the channel. Together, these beds created a distinctive natural levee. In some locations, individual flood deposits began as a thin mud layer that gradually coarsened upwards to medium-grained sand. Coarsening-upwards sequences form initially as mud because only the uppermost layers of water in the channel supply the first overbank flows, which are rich in mud but starved of sand. At successively higher stages, fine sands and then medium sands increase in concentration in the floodwater and are deposited as fine- and medium-sand layers overlying the initial mud layer. Theoretical predictions from mathematical models of sediment transport by advection and diffusion indicate that these processes acting alone are unlikely to create the observed sand layers of nearly uniform thickness that extend across much of the floodplain. We infer that other transport processes, notably bedload transport, must be important along Powder River. Even with the centimeter-scale measurements of floodplain deposits, daily hydraulic data, and precise annual surface topographic surveys, we were unable to determine any clear correspondence between the gauged flow record of
Arantegui, A.; Corella, J. P.; Loizeau, J. L.; Anselmetti, F. S.; Girardclos, S.
Deltas are very sensitive environments and highly vulnerable to variations in water discharge and the amount of suspended sediment load provided by the delta-forming currents. Human activities in the watershed, such as building of dams and irrigation ditches, or river bed deviations, may affect the discharge regime and sediment input, thus affecting delta growth. Underwater currents create deeply incised canyons cutting into the delta lobes. Understanding the sedimentary processes in these subaquatic canyons is crucial to reconstruct the fluvial evolution and human impact on deltaic environments and to carry out a geological risk assessment related to mass movements, which may affect underwater structures and civil infractructure. Recently acquired high-resolution multibeam bathymetry on the Rhone Delta in Lake Geneva (Sastre et al. 2010) revealed the complexity of the underwater morphology formed by active and inactive canyons first described by Forel (1892). In order to unravel the sedimentary processes and sedimentary evolution in these canyons, 27 sediment cores were retrieved in the distal part of each canyon and in the canyon floor/levee complex of the active canyon. Geophysical, sedimentological, geochemical and radiometric dating techniques were applied to analyse these cores. Preliminary data show that only the canyon originating at the current river mouth is active nowadays, while the others remain inactive since engineering works in the watershed occurred, confirming Sastre et al. (2010). However, alternating hemipelagic and turbiditic deposits on the easternmost canyons, evidence underflow processes during the last decades as well. Two canyons, which are located close to the Rhone river mouth, correspond to particularly interesting deeply incised crevasse channels formed when the underwater current broke through the outer bend of a meander in the proximal northern levee. In these canyons, turbidites occur in the sediment record indicating ongoing
Harvey, Judson W.; Newlin, Jessica T.; Krest, James M.; Choi, Jungyill; Nemeth, Eric A.; Krupa, Steven L.
Everglades restoration. A century of water management for flood control and water storage in the Everglades resulted in the creation of the Water Conservation Areas (WCAs). Construction of the major canals began in the 1910s and the systems of levees that enclose the basins and structures that move water between basins were largely completed by the 1950s. The abandoned wetlands that remained outside of the Water Conservation areas tended to dry out and subside by 10 feet or more, which created abrupt transitions in land-surface elevations and water levels across the levees. The increases in topographic and hydraulic gradients near the margins of the WCAs, along with rapid pumping of water between basins to achieve management objectives, have together altered the patterns of recharge and discharge in the Everglades. The most evident change is the increase in the magnitude of recharge (on the upgradient side) and discharge (on the downgradient side) of levees separating WCA-2A from other basins or areas outside. Recharge and discharge in the vast interior of WCA-2A also likely have increased, but fluxes in the interior wetlands are more subtle and more difficult to quantify compared with areas close to the levees. Surface-water and ground-water interactions differ in fundamental ways between wetlands near WCA-2A's boundaries and wetlands in the basin's interior. The levees that form the WCA's boundaries have introduced step functions in the topographic and hydraulic gradients that are important as a force to drive water flow across the wetland ground surface. The resulting recharge and discharge fluxes tend to be unidirectional (connecting points of recharge on the upgradient side of the levee with points of discharge on the downgradient side), and fluxes are also relatively steady in magnitude compared with fluxes in the interior. Recharge flow paths are also relatively deep in their extent near levees, with fluxes passing entirely through the 1-m peat layer and inte
de otras fuentes. En el presente estudio , se utilizan animales acuáticos y, en concreto, especies de tiburón en las que el colágeno tipo I es una...función de la fuente de la que se obtiene. En el presente estudio , se utilizó la piel de tiburón como fuente rica en colágeno tipo I. La piel de...biocompatibilidad y propiedades biodegradables son únicas. El colágeno bovino y porcino tipo I constituyen una fuente fácilmente disponible de
García-Cazorla, Àngels; Cortès-Saladelafont, Elisenda; Duarte, Sofia
Introduccion. Los conocimientos que la neurociencia basica y el neurometabolismo estan aportando en epilepsia pediatrica, y en concreto en mecanismos de comunicacion sinaptica, crecen rapidamente. Existe, no obstante, una desconexion entre estos avances y una vision que los integre de manera global y en la practica clinica y terapeutica. Objetivos. Ofrecer una vision integradora de los diferentes mecanismos moleculares y metabolicos que se conocen y postulan en epilepsia pediatrica, y sugerir conceptos como el de 'metabolismo sinaptico' y 'fenotipos sinapticos' como herramientas utiles para desarrollar este enfoque. Desarrollo. Se revisan los estudios mas destacados que intentan explicar las caracteristicas esenciales de la comunicacion sinaptica en el cerebro en desarrollo, a traves de diferentes moleculas, basicamente proteinas sinapticas, canales ionicos (cotransportadores de cloro, sodio y potasio), la compartimentalizacion pre y postsinaptica, y los principales actores metabolicos (neurotransmisores, metabolismo energetico, factores de crecimiento y lipidos). A partir de esta combinacion de mecanismos biologicos se sugieren ejemplos de 'fenotipos sinapticos' en dos casos concretos de epilepsia genetica (SCN1A) y metabolica (epilepsia con respuesta a la piridoxina). Conclusiones. Una perspectiva holistica, entendiendo la diversidad de elementos relacionados y que suceden en determinados momentos del neurodesarrollo, puede ayudar a delinear fenotipos, vias de metabolismo sinaptico y conectividad cerebral, que faciliten no solo la comprension de la fisiopatologia, sino nuevas aproximaciones terapeuticas en epilepsia pediatrica.
