Chlaib, Hussein Khalefa
Levees are important engineering structures that build along the rivers to protect the human lives and shield the communities as well as agriculture lands from the high water level events. Animal burrows, subsurface cavities, and low density (high permeability) zones are weakness features within the levee body that increase its risk of failure. To prevent such failure, continuous monitoring of the structure integrity and early detection of the weakness features must be conducted. Application of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and Capacitively Coupled Resistivity (CCR) methods were found to be very effective in assessing the levees and detect zones of weakness within the levee body. GPR was implemented using multi-frequency antennas (200, 400, and 900 MHz) with survey cart/wheel and survey vehicle. The (CCR) method was applied by using a single transmitter and three receivers. Studying the capability and the effectiveness of these methods in levee monitoring, subsurface weakness feature detection, and studying the structure integrity of levees were the main tasks of this dissertation. A set of laboratory experiments was conducted at the Geophysics Laboratory of the University of Arkansas at Little Rock (UALR) to analyze the polarity change in GPR signals in the presence of subsurface voids and water-filled cavities. Also three full scale field expeditions at the Big Dam Bridge (BDB) Levee, Lollie Levee, and Helena Levee in Arkansas were conducted using the GPR technique. This technique was effective in detecting empty, water, and clay filled cavities as well as small scale animal burrows (small rodents). The geophysical work at BDB and Lollie Levees expressed intensive subsurface anomalies which might decrease their integrity while the Helena Levee shows less subsurface anomalies. The compaction of levee material is a key factor affecting piping phenomenon. The structural integrity of the levee partially depends on the density/compaction of the soil layers. A
Engineers have worked for millennia to control natural flooding through dams and levees. While the fundamental principles and challenges of holding back water have not changed, the tools brought to the task continue to evolve. Among other tools being tested and implemented today are elaborate sensors to detect stresses and strains within structures, and impermeable lining materials known as geomembranes, which are laid underneath the structure before it is built to prevent water seepage. PMID:16393647
Dalton, Laura M.
Shallow slough slides have occurred along the river side slope of Mississippi River Levees for over sixty years. Shallow slough slides also occur along smaller levees that protect tributaries of the Mississippi River. This investigation takes place along a section of the Coldwater River Levee, a tributary levee of the Mississippi River. Field observation, soil samples, and geophysical data were collected at two field sites located on the border of Tate and Tunica County, MS. The first site consists of a developed shallow slough slide that had occurred that has not yet been repaired and the second site is a potential slide area. Electromagnetic induction and electrical resistivity tomography were the geophysical methods used to define subsurface conditions that make a levee vulnerable to failure. These electrical methods are sensitive to the electrical conductivity of the soil and therefore depend upon: soil moisture, clay content, pore size distribution as well as larger scale structures at depth such as cracks and fissures. These same physical properties of the soil are also important to assessing the vulnerability of a levee to slough slides. Soil tests and field observations were also implemented in this investigation to describe and classify the soil composition of the levee material. The problem of slough slide occurrence can potentially be reduced if vulnerabilities are located with the help of geophysical techniques.
Elalfy, E. Y.; LaRocque, L.; Riahi-Nezhad, C. K.; Chaudhry, H.
Levees are constructed along rivers and channels for flood protection. Failure of these levees can cause loss of life and property damage. A better understanding of the flow field from a levee breach allows the decision maker to assess risks and to prepare emergency plans. For this purpose, a two-dimensional numerical model is developed to simulate the levee breach. The model solves the shallow-water equations using the MacCormack explicit, finite- difference two-step, predictor-corrector scheme. The scheme is second-order accurate in time and space. The artificial viscosity technique is used to smooth the high-frequency oscillations in the computed results. The numerical results compare satisfactorily with the experimental results. A parametric study is carried-out to investigate the effect of main channel width, breach width on the computed flow field.
Johnson, E.; Sustainable; Resiliency in Levee Scour Protection
Earnest Johnson, Firat Y. Testik *, Nadarajah Ravichandran Civil Engineering, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, USA * Contact author firstname.lastname@example.org Levee failure due to scouring has been a prominent occurrence among intense storm surges and waves, giving rise to the implementation of various scour protection measures over the years. This study is to investigate the levee scour and to compare different scour protection measures on a model-levee system in a laboratory wave tank. The protection measures that are tested and compared for their effectiveness in this study include turf reinforcement mats, woven geotextiles, and core-locs. This is an ongoing research effort and experiments are currently being conducted with model levees constructed based upon the United States Army Corps of Engineers' levee design and construction guidelines under various simulated storm conditions. Parameters such as wave elevations, deformation time history of the floodwall, and the scour depth are measured in each test. The finding of this research will be translated to provide effective scour protection measures for robust levee designs.
Hui, Rui; Jachens, Elizabeth; Lund, Jay
Traditional risk-based analysis for levee planning focuses primarily on overtopping failure. Although many levees fail before overtopping, few planning studies explicitly include intermediate geotechnical failures in flood risk analysis. This study develops a risk-based model for two simplified levee failure modes: overtopping failure and overall intermediate geotechnical failure from through-seepage, determined by the levee cross section represented by levee height and crown width. Overtopping failure is based only on water level and levee height, while through-seepage failure depends on many geotechnical factors as well, mathematically represented here as a function of levee crown width using levee fragility curves developed from professional judgment or analysis. These levee planning decisions are optimized to minimize the annual expected total cost, which sums expected (residual) annual flood damage and annualized construction costs. Applicability of this optimization approach to planning new levees or upgrading existing levees is demonstrated preliminarily for a levee on a small river protecting agricultural land, and a major levee on a large river protecting a more valuable urban area. Optimized results show higher likelihood of intermediate geotechnical failure than overtopping failure. The effects of uncertainty in levee fragility curves, economic damage potential, construction costs, and hydrology (changing climate) are explored. Optimal levee crown width is more sensitive to these uncertainties than height, while the derived general principles and guidelines for risk-based optimal levee planning remain the same.
... Maintenance Manual specified by 33 CFR 208.10(a)(10) will fulfill the requirement of providing a levee owner's... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Levee owner's manual. 203.51... Program § 203.51 Levee owner's manual. (a) Authority. In accordance with section 202(f) of Public Law...
Many lava flows have two distinct volumetric components during emplacement. First, there is a component actively flowing in accordance with Newtonian or other constitutive relations. Second, there may be an inactive, stationary component that is no longer participating in the forward movement of the flow. Such passive components may take the form of flow-confining levees, solidified lateral margins, overspilling, plating, small ponds and sidestreams, or a lava tube. To describe the conservation of flow volume for the active component, governing equations are given and discussed.
Florsheim, J.L.; Dettinger, M.D.
Even in heavily engineered river systems, climate still governs flood variability and thus still drives many levee breaks and geomorphic changes. We assemble a 155-year record of levee breaks for a major California river system to find that breaks occurred in 25% of years during the 20th Century. A relation between levee breaks and river discharge is present that sets a discharge threshold above which most levee breaks occurred. That threshold corresponds to small floods with recurrence intervals of ???2-3 years. Statistical analysis illustrates that levee breaks and peak discharges cycle (broadly) on a 12-15 year time scale, in time with warm-wet storm patterns in California, but more slowly or more quickly than ENSO and PDO climate phenomena, respectively. Notably, these variations and thresholds persist through the 20th Century, suggesting that historical flood-control effects have not reduced the occurrence or frequency of levee breaks. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.
Mohrig, D.; Straub, K. M.; Buttles, J.; Pirmez, C.
A laboratory experiment resolves, at a reduced scale, many of the interactions between turbidity currents and bottom topography that lead to construction of channel-bounding levees. Analysis of the experimental data focuses on establishing the connections between levee thickness, levee taper and composition (grain size). These levee characteristics are in turn related to the following physical properties of the depositing currents: 1) current thickness relative to the local depth of the channel; and 2) vertical profiles of suspended-sediment concentration and grain size within the interiors of currents. Change in local depth confined more or less current within the channel and determined the fraction of current present at and above the levee-crest elevation where it could act as a sediment source for bank construction. A relatively thick, steep and coarse-grained levee was constructed at locations along the channel where the currents were significantly thicker than the channel was deep and a relatively thin, weakly tapered and fine-grained levee formed where the channel was deeper. Levee deposition rate varied as a function of both the absolute concentration and size of the particles suspended in the depositing current at the elevation of the local levee crest. Likewise, the laterally varying deposition rates that produced the levee taper were controlled by the vertical gradients in suspended-sediment concentration and grain size for only that fraction of the current moving out onto the bank of the channel. Trends reported here were measured in a straight channel and not affected by any cross-channel variation associated with channel bends. Variability in levee form and composition induced by irregularity in channel plan-form complicates the connection between properties of the depositing flows and the levees they construct, increasing the number of measurements necessary to resolve any systematic change in levee properties through space or time. The experimental
Kees, C. E.; Farthing, M. W.; Akkerman, I.; Bazilevs, Y.
One of the dominant failure modes of levees during flood and storm surge events is erosion-based breach formation due to high velocity flow over the back (land-side) slope. Modeling the breaching process numerically is challenging due to both physical and geometric complexity that develops and evolves during the overtopping event. The surface water flows are aerated and sediment-laden mixtures in the supercritical and turbulent regimes. The air/water free surface may undergo perturbations on the same order as the depth or even topological change (breaking). Likewise the soil/fluid interface is characterized by evolving headcuts, which are essentially moving discontinuities in the soil surface elevation. The most widely used models of levee breaching are nevertheless based on depth-integrated models of flow, sediment transport, and bed morphology. In this work our objective is to explore models with less restrictive modeling assumptions, which have become computationally tractable due to advances in both numerical methods and high-performance computing hardware. In particular, we present formulations of fully three-dimensional flow, transport, and morphological evolution for overtopping and breaching processes and apply recently developed finite element and level set methods to solve the governing equations for relevant test problems.
Barbetta, Silvia; Camici, Stefania; Maccioni, Pamela; Moramarco, Tommaso
A properly designed and constructed levees system can often be an effective device for repelling floodwaters and provide barriers against inundation to protect urbanized and industrial areas. However, the delineation of flooding-prone areas and the related hydraulic hazard mapping taking account of uncertainty (Apel et al., 2008) are usually developed with a scarce consideration of the possible occurrence of levee failures along river channels (Mazzoleni et al., 2014). Indeed, it is well known that flooding is frequently the result of levee failures that can be triggered by several factors, as: (1) overtopping, (2) scouring of the foundation, (3) seepage/piping of levee body/foundation, and (4) sliding of the foundation. Among these failure mechanisms that are influenced by the levee's geometrical configuration, hydraulic conditions (e.g. river level and seepage), and material properties (e.g. permeability, cohesion, porosity, compaction), the piping caused by seepage (ICOLD, http://www.icold-cigb.org) is considered one of the most dominant levee failure mechanisms (Colleselli F., 1994; Wallingford H. R., 2003). The difficulty of estimating the hydraulic parameters to properly describe the seepage line within the body and foundation of the levee implies that the study of the critical flood wave routing is typically carried out by assuming that the levee system is undamaged during the flood event. In this context, implementing and making operational a National Levee Database (NLD), effectively structured and continuously updated, becomes fundamental to have a searchable inventory of information about levees available as a key resource supporting decisions and actions affecting levee safety. The ItaliaN LEvee Database (INLED) has been recently developed by the Research Institute for Geo-Hydrological Protection (IRPI) for the Civil Protection Department of the Presidency of Council of Ministers. INLED has the main focus of collecting comprehensive information about
Recent flood events in Austria have reawakened practical and scientific interest in the stability of levees. One focus amongst others has been taken on the relationship between vegetation and levee stability with special reference to the role of woody plants. The effects of woody plants are undoubtedly manifold: On the one hand they can potentially have a negative influence and endanger levees, which is why many guidelines ban woody vegetation to preserve stability, visual inspection and unhindered flood-fight access. On the other hand woody vegetation can have several positive impacts on soil stability and which effects prevail depends largely on types and characteristics of plants. This shows how controversially woody plants on levees can be discussed and the strong need for further research in this field. In order to obtain new insights and widen horizons for this controversial issue, a research project carried out by the Institute of Soil Bioengineering and Landscape Construction - at the University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna - was launched. This project deals with several aspects of effects of woody plants have on levees and focuses particularly on shrubby woody plants. The examined vegetation type is a dense stand of willows - Purple-Willows (Salix purpurea L.) - commonly used for stabilization of river embankments. The proposed contribution discusses the gained results with reference to levee stability and existing levee vegetation guidelines and gives design suggestions for compatible woody vegetation on levees.
Jones, Cathleen E.
Radar remote sensing offers great potential for high resolution monitoring of ground surface changes over large areas at one time to detect movement on and near levees and for location of seepage through levees. Our NASA-funded projects to monitor levees in the Sacramento Delta and the Mississippi River have developed and demonstrated methods to use radar remote sensing to measure quantities relevant to levee health and of great value to emergency response. The DHS-funded project will enable us is to define how to optimally monitor levees in this new way and set the stage for transition to using satellite SAR (synthetic aperture radar) imaging for better temporal and spatial coverage at lower cost to the end users.
... Maintenance Manual specified by 33 CFR 208.10(a)(10) will fulfill the requirement of providing a levee owner's... Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation and...
... Maintenance Manual specified by 33 CFR 208.10(a)(10) will fulfill the requirement of providing a levee owner's... Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation and...
... Maintenance Manual specified by 33 CFR 208.10(a)(10) will fulfill the requirement of providing a levee owner's... Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation and...
Wei, Hongyan; Yu, Minghui; Wang, Dangwei; Li, Yitian
Experiments were conducted in a bend flume to study the overtopping breaching process and the corresponding overflow rates of river levees constructed with cohesive sediments. The river and land regions were separated by the constructed levee in the bend flume. Results showed that the levee breaching process can be subdivided into a slope erosion stage, a headcut retreat stage and a breach widening stage. Mechanisms such as flow shear erosion, impinging jet erosion, side slope erosion and cantilever collapse were discovered in the breaching process. The erosion characteristics were determined by both flow and soil properties. Finally, a depth-averaged 2-D flow model was used to simulate the levee breaching flow rates, which is well expressed by the broad-crested weir flow formula. The deduced discharge coefficient was smaller than that of common broad-crested rectangular weirs because of the shape and roughness of the breach.
Mueller, G.A.; Carpenter, J.; Marsh, P.C.; Minckley, C.O.
Bonytail and razorback sucker have once again spawned and produced swim-up larvae in Cibola High Levee Pond (CHLP). CHLP continues to support annual recruitment of bonytail while recent razorback sucker recruitment remains elusive. Thus far, razorbacks have experienced intermittent years of spawning success. Both native species were observed spawning on, or near, the riprap on the river levee. Razorbacks spawned from late January until mid-March over gravel and large cobble along the levee toe (2-3 m depth) and bonytail spawned along the levee shoreline during mid-April. Razorback suckers rapidly fin during the reproductive act, which flushes fines from the substrate and leaves gravel relatively clean. Bonytail on the other hand, appear to spawn over or on substrate that has been disturbed by beaver activity. Substrate scour or disturbance appears to be an important factor in spawning site selectiona?|
Hui, R.; Lund, J. R.; Madani, K.
Risk-based analysis has been developed for optimal levee design for economic efficiency. Along many rivers, two levees on opposite riverbanks act as a simple levee system. Being rational and self-interested, land owners on each river bank would tend to independently optimize their levees with risk-based analysis, resulting in a Pareto-inefficient levee system design from the social planner's perspective. Game theory is applied in this study to analyze decision making process in a simple levee system in which the land owners on each river bank develop their design strategies using risk-based economic optimization. For each land owner, the annual expected total cost includes expected annual damage cost and annualized construction cost. The non-cooperative Nash equilibrium is identified and compared to the social planner's optimal distribution of flood risk and damage cost throughout the system which results in the minimum total flood cost for the system. The social planner's optimal solution is not feasible without appropriate level of compensation for the transferred flood risk to guarantee and improve conditions for all parties. Therefore, cooperative game theory is then employed to develop an economically optimal design that can be implemented in practice. By examining the game in the reversible and irreversible decision making modes, the cost of decision making myopia is calculated to underline the significance of considering the externalities and evolution path of dynamic water resource problems for optimal decision making.
Kim, Sooyoung; Yang, Jiro; Song, Chang Geun; Lee, Seung Oh
Lack of the freeboard of levee has been occurred due to abnormally peaked flood events. Thus, the risk from overtopping of earthfill levee has been remarkably increased. When overflow on levee starts to occur, the breaching gap suddenly grows up at initial stage. As the breach width is extended, the discharge from breached section is also nonlinearly increased. Moreover, if the levee is located through multiple cities, the related damage cannot be predictable. However, researches about the breach mechanism have been focused on the breached shape of levee on the equilibrium state and the study on the development of levee breach is not enough to utilize the prediction of damage itself and select its countermeasure. In this study, the formula for breach discharge was presented to be able to predict that based on hydraulic experimental results. All experiments have been conducted with the movable levee which was the crown width of 0.3 m, the height of 0.3 m, the landside slope of 2:1 (H:V). Breach was induced by the lateral overflow for Froude numbers in main channel from 0.15 to 0.35 with the increment of 0.05. Based on the dimensional analysis with significant parameters such as main channel depth, breach width and discharge coefficient, temporal variation of each parameter was estimated with 25 experimental cases. Finally, the formula for prediction of breach flow due to overtopping failure of levee was presented considering the elapsed time for each Froude number after combing all significant parameters. When Froude number was less than 0.3, the breach discharge occurred to increase with Froude number while it became decreased with Froude number exceeding 0.3, which means the maximum breach discharge was occurred at Froude number = 0.3. It would be explained with the flow diversion caused by the collision of breach flow on the breached section downstream, which decreased the breach discharge into landside for higher Froude number of 0.3. As a future works, when the
Dabbiru, L.; Aanstoos, J. V.; Mahrooghy, M.; Gokaraju, B.; Nobrega, R. A.; Younan, N. H.
Monitoring the physical condition of levees is vital in order to protect them from flooding. The dynamics of subsurface water events can cause damage on levee structures which could lead to slough slides, sand boils or through seepage. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) technology, due to its high spatial resolution and soil penetration capability, is a good choice to identify such problem areas so that they can be treated to avoid possible catastrophic failure. The radar polarimetric and interferometric data is capable of identifying variations in soil properties of the areas which might cause levee failure. The study area encompasses portion of levees of the lower Mississippi river in the United States. The methodology of this research is mainly categorized into two streams: 1) polarimetric data analysis and classification, and 2) interferometric analysis. Two sources of SAR imagery are used: a) quad-polarized, L-band data from Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) for polarimetric classification, and b) high resolution dual-polarized Terrasar-X data for interferometric analysis. NASA's UAVSAR imagery acquired between 2009 and 2011 are used for the analysis. The polarimetric classification is performed based on the decomposition parameters: entropy (H), anisotropy (A) and alpha (α) and the results detected slough slides on the levees and potential future slides. In the interferometric approach, the Terrasar-X SAR images acquired at different times in the year 2011 are combined into pairs to exploit the phase difference of the signals. The interferometric information is used to find evidence of potential small-scale deformations which could be pre-cursors to levee failure.
Choung, Yun Jae
Mapping levees is important to assessing levee stability, identifying flood risks for the areas protected by levee systems, etc. Historically, mapping levees has been carried out using ground surveying methods or only one type of remote sensing data set. This dissertation aims at mapping the levees by using airborne topographic LiDAR data and multispectral orthoimages taken in the river basins of the Nakdong River. In this dissertation, three issues with mapping levees are illustrated. The first issue is developing new methods for mapping levee surfaces by using geometric and spectral information. Levee surfaces consist of multiple objects having different geometric and spectral patterns. This dissertation proposes multiple methods for identifying the major objects and eroded areas on the levee surfaces. Multiple geometric analysis approaches such as the slope difference analysis and the elevation and area analysis are used to identify the levee top, berm, slope plates and the eroded area having different geometric patterns. Next, the spectral analysis approach, such as clustering algorithms, is used to identify major objects having different spectral patterns on the plates identified. Finally, multiple components, including the major objects and eroded areas on the levee surfaces, are identified. The second issue is developing new methods for mapping levee lines by using the geometric and spectral information. In general, the levee lines are determined on levee surfaces by considering the geometric pattern, the types of major objects, etc. This dissertation proposes multiple methods for mapping the levee lines located on various levee surfaces. First, the three baselines (the edges extracted from the images, the cluster boundaries extracted from the identified clusters and the plate boundaries extracted from the LiDAR data) are extracted separately from different sources. Next, the judgment test is performed in order to select one baseline as the levee line
Tanda, M.; D'Oria, M.; Mignosa, P.
During severe flood events, sometime, levee breaches occur in a river reach causing the flooding of the surrounding area. Most levee failures are not instantaneous but they gradually evolve over a period of time: the initial breach progressively increases its depth and enlarges its width. After the failure takes place, even if its location can be known, the breach progression is hard to be recovered. However, if one or more sites monitored with level gauges are located downstream the failure site, the breach time evolution leaves an imprint in these water levels. The knowledge of the breach progression can be useful to better understand the effective dynamics of the failure and to evaluate the breach flood wave in order to simulate the flooding process for forensic purposes among others. In this work an inverse methodology to estimate the progression of an occurred levee breach in a natural river using water level data available at monitored stations downstream the failure is presented. The methodology is based on a Bayesian approach to the inverse problem coupled with geostatistical models to describe the structure of the unknown breach time evolution. The methodology requires a forward hydraulic model of the considered river reach able to accurately reproduce not only the flow routing processes but also the levee breach in terms of progression and outflow discharge. In this work, a 1D forward model (USACE HEC-RAS river analysis system) that solves the unsteady flow De Saint Venant equations has been used. A simplified description of both the depth and the width time evolution of the levee breach has been considered. The methodology has been tested by means of synthetic examples of several levee breaches considering different stressing flood waves and different locations of the observed water levels used as input for the inverse procedure. The results highlight the reliability of the procedure in estimating the progression of the levee breach and consequently the
Dierauer, Jennifer; Pinter, Nicholas; Remo, Jonathan W. F.
SummaryOne-dimensional hydraulic modeling and flood-loss modeling were used to test the effectiveness of levee setbacks for flood-loss reduction along the Middle Mississippi River (MMR). Four levee scenarios were assessed: (1) the present-day levee configuration, (2) a 1000 m levee setback, (3) a 1500 m levee setback, and (4) an optimized setback configuration. Flood losses were estimated using FEMA's Hazus-MH (Hazards US Multi-Hazard) loss-estimation software on a structure-by-structure basis for a range of floods from the 2- to the 500-year events. These flood-loss estimates were combined with a levee-reliability model to calculate probability-weighted damage estimates. In the simplest case, the levee setback scenarios tested here reduced flood losses compared to current conditions for large, infrequent flooding events but increased flood losses for smaller, more frequent flood events. These increases occurred because levee protection was removed for some of the existing structures. When combined with buyouts of unprotected structures, levee setbacks reduced flood losses for all recurrence intervals. The "optimized" levee setback scenario, involving a levee configuration manually planned to protect existing high-value infrastructure, reduced damages with or without buyouts. This research shows that levee setbacks in combination with buyouts are an economically viable approach for flood-risk reduction along the study reach and likely elsewhere where levees are widely employed for flood control. Designing a levee setback around existing high-value infrastructure can maximize the benefit of the setback while simultaneously minimizing the costs. The optimized levee setback scenario analyzed here produced payback periods (costs divided by benefits) of less than 12 years. With many aging levees failing current inspections across the US, and flood losses spiraling up over time, levee setbacks are a viable solution for reducing flood exposure and flood levels.
Shimada, T.; Yokoyama, H.
The increased occurrence of storm disasters caused by typhoons and local downpours in recent years has given rise to concerns over the possibility of large-scale floods resulting from river overflow. Levee breaches cause particularly severe damage, and in Japan, more than 80% of such accidents in the past have been attributed to overflow. Studies on levee breach by overflow have been conducted from various viewpoints using diverse methods. However, the mechanism of three-dimensional levee breach by overflow has not been clarified in past studies. Elucidation of this mechanism is very important for disaster prevention as well as for the future progress of studies on levee breach by overflow. Levees (levee crown width; 3m, levee height; 3m, levee length; 80m) were built in the Chiyoda Experimental Channel (full-scale experimental channel; width is 30m, length is 1,300m, maximum discharge is 170t/s) in Hokkaido Japan in 2010, and a three-dimensional experiment on levee breach by overflow. The findings of the experiment are as follows: After the beginning of overflow, levee breach widening did not begin until after most of the levee section had collapsed. It was also considered that, even if overflow occurred, extremely serious damage (e.g., sudden increase in levee breach width and overflow discharge) was unlikely unless the majority of the levee section collapsed.
Nereson, A. L.; Finnegan, N. J.
Slow-moving landslides, or earthflows, are characterized by persistent, flow-like motion that is commonly modeled using various viscous and viscoplastic rheologies. One of the manifestations of viscoplastic flow down a slope is the emergence of stationary bodies of fluid at the margins of the flow (i.e. lateral levees). These levees are common signatures of earthflow morphology and, while they are frequently used to outline boundaries for mapping purposes, they have received little attention for what they may indicate about the history and properties of the flow itself. In contrast, lateral levees along lava flows have long been used by physical volcanologists as tools to learn about their non-Newtonian rheologies and chemical compositions. Hulme (1974) was the first to note that, for a given slope, levee width may be characteristic of a fluids's yield strength and his methodology has been subsequently used to infer properties of lavas on the Earth, the Moon, and Mars. Using these lavas as analogies, we apply Hulme's approach to earthflows in a variety of settings globally. We find that calculated yield strengths for individual earthflows fall within a relatively narrow range between 101-102 kPa. In addition, individual earthflow complexes often preserve multiple generations of levees, which in some cases may record apparent reductions in yield strength over time for a given flow, possibly from weakening of previously failed material. Knowledge of earthflow yield strength permits the calculation of a critical earthflow thickness below which there will be no downslope motion for a given slope angle. Thicknesses calculated in this manner could thus be used to estimate the flux of landslide material for earthflows without direct depth constraints, provided that surface velocity measurements are obtained by other methods (e.g. InSAR, GPS, manual feature tracking).
Hui, Rui; Lund, Jay R.; Madani, Kaveh
Optimal risk-based levee designs are usually developed for economic efficiency. However, in river systems with multiple levees, the planning and maintenance of different levees are controlled by different agencies or groups. For example, along many rivers, levees on opposite riverbanks constitute a simple leveed river system with each levee designed and controlled separately. Collaborative planning of the two levees can be economically optimal for the whole system. Independent and self-interested landholders on opposite riversides often are willing to separately determine their individual optimal levee plans, resulting in a less efficient leveed river system from an overall society-wide perspective (the tragedy of commons). We apply game theory to simple leveed river system planning where landholders on each riverside independently determine their optimal risk-based levee plans. Outcomes from noncooperative games are analyzed and compared with the overall economically optimal outcome, which minimizes net flood cost system-wide. The system-wide economically optimal solution generally transfers residual flood risk to the lower-valued side of the river, but is often impractical without compensating for flood risk transfer to improve outcomes for all individuals involved. Such compensation can be determined and implemented with landholders' agreements on collaboration to develop an economically optimal plan. By examining iterative multiple-shot noncooperative games with reversible and irreversible decisions, the costs of myopia for the future in making levee planning decisions show the significance of considering the externalities and evolution path of dynamic water resource problems to improve decision-making.
... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Rehabilitation Assistance for Levees and other Flood Control... Rehabilitation Assistance for Levees and other Flood Control Works. DATES: Comments must be received by March 10... certain levees and other flood control works under the provisions of the Robert T. Stafford...
Earthen flood control levees are often built using soil excavated from borrow pits lying parallel to and riverward of the finished levee. After construction, these pits can provide valuable floodplain habitats, and their value is well established along corridors of larger rivers. However, levee bo...
Oberg, K.A.; Jacobson, R.B.
On July 15, 1993, the flooding Mississippi River broke through a levee near Miller City, Ill., at the head of the Mississippi Embayment, approximately 55 km upstream from Cairo, Ill. Flow through the break crossed a high-amplitude meander bend and reentered the main channel approximately 24 km upstream from Cairo, bypassing 31 km of the river channel. The incipient meander cutoff is one of the more dramatic examples of geomorphic change accompanying the 1993 flood. Discharge and bathymetry data were collected in the incipient cutoff channel every other day during the 2 weeks before and after the flood peak. During the peak on August 7, as much as 8,100 m3/s, or approximately 25 percent of the Mississippi flood discharge, was bypassing the meander bend. The flow excavated an irregular channel in the flood plain up to 25 m deep. This irregular channel extends as far as 2 km downstream from the levee break. By August 25, as much as 2,900 m3/s was still flowing through the levee break; with recession of the flood, extensive sand deposits were exposed on the margins and downstream from the scoured areas. Preliminary data indicate that local relief, such as relict channels and preexisting county roads, affected the extent of new channel formation.
Bishop, Michael J.; McGill, Thomas E.; Taylor, Stacy R.
Using LiDAR data collected on the levees along the Rio Grande River in New Mexico and Texas, an algorithm has been developed to automatically extract longitudinal elevation profiles. This algorithm consists of a series of filters, interpretation of geophysical properties, and digitized levee centerlines. The series of filters, in order of operation, include an alignment buffer filter, bare-earth filter, sampling filter and a maximum value filter. The result of the filter configuration is a 3-D polyline that models the levee crest. This algorithm allows for efficient identification of portions of levee that are lower than original design specifications. A comparison between the LiDAR levee crown extraction filter and a least-cost-path technique are offered.
Ranzi, Roberto; Barontini, Stefano; Ferri, Michele; Bacchi, Baldassare
Due to the dense anthropization, to the agricultural and industrial exploitation and to its treasures of art and history, northern Italy floodplain, which is a result of the action of the rivers draining into the northern Adriatic sea, is a land where the mitigation of the flooding risk rises at crucial importance. Most of the major rivers flowing in this area have a long and complex history of training in order to protect the plain and the cities and it is difficult to predict the position where levee breaches can occur and the width and depth of the breaches. In view of an investigation on the uncertainties in flood risk mapping, with the aim of developing a methodology based on a stocastic approach to model the position, length and depth of the breach coupled with a simplified method to determine the flooded area, we collected information on major floods and statistics of levees breaches occurred in the Po, Adige, Brenta, Piave and Tagliamento rivers. We provide the statistics of 225 historical breaches occurred in the 1801-2000 time windows in the floodplain course of the Po river, which is 324 km long (from upstream to downstream, 80 km are meandering, 100 km are braided and the others are sinuous-straight). The first two stretches are characterised also by lateral inflow, while the last stretch is mainly characterised by routing and floodplain inundation processes. Three dominant levee collapse mechanisms (overtopping, erosion, piping) were considered. The highest number of breaches was registered in the meandering course, with overtopping strongly (78%) as the most frequent dominant mechanism. Three different samples of historical floods were considered, separated by two important floods (1857 and 1879). A significant decrease in the total number of breaches (per year and per kilometer) was observed since the second half of the 19th century, as a consequence of flood directives issued in that period and to the levees restoration after the floods. A decrease
Shimada, T.; Yokoyama, H.
The increased occurrence of storm disasters caused by typhoons and local downpours in recent years has given rise to concerns over the possibility of large-scale floods resulting from river overflow. Levee breaches cause particularly severe damage, and in Japan, more than 80% of such accidents in the past have been attributed to overflow. Previous studies on overflow-induced levee breaches have not revealed the mechanisms of these issues on a full-scale 3D basis (i.e., side-overflow taking river flow on the riverside land into consideration). It is important to clarify these mechanisms in terms of disaster prevention and for the purpose of bringing progress in future studies on overflow-induced failure. Levees (levee crown width is 3m in 2010 and 6m in 2011, levee height is 3m, levee length is 80m) were built in the Chiyoda Experimental Channel (full-scale experimental channel; width is 30m, length is 1,300m, maximum discharge is 170t/s) in Hokkaido Japan, and a three-dimensional experiment on levee breach by overflow. The findings of the experiment are as follows: After the beginning of overflow, levee breach widening did not begin until after most of the levee section had collapsed. And in case of 6m of the levee crown width, that time in becomes long. It was also considered that, even if overflow occurred, extremely serious damage (e.g., sudden increase in levee breach width and overflow discharge) was unlikely unless the majority of the levee section collapsed.
.... If the prism is not smaller than the existing levee cross section, it is unlikely that a variance... dimension the levee prism (see Figure 1). The prism is the minimum analytical cross section that, given site... require a larger prism. The prism must also satisfy the requirements of any other applicable standard....
Glaze, L. S.; Baloga, S. M.; Mouginis-Mark, P.; Crisp, J.
Channelized lava flows on Mars and the Earth often feature levees and collateral margins that change in volume along the path of the flow. Consistent with field observations of terrestrial flows, this suggests that the rate of levee formation varies with distance and other factors. Previous models have assumed a constant rate of levee growth, specified by a single parameter, lambda. The rate of levee formation for lava flows is a good indicator of the mass eruption rate and rheology of the flow. Insight into levee formation will help us better understand whether or not the effusion rate was constant during an eruption, and once local topography is considered, allows us to look at cooling and/or rheology changes downslope. Here we present a more realistic extension of the levee formation model that treats the rate of levee growth as a function of distance along the flow path. We show how this model can be used with a terrestrial flow and a long lava flow on Mars. The key statement of the new formulation is the rate of transfer from the active component to the levees (or other passive components) through an element dx along the path of the flow. This volumetric transfer equation is presented.
Sharma, P.; Jones, C. E.; Dudas, J.; Bawden, G. W.; Deverel, S. J.
Levees and dikes form extensive flood protection infrastructure that often also serve critical water conveyance functions. We have studied the use of radar remote sensing for providing health assessment of levees, focusing on California's levee system. The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, which lies directly east of San Francisco Bay, is an area comprised of tidal marshland and reclaimed land in the form of ~60 islands surrounded by 1700 km of levees. Improved knowledge of subsidence across the region is needed to maintain the integrity of the Delta levee system, which protects the integrity and quality of the state's primary water supply. The western Delta is particularly critical because levee failure in this area would rapidly draw water of high salinity content into the channels conveying the fresh water supply. Here we report on a study that uses radar interferometry to measure the spatially and temporally varied levee movement and subsidence in the area, focusing particularly on Sherman Island, the westernmost island of the Delta. We use data from NASA's L-band (23.79 cm) Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) collected at 6-week average interval from July 2009 through the current day. We show preliminary results for localized movement on and near the levees and for island-scale subsidence and discuss the techniques used for these measurements and how they could contribute to emergency response.
Orlandini, Stefano; Moretti, Giovanni; Albertson, John D.
A levee failure occurred along the Secchia River, Northern Italy, on 19 January 2014, resulting in flood damage in excess of $500 million. In response to this failure, immediate surveillance of other levees in the region led to the identification of a second breach developing on the neighboring Panaro River, where rapid mitigation efforts were successful in averting a full levee failure. The paired breach events that occurred along the Secchia and Panaro Rivers provided an excellent window on an emerging levee failure mechanism. In the Secchia River, by combining the information content of photographs taken from helicopters in the early stage of breach development and 10 cm resolution aerial photographs taken in 2010 and 2012, animal burrows were found to exist in the precise levee location where the breach originated. In the Panaro River, internal erosion was observed to occur at a location where a crested porcupine den was known to exist and this erosion led to the collapse of the levee top. This paper uses detailed numerical modeling of rainfall, river flow, and variably saturated flow in the levee to explore the hydraulic and geotechnical mechanisms that were triggered along the Secchia and Panaro Rivers by activities of burrowing animals leading to levee failures. As habitats become more fragmented and constrained along river corridors, it is possible that this failure mechanism could become more prevalent and, therefore, will demand greater attention in both the design and maintenance of earthen hydraulic structures as well as in wildlife management.
Czuba, Christiana R.; Williams, Byron K.; Westman, Jack; LeClaire, Keith
Many undocumented and commonly unmaintained levees exist in the landscape complicating flood forecasting, risk management, and emergency response. This report describes a pilot study completed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to assess two methods to identify undocumented levees by using remotely sensed, high-resolution topographic data. For the first method, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers examined hillshades computed from a digital elevation model that was derived from light detection and ranging (lidar) to visually identify potential levees and then used detailed site visits to assess the validity of the identifications. For the second method, the U.S. Geological Survey applied a wavelet transform to a lidar-derived digital elevation model to identify potential levees. The hillshade method was applied to Delano, Minnesota, and the wavelet-transform method was applied to Delano and Springfield, Minnesota. Both methods were successful in identifying levees but also identified other features that required interpretation to differentiate from levees such as constructed barriers, high banks, and bluffs. Both methods are complementary to each other, and a potential conjunctive method for testing in the future includes (1) use of the wavelet-transform method to rapidly identify slope-break features in high-resolution topographic data, (2) further examination of topographic data using hillshades and aerial photographs to classify features and map potential levees, and (3) a verification check of each identified potential levee with local officials and field visits.
Harteveld, Casper; Guimaraes, Rui; Mayer, Igor S.; Bidarra, Rafael
Most serious games have been developed without a proper and comprehensive design theory. To contribute to the development of such a theory, this article presents the underlying design philosophy of LEVEE PATROLLER, a game to train levee patrollers in the Netherlands. This philosophy stipulates that the design of a digital serious game is a…
Foster, Kevin Michael; Blakes, Tifani; McKay, Jenny
Spike Lee's documentary, "When the Levees Broke," provides an informative, enduring, and alternative presentation surrounding the human and man-made debacle associated with Hurricane Katrina. Levees centers the voices of survivors and others involved in the weeks during and after the hurricane, historicizes residents' understandings and reactions,…
Baloga, Steve M.; Glaze, Lori, S.
The dynamics of lava flow movement are controlled by the fluid interior. Crust, solids, and nondeformable material can only retard the advance or spreading of a lava flow. Figure 1 shows a typical large, channelized lava flow found on the Mars plains. It has been suggested in [I] that such large leveed flows on the Mars plains were emplaced by a balance between the formation and shedding of crust as the flow advances. For the prototypical flow north of Pavonis Mons (Fig. I), such a balance leads to a flow morphology that approximately self-replicates at all locations along the flow path [2,3]. Moreover, most quantitative characteristics of emplacement (e.g., viscosity, volumetric flow rate) of the prototype flow at Pavonis Mons resembled those of large channelized lava flows on Earth. The exception was the relatively long, sustained supply of lava, on the order of a year as opposed to hours or days for terrestrial analogs.
Jones, Cathleen E.; Bawden, Gerald; Deverel, Steven; Dudas, Joel; Hensley, Scott
We have studied the utility of high resolution SAR (synthetic aperture radar) for levee monitoring using UAVSAR (Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar) data collected along the dikes and levees in California's Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta and along the lower Mississippi River. Our study has focused on detecting and tracking changes that are indicative of potential problem spots, namely deformation of the levees, subsidence along the levee toe, and seepage through the levees, making use of polarimetric and interferometric SAR techniques. Here was present some results of those studies, which show that high resolution, low noise SAR imaging could supplement more traditional ground-based monitoring methods by providing early indicators of seepage and deformation.
Zenno, Hiroki; Iwasaki, Toshiki; Shimizu, Yasuyuki; Kimura, Ichiro
Flood in rivers is a common disaster all over the world. If a levee breach happens, it sometimes causes a fatal disaster. In addition, many buildings, urban facilities, lifelines, etc. are seriously damaged. Detailed mechanism of a levee breach has not been clarified yet. Therefore, it is important to predict the collapsing process of riverbank and behavior of overtop flow for reducing damage. We applied a two-dimensional shallow flow computational model to levee breach phenomena caused by overflow and the performance of the model was elucidated. A calibration of the numerical model is made through the comparison with field experimental data. Recently, a real-scale experiment on a levee breach was carried out at the Chiyoda Experimental Channel in Hokkaido, Japan. We performed the computation under the same conditions in the experiment. The computational results showed the excellent performance for simulating levee breach phenomena.
Orlandini, S.; Moretti, G.; Albertson, J. D.
A levee failure occurred along the Secchia River, Northern Italy, on January 19, 2014, resulting in flood damage in excess of $500 Million (Figure). In response to this failure, immediate surveillance of other levees in the region led to the identification of a second breach developing on the neighboring Panaro River, where rapid mitigation efforts were successful in averting a full levee failure. The paired breach events that occurred along the Secchia and Panaro Rivers provided an excellent window on an emerging disturbance of levees and related failure mechanism. In the Secchia River, by combining the information content of photographs taken from helicopters in the early stage of breach development and 10-cm resolution aerial photographs taken in 2010 and 2012, animal burrows were found to exist in the precise levee location where the breach originated. In the Panaro River, internal erosion was observed to occur at a location where a crested porcupine den was known to exist and this erosion led to the collapse of the levee top. Evidence collected suggested that it is quite likely that the levee failure of the Secchia River was of a similar mechanism as the observed failure of the Panaro River. Detailed numerical modeling of rainfall, river flow, and variably saturated flow occurring in disturbed levees in response to complex hydroclimatic forcing indicated that the levee failure of the Secchia River may have been triggered by direct river inflow into the den system or collapse of a hypothetical den separated by a 1-m earthen wall from the levee riverside, which saturated during the hydroclimatic event. It is important to bring these processes to the attention of hydrologists and geotechnical engineers as well as to trigger an interdisciplinary discussion on habitat fragmentation and wildlife shifts due to development and climate pressures. These disturbances come together with changes in extreme events to inform the broader concern of risk analysis due to floods.
Shimada, Tomonori; Yokoyama, Hiroshi; Hirai, Yasuyuki; Miyake, Hiroshi
The mechanism of three-dimensional levee breach by overflow (i.e., lateral overflow with consideration of river flow riverside land) has not been clarified in past studies. Elucidation of this mechanism is very important for disaster prevention as well as for the future progress of studies on levee breach by overflow. We conducted experiments of levee breach in three-dimensions by overflow using the Chiyoda Experimental Channel. The results of the experiment are as follows: Until the beginning of levee breach, phenomena near overflow area was similar to one by front overflow. It means that we can apply knowledge from anamnestic levee breach experiment involving front overflow to until the beginning of levee breach. After the beginning of levee breach, it related to unit width discharge and levee breach speed.
Palaseanu-Lovejoy, Monica; Thatcher, Cindy A.; Barras, John A.
This study explores the feasibility of using airborne lidar surveys to derive high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) and develop an automated procedure to extract levee longitudinal elevation profiles for both federal levees in Atchafalaya Basin and local levees in Lafourche Parish. Generally, the use of traditional manual surveying methods to map levees is a costly and time consuming process that typically produces cross-levee profiles every few hundred meters, at best. The purpose of our paper is to describe and test methods for extracting levee crest elevations in an efficient, comprehensive manner using high resolution lidar generated DEMs. In addition, the vertical uncertainty in the elevation data and its effect on the resultant estimate of levee crest heights is addressed in an assessment of whether the federal levees in our study meet the USACE minimum height design criteria.
Brandimarte, Luigia; Martina, Mario; Dottori, Francesco; Mazzoleni, Maurizio
The aim of this study is to propose a statistical method to assess the outflowing water volume through a levee breach, due to overtopping, in case of three different types of grass cover quality. The first step in the proposed methodology is the definition of the reliability function, a the relation between loading and resistance conditions on the levee system, in case of overtopping. Secondly, the fragility curve, which relates the probability of failure with loading condition over the levee system, is estimated having defined the stochastic variables in the reliability function. Thus, different fragility curves are assessed in case of different scenarios of grass cover quality. Then, a levee breach model is implemented and combined with a 1D hydrodynamic model in order to assess the outflow hydrograph given the water level in the main channel and stochastic values of the breach width. Finally, the water volume is estimated as a combination of the probability density function of the breach width and levee failure. The case study is located in the in 98km-braided reach of Po River, Italy, between the cross-sections of Cremona and Borgoforte. The analysis showed how different counter measures, different grass cover quality in this case, can reduce the probability of failure of the levee system. In particular, for a given values of breach width good levee cover qualities can significantly reduce the outflowing water volume, compared to bad cover qualities, inducing a consequent lower flood risk within the flood-prone area.
Collins, Brian D.; Kayen, Robert; Minasian, Diane L.; Reiss, Thomas
Hurricane Katrina made landfall with the northern Gulf Coast on August 29, 2005, as one of the strongest hurricanes on record. The storm damage incurred in Louisiana included a number of levee failures that led to the inundation of approximately 85 percent of the metropolitan New Orleans area. Whereas extreme levels of storm damage were expected from such an event, the catastrophic failure of the New Orleans levees prompted a quick mobilization of engineering experts to assess why and how particular levees failed. As part of this mobilization, civil engineering members of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) performed terrestrial lidar topographic surveys at major levee failures in the New Orleans area. The focus of the terrestrial lidar effort was to obtain precise measurements of the ground surface to map soil displacements at each levee site, the nonuniformity of levee height freeboard, depth of erosion where scour occurred, and distress in structures at incipient failure. In total, we investigated eight sites in the New Orleans region, including both earth and concrete floodwall levee breaks. The datasets extend from the 17th Street Canal in the Orleans East Bank area to the intersection of the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway (GIWW) with the Mississippi River Gulf Outlet (MRGO) in the New Orleans East area. The lidar scan data consists of electronic files containing millions of surveyed points. These points characterize the topography of each levee's postfailure or incipient condition and are available for download through online hyperlinks. The data serve as a permanent archive of the catastrophic damage of Hurricane Katrina on the levee systems of New Orleans. Complete details of the data collection, processing, and georeferencing methodologies are provided in this report to assist in the visualization and analysis of the data by future users.
Tobita, D.; Kakinuma, T.; Yokoyama, H.; Takeda, A.
Recent years have seen a considerably increased incidence of typhoons, torrential rainstorms and other extreme meteorological phenomena due to climate change, thereby raising the risk of large-scale disasters caused by riverine floods. The flood damage is particularly severe when levee breaches occur, so estimating the flood magnitude and providing hazard maps are crucial for risk management. In previous studies, the mechanisum of levee breach was examined and measures to reinforce levee and restrict the overflow rates of protection forest were investigated. However, no appropriate techniques for the implementation of such measures hasn't been established yet. The purpose of this study is to evaluate countermeasures of mitigating levee breach progress and reducing overflow rate. The concept of the countermeasure is to utilize 2 ton of concrete blocks installed on the levee ahead of breaching and expect these blocks to be collapsed and protect the edge of the breached levee. Upon considering this concept, we referred to the findings of previous side-overflow breach experiments performed in the Chiyoda experiment flume, where the levee breach process with state-of-the-art observation devices under highly precise hydraulic conditions. Therefore we performed levee breach experiments in the Chiyoda Experimental Flume. (Large scale experimental flume; width is 30m, length is 1,300m, bed slope is approximately 1/500.) The experimental results highlighted the behavior of the collapsed blocks, effectiveness for mitigating the breach progress, and hydraulic characteristics around blocks. Considerations such as the number of blocks to be used were also clarified.
Hossain, A. K. M. Azad; Easson, Greg
The objective is to develop methods to detect and monitor levee slides using commercially available high resolution multispectral imagery. High resolution multispectral imagery like IKONOS and QuickBird are suitable for detecting and monitoring levee slides. IKONOS is suitable for visual inspection, image classification and Tasseled Cap transform based slide detection. Tasseled Cap based model was found to be the best method for slide detection. QuickBird was suitable for visual inspection and image classification.
Robinson, J. D.; Vahedifard, F.; AghaKouchak, A.
California is currently suffering from a multiyear extreme drought and the impacts of the drought are anticipated to worsen in a warming climate. The resilience of critical infrastructure under extreme drought conditions is a major concern which has not been well understood. Thus, there is a crucial need to improve our understanding about the potential threats of drought on infrastructure and take subsequent actions in a timely manner to mitigate these threats and adopt our infrastructure for forthcoming extreme events. The need is more pronounced for earthen levees, since their functionality to protect limited water resources and dryland is more critical during drought. A significant amount of California's levee systems are currently operating under a high risk condition. Protracted drought can further threaten the structural competency of these already at-risk levee systems through several thermo-hydro mechanical weakening processes that undermine their stability. Viable information on the implications of these weakening processes, particularly on California's earthen levees, is relatively incomplete. This article discusses, from a geotechnical engineering perspective, how California's protracted drought might threaten the integrity of levee systems through the imposition of several thermo-hydro mechanical weakening processes. Pertinent facts and statistics regarding the drought in California are presented and discussed. Catastrophic levee failures and major damages resulting from drought-induce weakening processes such as shear strength reduction, desiccation cracking, land subsidence and surface erosion, fissuring and soil softening, and soil carbon oxidation are discussed to illustrate the devastating impacts that the California drought might impose on existing earthen levees. This article calls for further research in light of these potential drought-inducing weakening mechanisms to support mitigation strategies for reducing future catastrophic levee failures.
Huang, W.-C.; Yu, H.-W.; Weng, M.-C.
In recent years, heavy rainfall conditions have caused disasters around the world. To prevent losses by floods, levees have often been constructed in inundation-prone areas. This study performed reliability analyses for the Chiuliao First Levee in southern Taiwan. The failure-related parameters were the water level, the scouring depth, and the in situ friction angle. Three major failure mechanisms were considered: the slope sliding failure of the levee and the sliding and overturning failures of the retaining wall. When the variability of the in situ friction angle and the scouring depth are considered for various flood return periods, the variations of the factor of safety for the different failure mechanisms show that the retaining wall sliding and overturning failures are more sensitive to the change of the friction angle. When the flood return period is greater than 2 years, the levee could fail with slope sliding for all values of the water level difference. The results of levee stability analysis considering the variability of different parameters could aid engineers in designing the levee cross sections, especially with potential failure mechanisms in mind.
Huang, W.-C.; Yu, H.-W.; Weng, M.-C.
In recent years, heavy rainfall conditions have caused damages around the world. To prevent damages by floods, levees have often been constructed in prone-to-inundation areas. This study performed reliability analyses for the Chiuliao 1st Levee located in southern Taiwan. The failure-related parameters were the water level, the scouring depth, and the in-situ friction angle. Three major failure mechanisms were considered, including the slope sliding failure of the levee, and the sliding and overturning failures of the retaining wall. When the variabilities of the in-situ friction angle and the scouring depth are considered for various flood return periods, the variations of the factor of safety (FS) for the different failure mechanisms show that the retaining wall sliding and overturning failures are more sensitive to the variability of the friction angle. When the flood return period is greater than 2 years, the levee can undergo slope sliding failure for all values of the water level difference. The results for levee stability analysis considering the variability of different parameters could assist engineers in designing the levee cross sections, especially with potential failure mechanisms in mind.
Ivanov, J.; Miller, R.D.; Stimac, N.; Ballard, R.F., Jr.; Dunbar, J. Joseph; Smullen, S. Steve
The primary objective of this work was to measure changes in compressional- (Vp) and shear-wave (Vs) velocities in an earthen levee during a ponding experiment designed to simulate flood conditions on the Rio Grande in south New Mexico. Although similar to such experiment, performed an year earlier on the Rio Grande in south Texas, the levee seismic response results are different. This work was similar to previous Preliminary testing at three levee sites, all within a 1 km radius and each with unique physical, EM, and core characteristics, was completed and a single low-conductivity, highly fractured site was selected for investigation. Several different types of seismic data were recorded. Seismic data analysis techniques appraised included P-refraction tomography and Rayleigh surface-wave analysis using multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW). P-wave velocity change (decrease) was rapid and isolated to one section within the pool confines, which already had anomalously high velocity most likely related to burrowing animals modification of the levee structure. S-wave velocity change was gradual and could be observed along the whole width of the pond within and below the levee. The results within the levee sand core were consistent with the observations of sand S-wave velocity changed due to saturation. ?? 2005 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.
Dou, S.-T.; Wang, D.-W.; Yu, M.-H.; Liang, Y.-J.
Floods caused by levee breaching pose disastrous risks to the lower reaches and the flood flow zones of rivers. Thus, a comprehensive assessment of flow and sediment transport during floods must be performed to mitigate flood disasters. Given that the flow state becomes relatively more complex and the range of the submerged area becomes more extensive after a levee breach, this paper established a flow and sediment model by using two-dimensional shallow water equations (SWEs) to explore the break development process and the flow and sediment transport in a curved bed after a levee breach due to overtopping. A three-element weighted essentially non-oscillatory-Roe scheme was adopted for the discretization of SWEs. In addition, a non-equilibrium total-load sediment transport model was established to simulate the scour depth development process of the break. A stable equilibrium of the break was established based on flow shear force and soil shear strength. The lateral widening of the break was simulated by the scouring-collapse lateral widening mode. These simulations, together with the levee breach experiment conducted in the laboratory, demonstrate the validity of the flow and sediment transport process established in this paper. The effects of water-head in and out of the watercourse, the rate of flow, the levee sediment grading, and other variables during levee breaching were also analyzed. The mathematical model calculation provided a number of physical quantities, such as rate of flow and flow state at the break, that are difficult to measure by using the current laboratory facilities. The results of this research provide fundamental data for developing measures that can reduce casualties and asset loss due to floods caused by levee breaching.
The effect of woody vegetation on levee stability is discussed controversially. On the one hand woody plants improve slope stability, prevent erosion failures and may aid in levee stability. On the other hand it is believed that woody vegetation has negative impacts which are largely related to the rooting system. Hence, root penetration can facilitate water movement - seepage or piping - as well as living and decaying roots can lead to voids and threaten the structural integrity of levees. In general root architecture is known for many plant species, but specific root characteristics and their interaction with soils are influenced by many factors, and therefore poorly understood. Consequently the current research investigates the rooting performance of woody vegetation by singling out a special type of vegetation which is often used within soil bioengineering techniques at river embankments. This vegetation type is a dense stand of shrubby willows (Salix purpurea L.), implemented with brush mattresses. The data is collected from a test site constructed in 2007, 5 km northeast of Vienna, Austria. Part of the test site is a research levee built true to natural scale. The fill material of the levee is a mineral silt-sand-gravel compound classified as silty sand, which was compacted to a dry density of 1.86 g/cm3. The planting of vegetation was applied directly to the compacted levee body using only a thin layer (2-4 cm) of humus topsoil. In 2009 the studies were supplemented with a lysimeter-like setup consisting of a total of 20 containers. The lysimeters were filled homogenously with the same soil as the levees and were consolidated to the same degree of compaction. They were planted similar to the research levees. Within the investigations a comprehensive annual vegetation monitoring program was carried out. Measured aboveground parameters were shoot diameter, shoot length, biomass and leaf area index (LAI). Monitored rooting parameters - examined by excavation
Marapareddy, Ramakalavathi; Aanstoos, James V; Younan, Nicolas H
Fully polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (polSAR) data analysis has wide applications for terrain and ground cover classification. The dynamics of surface and subsurface water events can lead to slope instability resulting in slough slides on earthen levees. Early detection of these anomalies by a remote sensing approach could save time versus direct assessment. We used L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) to screen levees for anomalies. SAR technology, due to its high spatial resolution and soil penetration capability, is a good choice for identifying problematic areas on earthen levees. Using the parameters entropy (H), anisotropy (A), alpha (α), and eigenvalues (λ, λ₁, λ₂, and λ₃), we implemented several unsupervised classification algorithms for the identification of anomalies on the levee. The classification techniques applied are H/α, H/A, A/α, Wishart H/α, Wishart H/A/α, and H/α/λ classification algorithms. In this work, the effectiveness of the algorithms was demonstrated using quad-polarimetric L-band SAR imagery from the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL's) Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR). The study area is a section of the lower Mississippi River valley in the Southern USA, where earthen flood control levees are maintained by the US Army Corps of Engineers. PMID:27322270
Marapareddy, Ramakalavathi; Aanstoos, James V.; Younan, Nicolas H.
