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Sample records for concreto estrutural leve

  1. Geophysical applications for levee assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chlaib, Hussein Khalefa

    Levees are important engineering structures that build along the rivers to protect the human lives and shield the communities as well as agriculture lands from the high water level events. Animal burrows, subsurface cavities, and low density (high permeability) zones are weakness features within the levee body that increase its risk of failure. To prevent such failure, continuous monitoring of the structure integrity and early detection of the weakness features must be conducted. Application of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and Capacitively Coupled Resistivity (CCR) methods were found to be very effective in assessing the levees and detect zones of weakness within the levee body. GPR was implemented using multi-frequency antennas (200, 400, and 900 MHz) with survey cart/wheel and survey vehicle. The (CCR) method was applied by using a single transmitter and three receivers. Studying the capability and the effectiveness of these methods in levee monitoring, subsurface weakness feature detection, and studying the structure integrity of levees were the main tasks of this dissertation. A set of laboratory experiments was conducted at the Geophysics Laboratory of the University of Arkansas at Little Rock (UALR) to analyze the polarity change in GPR signals in the presence of subsurface voids and water-filled cavities. Also three full scale field expeditions at the Big Dam Bridge (BDB) Levee, Lollie Levee, and Helena Levee in Arkansas were conducted using the GPR technique. This technique was effective in detecting empty, water, and clay filled cavities as well as small scale animal burrows (small rodents). The geophysical work at BDB and Lollie Levees expressed intensive subsurface anomalies which might decrease their integrity while the Helena Levee shows less subsurface anomalies. The compaction of levee material is a key factor affecting piping phenomenon. The structural integrity of the levee partially depends on the density/compaction of the soil layers. A

  2. Time-Lapse Lidar Characterization of Fluvial Levees with Implications to Levee Growth Controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassenruck-Gudipati, H. J.; Mohrig, D. C.; Passalacqua, P.; Mason, J.

    2016-12-01

    Levees are built by sediment transported from rivers to floodplains. These floodplains in most levee building models are assumed to be initially flat. Airborne lidar analysis presented here demonstrates the importance of capturing floodplain morphology in order to accurately predict levee growth. We use lidar datasets from 2011 and 2015 to quantify levee characteristics and compare deposition/erosion along 88 km of the lower Trinity River in Texas. This allows us to understand and distinguish spatial trends from local variability. To place constraints on the sediment transport conditions that build levees, we measured the variability of levee width and superelevation (elevation difference from levee crest to levee pinchout/floodplain). Levee-crest elevations follow a downstream slope of 1.5x10-4. Variability in crest-line elevation is low and systematically decreases towards the coastline, corresponding to a decreasing range in river stage driven by a downstream boundary condition of constant sea-level. This boundary condition is also connected to an overall downstream reduction in measured topographic change between 2011 and 2015. Levee width and superelevation show relatively greater variability about their mean values. The widest levees are associated with localized low floodplain elevations. While, superelevation is primarily driven by variability in elevation at the levee pinchout rather than by variability in levee-crest elevation. Levee characteristics can be used to understand and model how sediments, water, and nutrients are routed onto the floodplain during a flood. To explore different routing mechanisms, a new levee building model should couple water and sediment routing with preexisting topography. A new direction for levee interpretation using ancient records should involve measuring as many as possible levee widths and superelevations in order to infer drainage on the paleo-floodplain, as well as position along the backwater curve.

  3. Leveed Channel in Lava Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    14 December 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a leveed channel running down the middle of a lava flow in Daedalia Planum, the southern plains of the Tharsis volcanic region. Transport of fluid lava through a channel such as this helps insulate the molten rock, keeping it hot longer, and thus permits the flow to extend to greater distances than it otherwise might. This example is located near 23.6oS, 123.2oW, and covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. The scene is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left.

  4. Environmental considerations for levees and floodwalls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunnally, Nelson R.; Shields, F. Douglas; Hynson, James

    1987-03-01

    Levees and floodwalls are used extensively throughout the United States for flood control. Levee projects often lack ecological, recreational, and aesthetic values, except for incidental fish and wildlife benefits derived from borrow pits and recreational facilities found in some urban settings. In recent years increased environmental concern within construction agencies and greater responsiveness to public opinion have resulted in increasing numbers of levee projects designed, built, and maintained with environmental objectives in mind. This paper reviews environmental concepts successfully employed on levee projects constructed in recent years by the US Army Corps of Engineers. Some of the most innovative concepts are described and illustrated and design considerations are discussed.

  5. Levee Health Monitoring With Radar Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, C. E.; Bawden, G. W.; Deverel, S. J.; Dudas, J.; Hensley, S.; Yun, S.

    2012-12-01

    Remote sensing offers the potential to augment current levee monitoring programs by providing rapid and consistent data collection over large areas irrespective of the ground accessibility of the sites of interest, at repeat intervals that are difficult or costly to maintain with ground-based surveys, and in rapid response to emergency situations. While synthetic aperture radar (SAR) has long been used for subsidence measurements over large areas, applying this technique directly to regional levee monitoring is a new endeavor, mainly because it requires both a wide imaging swath and fine spatial resolution to resolve individual levees within the scene, a combination that has not historically been available. Application of SAR remote sensing directly to levee monitoring has only been attempted in a few pilot studies. Here we describe how SAR remote sensing can be used to assess levee conditions, such as seepage, drawing from the results of two levee studies: one of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta levees in California that has been ongoing since July 2009 and a second that covered the levees near Vicksburg, Mississippi, during the spring 2011 floods. These studies have both used data acquired with NASA's UAVSAR L-band synthetic aperture radar, which has the spatial resolution needed for this application (1.7 m single-look), sufficiently wide imaging swath (22 km), and the longer wavelength (L-band, 0.238 m) required to maintain phase coherence between repeat collections over levees, an essential requirement for applying differential interferometry (DInSAR) to a time series of repeated collections for levee deformation measurement. We report the development and demonstration of new techniques that employ SAR polarimetry and differential interferometry to successfully assess levee health through the quantitative measurement of deformation on and near levees and through detection of areas experiencing seepage. The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta levee study, which covers

  6. Using geophysics to characterize levee stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalton, Laura M.

    Shallow slough slides have occurred along the river side slope of Mississippi River Levees for over sixty years. Shallow slough slides also occur along smaller levees that protect tributaries of the Mississippi River. This investigation takes place along a section of the Coldwater River Levee, a tributary levee of the Mississippi River. Field observation, soil samples, and geophysical data were collected at two field sites located on the border of Tate and Tunica County, MS. The first site consists of a developed shallow slough slide that had occurred that has not yet been repaired and the second site is a potential slide area. Electromagnetic induction and electrical resistivity tomography were the geophysical methods used to define subsurface conditions that make a levee vulnerable to failure. These electrical methods are sensitive to the electrical conductivity of the soil and therefore depend upon: soil moisture, clay content, pore size distribution as well as larger scale structures at depth such as cracks and fissures. These same physical properties of the soil are also important to assessing the vulnerability of a levee to slough slides. Soil tests and field observations were also implemented in this investigation to describe and classify the soil composition of the levee material. The problem of slough slide occurrence can potentially be reduced if vulnerabilities are located with the help of geophysical techniques.

  7. Erosion of Earthen Levees by Wave Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozeren, Y.; Wren, D. G.; Reba, M. L.

    2016-02-01

    Earthen levees of aquaculture and irrigation reservoirs in the United States often experience significant erosion due to wind-generated waves. Typically constructed using local soils, unprotected levees are subjected to rapid erosion and retreat due to wind generated waves and surface runoff. Only a limited amount of published work addresses the erosion rates for unprotected levees, and producers who rely on irrigation reservoirs need an economic basis for selecting a protection method for vulnerable levees. This, in turn, means that a relationship between wave energy and erosion of cohesive soils is needed. In this study, laboratory experiments were carried out in order to quantify wave induced levee erosion and retreat. A model erodible bank was packed using a soil consisting of approximately 14% sand, 73% silt, and 13% clay in a 20.6 m long 0.7 m wide and 1.2 m deep wave tank at the USDA-ARS, National Sedimentation Laboratory in Oxford MS. The geometry of the levee face was monitored by digital camera and the waves were measured by means of 6 capacitance wave staffs. Relationships were established between levee erosion, edge and retreat rates, and incident wave energy.

  8. Risk-based planning analysis for a single levee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, Rui; Jachens, Elizabeth; Lund, Jay

    2016-04-01

    Traditional risk-based analysis for levee planning focuses primarily on overtopping failure. Although many levees fail before overtopping, few planning studies explicitly include intermediate geotechnical failures in flood risk analysis. This study develops a risk-based model for two simplified levee failure modes: overtopping failure and overall intermediate geotechnical failure from through-seepage, determined by the levee cross section represented by levee height and crown width. Overtopping failure is based only on water level and levee height, while through-seepage failure depends on many geotechnical factors as well, mathematically represented here as a function of levee crown width using levee fragility curves developed from professional judgment or analysis. These levee planning decisions are optimized to minimize the annual expected total cost, which sums expected (residual) annual flood damage and annualized construction costs. Applicability of this optimization approach to planning new levees or upgrading existing levees is demonstrated preliminarily for a levee on a small river protecting agricultural land, and a major levee on a large river protecting a more valuable urban area. Optimized results show higher likelihood of intermediate geotechnical failure than overtopping failure. The effects of uncertainty in levee fragility curves, economic damage potential, construction costs, and hydrology (changing climate) are explored. Optimal levee crown width is more sensitive to these uncertainties than height, while the derived general principles and guidelines for risk-based optimal levee planning remain the same.

  9. Overview of Levee Setback Projects and Benefits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-07-31

    achieved by algae in the water column will be higher where surface water residence times are greater. Flooded terrestrial vegetation can also...such benefits. Habitat Levees themselves occupy a relatively small spatial footprint that displaces native vegetation . The leveed area, however, may...hydrology in connected habitats will negatively impact the less flood-tolerant species exposed to more extreme events. Changes in floodplain vegetation

  10. Levee Scour Protection for Storm Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, E.; Sustainable; Resiliency in Levee Scour Protection

    2011-12-01

    Earnest Johnson, Firat Y. Testik *, Nadarajah Ravichandran Civil Engineering, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, USA * Contact author ftestik@clemson.edu Levee failure due to scouring has been a prominent occurrence among intense storm surges and waves, giving rise to the implementation of various scour protection measures over the years. This study is to investigate the levee scour and to compare different scour protection measures on a model-levee system in a laboratory wave tank. The protection measures that are tested and compared for their effectiveness in this study include turf reinforcement mats, woven geotextiles, and core-locs. This is an ongoing research effort and experiments are currently being conducted with model levees constructed based upon the United States Army Corps of Engineers' levee design and construction guidelines under various simulated storm conditions. Parameters such as wave elevations, deformation time history of the floodwall, and the scour depth are measured in each test. The finding of this research will be translated to provide effective scour protection measures for robust levee designs.

  11. The inherent instability of leveed seafloor channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorrell, Robert M.; Burns, Alan D.; McCaffrey, William D.

    2015-05-01

    New analytical models demonstrate that under aggradational flow conditions, seafloor channel-levee systems are inherently unstable; both channel area and stability necessarily decrease at long timescales. In time such systems must avulse purely through internal (autogenic) forcing. Although autogenic instabilities likely arise over long enough time for additional allogenic forcing to be expected, channel-levee sensitivity to variations in flow character depends on the prior degree of system evolution. Recalibrated modern Amazon Fan avulsion timings are consistent with this model, challenging accepted interpretations of avulsion triggering.

  12. Directionally drilled crossing constructed under river levee

    SciTech Connect

    Skonberg, E.R.; Berry, C.W.

    1996-06-01

    Shell Pipe Line Corp. recently commenced construction of its 20-inch Delta Loop Pipeline Project in south Louisiana. This line will transport crude oil from Main Pass No. 69 to the existing Shell pump station at Nairn in Plaquemines Parish. NBH, Inc. of New Orleans is prime contractor for this project which involves offshore pipe lay, shallow water marsh lay and a 4,100-foot horizontal directional crossing of the Mississippi River at Nairn which was undertaken by Land and Marine, Inc. of Houston. For past directionally drilled crossings, the New Orleans district of the US Army Corps of Engineers has only allowed drilling operations inside its Mississippi River flood protection levees. No drilling has been undertaken beneath the levees out of concern that the drilling operations could in some way damage their structural integrity. Unfortunately, at this particular location, the drill profile could not be designed placing drilling equipment inside the levee and achieve sufficient burial depth for the installed pipeline. If not allowed to bore beneath the levee, significant additional costs would have been incurred in routing the pipeline to a more suitable location. This paper reviews the design of this drilling operation showing the locations and construction of relief wells and piezometers used to monitor the directional drilling.

  13. Geophysical Surveys for Assessing Levee Foundation Conditions, Feather River Levees, Marysville/Yuba City, California

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    geo- physical surveys to rapidly map and characterize soils along the toe of a levee. The work was performed during the period 14–21 June 2006 along a...units, derived from erosion of the adjoining highlands from the Late Jurassic to the Pleistocene, and Tertiary volcanics, form the bedrock units...surveys were conducted along the Feather River levee approximately 5 km south of Marysville/Yuba City, CA, during the period 14–21 June 2006. The

  14. Transient Seepage Analyses in Levee Engineering Practice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-01

    state for different percentages for quantities. ..................................... 43 Table 7.5. Total head (ft) at different times for the...state for different percentages for quantities. Time to % of Steady State (days) 10% 20% 80% 90% 95% 99% Total head (ft) at toe 13.0 13.2 15.0 15.5...pressures at different times and at different points in the levee fill. The percent of the steady-state value is also given. Percentage of steady

  15. Mesoscale connectivity through a natural levee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, A. E.; Keim, R. F.

    2013-02-01

    Natural levees are potentially locally important zones of lateral seepage between stream channels and floodplain backswamps, because their relatively coarser soils provide pathways of high hydraulic conductivity in an otherwise low conductivity system. Therefore, understanding the rates and mechanisms of subsurface exchange of water and solutes through natural levees may be necessary for understanding biogeochemical cycling in floodplains. We measured imposed hydraulic gradients and solute tracers in 19 shallow monitoring wells within a 580 m3 volume of natural levee in the Atchafalaya Basin, Louisiana. We modeled residence time distributions of pressure and tracers using a simple linear system to quantify spatially variable transport velocities and infer dominant flow mechanisms at a mesoscale. The spatial mean velocity of pressure transport was faster than the mean velocity of tracer transport by two orders of magnitude (1.7 × 10-2 and 4.6 × 10-4 m s-1, respectively), and the variance of pressure velocities was less than the variance of tracer velocities by seven orders of magnitude (1.4 × 104 min2 and 7.9 × 1011 min2, respectively). Higher spatial variability of tracer velocities compared to pressure velocities indicates different functioning mechanisms of mass versus energy transport and suggests preferential flow. Effective hydraulic conductivities, which ranged in magnitude from 10-1 to 103 m d-1, were higher than would be predicted by soil texture. We conclude that, in this fine-grained system, preferential flow paths control water and solute exchange through natural levees. These findings are important for future studies of water and solute cycling in riverine wetlands, and rates of exchange may be particularly useful for modeling water and nutrient budgets in similar systems.

  16. Mesoscale connectivity through a natural levee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, A. E.; Keim, R. F.

    2012-06-01

    Natural levees are potentially locally important zones of lateral seepage between stream channels and floodplain backswamps because their relatively coarser soils provide pathways of high hydraulic conductivity in an otherwise low conductivity system. Therefore, understanding the rates and mechanisms of subsurface exchange of water and solutes through natural levees may be necessary for understanding biogeochemical cycling in floodplains. We measured imposed hydraulic gradients and solute tracers in 19 shallow monitoring wells within a 580 m3 volume of natural levee in the Atchafalaya Basin, Louisiana. We modeled residence time distributions of pressure and tracers using a simple linear system to quantify spatially variable transport velocities and infer dominant flow mechanisms at a mesoscale. The spatial mean velocity of pressure transport was faster than the mean velocity of tracer transport by two orders of magnitude (1.7 × 10-2 and 4.6 × 10-4 m s-1, respectively), and the variance of pressure velocities was less than the variance of tracer velocities by seven orders of magnitude (1.4 × 104 min2 and 7.9 × 1011 min2, respectively). Higher spatial variability of tracer velocities compared to pressure velocities indicates different functioning mechanisms of mass versus energy transport and suggests preferential flow. Effective hydraulic conductivities, which ranged in magnitude from 10-1 to 106 and from 10-1 to 103 m d-1 for pressure and tracers, respectively, were higher than would be predicted by soil texture. We conclude that, in this fine-grained system, preferential flowpaths control water and solute exchange through natural levees. These findings are important for future studies of water and solute cycling in riverine wetlands, and rates of exchange may be particularly useful for modeling water and nutrient budgets in similar systems.

  17. Climate and floods still govern California levee breaks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Florsheim, J.L.; Dettinger, M.D.

    2007-01-01

    Even in heavily engineered river systems, climate still governs flood variability and thus still drives many levee breaks and geomorphic changes. We assemble a 155-year record of levee breaks for a major California river system to find that breaks occurred in 25% of years during the 20th Century. A relation between levee breaks and river discharge is present that sets a discharge threshold above which most levee breaks occurred. That threshold corresponds to small floods with recurrence intervals of ???2-3 years. Statistical analysis illustrates that levee breaks and peak discharges cycle (broadly) on a 12-15 year time scale, in time with warm-wet storm patterns in California, but more slowly or more quickly than ENSO and PDO climate phenomena, respectively. Notably, these variations and thresholds persist through the 20th Century, suggesting that historical flood-control effects have not reduced the occurrence or frequency of levee breaks. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  18. The Morphodynamics of Sub-aerial Natural Levees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slingerland, R.; Smith, N. D.

    2005-12-01

    As important as natural levees are to floodplain conveyance systems, it is surprising that they have yet to be quantitatively characterized and related to channel and floodplain hydraulics. We do not yet know what factors determine their presence or absence, nor can we predict their basic morphometry as a function of the relevant hydraulic factors. A survey of natural levees from the literature and particularly from the anastomosed reach of the Columbia River in British Columbia, and the Cumberland reach of the Saskatchewan River, Saskatchewan, indicates that the morphology of natural sub-aerial levees depends upon levee age, channel size, and the maximum height to which waters are ponded during floods or storm surges. Vegetation, grain size, floodbasin width, channel stability, and rate of channel alluviation exert secondary controls. Slopes of levees along young channels tend to be markedly steeper than those along mature channels, suggesting an asymptotic approach to a dynamic equilibrium height. Levee slopes also decline exponentially with increasing floodbasin width. Levee widths are highly variable, ranging from fractions of channel width to over 10 for alluvial and deltaic cases. Although data are sparse, levee cross-sectional area appears to scale linearly with channel cross-sectional area. In alluvial and deltaic levees, one levee of a pair is often significantly higher, wider, or steeper than the other, with no systematic variation along a channel. We conjecture that the origin of these relationships lies in the relative volumes of sediment transferred from the channel to the floodbasin via two mechanisms: diffusion and advection. Diffusive transfer occurs when turbid turbulent eddies along the channel boundary during flooding spin off onto the floodbasin and decelerate, allowing grains to settle at distances determined by channel geometry, floodplain roughness, particle size distribution, and flow character. Advective transfer occurs when turbid flows

  19. National Levee Database: monitoring, vulnerability assessment and management in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbetta, Silvia; Camici, Stefania; Maccioni, Pamela; Moramarco, Tommaso

    2015-04-01

    A properly designed and constructed levees system can often be an effective device for repelling floodwaters and provide barriers against inundation to protect urbanized and industrial areas. However, the delineation of flooding-prone areas and the related hydraulic hazard mapping taking account of uncertainty (Apel et al., 2008) are usually developed with a scarce consideration of the possible occurrence of levee failures along river channels (Mazzoleni et al., 2014). Indeed, it is well known that flooding is frequently the result of levee failures that can be triggered by several factors, as: (1) overtopping, (2) scouring of the foundation, (3) seepage/piping of levee body/foundation, and (4) sliding of the foundation. Among these failure mechanisms that are influenced by the levee's geometrical configuration, hydraulic conditions (e.g. river level and seepage), and material properties (e.g. permeability, cohesion, porosity, compaction), the piping caused by seepage (ICOLD, http://www.icold-cigb.org) is considered one of the most dominant levee failure mechanisms (Colleselli F., 1994; Wallingford H. R., 2003). The difficulty of estimating the hydraulic parameters to properly describe the seepage line within the body and foundation of the levee implies that the study of the critical flood wave routing is typically carried out by assuming that the levee system is undamaged during the flood event. In this context, implementing and making operational a National Levee Database (NLD), effectively structured and continuously updated, becomes fundamental to have a searchable inventory of information about levees available as a key resource supporting decisions and actions affecting levee safety. The ItaliaN LEvee Database (INLED) has been recently developed by the Research Institute for Geo-Hydrological Protection (IRPI) for the Civil Protection Department of the Presidency of Council of Ministers. INLED has the main focus of collecting comprehensive information about

  20. ASTER Images Flooding from Mississippi River Levee Breach

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-05-10

    NASA Terra spacecraft shows the resultant flooding of farmland west of the Mississippi 20 miles south of the Mississippi River levee breach. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers detonated explosives at the Birds Point levee near Wyatt, Missouri, on May 2, 2011.

  1. Erosional Equivalences of Levees: Steady and Intermittent Wave Overtopping

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    significant wave height at the toe of the slope, Hmo, the Iribarren number, xo, and various coefficients relating to the roughness and other levee character...factor for influence of levee roughness, gb the reduction factor for influence of oblique wave attack, xo the Iribarren number ¼ tana

  2. Woody Vegetation on Levees? - Research Experiences and Design Suggestions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammeranner, Walter

    2013-04-01

    Recent flood events in Austria have reawakened practical and scientific interest in the stability of levees. One focus amongst others has been taken on the relationship between vegetation and levee stability with special reference to the role of woody plants. The effects of woody plants are undoubtedly manifold: On the one hand they can potentially have a negative influence and endanger levees, which is why many guidelines ban woody vegetation to preserve stability, visual inspection and unhindered flood-fight access. On the other hand woody vegetation can have several positive impacts on soil stability and which effects prevail depends largely on types and characteristics of plants. This shows how controversially woody plants on levees can be discussed and the strong need for further research in this field. In order to obtain new insights and widen horizons for this controversial issue, a research project carried out by the Institute of Soil Bioengineering and Landscape Construction - at the University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna - was launched. This project deals with several aspects of effects of woody plants have on levees and focuses particularly on shrubby woody plants. The examined vegetation type is a dense stand of willows - Purple-Willows (Salix purpurea L.) - commonly used for stabilization of river embankments. The proposed contribution discusses the gained results with reference to levee stability and existing levee vegetation guidelines and gives design suggestions for compatible woody vegetation on levees.

  3. Optimized Radar Remote Sensing for Levee Health Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Cathleen E.

    2013-01-01

    Radar remote sensing offers great potential for high resolution monitoring of ground surface changes over large areas at one time to detect movement on and near levees and for location of seepage through levees. Our NASA-funded projects to monitor levees in the Sacramento Delta and the Mississippi River have developed and demonstrated methods to use radar remote sensing to measure quantities relevant to levee health and of great value to emergency response. The DHS-funded project will enable us is to define how to optimally monitor levees in this new way and set the stage for transition to using satellite SAR (synthetic aperture radar) imaging for better temporal and spatial coverage at lower cost to the end users.

  4. Geophysical Surveys for Assessing Levee Foundation Conditions, Sacramento River Levees, Sacramento, CA

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    River. Sierra Nevada, on the west by the northern Coast Ranges, and on the south by the Stockton Arch. The synclinal structure involves Cretaceous...Ranges, Klamath Mountains, and the Northern Sierra Nevada. Since the late-1910s, the Sacramento River has been confined within man-made levees in...It consists of gravel, sand, and silt. The Modesto Formation (designated as Qml in Figure 2) is exposed in alluvial terraces in the vicinity of

  5. The use of airborne geophysics for levee classification and assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunbar, Joseph B.

    2011-12-01

    This research is the first known application into using airborne geophysical methods to evaluate and classify levees. This research is an important step toward developing new technologies and methods to rapidly screen and evaluate earthen flood control levees for safety against flooding. An investigation of airborne geophysical methods was conducted on levees in the lower Rio Grande Valley and involved electromagnetic induction, magnetometer, and LiDAR surveys of the levee system. Airborne EM signatures were analyzed by geologic mapping of floodplain depositional environments, examination of published soils data, and drilling of borings. A geographic information system was developed to manage the various data sets and evaluate historic land use changes and development of the flood control systems to better understand the signatures using airborne methods. This research presents information about the historic basis for evaluating and classifying levees, which is based primarily on the federal perspective and flood control experiences in the lower Mississippi River Valley, where national floodplain engineering methods and standards were developed. This research examines the evolution of today's flood control policy, and the development of engineering assessment procedures, and the application of geophysical methods to provide critical information about levee failure mechanisms and assessment of flood control systems. This research demonstrates that topographic base maps and Sengpiel sections showing the results of electrical conductivity or resistivity surveys at different frequencies along the levee corridor provide accurate and valuable information to determine the composition of floodplain soils and the foundation stratigraphy to assess modes of levee failure, to aid in the placement of borings to obtain material properties of the levee and foundation, and to determine the extent of levee reaches with similar properties for the engineering analysis. The main

  6. Screening of Earthen Levees Using Synthetic Aperture Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aanstoos, J. V.; O'Hara, C.; Prasad, S.; Dabbiru, L.; Nobrega, R.; Lee, M.

    2009-12-01

    Earthen levees protect large areas of populated and cultivated land in the US from flooding. As shown recently with hurricanes Katrina and Ike and the recent floods in the Midwest, the potential loss of life and property associated with the catastrophic failure of levees can be extremely large. Over the entire US, there are over 100,000 miles of levee structures of varying designs and conditions. Currently, there are limited processes in place to prioritize the monitoring of large numbers of dam and levee structures. Levee managers and federal agencies need to assess levee health rapidly with robust techniques that identify, classify and prioritize levee vulnerabilities with lower costs than traditional soil-boring programs, which can cost many of millions of dollars and provide information about the subsurface only in the immediate vicinity of a small-diameter borehole. This paper reports preliminary results of a project studying the use of airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) as an aid to the levee screening process. The SAR sensor being studied is the NASA UAVSAR (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle SAR), a fully polarimetric L-band SAR which is specifically designed to acquire airborne repeat track SAR data for differential interferometric measurements. The instrument is capable of sub-meter ground sample distance. NASA has imaged with this instrument 230 km of levees along the lower Mississippi River for use in this study. SAR interferometric mode is capable of identifying vertical displacements on the order of a few millimeters. Its multipolarization measurements can penetrate soil to as much as one meter depth. Thus it is valuable in detecting changes in levees that will be key inputs to a levee vulnerability classification system. Once vulnerable levee reaches have been identified, further actions such as more detailed examination or repairs can be focused on these higher-priority sections. We report on the use of various feature detection algorithms being applied

  7. Overtopping breaching of river levees constructed with cohesive sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Hongyan; Yu, Minghui; Wang, Dangwei; Li, Yitian

    2016-07-01

    Experiments were conducted in a bend flume to study the overtopping breaching process and the corresponding overflow rates of river levees constructed with cohesive sediments. The river and land regions were separated by the constructed levee in the bend flume. Results showed that the levee breaching process can be subdivided into a slope erosion stage, a headcut retreat stage and a breach widening stage. Mechanisms such as flow shear erosion, impinging jet erosion, side slope erosion and cantilever collapse were discovered in the breaching process. The erosion characteristics were determined by both flow and soil properties. Finally, a depth-averaged 2-D flow model was used to simulate the levee breaching flow rates, which is well expressed by the broad-crested weir flow formula. The deduced discharge coefficient was smaller than that of common broad-crested rectangular weirs because of the shape and roughness of the breach.

  8. Cibola High Levee Pond Annual Report 2003. Interim Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, G.A.; Carpenter, J.; Marsh, P.C.; Minckley, C.O.

    2003-01-01

    Bonytail and razorback sucker have once again spawned and produced swim-up larvae in Cibola High Levee Pond (CHLP). CHLP continues to support annual recruitment of bonytail while recent razorback sucker recruitment remains elusive. Thus far, razorbacks have experienced intermittent years of spawning success. Both native species were observed spawning on, or near, the riprap on the river levee. Razorbacks spawned from late January until mid-March over gravel and large cobble along the levee toe (2-3 m depth) and bonytail spawned along the levee shoreline during mid-April. Razorback suckers rapidly fin during the reproductive act, which flushes fines from the substrate and leaves gravel relatively clean. Bonytail on the other hand, appear to spawn over or on substrate that has been disturbed by beaver activity. Substrate scour or disturbance appears to be an important factor in spawning site selectiona?|

  9. The Midwest flood of 1993: did trees protect levees along the Missouri River?

    Treesearch

    John P. Dwyer; Douglas Wallace; David R. Larsen

    1997-01-01

    Following the Midwest flood of 1993, a study was initiated along a 39-mile segment of the Missouri River to determine if there was an association between woody corridors and levee stability. A systematic sample of levee failures revealed that primary levees which did not fail had a significantly wider woody corridor than failed levees. Analysis of the total inventory...

  10. Game Theory and Risk-Based Levee System Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, R.; Lund, J. R.; Madani, K.

    2014-12-01

    Risk-based analysis has been developed for optimal levee design for economic efficiency. Along many rivers, two levees on opposite riverbanks act as a simple levee system. Being rational and self-interested, land owners on each river bank would tend to independently optimize their levees with risk-based analysis, resulting in a Pareto-inefficient levee system design from the social planner's perspective. Game theory is applied in this study to analyze decision making process in a simple levee system in which the land owners on each river bank develop their design strategies using risk-based economic optimization. For each land owner, the annual expected total cost includes expected annual damage cost and annualized construction cost. The non-cooperative Nash equilibrium is identified and compared to the social planner's optimal distribution of flood risk and damage cost throughout the system which results in the minimum total flood cost for the system. The social planner's optimal solution is not feasible without appropriate level of compensation for the transferred flood risk to guarantee and improve conditions for all parties. Therefore, cooperative game theory is then employed to develop an economically optimal design that can be implemented in practice. By examining the game in the reversible and irreversible decision making modes, the cost of decision making myopia is calculated to underline the significance of considering the externalities and evolution path of dynamic water resource problems for optimal decision making.

  11. Estimation of Discharge from Breached Earthfill Levee with Elapsed Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sooyoung; Yang, Jiro; Song, Chang Geun; Lee, Seung Oh

    2014-05-01

    Lack of the freeboard of levee has been occurred due to abnormally peaked flood events. Thus, the risk from overtopping of earthfill levee has been remarkably increased. When overflow on levee starts to occur, the breaching gap suddenly grows up at initial stage. As the breach width is extended, the discharge from breached section is also nonlinearly increased. Moreover, if the levee is located through multiple cities, the related damage cannot be predictable. However, researches about the breach mechanism have been focused on the breached shape of levee on the equilibrium state and the study on the development of levee breach is not enough to utilize the prediction of damage itself and select its countermeasure. In this study, the formula for breach discharge was presented to be able to predict that based on hydraulic experimental results. All experiments have been conducted with the movable levee which was the crown width of 0.3 m, the height of 0.3 m, the landside slope of 2:1 (H:V). Breach was induced by the lateral overflow for Froude numbers in main channel from 0.15 to 0.35 with the increment of 0.05. Based on the dimensional analysis with significant parameters such as main channel depth, breach width and discharge coefficient, temporal variation of each parameter was estimated with 25 experimental cases. Finally, the formula for prediction of breach flow due to overtopping failure of levee was presented considering the elapsed time for each Froude number after combing all significant parameters. When Froude number was less than 0.3, the breach discharge occurred to increase with Froude number while it became decreased with Froude number exceeding 0.3, which means the maximum breach discharge was occurred at Froude number = 0.3. It would be explained with the flow diversion caused by the collision of breach flow on the breached section downstream, which decreased the breach discharge into landside for higher Froude number of 0.3. As a future works, when the

  12. Mapping levees for river basin management using LiDAR data and multispectral aerial orthoimages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choung, Yun Jae

    Mapping levees is important to assessing levee stability, identifying flood risks for the areas protected by levee systems, etc. Historically, mapping levees has been carried out using ground surveying methods or only one type of remote sensing data set. This dissertation aims at mapping the levees by using airborne topographic LiDAR data and multispectral orthoimages taken in the river basins of the Nakdong River. In this dissertation, three issues with mapping levees are illustrated. The first issue is developing new methods for mapping levee surfaces by using geometric and spectral information. Levee surfaces consist of multiple objects having different geometric and spectral patterns. This dissertation proposes multiple methods for identifying the major objects and eroded areas on the levee surfaces. Multiple geometric analysis approaches such as the slope difference analysis and the elevation and area analysis are used to identify the levee top, berm, slope plates and the eroded area having different geometric patterns. Next, the spectral analysis approach, such as clustering algorithms, is used to identify major objects having different spectral patterns on the plates identified. Finally, multiple components, including the major objects and eroded areas on the levee surfaces, are identified. The second issue is developing new methods for mapping levee lines by using the geometric and spectral information. In general, the levee lines are determined on levee surfaces by considering the geometric pattern, the types of major objects, etc. This dissertation proposes multiple methods for mapping the levee lines located on various levee surfaces. First, the three baselines (the edges extracted from the images, the cluster boundaries extracted from the identified clusters and the plate boundaries extracted from the LiDAR data) are extracted separately from different sources. Next, the judgment test is performed in order to select one baseline as the levee line

  13. Surface Wave Characterization of New Orleans Levee Soil Foundations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delisser, T. A.; Lorenzo, J. M.; Hayashi, K.; Craig, M. S.