Enigmatic small scale (<1m) depositional and erosional features have been imaged at several locations in the equatorial Meridiani Planum region by the rover Opportunity. They occur in loose, dark basaltic sands partly covering exposures of light-toned bedrock. Leveed fissures are narrow, elongate, steep-sided depressions flanked by raised levees or half-cones of soil, typically 2-10 cm wide and up to 50 cm long in most cases. Some cross-cut and are therefore younger than eolian ripples thought to have last been active c. 50,000 years ago. Gutters are elongate, straight or sinuous surface depressions, typically 2-10cm wide and 1-5 cm deep, sometimes internally terraced or with a hollow near one end, and in one case seem to give way to small depositional fans downslope; they have the appearance of having been formed by liquid flow rather than by wind erosion. Leveed fissures were imaged at more than 25 locations by Opportunity between 2004 and 2013, particularly near the rims of Endurance, Erebus and Endeavour craters, but also on the plains between Santa Maria and Endeavour craters; sharply-defined gutters are less common but examples were imaged close to the rim of Endurance and on the approach to Endeavour, whereas subdued, possibly wind-softened examples are more widespread. Scrutiny of images obtained by the rover Spirit in Gusev Crater between 2004 and 2010 has so far failed to find any leveed fissures or gutters, but examples of both types of features, as well as numerous small holes suggestive of surface sediment falling into underlying voids, were imaged by the rover Curiosity in the Yellowknife Bay region of Gale Crater during 2013. Leveed fissures appear to have been formed by venting from beneath. Ground disturbance by the rover can be ruled out in many cases by the appearance of features in images taken before close approach. Blowholes seem plausible close to crater rims (where wind might enter a connected void system through a crater wall) but less so
Fletcher, J. B.; Boatwright, J.
The Sacramento/San Joaquin River Delta lies on the western edge of the Great Valley and contains a system of levees that are thought to be prone to catastrophic failure from a major earthquake in the San Francisco Bay area or on faults along the western border of the Great Valley. To assess this risk we deployed digital recorders and broadband sensors in late 2006 and 2007 at 3 levee sites in the Delta (each site had a top and base sensor) and at one reference site to the west. Cone penetrometer data show that at the base, the soils have low S-wave velocities of 170 to 240 m/s. Upper soil layers are typically peats and aeolian sands. During the nine months of deployment, we recorded 3 local events (45km
Bergmann, Fenna; Schwenk, Tilmann; Spiess, Volkard; France-Lanord, Christian
The Bengal Fan, hosted in the northern Indian Ocean, is the largest submarine fan on Earth. Fan evolution started in the Early Eocene as a direct response to the collision of India with the Asian continent in Middle Paleocene times. Subsequently the Himalayan plateau uplift was initiated. Thereby generated interactions with the regional climate caused the evolution of the Indian monsoonal system. Drained by the rivers Ganges and Brahmaputra, ~ 80% of eroded Himalayan sediments are deposited in the Bengal Fan. Hence, the Fan provides the most complete record of the Himalayan history and is well suited to investigate the direct link between the tectonic uplift and the climate evolution of the region. Sediments are transported onto the deep sea fan by turbidity currents building up chan-nel-levee systems. These channel-levee systems are the main architectural elements of the Bengal Fan and are suspected to have their onset in Late Miocene times. Frequent channel avulsion on the upper fan led to the abandonment of old channels and formation of new channel-levee systems or even channel-reoccupation. This complex erosional/depositional system involves lateral depocenter migration, probably on millennial timescales. Conse-quently, investigations of the Himalaya as sediment source begins with a comprehensive understanding of transport, deposition and modification within the Bengal Fan sediment sink. In February/March 2015 the IODP Expedition 354 drilled at 7 sites along a ~320 km long E-W transect at 8° N. Aiming at the recovery of pre-fan deposits and deposits of the Pliocene and Upper Miocene Fan evolution, three deep sites (900 - 1200 mbsf) were realized. These where complemented by four shallow sites (200-300 mbsf) for a detailed study of the depos-its of the last 1-2 million years, including the latest known channel activities (Holocene times). Several channel-levee systems and inter-channel deposits were drilled, active at different times of Fan evolution. To
King, P.R.; Browne, G.H.; Slatt, R.M.