Fully polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (polSAR) data analysis has wide applications for terrain and ground cover classification. The dynamics of surface and subsurface water events can lead to slope instability resulting in slough slides on earthen levees. Early detection of these anomalies by a remote sensing approach could save time versus direct assessment. We used L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) to screen levees for anomalies. SAR technology, due to its high spatial resolution and soil penetration capability, is a good choice for identifying problematic areas on earthen levees. Using the parameters entropy (H), anisotropy (A), alpha (α), and eigenvalues (λ, λ1, λ2, and λ3), we implemented several unsupervised classification algorithms for the identification of anomalies on the levee. The classification techniques applied are H/α, H/A, A/α, Wishart H/α, Wishart H/A/α, and H/α/λ classification algorithms. In this work, the effectiveness of the algorithms was demonstrated using quad-polarimetric L-band SAR imagery from the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory’s (JPL’s) Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR). The study area is a section of the lower Mississippi River valley in the Southern USA, where earthen flood control levees are maintained by the US Army Corps of Engineers. PMID:27322270
Gillip, Jonathan A.; Payne, Jason D.
A geophysical characterization of Lollie Levee near Conway, Arkansas, was conducted in February 2011. A capacitively coupled resistivity survey (using Geometric's OhmMapper) was completed along the top and toe of the 6.7-mile levee. Two-dimensional inversions were conducted on the geophysical data. As a quality-control measure, cores and direct push logs were taken at approximately 1-mile intervals along the levee. The capacitively coupled resistivity survey, the coring, and the direct push logs were used to characterize the geologic materials. Comparison of the cores and the direct push log data, along with published resistivity values, indicates that resistivity values of 200 Ohm-meters or greater represent relatively clean sand, with decreasing resistivity values occurring with increasing silt and clay content. The cores indicated that the levee is composed of a heterogeneous mixture of sand, silt, and clay. The capacitively coupled resistivity sections confirm that the levee is composed of a heterogeneous mixture of high and low resistivity materials and show that the composition of the levee varies spatially. The geologic materials underlying the levee vary spatially as a result of the geologic processes that deposited them. In general, the naturally deposited geologic materials underlying the levee contain a greater amount of low resistivity materials in the southern extent of the levee.
Brackett, Thomas C.
The Great Flood of 2011 caused moderate to severe seepage and piping along the Mississippi River levees in Northwest Mississippi. The aim of this thesis was to implement geophysical techniques at two seepage locations in order to give a better understanding of the causes of underseepage and information on how to mitigate the problem. Sites near Rena Lara in Coahoma County and near Francis in Bolivar County were chosen to conduct this survey. Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) and Electromagnetic Induction (EM) surveys were conducted on and adjacent to levees to identify seepage pathways and any dominant geological features at the sites. Results from geophysical surveys revealed that Francis and Rena Laura each had a prominent geomorphologic feature that was attributing to underseepage. Seepage at Francis was the result of a sand filled channel capped by a clay overburden. Permeable materials at the base of the channel served as a conduit for transporting river water beneath the levee. The seepage surfaced as sand boils where the overlying clay overburden was thin or non-existent. Investigations at the Rena Lara site revealed a large, clay-filled swale extending beneath the levee. The clay within the swale has relatively low horizontal permeability, and concentrated the seepage flow towards more permeable zones on the flanks of the swale. This resulted in the formation of sand boils at the base of the levee. Both geomorphic features at Francis and Rena Lara were identified as surface drainages using remote sensing data. With the assistance of borehole and elevation data, geophysics was successfully used to characterize the features at each site. Properties such as permeability and clay content were derived from responses in electrical conductivity and used to build seepage models at each site. These models will hopefully be considered when determining seepage conditions and mitigation techniques at other sites along the levee.
Newmark, R L; Hanemann, M; Farber, D
The Center for Catastrophic Risk Management (CCRM) and the California Center for Environmental Law and Policy (CCELP) at UC Berkeley and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) joined together to cosponsor a workshop to define research requirements to mitigate the hazards facing the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta Levee system. The Workshop was intended to provide a forum to (1) Report assessments of current vulnerabilities facing the levees, such as structural failure, seismic loading, flooding, terrorism; (2) Consider longer term challenges such as climate change, sea level rise; and (3) Define research requirements to fill gaps in knowledge and reduce uncertainties in hazard assessments.
Tekle, Shewandagn; Mazzoleni, Maurizio; Dottori, Francesco; Brandimarte, Luigia
Historical records have shown that people living in the flood plain areas surrounded by levees are increased over the time around the world.. However, the effectiveness of different counter measures on increasing levee efficiency, and their environmental and economical consequences on the urbanized flood prone area, are not yet well exploited. The present research proposes a methodology to investigate the effects of two different counter measures on the estimation of the probability of levee failure due to overtopping and the consequent flood extent. The case study was performed in 98km-braided reach of Po River, Italy, between the cross-sections of Cremona and Borgoforte. The adopted methodology was divided into four core categories. Firstly, reliability analysis, expressed in terms of fragility curve, of the levee system in case of overtopping was performed using the geotechnical and geometrical data of the levee considering the grass cover quality as a stochastic variable to account the uncertainties associated to it. In order to estimate the fragility curves for all sections, a Monte Carlo framework was introduced. Secondly, 1D hydrodynamic model was implemented to estimate the water level in the river in case of a synthetic flood event of 200year return period. The information of the water level was used as hydraulic load into the previous fragility curves. Then, a levee breach modeli was introduced to address the uncertainties related to the location, size and development of the breaches. Finally, a 2D hydrodynamic model CA2D_S,based on the cellular automata approach in semi-inertial formulation for flux computation, was implementd. CA2D - SCENARI (CA2D_S) is a version of the CA2D model specifically designed to simulate levee breach scenarios in low land areas. The previous methodological steps were repeated for each countermeasure scenario and the results from CA2D, expressed in terms of flood extent, were compared and analyzed. The analysis showed that
Lammeranner, W.; Meixner, H.; Florineth, F.
The recent flood events have once more drawn attention to the stability and maintenance of river levees. Subsequently, the attention has also been focused on the prevention of erosion by hydraulic forces in case of flooding or overtopping. Vegetation can limit the soil detaching capacity of flowing water, by their retarding effects on runoff and velocity as well as the physical protection of the levee surface. At low discharge intensity vegetation stands rigid and unsubmerged, reducing velocity below required for soil particle entrainment (Coppin and Richards, 1990). At higher discharge capacities flexible vegetation tend to lay down, dissipating energy and providing resistance to scour (Henderson and Shields, 1984). Roots increase the shear strength of the soil (Schiechtl, 1980) and can create a fibrous mat that resists detachment of the surrounding soil matrix (Henderson and Shields, 1984). The erosive capacity of surface water flow is dependant to type and pattern of vegetation. The denser the vegetation, the better the soil surface is protected against erosion. Sets of regulations regard compact turf to be the best vegetation cover for river levees. A contentious issue are woody plants, and many guidelines (DIN 19712, 1997; FEMA, 2005; USACE, 2000) ban woody vegetation from levees for several reasons. So, the planting of woody plants is not an accepted policy by any agency. Within the frame of a research project carried out by the Institute of Soil Bioengineering and Landscape Construction (University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna), focusing on woody plants on levees, the effects of small to medium growing woody (shrubby) plants on erosion while hydraulic forces (overtopping) are tested. Data are drawn from two natural-scaled research levees. The homogenous levees consist of a mineral silt-sand-gravel and have a fill height of 2.7 m and a slope inclination of 2:3. The tests investigate erosion resistance with respect to four different
... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Revised Analysis and Mapping Procedures for Non-Accredited... Management Agency (FEMA) is accepting comments on the proposed solution for Revised Analysis and Mapping Procedures for Non-Accredited Levees. This document proposes a revised procedure for the analysis and...
According to the National Inventory of dams (NID, 2009), out of the 84,134 dams in the US, more than 87% (73,423) are earthen dams. The majority of these earthen dams are past or approaching their design life expectancy of 50 years. According to the National committee on Levee Safety (NCLS, 2009),...
... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mapping of areas protected by levee systems. 65.10 Section 65.10 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF SPECIAL...
... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Mapping of areas protected by levee systems. 65.10 Section 65.10 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF SPECIAL...
... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mapping of areas protected by levee systems. 65.10 Section 65.10 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF SPECIAL...
... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mapping of areas protected by levee systems. 65.10 Section 65.10 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF SPECIAL...
The earth levees commonly used for irrigation reservoirs are subjected to significant embankment erosion due to wind-generated waves. Large seasonal fluctuations in water level make vegetative bank protection impractical, and other stabilization methods, such as the use of stone or discarded tires, ...
Prada, Sergio I.; Salkever, David; MacKenzie, Ellen J.
Background: Injury is the leading cause of death for persons aged 1-44 years in the United States. Injuries have a substantial economic cost. For that reason, regional systems of trauma care in which the more acutely injured patients are transported to Level-I (L-I) trauma centers (TCs) has been widely advocated. However, the cost of TC care is…
Johnson, C.G.; Kokelaar, B.P.; Iverson, R.M.; Logan, M.; LaHusen, R.G.; Gray, J.M.N.T.
Data from large-scale debris-flow experiments are combined with modeling of particle-size segregation to explain the formation of lateral levees enriched in coarse grains. The experimental flows consisted of 10 m3 of water-saturated sand and gravel, which traveled ~80 m down a steeply inclined flume before forming an elongated leveed deposit 10 m long on a nearly horizontal runout surface. We measured the surface velocity field and observed the sequence of deposition by seeding tracers onto the flow surface and tracking them in video footage. Levees formed by progressive downslope accretion approximately 3.5 m behind the flow front, which advanced steadily at ~2 m s-1 during most of the runout. Segregation was measured by placing ~600 coarse tracer pebbles on the bed, which, when entrained into the flow, segregated upwards at ~6–7.5 cm s-1. When excavated from the deposit these were distributed in a horseshoe-shaped pattern that became increasingly elevated closer to the deposit termination. Although there was clear evidence for inverse grading during the flow, transect sampling revealed that the resulting leveed deposit was strongly graded laterally, with only weak vertical grading. We construct an empirical, three-dimensional velocity field resembling the experimental observations, and use this with a particle-size segregation model to predict the segregation and transport of material through the flow. We infer that coarse material segregates to the flow surface and is transported to the flow front by shear. Within the flow head, coarse material is overridden, then recirculates in spiral trajectories due to size-segregation, before being advected to the flow edges and deposited to form coarse-particle-enriched levees.
Lorenzo, J. M.; Hicks, J.; Vera, E. E.
Both deep- and near-surface hydrogeologic processes can contribute to the structural failure of artificial earthen levees. Recently, seismic geophysical methods have attempted to develop a proxy for engineering shear strength, by mapping changes in the transmission velocity of shear waves. High fluid content may indicate both weak, under-compacted materials and/or organic-rich sediments. In the absence of electromagnetic methods, Vp/Vs ratios can be used as good indicators of variations in the fluid (water, and air or gas) saturation. Cone penetration borehole tests measure the resistance of soils to penetration of the cone tip and its frictional sliding that can be correlated to sediment types and their physical properties. A distressed section of an artificial earthen levee, suitable for seismic investigation, lies ~15 km S of the city of New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. Open curvilinear fissures, 10 cm wide, 30 cm deep, and up to 100 m in length, exist along the crest at two sites. Between September 2007 and February 2008 we collect horizontally (SH) polarized shear and compressional wave (P) data in pseudo-walkaway tests for the upper 100 m of the subsurface along the protected (west) side of the earthen levee, within 30 m of its crest. One profile lies parallel and adjacent to the damaged levee crest and, for reference, two profiles lie nearby adjacent to undamaged portions of the artificial earthen levee. In the first ~30 m of sediment below the lower delta plain of the Greater New Orleans area, a complex and dynamic interaction of freshwater and marine sedimentary environments juxtaposes a diverse set of facies. We combine of Vp and Vs velocity maps, sedimentary environment interpretations, and cone-penetration-derived sediment/soil and laboratory-derived physical properties to locate possible zones of high fluid concentration, (and perhaps seepage), weak engineering materials, and natural foundation soil shear strength. Under the distressed portion of the
D'Oria, M.; Mignosa, P.; Tanda, M. G.
When a levee breach occurs a remarkable volume of water is released causing the inundation of an extended area. To accurately reproduce the flooding resulting from the failure, the discharge over time leaving the river must be known. This flow rate is conditioned by many factors such as: 1. the river water levels in proximity of the failure; 2. the geometry of the breach and its evolution in time; 3. the water level of the flooded area that can produce backwater effects and thus reduce the leaving flow rate or in some case reverse the flow; and 4. the provisional works aimed at fixing the failure. However, from a practical point of view, many of the previous data are hardly known and usually the only available information is the position and the finally geometry of the breach and sometimes its opening time. But, if gauging stations are located in proximity of the failure, the water levels observed upstream and mainly downstream the levee breach are affected by the discharge leaving or eventually re-entering the river. In this work, a Bayesian inverse methodology to estimate the discharge time series leaving a levee breach based on the water levels recorded downstream and/or upstream the failure site is proposed. Prior information, in forms of geostatistical functions, regularizes the solution. The required simulation of the forward problem, able to reproduce the river flow routing and the discharge leaving the breach, has been accomplished by means of the 1D HEC-RAS model. The Uniform Later Flow boundary condition of HEC-RAS has been used to simulate the flow leaving/entering the river across the breach. Synthetic examples with and without the above mentioned back water effects and provisional works has been used to test the procedure. Different levee breaches modeled by means of a lateral weir with movable gates has been simulated to collect the synthetic level data then used in the inverse procedure. The methodology was able to accurately reproduce the flow
Conservation Area 2B is an area of recharge for the surficial aquifer system in Broward County. Water stored in the conservation area provides the hydraulic potential for downward flow to the high permeability zone of the Biscayne aquifer. A 5.64 ft head differential (average for the period of record) between water levels in Conservation Area 2B and water levels in the adjacent levee 35A borrow canal causes water to leak into the canal at an average rate of about 0.0022 cu ft per sec per lineal foot of canal and accounts for a loss of 0.013 foot per day of surface water from Conservation Area 2B. Amounts of canal leakage and underflow are constantly changing and are dependent upon the head differential between Conservation Area 2B and the levee 35A borrow canal. (Author 's abstract)
Nearly 1% of Louisiana's coastal land becomes water each year. This land loss affects everything from wildlife, fisheries, and recreation to the economy and culture. A part of this loss results from natural, unmanageable factors, but manageable factors are also responsible. This report discusses one of the manageable factors: canals and their dredged-material levees. In coastal Louisiana wetlands, canals are constructed primarily to facilitate navigation and oil and gas recovery. The density of canals in this region is now about equal to the natural network of bayous and creeks. The primary effect of these canals and associated levees is to alter the process of flooding and drainage. The influence of canals and their levees on coastal Louisiana erosion rates are modified by local geologic, hydrologic, and biologic interactions. The empirical relationship between canals and erosion is, however, clear; land loss is directly related to canal density. Comparisons with mosquito ditches, which are smaller analogues of canals, reveal similar patterns of wetland changes and suggest management options.
Although levee deposits make up a significant part of modern and ancient deep-marine slope systems, details of their internal lithological composition and stratal architecture remain poorly documented. At the Castle Creek study area, strata of the Neoproterozoic Isaac Formation (Windermere Supergroup) crop out superbly in a kilometre-scale section through a sinuous deep-water channel-levee system (ICC3). Levee deposits near the outer bend of the channel consist of sandstone-rich (sandstone-to-mudstone ratio of 68:42), medium- to thick-bedded turbidites interstratified with thinly-bedded turbidites. Structureless sandstone (T a), planar laminated sandstone (Tb), non-climbing ripple cross-stratified sandstone (Tc) and massive and laminated siltstone (Td) are common. Thick beds generally thicken and then thin and fine laterally over about 300 m. Thin-bedded strata, in contrast, thin and fine negligibly over similar distances. In the distal part of the outer-bend levee (up to 700 m laterally away from the channel) strata consist predominantly of thin-bedded Tcd turbidites with a much lower sandstone-to-mudstone ratio (35:65). On the opposite side of the channel, inner-bend levee deposits are mudstone-rich, locally as low as 15:85, and consist mostly of thin-bedded, Tcd turbidites, although thicker-bedded, Ta-d turbidites are more common in the lower part of the section. Lateral thinning and fining of beds is more rapid than their outer-bend counterpart. Levee deposits of ICC3 comprise three stacked decametre-scale upward-thinning and -fining successions. Each is interpreted to record a depositional history consisting of lateral channel migration, levee deposition, channel filling, and distal levee deposition. During the early stage of increasing levee relief it is proposed that the termini of individual beds progressively backstep towards the channel margin resulting in an overall lateral thinning of the stratal profile. This interpretation notably contrasts the common
Mazzoleni, Maurizio; Brandimarte, Luigia; Barontini, Stefano; Ranzi, Roberto
Over the centuries many societies have preferred to settle down nearby floodplains area and take advantage of the favorable environmental conditions. Due to changing hydro-meteorological conditions, over time, levee systems along rivers have been raised to protect urbanized area and reduce the impact of floods. As expressed by the so called "levee paradox", many societies might to tend to trust these levee protection systems due to an induced sense of safety and, as a consequence, invest even more in urban developing in levee protected flood prone areas. As a result, considering also the increasing number of population around the world, people living in floodplains is growing. However, human settlements in floodplains are not totally safe and have been continuously endangered by the risk of flooding. In fact, failures of levee system in case of flood event have also produced the most devastating disasters of the last two centuries due to the exposure of the developed floodprone areas to risk. In those cases, property damage is certain, but loss of life can vary dramatically with the extent of the inundation area, the size of the population at risk, and the amount of warning time available. The aim of this study is to propose an innovative methodology to estimate the reliability of a general river levee system in case of piping, considering different sources of uncertainty, and analyze the influence of different discretization of the river reach in sub-reaches in the evaluation of the probability of failure. The reliability analysis, expressed in terms of fragility curve, was performed evaluating the probability of failure, conditioned by a given hydraulic load in case of a certain levee failure mechanism, using a Monte Carlo and First Order Reliability Method. Knowing the information about fragility curve for each discrete levee reach, different fragility indexes were introduced. Using the previous information was then possible to classify the river into sub
Gianetta, Ivan; Schwarz, Massimiliano; Glenz, Christian; Lammeranner, Walter
In recent years the effects of roots on river banks and levees have been the subject of major discussions. The main issue about the presence of woody vegetation on levees is related to the possibility that roots increase internal erosion processes and the superimposed load of large trees compromise the integrity of these structures. However, ecologists and landscape managers argue that eliminating the natural vegetation from the riverbanks also means eliminating biotopes, strengthening anthropisation of the landscape, as well as limiting recreations areas. In the context of the third correction of the Rhone in Switzerland, the discussion on new levee geometries and the implementation of woody vegetation on them, lead to a detailed analysis of this issue for this specific case. The objective of this study was to describe quantitatively the processes and factors that influence the root distribution on levees and test modeling approaches for the simulation of vertical root distribution with laboratory and field data. An extension of an eco-hydrological analytic model that considers climatic and pedological condition for the quantification of vertical root distribution was validated with data provided by the University of Vienna (BOKU) of willows' roots (Salix purpurea) grown under controlled conditions. Furthermore, root distribution data of four transversal sections of a levee near Visp (canton Wallis, Switzerland) was used to validate the model. The positions of the levee's sections were chosen based on the species and dimensions of the woody vegetation. The dominant species present in the sections were birch (Betula pendula) and poplar (Populus nigra). For each section a grid of 50x50 cm was created to count and measure the roots. The results show that vertical distribution of root density under controlled growing conditions has an exponential form, decreasing with increasing soil depth, and can be well described by the eco-hydrological model. Vice versa, field
Dou, S.-T.; Wang, D.-W.; Yu, M.-H.; Liang, Y.-J.
Floods caused by levee breaching pose disastrous risks to the lower reaches and the flood flow zones of rivers. Thus, a comprehensive assessment of flow and sediment transport during floods must be performed to mitigate flood disasters. Given that the flow state becomes relatively more complex and the range of the submerged area becomes more extensive after a levee breach, this paper established a flow and sediment model by using two-dimensional shallow water equations (SWEs) to explore the breach development process and the flow and sediment transport in a curved bed after a levee breach due to overtopping. A three-element weighted essentially non-oscillatory Roe scheme was adopted for the discretization of SWEs. In addition, a non-equilibrium total-load sediment transport model was established to simulate the scour depth development process of the breach. A stable equilibrium of the breach was established based on flow shear force and soil shear strength. The lateral widening of the breach was simulated by the scouring-collapse lateral widening mode. These simulations, together with the levee breach experiment conducted in the laboratory, demonstrate the validity of the flow and sediment transport process established in this paper. The effects of water head in and out of the watercourse, the flow rate, the levee sediment grading, and other variables during levee breaching were also analyzed. The mathematical model calculation provided a number of physical quantities, such as flow rate and flow state at the breach, that are difficult to measure by using the current laboratory facilities. The results of this research provide fundamental data for developing measures that can reduce casualties and asset loss due to floods caused by levee breaching.
D'Oria, Marco; Mignosa, Paolo; Tanda, Maria Giovanna
We propose a procedure to estimate the flow through a levee breach based on water levels recorded in river stations downstream and/or upstream of the failure site. The inverse problem is solved using a Bayesian approach and requires the execution of several forward unsteady flow simulations. For this purpose, we have used the well-known 1-D HEC-RAS model, but any unsteady flow model could be adopted in the same way. The procedure has been tested using four synthetic examples. Levee breaches with different characteristics (free flow, flow with tailwater effects, etc.) have been simulated to collect the synthetic level data used at a later stage in the inverse procedure. The method was able to accurately reproduce the flow through the breach in all cases. The practicability of the procedure was then confirmed applying it to the inundation of the Polesine Region (Northern Italy) which occurred in 1951 and was caused by three contiguous and almost simultaneous breaches on the left embankment of the Po River.
Lorenzo, J. M.; Goff, D.; Hayashi, K.
Unconsolidated Holocene deltaic sediments comprise levee foundation soils in New Orleans, USA. Whereas geotechnical tests at point locations are indispensable for evaluating soil stability, the highly variable sedimentary facies of the Mississippi delta create difficulties to predict soil conditions between test locations. Combined electrical resistivity and seismic shear wave studies, calibrated to geotechnical data, may provide an efficient methodology to predict soil types between geotechnical sites at shallow depths (0- 10 m). The London Avenue Canal levee flank of New Orleans, which failed in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, 2005, presents a suitable site in which to pioneer these geophysical relationships. Preliminary cross-plots show electrically resistive, high-shear-wave velocity areas interpreted as low-permeability, resistive silt. In brackish coastal environments, low-resistivity and low-shear-wave-velocity areas may indicate both saturated, unconsolidated sands and low-rigidity clays. Via a polynomial approximation, soil sub-types of sand, silt and clay can be estimated by a cross-plot of S-wave velocity and resistivity. We confirm that existent boring log data fit reasonably well with the polynomial approximation where 2/3 of soil samples fall within their respective bounds—this approach represents a new classification system that could be used for other mid-latitude, fine-grained deltas.
Duval, Rodolphe; Fauchard, Cyrille; Antoine, Raphael
We study the influence of the topography of a levee on the electric and magnetic signals obtained with the Radio-Magnetotelluric method (RMT) and the Slingram method, respectively. For the RMT method, field measurements have been modelled with a finite element commercial software (AC/DC and Radio-Frequency modules of Comsol Multiphysics). A levee situated in Orléans (France) along the Loire river has been considered in order to design a model taking into account the skin depth and the incident wavelength. The effect of the incident electromagnetic field direction has been assessed with two different incident wave directions: BBC 5 from Salford (UK) and France-Inter from Allouis (France). The simulations highlight the tri-dimensional effects of the topography in the apparent resistivity, observed on the crest of the levee, depending on the incident field direction and topography. For the Slingram method, the magnetic field has been simulated using the AC/DC module of Comsol. The ratio of the primary magnetic field on the secondary one, received in a loop is determined above a straight levee. The study aims to show the various responses obtained in function of both vertical and horizontal coil configurations. We show that the signal also depends on the topography and the right configuration of the coils alignment with respect to the levee stretch direction. In this study, a buried gas pipe is also characterized by the two methods. Numerical modelling of 3D electromagnetic effects on geophysical signals helps to interpret the field measurements and offers to the stakeholder an optimized methodology for geophysical surveys on levees.
Lammeranner, W.; Meixner, H.; Florineth, F.
The past flood events have once more drawn the attention to the stability and maintenance of flood protection levees. The attention has also been focused on the relationship between vegetation and the structural integrity of dikes. Current standards regard dense turf to be safest vegetation cover for dikes. Many guidelines ban woody vegetation from dikes and levees to provide structural integrity, visual inspection and unhindered flood-fight access. The refusal of woody plants is mainly based on the argument that root penetration of woody plants facilitates water movement along their path. Within the frame of a research project carried out by the Institute of Soil Bioengineering and Landscape Construction (University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna), focusing on woody plants on levees, the effects of small to medium growing woody (shrubby) plants on the seepage are tested. Data are drawn from two natural-scaled research levees. The homogenous levees consist of a mineral silt-sand-gravel and have a fill height of 2.7 m and a slope inclination of 2:3. The tests investigate the impact of woody plants (living brush mattress - transversal) in comparison to compact turf (jute netting mulch seeding). Measured plant parameters, characterising the vegetation structures were shoot lengths, shoot diameters, and above ground biomass. Root growth is investigated in an extra plot area allowing excavation of the plants. Percolation is monitored using seepage monitoring pipes, soil moisture sensors and soil temperature probes, which were build into the embankment during construction. The proposed contribution discusses the effects of woody plants (shrubs) on seepage of flood protection levees. Methodology of research and results after three initial seepage tests are presented.
Florsheim, J. L.; Dettinger, M.; Malamud-Roam, F.; Ingram, B.; Mount, J.
Geomorphic processes in rivers are likely to be influenced by global warming through alterations of flood, erosion, and sedimentation processes and rates. In California's Sierra Nevada, warming scenarios imply future increases in magnitudes and durations (and changes in timing) of floods as snow packs diminish and rainfall runoff increasingly dominates flow into the Central Valley fluvial system. Geomorphic processes are likely to differ from processes that dominated during the Holocene due to the influence both of projected global warming and land use alterations including levee construction that narrows and separates Sacramento-San Joaquin Rivers and tributaries from floodplains and flow regulation downstream of numerous large dams. Whereas Holocene floods induced overbank flow and avulsion processes that led to vertical floodplain accretion and variability of stages in aggrading multiple-channel systems, modern floods largely transport flow and sediment within incised channels confined by levees. Because the scenarios of warming are developed at coarse scales, only an understanding of the relations between large-scale hydrology and climate on the one hand, and the incidence of levee breaches on the other, will make it possible to project likely geomorphic responses to future warming and flooding. A historical record of catastrophic levee breaks on the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers has been developed to allow analyses of these connections. In the current work, we develop statistical relations between historical levee break events and flow discharge, as well as with climatic phenomena such as El Nino and La Nina phases of the ENSO cycle, positive and negative phases of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, and seasonal propensities towards "pineapple-express" storms. Preliminary results suggest strong relations between levee breaches and discharge, but poor relations to ENSO. Further investigation of these data will provide insight to help inform models and river
Demcheck, Dennis K.; Dupuy, Alton J.
Samples consisting of composited core material were collected from five areas by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and analyzed by the U.S. Geological Survey to provide data on the impact of proposed channel excavation and levee construction in the Sicily Island area, Louisiana. Samples of receiving water from the five areas, selected to represent the water that will contact the proposed dredged material of the levee fill material, also were collected. Chemical and physical analyses were performed on samples of core material and native water and on elutriate samples of specific core material-receiving water mixtures. The results of these analyses are presented without interpretation. (USGS)
Burton, Bethany L.; Cannia, James C.
This report is a release of digital data from a capacitively coupled resistivity survey conducted on June 13, 2011, on the flood-protection levees surrounding the Omaha Public Power District Nebraska City power plant. The U.S. Geological Survey Crustal Geophysics and Geochemistry Science Center and the Nebraska Water Science Center performed the survey in response to a flood on the Missouri River. A single line of resistivity profiling was completed along the center line of the section of levee 573 that surrounds the power plant.
Asch, Theodore H.; Deszcz-Pan, Maria; Burton, Bethany L.; Ball, Lyndsay B.
A geophysical characterization of a portion of American River levees in Sacramento, California was conducted in May, 2007. Targets of interest included the distribution and thickness of sand lenses that underlie the levees and the depth to a clay unit that underlies the sand. The concern is that the erosion of these sand lenses can lead to levee failure in highly populated areas of Sacramento. DC resistivity (Geometric?s OhmMapper and Advanced Geosciences, Inc.?s SuperSting R8 systems) and electromagnetic surveys (Geophex?s GEM-2) were conducted over a 6 mile length of the levee on roads and bicycle and horse trails. 2-D inversions were conducted on all the geophysical data. The OhmMapper and SuperSting surveys produced consistent inversion results that delineated potential sand and clay units. GEM-2 apparent resistivity data were consistent with the DC inversion results. However, the GEM-2 data could not be inverted due to low electromagnetic response levels, high ambient electromagnetic noise, and large system drifts. While this would not be as large a problem in conductive terrains, it is a problem for a small induction number electromagnetic profiling system such as the GEM-2 in a resistive terrain (the sand lenses). An integrated interpretation of the geophysical data acquired in this investigation is presented in this report that includes delineation of those areas consisting of predominantly sand and those areas consisting predominantly of clay. In general, along most of this part of the American River levee system, sand lenses are located closest to the river and clay deposits are located further away from the river. The interpreted thicknesses of the detected sand deposits are variable and range from 10 ft up to 60 ft. Thus, despite issues with the GEM-2 inversion, this geophysical investigation successfully delineated sand lenses and clay deposits along the American River levee system and the approximate depths to underlying clay zones. The results of
Jones, C.; Bawden, G.; Deverel, S.; Dudas, J.; Hensley, S.
The islands of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta have been subject to subsidence since they were first reclaimed from the estuary marshlands starting over 100 years ago, with most of the land currently lying below mean sea level. This area, which is the primary water resource of the state of California, is under constant threat of inundation from levee failure. Since July 2009, we have been imaging the area using the quad-polarimetric UAVSAR L-band radar, with eighteen data sets collected as of April 2011. Here we report results of our polarimetric and differential interferometric analysis of the data for levee deformation and land surface change. ?? 2011 IEEE.
Laygo, K.; Madson, A.; O'Connell, K.; Jones, C. E.; Holt, B.
Every spring, precipitation and snowmelt in the central U.S. leads to high water levels in the Mississippi River and its tributaries, with concurrent flooding and levee damage a near-yearly event. In the spring of 2011, historic water levels led to extensive flooding from Mississippi County, Missouri, to southern Louisiana, necessitating the opening of three major spillways, including the Morganza Spillway north of New Orleans, which diverts water from the Mississippi River through the Atchafalaya Basin of central Louisiana and had not been used since 1973. There is value to NOAA, the agency responsible for flood prediction, and the Army Corp. of Engineers, the agency responsible for flood control, in the application of remote sensing to flood mapping and soil moisture mapping, both along the main rivers and levee systems. We plan to use high resolution radar (NASA UAVSAR - Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar), with a particular focus on increased soil moisture mapping in order to determine how quickly and accurately areas of increased soil moisture content associated with levee seepage and sandboils can be delineated. We have several UAVSAR data sets collected along the Mississippi River during June 2009, April and June 2011, which we have analyzed for soil moisture detection algorithm development during the Spring 2012 term. Our goal for part 2 of the study is to develop an algorithm to detect areas of increased soil moisture, and to finalize flood map end products for decision makers based on an easily applied algorithm that utilizes a standard analysis package for water extent measurement along waterways, which will be usable by non-experts with widely available software.River Gage Datat; As mentioned in the section above, river gage data was utilized to help determine the best UAVSAR datset to use for algorithm and processing methodology creation. The table below shows river gage readings with their corresponding UAVSAR flight ID. The datasets
Water samples were collected from the Mississippi River, from sand boils near the toe of the levee on the Mississippi side of the river, and from actively flowing relief wells shortly after peak stage of the 2011 Mississippi River flood. Two distinct pathways for seepage under the levee were identif...
Murillo, I.; Ferriz, H. D.
The Tuolumne River Regional Park is built over a non-engineered levee, which allegedly included a portion of a 1920’s landfill. EC and EM surveys were conducted to substantiate this report. The conductivity measurements were acquired using a Geonics EM-31 MK2, Geonics EM-34, and the AGI Superstring Resistivity meters. The Geonics EM-31 MK2 acquired conductivity data in the horizontal and vertical dipole mode with theoretical penetration depths of 3 meters and 6 m respectively. The Geonics EM-34 acquired data at spacings of 10 and 20 m in both horizontal and vertical mode, with theoretical penetrations of 7.5 m, 15 m, and 30 m. The location of all electromagnetic measurements where tracked using a Trimble 114 GPS receiver. The AGI Superstring resistivity meter collected data in dipole-dipole mode over a 108-meter span with a four-meter spacing between each stake. The EM conductivity ranges from 20 mS/m to 50mS/m on the “background” portions of the levee, but the central portions of the profile include high conductivity anomalies (120 mS/m to 300 mS/m), which potentially represents the old landfill. The anomalies form “pockets” within the profile, rather than a continuous block, which leads us to believe that the profile cuts only the fringe of the landfill. Resistivity imaging confirms the presence of low resistivity materials (< 10 ohmm) at depths from 2 to 7 m, underlain by a zone of higher resistivities (20 to 80 ohmm) to a depth of 20 m. Because the area is used as a park, and is periodically irrigated, we cannot discount the possibility that some of the high conductivity/low resistivity anomalies could be related to increased water content in the soil.
Bakuła, K.; Ostrowski, W.; Szender, M.; Plutecki, W.; Salach, A.; Górski, K.
This paper presents the possibilities for using an unmanned aerial system for evaluation of the condition of levees. The unmanned aerial system is equipped with two types of sensor. One is an ultra-light laser scanner, integrated with a GNSS receiver and an INS system; the other sensor is a digital camera that acquires data with stereoscopic coverage. Sensors have been mounted on the multirotor, unmanned platform the Hawk Moth, constructed by MSP company. LiDAR data and images of levees the length of several hundred metres were acquired during testing of the platform. Flights were performed in several variants. Control points measured with the use of the GNSS technique were considered as reference data. The obtained results are presented in this paper; the methodology of processing the acquired LiDAR data, which increase in accuracy when low accuracy of the navigation systems occurs as a result of systematic errors, is also discussed. The Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm, as well as measurements of control points, were used to georeference the LiDAR data. Final accuracy in the order of centimetres was obtained for generation of the digital terrain model. The final products of the proposed UAV data processing are digital elevation models, an orthophotomap and colour point clouds. The authors conclude that such a platform offers wide possibilities for low-budget flights to deliver the data, which may compete with typical direct surveying measurements performed during monitoring of such objects. However, the biggest advantage is the density and continuity of data, which allows for detection of changes in objects being monitored.
Burwell, Robert W; Beasley, Jeffrey S; Gaston, Lewis A; Borst, Steven M; Sheffield, Ron E; Strahan, Ron E; Munshaw, Gregg C
Nutrient and sediment runoff from newly constructed levee embankments pose a threat to water quality during soft armor vegetation establishment. Research was initiated in 2008 and 2009 to evaluate the effect of bermudagrass ( L.) coverage and N source on nutrient and sediment runoff from levee embankments during establishment. Bermudagrass plots were seeded at 195.3 kg pure live seed ha and fertilized at 50 kg N ha using a water-soluble N source, urea or NH-NO, or slow-release N source, S-coated urea (SCU) or urea formaldehyde (UF), with controls unfertilized. Vegetative cover percentage, time until the onset of runoff, runoff volume, and total solids (TS), NO-N, and NH-N concentrations were measured from simulated and natural rainfall events for 70 d in 2008 and 56 d in 2009. Bermudagrass at 90% grass cover delayed the onset of runoff an additional 441 to 538 s and reduced runoff volumes 74 to 84% of that exhibited at 10% grass cover. Nitrogen fertilizers did not accelerate bermudagrass growth sufficiently, however, to reduce TS loading compared with unfertilized bermudagrass in either year of the study. The application of urea and SCU resulted in cumulative N losses of 2.45 and 3.13 kg ha compared with 1.59 kg ha from the unfertilized bermudagrass in 2008, and 1.73 kg ha from NH-NO vs. 0.24 kg ha from controls in 2009. Only UF increased bermudagrass establishment without increasing cumulative N losses compared with unfertilized bermudagrass. Therefore, the benefit of greater erosion and runoff resistance expected from N-accelerated vegetative growth did not occur but had the unintended consequence of higher N losses when water-soluble N and SCU fertilizers were applied. PMID:21712593
...Pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps), Huntington District will prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) to disclose potential impacts to the natural, physical, and human environment resulting from implementation of alternatives formulated to address reliability risks associated with Zoar Levee and Diversion Dam. These high......
Garrett, H. James
The author explores the articulations of six social studies student/teachers after a viewing of "When the Levees Broke: A Requiem in Four Acts". The film, a documentary about the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina on the people in and around New Orleans, constitutes an encounter with what Deborah Britzman (1998) calls "difficult…
Mahrooghy, M.; Aanstoos, J. V.; Hasan, K.; Nobrega, R. A.; Younan, N. H.
Earthen levees protect large areas of land in the US from flooding. Timely inspection and repairs can reduce the potential for catastrophic failures. Changes in spatial and temporal patterns of soil moisture can reveal signs of instability and help identify zones of weakness. Since analytical and empirical models have shown a relationship between SAR backscatter and soil moisture, we are using SAR to classify soil moisture on levees. Estimation of soil moisture from SAR is challenging when the surface has any significant vegetation. For the levee application, the soil is typically covered with a uniform layer of grass. Our methodology is based on a supervised soil moisture classification using a back propagation neural network with four classes of low, medium, high, and very high soil moisture. Our methodology consists of the following steps: 1) segmentation of the levee area from background and exclusion of tree-covered areas; 2) extracting the backscattering and texture features such as GLCM (Grey-Level Co-occurrence Matrix) and wavelet features; 3) training the back propagation neural network classifier; and 4) testing the area of interest and validation of the results using ground truth data. Two sources of SAR imagery are tested with this method: (1) fully polarimetric L-band data from NASA's UAVSAR; and (2) dual-polarimetric X-band data from the German TerraSAR-X satellite. The study area is a 4 km stretch of levee along the lower Mississippi River in the United States. Field data collected simultaneously with image acquisition are utilized for training and validation. Preliminary results show classification accuracies of about 50% for the UAVSAR image and 30% for the TerraSAR-X image in vegetated areas. The figure below shows a soil moisture classification using UAVSAR on April 28, 2011.
Nemeth, Mark S.; Wilcox, Walter M.; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M.
A coupled ground- and surface-water model (MODBRANCH) was developed to estimate ground-water flow beneath Levee 31N in Miami-Dade County, Florida, and to simulate hydrologic conditions in the surrounding area. The study included compilation of data from monitoring stations, measurement of vertical seepage rates in wetlands, and analysis of the hydrogeologic properties of the ground-water aquifer within the study area. In addition, the MODBRANCH code was modified to calculate the exchange between surface-water channels and ground water using a relation based on the concept of reach transmissivity. The modified reach-transmissivity version of the MODBRANCH code was successfully tested on three simple problems with known analytical solutions. It was also tested and determined to function adequately on one field problem that had previously been solved using the unmodified version of the software. The modified version of MODBRANCH was judged to have performed satisfactorily, and it required about 60 percent as many iterations to reach a solution. Additionally, its input parameters are more physically-based and less dependent on model-grid spacing. A model of the Levee 31N area was developed and used with the original and modified versions of MODBRANCH, which produced similar output. The mean annual modeled ground-water heads differed by only 0.02 foot, and the mean annual canal discharge differed by less than 1.0 cubic foot per second. Seepage meters were used to quantify vertical seepage rates in the Everglades wetlands area west of Levee 31N. A comparison between results from the seepage meters and from the computer model indicated substantial differences that seemed to be a result of local variations in the hydraulic properties in the topmost part of the Biscayne aquifer. The transmissivity of the Biscayne aquifer was estimated to be 1,400,000 square feet per day in the study area. The computer model was employed to simulate seepage of ground water beneath Levee 31N
Schwenk, T.; Spiess, V.; Breitzke, M.; Huebscher, C.
The Bengal Fan is the largest submarine fan on Earth and covers the whole Bay of Bengal. The fan is built up by the sediment load of the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers, which drain the Himalayan and react to tectonic and climatic changes on land. Therefore the Bengal Fan is well suited to study the linkage between processes on land and the marine sedimentary record. The sediment reaches the deep sea through a canyon deeply incised into the shelf, acting as a temporary trap. Turbidity currents transport the sediment episodically on the fan building successively several channel-levee systems, but only one channel is active at a time. In 1997 during R/V Sonne Cruise SO 125 to the Bay of Bengal, the morphology and structure of the Bengal Fan were studied at different distances from the shelf. In addition, the seismic data were used for an ODP drilling proposal "Drilling in the Bengal Fan" by France-Lanord, Spiess, Molnar & Curray. A main objective of the SO 125 Cruise was the investigation of the middle Bengal Fan at 16.5° N, especially of the architecture of the active channel-levee system. A closely spaced grid of Parasound sediment echosounder, Hydrosweep Swath Sounder and very high-resolution seismic data were collected in the vicinity of the active channel, completed by two long W-E Profiles to the west and the east of the active channel. As seismic sources a watergun with frequencies between 200 and 1600 Hz and a GI Gun with frequencies between 100 and 400 Hz were used in an alternating operation mode. At the middle Bengal Fan, the active channel is characterised by a high sinuosity and an exceptionally low gradient. By a combined Parasound and Hydrosweep survey more than 20 cut-off loops could be identified. The sedimentation on the levees varies strongly and depends on the relative position to the channel loops. The base of the active channel is characterised by high amplitude reflections in the seismic data, which are interpreted as coarse-grained sediments
Gadotti, D. A.; de Souza, R. E.; Dos Anjos, S.
Tem sido prática comum nos últimos anos estudar a distribuição de luminosidade em galáxias fazendo uso da informação contida em toda a imagem da galáxia, já que esta técnica tem se mostrado muito mais confiável do que o simples ajuste de perfis radiais de luminosidade. Através destes estudos bidimensionais, melhores resultados tem sido obtidos na análise e.g. do Plano Fundamental, de correlações entre os parâmetros estruturais de galáxias, de sub-estruturas como barras e anéis nucleares etc. Apresentamos um novo código bidimensional, o BUDDA, de análise estrutural de galáxias, que será disponibilizado para a comunidade. Desenvolvido por nós, o código determina os parâmetros estruturais de galáxias de forma prática e robusta, e pode ser aplicado genericamente em qualquer estudo sobre a formação, evolução e estrutura de galáxias. O programa ainda permite a avaliação direta de sub-estruturas, através de imagens residuais que são obtidas ao se subtrair, das imagens originais, bojo e disco sintéticos que melhor representam essas componentes da galáxia sob consideração. Será apresentada a forma de utilização do código, bem como séries de testes que atestam a sua funcionalidade. Além disso, os resultados da aplicação do código em uma amostra de 51 galáxias serão expostos como exemplo prático, e do seu enorme potencial de uso.
Three-dimensional imaging, change detection, and stability assessment during the centerline trench levee seepage experiment using terrestrial light detection and ranging technology, Twitchell Island, California, 2012
Bawden, Gerald W.; Howle, James; Bond, Sandra; Shriro, Michelle; Buck, Peter
A full scale field seepage test was conducted on a north-south trending levee segment of a now bypassed old meander belt on Twitchell Island, California, to understand the effects of live and decaying root systems on levee seepage and slope stability. The field test in May 2012 was centered on a north-south trench with two segments: a shorter control segment and a longer seepage test segment. The complete length of the trench area measured 40.4 meters (m) near the levee centerline with mature trees located on the waterside and landside of the levee flanks. The levee was instrumented with piezometers and tensiometers to measure positive and negative porewater pressures across the levee after the trench was flooded with water and held at a constant hydraulic head during the seepage test—the results from this component of the experiment are not discussed in this report. We collected more than one billion three-dimensional light detection and ranging (lidar) data points before, during, and after the centerline seepage test to assess centimeter-scale stability of the two trees and the levee crown. During the seepage test, the waterside tree toppled (rotated 20.7 degrees) into the water. The landside tree rotated away from the levee by 5 centimeters (cm) at a height of 2 m on the tree. The paved surface of the levee crown had three regions that showed subsidence on the waterside of the trench—discussed as the northern, central, and southern features. The northern feature is an elongate region that subsided 2.1 cm over an area with an average width of 1.35 m that extends 15.8 m parallel to the trench from the northern end of the trench to just north of the trench midpoint, and is associated with a crack 1 cm in height that formed during the seepage test on the trench wall. The central subsidence feature is a semicircular region on the waterside of the trench that subsided by as much as 6.2 cm over an area 3.4 m wide and 11.2 m long. The southern feature is an elongate
Ozeren, Y.; Wren, D. G.; Alonso, C. V.
Earth levees for catfish ponds and irrigation water storage experience significant embankment erosion due to wind generated waves. Large seasonal fluctuations in water level make vegetative bank protection impractical, and other stabilization methods such as the use of old tires or riprap are not acceptable due to ecological and economic concerns. The goal of the present work is to define configurations and construction techniques for inexpensive floating breakwaters made of polyethylene irrigation tubing. Based on wave characteristics measured in an irrigation pond near Lonoke, Arkansas, a laboratory scale wave generating flume was designed, constructed, and used to test multiple wave barrier configurations for regular waves in deep and transitional water depths. Wave transmission characteristics were investigated for the following breakwater arrangements: (1) fully restrained, (2) vertically restrained with a single mooring line, (3) horizontally restrained with a rigid arm hinged at one end, and (4) horizontally restrained with piles at both sides of the breakwater. The test results show that cylindrical pipes can be used effectively as floating breakwaters and that wave transmission characteristics strongly depend on the draft of the breakwater and the mooring configuration. The use of multiple small cylinders instead of a single large one can reduce cost while maintaining the same level of wave attenuation. The wave characteristics measured in the field and the results of laboratory testing resulted in a final design that is to be tested at the prototype scale in an irrigation pond.
Black, Robert W.; Czuba, Christiana R.; Magirl, Christopher S.; McCarthy, Sarah; Berge, Hans; Comanor, Kyle
Watershed restoration is the focus of many resource managers and can include a multitude of restoration actions each with specific restoration objectives. For the White River flowing through the cities of Pacific and Sumner, Washington, a levee setback has been proposed to reconnect the river with its historical floodplain to help reduce flood risks, as well as provide increased habitat for federally listed species of salmonids. The study presented here documents the use of a modeling framework that integrates two-dimensional hydraulic modeling with process-based bioenergetics modeling for predicting how changes in flow from reconnecting the river with its floodplain affects invertebrate drift density and the net rate of energy intake of juvenile salmonids. Modeling results were calculated for flows of 25.9 and 49.3 cubic meters per second during the spring, summer, and fall. Predicted hypothetical future mean velocities and depths were significantly lower and more variable when compared to current conditions. The abundance of low energetic cost and positive growth locations for salmonids were predicted to increase significantly in the study reach following floodplain reconnection, particularly during the summer. This modeling framework presents a viable approach for evaluating the potential fisheries benefits of reconnecting a river to its historical floodplain that integrates our understanding of hydraulic, geomorphology, and organismal biology.
Jones, Cathleen; Bawden, Gerald; Deverel, Steven; Dudas, Joel; Hensley, Scott
The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta is one of the primary water sources for the state of California and represents a complex geographical area comprised of tidal marshland, levee rimmed islands that are used primarily for agriculture, and urban encroachment. Land subsidence has dropped many of the Delta islands 3 to >7 meters below mean sea level and requires nearly 1700 km of levees to maintain the integrity of the islands and flow of water through the Delta. The current average subsidence rates for each island varies, with 1.23 cm/yr on Sherman Island and 2.2 cm/yr for Bacon Island, as determined by ground-based instruments located at isolated points in the Delta. The Delta's status as the most critical water resource for the state, an endangered ecosystem, and an area continuously threatened with levee breakage from hydrostatic pressure and the danger of earthquakes on several major faults in the San Francisco area make it a focus of monitoring efforts by both the state and national government. This activity is now almost entirely done by ground-based efforts, but the benefits of using remote sensing for wide scale spatial coverage and frequent temporal coverage is obvious. The UAVSAR airborne polarimetric and differential interferometric L-band synthetic aperture radar system has been used to collected monthly images of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta and much of the adjacent Suisun Marsh since July 2009 to characterize levee stability, image spatially varied subsidence, and assess how well the UAVSAR performs in an area with widespread agriculture production.
Nichols, A. L.; Whipple, A. A.; Phillips, K. A.; Laird, J.; Holmes, E. J.; Viers, J. H.
Floodplain and riparian areas provide some of the most dynamic and complex habitat mosaics found on Earth. The lateral connectivity of water and sediment during seasonal flood pulses is a key factor controlling the abiotic and biotic processes that determine floodplain habitat structure. However, riverside levees have largely eliminated floodplain hydrologic connection in human-dominated riverscapes, resulting in widespread loss of floodplain habitats and associated ecosystem services. Recently, an emphasis has been placed on the re-establishment of hydrogeomorphic processes to lowland river floodplains through the breaching of riverside levees, with the lower Cosumnes River in California's Central Valley being one exemplar for this approach to floodplain ecosystem restoration. Observations following more than two decades of intentional and accidental levee breaches identified highly variable hydrologic and geomorphic responses to restoration actions. Principal among these observations is that narrow (<75 m) breaches generate archetypal, lobate crevasse-splay complexes, but result in minimal geomorphic change within the main river channel. However, recent observations from a wide (>400 m) levee breach identified the development of multiple and overlapping crevasse-splay complexes, along with upstream bed erosion and downstream aggradation in the main river channel. We hypothesize that geomorphic change in the main river channel adjacent to this large levee breach is the result of flood basin filling and associated water surface drawdown at flood stage. Additionally, longitudinal variability in channel capacity results in large differences in floodplain hydrologic connectivity thresholds and the duration of floodplain inundation, which ultimately influence biotic responses to flooding. Our observations suggest not all levee breaches are created equal, and an understanding of levee breach and adjacent main channel geometry is key to predicting and evaluating both
Rowland, Joel C; Hilley, George E; Fildani, Andrea
Leveed submarine channels play a critical role in the transfer of sediment from the upper continental slopes to interslope basins and ultimately deepwater settings. Despite a reasonable understanding of how these channels grow once established, how such channels initiate on previously unchannelized portions of the seafloor remains poorly understood. We conducted a series of experiments that elucidate the influence of excess density relative to flow velocity on the dynamics of, and depositional morphologies arising from, density currents undergoing sudden unconfinement across a sloped bed. Experimental currents transported only suspended sediment across a non-erodible substrate. Under flow conditions ranging from supercritical to subcritical (bulk Richardson numbers of 0.02 to 1.2) our experiments failed to produce deposits resembling or exhibiting the potential to evolve into self-formed leveed channels. In the absence of excess density, a submerged sediment-laden flow produced sharp crested lateral deposits bounding the margins of the flow for approximately a distance of two outlet widths down basin. These lateral deposits terminated in a centerline deposit that greatly exceeded marginal deposits in thickness. As excess density increased relative to the outlet velocity, the rate of lateral spreading of the flow increased relative to the downstream propagation of the density current, transitioning from a narrow flow aligned with the channel outlet to a broad radially expanding flow. Coincident with these changes in flow dynamics, the bounding lateral deposits extended for shorter distances, had lower, more poorly defined crests that were increasingly wider in separation than the initial outlet, and progressively became more oblong rather than linear. Based on our results, we conclude that leveed channels cannot initiate from sediment-laden density currents under strictly depositional conditions. Partial confinement of these currents appears to be necessary to
Kuwabara, James S.; Topping, Brent R.; Carter, James L.; Parcheso, Francis; Cameron, Jason M.; Asbill, Jessica R.; Fend, Steven V.; Duff, John H.; Engelstad, Anita C.
Four sampling trips were coordinated after planned levee breaches that hydrologically reconnected both Upper Klamath Lake and Agency Lake, Oregon, to adjacent wetlands. Sets of nonmetallic pore-water profilers were deployed during these trips in November 2007, June 2008, May 2009, and July 2009. Deployments temporally spanned the annual cyanophyte bloom of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (AFA) and spatially involved three lake and four wetland sites. Profilers, typically deployed in triplicate at each lake or wetland site, provided high-resolution (centimeter-scale) estimates of the vertical concentration gradients for diffusive-flux determinations. Estimates based on molecular diffusion may underestimate benthic flux because solute transport across the sediment-water interface can be enhanced by processes including bioturbation, bioirrigation and groundwater advection. Water-column and benthic samples were also collected to help interpret spatial and temporal trends in diffusive-flux estimates. Data from these samples complement taxonomic and geochemical analyses of bottom-sediments taken from Upper Klamath Lake (UKL) in prior studies. This ongoing study provides information necessary for developing process-interdependent solute-transport models for the watershed (that is, models integrating physical, geochemical, and biological processes) and supports efforts to evaluate remediation or load-allocation strategies. To augment studies funded by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR), the Department of the Interior supported an additional full deployment of pore-water profilers in November 2007 and July 2009, immediately following the levee breaches and after the crash of the annual summer AFA bloom. As observed consistently since 2006, benthic flux of 0.2-micron filtered, soluble reactive phosphorus (that is, biologically available phosphorus, primarily as orthophosphate; SRP) was consistently positive (that is, out of the sediment into the overlying water column) and
Florsheim, Joan L.; Mount, Jeffrey F.
Restoration of sustainable geomorphic processes that create floodplain topography through development of sand-splay complexes at intentional breaches is one method to promote variability in physical structure needed for habitat restoration. The topography of splay complexes provides a range of floodplain elevations that creates local variability in (i) inundation duration and frequency and depth to ground water that influence riparian vegetation establishment; and (ii) flow depth and velocity that create refuge for fish. Two intentional levee breaches along the lowland Cosumnes River, Central Valley, CA, were evaluated during water years 1999 and 2000 in order to document changes in morphology and relief associated with deposition of sand-splay complexes. During the study period, annual peak-flow recurrence intervals ranged from ˜1 to 3 years, and water flowed through the breaches for a minimum of 55 days during water year 1999 and 53 days during water year 2000. At the two study sites, rapid vertical accretion and scour occurred within the first several years after intentionally breaching the levee at the Accidental Forest floodplain (constructed in 1995) and at the Corps Breach floodplain (constructed in 1997). Splay complexes are organized into a variety of landforms, including lateral levees and lobes separated by new floodplain channels. Maximum deposition measured on the splay surface is 0.36 m/year, while maximum scour in channels is 0.27 m/year. Juxtaposition of floodplain splay deposition and adjacent channel scour creates relief ranging from ˜1.6 to 0.25 m that decreases with distance from the breach and that becomes more pronounced over time as higher magnitude floods scour channels in the old floodplain sediment and deposit new sand and silt onto the surface of the splay. The ratio of splay complex height to depth of formative flow is estimated as ˜0.4. Progradation of main and secondary splay channels takes place by down-floodplain sand transport
The survey of interview, resource acquisition, photographic operation, and questionnaire were carried out in the “n” Community in the “y” District in Hakusan City in Ishikawa Prefecture to investigate the actual condition of paddy field levee maintenance in the area where land-renting market was proceeding, large-scale farming was dominant, and the problems of geographically scattered farm-land existed. In the study zone, 1) an agricultural production legal person rent-cultivated some of the paddy fields and maintained the levees, 2) another agricultural production legal person rent-cultivated some of the soy bean fields for crop changeover and land owners maintained the levees. The results indicated that sufficient maintenance was executed on the levees of the paddy fields cultivated by the agricultural production legal person, the soy bean fields for crop changeover, and the paddy fields cultivated by the land owners. Each reason is considered to be the managerial strategy, the economic incentive, the mutual monitoring and cross-regulatory mechanism, etc.