    2016-12-01

    Standard geotechnical tests such as the drilling of boreholes and cone penetration tests are able to assess soil stability at point locations vertically but lack lateral resolution in a complex sedimentary environment, such as the Louisiana Coastal system. Multi-Channel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) can complement geotechnical tests to improve certainty in resolving lateral features when predicting soil types in the near surface of levee soil foundations. A portion of the Inner-Harbor Navigation Canal levee wall that intersects the 9th Ward of New Orleans failed in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina in 2005. Failures were attributed to floodwaters overtopping the levee wall and eroding its base. Geotechnical and geological data from test points can be used to calibrate continuous shear strength estimates derived from MASW. It is important to understand soil stability and strength to prevent future failures in New Orleans levee foundation soils. MASW analyzes the dispersive property of Rayleigh waves to develop shear wave velocity profiles for the near surface. Data are acquired using a seismic land streamer containing 4.5-Hz vertical-component geophones and a sledgehammer as the source. We plot and contour 18 inverted models of the interpreted fundamental mode and generate a 200-m-long profile to help us (1) better understand the characteristics of levee foundation soils as well as (2) improve existing geological cross-sections to help in future planning and maintenance of the levees. In comparison to the prior geological models, we find unexpected large vertical and horizontal shear-velocity gradients, as well as relatively low shear strengths throughout the seismic profile.

  14. Characterizing Levees using Polarimetric and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabbiru, L.; Aanstoos, J. V.; Mahrooghy, M.; Gokaraju, B.; Nobrega, R. A.; Younan, N. H.

    2011-12-01

    Monitoring the physical condition of levees is vital in order to protect them from flooding. The dynamics of subsurface water events can cause damage on levee structures which could lead to slough slides, sand boils or through seepage. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) technology, due to its high spatial resolution and soil penetration capability, is a good choice to identify such problem areas so that they can be treated to avoid possible catastrophic failure. The radar polarimetric and interferometric data is capable of identifying variations in soil properties of the areas which might cause levee failure. The study area encompasses portion of levees of the lower Mississippi river in the United States. The methodology of this research is mainly categorized into two streams: 1) polarimetric data analysis and classification, and 2) interferometric analysis. Two sources of SAR imagery are used: a) quad-polarized, L-band data from Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) for polarimetric classification, and b) high resolution dual-polarized Terrasar-X data for interferometric analysis. NASA's UAVSAR imagery acquired between 2009 and 2011 are used for the analysis. The polarimetric classification is performed based on the decomposition parameters: entropy (H), anisotropy (A) and alpha (α) and the results detected slough slides on the levees and potential future slides. In the interferometric approach, the Terrasar-X SAR images acquired at different times in the year 2011 are combined into pairs to exploit the phase difference of the signals. The interferometric information is used to find evidence of potential small-scale deformations which could be pre-cursors to levee failure.

  15. Evaluation of levee setbacks for flood-loss reduction, Middle Mississippi River, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dierauer, Jennifer; Pinter, Nicholas; Remo, Jonathan W. F.

    2012-07-01

    SummaryOne-dimensional hydraulic modeling and flood-loss modeling were used to test the effectiveness of levee setbacks for flood-loss reduction along the Middle Mississippi River (MMR). Four levee scenarios were assessed: (1) the present-day levee configuration, (2) a 1000 m levee setback, (3) a 1500 m levee setback, and (4) an optimized setback configuration. Flood losses were estimated using FEMA's Hazus-MH (Hazards US Multi-Hazard) loss-estimation software on a structure-by-structure basis for a range of floods from the 2- to the 500-year events. These flood-loss estimates were combined with a levee-reliability model to calculate probability-weighted damage estimates. In the simplest case, the levee setback scenarios tested here reduced flood losses compared to current conditions for large, infrequent flooding events but increased flood losses for smaller, more frequent flood events. These increases occurred because levee protection was removed for some of the existing structures. When combined with buyouts of unprotected structures, levee setbacks reduced flood losses for all recurrence intervals. The "optimized" levee setback scenario, involving a levee configuration manually planned to protect existing high-value infrastructure, reduced damages with or without buyouts. This research shows that levee setbacks in combination with buyouts are an economically viable approach for flood-risk reduction along the study reach and likely elsewhere where levees are widely employed for flood control. Designing a levee setback around existing high-value infrastructure can maximize the benefit of the setback while simultaneously minimizing the costs. The optimized levee setback scenario analyzed here produced payback periods (costs divided by benefits) of less than 12 years. With many aging levees failing current inspections across the US, and flood losses spiraling up over time, levee setbacks are a viable solution for reducing flood exposure and flood levels.

  16. 33 CFR 203.51 - Levee owner's manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Levee owner's manual. 203.51 Section 203.51 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE EMERGENCY EMPLOYMENT OF ARMY AND OTHER RESOURCES, NATURAL DISASTER PROCEDURES...

  17. 33 CFR 203.51 - Levee owner's manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Levee owner's manual. 203.51 Section 203.51 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE EMERGENCY EMPLOYMENT OF ARMY AND OTHER RESOURCES, NATURAL DISASTER PROCEDURES...

  18. 33 CFR 203.51 - Levee owner's manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Levee owner's manual. 203.51 Section 203.51 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE EMERGENCY EMPLOYMENT OF ARMY AND OTHER RESOURCES, NATURAL DISASTER PROCEDURES...

  19. 33 CFR 203.51 - Levee owner's manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Levee owner's manual. 203.51 Section 203.51 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE EMERGENCY EMPLOYMENT OF ARMY AND OTHER RESOURCES, NATURAL DISASTER PROCEDURES...

  20. 33 CFR 203.51 - Levee owner's manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Levee owner's manual. 203.51 Section 203.51 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE EMERGENCY EMPLOYMENT OF ARMY AND OTHER RESOURCES, NATURAL DISASTER PROCEDURES...

  1. Game theory and risk-based leveed river system planning with noncooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, Rui; Lund, Jay R.; Madani, Kaveh

    2016-01-01

    Optimal risk-based levee designs are usually developed for economic efficiency. However, in river systems with multiple levees, the planning and maintenance of different levees are controlled by different agencies or groups. For example, along many rivers, levees on opposite riverbanks constitute a simple leveed river system with each levee designed and controlled separately. Collaborative planning of the two levees can be economically optimal for the whole system. Independent and self-interested landholders on opposite riversides often are willing to separately determine their individual optimal levee plans, resulting in a less efficient leveed river system from an overall society-wide perspective (the tragedy of commons). We apply game theory to simple leveed river system planning where landholders on each riverside independently determine their optimal risk-based levee plans. Outcomes from noncooperative games are analyzed and compared with the overall economically optimal outcome, which minimizes net flood cost system-wide. The system-wide economically optimal solution generally transfers residual flood risk to the lower-valued side of the river, but is often impractical without compensating for flood risk transfer to improve outcomes for all individuals involved. Such compensation can be determined and implemented with landholders' agreements on collaboration to develop an economically optimal plan. By examining iterative multiple-shot noncooperative games with reversible and irreversible decisions, the costs of myopia for the future in making levee planning decisions show the significance of considering the externalities and evolution path of dynamic water resource problems to improve decision-making.

  2. Processing of laser radar data for the extraction of an along-the-levee-crown elevation profile for levee remediation studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, Michael J.; McGill, Thomas E.; Taylor, Stacy R.

    2004-09-01

    Using LiDAR data collected on the levees along the Rio Grande River in New Mexico and Texas, an algorithm has been developed to automatically extract longitudinal elevation profiles. This algorithm consists of a series of filters, interpretation of geophysical properties, and digitized levee centerlines. The series of filters, in order of operation, include an alignment buffer filter, bare-earth filter, sampling filter and a maximum value filter. The result of the filter configuration is a 3-D polyline that models the levee crest. This algorithm allows for efficient identification of portions of levee that are lower than original design specifications. A comparison between the LiDAR levee crown extraction filter and a least-cost-path technique are offered.

  3. Experiences of using UAVs for monitoring levee breaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brauneck, J.; Pohl, R.; Juepner, R.

    2016-11-01

    During floods technical protection facilities are subjected to high loads and might fail as several examples have shown in the past. During the major 2002 and 2013 floods in the catchment area of the Elbe River (Germany), some breaching levees caused large inundations in the hinterland. In such situations the emergency forces need comprehensive and reliable realtime information about the situation, especially the breach enlargement and discharge, the spatial and temporal development of the inundation and the damages. After an impressive progress meanwhile unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) also called remotely piloted aircraft systems (RPAS) are highly capable to collect and transmit precise information from not accessible areas to the task force very quickly. Using the example of the Breitenhagen levee failure near the Saale-Elbe junction in Germany in June 2013 the processing steps will be explained that are needed to come from the visual UAV-flight information to a hydronumeric model. Modelling of the breach was implemented using photogrammetric ranging methods, such as structure from motion and dense image matching. These methods utilize conventional digital multiple view images or videos recorded by either a moving aerial platform or terrestrial photography and allow the construction of 3D point clouds, digital surface models and orthophotos. At Breitenhagen, a UAV recorded the beginning of the levee failure. Due to the dynamic character of the breach and the moving areal platform, 4 different surface models show valid data with extrapolated breach widths of 9 to 40 meters. By means of these calculations the flow rate through the breach has been determined. In addition the procedure has been tested in a physical model, whose results will be presented too.

  4. Aquatic Biological Inventory, Hartwell Drainage and Levee District, Greene County, Illinois

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-07

    Hartwell Drainage and Levee 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER District, Greene County, IL. 7ýAU THOR(&) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(&) Richard N...RIVERUNE DRIVE. EARTH CITY, MISSOURI 6304: PHONa (314) 291-8484 Project 1526 7 December 1981 AQUATIC BIOLOGICAL INVENTORY, HARTWELL DRAINAGE AND LEVEE...District . . . . . . . . . . 4 Table 2. Hartwell Drainage and Levee District land use expressed in acreage and percent of total acreage .......... 10

  5. Estimation of Combined Wave and Storm Surge Overtopping at Earthen Levees

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    result for the shape factor was the relationship 343.0 0 10.8 ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ ⎛ = pm s THg qb (5) where qs is estimated from the broad - crest weir ...needed for more effective design of levee slope protection alternatives. The time series measurements of overtopping flow discharge acquired near...the landward-side edge of the levee crest were analyzed to determine the cumulative distribution of instantaneous discharge over the levee crest . The

  6. Lidar-based mapping of flood control levees in south Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thatcher, Cindy; Lim, Samsung; Palaseanu-Lovejoy, Monica; Danielson, Jeffrey J.; Kimbrow, Dustin R.

    2016-01-01

    Flood protection in south Louisiana is largely dependent on earthen levees, and in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina the state’s levee system has received intense scrutiny. Accurate elevation data along the levees are critical to local levee district managers responsible for monitoring and maintaining the extensive system of non-federal levees in coastal Louisiana. In 2012, high resolution airborne lidar data were acquired over levees in Lafourche Parish, Louisiana, and a mobile terrestrial lidar survey was conducted for selected levee segments using a terrestrial lidar scanner mounted on a truck. The mobile terrestrial lidar data were collected to test the feasibility of using this relatively new technology to map flood control levees and to compare the accuracy of the terrestrial and airborne lidar. Metrics assessing levee geometry derived from the two lidar surveys are also presented as an efficient, comprehensive method to quantify levee height and stability. The vertical root mean square error values of the terrestrial lidar and airborne lidar digital-derived digital terrain models were 0.038 m and 0.055 m, respectively. The comparison of levee metrics derived from the airborne and terrestrial lidar-based digital terrain models showed that both types of lidar yielded similar results, indicating that either or both surveying techniques could be used to monitor geomorphic change over time. Because airborne lidar is costly, many parts of the USA and other countries have never been mapped with airborne lidar, and repeat surveys are often not available for change detection studies. Terrestrial lidar provides a practical option for conducting repeat surveys of levees and other terrain features that cover a relatively small area, such as eroding cliffs or stream banks, and dunes.

  7. McGee Creek Drainage and Levee District, Illinois.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1973-04-01

    P.O. Box 678, 200 W. Church St., C::a:.v-;ux, i- Colonel Gay E. Jester District Engineer U. S. Army Corps of Engineers 210 North 12th Street St. Louis...Missouri 63101 Dear Colonel Jester : We have reviewed the Draft Ew7Tronmental ?tateueuo; McGee Creek Drainage and Levee District, i] n , , warded...8217-_.. ..... .... . ... ... ,i "Ř. ., Cdlone! Guy E. Jester , 9/> /72 We appreciate the opportwdity to review and corme .t proposed project. Sincerely, Howard W. Busch , State

  8. Monitoring The Stability Of Levees With Time-Series ENVISAT ASAR Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Yuanyuan; Liao, Mingsheng; Wang, Teng; Zhang, Lu

    2012-01-01

    Levees are constructed to protect coastal cities from typhoon, flood, and sea tide. Since the stability of levees is important, it is necessary to monitor their deformation regularly. Repeat-track space-borne SAR images are useful for environment monitoring, especially for ground deformation monitoring. Shanghai resides on the Yangtze River Delta on China’s eastern coast. Each year, the city is hit by typhoons from the Pacific Ocean and threatened by the flood of the Yangtze River. We used Persistent Scatterer Interferometry to monitor the deformation of the levees. Our experiments show that the levees around Pudong airport and Lingang town suffer from serious deformation.

  9. Tree growth and recruitment in a leveed floodplain forest in the Mississippi River Alluvial Valley, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, Hugo K.W.; King, Sammy L.; Keim, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    Flooding is a defining disturbance in floodplain forests affecting seed germination, seedling establishment, and tree growth. Globally, flood control, including artificial levees, dams, and channelization has altered flood regimes in floodplains. However, a paucity of data are available in regards to the long-term effects of levees on stand establishment and tree growth in floodplain forests. In this study, we used dendrochronological techniques to reconstruct tree recruitment and tree growth over a 90-year period at three stands within a ring levee in the Mississippi River Alluvial Valley (MAV) and to evaluate whether recruitment patterns and tree growth changed following levee construction. We hypothesized that: (1) sugarberry is increasing in dominance and overcup oak (Quercus lyrata) is becoming less dominant since the levee, and that changes in hydrology are playing a greater role than canopy disturbance in these changes in species dominance; and (2) that overcup oak growth has declined following construction of the levee and cessation of overbank flooding whereas that of sugarberry has increased. Recruitment patterns shifted from flood-tolerant overcup oak to flood-intolerant sugarberry (Celtis laevigata) after levee construction. None of the 122 sugarberry trees cored in this study established prior to the levee, but it was the most common species established after the levee. The mechanisms behind the compositional change are unknown, however, the cosmopolitan distribution of overcup oak during the pre-levee period and sugarberry during the post-levee period, the lack of sugarberry establishment in the pre-levee period, and the confinement of overcup oak regeneration to the lowest areas in each stand after harvest in the post-levee period indicate that species-specific responses to flooding and light availability are forcing recruitment patterns. Overcup oak growth was also affected by levee construction, but in contrast to our hypothesis, growth actually

  10. Balancing Play, Meaning and Reality: The Design Philosophy of LEVEE PATROLLER

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harteveld, Casper; Guimaraes, Rui; Mayer, Igor S.; Bidarra, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    Most serious games have been developed without a proper and comprehensive design theory. To contribute to the development of such a theory, this article presents the underlying design philosophy of LEVEE PATROLLER, a game to train levee patrollers in the Netherlands. This philosophy stipulates that the design of a digital serious game is a…

  11. A Model for Variable Levee Formation Rates in an Active Lava Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaze, L. S.; Baloga, S. M.; Mouginis-Mark, P.; Crisp, J.

    2004-01-01

    Channelized lava flows on Mars and the Earth often feature levees and collateral margins that change in volume along the path of the flow. Consistent with field observations of terrestrial flows, this suggests that the rate of levee formation varies with distance and other factors. Previous models have assumed a constant rate of levee growth, specified by a single parameter, lambda. The rate of levee formation for lava flows is a good indicator of the mass eruption rate and rheology of the flow. Insight into levee formation will help us better understand whether or not the effusion rate was constant during an eruption, and once local topography is considered, allows us to look at cooling and/or rheology changes downslope. Here we present a more realistic extension of the levee formation model that treats the rate of levee growth as a function of distance along the flow path. We show how this model can be used with a terrestrial flow and a long lava flow on Mars. The key statement of the new formulation is the rate of transfer from the active component to the levees (or other passive components) through an element dx along the path of the flow. This volumetric transfer equation is presented.

  12. Balancing Play, Meaning and Reality: The Design Philosophy of LEVEE PATROLLER

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harteveld, Casper; Guimaraes, Rui; Mayer, Igor S.; Bidarra, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    Most serious games have been developed without a proper and comprehensive design theory. To contribute to the development of such a theory, this article presents the underlying design philosophy of LEVEE PATROLLER, a game to train levee patrollers in the Netherlands. This philosophy stipulates that the design of a digital serious game is a…

  13. Structural, Material, and Geotechnical Solutions to Levee and Floodwall Construction and Retrofitting - Physical Modeling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    The crest part of the grooved clay was peeled back to expose the trench. The bentonite -sand mixture was then placed against the I-wall in the... bentonite . The mixture was entrenched along the levee on the riverside of a sheet wall. The belief was that as water pressure on the wall caused the...13  Clay layer and levee

  14. An assessment of two methods for identifying undocumented levees using remotely sensed data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Czuba, Christiana R.; Williams, Byron K.; Westman, Jack; LeClaire, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Many undocumented and commonly unmaintained levees exist in the landscape complicating flood forecasting, risk management, and emergency response. This report describes a pilot study completed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to assess two methods to identify undocumented levees by using remotely sensed, high-resolution topographic data. For the first method, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers examined hillshades computed from a digital elevation model that was derived from light detection and ranging (lidar) to visually identify potential levees and then used detailed site visits to assess the validity of the identifications. For the second method, the U.S. Geological Survey applied a wavelet transform to a lidar-derived digital elevation model to identify potential levees. The hillshade method was applied to Delano, Minnesota, and the wavelet-transform method was applied to Delano and Springfield, Minnesota. Both methods were successful in identifying levees but also identified other features that required interpretation to differentiate from levees such as constructed barriers, high banks, and bluffs. Both methods are complementary to each other, and a potential conjunctive method for testing in the future includes (1) use of the wavelet-transform method to rapidly identify slope-break features in high-resolution topographic data, (2) further examination of topographic data using hillshades and aerial photographs to classify features and map potential levees, and (3) a verification check of each identified potential levee with local officials and field visits.

  15. Radar remote sensing for levee health assessment in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, P.; Jones, C. E.; Dudas, J.; Bawden, G. W.; Deverel, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    Levees and dikes form extensive flood protection infrastructure that often also serve critical water conveyance functions. We have studied the use of radar remote sensing for providing health assessment of levees, focusing on California's levee system. The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, which lies directly east of San Francisco Bay, is an area comprised of tidal marshland and reclaimed land in the form of ~60 islands surrounded by 1700 km of levees. Improved knowledge of subsidence across the region is needed to maintain the integrity of the Delta levee system, which protects the integrity and quality of the state's primary water supply. The western Delta is particularly critical because levee failure in this area would rapidly draw water of high salinity content into the channels conveying the fresh water supply. Here we report on a study that uses radar interferometry to measure the spatially and temporally varied levee movement and subsidence in the area, focusing particularly on Sherman Island, the westernmost island of the Delta. We use data from NASA's L-band (23.79 cm) Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) collected at 6-week average interval from July 2009 through the current day. We show preliminary results for localized movement on and near the levees and for island-scale subsidence and discuss the techniques used for these measurements and how they could contribute to emergency response.

  16. Evidence of an emerging levee failure mechanism causing disastrous floods in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlandini, Stefano; Moretti, Giovanni; Albertson, John

    2017-04-01

    A levee failure occurred along the Secchia River, Northern Italy, on January 19, 2014, resulting in flood damage in excess of 500 Million. In response to this failure, immediate surveillance of other levees in the region led to the identification of a second breach developing on the neighboring Panaro River, where rapid mitigation efforts were successful in averting a full levee failure. The paired breach events that occurred along the Secchia and Panaro Rivers provided an excellent window on an emerging levee failure mechanism. In the Secchia River, by combining the information content of photographs taken from helicopters in the early stage of breach development and 10-cm resolution aerial photographs taken in 2010 and 2012, animal burrows were found to exist in the precise levee location where the breach originated. In the Panaro River, internal erosion was observed to occur at a location where a crested porcupine den was known to exist and this erosion led to the collapse of the levee top. This paper uses detailed numerical modeling of rainfall, river flow, and variably saturated flow in the levee to explore the hydraulic and geotechnical mechanisms that were triggered along the Secchia and Panaro Rivers by activities of burrowing animals leading to levee failures. As habitats become more fragmented and constrained along river corridors it is possible that this failure mechanism could become more prevalent and, therefore, will demand greater attention in both the design and maintenance of earthen hydraulic structures as well as in wildlife management.

  17. Evidence of an emerging levee failure mechanism causing disastrous floods in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlandini, Stefano; Moretti, Giovanni; Albertson, John D.

    2015-10-01

    A levee failure occurred along the Secchia River, Northern Italy, on 19 January 2014, resulting in flood damage in excess of $500 million. In response to this failure, immediate surveillance of other levees in the region led to the identification of a second breach developing on the neighboring Panaro River, where rapid mitigation efforts were successful in averting a full levee failure. The paired breach events that occurred along the Secchia and Panaro Rivers provided an excellent window on an emerging levee failure mechanism. In the Secchia River, by combining the information content of photographs taken from helicopters in the early stage of breach development and 10 cm resolution aerial photographs taken in 2010 and 2012, animal burrows were found to exist in the precise levee location where the breach originated. In the Panaro River, internal erosion was observed to occur at a location where a crested porcupine den was known to exist and this erosion led to the collapse of the levee top. This paper uses detailed numerical modeling of rainfall, river flow, and variably saturated flow in the levee to explore the hydraulic and geotechnical mechanisms that were triggered along the Secchia and Panaro Rivers by activities of burrowing animals leading to levee failures. As habitats become more fragmented and constrained along river corridors, it is possible that this failure mechanism could become more prevalent and, therefore, will demand greater attention in both the design and maintenance of earthen hydraulic structures as well as in wildlife management.

  18. Study of Movement and Seepage Along Levees Using DINSAR and the Airborne UAVSAR Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Cathleen E.; Bawden, Gerald; Deverel, Steven; Dudas, Joel; Hensley, Scott

    2012-01-01

    We have studied the utility of high resolution SAR (synthetic aperture radar) for levee monitoring using UAVSAR (Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar) data collected along the dikes and levees in California's Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta and along the lower Mississippi River. Our study has focused on detecting and tracking changes that are indicative of potential problem spots, namely deformation of the levees, subsidence along the levee toe, and seepage through the levees, making use of polarimetric and interferometric SAR techniques. Here was present some results of those studies, which show that high resolution, low noise SAR imaging could supplement more traditional ground-based monitoring methods by providing early indicators of seepage and deformation.

  19. Study of Movement and Seepage Along Levees Using DINSAR and the Airborne UAVSAR Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Cathleen E.; Bawden, Gerald; Deverel, Steven; Dudas, Joel; Hensley, Scott

    2012-01-01

    We have studied the utility of high resolution SAR (synthetic aperture radar) for levee monitoring using UAVSAR (Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar) data collected along the dikes and levees in California's Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta and along the lower Mississippi River. Our study has focused on detecting and tracking changes that are indicative of potential problem spots, namely deformation of the levees, subsidence along the levee toe, and seepage through the levees, making use of polarimetric and interferometric SAR techniques. Here was present some results of those studies, which show that high resolution, low noise SAR imaging could supplement more traditional ground-based monitoring methods by providing early indicators of seepage and deformation.

  20. Refuge management analyses: levee alternatives at Clarence Cannon National Wildlife Refuge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Auble, Gregor T.; Hamilton, David B.; Roelle, James E.

    1984-01-01

    Do not maintain a levee so that the Refuge will flood directly with river stage. Repair of the major breaks in the levee, but not the more general wave damage, was considered as a short term alternative. Participants first specified the habitats and management controls desired at Clarence Cannon National Wildlife Refuge. These were centered around attaining the maximum feasible development and management of moist soil units. Levee alternatives were evaluated in terms of their ability to provide the desired habitats and management controls. Preliminary cost estimates were prepared for each alternative, and the qualitative consequences of each alternative identified for the full set of outputs from the Refuge Master Plan. The alternative of improving the existing levee by raising the height was unanimously preferred on purely “biological” grounds (with cost not considered). Repairing the levee with no change in elevation was unanimously selected as the most cost effective alternative.

  1. Evidence of an Emerging Disturbance of Earthen Levees Causing Disastrous Floods in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlandini, S.; Moretti, G.; Albertson, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    A levee failure occurred along the Secchia River, Northern Italy, on January 19, 2014, resulting in flood damage in excess of $500 Million (Figure). In response to this failure, immediate surveillance of other levees in the region led to the identification of a second breach developing on the neighboring Panaro River, where rapid mitigation efforts were successful in averting a full levee failure. The paired breach events that occurred along the Secchia and Panaro Rivers provided an excellent window on an emerging disturbance of levees and related failure mechanism. In the Secchia River, by combining the information content of photographs taken from helicopters in the early stage of breach development and 10-cm resolution aerial photographs taken in 2010 and 2012, animal burrows were found to exist in the precise levee location where the breach originated. In the Panaro River, internal erosion was observed to occur at a location where a crested porcupine den was known to exist and this erosion led to the collapse of the levee top. Evidence collected suggested that it is quite likely that the levee failure of the Secchia River was of a similar mechanism as the observed failure of the Panaro River. Detailed numerical modeling of rainfall, river flow, and variably saturated flow occurring in disturbed levees in response to complex hydroclimatic forcing indicated that the levee failure of the Secchia River may have been triggered by direct river inflow into the den system or collapse of a hypothetical den separated by a 1-m earthen wall from the levee riverside, which saturated during the hydroclimatic event. It is important to bring these processes to the attention of hydrologists and geotechnical engineers as well as to trigger an interdisciplinary discussion on habitat fragmentation and wildlife shifts due to development and climate pressures. These disturbances come together with changes in extreme events to inform the broader concern of risk analysis due to floods.

  2. A statistical method to estimate outflow volume in case of levee breach due to overtopping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandimarte, Luigia; Martina, Mario; Dottori, Francesco; Mazzoleni, Maurizio

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study is to propose a statistical method to assess the outflowing water volume through a levee breach, due to overtopping, in case of three different types of grass cover quality. The first step in the proposed methodology is the definition of the reliability function, a the relation between loading and resistance conditions on the levee system, in case of overtopping. Secondly, the fragility curve, which relates the probability of failure with loading condition over the levee system, is estimated having defined the stochastic variables in the reliability function. Thus, different fragility curves are assessed in case of different scenarios of grass cover quality. Then, a levee breach model is implemented and combined with a 1D hydrodynamic model in order to assess the outflow hydrograph given the water level in the main channel and stochastic values of the breach width. Finally, the water volume is estimated as a combination of the probability density function of the breach width and levee failure. The case study is located in the in 98km-braided reach of Po River, Italy, between the cross-sections of Cremona and Borgoforte. The analysis showed how different counter measures, different grass cover quality in this case, can reduce the probability of failure of the levee system. In particular, for a given values of breach width good levee cover qualities can significantly reduce the outflowing water volume, compared to bad cover qualities, inducing a consequent lower flood risk within the flood-prone area.

  3. Breaching the levee of a channel on the Mississippi Fan: Chapter 5

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twichell, David C.; Schwab, William C.; Kenyon, Neil H.; Lee, Homa J.; Gardner, James V.; Field, Michael E.; Twichell, David C.

    1996-01-01

    GLORIA images of the youngest channel on the Mississippi Fan indicate that it has not been a stable feature, but instead has shifted its course several times. A detailed study of a site of channel shifting found a complex stratigraphy that resulted from one episode of channel avulsion. The channel avulsion appears to have been initiated by a large mass flow that choked the channel below the point where the levee was breached and additionally spilled a large volume of material through the breach in the levee onto the adjacent fan. Subsequent flows were redirected through this breach in the levee and built a channel-levee complex over the mass movement deposits. A second phase of mass movement resulted from another large mass flow that came down the channel and triggered the collapse of part of the newly developed levee. In this case, locally derived levee sediment was mixed with allochthonous sediment from farther up the fan and was spread northward from the levee. This localized study suggests that fan stratigraphy is complex and variable at several scales, not just at the scale resolved in seismic stratigraphic studies (Weimer 1989) and that large mass flows capable of choking the channel system have been an important mechanism in redirecting sedimentation on the Mississippi Fan.

  4. Reducing the effects of dredged material levees on coastal marsh function: sediment deposition and nekton utilization.

    PubMed

    Reed, Denise J; Peterson, Mark S; Lezina, Brian J

    2006-05-01

    Dredged material levees in coastal Louisiana are normally associated with pipeline canals or, more frequently, canals dredged through the wetlands to allow access to drilling locations for mineral extraction. The hydrologic impact on marshes behind the levee is of concern to coastal resource managers because of the potential impact on sediment transport and deposition, and the effect on estuarine organism access to valuable nursery habitat. This study examined the effects of gaps in dredged material levees, compared to continuous levees and natural channel banks, on these two aspects of marsh function. Field studies for sediment deposition were conducted biweekly for a year, and nekton samples were collected in spring and fall. Variation in nekton density among study areas and landscape types was great in part because of the inherent sampling gear issues and in part because of differences in characteristics among areas. Nekton densities were generally greater in natural compared to leveed and gapped landscapes. Differences in landscape type did not explain patterns in sediment deposition. The gaps examined appear to be too restrictive of marsh flooding to provide efficient movements of floodwaters onto the marsh during moderate flooding events. The "trapping" effect of the levees increases sediment deposition during extreme events. Gapping material levees may be an effective method of partially restoring upper marsh connection to nekton, but this method may work best in lower elevation marshes where nekton use is greater.

  5. Terrestrial Lidar Datasets of New Orleans, Louisiana, Levee Failures from Hurricane Katrina, August 29, 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collins, Brian D.; Kayen, Robert; Minasian, Diane L.; Reiss, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina made landfall with the northern Gulf Coast on August 29, 2005, as one of the strongest hurricanes on record. The storm damage incurred in Louisiana included a number of levee failures that led to the inundation of approximately 85 percent of the metropolitan New Orleans area. Whereas extreme levels of storm damage were expected from such an event, the catastrophic failure of the New Orleans levees prompted a quick mobilization of engineering experts to assess why and how particular levees failed. As part of this mobilization, civil engineering members of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) performed terrestrial lidar topographic surveys at major levee failures in the New Orleans area. The focus of the terrestrial lidar effort was to obtain precise measurements of the ground surface to map soil displacements at each levee site, the nonuniformity of levee height freeboard, depth of erosion where scour occurred, and distress in structures at incipient failure. In total, we investigated eight sites in the New Orleans region, including both earth and concrete floodwall levee breaks. The datasets extend from the 17th Street Canal in the Orleans East Bank area to the intersection of the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway (GIWW) with the Mississippi River Gulf Outlet (MRGO) in the New Orleans East area. The lidar scan data consists of electronic files containing millions of surveyed points. These points characterize the topography of each levee's postfailure or incipient condition and are available for download through online hyperlinks. The data serve as a permanent archive of the catastrophic damage of Hurricane Katrina on the levee systems of New Orleans. Complete details of the data collection, processing, and georeferencing methodologies are provided in this report to assist in the visualization and analysis of the data by future users.

  6. Late Pleistocene channel-levee development on Monterey submarine fan, central California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Normark, W.R.

    1999-01-01

    Much of the modern upper (proximal) Monterey fan is a channel-levee complex, the Upper Turbidite Sequence (UTS), that was deeply eroded after the channel breached a volcanic ridge to reach a deeper base level. Ages of sediment samples collected with the ALVIN submersible from the deepest outcrop within the channel-levee system, 390 m below the adjacent western levee crest, indicate that the UTS deposits accumulated at ???1 m ka-1 during the last 500 ka. Neogene and Early Pleistocene sediment accumulation on the fan prior to the UTS was much slower (<0.03 m ka-1), and underlying turbidite systems(?) had substantially different morphologic expression(s).

  7. Natural levee evolution in the Rhine-Meuse delta, the Netherlands, during the first millennium CE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierik, H. J.; Stouthamer, E.; Cohen, K. M.