Approximately 700m of deep water clastic deposits of Mt. Messenger Formation are superbly exposed along the Taranaki coast of North Island, New Zealand. Biostratigraphy indicates the interval was deposited during the time span 10.5-9.2m.y. in water depths grading upward from lower bathyal to middle-upper bathyal. This interval is considered part of a 3rd order depositional sequence deposited under conditions of fluctuating relative sea-level, concomitant with high sedimentation rates. Several 4th order depositional sequences, reflecting successive sea-level falls, are recognized within the interval. Sequence boundaries display a range of erosive morphologies from metre-wide canyons to scours several hundred metres across. All components of a generic lowstand systems tract--basin floor fan, channel-levee complex and progading complex--are present in logical and temporal order. They are repetitive through the interval, with the relatively shallower-water components becoming more prevalent upward. Basin floor fan lithologies are mainly m-thick, massive and convolute-bedded sandstones that alternate with cm- and dm-thick massive, horizontally-stratified and ripple-laminated sandstones and bioturbated mudstones. Channel-levee deposits consist of interleaving packages of thin-bedded, climbing-rippled and parallel-laminated sandstones and millstones; infrequent channels are filled with sandstones and mudstones, and sometimes lined with conglomerate. Thin beds of parallel to convoluted mudstone comprise prograding complex deposits. Similar lowstand systems tracts can be recognized and correlated on subsurface seismic reflection profiles and wireline logs. Such correlation has been aided by a continuous outcrop gamma-ray fog obtained over most of the measured interval. In the adjacent Taranaki peninsula, basin floor fan and channel-levee deposits comprise hydrocarbon reservoir intervals. Outcrop and subsurface reservior sandstones exhibit similar permeabilities.
Burke, Roger A.; Meyer, Judith L.; Cruse, Jennifer M.; Birkhead, Karen M.; Paul, Michael J.
The soil-atmosphere exchange of methane was measured in adjacent cultivated (corn) and forest (upper floodplain, mixed hardwood) habitats of the southeastern U.S. piedmont for a period of 3 years using closed chambers. We have evaluated the effect of the following factors on soil-atmosphere methane exchange: (1) interannual variability of climatic conditions, (2) landscape position (i.e., river levee versus terrace), and (3) disturbance ranging from intense (cultivation) through moderate (approximately annual flooding events that last from weeks to months) to subtle (approximately annual flooding of a few days duration). We found that mean methane consumption in the cultivated and forested terrace sites was <0.3 mg CH4 m-2 d-1, whereas the mean consumption rate in forested levee sites was about 1.4 mg CH4 m-2 d-1 over the course of the 3 years. Moisture levels in the upper soil (0-5 cm) appear to exert little control of methane exchange in any of the habitats. We observed little seasonal variation in methane flux in the levee sites, in contrast to results observed by others in higher-latitude and tropical forests. Our results suggest that very subtle differences in landscape position and disturbance impact the strength of the soil methane sink. We cannot conclude that agricultural development destroyed the methane sink capacity of these floodplain terrace soils because it was probably already quite low due to periodic disturbance by flooding. Limited measurements of nitrogen cycling suggest that methane flux differences observed among the different habitats are not obviously related to differences in N mineralization or nitrification as in other ecosystems.
Fricke, A. T.; Nittrouer, C. A.; Ogston, A. S.; Nowacki, D. J.; Asp, N. E.; Souza Filho, P. W.