Camici, Stefania; Moramarco, Tommaso; Brocca, Luca; Melone, Florisa; Lapenna, Vincenzo; Perrone, Angela; Loperte, Antonio
On 1st January 2006, during an ordinary flood event, a levee failure along the Foenna stream caused the flooding in the urban area of Sinalunga, a small town located in Tuscany region (Italy). The event was monitored by a public agency with the responsibility for the control and maintenance of the natural channel networks. Long time before of flooding, people living in the surrounding area of the stream blamed the presence of wild animals and of numerous burrows along the levees. Although the numerous actions of maintenance along the levees mainly for removing the burrows, a levee seepage occurred during that flood. The presence of an outflow located on the downstream face, almost 2 m below the levee top, caused the spurt of brown water denoting the presence of sediment erosion. On the upstream face of levee, a little hole of about 30 cm at the same height of the outflow was discovered. Although the agency workers tried to close the hole by using appropriate blankets, in short time the top of the levee subsided and the overtopping flow caused a trapezoidal breach typical for an earth-fill embankment. The formation of breach was so fast that in a little more of one hour the urban area near to the Foenna stream was flooded causing high economic damages. Mechanisms triggered the levees failure are the object of this work. The analysis of the event has been first addressed to assess the state of-fact of levees conditions along the Foenna stream, thus to understand how much the activity of wild animals, in particular that of porcupine, may have affected the hydraulic safety of the embankment. At the purpose, after the event, topographical surveys of cross sections have been done along with tomographic surveys by geoelectric technique for investigating the possible presence, besides of burrows, also of tunnels dug into the levees by animals. Then, the analysis of hydrometeorological conditions of the event has allowed to better understand the evolution of the flood and
Kuwabara, J. S.; Topping, B. R.; Carter, J. L.; Parchaso, F.; Cameron, J. M.; Asbill, J. R.; Carlson, R. A.; Fend, S. V.; Engelstad, A. C.
Nonmetallic pore-water profilers were deployed during four sampling trips between November 2007 and July 2009 after engineered levee breaches on 30 October 2007, hydrologically reconnected both Upper Klamath Lake and Agency Lake, Oregon, to adjacent wetlands. Centimeter-scale measurements of the vertical dissolved-nutrient concentration gradients from the profilers served as the basis for diffusive-flux determinations. Wetland areas undergoing restoration and those being used for water storage around these lakes function very differently than nearby established wetlands within the Upper Klamath National Wildlife Refuge. Consistent with previous results from Upper Klamath Lake, benthic flux of soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) in the wetlands was consistently positive, and when areally and seasonally averaged over the 13 km2 newly restored wetlands, an SRP flux to the overlying water column (~87,000 kg over the 3-month cyanophyte bloom of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (AFA)) exceeded the magnitude of riverine inputs (42,000 kg for that season). SRP benthic flux at a site within the restored wetland area ~0.5 km from the breach was elevated relative to all other lake and wetland sites (including another wetland site <0.1 km from the breached levee) in 2009 suggests that the restored wetlands, at least chemically, remain in a transition period following the hydrologic reconnection of the lake and wetland environments. Ammonium fluxes to the water column remained consistently positive throughout the sampling period, generating a toxicological concern for endangered fish populations at elevated summer pH. Soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) concentrations were lower than detection limits (<0.03 mg-P/L) at all lake and wetland sites following the levee breaches. As indicated in previous studies, SRP concentrations for 2009 sampling trips indicated higher concentrations at the end of the annual AFA bloom relative to its beginning, suggesting a limiting factor or factors other
Wells, Mathew; Cossu, Remo
Submarine channel-levee systems are among the largest sedimentary structures on the ocean floor. These channels have a sinuous pattern and are the main conduits for turbidity currents to transport sediment to the deep ocean. Recent observations have shown that their sinuosity decreases strongly with latitude, with high-latitude channels being much straighter than similar channels near the Equator. One possible explanation is that Coriolis forces laterally deflect turbidity currents so that at high Northern latitudes both the density interface and the downstream velocity maximum are deflected to the right-hand side of the channel (looking downstream). The shift in the velocity field can change the locations of erosion and deposition and introduce an asymmetry between left- and right-turning bends. The importance of Coriolis forces is defined by two Rossby numbers, Ro(W) = U/Wf and Ro(R) = U/Rf, where U is the mean downstream velocity, W is the width of the channel, R is the radius of curvature and f is the Coriolis parameter. In a bending channel, the density interface is flat when Ro(R) - -1, and Coriolis forces start to shift the velocity maximum when [Row] < 5. We review recent experimental and field observations and describe how Coriolis forces could lead to straighter channels at high latitudes. PMID:24471273
Hai, Pham T; Magome, J; Yorozuya, A; Inomata, H; Fukami, K; Takeuchi, K
In order to assess the effects of climate change on flood disasters in urban areas, we applied a two dimensional finite element hydrodynamic model (2D-FEM) to simulate flood processes for the case analysis of levee breach caused by Kathleen Typhoon on 16 September 1947 in Kurihashi reach of Tone River, upstream of Tokyo area. The purpose is to use the model to simulate flood inundation processes under the present topography and land-use conditions with impending extreme flood scenarios due to climate change for mega-urban areas like Tokyo. Simulation used 100 m resolution topographic data (in PWRI), which was derived from original LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) data, and levee breach hydrographic data in 1947. In this paper, we will describe the application of the model with calibration approach and techniques when applying for such fine spatial resolution in urban environments. The fine unstructured triangular FEM mesh of the model appeared to be the most capable of introducing of constructions like roads/levees in simulations. Model results can be used to generate flood mapping, subsequently uploaded to Google Earth interface, making the modeling and presentation process much comprehensible to the general public. PMID:20962401
Steward, D.C.; Gillespie, J.M. )
Net sand isochore maps of three Pliocene-age Lower Gusher sands in the Etchegoin Formation at North Coles Levee field, southern San Joaquin basin, California display geometries suggestive of deposition in delta front settings. The north-south depositional strike of these sands approximately parallels the orientation of the paleoshoreline. The sands thicken and display greater lateral continuity near distributary channel sands, which are oriented east-northeast approximately perpendicular to the shoreline. A comparison of the isochore maps of each of the three sand bodies show that they are stacked vertically above each other, indicating that the position of the shoreline remained stationary during deposition of the Gusher interval. This apparent stillstand of the shoreline is superimposed on an overall regression of the sea from the San Joaquin basin during the Pliocene. Therefore, we believe that the Lower Gusher sands were deposited during a period of relatively rapid basin subsidence, which negated the effects of the marine regression and caused vertical aggradation of shoreline facies in the North Coles Levee area. The Lower Gusher interval at North and South Coles Levee contains the most prolific shallow gas reservoirs on the Bakersfield Arch. A thorough knowledge of depositional trends in the Lower Gusher interval increases the probability of encountering reservoir-quality facies in exploration programs focusing on Pliocene gas.
Densmore, Brenda K.; Burton, Bethany L.; Dietsch, Benjamin J.; Cannia, James C.; Huizinga, Richard J.
During the 2011 Mississippi River Basin flood, the U.S. Geological Survey evaluated aspects of critical river infrastructure at the request of and in support of local, State, and Federal Agencies. Geotechnical and hydrographic data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey at numerous locations were able to provide needed information about 2011 flood effects to those managing the critical infrastructure. These data were collected and processed in a short time frame to provide managers the ability to make a timely evaluation of the safety of the infrastructure and, when needed, to take action to secure and protect critical infrastructure. Critical infrastructure surveyed by the U.S. Geological Survey included levees, bridges, pipeline crossings, power plant intakes and outlets, and an electrical transmission tower. Capacitively coupled resistivity data collected along the flood-protection levees surrounding the Omaha Public Power District Nebraska City power plant (Missouri River Levee Unit R573), mapped the near-subsurface electrical properties of the levee and the materials immediately below it. The near-subsurface maps provided a better understanding of the levee construction and the nature of the lithology beneath the levee. Comparison of the capacitively coupled resistivity surveys and soil borings indicated that low-resistivity value material composing the levee generally is associated with lean clay and silt to about 2 to 4 meters below the surface, overlying a more resistive layer associated with sand deposits. In general, the resistivity structure becomes more resistive to the south and the southern survey sections correlate well with the borehole data that indicate thinner clay and silt at the surface and thicker sand sequences at depth in these sections. With the resistivity data Omaha Public Power District could focus monitoring efforts on areas with higher resistivity values (coarser-grained deposits or more loosely compacted section), which typically are
Konrad, C.P.; Black, R.W.; Voss, F.; Neale, C. M. U.
Setback levees, in which levees are reconstructed at a greater distance from a river channel, are a promising restoration technique particularly for alluvial rivers with broad floodplains where river-floodplain connectivity is essential to ecological processes. Documenting the ecological outcomes of restoration activities is essential for assessing the comparative benefits of different restoration approaches and for justifying new restoration projects. Remote sensing of aquatic habitats offers one approach for comprehensive, objective documentation of river and floodplain habitats, but is difficult in glacial rivers because of high suspended-sediment concentrations, braiding and a lack of large, well-differentiated channel forms such as riffles and pools. Remote imagery and field surveys were used to assess the effects of recent and planned setback levees along the Puyallup River and, more generally, the application of multispectral imagery for classifying aquatic and riparian habitats in glacial-melt water rivers. Airborne images were acquired with a horizontal ground resolution of 0.5 m in three spectral bands (0.545-0.555, 0.665-0.675 and 0.790-0.810 ??m) spanning from green to near infrared (NIR) wavelengths. Field surveys identified river and floodplain habitat features and provided the basis for a comparative hydraulic analysis. Broad categories of aquatic habitat (smooth and rough water surface), exposed sediment (sand and boulder) and vegetated surfaces (herbaceous and deciduous shrub/forest) were classified accurately using the airborne images. Other categories [e.g. conifers, boulder, large woody debtis (LWD)] and subdivisions of broad categories (e.g. riffles and runs) were not successfully classified either because these features did not form large patches that could be identified on the imagery or their spectral reflectances were not distinct from those of other habitat types. Airborne imagery was critical for assessing fine-scale aquatic habitat
O'Connell, S.; Ryan, William B. F.; Normark, W.R.
Six submarine slope canyons in an area of the northwestern Mediterranean, offshore from the Ebro River and Delta, were surveyed with bathymetric swathmapping (SeaBeam) and mid-range side-looking sonar (SeaMARC I). All of the canyons have slightly winding paths with concave-upwards gradients that are relatively steep shallower than 1,200 m. Two major types of canyons are identified on the basis of their morphologic character at the base of the slope; Type-I canyons lead to an unchannelled base-of-slope deposit and Type-II canyons are continuous with channel-levee systems that cross the rise. Four Type-I canyons were surveyed in the area. Two of these are broad, U-shaped, steep (average gradients of 1:14), do not indent the shelf, and terminate downslope at debris-flow deposits. These two canyons, the most northern in the area, have rounded heads with extensive gullies separated by knife-edge ridges. Relief of the canyon walls is about equal on both sides of the canyons, although the right-hand walls (looking downslope) are generally steeper. The other two Type-I canyons in the area are similar in that they do not indent the shelf, but they are much smaller and shallower and coalesce before terminating in the base-of-slope region. The two Type-II canyons that feed leveed-channels are U-shaped with flatter floors, longer profiles and gentler gradients than Type-I canyons. They are closer to the Valencia Valley and have relatively small cross-sectional areas. We propose a four-stage evolutionary sequence to explain the development of the canyons observed in this section on the prograding Ebro margin. During the initial stage, slumping and erosion on the slope creates a network of small gullies. During the next stage, headward growth of one (or more) gully leads to a major indentation of the shelf. This is the critical factor for developing a channel that will incise the slope and provide a major conduit for moving sediment to the basin. Stage 3 is characterized by the
Kuwabara, James S.; Topping, Brent R.; Carter, James L.; Wood, Tamara M.; Parcheso, Francis; Cameron, Jason M.; Asbill, Jessica R.; Carlson, Rick A.; Fend, Steven V.
Eight sampling trips were coordinated after engineered levee breaches hydrologically reconnected both Upper Klamath Lake and Agency Lake, Oregon, to adjacent wetlands. The reconnection, by a series of explosive blasts, was coordinated by The Nature Conservancy to reclaim wetlands that had for approximately seven decades been leveed for crop production. Sets of nonmetallic porewater profilers (U.S. Patent 8,051,727 B1; November 8, 2011; http://www.uspto.gov/web/patents/patog/ week45/OG/html/1372-2/US08051727-20111108.html.) were deployed during these trips in November 2007, June 2008, May 2009, July 2009, May 2010, August 2010, June 2011, and July 2011 (table 1). Deployments temporally spanned the annual cyanophyte bloom of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and spatially involved three lake and four wetland sites. Spatial and temporal variation in solute benthic flux was determined by the field team, using the profilers, over an approximately 4-year period beginning 3 days after the levee breaches. The highest flux to the water column of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was detected in the newly flooded wetland, contrasting negative or insignificant DOC fluxes at adjacent lake sites. Over the multiyear study, DOC benthic fluxes dissipated in the reconnected wetlands, converging to values similar to those for established wetlands and to the adjacent lake (table 2). In contrast to DOC, benthic sources of soluble reactive phosphorus, ammonium, dissolved iron and manganese from within the reconnected wetlands were consistently elevated (that is, significant in magnitude relative to riverine and established-wetland sources) indicating a multi-year time scale for certain chemical changes after the levee breaches (table 2). Colonization of the reconnected wetlands by aquatic benthic invertebrates during the study trended toward the assemblages in established wetlands, providing further evidence of a multiyear transition of this area to permanent aquatic habitat (table 3). Both the
Holmes, R. R.; Koenig, T. A.; McDonald, R. R.; Nelson, J. M.; Simoes, F. J.
During 2011, record flooding has occurred in many parts of the central United States. As the flooding reached record levels for the Mississippi-Ohio River confluence at Cairo, Illinois, the 61 kilometer long and 8 kilometer wide Birds Point-New Madrid Floodway (Floodway) was activated to provide a lowering of upstream water levels through a controlled demolition of approximately 3,300 meters of levee at 10:00 PM on May 2, 2011. Prior to activation of the Floodway, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) deployed 38 self-contained stage sensors throughout the Floodway to capture the change in water elevation through time at various locations. From April 29, 2011 to May 24, 2011, daily streamflow measurements were made upstream of the confluence of the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers, within the Floodway opening and outlets, and on the Mississippi River downstream of the Floodway opening. Additionally, velocity and bathymetric data were collected immediately downstream of the Floodway opening at Birds Point to characterize scour in the Floodway. The data provide a unique look at the impact of a controlled levee breach on river flows and hydraulics. The activation of the Floodway lowered the water level at Cairo, Illinois by 0.44 meters in the first 14 hours, while increasing the streamflow of the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers in vicinity of Cairo, Illinois by 9,200 cubic meters per second. On May 2, prior to the activation of the Floodway, the measured combined streamflow of the upper Mississippi and Ohio Rivers at Cairo, Illinois was 52,900 cubic meters per second with the Ohio River contributing 27,700 cubic meters per second. Following the controlled breach of the Birds Point levee (immediately downstream of Cairo, Illinois on the right descending bank) the night of May 2, 2011, the measured combined streamflow at Cairo, Illinois on May 3, 2011 increased to 62,100 cubic meters per second with the Ohio River increasing to 38,100 cubic meters per second, an increase of 10
Pascoletti, F. C.; Masson, D.; Innocenti, C.
The west Iberian margin is indented by a network of submarine canyons that create rugged seafloor morphology and act as major pathways for the transport of sediment from land to the abyssal plains. The Setúbal and Nazaré Canyons are part of this complex environment and strongly influence sediment distribution, capturing sediments from the Tagus River and the littoral cell transport respectively. Deep submarine sedimentary sequences thus reflect changes in sediment input and depositional environments. The high-resolution sedimentological study here presented was applied in four cores of the deep water levees of Nazaré and Setúbal Canyons in order to explore how sediment input to the canyons changed during the last glacial - interglacial transition, and how this reflects changing environmental conditions on land. By means of non-destructive corelogger measurements and analyses of spectral signatures, geochemical compositions and colour variations, it was possible to identify ice-rafted debris (IRD) deposits, to characterize hemipelagic and turbidite layers and to investigate terrestrial-derived sediments input variation during the last 26 ka. Preliminary results from the sedimentological and turbidite frequency analyses show that highest turbidite occurrence is recorded during the glacial stage, confirming that the generation of turbidity flows in submarine canyons is tightly related to low sea-level stands. We found that major peaks in frequency and thickness of turbidite deposits in the deep Portuguese margin are mainly coeval with abrupt climatic (H2 and 1) and sea-level changes (~ 19 and ~ 23 ka BP), as a consequence of which a major amount of continentally-derived material was transported into the deep sea. During the Holocene, the inception of sea-level rises, independent of their magnitude, has been found to be sufficient to generate turbidity currents, particularly in the Nazaré system. Moreover, a multiple regression analysis was attempted in order to
Wain, Louise V; Shrine, Nick; Miller, Suzanne; Jackson, Victoria E; Ntalla, Ioanna; Artigas, María Soler; Billington, Charlotte K; Kheirallah, Abdul Kader; Allen, Richard; Cook, James P; Probert, Kelly; Obeidat, Ma'en; Bossé, Yohan; Hao, Ke; Postma, Dirkje S; Paré, Peter D; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Mägi, Reedik; Mihailov, Evelin; Reinmaa, Eva; Melén, Erik; O'Connell, Jared; Frangou, Eleni; Delaneau, Olivier; Freeman, Colin; Petkova, Desislava; McCarthy, Mark; Sayers, Ian; Deloukas, Panos; Hubbard, Richard; Pavord, Ian; Hansell, Anna L; Thomson, Neil C; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Morris, Andrew P; Marchini, Jonathan; Strachan, David P; Tobin, Martin D; Hall, Ian P
Summary Background Understanding the genetic basis of airflow obstruction and smoking behaviour is key to determining the pathophysiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We used UK Biobank data to study the genetic causes of smoking behaviour and lung health. Methods We sampled individuals of European ancestry from UK Biobank, from the middle and extremes of the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) distribution among heavy smokers (mean 35 pack-years) and never smokers. We developed a custom array for UK Biobank to provide optimum genome-wide coverage of common and low-frequency variants, dense coverage of genomic regions already implicated in lung health and disease, and to assay rare coding variants relevant to the UK population. We investigated whether there were shared genetic causes between different phenotypes defined by extremes of FEV1. We also looked for novel variants associated with extremes of FEV1 and smoking behaviour and assessed regions of the genome that had already shown evidence for a role in lung health and disease. We set genome-wide significance at p<5 × 10−8. Findings UK Biobank participants were recruited from March 15, 2006, to July 7, 2010. Sample selection for the UK BiLEVE study started on Nov 22, 2012, and was completed on Dec 20, 2012. We selected 50 008 unique samples: 10 002 individuals with low FEV1, 10 000 with average FEV1, and 5002 with high FEV1 from each of the heavy smoker and never smoker groups. We noted a substantial sharing of genetic causes of low FEV1 between heavy smokers and never smokers (p=2·29 × 10−16) and between individuals with and without doctor-diagnosed asthma (p=6·06 × 10−11). We discovered six novel genome-wide significant signals of association with extremes of FEV1, including signals at four novel loci (KANSL1, TSEN54, TET2, and RBM19/TBX5) and independent signals at two previously reported loci (NPNT and HLA-DQB1/HLA-DQA2). These variants also showed
Stouten, Pieter F. W.; Kroon, Jan
Molecular dynamics simulations of liquid water and liquid methanol have been carried out. For both liquids an effective pair potential was used. The models were fitted to the heat of vaporization, pressure and various radial distribution functions resulting from diffraction experiments on liquids. In both simulations 216 molecules were put in a cubic periodical ☐. The system was loosely coupled to a temperature bath and to a pressure bath. Following an initial equilibration period relevant data were sampled during 15 ps. The distributions of oxygen—oxygen distances in hydrogen bonds obtained from the two simulations are essentially the same. The distribution obtained from crystal data is somewhat different: the maximum has about the same position, but the curve is much narrower, which can be expected merely from the fact that diffraction experiments only supply average atomic positions and hence average interatomic distances. When thermal motion is taken into account a closer likeness is observed.
Rep. Matsui, Doris O. [D-CA-6
01/24/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Water Resources and Environment. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.3080, which became Public Law 113-121 on 6/10/2014. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:
This article features the text of a speech by Richard Whiteside, Vice President for Enrollment Management and Dean of Admission at Tulane University in New Orleans, that was presented during AACRAO's Strategic Enrollment Management (SEM) Conference, November 15, 2005, in Chicago. In his speech, Whiteside recounts his personal story of living…
Mueller, Gordon A.; Carpenter, Jeanette; Marsh, Paul C.
Remaining work will be finished this coming summer and a final report describing CHLP and the ecology of these fish will be completed by the end of 2005. We offer our assistance to the Fish and Wildlife Service in the pond’s renovation and support for the creation of additional refuge ponds. Funding for this work ends September 2005.
Stouten, Pieter F. W.; Van Eijck, Bouke P.; Kroon, Jan
In the framework of our comparative research concerning hydrogen bonding in the crystalline and liquid phases we have carried out molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of liquid methanol. Six different rigid three site models are compared. Five of them had been reported in the literature and one (OM2) we developed by a fit to the experimental molar volume, heat of vaporization and neutron weighted radial distribution function. In general the agreement with experiment is satisfactory for the different models. None of the models has an explicit hydrogen bond potential, but five of the six models show a degree of hydrogen bonding comparable to experiments on liquid methanol. The analysis of the simulation hydrogen bonds indicates that there is a distinct preference of the O⋯O axis to lie in the acceptor lone pairs plane, but hardly any for the lone pair directions. Ab initio calculations and crystal structure statistics of OH⋯O hydrogen bonds agree with this observation. The O⋯O hydrogen bond length distributions are similar for most models. The crystal structures show a sharper O⋯O distribution. Explicit introduction of harmonic motion with a quite realistic root mean square amplitude of 0.08 Å to the thermally averaged crystal distribution results in a distribution comparable to OM2 although the maximum of the former is found at shorter distance. On the basis of the analysis of the static properties of all models we conclude that our OM2, Jorgenson's OPLS and Haughney, Ferrario and McDonald's HFM1 models are good candidates for simulations of liquid methanol under isothermal, isochoric conditions. Partly flexible and completely rigid OM2 are simulated at constant pressure and with fixed volume. The flexible simulations give essentially the same (correct) results under both conditions, which is not surprising because the flexible form was fitted under both conditions. Rigid OM2 has a similar potential energy but larger pressure in the isochoric case and larger energy and far larger volume in the isobaric case. Radial distribution functions and hydrogen bond geometries are very similar for all four cases. Only in the case of the osobaric rigid methanol does the volume expansion seem to be accompanied by a slight preference for tetrahedrality around the oxygen atom.
Galler, J. J.; Bianchi, T. S.; Alison, M. A.; Wysocki, L. A.; Campanella, R.
With the recent formation of the Center for River-Ocean Studies (CeROS) at Tulane University in Louisiana (see http://www.tulane.edu/~ceros) and the emerging state-federal partnership that is creating river diversions to combat coastal land loss, increased attention is being paid to the lowermost Mississippi River, from Baton Rouge to the Gulf of Mexico, as a critical juncture and storage area for sediment particles and bio-active compounds.CeROS scientists, working with the US. Geological Survey and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, have undertaken a detailed re-assessment of the channel floor and water column of this region using geophysical and biogeochemical data collection, combined with historical data sets.
Mwangi, M. W.
Climate change and vulnerability are major challenges in ensuring household food security. Climate information services have the potential to cushion rural households from extreme climate risks. However, most the probabilistic nature of climate information products is not easily understood by majority of smallholder farmers. Despite the probabilistic nature, climate information have proved to be a valuable climate risk adaptation strategy at the farm level. This calls for innovative ways to help farmers understand and apply climate information services to inform their farm level decisions. The study endeavored to co-design and test appropriate innovation systems for climate information services uptake and scale up necessary for achieving climate risk development. In addition it also determined the conditions necessary to support the effective performance of the proposed innovation system. Data and information sources included systematic literature review, secondary sources, government statistics, focused group discussions, household surveys and semi-structured interviews. Data wasanalyzed using both quantitative and qualitative data analysis techniques. Quantitative data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software. Qualitative data was analyzed using qualitative techniques, which involved establishing the categories and themes, relationships/patterns and conclusions in line with the study objectives. Sustainable livelihood, reduced household poverty and climate change resilience were the impact that resulted from the study.
Increasing demands on limited groundwater resources have created a growing need for the development of surface water resources for irrigation. On-farm reservoirs, along with tailwater recovery systems, can provide a means for reducing dependence on groundwater supplies. These reservoirs are surrou...
As a teaching artist in public schools, the author is paired with classroom teachers to teach poetry and to give students an opportunity to experience their academic curriculum through the arts. At the beginning of the school year, she gave her students the on-going, yearlong assignment to watch the news, to pay attention. Knowing many of them…
Increasing demands on limited groundwater resources in the Arkansas and Mississippi alluvial floodplain (commonly called the Delta) have created a growing need for the development of surface water resources for irrigation. On-farm reservoirs, along with tail-water recovery systems, are used to stor...
... period. SUMMARY: In the February 9, 2010 issue of the Federal Register (75 FR 6364), the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps), published its proposed update to its current process for requesting a variance... Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers Process for Requesting a Variance From Vegetation Standards...
... regulations.gov Web site is an anonymous access system, which means we will not know your identity or contact..., floodwalls, and appurtenant structures contained in Engineer Technical Letter (ETL) 1110-2-571-- Guidelines... Technical Letter (ETL) 1110-2-571, Guidelines for Landscape Planting and Vegetation Management at...
Rowe, Cynthia L.; Liddle, Howard A.
Hurricane Katrina brought to the surface serious questions about the capacity of the public health system to respond to community-wide disaster. The storm and its aftermath severed developmentally protective family and community ties; thus its consequences are expected to be particularly acute for vulnerable adolescents. Research confirms that…
Watanabe, Yasuharu; Yamamoto, Masato; Shimada, Tomonori
River bank failure causes a heavy disaster. Many experiments had been conducted. Full-scale hydraulic experiment is very few, because of it has a limit to conduct in terms of space and budget. Therefore, many experiments were conducted in small scale and they need to be compared with the actual phenomenon. The large scale hydraulic experiment on river bank failure was conducted at Chiyoda experiment flume in 2008. We conducted small scale experiments on river bank failure and examined the reproducibility of the small scale experiments by comparison with the Chiyoda experiment. Fine-grained soil strongly influences the widening process of bank failure. In order to reproduce the results of experiment at Chiyoda experimental flume on dike failure, it is necessary to remove the fine material from the material of scaled dikes. And it is found that the time scale of widening process of bank failure follows the Froude similarity law.
Isolated by high mountains and harsh deserts, its fish community developed unique and specialized traits that helped them survive raging floods and prolonged droughts. Conditions were so unique that three quarters of the fish species are found nowhere else in the world?|
..., the freeboard must be established at one foot above the height of the one percent wave or the maximum wave runup (whichever is greater) associated with the 100-year stillwater surge elevation at the site.... Particular emphasis must be placed on the effects of wave attack and overtopping on the stability of...
Rowe, Cynthia L.; Liddle, Howard A.
Hurricane Katrina brought to the surface serious questions about the capacity of the public health system to respond to community-wide disaster. The storm and its aftermath severed developmentally protective family and community ties; thus its consequences are expected to be particularly acute for vulnerable adolescents. Research confirms that teens are at risk for a range of negative outcomes under conditions of life stress and family disorganization. Specifically, the multiple interacting risk factors for substance abuse in adolescence may be compounded when families and communities have experienced a major trauma. Further, existing service structures and treatments for working with young disaster victims may not address their risk for co-occurring substance abuse and traumatic stress reactions because they tend to be individually or peer group focused, and fail to consider the multi-systemic aspects of disaster recovery. This article proposes an innovative family-based intervention for young disaster victims, based on an empirically supported model for adolescent substance abuse, Multidimensional Family Therapy (MDFT; Liddle, 2002). Outcomes and mechanisms of the model’s effects are being investigated in a randomized clinical trial with clinically referred substance-abusing teens in a New Orleans area community impacted by Hurricane Katrina. PMID:18412822
Fantus, R J; Zautcke, J L; Hickey, P A; Fantus, P P; Nagorka, F W
Alcohol-impaired driving is a major issue confronting today's society. New legislation is emerging to help curtail this ongoing problem. To evaluate the legislative effects in terms of outcome pertaining to injured drivers, we analyzed the records of 116 consecutive motor vehicle drivers who were admitted to our trauma center over a 16-month period. Medical reports, police reports, and drivers' abstracts were reviewed. Of the 116 drives, 61 (53%) had blood alcohol concentrations that exceeded the legal limit (blood alcohol level greater than or equal to 100 mg/dL) on arrival at the emergency department. Only four of these patients were ticketed for driving under the influence and received the mandatory suspension of their driver's license. None was convicted of this offense, which carries criminal charges and a revocation of the driver's license. Mechanisms for efficient collection of blood specimens and mandatory occurrence reporting are two recommendations that merit investigation to obviate further escape of injured, intoxicated drivers from the legal net. In addition, alcohol rehabilitation and education cannot be overlooked and should warrant strong societal support. PMID:1942173
Rowe, Cynthia L; Liddle, Howard A
Hurricane Katrina brought to the surface serious questions about the capacity of the public health system to respond to community-wide disaster. The storm and its aftermath severed developmentally protective family and community ties; thus its consequences are expected to be particularly acute for vulnerable adolescents. Research confirms that teens are at risk for a range of negative outcomes under conditions of life stress and family disorganization. Specifically, the multiple interacting risk factors for substance abuse in adolescence may be compounded when families and communities have experienced a major trauma. Further, existing service structures and treatments for working with young disaster victims may not address their risk for co-occurring substance abuse and traumatic stress reactions because they tend to be individually or peer group focused, and fail to consider the multi-systemic aspects of disaster recovery. This article proposes an innovative family-based intervention for young disaster victims, based on an empirically supported model for adolescent substance abuse, Multidimensional Family Therapy (MDFT; Liddle, 2002). Outcomes and mechanisms of the model's effects are being investigated in a randomized clinical trial with clinically referred substance-abusing teens in a New Orleans area community impacted by Hurricane Katrina. PMID:18412822
Peitersen, M. N.; Zimbelman, J. R.; Christensen, P. R.; Bare, C.
Long lava flows (discrete flow units with lengths exceeding 50 km) are easily identified features found on many planetary surfaces. An ongoing investigation is being conducted into the origin of these flows. Here, we limit our attention to long lava flows which show evidence of channel-like structures.
The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...
Sen. Hoeven, John [R-ND
07/23/2012 On motion to suspend the rules and pass the bill Failed by the Yeas and Nays: (2/3 required): 126 - 254 (Roll no. 500). (text: CR H5105) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Failed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:
In a period of accelerating sea level rise and increased tropical cyclone intensities, extreme 100 year coastal flood levels are rising rapidly along a number of tropical and subtropical coastlines. Meanwhile, whether from natural megadelta consolidation, post glacial rebound or overpumping of shallow aquifers, many coastal cities are sinking even faster than mean sea level is rising. Without significant investment in continually improved flood defence inevitably this means the risk of catastrophic flooding is rising, for many cities quite steeply. The experience of Hurricane Katrina and New Orleans may become seen as iconic for 21st Century catastrophe risk as more and more coastal cities are subject to similar calamities. The story of New Orleans also highlights many aspects of catastrophe risk management failures before and after extreme events. The city of New Orleans had already been flooded three times by storm surges in the 100 years before Katrina. After each flood, investments were made in improved flood defences but these investments dwindled through time as there appeared to be a reduced imperative to divert money to support abstract risk reduction. Meanwhile land subsidence and rising sea levels and storm surges meant that risk levels continued to rise, until the inevitable time when the city once again was flooded. As the city increasingly sinks below mean sea level the impact of each flood has become increasingly catastrophic, both in terms of areas flooded, property damage and casualties. While a major program of investment in improved flood defences has once again followed the catastrophic 2005 flood, Federal government agencies have given no assurance that levels of flood risk will be maintained below some designated threshold long term. Therefore another cycle of rising flood risk has now started that will inevitably eventually to lead to the city becoming reflooded. This cycle can only end with the eventual abandonment of much of the city area - an outcome that is deemed politically unacceptable. The loss consequences of rising levels of risk, improvements or degradation in flood defences and the potential outcomes of different catastrophic storm surges can only be explored in a Catastrophe loss model.
To ensure that Federal assistance provided under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act for the construction of certain emergency levees is not conditioned on the subsequent dismantlement of those levees, except as provided for in a status certificate, and for other purposes.
Rep. Kline, John [R-MN-2
10/25/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Economic Development, Public Buildings and Emergency Management. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:
... Statement/ Environmental Impact Report for Phase 3 of Reclamation District No. 17 100-Year Levee Seepage...-year Levee Seepage Area Project (LSAP). To implement Phase 3 of the LSAP, RD 17 is requesting... project. Portions of the RD 17 levee system including the section of levee along the south bank of...
Costura Basica (Principios Basicos para el Estudiante con Impedimentos Leves y Moderados) Documento de Trabajo Guia Curricular para el Curso. Basic Sewing (Basic Principles for the Student with Light and Moderate Disabilities. Course Curriculum Guide. Working Document).
Puerto Rico State Dept. of Education, Hato Rey. Office of Special Education.
This guide has been prepared by the Puerto Rico Department of Public Instruction for special education teachers teaching domestic sewing. It includes informative and easy to comprehend material for students of both sexes with mild to moderate disabilities. The material is developed through varied strategies and activities that relate to the…
Jacobson, Robert B.; Oberg, Kevin A.
During the 1993 floods on the upper Mississippi and Missouri rivers, the most dramatic changes to floodplains occurred at levee-break complexes where large discharges were concentrated through narrow breaks in levees. Scour and deposition associated with levee breaks adversely affected large areas of formerly productive bottomland. This case study of the levee-break complex at Miller City, Illinois, documents the geomorphic effects of a typical levee-break complex.
Zou, B.; Li, D. F.; Hu, H. J.; Zhang, H. W.; Lou, L. H.; Chen, M.; Lv, Z. Y.
Based on the verified two dimensional(2D) finite element model for river flow simulation, the effect of estuary training levees on the water flow and sediment movement in the Yellow River estuary is analyzed. For disclosing the effect of setting the two training levees on the flow and sediment motion, the calculation and analysis for the two projects, (one is no levees, the other is setting up two no levees) are given. The results show that when setting up two training levees, water flow is bound by levees and the water flows become more concentrated. As a result, velocity increases in the main channel, sediment carrying capacity of water flow increases correspondingly.
..., overtopping, piping/sand boils, under-seepage, and severe surface and slope erosion. The flooding also... existing levee during the September 2008 flooding (including severe erosion, levee breaches, and...
... of recent changes in levee design parameters and environmental resources in the study area. The... Quality in 1992. In May 1997, a draft SEIS evaluating the revised design of the proposed levee to... draft SEIS is being developed to evaluate effects of revised levee design and additional...
Damuth, J.E.; Flood, R.D.; Kowsmann, R.O.; Belderson, R.H.; Gorini, M.A.
Imaging of the Amazon deep-sea fan with long-range side-scan sonar (GLORIA) has, for the first time, revealed the anatomy, trends, and growth pattern of distributary channels on this fan. Only one channel-levee system was active at any given time and extended from the Amazon Submarine Canyon downslope onto the lower fan (> 4,200 m). Formation of new channel-levee systems occurred when a currently active channel-levee system was cut off and abandoned through avulsion, and a new channel-levee system was established nearby. Through time, successive channel-levee formation and abandonment built two broad levee complexes consisting of groups of overlapping, coalescing segments of channel-levee systems across the present fan surface. These, plus older, now buried levee complexes, indicate that fan growth is radially outward and downslope through development of successive levee complexes. The most striking characteristic of the distributary channels is their intricate, often recurving, meanders with sinuosities of up to 2.5. Cutoffs and abandoned meander loops indicate that the channels migrate laterally through time. Channel bifurcation results predominantly from avulsion when flows breach a channel levee, thereby abandoning the present channel and establishing a new channel-levee segment nearby. No clear evidence of channel branching (i.e., division of a single channel into two active segments) or braiding was observed. 22 figs.
Kohout, Francis Anthony; Klein, Howard; Sherwood, C.B.; Leach, Stanley D.
Thin layers of dense limestone of low permeability that occur near the top of the Biscayne aquifer in the vicinity of the north end of Levee 30 in Dade County, Florida are of hydrologic importance because they retard the downward infiltration of ponded water in Conservation Area No. 3. This retarding effect frequently results in high head differentials across the levee. Tests made in a small area adjacent to Levee 30 indicate that the coefficient of transmissibility of the aquifer is 3,600,000 gpd (gallons per day) per foot, and the coefficient of vertical permeability of the dense limestones is 13 gpd per square foot. If ground-water flow beneath the levee is laminar, the total inflow to the Levee 30 Canal from Conservation Area No. 3 will be about 350 mgd (million gallons per day), or 540 cfs (cubic feet per second), per mile length of levee when the head difference across the levee is 10 feet.
Principios de Nutricion y Alimentacion del Adolescente (Para Estudiantes con Impedimentos Leves y Moderados). Guia Curricular para el Curso Documento de Trabajar. Principles of Nutrition and Food for the Adolescent (For Students with Light and Moderate Disabilities. Course Curriculum Guide. Working Document).
Puerto Rico State Dept. of Education, Hato Rey. Office of Special Education.
This curriculum guide, in Spanish, consists of a compilation of concepts, activities, and skills for the student with disabilities who receives services from the special education programs of Puerto Rico. Lesson plans cover the basic principles of nutrition, food handling, and food preparation for adolescents. The following units are presented…
"Les Gosses, Ca Se Leve Tot Le Matin": L'Interpretation Generique du Syntagme Nominal Disloque au Moyen de Ce ou Ca (The Kids, Who Rise So Early in the Morning: The Generic Interpretation of the Dislocation of Noun Syntax by Means of the Pronouns "This" or "That").
Discusses the grammatical effect of inserting the pronouns, "ce" and "ca" in the position originally occupied by the subject noun. Suggests that this insertion can alter the interpretation of the syntax of the subject noun and explains this problem by discussing the inherent properties of pronouns and the properties resulting from their insertion…
7. DETAIL OF INTAKE PIER, LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM EASTERN SACRAMENTO LEVEE. - Sacramento River Water Treatment Plant Intake Pier & Access Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River approximately 175 feet west of eastern levee on river; roughly .5 mile downstream from confluence of Sacramento & American Rivers, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA
5. OBLIQUE VIEW OF INTAKE PIER AND ACCESS BRIDGE, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, FROM THE EASTERN LEVEE. - Sacramento River Water Treatment Plant Intake Pier & Access Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River approximately 175 feet west of eastern levee on river; roughly .5 mile downstream from confluence of Sacramento & American Rivers, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA
... crossings of the Federal Mississippi River and Tributaries (MR&T) Levee and the future New Orleans to Venice (NOV) Hurricane Protection Levee and could impact the Mississippi River Navigation Channel, Davis Pond... connection between the Mississippi River and the Basin to build, sustain, and maintain land. CPRA...
... for the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta Islands and Levees Feasibility Study AGENCY: Department of the... Islands and Levees Feasibility Study (Delta Study). The EIS will be prepared in accordance with the... agency for compliance with NEPA. The Delta Study will evaluate alternatives to meet the study goals...
Dams and levees are an integral part of the fluvial system in watersheds. Their stability is of utmost concern to the Nation and to those directly impacted should failure occur. There are some 88,000 dams and 110,000 miles of levees in the USA. Many of those are earthen embankments and structures su...
... the Illinois Central Gulf (I.C.G.) Railroad and the Mississippi River levee system, on the southeast...) Boundary Description. (i) From the starting point generally southward along the Mississippi River levee... one closest to the Mississippi River is the boundary. (ii) From the intersection described...
... the Illinois Central Gulf (I.C.G.) Railroad and the Mississippi River levee system, on the southeast...) Boundary Description. (i) From the starting point generally southward along the Mississippi River levee... one closest to the Mississippi River is the boundary. (ii) From the intersection described...
... the Illinois Central Gulf (I.C.G.) Railroad and the Mississippi River levee system, on the southeast...) Boundary Description. (i) From the starting point generally southward along the Mississippi River levee... one closest to the Mississippi River is the boundary. (ii) From the intersection described...
... the levee which might affect the stability of the levee section; (iii) No seepage, saturated areas, or... sand boils or unusual wetness of the landward slope and to be certain that: (i) There are no... are occurring; (ii) No undue settlement has occurred which affects the stability of the wall or...
... the levee which might affect the stability of the levee section; (iii) No seepage, saturated areas, or... sand boils or unusual wetness of the landward slope and to be certain that: (i) There are no... are occurring; (ii) No undue settlement has occurred which affects the stability of the wall or...
... the levee which might affect the stability of the levee section; (iii) No seepage, saturated areas, or... sand boils or unusual wetness of the landward slope and to be certain that: (i) There are no... are occurring; (ii) No undue settlement has occurred which affects the stability of the wall or...
1. OVERALL VIEW OF INTAKE PIER AND ACCESS BRIDGE, LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM WESTERN LEVEE OF THE SACRAMENTO RIVER. - Sacramento River Water Treatment Plant Intake Pier & Access Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River approximately 175 feet west of eastern levee on river; roughly .5 mile downstream from confluence of Sacramento & American Rivers, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA
Catastrophic floods resulting from the failure of dam and levee infrastructures can paralyze the economy and social life of large populations for long periods of time. The United States has over 100,000 miles of levees and the National Inventory of Dams lists approximately 79,000 U.S. dams. The de...
... caused as a result of a natural disaster that, if not treated, would: (i) Impair or endanger the land... other political subdivisions of a State; (3) Protected by a levee or dike that was not effectively and properly functioning prior to the disaster, or is protected, or intended to be protected, by a levee...
... natural disaster that, if not treated, would: (i) Impair or endanger the land; (ii) Materially affect the... State; (3) Protected by a levee or dike that was not effectively and properly functioning prior to the disaster, or is protected, or intended to be protected, by a levee or dike not built to U.S. Army Corps...
... the levee on the east bank of the Delta-Mendota Canal in section 35, T5S, R7E; then (3) Proceed southeast approximately 0.3 miles along the Delta-Mendota Canal levee road to its intersection with...
... the levee on the east bank of the Delta-Mendota Canal in section 35, T5S, R7E; then (3) Proceed southeast approximately 0.3 miles along the Delta-Mendota Canal levee road to its intersection with...
... the levee on the east bank of the Delta-Mendota Canal in section 35, T5S, R7E; then (3) Proceed southeast approximately 0.3 miles along the Delta-Mendota Canal levee road to its intersection with...
... Junction AVA is located in southern San Joaquin County, California. The boundaries are as follows: (1... the San Joaquin River levee, near Benchmark 35 in T3S/R6E; (2) Then in a southeasterly direction, follow the levee along the San Joaquin River onto the Ripon, CA quadrangle map; (3) Then in a...
... Junction AVA is located in southern San Joaquin County, California. The boundaries are as follows: (1... the San Joaquin River levee, near Benchmark 35 in T3S/R6E; (2) Then in a southeasterly direction, follow the levee along the San Joaquin River onto the Ripon, CA quadrangle map; (3) Then in a...
... Junction AVA is located in southern San Joaquin County, California. The boundaries are as follows: (1... the San Joaquin River levee, near Benchmark 35 in T3S/R6E; (2) Then in a southeasterly direction, follow the levee along the San Joaquin River onto the Ripon, CA quadrangle map; (3) Then in a...
Manley, P.L.; Flood, R.D.
The Upper and middle Amazon Fan has grown in a cyclic fashion. An individual deposition cycle consists of (1) a widespread basal, acoustically transparent seismic unit (interpreted as debris-flow deposits) that fills and levels preexisting topographic lows, and (2) a levee complex built of overlapping channel-levee systems. Two and possibly three cycles have been identified within the Amazon Fan. The levee complex beneath one debris flow originated from a different submarine canyon than did the levee complex above the debris flow, suggesting that these levee complexes formed during different sea level lowstands. Calculations based on present sediment discharge of the Amazon River suggest that an entire levee complex can form within the time span of a single glacial stage, such as the Wisconsin; however, the levee complex probably could not have formed during the relatively short time interval when sea level rose rapidly at the end of a glacial stage. The basal seismic units (debris-flow deposits) may have been deposited at any time during sea level fluctuations. Although seismic evidence suggests that this cyclic sedimentation pattern may be related to glacio-eustatic sea level variations, cyclic fan growth may be attributed to other processes as well. For example, a bottom-simulating reflector (BSR) observed within the upper fan appears to be a gas hydrate. Migration of the hydrate phase boundary during sea level fluctuations and diapiric activity may be mechanisms for initiating widespread debris flows. 10 figs.
The primary objective of the study was to assess the effects of pipeline canals on the habitat function of inside-levee marshes. The degree to which inside-levee marshes function as nursery habitat for nekton residing in canals was examined by comparing densities of nekton on marshes adjacent to pipeline canals (inside-levee marshes) and natural tidal creeks. In addition, shallow subtidal habitats in the two environments (canals and natural channels) were compared by sampling nekton along the marsh edge at low tide and measuring predator encounter rates in both habitats.
Sacramento River Water Treatment Plant Intake Pier & Access Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River approximately 175 feet west of eastern levee on river; roughly .5 mile downstream from confluence of Sacramento & American Rivers, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA
Plant 9,000 marsh grass plants along Bayou Lafourches banks, the regions hurricane protection levees, and the marshlands surrounding Bayou Lafourche, thereby enhancing coastal areas and marine habitat. These plantings will be designed to simultaneously raise community awareness ...
EPA's control systems research is concentrated in three areas: electric motors, wind turbines, and combustion technologies. n general, these projects are concerned with pollution prevention through enhanced efficiency of operation and pollution control through lower emission leve...
The adequacy of an 8.5-mi reach of the Sacramento River to carry flood flows is evaluated. The reach studied is in Butte and Glenn Counties, California, and extends northward from the present east-bank Sacramento River Flood Control Project levee near Glenn upstream to the Ord Ferry gaging station near Ordbend. There is a west-bank levee throughout the study reach. Flows analyzed range from 11,500 to 265,000 cfs. Computed water-surface elevations are based on topography obtained during September through November 1974. The present Sacramento River Flood Control Project levees at the downstream end of the study reach near Glenn are designed to contain flows up to 150,000 cfs. Water-surface elevations computed for flows of this magnitude are about 6 to 8 ft below the top of the existing west-bank levee throughout the study reach. (Woodard-USGS)
... navigable channel of the river, since levees, dams, dikes and like structures, which hold back the waters in... improvement of the navigable channel. Thus, it has been held that site clearance work in the construction of...
Aerobic biological filtration systems employing nitrifying bacteria to remediate excess ammonia and nitrite concentrations are common components of recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). However, significant water exchange may still be necessary to reduce nitrate concentrations to acceptable leve...
Pyayt, Alexander L.; Kozionov, Alexey P.; Mokhov, Ilya I.; Lang, Bernhard; Meijer, Robert J.; Krzhizhanovskaya, Valeria V.; Sloot, Peter M. A.
Detection of early warning signals for the imminent failure of large and complex engineered structures is a daunting challenge with many open research questions. In this paper we report on novel ways to perform Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) of flood protection systems (levees, earthen dikes and concrete dams) using sensor data. We present a robust data-driven anomaly detection method that combines time-frequency feature extraction, using wavelet analysis and phase shift, with one-sided classification techniques to identify the onset of failure anomalies in real-time sensor measurements. The methodology has been successfully tested at three operational levees. We detected a dam leakage in the retaining dam (Germany) and “strange” behaviour of sensors installed in a Boston levee (UK) and a Rhine levee (Germany). PMID:24625740
Conservation of natural resources has implications for international, national, and local citizens. The creation of natural resource management and conservation strategies can be affected by engagement with local citizens and competing interests between agencies and stakeholders at the varying leve...
88. (Credit CBF) Twelve Mile Bayou Pumping Station and force main for pumping water over levee and into the canal (Blind Bayou), March 1913. - McNeil Street Pumping Station, McNeil Street & Cross Bayou, Shreveport, Caddo Parish, LA
Pyayt, Alexander L; Kozionov, Alexey P; Mokhov, Ilya I; Lang, Bernhard; Meijer, Robert J; Krzhizhanovskaya, Valeria V; Sloot, Peter M A
Detection of early warning signals for the imminent failure of large and complex engineered structures is a daunting challenge with many open research questions. In this paper we report on novel ways to perform Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) of flood protection systems (levees, earthen dikes and concrete dams) using sensor data. We present a robust data-driven anomaly detection method that combines time-frequency feature extraction, using wavelet analysis and phase shift, with one-sided classification techniques to identify the onset of failure anomalies in real-time sensor measurements. The methodology has been successfully tested at three operational levees. We detected a dam leakage in the retaining dam (Germany) and "strange" behaviour of sensors installed in a Boston levee (UK) and a Rhine levee (Germany). PMID:24625740
..., published in the Federal Register September 2, 1981, (46 FR 44083); the USIBWC hereby gives notice that the... levees. The wall would be 8 feet tall above the flood plain and require pilings to be driven 40 feet...
... Lock and Dam on the Chattahoochee River in Huston County, near the town of Columbia, Alabama. The... acres of land on the levee section of the Corps' facility, on the Alabama shore, opposite the river...
9. VIEW OF THE PRESSURE CULVERT STILLING BASIN, LOOKING NORTH. NOTE THE LEVEE TO THE RIGHT. - Wyoming Valley Flood Control System, Woodward Pumping Station, East of Toby Creek crossing by Erie-Lackawanna Railroad, Edwardsville, Luzerne County, PA
Nelson, C.H.; Maldonado, A.; Coumes, F.; Got, H.; Manaco, A.
The Ebro Fan System consists of en echelon channel-levee complexes, 50??20 km in area and 200-m thick. A few strong reflectors in a generally transparent seismic facies identify the sand-rich channel floors and levee crests. Numerous continuous acoustic reflectors characterize overbank turbidites and hemipelagites that blanket abandoned channel-levee complexes. The interlobe areas between channel complexes fill with homogeneous mud and sand from mass flow and overbank deposition; these exhibit a transparent seismic character. The steep continental rise and sediment 'drainage' of Valencia Trough at the end of the channel-levee complexes prevent the development of distributary channels and midfan lobe deposits. ?? 1984 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.
76. Photocopy of photograph (original print in the Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul, Minnesota, 1860. #22358.) UPPER LEVEE FROM CHESTNUT STREET, 1860 - Smith Avenue High Bridge, Smith Avenue between Cherokee Avenue & Cliff Street, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN
77. Photocopy of photograph (original print in the Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul, Minnesota, 1859. #377. Photographer: Illingworth.) LOWER LEVEE FROM JACKSON STREET, 1859 - Smith Avenue High Bridge, Smith Avenue between Cherokee Avenue & Cliff Street, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN
Kayyal, M.K.; Hasen, M.
This paper presents a case study for a dredge disposal site called Spilmans Island, located along the Houston-Galveston Ship Channel, east of Houston. Initially classified as a sand bar in the San Jacinto River, Spilmans Island evolved in recent years with the construction of perimeter levees to contain the flow of materials produced from dredging operations. These levees were often constructed on soft dredged sediments, and as the levees were raised, occasionally slope failures occurred. The objectives of this paper are to illustrate the importance of reconstructing the history of a site as a basis for geotechnical analyses, and to demonstrate the significance of keeping accurate records of past investigations, construction activities, slope failures and subsequent remedial measures. The results of the geotechnical investigation described in this paper offer a clear example of how such data can be used to provide reliable predictions on the stability conditions of raised levees.
... of the two project areas can be viewed at the SBFCA Web site at: http://www.sutterbutteflood.org... underseepage. The risk of levee failure coupled with the consequence of deep flooding presents a threat...
... levee improvement along the river corridor and the potential soil borrow sites. In order to implement... well as providing opportunities for ecosystem restoration and public recreation. USACE, acting as...
Benjankar, R. M.; Yager, E. M.
Physical processes and riparian ecosystems on many floodplains around the world have been severely impacted by human activities. For example, an 80 km long reach of the Kootenai River floodplain in Idaho is completely disconnected from the channel because of levee construction and upstream dam operation. River channelization and reductions in flood magnitudes, frequencies and sediment supplies have decreased floodplain sedimentation rates and significantly impeded the regeneration of riparian forests. To better understand historical (prior to the dam and levees) floodplain processes, we constructed a 2D hydrodynamic model that calculates flow, sediment transport and sedimentation rates on a portion of the Kootenai floodplain. We calculated the historical variability in sediment transport and deposition rates using a range of flow magnitudes and sediment supplies. To assess the errors in our calculations, we used a range of sediment transport equations to calculate sediment flux. The predicted sedimentation rates varied with the flood magnitude, sediment supply and spatial position on the floodplain. These simulations also allowed us to compare historical floodplain processes with those could occur after floodplain restoration. One potential restoration scenario includes the intentional breaching of levees to allow floodplain reconnection. The levees currently channelize a 25 year recurrence interval (RI) flood. After the levee breach, a flood with a historical RI of 1.1 years would reconnect the floodplain to the channel. Our results suggest that floodplain processes may be restored through a combination of dam operational changes and levee removal.
Chen, Yunzhen; Overeem, Irina; Kettner, Albert J.; Gao, Shu; Syvitski, James P. M.
The Yellow River, China, experienced >1000 levee breaches during the last 3000 years. A reduced-complexity model is developed in this study to explore the effects of climate change and human activity on flood levels, levee breaches, and river avulsions. The model integrates yearly morphological change along a channel belt with daily river fluxes and hourly evolution of levee breaches. Model sensitivity analysis reveals that under natural conditions, superelevation of the channel belt dominates flood frequency. When there is significant human-accelerated basin erosion and breach repair, the dominant factors shift to a combination of mean annual precipitation, superelevation, critical shear stress of weak channel banks, and the time interval between breach initiation and its repair. The effect of precipitation on flood frequency is amplified by land use changes in the hinterland, particularly in the erodible Loess Plateau. Uncertainty analysis estimates the most likely values of the dominant factors for six historical periods between 850 B.C. and A.D. 1839, which are used to quantitatively reconstruct flood dynamics. During 850 B.C. to A.D. 1839, when the sediment load increased fourfold, the breach recurrence interval was shortened from more than 500 years to less than 6 years, and the breach outflow rate increased ~27 times. River management practices during A.D. 1579 to A.D. 1839 focused on levees and triggered a severe positive feedback of increased levee heights and flood hazard exacerbation. Raising the levee heights proved to be ineffective for sustainable flood management.