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents reconstructions on natural levee development in the Rhine-Meuse delta, the Netherlands, during the first millennium CE, covering the full delta plain. It is the first study that performs this on a delta scale, which allows seeing the delta-wide trends on levee-forming controls and their feedbacks. We mapped the levee morphology and elevation by combining LiDAR imagery, lithological borehole data, soil mapping, radiocarbon dates, archaeological data, and GIS-reconstruction techniques. From the detailed levee reconstructions we quantified natural levee dimensions and evaluated the temporal changes therein. The dimensions and the changes therein were then linked to external forcings (increasing suspended sediment load, variable flooding intensity) and to natural preconditions (e.g., delta plain width, flood basin configuration). We show that natural preconditions are an important control on levee shape. This is demonstrated for the upper delta where the relatively narrow delta plain combined with strong compartmentation (i.e., the occurrence of many alluvial ridges and enclosed flood basins) caused the flood levels to be amplified allowing the natural levees to grow relatively high. Compartmentation also seems to have stimulated trapping of coarse-grained overbank sediments, explaining the clear downstream trend in levee width. This effect was probably further aided by the clearance of the riparian forests, mainly in the upstream and central delta, which caused the coarser fraction of the suspended load to be further dispersed into the flood basin leading to wider levees. In the first millennium CE several new river courses formed that avoided the areas of natural levee relief of abandoned alluvial ridges. On these fossil alluvial ridges, the topographical expression gradually reduced because of widespread flood basin trapping of overbank sediment, which led to topographic levelling. The natural levees that formed during this period along the new

  8. 77 FR 9637 - Process for Requesting a Variance From Vegetation Standards for Levees and Floodwalls; Additional...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-17

    ..., channels, or shore-line or river-bank protection systems such as revetments, sand dunes, and barrier islands. b. New federally authorized cost-shared levee projects shall be designed to meet the...

  9. Aggradation of Leveed Channels and Their Flood Plains in Arroyo Bottoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, K. R.

    2005-12-01

    Many arroyos that formed by incision more than a century ago in the southwestern United States are currently filling with sediment. This reversal of processes is important because it causes changes in riparian ecology, erosion hazards, ground water recharge, and sediment supply to downstream. Along the Rio Puerco and Chaco Wash in New Mexico, we examined the geometry and facies of channel and floodplain stratigraphy exposed in trenches, used high-resolution dating of the sedimentary beds, and used photographs and other historical evidence to investigate the processes of aggradation in naturally leveed channels within arroyos. Prior to the onset of aggradation, the streambeds were composed of sand and had low relief, and arroyo walls retreated rapidly due to stream undermining. Aggradation began with the formation of sand levees at the margins of the streambeds, followed by formation of newer levees increasingly closer to the thalweg. These levees coincide with rows of woody shrubs (tamarisk and willow), plants that germinated in moist sand along the high-water marks of moderate flows, and survived because subsequent periods lacked flows large enough to remove them. Flow entering a row of woody shrubs decelerates, promoting deposition of suspended sand. Stream flows in this setting are always turbid but do not have the rheology of debris flows. The rows of shrubs probably are a requirement for initial formation of sand levees on low relief streambeds in this setting. As new levees formed closer to the thalweg the channel effectively narrowed, and smaller discharges overtopped the levees adjacent to the channel. Those closer levees accumulated sand most rapidly, leaving the suspended sand concentration depleted by the time water reached more distant ones. All levees aggraded vertically. As the main channel narrowed it acquired a roughly trapezoidal-shape (Top Width/Depth ~ 9 to 5) with banks inclined close to the angle of repose. In addition, sediment deposited on

  10. Possible Weakening Processes Imposed on California's Earthen Levees under Protracted Drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, J. D.; Vahedifard, F.; AghaKouchak, A.

    2015-12-01

    California is currently suffering from a multiyear extreme drought and the impacts of the drought are anticipated to worsen in a warming climate. The resilience of critical infrastructure under extreme drought conditions is a major concern which has not been well understood. Thus, there is a crucial need to improve our understanding about the potential threats of drought on infrastructure and take subsequent actions in a timely manner to mitigate these threats and adopt our infrastructure for forthcoming extreme events. The need is more pronounced for earthen levees, since their functionality to protect limited water resources and dryland is more critical during drought. A significant amount of California's levee systems are currently operating under a high risk condition. Protracted drought can further threaten the structural competency of these already at-risk levee systems through several thermo-hydro mechanical weakening processes that undermine their stability. Viable information on the implications of these weakening processes, particularly on California's earthen levees, is relatively incomplete. This article discusses, from a geotechnical engineering perspective, how California's protracted drought might threaten the integrity of levee systems through the imposition of several thermo-hydro mechanical weakening processes. Pertinent facts and statistics regarding the drought in California are presented and discussed. Catastrophic levee failures and major damages resulting from drought-induce weakening processes such as shear strength reduction, desiccation cracking, land subsidence and surface erosion, fissuring and soil softening, and soil carbon oxidation are discussed to illustrate the devastating impacts that the California drought might impose on existing earthen levees. This article calls for further research in light of these potential drought-inducing weakening mechanisms to support mitigation strategies for reducing future catastrophic levee failures.

  11. Mount St. Helens Project. Cowlitz River Levee Systems, 2009 Level of Flood Protection Update Summary

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-04

    mountainous region between Mount St. Helens and Mt. Rainier to the Columbia River at Longview, WA. The upstream-most levee is at Castle Rock where a... Mount St. Helens Project Cowlitz River Levee Systems 2009 Level of Flood Protection Update Summary Cowlitz River at Longview...Kelso, Washington February 4, 2010 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the

  12. Application of High Resolution Multispectral Imagery for Levee Slide Detection and Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hossain, A. K. M. Azad; Easson, Greg

    2007-01-01

    The objective is to develop methods to detect and monitor levee slides using commercially available high resolution multispectral imagery. High resolution multispectral imagery like IKONOS and QuickBird are suitable for detecting and monitoring levee slides. IKONOS is suitable for visual inspection, image classification and Tasseled Cap transform based slide detection. Tasseled Cap based model was found to be the best method for slide detection. QuickBird was suitable for visual inspection and image classification.

  13. Combined Wave and Surge Overtopping of Levees: Flow Hydrodynamics and Articulated Concrete Mat Stability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-01

    Tables Figures Figure 1. Minor erosion due to overtopping on the Citrus Back levee. ................................................. 1 Figure 2. Crown...probably not severe or the duration of overtopping was relatively short. Figure 1. Minor erosion due to overtopping on the Citrus Back levee. If the...were dry. Flow velocity A fiber -optic LDV was used to measure two orthogonal components of flow velocity at locations in the vicinity of the

  14. Environmental and Water Quality Operational Studies. Environmental Features for Streamside Levee Projects.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-08-01

    woodlands with pasture and hayland in Iowa greatly reduced bird species S diversity, while Geier and Best (1980) determined that conversion of a tall...areas in Iowa to pasture led to a decline in wildlife .. species diversity, while a number of other studies in riparian woodlands indicate that grazing...trees preserved on the landside of the Clinton, Iowa , levee .. .......... . 27 6 : 4 Tree screen preserved through careful consideration of levee

  15. Burrowing activity in channel levees: impact of the invasive red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solari, L.; Bendoni, M.; Consumi, L.; Haubrock, P.; Inghilesi, A.; Mazza, G.; Torrini, M.; Tricarico, E.

    2016-12-01

    The effect of animal burrowing, as an example of bioturbation on the stability of river levees has been recently raised to the scientific community as a consequence of the levee collapses of Secchia and Foenna rivers in Italy (Camici et al., 2010, 2014; Orlandini et al., 2015). Indeed, these authors showed that the presence of animal burrows is crucial in promoting the collapse of the bank. The American red swamp Crayfish Procambarus clarkii is an invasive species in Europe, mostly introduced for commercial purposes related to livestock. It is rapidly spreading throughout the Italian peninsula due to its plasticity, dispersal capability and high reproduction rate (Souty-Grosset et al., 2016). As well as the negative effects on local biodiversity, it damages the levees of the irrigation channel leading to disastrous collapses, relevant repairing and maintenance costs. In this work, we present an experimental activity where specimens of P. clarkii were monitored while burrowing into a small-scale physical model of an earthen levee, coupled with the mathematical modelling of the variations induced by the burrows on the seepage flow patterns through the levee.Preliminary results show the burrowing structure was quite irregular. Generally, crayfish start burrowing under the water level, developing tunnels (diameter ranging 4-7cm) both horizontally and heading upward, also above the water level. Some tunnels showed one or more circular chambers. The highest burrowing activity was observed during the experiments carried out in summer, when the species has a peak of maximum activity due to the higher temperature. Mathematical modelling shows that, for given boundary conditions and experimental duration, the presence of burrows in the levee raises the phreatic line. Critical conditions for levee integrity may be associated either to the internal erosion and stability of the system of tunnels and to the emergence of the phreatic line of the landside of the levee slope. These

  16. Time-lapse seismic study of levees in southern New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ivanov, J.; Miller, R.D.; Stimac, N.; Ballard, R.F.; Dunbar, J. Joseph; Smullen, S. Steve

    2006-01-01

    The primary objective of this work was to measure changes in compressional- (Vp) and shear-wave (Vs) velocities in an earthen levee during a ponding experiment designed to simulate flood conditions on the Rio Grande in south New Mexico. Although similar to such experiment, performed an year earlier on the Rio Grande in south Texas, the levee seismic response results are different. This work was similar to previous Preliminary testing at three levee sites, all within a 1 km radius and each with unique physical, EM, and core characteristics, was completed and a single low-conductivity, highly fractured site was selected for investigation. Several different types of seismic data were recorded. Seismic data analysis techniques appraised included P-refraction tomography and Rayleigh surface-wave analysis using multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW). P-wave velocity change (decrease) was rapid and isolated to one section within the pool confines, which already had anomalously high velocity most likely related to burrowing animals modification of the levee structure. S-wave velocity change was gradual and could be observed along the whole width of the pond within and below the levee. The results within the levee sand core were consistent with the observations of sand S-wave velocity changed due to saturation. ?? 2005 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  17. Methods to quantify seepage beneath Levee 30, Miami-Dade County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sonenshein, R.S.

    2001-01-01

    A two-dimensional, cross-sectional, finite-difference, ground-water flow model and a simple application of Darcy?s law were used to quantify ground-water flow (from a wetlands) beneath Levee 30 in Miami-Dade County, Florida. Geologic and geophysical data, vertical seepage data from the wetlands, canal discharge data, ground-water-level data, and surface-water-stage data collected during 1995 and 1996 were used as boundary conditions and calibration data for the ground-water flow model and as input for the analytical model. Vertical seepage data indicated that water from the wetlands infiltrated the subsurface, near Levee 30, at rates ranging from 0.033 to 0.266 foot per day when the gates at the control structures along Levee 30 canal were closed. During the same period, stage differences between the wetlands (Water Conservation Area 3B) and Levee 30 canal ranged from 0.11 to 1.27 feet. A layer of low-permeability limestone, located 7 to 10 feet below land surface, restricts vertical flow between the surface water in the wetlands and the ground water. Based on measured water-level data, ground-water flow appears to be generally horizontal, except in the direct vicinity of the canal. The increase in discharge rate along a 2-mile reach of the Levee 30 canal ranged from 9 to 30 cubic feet per second per mile and can be attributed primarily to ground-water inflow. Flow rates in Levee 30 canal were greatest when the gates at the control structures were open. The ground-water flow model data were compared with the measured ground-water heads and vertical seepage from the wetlands. Estimating the horizontal ground-water flow rate beneath Levee 30 was difficult owing to the uncertainty in the horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the main flow zone of the Biscayne aquifer. Measurements of ground-water flows into Levee 30 canal, a substantial component of the water budget, were also uncertain, which lessened the ability to validate the model results. Because of vertical

  18. Root Development of Salix purpurea L. on Heavily Compacted Levee Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammeranner, W.

    2012-04-01

    The effect of woody vegetation on levee stability is discussed controversially. On the one hand woody plants improve slope stability, prevent erosion failures and may aid in levee stability. On the other hand it is believed that woody vegetation has negative impacts which are largely related to the rooting system. Hence, root penetration can facilitate water movement - seepage or piping - as well as living and decaying roots can lead to voids and threaten the structural integrity of levees. In general root architecture is known for many plant species, but specific root characteristics and their interaction with soils are influenced by many factors, and therefore poorly understood. Consequently the current research investigates the rooting performance of woody vegetation by singling out a special type of vegetation which is often used within soil bioengineering techniques at river embankments. This vegetation type is a dense stand of shrubby willows (Salix purpurea L.), implemented with brush mattresses. The data is collected from a test site constructed in 2007, 5 km northeast of Vienna, Austria. Part of the test site is a research levee built true to natural scale. The fill material of the levee is a mineral silt-sand-gravel compound classified as silty sand, which was compacted to a dry density of 1.86 g/cm3. The planting of vegetation was applied directly to the compacted levee body using only a thin layer (2-4 cm) of humus topsoil. In 2009 the studies were supplemented with a lysimeter-like setup consisting of a total of 20 containers. The lysimeters were filled homogenously with the same soil as the levees and were consolidated to the same degree of compaction. They were planted similar to the research levees. Within the investigations a comprehensive annual vegetation monitoring program was carried out. Measured aboveground parameters were shoot diameter, shoot length, biomass and leaf area index (LAI). Monitored rooting parameters - examined by excavation

  19. Geophysical characterization of the Lollie Levee near Conway, Arkansas, using capacitively coupled resistivity, coring, and direct push logging

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gillip, Jonathan A.; Payne, Jason

    2011-01-01

    A geophysical characterization of Lollie Levee near Conway, Arkansas, was conducted in February 2011. A capacitively coupled resistivity survey (using Geometric's OhmMapper) was completed along the top and toe of the 6.7-mile levee. Two-dimensional inversions were conducted on the geophysical data. As a quality-control measure, cores and direct push logs were taken at approximately 1-mile intervals along the levee. The capacitively coupled resistivity survey, the coring, and the direct push logs were used to characterize the geologic materials. Comparison of the cores and the direct push log data, along with published resistivity values, indicates that resistivity values of 200 Ohm-meters or greater represent relatively clean sand, with decreasing resistivity values occurring with increasing silt and clay content. The cores indicated that the levee is composed of a heterogeneous mixture of sand, silt, and clay. The capacitively coupled resistivity sections confirm that the levee is composed of a heterogeneous mixture of high and low resistivity materials and show that the composition of the levee varies spatially. The geologic materials underlying the levee vary spatially as a result of the geologic processes that deposited them. In general, the naturally deposited geologic materials underlying the levee contain a greater amount of low resistivity materials in the southern extent of the levee.

  20. Advanced Unsupervised Classification Methods to Detect Anomalies on Earthen Levees Using Polarimetric SAR Imagery.

    PubMed

    Marapareddy, Ramakalavathi; Aanstoos, James V; Younan, Nicolas H

    2016-06-16

    Fully polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (polSAR) data analysis has wide applications for terrain and ground cover classification. The dynamics of surface and subsurface water events can lead to slope instability resulting in slough slides on earthen levees. Early detection of these anomalies by a remote sensing approach could save time versus direct assessment. We used L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) to screen levees for anomalies. SAR technology, due to its high spatial resolution and soil penetration capability, is a good choice for identifying problematic areas on earthen levees. Using the parameters entropy (H), anisotropy (A), alpha (α), and eigenvalues (λ, λ₁, λ₂, and λ₃), we implemented several unsupervised classification algorithms for the identification of anomalies on the levee. The classification techniques applied are H/α, H/A, A/α, Wishart H/α, Wishart H/A/α, and H/α/λ classification algorithms. In this work, the effectiveness of the algorithms was demonstrated using quad-polarimetric L-band SAR imagery from the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL's) Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR). The study area is a section of the lower Mississippi River valley in the Southern USA, where earthen flood control levees are maintained by the US Army Corps of Engineers.

  1. Advanced Unsupervised Classification Methods to Detect Anomalies on Earthen Levees Using Polarimetric SAR Imagery

    PubMed Central

    Marapareddy, Ramakalavathi; Aanstoos, James V.; Younan, Nicolas H.

    2016-01-01

    Fully polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (polSAR) data analysis has wide applications for terrain and ground cover classification. The dynamics of surface and subsurface water events can lead to slope instability resulting in slough slides on earthen levees. Early detection of these anomalies by a remote sensing approach could save time versus direct assessment. We used L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) to screen levees for anomalies. SAR technology, due to its high spatial resolution and soil penetration capability, is a good choice for identifying problematic areas on earthen levees. Using the parameters entropy (H), anisotropy (A), alpha (α), and eigenvalues (λ, λ1, λ2, and λ3), we implemented several unsupervised classification algorithms for the identification of anomalies on the levee. The classification techniques applied are H/α, H/A, A/α, Wishart H/α, Wishart H/A/α, and H/α/λ classification algorithms. In this work, the effectiveness of the algorithms was demonstrated using quad-polarimetric L-band SAR imagery from the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory’s (JPL’s) Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR). The study area is a section of the lower Mississippi River valley in the Southern USA, where earthen flood control levees are maintained by the US Army Corps of Engineers. PMID:27322270

  2. Using ground penetrating radar in levee assessment to detect small scale animal burrows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chlaib, Hussein K.; Mahdi, Hanan; Al-Shukri, Haydar; Su, Mehmet M.; Catakli, Aycan; Abd, Najah

    2014-04-01

    Levees are civil engineering structures built to protect human lives, property, and agricultural lands during flood events. To keep these important structures in a safe condition, continuous monitoring must be performed regularly and thoroughly. Small rodent burrows are one of the major defects within levees; however, their early detection and repair helps in protecting levees during flooding events. A set of laboratory experiments was conducted to analyze the polarity change in GPR signals in the presence of subsurface voids and water-filled cavities. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) surveys using multi frequency antennas (400 MHz and 900 MHz) were conducted along an 875 meter section of the Lollie Levee near Conway, Arkansas, USA, to assess the levee's structural integrity. Many subsurface animal burrows, water-filled cavities, clay clasts, and metallic objects were investigated and identified. These anomalies were located at different depths and have different sizes. To ground truth the observations, hand dug trenches were excavated to confirm several anomalies. Results show an excellent match between GPR interpreted anomalies and the observed features. In-situ dielectric constant measurements were used to calculate the feature depths. The results of this research show that the 900 MHz antenna has more advantages over the 400 MHz antenna.

  3. A Hybrid Model for Leveed Lava Flows: Implications for Eruption Styles on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaze, Lori S.; Baloga, Stephen M.; Garry, W. Brent; Fagents, Sarah A.; Parcheta, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    Many cehannelized lava flows on the plains of Mars have substantial embanking margins and levees inferred to have been stationary while the central channel was active. Levee formation can be attributed to two end-member processes during emplacement; construction during passage of the flow front and growth along the entire length of the flow while it is active. It is shown here that the amount of lava that can be deposited by the flow front alone is limited. Estimates of the levee volume for many Mars plains flows exceed this limit and must have formed by processes that continued after the passage of the front. Experimental studies of analogous laboratory flows also indicate a combination of both modes of emplacement. A model that combines both modes of levee formation. is presented, including a method for estimating volumetric flow rate, eruption duration, and viscosity. Six lava flows on the plains of the Tharsis volcanic province are used as illustrative examples. Crustal thicknesses for the six flows examined range from 9 to 23 m. Estimated emplacement times required to cool crusts of these thicknesses range from I year to 10 years. Correspondini viscosities are on the order of 10 5-106 Pa s. Effusion rates range from 25 to 840 m 3 s - and are all within the range of terrestrial observations. Therefore, the large leveed plains flows on Mars are not dramatically different in eruption rate or lava viscosity from large terrestrial analogs.

  4. Technical Note: Stability of a Levee Made of Bottom Sediments From a Dam Reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koś, Karolina; Zawisza, Eugeniusz

    2015-02-01

    Stability analysis of a levee made of the bottom sediments from Czorsztyn-Niedzica Reservoir is presented in the paper. These sediments were classified as silty sands and, based on the authors' own research, their geotechnical parameters were beneficial, so the possibility of using this material for the hydraulic embankments was considered. Stability and filtration calculations were carried out for a levee that had the same top width - 3 m, slope inclinations 1:2 and different heights: 4, 6 and 8 m. Two methods were used: analytical and numerical. Calculations were carried out without and with a steady and unsteady seepage filtration. Based on the analysis carried out it was stated that the levee made of the bottom sediments is stable even at the height of 8.0 m, although because of the seepage on the downstream side it is recommended to use a drainage at the toe of the slope.

  5. Use of geophysical methods to map subsurface features at levee seepage locations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brackett, Thomas C.

    The Great Flood of 2011 caused moderate to severe seepage and piping along the Mississippi River levees in Northwest Mississippi. The aim of this thesis was to implement geophysical techniques at two seepage locations in order to give a better understanding of the causes of underseepage and information on how to mitigate the problem. Sites near Rena Lara in Coahoma County and near Francis in Bolivar County were chosen to conduct this survey. Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) and Electromagnetic Induction (EM) surveys were conducted on and adjacent to levees to identify seepage pathways and any dominant geological features at the sites. Results from geophysical surveys revealed that Francis and Rena Laura each had a prominent geomorphologic feature that was attributing to underseepage. Seepage at Francis was the result of a sand filled channel capped by a clay overburden. Permeable materials at the base of the channel served as a conduit for transporting river water beneath the levee. The seepage surfaced as sand boils where the overlying clay overburden was thin or non-existent. Investigations at the Rena Lara site revealed a large, clay-filled swale extending beneath the levee. The clay within the swale has relatively low horizontal permeability, and concentrated the seepage flow towards more permeable zones on the flanks of the swale. This resulted in the formation of sand boils at the base of the levee. Both geomorphic features at Francis and Rena Lara were identified as surface drainages using remote sensing data. With the assistance of borehole and elevation data, geophysics was successfully used to characterize the features at each site. Properties such as permeability and clay content were derived from responses in electrical conductivity and used to build seepage models at each site. These models will hopefully be considered when determining seepage conditions and mitigation techniques at other sites along the levee.

  6. Condition Assessment of Levees, U.S. Section of the International Boundary and Water Commission. Report 5: Flood Simulation Study of Retamal Levee, Lower Rio Grande Valley, Texas, Using Seismic and Electrical Geophysical Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    Surface cracking of the levee was caused primarily by drought conditions as they affected expansive clay soils where total annual rainfall , in...soils. Seismic data indicated the higher rainfall in 2004 posi- tively affected the core of the levee. Measurable increases in the seismic velocity...7 Annual Rainfall Data in the LRGV....................................................................7 Monthly Rainfall

  7. California Levee Risk, Now and in the Future:Identifying Research and Tool Development Needs

    SciTech Connect

    Newmark, R L; Hanemann, M; Farber, D

    2006-11-28

    The Center for Catastrophic Risk Management (CCRM) and the California Center for Environmental Law and Policy (CCELP) at UC Berkeley and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) joined together to cosponsor a workshop to define research requirements to mitigate the hazards facing the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta Levee system. The Workshop was intended to provide a forum to (1) Report assessments of current vulnerabilities facing the levees, such as structural failure, seismic loading, flooding, terrorism; (2) Consider longer term challenges such as climate change, sea level rise; and (3) Define research requirements to fill gaps in knowledge and reduce uncertainties in hazard assessments.

  8. The impact of different soil bioengineering techniques on the surface erosion of levees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammeranner, W.; Meixner, H.; Florineth, F.

    2009-04-01

    The recent flood events have once more drawn attention to the stability and maintenance of river levees. Subsequently, the attention has also been focused on the prevention of erosion by hydraulic forces in case of flooding or overtopping. Vegetation can limit the soil detaching capacity of flowing water, by their retarding effects on runoff and velocity as well as the physical protection of the levee surface. At low discharge intensity vegetation stands rigid and unsubmerged, reducing velocity below required for soil particle entrainment (Coppin and Richards, 1990). At higher discharge capacities flexible vegetation tend to lay down, dissipating energy and providing resistance to scour (Henderson and Shields, 1984). Roots increase the shear strength of the soil (Schiechtl, 1980) and can create a fibrous mat that resists detachment of the surrounding soil matrix (Henderson and Shields, 1984). The erosive capacity of surface water flow is dependant to type and pattern of vegetation. The denser the vegetation, the better the soil surface is protected against erosion. Sets of regulations regard compact turf to be the best vegetation cover for river levees. A contentious issue are woody plants, and many guidelines (DIN 19712, 1997; FEMA, 2005; USACE, 2000) ban woody vegetation from levees for several reasons. So, the planting of woody plants is not an accepted policy by any agency. Within the frame of a research project carried out by the Institute of Soil Bioengineering and Landscape Construction (University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna), focusing on woody plants on levees, the effects of small to medium growing woody (shrubby) plants on erosion while hydraulic forces (overtopping) are tested. Data are drawn from two natural-scaled research levees. The homogenous levees consist of a mineral silt-sand-gravel and have a fill height of 2.7 m and a slope inclination of 2:3. The tests investigate erosion resistance with respect to four different

  9. Red River of the North Walsh and Pembina Countries, North Dakota Farmstead Ring Levees.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    District R p r N Red River of the North w Walsh and Pembina Counties , 1 ~tNorth Dakota SFarmstead Ring Levees C-,) * December 1983 84 10 10 177...throughout the study area and pursuing flood control actions has been a long-time effort of many of the residents of Pembina and Walsh Counties . This is...located in Cass County , North Dakota, once the levees in Grand Forks County are completed. 28 .2I- FLOODING The topography of the Red River Valley is an

  10. Levee crest elevation profiles derived from airborne lidar-based high resolution digital elevation models in south Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palaseanu-Lovejoy, Monica; Thatcher, Cindy A.; Barras, John A.

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the feasibility of using airborne lidar surveys to construct high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) and develop an automated procedure to extract levee longitudinal elevation profiles for both federal levees in Atchafalaya Basin and local levees in Lafourche Parish, south Lousiana. This approach can successfully accommodate a high degree of levee sinuosity and abrupt changes in levee orientation (direction) in planar coordinates, variations in levee geometries, and differing DEM resolutions. The federal levees investigated in Atchafalaya Basin have crest elevations between 5.3 and 12 m while the local counterparts in Lafourche Parish are between 0.76 and 2.3 m. The vertical uncertainty in the elevation data is considered when assessing federal crest elevation against the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers minimum height requirements to withstand the 100-year flood. Only approximately 5% of the crest points of the two federal levees investigated in the Atchafalaya Basin region met this requirement.

  11. 44 CFR 65.10 - Mapping of areas protected by levee systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... levees must provide a minimum freeboard of three feet above the water-surface level of the base flood. An... requirement described in paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section, may be approved. Appropriate engineering... paragraph (b)(1)(iii) of this section, may be approved. Appropriate engineering analyses demonstrating...

  12. Monitoring the tidal response of a sea levee with ambient seismic noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planès, Thomas; Rittgers, Justin B.; Mooney, Michael A.; Kanning, Wim; Draganov, Deyan

    2017-03-01

    Internal erosion, a major cause of failure of earthen dams and levees, is often difficult to detect at early stages using traditional visual inspection. The passive seismic-interferometry technique could enable the early detection of internal changes taking place within these structures. We test this technique on a portion of the sea levee of Colijnsplaat, Netherlands, which presents signs of concentrated seepage in the form of sandboils. Applying seismic interferometry to ambient noise collected over a 12-hour period, we retrieve surface waves propagating along the levee. We identify the contribution of two dominant ambient seismic noise sources: the traffic on the Zeeland bridge and a nearby wind turbine. Here, the sea-wave action does not constitute a suitable noise source for seismic interferometry. Using the retrieved surface waves, we compute time-lapse variations of the surface-wave group velocities during the 12-hour tidal cycle for different frequency bands, i.e., for different depth ranges. The estimated group-velocity variations correlate with variations in on-site pore-water pressure measurements that respond to tidal loading. We present lateral profiles of these group-velocity variations along a 180-meter section of the levee, at four different depth ranges (0m-40m). On these profiles, we observe some spatially localized relative group-velocity variations of up to 5% that might be related to concentrated seepage.

  13. 75 FR 6364 - Process for Requesting a Variance From Vegetation Standards for Levees and Floodwalls

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-09

    ..., the MSC Commander shall submit the request to HQUSACE, via the Regional Integration Team (RIT) process... supersedes the applicable regional variance policy and process contained in Engineer Regulation (ER) 500-1-1... Program, and Appendix E, Regional Variances to Levee Vegetation Standards, 30 September 2001. c. Engineer...

  14. 76 FR 78015 - Revised Analysis and Mapping Procedures for Non-Accredited Levees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-15

    ... terms of its feasibility, flexibility, and collaborative nature. DATES: Comments must be received by... revise the mapping procedures for non-accredited levees. This approach works within the confines of existing federal regulations, yet is more flexible, collaborative and feasible. FEMA is replacing...

  15. Development of Floating Wave Barriers for Cost Effective Protection of Irrigation Pond Levees

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The earth levees commonly used for irrigation reservoirs are subjected to significant embankment erosion due to wind-generated waves. Large seasonal fluctuations in water level make vegetative bank protection impractical, and other stabilization methods, such as the use of stone or discarded tires, ...

  16. Geophysical Surveys for Detecting Anomalous Conditions, Algiers Canal Levees, New Orleans, Louisiana

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    with grout. An electromagnetic (EM) induction survey using a Geonics EM31 terrain conductivity meter was conducted along the crest, slopes, and...other New Orleans levees, was the electromagnetic (EM) induction survey method. The general process employed for field data collection was to... Electromagnetic terrain conductivity measurements at low induction numbers. Technical Note TN-6. Mississauga, Ontario, Canada:Geonics Limited. Llopis, J

  17. Level-I Trauma Center Effects on Return-to-Work Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prada, Sergio I.; Salkever, David; MacKenzie, Ellen J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Injury is the leading cause of death for persons aged 1-44 years in the United States. Injuries have a substantial economic cost. For that reason, regional systems of trauma care in which the more acutely injured patients are transported to Level-I (L-I) trauma centers (TCs) has been widely advocated. However, the cost of TC care is…

  18. The use of seismic tomograms for the identification of internal problems with earthen dams and levees

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    According to the National Inventory of dams (NID, 2009), out of the 84,134 dams in the US, more than 87% (73,423) are earthen dams. The majority of these earthen dams are past or approaching their design life expectancy of 50 years. According to the National committee on Levee Safety (NCLS, 2009),...

  19. Agricultural aircraft and thermal imaging - from detecting sand boils at the levee to irrigation management

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Thermal imaging has many potential uses from aerial platforms. A thermal imaging camera was brought into service to detect potential leakage and sand boils at the Mississippi River levee during the flood period of April and May, 2011. This camera was mounted on an agricultural aircraft and operated ...

  20. Level-I Trauma Center Effects on Return-to-Work Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prada, Sergio I.; Salkever, David; MacKenzie, Ellen J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Injury is the leading cause of death for persons aged 1-44 years in the United States. Injuries have a substantial economic cost. For that reason, regional systems of trauma care in which the more acutely injured patients are transported to Level-I (L-I) trauma centers (TCs) has been widely advocated. However, the cost of TC care is…

  1. Grain-size segregation and levee formation in geophysical mass flows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, C.G.; Kokelaar, B.P.; Iverson, R.M.; Logan, M.; LaHusen, R.G.; Gray, J.M.N.T.

    2012-01-01

    Data from large-scale debris-flow experiments are combined with modeling of particle-size segregation to explain the formation of lateral levees enriched in coarse grains. The experimental flows consisted of 10 m3 of water-saturated sand and gravel, which traveled ~80 m down a steeply inclined flume before forming an elongated leveed deposit 10 m long on a nearly horizontal runout surface. We measured the surface velocity field and observed the sequence of deposition by seeding tracers onto the flow surface and tracking them in video footage. Levees formed by progressive downslope accretion approximately 3.5 m behind the flow front, which advanced steadily at ~2 m s-1 during most of the runout. Segregation was measured by placing ~600 coarse tracer pebbles on the bed, which, when entrained into the flow, segregated upwards at ~6–7.5 cm s-1. When excavated from the deposit these were distributed in a horseshoe-shaped pattern that became increasingly elevated closer to the deposit termination. Although there was clear evidence for inverse grading during the flow, transect sampling revealed that the resulting leveed deposit was strongly graded laterally, with only weak vertical grading. We construct an empirical, three-dimensional velocity field resembling the experimental observations, and use this with a particle-size segregation model to predict the segregation and transport of material through the flow. We infer that coarse material segregates to the flow surface and is transported to the flow front by shear. Within the flow head, coarse material is overridden, then recirculates in spiral trajectories due to size-segregation, before being advected to the flow edges and deposited to form coarse-particle-enriched levees.

  2. Grain-size segregation and levee formation in geophysical mass flows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, C.G.; Kokelaar, B.P.; Iverson, Richard M.; Logan, M.; LaHusen, R.G.; Gray, J.M.N.T.