Tidal influence extends ~800 kilometers upstream of the Amazon River mouth, producing semidiurnal oscillations in water elevation and slowing or reversing the flow of the world's largest river. This tidally influenced reach, known as the tidal river, is flanked by an expansive intertidal floodplain, and includes confluences with two large tributaries, the Xingu and Tapajós. The relative magnitude of the seasonal and tidal signals changes along the length of the tidal river, yielding diverse floodplain environments that span a range of seasonal and tidal influence. Near the upstream limit of tides, natural levees isolate the river from the floodplain during low to moderate flows, while in the lower tidal river, natural levees are absent and river-floodplain exchange is dominated by the tides rather than seasonal variation in river stage. This difference between fluvial and tidal systems strongly affects the nature of sediment exchange between the channel and floodplain, including frequency, duration, and depth of inundation. Here we present data on the impact of this fluvial-tidal continuum on sedimentary processes in the floodplain and resultant depositional signatures. Changes in levee prominence, grain size, and sediment accumulation combine to produce the distinct morphologies of floodplain lakes, intertidal backswamps, and intertidal flats. In addition to sediment accumulation on the periodically exposed floodplain, Amazon River sediment accumulates within the drowned tributary confluences of the Xingu and Tapajós Rivers. Here seasonal and tidal changes in water temperature, discharge, and suspended-sediment concentration drive barotropic and baroclinic flows that transport Amazon River sediment into tributary basins. These findings help to constrain the fate of sediment within the ungauged Amazon tidal river, and will help in understanding the response of the lower Amazon River to changes in accommodation space associated with rising sea level, and changes
Piper, D. ); Savoye, B. )
Late Quaternary sedimentation patterns on the Var deep-sea fan are known from high-resolution seismic boomer profiles (vertical resolution < 1 m), piston cores, SAR side-scan sonargraphs, and submersible dives. Foram biostratigraphy and radiocarbon dating provide chronologic control that is seismically correlated across the fan. Regional erosional events correspond to the isotopic state 2 and 6 glacial maxima. A widespread surface sand layer was deposited from the 1979 turbidity current, which broke two submarine cables. Numerical modeling constrains its character. A small slide on the upper prodelta developed into an accelerating turbidity current, which eroded sand from the Var canyon. The current was 30 m thick in the upper valley, expanding downflow to >120 m, where it spilled over the eastern Var sedimentary ridge at a velocity of 2.5 ms[sup [minus]1]. Other Holocene turbidity currents (with a 103-yr recurrence interval) were muddier and thicker, but also deposited sand on middle fan-valley levees and are inferred to have had a similar slide-related origin. Late Pleistocene turbidity currents deposited on the high Var sedimentary ridge. The presence of sediment waves and the cross-flow slope inferred from levee asymmetry indicate that some flow were hundreds of meters thick, with velocities of 0.35 ms[sup [minus]1]. Estimated times for deposition of thick levee mud beds are many days or weeks. Late Pleistocene flows therefore are interpreted to result from hyperpycnal flow of glacial outwash in the Var River. Variation in late Pleistocene-Holocene turbidite sedimentation thus is controlled more by changes in sediment supply than by sea level.
Ibendahl, G A; Stephens, W B; Myers, M L
An area of health and safety risk in agriculture that can be especially dangerous is catfish farming. One of the potential sources of injuries on catfish farms is tractor overturns that often result in crushing injuries. There is likely a higher probability of tractor overturns on a catfish farm than on a traditional crop farm due to the conditions that prevail on catfish farms. A catfish farm requires tractor movement near pond levees and water, and these levees have steep banks. Many of the activities on a catfish farm, such as mowing, feeding, and pond maintenance, require operating a tractor near a pond levee. Rollover protection structures (ROPS) on tractors can help to minimize the injuries caused by tractor overturns. ROPS do not lessen the probability of overturns, but ROPS mitigate the expected injury severity and lower the associated costs of an overturn. Despite the benefits of ROPS, not every tractor is so equipped. Some earlier work indicated that the cost to retrofit older tractors might outweigh the expected benefits. This article uses stochastic (i.e., randomly determined) analysis to determine if risk-averse farmers are more likely than risk-neutral farmers to retrofit tractors with ROPS. For this analysis, a distribution function of injury costs should an overturn occur was developed for both ROPS and non-ROPS tractors, and a Monte Carlo simulation was conducted. Results indicate that many risk-averse producers would be willing to retrofit older tractors with ROPS. However producers who are risk-neutral probably will not retrofit. These results might explain why not all tractors have been retrofitted despite the long-term availability of retrofit kits.
O'Grady, A P; Eamus, D; Cook, P G; Lamontagne, S
We examined sources of water and daily and seasonal water use patterns in two riparian tree species occupying contrasting niches within riparian zones throughout the wet-dry tropics of northern Australia: Corymbia bella Hill and Johnson is found along the top of the levee banks and Melaleuca argentea W. Fitzg. is restricted to riversides. Patterns of tree water use (sap flow) and leaf water potential were examined in four trees of each species at three locations along the Daly River in the Northern Territory. Predawn leaf water potential was higher than -0.5 MPa throughout the dry season in both species, but was lower at the end of the dry season than at the beginning of the dry season. Contrary to expectations, predawn leaf water potential was lower in M. argentea trees along the river than in C. bella trees along the levees. In contrast, midday leaf water potential was lower in the C. bella trees than in M. argentea trees. There were no seasonal differences in tree water use in either species. Daily water use was lower in M. argentea trees than in C. bella trees. Whole-tree hydraulic conductance, estimated from the slope of the relationship between leaf water potential and sap flow, did not differ between species. Xylem deuterium concentrations indicated that M. argentea trees along the riverbank were principally reliant on river water or shallow groundwater, whereas C. bella trees along the levee were reliant solely on soil water reserves. This study demonstrated strong gradients of tree water use within tropical riparian communities, with implications for estimating riparian water use requirements and for the management of groundwater resources.