Guida, Ross J.; Swanson, Taylor L.; Remo, Jonathan W. F.; Kiss, Timea
During the late 19th Century, the Tisza River's vast floodplain-wetland system was largely disconnected by levees, facilitating "reclamation" for agriculture and resulting in an estimated loss of over 90% of historical wetlands. While levees have been successful in preventing catastrophic flooding for a century, Lower Tisza flood stage records have been set repeatedly during the last 15 years. The decrease in the Tisza's current floodway carrying capacity has reduced the flood-protection level of the Tisza's aging levee system. Recently in Hungary, "Room for the River" policies have gained more prominence. To explore the possibilities of a room for the river approach along the Lower Tisza, we assess eight potential floodplain-reconnection scenarios between Csongrád, Hungary and the Hungary-Serbia border. A novel framework using hydrodynamic and geospatial modeling was used to perform planning-level evaluations of the tradeoffs between floodplain-reconnection scenarios and enhancement of the existing levee system. The scenarios evaluated include levee removal and levee setbacks to strategically reconnect significant historical wetlands while reducing flood levels. Scenario costs and human population impacts are also assessed. Impacts of reconnecting the Lower Tisza floodplain are compared to heightening levees, the prevailing strategy over the previous century. From a purely construction-cost perspective, heightening Lower Tisza levees is potentially the most cost-effective and politically expedient solution (i.e., impacts the least number of people). However, levee-heightening does not solve the long-term problem of reduced flood conveyance, which has been attributed to aggradation and increased floodplain roughness, nor does it result in wetland reconnection or enhancement of other floodplain ecosystem services. The suite of reconnection options we evaluate provides engineers, planners, and decision makers a framework from which they can further evaluate
Klawon, J. E.; Levish, D. R.
Over the past century, the majority of alluvial reaches along the upper Gila River in Arizona and New Mexico have been leveed in an attempt to protect adjacent property from flood damage. In addition, the demand for irrigation has prompted the construction of diversion dams in these alluvial reaches to divert water for agriculture. Detailed geomorphic mapping and investigation of historical channel change along the upper Gila River reveals that many channel modifications are catalysts for major channel change and can result in catastrophic property loss rather than safeguarding valuable farmland. Channel widths were measured every kilometer for approximately 160 km from Safford Valley, Arizona through Cliff-Gila Valley, New Mexico for eight decades to develop a quantitative analysis of channel change. An overall pattern of channel narrowing and widening coincides with periods of few large floods and periods of multiple large floods, respectively. Furthermore, reaches along the upper Gila River with greater channel modifications have experienced more variation in channel width than reaches with fewer modifications. Although the average width of the upper Gila River is very similar to the width of the 1935 channel, the lateral position of the channel is very different in many reaches. Many channel changes in recent decades are unprecedented in previous historical aerial photography and reveal that the upper Gila River is currently eroding stream banks that are several hundred years to thousands of years old. These changes are consistently associated with artificial channel constrictions, such as levees, bank protection, and bridges, that have been built and rebuilt following large floods and that have accelerated natural channel narrowing during periods of few large floods. Examples of geomorphic responses due to channel modifications along the upper Gila River include lateral erosion upstream of levees and diversion dams, redirection of flow over diversion dams into
Furey, John S.; Fredrickson, Herbert; Foote, Chris; Richmond, Margaret
Fecal material entrained in New Orleans flood waters was pumped into the local environment. Violet Marsh received water pumped from St. Bernard Parish and the Lower Ninth Ward. Sediment core samples were collected from canals conducting water from these areas to pump stations and from locations within Violet Marsh. Viable indicator bacteria and fecal sterols were used to assess the levels of fecal material in sediment deposited after the levee failures and deeper sediments deposited before. Most of the cores had fecal coliform levels that exceed the biosolids criterion. All of the cores had fecal sterols that exceeded the suggested environmental quality criterion. Our data show both a long history of fecal contamination in Violet Marsh and an increase in fecal loading corresponding to the failure of the levee system. The work was performed as part of the Interagency Performance Evaluation Task Force investigation into the consequences of the failures of the New Orleans levee system. PMID:17617670
Valerio, Antonella; Tallarico, Andrea; Dragoni, Michele
Bends in lava channels are often observed in volcanic fields. The curvature of a channel affects flow dynamics and surface morphology and may be a trigger for the formation of lava tube. We propose a model to describe the effects of curvature on velocity, shear stress and the formation of crust at the flow surface. Lava is described as a Newtonian, homogeneous, isotropic and incompressible fluid. The steady-state solution of the Navier-Stokes equation is found for a unidirectional flow, in cylindrical coordinates. The flow levees are described as arcs of concentric circumferences, with their centres in the origin of the coordinate system. Under the assumption that the gravity force has no radial component, in the bend the fluid moves parallel to the levees. The velocity is assumed to depend on the radial coordinate only. As an effect of curvature, velocity and shear stress are asymmetric with respect to the centre of the channel. The maximum of surface velocity is shifted toward the internal levee, and the shear stress has larger values close to the internal levee. This effect is greater for wider channels. Heat radiation and convection into the atmosphere are considered as the main cooling mechanisms and the temperature distribution along the channel is calculated. Crust formation at the flow surface is considered under the assumption that solid lava is a plastic body. The amount of crust coverage is mainly controlled by the channel width: narrow channels have a greater coverage than wide channels for a given radius of curvature. The effect of a bend is to favour the crust growth toward the internal levee, while the crust coverage toward the external levee decreases. The presence of a bend in a lava channel may favour the formation of a lava tube. The analytical solution will serve as a benchmark for numerical models. Understanding the mechanism of formation of lava tubes is crucial to the simulation of actual lava flows and to evaluation of the associated hazard.
Garrison, L. E.; Kenyon, Neil H.; Bouma, A.H.
Morphological features on the Mississippi Fan in the eastern Gulf of Mexico were mapped using GLORIA II, a long-range side-scan sonar system. Prominent is a sinuous channel flanked by well-developed levees and occasional crevasse splays. The channel follows the axis and thickest part of the youngest fan lobe; seismic-reflection profiles offer evidence that its course has remained essentially constant throughout lobe development. Local modification and possible erosion of levees by currents indicates a present state of inactivity. Superficial sliding has affected part of the fan lobe, but does not appear to have been a factor in lobe construction. ?? 1982 A. M. Dowden, Inc.
Leone, Harold A.
Eight core-material-sampling sites were chosen by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers as possible borrow areas for fill material to be used in levee contruction near Buras, La. Eleven receiving-water sites also were selected to represent the water that will contact the porposed levees. Analyses of selected nutrients, metals, pesticides, and other organic constitutents were performed upon these bed-material and native-water samples as well as upon elutriate samples of specific core material-receiving water systems. The results of these analyses are presented without interpretation. (Woodard-USGS)
Leone, Harold L.
Seven core-material-sampling sites were chosen by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers as possible borrow areas for fill material to be used in levee construction near Galliano La. Four receiving-water sites also were selected to represent the water that will contact the proposed levees. Analyses of selected nutrients, metals, pesticides, and other organic constituents were performed upon these bed-material and native-water samples as well as upon elutriate samples of specific core material-receiving water systems. The results of these analyses are presented without interpretation. (Woodard-USGS)
Schwenk, T.; Spiess, V.; Breitzke, M.; Huebscher, C.
Large submarine fans were recently the target of investigations to evaluate both, their hydrocarbon reservoir potential and their potential as recorder of long- and short-term climatic changes. For both objectives a detailed knowledge of the specific architectural elements is required. The Bengal Fan (the largest submarine fan on Earth) covers the whole Bay of Bengal and is fed by the Ganges and Brahmaputra river sediments, which derived from the drainage of the Himalayan. The amount and nature of these river sediments reacts to tectonic and climatic changes on land, making the Bengal Fan a suitable study area for the link of land and marine processes. The sediments reach the deep sea through a canyon deeply incised into the shelf, also acting as temporary trap. Turbidity currents transport the sediments episodically from the canyon onto the fan, building successively a stack of channel-levee systems, with only one active channel at a time though. In 1997 during R/V Sonne Cruise SO 125 to the Bay of Bengal, the morphology and structure of the Bengal Fan were studied with high-resolution seismics. On four long W-E latitudinal transects at 17°, 14°, 11° and 8°N, the southernmost crossing DSDP Site 218, seismic data were collected to characterise the distribution and character of fan deposits as a function of distance to the shelf. Here we present GI Gun data (100-500 Hz) from these transects to discuss the vertical sequence of architectural elements in occurrence, size and shape as well as downfan changes. Basically, the Bengal Fan consists of numerous channel-levee systems intercalated by High Amplitude Reflector Packets (HARPS). Whereas the channel-levee systems were building up by channelized turbidity currents, the HARPS are deposited by unchannelized turbidity currents, either as a result of levee avulsions or as a result of terminating channel-levee systems. Large mass-flow deposits as slumps or debris flows could not be identified. In particular, the
Alonso, B.; Kastens, K.A.; Maldonado, A.; Malinverno, A.; Nelson, C.H.; O'Connell, S.; Palanques, A.; Ryan, William B. F.
The northern continental slope off the Ebro Delta has a badland topography indicating major slope erosion and mass movement of material that deposits sediment into a ponded lobe. The southern slope has a low degree of mass movement activity and slope valleys feed channel levee-complexes on a steep continental rise. The last active fan valley is V-shaped with little meandering and its thalweg merges downstream with the Valencia Valley. The older and larger inactive channel-levee complex is smoother, U-shaped, and meanders more than the active fan valley. ?? 1985 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.
Hatton, R.S.; DeLaune, R.D.; Patrick, W.H. Jr.
Vertical accretion and sediment accumulation rates were determined from the distribution of /sup 137/Cs in cores collected from fresh water, intermediate, brackish, and salt marshes in the Barataria Basin, Louisiana. Vertical accretion rates vary from about 1.3 cm.yr/sup -1/ in levee areas to 0.7 in backmarshes. Mineral sediment content of the marsh soil profile decreased with distance from the coast. Except in natural levee areas, marsh accretion rates are less than subsidence measured by water level data, however this alone cannot account for observed land-loss patterns in the basin area.
The earthen levees commonly used for irrigation reservoirs are subjected to significant embankment erosion due to wind-generated waves. The design of bank protection measures relies on adequate prediction of wave characteristics based on wind conditions and fetch length. Current formulations are ba...
Forage dry matter yield (DMY) is a high-priority trait in breeding perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). However, determining dry matter concentration is highly labor intensive. Indirect selection based on fresh matter yield (FMY) would be easier, quicker and less expensive and, for a similar leve...
The Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) and Agricultural Policy/Environmental eXtender (APEX) models have been developed to assess a wide variety of agricultural water resource, water quality, and other environmental problems. The EPIC model is designed to be applied at a field-scale leve...
Mycotoxins produced by Aspergillus and Fusarium spp. when present in corn, can cause serious toxicological problems in animals and humans. Little is known about their occurrence in crop residue post-harvest. This study determined naturally occurring aflatoxin, fumonisin, and zearalenone (F-2) leve...
14. PROJECT PLAN, INTAKE PIER, RAW WATER CONDUITS, PUMPING STATION FORCE MAINS, TREATED WATER PIPELINES, AND FILTRATION PLANT, SHEET 1 OF 117, 1920. - Sacramento River Water Treatment Plant Intake Pier & Access Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River approximately 175 feet west of eastern levee on river; roughly .5 mile downstream from confluence of Sacramento & American Rivers, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA
2. OVERALL VIEW OF INTAKE PIER AND ACCESS BRIDGE, LOOKING NORTH. - Sacramento River Water Treatment Plant Intake Pier & Access Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River approximately 175 feet west of eastern levee on river; roughly .5 mile downstream from confluence of Sacramento & American Rivers, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA
16. INTAKE PIER, PLANS ELEVATIONS, AND SECTIONS, SHEETS 5 OF 117, 1920. - Sacramento River Water Treatment Plant Intake Pier & Access Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River approximately 175 feet west of eastern levee on river; roughly .5 mile downstream from confluence of Sacramento & American Rivers, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA
... occur in the future during routine maintenance of a water intake pipe on the south side of the pond... applicable legal requirements, and consistent with the Service's Safe Harbor Policy (64 FR 32717), the... flow. The water from the spring is ponded by a levee that was originally built in the early...
18. INTAKE PIER, BRIDGE DETAILS, SHEET 9 OF 117, 1920. - Sacramento River Water Treatment Plant Intake Pier & Access Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River approximately 175 feet west of eastern levee on river; roughly .5 mile downstream from confluence of Sacramento & American Rivers, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA
20. COMPLETION OF INTAKE CONDUITS, PLANS, PROFILES, AND DETAILS, SHEET 115 OF 117, 1922. - Sacramento River Water Treatment Plant Intake Pier & Access Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River approximately 175 feet west of eastern levee on river; roughly .5 mile downstream from confluence of Sacramento & American Rivers, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA
21. COMPLETION OF INTAKE CONDUITS REVISED, PIPE SECTIONS AND PLANS, SHEET 117 OF 117, 1922. - Sacramento River Water Treatment Plant Intake Pier & Access Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River approximately 175 feet west of eastern levee on river; roughly .5 mile downstream from confluence of Sacramento & American Rivers, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA
3. APPROACH TO THE ACCESS BRIDGE AND INTAKE PIER, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Sacramento River Water Treatment Plant Intake Pier & Access Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River approximately 175 feet west of eastern levee on river; roughly .5 mile downstream from confluence of Sacramento & American Rivers, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA
12. INTERIOR VIEW OF GATE OPERATOR ROOM, SHOWING SLIDES GATE OPERATORS, LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Sacramento River Water Treatment Plant Intake Pier & Access Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River approximately 175 feet west of eastern levee on river; roughly .5 mile downstream from confluence of Sacramento & American Rivers, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA
17. INTAKE PIER, BRIDGE STRESS SHEET, SHEET 8 OF 117, 1920. - Sacramento River Water Treatment Plant Intake Pier & Access Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River approximately 175 feet west of eastern levee on river; roughly .5 mile downstream from confluence of Sacramento & American Rivers, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA
9. VIEW OF INTAKE PIER AND MAIN SPAN OF ACCESS BRIDGE FROM WATER LEVEL, LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Sacramento River Water Treatment Plant Intake Pier & Access Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River approximately 175 feet west of eastern levee on river; roughly .5 mile downstream from confluence of Sacramento & American Rivers, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA
6. VIEW OF APPROACH SPAN AND MAIN SPAN OF THE ACCESS BRIDGE AND INTAKE PIER, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Sacramento River Water Treatment Plant Intake Pier & Access Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River approximately 175 feet west of eastern levee on river; roughly .5 mile downstream from confluence of Sacramento & American Rivers, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA
8. VIEW OF ACCESS BRIDGE AND INTAKE PIER FROM THE BRIDGE PIER ABUTMENT, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Sacramento River Water Treatment Plant Intake Pier & Access Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River approximately 175 feet west of eastern levee on river; roughly .5 mile downstream from confluence of Sacramento & American Rivers, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA
15. SUPERSTRUCTURE PLANS, ELEVATION AND DETAILS, SHEET 4 OF 117, 1920. - Sacramento River Water Treatment Plant Intake Pier & Access Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River approximately 175 feet west of eastern levee on river; roughly .5 mile downstream from confluence of Sacramento & American Rivers, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA
13. INTERIOR VIEW OF GATE OPERATOR ROOM, SHOWING UNFINISHED CONCRETE WALLS AND SLIDE GATE OPERATORS, LOOKING NORTH. - Sacramento River Water Treatment Plant Intake Pier & Access Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River approximately 175 feet west of eastern levee on river; roughly .5 mile downstream from confluence of Sacramento & American Rivers, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA
4. DETAIL OF THE BRIDGE PIER SHOWING THE SUSPENSION CABLE, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Sacramento River Water Treatment Plant Intake Pier & Access Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River approximately 175 feet west of eastern levee on river; roughly .5 mile downstream from confluence of Sacramento & American Rivers, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA
11. DETAIL VIEW OF APPROACH TO INTAKE PIER FROM ACCESS BRIDGE, SHOWING DOOR TO INTERIOR GATE OPERATOR ROOM, LOOKING WEST. - Sacramento River Water Treatment Plant Intake Pier & Access Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River approximately 175 feet west of eastern levee on river; roughly .5 mile downstream from confluence of Sacramento & American Rivers, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA
19. INTAKE CONDUITS, PROFILE, SECTIONS, AND DETAILS, SHEET 10 OF 117, 1920. - Sacramento River Water Treatment Plant Intake Pier & Access Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River approximately 175 feet west of eastern levee on river; roughly .5 mile downstream from confluence of Sacramento & American Rivers, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA
... run-of-river mode dependent on water outflow from MID's upstream Merced River Project (FERC No. 2179). Inflow to the project passes through the impoundment, which is kept at a constant water elevation and... turbine; (5) a 1,000-foot-long earthen levee with a crest width of 8 feet; (6) an adjacent...
Objective: In addition to the recognized/classic species within the pestivirus genus there are putative species. One of these is pronghorn virus (PHV). PHV was first isolated from an immature, blind pronghorn antelope in the state of Wyoming. The objectives of these studies were to determine leve...
Castellarin, A.; di Baldassarre, G.; Brath, A.
The River Po is the longest Italian river, and the largest river in terms of streamflow. The middle-lower Po flows East some 350km in the Pianura Padana, a very important agricultural region and industrial heart of northern Italy. For this portion of the river, the riverbed consists of a stable main channel 200-500m wide and two lateral banks (the overall width varies from 200m to 5km) confined by two continuous artificial levees. The lateral banks are densely cultivated, and cultivations are protected against frequent flooding by a system of minor artificial levees. This sub-system of levees impacts significantly the hydraulic behaviour of the middle-lower Po during major flood events. This study utilizes a quasi-2D hydraulic numerical model. The model has been developed on the basis of laser-scanning DTM (resolution: 2m, topographic survey: 2005) and calibrated using the information available for the significant flood event of October 2000. The study aims at investigating the effects of the adoption of different floodplain management strategies (e.g., raising, lowering or removal of the sub-system of levees) on flood hazard along the river reach.
Rebello, Carina M.; Hanuscin, Deborah; Sinha, Somnath
Physics First--a movement to invert the traditional science course sequence to teach physics at the ninth-grade level--is gaining interest. However, there is limited literature exploring how to support teachers in successfully implementing Physics First. To address this, a professional development (PD) program supporting a cadre of teacher-leaders…
The Clean Air Act (CAA) requires that the United States (U.S.) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) set National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for pollutants considered harmful to human health and the environment. Previous research has shown that high ambient ozone leve...
The objective of this research was to investigate differences in the kinetics of fatty acids (FA) deposition in fillets of market-sized (approximately 450g) rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed diets containing commercial Alaskan fish oils versus menhaden oil. Comparisons were made with FA leve...
Soil parameters are essential for erosion process prediction and ultimately improved model development, especially as they relate to dam and levee failure. Soil parameters including soil texture and structure, soil classification, soil compaction, moisture content, and degree of saturation can play...
Cohen, Jonathan; Hamilton, Rhia Olivia
Understanding people and school communities is complex. Facilitating helpful and meaningful change--at an individual or school-wide level--is challenging. As a clinician-educator and a socially and emotionally informed educator, we describe what we do and do not understand about School ABC. We suggest that at the school and individual levels,…
Cover crops are important components of copping systems due to their beneficial effects on soil physical, chemical and biological properties. A green house experiment was conducted to evaluate influence of phosphorus (P) fertilization on nutrient use efficiency of 14 tropical cover crops. The P leve...
44. Photocopy of photograph (original photograph in possession of Sacramento Archives and Museum Collection Center, Sacramento, California) Original photographer unknown, Feb 27, 1914. DISTRICT 1000 NEWLY COMPLETED SAND-CORE RIVER LEVEE, STA. 660. - Reclamation District 1000, Northwest Sacramento County & southwest Sutter County, bisected by State Highway No. 99, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA
Elliott, Cynthia B.; Taylor, Denny
On Monday, August 29, 2005, Hurricane Katrina and the floodwaters from the breeched levees destroyed all 14 schools in Louisiana's St. Bernard Parish. Although most residents had been evacuated before the hurricane hit, 1,500 men, women, and children rode out the storm in Chalmette High School. The district superintendent and the school leadership…
Aflatoxins are toxic secondary metabolites of the fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, among others. Aflatoxin contaminated corn is toxic to domestic animals when ingested in feed and is a known carcinogen associated with liver and lung cancer in humans. Consequently, aflatoxin leve...
Aflatoxins are toxic secondary metabolites predominantly produced by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. Aflatoxin contaminated corn is toxic to domestic animals when ingested in feed and is a known carcinogen associated with liver and lung cancer in humans. Consequently, aflatoxin leve...
Ingebritsen, S.E.; Ikehara, M.E.; Galloway, D.L.; Jones, D.R.
The Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta of California once was a great tidal freshwater marsh blanketed by peat and peaty alluvium. Beginning in the late 1800s, levees were built along the stream channels, and the land thus protected from flooding was drained, cleared, and planted. Although the Delta is now an exceptionally rich agricultural area (over a $500 million crop value in 1993), its unique value is as a source of freshwater for the rest of the State. It is the heart of a massive north-to-south waterdelivery system. Much of this water is pumped southward for use in the San Joaquin Valley and elsewhere in central and southern California. The leveed tracts and islands help to protect water-export facilities in the southern Delta from saltwater intrusion by displacing water and maintaining favorable freshwater gradients. However, ongoing subsidence behind the levees reduces levee stability and, thus, threatens to degrade water quality in the massive north-to-south water-transfer system.
Amaryllidaceae tribe Hippeastreae constitutes a horticulturally valuable group of American endemics, characterized by disploidy and polyploidy (x = 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12; 2n = 10-150). It is a clade putatively descended (in part) from an ancient hybridization event. Its taxonomy at the generic leve...
A school-year research experiment using primary resources to teach an important national issue--protest movements against the Vietnam War at the local level--is an excellent way to motivate students and energize classroom teaching. Every local community in America has its own story to tell about the war in Vietnam. Whether it is about a local son…
Both maternal undernutrition and exposure of the fetus to above normal levels of GLC impair skeletal muscle growth. The degree to which the effects of maternal undernutrition on fetal skeletal muscle growth are a direct result of nutrient deficit or secondary to the presence of above normal GLC leve...
Brown, Graham K.
This paper examines the politics and practice of education in Malaysia within the context of ethnicity and nation building. Public education in Malaysia--particularly, but not exclusively, at the pre-university level--is promoted as a nation-building tool, seeking to inculcate a sense of Malaysian-ness and patriotism. Simultaneously, however,…
This paper presents the development and application of a three-dimensional numerical model for simulating the flow field and pollutant transport in a flood zone near the confluence of the Mississippi River and Iowa River in Oakville, Iowa. Due to a levee breaching along the Iowa River during the US ...
Viero, Daniele Pietro; D'Alpaos, Andrea; Carniello, Luca; Defina, Andrea
Modeling of flooding events resulting from bank overflooding and levee breaching is of relevant social and environmental interest. Two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamic models integrating the shallow water equations turn out to be very effective tools for the purpose at hand. Many of the available models also use 1D channel elements, fully coupled to the 2D model, to simulate the flow of small channels dissecting the urban and rural areas, and 1D elements, referred to as 1D-links, to efficiently model the flow over levees, road and rail embankments, bunds, the flow through control gates, either free or submerged, and the operation of other hydraulic structures. In this work we propose a physically-based 1D-link to model breach formation and evolution in fluvial levees, and levee failure due to either piping or overtopping. The proposed 1D-link is then embedded in a 1D-2D hydrodynamic model, thus accounting for critical feedbacks between breach formation and changes in the hydrodynamic flow field. The breach model also includes the possibility of simulating breach closure, an important feature particularly in the view of hydraulic risk assessment and management of the emergency. The model is applied to five different case studies and the results of the numerical simulations compare favorably with field observations displaying a good agreement in terms of urban and rural flooded areas, water levels within the channel, final breach widths, and water volumes flowed through the breach.
Experimental toxicity data alone lack ecological relevance to assess more realistic situations, such as variable exposure to a contaminant and long-term impact. Evaluating the implications of sublethal effects or behavioral response to exposure requires long-term, population-leve...
Luna, Ronaldo; Summers, David; Hoffman, David; Rogers, J. David; Sevi, Adam; Witt, Emitt C.
This article presents the post-Hurricane Katrina conditions of the flood-protection system of levees and floodwalls that failed in the environs of the Mississippi River Delta and New Orleans, La. Damage conditions and suggested mechanisms of failure are presented from the geotechnical point of view.
¿Qué es el mentol? El mentol es una sustancia encontrada naturalmente en las plantas de menta, tales como la menta fresca y la hierbabuena. Deja una sensación refrescante y se usa frecuentemente para aliviar el dolor y la irritación leve, y para prevenir infecciones .
...The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone closing the Atchafalaya River to all commercial traffic from MM 117 (Morgan City Railroad Bridge) to MM 0 (Simmesport, LA). This temporary safety zone is needed to protect the general public, vessels and tows from destruction, and the levee system from destruction, loss or injury due to hazards associated with rising flood...
Erosion is one of the least reliably defined elements of many hydraulic projects. Earthen embankments (i.e. dams and levees) are an example of hydraulic projects in which erosion and material erodibility have not been reliably defined in the past. Recent as well as past embankment failures have he...
Erosion is one of the least reliably defined elements of many hydraulic projects. Earthen embankments (i.e. dams and levees) are an example of hydraulic projects for which erosion and erodibility have not been reliably defined in the past. Characterizing material erodibility is one of the essentia...
Greenhouse tests were conducted to evaluate 1) the effect of Meloidogyne incognita infection in cotton on plant growth and physiology including the height-to-node ratio, chlorophyll content, dark adapted quantum yield of photosystem II, and leaf area, and 2) the extent to which moderate or high leve...
Data obtained over four adjacent fields of differing management practices in Zimbabwe illustrate the role of atmospheric intermittency as a mechanism for transferring CO2 between the surface and the atmosphere above. At night, limited atmospheric mixing permits CO2 concentrations to increase to leve...
Following the discovery of the West Nile virus (WNv) in Brazos County, TX in 2002, mosquito research personnel at Texas A&M University established a routine WNv mosquito vector surveillance program in the county. In 2004, a map of Brazos County was created depicting areas that had a heightened leve...
... destruction to levees and vessels and tows. DATES: Section 165.T11-0511 temporarily added at 76 FR 37647, June... pursuant to the temporary final Rule at docket USCG-2011-0511 (76 FR 37647) established a safety zone for...; Department of Homeland Security Delegation No. 0170.1. 0 2. Section 165.T11-0511 temporarily added at 76...
Quarried serpentinite, recently found to contain asbestos, is used to aggregate for surfacing secondary roads. Emission concentrations of 0.6 x 10 to the 6th power to 8 x 10 to the 6th power fibers/cu m were collected 20 m downwind from a serpentinite surfaced roadway. These leve...
This wrap-up presentation to the workshop covers several topics concerning how lead and copper compliance under the Lead and Copper Rule should be integrated into an overall “simultaneous compliance” framework with other organizations. The LCR requires “optimization” of lead leve...
Hundreds of higher education faculty lost their jobs in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina. New Orleans' colleges and universities were forced to cancel fall semester classes after the city's levee system failed, submerging 80 percent of the city just weeks before the academic year began. Damage assessments began even before the deadly storm's…
A large number of embankment structures, including dams, levees, dikes, and barriers, have been built by humans or formed naturally along rivers, lakes, and coastal lines around the world. These structures play very important roles in flood defense, while many are also used for water supply, power g...
South Dakota has recently experienced a significant increase in the proportion of acres treated with insecticide. Unfortunately, data on insecticide usage by crop at the county level is not available. The following case study seeks to uncover the reasons for this increase by analyzing county-leve...
This research will build upon prior efforts where regression was used to model salt marsh species persistence and productivity along hydrologic and edaphic gradients at the SWB. Upcoming results will enable the optimization of planting combinations at a given salinity leve...
Taylor, L.L.; Shikashio, R.
The purpose of this document is to identify requirements to be met by the Producer/Shipper of Spent Nuclear Fuel/High-LeveL Waste SNF/HLW in order for DOE to be able to accept the packaged materials. This includes defining both standard and nonstandard waste forms.
The report gives results of a source test and evaluation of a commercial Chapman low-Btu gasification facility. Objectives were to: characterize the multimedia waste streams and potential fugitive emission and effluent streams from the facility, evaluate the applicability of Leve...
It is important to develop new environmentally friendly methods of insect pest suppression. One avenue to reduce chemical pesticide use is to combine the chemicals with biocontrol agents that produce synergistic levels of insect mortality. The aim of this study was to explore this approach of leve...
The two most common causes of earthen embankment and levee failure are embankment overtopping and internal erosion. Internal erosion occurs when water flows through a cavity, crack, and/or other opening within the embankment. These openings may be a result of inadequate compaction during construct...
The erosion behavior of clay soils is important for many applications within water resources (i.e. earthen spillway erosion, river channel erosion, bank stability, and dam, and levee failures). The objective of this study was to compare soil erodibility results of two different erosion testing devi...
Twenty-three soybean cultivars were grown in a greenhouse under a daily dose of either 0 or10.1 kJ/sq m biologically effective ultraviolet-B (UV-BsubBE) radiation until reproductive maturity. Of these, six selected cultivars were also grown in the field with similar enhanced leve...
The water use efficiency (WUE) of leaf photosynthetic carbon uptake is a key regulator of plant production in grasslands. However WUE may differ with soil type because of differences in soil moisture retention and plant uptake efficiency. We measured soil water content (SWC, 0-30 cm, %), leaf-leve...
10. DETAIL VIEW OF LOWER LEVEL OF INTAKE PIER SHOWING THE RIVER HEIGHT INDICATOR, ONE OF THE FIVE GATE OPENINGS, AND MOORINGS, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Sacramento River Water Treatment Plant Intake Pier & Access Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River approximately 175 feet west of eastern levee on river; roughly .5 mile downstream from confluence of Sacramento & American Rivers, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA
National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, 2011
According to the Federal Emergency Management Agency, flooding is the nation's most common natural disaster. Some floods develop slowly during an extended period of rain or in a warming trend following a heavy snow. Flash floods can occur quickly, without any visible sign of rain. Catastrophic floods are associated with burst dams and levees,…
7. CLOSEUP VIEW OF THE PUMP DISCHARGE CHANNEL, AND THE DISCHARGE WEIR OF THE FOR PUMPS NO. 2 AND 3, LOOKING NORTHEAST. THE SERVICE BRIDGE PROVIDED ACCESS TO THE LEVEE OVER TOBY CREEK. - Wyoming Valley Flood Control System, Woodward Pumping Station, East of Toby Creek crossing by Erie-Lackawanna Railroad, Edwardsville, Luzerne County, PA
Osofsky, Joy D.; Osofsky, Howard J.; Harris, William W.
Hurricane Katrina resulted in a disaster of proportions not previously known in the United States. The traumatic experiences of children and families during Hurricane Katrina, the flooding that resulted from the breach of the levees, the evacuation, and the aftermath are unprecedented. In responding to the enormous mental health needs of children…
Morris, Jerome E.
The torrential rains from Hurricane Katrina, the breaking of the levees, and the subsequent flooding of New Orleans resulted in another Black Diaspora. This article focuses on Black children and families who were displaced by Hurricane Katrina but now reside in cities, towns, and suburbs outside of the Crescent City. Informed by the author's…
Flooding due to dam or levee breach often results in detrimental impact on the people and their properties in the flooding zone. The embankment breach process is often caused by overtopping or internal erosion due to excessive water in a reservoir or a river. This study is to develop a practical nu...
Recounts a trip down the Lower Mississippi River starting in Memphis, describing the features of the river at different stops along the way. Aspects of life along the river discussed include the levee system built to contain the waters, flooding on the river, and travel on the river. (MDH)
4. VIEW OF THE WEST FACADE. NOTE THE BRIDGES FROM THE D.L. & W. R.R. WOODWARD SIDING AND MAIN LINE IN THE LEFT FOREGROUND. PHOTO IS FROM THE LEVEE CROSSING TOBY CREEK FACING EAST. - Wyoming Valley Flood Control System, Woodward Pumping Station, East of Toby Creek crossing by Erie-Lackawanna Railroad, Edwardsville, Luzerne County, PA
... increasing the extent of wetlands, reducing damaging freshwater discharges to the coastal estuaries, and... for storage, treatment and conveyance south of Lake Okeechobee, removal of canals and levees within... Endangered Species Act, Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act, Clean Water Act, and Farmland Protection...
Jointed goatgrass is a prominent weed infesting winter wheat in the western United States. Individual control tactics often are ineffective and inconsistent, but management systems comprised of several tactics designed to disrupt population dynamics of jointed goatgrass can reduce infestation leve...
Split ponds are simple, pond-based aquaculture systems constructed by dividing an existing catfish pond into two unequal basins with an earthen levee. Fish are confined in the smaller basin (usually about 15-20% of total water area) while the larger basin serves as a waste-treatment lagoon. A high-v...
McHargue, T.R.; Webb, J.E.
The Indus Fan, the second largest submarine fan in the world, covers 1,250,000 km/sup 2/ (500,000 mi/sup 2/) and contains sediment more than 7 km (23,000 ft) thick. Multichannel (24-fold) CDP seismic data provide the bases for evaluating the Indus Fan and consist of four seismic facies. Of these, only the high-amplitude, discontinuous (H-D) facies is thought to contain reservoir-quality sandstones. The H-D facies is confined to the axes of leveed channels. Canyon-channel systems that fed the fan in the past can be divided into three zones. The degradational zone is composed of an erosional canyon complex filled by prodelta mud. The transitional zone, located near the canyon mouth, consists of superimposed channels that initially were erosional but eventually aggraded and developed levees. The headward termination of the H-D facies occurs in this zone. The aggradational zone consists of superimposed leveed channels confined solely by their own levees. The proximal termination of the H-D facies near canyon mouths implies the presence of reservoir-quality sandstone surrounded by source/seal mudstone in the transitional zone. This stratigraphic trapping geometry and structural leads may represent a vast, untapped petroleum province.
Chandler, Thomas; Marri, Anand R.
This collective case study examined how three educators (a high school social studies teacher, a university social studies teacher educator, and minister teaching an adult population) used a multimedia based curriculum guide, "Teaching the Levees", to teach about climate change to examine public priorities in relation to the environment.…
A large number of embankment structures, including dams, levees, dikes, and barriers, have been built by humans. These structures play a very important role in flood defense, while many are also used for water supply, power generation, transportation, sediment retention, etc. Since these structure...
75. Photocopy of photograph (original print in the Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul, Minnesota, ca. 1870s. #22006. Photographer: Illingworth.) VIEW TO SOUTHEAST, SHOWING THE UPPER LEVEE AND BLUSS (on left) TO WHICH THE HIGH BRIDGE WAS BUILT - Smith Avenue High Bridge, Smith Avenue between Cherokee Avenue & Cliff Street, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN
Cook, Daniella Ann
When Hurricane Katrina slammed into New Orleans on August 29, 2005, the failure of the levees resulted in the largest single human-made disaster in the United States. In addition to the physical devastation of the city, the landscape of public schools in New Orleans was permanently altered, as was the national dialogue about school reform in the…
Kirylo, James D.
New Orleans, fondly known in better days for its spectacular cuisine, cool jazz, and good times, was the leading story on television news broadcasts the world over when a massive hurricane came. As Katrina took its destructive path, culminating in the devastating rupture of ill-prepared levee systems, the world was riveted by stories about the…
When the levees broke during Hurricane Katrina in 2005, eighty percent of New Orleans flooded, and the citizens who returned to the evacuated city had to rebuild their homes, cultural institutions, and school system. This article records how The Ogden Museum of Southern Art, University of New Orleans, was able to collaborate with a charter school…
In August 2005, the world witnessed one of the most destructive natural disasters on America's mainland. Hurricane Katrina, followed a month later by Hurricane Rita, brought more than broken levees, flooded streets and homes, and destroyed businesses. It caused changes in the dynamics and the demographic and cultural makeup of the region. One of…
Harris, Douglas N.
What happened to the New Orleans public schools following the tragic levee breeches after Hurricane Katrina is truly unprecedented. Within the span of one year, all public-school employees were fired, the teacher contract expired and was not replaced, and most attendance zones were eliminated. The state took control of almost all public schools…
Hass, H. Christian; Klages, Johann P.; Kuhn, Gerhard; Forwick, Matthias
We investigated seafloor morphology and sedimentary processes at the continental margin in the western Riiser Larsen Sea, Antarctica, to reconstruct processes of channel/levee development, and to evaluate the influence of climate through the past 5 marine isotope stages on these processes. Shallow seismic (parametric subbottom profiler) investigations reveal that channels and associated levees form the principal morphological structures in the western Riiser Larsen Sea. The channels are up to several kilometers wide and hundreds of meters deep. They stretch from the upper continental slope towards the Enderby Abyssal Plain. Sediment cores (taken from levee tops) reveal increased amounts of sand and coarser silt during warmer climate phases (MIS 1, 3, 5). The sand is mainly composed of planktic foraminifers and IRD, both suggesting seasonally open waters (interglacials). The carbonate-free sortable silt mean grain size suggests increased bottom current speed during the warmer climate phases. We postulate, that the occurrence of coastal polynyas and strong sea-ice formation through katabatic winds promote the formation of cold waters and brines. These are channeled on the continental slope and intensify turbidity currents that occur on the steep slopes. Alternatively, the newly formed dense waters can be taken up by westward flowing contour currents and thus support the formation of turbidity currents. It is suggested that either process supports downslope sediment transport and levee growth during warm climate phases. Under cold climates a permanent ice cover is suggested at least for the positions of the sediment cores (seasonally open waters today). These reveal significantly IRD and carbonate-depleted sediments during the cold climate phases. Hence, polynyas may have formed further to the north over deeper waters. The volume of the cooled-down waters and brines was likely smaller and probably not able to reach the sea floor due to mixing with upwelling warmer
Reddy, Sheila M W; Guannel, Gregory; Griffin, Robert; Faries, Joe; Boucher, Timothy; Thompson, Michael; Brenner, Jorge; Bernhardt, Joey; Verutes, Gregory; Wood, Spencer A; Silver, Jessica A; Toft, Jodie; Rogers, Anthony; Maas, Alexander; Guerry, Anne; Molnar, Jennifer; DiMuro, Johnathan L
Businesses may be missing opportunities to account for ecosystem services in their decisions, because they do not have methods to quantify and value ecosystem services. We developed a method to quantify and value coastal protection and other ecosystem services in the context of a cost-benefit analysis of hurricane risk mitigation options for a business. We first analyze linked biophysical and economic models to examine the potential protection provided by marshes. We then applied this method to The Dow Chemical Company's Freeport, Texas facility to evaluate natural (marshes), built (levee), and hybrid (marshes and a levee designed for marshes) defenses against a 100-y hurricane. Model analysis shows that future sea-level rise decreases marsh area, increases flood heights, and increases the required levee height (12%) and cost (8%). In this context, marshes do not provide sufficient protection to the facility, located 12 km inland, to warrant a change in levee design for a 100-y hurricane. Marshes do provide some protection near shore and under smaller storm conditions, which may help maintain the coastline and levee performance in the face of sea-level rise. In sum, the net present value to the business of built defenses ($217 million [2010 US$]) is greater than natural defenses ($15 million [2010 US$]) and similar to the hybrid defense scenario ($229 million [2010 US$]). Examination of a sample of public benefits from the marshes shows they provide at least $117 million (2010 US$) in coastal protection, recreational value, and C sequestration to the public, while supporting 12 fisheries and more than 300 wildlife species. This study provides information on where natural defenses may be effective and a replicable approach that businesses can use to incorporate private, as well as public, ecosystem service values into hurricane risk management at other sites. PMID:26123999
In recent years, non-destructive investigations and management of civil engineering structures is increasingly improving, and assessments are now supported by national and international standards. However, the literature on the applicability of different geophysical techniques to the problem of levee and river embankment monitoring is still limited. Accurate flood levee embankment stability assessment is critically important because embankments and earth dams are subject to water infiltration and internal erosion, which may lead to mechanical weakness and breaching. This study includes a 2D analysis of the instability of an earthen levee, using multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) and electrical resistivity imaging (ERI), along with direct observations of the site engineering geology and geomorphology. Both the modeled Vs and Ω indicate a horizontally-layered subsurface with rapid vertical transitions in both stiffness and conductivity. This conclusion is supported by a covariance analysis of Vs and Ω at varying depths and chainages along the levee. Together with a geomorphic assessment, this indicates that the structure is being destabilized by water infiltration, which is causing erosional-piping, leading to surface subsidence. While the key reason for applying various types of geophysical methods to embankment stability assessment is to undertake a safety examination of the embankment, a secondary reason is to compare and contrast the efficacy of the geophysical methods. To this end, it was found that the integration of covariance analysis of 2D geophysical datasets, alongside sedimentary and topographic data, can help the rapid location of anomalous zones in sub-levee soils between geotechnical boreholes.
Leonard, C.; Legleiter, C. J.
Encroachment of human development onto river floodplains creates a need to stabilize rivers and provide flood protection. Structural interventions, such as levees, often perturb hydrologic and sediment regimes and thus can initiate morphological responses. An understanding of how human activities affect river morphodynamics and trigger channel change is needed to anticipate future river responses and facilitate effective restoration. This study examines approximately 66 km of the Snake River, WY, USA, and links sediment transport processes to channel form and behavior by developing a morphological sediment budget that spans both a natural, unconfined reach and a reach confined by artificial levees. Sediment transport rates are inferred from the morphological sediment budget and a bed mobility study is used to estimate entrainment thresholds that allow us to link the hydrological regime during the sediment budget period to the observed channel changes. Results indicate that lateral constriction by levees triggers a positive feedback mechanism by incising the bed, focusing flow energy, thus increasing transport capacity, and leading to armoring of the bed. In other systems, armoring promotes widening of the channel but in this case levees prevent widening and the channel instead migrates across the braidplain rapidly, producing further erosion of bars and vegetated islands that is expressed as negative net volumetric changes and increased sediment transport rates. Furthermore, decreased slopes and reduced discharges due to dam regulation in the upstream unconfined reach cause gravel sheets to stall on bars and in other areas of storage, creating a spatial discontinuity in sediment conveyance downstream, and thus contributing to the sediment deficit within the leveed reach.
Paduan, J. B.; Clague, D. A.; Caress, D. W.; Thomas, H. J.
An extraordinary lava pond complex is located on Axial Volcano's distal south rift. It was discovered in EM300 multibeam bathymetry collected in 1998, and explored and sampled with ROVs Tiburon in 2005 and Doc Ricketts in 2013. It was surveyed with the MBARI Mapping AUV D. Allan B. in 2011, in a complicated mission first flying above the levees at constant depth, then skimming ~5 m over the levees at a different constant depth to survey the floors, then twice switching to constant altitude mode to map outside the ponds. The AUV navigation was adjusted using the MB-System tool mbnavadjust so that bathymetric features match in overlapping and crossing swaths. The ~1-m resolution AUV bathymetry reveals extremely rough terrain, where low-resolution EM300 data had averaged acoustic returns and obscured details of walls, floors, a breach and surrounding flows, and gives context to the ROV observations and samples. The 6 x 1.5 km pond complex has 4 large and several smaller drained ponds with rims 67 to 106 m above the floors. The combined volume before draining was 0.56 km3. The ponds overflowed to build lobate-flow levees with elongate pillows draping outer flanks, then drained, leaving lava veneer on vertical inner walls. Levee rim depths vary by only 10 m and are deeper around the southern ponds. Deep collapse-pits in the levees suggest porosity of pond walls. The eastern levee of the northeastern pond breached, draining the interconnected ponds, and fed thick, rapidly-emplaced, sheet-flows along the complex's east side. These flows travelled at least 5.5 km down-rift and have 19-33 m deep drained ponds. They extended up-rift as well, forming a 10 x 2.5 km ponded flow with level 'bathtub rings' as high as 35 m above the floor marking that flow's high-stand. Despite the breach, at least 0.066 km3 of the molten interior of the large ponds also drained back down the eruptive fissures, as the pond floors are deeper than the sill and sea floor outside the complex. Tumulus
Florsheim, J.L.; Dettinger, M.D.
Global warming and attendant sea-level rise may soon impact geomorphic processes in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River and San Francisco Bay Delta systems. During the past two centuries, dramatic anthropogenic changes in sediment supply and pervasive structural controls on rivers and floodplains have altered geomorphic responses to floods throughout a zone that extends upstream from tidally influenced areas to dams that regulate flow. Current geomorphic responses to floods differ from natural responses due to historical actions that concentrated the pre-disturbance multiple-channel and flood-basin system into single channels isolated by levees from increasingly developed floodplains and flood bypass channels, altered flow and sediment regimes, and caused subsidence of leveed Delta Islands. A review of historic and current geomorphic responses to floods illustrates the dominance of structural controls on geomorphic changes in the lowland part of the Sacramento-San Joaquin system. Current climate-change projections for CA suggest that the total volume of snowmelt runoff that may be shifted from spring and added to winter flows is roughly 5 maf/yr, similar to the volume currently available for flood storage in Sierra Nevadan reservoirs. Changes in timing of reservoir releases to accommodate these changes could add to either the magnitude or duration of winter flood peaks, each causing different geomorphic responses. Increased wintertime flows that accompany already large floods could increase overbank flood extent, erosion, and sedimentation, or alternatively increase the depth and strength of confined flows and increase the risk of levee failures. Runoff released from reservoirs as a relatively constant addition to winter baseflow would increase the duration of bankfull or possibly "levee-full" flows. This scenario could lead to bank and levee failure through increased saturation and seepage erosion. Projected sea level rise of 1-2 m would compound vulnerability of
Dokka, R. K.; Cavell, J. A.
A state-wide digital elevation model (DEM; www.atlas.lsu.edu) based on 1999-2002 LiDAR data is widely used in assessing present and future flooding potential in New Orleans and southeast Louisiana due to storm surge. Although the data were acquired during a time when official vertical controls had been deemed unreliable due to subsidence, the DEM continues to be used for operational modeling and planning. To test its viability, an accuracy assessment of the DEM was performed in 2007 using a statewide real-time kinematic GPS system based on NOAA-sanctioned continuously operating reference stations. Sampling was focused on built structures, i.e., levees, floodwall, and roads, features considered to control surge flow in the low-lying coast. Over 100,000 points were measured and compared to 5X5 m DEM pixels. The vertical accuracy of test points was determined to be +/-10cm (0.3 ft). It is claimed that 90% of the DEM is to accurate to +/-15 cm (0.5 ft).The study had the added benefit of providing a snapshot of the progress being made in augmenting the regional hurricane protection system following the 2005 storms. The study shows that only 40 percent of DEM samples pass the accuracy test, i.e., are +/- 0.8 ft of the true elevation. Where the DEM is too low, it is likely due to: levee augmentation, floodwalls are too narrow to be detected by LiDAR, new levees, and a "levee crown bias", i.e., sampled DEM pixel includes levee slope areas. Where the DEM is too high, the causes can be traced to two factors, inaccurate vertical controls established prior to LiDAR acquisition, and to a lesser degree, post-acquisition subsidence. The DEM south and east of New Orleans overestimates levee elevations by 0-1 m. We conclude, therefore that the state-wide digital elevation model (DEM) is unreliable and inadequate to support present-day surge modeling.
Bussey, D. B. J.; Guest, J. E.
Lava channels are a common feature in the volcanic regions of the Moon, and have now been observed on Venus. There has been much debate about the origin of lunar channels as to whether they are the result of erosional (either thermal or mechanical) or constructional processes. It is necessary to determine the criteria to distinguish between the different types of channels. The clearest evidence is that the presence of levees indicates that the channel experienced a constructional phase for a period. One example of a channel of this type in the southeast region of Aphrodite Terra appears to show both erosional and constructional characteristics. It is approximately 700 km long with an average width of about 1 km. It drops a distance of 700 m from beginning to end, which means that the average slope is 0.06 degrees. Its source may have been a graben situated at the northwest end of the channel. It appears to have different origins along its length. The lack of levees near the source suggests that the channel is erosional in this region. The presence of levees indicates that a constructional phase has occurred. These are formed by lava repeatedly splashing over the channel sides and solidifying. Evidence of levees is seen further away from the source. However, the presence of levees does not mean that the lava was not also eroding and deepening the channel. Thus, in conclusion, our example channel is very sinuous and there is evidence of erosion. There may also have been overflow here. In its middle reaches it roofs over and has the characteristics of a lava tube. In the lower reaches there is strong evidence for the presence of levees indicating construction. On Earth, limited amounts of erosion may occur in basaltic lava channels, although not nearly on the same scale as on the planets just mentioned. For lava erosion on Earth to occur to a comparable extent, excessive eruption times are required. However, low-viscosity komatiite lava may erode to a larger extent
Strupczewski, W. G.; Kochanek, K.; Bogdanowicz, E.; Markiewicz, I.
The Flood Frequency Analysis (FFA) concentrates on probability distribution of peak flows of flood hydrographs. However, examination of floods that haunted and devastated the large parts of Poland lead us to revision of the views on the assessment of flood risk of Polish rivers. It turned out that flooding is caused not only by the overflow of the levee crest but also due to the prolonged exposure to high water on levees structure causing dangerous leaks and breaches that threaten their total destruction. This is because the levees are weakened by long-lasting water pressure and as a matter of fact their damage usually occurs after the culmination has passed the affected location. The probability of inundation is the total of probabilities of exceeding embankment crest by flood peak and the probability of washout of levees. Therefore, in addition to the maximum flow one should also consider the duration of high waters in a river channel. In the paper the new two-component model of flood dynamics: "Duration of high waters-Discharge Threshold-Probability of non-exceedance" (DqF), with the methodology of its parameter estimation was proposed as a completion to the classical FFA methods. Such a model can estimate the duration of stages (flows) of an assumed magnitude with a given probability of exceedance. The model combined with the technical evaluation of the probability of levee breaches due to the duration (d) of flow above alarm stage gives the annual probability of inundation caused by the embankment breaking. The results of theoretical investigation were illustrated by a practical example of the model implementation to the series of daily flow of the Vistula River at Szczucin. Regardless of promising results, the method of risk assessment due to prolonged exposure of levees to high water is still in its infancy despite its great cognitive potential and practical importance. Therefore, we would like to point out the need for and usefulness of the DqF model as
Strupczewski, W. G.; Kochanek, K.; Bogdanowicz, E.; Markiewicz, I.
The Flood Frequency Analysis (FFA) concentrates on probability distribution of peak flows of flood hydrographs. However, examination of floods that haunted and devastated the large parts of Poland lead us to revision of the views on the assessment of flood risk of Polish rivers. It turned out that flooding is caused not only by overflow of the levees' crest but mostly due to the prolonged exposure to high water on levees structure causing dangerous leaks and breaches that threaten their total destruction. This is because, the levees are weakened by long-lasting water pressure and as a matter of fact their damage usually occurs after the culmination has passed the affected location. The probability of inundation is the total of probabilities of exceeding embankment crest by flood peak and the probability of washout of levees. Therefore, in addition to the maximum flow one should consider also the duration of high waters in a river channel. In the paper the new two-component model of flood dynamics: "Duration of high waters-Discharge Threshold-Probability of non-exceedance" (DqF), with the methodology of its parameters estimation was proposed as a completion to the classical FFA methods. Such model can estimate the duration of stages (flows) of an assumed magnitude with a given probability of exceedance. The model combined with the technical evaluation of probability of levees breach due to the d-days duration of flow above alarm stage gives the annual probability of inundation caused by the embankment breaking. The results of theoretical investigation were illustrated by a practical example of the model implementation to the series of daily flow of the Vistula River at Szczucin. Regardless promising results, the method of risk assessment due to prolonged exposure of levees to high water is still in its infancy despite its great cognitive potential and practical importance. Therefore, we would like to point out the need for and usefulness of the DqF model as
Valerio, Antonella; Tallarico, Andrea; Dragoni, Michele
Bends in lava flows due to local variations in topography are commonly observed in volcanic fields. The curvature of a channel affects the flow surface morphology, as described in literature by Greeley (1971) and Peterson (1994). Where channels make an especially sharp bend, crust plates break and are incorporated within the flow by remelting. In some places, they jam together welding to the sides of the channel and forming a stable roof. We propose a model to explain the effects of the curvature of a channel on velocity, shear stress and formation of solid crust at the surface. Lava is described as a Newtonian, homogeneous, isotropic and incompressible fluid. The steady-state solution of the Navier-Stokes equation is found for a unidirectional flow, in cylindrical polar coordinates, neglecting the gradient of pressure and assuming a dependence of velocity on the radial coordinate only. The flow levees are described as arcs of concentric circumferences, with their centres in the origin of the reference frame. The equation is solved using non-slip boundary conditions at the levees. From the constitutive equation of a Newtonian incompressible fluid we obtain the nonvanishing component of the shear stress. As a consequence of the curvature of the channel, velocity and shear stress show an asymmetric behaviour in respect to the centre of the channel. The gradient of velocity and the shear stress reach larger values close to the levee with the higher curvature. Heat radiation and convection into the atmosphere are considered as the main cooling processes. Solid platforms form at the flow surface during cooling. Crust plates are laterally confined by the shear regions with high stress values. The model analyses the effects of the curvature of a channel on the development and shape of surface solid plates. The dimension and shape of plates are controlled by the competition between the shear stress and crust yield strength, and the degree of crust coverage of the channel
Leone, Harold L.
When a hurricane approaches the New Orleans, Louisiana area, the accompanying tides and heavy rainfall increase the level of water in Lake Borgne, Mississippi Sound, and Lake Pontchartrain and pose a major threat of water damage to the populated areas. During Hurricane Betsy (1965), for example, the level of Lake Pontchartrain rose as much as 13 feet. Nineteen core-material-sampling sites were chosen by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers as possible borrow areas for fill material to be used in levee construction for flood protection around Lake Pontchartrain. Twenty-three receiving-water sites were also selected to represent the water that will contact the proposed levees. Selected nutrients, metals, pesticides, and other organic constituents were analyzed from bed-material and native-water samples as well as upon elutriate samples of specific core material-receiving water systems. The results of these analyses are presented without interpretation. (Woodard-USGS)
Pinter, N.; Jemberie, A.A.; Remo, J.W.F.; Heine, R.A.; Ickes, B.S.
Along >4000 km of the Mississippi River system, we document that climate, land-use change, and river engineering have contributed to statistically significant increases in flooding over the past 100-150 years. Trends were tested using a database of >8 million hydrological measurements. A geospatial database of historical engineering construction was used to quantify the response of flood levels to each unit of engineering infrastructure. Significant climate- and/or land use-driven increases in flow were detected, but the largest and most pervasive contributors to increased flooding on the Mississippi River system were wing dikes and related navigational structures, followed by progressive levee construction. In the area of the 2008 Upper Mississippi flood, for example, about 2 m of the flood crest is linked to navigational and flood-control engineering. Systemwide, large increases in flood levels were documented at locations and at times of wing-dike and levee construction. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.
de Leeuw, Jan; Eggenhuisen, Joris T.; Cartigny, Matthieu J. B.