    2012-01-01

    Data from large-scale debris-flow experiments are combined with modeling of particle-size segregation to explain the formation of lateral levees enriched in coarse grains. The experimental flows consisted of 10 m3 of water-saturated sand and gravel, which traveled ∼80 m down a steeply inclined flume before forming an elongated leveed deposit 10 m long on a nearly horizontal runout surface. We measured the surface velocity field and observed the sequence of deposition by seeding tracers onto the flow surface and tracking them in video footage. Levees formed by progressive downslope accretion approximately 3.5 m behind the flow front, which advanced steadily at ∼2 m s−1during most of the runout. Segregation was measured by placing ∼600 coarse tracer pebbles on the bed, which, when entrained into the flow, segregated upwards at ∼6–7.5 cm s−1. When excavated from the deposit these were distributed in a horseshoe-shaped pattern that became increasingly elevated closer to the deposit termination. Although there was clear evidence for inverse grading during the flow, transect sampling revealed that the resulting leveed deposit was strongly graded laterally, with only weak vertical grading. We construct an empirical, three-dimensional velocity field resembling the experimental observations, and use this with a particle-size segregation model to predict the segregation and transport of material through the flow. We infer that coarse material segregates to the flow surface and is transported to the flow front by shear. Within the flow head, coarse material is overridden, then recirculates in spiral trajectories due to size-segregation, before being advected to the flow edges and deposited to form coarse-particle-enriched levees.

  3. Water and Solute Transport in the Shallow Subsurface of a Natural Levee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, A.; Keim, R.

    2008-12-01

    In riverine wetlands, river channels are separated from backswamps by natural levees that form adjacent to the channel by sediment deposition during floods. The conventional conceptual framework is that backswamp water is impounded and disconnected from surface flow; however, layered sediments, shrink-swell clays, roots and decayed organic matter, and animal burrows likely form preferential pathways for subsurface flow and may substantially affect water and solute exchange between wetlands and river channels. To test the hypothesis that preferential flow is an important pathway of subsurface water movement through natural levees, we measured hydraulic gradients and solute tracers in a 5 x 5 m grid of 19 shallow (2m) monitoring wells within a large representative elementary volume (300 m3) of natural levee in the Atchafalaya Basin, Louisiana. In addition to measuring transient responses to precipitation, we constructed a small reservoir on the backswamp side of the levee to simulate a seasonal hydraulic gradient from the swamp to the adjacent river channel. Results indicate rapid response of water levels in all monitoring wells to the imposed hydraulic gradient as well as rain events, which included two tropical cyclones. In contrast, tracer response was highly variable, both spatially and across events, indicating a complex relationship between subsurface flow processes and water chemistry. Groundwater chemistry indicated spatially variable flowpaths. In some wells, hydraulic response coincided with a chemical shift toward low-conductivity surface water; however, other wells showed similar hydraulic responses but no change in tracer concentrations or even a shift toward higher-conductivity water that was presumably stored in the soil matrix. This spatial variation in tracer response indicates multiple mechanisms of hydraulic response, each of which has important implications for biogeochemical interactions between backswamps and channels in the shallow subsurface

  4. An Inverse Methodology to Estimate the Flow Released from a Levee Breach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Oria, M.; Mignosa, P.; Tanda, M. G.

    2014-12-01

    When a levee breach occurs a remarkable volume of water is released causing the inundation of an extended area. To accurately reproduce the flooding resulting from the failure, the discharge over time leaving the river must be known. This flow rate is conditioned by many factors such as: 1. the river water levels in proximity of the failure; 2. the geometry of the breach and its evolution in time; 3. the water level of the flooded area that can produce backwater effects and thus reduce the leaving flow rate or in some case reverse the flow; and 4. the provisional works aimed at fixing the failure. However, from a practical point of view, many of the previous data are hardly known and usually the only available information is the position and the finally geometry of the breach and sometimes its opening time. But, if gauging stations are located in proximity of the failure, the water levels observed upstream and mainly downstream the levee breach are affected by the discharge leaving or eventually re-entering the river. In this work, a Bayesian inverse methodology to estimate the discharge time series leaving a levee breach based on the water levels recorded downstream and/or upstream the failure site is proposed. Prior information, in forms of geostatistical functions, regularizes the solution. The required simulation of the forward problem, able to reproduce the river flow routing and the discharge leaving the breach, has been accomplished by means of the 1D HEC-RAS model. The Uniform Later Flow boundary condition of HEC-RAS has been used to simulate the flow leaving/entering the river across the breach. Synthetic examples with and without the above mentioned back water effects and provisional works has been used to test the procedure. Different levee breaches modeled by means of a lateral weir with movable gates has been simulated to collect the synthetic level data then used in the inverse procedure. The methodology was able to accurately reproduce the flow

  5. Shallow (0-10) seismic investigation of a distressed earthen levee, New Orleans, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzo, J. M.; Hicks, J.; Vera, E. E.

    2009-12-01

    Both deep- and near-surface hydrogeologic processes can contribute to the structural failure of artificial earthen levees. Recently, seismic geophysical methods have attempted to develop a proxy for engineering shear strength, by mapping changes in the transmission velocity of shear waves. High fluid content may indicate both weak, under-compacted materials and/or organic-rich sediments. In the absence of electromagnetic methods, Vp/Vs ratios can be used as good indicators of variations in the fluid (water, and air or gas) saturation. Cone penetration borehole tests measure the resistance of soils to penetration of the cone tip and its frictional sliding that can be correlated to sediment types and their physical properties. A distressed section of an artificial earthen levee, suitable for seismic investigation, lies ~15 km S of the city of New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. Open curvilinear fissures, 10 cm wide, 30 cm deep, and up to 100 m in length, exist along the crest at two sites. Between September 2007 and February 2008 we collect horizontally (SH) polarized shear and compressional wave (P) data in pseudo-walkaway tests for the upper 100 m of the subsurface along the protected (west) side of the earthen levee, within 30 m of its crest. One profile lies parallel and adjacent to the damaged levee crest and, for reference, two profiles lie nearby adjacent to undamaged portions of the artificial earthen levee. In the first ~30 m of sediment below the lower delta plain of the Greater New Orleans area, a complex and dynamic interaction of freshwater and marine sedimentary environments juxtaposes a diverse set of facies. We combine of Vp and Vs velocity maps, sedimentary environment interpretations, and cone-penetration-derived sediment/soil and laboratory-derived physical properties to locate possible zones of high fluid concentration, (and perhaps seepage), weak engineering materials, and natural foundation soil shear strength. Under the distressed portion of the

  6. Cultural Resources Survey of Fourteen Mississippi River Levee and Revetment Items.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-14

    Geodetic Survey 1884). In 1893, the following small landowners inhabited this section: F. Michael, Luke Scobel, A. Lassus, L. Luchinovick, A. Chartier and E...Record Book 1840-1868 On microform in the Tulane University Library. Saucier, Roger T. 1963 Recent geomorphic history of the Pontchartrain Basin...Levee Enlargement, St. Bernard Parish, Louisiana. Report submitted to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, New Orleans District. Shugg, Roger W. 1939

  7. Levee Safety: Army Corps and FEMA Have Made Little Progress in Carrying Out Required Activities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-01

    risk of flooding . Their failure can contribute to loss of lives or property, as shown by the devastation of Hurricane Katrina in 2005. It is...fennella@gao.gov Page i GAO-16-709 Status of Required Levee Safety Activities Letter 1 Background 4 FEMA’s National Flood ...structures such as earthen embankments or concrete floodwalls—play a vital role in reducing the risk of flooding , and a levee’s failure can lead to the

  8. Cultural Resources Survey of Six Revetment and Levee Items Above New Orleans.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-20

    Morus rubra) and edible roots from greenbriar (Smilax a) and wild potato (Ipomea pandurata). Mammals on the Natural Levee included deer, opossum...dominants. Among the tree species present are oaks, including water and live oak, boxelder, cottonwood, and elm. Climbing vines and many herbs are...allow relatively permanent settlement and dense population despite the variability in production of wild foods within an area from year to year

  9. Repair, Evaluation, Maintenance, and Rehabilitation Research Program. Inspection and Control of Levee Underseepage during Flood Fights

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    Thepartents of th s Armypostionenles o eusiged . . . -- Thicconentoseoft rort areva no the use fo such commercial products. 1W . *la REPORT SECURITY...ex-officio members. Some of the larger Levee Districts have permanent staffs , which consist of office workers, maintenance workers, and at times even...reaches of the river. During Phase II the Area Commander staff is aug- mented with additional personnel from the EOM’s preassignment list. Sector offices

  10. A Cultural Resources Survey of the St. Charles Parish Hurricane Protection Levee, St. Charles Parish, Louisiana

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    identify by block number) Aricultural Drainage Mississippi River Archaeology Pontchartrain Basin Bayou Trepagnier St. Charles Parish (;eology Lou i s iana... archaeological sites (16 SC 65, 16 SC 66 and 16 SC 67). All three sites represent late-nineteenth to early-twentieth century, field drainage stations...buried levee dates circa 2000 to 3400 B.P. and could contain archaeological sites. Accessiol For.......... D72TAA E . . . .- 4 . , . . . Unclassified

  11. Relationship between canal and levee density and coastal land loss in Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, R.E.

    1987-12-01

    Nearly 1% of Louisiana's coastal land becomes water each year. This land loss affects everything from wildlife, fisheries, and recreation to the economy and culture. A part of this loss results from natural, unmanageable factors, but manageable factors are also responsible. This report discusses one of the manageable factors: canals and their dredged-material levees. In coastal Louisiana wetlands, canals are constructed primarily to facilitate navigation and oil and gas recovery. The density of canals in this region is now about equal to the natural network of bayous and creeks. The primary effect of these canals and associated levees is to alter the process of flooding and drainage. The influence of canals and their levees on coastal Louisiana erosion rates are modified by local geologic, hydrologic, and biologic interactions. The empirical relationship between canals and erosion is, however, clear; land loss is directly related to canal density. Comparisons with mosquito ditches, which are smaller analogues of canals, reveal similar patterns of wetland changes and suggest management options.

  12. Effects of river reach discretization on the estimation of the probability of levee failure owing to piping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzoleni, Maurizio; Brandimarte, Luigia; Barontini, Stefano; Ranzi, Roberto

    2014-05-01

    Over the centuries many societies have preferred to settle down nearby floodplains area and take advantage of the favorable environmental conditions. Due to changing hydro-meteorological conditions, over time, levee systems along rivers have been raised to protect urbanized area and reduce the impact of floods. As expressed by the so called "levee paradox", many societies might to tend to trust these levee protection systems due to an induced sense of safety and, as a consequence, invest even more in urban developing in levee protected flood prone areas. As a result, considering also the increasing number of population around the world, people living in floodplains is growing. However, human settlements in floodplains are not totally safe and have been continuously endangered by the risk of flooding. In fact, failures of levee system in case of flood event have also produced the most devastating disasters of the last two centuries due to the exposure of the developed floodprone areas to risk. In those cases, property damage is certain, but loss of life can vary dramatically with the extent of the inundation area, the size of the population at risk, and the amount of warning time available. The aim of this study is to propose an innovative methodology to estimate the reliability of a general river levee system in case of piping, considering different sources of uncertainty, and analyze the influence of different discretization of the river reach in sub-reaches in the evaluation of the probability of failure. The reliability analysis, expressed in terms of fragility curve, was performed evaluating the probability of failure, conditioned by a given hydraulic load in case of a certain levee failure mechanism, using a Monte Carlo and First Order Reliability Method. Knowing the information about fragility curve for each discrete levee reach, different fragility indexes were introduced. Using the previous information was then possible to classify the river into sub

  13. Origin and architecture of deep-water levee deposits: Insight from the ancient rock record and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Zishann

    Although levee deposits make up a significant part of modern and ancient deep-marine slope systems, details of their internal lithological composition and stratal architecture remain poorly documented. At the Castle Creek study area, strata of the Neoproterozoic Isaac Formation (Windermere Supergroup) crop out superbly in a kilometre-scale section through a sinuous deep-water channel-levee system (ICC3). Levee deposits near the outer bend of the channel consist of sandstone-rich (sandstone-to-mudstone ratio of 68:42), medium- to thick-bedded turbidites interstratified with thinly-bedded turbidites. Structureless sandstone (T a), planar laminated sandstone (Tb), non-climbing ripple cross-stratified sandstone (Tc) and massive and laminated siltstone (Td) are common. Thick beds generally thicken and then thin and fine laterally over about 300 m. Thin-bedded strata, in contrast, thin and fine negligibly over similar distances. In the distal part of the outer-bend levee (up to 700 m laterally away from the channel) strata consist predominantly of thin-bedded Tcd turbidites with a much lower sandstone-to-mudstone ratio (35:65). On the opposite side of the channel, inner-bend levee deposits are mudstone-rich, locally as low as 15:85, and consist mostly of thin-bedded, Tcd turbidites, although thicker-bedded, Ta-d turbidites are more common in the lower part of the section. Lateral thinning and fining of beds is more rapid than their outer-bend counterpart. Levee deposits of ICC3 comprise three stacked decametre-scale upward-thinning and -fining successions. Each is interpreted to record a depositional history consisting of lateral channel migration, levee deposition, channel filling, and distal levee deposition. During the early stage of increasing levee relief it is proposed that the termini of individual beds progressively backstep towards the channel margin resulting in an overall lateral thinning of the stratal profile. This interpretation notably contrasts the common

  14. Insect diversity in organic rice fields under two management systems of levees vegetation.

    PubMed

    Acosta, L G; Jahnke, S M; Redaelli, L R; Pires, P R S

    2017-11-01

    Simplified environments characterize agroecosystems, reducing the diversity of associated plants, which are not cultivated for economic purposes, causing unbalances that can promote the emergence of cultivated plants pests, as well as the reduction of their natural enemies. Management systems that increase diversity in agroecosystems can extend the action of natural enemies of pests. Studies to understand the diversity of insects associated with rice cultivation and determine their ecological guilds can provide information about the composition and structure of such ecosystems, which can be applied to integrated pest management. Therefore, the study aimed to describe and compare groups of insects in irrigated rice fields, with organic management using two different systems of levees vegetation management, and relate them to the phenological states of rice cultivation (seedling, vegetative, and reproductive). Samples were taken in a plantation located in Águas Claras district of Viamão, RS. The total area of 18 ha was divided into two. A subarea called not cut (NC), where wild vegetation of levees was maintained, and the subarea named cut (C), where monthly cuts were made to levees vegetation, from the beginning of soil preparation until the harvest. From October 2012 to March 2013 were held weekly collections in quadrats randomly located in both the rice fields and the levees. A total of 800 insects were collected, 429 in the C subarea and 371 in the NC. There were identified 97 morphospecies in the C and 108 in NC, being 54 shared between the subareas. The captured insects were grouped into guilds: saprophages (C = 38.2%; NC = 27.5%), phytophagous (C = 28.5%; NC = 33.2%), entomophagous (grouping parasitoids and predators) (C = 29.4%; NC = 35%) and finally other insects (C = 4 %; NC = 4.3%). The peak abundance of phytophagous and entomophagous was registered in the vegetative stage of rice. At the same stage the UPGMA analysis showed that similarity in species

  15. Modeling and analysis of the vertical roots distribution in levees - a case study of the third Rhone correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gianetta, Ivan; Schwarz, Massimiliano; Glenz, Christian; Lammeranner, Walter

    2013-04-01

    In recent years the effects of roots on river banks and levees have been the subject of major discussions. The main issue about the presence of woody vegetation on levees is related to the possibility that roots increase internal erosion processes and the superimposed load of large trees compromise the integrity of these structures. However, ecologists and landscape managers argue that eliminating the natural vegetation from the riverbanks also means eliminating biotopes, strengthening anthropisation of the landscape, as well as limiting recreations areas. In the context of the third correction of the Rhone in Switzerland, the discussion on new levee geometries and the implementation of woody vegetation on them, lead to a detailed analysis of this issue for this specific case. The objective of this study was to describe quantitatively the processes and factors that influence the root distribution on levees and test modeling approaches for the simulation of vertical root distribution with laboratory and field data. An extension of an eco-hydrological analytic model that considers climatic and pedological condition for the quantification of vertical root distribution was validated with data provided by the University of Vienna (BOKU) of willows' roots (Salix purpurea) grown under controlled conditions. Furthermore, root distribution data of four transversal sections of a levee near Visp (canton Wallis, Switzerland) was used to validate the model. The positions of the levee's sections were chosen based on the species and dimensions of the woody vegetation. The dominant species present in the sections were birch (Betula pendula) and poplar (Populus nigra). For each section a grid of 50x50 cm was created to count and measure the roots. The results show that vertical distribution of root density under controlled growing conditions has an exponential form, decreasing with increasing soil depth, and can be well described by the eco-hydrological model. Vice versa, field

  16. Environmental Assessment: PL 84-99 Levee Rahabilitation Program Lower Platte South Natural Resource District Salt Creek, Lincoln, Lancaster County, Nebraska

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    consist of approximately seven miles of levees. The levees have 3:1 side slopes that are made up of clay soil , with a two-foot minimum freeboard. The...addition, the need to protect life, as well as the resiliency historically displayed by the American people when faced with disaster provides further...reasons: the number of structures located behind the levees in the city of Lincoln, Nebraska and their desire to continue agriculture that currently

  17. Red River of the North Main Stem: Technical Information Report (with Special Emphasis on Agricultural Levees).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-01

    INDIVIDUAL 22b.TELEPHONE (Include Area Code) 22c. OFFICE SYMBOL DD FORM 1473,84 MAR 83 APR edition may be used until exhausted. SECURITY...DAMAGE CATEGORIES 25 8 OTHER AGRICULTURAL DAMAGES 26 ii TABLES (CONT) NUMBER PAGE 9 COMPARISON OF FLOODED AREAS WITH AND WITHOUT AGRICULTURAL LEVEES...NORTH AT OSLO, MINNESOTA 19 lia-b MAXIMUM- AREA FLOODED, 1975 FLOOD 29-30 12a-b MAXIMUM AREA FLOODED, 1978 FLOOD 31-33 iii FIGURES (CONT) iU iBER PAGE

  18. An inverse method to estimate the flow through a levee breach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Oria, Marco; Mignosa, Paolo; Tanda, Maria Giovanna

    2015-08-01

    We propose a procedure to estimate the flow through a levee breach based on water levels recorded in river stations downstream and/or upstream of the failure site. The inverse problem is solved using a Bayesian approach and requires the execution of several forward unsteady flow simulations. For this purpose, we have used the well-known 1-D HEC-RAS model, but any unsteady flow model could be adopted in the same way. The procedure has been tested using four synthetic examples. Levee breaches with different characteristics (free flow, flow with tailwater effects, etc.) have been simulated to collect the synthetic level data used at a later stage in the inverse procedure. The method was able to accurately reproduce the flow through the breach in all cases. The practicability of the procedure was then confirmed applying it to the inundation of the Polesine Region (Northern Italy) which occurred in 1951 and was caused by three contiguous and almost simultaneous breaches on the left embankment of the Po River.

  19. Combined Resistivity and Shear Wave Velocity Soil-type Estimation Beneath a Coastal Protection Levee.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzo, J. M.; Goff, D.; Hayashi, K.

    2015-12-01

    Unconsolidated Holocene deltaic sediments comprise levee foundation soils in New Orleans, USA. Whereas geotechnical tests at point locations are indispensable for evaluating soil stability, the highly variable sedimentary facies of the Mississippi delta create difficulties to predict soil conditions between test locations. Combined electrical resistivity and seismic shear wave studies, calibrated to geotechnical data, may provide an efficient methodology to predict soil types between geotechnical sites at shallow depths (0- 10 m). The London Avenue Canal levee flank of New Orleans, which failed in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, 2005, presents a suitable site in which to pioneer these geophysical relationships. Preliminary cross-plots show electrically resistive, high-shear-wave velocity areas interpreted as low-permeability, resistive silt. In brackish coastal environments, low-resistivity and low-shear-wave-velocity areas may indicate both saturated, unconsolidated sands and low-rigidity clays. Via a polynomial approximation, soil sub-types of sand, silt and clay can be estimated by a cross-plot of S-wave velocity and resistivity. We confirm that existent boring log data fit reasonably well with the polynomial approximation where 2/3 of soil samples fall within their respective bounds—this approach represents a new classification system that could be used for other mid-latitude, fine-grained deltas.

  20. Supervised Classification Method with Efficient Filter Techniques to Detect Anomalies on Earthen Levees Using Synthetic Aperture Radar Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marapareddy, Ramakalavathi; Anastoos, James V.; Younan, Nicolas H.

    2016-08-01

    The dynamics of surface and subsurface water events can lead to slope instability resulting in slough slides or other anomalies on earthen levees. These slough slides are the primary cause for creating levee areas which are vulnerable to seepage and failure during high water events. Early detection of these anomalies by a remote sensing approach could save time versus direct assessment. In this paper, we implemented a supervised classification algorithm the minimum distance classifier with a majority filter and morphology filter for the identification of anomalies on levees using polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (polSAR) data. This study employed remote sensing data from the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL's) Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) instrument, using its fully quad-polarimetric L-band polSAR data. The study area is a section of the lower Mississippi River in the southern USA.

  1. The influence of woody plants on the seepage of flood protection levees: Experiences from a test site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammeranner, W.; Meixner, H.; Florineth, F.

    2009-04-01

    The past flood events have once more drawn the attention to the stability and maintenance of flood protection levees. The attention has also been focused on the relationship between vegetation and the structural integrity of dikes. Current standards regard dense turf to be safest vegetation cover for dikes. Many guidelines ban woody vegetation from dikes and levees to provide structural integrity, visual inspection and unhindered flood-fight access. The refusal of woody plants is mainly based on the argument that root penetration of woody plants facilitates water movement along their path. Within the frame of a research project carried out by the Institute of Soil Bioengineering and Landscape Construction (University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna), focusing on woody plants on levees, the effects of small to medium growing woody (shrubby) plants on the seepage are tested. Data are drawn from two natural-scaled research levees. The homogenous levees consist of a mineral silt-sand-gravel and have a fill height of 2.7 m and a slope inclination of 2:3. The tests investigate the impact of woody plants (living brush mattress - transversal) in comparison to compact turf (jute netting mulch seeding). Measured plant parameters, characterising the vegetation structures were shoot lengths, shoot diameters, and above ground biomass. Root growth is investigated in an extra plot area allowing excavation of the plants. Percolation is monitored using seepage monitoring pipes, soil moisture sensors and soil temperature probes, which were build into the embankment during construction. The proposed contribution discusses the effects of woody plants (shrubs) on seepage of flood protection levees. Methodology of research and results after three initial seepage tests are presented.

  2. Geomorphic Response to Global Warming in the Anthropocene: Levee Breaches in California's Sacramento-San Joaquin Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florsheim, J. L.; Dettinger, M.; Malamud-Roam, F.; Ingram, B.; Mount, J.

    2006-12-01

    Geomorphic processes in rivers are likely to be influenced by global warming through alterations of flood, erosion, and sedimentation processes and rates. In California's Sierra Nevada, warming scenarios imply future increases in magnitudes and durations (and changes in timing) of floods as snow packs diminish and rainfall runoff increasingly dominates flow into the Central Valley fluvial system. Geomorphic processes are likely to differ from processes that dominated during the Holocene due to the influence both of projected global warming and land use alterations including levee construction that narrows and separates Sacramento-San Joaquin Rivers and tributaries from floodplains and flow regulation downstream of numerous large dams. Whereas Holocene floods induced overbank flow and avulsion processes that led to vertical floodplain accretion and variability of stages in aggrading multiple-channel systems, modern floods largely transport flow and sediment within incised channels confined by levees. Because the scenarios of warming are developed at coarse scales, only an understanding of the relations between large-scale hydrology and climate on the one hand, and the incidence of levee breaches on the other, will make it possible to project likely geomorphic responses to future warming and flooding. A historical record of catastrophic levee breaks on the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers has been developed to allow analyses of these connections. In the current work, we develop statistical relations between historical levee break events and flow discharge, as well as with climatic phenomena such as El Nino and La Nina phases of the ENSO cycle, positive and negative phases of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, and seasonal propensities towards "pineapple-express" storms. Preliminary results suggest strong relations between levee breaches and discharge, but poor relations to ENSO. Further investigation of these data will provide insight to help inform models and river

  3. Topographic effect on Radio-Magnetotelluric and Slingram signals: application to a levee along the Loire river, France.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duval, Rodolphe; Fauchard, Cyrille; Antoine, Raphael

    2014-05-01

    We study the influence of the topography of a levee on the electric and magnetic signals obtained with the Radio-Magnetotelluric method (RMT) and the Slingram method, respectively. For the RMT method, field measurements have been modelled with a finite element commercial software (AC/DC and Radio-Frequency modules of Comsol Multiphysics). A levee situated in Orléans (France) along the Loire river has been considered in order to design a model taking into account the skin depth and the incident wavelength. The effect of the incident electromagnetic field direction has been assessed with two different incident wave directions: BBC 5 from Salford (UK) and France-Inter from Allouis (France). The simulations highlight the tri-dimensional effects of the topography in the apparent resistivity, observed on the crest of the levee, depending on the incident field direction and topography. For the Slingram method, the magnetic field has been simulated using the AC/DC module of Comsol. The ratio of the primary magnetic field on the secondary one, received in a loop is determined above a straight levee. The study aims to show the various responses obtained in function of both vertical and horizontal coil configurations. We show that the signal also depends on the topography and the right configuration of the coils alignment with respect to the levee stretch direction. In this study, a buried gas pipe is also characterized by the two methods. Numerical modelling of 3D electromagnetic effects on geophysical signals helps to interpret the field measurements and offers to the stakeholder an optimized methodology for geophysical surveys on levees.

  4. 4-D monitoring of levee stability from Balloon and Airborne LIDAR data sets, Sherman Island, Sacramento Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, B. A.; Glennie, C. L.; Ericksen, T. L.; Foster, J. H.; Hudnut, K. W.; Hauser, D.; Avery, J.

    2012-12-01

    To assess local subsidence and levee stability, we compared data acquired in May 2012 by a newly developed Balloon-mounted laser scanning systm (BLIDAR) with a 2007 airborne laser scanning (ALS) dataset from Sherman Island in California's Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. In one day, we scanned a 5 km stretch of the island's southwestern levee, towing the BLIDAR behind a vehicle moving at speeds of 7-10km/h. Data density is ~ 1000/m^2 and comparison with Terrestrial Laser Scanning data from the same targets determines vertical accuracy of ~ 4 cm (1 sigma) and ~10cm in the horizontal. The ALS survey, acquired with a fixed wing aircraft, had data density of ~1/m^2 and vertical accuracy of 18.5 cm at a 95% confidence level. Differencing the 2012 and 2007 data sets documents locally variable subsidence over spatial scales of order ~100m with magnitudes of 10s of cm's on the levee's crowns and inland slopes, as well as the levee slope/island interior boundary. The high subsidence regions do not appear to be correlated with levee slopes, suggesting that an underlying process ranging from fill-consolidation to ongoing island peat compaction controls local levee subsidence. Importantly, the BLIDAR-ALS comparison yielded dense data for a region where two previous space-geodetic surveys (InSAR) had failed to yield returns. We speculate that the large amounts of surface change, both from engineering activities and high subsidence rates prevent satellite radar image correlation rendering the InSAR technique ineffective. The robust performance characteristics of the BLIDAR system, combined with its relatively low construction and operating costs, highlights BLIDAR's future utility in assessing co-seismic and post-seismic rupture mapping and monitoring in association with prexisting Lidar data sets.

  5. Geophysical Characterization of the American River Levees, Sacramento, California, using Electromagnetics, Capacitively Coupled Resistivity, and DC Resistivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Asch, Theodore H.; Deszcz-Pan, Maria; Burton, Bethany L.; Ball, Lyndsay B.

    2008-01-01

    A geophysical characterization of a portion of American River levees in Sacramento, California was conducted in May, 2007. Targets of interest included the distribution and thickness of sand lenses that underlie the levees and the depth to a clay unit that underlies the sand. The concern is that the erosion of these sand lenses can lead to levee failure in highly populated areas of Sacramento. DC resistivity (Geometric?s OhmMapper and Advanced Geosciences, Inc.?s SuperSting R8 systems) and electromagnetic surveys (Geophex?s GEM-2) were conducted over a 6 mile length of the levee on roads and bicycle and horse trails. 2-D inversions were conducted on all the geophysical data. The OhmMapper and SuperSting surveys produced consistent inversion results that delineated potential sand and clay units. GEM-2 apparent resistivity data were consistent with the DC inversion results. However, the GEM-2 data could not be inverted due to low electromagnetic response levels, high ambient electromagnetic noise, and large system drifts. While this would not be as large a problem in conductive terrains, it is a problem for a small induction number electromagnetic profiling system such as the GEM-2 in a resistive terrain (the sand lenses). An integrated interpretation of the geophysical data acquired in this investigation is presented in this report that includes delineation of those areas consisting of predominantly sand and those areas consisting predominantly of clay. In general, along most of this part of the American River levee system, sand lenses are located closest to the river and clay deposits are located further away from the river. The interpreted thicknesses of the detected sand deposits are variable and range from 10 ft up to 60 ft. Thus, despite issues with the GEM-2 inversion, this geophysical investigation successfully delineated sand lenses and clay deposits along the American River levee system and the approximate depths to underlying clay zones. The results of

  6. Analyses of water, core material, and elutriate samples collected near Sicily Island, Louisiana (Sicily Island area levee project)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Demcheck, Dennis K.; Dupuy, Alton J.

    1980-01-01

    Samples consisting of composited core material were collected from five areas by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and analyzed by the U.S. Geological Survey to provide data on the impact of proposed channel excavation and levee construction in the Sicily Island area, Louisiana. Samples of receiving water from the five areas, selected to represent the water that will contact the proposed dredged material of the levee fill material, also were collected. Chemical and physical analyses were performed on samples of core material and native water and on elutriate samples of specific core material-receiving water mixtures. The results of these analyses are presented without interpretation. (USGS)

  7. Characterizing land surface change and levee stability in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta using UAVSAR radar imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, C.; Bawden, G.; Deverel, S.; Dudas, J.; Hensley, S.

    2011-01-01

    The islands of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta have been subject to subsidence since they were first reclaimed from the estuary marshlands starting over 100 years ago, with most of the land currently lying below mean sea level. This area, which is the primary water resource of the state of California, is under constant threat of inundation from levee failure. Since July 2009, we have been imaging the area using the quad-polarimetric UAVSAR L-band radar, with eighteen data sets collected as of April 2011. Here we report results of our polarimetric and differential interferometric analysis of the data for levee deformation and land surface change. ?? 2011 IEEE.

  8. Capacitively coupled resistivity survey of the levee surrounding the Omaha Public Power District Nebraska City Power Plant, June 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burton, Bethany L.; Cannia, James C.

    2011-01-01

    This report is a release of digital data from a capacitively coupled resistivity survey conducted on June 13, 2011, on the flood-protection levees surrounding the Omaha Public Power District Nebraska City power plant. The U.S. Geological Survey Crustal Geophysics and Geochemistry Science Center and the Nebraska Water Science Center performed the survey in response to a flood on the Missouri River. A single line of resistivity profiling was completed along the center line of the section of levee 573 that surrounds the power plant.

  9. Elemental chemistry of sand-boil discharge used to trace variable pathways of seepage beneath levees during the 2011 Mississippi River flood

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Water samples were collected from the Mississippi River, from sand boils near the toe of the levee on the Mississippi side of the river, and from actively flowing relief wells shortly after peak stage of the 2011 Mississippi River flood. Two distinct pathways for seepage under the levee were identif...

  10. Utilizing Radar Remote Sensing to Assess the Water Extent along River Levees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laygo, K.; Madson, A.; O'Connell, K.; Jones, C. E.; Holt, B.

    2012-12-01

    Every spring, precipitation and snowmelt in the central U.S. leads to high water levels in the Mississippi River and its tributaries, with concurrent flooding and levee damage a near-yearly event. In the spring of 2011, historic water levels led to extensive flooding from Mississippi County, Missouri, to southern Louisiana, necessitating the opening of three major spillways, including the Morganza Spillway north of New Orleans, which diverts water from the Mississippi River through the Atchafalaya Basin of central Louisiana and had not been used since 1973. There is value to NOAA, the agency responsible for flood prediction, and the Army Corp. of Engineers, the agency responsible for flood control, in the application of remote sensing to flood mapping and soil moisture mapping, both along the main rivers and levee systems. We plan to use high resolution radar (NASA UAVSAR - Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar), with a particular focus on increased soil moisture mapping in order to determine how quickly and accurately areas of increased soil moisture content associated with levee seepage and sandboils can be delineated. We have several UAVSAR data sets collected along the Mississippi River during June 2009, April and June 2011, which we have analyzed for soil moisture detection algorithm development during the Spring 2012 term. Our goal for part 2 of the study is to develop an algorithm to detect areas of increased soil moisture, and to finalize flood map end products for decision makers based on an easily applied algorithm that utilizes a standard analysis package for water extent measurement along waterways, which will be usable by non-experts with widely available software.River Gage Datat; As mentioned in the section above, river gage data was utilized to help determine the best UAVSAR datset to use for algorithm and processing methodology creation. The table below shows river gage readings with their corresponding UAVSAR flight ID. The datasets

  11. Variability in form and growth of sediment waves on turbidite channel levees

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Normark, W.R.; Piper, D.J.W.; Posamentier, H.; Pirmez, C.; Migeon, S.