Wang, Linlin; Wang, Zhenqi; Yu, Shui; Ngia, Ngong Roger
The Miocene deepwater gravity-flow sedimentary system in Block A of the southwestern part of the Lower Congo Basin was identified and interpreted using high-resolution 3-D seismic, drilling and logging data to reveal development characteristics and main controlling factors. Five types of deepwater gravity-flow sedimentary units have been identified in the Miocene section of Block A, including mass transport, deepwater channel, levee, abandoned channel and sedimentary lobe deposits. Each type of sedimentary unit has distinct external features, internal structures and lateral characteristics in seismic profiles. Mass transport deposits (MTDs) in particular correspond to chaotic low-amplitude reflections in contact with mutants on both sides. The cross section of deepwater channel deposits in the seismic profile is in U- or V-shape. The channel deposits change in ascending order from low-amplitude, poor-continuity, chaotic filling reflections at the bottom, to high-amplitude, moderate to poor continuity, chaotic or sub-parallel reflections in the middle section and to moderate-weak amplitude, good continuity, parallel or sub-parallel reflections in the upper section. The sedimentary lobes are laterally lobate, which corresponds to high-amplitude, good-continuity, moundy reflection signatures in the seismic profile. Due to sediment flux, faults, and inherited terrain, few mass transport deposits occur in the northeastern part of the study area. The front of MTDs is mainly composed of channel-levee complex deposits, while abandoned-channel and lobe-deposits are usually developed in high-curvature channel sections and the channel terminals, respectively. The distribution of deepwater channel, levee, abandoned channel and sedimentary lobe deposits is predominantly controlled by relative sea level fluctuations and to a lesser extent by tectonism and inherited terrain.
Johnson, K.G.; Quinones-Marquez, Ferdinand; Gonzalez, Ralph
The magnitude, frequency and extent of the flood of October 7, 1985 at the Rio Coamo in the vicinity of the Coamo Dam and Highway 52 bridge in southern Puerto Rico, were investigated. The observed flood profiles were used to calibrate a step-backwater model. The calibrated model was then used to investigate several alternative flow conditions in the vicinity of the bridge. The peak discharge of the flood at the Highway 52 bridge was 72,000 cu ft/sec. This peak discharge was determined from the peak computed at a reach in the vicinity of the Banos de Coamo, about 1.2 mi upstream from the bridge. The computed discharge at the Banos de Coamo of 66,000 cu ft/sec was adjusted to the dam and bridge location by multiplying it by the ratio of the drainage areas raised to the 0.83 power. The flood had a recurrence interval of about 100 yr, exceeding all previously known floods at the site. The flood overtopped the spillway and levee of the Coamo Dam just upstream of Highway 52. The flow over the spillway was 54,000 cu ft/sec. Flow over the levee was about 18,000 cu ft/sec. About 10,000 cu ft/sec of the flow over the levee returned to the main channel at the base of the embankment at the northeast approach to the bridge. The remaining 8,000 cu ft/sec flowed south through the underpass on Highway 153. The embankment and shoulder on the northern span of the bridge were eroded with the eventual collapse of the approach slab. (Author 's abstract)
Gimenez-Castejon, D; Gomez-Gallego, M; Martinez-Martinez, M L; Dudekova, M; Lajara-Blesa, J
Introduccion. La enfermedad de Alzheimer (EA) es la primera causa de demencia mundial. Cada vez son mas los esfuerzos para lograr una deteccion temprana del deterioro cognitivo y surgen en el panorama cientifico entidades diagnosticas como el deterioro cognitivo leve (DCL) y las quejas subjetivas de memoria (QSM). Debido a ello, aparecen numerosos biomarcadores estudiados para conseguir dicho objetivo, entre ellos la tomografia de coherencia optica. Sujetos y metodos. Se ha realizado un estudio que utiliza la tomografia de coherencia optica para medir el grosor macular y la capa de fibras nerviosas de la retina en pacientes diagnosticados de EA (n = 36), pacientes con DCL (n = 33), en individuos con QSM (n = 24) y en sujetos control (n = 45). Resultados. Se han encontrado diferencias estadisticamente significativas en cuanto al grosor macular entre todos los grupos estudiados (QSM: 261,8 ± 25,88 µm; DCL: 259,19 ± 22,582 µm; EA leve: 258,53 ± 14,804 µm; EA moderada: 249,32 ± 18,467 µm) y sujetos control (271,96 ± 15,57 µm). Respecto a la capa de fibras nerviosas de la retina, ocurre de igual manera, y la diferencia es estadisticamente significativa frente al grupo control (94,51 ± 9,203 µm) de todos los grupos (QSM: 90,44 ± 9,059 µm; DCL: 89,4 ± 10,421 µm; EA leve: 87,12 ± 10,279 µm; EA moderada: 82,25 ± 10,636 µm). Conclusion. La tomografia de coherencia optica podria situarse como un futuro biomarcador y una herramienta de apoyo para facilitar el diagnostico precoz del deterioro cognitivo y de la EA.
Fildani, A.; Normark, W.R.; Kostic, S.; Parker, G.