Submarine channels are ubiquitous on the seafloor and their inception and evolution is a result of dynamic interaction between turbidity currents and the evolving seafloor. However, the morphodynamic links between channel inception and flow dynamics have not yet been monitored in experiments and only in one instance on the modern seafloor. Previous experimental flows did not show channel inception, because flow conditions were not appropriately scaled to sustain suspended sediment transport. Here we introduce and apply new scaling constraints for similarity between natural and experimental turbidity currents. The scaled currents initiate a leveed channel from an initially featureless slope. Channelization commences with deposition of levees in some slope segments and erosion of a conduit in other segments. Channel relief and flow confinement increase progressively during subsequent flows. This morphodynamic evolution determines the architecture of submarine channel deposits in the stratigraphic record and efficiency of sediment bypass to the basin floor.
Moody, John A.
The flood wave on the upper Mississippi River started downstream near St. Paul, Minnesota, in June 1993. The maximum discharge propagated downstream at about 50 kilometers per day and was 5 to 7 times the mean daily discharge at streamgaging sites on the river. The propagation speed of the flood wave was influenced more by hydrologic factors such as tributary inflow and flood-plain storage than by hydraulic factors. The maximum discharge at St. Louis, Missouri (29,700 m3/s) occurred on August 1, 1993; but because of flood-plain storage resulting from levee failures and seepage through and under levees downstream, the maximum discharge at Thebes, Illinois, (27,700 m>3/s) did not occur until August 7 which was about 4 days later than normal.
Fink, J.; Zimbelman, J.
Theoretical models used in the remote determination of lava flow rheology and compositions rely on estimates of such geometric and flow parameters as volume flow rates, levee heights, and channel dimensions, as well as morphologic and structural patterns on the flow surfaces. Quantitative measures of these variables are difficult to obtain, even under optimum conditions. Detailed topographic profiles across several Hawaiian lava flows that were carefully monitored by the U.S. Geological Survey during their emplacement in 1983 were surveyed in order to test various flow emplacement models. Twenty two accurate channel cross sections were constructed by combining these profiles with digitized pre-flow topographic measurements. Levee heights, shear zone widths, and flow depths could then be read directly from the cross sections and input into the models. The profiles were also compared with ones constructed for some Martian lava flows.
Pierce, Charles E.; Gassman, Sarah L.; Huffman, Jeffrey T.
This paper describes the development, implementation, and assessment of instructional materials for geotechnical engineering concepts using the Environments for Fostering Effective Critical Thinking (EFFECTs) pedagogical framework. The central learning goals of engineering EFFECTs are to (i) improve the understanding and retention of a specific set of concepts that provide core knowledge and (ii) encourage students to recognise and develop critical thinking skills that lead to growth in engineering judgement. The practice of geotechnical engineering deals with complex and uncertain soil conditions, where critical thought and judgement are imperative. Three geo-EFFECTs were created in the context of levee reconstruction, levee permeability, and settlement of a tower structure. Students often provided inaccurate estimates to driving questions set in those contexts; when given opportunities for self-exploration and self-correction in the EFFECT structure, students often achieved more accurate final solutions. Overall, results suggest that EFFECTs have a measurable, positive impact on student learning.
de Leeuw, Jan; Eggenhuisen, Joris T.; Cartigny, Matthieu J. B.
Submarine channels are ubiquitous on the seafloor and their inception and evolution is a result of dynamic interaction between turbidity currents and the evolving seafloor. However, the morphodynamic links between channel inception and flow dynamics have not yet been monitored in experiments and only in one instance on the modern seafloor. Previous experimental flows did not show channel inception, because flow conditions were not appropriately scaled to sustain suspended sediment transport. Here we introduce and apply new scaling constraints for similarity between natural and experimental turbidity currents. The scaled currents initiate a leveed channel from an initially featureless slope. Channelization commences with deposition of levees in some slope segments and erosion of a conduit in other segments. Channel relief and flow confinement increase progressively during subsequent flows. This morphodynamic evolution determines the architecture of submarine channel deposits in the stratigraphic record and efficiency of sediment bypass to the basin floor. PMID:26996440
Maldonado, A.; Palanques, A.; Alonso, B.; Kastens, K.A.; Nelson, C.H.; O'Connell, S.; Ryan, William B. F.
The Valencia Fan developed as the distal fill of a deep-sea valley, detached from the continental slope and the main sedimentary source. A survey of side-scan sonar, Sea Beam and reflection seismics shows that the sediment is largely fed through the Valencia Valley. The upper fan comprises large channels with low-relief levees, and the middle fan has sinuous distributary channels. Depositional bedforms predominate on the valley floor and levees, and erosional bedforms are common in the valley walls. A change to slope on the fan apex and the presence of volcanoes on the upper fan are the main factors influencing fan-growth pattern. ?? 1985 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.
de Leeuw, Jan; Eggenhuisen, Joris T; Cartigny, Matthieu J B
Submarine channels are ubiquitous on the seafloor and their inception and evolution is a result of dynamic interaction between turbidity currents and the evolving seafloor. However, the morphodynamic links between channel inception and flow dynamics have not yet been monitored in experiments and only in one instance on the modern seafloor. Previous experimental flows did not show channel inception, because flow conditions were not appropriately scaled to sustain suspended sediment transport. Here we introduce and apply new scaling constraints for similarity between natural and experimental turbidity currents. The scaled currents initiate a leveed channel from an initially featureless slope. Channelization commences with deposition of levees in some slope segments and erosion of a conduit in other segments. Channel relief and flow confinement increase progressively during subsequent flows. This morphodynamic evolution determines the architecture of submarine channel deposits in the stratigraphic record and efficiency of sediment bypass to the basin floor. PMID:26996440
Flood, R.D.; Damuth, J.E.
Deep-sea fans have become increasingly important targets for exploration because of their favorable facies associations. A better understanding of deep-sea fans is needed to successfully exploit these complex sediment bodies. Recent studies of the Amazon fan, using long-range side-scan sonar (GLORIA) and single-channel seismic data, provide an overall view of channel patterns of this fan and demonstrate the relationship between successive channel/levee systems. The digitally collected GLORIA data have been computer processed to produce a mosaic of the fan. Computer processing has corrected the records for slant range and ship navigation, and targets have been enhanced. Many features of the modern fan system are readily apparent on the sonar mosaic. The 1.5 to 0.5-km (5000 to 1600-ft) wide channels meander intensely across the fan with sinuosities up to 2.5. Because of these meanders, the channel gradients decrease regularly across the fan despite changes in regional slope. Other channel-related targets include cutoff meanders, overbank deposits (especially small debris flows), and channel branchings. Other debris flows cover large areas of the fan and override channel/levee systems. Air-gun records show that this fan is built of a series of channel/levee systems that overlay one another. Channels from at least 6 of these systems are visible at the surface now, but apparently only one channel at a time has been active. The length of time needed to build a single channel/levee system is not known, but it appears to be rapid.
Rowland, Joel C; Dietrich, William E; Day, Geoff; Parker, Gary
Tie channels connect rivers to floodplain lakes on many lowland rivers and thereby play a central role in floodplain sedimentology and ecology, yet they are generally unrecognized and little studied. here we report the results of field studies focused on tie channel origin and morphodynamics in three contrasting systems: the Middle Fly River, Papua New Guinea, the Lower Mississippi River, and Birch Creek in Alaska. Across these river systems, tie channels vary by an order of magnitude in size but exhibit the same characteristic morphology and appear to develop and evolve by a similar set of processes. In all three systems, the channels are characterized by a narrow, leveed single-thread morphology with maximum width approximately one tenth the width of the mainstem river. The channels typically have a V shaped cross-section, unlike most fluvial channels. These channels develop as lakes become isolated from the river by sedimentation. Narrowing of the connection between river and lake causes a sediment-laden jet to develop. Levees develop along the margins of the jet leading to channel emergence and eventual levee aggradation to the height of the mainstem levees. Bi-directional flow in these channels is common. Outflows from the lake scour sediment and prevent channel blockage. We propose that channel geometry and size are then controlled by a dynamic balance between channel narrowing by suspended sediment deposition and incision and widening by mass failure of banks during outflows. Tie channels are laterally stable and may convey flow for hundreds to a few thousand of years.
Viroulet, Sylvain; Edwards, Andrew; Kokelaar, Peter; Gray, Nico
Particle size-segregation in geophysical mass flows can have a profound feedback on their local mobility, leading to the formation of resistive bouldery flow fronts, which spontaneously degenerate into leveed channels [1,2] that constrain the flow and enhance run-out. By including particle segregation , a composition dependent frictional coupling can be incorporated into depth-averaged geophysical mass flow models to capture both levee formation and flow fingering . However, the channel wavelengths are crucially dependent on the underlying rheology of the flow, which is a second order effect that is still not fully understood. In this paper we analyze a simpler, but closely related, mono-disperse flow in which the granular rheology plays a crucial part in the formation, growth and coarsening of roll waves. Two regimes have been found experimentally:- (i) a classical continuous roll wave regime, and (ii) a novel discrete roll wave regime where the troughs between the wave peaks become completely stationary. This latter behaviour has been observed in debris flows in Fully, Switzerland, and the Jiangjia Gully, China. Grain-size segregation and levee formation in geophysical mass flows, Johnson, C.G., Kokelaar, B.P., Iverson, R.M., Logan, M., LaHusen, R.G. & Gray, J.M.N.T. (2012) J. Geophys. Res. 117, F01032. Fine-grained linings of leveed channels facilitate runout of granular flows, Kokelaar, B.P., Graham, R.L., Gray, J.M.N.T. & Vallance, J.W. (2014) Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 385, 172-180. Large particle segregation, transport and accumulation in granular free-surface flows. Gray, J.M.N.T. & Kokelaar, B.P. (2010) J. Fluid Mech. 652, 105-137. Segregation-induced fingering instabilities in granular free surface flows, Woodhouse, M.J., Thornton, A.R., Johnson, C.G., Kokelaar, B.P. & Gray, J.M.N.T. (2012) J. Fluid Mech. 709, 543-580.
Haines, S. S.; Hart, P. E.; Collett, T. S.; Shedd, W. W.; Frye, M.
High-resolution 2D seismic data acquired by the USGS in 2013 enable detailed characterization of the gas and gas hydrate system at lease block Green Canyon 955 (GC955) in the Gulf of Mexico, USA. Earlier studies, based on conventional industry 3D seismic data and logging-while-drilling (LWD) borehole data acquired in 2009, identified general aspects of the regional and local depositional setting along with two gas hydrate-bearing sand reservoirs and one layer containing fracture-filling gas hydrate within fine-grained sediments. These studies also highlighted a number of critical remaining questions. The 2013 high-resolution 2D data fill a significant gap in our previous understanding of the site by enabling interpretation of the complex system of faults and gas chimneys that provide conduits for gas flow and thus control the gas hydrate distribution observed in the LWD data. In addition, we have improved our understanding of the main channel/levee sand reservoir body, mapping in fine detail the levee sequences and the fault system that segments them into individual reservoirs. The 2013 data provide a rarely available high-resolution view of a levee reservoir package, with sequential levee deposits clearly imaged. Further, we can calculate the total gas hydrate resource present in the main reservoir body, refining earlier estimates. Based on the 2013 seismic data and assumptions derived from the LWD data, we estimate an in-place volume of 840 million cubic meters or 29 billion cubic feet of gas in the form of gas hydrate. Together, these interpretations provide a significantly improved understanding of the gas hydrate reservoirs and the gas migration system at GC955.
Leonard, Christina M.
This study examined approximately 66 km of the Snake River, WY, USA, spanning a natural reach within Grand Teton National Park and a reach immediately downstream that is confined by artificial levees. We linked the channel adjustments observed within these two reaches between 2007 and 2012 to sediment transport processes by developing a morphological sediment budget. A pair of digital elevation models (DEMs) was generated by fusing LiDAR topography with depth estimates derived from optical image data within wetted channels. Errors for both components of the DEMs (LiDAR and optical bathymetry) were propagated through the DEM of difference and sediment budget calculations. Our results indicated that even with the best available methods for acquiring high resolution topographic data over large areas, the uncertainty associated with bed elevation estimates implied that net volumetric changes were not statistically significant. In addition to the terrain analysis, we performed a tracer study to assess the mobility of different grain size classes in different morphological units. Grain sizes, hydraulic conditions, and flow resistance characteristics along cross-sections were used to calculate critical discharges for entrainment, but this bulk characterization of fluid driving forces failed to predict bed mobility. Our results indicated that over seasonal timescales specific grain classes were not preferentially entrained. Surface and subsurface grain size data were used to calculate armoring and dimensionless sediment transport ratios for both reaches; sediment supply exceeded transport capacity in the natural reach and vice versa in the confined reach. We used a conceptual model to describe channel adjustments to lateral constriction by levees. Initially we suggest levees focused flow energy and incised the bed, resulting in bed armoring. Bed armoring promoted channel widening, but levees prevented this and instead the channel migrated more rapidly within the
Ivanov, M.K.; Konyukhov, A.I.
The Danube fan has a classical structure. It is clearly expressed in the bottom relief and traced by reflection profiles for more than 200 km. The fan body is levee valley, which splits in a mid-fan area into numerous meandering distributaries. The fan consists of gravity and hemipelagic deposits. These are mainly turbidites of various compositions. Channels are filled with grain-flow deposits (sand), debris-flow deposits (sandy clay with shells), and slides from valley walls (mud, sapropelic mud). Levees in upper and mid-fan areas are formed by specific turbidite sequences: mudstone crumbs in the base, thinly laminated silt and clays in the middle, blue mud on the top. Hemipelagic sediments increase noticeably on outer slopes of the levees. In the Pleistocene sequences these are mud; in the Holocene, sapropelic mud and coccolith-diatom ooze. Distal turbidites are widespread in the lower fan areas. In the base of each cycle is a thin sand-silt layer with unclear graded bedding; the upper part is represented by mud. Reflection profiles demonstrate an ancient fan system with buried channels and levees. Configurations of these bodies are very similar to those of the modern fans. The sedimentary lens on the sea floor opposite the mouths of submarine canyons of the Rioni, Inguri, Kodori, Supsa, and Chorokh Rivers was formed by overlapped modern and ancient fans. The Inguri and Rioni produced a practically single submarine fan, the largest in this area. It is rather well expressed morphologically and traced by reflection profiles for more than 100 km. In its lower part it overlays a number of small fans. The Rioni-Inguri fan is smaller than the Danube, but the whole system of overlapped fans occupies an area of about 17,000 km/sup 2/, being more than 3 km thick. The composition and structure of sediments in this deep-sea system change sharply, depending on the geomorphological position.
Robertson, T.; Whittington, A. G.; Soldati, A.; Sehlke, A.; Beem, J. R.; Gomez, F. G.
Lava flow morphology is often utilized as an indicator of rheological behavior during flow emplacement. Rheological behavior can be characterized by the viscosity and yield strength of lava, which in turn are dependent on physical and chemical properties including crystallinity, vesicularity, and bulk composition. We are studying the rheology of a basaltic lava flow from a monogenetic Holocene cinder cone in the Cima lava field (Mojave Desert, California). The flow is roughly 2.5 km long and up to 700m wide, with a well-developed central channel along much of its length. Samples were collected along seven different traverses across the flow, along with real-time kinematic (RTK) GPS profiles to allow levee heights and slopes to be measured. Surface textures change from pahoehoe ropes near the vent to predominantly jagged `a`a blocks over the majority of the flow, including all levees and the toe. Chemically the lava shows little variation, plotting on the trachybasalt-basanite boundary on the total alkali-silica diagram. Mineralogically the lava is dominated by plagioclase, clinopyroxene and olivine phenocrysts, with abundant flow-aligned plagioclase microcrystals. The total crystal fraction is ~50% near the vent, with higher percentages in the distal portion of the flow. Vesicularity varies between ~10 and more than ~60%. Levees are ~10-15m high with slopes typically ~25-35˚, suggesting a yield strength at final emplacement of ~150,000 Pa. The effective emplacement temperature and yield strength of lava samples will be determined using the parallel-plate technique. We will test the hypothesis that these physical and rheological properties of the lava during final emplacement correlate with spatial patterns in flow morphology, such as average slope and levee width, which have been determined using remote sensing observations (Beem et al. 2014).
Day, Richard H.; Holz, Robert K.; Day, John W.
We inventoried wetland impoundments in the Louisiana, USA, coastal zone from the late 1900s to 1985. Historically, impoundment of wetlands for reclamation resulted in direct wetland loss after levees (dikes) failed and the impounded area was permanently flooded, reverting not to wetland, but to open-water habitat. A current management approach is to surround wetlands by levees and water control structures, a practice termed semi-impoundment marsh management. The purpose of this semi-impoundment is to retard saltwater intrusion and reduce water level fluctuations in an attempt to reduce wetland loss, which is a serious problem in coastal Louisiana. In order to quantify the total impounded area, we used historic data and high-altitude infrared photography to map coastal impoundments. Our goal was to produce a documented inventory of wetlands intentionally impounded by levees in the coastal zone of Louisiana in order to provide a benchmark for further research. We inventoried 370,658 ha within the coastal zone that had been intentionally impounded before 1985. This area is equal to about 30% of the total wetland area in the coastal zone. Of that total area, approximately 12% (43,000 ha) is no longer impounded (i.e., failed impoundments; levees no longer exist or only remnants remain). Of the 328,000 ha still impounded, about 65% (214,000 ha) is developed (agriculture, aquaculture, urban and industrial development, and contained spoil). The remaining 35% (114,000 ha) of impoundments are in an undeveloped state (wetland or openwater habitat). In December 1985, approximately 50% (78,000 ha) of the undeveloped and failed impoundments were open-water habitat. This inventory will allow researchers to monitor future change in land-water ratios that occur within impounded wetlands and thus to assess the utility of coastal wetland management using impoundments.
Kuwabara, James S; Topping, Brent R; Carter, James L; Wood, Tamara M; Cameron, Jason M; Asbill-Case, Jessica R; Carlson, Rick A
Removing dams and levees to restore hydrologic connectivity and enhance ecosystem services such as nutrient removal has been an increasingly common management practice. In the present study, the authors assessed geochemical and biological changes following engineered levee breaches that reconnected eutrophic Upper Klamath Lake and Agency Lake, Oregon, USA, to an adjacent, historic wetland that had been under agricultural use for the last seven decades. Over the three-year study, the reconnected wetland served as a benthic source for both macronutrients (dissolved organic carbon [DOC], soluble reactive phosphorus [SRP], and ammonia) and micronutrients (dissolved iron and manganese). The magnitude of those benthic sources was similar to or greater than that of allochthonous sources. The highest DOC benthic flux to the water column occurred immediately after rewetting occurred. It then decreased during the present study to levels more similar to the adjacent lake. Dissolved ammonia fluxes, initially negative after the levee breaches, became consistently positive through the remainder of the study. Nitrate fluxes, also initially negative, became negligible two years after the levee breaches. In contrast to previous laboratory studies, SRP fluxes remained positive, as did fluxes of dissolved iron and manganese. Our results indicate that the timescales of chemical changes following hydrologic reconnection of wetlands are solute-specific and in some cases extend for multiple years beyond the reconnection event. During the present study, colonization of the reconnected wetlands by aquatic benthic invertebrates gradually generated assemblages similar to those in a nearby wetland refuge and provided further evidence of the multiyear transition of this area to permanent aquatic habitat. Such timescales should be considered when developing water-quality management strategies to achieve wetland-restoration goals. PMID:22707141
Dortch, Mark S; Zakikhani, Mansour; Kim, Sung-Chan; Steevens, Jeffery A
Levee failure and overtopping as a result of Hurricane Katrina caused major flooding of New Orleans, Louisiana. Floodwaters, which were contaminated with heavy metals, organic chemicals, and fecal coliform bacteria (FCB), were pumped into neighboring Lake Pontchartrain during dewatering. The impact of levee failure on water and benthic sediment concentrations in the lake was investigated by applying a numerical water quality model coupled to a three-dimensional, numerical hydrodynamic model. The model was used to compute water and benthic sediment concentrations throughout the lake for lead, arsenic, benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (DDE), and water concentrations for FCB. Computed concentrations resulting from actual pumped discharges with levee failure and overtopping were compared to computed concentrations resulting from pumped discharges without levee failure or overtopping, and concentrations from both sets of conditions were compared to ecological water and sediment quality screening guideline values. The model indicated that incremental increases above pre-Katrina benthic sediment concentrations are about a factor of 10 greater with dewatering of the floodwaters than with dewatering of storm water without flooding. However, these increases for the metals are small relative to pre-Katrina concentrations. The results showed that the ecological screening-level sediment quality guideline values were exceeded for BaP and DDE in areas near the south shoreline of the lake as a result of floodwater pump-out, whereas, this was not the case for storm water removal without flooding. The model showed that lake water column concentrations should be about the same during both dewatering conditions regardless of whether there is flooding or not. PMID:17399885
Di Baldassarre, G.; Viglione, A.; Carr, G.; Kuil, L., Jr.; Brandimarte, L.; Yan, K.; Bloeschl, G.
In disaster risk reduction, there is still a lack of methods capturing the dynamics of risk emerging from the complex interplay between physical and social processes. Two examples of these dynamics are the learning and levee effects. The learning effect is about the empirical evidence that more frequent hazardous events are often associated with decreasing societal vulnerability, e.g. human adaptation. The levee effect is about the stylized fact (discussed already by White in the 1940s) that less frequent hazardous events (sometimes paradoxically due to the implementation of risk prevention structures, such as levees) often lead to increasing societal vulnerability. We posit that current projections of future flood risk are not realistic because most analytical frameworks do not capture the aforementioned dynamics. Then, we propose an interdisciplinary approach whereby two-way interactions and feedbacks between social and physical processes are explicitly accounted for (Di Baldassarre et al., 2014; 2015). Here we show an application of this approach with a focus on flood risk changes, and demonstrate its capability to capture and explain the dynamics emerging from socio-techno-nature interactions. Lastly, the potentials and limitations of the proposed approach to assess risk dynamics in a rapidly changing environment are critically discussed.
Esawy, Mona A; Amer, Hassan; Gamal-Eldeen, Amira M; El Enshasy, Hesham A; Helmy, Wafaa A; Abo-Zeid, Mona A M; Malek, Roslinda; Ahmed, Eman F; Awad, Ghada E A
Honey isolate Bacillus subtilis M was cultivated in shake flasks and in 16-l bioreactor cultures to investigate cell growth, bio-metabolites production kinetics and bioprocess scalability. The respective maximal levan and levansucrase productions of 59.5 g/l and 74.1 U/ml were achieved in bioreactor cultures under pH controlled condition (pH=7.0) after only 24 h. Crude levan (levE) was isolated, characterized and fractionated into F1, F2, and F3 with different molecular weight (21.8, 13.118, 9.53 kDa). (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR spectroscopy proved that LevE and their fractions were mainly β-(2, 6)-linked levan-type polysaccharide. The cancer chemo-preventive activity indicated that the levE and its fraction 3 were promising inhibitors of cytochrome P-450 1A activity, inducers of glutathione-S-transferase activity in Murine hepatomaHepa1c1c7cells and possessed highest radical scavenging affinity to both ROO and OH. They inhibited the induced-DNA fragmentation. None of the tested samples triggered apoptosis or necrosis in splenocytes, except F2. PMID:23618309
Morton, R.A.; Nava, R.C.; Arhelger, M.
Shoaling in the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway of Laguna Madre, Tex., is caused primarily by recycling of dredged sediments. Sediment recycling, which is controlled by water depth and location with respect to the predominant wind-driven currents, is minimal where dredged material is placed on tidal flats that are either flooded infrequently or where the water is extremely shallow. In contrast, nearly all of the dredged material placed in open water >1.5 m deep is reworked and either transported back into the channel or dispersed into the surrounding lagoon. A sediment flux analysis incorporating geotechnical properties demonstrated that erosion and not postemplacement compaction caused most sediment losses from the placement areas. Comparing sediment properties in the placement areas and natural lagoon indicated that the remaining dredged material is mostly a residual of initial channel construction. Experimental containment designs (shallow subaqueous mound, submerged levee, and emergent levee) constructed in high-maintenance areas to reduce reworking did not retain large volumes of dredged material. The emergent levee provided the greatest retention potential approximately 2 years after construction.
Shu, Li; Finlayson, Brian
The Yellow River, known also as "China's Sorrow", has a long history of channel changes and disastrous floods in its lower reaches. Past channel positions can be identified from historical documentary records and geomorphological and sedimentological evidence. Since 1947, government policy has been aimed at containing the floods within artificial levees and preventing the river from changing its course. Flood control is based on flood-retarding dams and off-stream retention basins as well as artificial levees lining the channel. The design flood for the system has a recurrence interval of only around 60 years and floods of this and larger magnitudes can be generated downstream of the main flood control dams at Sanmenxia and Xiaolangdi. Rapid sedimentation along the river causes problems for storage and has raised the bed of the river some 10 m above the surrounding floodplain. The present management strategy is probably not viable in the long term and to avoid a major disaster a new management approach is required. The most viable option would appear to be to breach the levees at predetermined points coupled with advanced warning and evacuation of the population thus put at risk.
Hartman, Christopher; Ackerman, Josh; Herzog, Mark
Coastal waterbird populations are threatened by habitat loss and degradation from urban and agricultural development and forecasted sea level rise associated with climate change. Remaining wetlands often must be managed to ensure that waterbird habitat needs, and other ecosystem functions, are met. For many waterbirds, the availability of island nesting habitat is important for conserving breeding populations. We used linear mixed models to investigate the influence of pond and island landscape characteristics on nest abundance and nest success of American avocets (Recurvirostra americana), black-necked stilts (Himantopus mexicanus), and Forster's terns (Sterna forsteri) in San Francisco Bay, California, USA, based on a 9-year dataset that included >9,000 nests. Nest abundance and nest success were greatest within ponds and on individual islands located either <1 km or >4 km from San Francisco Bay. Further, nest abundance was greater within ponds with relatively few islands, and on linear-shaped, highly elongated islands compared to more rounded islands. Nest success was greater on islands located away from the nearest surrounding pond levee. Compared to more rounded islands, linear islands contained more near-water habitat preferred by many nesting waterbirds. Islands located away from pond levees may provide greater protection from terrestrial egg and chick predators. Our results indicate that creating and maintaining a few, relatively small, highly elongated and narrow islands away from mainland levees, in as many wetland ponds as possible would be effective at providing waterbirds with preferred nesting habitat.
Lund, J. R.; Medellin, J.
The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta is a big and surprisingly diverse place. It also can be seen from a surprisingly diverse range of perspectives, technically, socially, environmentally, and politically. Changing perspective a few feet, from the water, to the levee crest, to inside a polder, all tell different stories. Remote sensed data is proving to be vital in forming both localized and overall understandings of the Delta. Local sensing provides important local perspective and information, while the consistent collection of such data across the landscape puts each place into a bigger picture. This talk summarizes the use of remote sensing data for economic analysis of the Delta as well as for the hydrodynamic and levee analysis. For economic modeling, we are now able to model agricultural production on each island, useful for considering alternative levee policies. These localized agricultural models include effects of water quality on agricultural production and profitability, which should be useful for Delta flow and management policies as well. The development and application of remote sensing data is an important aspect of the scientific and technical program needed for long-term management of a changing Delta.
Castellarin, Attilio; Domeneghetti, Alessio; Brath, Armando
This paper focuses on the identification of large-scale flood risk mitigation strategies for the middle-lower reach of River Po, the longest Italian river and the largest in terms of streamflow. This study develops and tests the applicability of a quasi-2D hydraulic model to aid the identification of large-scale flood risk mitigation strategies relative to a 500-year flood event other than levee heightening, which is not technically viable nor economically conceivable for the case study. Different geometrical configurations of the embankment system are considered and modelled in the study: no overtopping; overtopping and levee breaching; overtopping without levee breaching. The quasi-2D model resulted in being a very useful tool for (1) addressing the problem of flood risk mitigation from a global - perspective (i.e., entire middle-lower reach of River Po), (2) identifying critical reaches, inundation areas and corresponding overflow volumes, and (3) generating reliable boundary conditions for smaller scale studies aimed at further analyzing the hypothesized flood mitigation strategies using more complex modelling tools (e.g., fully 2D approaches). These are crucial tasks for institutions and public bodies in charge of formulating robust flood risk management strategies for large European rivers, in the light of the recent Directive 2007/60/EC on the assessment and management of flood risks ( European Parliament, 2007).
Greenberg, J. A.; Hestir, E. L.; Ustin, S. L.
Levees along the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta are under increased scrutiny as to their stability, and there are concerns about trees destabilizing these levees. Removal of levee trees is a possible scenario undergoing current discussion. One unintended consequence of removing these trees may be a subsequent increase in water temperature, which can negatively impact the quality of aquatic habitat. Riparian vegetation provides shade from solar radiation to stream channels, and its removal can greatly increase the energy incident on the water surface. We modeled the relative change in water temperature on channels in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta under the current vegetated conditions and under a hypothesized treeless Delta. We used classified, 1m Lidar data of the Delta, acquired by the Airborne 1 Corporation during late January to February 2007, as the base dataset to examine both of these scenarios. The first return dataset provided the current structural conditions, and the bare earth layer provided the treeless scenario. We ran a solar irradiation model (r.sun) to calculate daily irradiation for summer months on a per- pixel (1m) basis. R.sun calculates daily irradiation using both slope/aspect information as well as occlusion by adjacent objects via a ray-tracing algorithm. Using a standard energy exchange formula, we were able to calculate the expected change in temperature per day between current and treeless conditions on a per- pixel, per-channel and Delta-wide basis.
Bouma, A.H.; Goddard, D. )
Excellent data sources may not answer all pertinent questions and multifold seismic data usually cannot resolve internal characteristics of channel fills, even when it can detect the channel. Well log correlations can be wrong, especially when dealing with thin channel fills and outcrops are seldom sufficiently large to reveal a complete channel fill. In the final analysis, integration of all these types of data is necessary. Although not well understood, a lot of similarities exist between the channel fills from submarine fans and those from deltas. It is definitely beneficial to compare data from both environments. Channels and their fills can be: (1) primarily the result of major erosion forming an incisement that becomes gradually filled; (2) primarily the result of deposition, maintaining a channel, gradually filling it and simultaneously building its levees; (3) massive fill; (4) a bedded fill with or without an upward and/or lateral thinning or fining; or (5) a combination of thick bedded and thin bedded. Many channels alternate between erosional and depositional activities. Often an erosional cut is lined with shale, reducing fluid flow between channel sandstones and those of the levees. Also, a thorough knowledge of all of these varied processes is essential for the understanding of why [open quotes]massive[close quotes] channel fills can be wet and [open quotes]thin-bedded levees[close quotes] deposits oil prone.
An, K.; Jones, C. E.; Blom, R. G.; Kent, J. D.; Ivins, E. R.
More than half of Louisiana's drinking water is dependent on groundwater, and extraction of these resources along with high oil and gas production has contributed to localized subsidence in many parts of New Orleans. This increases the vulnerability of levee failure during intense storms such as Hurricane Katrina in 2005, before which rapid subsidence had already been identified and contributed to the failing levees and catastrophic flooding. An interferogram containing airborne radar data from NASA's UAVSAR was combined with local geographic information systems (GIS) data for 2009-12 to help identify the sources of subsidence and mask out unrelated features such as surface water. We have observed the highest vertical velocity rates at the NASA Michoud Assembly Facility (high water use) and Norco (high oil/gas production). Many other notable features such as the: Bonnet-Carre Spillway, MRGO canal, levee lines along the Lower 9th Ward and power plants, are also showing concerning rates of subsidence. Even new housing loads, soil type differences, and buried beach sands seem to have modest correlations with patterns seen in UAVSAR. Current hurricane protection and coastal restoration efforts still have not incorporated late 20th century water level and geodetic data into their projections. Using SAR interferometry and local GIS datasets, areas of subsidence can be identified in a more efficient and economical manner, especially for emergency response.
Habibi, Meisam Kouhi; Joshi, Shailendra P; Gupta, Manoj
In this work, hierarchical magnesium based composites with a micro-architecture comprising reinforcing constituent that is a composite in itself were fabricated using powder metallurgy route including microwave assisted rapid sintering technique and hot extrusion. Different level-I composite particles comprises sub-micron pure aluminum (Al) matrix containing Al2O3 particles of different length scale (from micrometer to nanometer size). Microstructural characterization of the hierarchical composites revealed reasonably uniform distribution of level-I composite particles and significant grain refinement compared to monolithic Mg. Hierarchical composite configurations exhibited different mechanical performance as a function of Al2O3 length scale. Among the different hierarchical formulations synthesized, the hierarchical configuration with level-I composition comprising Al and nano-Al2O3 (0.05 microm) exhibited the highest improvement in tensile yield strength (0.2% YS), ultimate tensile strength (UTS), tensile failure strain (FS), compressive yield strength (0.2% CYS) and ultimate compressive strength (UCS) (+96%, +80%, +42%, +80%, and +83%) as compared to monolithic Mg. An attempt has been made in the present study to correlate the effect of different length scales of Al2O3 particulates on the microstructural and mechanical response of magnesium. PMID:24427874
Siclari, A.; Hui, R.; Lund, J. R.
Large river flows can damage adjacent flood-prone areas, by exceeding river channel and levee capacities. Particularly large floods are difficult to contain in leveed river banks alone. Flood bypasses often can efficiently reduce flood risks, where excess river flow is diverted over a weir to bypasses, that incur much less damage and cost. Additional benefits of bypasses include ecosystem protection, agriculture, groundwater recharge and recreation. Constructing or expanding an existing bypass costs in land purchase easements, and levee setbacks. Accounting for such benefits and costs, this study develops a simple mathematical model for optimizing flood bypass capacity using benefit-cost and risk analysis. Application to the Yolo Bypass, an existing bypass along the Sacramento River in California, estimates optimal capacity that economically reduces flood damage and increases various benefits, especially for agriculture. Land availability is likely to limit bypass expansion. Compensation for landowners could relax such limitations. Other economic values could affect the optimal results, which are shown by sensitivity analysis on major parameters. By including land geography into the model, location of promising capacity expansions can be identified.
Honda, Kenichi; Fujihira, Kei; Asada, Norichika; Fukushima, Ayumi; Mushiake, Naruo
In this study, focusing on the flood damages in Joso City in Ibaraki Prefecture, we estimated the extent of inundation using multiple SAR satellites and examined their varied results depending on observational bands. We further examined the potential utilization of combined different SAR data for initial responses to disasters. For classification of the inundated areas, a binary classification was used with a threshold of backscatter coefficient and the difference in backscatter coefficient between the usual condition and the situation after the breach. In the extraction of inundation after the breach of the levee, COSMO-SkyMed showed the accuracy of 72.6%, while ALOS-2 PALSAR-2 indicated the accuracy of 66.1%. The extent of inundation were extracted by difference of backscatter coefficient using the data taken by Sentinel-1 and ALOS-2 PALSAR-2 before the breach of the levee, and the comparison analysis results showed that the extent of inundation expanded after the breach of the levee. From the above results, we graded the characteristics of the satellites by their observational bands and spatial resolution.
Pierik, Harm Jan; Cohen, Kim; Stouthamer, Esther
Geological-geomorphological reconstructions are important for integrating diverse types of data and improving understanding of landscape formation processes. This works especially well in densely populated Holocene landscapes, where large quantities of raw data are produced by geotechnical, archaeological, soil science and hydrological communities as well as in academic research. The Rhine-Meuse delta, The Netherlands, has a long tradition of integrated digital reconstruction maps and databases. This contributed to improve understanding of delta evolution, especially regarding the channel belt network evolution. In this contribution, we present a new generation of digital map products for the Holocene Rhine-Meuse delta. Our reconstructions expand existing channel belt network maps, with new map layers containing natural levee extent and relative elevation. The maps we present have been based on hundreds of thousands of lithological borehole descriptions, >1000 radiocarbon dates, and further integrate LIDAR data, soil maps and archaeological information. For selected time slices through the Late Holocene, the map products describe the patterns of levee distribution. Additionally, we mapped the palaeo-topography of the levees through the delta, aiming to resolve what parts of the overbank river landscape were the relatively low and high positioned areas in the past landscape. The resulting palaeogeographical maps are integrative products created for a very data-rich research area. They will allow for delta-wide analysis in studying changes in the Late Holocene landscape and the interaction with past habitation.
Arantegui, A.; Corella, J. P.; Loizeau, J. L.; Anselmetti, F. S.; Girardclos, S.
Deltas are very sensitive environments and highly vulnerable to variations in water discharge and the amount of suspended sediment load provided by the delta-forming currents. Human activities in the watershed, such as building of dams and irrigation ditches, or river bed deviations, may affect the discharge regime and sediment input, thus affecting delta growth. Underwater currents create deeply incised canyons cutting into the delta lobes. Understanding the sedimentary processes in these subaquatic canyons is crucial to reconstruct the fluvial evolution and human impact on deltaic environments and to carry out a geological risk assessment related to mass movements, which may affect underwater structures and civil infractructure. Recently acquired high-resolution multibeam bathymetry on the Rhone Delta in Lake Geneva (Sastre et al. 2010) revealed the complexity of the underwater morphology formed by active and inactive canyons first described by Forel (1892). In order to unravel the sedimentary processes and sedimentary evolution in these canyons, 27 sediment cores were retrieved in the distal part of each canyon and in the canyon floor/levee complex of the active canyon. Geophysical, sedimentological, geochemical and radiometric dating techniques were applied to analyse these cores. Preliminary data show that only the canyon originating at the current river mouth is active nowadays, while the others remain inactive since engineering works in the watershed occurred, confirming Sastre et al. (2010). However, alternating hemipelagic and turbiditic deposits on the easternmost canyons, evidence underflow processes during the last decades as well. Two canyons, which are located close to the Rhone river mouth, correspond to particularly interesting deeply incised crevasse channels formed when the underwater current broke through the outer bend of a meander in the proximal northern levee. In these canyons, turbidites occur in the sediment record indicating ongoing
Koelewijn, A. R.; Vastenburg, E. W.
About two-third of the Netherlands is protected against flooding by dikes and levees. The subsoil can be characterized by fluvial and marine sediments. Maintaining the safety of these dikes and levees is of vital importance. Insufficient safety is not permissible, but excessive safety would imply a waste of money and other resources. Therefore safety assessments are carried out on a regular basis. Over the past decades, a practice has grown to calculate a limited number of cross-sections, roughly one every 500 to 1000 meters. For this purpose, a representative cross-section is selected as an estimate of the most vulnerable surface geometry and the subsoil conditions determined from boreholes and cone penetration tests, for which slope stability and piping analyses are carried out. This is a time-consuming procedure which is not only expensive, but also neglects geological knowledge. A method to incorporate geological knowledge of an area, including updating on the basis of additional investigations, has been described in Koelewijn et al. . In addition, various groups have worked to incorporate geotechnical stability models and detailed Lidar-measurements of the surface into a more efficient and rational calculation process [Knoeff et al. 2011, Lam et al. 2013, van den Ham & Mastbergen, 2013]. Combining this experience with the 3D subsoil model opens possibilities for cost-effective additional soil investigations for those locations where ruling out unfavorable conditions really influences the decisions to be made regarding rejection and improvement, see the figure for examples of different subsoil profiles along a dike. The resulting system has been applied for semi-automated calculations of dikes in various parts of the Netherlands, totalling over 4000 km by now, and a part of the Mississippi levee system. [van den Ham & Mastbergen, 2013] G.A. van den Ham & D.R. Mastbergen, A semi-probabilistic assessment method for flow slides. AGU Fall meeting, 2013
Chen, Y.; Overeem, I.; Kettner, A. J.; Gao, S.; Syvitski, J. P.
During the much of the 20th Century, the Yellow River, China, carried between 1.1 and 1.6 Gt y-1 of sediment derived from the over-used Loess Plateau. A portion of this sediment load accumulates inside the artificial levees, reducing the accommodation space and subsequently building up the modern channel-belt >10m above the surrounding floodplains. Historical levees often failed along the older Yellow River courses resulting in >1000 floods in 3000 yrs. In the last millennium, the river has shifted its lower course every ~25 years, breached its levees once a year; in mid 17th century up to 3 breaches occurred per year. A novel methodology is employed to quantitatively reconstruct and interpret flood dynamics on the Yellow River. A reduced-complexity model is developed to explore how climate change and human activity affect levee breaches and river avulsions. The model integrates yearly morphological change along a channel belt with daily river fluxes, and hourly evolution of levee breaches. The model calculates breach characteristics at the scale of 100yr and 200km. To cope with the sparseness in historical records and to incorporate the complex and uncertain nature of flood behavior, 17,118 experiments are conducted to explore dominant factors controlling flood frequency and their likely values in historical times. Model sensitivity analyses reveal that under natural conditions, super-elevation of the channel belt dominates flood frequency. However, when there is significant human-accelerated basin erosion and breach repair, the dominant factors shift to a combination of mean annual precipitation, super-elevation, critical shear stress of weak channel banks, and the interval between breach initiation and its repair. With human perturbation, breaching became more sensitive to precipitation and channel bank strength. Applying uncertainty analyses, the most likely values of the dominant factors for six historical periods between 850BC and 1839AD are explored and used
Lindner, G. A.
Lower Missouri River floodplains have the potential to provide multiple ecosystem services including agricultural production, floodwater storage, nutrient processing, and provision of habitats. In this research, a 2-dimensional hydrodynamic model of a representative looped floodplain bottom of approximately 20 km is utilized to explore how floodplain inundation contributes to ecosystem benefits and costs. High resolution 2-dimensional hydrodynamic modeling provides insights into the way velocities, flood stages, residence times, and transported constituents (sediment, nutrients, and fish larvae, for example) are affected by levee geometry, floodplain vegetation patterns, and flood magnitude and duration. The utility of 2-dimensional numerical hydraulic models to represent the channel and floodplain are demonstrated at a scale relevant to understanding processes that control channel/floodplain dynamics. The sensitivity of model response to alternative land use scenarios, including levee setbacks and variable overbank roughness, is quantified using hydraulic parameters such as velocity, water level, conveyance, and residence time. The 2-dimensional models are calibrated to existing 1-dimensional modeling solutions and field measurements of water surface from 1993 and 2007 for the 2-year, 5-year, and 10-year recurrence intervals. Calibration runs with current levee configurations are matched to approximately ±0.1 meters. Simulations of alternative land use scenarios demonstrate the tradeoffs between ecological restoration and flood risk reductions. Levee setbacks with low hydraulic roughness associated with traditional row crop agriculture on the floodplains have the greatest potential for flood stage reductions, while native plant communities with higher roughness can negate the effects of the setbacks by increasing water levels due to enhanced frictional resistance. Residence times, which are presumed to be related to ecosystem services, demonstrate increasingly
Pizzuto, J.E.; Moody, J.A.; Meade, R.H.
Centimeter-scale measurements on several Powder River floodplains provide insights into the nature of overbank depositional processes that created the floodplains; during a 20-year period after a major flood in 1978. Rising stages initially entered across a sill at the downriver end of the floodplains. Later, as stages continued to rise, water entered the floodplains through distinct low saddles along natural levees. The annual maximum depth of water over the levee crest averaged 0.19 in from 1983 through 1996, and the estimated flow velocities were approximately 0.15 m s-1. Water ponded in the floodplain trough, a topographic low between the natural levee and the pre-flood riverbank, and mud settled as thin layers of nearly constant thickness. Mud layers alternated with sand layers, which were relatively thick near the channel. Together, these beds created a distinctive natural levee. In some locations, individual flood deposits began as a thin mud layer that gradually coarsened upwards to medium-grained sand. Coarsening-upwards sequences form initially as mud because only the uppermost layers of water in the channel supply the first overbank flows, which are rich in mud but starved of sand. At successively higher stages, fine sands and then medium sands increase in concentration in the floodwater and are deposited as fine- and medium-sand layers overlying the initial mud layer. Theoretical predictions from mathematical models of sediment transport by advection and diffusion indicate that these processes acting alone are unlikely to create the observed sand layers of nearly uniform thickness that extend across much of the floodplain. We infer that other transport processes, notably bedload transport, must be important along Powder River. Even with the centimeter-scale measurements of floodplain deposits, daily hydraulic data, and precise annual surface topographic surveys, we were unable to determine any clear correspondence between the gauged flow record of
Niebur, Curt Stanley
The Great Flood of 1993 damaged the floodplain of the Lower Missouri River when over 500 levees failed. These levee failures created large scours and deposited massive amounts of sediment on the agricultural floodplain. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service acquired areas heavily damaged by the 1993 floods and incorporated them into the Big Muddy Fish and Wildlife Refuge. One purpose of this refuge system is to restore the Missouri River system within the refuge from its highly engineered state to a more natural form. Analysis of a combination of remote sensing data, fieldwork, and finite element flow models was used to investigate the biogeomorphic evolution of one of these new wetlands refuges, the Lisbon Bottoms/Jameson Island Refuge. Four landcover mapping techniques were used to track changes with time: (1) geomorphic mapping, (2) maximum likelihood classification of Landsat TM data, (3) a linear spectral unmixing model using Landsat TM data, and (4) polarimetric and minimum distance classification of AIRSAR radar scattering data. Research showed that a biogeomorphic feedback loop in which the flow field, geomorphology, sediment, and vegetation interactions controlled the rapid evolution of the refuge after 1993. The 1993 flood first entered the area through levee breaks, forming scour zones, sweeping away most non-woody vegetation, and leaving behind a largely uniform, sand-covered floodplain. Field and remote sensing data showed that xeric sparse vegetation species encroached on high, dry sands, whereas mesic species populated lower, wetter scours. Smaller floods after 1993 entered the levee breaks, extended the scours into chutes, and draped silt and clay over the sand, allowing vegetation to spread rapidly. Remnant levees protected most of the area from fast flows, allowing cottonwood and willow saplings to spread across the study area and dominate the landscape, except in floodplain chutes. Expansion of saplings and the absence of flooding in 1999
Harvey, Judson W.; Newlin, Jessica T.; Krest, James M.; Choi, Jungyill; Nemeth, Eric A.; Krupa, Steven L.
Everglades restoration. A century of water management for flood control and water storage in the Everglades resulted in the creation of the Water Conservation Areas (WCAs). Construction of the major canals began in the 1910s and the systems of levees that enclose the basins and structures that move water between basins were largely completed by the 1950s. The abandoned wetlands that remained outside of the Water Conservation areas tended to dry out and subside by 10 feet or more, which created abrupt transitions in land-surface elevations and water levels across the levees. The increases in topographic and hydraulic gradients near the margins of the WCAs, along with rapid pumping of water between basins to achieve management objectives, have together altered the patterns of recharge and discharge in the Everglades. The most evident change is the increase in the magnitude of recharge (on the upgradient side) and discharge (on the downgradient side) of levees separating WCA-2A from other basins or areas outside. Recharge and discharge in the vast interior of WCA-2A also likely have increased, but fluxes in the interior wetlands are more subtle and more difficult to quantify compared with areas close to the levees. Surface-water and ground-water interactions differ in fundamental ways between wetlands near WCA-2A's boundaries and wetlands in the basin's interior. The levees that form the WCA's boundaries have introduced step functions in the topographic and hydraulic gradients that are important as a force to drive water flow across the wetland ground surface. The resulting recharge and discharge fluxes tend to be unidirectional (connecting points of recharge on the upgradient side of the levee with points of discharge on the downgradient side), and fluxes are also relatively steady in magnitude compared with fluxes in the interior. Recharge flow paths are also relatively deep in their extent near levees, with fluxes passing entirely through the 1-m peat layer and inte
Paduan, J. B.; Clague, D. A.; Davis, A. S.; Chadwick, W.; Cousens, B. L.; Embley, R. W.
We explored an unusually large, deep, drained lava lake complex on the south rift of Axial Seamount on the Juan de Fuca Ridge during three dives with the ROV Tiburon in August 2005. The complex of five large ponds, first identified from EM300 multibeam bathymetry, is 5 km long and more than 1 km wide. The ponds are separated from one another by narrow levees that rise about 90 meters above the pond floors. The levees are all about the same depth, which suggests that the ponds formed at the same time. The volume of the lake, prior to draining, was 0.2-0.4 km3, making it the largest lava lake known along the ridge system. The outer slopes of the pond levees are constructed of elongate pillows that flowed down the steep slopes. The rims are narrow, level plateaus of lobate flows with many collapses. The inner walls are vertical cliffs, overhanging in places, with horizontal shelves from the top of the levees down to the floors of the ponds. Left like bathtub rings, these shelves mark former surfaces of the lava pond as it drained away while the lava was still molten. In many places, this veneer has collapsed to reveal truncated lobate flows and pillows. The floor of one small pond was entirely talus blocks. However, the floors of the other, larger ponds had little talus and, instead, were vast expanses of thin broken crusts, lobate flows, and very fluid, chaotic, folded and jumbled sheet flows. The lavas from each pond have abundant large feldspar and rarer olivine crystals, suggesting that all were from the same eruption. This eruption apparently began with sheet flows whose advance was limited by topography. It then ponded and built up the levees that were left when the lava drained away. On the floor of one pond we found a deposit several meters tall that was delicate and difficult to sample, and turned out to be agglutinated spatter. Limu o Pele (lava bubble wall fragments) was abundant in all the sediment samples in and around the ponds. The spatter and limu
Strumness, L. A.; Hooper, R. L.; Mahoney, J. B.
Remediating fluvial systems impacted by sulfide mining requires characterization of contaminant mobility and the pathways of trace metal transport. Variations in sediment mobility, mineral stability, organic content, redox conditions, microbial activity and other factors between fluvial subenvironments leads to complex metal sequestration patterns. Precise characterization of contaminants requires a detailed assessment of the physical characteristics of mineral species together with an understanding of the chemical stability of these species under various conditions. An integrated analytical methodology including calibrated sequential extraction and electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) provides unprecedented insight into metal speciation and behavior in different fluvial subenvironments. Three transects, including river channel, levee, wetland and lacustrine environments, along the 30km length of the lower Coeur d'Alene (CdA) River valley demonstrate both the lateral consistency within various fluvial subenvironments and the dramatic variations between subenvironments. The lower CdA River valley is a low gradient (<5m/km) meandering stream with a well-developed river channel contained by 1-3m levees. The combination of low gradient and an artificially controlled base level results in a quiescent, stratified water mass and anaerobic river channel sediments. The river channel sediments contain abundant detrital and authigenic sulfide minerals (PbS, FeS2, ZnS) and carbonates (PbCO3, FeCO3) and locally, sulfide encrusted organic matter. The river is the main conduit of contaminated sediment derived from the mining district upstream, but more importantly, remobilized anoxic river bottom sediments are responsible for ongoing trace metal contamination throughout the fluvial system. Sulfide rich channel sediments are remobilized during flood events, and redistributed into adjacent levee, wetland, and lacustrine environments. Detrital and authigenic sulfides are rapidly
Enigmatic small scale (<1m) depositional and erosional features have been imaged at several locations in the equatorial Meridiani Planum region by the rover Opportunity. They occur in loose, dark basaltic sands partly covering exposures of light-toned bedrock. Leveed fissures are narrow, elongate, steep-sided depressions flanked by raised levees or half-cones of soil, typically 2-10 cm wide and up to 50 cm long in most cases. Some cross-cut and are therefore younger than eolian ripples thought to have last been active c. 50,000 years ago. Gutters are elongate, straight or sinuous surface depressions, typically 2-10cm wide and 1-5 cm deep, sometimes internally terraced or with a hollow near one end, and in one case seem to give way to small depositional fans downslope; they have the appearance of having been formed by liquid flow rather than by wind erosion. Leveed fissures were imaged at more than 25 locations by Opportunity between 2004 and 2013, particularly near the rims of Endurance, Erebus and Endeavour craters, but also on the plains between Santa Maria and Endeavour craters; sharply-defined gutters are less common but examples were imaged close to the rim of Endurance and on the approach to Endeavour, whereas subdued, possibly wind-softened examples are more widespread. Scrutiny of images obtained by the rover Spirit in Gusev Crater between 2004 and 2010 has so far failed to find any leveed fissures or gutters, but examples of both types of features, as well as numerous small holes suggestive of surface sediment falling into underlying voids, were imaged by the rover Curiosity in the Yellowknife Bay region of Gale Crater during 2013. Leveed fissures appear to have been formed by venting from beneath. Ground disturbance by the rover can be ruled out in many cases by the appearance of features in images taken before close approach. Blowholes seem plausible close to crater rims (where wind might enter a connected void system through a crater wall) but less so
Fletcher, J. B.; Boatwright, J.
The Sacramento/San Joaquin River Delta lies on the western edge of the Great Valley and contains a system of levees that are thought to be prone to catastrophic failure from a major earthquake in the San Francisco Bay area or on faults along the western border of the Great Valley. To assess this risk we deployed digital recorders and broadband sensors in late 2006 and 2007 at 3 levee sites in the Delta (each site had a top and base sensor) and at one reference site to the west. Cone penetrometer data show that at the base, the soils have low S-wave velocities of 170 to 240 m/s. Upper soil layers are typically peats and aeolian sands. During the nine months of deployment, we recorded 3 local events (45km
Bergmann, Fenna; Schwenk, Tilmann; Spiess, Volkard; France-Lanord, Christian
The Bengal Fan, hosted in the northern Indian Ocean, is the largest submarine fan on Earth. Fan evolution started in the Early Eocene as a direct response to the collision of India with the Asian continent in Middle Paleocene times. Subsequently the Himalayan plateau uplift was initiated. Thereby generated interactions with the regional climate caused the evolution of the Indian monsoonal system. Drained by the rivers Ganges and Brahmaputra, ~ 80% of eroded Himalayan sediments are deposited in the Bengal Fan. Hence, the Fan provides the most complete record of the Himalayan history and is well suited to investigate the direct link between the tectonic uplift and the climate evolution of the region. Sediments are transported onto the deep sea fan by turbidity currents building up chan-nel-levee systems. These channel-levee systems are the main architectural elements of the Bengal Fan and are suspected to have their onset in Late Miocene times. Frequent channel avulsion on the upper fan led to the abandonment of old channels and formation of new channel-levee systems or even channel-reoccupation. This complex erosional/depositional system involves lateral depocenter migration, probably on millennial timescales. Conse-quently, investigations of the Himalaya as sediment source begins with a comprehensive understanding of transport, deposition and modification within the Bengal Fan sediment sink. In February/March 2015 the IODP Expedition 354 drilled at 7 sites along a ~320 km long E-W transect at 8° N. Aiming at the recovery of pre-fan deposits and deposits of the Pliocene and Upper Miocene Fan evolution, three deep sites (900 - 1200 mbsf) were realized. These where complemented by four shallow sites (200-300 mbsf) for a detailed study of the depos-its of the last 1-2 million years, including the latest known channel activities (Holocene times). Several channel-levee systems and inter-channel deposits were drilled, active at different times of Fan evolution. To
Simões-Pires, P R; Jahnke, S M; Redaelli, L R
Among the natural enemies of insect pests in rice fields, parasitoids are especially notable. To better understand the space-time dynamics of these insects, the objectives of this study were to describe and compare groups of parasitoids in organic irrigated rice fields using two management approaches for levee vegetation, and to relate them to the phenological stages of rice cultivation (the seedling, vegetative, and reproductive stages). The samples were taken in a plantation located in Viamão, RS, Brazil. The total area of 18 ha was divided into two parts: a no-cut (NC) subarea in which the wild vegetation of the levees was maintained, and a cut (C) subarea in which the levee vegetation was cut monthly. In each subarea, four Malaise traps considered as pseudo-replicas were installed and remained in the field for 24 hours at each sampling location. Collections occurred twice a month from the beginning of cultivation (October 2012) until harvest (March 2013). A total of 3,184 Hymenoptera parasitoids were collected: 2,038 individuals in the NC subarea and 1,146 in the C subarea. We identified 458 morphospecies distributed in 24 families. Mymaridae was the most abundant and Eulophidae was the richest in both subareas. A total of 198 morphospecies was shared between the subareas, including Platygastridae, Eulophidae, and Mymaridae, which were the families with the highest number of shared species. The richness and abundance of parasitoids varied according to their phenological developmental stages, with peak abundance registering during the vegetative period. The Morisita index identified three groupings, indicating a similarity that was related to the three phases of rice growth and development: seedling, vegetative and post-harvest. PMID:27097090
Fildani, A.; Normark, W.R.; Kostic, S.; Parker, G.