    2002-01-01

    Fine-grained sediment waves have been observed in many modern turbidite systems, generally restricted to the overbank depositional element. Sediment waves developed on six submarine fan systems are compared using high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, sediment core samples (including ODP drilling), multibeam bathymetry, 3D seismic-reflection imaging (including examples of burried features), and direct measurements of turbidity currents that overflow their channels. These submarine fan examples extend over more than three orders of magnitude in physical scale. The presence or absence of sediment waves is not simply a matter of either the size of the turbidite channel-levee systems or the dominant initiation process for the turbidity currents that overflow the channels to form the wave fields. Both sediment-core data and seismic-reflection profiles document the upslope migration of the wave forms, with thicker and coarser beds deposited on the up-current flank of the waves. Some wave fields are orthogonal to channel trend and were initiated by large flows whose direction was controlled by upflow morphology, whereas fields subparallel to channel levees resulted from local spillover. In highly meandering systems, sediment waves may mimic meander planform. Larger sediment waves form on channel-levee systems with thicker overflow of turbidity currents, but available data indicate that sediment waves can be maintaned during conditions of relatively thin overflow. Coarser-grained units in sediment waves are typically laminated and thin-bedded sand as much as several centimetres thick, but sand beds as thick as several tens of centimetres have been documented from both modern and buried systems. Current production of hydrocarbons from sediment-wave deposits suggests that it is important to develop criteria for recognising this overbank element in outcrop exposures and borehole data, where the wavelength of typical waves (several kilometres) generally exceeds outcrop

  12. BUDDA (Bulge/Disk Decomposition Analysis) - um novo programa para análise estrutural de galáxias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadotti, D. A.; de Souza, R. E.; Dos Anjos, S.

    2003-08-01

    Tem sido prática comum nos últimos anos estudar a distribuição de luminosidade em galáxias fazendo uso da informação contida em toda a imagem da galáxia, já que esta técnica tem se mostrado muito mais confiável do que o simples ajuste de perfis radiais de luminosidade. Através destes estudos bidimensionais, melhores resultados tem sido obtidos na análise e.g. do Plano Fundamental, de correlações entre os parâmetros estruturais de galáxias, de sub-estruturas como barras e anéis nucleares etc. Apresentamos um novo código bidimensional, o BUDDA, de análise estrutural de galáxias, que será disponibilizado para a comunidade. Desenvolvido por nós, o código determina os parâmetros estruturais de galáxias de forma prática e robusta, e pode ser aplicado genericamente em qualquer estudo sobre a formação, evolução e estrutura de galáxias. O programa ainda permite a avaliação direta de sub-estruturas, através de imagens residuais que são obtidas ao se subtrair, das imagens originais, bojo e disco sintéticos que melhor representam essas componentes da galáxia sob consideração. Será apresentada a forma de utilização do código, bem como séries de testes que atestam a sua funcionalidade. Além disso, os resultados da aplicação do código em uma amostra de 51 galáxias serão expostos como exemplo prático, e do seu enorme potencial de uso.

  13. Sediment waves on the Monterey fan levee: a preliminary physical interpretation.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Normark, W.R.; Hess, G.R.; Stow, D.A.V.; Bowen, A.J.

    1980-01-01

    A detailed survey of a 30 km2 area of abyssal-depth sediment waves associated with the levee of the Monterey fan valley shows a pattern of sinuous crests and troughs with parallel, well-bedded internal structure. Material in the upper 1 m of sediment consists predominantly of bioturbated, muddy coccolith ooze. A single thin, silty horizon can be correlated between adjoining waves. The sediment waves are considered to be formed most likely by low-velocity (10 cm/s), low-concentration turbidity flows approximately 100-800 m thick. This interpretation emphasizes the role of low-speed, low-concentration turbidity currents in the downslope movement of fine-grained material.- from Authors

  14. Sediment accretion rates for natural levee and backswamp riparian forests in the Mobile-Tensaw Bottomlands, Alabama

    Treesearch

    Kathryn R. Kidd; Carolyn A. Copenheaver; W. Michael Aust

    2016-01-01

    Several methods to quantify sediment deposition patterns in riparian forested wetlands have been used during recent decades. In this study, we used a dendrogeomorphic technique with green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) to estimate sediment accretion rates for two time periods (1881 to 2012 and 1987 to 2012) along a natural levee (35 m from river) and...

  15. Repair, Evaluation, Maintenance, and Rehabilitation Research Program: The Effects of Vegetation on these Structural Integrity of Sandy Levees.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-08-01

    filled and spurted through channels and conduits in the levees ( Cedergren 1967). Channels left by either rotted roots or burrowing animals were...1925-1940, Boston Society of Civil Engineers, Boston, MA, pp 295-335. Cedergren , H. R. 1967. Seepage, Drainage and Flcw Nets, 1st ed., John Wiley

  16. The Routing and Re-Routing of Difficult Knowledge: Social Studies Teachers Encounter "When the Levees Broke"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, H. James

    2011-01-01

    The author explores the articulations of six social studies student/teachers after a viewing of "When the Levees Broke: A Requiem in Four Acts". The film, a documentary about the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina on the people in and around New Orleans, constitutes an encounter with what Deborah Britzman (1998) calls "difficult…

  17. Improvements in the Weeding of Levee Slope of Terraced Paddy Fields with Statutory Regulation of Places of Scenic Beauty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchikawa, Yoshiyuki; Kimura, Kazuhiro; Hirata, Ayumi

    A growing number of terraced paddy fields in Japan are being conserved as cultural assets like places of scenic beauty. This has meant that the task of weeding levee slope of these terraced paddy fields has become increasingly important, not only for general maintenance of the terraced paddy fields, but also because of the impact landscape, vegetation and the surrounding environment. However, the steep gradient of the levee slope and lack of footholds mean that the workability and safety associated with this weeding work is problematic. In addition, in the event that an area has been designated as a cultural asset, there are restrictions regarding how it can be modified and local farmers are reluctant to change their traditional farming methods in such cases. This study therefore sought to clarify the actual condition of the levee slope weeding work undertaken in the places of scenic beauty Obasute Tanada district. Empirical validations of potential measures for reforming the work environment were evaluated based on the findings of this investigation. We demonstrated that it is possible to modify current work practices while still maintaining and preserving the terraced paddy fields, even in designated scenic locations. To improve the working environment for levee slope weeding, we propose creating berms to serve as footholds at the toes of slopes.

  18. Application of ground penetrating radar in detecting the hazards and risks of termites and ants in soil levees.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiuhao; Henderson, Gregg; Mao, Lixin; Evans, Ahmad

    2009-08-01

    A ground penetrating radar (GPR) technique was used to detect Formosan subterranean termite (Coptotermes formosanus) and red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta) hazards and risks (targets) in a soil levee at the London Avenue Canal in New Orleans, LA. To make this assessment, GPR signal scans were examined for features produced by termite or ant activities and potential sources of food and shelter such as nests, tree roots, and voids (tunnels). The total scanned length of the soil levee was 4,125 m. The average velocity and effective depth of the radar penetration was 0.080 m/ns and 0.61 m, respectively. Four hundred twenty-seven targets were identified. Tree roots (38), voids (31), fire ant nests (209), and metal objects (149) were detected, but no Formosan termite carton nests were identified. The lack of identified termite nests may be related to drowning events at the time to the flood. Based on the target density (TD), the two new floodwall and levee sections that were rebuilt or reinforced after they were destroyed by Hurricane Katrina in 2005 were determined to be at low potential risk from termites and ants. A merging target density (MTD) method indicated a high potential risk near one of the breached sections still remains. Foraging and nesting activity of Formosan subterranean termites and red imported fire ants may be a contributory factor to the levee failure at the London Avenue Canal.

  19. The Routing and Re-Routing of Difficult Knowledge: Social Studies Teachers Encounter "When the Levees Broke"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, H. James

    2011-01-01

    The author explores the articulations of six social studies student/teachers after a viewing of "When the Levees Broke: A Requiem in Four Acts". The film, a documentary about the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina on the people in and around New Orleans, constitutes an encounter with what Deborah Britzman (1998) calls "difficult…

  20. Possibilities for Using LIDAR and Photogrammetric Data Obtained with AN Unmanned Aerial Vehicle for Levee Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakuła, K.; Ostrowski, W.; Szender, M.; Plutecki, W.; Salach, A.; Górski, K.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents the possibilities for using an unmanned aerial system for evaluation of the condition of levees. The unmanned aerial system is equipped with two types of sensor. One is an ultra-light laser scanner, integrated with a GNSS receiver and an INS system; the other sensor is a digital camera that acquires data with stereoscopic coverage. Sensors have been mounted on the multirotor, unmanned platform the Hawk Moth, constructed by MSP company. LiDAR data and images of levees the length of several hundred metres were acquired during testing of the platform. Flights were performed in several variants. Control points measured with the use of the GNSS technique were considered as reference data. The obtained results are presented in this paper; the methodology of processing the acquired LiDAR data, which increase in accuracy when low accuracy of the navigation systems occurs as a result of systematic errors, is also discussed. The Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm, as well as measurements of control points, were used to georeference the LiDAR data. Final accuracy in the order of centimetres was obtained for generation of the digital terrain model. The final products of the proposed UAV data processing are digital elevation models, an orthophotomap and colour point clouds. The authors conclude that such a platform offers wide possibilities for low-budget flights to deliver the data, which may compete with typical direct surveying measurements performed during monitoring of such objects. However, the biggest advantage is the density and continuity of data, which allows for detection of changes in objects being monitored.

  1. Losses of surface runoff, total solids, and nitrogen during bermudagrass establishment on levee embankments.

    PubMed

    Burwell, Robert W; Beasley, Jeffrey S; Gaston, Lewis A; Borst, Steven M; Sheffield, Ron E; Strahan, Ron E; Munshaw, Gregg C

    2011-01-01

    Nutrient and sediment runoff from newly constructed levee embankments pose a threat to water quality during soft armor vegetation establishment. Research was initiated in 2008 and 2009 to evaluate the effect of bermudagrass ( L.) coverage and N source on nutrient and sediment runoff from levee embankments during establishment. Bermudagrass plots were seeded at 195.3 kg pure live seed ha and fertilized at 50 kg N ha using a water-soluble N source, urea or NH-NO, or slow-release N source, S-coated urea (SCU) or urea formaldehyde (UF), with controls unfertilized. Vegetative cover percentage, time until the onset of runoff, runoff volume, and total solids (TS), NO-N, and NH-N concentrations were measured from simulated and natural rainfall events for 70 d in 2008 and 56 d in 2009. Bermudagrass at 90% grass cover delayed the onset of runoff an additional 441 to 538 s and reduced runoff volumes 74 to 84% of that exhibited at 10% grass cover. Nitrogen fertilizers did not accelerate bermudagrass growth sufficiently, however, to reduce TS loading compared with unfertilized bermudagrass in either year of the study. The application of urea and SCU resulted in cumulative N losses of 2.45 and 3.13 kg ha compared with 1.59 kg ha from the unfertilized bermudagrass in 2008, and 1.73 kg ha from NH-NO vs. 0.24 kg ha from controls in 2009. Only UF increased bermudagrass establishment without increasing cumulative N losses compared with unfertilized bermudagrass. Therefore, the benefit of greater erosion and runoff resistance expected from N-accelerated vegetative growth did not occur but had the unintended consequence of higher N losses when water-soluble N and SCU fertilizers were applied. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  2. Assessment of earthen levee stability for management and response: A NASA-DHS-California Dept. Water Resources collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, K.; Jones, C. E.; Bekaert, D. P.; Dudas, J.

    2016-12-01

    Radar remote sensing of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, the largest estuary in the western U.S. (over 2500 km2), and its levee system provides an opportunity for NASA Applied Science to aid the CA Department of Water Resources (CA-DWR) in monitoring and emergency response. The delta contains over 1,500 km of earthen levees, supports about 2.5 million acres of agricultural land, and serves as a main water supply for 23 million California residents. Many of the reclaimed islands are 10-25 feet below sea level, sit atop compressible peat and organic clay soils, and are surrounded by levees only 1 foot above the once in a century flood elevation threshold. Land subsidence in the delta can be attributed to a variety of factors, including: aerobic oxidation of soils, soil compaction from drainage, wind erosion, anaerobic decomposition, dissolved carbon fluxes, floods, seismic events, and even rodent burrowing. Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) is an established technique to measure surface displacements and has been used to map large-scale subsidence. The demonstration of earthen levee monitoring is a recent development that has been greatly furthered by the emergence of new instruments such as NASA's Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR). UAVSAR is an L-band airborne sensor with high signal-to-noise ratio, repeat flight track accuracy, and has a high spatial resolution (7 x 7 m) that is necessary for detailed levee monitoring. The adaptability of radar instruments in their ability to see through smoke, haze, and clouds during the day or night, is especially relevant during disaster events, when cloud cover or lack of solar illumination inhibits traditional visual surveys of damage. We demonstrate the advantages of combining InSAR with geographic information systems (GIS) datasets in locating subsidence features along critical levee infrastructure in the Delta for 2009-2016. The ability to efficiently locate potential areas of

  3. Classification of Soil Moisture on Vegetated Earthen Levees Using X and L Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahrooghy, M.; Aanstoos, J. V.; Hasan, K.; Nobrega, R. A.; Younan, N. H.

    2011-12-01

    Earthen levees protect large areas of land in the US from flooding. Timely inspection and repairs can reduce the potential for catastrophic failures. Changes in spatial and temporal patterns of soil moisture can reveal signs of instability and help identify zones of weakness. Since analytical and empirical models have shown a relationship between SAR backscatter and soil moisture, we are using SAR to classify soil moisture on levees. Estimation of soil moisture from SAR is challenging when the surface has any significant vegetation. For the levee application, the soil is typically covered with a uniform layer of grass. Our methodology is based on a supervised soil moisture classification using a back propagation neural network with four classes of low, medium, high, and very high soil moisture. Our methodology consists of the following steps: 1) segmentation of the levee area from background and exclusion of tree-covered areas; 2) extracting the backscattering and texture features such as GLCM (Grey-Level Co-occurrence Matrix) and wavelet features; 3) training the back propagation neural network classifier; and 4) testing the area of interest and validation of the results using ground truth data. Two sources of SAR imagery are tested with this method: (1) fully polarimetric L-band data from NASA's UAVSAR; and (2) dual-polarimetric X-band data from the German TerraSAR-X satellite. The study area is a 4 km stretch of levee along the lower Mississippi River in the United States. Field data collected simultaneously with image acquisition are utilized for training and validation. Preliminary results show classification accuracies of about 50% for the UAVSAR image and 30% for the TerraSAR-X image in vegetated areas. The figure below shows a soil moisture classification using UAVSAR on April 28, 2011.

  4. Effects of lateral confinement in natural and leveed reaches of a gravel-bed river: Snake River, Wyoming, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leonard, Christina M.; Legleiter, Carl; Overstreet, Brandon T.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effects of natural and anthropogenic changes in confining margin width by applying remote sensing techniques – fusing LiDAR topography with image-derived bathymetry – over a large spatial extent: 58 km of the Snake River, Wyoming, USA. Fused digital elevation models from 2007 and 2012 were differenced to quantify changes in the volume of stored sediment, develop morphological sediment budgets, and infer spatial gradients in bed material transport. Our study spanned two similar reaches that were subject to different controls on confining margin width: natural terraces versus artificial levees. Channel planform in reaches with similar slope and confining margin width differed depending on whether the margins were natural or anthropogenic. The effects of tributaries also differed between the two reaches. Generally, the natural reach featured greater confining margin widths and was depositional, whereas artificial lateral constriction in the leveed reach produced a sediment budget that was closer to balanced. Although our remote sensing methods provided topographic data over a large area, net volumetric changes were not statistically significant due to the uncertainty associated with bed elevation estimates. We therefore focused on along-channel spatial differences in bed material transport rather than absolute volumes of sediment. To complement indirect estimates of sediment transport derived by morphological sediment budgeting, we collected field data on bed mobility through a tracer study. Surface and subsurface grain size measurements were combined with bed mobility observations to calculate armoring and dimensionless sediment transport ratios, which indicated that sediment supply exceeded transport capacity in the natural reach and vice versa in the leveed reach. We hypothesize that constriction by levees induced an initial phase of incision and bed armoring. Because levees prevented bank erosion, the channel excavated sediment by

  5. Evaluation of the use of reach transmissivity to quantify leakage beneath Levee 31N, Miami-Dade County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nemeth, Mark S.; Wilcox, Walter M.; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M.

    2000-01-01

    A coupled ground- and surface-water model (MODBRANCH) was developed to estimate ground-water flow beneath Levee 31N in Miami-Dade County, Florida, and to simulate hydrologic conditions in the surrounding area. The study included compilation of data from monitoring stations, measurement of vertical seepage rates in wetlands, and analysis of the hydrogeologic properties of the ground-water aquifer within the study area. In addition, the MODBRANCH code was modified to calculate the exchange between surface-water channels and ground water using a relation based on the concept of reach transmissivity. The modified reach-transmissivity version of the MODBRANCH code was successfully tested on three simple problems with known analytical solutions. It was also tested and determined to function adequately on one field problem that had previously been solved using the unmodified version of the software. The modified version of MODBRANCH was judged to have performed satisfactorily, and it required about 60 percent as many iterations to reach a solution. Additionally, its input parameters are more physically-based and less dependent on model-grid spacing. A model of the Levee 31N area was developed and used with the original and modified versions of MODBRANCH, which produced similar output. The mean annual modeled ground-water heads differed by only 0.02 foot, and the mean annual canal discharge differed by less than 1.0 cubic foot per second. Seepage meters were used to quantify vertical seepage rates in the Everglades wetlands area west of Levee 31N. A comparison between results from the seepage meters and from the computer model indicated substantial differences that seemed to be a result of local variations in the hydraulic properties in the topmost part of the Biscayne aquifer. The transmissivity of the Biscayne aquifer was estimated to be 1,400,000 square feet per day in the study area. The computer model was employed to simulate seepage of ground water beneath Levee 31N

  6. Effects of restoration and reflooding on soil denitrification in a leveed Midwestern floodplain.

    PubMed

    Orr, Cailin H; Stanley, Emily H; Wilson, Karen A; Finlay, Jacques C

    2007-12-01

    River floodplains have the potential to remove nitrate from water through denitrification, the anaerobic microbial conversion of nitrate to nitrogen gas. An important factor in this process is the interaction of river water with floodplain soil; however, many rivers have been disconnected from their historic floodplains by levees. To test the effect of reflooding a degraded floodplain on nitrate removal, we studied changes in soil denitrification rates on the Baraboo River floodplain in Wisconsin, USA, as it underwent restoration. Prior to this study, the site had been leveed, drained, and farmed for more than 50 years. In late fall 2002, the field drainage system was removed, and a gate structure was installed to allow controlled flooding of this site with river water. Soil moisture was extremely variable among zones and months and reflected local weather. Soil organic matter was stable over the study period with differences occurring along the elevation gradient. High soil nitrate concentrations occurred in dry, relatively organic-poor soil samples and, conversely, all samples with high moisture soils characterized by low nitrate. We measured denitrification in static cores and potential denitrification in bulk samples amended with carbon and nitrogen, one year before and two years following the manipulation. Denitrification rates showed high temporal and spatial variability. Static core rates of individual sites ranged widely (from 0.00 to 16.7 microg N2O-N x [kg soil](-1) x h(-1), mean +/- SD = 1.10 +/- 3.02), and denitrification enzyme activity (DEA) rates were similar with a slightly higher mean (from 0.00 to 15.0 microg N2O-N x [kg soil](-1) x h(-1), 1.41 +/- 1.98). Denitrification was not well-correlated with soil nitrate, organic matter content, or moisture levels, the three parameters typically thought to control denitrification. Static core denitrification rates were not significantly different across years, and DEA rates decreased slightly the second

  7. Three-dimensional imaging, change detection, and stability assessment during the centerline trench levee seepage experiment using terrestrial light detection and ranging technology, Twitchell Island, California, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bawden, Gerald W.; Howle, James; Bond, Sandra; Shriro, Michelle; Buck, Peter

    2014-01-01

    A full scale field seepage test was conducted on a north-south trending levee segment of a now bypassed old meander belt on Twitchell Island, California, to understand the effects of live and decaying root systems on levee seepage and slope stability. The field test in May 2012 was centered on a north-south trench with two segments: a shorter control segment and a longer seepage test segment. The complete length of the trench area measured 40.4 meters (m) near the levee centerline with mature trees located on the waterside and landside of the levee flanks. The levee was instrumented with piezometers and tensiometers to measure positive and negative porewater pressures across the levee after the trench was flooded with water and held at a constant hydraulic head during the seepage test—the results from this component of the experiment are not discussed in this report. We collected more than one billion three-dimensional light detection and ranging (lidar) data points before, during, and after the centerline seepage test to assess centimeter-scale stability of the two trees and the levee crown. During the seepage test, the waterside tree toppled (rotated 20.7 degrees) into the water. The landside tree rotated away from the levee by 5 centimeters (cm) at a height of 2 m on the tree. The paved surface of the levee crown had three regions that showed subsidence on the waterside of the trench—discussed as the northern, central, and southern features. The northern feature is an elongate region that subsided 2.1 cm over an area with an average width of 1.35 m that extends 15.8 m parallel to the trench from the northern end of the trench to just north of the trench midpoint, and is associated with a crack 1 cm in height that formed during the seepage test on the trench wall. The central subsidence feature is a semicircular region on the waterside of the trench that subsided by as much as 6.2 cm over an area 3.4 m wide and 11.2 m long. The southern feature is an elongate

  8. Detection of Subsurface Defects in Levees in Correlation to Weather Conditions Utilizing Ground Penetrating Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, I. A.; Eisenmann, D.

    2012-12-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) has been used for many years in successful subsurface detection of conductive and non-conductive objects in all types of material including different soils and concrete. Typical defect detection is based on subjective examination of processed scans using data collection and analysis software to acquire and analyze the data, often requiring a developed expertise or an awareness of how a GPR works while collecting data. Processing programs, such as GSSI's RADAN analysis software are then used to validate the collected information. Iowa State University's Center for Nondestructive Evaluation (CNDE) has built a test site, resembling a typical levee used near rivers, which contains known sub-surface targets of varying size, depth, and conductivity. Scientist at CNDE have developed software with the enhanced capabilities, to decipher a hyperbola's magnitude and amplitude for GPR signal processing. With this enhanced capability, the signal processing and defect detection capabilities for GPR have the potential to be greatly enhanced. This study will examine the effects of test parameters, antenna frequency (400MHz), data manipulation methods (which include data filters and restricting the range of depth in which the chosen antenna's signal can reach), and real-world conditions using this test site (such as varying weather conditions) , with the goal of improving GPR tests sensitivity for differing soil conditions.

  9. Effect of a levee setback on aquatic resources using two-dimensional flow and bioenergetics models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Black, Robert W.; Czuba, Christiana R.; Magirl, Christopher S.; McCarthy, Sarah; Berge, Hans; Comanor, Kyle

    2016-04-05

    Watershed restoration is the focus of many resource managers and can include a multitude of restoration actions each with specific restoration objectives. For the White River flowing through the cities of Pacific and Sumner, Washington, a levee setback has been proposed to reconnect the river with its historical floodplain to help reduce flood risks, as well as provide increased habitat for federally listed species of salmonids. The study presented here documents the use of a modeling framework that integrates two-dimensional hydraulic modeling with process-based bioenergetics modeling for predicting how changes in flow from reconnecting the river with its floodplain affects invertebrate drift density and the net rate of energy intake of juvenile salmonids. Modeling results were calculated for flows of 25.9 and 49.3 cubic meters per second during the spring, summer, and fall. Predicted hypothetical future mean velocities and depths were significantly lower and more variable when compared to current conditions. The abundance of low energetic cost and positive growth locations for salmonids were predicted to increase significantly in the study reach following floodplain reconnection, particularly during the summer. This modeling framework presents a viable approach for evaluating the potential fisheries benefits of reconnecting a river to its historical floodplain that integrates our understanding of hydraulic, geomorphology, and organismal biology.

  10. Development of Floating Wave Barriers for Cost Effective Protection of Irrigation and Catfish Pond Levees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozeren, Y.; Wren, D. G.; Alonso, C. V.

    2007-12-01

    Earth levees for catfish ponds and irrigation water storage experience significant embankment erosion due to wind generated waves. Large seasonal fluctuations in water level make vegetative bank protection impractical, and other stabilization methods such as the use of old tires or riprap are not acceptable due to ecological and economic concerns. The goal of the present work is to define configurations and construction techniques for inexpensive floating breakwaters made of polyethylene irrigation tubing. Based on wave characteristics measured in an irrigation pond near Lonoke, Arkansas, a laboratory scale wave generating flume was designed, constructed, and used to test multiple wave barrier configurations for regular waves in deep and transitional water depths. Wave transmission characteristics were investigated for the following breakwater arrangements: (1) fully restrained, (2) vertically restrained with a single mooring line, (3) horizontally restrained with a rigid arm hinged at one end, and (4) horizontally restrained with piles at both sides of the breakwater. The test results show that cylindrical pipes can be used effectively as floating breakwaters and that wave transmission characteristics strongly depend on the draft of the breakwater and the mooring configuration. The use of multiple small cylinders instead of a single large one can reduce cost while maintaining the same level of wave attenuation. The wave characteristics measured in the field and the results of laboratory testing resulted in a final design that is to be tested at the prototype scale in an irrigation pond.

  11. Characterizing Land Surface Change and Levee Stability in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta Using UAVSAR Radar Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Cathleen; Bawden, Gerald; Deverel, Steven; Dudas, Joel; Hensley, Scott

    2011-01-01

    The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta is one of the primary water sources for the state of California and represents a complex geographical area comprised of tidal marshland, levee rimmed islands that are used primarily for agriculture, and urban encroachment. Land subsidence has dropped many of the Delta islands 3 to >7 meters below mean sea level and requires nearly 1700 km of levees to maintain the integrity of the islands and flow of water through the Delta. The current average subsidence rates for each island varies, with 1.23 cm/yr on Sherman Island and 2.2 cm/yr for Bacon Island, as determined by ground-based instruments located at isolated points in the Delta. The Delta's status as the most critical water resource for the state, an endangered ecosystem, and an area continuously threatened with levee breakage from hydrostatic pressure and the danger of earthquakes on several major faults in the San Francisco area make it a focus of monitoring efforts by both the state and national government. This activity is now almost entirely done by ground-based efforts, but the benefits of using remote sensing for wide scale spatial coverage and frequent temporal coverage is obvious. The UAVSAR airborne polarimetric and differential interferometric L-band synthetic aperture radar system has been used to collected monthly images of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta and much of the adjacent Suisun Marsh since July 2009 to characterize levee stability, image spatially varied subsidence, and assess how well the UAVSAR performs in an area with widespread agriculture production.

  12. Characterizing Land Surface Change and Levee Stability in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta Using UAVSAR Radar Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Cathleen; Bawden, Gerald; Deverel, Steven; Dudas, Joel; Hensley, Scott

    2011-01-01

    The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta is one of the primary water sources for the state of California and represents a complex geographical area comprised of tidal marshland, levee rimmed islands that are used primarily for agriculture, and urban encroachment. Land subsidence has dropped many of the Delta islands 3 to >7 meters below mean sea level and requires nearly 1700 km of levees to maintain the integrity of the islands and flow of water through the Delta. The current average subsidence rates for each island varies, with 1.23 cm/yr on Sherman Island and 2.2 cm/yr for Bacon Island, as determined by ground-based instruments located at isolated points in the Delta. The Delta's status as the most critical water resource for the state, an endangered ecosystem, and an area continuously threatened with levee breakage from hydrostatic pressure and the danger of earthquakes on several major faults in the San Francisco area make it a focus of monitoring efforts by both the state and national government. This activity is now almost entirely done by ground-based efforts, but the benefits of using remote sensing for wide scale spatial coverage and frequent temporal coverage is obvious. The UAVSAR airborne polarimetric and differential interferometric L-band synthetic aperture radar system has been used to collected monthly images of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta and much of the adjacent Suisun Marsh since July 2009 to characterize levee stability, image spatially varied subsidence, and assess how well the UAVSAR performs in an area with widespread agriculture production.

  13. A Cultural Resources Survey of Arlington Revetment and LSU Berm Levee Improvement Item, East Baton Rouge Parish Louisiana

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-07-01

    Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, Mississipi. Snead, John I., and R. P. Mc Culloh 1984 Geologic Map of Louisana . Louisiana Geological Survey...levee crevasse ..................................... 26 Figure 12: Detail of map entitled ’ Map Showing Crevasses and Devastation by Overflow of the...Mississippi River in Arkansas, Louisiana & Mississippi’. Map compiled by T.S. Hardee, Civil Engineer, 1874. Source: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, New

  14. Quality and Dose Optimized CT Trauma Protocol - Recommendation from a University Level-I Trauma Center.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Johannes; Kaul, David; Böning, Georg; Rotzinger, Roman; Freyhardt, Patrick; Schwabe, Philipp; Maurer, Martin H; Renz, Diane Miriam; Streitparth, Florian

    2017-09-01

    Purpose As a supra-regional level-I trauma center, we evaluated computed tomography (CT) acquisitions of polytraumatized patients for quality and dose optimization purposes. Adapted statistical iterative reconstruction [(AS)IR] levels, tube voltage reduction as well as a split-bolus contrast agent (CA) protocol were applied. Materials and Methods 61 patients were split into 3 different groups that differed with respect to tube voltage (120 - 140 kVp) and level of applied ASIR reconstruction (ASIR 20 - 50 %). The CT protocol included a native acquisition of the head followed by a single contrast-enhanced acquisition of the whole body (64-MSCT). CA (350 mg/ml iodine) was administered as a split bolus injection of 100 ml (2 ml/s), 20 ml NaCl (1 ml/s), 60 ml (4 ml/s), 40 ml NaCl (4 ml/s) with a scan delay of 85 s to detect injuries of both the arterial system and parenchymal organs in a single acquisition. Both the quantitative (SNR/CNR) and qualitative (5-point Likert scale) image quality was evaluated in parenchymal organs that are often injured in trauma patients. Radiation exposure was assessed. Results The use of IR combined with a reduction of tube voltage resulted in good qualitative and quantitative image quality and a significant reduction in radiation exposure of more than 40 % (DLP 1087 vs. 647 mGyxcm). Image quality could be improved due to a dedicated protocol that included different levels of IR adapted to different slice thicknesses, kernels and the examined area for the evaluation of head, lung, body and bone injury patterns. In synopsis of our results, we recommend the implementation of a polytrauma protocol with a tube voltage of 120 kVp and the following IR levels: cCT 5mm: ASIR 20; cCT 0.625 mm: ASIR 40; lung 2.5 mm: ASIR 30, body 5 mm: ASIR 40; body 1.25 mm: ASIR 50; body 0.625 mm: ASIR 0. Conclusion A dedicated adaptation of the CT trauma protocol (level of reduction of tube voltage and of IR

  15. Evaluating the Effects of Constriction by Levees on a Dynamic Gravel-Bed River through Morphological Sediment Budgeting and Bed Mobility Studies, Snake River, WY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, C.; Legleiter, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    High-energy gravel-bed rivers are subject to a range of management practices used to control the system's dynamic behavior. The Snake River, near Jackson, WY, offers an opportunity to study the morphological effects of management practices through a comparison of a reach confined by levees to an unmanaged reach just upstream within Grand Teton National Park (GTNP). I hypothesize that levees have reduced sediment supply by disconnecting the river from its banks and increased transport capacity by increasing flow velocity. Together, these effects accentuate the sediment deficit in the leveed reach. To test this I am developing a morphological sediment budget from GTNP to Wilson, WY, using LiDAR data from 2007 and 2012. This analysis will yield insight as to how sediment transport varies between the relatively natural reach in GTNP and the leveed reach downstream. A problem inherent to morphological budgets is the inability to decipher when change occurs within the budget timeframe. To combat this, a partial mobility study was executed using 300 PIT tagged gravels within the leveed reach. Gravels were relocated to decipher how bed mobility and sediment transport varied with grain size under a range of hydraulic conditions. These results are then used to estimate a critical discharge representing the inception of bed motion and geomorphic change. The critical discharge will be used to reconstruct the timing of bed mobility based on streamflow records and thus deconvolve when morphological change occurred during the sediment budget period. I further hypothesize that a greater imbalance between transport capacity and sediment supply in the leveed reach causes the bed to armor, resulting in larger critical shear stresses and implying that the bed will be mobilized only during greater discharge events. To test this hypothesis I will measure armor ratios within the leveed reach and examine how bed mobility differs between the two reaches by comparing the results of our

  16. Comparison of risk-adjusted survival in two Scandinavian Level-I trauma centres.

    PubMed

    Ghorbani, Poya; Ringdal, Kjetil Gorseth; Hestnes, Morten; Skaga, Nils Oddvar; Eken, Torsten; Ekbom, Anders; Strömmer, Lovisa

    2016-05-10

    Assessment of trauma-system performance is important for improving the care of injured patients. The aim of the study was to compare risk-adjusted survival in two Scandinavian Level-I trauma centres. This was an observational, retrospective study of prospectively-collected trauma registry data for patients >14 years from Karolinska University Hospital - Solna (KUH), Sweden, and Oslo University Hospital - Ullevål (OUH), Norway, from 2009-2011. Probability of survival (Ps) was calculated according to the Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS) method. Risk-adjusted survival per patient was calculated by assigning every patient a value corresponding to gained or lost fractional life: Each survivor contributed a reward of 1-Ps and each death a penalty of -Ps. The sum of penalties and rewards, corresponding to the difference between expected and actual mortality, was compared between the centres. We present the data as excess survivors per 100 trauma patients. There were 4485 admissions at KUH and 3591 at OUH. The proportion of severely injured patients was higher at OUH compared with KUH (Injury Severity Score [ISS] >15: 33.9 % vs. 21.1 %, p <0.001). OUH had a larger proportion of patients >65 years (16.0 % vs. 13.4 %, p <0.001) and greater comorbidity (ASA-PS ≥3: 14.6 % vs. 6.9 %, p <0.001) compared with KUH. The frequency of helicopter transport and presence of prehospital physicians was higher at OUH compared with KUH (27.6 % vs. 15.5 % and 30.5 % vs. 3.7 %, both p <0.001). Secondary admissions were 5.2-fold more common at OUH compared with KUH (p <0.001). There were no differences in 30-day mortality for severely injured patients (ISS >15). Risk-adjusted survival rate was higher at OUH than at KUH for primary (0.59 vs. 0.51) but lower for secondary (1.41 vs. 2.85) admissions (both p <0.001). Adjustments for age as a continuous variable and comorbidity should be made when comparing risk-adjusted survival between hospitals, but this is not possible

  17. An experimental investigation of the dynamics of submarine leveed channel initiation as sediment-laden density currents experience sudden unconfinement

    SciTech Connect

    Rowland, Joel C; Hilley, George E; Fildani, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Leveed submarine channels play a critical role in the transfer of sediment from the upper continental slopes to interslope basins and ultimately deepwater settings. Despite a reasonable understanding of how these channels grow once established, how such channels initiate on previously unchannelized portions of the seafloor remains poorly understood. We conducted a series of experiments that elucidate the influence of excess density relative to flow velocity on the dynamics of, and depositional morphologies arising from, density currents undergoing sudden unconfinement across a sloped bed. Experimental currents transported only suspended sediment across a non-erodible substrate. Under flow conditions ranging from supercritical to subcritical (bulk Richardson numbers of 0.02 to 1.2) our experiments failed to produce deposits resembling or exhibiting the potential to evolve into self-formed leveed channels. In the absence of excess density, a submerged sediment-laden flow produced sharp crested lateral deposits bounding the margins of the flow for approximately a distance of two outlet widths down basin. These lateral deposits terminated in a centerline deposit that greatly exceeded marginal deposits in thickness. As excess density increased relative to the outlet velocity, the rate of lateral spreading of the flow increased relative to the downstream propagation of the density current, transitioning from a narrow flow aligned with the channel outlet to a broad radially expanding flow. Coincident with these changes in flow dynamics, the bounding lateral deposits extended for shorter distances, had lower, more poorly defined crests that were increasingly wider in separation than the initial outlet, and progressively became more oblong rather than linear. Based on our results, we conclude that leveed channels cannot initiate from sediment-laden density currents under strictly depositional conditions. Partial confinement of these currents appears to be necessary to

  18. Application of Ground Penetrating Radar Surveys and GPS Surveys for Monitoring the Condition of Levees and Dykes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanajewski, Dariusz; Bakuła, Mieczysław

    2016-08-01

    This paper analyses the possibility of using integrated GPS (Global Positioning System) surveys and ground penetrating radar surveys to precisely locate damages to levees, particularly due to the activity of small fossorial mammals. The technology of intercommunication between ground penetrating radar (GPR) and an RTK (Real-Time Kinematic) survey unit, and the method of data combination, are presented. The errors which may appear during the survey work are also characterized. The procedure for processing the data so that the final results have a spatial character and are ready to be implemented in digital maps and geographic information systems (GIS) is also described.