The Monterey East system is formed by large-scale sediment waves deposited as a result of flows stripped from the deeply incised Monterey fan valley (Monterey Channel) at the apex of the Shepard Meander. The system is dissected by a linear series of steps that take the form of scour-shaped depressions ranging from 3·5 to 4·5 km in width, 3 to 6 km in length and from 80 to 200 m in depth. These giant scours are aligned downstream from a breech in the levee on the southern side of the Shepard Meander. The floor of the breech is only 150 m above the floor of the Monterey fan valley but more than 100 m below the levee crests resulting in significant flow stripping. Numerical modeling suggests that the steps in the Monterey East system were created by Froude-supercritical turbidity currents stripped from the main flow in the Monterey channel itself. Froude-supercritical flow over an erodible bed can be subject to an instability that gives rise to the formation of cyclic steps, i.e. trains of upstream-migrating steps bounded upstream and downstream by hydraulic jumps in the flow above them. The flow that creates these steps may be net-erosional or net-depositional. In the former case it gives rise to trains of scours such as those in the Monterey East system, and in the latter case it gives rise to the familiar trains of upstream-migrating sediment waves commonly seen on submarine levees. The Monterey East system provides a unique opportunity to introduce the concept of cyclic steps in the submarine environment to study processes that might result in channel initiation on modern submarine fans.
Torres-Sierra, Heriberto; Gómez-Fragoso, Julieta
Results from the simulated dam failure of the Lago de Matrullas Dam using the HEC–RAS model for the 6- and 24-hour PMP events showed peak discharges at the dam of 3,149.33 and 3,604.70 m3/s, respectively. Dam failure during the 100-year-recurrence, 24-hour rainfall event resulted in a peak discharge of 2,103.12 m3/s directly downstream from the dam. Dam failure under sunny day conditions produced a peak discharge of 1,695.91 m3/s at the dam assuming the antecedent lake level was at the morning-glory spillway invert elevation. Flood-inundation maps prepared as part of the study depict the flood extent and provide valuable information for preparing an Emergency Action Plan. Results of the failure analysis indicate that a failure of the Lago de Matrullas Dam could cause flooding to many of the inhabited areas along stream banks from the Lago de Matrullas Dam to the mouth of the Río Grande de Manatí. Among the areas most affected are the low-lying regions in the vicinity of the towns of Ciales, Manatí, and Barceloneta. The delineation of the flood boundaries near the town of Barceloneta considered the effects of a levee constructed during 2000 at Barceloneta in the flood plain of the Río Grande de Manatí to provide protection against flooding to the near-by low-lying populated areas. The results showed overtopping can be expected in the aforementioned levee during 6- and 24-hour probable-maximum-precipitation dam failure scenarios. No overtopping of the levee was simulated, however, during dam failure scenarios under the 100-year recurrence, 24-hour rainfall event or sunny day conditions.
Oliveira, Pedro; Brito, José; Mendes, João; da Fonseca, Jorge; Águas, Artur; Martins dos Santos, José
Introdução: Em tecidos e órgãos expostos a ruído de baixa frequência de alta amplitude ocorre fibrose na ausência de sinais inflamatórios, que se pensa ser uma resposta protetora. No tecido conjuntivo perivasculo-ductal da glândula parótida seguem artérias, veias e a árvore ductal. Crê-se que o tecido conjuntivo perivasculo-ductal funcione como um estabilizador mecânico do tecido glandular.Material e Métodos: Para quantificar a proliferação de tecido conjuntivo perivasculo-ductal em ratos expostos a ruído de baixafrequência de alta amplitude foram utilizados 60 ratos Wistar igualmente divididos em seis grupos. Um grupo mantido em silêncio, e os restantes 5 expostos a ruído de baixa frequência de alta amplitude continuamente: g1-168h (1 semana); g2-504h (3 semanas); g3-840h (5semanas); g4-1512h (9 semanas) e g5-2184h (13 semanas). Após a exposição, as parótidas foram removidas e o tecido conjuntivo perivasculo-ductal foi medido em todos os grupos. Foi efectuada análise estatística com ANOVA por SPSS 13.0.Resultados: A tendência é um aumento global das áreas do tecido conjuntivo perivasculo-ductal, que se desenvolve de forma linear e significativa com o tempo de exposição (p < 0,001).Discussão: Tem sido sugerido que a resposta biológica à exposição ao ruído de baixa frequência de alta amplitude está associada à necessidade de manter a integridade estrutural. O reforço estrutural seria conseguido através do aumento do tecido conjuntivo perivasculo-ductal.Conclusões: Assim, estes resultados mostram que o tecido conjuntivo perivasculo-ductal aumenta em resposta à exposição ao ruído de baixa frequência de alta amplitude.
The Times-Picayune, New Orleans' only dailynewspaper, has justly been praised for thedetermination of its publisher and staff to keeppublishing in the wake of Hurricane Katrina,which occurred one year ago. Despite having toevacuate its building, which sustained seriousdamage, and despite the fact that many staffmembers lost their own homes to Katrina'sstorm surge and levee breaks, the paper nevermissed an issue-although for the first fewdays, it produced only its electronic edition.The paper demonstrated the highest standardsof community service.