The Monterey East system is formed by large-scale sediment waves deposited as a result of flows stripped from the deeply incised Monterey fan valley (Monterey Channel) at the apex of the Shepard Meander. The system is dissected by a linear series of steps that take the form of scour-shaped depressions ranging from 3·5 to 4·5 km in width, 3 to 6 km in length and from 80 to 200 m in depth. These giant scours are aligned downstream from a breech in the levee on the southern side of the Shepard Meander. The floor of the breech is only 150 m above the floor of the Monterey fan valley but more than 100 m below the levee crests resulting in significant flow stripping. Numerical modeling suggests that the steps in the Monterey East system were created by Froude-supercritical turbidity currents stripped from the main flow in the Monterey channel itself. Froude-supercritical flow over an erodible bed can be subject to an instability that gives rise to the formation of cyclic steps, i.e. trains of upstream-migrating steps bounded upstream and downstream by hydraulic jumps in the flow above them. The flow that creates these steps may be net-erosional or net-depositional. In the former case it gives rise to trains of scours such as those in the Monterey East system, and in the latter case it gives rise to the familiar trains of upstream-migrating sediment waves commonly seen on submarine levees. The Monterey East system provides a unique opportunity to introduce the concept of cyclic steps in the submarine environment to study processes that might result in channel initiation on modern submarine fans.
Fricke, A. T.; Nittrouer, C. A.; Ogston, A. S.; Nowacki, D. J.; Asp, N. E.; Souza Filho, P. W.
Tidal influence extends ~800 kilometers upstream of the Amazon River mouth, producing semidiurnal oscillations in water elevation and slowing or reversing the flow of the world's largest river. This tidally influenced reach, known as the tidal river, is flanked by an expansive intertidal floodplain, and includes confluences with two large tributaries, the Xingu and Tapajós. The relative magnitude of the seasonal and tidal signals changes along the length of the tidal river, yielding diverse floodplain environments that span a range of seasonal and tidal influence. Near the upstream limit of tides, natural levees isolate the river from the floodplain during low to moderate flows, while in the lower tidal river, natural levees are absent and river-floodplain exchange is dominated by the tides rather than seasonal variation in river stage. This difference between fluvial and tidal systems strongly affects the nature of sediment exchange between the channel and floodplain, including frequency, duration, and depth of inundation. Here we present data on the impact of this fluvial-tidal continuum on sedimentary processes in the floodplain and resultant depositional signatures. Changes in levee prominence, grain size, and sediment accumulation combine to produce the distinct morphologies of floodplain lakes, intertidal backswamps, and intertidal flats. In addition to sediment accumulation on the periodically exposed floodplain, Amazon River sediment accumulates within the drowned tributary confluences of the Xingu and Tapajós Rivers. Here seasonal and tidal changes in water temperature, discharge, and suspended-sediment concentration drive barotropic and baroclinic flows that transport Amazon River sediment into tributary basins. These findings help to constrain the fate of sediment within the ungauged Amazon tidal river, and will help in understanding the response of the lower Amazon River to changes in accommodation space associated with rising sea level, and changes
Torres-Sierra, Heriberto; Gómez-Fragoso, Julieta
Results from the simulated dam failure of the Lago de Matrullas Dam using the HEC–RAS model for the 6- and 24-hour PMP events showed peak discharges at the dam of 3,149.33 and 3,604.70 m3/s, respectively. Dam failure during the 100-year-recurrence, 24-hour rainfall event resulted in a peak discharge of 2,103.12 m3/s directly downstream from the dam. Dam failure under sunny day conditions produced a peak discharge of 1,695.91 m3/s at the dam assuming the antecedent lake level was at the morning-glory spillway invert elevation. Flood-inundation maps prepared as part of the study depict the flood extent and provide valuable information for preparing an Emergency Action Plan. Results of the failure analysis indicate that a failure of the Lago de Matrullas Dam could cause flooding to many of the inhabited areas along stream banks from the Lago de Matrullas Dam to the mouth of the Río Grande de Manatí. Among the areas most affected are the low-lying regions in the vicinity of the towns of Ciales, Manatí, and Barceloneta. The delineation of the flood boundaries near the town of Barceloneta considered the effects of a levee constructed during 2000 at Barceloneta in the flood plain of the Río Grande de Manatí to provide protection against flooding to the near-by low-lying populated areas. The results showed overtopping can be expected in the aforementioned levee during 6- and 24-hour probable-maximum-precipitation dam failure scenarios. No overtopping of the levee was simulated, however, during dam failure scenarios under the 100-year recurrence, 24-hour rainfall event or sunny day conditions.
James, L. A.; Singer, M. B.; Aalto, R.
Geomorphic changes in the lower Yuba and Feather Rivers due to hydraulic mining provide a chance to study centennial-scale processes. Channel changes over 150 years were determined using channel-bank stratigraphy, geochemical signatures (total Hg, grain-size distributions, bulk geochemistry, fallout radionuclides, and Sr/Nd isotopes), and spatial analyses of high-resolution topographic data, historical maps, and aerial photos. Repeated avulsions and broad erosion/deposition patterns are shown, including a downstream shift in activity through time. In the 20th century, both rivers experienced deep main-channel incision and floodplain alluviation of natural levees and abandoned channels. Buried trees rooted in pre- mining soils indicate the Feather has not returned to pre-mining base levels below the Yuba confluence. Early engineering works controlled channel responses and recovery. For example, the Feather River avulsed into a channel dredged through Shanghai Bend (c.1907) so it now crosses resistant Quaternary alluvium over a 3-m knickpoint bench that could soon be breached. Moreover, levees and channelization near the Yuba-Feather confluence at Marysville (c.1905) narrowed and deepened flows, encouraging the bed incision noted by Gilbert. Effects of legacy sediment on channel processes are well known. Here, channel recovery was also constrained by channel morphologies engineered with boulder wing dams and revetment in the Yuba and channelization and levees in the Feather. The resulting bed incision reduces lateral connectivity between channels and floodplains and increases sediment conveyance. Historical and anthropogenic perspectives are essential to explaining channel dynamics at these scales. Unless models of channel and floodplain evolution recognize historical changes and engineering works, they may miss crucial components of geomorphic change and potential impacts downstream. In such systems, the historical dimension is essential to river management, water
King, P.R.; Browne, G.H.; Slatt, R.M.
Approximately 700m of deep water clastic deposits of Mt. Messenger Formation are superbly exposed along the Taranaki coast of North Island, New Zealand. Biostratigraphy indicates the interval was deposited during the time span 10.5-9.2m.y. in water depths grading upward from lower bathyal to middle-upper bathyal. This interval is considered part of a 3rd order depositional sequence deposited under conditions of fluctuating relative sea-level, concomitant with high sedimentation rates. Several 4th order depositional sequences, reflecting successive sea-level falls, are recognized within the interval. Sequence boundaries display a range of erosive morphologies from metre-wide canyons to scours several hundred metres across. All components of a generic lowstand systems tract--basin floor fan, channel-levee complex and progading complex--are present in logical and temporal order. They are repetitive through the interval, with the relatively shallower-water components becoming more prevalent upward. Basin floor fan lithologies are mainly m-thick, massive and convolute-bedded sandstones that alternate with cm- and dm-thick massive, horizontally-stratified and ripple-laminated sandstones and bioturbated mudstones. Channel-levee deposits consist of interleaving packages of thin-bedded, climbing-rippled and parallel-laminated sandstones and millstones; infrequent channels are filled with sandstones and mudstones, and sometimes lined with conglomerate. Thin beds of parallel to convoluted mudstone comprise prograding complex deposits. Similar lowstand systems tracts can be recognized and correlated on subsurface seismic reflection profiles and wireline logs. Such correlation has been aided by a continuous outcrop gamma-ray fog obtained over most of the measured interval. In the adjacent Taranaki peninsula, basin floor fan and channel-levee deposits comprise hydrocarbon reservoir intervals. Outcrop and subsurface reservior sandstones exhibit similar permeabilities.
Piper, D. ); Savoye, B. )
Late Quaternary sedimentation patterns on the Var deep-sea fan are known from high-resolution seismic boomer profiles (vertical resolution < 1 m), piston cores, SAR side-scan sonargraphs, and submersible dives. Foram biostratigraphy and radiocarbon dating provide chronologic control that is seismically correlated across the fan. Regional erosional events correspond to the isotopic state 2 and 6 glacial maxima. A widespread surface sand layer was deposited from the 1979 turbidity current, which broke two submarine cables. Numerical modeling constrains its character. A small slide on the upper prodelta developed into an accelerating turbidity current, which eroded sand from the Var canyon. The current was 30 m thick in the upper valley, expanding downflow to >120 m, where it spilled over the eastern Var sedimentary ridge at a velocity of 2.5 ms[sup [minus]1]. Other Holocene turbidity currents (with a 103-yr recurrence interval) were muddier and thicker, but also deposited sand on middle fan-valley levees and are inferred to have had a similar slide-related origin. Late Pleistocene turbidity currents deposited on the high Var sedimentary ridge. The presence of sediment waves and the cross-flow slope inferred from levee asymmetry indicate that some flow were hundreds of meters thick, with velocities of 0.35 ms[sup [minus]1]. Estimated times for deposition of thick levee mud beds are many days or weeks. Late Pleistocene flows therefore are interpreted to result from hyperpycnal flow of glacial outwash in the Var River. Variation in late Pleistocene-Holocene turbidite sedimentation thus is controlled more by changes in sediment supply than by sea level.
Wang, Linlin; Wang, Zhenqi; Yu, Shui; Ngia, Ngong Roger
The Miocene deepwater gravity-flow sedimentary system in Block A of the southwestern part of the Lower Congo Basin was identified and interpreted using high-resolution 3-D seismic, drilling and logging data to reveal development characteristics and main controlling factors. Five types of deepwater gravity-flow sedimentary units have been identified in the Miocene section of Block A, including mass transport, deepwater channel, levee, abandoned channel and sedimentary lobe deposits. Each type of sedimentary unit has distinct external features, internal structures and lateral characteristics in seismic profiles. Mass transport deposits (MTDs) in particular correspond to chaotic low-amplitude reflections in contact with mutants on both sides. The cross section of deepwater channel deposits in the seismic profile is in U- or V-shape. The channel deposits change in ascending order from low-amplitude, poor-continuity, chaotic filling reflections at the bottom, to high-amplitude, moderate to poor continuity, chaotic or sub-parallel reflections in the middle section and to moderate-weak amplitude, good continuity, parallel or sub-parallel reflections in the upper section. The sedimentary lobes are laterally lobate, which corresponds to high-amplitude, good-continuity, moundy reflection signatures in the seismic profile. Due to sediment flux, faults, and inherited terrain, few mass transport deposits occur in the northeastern part of the study area. The front of MTDs is mainly composed of channel-levee complex deposits, while abandoned-channel and lobe-deposits are usually developed in high-curvature channel sections and the channel terminals, respectively. The distribution of deepwater channel, levee, abandoned channel and sedimentary lobe deposits is predominantly controlled by relative sea level fluctuations and to a lesser extent by tectonism and inherited terrain.
Huyghe, Pascale; France-Lanord, Christian; IODP Expedition 354 Scientists
The IODP 354 expedition (February-March 2015) focused on the middle part of the Bengal Fan (8°N). Seven sites were drilled along a 320 km- long transect and provided good recovery and excellent data to study both provenance of the material from the Himalayan orogeny and palaeoceanography linked to the Asian monsoon. Neogene sediments consist of an alternation of rapidly deposited, silty to muddy turbidites (10-100 cm/kyr) forming levees of channels intercalated with minor slowly deposited hemipelagic clays (1-2 cm/kyr), which may be found over the whole investigated area. Thick interlevee sand sheet units also occur between channel levees. The turbiditic sand, silt and clay have mineralogical signatures very similar to those of the modern Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers and are therefore relevant for reconstructing time series of erosion, weathering, and changes in Himalayan sources regions. Hemipelagic calcareous clays may provide additional information on environmental conditions throughout the Himalayan basin. Preliminar shipboard XRD analysis revealed that the clayey assemblages of sediments are relatively constant through the Neogene. Turbidite clay assemblages are dominated by detrital illite and chlorite as observed in the modern Himalayan rivers, suggesting that erosion conditions were relatively steady over the last 25 Ma. Hemipelagic clay assemblages vary from 1) identical to the illite-chlorite rich clays of turbidites, characteristic for Himalayan rivers, to 2) smectite rich assemblages enriched in iron and depleted in potassium, representing either more extreme sorting of the same material or input from another source. Further detailed investigation using decomposition of X-Ray diffraction (XRD) patterns reveals much more complex clay assemblages, especially great quantities of mixed-layers, the quantity and mineralogy of which varies and differs in the three depositional units as determined by turbidites levees, hemipelagic clayey beds and interlevees
The Kansas Department of Transportation has proposed replacing a bridge over the Kansas River on State Highway 99, at Wamego, Kansas. The ability of the main channel along with the existing agricultural levee to contain the flow of the Kansas River, the effect of overflow structures under the highway south of the bridge, and the effect of an island upstream from the proposed bridge are discussed. The design of the proposed new bridge is adequate for passage of a 100-yr flood of 155,000 cu ft/sec; however, the existing levee along the right bank of the river upstream of the proposed bridge will not confine the flow to the main channel because parts of the levee have been broken or removed. The present overflow structures would allow a discharge of 26,000 cu ft/sec to occur in the bypass reach with a maximum depth of flow over the highway of 1.3 ft. If the structures were removed but the highway grade maintained, the discharge would increase to about 30,000 cu ft/sec with a depth of flow over the highway of 1.5 ft. If the overflow structures were removed and the elevated sections of the highway grade leveled, the discharge would increase to about 31,500 cu ft/sec, with a maximum depth of flow over the highway of 1.3 ft. The velocity of flow through four 30-in diameter concrete culverts located at overflow structure sites would be 8.6 ft/sec. Foreseeable changes in the island upstream from the proposed bridge would not interfere with the flow capacity of the new bridge. (Author 's abstract)
Salabarnada, Ariadna; Escutia, Carlota; Nelson, Hans; Damuth, John E.; Jimenez-Espejo, Francisco
IODP drilling in the flank of a levee deposit at continental rise Site U1356 recovered a thick section of Oligocene to upper Miocene sediments indicative of relatively deep water, sea ice -- influenced setting. Three main lithological units characterize the sediment record: 1) hemipelagic and bottom current deposition dominated during the late early to late Oligocene; 2) debris flows with interbedded turbidite deposits characterize sedimentation during late Oligocene to early Miocene; and 3) turbidite and hemipelagic sedimentation dominated during the early Miocene. The regional grid of multichannel seismic lines, provide a regional depositional context for the three units. Early to late Oligocene deposits record abyssal plain sedimentation under the influence of bottom currents. The sharp transition from abyssal plain facies to distal debris flows during the late Oligocene coincides with the deposition of large mass transport deposits at the base of the continental slope and erosion of large channels on the continental rise. The distal end of these mass transport deposits is recovered in our cores interbedded with levee turbidites from the nearby channel. The Oligocene to Miocene transition marks the disappearance of debris flows in our cores and the start of turbidite and hemipelagic deposition that characterizes levee sedimentation of the early Miocene environment. The studied section records one of the major climate transitions in the history of Earth's climate and ice sheet evolution during leading to the Mi-1 event. We argue that mass transport processes resulted from East Antarctic Ice Sheet expansion during the climate cooling leading to the Mi-1 glaciation. Following the Mi-1 event, sedimentation is characterized by hemipelagic, turbidity-, and bottom-current deposition. In addition, we present elemental and clay mineralogy data that provide insights into terrigenous fluxes, productivity, and the transition from a poorly oxygenated low-silica system to a
Carr, M. H.; Greeley, R.
Despite the difference in size Martian and Hawaiian volcanoes have numerous characteristics in common. Specific features such as lava channels, collapsed lava tubes, levees and flow fronts, all very common in Hawaii, are also abundant on the flanks of some of the Martian volcanoes. Striking differences also exist, such as the apparent lack of radial rift zones on some Martian volcanoes and the paucity of cinder and spatter cones. Some of the best photographs of Martian and Hawaiian volcanic features are presented. Descriptive legends are provided for each picture. An overview of the geological processes and structures depicted is included.
Caparrini, F.; Castelli, F.; di Carlo, E.
After a few years of experimental setup, model refinement and parameters calibration, a distributed flood forecasting system for the Tuscany region was promoted to operational use in early 2008. The hydrologic core of the system, MOBIDIC, is a fully distributed soil moisture accounting model, with sequential assimilation of hydrometric data. The model is forced by the real-time dense hydrometeorological network of the Regional Hydrologic Service as well from the QPF products of a number of different limited area meteorological models (LAMI, WRF+ECMWF, WRF+GFS). Given the relatively short response time of the Tuscany basins, the river flow forecasts based on ground measured precipitation are operationally used mainly as a monitoring tool, while the true usable predictions are necessarily based on the QPF input. The first severe flooding event the system had to face occurred in late December 2009, when a failure of the right levee of the Serchio river caused an extensive inundation (on December 25th). In the days following the levee breaking, intensive monitoring and forecast was needed (another flood peak occurred on the night between December 29th and January 1st 2010) as a support for decisions regarding the management of the increased vulnerability of the area and the planning of emergency reparation works at the river banks. The operational use of the system during such a complex event, when both the meteorological and the hydrological components may be said to have performed well form a strict modeling point of view, brought to attention a number of additional issues about the system as a whole. The main of these issues may be phrased in terms of additional system requirements, namely: the ranking of different QPF products in terms of some likelihood measure; the rapid redefinition of alarm thresholds due to sudden changes in the river flow capacity; the supervised prediction for evaluating the consequences of different management scenarios for reservoirs
Ormsby, J. P.; Gervin, J. C.; Nickeson, J. E.; Willey, G.
A November 1982 Landsat-4 TM scene and March and September 1984 airborne L-band radar data for a brackish-wetland area of the Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge (near Chesapeake Bay) are analyzed to monitor changes in vegetation and water area. The accuracy of level-I classification of the TM image is found to be 81 percent, but that of the few level-II/III classes for which ground truth was available is only 53 percent. The value of radar images for discriminating water areas obscured by vegetation and estimating plant heights is indicated.
Izenberg, N.R.; Arvidson, R. E.; Brackett, R.A.; Saatchi, S.S.; Osburn, G.R.; Dohrenwend, J.
The Missouri River floods of 1993 caused significant and widespread damage to the floodplains between Kansas City and St. Louis. Immediately downstream of levee breaks, flood waters scoured the bottoms. As the floodwaters continued, they spread laterally and deposited massive amounts of sand as crevasse splays on top of agricultural fields. We explore the use of radar interferometry and backscatter data for quantitative estimation of scour and deposition for Jameson Island/Arrow Rock Bottoms and Lisbon Bottoms, two bottoms that were heavily damaged during the floods and subsequently abandoned. Shuttle imaging radar C (SIR-C) L band (24 cm) HH (horizontally transmitted and horizontally received) radar backscatter data acquired in October 1994 were used together with a distorted Born approximation canopy scattering model to determine that the abundance of natural leafy forbs controlled the magnitude of backscatter for former agricultural fields. Forb areal density was found to be inversely correlated with thickness of sand deposited during the floods, presumably because thick sands prevented roots from reaching nutrient rich, moist bottoms soils. Using the inverse relationship, a lower bound for the mass of sand added was found to be 6.3 million metric tons over the 17 km2 study area. Digital elevation data from topographic synthetic aperture radar (TOPSAR) C band (5.6 cm) interferometric observations acquired in August 1994 were compared to a series of elevation profiles collected on the ground. Vertical errors in TOPSAR were estimated to range from 1 to 2 m, providing enough accuracy to generate an estimate of total mass (4.7 million metric tons) removed during erosion of levees and scour of the bottoms terrains. Net accretion of material to the study areas is consistent with the geologic record of major floods where sediment-laden floodwaters crested over natural levees, initially scoured into the bottoms, and then deposited sands as crevasse splays as the flows
Constantinescu, Adriana-Maria; Toucanne, Samuel; Dennielou, Bernanrd; Jorry, Stephan; Panin, Nicolae; Lericolais, Gilles
The Danube deep-sea fan is one of the most extensive deep-sea sedimentary systems in Europe. It lies in the base of slope of the north-western margin of the Black Sea, in front of Viteaz Canyon. Since the work of Popescu (2002) the detailed morphology and architecture of the fan is well known. During lowstand periods, the fan was fed by the Viteaz Canyon, which was directly connected to the Danube River. The fan has developed an impressive channel-levees network which is characterized by seven major channel avulsions (Popescu, 2002, Lericolais et al., 2013). Despite the numerous sedimentary cores retrieved during the Blason (1998, 2002) and Assemblage (2004) oceanographic cruises, the details of the factors controlling the turbiditic activity of the Danube deep-sea fan still remained largely unknown. The purpose of our study is to improve the chronology of the Danube deep-sea fan and to tie the expected results to the recent findings obtained by Soulet et al. (2011) regarding the chronostratigraphy and environmental changes in the Black Sea since the Last Glacial Maximum (~26-19 kyr before present). Seven küllenberg cores, retrieved from along the Viteaz Canyon and the deep depositional system, were analysed through detailed visual description, X-ray radiographs, spectrocolorimetry and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) scanner analysis. These analyses allow core-to-core correlation and the recognition of the well-known sedimentary units of Degens and Ross (1972; lacustrine and marine units) and Major et al. (2002; Red Layers), while using the revisited chronology of Soulet et al. (2011). Sediment accumulation rates and turbidite frequency were then determined, revealing a shift in the sedimentation activity from the southern channel-levee system (Unit 3; Lericolais et al., 2013) to the northern channel-levee system (Unit 6; Lericolais et al., 2013) after the deposition of the so-called Red Layers 15,700 +/-300 yr ago and before the onset of the Bölling-Alleröd (14,700 yr
2006-01-0127 November 2006 Dust-covered lava flows on the lowermost south flank of Olympus Mons are captured in this 3 kilometers (1.9 miles) wide Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) view acquired during northern summer on 12 October 2006. One leveed lava channel just south (below) the center left of the image disappears into a thick, pitted and cratered dust mantle. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the left/upper left. The image is located near 13.8oN, 134.1oW. North is toward the top/upper right.
Wilkinson, Justin M.
In arguing for a strict definition of the alluvial fan (coarse-grained with radii less than10 km, in mountain-front settings), Blair and McPherson (1994) proposed that there is no meaningful difference between large fluvial fans (LFF) and floodplains, because the building blocks of both are channel-levee-overbank deposits. Sediment bodies at the LFF scale (greater than 100 km long, fan-shaped in planform), are relatively unstudied although greater than 160 are now identified globally. The following perspectives suggest that the significance of LFF needs to be reconsidered.
Submarine slides exhibit landward-dipping, wavy, mounded, and chaotic seismic reflections that are manifestations of slump blocks and other mass transport material. Composition of these internally derived slide deposits depends on the composition of the preexisting shelf margin. Embayment fill above the slide consists mostly of externally derived mudstones and sandstones deposited by various disorganized slope processes, as well as more organized submarine channel-levee systems. Thickest slope sandstones, which are potential hydrocarbon reservoirs, commonly occur above the basal slide mudstones where seismic reflections change from chaotic patterns to overlying wavy or subhorizontal reflections.
Francis, P. W.
The primary objective was to identify all the active volcanoes in the Andean region of Bolivia. Morphological features of the Tata Sabaya volcano, Bolivia, were studied with the thematic mapper. Details include marginal levees on lava and pyroclastic flows, and summit crater structure. Valley glacier moraine deposits, not easily identified on the multispectral band scanner, were also unambiguous, and provide useful marker horizons on large volcanic edifices which were built up in preglacial times but which were active subsequently. With such high resolution imagery, it is not only possible to identify potentially active volcanoes, but also to use standard photogeological interpretation to outline the history of individual volcanoes.
Part 2 of the hearing record covers 1220 pages of testimony given by the Corps of Engineers on projects in the North Pacific, Lower Mississippi Valley, South Atlantic, South Pacific, and Pacific Ocean Divisions. It also includes reports from the Delaware River Basin and Susquehanna River Basin Commissions and the Potomac River Basin Interstate Commission. Six officials from the engineering, planning, construction-operations, and program development offices reported on work in progress and explained the budget requests in detail. The projects include river levees, flood control, irrigation, dams, and navigation. The record includes their testimony and supporting documentation.
Nolan, J.J.; Williams, R.H.; Betzen, G.A.
The Bannister Federal Complex is bordered on the east by the Blue River and on the south by Indian Creek. After a flood in 1961 and several near-miss floods, flood protection has been installed. The protection consists of 2,916 feet of concrete flood walls, 8,769 feet of levee, five rolling gates, four stoplog gaps, one hinged pedestrian gate, and one sandbag gap. The flood walls are over 14 feet tall. Construction was started on August 3, 1992 and was completed in early 1995. Architectural treatment was incorporated in the flood walls as well as landscaping to enhance the appearance of the flood protection.
Kargel, Jeffrey S.
The rheologic properties of terrestrial lavas have been related to morphologic features of their flows, such as levees, banked surfaces, multilobate structures, and compressible folds. These features also have been used to determine rheologies and constrain the compositions of extraterrestrial flows. However, with rare exceptions, such features are not resolvable in Voyager images of the satellites of outer planets. Often only flow length and edge thickness of cryovolcanic flows can be measured reasonably accurately from Voyager images. The semiempirical lava-flow model presented here is a renewed effort to extract useful information from such measurements.
Kaplan, B. A.; Luke, A.; Alsdorf, D. E.
The goal of this project is to produce an accurate 2-D hydrodynamic model of an inundation event that occurred at the confluence of the Ohio and Mississippi River. The inundation occurred in the months of April and May 2011, with the city of interest being Cairo, Illinois. In order to relieve flooding within Cairo, a Bird's Point Levee was detonated by the Army Corps of Engineers. Cairo is a small city of 2,800 people, and is prone to flooding due to its proximity to the confluence of the Ohio and Mississippi River. Cairo is also the only city in the U.S. completely surrounded by levees. The advantage of a 2-D modeling approach compared to a 1-D approach is that the floodplain geomorphological processes are more accurately represented. Understanding non-channelized flow that occurs during inundation events is a subject of growing interest, and is being addressed in other projects such as the NASA-SWOT mission scheduled for launch in 2019. The 2-D model utilized in this study is LISFLOOD-FP. LISFLOOD-FP is a 2-D finite-difference flood inundation model that has been proven to accurately simulate flood inundation for urban, coastal, and fluvial environments. LISFLOOD-FP operates using known hydraulic principles along with continuity and momentum equations to describe the flow of water through channels and floodplains. The digital elevation model used to represent the area's topography was obtained from the USGS National Elevation Data set, and our model uses input data from USGS stream gauges located upstream of the confluence of the Ohio and Mississippi River. The gauging station located in Cairo will be used for model validation. Currently, many flood simulations are being modeled with varying conditions and input files. In situ cross sectional data is being used to represent the channel. We have found that using averages of the cross sectional data do not accurately represent the river channels, so future model runs will incorporate interpolation between
Kaplan, B. A.; Luke, A.; Shlaes, M.; Lant, J.; Alsdorf, D. E.
The goal of this project is to produce an accurate 2-D hydrodynamic model of an inundation event that occurred at the confluence of the Ohio and Mississippi River. The inundation occurred in the months of April and May 2011, with the city of interest being Cairo, Illinois. In order to relieve flooding within Cairo, a levee was detonated by the Army Corps of Engineers. Cairo is a small city of 2,800 people, and is prone to flooding due to its proximity to the confluence of the Ohio and Mississippi River. Cairo is also the only city in the U.S. completely surrounded by levees. The advantage of a 2-D modeling approach compared to a 1-D approach is that the floodplain geomorphological processes are more accurately represented. Understanding non-channelized flow that occurs during inundation events is a subject of growing interest, and is being addressed in other projects such as the NASA-SWOT mission scheduled for launch in 2019. The 2-D model utilized in this study is LISFLOOD-FP. LISFLOOD-FP is a 2-D finite-difference flood inundation model that has been proven to accurately simulate flood inundation for urban, coastal, and fluvial environments. LISFLOOD-FP operates using known hydraulic principles along with continuity and momentum equations to describe the flow of water through channels and floodplains. The digital elevation model used to represent the area's topography was obtained from the USGS National Elevation Data set, and our model uses input data from USGS stream gauges located upstream of the confluence of the Ohio and Mississippi River. The gauging station located in Cairo will be used for model validation. Currently, the steady state conditions of the Ohio and the Mississippi River are being modeled. In situ cross sectional data is being used to represent the channel. We have found that using averages of the cross sectional data do not accurately represent the river channels, so future model runs will incorporate interpolation between measurements. Once
Kim, Wonsuck; Mohrig, David; Twilley, Robert; Paola, Chris; Parker, Gary
What if the Mississippi River levees were cut below New Orleans? What if much of the water and sediment were allowed to flow out and build new deltas? Could deltaic land loss be reversed, and indeed restored? Using a conservative sediment supply rate and a range of rates of sea level rise and subsidence, a physically based model of deltaic river sedimentation [Kim et al., 2009] predicts that approximately 700-1200 square kilometers of new land (exposed surface and in-channel freshwater habitat) could be built over a century (Figure 1).
Fletcher, J. B.; Sell, R.
About 1700 km of levees protect farmland and communities from inundation in the delta of the Sacramento/San Joaquin Rivers at the western edge of the Great Valley in California. These levees are made from dredged soils, such as peat, and are characterized by low shear-wave velocities (about 200m/s) and are vulnerable to breaking from major earthquakes in the greater San Francisco Bay area. We have investigated the seismic response of sites in the delta by deploying a set of broadband seismometers to record local moderate-sized earthquakes. Each of the 11 sites has a 30s broadband, 3-component seismograph digitized continuously at 100 sps/channel. In the summer of 2008 we expanded the original array, which covered a small area near Bethel Is., to cover a greater proportion of the delta, and it now extends from Tracy in the south to Bethel Is. in the northwest to Eight Mile Road in the northeast, an area of about 20 by 30 km. Several of the sites are on levees and the others are on farmland. One site is on a outcrop just west of the Clifton Court Forebay in the foothills. During the last year we have recorded nine events in the M 3 to 4 range with good signal to noise at the array. Site response was estimated with spectral ratios of S waves using Black Diamond Mine, a station in the UC Berkeley seismic network, as a reference station. Site responses at levee sites typically show large resonances in the 1-3 Hz range with amplifications greater than 10 for the Sept. 6, 2008 M4.1 Alamo event. Other sites show amplifications between 2 and 7 at various frequencies between 1 and 10 Hz. Sites within the delta show late-arriving Rayleigh waves with a period of about one second. A three-element array at the Holland Marina (spacing 180-290m) shows these waves to be traveling at about 610 m/s with a back azimuth about 20 degrees off the azimuth to the epicenter. Observations of well-developed, one-second surface waves across basins are not common, but they are similar to
Guida, R.; Remo, J. W.; Secchi, S.; Swanson, T.; Kiss, T.
During the late 19th and into the 20th Centuries, the Tisza and Illinois Rivers were highly altered through the construction of levees and dams to reclaim their floodplain-wetland systems for agriculture and to facilitate navigation. In recent decades, flood levels have continued to rise due to aggradation on the confined floodplains reducing flood-conveyance capacity. As a result, "Room for the River" proposals have gained more prominence. Our overarching hypothesis is that strategically reconnecting these rivers to their floodplains will reduce flood levels and increase ecological habitat while limiting socioeconomic impacts. In this study, we assessed several reconnection scenarios, including levee setbacks and removals, for the Lower Tisza River (LTR; Hungary) and the Lower Illinois River (LIR; Illinois, USA). To model water-surface elevations (WSELs) for the 5- through 500-year flood events, we employed HEC-RAS (1D) and SOBEK (1D/2D) hydraulic models. To determine socioeconomic tradeoffs using these modeled WSELs, we developed a corresponding suite of expected annual damages (EADs) using FEMA's Hazus-MH flood-loss modeling software for buildings and integrated geospatial and soil productivity indices to estimate agricultural losses. To assess ecosystem benefits of reconnection along the LTR, we used historic wetland extent as a proxy for increasing needed floodplain habitats. For the LIR, we performed habitat screening using Land Capability Potential Index and other assessment tools to estimate potential ecosystem benefits. Results indicate that levee removal and/or setbacks may reduce flood heights up to 1.6 m along the LTR and over 1.0 m along the LIR. While urban areas have the highest EADs, several lower-production agricultural areas show potential for reducing flood heights while minimizing damages. Strategic-floodplain reconnection benefits along the LTR and LIR include over half of historically-significant wetlands being reconnected and the creation of
Helgeson, D.L.; Schaffner, L.W.
The economics of sunflower oil as an extender or substitute for diesel fuel in US agriculture, with particular emphasis on North Dakota, is examined. A study of the spot market prices indicates that crude sunflower oil has moved closer competitively with bulk diesel prices. On the question of energy efficiency, it is estimated, that using current production and processing estimates, there is a positive net energy ratio of 5.78 to 1. Processing can take place at the commercial leveL, in intermediate sized plants or on-farm. Costs were analyzed for three sizes of farm presses. (Refs. 6).
Di Baldassarre, Giuliano
The evaluation of the dynamic interactions of the different components of global risk (e.g. hazard, exposure, vulnerability or resilience) is one of the main challenges in risk assessment and management. In state-of-the-art approaches for the analysis of risk, natural and socio-economic systems are typically treated separately by using different methods. In flood risk studies, for instance, physical scientists typically focus on the study of the probability of flooding (i.e. hazard), while social scientists mainly examine the exposure, vulnerability or resilience to flooding. However, these different components are deeply interconnected. Changes in flood hazard might trigger changes in vulnerability, and vice versa. A typical example of these interactions is the so-called "levee effect", whereby heightening levees to reduce the probability of flooding often leads to increase the potential adverse consequences of flooding as people often perceive that flood risk was completely eliminated once the levee was raised. These interconnections between the different components of risk remain largely unexplored and poorly understood. This lack of knowledge is of serious concern as it limits our ability to plan appropriate risk prevention measures. To design flood control structures, for example, state-of-the-art models can indeed provide quantitative assessments of the corresponding risk reduction associated to the lower probability of flooding. Nevertheless, current methods cannot estimate how, and to what extent, such a reduction might trigger a future increase of the potential adverse consequences of flooding (the aforementioned "levee effect"). Neither can they evaluate how the latter might (in turn) lead to the requirement of additional flood control structures. Thus, while many progresses have been made in the static assessment of flood risk, more inter-disciplinary research is required for the development of methods for dynamic risk assessment, which is very much
Yin, Y.; Nelson, J.C.; Lubinski, S.J.
Bottomland hardwood forests along the United States' Upper Mississippi River have been drastically reduced in acreage and repeatedly logged during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Conversion to agricultural land, timber harvesting, and river modifications for flood prevention and for navigation were the primary factors that caused the changes. Navigation structures and flood-prevention levees have altered the fluvial geomorphic dynamics of the river and floodplain system. Restoration and maintenance of the diversity, productivity, and natural regeneration dynamics of the bottomland hardwood forests under the modified river environment represent a major management challenge.
The emergence of managed care and the health industry's response to it has precipitated a moral crisis for many health care professionals. Caught between the patients' best interests and the employers' and payers' restrictions, professionals find their good intentions tested. In this article, the author distinguishes moral from ethical problems and suggests that self-examination and self-diagnosis of the mindsets and conditions that contribute to moral malfunctioning in the workplace--self-management at the individual level--is essential for maintaining the ethical stance of the profession and the integrity of the professional. PMID:11051954
Carisi, Francesca; Domeneghetti, Alessio; Castellarin, Attilio
The EU Flood Directive (2007/60/CE) requires institutions and public bodies, in order to formulate robust flood-risk management strategies for large European rivers, to address several fundamental tasks. For instance, they have to address the problem of flood-risk mitigation from a global perspective (i.e., entire middle-lower river reaches) by identifying critical reaches, inundation areas and corresponding overflow volumes. To this aim, we focus on the identification of large-scale flood risk mitigation strategies for the middle-lower reach of the Po river, the longest Italian river and the largest in terms of streamflow. We refer to the so-called residual flood-risk and in particular to its portion referring to the possibility to experience events associated with larger return periods than the reference one (e.g. ~200 years in our case). In particular, being a further levee heightening not technically viable nor economically conceivable for the case study, the study develops and tests the applicability of a quasi-2D hydraulic model for the identification of large-scale flood-risk mitigation strategies relative to a 500-year flood event. In particular, we consider and model in the study different geometrical configurations of the main embankment system for a ~400km reach stretching from Isola S.Antonio to the Po river delta in the Adriatic Sea: overtopping without levee breaching, overtopping and natural levee breaching, overtopping and forced levee breaching. The simulations enable the assessment of the overflowed volumes and water depths on flooded areas. Expected damages are estimated using simplified graphical tools, which we termed "Vulnerability Hypsometric Curves" (HVCs) and report the extent of the area for a given land use category that is located below a certain elevation. The analysis aims at finding the optimal configuration that minimizes the expected damages in the areas prone to flood. The outcomes of our study indicate that coupling a large
Riedel, M.; Collett, T.S.; Shankar, U.
During the India National Gas Hydrate Program (NGHP) Expedition 01 in 2006 significant sand and gas hydrate were recovered at Site NGHP-01-15 within the Krishna-Godavari Basin, East Coast off India. At the drill site NGHP-01-15, a 5-8m thick interval was found that is characterized by higher sand content than anywhere else at the site and within the KG Basin. Gas hydrate concentrations were determined to be 20-40% of the pore volume using wire-line electrical resistivity data as well as core-derived pore-fluid freshening trends. The gas hydrate-bearing interval was linked to a prominent seismic reflection observed in the 3D seismic data. This reflection event, mapped for about 1km2 south of the drill site, is bound by a fault at its northern limit that may act as migration conduit for free gas to enter the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ) and subsequently charge the sand-rich layer. On 3D and additional regional 2D seismic data a prominent channel system was imaged mainly by using the seismic instantaneous amplitude attribute. The channel can be clearly identified by changes in the seismic character of the channel fill (sand-rich) and pronounced levees (less sand content than in the fill, but higher than in surrounding mud-dominated sediments). The entire channel sequence (channel fill and levees) has been subsequently covered and back-filled with a more mud-prone sediment sequence. Where the levees intersect the base of the GHSZ, their reflection strengths are significantly increased to 5- to 6-times the surrounding reflection amplitudes. Using the 3D seismic data these high-amplitude reflection edges where linked to the gas hydrate-bearing layer at Site NGHP-01-15. Further south along the channel the same reflection elements representing the levees do not show similarly large reflection amplitudes. However, the channel system is still characterized by several high-amplitude reflection events (a few hundred meters wide and up to ~1km in extent) interpreted as gas
Photographic copy of circa 1935, black and white, 10 x 14 photograph. Loose in Huey P. Long folder in oversized box located at the National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, Archives Center, Work and Industry Division, Washington, D.C. Photographer, Lionel T. Berryhill, Apple Valley, California. CIRCA 1935 PHOTOGRAPH OF BRIDGE TAKEN FROM WEST BANK LOOKING NORTH AT PIER A NEAR LEVEE. - Huey P. Long Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River approximately midway between nine & twelve mile points upstream from & west of New Orleans, Jefferson, Jefferson Parish, LA
Shuler, S.; Craig, M. S.; Hayashi, K.; Galvin, J. L.; Deqiang, C.; Jones, M. G.
Multichannel analysis of surface wave measurements (MASW) and microtremor array measurements (MAM) were performed at twelve sites across the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta to obtain high resolution shear wave velocity (VS) models. Deeper surveys were performed at four of the sites using the two station spatial autocorrelation (SPAC) method. For the MASW and MAM surveys, a 48-channel seismic system with 4.5 Hz geophones was used with a 10-lb sledgehammer and a metal plate as a source. Surveys were conducted at various locations on the crest of levees, the toe of the levees, and off of the levees. For MASW surveys, we used a record length of 2.048 s, a sample interval of 1 ms, and 1 m geophone spacing. For MAM, ambient noise was recorded for 65.536 s with a sampling interval of 4 ms and 1 m geophone spacing. VS was determined to depths of ~ 20 m using the MASW method and ~ 40 m using the MAM method. Maximum separation between stations in the two-station SPAC surveys was typically 1600 m to 1800 m, providing coherent signal with wavelengths in excess of 5 km and depth penetration of as much as 2000 m. Measured values of VS30 in the study area ranged from 97 m/s to 257 m/s, corresponding to NEHRP site classifications D and E. Comparison of our measured velocity profiles with available geotechnical logs, including soil type, SPT, and CPT, reveals the existence of a small number of characteristic horizons within the upper 40m in the Delta: levee fill material, peat, transitional silty sand, and eolian sand at depth. Sites with a peat layer at the surface exhibited extremely low values of VS. Based on soil borings, the thickness of peat layers were approximately 0 m to 8 m. The VS for the peat layers ranged from 42 m/s to 150 m/s while the eolian sand layer exhibited VS ranging from of 220 m/s to 370 m/s. Soft near surface soils present in the region pose an increased earthquake hazard risk due to the potential for high ground accelerations.
Faulkner, B. R.; Cline, S. P.; Landers, D. H.; Forshay, K. J.
The Willamette River is a ninth-order tributary of the Columbia which passes through a productive and populous region in northwest Oregon. Where unconstrained by shoreline revetments, the floodplain of this river is a high-energy, dynamic system which supports a variety of riparian forests and floodplain habitats. On the Green Island Restoration Site, north of the city of Eugene, several geomorphological features common to much of the Willamette floodplain are present. These features, ranging from young bare gravel bars, islands supporting mature forest stands, to agricultural areas bounded by levees. As part of a Memorandum of Understanding with the McKenzie River Trust, USEPA has constructed a network of fifty shallow monitoring wells on the Green Island site. Among the purposes are to characterize the hydrogeology of the multiple- island floodplain, the extent of hyporheic flow, and the temperature regime. The monitoring wells are located in areas ranging from a few meters from the river edge to several hundred meters away, within the agricultural areas. By automatic data-logging, flow nets will be developed using numerical modeling. Water quality data will be collected to measure the degee to which subsurface biogeochemistry is influenced by geomorphologic features that are determined by the processes of river channel migration, island formation, and colonization by riparian forest. The monitoring network will also be used to measure the groundwater quality effects of restoration projects currently underway. These include reforestation of previously agricultural areas, and levee removal.
Falcini, Federico; Khan, Nicole S.; Macelloni, Leonardo; Horton, Benjamin P.; Lutken, Carol B.; McKee, Karen L.; Santoleri, Rosalia; Colella, Simone; Li, Chunyan; Volpe, Gianluca; D’Emidio, Marco; Salusti, Alessandro; Jerolmack, Douglas J.
Wetlands in the Mississippi River deltaic plain are deteriorating in part because levees and control structures starve them of sediment. In Spring of 2011 a record-breaking flood brought discharge on the lower Mississippi River to dangerous levels, forcing managers to divert up to 3500 m3/s-1 of water to the Atchafalaya River Basin. Here we quantify differences between the Mississippi and Atchafalaya River inundation and sediment-plume patterns using field-calibrated satellite data, and assess the impact these outflows had on wetland sedimentation. We characterize hydrodynamics and suspended sediment patterns of the Mississippi River plume using in-situ data collected during the historic flood. We show that the focused, high-momentum jet from the leveed Mississippi delivered sediment far offshore. In contrast, the plume from the Atchafalaya was more diffuse; diverted water inundated a large area; and sediment was trapped within the coastal current. Maximum sedimentation (up to several centimetres) occurred in the Atchafalaya Basin despite the larger sediment load carried by the Mississippi. Minimum accumulation occurred along the shoreline between these river sources. Our findings provide a mechanistic link between river-mouth dynamics and wetland sedimentation patterns that is relevant for plans to restore deltaic wetlands using artificial diversions.
Hood, W. Gregory; Grossman, Eric; Curt Veldhuisen
Historical aerial photographs, from 1937 to the present, show Skagit Delta tidal marshes prograding into Skagit Bay for most of the record, but the progradation rates have been steadily declining and the marshes have begun to erode in recent decades despite the large suspended sediment load provided by the Skagit River. In an area of the delta isolated from direct riverine sediment supply by anthropogenic blockage of historical distributaries, 0.5-m tall marsh cliffs along with concave marsh profiles indicate wave erosion is contributing to marsh retreat. This is further supported by a “natural experiment” provided by rocky outcrops that shelter high marsh in their lee, while being bounded by 0.5-m lower eroded marsh to windward and on either side. Coastal wetlands with high sediment supply are thought to be resilient to sea level rise, but the case of the Skagit Delta shows this is not necessarily true. A combination of sea level rise and wave-generated erosion may overwhelm sediment supply. Additionally, anthropogenic obstruction of historical distributaries and levee construction along the remaining distributaries likely increase the jet momentum of river discharge, forcing much suspended sediment to bypass the tidal marshes and be exported from Skagit Bay. Adaptive response to the threat of climate change related sea level rise and increased wave frequency or intensity should consider the efficacy of restoring historical distributaries and managed retreat of constrictive river levees to maximize sediment delivery to delta marshes.
Baloga, S. M.; Glaze, L. S.
A model is presented for channelized lava flows emplaced by a self-replicating, levee-building process over long distances on the plains of Mars. Such flows may exhibit morphologic evidence of stagnation, overspills, and upstream breakouts. However, these processes do not inhibit the formation and persistence of a prominent central channel that can often be traced for more than 100 km. The two central assumptions of the self-replication model are (1) the flow advances at the average upstream velocity of the molten core and (2) the fraction of the lava that travels faster than the average upstream velocity forms stationary margins in the advancing distal zone to preserve the self-replication process. For an exemplary 300 km long flow north of Pavonis Mons, the model indicates that 8 m of crust must have formed during emplacement, as determined from the channel and levee dimensions. When combined with independent thermal dynamic estimates for the crustal growth rate, relatively narrow constraints are obtained for the flow rate (2250 m3 s 1), emplacement duration (600 d), and the lava viscosity of the molten interior (106 Pa s). Minor, transient overspills and breakouts increase the emplacement time by only a factor of 2. The primary difference between the prodigious channelized Martian flows and their smaller terrestrial counterparts is that high volumetric flow rates must have persisted for many hundreds of days on Mars, in contrast to a few hours or days on Earth.
Flood control is a fundamental human response to flood risk, and floodplain embankment by dike (levee) construction is among the oldest forms of societal impacts to natural systems. Large lowland alluvial valleys are some of Earth's most distinctive environments and represent high levels of geodiversity and biodiversity. Embankment of large lowland alluvial river valleys alters fundamental processes related to floodplain hydrology, sedimentation, and ecology and eventually results in a transformation of the embanked floodplain environment. Since embankment, many large lowland floodplains have been heaviliy modified for floodplain agriculture and include high population densities, increasing flood risk. While there is much discussion about the pros and cons of dike construction and the impact to floodplain environments there is no systematic inventory which documents the magnitude and intensity of floodplain embankment to lowland rivers. In this study we characterize and inventory floodplain embankment along large lowland alluvial valleys. The review includes some of Earth's largest embanked fluvial systems, and primarilly focuses on northern hemisphere rivers in the United States, Europe and Asia. Data sources includes the U.S. National Levee Database, SRTM DEM, recently obtained high resolution satellite imagery, various national topographic map series, and hydrologic data from the published literature. These data are integrated into a GIS framework to facilitate the measurement and characterisation of floodplain embankment. Spatial indices of floodplain embankment are constructed, including the intensity of embankment and how it relates to the natural floodplain and constriction of flooding.
The American Creosote Works (ACW) site is located immediately southwest of Jackson, in central Madison County, Tennessee. ACW conducted wood-preserving operations using both creosote and PCP from the early 1930s until December 1981. Untreated process waste water and potential contaminated storm water runoff were discharged directly into Central Creek until 1973, at which time a levee was constructed to retain surface water runoff. The soil borrow pits used for the levee construction became sludge storage lagoons. A waste water treatment system was installed onsite during 1974 and 1975 and operated until 1981. The selected remedial action for the site includes consolidation and incineration of sludges in the vicinity of the buildings and tanks; on- or offsite incineration of the oils and sludges from the tanks; treatment of tanked process liquids onsite using a sand filter, filter press, and carbon adsorption unit, followed by discharge to a surface stream; decontamination and offsite disposal of site structures; construction of a flood-protection dike; deed restrictions and site fencing; and site stabilization including monitoring onsite water levels behind the dikes and pumping, treating (as needed), and discharging impounded water pending a final remedy.
At many occasions we are asked to achieve a “balance” in our lives: when it comes, for example, to work and food. Balancing is crucial in game design as well as many have pointed out. In games with a meaningful purpose, however, balancing is remarkably different. It involves the balancing of three different worlds, the worlds of Reality, Meaning, and Play. From the experience of designing Levee Patroller, I observed that different types of tensions can come into existence that require balancing. It is possible to conceive of within-worlds dilemmas, between-worlds dilemmas, and trilemmas. The first, the within-world dilemmas, only take place within one of the worlds. We can think, for example, of a user interface problem which just relates to the world of Play. The second, the between-worlds dilemmas, have to do with a tension in which two worlds are predominantly involved. Choosing between a cartoon or a realistic style concerns, for instance, a tension between Reality and Play. Finally, the trilemmas are those in which all three worlds play an important role. For each of the types of tensions, I will give in this level a concrete example from the development of Levee Patroller. Although these examples come from just one game, I think the examples can be exemplary for other game development projects as they may represent stereotypical tensions. Therefore, to achieve harmony in any of these forthcoming games, it is worthwhile to study the struggles we had to deal with.
Bernaski, G.; Guderjahn, C.G. )
The stratigraphic complexity of the Plio-Pleistocene reservoir sands in the East Breaks 165 field (offshore Texas) is readily demonstrated after the completion of exploration and development involved: (1) prediction of turbidite sand facies distributions and thickness, and (2) identification of fault offsets in the high variable reservoir sands. The well control and a 3D seismic data set provide the basis for reservoir description and a deepwater sand depositional model in the East Breaks 165 area. Four main productive sand intervals are present in the Plio-Pleistocene section. All are characterized by rapid lateral thickness and facies and fining-upward channel levee/overbank facies. The channel systems developed within an intraslope basin. The main reservoir structure is a highly faulted anticline located downthrown to northeast-trending extensional faults with up to 2,500 feet of displacement. The faulting is result of structural collapse owing to salt withdrawal from a salt-cored anticlinal ridge. Numerous small-scale faults that juxtapose permeable and impermeable units have added further complexity to the field development. The refined turbidite channel and channel levee/overbank model has been important in delineating future recompletion and development targets in the East Breaks 165 field. This model should also prove to be a useful analog for future Gulf of Mexico deepwater exploration and development programs.
Bradford, David F.; Smith, Lynda A.; Drezner, Deborah S.; Shoemaker, J. David
In much of the San Joaquin Valley, California, USA, inadequate drainage of applied irrigation water and accumulating salts in the soil have necessitated the installation of subsurface tile drainage systems to preserve crop productivity. At present, these subsurface drainage waters are disposed of by means of evaporation ponds or discharges into the San Joaquin River. Unfortunately, most of these agricultural drainage waters contain high concentrations of salts and naturally occurring trace elements, such as selenium, and recent evidence indicates that substantial numbers of waterbirds are exposed to contamination by selenium in the evaporation ponds. In order to avoid, minimize, or mitigate the adverse impacts on wildlife using the ponds, alternative pond management methods must be identified and evaluated for implementation. A number of methods have the potential to be cost-effective in significantly reducing the contamination hazard to birds using agricultural evaporation ponds. Twenty general methods were evaluated in this study, and four methods are recommended for implementation: remove levee vegetation, remove windbreaks, deepen the ponds, and haze birds. A number of other methods are recommended for further consideration because they appear to have good prospects for reducing the contamination hazard: steepen interior levee slopes, apply herbicides and insecticides, place netting on pond shorelines, and provide freshwater habitat adjacent to evaporation ponds. It may be necessary to use a combination of methods to effectively control selenium contamination of aquatic birds because it is unlikely that a single affordable pond management method will be able to entirely eliminate the contamination hazard.
Wood, Tamara M.; Hendrixson, Heather A.; Markle, Douglas F.; Erdman, Charles S.; Burdick, Summer M.; Ellsworth, Craig M.; Buccola, Norman L.
An advection/diffusion modeling approach was used to simulate the transport of larval suckers from spawning areas in the Williamson River, through the newly restored Williamson River Delta, to Upper Klamath Lake. The density simulations spanned the years of phased restoration, from 2006/2007 prior to any levee breaching, to 2008 when the northern part of the delta was reconnected to the lake, and 2009 when levees on both sides of the delta had been breached. Model simulation results from all four years were compared to field data using rank correlation. Spearman ρ correlation coefficients were usually significant and in the range 0.30 to 0.60, providing moderately strong validation of the model. The correlation coefficients varied with fish size class in a way that suggested that the model best described the distribution of smaller fish near the Williamson River channel, and larger fish away from the channel. When Lost River and shortnose/Klamath largescale suckers were simulated independently, the correlation results suggested that the model better described the transport and dispersal of the latter species. The incorporation of night-time-only drift behavior in the Williamson River channel neither improved nor degraded correlations with field data. The model showed that advection by currents is an important factor in larval dispersal.
Londoño, Ana C.; Hart, Megan L.
During the spring of 2011 massive, coalescing storm fronts in the upper Mississippi, and Ohio River basins caused extreme weather conditions that flooded the bottleneck section of the Mississippi River in the vicinity of Cairo, IL. In order to alleviate the volume of floodwaters acting on downstream levees and to stop flooding near Cairo, IL, the US Army Corps. of Engineers activated the Birds Point New Madrid Floodway by intentionally breaching the Birds Point Levee, releasing floodwaters onto active agricultural fields. The impacts of floodwater on the landscape were regionally significant. Concentrated erosion generated deep scour holes, rills, and gullies in localized areas of the floodway. Inflow and outflow of waters formed large deposits of sands and gravels. Sand sheets of a few centimeters to a meter thick blanketed the vicinity of the impacted areas, and in some cases sand accumulations exhibited current ripples indicating multiple flow directions. This study directly addresses geomorphic changes in the New Madrid Floodway resulting from activation and the diversion of floodwaters from the Mississippi River. Results from this study can be used along with other field data to conduct a thorough flood damage assessment that includes the costs associated with geomorphic alteration within the floodway.