  19. The Transition of Benthic Nutrient Sources after Planned Levee Breaches Adjacent to Upper Klamath and Agency Lakes, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuwabara, James S.; Topping, Brent R.; Carter, James L.; Parcheso, Francis; Cameron, Jason M.; Asbill, Jessica R.; Fend, Steven V.; Duff, John H.; Engelstad, Anita C.

    2010-01-01

    Four sampling trips were coordinated after planned levee breaches that hydrologically reconnected both Upper Klamath Lake and Agency Lake, Oregon, to adjacent wetlands. Sets of nonmetallic pore-water profilers were deployed during these trips in November 2007, June 2008, May 2009, and July 2009. Deployments temporally spanned the annual cyanophyte bloom of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (AFA) and spatially involved three lake and four wetland sites. Profilers, typically deployed in triplicate at each lake or wetland site, provided high-resolution (centimeter-scale) estimates of the vertical concentration gradients for diffusive-flux determinations. Estimates based on molecular diffusion may underestimate benthic flux because solute transport across the sediment-water interface can be enhanced by processes including bioturbation, bioirrigation and groundwater advection. Water-column and benthic samples were also collected to help interpret spatial and temporal trends in diffusive-flux estimates. Data from these samples complement taxonomic and geochemical analyses of bottom-sediments taken from Upper Klamath Lake (UKL) in prior studies. This ongoing study provides information necessary for developing process-interdependent solute-transport models for the watershed (that is, models integrating physical, geochemical, and biological processes) and supports efforts to evaluate remediation or load-allocation strategies. To augment studies funded by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR), the Department of the Interior supported an additional full deployment of pore-water profilers in November 2007 and July 2009, immediately following the levee breaches and after the crash of the annual summer AFA bloom. As observed consistently since 2006, benthic flux of 0.2-micron filtered, soluble reactive phosphorus (that is, biologically available phosphorus, primarily as orthophosphate; SRP) was consistently positive (that is, out of the sediment into the overlying water column) and

  20. Application of the TDR technique for the detection of changes in the internal structure of an earthen flood levee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janik, Grzegorz; Dawid, Małgorzata; Walczak, Amadeusz; Słowińska-Osypiuk, Joanna; Skierucha, Wojciech; Wilczek, Andrzej; Daniel, Anna

    2017-03-01

    Failures of earthen flood protection structures cause enormous material loss. Despite this, in the majority these are structures that were built decades ago. As an example, in Poland, the time of operation of approximately three quarters of existing levees and embankments is over 40 years. A similar situation exists in many other European countries. In the period 1998–2009 the economic losses caused by floods amounted to over 60 thousand million Euro. This accounts for approximately one third of the total losses caused by environmental factors. Ruptures of embankments or levees occur as a result of long-lasting elevated water levels in rivers, and such events are always preceded by changes in their internal structure. Such changes cannot be detected from the outside. This paper presents a new method, never used before, for the determination of changes in the internal structure of the body of a levee. The dynamics of the displacements is described by means of new mathematical formulae. The input data necessary for their application include the dynamics of changes in the value of volumetric moisture that is measured with a freely selected short time step by means of the time-domain-reflectrometry technique. The formulae were created on the basis of hitherto unnoticed and uninterpreted drops in moisture a moment before and a moment after the saturation of inner spaces of the levee body. The results obtained from calculations were compared with data from measurements on a physical model of a levee. The settlement values calculated using the method proposed are convergent with those of the true settlement. The maximum relative error was as low as 19%. The method proposed permits the location of changes in the internal structure of a levee before its rupture. Its application is the main component of a system of early warning against floods.

  1. Morphological Analyses and Simulated Flood Elevations in a Watershed with Dredged and Leveed Stream Channels, Wheeling Creek, Eastern Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherwood, James M.; Huitger, Carrie A.; Ebner, Andrew D.; Koltun, G.F.

    2008-01-01

    The USGS, in cooperation with the Ohio Emergency Management Agency, conducted a study in the Wheeling Creek Basin to (1) evaluate and contrast land-cover characteristics from 2001 with characteristics from 1979 and 1992; (2) compare current streambed elevation, slope, and geometry with conditions present in the late 1980s; (3) look for evidence of channel filling and over widening in selected undredged reaches; (4) estimate flood elevations for existing conditions in both undredged and previously dredged reaches; (5) evaluate the height of the levees required to contain floods with selected recurrence intervals in previously dredged reaches; and (6) estimate flood elevations for several hypothetical dredging and streambed aggradation scenarios in undredged reaches. The amount of barren land in the Wheeling Creek watershed has decreased from 20 to 1 percent of the basin area based on land-cover characteristics from 1979 and 2001. Barren lands appear to have been converted primarily to pasture, presumably as a result of surface-mine reclamation. Croplands also decreased from 13 to 8 percent of the basin area. The combined decrease in barren lands and croplands is approximately offset by the increase in pasture. Stream-channel surveys conducted in 1987 and again in 2006 at 21 sites in four previously dredged reaches of Wheeling Creek indicate little change in the elevation, slope, and geometry of the channel at most sites. The mean change in width-averaged bed and thalweg elevations for the 21 cross sections was 0.1 feet. Bankfull widths, mean depths, and cross-sectional areas measured at 12 sites in undredged reaches were compared to estimates determined from regional equations. The mean percentage difference between measured and estimated bankfull widths was -0.2 percent, suggesting that bankfull widths in the Wheeling Creek Basin are generally about the same as regional averages for undisturbed basins of identical drainage area. For bankfull mean depth and cross

  2. Actual Condition of Paddy Field Levee Maintenance by Various Farm Households including Large-scale Farming in the Developed Land Renting Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakata, Yasuyo

    The survey of interview, resource acquisition, photographic operation, and questionnaire were carried out in the “n” Community in the “y” District in Hakusan City in Ishikawa Prefecture to investigate the actual condition of paddy field levee maintenance in the area where land-renting market was proceeding, large-scale farming was dominant, and the problems of geographically scattered farm-land existed. In the study zone, 1) an agricultural production legal person rent-cultivated some of the paddy fields and maintained the levees, 2) another agricultural production legal person rent-cultivated some of the soy bean fields for crop changeover and land owners maintained the levees. The results indicated that sufficient maintenance was executed on the levees of the paddy fields cultivated by the agricultural production legal person, the soy bean fields for crop changeover, and the paddy fields cultivated by the land owners. Each reason is considered to be the managerial strategy, the economic incentive, the mutual monitoring and cross-regulatory mechanism, etc.

  3. Survey of the Archaeological Resources Along the Existing and Proposed Levees on Kaskaskia Island in Randolph County, Illinois, and Ste. Genevieve County, Missouri,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-11-01

    levees were covered. At that time the amount of walkable land was hindered by crops, water, silt deposits, weeds and sloughs. Consequently the survey...the present city of Collinsville, Illinois, is the Cahokia site, the largest single site in North America. It includes Monk’s Mound (the largest

  4. On mechanisms triggering the levees failure along the Foenna stream on 1st January 2006 and which caused the flooding in the urban area of Sinalunga, Tuscany Region (Italy). A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camici, Stefania; Moramarco, Tommaso; Brocca, Luca; Melone, Florisa; Lapenna, Vincenzo; Perrone, Angela; Loperte, Antonio

    2010-05-01

    On 1st January 2006, during an ordinary flood event, a levee failure along the Foenna stream caused the flooding in the urban area of Sinalunga, a small town located in Tuscany region (Italy). The event was monitored by a public agency with the responsibility for the control and maintenance of the natural channel networks. Long time before of flooding, people living in the surrounding area of the stream blamed the presence of wild animals and of numerous burrows along the levees. Although the numerous actions of maintenance along the levees mainly for removing the burrows, a levee seepage occurred during that flood. The presence of an outflow located on the downstream face, almost 2 m below the levee top, caused the spurt of brown water denoting the presence of sediment erosion. On the upstream face of levee, a little hole of about 30 cm at the same height of the outflow was discovered. Although the agency workers tried to close the hole by using appropriate blankets, in short time the top of the levee subsided and the overtopping flow caused a trapezoidal breach typical for an earth-fill embankment. The formation of breach was so fast that in a little more of one hour the urban area near to the Foenna stream was flooded causing high economic damages. Mechanisms triggered the levees failure are the object of this work. The analysis of the event has been first addressed to assess the state of-fact of levees conditions along the Foenna stream, thus to understand how much the activity of wild animals, in particular that of porcupine, may have affected the hydraulic safety of the embankment. At the purpose, after the event, topographical surveys of cross sections have been done along with tomographic surveys by geoelectric technique for investigating the possible presence, besides of burrows, also of tunnels dug into the levees by animals. Then, the analysis of hydrometeorological conditions of the event has allowed to better understand the evolution of the flood and

  5. Transition of Benthic Nutrient Sources after Engineered Levee Breaches Adjacent to Upper Klamath and Agency Lakes, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwabara, J. S.; Topping, B. R.; Carter, J. L.; Parchaso, F.; Cameron, J. M.; Asbill, J. R.; Carlson, R. A.; Fend, S. V.; Engelstad, A. C.

    2010-12-01

    Nonmetallic pore-water profilers were deployed during four sampling trips between November 2007 and July 2009 after engineered levee breaches on 30 October 2007, hydrologically reconnected both Upper Klamath Lake and Agency Lake, Oregon, to adjacent wetlands. Centimeter-scale measurements of the vertical dissolved-nutrient concentration gradients from the profilers served as the basis for diffusive-flux determinations. Wetland areas undergoing restoration and those being used for water storage around these lakes function very differently than nearby established wetlands within the Upper Klamath National Wildlife Refuge. Consistent with previous results from Upper Klamath Lake, benthic flux of soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) in the wetlands was consistently positive, and when areally and seasonally averaged over the 13 km2 newly restored wetlands, an SRP flux to the overlying water column (~87,000 kg over the 3-month cyanophyte bloom of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (AFA)) exceeded the magnitude of riverine inputs (42,000 kg for that season). SRP benthic flux at a site within the restored wetland area ~0.5 km from the breach was elevated relative to all other lake and wetland sites (including another wetland site <0.1 km from the breached levee) in 2009 suggests that the restored wetlands, at least chemically, remain in a transition period following the hydrologic reconnection of the lake and wetland environments. Ammonium fluxes to the water column remained consistently positive throughout the sampling period, generating a toxicological concern for endangered fish populations at elevated summer pH. Soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) concentrations were lower than detection limits (<0.03 mg-P/L) at all lake and wetland sites following the levee breaches. As indicated in previous studies, SRP concentrations for 2009 sampling trips indicated higher concentrations at the end of the annual AFA bloom relative to its beginning, suggesting a limiting factor or factors other

  6. Outcome of pediatric head injury patients admitted as unknown at a level-i apex trauma centre

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Haradhan Deb; Tandon, Vivek; Mahapatra, Ashok Kumar; Gupta, Deepak Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Patients with head injury who are not identified at admission are a challenge to manage and in this backdrop we decided to analyze our data of such pediatric patients for their outcome. Materials and Methods: It was a retrospective study conducted at the level-I trauma center. A total of 12 consecutive pediatric (<20 years) age group patients whose identities were not known at the time of admission were included in the study. Results: All 12 patients were male. The road traffic accident was the most common cause of injury (8, 67%). Mean age of the patients were 16.75 ± 4.45 years. Computerized tomography (CT) scan showed cerebral contusion in four (33%) patients. Six (50%) patients needed surgery and others were treated conservatively. During the course of hospital treatment, one (8%) patient died, two (16%) had good recovery, and four (33%) were moderately disabled. Among the 12 patients identity, eight (67%) could be ascertained. Seven (58%) patients were sent home with their relatives, one (8%) was referred to a district hospital and three (25%) remained as unknown and were referred to destitute home for rehabilitation. Conclusion: Unidentified patients of pediatric age group have better outcome if proper care is provided in time. PMID:26396599

  7. The possible role of Coriolis forces in structuring large-scale sinuous patterns of submarine channel-levee systems.

    PubMed

    Wells, Mathew; Cossu, Remo

    2013-01-01

    Submarine channel-levee systems are among the largest sedimentary structures on the ocean floor. These channels have a sinuous pattern and are the main conduits for turbidity currents to transport sediment to the deep ocean. Recent observations have shown that their sinuosity decreases strongly with latitude, with high-latitude channels being much straighter than similar channels near the Equator. One possible explanation is that Coriolis forces laterally deflect turbidity currents so that at high Northern latitudes both the density interface and the downstream velocity maximum are deflected to the right-hand side of the channel (looking downstream). The shift in the velocity field can change the locations of erosion and deposition and introduce an asymmetry between left- and right-turning bends. The importance of Coriolis forces is defined by two Rossby numbers, RoW=U/Wf and RoR=U/Rf, where U is the mean downstream velocity, W is the width of the channel, R is the radius of curvature and f is the Coriolis parameter. In a bending channel, the density interface is flat when RoR∼-1, and Coriolis forces start to shift the velocity maximum when |RoW|<5. We review recent experimental and field observations and describe how Coriolis forces could lead to straighter channels at high latitudes.

  8. The possible role of Coriolis forces in structuring large-scale sinuous patterns of submarine channel-levee systems.

    PubMed

    Wells, Mathew; Cossu, Remo

    2013-12-13

    Submarine channel-levee systems are among the largest sedimentary structures on the ocean floor. These channels have a sinuous pattern and are the main conduits for turbidity currents to transport sediment to the deep ocean. Recent observations have shown that their sinuosity decreases strongly with latitude, with high-latitude channels being much straighter than similar channels near the Equator. One possible explanation is that Coriolis forces laterally deflect turbidity currents so that at high Northern latitudes both the density interface and the downstream velocity maximum are deflected to the right-hand side of the channel (looking downstream). The shift in the velocity field can change the locations of erosion and deposition and introduce an asymmetry between left- and right-turning bends. The importance of Coriolis forces is defined by two Rossby numbers, Ro(W) = U/Wf and Ro(R) = U/Rf, where U is the mean downstream velocity, W is the width of the channel, R is the radius of curvature and f is the Coriolis parameter. In a bending channel, the density interface is flat when Ro(R) - -1, and Coriolis forces start to shift the velocity maximum when [Row] < 5. We review recent experimental and field observations and describe how Coriolis forces could lead to straighter channels at high latitudes.

  9. Magnetic study of a recent levee in the Bengal Fan (8°N, IODP Site U1454)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meynadier, L.; Savian, J. F.; Selkin, P. A.; Reilly, B. T.; Lantzsch, H.; Saur, H.; Galy, A.; France-Lanord, C.; Spiess, V.; Klaus, A.

    2016-12-01

    A scientific objective of Expedition IODP 354 that drilled a 7-site transect at 8°N during Spring 2015 in the Bay of Bengal was to investigate the fan architecture and the migration of the active channel trough time. Site U1454 is located at the West of the transect, nearby the Holocene active channel and recovered the most recent levee deposits. We present a magnetic study of the upper 30 meters of the two adjacent B and C holes. Both holes were correlated by means of Grape and susceptibility measurements that were performed on board and subsequently measured on U-channels. They provide a continuous sequence. Mean deposition rate is expected to be on the order of 1m/ka. U-channels taken from both holes were stepwise demagnetized at small increments and ARM acquisition and demagnetization performed at the same steps. Based on previous work (Tanty et al. G3, 2016) dealing with magnetic analysis of turbidites we rely on a few magnetic parameters, especially the inclination and the magnetic grains size patterns, to decipher the succession of the turbiditic episodes present in the sequence. These parameters are coupled with sedimentary indicators derived from high-resolution measurements.

  10. First record of resting cysts of the benthic dinoflagellate Prorocentrum leve in a natural reservoir in Gujan-Mestras, Gironde, France.

    PubMed

    Mertens, Kenneth Neil; Gu, Haifeng; Pospelova, Vera; Chomérat, Nicolas; Nézan, Elisabeth; Gurdebeke, Pieter Roger; Bogus, Kara; Vrielinck, Henk; Rumebe, Myriam; Meteigner, Claire

    2017-09-02

    The resting cysts of the benthic dinoflagellate Prorocentrum leve from a natural reservoir in Gujan-Mestras (Gironde, France) were described in this study. The incubated urn-shaped cysts gave rise to cells of Prorocentrum leve. Morphological observations through light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, particularly of the periflagellar platelets, combined with large subunit ribosomal DNA sequences obtained through single-cell analysis confirm their affinity to the species Prorocentrum leve. The cysts are characterized by a specific shape and the presence of an anterior plug. This is the first conclusive evidence for fossilizable resting stages within the Prorocentrales, one of the major orders within the Dinophyceae. Palynological treatments show that the cysts and endospores withstand hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids. MicroFTIR analysis on single specimens suggests that the composition of the endospore is cellulosic and the cyst wall a more robust, non-cellulosic β-glucan. The spectra overall are similar to other published spectra of resting cysts from autotrophic, planktonic dinoflagellates. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Large-scale flooding analysis in the suburbs of Tokyo Metropolis caused by levee breach of the Tone River using a 2D hydrodynamic model.

    PubMed

    Hai, Pham T; Magome, J; Yorozuya, A; Inomata, H; Fukami, K; Takeuchi, K

    2010-01-01

    In order to assess the effects of climate change on flood disasters in urban areas, we applied a two dimensional finite element hydrodynamic model (2D-FEM) to simulate flood processes for the case analysis of levee breach caused by Kathleen Typhoon on 16 September 1947 in Kurihashi reach of Tone River, upstream of Tokyo area. The purpose is to use the model to simulate flood inundation processes under the present topography and land-use conditions with impending extreme flood scenarios due to climate change for mega-urban areas like Tokyo. Simulation used 100 m resolution topographic data (in PWRI), which was derived from original LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) data, and levee breach hydrographic data in 1947. In this paper, we will describe the application of the model with calibration approach and techniques when applying for such fine spatial resolution in urban environments. The fine unstructured triangular FEM mesh of the model appeared to be the most capable of introducing of constructions like roads/levees in simulations. Model results can be used to generate flood mapping, subsequently uploaded to Google Earth interface, making the modeling and presentation process much comprehensible to the general public.

  12. Monitoring of levees, bridges, pipelines, and other critical infrastructure during the 2011 flooding in the Mississippi River Basin: Chapter J in 2011 floods of the central United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Densmore, Brenda K.; Burton, Bethany L.; Dietsch, Benjamin J.; Cannia, James C.; Huizinga, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    During the 2011 Mississippi River Basin flood, the U.S. Geological Survey evaluated aspects of critical river infrastructure at the request of and in support of local, State, and Federal Agencies. Geotechnical and hydrographic data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey at numerous locations were able to provide needed information about 2011 flood effects to those managing the critical infrastructure. These data were collected and processed in a short time frame to provide managers the ability to make a timely evaluation of the safety of the infrastructure and, when needed, to take action to secure and protect critical infrastructure. Critical infrastructure surveyed by the U.S. Geological Survey included levees, bridges, pipeline crossings, power plant intakes and outlets, and an electrical transmission tower. Capacitively coupled resistivity data collected along the flood-protection levees surrounding the Omaha Public Power District Nebraska City power plant (Missouri River Levee Unit R573), mapped the near-subsurface electrical properties of the levee and the materials immediately below it. The near-subsurface maps provided a better understanding of the levee construction and the nature of the lithology beneath the levee. Comparison of the capacitively coupled resistivity surveys and soil borings indicated that low-resistivity value material composing the levee generally is associated with lean clay and silt to about 2 to 4 meters below the surface, overlying a more resistive layer associated with sand deposits. In general, the resistivity structure becomes more resistive to the south and the southern survey sections correlate well with the borehole data that indicate thinner clay and silt at the surface and thicker sand sequences at depth in these sections. With the resistivity data Omaha Public Power District could focus monitoring efforts on areas with higher resistivity values (coarser-grained deposits or more loosely compacted section), which typically are

  13. Integrating remotely acquired and field data to assess effects of setback levees on riparian and aquatic habitat in glacial-melt water rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konrad, C.P.; Black, R.W.; Voss, F.; Neale, C. M. U.

    2008-01-01

    Setback levees, in which levees are reconstructed at a greater distance from a river channel, are a promising restoration technique particularly for alluvial rivers with broad floodplains where river-floodplain connectivity is essential to ecological processes. Documenting the ecological outcomes of restoration activities is essential for assessing the comparative benefits of different restoration approaches and for justifying new restoration projects. Remote sensing of aquatic habitats offers one approach for comprehensive, objective documentation of river and floodplain habitats, but is difficult in glacial rivers because of high suspended-sediment concentrations, braiding and a lack of large, well-differentiated channel forms such as riffles and pools. Remote imagery and field surveys were used to assess the effects of recent and planned setback levees along the Puyallup River and, more generally, the application of multispectral imagery for classifying aquatic and riparian habitats in glacial-melt water rivers. Airborne images were acquired with a horizontal ground resolution of 0.5 m in three spectral bands (0.545-0.555, 0.665-0.675 and 0.790-0.810 ??m) spanning from green to near infrared (NIR) wavelengths. Field surveys identified river and floodplain habitat features and provided the basis for a comparative hydraulic analysis. Broad categories of aquatic habitat (smooth and rough water surface), exposed sediment (sand and boulder) and vegetated surfaces (herbaceous and deciduous shrub/forest) were classified accurately using the airborne images. Other categories [e.g. conifers, boulder, large woody debtis (LWD)] and subdivisions of broad categories (e.g. riffles and runs) were not successfully classified either because these features did not form large patches that could be identified on the imagery or their spectral reflectances were not distinct from those of other habitat types. Airborne imagery was critical for assessing fine-scale aquatic habitat

  14. Modes of development of slope canyons and their relation to channel and levee features on the Ebro sediment apron, off-shore northeastern Spain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Connell, S.; Ryan, William B. F.; Normark, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    Six submarine slope canyons in an area of the northwestern Mediterranean, offshore from the Ebro River and Delta, were surveyed with bathymetric swathmapping (SeaBeam) and mid-range side-looking sonar (SeaMARC I). All of the canyons have slightly winding paths with concave-upwards gradients that are relatively steep shallower than 1,200 m. Two major types of canyons are identified on the basis of their morphologic character at the base of the slope; Type-I canyons lead to an unchannelled base-of-slope deposit and Type-II canyons are continuous with channel-levee systems that cross the rise. Four Type-I canyons were surveyed in the area. Two of these are broad, U-shaped, steep (average gradients of 1:14), do not indent the shelf, and terminate downslope at debris-flow deposits. These two canyons, the most northern in the area, have rounded heads with extensive gullies separated by knife-edge ridges. Relief of the canyon walls is about equal on both sides of the canyons, although the right-hand walls (looking downslope) are generally steeper. The other two Type-I canyons in the area are similar in that they do not indent the shelf, but they are much smaller and shallower and coalesce before terminating in the base-of-slope region. The two Type-II canyons that feed leveed-channels are U-shaped with flatter floors, longer profiles and gentler gradients than Type-I canyons. They are closer to the Valencia Valley and have relatively small cross-sectional areas. We propose a four-stage evolutionary sequence to explain the development of the canyons observed in this section on the prograding Ebro margin. During the initial stage, slumping and erosion on the slope creates a network of small gullies. During the next stage, headward growth of one (or more) gully leads to a major indentation of the shelf. This is the critical factor for developing a channel that will incise the slope and provide a major conduit for moving sediment to the basin. Stage 3 is characterized by the

  15. Time scales of change in chemical and biological parameters after engineered levee breaches adjacent to Upper Klamath and Agency Lakes, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuwabara, James S.; Topping, Brent R.; Carter, James L.; Wood, Tamara M.; Parcheso, Francis; Cameron, Jason M.; Asbill, Jessica R.; Carlson, Rick A.; Fend, Steven V.

    2012-01-01

    Eight sampling trips were coordinated after engineered levee breaches hydrologically reconnected both Upper Klamath Lake and Agency Lake, Oregon, to adjacent wetlands. The reconnection, by a series of explosive blasts, was coordinated by The Nature Conservancy to reclaim wetlands that had for approximately seven decades been leveed for crop production. Sets of nonmetallic porewater profilers (U.S. Patent 8,051,727 B1; November 8, 2011; http://www.uspto.gov/web/patents/patog/ week45/OG/html/1372-2/US08051727-20111108.html.) were deployed during these trips in November 2007, June 2008, May 2009, July 2009, May 2010, August 2010, June 2011, and July 2011 (table 1). Deployments temporally spanned the annual cyanophyte bloom of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and spatially involved three lake and four wetland sites. Spatial and temporal variation in solute benthic flux was determined by the field team, using the profilers, over an approximately 4-year period beginning 3 days after the levee breaches. The highest flux to the water column of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was detected in the newly flooded wetland, contrasting negative or insignificant DOC fluxes at adjacent lake sites. Over the multiyear study, DOC benthic fluxes dissipated in the reconnected wetlands, converging to values similar to those for established wetlands and to the adjacent lake (table 2). In contrast to DOC, benthic sources of soluble reactive phosphorus, ammonium, dissolved iron and manganese from within the reconnected wetlands were consistently elevated (that is, significant in magnitude relative to riverine and established-wetland sources) indicating a multi-year time scale for certain chemical changes after the levee breaches (table 2). Colonization of the reconnected wetlands by aquatic benthic invertebrates during the study trended toward the assemblages in established wetlands, providing further evidence of a multiyear transition of this area to permanent aquatic habitat (table 3). Both the

  16. Environmental Statement for Lavon Dam and Reservoir Modification and East Fork Channel Improvement - Pertaining to East Fork Channel and Levee Improvement Increment I. Supplement.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-01-01

    Fork Channel and Levee Improvement Increment .p I ON0TRACT OR GRANT NUMBER.) US Army Corps of Engineers u l F t W o r t h , T X .... .- - -- 9...the abaract ontered in Blook 20 I dlfforent be- r Report) IS. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES IS. KEY WORDS (Continue on reovere side It necosary and Idontdir by...0 ’ ’ % I N" ’S S S S S I S I S S S I S I S / S - S S I 5 I S IIN I S / S aeAf"- d"b* mm AR r -kp ’ r do~ -dC -4W% P* ~ qbb IELEVATION IN 360 I (1 It

  17. Mississippi River Flood of 2011 and the Activation of the Birds Point-New Madrid Floodway: Observations and Modeling of a Levee Breach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, R. R.; Koenig, T. A.; McDonald, R. R.; Nelson, J. M.; Simoes, F. J.

    2011-12-01

    During 2011, record flooding has occurred in many parts of the central United States. As the flooding reached record levels for the Mississippi-Ohio River confluence at Cairo, Illinois, the 61 kilometer long and 8 kilometer wide Birds Point-New Madrid Floodway (Floodway) was activated to provide a lowering of upstream water levels through a controlled demolition of approximately 3,300 meters of levee at 10:00 PM on May 2, 2011. Prior to activation of the Floodway, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) deployed 38 self-contained stage sensors throughout the Floodway to capture the change in water elevation through time at various locations. From April 29, 2011 to May 24, 2011, daily streamflow measurements were made upstream of the confluence of the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers, within the Floodway opening and outlets, and on the Mississippi River downstream of the Floodway opening. Additionally, velocity and bathymetric data were collected immediately downstream of the Floodway opening at Birds Point to characterize scour in the Floodway. The data provide a unique look at the impact of a controlled levee breach on river flows and hydraulics. The activation of the Floodway lowered the water level at Cairo, Illinois by 0.44 meters in the first 14 hours, while increasing the streamflow of the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers in vicinity of Cairo, Illinois by 9,200 cubic meters per second. On May 2, prior to the activation of the Floodway, the measured combined streamflow of the upper Mississippi and Ohio Rivers at Cairo, Illinois was 52,900 cubic meters per second with the Ohio River contributing 27,700 cubic meters per second. Following the controlled breach of the Birds Point levee (immediately downstream of Cairo, Illinois on the right descending bank) the night of May 2, 2011, the measured combined streamflow at Cairo, Illinois on May 3, 2011 increased to 62,100 cubic meters per second with the Ohio River increasing to 38,100 cubic meters per second, an increase of 10

  18. Retrogressive Failures in Sand Deposits of the Mississippi River. Report 2. Empirical Evidence in Support of the Hypothesized Failure Mechanism and Development of the Levee Safety Flow Slide Monitoring System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-01

    Celotex slide is pre- sented, analyzed and shown to conform to the current hypotheses concerning the triggering and retrogression of flow failures in...5 PART II: CASE HISTORY OF THE CELOTEX BATTURE AND LEVEE FAILURE OF 30 JULY 1985...6 Discussion of Failure .............................................. 13 Ramifications of Celotex Failure

  19. What hydrological dynamics emerge from the interaction of land conversion and flood levee construction? Using dynamical systems models to explore the development of California's Sacramento-San Joaquin Watersheds.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, S. E.; Hutton, P.; Sivapalan, M.; MacVean, L. J.

    2016-12-01

    The hydrological impacts of land development include the simultaneous modifications of land cover, water abstraction and hydraulics. While reservoir construction and irrigation offer water managers de facto control of the hydrologic budget in the upper and middle reaches of river basins, the pattern of development in lowland areas incorporates drainage of wetlands, leveeing of flood plains, and rain-fed agriculture. The resulting hydrological function is then an emergent property of the interaction of land use change with flood control infrastructure. Using the lowland areas of California's Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers as a motivating case study, we showed that this emergent behavior arises from two key interacting stochastic processes: one governing the water available to and used by dryland agriculture, and one governing the spatial dynamics of near-channel flooding impounded by levees. Comparable annual water balance dynamics can arise under managed and unmanaged conditions. Similarities in water balance, however, can mask large differences in seasonality and channel hydraulics.