Photographic copy of circa 1935, black and white, 10 x 14 photograph. Loose in Huey P. Long folder in oversized box located at the National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, Archives Center, Work and Industry Division, Washington, D.C. Photographer, Lionel T. Berryhill, Apple Valley, California. CIRCA 1935 PHOTOGRAPH OF BRIDGE TAKEN FROM WEST BANK LOOKING NORTH AT PIER A NEAR LEVEE. - Huey P. Long Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River approximately midway between nine & twelve mile points upstream from & west of New Orleans, Jefferson, Jefferson Parish, LA
Submarine slides exhibit landward-dipping, wavy, mounded, and chaotic seismic reflections that are manifestations of slump blocks and other mass transport material. Composition of these internally derived slide deposits depends on the composition of the preexisting shelf margin. Embayment fill above the slide consists mostly of externally derived mudstones and sandstones deposited by various disorganized slope processes, as well as more organized submarine channel-levee systems. Thickest slope sandstones, which are potential hydrocarbon reservoirs, commonly occur above the basal slide mudstones where seismic reflections change from chaotic patterns to overlying wavy or subhorizontal reflections.
velocities in Dry Creek that caused erosion of its left and right bank and created a scour hole in the channel invert downstream of a sheet pile...the scour hole in the channel invert of Dry Creek. The bank erosion and scour hole , overtime, could cut into both left and right bank levees and...erosion and a scour hole were observed downstream of the sheet pile control structure of Dry Creek at channel Station 50+38.57C to Station 50+78.57C
Izenberg, N.R.; Arvidson, R. E.; Brackett, R.A.; Saatchi, S.S.; Osburn, G.R.; Dohrenwend, J.
The Missouri River floods of 1993 caused significant and widespread damage to the floodplains between Kansas City and St. Louis. Immediately downstream of levee breaks, flood waters scoured the bottoms. As the floodwaters continued, they spread laterally and deposited massive amounts of sand as crevasse splays on top of agricultural fields. We explore the use of radar interferometry and backscatter data for quantitative estimation of scour and deposition for Jameson Island/Arrow Rock Bottoms and Lisbon Bottoms, two bottoms that were heavily damaged during the floods and subsequently abandoned. Shuttle imaging radar C (SIR-C) L band (24 cm) HH (horizontally transmitted and horizontally received) radar backscatter data acquired in October 1994 were used together with a distorted Born approximation canopy scattering model to determine that the abundance of natural leafy forbs controlled the magnitude of backscatter for former agricultural fields. Forb areal density was found to be inversely correlated with thickness of sand deposited during the floods, presumably because thick sands prevented roots from reaching nutrient rich, moist bottoms soils. Using the inverse relationship, a lower bound for the mass of sand added was found to be 6.3 million metric tons over the 17 km2 study area. Digital elevation data from topographic synthetic aperture radar (TOPSAR) C band (5.6 cm) interferometric observations acquired in August 1994 were compared to a series of elevation profiles collected on the ground. Vertical errors in TOPSAR were estimated to range from 1 to 2 m, providing enough accuracy to generate an estimate of total mass (4.7 million metric tons) removed during erosion of levees and scour of the bottoms terrains. Net accretion of material to the study areas is consistent with the geologic record of major floods where sediment-laden floodwaters crested over natural levees, initially scoured into the bottoms, and then deposited sands as crevasse splays as the flows
Carr, M. H.; Greeley, R.
Despite the difference in size Martian and Hawaiian volcanoes have numerous characteristics in common. Specific features such as lava channels, collapsed lava tubes, levees and flow fronts, all very common in Hawaii, are also abundant on the flanks of some of the Martian volcanoes. Striking differences also exist, such as the apparent lack of radial rift zones on some Martian volcanoes and the paucity of cinder and spatter cones. Some of the best photographs of Martian and Hawaiian volcanic features are presented. Descriptive legends are provided for each picture. An overview of the geological processes and structures depicted is included.
Dixon, Timothy H; Amelung, Falk; Ferretti, Alessandro; Novali, Fabrizio; Rocca, Fabio; Dokka, Roy; Sella, Giovanni; Kim, Sang-Wan; Wdowinski, Shimon; Whitman, Dean
It has long been recognized that New Orleans is subsiding and is therefore susceptible to catastrophic flooding. Here we present a new subsidence map for the city, generated from space-based synthetic-aperture radar measurements, which reveals that parts of New Orleans underwent rapid subsidence in the three years before Hurricane Katrina struck in August 2005. One such area is next to the Mississippi River-Gulf Outlet (MRGO) canal, where levees failed during the peak storm surge: the map indicates that this weakness could be explained by subsidence of a metre or more since their construction.
7 A-AG9A 13 e04..RADO SCHOOL OF MINES GOLDEN FB1u TUNNL BORING MACHINE TECHNOLOGY FOR A DEEPLY BASED MISSILE F/6-.13C/1 LUG 80 B B CLARK, L OZDEMIR...F WANG sY60 -.4-0057ILSSFE AFWL-TR-79-I2O-VOL-2 NL 2flfllflfflfllflfflf AFWL-TR-79-120, Vol. II AFWL LR - LEVE P) Vol. 11 TUNNEL BORING MACHINE TECHNOLOGY...andSubitt.e) 5. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED TUNNEL BORING MACHINE TECHNOLOGY FOR A DEEPLY BASED MISSILE SYSTEM Final Report 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT
price levels or by using October, 1979 unit construction costs. Capital cost estimates for levee measures include the cost of pumping facilities. It...the Bois de Sious River, the Mustinka River, and the 1ubbit River. Lake Traverse and the associated smaller Mud Lake were constructed by the Corps of...the perimeters of the subbasin that form an excellent habitat for wildlife. 3 Breckeniridge Rod 0$ I-T River -N- V1’ ~~i4 ’ ,...4(- a El ow
Helgeson, D.L.; Schaffner, L.W.