Falcini, Federico; Colella, Simone; Volpe, Gianluca; Khan, Nicole; Macelloni, Leonardo; Santoleri, Rosalia; Horton, Benjamin; Jerolmack, Douglas
Wetlands in the Mississippi River deltaic plain are deteriorating in part because levees and control structures starve them of sediment. In Spring of 2011 a record breaking flood brought discharge on the lower Mississippi River to dangerous levels, forcing managers to divert additional water to the adjacent Atchafalaya River Basin. Here we quantify differences between the Mississippi and Atchafalaya River inundation and sediment-plume patterns using field-calibrated satellite data, and assess the impact these outflows had on wetland sedimentation. Since standard products available from MyOcean were not suitable for this purpose an ad hoc processing was developed to establish a relationship between field suspended sediment concentration (SSC) data and the corrected MODIS reflectance at 645 nm. We show that the focused, high-momentum jet from the leveed Mississippi delivered sediment far offshore. In contrast, the plume from the Atchafalaya was more diffuse; diverted water inundated a large area, and sediment was trapped within the coastal current. Maximum sedimentation (up to several centimetres) occurred in the Atchafalaya Basin despite the larger sediment load carried by the Mississippi. Little accumulation occurred along the shoreline between these river sources. The correspondence between zones of high shoreline deposition, and coastal SSC patterns indentified from satellite data, is strongly suggestive of plume-derived deposition on marshes. Our findings allow us to set an hydrodynamic theory that provides a mechanistic link between river-mouth dynamics and wetland sedimentation patterns, which is relevant for plans to restore deltaic wetlands.
Diniega, Serina; Hansen, Candice J.; McElwaine, Jim N.; Hugenholtz, C.H.; Dundas, Colin M.; McEwen, Alfred S.; Bourke, Mary C.
Long, narrow grooves found on the slopes of martian sand dunes have been cited as evidence of liquid water via the hypothesis that melt-water initiated debris flows eroded channels and deposited lateral levées. However, this theory has several short-comings for explaining the observed morphology and activity of these linear gullies. We present an alternative hypothesis that is consistent with the observed morphology, location, and current activity: that blocks of CO2 ice break from over-steepened cornices as sublimation processes destabilize the surface in the spring, and these blocks move downslope, carving out levéed grooves of relatively uniform width and forming terminal pits. To test this hypothesis, we describe experiments involving water and CO2 blocks on terrestrial dunes and then compare results with the martian features. Furthermore, we present a theoretical model of the initiation of block motion due to sublimation and use this to quantitatively compare the expected behavior of blocks on the Earth and Mars. The model demonstrates that CO2 blocks can be expected to move via our proposed mechanism on the Earth and Mars, and the experiments show that the motion of these blocks will naturally create the main morphological features of linear gullies seen on Mars.
Goodwell, Allison E; Zhu, Zhenduo; Dutta, Debsunder; Greenberg, Jonathan A; Kumar, Praveen; Garcia, Marcelo H; Rhoads, Bruce L; Holmes, Robert R; Parker, Gary; Berretta, David P; Jacobson, Robert B
Regional change in the variability and magnitude of flooding could be a major consequence of future global climate change. Extreme floods have the capacity to rapidly transform landscapes and expose landscape vulnerabilities through highly variable spatial patterns of inundation, erosion, and deposition. We use the historic activation of the Birds Point-New Madrid Floodway during the Mississippi and Ohio River Flooding of 2011 as a scientifically unique stress experiment to analyze indicators of floodplain vulnerability. We use pre- and postflood airborne Light Detection and Ranging data sets to locate erosional and depositional hotspots over the 540 km(2) agricultural Floodway. While riparian vegetation between the river and the main levee breach likely prevented widespread deposition, localized scour and deposition occurred near the levee breaches. Eroded gullies nearly 1 km in length were observed at a low ridge of a relict meander scar of the Mississippi River. Our flow modeling and spatial mapping analysis attributes this vulnerability to a combination of erodible soils, flow acceleration associated with legacy fluvial landforms, and a lack of woody vegetation to anchor soil and enhance flow resistance. Results from this study could guide future mitigation and adaptation measures in cases of extreme flooding. PMID:24512322
Lane, Robert R.; Huang, Haosheng; Day, John W.; Justic, Dubravko; DeLaune, Ronald D.
The Bayou Boeuf Basin (BBB), a sub-basin of the Barataria Basin estuary in coastal Louisiana, consists of forested and floating wetlands receiving drainage from surrounding agricultural fields and urban watersheds. We characterized surface water quality in the BBB, and determined through hydrologic modeling if a series of levee breaks along major drainage channels would significantly improve water quality by allowing flow into surrounding wetlands. Surface water monitoring found surrounding sugarcane farm fields to be major sources of nutrient and sediment loading. Hydrological modeling indicated that levee breaks would increase N reduction from the current 21.4% to only 29.2%, which is much lower than the anticipated 90-100% removal rate. This was due to several factors, one them being dredging of main drainage channels to such a degree that water levels do not rise much above the surrounding wetland elevation even during severe storms, so only a very small fraction of the stormwater carried in the channel is exposed to wetlands. These unexpected results provide insight into an undoubtedly pervasive problem in human dominated wetland systems; that of decreased flooding during storm events due to channel deepening by dredging activities. Additional water quality management practices should be implemented at the farm field level, prior to water entering major drainage canals.
Yamazaki, Dai; Trigg, Mark
Satellite-based high-resolution global water mask is essential for studies on terrestrial hydrology, aquatic ecosystem, and lake/wetland carbon cycle. In order to overcome drawbacks of previous water mask products (e.g. limited resolution not adequate to resolve small channels/levees, gaps in water mask due to cloud/ice/snow, unclear separation of permanent water body and temporally inundated area), a fully automated algorithm to retrieve global water mask from multiple satellite images is developed. Here we introduce new global 90-m water mask based on multi-decadal LANDSAT-GLS images. Analysis of the new water mask database suggested following advantages to previous water mask products: 1) Continuity of water body is ensured by filtering cloud/ice/snow and compositing multiple images, 2) Permanent water bodies (river channels, lakes) and temporally inundated area (floodplains, wetlands) are distinguished by calculating frequency of water body existence in multi temporal images, 3) Strict separation of river channels and surrounding floodplains is achieved by representing small channels and levees at 90 m resolution, 4) Small lakes in mountainous areas are well captured by classifying water and shadow using NDWI, NDVI, and topographic slope. Details of methods and further analysis are to be introduced at the conference.
Phipps, R.L.; Johnson, G.P.; Terrio, P.J.
Changes in sedimentation rates wee estimated using root-burial depth and tree-age data at six selected data-collection sites along the Kankakee River near Momence in Kankakee County, Illinois. Five sites were in backwater areas away from the river channel, and one site was on a natural levee near the channel. A summary of the dendrogeomorphic data at the six sites indicates that sedimentation rates were greater after 1950 than before 1950. Greater sedimentation rates after 1950 were observed at four of the five backwater sites, whereas no change in sedimentation rate after 1950 was observed at the fifth backwater site. The observed rates could have been affected by any combination of soil erosion, soil compaction, or increased streamflow. A greater sedimentation rate after 1950 was observed at the levee site, which appeared to have been affected by erosion from a flood in 1950. Effects of erosion were not observed at any of th other sites. No erosional effects and soil not susceptible to compaction at the five backwater sites indicate that neither erosion nor compaction affected observed sedimentation rates. The effect of increased stream- flow in the Kankakee River Basin since the early 1900's on the observed sedimentation rates is not known.
Salabarnada, Ariadna; Escutia, Carlota; Nelson, Hans; Damuth, John E.; Brinkhuis, Henk
IODP Expedition 318 drilled seven sites in two transects across the Wilkes Land (WL) margin of Antarctica. The objective was to obtain a long-term record of the Cenozoic Antarctic glaciation in response to climatic changes, including major transitions. Our work focuses on the study of nearly 300 meters of Oligocene-early Miocene sediments from Site 1356 (cores 42R to 72R) located on a channel levee in the lower continental rise. Shipboard core descriptions reported these sediments to consist of strongly bioturbated claystone and calcareous claystone with Zoophycos or Nereites ichnofacies. Subordinate lithofacies include: 1) laminated silty claystones, 2) convoluted claystones, sandstones and conglomerates; 3) mudstones and sandstones, with a few dispersed to common clasts; and 4) graded or cross-laminated siltstones and sandstones. Based on our study of facies associations in the cores, we differentiate 3 major sedimentary phases, representing important changes in the depositional environments off the WL margin. During the early-late Oligocene, sediments record deposition in a deep-water setting, with bottom currents reworking hemipelagic sediments. Late Oligocene sedimentary processes are dominated by successive fine- to coarse-grained debris-flow mass transport deposits. In the early Miocene, turbidites and hemipelagic sedimentation, characteristic of levee deposition, dominate. With this interpretation of sedimentary environments, plus the correlation between Site U1356 and seismic reflection profiles at the site and vicinity, we can begin to link the relation between along-slope and down-slope processes to the evolution of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet.
Henneberry, Y.; Mourad, D.; Kraus, T.; Bachand, P.; Fujii, R.; Horwath, W.
This study is part of a larger project designed to investigate the feasibility of using metal-based coagulants to remove dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from island drainage water in the San Joaquin Delta and subsequently retaining the metal-DOC precipitate (floc) in wetlands constructed at the foot of levees to promote levee stability. Dissolved organic carbon is a constituent of concern as some forms of DOC can be converted to carcinogenic compounds during drinking water treatment. The focus of this work is to assess floc stability over time and to determine whether floc can be permanently sequestered as part of wetland sediment. Drainage water collected seasonally from Twitchell Island was coagulated with ferric sulfate and polyaluminum chloride at optimal and 50%-optimal dosage levels. Floc was incubated in the laboratory under anaerobic conditions for six weeks under various conditions including different DOC concentrations, microbial inoculants, and addition of nutrients. Preliminary results indicate the floc is a stable system; little to no DOC was released from the floc into the water column under incubations with native microbial inoculate. In addition, floc incubated with previously coagulated water appeared to remove additional DOC from the water column. Future work will involve field and laboratory studies using 13C labeled plant material to examine the effects of fresh plant matter and the effects of peat soil DOC on floc stability, in order to elucidate mechanisms behind carbon stabilization by metal-based floc.
Li, Y.; Craven, J.; Schweig, E.S.; Obermeier, S.F.
In areas that are seismically active but lacking clear surficial faulting, many paleoearthquake studies depend on the interpretation of ancient liquefaction features (sand blows) as indicators of prehistoric seismicity. Sand blows, however, can be mimicked by nonseismic sand boils formed by water seeping beneath levees during floods. We examined sand boils induced by the Mississippi River flood of 1993 in order to compare their characteristics with sand blows of the New Madrid earthquakes of 1811-1812. We found a number of criteria that allow a distinction between the two types of deposits. (1) Earthquake-induced liquefaction deposits are broadly distributed about an epicentral area, whereas flood-induced sand boils are limited to a narrow band along a river's levee. (2) The conduits of most earthquake-induced sand blows are planar dikes, whereas the conduits of flood-induced sand boils are most commonly tubular. (3) Depression of the preearthquake ground surface is usual for sand blows, not for sand boils. (4) Flood-induced sand boils tend to be better sorted and much finer than sand-blow deposits. (5) Source beds for earthquake-induced deposits occur at a wide range of depths, whereas the source bed for sand boils is always near surface. (6) Materials removed from the walls surrounding the vent of a sand blow are seen inside sand blows, but are rarely seen inside sand boils. In general, flood-induced sand boils examined are interpreted to represent a less-energetic genesis than earthquake-induced liquefaction.
Costanza, Robert; Pérez-Maqueo, Octavio; Martinez, M Luisa; Sutton, Paul; Anderson, Sharolyn J; Mulder, Kenneth
Coastal wetlands reduce the damaging effects of hurricanes on coastal communities. A regression model using 34 major US hurricanes since 1980 with the natural log of damage per unit gross domestic product in the hurricane swath as the dependent variable and the natural logs of wind speed and wetland area in the swath as the independent variables was highly significant and explained 60% of the variation in relative damages. A loss of 1 ha of wetland in the model corresponded to an average USD 33,000 (median = USD 5000) increase in storm damage from specific storms. Using this relationship, and taking into account the annual probability of hits by hurricanes of varying intensities, we mapped the annual value of coastal wetlands by 1 km x 1 km pixel and by state. The annual value ranged from USD 250 to USD 51,000 ha(-1) yr(-1), with a mean of USD 8240 ha(-1) yr(-1) (median = USD 3230 ha(-1) yr(-1)) significantly larger than previous estimates. Coastal wetlands in the US were estimated to currently provide USD 23.2 billion yr(-1) in storm protection services. Coastal wetlands function as valuable, selfmaintaining "horizontal levees" for storm protection, and also provide a host of other ecosystem services that vertical levees do not. Their restoration and preservation is an extremely cost-effective strategy for society. PMID:18686502
The source of 25 to 30 percent of America's seafood, the Mississippi River Delta's cornucopian world is now uncertain. And yet, even if shrimp, oysters, and finfish are unaffected by the BP Oil Spill - a big if - one can already reflect on the passing of the culture once built upon gathering them. For almost three centuries, levees made life possible along the riverbanks and in the wetlands beyond. Those same levees also ensured the wetlands would eventually melt away into the Gulf. Cutting off the silt left behind during annual river inundations subjected the fragile land to erosion. Sulfur, natural gas, and oil production companies dug twenty thousand miles of canals to gain more direct routes to their fields and to pump out their mineral wealth. This caused salt-water intrusion that killed off plant life and caused more erosion. The world that sustained my Plaquemines ancestors was less subject to collapse following disasters not only because the ecosystem before the wetlands' ongoing loss was then more vibrant, complex, and robust; but also because their lives, especially their culinary lives, were more vibrant, complex, and robust. Life was hard, but when it came to putting food on the table, life followed the seasons. PMID:21591308
Sneck-Fahrer, Debra A.; Liscum, Fred; East, Jeffrey W.
Most of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta was leveed, drained, and converted to agricultural use by the 1930s. Land-surface elevations have since subsided by more than 20 feet in some areas. Subsidence increases the likelihood of levee failure and flooding, which, in turn, jeopardizes water delivery and water quality in the Delta. This is of major concern because the Delta supplies water to two-thirds of California. Previous research has shown that oxidation of peat soils is the primary cause of subsidence in the Delta. Therefore, a possible strategy for remedying this situation is to convert drained agricultural fields back to wetlands, which are flooded at least part of the year. Rehabilitation of wetlands would promote the growth of peat, thereby mitigating and possibly reversing subsidence. This report describes a study that evaluated this strategy. In three experimental enclosures or ponds, carbon inputs were measured in the form of plant biomass and outputs in the form of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) fluxes. Each of the ponds received one of the following water treatments: seasonally flooded, seasonally flooded and irrigated, or permanently flooded. Land-surface elevation, ground-water levels, and soil and air temperature also were measured. This report presents the data collected during the initial phase of the study, which ran from November 1992 through September 1995.
Suir, Glenn M.; Jones, William R.; Garber, Adrienne L.; Barras, John A.
Quantifying the effects of active natural and constructed crevasses is critical to the planning and success of future ecosystem restoration activities. This document provides a historical overview of landscape changes within the vicinity of the natural crevasses near Fort St. Philip, Louisiana. A significant event influencing landscape change within the Fort St. Philip study area was the breaching of the eastern levee of the Mississippi River. Initially, the river water that was diverted through these crevasse channels physically removed significant marsh areas within the study area. These initial direct impacts were succeeded by several decades of larger regional loss patterns driven by subsidence and other episodic events (e.g, hurricanes and floods), and recent localized land gains. These increases in land area are potentially the long-term results of the Fort St. Philip crevasses, and the short-term impacts of delta management activities. However, for the majority of the 1956-2008 period of analysis, the crevassing of the eastern bank of the Mississippi River levee was a loss accelerant in the Fort St. Philip area.
South Napa earthquake occurred in Napa, California on August 24 at 3am, local time, and the magnitude is 6.0. The earthquake was the largest in SF Bay Area since the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. Economic loss topped $ 1 billion. Wine makers cleaning up and estimated the damage on tourism. Around 15,000 cases of lovely cabernet were pouring into the garden at the Hess Collection. Earthquake potentially raise water pollution risks, could cause water crisis. CA suffered water shortage recent years, and it could be helpful on how to prevent underground/surface water pollution from earthquake. This research gives a clear view on drinking water system in CA, pollution on river systems, as well as estimation on earthquake impact on water supply. The Sacramento-San Joaquin River delta (close to Napa), is the center of the state's water distribution system, delivering fresh water to more than 25 million residents and 3 million acres of farmland. Delta water conveyed through a network of levees is crucial to Southern California. The drought has significantly curtailed water export, and salt water intrusion reduced fresh water outflows. Strong shaking from a nearby earthquake can cause saturated, loose, sandy soils liquefaction, and could potentially damage major delta levee systems near Napa. Napa earthquake is a wake-up call for Southern California. It could potentially damage freshwater supply system.
Allasia, D. G.; Tassi, R.; Bemfica, D.; Goldenfum, J. A.
Porto Alegre is the capital and largest city in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul in Southern Brazil with approximately 1.5 million inhabitants. The city lies on the eastern bank of the Guaiba Lake, formed by the convergence of five rivers and leading to the Lagoa dos Patos, a giant freshwater lagoon navigable by even the largest of ships. This river junction has become an important alluvial port as well as a chief industrial and commercial centre. However, this strategic location resulted in severe damage because of its exposure to flooding from the river system, affecting the city in the years 1873, 1928, 1936, 1941 and 1967. In order to reduce flood risk, a complex system of levees and pump stations was implemented during 1960s and 1970s. Since its construction, not a single large flood event occurred. However, in recent years, the levees in the downtown region of Porto Alegre were severally criticized by city planners and population. Several projects have been proposed to demolish the Mauá Wall due to the false perception of lack of flood risk. Similar opinions and reactions against flood infrastructure have been observed in other cities in Brazil, such as Itajaí and Blumenau, with disastrous consequences. This paper illustrates how the perception of flood risk in Porto Alegre has changed over recent years as a result of flood infrastructure, and how such changes in perceptions can influence water management decisions.
Elder, J.F.; Cairns, D.J.
Measurements of litter fall (leaves and other particulate organic material) and leaf decomposition were made on the Apalachicola River flood plain in 1979-80. Litter fall was collected monthly in five different forest types in swamp and levee areas. Leaves from 42 species of trees and other plants accounted for 58 percent of total litter fall. The remaining 42 percent was nonleaf material. Average litter fall was 800 grams per square meter per year in the flood plain. Tupelo (Nyssa), baldcypress (Taxodium), and ash (Fraxinus), all swamp-adapted trees, produce over 50 percent of the leaf fall. Common levee species such as sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) and diamond-leaf oak (Quercus laurifolia) are also major contributors to total flood-plain litter fall. Annual flooding of the river provides an important mechanism for mobilization of the litter-fall products. Leaf decomposition rates were greatly reduced in dry environments. Carbon loss was nearly linear over a 6-month period, but nitrogen and phosphorus loss was exponential and nearly complete within 1 month. (USGS)
Newcomer, Michelle E.; Kuss, Amber Jean; Nguyen, Andrew; Schmidt, Cynthia L.
In the past, natural tidal marshes in the south bay were segmented by levees and converted into ponds for use in salt production. In an effort to provide habitat for migratory birds and other native plants and animals, as well as to rebuild natural capital, the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project (SBSPRP) is focused on restoring a portion of the over 15,000 acres of wetlands in California's South San Francisco Bay. The process of restoration begins when a levee is breached; the bay water and sediment flow into the ponds and eventually restore natural tidal marshes. Since the spring of 2010 the NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) DEVELOP student internship program has collaborated with the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project (SBSPRP) to study the effects of these restoration efforts and to provide valuable information to assist in habitat management and ecological forecasting. All of the studies were based on remote sensing techniques -- NASA's area of expertise in the field of Earth Science, and used various analytical techniques such as predictive modeling, flora and fauna classification, and spectral detection, to name a few. Each study was conducted by a team of aspiring scientists as a part of the DEVELOP program at Ames.
Alonso, B.; Field, M.E.; Gardner, J.V.; Maldonado, A.
The Pliocene and Pleistocene deposits of the Spanish Ebro margin overlie a regional unconformity and contain a major disconformity. These unconformities, named Reflector M and Reflector G, mark the bases of two seismic sequences. Except for close to the upper boundary where a few small channel deposits are recognized, the lower sequence lacks channels. The upper sequence contains nine channel-levee complexes as well as base-of-slope aprons that represent the proximal part of the Valencia turbidite system. Diverse geometries and variations in seismic units distinguish shelf, slope, base-of-slope and basin-floor facies. Four events characterize the late Miocene to Pleistocene evolution of the Ebro margin: (a) formation of a paleodrainage system and an extensive erosion-to-depositional surface during the latest Miocene (Messinian), (b) deposition of hemipelagic units during the early Pliocene, (c) development of canyons during the late Pliocene to early Pleistocene, and (d) deposition of slope wedges, channel-levee complexes, and base-of-slope aprons alternating with hemipelagic deposition during the Pleistocene. Sea-level fluctuations influenced the evolution of the sedimentary sequences of the Ebro margin, but the major control was the sediment supply from the Ebro River. ?? 1990.
Eustatic sea level lows provide an opportunity for submarine-fan development; topography and structure, however, can control depositional-sequence geometry. Analysis of high-resolution seismic data provides a basis to evaluate to the evolution and geometry of the Pleistocene-Holocene Conception fan. The fan formed in the restricted, tectonically active Santo Barbara basin. It consists of 4 vertically stacked depositional sequences, each bounded by nondepositional unconformities. The unconformities are defined by seismic-sequence boundaries and were formed during sea-level falls that are related to Pleistocene glacioeustatic changes. Each depositional sequence consists of lowstand, sandrich facies (fan channel, levee, and lobe) topped by highstand, mud-rich facies. The geometry of the depositional sequences tends to be rectilinear, not arcuate, because lateral progradation is restricted by topographically high structures. The modern fan surface and the Holocene depositional sequence provide a good analog for the older, underlying depositional sequences. The fan surface is characterized by 4 main channels, 2 of which head into submarine canyons incised into the shelf. Submarine canyons that fed the other 2 channels are now filled and have no topographic expression. In addition, numerous partially buried channel segments occur in the interchannel areas. The Holocene depositional sequence consists of lenticular and sheet-drape deposits interpreted to be channel, levee, and lobe facies. The facies geometry suggests that Mutti's topographic compensation, channel migration, and avulsion were typical processes on Conception fan.
Helley, E.J.; Brabb, E.E.
This map is the first of several in the San Francisco Bay region showing the distribution and differentiation of the late Cenozoic alluvial, estuarine, and volcanic deposits. The sedimentary deposits of gravel, sand, silt, and clay were separated into geologic map units on the basis of their post-depositional soil development, texture, and geomorphology. Some of the geologic units are associated with different landforms having recognizable topographic expression such as alluvial fans, natural stream terraces, levees, and interfluvial basins. The relative ages of these unites were established on the basis of intensity of soil profile development, stratigraphic position, and geomorphic expression. The older deposits exhibit strongly developed soil profiles with strong horizon differentiation whereas younger deposits display minimal soil profile development, consisting primarily of organic matter accumulations near the land surface. Geomorphic expression and degree of erosion and dissection were additional criteria used to aid in the age determinations. For example, younger deposits form well-defined morphologic features such as levees, terraces, and broad, undissected alluvial fans along the margin of the bay basin and are related to present drainage patterns. The oldest deposits shown on this map (QTs) are structurally deformed by folding and faulting and therefore exhibit no original depositional geomorphic features. These deposits are not related to present drainage patterns but suggest earlier patterns much different from those existing today.
Burton, Bethany L.; Powers, Michael H.; Ball, Lyndsay B.
In July 2011, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, completed a geophysical survey using electrical resistivity along an approximately 6-mile reach of the lower American River in Sacramento, California, to map near-surface lithological variations. This survey is a part of a manifold and comprehensive study of river-flow dynamics and geologic boundary-property knowledge necessary to estimate scour potential and levee erosion risk. Data were acquired on the left (south or west) bank between river mile 5 and 10.7 as well as a short section on the right bank from river mile 5.4 to 6. Thirteen direct-current resistivity profiles and approximately 8.3 miles of capacitively coupled resisistivity data were acquired along accessible areas of the floodplain between the levee and river bank. Capacitively coupled resistivity was used as a reconnaissance tool, because it allowed for greater spatial coverage of data but with lower resolution and depth of investigation than the DC resistivity method. The study area contains Pleistocene-age alluvial deposits, dominated by gravels, sands, silts, and clays, that vary in both lateral extent and depth. Several generations of lithologic logs were used to help interpret resistivity variations observed in the resistivity models.
Goodwell, Allison E.; Zhu, Zhenduo; Dutta, Debsunder; Greenberg, Jonathan A.; Kumar, Praveen; Garcia, Marcelo H.; Rhoads, Bruce L.; Holmes, Jr., Robert R.; Parker, Gary; Berretta, David P.; Jacobson, Robert B.
Regional change in the variability and magnitude of flooding could be a major consequence of future global climate change. Extreme floods have the capacity to rapidly transform landscapes and expose landscape vulnerabilities through highly variable spatial patterns of inundation, erosion, and deposition. We use the historic activation of the Birds Point-New Madrid Floodway during the Mississippi and Ohio River Flooding of 2011 as a scientifically unique stress experiment to analyze indicators of floodplain vulnerability. We use pre- and postflood airborne Light Detection and Ranging data sets to locate erosional and depositional hotspots over the 540 km2 agricultural Floodway. While riparian vegetation between the river and the main levee breach likely prevented widespread deposition, localized scour and deposition occurred near the levee breaches. Eroded gullies nearly 1 km in length were observed at a low ridge of a relict meander scar of the Mississippi River. Our flow modeling and spatial mapping analysis attributes this vulnerability to a combination of erodible soils, flow acceleration associated with legacy fluvial landforms, and a lack of woody vegetation to anchor soil and enhance flow resistance. Results from this study could guide future mitigation and adaptation measures in cases of extreme flooding.
Hupp, C.R.; Pierce, A.R.; Noe, G.B.
Human alterations along stream channels and within catchments have affected fluvial geomorphic processes worldwide. Typically these alterations reduce the ecosystem services that functioning floodplains provide; in this paper we are concerned with the sediment and associated material trapping service. Similarly, these alterations may negatively impact the natural ecology of floodplains through reductions in suitable habitats, biodiversity, and nutrient cycling. Dams, stream channelization, and levee/canal construction are common human alterations along Coastal Plain fluvial systems. We use three case studies to illustrate these alterations and their impacts on floodplain geomorphic and ecological processes. They include: 1) dams along the lower Roanoke River, North Carolina, 2) stream channelization in west Tennessee, and 3) multiple impacts including canal and artificial levee construction in the central Atchafalaya Basin, Louisiana. Human alterations typically shift affected streams away from natural dynamic equilibrium where net sediment deposition is, approximately, in balance with net erosion. Identification and understanding of critical fluvial parameters (e.g., stream gradient, grain-size, and hydrography) and spatial and temporal sediment deposition/erosion process trajectories should facilitate management efforts to retain and/or regain important ecosystem services. ?? 2009, The Society of Wetland Scientists.
Hesse, R. )
Submarine drainage systems associated with mid-ocean channels and Yazoo River-type tributaries in small ocean basins represent a contrast to deep-sea fan depositional systems. Deep-sea fans are diverging sediment-dispersal systems of distributary fan valleys. Deep-sea channel-submarine-yazoo systems, on the other hand, form centripetally converging patterns of tributaries and yazoo-type satellite channels that join a major basin-draining (mid-ocean) channel. The facies model for such systems is characterized by randomly stacked fining-upward, gravelly, and sandy channel-fill and submarine point-bar sequences of the main channel encased in fine-grained overbank deposits. Second-order channels contain sandy proximal overbank deposits, whereas the levees of the main channel are predominantly composed of silt and clay. Second-order channels may be braided and may broaden into braid plains. Morphology and surficial sediment distribution have been studied within the Northwest Atlantic Mid-Ocean Channel of the Labrador Sea and its associated levees and yazoo-type (and other) tributaries.
Kolla, V.; Buffler, R.T.; Ladd, J.W.
Analysis of all available seismic data from the Magdalena Fan in the southern Colombian basin, Caribbean Sea, allows subdivision of the sedimentary section into six seismic sequences (units). Although sediments were deposited in the present-day Magdalena Fan region since about Late Cretaceous, terrigenous sedimentation became significant only in the late Cenozoic during deposition of the upper three sequences associated with the uplifts of the Andes. These upper three sequences comprise the Magdalena Fan proper. The uppermost sequence probably represents the last main phase of sedimentation subsequent to the major uplift of the Andes in the Pliocene. The morphologic and shallow acoustic (3.5 kHz) characteristics of this fan unit are: upper fan, 1:60-1:110 gradients, channels having well-developed levees, and several subbottom reflectors in all areas except in channels; middle fan, 1:110-1:200 gradients, numerous channels with very subdued levees, and several to few subbottom reflectors; lower fan, < 1:250 gradients, small channels, relatively smooth sea floor, and few or no subbottom reflectors.
Leitman, H.M.; Sohm, J.E.; Franklin, M.A.
The Apalachicola River is part of a 50,800-square-kilometer drainage basin in northwest Florida, Alabama, and Georgia. The river is formed by the confluence of the Chattahoochee and Flint Rivers at Jim Woodruff Dam and flows 171 kilometers to Apalachicola Bay in the Gulf of Mexico. Its flood plain supports 450 square kilometers of bottom-land hardwood and tupelco-cypress forests. The most common trees, constituting 62 percent of the total basal area, were five wet-site species; water tupelo, Ogeeche tupelo, baldcypress, Carolina ash, and swamp tupelo. Other common species were sweetgum, overcup oak, planertree, green ash, water hickory, sugarberry, and diamond-leaf oak. Five forest types were defined based on species predominance by basal area. Biomass increased downstream and was greatest in forests growing on permanently saturated soils. Water and tree relations varied with river location because range in water-level fluctuation and topographic relief in the flood plain diminished downstream. Heights of natural riverbank levees and size and distribution of breaks in levees had a major controlling effect on flood-plain hydrology. Depth of water, duration of inundation and saturation, and river location, but not water velocity, were very highly correlated with forest types. (USGS)
Zhang, Chaokai; Li, Xianghui; Mattern, Frank; Mao, Guozheng; Zeng, Qinggao; Xu, Wenli
Over thirty stratigraphic sections of the Himalaya orogen Upper Triassic Langjiexue Group in southern Tibet, China, were studied to interpret the environments and lithofacies. The facies associations channel (A), lobe (B), levee-interchannel (C), and basin plain (D) with nine facies (A1-3, B1-3, and C1-3) were distinguished. They form six architectural elements: channel-interchannel, overbank-levee, crevasse-splay, outer fan-lobe, fan-fringe, and basin plain. Taking into account the facies analysis, (sub-) deposystem correlation, paleocurrent dispersal pattern, and restoration of primary stratal width, the Langjiexue Group displays the architecture of a coalescing submarine fan-dominated deep sea deposystem, measuring about 400-500 km × 600-700 km in size or even more, one of the largest pre-Cenozoic submarine fans ever reported. Subdivisionally, four fans, lacking inner fans, could have coalesced laterally within the submarine fan deposystem, and at least six submarine fan developments were vertically succeeded by mid- to outer-fan deposits with progradational to retrogradational successions. According to the range of 30-70% of sandstone content, the fan deposystem is mud- and sand-rich, suggesting a medium-far (over 400-600 km) transport of sediment from the source area.
Gillespie, J.; Jordan, P. D.; Chehal, S.; Gonzales, G.; goodell, J. A.; Wilson, J.
Potential carbon storage reservoirs exist in mature oilfields of the southern San Joaquin Valley, California. Data regarding fluid extraction and injection and reservoir pressure exist for the three main oil reservoirs with carbon storage potential: the Monterey (Stevens sandstone member), Vedder and Temblor formations. The pressure response of these reservoirs to fluid volume changes over time provides information regarding how carbon storage may affect the pressure gradients in the adjacent saline aquifers outside the fields where less data exist. This project may provide a template for analysis of other potential carbon storage reservoirs that are contiguous with oilfields. A field-scale version of the productivity index (PI, defined as the average net fluid production rate divided by the average pressure drop over the time period) was calculated for fields with substantial production from depths suitable for carbon storage. The PI determines the reservoir's pressure response to fluid production and is related to the effective CO2 storage capacity. The variance of the 2005 pressure values within each reservoir provides a measure of reservoir continuity. The highest PI values (113,000 and 88,410 m3/yr/MPa) are in the Vedder Formation. The lowest PI values occur in the Temblor Formation and range from 3734 to 16,460 m3/yr/MPa. This indicates the Vedder reservoirs have more pressure support from the aquifer beyond the field than do the Temblor reservoirs. The pressure variance of 3.2 MPa within the Vedder Formation in the Greeley Field is the lowest. The greatest variance (8.5 MPa) occurs within the Temblor Formation in the Carneros unit of the Railroad Gap field. This indicates greater uniformity in the Vedder and more compartmentalization of the Temblor. Pressure response in the Stevens is more varied within the two fields examined in this study: North and South Coles Levee. In North Coles Levee, water injection was employed throughout the field resulting in a
DeStefano, S.; Brand, C.J.; Rusch, D.H.
moins de 1% des adultes et aucun oison n'en portait. Cependant, les concentrations sanguines m??dianes de base (??chantillons de sang contenant moins de 0,18 ppm de plomb) ??taient plus ??lev??es chez les adultes que chez les oisons, ce qui signifie probablement que les adultes avaient ??t?? expos??s au plomb au cours de saisons pr??c??dentes. Les plombs perdus ??taient abondants dans les territoires de migration et les territoires d'hiver et la proportion d'??chantillons de sang contenant des concentrations a?Y 0,18 ppm ??tait plus ??lev??e chez les oiseaux immatures (< 1 an) que chez les oiseaux adultes (> 1 an). Les concentrations m??dianes de base sont demeur??es plus ??lev??es chez les adultes que chez les immatures durant tout l'automne et tout l'hiver. Nous avons ??galement constat?? que plus de m??les immatures que de femelles immatures avaient des concentrations ??lev??es de plomb. Les taux plus ??lev??s d'ingestion de nourriture et de mati??res min??rales (y compris des plombs de chasse) expliquent probablement en partie la pr??sence de concentrations ??lev??es de plomb chez les Bernaches du Canada immatures.
Vermeulen, B.; van Berkum, S.; Hoitink, A.; Sassi, M.; Hidayat, H.
In the lower part of its course, the Mahakam River (Indonesia) flows through the subsiding Kutai Basin, through its own cohesive alluvium. The river is surrounded by a large number of floodplain lakes and peat domes. Its planform geometry and bed morphology reveal the presence of very sharp bends and associated deep scours. The lakes are connected to the river by small-sized tie-channels, which play a crucial role the discharge regime of the Mahakam downstream of the lake district. This study aims to establish the morphology of the sharp river bends and tie-channels, and to evaluate the contribution of sediment cohesion, riparian vegetation and the presence of peat in the area to river banks stability. Based on a detailed reconnaissance survey of the river banks, patterns of sedimentation and erosion in highly curved bends are found to be mirrored relative to those in mildly curved river stretches. Bars develop at the concave banks of sharp bends. On the convex sides, reattachment bars are often found, indicating flow separation at the inner bank. These sharp bends are thought to develop due to failure of the river to cutoff meanders due to erosion resistance of the banks. The top of the levees are located high in the landscape, forming a barrier between the surrounding swampy floodplains and the river. These levees form a buffer between the river corridor and peat domes, suggesting peat domes to be formed in areas outside the river corridor, rather than vice versa. Tie-channels are characterized by a very stable morphology and exhibit levees with decreasing height away from the river. The bed of these channels is armored with gravel and concretions of iron, organic matter and clay, suggesting that very high flow velocity can occur when the water level in the river changes abruptly. Both in the tie-channels and in the meandering part of the river, we found no apparent effect of vegetation on morphometric properties. We conclude the morphological characteristics of
Andes, L.; Wu, F.; MacWilliams, M.; Lu, C.; Lo, J.
Coastal flooding in the far south San Francisco Bay (SSFB) can be a function of astronomical tide, residual tide, in-bay wind speed and direction and fluvial discharge. These physical processes and coastal levee failure were considered as input parameters into a Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) to estimate coastal flood stage frequency in the SSFB. Limited data is available in the SSFB to estimate the contribution of these physical processes to coastal flood statistics. Over 100 years of measured water surface elevation (WSE) is available at the San Francisco tide station which can be used as input to hydrodynamic model simulations to estimate the WSE response in the SSFB. Data sampling criteria have been developed to select significant events at the San Francisco tide station for data transfer to the project site and statistical analysis. The coincidently sampled astronomical and residual tides at the San Francisco tide station were analyzed to cover the full range of the combinations of astronomical and residual tides that contribute to coastal flood statistics at the project site. A look-up table of astronomical and residual tide in the form of WSE responses at the project site from the hydrodynamic simulations was established for the interpolation in the MCS. The hydrodynamic model simulations indicated that the higher-high astronomical tides between 5.15 and 7.25 feet MLLW amplifies with a factor of 1.40 to 1.90 as a function of tidal frequency and water depth, including tidal range. The residual tide varies minimally as it propagates into the SSFB. In-Bay wind set-up from a significant event was found to contribute on the order of one foot to the total WSE in the SSFB; however, wind events with strong magnitudes along the primary axis of the bay occur infrequently making an insignificant contribution to the overall flood statistics. The fluvial discharges of Guadalupe River and Coyote Creek were considered in the hydrodynamic simulations as they are located
Cheng, A.; Davidson, G.; Altinakar, M.; Holt, R.
The proposed Yazoo River Basin Hydrologic Observatory consists of the 34,000 square km Yazoo River watershed in northwestern Mississippi and a 320 km segment of the Mississippi River separated from the watershed by a manmade levee. Discharge from the basin flows from the Yazoo River into the Mississippi River north of Vicksburg, MS. Major streams within the basin include the Yazoo, Tallahatchie, Yalobusha, Coldwater, Yocona, and Big Sunflower Rivers. Four large flood control reservoirs (Arkabutla, Enid, Sardis, and Grenada) and two national forests (Delta and Holly Springs) are also located within the basin. The watershed is divided between upland forested hills and intensively cultivated lowlands. The lowland area, locally known as the "Delta", lies on the ancestral floodplain of the Mississippi River. Flooding by the Mississippi River was once a common event, but is now limited by the levee system. Abundant wetlands occupy abandoned stream channels throughout the Delta. The Yazoo River Basin has many unique features that make it an attractive site for an Hydrologic Observatory. Example features and issues of scientific interest include: 1) Extensive system of levees which have altered recharge to the regional aquifer, shifted population centers, and created backwater flooding areas. 2) Abundant wetlands with a century-long history of response to agricultural sediment and chemical fluxes. 3) Erosion of upland streams, and stream sediment loads that are the highest in the nation. 4) Groundwater mining in spite of abundant precipitation due to a regional surface clay layer that limits infiltration. 5) A history of agricultural Best Management Practices enabling evaluation of the effectiveness of such measures. 6) Large scale catfish farming with heavy reliance on groundwater. 7) Near enough to the Gulf coast to be impacted by hurricane events. 8) Already existing network of monitoring stations for stream flow, sediment-load, and weather, including complete coverage
Bearman, J. A.; Foxgrover, A.; Friedrichs, C.; Jaffe, B.
Since the 1850's, the San Francisco Bay has been subjected to a wide array of human-induced change. From the time of the first US Coast and Geodetic Survey bathymetric surveys in 1858, the saltmarshes and mudflats of South San Francisco Bay (SSFB) have decreased in area by 80% and 40%, respectively. Much of the saltmarsh loss was due to salt pond leveeing, while mudflat loss can be related to lack of sediment input, wind-wave erosion, and sea level rise. Plans for marsh restoration include breaching of salt pond levees with the goal of restoring the 15,100 acres of acquired ponds to tidal marsh the largest such restoration in the western US. The effect this would have upon the adjacent mudflats is unclear. In this analysis, the tidal flats of SSFB are broken into geographically similar regions and multiple cross-sections are drawn from mean high water to below mean lower low water at close intervals, allowing for a mean tidal flat bathymetric profile to be determined for each segment and for each time period 1858, 1898, 1931, 1956, 1983, 2005. Eigenfunction analysis is used to separate the spatial and temporal changes in profile shape into the dominant components of variability, allowing evaluation of the behavior of mudflats relative to spatially and temporally-varying forcings. The components of bathymetric variability derived from objective statistical analysis are compared to theoretical models for tidal flat profiles as a function of waves, tides and sediment supply. Theoretical models predict that wave-dominated or sediment-starved flats tend to have concave-upwards bathymetric profiles, whereas tide-dominated or accretionary flats tend to have convex-upwards bathymetric profiles. Initial results from an analysis of the 1980's bathymetry data suggest the South Bay mudflats can be broken into three morphologically distinct sections: 1) concave-up, erosional mudflats in the Eastern zone, which is most subject to wind waves; 2) convex-up, accretionary flats in
Mastin, Mark C.; Olsen, T.D.
After the devastating floods caused by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, maps of the areas and depths of the 50-year-flood inundation at 15 municipalities in Honduras were prepared as a tool for agencies involved in reconstruction and planning. This report, which is one in a series of 15, presents maps of areas in the municipality of La Lima that would be inundated by Rio Chamelecon with a discharge of 500 cubic meters per second, the approximate capacity of the river channel through the city of La Lima. The 50-year flood (2,400 cubic meters per second), the original design flow to be mapped, would inundate the entire area surveyed for this municipality. Because water-surface elevations of the 50-year flood could not be mapped properly without substantially expanding the area of the survey, the available data were used instead to estimate the channel capacity of Rio Chamelecon in La Lima by trial-and-error runs of different flows in a numerical model and to estimate the increase in height of levees needed to contain flows of 1,000 and 2,400 cubic meters per second. Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages of the flood inundation are available on a computer in the municipality of La Lima as part of the Municipal GIS project and on the Internet at the Flood Hazard Mapping Web page (http://mitchnts1.cr.usgs.gov/projects/floodhazard.html). These coverages allow users to view the flood inundation in much more detail than is possible using the maps in this report. Water-surface elevations for various discharges on Rio Chamelecon at La Lima were determined using HEC-RAS, a one-dimensional, steady-flow, step-backwater computer program. The channel and floodplain cross sections used in HEC-RAS were developed from an airborne light-detection-and-ranging (LIDAR) topographic survey of the area and ground surveys at three bridges. Top-of-levee or top-of-channel-bank elevations and locations at the cross sections were critical to estimating the channel capacity of Rio Chamelecon
Song, Seo Young; Kim, Bitnarae; Nam, Myung Jin; Lim, Sung Keun
Between many reservoir dams for agriculture in suburban area of South Korea, water leakage has been reported several times. The dam under consideration in this study, which is located in Gyeong-buk, in the south-east of the Korean Peninsula, was reported to have a large leakage at the right foot of downstream side of the reservoir dam. For the detection of the leakage, not only geological survey but also geophysical explorations have been made for precision safety diagnosis, since the leakage can lead to dam failure. Geophysical exploration includes both electrical-resistivity and self-potential surveys, while geological surveys water permeability test, standard penetration test, and sampling for undisturbed sample during the course of the drilling investigation. The geophysical explorations were made not only along the top of dam but also transverse the heel of dam. The leakage of water installations can change the known-heterogeneous structure of the dam body but also cause streaming spontaneous (self) potential (SP) anomaly, which can be detected by electrical resistivity and SP measurements, respectively. For the interpretation of streaming SP, we used trial-and-error method by comparing synthetic SP data with field SP data for model update. For the computation, we first invert the resistivity data to obtain the distorted resistivity structure of the dam levee then make three-dimensional electrical-resistivity modeling for the streaming potential distribution of the dam levee. Our simulation algorithm of streaming SP distribution based on the integrated finite difference scheme computes two-dimensional (2D) SP distribution based on the distribution of calculated flow velocities of fluid for a given permeability structure together with physical properties. This permeability is repeatedly updated based on error between synthetic and field SP data, until the synthetic data match the field data. Through this trial-and-error-based SP interpretation, we locate the
Dittmers, K.; Niessen, F.; Stein, R.
Glaciations had a profound impact on the global sea-level and particularly on the Arctic environments. One of the key questions related to this topic is, how did the discharge of the Siberian Ob and Yenisei rivers interact with a proximal ice sheet? In order to answer this question high-resolution (1-12 kHz), shallow-penetration seismic profiles were collected on the passive continental margin of the Kara Sea Shelf to study the paleo-drainage pattern of the Ob and Yenisei rivers. Both rivers incised into the recent shelf, leaving filled and unfilled river channels and river canyons/valleys connecting to a complex paleo-drainage network. These channels have been subaerially formed during a regressive phase of the global sea-level during the Last Glacial Maximum. Beyond recent shelf depths of 120 m particle transport is manifested in submarine channel-levee complexes acting as conveyor for fluvial-derived fines. In the NE area, uniform draping sediments are observed. Major morphology determining factors are (1) sea-level fluctuations and (2) LGM ice sheet influence. Most individual channels show geometries typical for meandering rivers and appear to be an order of magnitude larger than recent channel profiles of gauge stations on land. The Yenisei paleo-channels have larger dimensions than the Ob examples and could be originated by additional water release during the melt of LGM Putoran ice masses. Asymmetrical submarine channel-levee complexes with channel depths of 60 m and more developed, in some places bordered by glacially dominated morphology, implying deflection by the LGM ice masses. A total of more than 12,000 km of acoustic profiles reveal no evidence for an ice-dammed lake of greater areal extent postulated by several workers. Furthermore, the existence of the channel-levee complexes is indicative of unhindered sediment flow to the north. Channels situated on the shelf above 120-m water depth exhibit no phases of ponding and or infill during sea
Cyr, A. J.
The Sacramento - San Joaquin River Delta, California, USA, is a critical region for California water resources, agriculture, and threatened or endangered species. This landscape is affected by an extensive set of levees that enclose artificial islands created for agricultural use. In addition to their importance for sustaining agriculture, this levee system also supports extensive transport and power transmission infrastructure and urban/suburban development. These levees are susceptible to damage from even moderate ground shaking by either a large earthquake on one of the high-activity faults in the nearby San Francisco Bay region, or even a moderate earthquake on one of the low-activity faults in the Delta region itself. However, despite this danger the earthquake hazards in this region are poorly constrained due to our lack of understanding of faults in and near the Delta region. As part of an effort to better constrain the seismic hazard associated with known, but poorly constrained, faults in the region, a geomorphic analysis of the Dunnigan Hills, northwest of Woodland, CA, is being combined with cosmogenic 10Be catchment-averaged erosion rates. The Dunnigan Hills are a low-relief (maximum elevation 87 m) landscape generated by fault-bend folding above the west-vergent Sweitzer reverse fault that soles into a blind east-vergent reverse fault. These faults have been imaged by seismic reflection data, and local microseismicity indicates that this system is actively propagating to the east. However, the throw rates on the faults in this system remain unconstrained, despite the potential for significant shaking such as that experienced in the nearby April, 1892 earthquake sequence between Winters and Vacaville, Ca, ~25 km to the south, which has been estimated at magnitude 6.0 or greater. Geomorphic and cosmogenic 10Be analyses from 12 catchments draining the eastern flank of the Dunnigan Hills will be used to infer vertical rock uplift rates to better constrain
van den Ham, G.; Mastbergen, D.; de Groot, M.
Flow slides in submerged slopes in non-lithified sandy and silty sediments form a major threat for flood defences along (estuary) coastlines and riverbanks in the Netherlands. Such flow slides may result in failure of levees and structures, eventually leading to flooding of the hinterland. Flow slide is a complex failure mechanism that includes both soil mechanical and hydraulic features. Two important sub-mechanisms are static liquefaction and breach flow. Static liquefaction entails the sudden loss of strength of loosely packed saturated sand or silt resulting in a collapse of the sand body. Breach flow is a more superficial process, involving the upslope retrogression of a local steep part of the slope which generates a turbulent sand-water mixture flow along the sand surface of the under water slope. Both mechanisms need a trigger, e.g. local steepening of the slope by erosion or slip failure. Although a breach flow slide generally takes more time than a liquefaction flow slide, both mechanisms result in a flowing sand-water mixture, that eventually resedimentates under a very gentle slope. Therefore in the analysis of historical flow slides it is often not clear to what extent static soil liquefaction and/or breach flow has played a role. In the current Dutch practice the prediction of levee failure due to flow sliding is based on either simple but conservative empirical rules based on documented historical flow slides in which distinction between mentioned sub-mechanisms is disregarded, or rather complex physical-based models describing mechanisms such as static liquefaction or breach flow. It will be presented how both approaches can be combined into a practical, probabilistic method for assessing dike failure due to flow sliding, accounting for uncertainties of the main influence factors. The method has recently been implemented in the so-called Dike Analysis Module (DAM). DAM is a platform for performing semi-automatic stability analyses on a large number
Downs, P. W.; Dusterhoff, S. R.; Sears, W. A.
River ecosystem restoration is usually based on re-establishing an equilibrium channel form, with the channel modified to convey the statistical bankfull discharge without quite overtopping. The rationale for bankfull-based strategies has stemmed from geomorphic studies which observed that bankfull flow exhibited a frequency that, over the long-term, transported the greatest total load of sediment, making it the `dominant' or `channel- forming' flow. Such ideas have become pervasive in the popular perception of river geomorphology. In contrast, analysis of sediment transport in the lower Santa Clara River, one of the largest coastal watersheds in Southern California (drainage area 4,212 km2) indicates that the dominant discharge is not the bankfull discharge, but instead the largest flow on record. This characteristic is due to extreme flow variability resulting from an ENSO-influenced semi-arid climate, very high sediment supply from highly erodible bedrock, and significant episodic sediment generation from landslides, earthquakes and wildfires. Channel response to large flows is enhanced because the river is now partially leveed and responding to recent in-channel gravel mining. Challenges for managing and restoring the lower Santa Clara River are, therefore, based less on managing moderate fluctuations around a long-term equilibrium channel morphology, and more on accommodating significant lateral and vertical morphological changes resulting from individual large flood events. At decadal scales, influences on channel form include the intensity of ENSO activity, the balance of flow generated by major tributaries exhibiting different sediment supply characteristics, and a suite of human activities that affect the channel at local spatial scales. Regional influences include legacy impacts from ranching, groundwater abstraction, flow regulation, and the 1928 St. Francis Dam disaster. Urban growth will likely influence future impacts. In this highly dynamic
Cossu, R.; Wells, M. G.
In this talk we will show how Coriolis forces can control the flow dynamics of turbidity currents flowing in sinuous channels at high latitudes. We describe how the internal velocity structure changes with latitude, based on observations from rotating laboratory experiments. When these results are combined with existing conceptual facies and depositional models we can now describe the changes in sedimentation patterns that are observed at different latitudes. The experiments were conducted in a sinuous channel model placed in a tank that was rotated at various rates (reflected by the Coriolis parameters f) ranging from f = 0 (at the equator) to ± 0.5 rad s-1 (at higher latitudes). The dependence of the density interface of gravity currents on rotation is shown in Figure 1a. At the equator the interface slopes up to the outer bend due to the centrifugal forces. In the Northern Hemisphere (NH) the tilt of the interface increases as now the Coriolis forces reinforce the centrifugal acceleration. In contrast, in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) the current ramps up to the inner bend and Coriolis forces dominate over centrifugal forces. Figure 1b shows the corresponding position of the downstream velocity core in the bend apex. At the equator the core is predominantly close to the centerline, whilst in the NH the core is deflected to the inner bend and in the SH the velocity core is shifted to the outer bank. Based upon our experimental results, we hypothesize that Coriolis forces can affect the velocity structure and sedimentation regime. Lateral accretion packages (LAPs) are built only on one side in the channel and finer sediments will be deposited mainly on the levee bank to which the high velocity core is deflected. The Rossby number RoW = U/fW (where U is the mean downstream velocity and W the channel width) can be used to determine the influence of Coriolis forces. In channel systems at high-latitudes (with RoW << 1) we predict that channels exhibit a low sinuosity
GUERESCHI, MARCIA G.; PRESTES, JONATO; DONATTO, FELIPE F.; DIAS, RODRIGO; FROLLINI, ANELENA B.; FERREIRA, CLÍLTON KO.; CAVAGLIERI, CLAUDIA R.; PALANCH, ADRIANNE C.
O propósito desse estudo foi verificar as alterações histofisiológicas em monócitos e macrófagos induzidas por curtos períodos de exercícios. Ratos Wistar (idade = 2 meses, peso corporal = 200g) foram divididos em sete grupos (n=6 cada): controle sedentário (C), grupos exercitados (natação) na intensidade leve por 5 (5L), 10 (10L) e 15 minutos (15L), e grupos exercitados em intensidade moderada por 5 (5M), 10 (10M) e 15 minutes (15M). Na intensidade moderada os animais carregaram uma carga de 5% do peso corporal dos mesmos em seus respectivos dorsos. Os monócitos sangüíneos foram avaliados quanto à quantidade e morfologia e os macrófagos peritoneais foram analisados quanto à quantidade e atividade fagocitária. Os dados foram analisados usando ANOVA e Tukey’s post hoc test (p ≤ 0,05). Os grupos de intensidade leve e 5M apresentaram aumento nos níveis dos monócitos quando comparados com o controle. Foi observado aumento na área celular dos monócitos para os grupos 5L, 10L, 5M e 10M; a área nuclear aumentou para os grupos 10L, 5M e 10M em comparação com o controle. Houve aumento nos macrófagos peritoneais para os grupos 15L, 10M, 15M e diminuição no grupo 5M. A capacidade fagocitária dos macrófagos aumentou nos grupos de intensidade leve e para o grupo 10M. O exercício realizado por curtos períodos modulou o número e função dos macrófagos, assim como o número e morfologia dos monócitos, sendo tais alterações dependentes da intensidade. A soma das respostas agudas observadas nesse estudo pode exercer um efeito protetor contra doenças, podendo ser utilizada para a melhora da saúde e qualidade de vida.
Normark, W.R.; Piper, D.J.W.; Hiscott, R.N.