  20. Cultural Resources Intensive Survey and Testing of Mississippi River Levee Berms Crittenden and Desha Counties, Arkansas and Mississippi, Scott, Cape Girardeau and Pemiscot Counties Missouri. Item R-752 Lambethville; Crittenden County, Arkansas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-01

    Behavior and the Organization of Hunting Bands. Journal of Anthropological Research 29:1-31. WOBST, M. H. 1974 Boundary Conditions for Paleolithic Social...from the centerline of the levee between the same stations as above. Heartfield, Price and Greene, Inc. began background research for the pro- ject on...addi- tionally tested for significance between March 15 and March 24, 1984. Additional archival research was conducted concerning 3CT228, 3CT229, 3CT230

  1. Literature Review - Vegetation on Levees

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    Victoria, Australia, shows that the bank- destabilizing effects of surcharge due to silver wattle ( Acacia dealbata) are minimal. Field observations...Wind-throw loads on trees were deliberately eliminated from this study. Vegetation: Silver wattle ( Acacia dealbata) Soil Properties: N/A...facultative phreatophytes (including Cathorium umbellatum (Vahl.) Kosterm. and Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn. Ex Benth) and tended to rely more heavily

  2. Literature Review - Vegetation on Levees

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    Quercus petraea (Mattusch.) Liebl.) in relatively dry, luvisoil on loamy deluvium and weathered granodiorite . We used a pulse EKKO 1000 GPR system, a... granodiorite Observations/Results: Roots were detected down to 1.1 in. (3 cm) diameter and depth to 6.5 ft (2 m). GPR was an efficient method for 3-D

  3. Depositional environments of late glacial to Holocene sediments on the deep water levees of Setúbal and Nazaré Canyons, offshore Portugal: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascoletti, F. C.; Masson, D.; Innocenti, C.

    2010-12-01

    The west Iberian margin is indented by a network of submarine canyons that create rugged seafloor morphology and act as major pathways for the transport of sediment from land to the abyssal plains. The Setúbal and Nazaré Canyons are part of this complex environment and strongly influence sediment distribution, capturing sediments from the Tagus River and the littoral cell transport respectively. Deep submarine sedimentary sequences thus reflect changes in sediment input and depositional environments. The high-resolution sedimentological study here presented was applied in four cores of the deep water levees of Nazaré and Setúbal Canyons in order to explore how sediment input to the canyons changed during the last glacial - interglacial transition, and how this reflects changing environmental conditions on land. By means of non-destructive corelogger measurements and analyses of spectral signatures, geochemical compositions and colour variations, it was possible to identify ice-rafted debris (IRD) deposits, to characterize hemipelagic and turbidite layers and to investigate terrestrial-derived sediments input variation during the last 26 ka. Preliminary results from the sedimentological and turbidite frequency analyses show that highest turbidite occurrence is recorded during the glacial stage, confirming that the generation of turbidity flows in submarine canyons is tightly related to low sea-level stands. We found that major peaks in frequency and thickness of turbidite deposits in the deep Portuguese margin are mainly coeval with abrupt climatic (H2 and 1) and sea-level changes (~ 19 and ~ 23 ka BP), as a consequence of which a major amount of continentally-derived material was transported into the deep sea. During the Holocene, the inception of sea-level rises, independent of their magnitude, has been found to be sufficient to generate turbidity currents, particularly in the Nazaré system. Moreover, a multiple regression analysis was attempted in order to

  4. Archeological Investigations at the Fox Pup and Gravity Sites, Nutwood Levee and Drainage District, Jersey and Greene Counties, Illinois. Phase 2. St. Louis District Cultural Resource Management Report Number 6

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    mortuary sites, and 2) to describe 1 IA I1 IC fI Ir GRVT I1 IA~NtC 0 M SFigureo . NtodLveDsrc hwn oaino h o u n Grviy0its 0 2U and explain changes...understanding of cultural development in the lower Illinois Valley drainage it is important to establish the chrono - logical context of the archeological remains...The Fox Pup site is located on the west side of an abandoned channel atop a natural levee in the floodplain of the Illinois River (Figure 3) ( WI , NWi

  5. Novel insights into the genetics of smoking behaviour, lung function, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (UK BiLEVE): a genetic association study in UK Biobank

    PubMed Central

    Wain, Louise V; Shrine, Nick; Miller, Suzanne; Jackson, Victoria E; Ntalla, Ioanna; Artigas, María Soler; Billington, Charlotte K; Kheirallah, Abdul Kader; Allen, Richard; Cook, James P; Probert, Kelly; Obeidat, Ma'en; Bossé, Yohan; Hao, Ke; Postma, Dirkje S; Paré, Peter D; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Mägi, Reedik; Mihailov, Evelin; Reinmaa, Eva; Melén, Erik; O'Connell, Jared; Frangou, Eleni; Delaneau, Olivier; Freeman, Colin; Petkova, Desislava; McCarthy, Mark; Sayers, Ian; Deloukas, Panos; Hubbard, Richard; Pavord, Ian; Hansell, Anna L; Thomson, Neil C; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Morris, Andrew P; Marchini, Jonathan; Strachan, David P; Tobin, Martin D; Hall, Ian P

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Understanding the genetic basis of airflow obstruction and smoking behaviour is key to determining the pathophysiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We used UK Biobank data to study the genetic causes of smoking behaviour and lung health. Methods We sampled individuals of European ancestry from UK Biobank, from the middle and extremes of the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) distribution among heavy smokers (mean 35 pack-years) and never smokers. We developed a custom array for UK Biobank to provide optimum genome-wide coverage of common and low-frequency variants, dense coverage of genomic regions already implicated in lung health and disease, and to assay rare coding variants relevant to the UK population. We investigated whether there were shared genetic causes between different phenotypes defined by extremes of FEV1. We also looked for novel variants associated with extremes of FEV1 and smoking behaviour and assessed regions of the genome that had already shown evidence for a role in lung health and disease. We set genome-wide significance at p<5 × 10−8. Findings UK Biobank participants were recruited from March 15, 2006, to July 7, 2010. Sample selection for the UK BiLEVE study started on Nov 22, 2012, and was completed on Dec 20, 2012. We selected 50 008 unique samples: 10 002 individuals with low FEV1, 10 000 with average FEV1, and 5002 with high FEV1 from each of the heavy smoker and never smoker groups. We noted a substantial sharing of genetic causes of low FEV1 between heavy smokers and never smokers (p=2·29 × 10−16) and between individuals with and without doctor-diagnosed asthma (p=6·06 × 10−11). We discovered six novel genome-wide significant signals of association with extremes of FEV1, including signals at four novel loci (KANSL1, TSEN54, TET2, and RBM19/TBX5) and independent signals at two previously reported loci (NPNT and HLA-DQB1/HLA-DQA2). These variants also showed

  6. Novel insights into the genetics of smoking behaviour, lung function, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (UK BiLEVE): a genetic association study in UK Biobank.

    PubMed

    Wain, Louise V; Shrine, Nick; Miller, Suzanne; Jackson, Victoria E; Ntalla, Ioanna; Soler Artigas, María; Billington, Charlotte K; Kheirallah, Abdul Kader; Allen, Richard; Cook, James P; Probert, Kelly; Obeidat, Ma'en; Bossé, Yohan; Hao, Ke; Postma, Dirkje S; Paré, Peter D; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Mägi, Reedik; Mihailov, Evelin; Reinmaa, Eva; Melén, Erik; O'Connell, Jared; Frangou, Eleni; Delaneau, Olivier; Freeman, Colin; Petkova, Desislava; McCarthy, Mark; Sayers, Ian; Deloukas, Panos; Hubbard, Richard; Pavord, Ian; Hansell, Anna L; Thomson, Neil C; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Morris, Andrew P; Marchini, Jonathan; Strachan, David P; Tobin, Martin D; Hall, Ian P

    2015-10-01

    Understanding the genetic basis of airflow obstruction and smoking behaviour is key to determining the pathophysiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We used UK Biobank data to study the genetic causes of smoking behaviour and lung health. We sampled individuals of European ancestry from UK Biobank, from the middle and extremes of the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) distribution among heavy smokers (mean 35 pack-years) and never smokers. We developed a custom array for UK Biobank to provide optimum genome-wide coverage of common and low-frequency variants, dense coverage of genomic regions already implicated in lung health and disease, and to assay rare coding variants relevant to the UK population. We investigated whether there were shared genetic causes between different phenotypes defined by extremes of FEV1. We also looked for novel variants associated with extremes of FEV1 and smoking behaviour and assessed regions of the genome that had already shown evidence for a role in lung health and disease. We set genome-wide significance at p<5 × 10(-8). UK Biobank participants were recruited from March 15, 2006, to July 7, 2010. Sample selection for the UK BiLEVE study started on Nov 22, 2012, and was completed on Dec 20, 2012. We selected 50,008 unique samples: 10,002 individuals with low FEV1, 10,000 with average FEV1, and 5002 with high FEV1 from each of the heavy smoker and never smoker groups. We noted a substantial sharing of genetic causes of low FEV1 between heavy smokers and never smokers (p=2.29 × 10(-16)) and between individuals with and without doctor-diagnosed asthma (p=6.06 × 10(-11)). We discovered six novel genome-wide significant signals of association with extremes of FEV1, including signals at four novel loci (KANSL1, TSEN54, TET2, and RBM19/TBX5) and independent signals at two previously reported loci (NPNT and HLA-DQB1/HLA-DQA2). These variants also showed association with COPD, including in individuals

  7. Hydrogen bonds in concreto and in computro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stouten, Pieter F. W.; Kroon, Jan

    1988-07-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations of liquid water and liquid methanol have been carried out. For both liquids an effective pair potential was used. The models were fitted to the heat of vaporization, pressure and various radial distribution functions resulting from diffraction experiments on liquids. In both simulations 216 molecules were put in a cubic periodical ☐. The system was loosely coupled to a temperature bath and to a pressure bath. Following an initial equilibration period relevant data were sampled during 15 ps. The distributions of oxygen—oxygen distances in hydrogen bonds obtained from the two simulations are essentially the same. The distribution obtained from crystal data is somewhat different: the maximum has about the same position, but the curve is much narrower, which can be expected merely from the fact that diffraction experiments only supply average atomic positions and hence average interatomic distances. When thermal motion is taken into account a closer likeness is observed.

  8. Estimating the gas hydrate recovery prospects in the western Black Sea basin based on the 3D multiphase flow of fluid and gas components within highly permeable paleo-channel-levee systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burwicz, Ewa; Zander, Timo; Rottke, Wolf; Bialas, Joerg; Hensen, Christian; Atgin, Orhan; Haeckel, Matthias

    2017-04-01

    Gas hydrate deposits are abundant in the Black Sea region and confirmed by direct observations as well as geophysical evidence, such as continuous bottom simulating reflectors (BSRs). Although those gas hydrate accumulations have been well-studied for almost two decades, the migration pathways of methane that charge the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ) in the region are unknown. The aim of this study is to explore the most probable gas migration scenarios within a three-dimensional finite element grid based on seismic surveys and available basin cross-sections. We have used the commercial software PetroMod(TM) (Schlumberger) to perform a set of sensitivity studies that narrow the gap between the wide range of sediment properties affecting the multi-phase flow in porous media. The high-resolution model domain focuses on the Danube deep-sea fan and associated buried sandy channel-levee systems whereas the total extension of the model domain covers a larger area of the western Black Sea basin. Such a large model domain allows for investigating biogenic as well as thermogenic methane generation and a permeability driven migration of the free phase of methane on a basin scale to confirm the hypothesis of efficient methane migration into the gas hydrate reservoir layers by horizontal flow along the carrier beds.

  9. Cultural Resources Intensive Survey and Testing of Mississippi River Levee Berms Crittenden and Desha Counties, Arkansas and Mississippi, Scott, Cape Girardeau and Pemiscot Counties, Missouri. Item R-48.87 A.C. Nash; Missouri, Relief Well Ditches Cape Girardeau and Scott Counties, Missouri

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-01

    or backswamp environment. There were no prominent denoted land forms other than levee deposits. Human habitation would have been difficult due to...For the Cape Girardeau area the Hunze aggregate I is the phase name (Chapman 1980:186). The Cape Girardeau area possesses mounds and village sites which...is not believed that they were habitants of Southeast Missouri (Price, Morrow and Price 1978:72-73). Historic Indian Period (AD 1750 - Present

  10. Levee Vegetation Review Act of 2013

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Matsui, Doris O. [D-CA-6

    2013-01-23

    01/24/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Water Resources and Environment. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.3080, which became Public Law 113-121 on 6/10/2014. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  11. Levee Vegetation Review Act of 2013

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Matsui, Doris O. [D-CA-6

    2013-01-23

    01/24/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Water Resources and Environment. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.3080, which became Public Law 113-121 on 6/10/2014. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  12. Kaskaskia Island Drainage and Levee District, Illinois.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-07-01

    Kaskaskia Island because of its association with man. It produces a painful bite which is very slow to heal. The black widow spider, Latrodectus ... mactans (Fabricius) also prefers upland forest situations, but may be a possible inhabitant of the island. Two ticks, Dermacentor variabilis (Say), the

  13. Cibola High Levee Pond annual report 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, Gordon A.; Carpenter, Jeanette; Marsh, Paul C.

    2005-01-01

    Remaining work will be finished this coming summer and a final report describing CHLP and the ecology of these fish will be completed by the end of 2005. We offer our assistance to the Fish and Wildlife Service in the pond’s renovation and support for the creation of additional refuge ponds. Funding for this work ends September 2005.

  14. Levee Vegetation Review Act of 2013

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Matsui, Doris O. [D-CA-6

    2013-01-23

    House - 01/24/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Water Resources and Environment. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.3080, which became Public Law 113-121 on 6/10/2014. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  15. Managing Enrollments When the Levee Breaks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteside, Richard

    2006-01-01

    This article features the text of a speech by Richard Whiteside, Vice President for Enrollment Management and Dean of Admission at Tulane University in New Orleans, that was presented during AACRAO's Strategic Enrollment Management (SEM) Conference, November 15, 2005, in Chicago. In his speech, Whiteside recounts his personal story of living…

  16. Falling towers, crumbling levees, and viral mutations

    PubMed Central

    Chalfin, Donald B

    2006-01-01

    Hurricanes Katrina and Rita destroyed an entire beloved city and shattered a large part of the US Gulf Coast. Unlike the destruction of 9/11, it is difficult to say at the time of this writing whether or not this region will ever be fully restored. In light of these and other man-made and natural disasters, the world needs to revisit its approach to disaster planning and preparedness to insure that we can best meet the needs of those likely to be affected by future calamities. PMID:16420643

  17. Falling towers, crumbling levees, and viral mutations.

    PubMed

    Chalfin, Donald B

    2006-02-01

    Hurricanes Katrina and Rita destroyed an entire beloved city and shattered a large part of the US Gulf Coast. Unlike the destruction of 9/11, it is difficult to say at the time of this writing whether or not this region will ever be fully restored. In light of these and other man-made and natural disasters, the world needs to revisit its approach to disaster planning and preparedness to insure that we can best meet the needs of those likely to be affected by future calamities.

  18. Comparing traditional and novel injury scoring systems in a US level-I trauma center: an opportunity for improved injury surveillance in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Laytin, Adam D; Dicker, Rochelle A; Gerdin, Martin; Roy, Nobhojit; Sarang, Bhakti; Kumar, Vineet; Juillard, Catherine

    2017-07-01

    In most low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), the resources to accurately quantify injury severity using traditional injury scoring systems are limited. Novel injury scoring systems appear to have adequate discrimination for mortality in LMIC contexts, but they have not been rigorously compared where traditional injury scores can be accurately calculated. To determine whether novel injury scoring systems perform as well as traditional ones in a HIC with complete and comprehensive data collection. Data from an American level-I trauma registry collected 2008-2013 were used to compare three traditional injury scoring systems: Injury Severity Score (ISS); Revised Trauma Score (RTS); and Trauma Injury Severity Score (TRISS); and three novel injury scoring systems: Kampala Trauma Score (KTS); Mechanism, GCS, Age and Pressure (MGAP) score; and GCS, Age and Pressure (GAP) score. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between each scoring system and mortality. Standardized regression coefficients (β(2)), Akaike information criteria, area under the receiver operating characteristics curve, and the calibration line intercept and slope were used to evaluate the discrimination and calibration of each model. Among 18,746 patients, all six scores were associated with hospital mortality. GAP had the highest effect size, and KTS had the lowest median Akaike information criteria. Although TRISS discriminated best, the discrimination of KTS approached that of TRISS and outperformed GAP, MGAP, RTS, and ISS. MGAP was best calibrated, and KTS was better calibrated than RTS, GAP, ISS, or TRISS. The novel injury scoring systems (KTS, MGAP, and GAP), which are more feasible to calculate in low-resource settings, discriminated hospital mortality as well as traditional injury scoring systems (ISS and RTS) and approached the discrimination of a sophisticated, data-intensive injury scoring system (TRISS) in a high-resource setting. Two novel injury scoring systems (KTS and

  19. National Dam Inspection Program. North Arrowhead Lake Dam (NDI ID PA 00743, PA DER 45-246), Delaware River Basin, Unnamed Tributary of Trout Creek, Pennsylvania. Phase I Inspection Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    junction with the concreto discharge apron. 7. Irreyular surfaces on the dam and levee should be regraded and back- filled with suitable compacted...to good aquifer. Glacial deposits occurring in the valley floor are quite permeable and act as excellent sources of groundwater and recharge to the

  20. Hydrogen bonds in concreto and in computro: the sequel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stouten, Pieter F. W.; Van Eijck, Bouke P.; Kroon, Jan

    1991-02-01

    In the framework of our comparative research concerning hydrogen bonding in the crystalline and liquid phases we have carried out molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of liquid methanol. Six different rigid three site models are compared. Five of them had been reported in the literature and one (OM2) we developed by a fit to the experimental molar volume, heat of vaporization and neutron weighted radial distribution function. In general the agreement with experiment is satisfactory for the different models. None of the models has an explicit hydrogen bond potential, but five of the six models show a degree of hydrogen bonding comparable to experiments on liquid methanol. The analysis of the simulation hydrogen bonds indicates that there is a distinct preference of the O⋯O axis to lie in the acceptor lone pairs plane, but hardly any for the lone pair directions. Ab initio calculations and crystal structure statistics of OH⋯O hydrogen bonds agree with this observation. The O⋯O hydrogen bond length distributions are similar for most models. The crystal structures show a sharper O⋯O distribution. Explicit introduction of harmonic motion with a quite realistic root mean square amplitude of 0.08 Å to the thermally averaged crystal distribution results in a distribution comparable to OM2 although the maximum of the former is found at shorter distance. On the basis of the analysis of the static properties of all models we conclude that our OM2, Jorgenson's OPLS and Haughney, Ferrario and McDonald's HFM1 models are good candidates for simulations of liquid methanol under isothermal, isochoric conditions. Partly flexible and completely rigid OM2 are simulated at constant pressure and with fixed volume. The flexible simulations give essentially the same (correct) results under both conditions, which is not surprising because the flexible form was fitted under both conditions. Rigid OM2 has a similar potential energy but larger pressure in the isochoric case and larger energy and far larger volume in the isobaric case. Radial distribution functions and hydrogen bond geometries are very similar for all four cases. Only in the case of the osobaric rigid methanol does the volume expansion seem to be accompanied by a slight preference for tetrahedrality around the oxygen atom.

  1. Studies in wave barrier design and levee erosion

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Increasing demands on limited groundwater resources have created a growing need for the development of surface water resources for irrigation. On-farm reservoirs, along with tailwater recovery systems, can provide a means for reducing dependence on groundwater supplies. These reservoirs are surrou...

  2. Five Years after the Levees Broke: Bearing Witness through Poetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Renee

    2010-01-01

    As a teaching artist in public schools, the author is paired with classroom teachers to teach poetry and to give students an opportunity to experience their academic curriculum through the arts. At the beginning of the school year, she gave her students the on-going, yearlong assignment to watch the news, to pay attention. Knowing many of them…

  3. Fair Treatment of Existing Levees Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Alexander, Rodney [R-LA-5

    2011-02-17

    House - 04/04/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Insurance, Housing and Community Opportunity. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  4. Review of Instrumentation and Monitoring for USACE Levees

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    MONITORING APPROACH: Geotechnical instrumentation can be divided into two categories: in situ determination of soil or rock properties and monitoring of...deformation, seismic loading, groundwater pressure, total stress in soil , stress changes in rock, and temperature. This information is vital to the...piping) from through seepage or underseepage, rotational slope failure, and liquefaction from earthquakes. During an extreme flood event, the level of

  5. Measuring the erosion of an irrigation reservoir levee

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Increasing demands on limited groundwater resources in the Arkansas and Mississippi alluvial floodplain (commonly called the Delta) have created a growing need for the development of surface water resources for irrigation. On-farm reservoirs, along with tail-water recovery systems, are used to stor...

  6. Probabilistic seasonal Forecasts to deterministic Farm Leve Decisions: Innovative Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwangi, M. W.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change and vulnerability are major challenges in ensuring household food security. Climate information services have the potential to cushion rural households from extreme climate risks. However, most the probabilistic nature of climate information products is not easily understood by majority of smallholder farmers. Despite the probabilistic nature, climate information have proved to be a valuable climate risk adaptation strategy at the farm level. This calls for innovative ways to help farmers understand and apply climate information services to inform their farm level decisions. The study endeavored to co-design and test appropriate innovation systems for climate information services uptake and scale up necessary for achieving climate risk development. In addition it also determined the conditions necessary to support the effective performance of the proposed innovation system. Data and information sources included systematic literature review, secondary sources, government statistics, focused group discussions, household surveys and semi-structured interviews. Data wasanalyzed using both quantitative and qualitative data analysis techniques. Quantitative data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software. Qualitative data was analyzed using qualitative techniques, which involved establishing the categories and themes, relationships/patterns and conclusions in line with the study objectives. Sustainable livelihood, reduced household poverty and climate change resilience were the impact that resulted from the study.

  7. Five Years after the Levees Broke: Bearing Witness through Poetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Renee

    2010-01-01

    As a teaching artist in public schools, the author is paired with classroom teachers to teach poetry and to give students an opportunity to experience their academic curriculum through the arts. At the beginning of the school year, she gave her students the on-going, yearlong assignment to watch the news, to pay attention. Knowing many of them…

  8. LEVEEMSU: A Software Package Designed for Levee Underseepage Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    Res monochrome’ INPUT chip$ IF chip$S ’E6AC’ OR chip$ ’eqac’ THEN chip$ =’egac’ sandcolor r8 claycolor 6 leveecolor =4 watercolor =3 F-2 ELSEIF chip...Row3S + RowSS + Row5$ 5andcolor =7 claycolor = 7 leveecolor =7 watercolor =7 ELSEIF chip$ ’CGA’ OR chip$ z ’cga’ THEN chip$ = ’cga’ sandcolor =I sandtile...CHRS(O) + CHRS(O) + CHRS(16) + CHRS(O) + CHRS(O) claycolor =I leveecolor 1 watercolor =1 ELSE SOTO setchip END IF .Sit SECOND SCREEN - INPUT Itt

  9. An Intensive Cultural Resources Survey and Assessment of Proposed Levee Modifications at the Peters Levee, Lee Country, Arkansas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-11-01

    finds of Clovis points. These tools are generally similar to types found associated with mastodon remains at sites in Missouri, New Mexico , and...the conquista - dores of Hernando Desoto, in 1541, may have passed through Lee County and could very well have visited the Barrett Site. This

  10. Terrestrial Biological Inventory Degognia and Fountain Bluff Levee and Drainage District and Grand Tower Drainage and Levee District, Jackson County, Illinois.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-08-01

    orchids. Southern Illinois Univ. Press, Carbondale, Illinois. 288 pp. Mohlenbrock, R. H. 1972. The illustrated flora of Illinois: Grasses : Bromus to... Paspalum . Southern Illinois Univ. Press, Carbondale, Illinois. 332 pp. Mohlenbrock, R. H. 1973. The illustrated flora of Illinois: Grasses : Panicum to...75%. Manna grass (Glyceria striata) and yellow buttercup (Ranunculus septentrionalis) are most frequent, with a frequency of 67%. Next frequent, at 50

  11. Cultural Resource Survey and Testing of the East Jefferson Parish Levee Gap Closure, Jefferson Parish, Louisiana

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-28

    Jefferson Parish Cerk of Court; Township Plat Book 1886:1; La Tourette 1845). Minor Kenner retained property in Oakland’s immediate vicinity. The two...Memorial Ubrary, Tulane University, New Orleans. La Tourette , John 1845 Reference Map of the State of Louisiana. Map on file, Ubrary of Congress. Mississippi

  12. Reconstruction des images bidimensionnelles de leves de radar geologique en forage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gloaguen, Erwan

    In this thesis, a new GPR tomographic method based on geostatistical cokriging and cosimulation is proposed. Commonly used crosshole radar velocity tomography algorithms estimate 2D slowness models (reciproqual velocity) in the plane between the boreholes using the measured direct wave travel times from the transmitter (located in one of the hole) to the receivers (located in the other hole). In this study, three classical tomography algorithms are used (LSQR, CG, SIRT). These algorithms do not explicitly consider the spatial structure of the slowness field and the correlation between the travel times. Using the straight ray approximation, a method to estimate the slowness covariance model by using the experimental covariances of the travel times is presented. The slowness covariance model is chosen to provide a close match between the computed and the experimental time covariances. Then cokriging of the slowness field using time data is performed. The cokriging provides a smooth interpolation. To obtain inverted fields with more realistic variations, conditional geostatistical simulations are realized. This enables identifying stable features of the inverted fields. Cells with known velocities, for example the cells crossed by the holes, provide velocity constraints which are easily implemented. The proposed approach is compared to the classical LSQR algorithm using a synthetic model and real data collected for geotechnical evaluation in a karstic area. In each case, constrained and non-constrained LSQR, cokriging and simulation were performed. The tomographies on synthetic model show that geostatistical methods provide comparable to or better results than LSQR. The geostatistical simulations also allow computing the standard deviation of the slowness within each cell of the inverted field. Stable characteristics and uncertain features of the inverted models can then be easily identified. The linear relation between travel time and slowness is valid until the true raypaths are known. At first iteration, it is not the case, because the raypath depends on the velocity field distribution. A well known technique is to update the raypath after each iteration taking into account the velocity cell constrasts. The raypath are used to compute a new cokriging and simulation estimate. The iterative process ends as the difference between computed and measured travel times becomes small enough. It is possible to linearize the relation between amplitude and attenuation. The same algorithms developped for velocity tomography are used. For both method, additional velocity constraints reduce uncertainty and improve spatial resolution of the inverted velocity field. Also, the simulation on synthetic model increases the spatial resolution compared to LSQR. It is demonstrated that the method is robust with regard to an acceptable level of random noise on velocity constraints. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  13. Adaptation of the Levee Erosional Equivalence Method for the Hurricane Storm Damage Risk Reduction System (HSDRRS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    overtopping example ........................................................................ 46 ERDC/CHL TR-11-3 iv Equivalent steady flow ...Relationship Between Flow Work and Stream Power ........................................... 123 Report Documentation Page ERDC/CHL TR-11-3 vi Figures...Figure 2. Erosion resistance of grass-lined spillways ................................................................................ 7 Figure 3

  14. U. S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center: Rapid Repair of Levee Breaches

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    flowed into six 54 in. diameter pipes that carried it into the catch basin. A 10% slope of the pipe was used to achieve the vertical drop that provided...basin capable of holding 6.5 ft of water before it would flow over the spillway . This was done as a result of the discovery in recent 1/8-scale model...6 2.1.3 Basic Concepts for Stopping the Flow Using Fabrics

  15. Seepage and Piping through Levees and Dikes using 2D and 3D Modeling Codes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    cross-sectional models, located on cross sections AA’ and BB’ (Figure 2), were developed. The mesh resolution, geologic layering, and hydrogeologic...site using SEEP/W. The model simulated heads in the confined upper sand unit (i.e., the geologic layer with blue color in Figure 3). The computational...two models are examined by comparing the overall plan-view head contour map , heads computed at each of the two cross sections described in the

  16. Cultural Resources Survey of Three Mississippi River Levee and Revetment Items, Plaquemines Parish, Louisiana.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    34 PIe " 2L Pr.i-e wPreReft NTI"S * iDpametCmes -"Wow- - - CONTR IBUTORS 0 OF IROQUOIS RESEARCH INSTITUTE S Principal Investigators WonD ateC.B.D. and...virginiana) and willow oak (Quercus phellos), nuts from bitter pecan (Carya aquatica) and pecan (Carya illinoensis), fruits from persimmon (Diospyros

  17. Aquatic Biological Inventory, Hillview Drainage and Levee District, Greene and Scott Counties, Illinois.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-11

    inputs. Lockart (1971) and Rogers (1970) provided the following physical description of several Hillview streams: Average Area Length Width Gradient...INFORMATION AND DATA 10 4.0 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 14 4.1 AQUATIC HABITAT EVALUATION 14 4.1.1 DESCRIPTION OF HABITAT TYPES 14 4.1.2 DESCRIPTION OF SPECIFIC...this description with data collected in the field and literature. To this end, the project is divided into three major task areas: * Habitat

  18. Louisiana State Penitentiary Levee, Mississippi River. Main Report and Final Environmental Impact Statement and Appendixes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    destroyed with Plan A have an inherent ecological value to the specific study area which could not be compensated for by land acquisition elsewhere...agricultural lands are significant because they constitute the most important resource through which the prison managi eae attempts to achieve a self...hardwoods that would be destroyed with Plan A have an inherent ecological value to the specific study area which could not be compensated for by land

  19. Environmental Consequences of the Failure of the New Orleans Levee System During Hurricane Katrina; Microbiological Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    iso - tope ratio mass spectrometry. J. Mass Spectrom. Soc. Japan 45, 6, 641-648. McCalley, D. V., M. Cooke, and G. Nickless. 1981. Effect of sewage...WGS84 17215 9/25/2005 9:00 SW600-gb-G-N-09 Actual 22000 cfu/100ml 9810 30.046608 -89.98866 WGS84 17193 9/25/2005 9:50 SW200-KN-G-D-09 Actual

  20. Repair, Evaluation, Maintenance, and Rehabilitation Research Program: Levee Underseepage Analysis for Special Foundation Conditions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    0.00 HR, HL 1000.00 50.00 3000.00 LI, L2, L3 10.0 20.0 60.0 ZI, Z2, D .0002 0.0100 0.0400 KV1, KV2, KV3 .00100 0.0500 0.2000 KH1, KH2, KH3 .005 500 TOL...feet or any consistent units. KVI, KV2, and KV3 are the vertical permeabilities of the top blanket, middle stratum, and substratum, respectively, in

  1. Ankle Injury Prevention Programs for Soccer Athletes Are Protective: A Level-I Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Nathan L; Jacobs, John C; Kim, Jaewhan; Amendola, Annunziato; Shea, Kevin G

    2016-09-07

    Soccer has one of the highest rates of ankle injury in sports for both males and females. Several injury prevention programs have been developed to address this concern. The purposes of this study were to conduct a meta-analysis of ankle injury prevention programs for soccer players, assess the heterogeneity among the studies, and evaluate the reported effectiveness of the prevention programs. A systematic search of the literature was conducted in PubMed (MEDLINE), Embase, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health), and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) database. Studies were limited to clinical investigations of injury prevention programs specific to the ankle in soccer players. Title, abstract, and full-text review were utilized to identify articles that met the inclusion criteria. The Cochrane Q test and I(2) index were independently used to assess heterogeneity among the studies. Sensitivity analyses were performed to assess heterogeneity. The pooled risk difference was calculated by random-effects models with use of the DerSimonian-Laird method. Publication bias was assessed with a funnel plot and Egger weighted regression technique. Ten studies met the inclusion criteria as randomized controlled trials. A total of 4,121 female and male soccer athletes were analyzed for ankle injuries. Significant heterogeneity was found among studies of ankle injury prevention (p = 0.002), with an I(2) index of 65.2%. For studies of ankle injury prevention programs, the risk ratio was 0.60 (95% confidence interval, 0.40 to 0.92) and a significant reduction in the risk of ankle injury was found in the prevention group (p = 0.002). No evidence of publication bias was found among the included studies. This meta-analysis of studies regarding ankle injury prevention programs identified a significant reduction in the risk of ankle injury. Future high-quality research designs with a low risk of bias are necessary to further evaluate the effectiveness of specific exercises and the optimal timing and age at intervention for the prevention of ankle injuries in the athletic soccer player. Therapeutic Level I. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. Copyright © 2016 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated.

  2. Levee Setbacks: An Innovative, Cost Effective, and Sustainable Solution for Improved Flood Risk management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-06-30

    habitats and recovery of threatened and endangered species on the Missouri River. These costs could potentially be off-set to some degree by reconnecting...and preserve endangered salmon and other native species . The benefits from restoration are the main justification for the overall project and were... species of aquatic plants and animals that ERDC/EL SR-17-3 20 require access to seasonally inundated floodplains to complete their life history are

  3. The Acoustic Wave Field Features and Thickness Analysis of the Footstone of the Yellow River Levee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, G.; Zhu, P.; Yang, K.; Jiang, J.