The economics of sunflower oil as an extender or substitute for diesel fuel in US agriculture, with particular emphasis on North Dakota, is examined. A study of the spot market prices indicates that crude sunflower oil has moved closer competitively with bulk diesel prices. On the question of energy efficiency, it is estimated, that using current production and processing estimates, there is a positive net energy ratio of 5.78 to 1. Processing can take place at the commercial leveL, in intermediate sized plants or on-farm. Costs were analyzed for three sizes of farm presses. (Refs. 6).
tasks such as bomb defusing and detonation . The portability and low cost associated with small unmanned systems allows for deployment by ground troops...directly from the vehicle’s telemetry stream. The ground course of the vehicle is then rotated to be relative to North, the vehicle’s position in latitude...0 , 0 , 1 ] ] ) # Rotation from body to l o c a l 35 l o c 1 f=np . dot ( l o c 1 f , R BtoL ) 36 37 #Fol lower l o c1 from Local Leve l Frame (L
Riedel, M.; Collett, T.S.; Shankar, U.
During the India National Gas Hydrate Program (NGHP) Expedition 01 in 2006 significant sand and gas hydrate were recovered at Site NGHP-01-15 within the Krishna-Godavari Basin, East Coast off India. At the drill site NGHP-01-15, a 5-8m thick interval was found that is characterized by higher sand content than anywhere else at the site and within the KG Basin. Gas hydrate concentrations were determined to be 20-40% of the pore volume using wire-line electrical resistivity data as well as core-derived pore-fluid freshening trends. The gas hydrate-bearing interval was linked to a prominent seismic reflection observed in the 3D seismic data. This reflection event, mapped for about 1km2 south of the drill site, is bound by a fault at its northern limit that may act as migration conduit for free gas to enter the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ) and subsequently charge the sand-rich layer. On 3D and additional regional 2D seismic data a prominent channel system was imaged mainly by using the seismic instantaneous amplitude attribute. The channel can be clearly identified by changes in the seismic character of the channel fill (sand-rich) and pronounced levees (less sand content than in the fill, but higher than in surrounding mud-dominated sediments). The entire channel sequence (channel fill and levees) has been subsequently covered and back-filled with a more mud-prone sediment sequence. Where the levees intersect the base of the GHSZ, their reflection strengths are significantly increased to 5- to 6-times the surrounding reflection amplitudes. Using the 3D seismic data these high-amplitude reflection edges where linked to the gas hydrate-bearing layer at Site NGHP-01-15. Further south along the channel the same reflection elements representing the levees do not show similarly large reflection amplitudes. However, the channel system is still characterized by several high-amplitude reflection events (a few hundred meters wide and up to ~1km in extent) interpreted as gas
AD-A210 088 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Form Approved WrMN PAGE0MB No ()704-0188 la RPORTSECQ!TY -AssF.(L; i RES’C it MA %CS ()NA 14 J 1 ILL 2a SECURITY...NUMBERS 800N. uicy t.PROGRAM PROiECT rASK P T’O ~80NQunyS.EiLEVE T NO NO NO jACCES ON NO Arlington, VA 22217-5000 61153N IRR 4106 4413-009 1 1 TITLE...include Security Classification) (u) Iron Associated Outer Membrane Proteins of Magnetic Bacteria 12 PERSONAL AuTHOR(S) Blakemore, Richard Peter 1 3a
Nolan, J.J.; Williams, R.H.; Betzen, G.A.
The Bannister Federal Complex is bordered on the east by the Blue River and on the south by Indian Creek. After a flood in 1961 and several near-miss floods, flood protection has been installed. The protection consists of 2,916 feet of concrete flood walls, 8,769 feet of levee, five rolling gates, four stoplog gaps, one hinged pedestrian gate, and one sandbag gap. The flood walls are over 14 feet tall. Construction was started on August 3, 1992 and was completed in early 1995. Architectural treatment was incorporated in the flood walls as well as landscaping to enhance the appearance of the flood protection.
elevation of Avenue "A", with a staff gauge reading of 3.5 feet above flood stage. b. The Stilliguamish from Stanwood to Oso was observed. C. Russ...River. Mr. Sass accompanied COE personnel as they continued to inspect levees and a washed out bridge downstream to Oso . Two bridges might qualify for...how bmTOM underrnined by walor Mod roads Hervue affected by landslides now cleared. SlWkormnmn Mum Lem break cmW Carnation flooft in Slowsh River
Francis, P. W.
The primary objective was to identify all the active volcanoes in the Andean region of Bolivia. Morphological features of the Tata Sabaya volcano, Bolivia, were studied with the thematic mapper. Details include marginal levees on lava and pyroclastic flows, and summit crater structure. Valley glacier moraine deposits, not easily identified on the multispectral band scanner, were also unambiguous, and provide useful marker horizons on large volcanic edifices which were built up in preglacial times but which were active subsequently. With such high resolution imagery, it is not only possible to identify potentially active volcanoes, but also to use standard photogeological interpretation to outline the history of individual volcanoes.