Hueneme and Dume submarine fans in Santa Monica Basin consist of sandy channel and muddy levee facies on the upper fan. lenticular sand sheets on the middle fan. and thinly bedded turbidite and hemipelagic facies elsewhere. Fifteen widely correlatable key seismic reflections in high-resolution airgun and deep-towed boomer profiles subdivide the fan and basin deposits into time-slices that show different thickness and seismic-facies distributions, inferred to result from changes in Quaternary sea level and sediment supply. At times of low sea level, highly efficient turbidity currents generated by hyperpycnal flows or sediment failures at river deltas carry sand well out onto the middle-fan area. Thick, muddy flows formed rapidly prograding high levees mainly on the western (right-hand) side of three valleys that fed Hueneme fan at different times: the most recently active of the lowstand fan valleys. Hueneme fan valley, now heads in Hueneme Canyon. At times of high sea level, fans receive sand from submarine canyons that intercept littoral-drift cells and mixed sediment from earthquake-triggered slumps. Turbidity currents are confined to 'underfit' talweg channels in fan valleys and to steep, small, basin-margin fans like Dume fan. Mud is effectively separated from sand at high sea level and moves basinward across the shelf in plumes and in storm-generated lutite flows, contributing to a basin-floor blanket that is locally thicker than contemporary fan deposits and that onlaps older fans at the basin margin. The infilling of Santa Monica Basin has involved both fan and basin-floor aggradation accompanied by landward and basinward facies shifts. Progradation was restricted to the downslope growth of high muddy levees and the periodic basinward advance of the toe of the steeper and sandier Dume fan. Although the region is tectonically active, major sedimentation changes can be related to eustatic sea-level changes. The primary controls on facies shifts and fan growth
Budillon, Francesca; Conforti, Alessandro; Tonielli, Renato; de Falco, Giovanni; di Martino, Gabriella; Innangi, Sara; Marsella, Ennio
The Bulgheria canyon-fan system in the eastern Tyrrhenian Sea displays well-developed, small-scale, fluvial-like features and has formed alongside the northern slope of the Sapri peri-Tyrrhenian basin. This study reveals, for the first time, the morphology and course of the present-day system as well as the buried elements based on a Digital Terrain Model and high-resolution seismic profiles interpretation. Two adjacent canyons (Infreschi and Luna) originate in the Cilento outer shelf at a short distance from each other and feed an intraslope basin fan through two main sub-parallel channels that run about 12 and 8 km, respectively. Channel and levee development seems to be controlled primarily by the local slope gradient and by Coriolis forces that induce a faster vertical growth of the right-side features, as is often observed in the Northern Hemisphere. Centrifugal forces, on the other hand, have induced episodic flow-stripping at the meander loops and bends, causing local destruction of the main channel levees rather than new levee growth at the outer bends. Overbank deposits are associated with overspill turbidite deposition in the mid fan where a topographic constraint occurs, whereas large-sediment, low-angle wave fields are mainly developed on the outer fan. Buried features and relict morphologies suggest that the Infreschi channel experienced at least two phases of re-incision since the final stages of the middle Pleistocene. Local re-adjustment of outer lobe growth due to channel avulsion and meander abandonment is possibly a consequence of relative base-level fluctuations. The sedimentary record of the mid and outer fan includes outrun mass wasting deposits from extensive failures of the Sapri slope. Indeed, a marked scar is present on the eastern side of the modern outer lobe that indicates the persistency of mass flow passages up to recent times. In addition to the environmental factors that are currently considered to cause canyon formation on the
Jobe, Z. R.; Sylvester, Z.; Parker, A. O.; Pirmez, C.; Slowey, N. C.
Three-dimensional seismic, piston cores, and autonomous underwater vehicle data (chirp sub-bottom profiles, multibeam bathymetry, and sidescan sonar) provide a multi-scale dataset used to examine the evolution of a submarine channel system on the western Niger Delta continental slope. Four phases of channel evolution are documented that are interpreted to relate to changes in the sediment routing system. The first phase is incisional and creates a large valley within which the subsequent phases evolve. The second phase records the development of sinuosity through lateral accretion of the meander bends. Meander cutoffs and channel-bank mass wasting result in terraced and scalloped channel margins. This phase is volumetrically most significant in terms of channel fill. The third phase is characterized by thalweg aggradation with slight channel narrowing; preferential deposition towards the outer banks results in a reduction of sinuosity. This phase likely reflects the updip abandonment of the channel system. The fourth phase is characterized by inner levee deposition that occurs primarily on outer banks, causing a reduction in channel width and sinuosity. These changes are caused by the capture of a small slope channel that is the source for underfit flows that attempt to adjust the channel cross section and thalweg gradient through inner levee deposition. Chirp sub-bottom profiles and piston core data reveal that these sigmoidal inner levees consist of thin-bedded, ripple-laminated turbidites interbedded with mudstones. The channel thalweg consists of amalgamated, sand-rich turbidites with dune-scale bedforms and occasional mass transport deposits. Core transects taken across the channel demonstrate that sand bed thickness decreases with height above the channel thalweg. Laser particle size analyzer data indicate a progressive decrease in grain size with height above the channel thalweg. These vertical trends in grain size and bed thickness distribution are used to
Dettinger, M. D.; Ralph, F.; White, A. B.; Anderson, M.; Florsheim, J.; Cayan, D. R.; Hinojosa, A.
California's Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta is a broad inland delta, 100 km east of San Francisco, that has experienced severe ecosystem losses and transformations over the past 100+ years, as it has been engineered to be an ever more important center for the State's water, utilities and transportation, and agriculture systems. As important and engineered as the Delta is, it is also an increasingly fragile system with aging levees, subsiding land surfaces, and a multitude of invading species. Severe storms and the floods that they engender pose great risks to the levees and other infrastructures in the Delta, while also playing necessary roles in key biogeomorphological processes that will need to be maintained (or expanded) if Delta ecosystems are to be restored. Of particular concern are the severe storms associated with landfalling atmospheric rivers (ARs) that, since 1950, have caused 80% of major floods, 76% of inundations of the ecologically important floodplains like the broad Yolo Bypass immediately above the Delta, and 81% of levee breaks in the Central Valley and Delta. Because of the critical role of severe storms and especially ARs in many of the environmental and infrastructural problems facing the Delta (and California, more generally), a new severe-storm monitoring network using several new remote atmospheric-observing technologies is being implemented across the broad catchment of the Delta and much of California by the California Department of Water Resources, NOAA, and Scripps Institution of Oceanography with increasing participation from local agencies. The network is intended to provide much more precise now-casting of critical but previously under-monitored storm characteristics, like rapidly evolving snowlines, barrier jets, and patterns of AR vapor transport into the State, characteristics that will enable a new era of storm-forecast improvements. The network relies on new radar, sounder, and GPS technologies installed strategically and for the
Elder, John F.; Cairns, Duncan J.
Measurements of litter fall (leaves and other particulate organic material) and leaf decomposition were made on the bottom-land hardwood swamp of the Apalachicola River flood plain in 1979-80. Litter fall was collected monthly from nets located in 16 study plots. The plots represented five forest types in the swamp and levee areas of the Apalachicola River flood plain. Forty-three species of trees, vines, and other plants contributed to the total litter fall, but more than 90 percent of the leaf material originated from 12 species. Nonleaf material made up 42 percent of the total litter fall. Average litter fall was determined to be 800 grams per square meter per year, resulting in an annual deposition of 3.6 ? 105 metric tons of organic material in the 454-square-kilometer flood plain. The levee communities have less tree biomass but greater tree diversity than do swamp communities. The levee vegetation, containing less tree biomass, produces slightly more litter fall per unit of ground surface area than does the swamp vegetation. The swamps are dominated by three genera: tupelo (Nyssa), cypress (Taxodium) and ash (Fraxinus). These genera account for more than 50 percent of the total leaf fall in the flood plain, but they are the least productive, on a weight-perbiomass basis, of any of the 12 major leaf producers. Decomposition rates of leaves from five common floodplain tree species were measured using a standard leaf-bag technique. Leaf decomposition was highly species dependent. Tupelo (Nyssa spp.) and sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) leaves decomposed completely in 6 months when flooded by river water. Leaves of baldcypress (Taxodium distichum) and diamond-leaf oak (Quercus laurifolia) were much more resistant. Water hickory (Carya aquatica) leaves showed intermediate decomposition rates. Decomposition of all species was greatly reduced in dry environments. Carbon and biomass loss rates from the leaves were nearly linear over a 6-month period, but nitrogen
Morris, Aisha Renee
In this work, high-resolution topography and imaging datasets are utilized to illuminate the formation processes of enigmatic surface features on Mars and lava flows on Kilauea Volcano. Thermally distinct craters are identified on a deposit flanking Hrad Vallis, Elysium Planitia, Mars. In THEMIS IR nighttime images, the craters have cool interiors surrounded by warm ejecta haloes and in daytime IR the craters have warm interiors surrounded by cool ejecta, suggesting coarser material in the ejecta than in the surrounding terrain. The craters exhibit varying degrees of concentric fracturing and blocks up to several meters across are visible in HiRISE images. The distribution and morphology of the craters suggest that they are the result of interaction between a hot deposit and ice. Previous studies of the one-dimensional roughness characteristics of volcanic surfaces indicate that information regarding the formation and evolution of the surface may be gleaned from roughness statistics. In this work, the 1D technique is carried into the second dimension, where roughness statistics are mapped using topography at varying resolutions. Lava flows in Kilauea caldera, emplaced by a variety of processes, provide a useful location to apply the 2D model. The 2D model results indicate that features formed during emplacement and modification of the flows exhibit statistically distinct roughness signatures and provides a tool for unit mapping based on surface roughness. Four candidate examples of impact melt flows and debris flows have been identified on the southern rim and interior wall at Tooting crater, a young, 29 km diameter impact crater in Amazonis Planitia, Mars. The flows are analyzed using HiRISE, CTX, and THEMIS VIS images, and a stereo-derived HiRISE DEM. The impact melt flows are fractured on the meter- to decameter scale, have ridged, leveed lobes and flow fronts. The debris flows exhibit varying morphologies, from a channelized, leveed flow with arcuate ridges in
Marchetti, Z. Y.; Latrubesse, E. M.; Pereira, M. S.; Ramonell, C. G.
The Parana River is one of the most important fluvial systems of South America and its floodplain includes the most diverse subtropical ecosystem on the continent. However, the relationship between basic aspects, such as the vegetation and geomorphology of the river floodplain, has scarcely been investigated. In this paper, the annual dynamics of vegetation in relation to the geomorphologic and hydrological characteristics of a river floodplain around 31° 30' S, are analyzed. The annual dynamics of vegetation was investigated using values of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) obtained from satellite images at two scales of spatial analysis: the first, at the geomorphologic unit level, through several transects crossing the total width of each unit and, the second, through some transects selected from each unit. Our analysis considered variables of different temporal stability (such as geomorphology, hydrology, vegetation, precipitation, and ground temperature), using scenes corresponding to two hydrological cycles of the system (2009 and 2010), which represented relatively "dry" and "humid" years. Five main geomorphologic units were identified in the floodplain of this anabranching system, which were named considering the predominant landforms and the most important (or typical) water course of each area: Bars and Islands of the Main Channel of the Parana River (BI-MCH), Scroll Bars of the Colastine Branch (SB-C), Scroll Bars of the San Javier River Channel (SB-SJ), Crevasse Splays and Levees of the Malo-Mendieta minor channels (CSL-MM), and Crevasse Splays and Levees of the Santa Fe-Coronda river channels (CSL-SFC). These major units are assembled at different general levels and with variable slopes, which partially control the permanence and other characteristics of the flood flow. The crevasse splays and river levees units were predominantly characterized by herbaceous-bushy marshy vegetation, with low mean NDVI values, while SB-C and BI
Thorne, Karen M.; Elliott-Fisk, Deborah L.; Wylie, Glenn D.; Perry, William M.; Takekawa, John Y.
We evaluated the biogeomorphic processes of a large (309 ha) tidal salt marsh and examined factors that influence its ability to keep pace with relative sea-level rise (SLR). Detailed elevation data from 1995 and 2008 were compared with digital elevation models (DEMs) to assess marsh surface elevation change during this time. Overall, 37 % (113 ha) of the marsh increased in elevation at a rate that exceeded SLR, whereas 63 % (196 ha) of the area did not keep pace with SLR. Of the total area, 55 % (169 ha) subsided during the study period, but subsidence varied spatially across the marsh surface. To determine which biogeomorphic and spatial factors contributed to measured elevation change, we collected soil cores and determined percent and origin of organic matter (OM), particle size, bulk density (BD), and distance to nearest bay edge, levee, and channel. We then used Akaike Information Criterion (AICc) model selection to assess those variables most important to determine measured elevation change. Soil stable isotope compositions were evaluated to assess the source of the OM. The samples had limited percent OM by weight (-3, indicating that the soils had high mineral content with a relatively low proportion of pore space. The most parsimonious model with the highest AICc weight (0.53) included distance from bay's edge (i.e., lower intertidal) and distance from levee (i.e., upper intertidal). Close proximity to sediment source was the greatest factor in determining whether an area increased in elevation, whereas areas near landward levees experienced subsidence. Our study indicated that the ability of a marsh to keep pace with SLR varied across the surface, and assessing changes in elevation over time provides an alternative method to long-term accretion monitoring. SLR models that do not consider spatial variability of biogeomorphic and accretion processes may not correctly forecast marsh drowning rates, which may be especially true in modified and urbanized
Shen, Kang-Nien; Tien-Shun Lin, Andrew; Lin, Che-Chuan; Liu, Char-Shine; Wang, Yunshuen
The accretionary wedge off SW Taiwan is the result of incipient arc-continent collision between the Luzon volcanic arc and the northern rifted margin of the South China Sea (SCS). Dynamic interactions of thrusting, folding and a rigorous sediment supply from the Taiwan mountain belts have resulted in two arrays of canyons/channels and slope-fan systems in the accretionary wedge. The Penghu canyon/fan system lies in the lower wedge and near the northern rifted margin of the SCS. The Penghu canyon is a river-fed canyon and receives sediments from southern Taiwan and SE China during eustatic lowstands. It becomes detached from river inputs during eustatic highstands as it is in the present-day. The Gaoping canyon/fan system in the south traverses both the upper slope and lower slope domains of the accretionary wedge. This system is a river-fed system during a full eustatic cycle and it drains sediments from the onshore Gaoping River. We interpreted multiple grids of multichannel seismic reflection data of MCS994, MCS1000-6, MCS1014, MCS1046 collected onboard Ocean Research I during 2012 April to 2013 August to map out thrust/fold structures and channel/fan systems in the study area. Seismic facies analyses were performed on seismic sections and key stratal surfaces of base of Pliocene and base of Pleistocene are correlated from boreholes drilled in the shelf of the northern SCS margin. Our results show that the upper Gaoping Canyon has been confined by structural ridges with limited switching of canyon courses, whereas the lower Gaoping canyon/fan system has been developed on lower slope with channel/levee deposition in multiple slope fans since early Pleistocene. Pleistocene lateral aggrading channel-and-levee systems are especially evident near the modern canyon course in the lower slope. The Penghu can/fan system in the lower accretionary wedge is also evident by seismic facies showing channel cut-and-fill, channel abandonment and channel-and-levee systems. This
Normark, W.R.; McGann, M.; Sliter, R.
The Palos Verdes debris avalanche is the largest, by volume, late Quaternary mass-wasted deposit recognized from the inner California Borderland basins. Early workers speculated that the sediment failure giving rise to the deposit is young, taking place well after sea level reached its present position. A newly acquired, closely-spaced grid of high-resolution, deep-tow boomer profiles of the debris avalanche shows that the Palos Verdes debris avalanche fills a turbidite leveed channel that extends seaward from San Pedro Sea Valley, with the bulk of the avalanche deposit appearing to result from a single failure on the adjacent slope. Radiocarbon dates from piston-cored sediment samples acquired near the distal edge of the avalanche deposit indicate that the main failure took place about 7500 yr BP. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Fischer, Edward E.
Flooding of the Iowa River during July and August 1993 caused extensive contraction scour at the State Highway 99 bridge over the Iowa River at Wapello, Iowa. At least 3.3 m of piling under the footing of the second pier from the right (west) abutment were exposed. The scoured streambed did not fill in again after the flood receded, and a bathymetric survey in November 1993 showed that the streambed had been scoured for a distance of about 500 m upstream from the bridge. The bridge was closed to traffic, first because of water over the roadway when a levee failed, and then remained closed because of the exposed piling. The bridge subsequently was reopened to traffic with a weight limit of 13.6 tons.
Montz, B E; Tobin, G A
A relationship between residential property values and the incidence of flooding is represented, using a case study of two Californian communities that were flooded following a levee break. Analysis of the real estate market before and after the flood shows that the flood was capitalized into housing values, whereby both list and selling prices dropped immediately and have recently begun to recover. However, recovery of the market is not uniform throughout the floodplain. Houses that suffered eighteen inches of water recovered to near pre-flood values in less than one year. In contrast, houses that had approximately ten feet of water in them have not recovered to the same extent, indicating that capitalization and recovery do not occur evenly. These findings suggest that policies and programs should address these spatial and temporal differences in recovery, which are expected to vary with different flood frequencies and magnitudes. PMID:20958665
Andes, L.; Wu, F.; Lo, J.; MacWilliams, M.; Lu, C.; Dean, R.; Hanes, D. M.
Coastal flooding in the far south San Francisco Bay (SSFB) can be a function of astronomical tide, residual tide (i.e. water elevation deviation from computed astronomical tide that is associated with many possible physical processes), in-bay wind speed and direction and fluvial discharge. These physical processes and coastal levee failure were considered as input parameters into a Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) to estimate extreme water elevation frequency in the SSFB. Limited data is available in the SSFB to estimate the contribution of these physical processes to extreme water elevation statistics. Over 100 years of measured water surface elevation (WSE) data is available at the San Francisco (SF) tide station. A sensitivity analysis of storm event sampling criteria was conducted to select significant events at the SF tide station for data transfer to the project site and statistical analysis. The coincidently sampled astronomical and residual tides at the San Francisco tide station were analyzed and used to develop the storm event databases. Sampling methods employed were compared with annual maximum and partial duration approaches. Additional statistical testing was performed to justify the assumption of coincident sampling. The selected database was found to be most representative of the full range of the combinations of astronomical and residual tides that contribute to extreme water elevation statistics at the project site. A look-up table of astronomical and residual tide, wind speed and direction, and levee failure in the form of WSE responses at the project site from the hydrodynamic simulations was established for the interpolation in the MCS. The hydrodynamic model simulations indicated that the astronomical tides in the SSFB amplify inversely as a function of tidal range at the SF tide station. The residual tide varies minimally as it propagates into the SSFB. In-Bay wind set-up from a significant event was found to contribute on the order of one foot
Parker, D. E.; Martens, W. L.; Johnston, P. A.
Intelligibility of PB word lists embedded in simultaneous masking noise was evaluated before and after fatiguing-noise exposure, which was determined by observing the number of words correctly repeated during a shadowing task. Both the speech signal and the masking noise were filtered to a 2825-3185-Hz band. Masking-noise leves were varied from 0- to 90-dB SL. Fatigue was produced by a 1500-3000-Hz octave band of noise at 115 dB (re 20 micron-Pa) presented continuously for 5 min. The results of three experiments indicated that speed intelligibility was reduced when the speech was presented against a background of silence but that the fatiguing-noise exposure had no effect on intelligibility when the speech was made more intense and embedded in masking noise of 40-90-dB SL. These observations are interpreted by considering the recruitment produced by fatigue and masking noise.
Presentation by Cristina Milesi, First Author, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA at the "Meeting the Challenge of Sea Level Rise in Santa Clara County" on June 19, 2005 Santa Clara County, bordering with the southern portion of the San Francisco Bay, is highly vulnerable to flooding and to sea level rise (SLR). In this presentation, the latest sea level rise projections for the San Francisco Bay will be discussed in the context of extreme water height frequency and extent of flooding vulnerability. I will also present preliminary estimations of levee requirements and possible mitigation through tidal restoration of existing salt ponds. The examples will draw mainly from the work done by the NASA Climate Adaptation Science Investigators at NASA Ames.
Mohamed, Azfar; Hadi Abd Rahman, Abdul; Suhaili Ismail, Mohd
Newly outcrops exposed in the West Crocker Formation have led to the detail sedimentolgical analysis of the formation. Eight sedimentary facies have been recognised in which it was divided into three main groups: (1) sand-dominated facies (F1-F2), (2) poorly- sorted unit mixed sand and mud-dominated facies (F3), and (3) mud-dominated facies (F4-F5). These are: F1- graded sandstone (massive to planar laminated), F2-ripple-cross laminated, wavy and convolute lamination sandstone, F3-chaotic beds of mixed sandstone and mudstone blocks and clasts, F4-lenticular bedded of sandstone, and F5-shale. The studies of the formation has come out that it was deposited in a sand-rich submarine fan with specific location located at (1) inner fan channel-levee complex; (2) mid-fan channelised lobes, and (3) outer fan.
Schramm, H.L., Jr.; Eggleton, M.A.; Mayo, R.M.
Analysis of four years of growth data failed to identify a single temperature or hydrologic variable that consistently accounted for variation in annual growth of catfishes (Ictaluridae). Instead, a composite variable that measured duration of floodplain inundation when water temperature exceeded minima for active feeding was directly related to growth. Results indicated that floodplain inundation have provided little direct energetic benefit to fishes when water temperatures were sub-optimal for active feeding, but floodplain resources were exploited when thermal conditions were sufficient for active feeding and growth. Thus, the flood-pulse concept applies to the lower Mississippi River (LMR) when modified to consider temperature. Managing the existing leveed floodplain to prolong inundation, increase water temperatures during spring flooding, and maintain connectivity of floodplain habitats with the main river channel should benefit fish production in the LMR.
van Heerden, I. L.
Recent floods along the Atlantic and Gulf seaboards and elsewhere in the world before Katrina had demonstrated the complexity of public health impacts including trauma; fires; chemical, sewerage, and corpse contamination of air and water; and diseases. We realized that Louisiana's vulnerability was exacerbated because forty percent of the state is coastal zone in which 70% of the population resides. Ninety percent of this zone is near or below sea level and protected by man-made hurricane-protection levees. New Orleans ranked among the highest in the nation with respect to potential societal, mortality, and economic impacts. Recognizing that emergency responders had in the past been unprepared for the extent of the public health impacts of these complex flooding disasters, we created a multi-disciplinary, multi-campus research center to address these issues for New Orleans. The Louisiana Board of Regents, through its millennium Health Excellence Fund, awarded a 5-year contract to the Center in 2001. The research team combined the resources of natural scientists, social scientists, engineers, and the mental health and medical communities. We met annually with a Board of Advisors, made up of federal, state, local government, and non-governmental agency officials, first responders and emergency managers. Their advice was invaluable in acquiring various datasets and directing aspects of the various research efforts. Our center developed detailed models for assessment and amelioration of public health impacts due to hurricanes and major floods. Initial research had showed that a Category 3 storm would cause levee overtopping, and that most levee systems were unprotected from the impacts of storm-induced wave erosion. Sections of levees with distinct sags suggested the beginnings of foundation and subsidence problems. We recognized that a slow moving Cat 3 could flood up to the eaves of houses and would have residence times of weeks. The resultant mix of sewage, corpses
Ghazizadeh, M.; Walker, K.R.
Middle Ordovician carbonate sediments (Chickamauga Group) near Decatur, Tennessee, consist of 450 m of complex tidal-flat and subtidal sediments. Fourteen facies are recognized: (1) cherty dolostone (supratidal environment); (2) green and red silty mudstone (supratidal mud flat); (3) greenish-gray micrite-biomicrite (supratidal mud flat); (4) red silty, intrapelbiosparite-biosparite (intertidal channel); (5) green and red, loosely packed, ostracod-rich pelbiomicrite (intertidal pond); (6) stromatolitic mudstone (intertidal levee); (7) bryozoan-ostracod-brachiopod-rich pelbiomicrite (subtidal lagoon type I); (8) silty, packed pelbiomicrite-pelbiosparite (subtidal lagoon type II); (9) ostracod-gastropod-rich, bioturbated pelbiomicrite (subtidal lagoon type III); (10) bioturbated brachiopod-molluscan-rich biomicrite (subtidal lagoon type IV); (11) bioturbated green and red silty mudstone to silty sparse biomicrite (lagoon); (12) gray-tan mudstone to sparse biomicrite (quiet water, deeper subtidal lagoon); (13) intrapelbiosparite-pelbiosparite (subtidal channel); and (14) Tetradium-rich packstone (subtidal wave baffle).
(Released 05 April 2002) Olympus Mons stands 26 km above the surrounding plains, which is three times taller than Mt. Everest, and is the tallest volcano in the solar system. Olympus Mons is also wider (585 km) than the state of Arizona. Although these are impressive dimensions an astronaut would find walking these slopes easy, as they are typically only 2 to 5 degrees. This image contains numerous lava flows, leveed lava channels, a discontinuous sinuous rille (thought to be a collapsed lava tube) and lava plains. Close examination of the sinuous rille reveals that portions of the roof of the lava tube have not completely collapsed. All of these features can be seen in basaltic (iron and magnesium rich black rock) volcanic regions on Earth like Hawaii and Iceland. Impact craters are scarce, indicating a relatively young age (several hundred million years old) for these surfaces.
MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-549, 19 November 2003The volcanic plains to the east, southeast, and south of the giant Tharsis volcano, Pavonis Mons, are dotted by dozens of small volcanoes. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows an example located near 2.1oS, 109.1oW. The elongate depression in the lower left (southwest) quarter of the image is the collapsed vent area for this small, unnamed volcano. A slightly sinuous, leveed channel runs from the depression toward the upper right (north-northeast); this is the trace of a collapsed lava tube. The entire scene has been mantled by dust, such that none of the original volcanic rocks are exposed--except minor occurrences on the steepest slopes in the vent area. The scene is 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and illuminated by sunlight from the left/upper left.
MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-453, 15 August 2003Olympus Mons is perhaps the largest volcano in the Solar System. It towers to more than 20 km above the martian datum--the elevation of 0 km--and it is wide enough to stretch east to west across the U.S. state of Arizona. This August 2003 Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows some of the lava flows and leveed lava channels on the southeastern flank of Olympus Mons. These flows have been covered by a thick mantle of dust. The image is located near 14.4oN, 132.0oW and covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) across at 1.5 m (5 ft.) per pixel. The scene is illuminated from the lower left.
This is a false-color L-band image of an area near Glasgow, Missouri, centered at about 39.2 degrees north latitude and 92.8 degrees west longitude. The image was acquired using the L-band radar channel (horizontally transmitted and received and horizontally transmitted/vertically received) polarizations combined. The data were acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on orbit 50 on October 3,1994. The area shown is approximately 37 kilometers by 25 kilometers (23 miles by 16 miles). The radar data, coupled with pre-flood aerial photography and satellite data and post-flood topographic and field data, are being used to evaluate changes associated with levee breaks in landforms, where deposits formed during the widespread flooding in 1993 along the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers. The distinct radar scattering properties of farmland, sand fields and scoured areas will be used to inventory floodplains along the Missouri River and determine the processes by which these areas return to preflood conditions. The image shows one such levee break near Glasgow, Missouri. In the upper center of the radar image, below the bend of the river, is a region covered by several meters of sand, shown as dark regions. West (left) of the dark areas, a gap in the levee tree canopy shows the area where the levee failed. Radar data such as these can help scientists more accurately assess the potential for future flooding in this region and how that might impact surrounding communities. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific
This is a false-color L-band image of an area near Glasgow, Missouri, centered at about 39.2 degrees north latitude and 92.8 degrees west longitude. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 50th orbit on October 3, 1994. The false-color composite was made by displaying the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received) return in red; the L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received) return in green; and the sum of the two channels in blue. The area shown is approximately 37 kilometers by 25 kilometers (23 miles by 16 miles). The radar data, coupled with pre-flood aerial photography and satellite data and post-flood topographic and field data, are being used to evaluate changes associated with levee breaks in landforms, where deposits formed during the widespread flooding in 1993 along the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers. The distinct radar scattering properties of farmland, sand fields and scoured areas will be used to inventory floodplains along the Missouri River and determine the processes by which these areas return to preflood conditions. The image shows one such levee break near Glasgow, Missouri. In the upper center of the radar image is a region covered by several meters of sand, shown as blue regions below the bend in the river. West (left) of this dark area, a blue gap in the levee tree canopy can be seen, showing the area where the levee failed. Radar data such as these can help scientists more accurately assess the potential for future flooding in this region and how that might impact surrounding communities. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar(SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm
On the bank of a levee near Schwartz Rd. at Kennedy Space Center, an alligator suns itself with a wary eye out for trespassers. Nearly 5,000 alligators can be found in canals, ponds, and waterways throughout the Center and the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which shares a boundary with the Center. American alligators feed and rest in the water, and lay their eggs in dens they dig into the banks. The young alligators spend their first several weeks in these dens. The Wildlife Refuge encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.
Chuber, S.; Howell, H.H.
Whole-core petrographic and micropaleontological analyses from four wells and subsurface studies in three new fields of the Hallettsville area define a heretofore unsuspected deltaic suite of facies in the lower Wilcox. Massive distributary channel sands up to 250 ft thick are interbedded with overbank silts and shales as well as marsh, crevasse-splay, and natural levee sediments. Sparse microfauna indicate a restricted marine, shallow neritic, or nonmarine facies with reworked Cretaceous forms. Three channels have been productive to date: the Renger and Golsch (gas bearing) and the Hathaway (oil bearing). Even with dipmeter, whole-core, and abundant seismic data available, the narrow, sinuous channel sands are difficult to locate. Once penetrated, however, the sands produce either oil or condensate-rich gas in copious amounts.
Reusch, Anna; Loher, Markus; Bouffard, Damien; Moernaut, Jasper; Hellmich, Franziska; Anselmetti, Flavio S.; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Hilbe, Michael; Kopf, Achim; Lilley, Marvin D.; Meinecke, Gerrit; Strasser, Michael
Subsurface fluid flow in oceans and lakes affects bathymetric morphology, sediment distribution, and water composition. We present newly discovered giant lacustrine pockmarks in Lake Neuchâtel (up to 160 m diameter and 30 m deep) that rank among the largest known pockmarks in lakes. Our multidisciplinary study reveals ~60 m of suspended sediment inside a pockmark. The sediment suspension is 2.6° warmer and isotopically lighter in δ18OH2O by 1.5‰ than the ambient lake water, documenting currently active fluid flow by karstic groundwater discharge from the Jura Mountain front into the Swiss Plateau hydrological system. Strikingly, the levees of the pockmarks comprise subsurface sediment mobilization deposits representing episodic phases of sediment expulsion during the past. They strongly resemble subsurface fluid flow features in the marine realm. Comparable processes are expected to also be relevant for other carbonate-dominated mountain front ranges, where karstic groundwater discharges into lacustrine or marine settings.
Komatsu, Goro; Kargel, Jeffrey S.; Baker, Victor R.
Canali-type channels on Venus are unique because of their great lengths (up to 6800 km) and nearly constant channel cross sectional shapes along their paths. A simple model incorporating channel flow and radiative cooling suggests that common terrestrial-type tholeiite lava cannot sustain a superheated and turbulent state for the long distances required for thermal erosion of canali within allowable discharge rates. If canali formed mainly by constructional processes, laminar tholeiitic flow of relatively high, sustained discharge rates might travel the observed distances, but the absence of levees would need to be explained. An exotic low temperature, low viscosity lava like carbonatite or sulfur seems to be required for the erosional genesis of canali.
Ha, Taemin; Yoo, Jeseon; Han, Sejong; Cho, Yong-Sik
Most coastal structures have been built in surf zones to protect coastal areas. In general, the transformation of waves in the surf zone is quite complicated and numerous hazards to coastal communities may be associated with such phenomena. Therefore, the behavior of waves in the surf zone should be carefully analyzed and predicted. Furthermore, an accurate analysis of deformed waves around coastal structures is directly related to the construction of economically sound and safe coastal structures because wave height plays an important role in determining the weight and shape of a levee body or armoring material. In this study, a numerical model using a large eddy simulation is employed to predict the runup heights of nonlinear waves that passed a submerged structure in the surf zone. Reduced runup heights are also predicted, and their characteristics in terms of wave reflection, transmission, and dissipation coefficients are investigated. PMID:25215334
Patino, Eduardo; Hittle, Clinton D.
Changes in water-management practices have been made to accommodate a large and rapidly growing urban population along the Atlantic Coast and to meet the demand for intensive agricultural activities. These changes have resulted in a highly managed hydrologic system consisting of numerous canals, levees, control structures, and pumping stations that have altered the hydrology of the Everglades and Florida Bay ecosystems. Over the past decade, Florida Bay has experienced sea-grass die-off and algal blooms, which are indicators of ecological change attributed primarily to the increase in salinity and nutrient content of bay waters. Because plans are to restore sheetflow in the Everglades wetlands to its natural state, water managers anticipate a change in the magnitude and timing of freshwater exiting the mainland through the creeks that cut through the embankment or as sheetflow into Florida Bay.
Rykhus, Russell P.
In the early morning of 29 August 2005, Hurricane Katrina made landfall near Buras, Louisiana, as a Category 4 hurricane. With wind speeds of about 233 kilometers per hour, a storm surge of 8.5 meters, and heavy rains, Katrina pounded the U.S. Gulf Coast states of Alabama, Louisiana, and Mississippi with lifethreatening flooding and destruction. Katrina's high winds and storm surge breached the levees protecting New Orleans, a city located below sea level, and flooded approximately 80% of the city.Katrina also caused major damage to the region's oil and natural gas production and refining capabilities. On 2 September 2005, the Associated Press reported that Katrina had damaged 58 oil platforms, 30 of which were reported lost; one damaged platform had been blown nearly 100 km from its original location.
Kim, B.; David, C. H.; Druffel-Rodriguez, R.; Sanders, B. F.; Famiglietti, J. S.
The City of Sacramento and the broader delta region may be the most flood vulnerable urbanized area in the United States. Management of flood risk here and elsewhere requires an understanding of flooding hazards, which is in turn linked to California hydrology, climate, development and flood control infrastructure. A modeling framework is presented here to make predictions of flooding hazards (e.g., depth and velocity) at the household scale (personalized flood risk information), and to study how these predictions could change under different climate change, land-use change, and infrastructure adaptation scenarios. The framework couples a statewide hydrologic model (RAPID) that predicts runoff and streamflow to a city-scale hydrodynamic model (BreZo) capable of predicting levee-breach flows and overland flows into urbanized lowlands. Application of the framework to the Sacramento area is presented here, with a focus on data needs, computational demands, results and hazard communication strategies, for selected flooding scenarios.
Roy, Amitava; Bianchetti, Christopher; Tittsworth, Roland; Pardue, John
Hurricane Katrina, a Category 4 storm on the Saffir-Simpson scale, struck the Gulf Coast of Louisiana on August 29th, 2005. The storm surge resulted in breaches of the levee system in New Orleans at least at two locations, flooding up to 80% of the city. The floodwater also brought sediment which was left behind once the water receded after a few days. The dry sediment covered large parts of the city. Much of it was made airborne by vehicular traffic and was potentially inhaled. The sediments from the Lakeview area contained an appreciable amount of clay minerals which were absent in samples from Mid City. The speciation of these metals was quantitatively different in two neighborhoods. In one location metallic copper and zinc were present. A small amount of hexavalent chromium was detected at two sites.
Chapman, Duane C.; Ehrhardt, Ellen A.; Fairchild, James F.; Jacobson, Robert B.; Poulton, Barry C.; Sappington, Linda C.; Kelly, Brian P.; Mabee, William R.
The study documented the interaction between hydrology and the biological dynamics within a single spring season at Lisbon Bottom in 1999. The study goal was to provide information necessary for resource managers to develop management strategies for this and other units of the Big Muddy National Fish and Wildlife Refuge. Researchers studied the hydrology, limnology, and biological dynamics of zooplankton, macroinvertebrates, fish and waterbird communities. Lisbon Bottom is one of several parcels of 1993 flood-damaged land that was purchased from willing sellers by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service as part of the Big Muddy National Fish and Wildlife Refuge. Lisbon Bottom is a loop bend in the river near Glasgow in Howard County, Missouri between approximately river mile (RM) 213 to RM 219. Flooding at Lisbon in 1993 and 1995 breeched local levees and created a diverse wetland complex.
Lambert, S.; Heymann, A.; Gotteland, P.; Nicot, F.
This paper addresses the response of rockfall protection embankments when exposed to a rock impact. For this purpose, real-scale impact experiments were conducted with impact energies ranging from 200 to 2200 kJ. The structure was composed of a 4 m-high cellular wall leaned against a levee. The wall was a double-layer sandwich made from gabion cages filled with either stones or a sand-scrapped tyre mixture. For the first time, sensors were placed in different locations within the structure to measure real-time accelerations and displacements. The test conditions, measurement methods and results are presented in detail. The structure's response is discussed in a descriptive and phenomenological approach and compared with previous real-scale experiments on other types of embankments.
Lambert, S.; Heymann, A.; Gotteland, P.; Nicot, F.
This paper addresses the response of rockfall protection embankments when exposed to a rock impact. For this purpose, real-scale impact experiments were conducted with impact energies ranging from 200 to 2200 kJ. The structure was composed of a 4 m high cellular wall leaned against a levee. The wall was a double-layer sandwich made from gabion cages filled with either stones or a sand-schredded-tyre mixture. For the first time, sensors were placed in different locations within the structure to measure real-time accelerations and displacements. The test conditions, measurement methods and results are presented in detail. The structure's response is discussed in a descriptive and phenomenological approach and compared with previous real-scale experiments on other types of embankments.
Nominations for the first Gilbert F. White Distinguished Lecture Award, sponsored by AGU's Natural Hazards Focus Group, are due 1 May. The lecture, established last year, will be given during the 2012 AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco, 3-7 December. The lecture is named for Gilbert F. White (1911-2006), an AGU Fellow who was internationally known for his significant contributions to natural hazards research. Some of White's most notable work involved the identification and classification of adjustment mechanisms for flooding in the United States, perceptions of natural hazards, and the importance of sound water management in contemporary society. White advocated, where feasible, adaptation to or accommodation of food hazards rather than the "structural" solutions (e.g., dams, levees, and foodwalls) that dominated policy in the early twentieth century
Ikeuchi, Koji; Ochi, Shigeo; Yasuda, Goro; Okamura, Jiro; Aono, Masashi
In order to enhance the emergency preparedness for large-scale floods of the Ara River, we conducted flooded water surface calculation for many possible levee failure points an d categorized the flood patterns. We also conducted hearing survey from the National Police Agency, the Fire and Disaster Management Agency and the Defense Ministry about the number and the capacity of the rescue boats available as well as the estimated cycle time of the rescue operations. Employing these data, we constructed rescue simulation model and estimated the number of the stranded persons and the rescue waiting time. The damage mitigation effectiveness analysis of rescue operations, drainage pumps operations, and evacuation rate improving measures was conducted. The results of the analysis showed the proper operations of rescue and drainage pumps as well as achieving higher evacua tion rate can substantially decrease the number of the stranded persons 3 days, which is an important reference time for stranded persons' health, after the flooding.
Flood protection is one of the practical methods in damage reduction. Although it not possible to be completely protected from flood disaster but major part of damages can be reduced by mitigation plans. In this paper, the optimum flood mitigation master plan is determined by economic evaluation in trading off between the construction costs and expected value of damage reduction as the benefits. Size of the certain mitigation alternative is also be obtained by risk analysis by accepting possibility of flood overtopping. Different flood mitigation alternatives are investigated from various aspects in the Dez and Karun river floodplain areas as a case study in south west of IRAN. The results show that detention dam and flood diversion are the best alternatives of flood mitigation methods as well as enforcing the flood control purpose of upstream multipurpose reservoirs. Dyke and levees are not mostly justifiable because of negative impact on down stream by enhancing routed flood peak discharge magnitude and flood damages as well.
Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Box, Stephen E.; Jackson, Berne L.; Brandt, Theodore R.; Derkey, Pamela D.; Munts, Steven R.
-dominated central sand bar at Cataldo Landing. Metal-enriched sediments that were dredged from the central sand bar were deposited on Cataldo Flats, to form extensive dredge-spoil deposits. From the central sand bar to CdA Lake, thick deposits of metal-enriched sand partially fill the middle of the pre-mining-era channel along straight reaches, and form point-bars along the inside margins of meander bends. Metal-enriched sand and silt form oxidized bank-wedge deposits along riverside margins of pre-mining-era levees of gray silty mud. Metal-enriched levee sand deposits extend across bank wedges and natural levees, generally thinning and fining away from the river, toward lateral marshes and lakes, where dark gray metal-enriched silt and mud overlie silty peat, deposited before the mining era. Distributary streams and man-made canals locally diverge from the river, connecting it to lateral marshes and lakes, and metal-enriched sand splays locally fan out across the floodplain. At the mouth of the river, a bouyancy-dominated river-mouth bar crests beyond the ends of the emergent levees. Thick delta-front deposits of metal-enriched sand slope from the river-mouth bar to the bottom of CdA Lake.
McMichael, L D; Noble, C R; Margraf, J D; Glascoe, L G
Structural failures, such as the MacArthur Maze I-880 overpass in Oakland, California and the I-35 bridge in Minneapolis, Minnesota, are recent examples of our national infrastructure's fragility and serve as an important reminder of such infrastructure in our everyday lives. These two failures, as well as the World Trade Center's collapse and the levee failures in New Orleans, highlight the national importance of protecting our infrastructure as much as possible against acts of terrorism and natural hazards. This paper describes a process for evaluating the vulnerability of critical infrastructure to large blast loads using a fully-coupled finite element approach. A description of the finite element software and modeling technique is discussed along with the experimental validation of the numerical tools. We discuss how such an approach can be used for specific problems such as modeling the progressive collapse of a building.
Czuba, Jonathan A.; Czuba, Christiana R.; Magirl, Chistopher S.; Voss, Frank D.
-conveyance capacity was the White River between R Street Bridge and the Lake Tapps return, a reach affected by recent flooding. Conveyance capacity also decreased in sections of the Puyallup River. Conveyance capacity was mostly unchanged along other study reaches. Bedload transport was simulated throughout the entire river network and consistent with other observations and analyses, the hydraulic model showed that the upper Puyallup and White Rivers tended to accumulate sediment. Accuracy of the bedload-transport modeling, however, was limited due to a scarcity of sediment-transport data sets from the Puyallup system, mantling of sand over cobbles in the lower Puyallup and White Rivers, and overall uncertainty in modeling sediment transport in gravel-bedded rivers. Consequently, the output results from the model were treated as more qualitative in value, useful in comparing geomorphic trends within different river reaches, but not accurate in producing precise predictions of mass of sediment moved or deposited. The hydraulic model and the bedload-transport component were useful for analyzing proposed river-management options, if surveyed cross sections adequately represented the river-management site and proposed management options. The hydraulic model showed that setback levees would provide greater flood protection than gravel-bar scalping after the initial project construction and for some time thereafter, although the model was not accurate enough to quantify the length of time of the flood protection. The greatest hydraulic benefit from setback levees would be a substantial increase in the effective channel-conveyance area. By widening the distance between levees, the new floodplain would accommodate larger increases in discharge with relatively small incremental increases in stage. Model simulation results indicate that the hydraulic benefit from a setback levee also would be long-lived and would effectively compensate for increased deposition within the setback reach
Hauryliuk, Vasili; Atkinson, Gemma C.; Murakami, Katsuhiko S.; Tenson, Tanel; Gerdes, Kenn
The alarmone (p)ppGpp is involved in regulating growth and several different stress responses in bacteria. In recent years, substantial progress has been made in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of (p)ppGpp metabolism and (p)ppGpp-mediated regulation. In this Review, we summarize these recent insights, with a focus on the molecular mechanisms governing the activity of the RelA/SpoT Homologue (RSH) proteins, which are key players that regulate the cellular leves of (p)ppGpp, the structural basis of transcriptional regulation by (p)ppGpp and the role of (p)ppGpp in GTP metabolism and in the emergence of bacterial persisters. PMID:25853779
Taylor, Ian L.
On Monday, August 29, 2005 Hurricane Katrina passed east of New Orleans causing minimal damage to Tulane's Medical Center. Later that day, levees that protected the city failed and several feet of water entered the hospitals and school buildings. Emergency generators provided power for 36 hours before running out of fuel. Temperatures in the hospitals soared into the upper 90's and conditions were made intolerable by 100% humidity and backed-up sewage. For several days, faculty, residents, nurses and hospital personnel performed heroically, caring for patients in appalling conditions, hand-ventilating critically ill patients in shifts. Approximately 200 patients, and 1500 additional personnel would be evacuated on Wednesday and Thursday from a makeshift heliport on Tulane's parking garage. Current disaster plans may be inadequate should facilities be inaccessible for months because of damage or contamination. Contingency plans also need to be made should outside disaster relief be markedly delayed as was the case with Katrina. PMID:18528490
Crown, David A.; Porter, Tracy K.; Greeley, Ronald
Tyrrhena Patera (TP) (22 degrees S, 253.5 degrees W), a large, low-relief volcano located in the ancient southern highlands of Mars, is one of four highland paterae thought to be structurally associated with the Hellas basin. The highland paterae are Hesperian in age and among the oldest central vent volcanoes on Mars. The morphology and distribution of units in the eroded shield of TP are consistent with the emplacement of pyroclastic flows. A large flank unit extending from TP to the SW contains well-defined lava flow lobes and leveed channels. This flank unit is the first definitive evidence of effusive volcanic activity associated with the highland paterae and may include the best preserved lava flows observed in the Southern Hemisphere of Mars. Flank flow unit averages, channelized flow, flow thickness, and yield strength estimates are discussed. Analysis suggests the temporal evolution of Martian magmas.
Hurricane Katrina created a catastrophe in the city of New Orleans when the storm surge caused the levee system to fail on August 29, 2005. The destruction of housing displaced hundreds of thousands of residents for varying lengths of time, often permanently. It also revealed gaps in our knowledge of how population is recovered after a disaster causes widespread destruction of urban infrastructure, housing and workplaces, and how mechanisms driving housing recovery often produce unequal social, spatial and temporal population recovery. In this article, I assemble social, spatial and temporal explanatory frameworks for housing and population recovery and then review research on mobility – both evacuation and migration – after Hurricane Katrina. The review reveals a need for a comprehensive social, spatial and temporal framework for explaining inequality in population recovery and displacement. It also shows how little is known about in-migrants and permanent out-migrants after a disaster. PMID:26880853
Kohout, F.A.; Hartwell, J.H.
Swampy low land (Area B) that fringes the Everglades west of Metropolitan Miami, Florida (Area A) probably will be urbanized in the future. Area B will be protected from flooding by huge pumps that will pump water westward from Area B over a levee system into Conservation Area 3B. The total capacity of the pumps will be about 13,400 cubic feet per second which is sufficient to lower water levels 2 inches per day in the 203 square miles of Area B. As this capacity is about equal to the highest gravity-flow discharge to the ocean through existing canals of the Miami area, a great potential. will exist, not only for control of floods, but also for beneficial control and management of a major segment of the water resources in southeastern Florida.
Kalcic, M. T.; Underwood, L. W.; Fletcher, R. M.
Many areas in coastal Louisiana are below sea level and protected from flooding by a system of natural and man-made levees. Flooding is common when the levees are overtopped by storm surge or rising rivers. Many levees in this region are further stressed by erosion and subsidence. The floodwaters can become constricted by levees and trapped, causing prolonged inundation. Vegetative communities in coastal regions, from fresh swamp forest to saline marsh, can be negatively affected by inundation and changes in salinity. As saltwater persists, it can have a toxic effect upon marsh vegetation causing die off and conversion to open water types, destroying valuable species habitats. The length of time the water persists and the average annual salinity are important variables in modeling habitat switching (cover type change). Marsh type habitat switching affects fish, shellfish, and wildlife inhabitants, and can affect the regional ecosystem and economy. There are numerous restoration and revitalization projects underway in the coastal region, and their effects on the entire ecosystem need to be understood. For these reasons, monitoring persistent saltwater intrusion and inundation is important. For this study, persistent flooding in Louisiana coastal marshes was mapped using MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) time series of a Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI). The time series data were derived for 2000 through 2009, including flooding due to Hurricane Rita in 2005 and Hurricane Ike in 2008. Using the NDWI, duration and extent of flooding can be inferred. The Time Series Product Tool (TSPT), developed at NASA SSC, is a suite of software developed in MATLAB® that enables improved-quality time series images to be computed using advanced temporal processing techniques. This software has been used to compute time series for monitoring temporal changes in environmental phenomena, (e.g. NDVI times series from MODIS), and was modified and used to
Following the ignition of crude oil that leaked from a fractured 22 in. oil pipeline at a levee crossing at Berwick, Louisiana, on 1/2/80, NTSB has recommended that Texaco Pipeline Co., the line owner, review the practice of using fillet-welded reinforcement sleeves for tie-in welds to determine if these sleeves have caused any pipeline failures in its system; notify the pipeline patrol of the location of such existing sleeves and instruct it to examine the areas around these sleeves for signs of leakage; and evaluate existing procdures for leak detection to make these procedures more effective. The American Petroleum Institute has also been urged to notify its member companies of the Berwick accident and the aforementioned recommendations. These pipeline and other safety recommendation letters and reports of accidents, including the determination of the cause of the explosion, burning, and sinking of the Liberian tanker Seatige.
Owens, Carrie B; Su, Nan-Yao; Husseneder, Claudia; Riegel, Claudia; Brown, Kenneth S
Levee breaches because of Hurricane Katrina in 2005 inundated 80% of the city of New Orleans, LA. Formosan subterranean termites were observed actively foraging within in-ground monitoring stations within months after this period of flooding. It was unknown if the activity could be attributed to preexisting colonies that survived inundation or to other colonies surviving flooding by being located at higher elevations readily invading these territories. Genotypic profiles of 17 termite colonies collected from eight inundated locations before flooding were compared with termite colonies after flooding from the same locations to determine Formosan subterranean termite survival after sustained flooding. Results indicate that 14 colonies were able to survive inundation for extended periods. PMID:22606822
Nelson, W.J.; Eggert, D.L.; DiMichele, W.A.; Stecyk, A.C.
Basal Pennsylvanian coal-bearing strata exposed along Roaring Creek, west-central Indiana, exhibit extreme lateral discontinuity. Coal seams abruptly change in thickness and elevation; they split, grade into shale, are cut out by channels and disrupted by soft-sediment deformational structures. Initial sediments were laid down by a network of southwest-flowing streams that traversed a deeply channelized upland surface of Mississippian carbonate rocks. Channels aggraded rapidly as uplands were worn down, so the region changed through time from uplands to upper deltaic plain. Local environments included channels, localized point bars, small natural levees and crevasse splays, overbank deposits, and swamps. Differential compaction and subsidence, slumping stream banks, and possibly collapsing sinkholes influenced sedimentation. As a consequence, coals are too discontinuous for economical mining, although they are locally thick and high in quality. ?? 1985.
Schneeberger, Dale M.; Pieri, David C.
Geomorphic and stratigraphic analysis of Alba Patera suggests a volcanic construct built by lavas with rheologic properties similar to basalts. A series of evolving eruptive styles is suggested by changes in morphology and inferred progressive reductions in flow volume with higher stratigraphic position. Alba Patera's volcanic history has been summarized into four main phases. The first is characterized by extensive flood like flows presumably erupted from fissures associated with the initial intrusion of magma into the region. The second phase is associated with the emplacement of pyroclastic rock, a more speculative interpretation. The third phase produced the voluminous tabular, crested, and undifferentiated flows, probably from a more centralized vent source. The fourth and last phase is marked the effusion of levee like flows and the collapse of the summit calderas and final graben formation.
Faber, P.M.; Keller, E.; Sands, A.; Massey, B.M. , Mill Valley, CA; Keller , Santa Barbara, CA; Sands , Mill Valley, CA; Massey , Long Beach, CA )
In the 200 years since California's settlement by Europeans, almost every river in southern California has been channelized or dammed to allow development on the floodplains, causing the loss of a highly productive ecosystem. The riparian zone occurs along streambanks where soils are fertile and water is abundant; amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals all move back and forth across the riparian zone from streams into adjacent wetland and upland areas. Irreversible alterations of the riparian ecosystem result from the diversion or loss of transported water to the system through diking, damming, channelization, levee building, or road construction. Clearing for crops, grazing, or golf courses is potentially reversible as long as the water supply remains unaltered. Successful restoration work requires early agreement on project goals, site-specific restoration design, correct project implementation, enforcement of permit conditions, a maintenance and management program, and long-range monitoring. 288 refs., 54 figs., 13 tabs.
Ball, Lyndsay B.; Burton, Bethany L.; Powers, Michael H.; Asch, Theodore H.
To characterize the extent and thickness of lithologic units that may have differing scour potential, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, has performed several geoelectrical surveys of the lower American River channel and flood plain between Cal Expo and the Rio Americano High School in east Sacramento, California. Additional geotechnical data have been collected by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and its contractors. Data resulting from these surveys have been compiled into similar database formats and converted to uniform geospatial datums and projections. These data have been visualized in a digital three-dimensional framework project that can be viewed using freely available software. These data facilitate a comprehensive analysis of the resistivity structure underlying the lower American River corridor and assist in levee system management.
Moore, H. J.; Davis, P. A.
Researchers obtained 183 profiles of lava flows on Mars using photoclinometry. These photoclinometric profiles were leveled by adjusting them until the levee crests or bases had the same elevations (depending on the situation). Here, researchers report some of the results of their analysis of 27 flows on the flanks of Alba Patera (3 flows), near the summit of Ascraeus Mons (6 flows), the flanks of Arsia Mons (3 flows), and the flanks of Olympus Mons (15 flows). Results suggest that the flows examined to date are not felsic or ultramafic; rather, they probably range from basalts to basaltic andesites. Thus, the suggestion that flows on Olympus Mons and elsewhere may be more silicic than Hawaiian basalts is supported by the researchers' results. These suggestions are testable with suitable measurements of silica contents of the flows.
The Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to provide partial funding to the Corps of Engineers (COE) for the completion of the flood protection works at the Bannister Road Federal Complex in Kansas City, Missouri. The DOE Kansas City Plant is a major tenant of the Complex. COE has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) for the project which includes the construction of levees, floodwalls, and drainage ditches. DOE has adopted the EA prepared by COE (DOE/EA-0509), this report. Based on the analyses in this EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, 42 USC 4321 et seq. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).
This research examines the effect of a rare flood on floodplain forest regeneration in a 102-km stretch of the Mississippi River beginning 21 km above the mouth of the Ohio River. The river has been restricted by levees and navigation structures and subjected to sediment dredging to maintain a stable navigation channel. Because the bank erosion-accretion process has been slowed or eliminated, cottonwood (Populus spp.) and willow (Salix spp.) communities regenerate poorly in the modified river environment. An unusually large flood in 1993 destroyed the entire ground vegetation layer, killing 77.2% of the saplings and 32.2% of the trees. The flood created an alternative mechanism for cottonwood and willow to regenerate under canopy openings, enabling the community type composition of the present-day forest to be sustained for the next 50 years. Over time, however, the forest will likely exhibit considerable compositional fluctuation.
Lu, Ning; Alsherif, N; Wayllace, Alexandra; Godt, Jonathan W.
The authors, to their knowledge for the first time, produced two complete principal soil water retention curves (SWRCs) under both positive and negative matric suction regimes. An innovative testing technique combining the transient water release and imbibition method (TRIM) and constant flow method (CFM) was used to identify the principal paths of SWRC in the positive pore-water pressure regime under unsaturated conditions. A negative matric suction of 9.8 kPa is needed to reach full saturation or close the loop of the SWRC for a silty soil. This work pushes the understanding of the interaction of soil and water into new territory by quantifying the boundaries of the SWRC over the entire suction domain, including both wetting and drying conditions that are relevant to field conditions such as slope wetting under heavy rainfall or rapid groundwater table rise in earthen dams or levees.