    2014-12-01

    The dangerous control engineering often stacks stones, named the footstone, outside the sediment matrix to resist the scour erosion in lower Yellow River. In order to ensure the stability of the bank, the footstones are stacked in the certain proportion. Due to the effect of the seasonal changes and the adjustment of the upstream reservoir, the water depth of the Yellow River near the lobes of banks changes constantly. The scouring erosion in flood season and depositing in dry season make the stacked footstones to be washed away. The thickness and the location of the maximum burial depth of the footstones are the important supporting data for calculating the river scour. Thus, it is significant to investigate the location, thickness and slope of the footstones. This study proposed a new method to distinguish the silt and footing stones according to their frequency differences by applying time-frequency analysis to the sub-bottom profiler data, and to estimate the thickness of the footstones by using the messy reflection waves formed by the riprap, and then to has solved the estimation of the maximum scour depth.

  4. Terrestrial Biological Inventory Hartwell Drainage and Levee District Greene County, Illinois.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    areas only for feeding . Adjacent woods, old fields, and border habitats provide wildlife resting and nesting areas. Horned larks, common crows, and red...and drainage ditches occur throughout the District and are feeding areas for some terrestrial and semi-aquatic wildlife. Wood ducks, belted kingfishers...ditch banks. Several species of frogs and turtles potentially occur in the ditches and ponds, and mink and green herons probably feed in the waters

  5. CUMULATIVE IMPACT OF LEVEES AND DAMS ON THE DURATION OF TEMPORARY FLOODPLAIN PONDS. (R826600)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  6. Applications of the JARS method to study levee sites in southern Texas and southern New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ivanov, J.; Miller, R.D.; Xia, J.; Dunbar, J.B.

    2007-01-01

    We apply the joint analysis of refractions with surface waves (JARS) method to several sites and compare its results to traditional refraction-tomography methods in efforts of finding a more realistic solution to the inverse refraction-traveltime problem. The JARS method uses a reference model, derived from surface-wave shear-wave velocity estimates, as a constraint. In all of the cases JARS estimates appear more realistic than those from the conventional refraction-tomography methods. As a result, we consider, the JARS algorithm as the preferred method for finding solutions to the inverse refraction-tomography problems. ?? 2007 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  7. Toward a Comprehensive Talent Management Program: Level-I Hospital Commander Preparation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    ethical decision making, personal/professional 21 ethics, bioethics , organizational ethics, individual behavior, group dynamics, conflict...100.00%) Bioethics 16 (51.61%) 10 (32.26%) 4 (12.90%) 1 (3.23%) Org. Ethics 31 (100.0%) Individual Behavior 29 (93.55%) 2 (6.45%) Group Dynamics 27...75.00%) Add. Labor Law 3 (42.86%) 4 (57.14%) Add. Health Law 1 (100.00%) Add. National Dis. 1 (50.00%) 1 (50.00%) Add. Bioethics 2 (100.00

  8. Levee Design Profiles for the Williamson, West Virginia, Flood Protection Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-01

    Herrmann , former and present Chiefs of the Hydraulics Laboratory, and M. B. Boyd, Chief of the Hydraulic Analysis Division. The project engineer for this...scale of 200 ft/in. Spot elevations were added in flat areas and at points of interest. ORH hydraulic design personnel determ! ned appropriate

  9. Terrestrial Biological Inventory, Hillview Drainage and Levee District, Greene and Scott Counties, Illinois.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    EDINGER DACV3-1-M-3145 UNCLASSIFIED N* I lll*llllllll mEEBhBhhhEEBhE IEIIEEEIIEIIEE EEEIIEEIIIIII IIIIEEIIIEIIEE EEEEIIIIIIIEI Ellll/l/ll//Iu VWAPO RA, I lC...A1IVW0Pf*- --- 4.~ ~ ~ ,* . S. CONTRACT OR GRANT’ NUMBEAfe, DAC.t43-814;4-;i45 J.’ I ’" A01"c. ss 10 . PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASK ~ ~ U~3AREAb 6...animal communities within the District. The various habitats were analyzed with regard to their abilities to support wildlife. por I Q JAN ~ @ op7V 5

  10. Torso vascular trauma at an urban level-I trauma center.

    PubMed

    Dente, Christopher J; Feliciano, David V

    2011-03-01

    Injuries to the great vessels of the torso are commonly seen and managed in busy urban trauma centers. This same injury complex is rarely seen in military conflicts, likely because of the high kinetic energy of weapons causing the wounds seen in this setting. Although most of the great advancements in trauma surgery over the past century have generally resulted from our wartime experience, civilian centers have contributed greatly to the understanding and management of torso vascular injuries. This article reviews the presentation and management of injuries to the great vessels of the torso from major penetrating and blunt trauma.

  11. Process Energy Optimization Level-I Review: Tobyhanna Army Depot, PA

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-04-01

    technology, which has demonstrated a payback of around 4 to 5 years. • In the Spray Painting operations, instead of the Conventional Non- HVLP ...Carpentry Shop The Carpentry Shop is used for packaging and shipping, special order projects, and construction of skids. It has compressed air, a spray ...waste solvents. Use of a Paint Gun washer to do this operation should be considered, including recy- cling of solvent in-house. • TYAD has a year

  12. Effects of Hurricane Katrina-Related Levee Failures on Wetland Sediments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    Inc. 4815 Bradford Drive, Suite 201 Huntsville, AL 35805 Final report Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Prepared for U.S...Beryllium Nickel Cadmium Potassium Calcium Selenium Chromium Silver Cobalt Sodium Copper Thallium Metals Iron Note for Appendix A figures...SpecPro, Inc., 4815 Bradford Drive, Suite 201 , Huntsville, AL 35805 ERDC/EL TR-08-26 9. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10

  13. Native fish sanctuaries of the lower Colorado River: Cibola High Levee Pond, Desert Pupfish Pond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, G.

    2005-01-01

    Isolated by high mountains and harsh deserts, its fish community developed unique and specialized traits that helped them survive raging floods and prolonged droughts. Conditions were so unique that three quarters of the fish species are found nowhere else in the world?|

  14. 75 FR 11147 - Process for Requesting a Variance From Vegetation Standards for Levees and Floodwalls

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers Process for Requesting a Variance From Vegetation Standards for... of Engineers (Corps), published its proposed update to its current process for requesting a variance... stated that written comments must be submitted on or before March 11, 2010. Instructions for...

  15. Estimation of Overtopping Flow Velocities on Earthen Levees Due to Irregular Waves

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    Burcharth and Hughes 2002). 9 ERDC/CHL CHETN-III-77 January 2008 First, calculate the Iribarren number (surf-similarity parameter) for the given wave...sec) 328 ft 2 2op p gL T π π = = =2 (15) and the corresponding Iribarren number is 0 tan 0.25 1.85 / (6 ft) / (328 ft)op m opH L θξ = = = (16...to the value of Iribarren number. For ξop ≤ 2: 2% 01.5u opR mHξ= ⋅ (17) (0 3 0 tan 1ln 5.2 0.06 m op w c opm H qR g H )r b h β ξ θ γ γ γ γ ξ

  16. Investigation of Underseepage and Its Control, Lower Mississippi River Levees. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1956-10-01

    8217 a. of80-.-I ft are k-omm. ! acca -i-Cn wt the srty zig~,s-"ffr are practically Lirviv.Wpc e-mles of,- oi b ar depms-t exist -at Commerce and Lower...ProjeI CCt Project L- e!Im Values Factor 19 Flood P1 __o 1950Flood Flomd St_______ 5_a_ _ Ste n3 -- l I River stage (crest) 167.6 182.6 167.6 182.6 12.6...ne. the dashed line.. After selecting LB_ 2- - (57",i (37): 1 1c3kf d cB -An exam le of the-design -of a riverside blafk-t -based- on case :6 in- fig

  17. The Legacy of the 1948 Underseepage and Crevasse Maps, Lower Mississippi River Levees

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-04-01

    environmental challenges. ERDC develops innovative solutions in civil and military engineering, geospatial sciences , water resources, and...environmental sciences for the Army, the Department of Defense, civilian agencies, and our nation’s public good. Find out more at www.erdc.usace.army.mil. To...consists of 40 15-min scale maps extending from Cairo, IL, to New Orleans, LA. The complete set of maps was scanned and is being presented herein

  18. 44 CFR 65.10 - Mapping of areas protected by levee systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., the freeboard must be established at one foot above the height of the one percent wave or the maximum wave runup (whichever is greater) associated with the 100-year stillwater surge elevation at the site.... Particular emphasis must be placed on the effects of wave attack and overtopping on the stability of...

  19. 44 CFR 65.10 - Mapping of areas protected by levee systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., the freeboard must be established at one foot above the height of the one percent wave or the maximum wave runup (whichever is greater) associated with the 100-year stillwater surge elevation at the site.... Particular emphasis must be placed on the effects of wave attack and overtopping on the stability of...

  20. 44 CFR 65.10 - Mapping of areas protected by levee systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., the freeboard must be established at one foot above the height of the one percent wave or the maximum wave runup (whichever is greater) associated with the 100-year stillwater surge elevation at the site.... Particular emphasis must be placed on the effects of wave attack and overtopping on the stability of...

  1. 44 CFR 65.10 - Mapping of areas protected by levee systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., the freeboard must be established at one foot above the height of the one percent wave or the maximum wave runup (whichever is greater) associated with the 100-year stillwater surge elevation at the site.... Particular emphasis must be placed on the effects of wave attack and overtopping on the stability of...

  2. When the Levee Breaks: Treating Adolescents and Families in the Aftermath of Hurricane Katrina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Cynthia L.; Liddle, Howard A.

    2008-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina brought to the surface serious questions about the capacity of the public health system to respond to community-wide disaster. The storm and its aftermath severed developmentally protective family and community ties; thus its consequences are expected to be particularly acute for vulnerable adolescents. Research confirms that…

  3. Cultural Resources Survey of the East Atchafalaya Basin Protection Levee Item E-44, Iberville Parish, Louisiana.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-18

    depth of local alluvium or to the need to direct rvey efforts in a broader area. Survey attempts at the two report d site locales were unsuccessful...of the project was the skill of Ernie Epps, borrow channel flatboat pilot. 4 TABLE OF CONTENTS CORPS LETTER...within the Mississippi River deltaic plain. This plain is a zone of intensive interaction between fluvial and marine processes. The deltaic plain is

  4. Cultural Resources Survey of Three Iberville Parish Levee Enlargement and Revetment Construction Items

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-22

    Le Moyne d’lberville and a small expedition encountered a Bayougoula-Mugulasha village. Iberville was accompanied by Father Paul Du Ru, a Jesuit ...Prepared for the City of Covington, Covington, Kentucky. Glardino, Marco J. 1984 Documentary evidence from the location of historic Indian villages

  5. Draft Environmental Impact Statement, West Bank Hurricane Protection Levee, Jefferson Parish, Louisiana.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    This resolution established the growth limit line for the Parish. It includes Jefferson Parish Resolution 37936 as well as the area located south of...and population growth including the construc- tion of State Road "A", a limited access freeway south of Lapalco Boulevard. The proposed hurricane...continuing growth in the project area include the upgrading of River Road, U. S. Highway 90 and Louisiana Highway 45. 3.5 Comparative Table of

  6. When the Levee Breaks: Treating Adolescents and Families in the Aftermath of Hurricane Katrina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Cynthia L.; Liddle, Howard A.

    2008-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina brought to the surface serious questions about the capacity of the public health system to respond to community-wide disaster. The storm and its aftermath severed developmentally protective family and community ties; thus its consequences are expected to be particularly acute for vulnerable adolescents. Research confirms that…

  7. WHEN THE LEVEE BREAKS: TREATING ADOLESCENTS AND FAMILIES IN THE AFTERMATH OF HURRICANE KATRINA

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Cynthia L.; Liddle, Howard A.

    2008-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina brought to the surface serious questions about the capacity of the public health system to respond to community-wide disaster. The storm and its aftermath severed developmentally protective family and community ties; thus its consequences are expected to be particularly acute for vulnerable adolescents. Research confirms that teens are at risk for a range of negative outcomes under conditions of life stress and family disorganization. Specifically, the multiple interacting risk factors for substance abuse in adolescence may be compounded when families and communities have experienced a major trauma. Further, existing service structures and treatments for working with young disaster victims may not address their risk for co-occurring substance abuse and traumatic stress reactions because they tend to be individually or peer group focused, and fail to consider the multi-systemic aspects of disaster recovery. This article proposes an innovative family-based intervention for young disaster victims, based on an empirically supported model for adolescent substance abuse, Multidimensional Family Therapy (MDFT; Liddle, 2002). Outcomes and mechanisms of the model’s effects are being investigated in a randomized clinical trial with clinically referred substance-abusing teens in a New Orleans area community impacted by Hurricane Katrina. PMID:18412822

  8. Geophysical Surveys for Locating Buried Utilities, Lake Pontchartrain Levees, New Orleans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    Drive and Topaz Street. It is an urbanized area that has a great deal of metallic clutter that interfered with the EM31. The survey areas within...with Topaz Street to the west bank of the Orleans Avenue Canal. The site is divided into five sections designated LPV102_A through LPV102_E for

  9. Fishery and Ecological Investigations of Main Stem Levee Borrow Pits Along the Lower Mississippi River.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    the use of such commercial products. - ’ % : -4. -4 -. Uncl aifid SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (When Dae Entered) _L__ _ _ READ ...LNREP. The investigation was conducted under the direction of the President of the Mississippi River Commission, MG William E. Read , CE. CONES MPAT I... readings (±0.l m) were taken at each of the sampling stations. 25. 8enthi a invertratma. Two 0.023-si2 samples were collected at each station using a

  10. Effect of Levee and Channel Structures on Long Lava Flow Emplacement: Martian Examples from THEMIS and MOLA Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peitersen, M. N.; Zimbelman, J. R.; Christensen, P. R.; Bare, C.

    2003-01-01

    Long lava flows (discrete flow units with lengths exceeding 50 km) are easily identified features found on many planetary surfaces. An ongoing investigation is being conducted into the origin of these flows. Here, we limit our attention to long lava flows which show evidence of channel-like structures.

  11. 76 FR 25310 - Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Zoar Levee and Diversion Dam, Dam...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-04

    ... Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps), Huntington District will prepare an... project to Aaron O. Smith, CELRH-PM-PD-R, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Huntington District, 502 Eighth Street, Huntington, WV, 25701-2070. Telephone: 304-399-5720. E-mail: zoarlevee@usace.army.mil . Requests...

  12. Cultural Resources Investigations of Larose to Golden Meadow Hurricane Protection Project Levee Section D, Lafourche Parish, Louisiana

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-01

    red- winged blackbird (Agelaius phoenicews), common crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos), common night hawk (Chordeiles minor), screech owl (Otus asio), black...softer cancellous bones, such as the sternum, scapulae , vertebrae, and portions of the cranium, were very poorly preserved. Stratum II consisted of 10YR

  13. CONSEQUENCES OF HUMAN-ALTERED FLOODS: LEVEES, FLOODS, AND FLOODPLAIN FORESTS ALONG THE WISCONSIN RIVER. (R826600)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  14. Cultural Resources Investigation for Item M-178.0 to 173.2-R, Mississippi River Levees, Louisiana

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-01

    strategies or, as in historic and modern times, artificial control structures in order to exploit the resources of this alluvial plain. As a result...woody peat often are also intercalated within the clays. Faunal remains present within poorly drained swamp sediments consist primarily of pulmonate ...while it was an active delta complex from 4,600 to about 400 radiocarbon years B.P. Until artificially blocked in 1904, a very minor 15 portion of the

  15. Cultural Resources Investigations of the East and West Bayou Sale Tie-In Levee, St. Mary Parish, Louisiana.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-10-01

    Thesis. George Allen and Unwin, London, UK. Althusser , Lewis 1971 Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuese. In Lenin and Philosophy and Other Essays...edited by Lewis Althusser , pp. 127-186, Monthly Review Press, New York. Altschul, Jeffery H. 1978 Archaeological Survey of the Proposed Terrebonne

  16. Flood-Side Wave Erosion of Earthen Levees: Present State of Knowledge and Assessment of Armoring Necessity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-01

    Advisory Committee for Flood Defence in the Netherlands. TAW. 2004. De veiligheid van de primaire waterkeringen in Nederland . Voorschrift Toetsen op...Netherlands. TAW VTV. 2004. De veiligheid van de primaire waterkeringen in Nederland . Voorschrift Toetsen op Veiligheid voor de tweede toetsronde 2001

  17. Lower Mississippi River Environmental Program. Report 11. Forest Vegetation of the Leveed Floodplain of the Lower Mississippi River

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-02-01

    influenced stream discharges, sediment vol- umes, and sea levels. Although not directly impacted by continental ice sheets , the Lower Valley carried glacial... meltwaters and outwash in a braided- stream pattern that concurrently widened and aggraded the valley during periods of waning glaciation. As each...against relative elevation (Figure 5) illustrates that this approach did not 29 0 iC -T E MEAN AND STANDARD F DEVIATION BY 1- CLUSTER P 0 I T I I I

  18. Effects of Closing Wax Lake Outlet and Constructing Management Unit and Channel Training Levees in the Atchafalaya River Basin.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-01

    mm am1 sme ft w s-* oo of eq vvm vean" Wielae, IMl Movieq of ie~p 1111 opv blt w be son 3-ia bps. eq Fammeas, casee vaew lw Me""p eq zes 3m bso good...COCO.DRJ swjqAmP 1~ BEA v 19YO v- - --- ------ - ----- LOWER &RAND RAOL 2-.. ....... L SWAMP~ IbI IU-,4 - iSVF A-xr Wo /l iWA u. s r tAh * .F-o"Ag i W

  19. CONSEQUENCES OF HUMAN-ALTERED FLOODS: LEVEES, FLOODS, AND FLOODPLAIN FORESTS ALONG THE WISCONSIN RIVER. (R826600)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  20. To suspend flood insurance rate map updates in geographic areas in which certain levees are being repaired.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Costello, Jerry F. [D-IL-12

    2011-03-03

    House - 04/04/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Insurance, Housing and Community Opportunity. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  1. A bill to suspend flood insurance rate map updates in geographic areas in which certain levees are being repaired.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Vitter, David [R-LA

    2010-03-01

    Senate - 03/01/2010 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  2. A Computational Model to Simulate Groundwater Seepage Risk in Support of Geotechnical Investigations of Levee and Dam Projects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    process-imitating rules. The model aggrades an alluvial floodplain, creating floodplain architecture by differentiating between sediment deposited by...meandering rivers. The results suggest that the channel aggradation rate influenced heavily the relative channel avulsion frequency during floodplain...composition and organization of the river basin and its floodplain (Schumm 1968). In an actively building ( aggrading ) floodplain, the river channel is

  3. Right Bank Yolo Bypass and Left Bank Cache Slough Near Junction Yolo Bypass and Cache Slough Levee Construction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-01

    PAGE CHAPTER VI - ENVIRONMENTAL COORDINATION 26 Environmental Coordination 64 CHAPTER VII - LOCAL COOPERATION AND VIEWS OF PUBLIC INTERESTS 27 Local... ENVIRONMENTAL COORDINATION 26. Environmental Coordination. - An Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared for this project. The EA, along with the draft... Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, National Park Service, National Marine Fisheries Service, Solano County, and the following

  4. Terrestrial and Aquatic Biological Inventory; Meredosia Lake and Willow Creek Drainage and Levee District: Cass and Morgan Counties, Illinois.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    X Blacknose shiner Notropis herterolepis x Bantam sunfish Lepomis symmetricus x Lake whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis x Lake sturgeon Acipenser ... fulvescens x Higgin’s Eye Lampsilis higginsii X Pearly Mussel Pink Mucket Lampsilis orbiculata orbiculata X Pearly Mussel Orange-footed Plethobasis

  5. Supplemental Cultural Resources Investigations and Site Testing for the Pointe Coupee to Arbroth Levee Enlargement and Seepage Control Project, West Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-07-01

    components. In addition, seven historic artifacts were recovered, including one Coca - Cola bottle fragment, one piece of colorless glass, one piece of...window glass. One of the machine-made bottle fragments originated from a Coca - Cola bottle fragment; It was embossed with "[TRADEMA]RK RE[GISTERED/BOTTLE...Collection, N1020, E940); (d) bone button (Controlled Surface Collection, N1000, E920); (e) shell button (T.U. #5, N1010, E920, Stratum I, Level 1

  6. Finding of No Significant Impact & Tiered Environmental Assessment: Public Law 84-99 Rehabilitation Program Levee Unit 624-627 - Mosquito Creek Pottawattamie County, Iowa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    agencies. Another important benefit of the NWP program that would not be achieved through the no action alternative is the incentive for project...occur in those watersheds, including agriculture, urban development, deforestation , mining, water removal, flow alteration, and invasive species... benefits and detriments that may result from the activities authorized by this NWP. (a) Conservation: The activities authorized by this NWP may modify

  7. Cultural Resources Assessment of Selected Sites to be Affected by Flood Protection Activities, Kaskaskia Island Levee Raise Project, Randolph County, Illinois. Phase I and II.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    the lighter soils with silver maple, ash, American elm, honey locust, sugarberry, and pecan . The pecan trees were once very plentiful on Kaskaskia...temporal range, from stone- ware to a throw-away aluminum pie pan, occurred within the same depth range. Thus, the materials are in a highly disturbed...late occupation is indicated by a throw-away aluminum foil pie plate and a carbon rod, possibly from a storage battery. No further mitigation or

  8. Cultural Resources Survey of EABPL Off-Site Borrow Areas, Levee Items E- 64, E-76, and E-84A, Iberville, Iberia, and Assumption Parishes, Louisiana

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-07-01

    that most of the women had died as a result of small pox (Manning et al. 1987:30-31). Apparently, the Bayougoula were massacred after Iberville and...the eighteenth century was more often seen as an obstacle to east-west traffic than as a region to be exploited. In 1770 , the channel of Bayou...year ’round, [they are] driven across the country to New Orleans, where there is always a good market" (Hutchins 1784:45-46). By the 1770s , the

  9. Archeological Testing of the North Bend Site (16SMY132) and Survey of the Todd Area Levee, St. Mary Parish, Louisiana

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-07-01

    Amethyst glass 14 19 33 Cobalt blue glass 7 5 12 Brown glass 47 41 88 Light green glass 3 3 Milk glass 1 1 2 Clear glass 57 59 116 Total Glass 264 226 490...three pieces of amethyst glass and a piece of dark green bottle glass. Two pieces of coal, one indeterminate nail fragment and a 12-gauge shotgun shell...pieces of dark green bottle glass, four pieces of brown glass and one sherd each of amethyst glass, light green glass and clear pressed glass. Clothing

  10. Environmental Assessment: PL 84-99 Levee Rehabilitation Program Lower Platte South Natural Resource District, Antelope Creek, Lincoln, Lancaster County, Nebraska

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    block erosion protection, vegetated banks, rock riprap protection, a labyrinth weir, underground conduit, concrete retaining walls near bridges...erosion protection, vegetated banks, rock riprap protection, a labyrinth weir, underground conduit, concrete retaining walls near bridges, and outlet...called “criteria pollutants”. These include: ozone, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, and lead. Lancaster County

  11. Lower Mississippi River Environmental Program. Report 2. A Physical Description of Main Stem Levee Borrow Pits along the Lower Mississippi River

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-02-01

    Public Health Association (APHA) 1980). Secchi disc, however, measures visibility in a water column. The depth at which a Secchi disc can be seen...American Public Health Association. 1980. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 15th ed, New York. Brezonik, P.L. 1978. "Effect of...118 32 80 43 2 81 9 5 Date Sampled: l5 July 1981 im. Sampled: 1000 Water Cuality Data, Surface Location Parameter Leveeward Open Water Riverard B A B

  12. Archaeological and Historical Resources Investigations for the Red River of the North Ring Levee Project, Pembina and Walsh Counties, North Dakota, (Phase 1),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-01

    Violet Warner, Katherine Grube, Jenny Turner, William Sturtaugson, Adolard DeFoe, Richard Oakes, Jim Kotchman, William Altendorf, John Rolczynski...William Sturtaugson, Adolard DeFoe, Richard Oakes, Jim Kotchman, William Altendorf, John Rolczynski, Dominic Duray, Walter Gerszewski, Frank L. Ebertowski...raccoon, 3 mink, and 7 swans . Whether Chaboillez returned to Pembina that fall is uncertain. The buildings of his post are said to have been burned in the

  13. Terrestrial and Aquatic Biological Inventory Meredosia, Illinois; Meredosia; Willow Creek; and Coon Run Drainage and Levee District, Scott and Morgan Counties, Illinois.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    with duckweed. The area appears to provide good feeding and nesting habitat for waterfowl. Blue-winged teal (Anas discors), wood duck, killdeer...fox squirrel, and blue Jay. In addition, it provides a feeding site for raptors. In the eastern half of the study area where protective cover is...brachyrhynchos), and small mammals. Large numbers of waterfowl were observed feeding in the flooded fields in April of 1982. Border habitat makes up

  14. Santa Ana River Design Memorandum Number 1. Phase 2. GDM on the Santa Ana River Mainstem, Including Santiago Creek. Volume 4. Mill Creek Levee

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-01

    schist, and various Precambrian metamorphic rocks. The granite, granodiorite , and diorite predominate in samples from these suppliers, along with...produced at the C. L. Pharris plant is predominantly Mesozoic diorite, granodiorite , and gabbro, along with Precambrian schist. A small proportion of...by this supplier is composed primarily of Mesozoic granite, granodiorite , gabbro, and diorite. Pelona schist is also present, as well as gneiss and

  15. The Role of Coriolis Forces and Ekman Boundary Layers in Controlling Sediment Transport in Large Submarine Channel-Levee Systems: Experiments and Theory.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, M. G.

    2016-12-01

    Large-scale oceanic flows such as contourite currents and turbidity currents can be strongly influenced by Coriolis forces. One well known consequence of Coriolis forces is the presence of Ekman boundary layers, which result in transverse secondary flows of as much as 10% of the primary flow. For flows in sinuous channels these Ekman boundary layers can either act with, or against, the secondary flows driven by centrifugal forces. These secondary flows driven by Ekman boundary layers are likely responsible for many of the details of sediment erosion and deposition in contourites, as well as in the larger channels formed by turbidity currents. The magnitude and direction of flows in the Ekman boundary layers can be defined by two Rossby numbers, RoW =U/Wf and RoR =U/Rf, where U is the mean downstream velocity, W is the width of the channel, R is the radius of curvature and f is the Coriolis parameter. Flows with Rossby numbers less than 1 are dominated by Coriolis forces and have strong Ekman boundary layers dominating secondary circulation. A new finding is that even when the Rossby number is of order 10 there is an appreciable influence of Coriolis forces. In this presentation we will present results of changes in velocity structure as a function of Rossby number from a series of analog laboratory experiments from a 1 m (Toronto) and 15 m (Grenoble) wide rotating Coriolis platform. Changes in flow structures will be related to experimental observations of changes in erosion and deposition of a mobile bed form. We will discuss the implications of these laboratory experiments for interpretation of large-scale contourite and turbidite deposits.

  16. Lower Mississippi River Environmental Program. Report 3. Bird and Mammal Use of Main Stem Levee Borrow Pits Along the Lower Mississippi River.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-02-01

    winter months. They indicated no important habitat preferences except for larger pools of permanent water. 60. Yellow-billed cuckoos were very common in... cuckoos , greater roadrunners,* chimney swifts, rock doves, ruby-throated hummingbirds, and budgerigars.* * Songbirds (perching land birds) 61. Ninety...species introduced to the study area. 29 especially white-throated, white-crowned, field, swamp, song , and savannah sparrows, were abundant in winter months

  17. Reconnaissance Report for Section 205 Flood Damage Reduction Study. The SNY Island Levee Drainage District, Adams, Pike, and Calhoun Counties, Illinois.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-08-01

    50-FT WIDE 2000-............. ............... -. .* 25-FT WIDE .* 0 1000 wain Slough refers to an...4 BARRY 15, QUADRANOLE N3937.5-W9107.517.5 ft. 1978 AMS 2763 11 NW-SERIES V863 ASHBURN, MO---ILL. ýd SW141 13ARRY 15’ QUADRA14GLE N3930-W9107.517.5...SROCKPORT, ILL.-MO. $314 BARRY 15’ OUADRANOLKL >___ N3930-W9100/7.5 1978 L ~ i287 . AMS 2?63 11 SE-SERIES V863 Horton-Dutch Creek Vicinity, Proposals Under

  18. Repair, Evaluation, Maintenance, and Rehabilitation Research Program: Redevelopment of Relief Wells, Upper Wood River Drainage and Levee District, Madison County, Illinois

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-11-01

    C23 Figure Dl. Sulfate-reducing bacteria per well .................... D3 Figure D2. Fermenter bacteria per well... fermenter bacteria ........................... D7 Figure D8. Ratio heterotrophic bacteria ........................ D8 Figure D9. Shift in ORP...otherwise be nutrient poor. This group does not tend to be a major factor in well decline. Facultative and fermentive bacteria are considered eutrophic

  19. Finding of No Significant Impact & Tiered Environmental Assessment: Public Law 84-99 Rehabilitation Program Levee Unit R-627 - Grace Street Ditch, Douglas County, Nebraska

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    into the project description to reduced construction-related noise; avoid the spread of noxious weeds ; and minimize air quality, water quality, and...regularly-maintained grasses and weeds adjacent to the Grace Street Ditch (Figure 4). Common birds found on site include those adapted to urban...grasses and weeds that are regularly maintained. The orchid does not occur on-site. No affects to orchids would occur as a result of the proposed

  20. Assessment of the Liquefaction Hazards Resulting from Explosive Removal of the Bird’s Point-New Madrid Fuze Plug Levee

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-01

    AND ADDRESS . PR A WOk U U ASK U. S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station Ceotechnical Laboratory Intra-Army Order 81-22 P. 0. Box 631...N1 - value (normalined SPT value) of 1 blow/ft, the cyclic stress ratio required to cause liquefaction is about 0.16 for a Magnitude 5 earthquake...Since the cyclic stress ratio is defined as: T a aav max o -r 0.65 - *T rd 0 o we can determine the maximum ground acceleration causing liquefaction of

  1. Between Two Levees: Archeological Testing and Evaluation of the National Register Eligibility of the Bayou Goula Landing Site, Iberville Parish, Louisiana.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-08-20

    importance of hunting, fishing, and gathering aspects of subsistence in relation to agriculture may have been overstated. A fairly high level of social...construction again suggests Mesoamerican influence. Population growth and areal expansion were made possible by increasing reliance on productive maize... agriculture . The seasonal exploitation of coastal areas supplemented the maize economy of large inland sites, and small non-mound farmsteads were present

  2. An Archaeological Reconnaissance of Proposed Levees, Water-Oriented Recreation Facilities and Borrow Areas Downstream from the Harry S. Truman Dam and Reservoir, Benton County, Missouri: 1980

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    obtain preliminary predictive data on the distribution and nature of archaeological sites, to provide a general impression of the significance of the...conducted to obtain preliminary, predictive data on the distribution and nature of archaeological sites, to provide a general impression of the...Scope of Work and Goals of the Survey The project seope of work calls for: an on-the-ground surface examination of the reconnaissance area to obtain

  3. Cultural Resource Survey and Assessment of Proposed Valley Park Levee Alignment and Borrow Areas, St. Louis County, Missouri. St. Louis District Cultural Resource Management Report Number 10.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    late Pleistocene fauna. These are the well-known Clovis and Folsom cultures associated with extinct mammoth and bison, respectively. Culturally...because of the 14 association of their hunting tools with now extinct megafauna (e.g., New World horse, camel, mammoth , and bison), recent...undoubtedly low population densities (Ford 1974:388). Haynes (1980:119) depicts Clovis peoples as nomadic foragers exploiting mammoth and bison, yet

  4. Archeology and Ethnology on the Edges of the Atchafalaya Basin, South Central Louisiana. A Cultural Resources Survey of the Atchafalaya Basin Protection Levees.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    within an Africanized phonology and a unique syntax (Spitzer 1979a:139). Spitzer (1977:143) notes that In its "deepest form", Creole is unintelligible...There are presently adult classes being held in Amelia to teach basic conversational English, but we were told that a very small percentage of adult...particularly the teaching of evolution. Bible passages are the "te:ztbooks" for grades kinder- garten through twelfth. This school system personifies the charac

  5. A bill to allow a State or local government to construct levees on certain properties otherwise designated as open space lands.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Hoeven, John [R-ND

    2012-01-26

    House - 07/23/2012 On motion to suspend the rules and pass the bill Failed by the Yeas and Nays: (2/3 required): 126 - 254 (Roll no. 500). (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Failed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  6. Cultural Resources Investigations of Larose to Golden Meadow Hurricane Protection Project Levee Section D-North (Compromise Alignment), Lafourche Parish, Louisiana

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-01

    brachyrhynchos), common night hawk (Chordeiles minor), screech owl (Otus asia), black vulture (Coragyps atratus), turkey vulture (Cathartes aura), and many...deer pea (Vigna luteola), seashore paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum), switch grass (Panicum virgatum), bearded spangletop (Leptochloa frascicularis

  7. When the levee breaks - public policy and holistic risk management - lessons from Katrina for coastal cities faced with rising storm surge flood risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muir-Wood, R.

    2009-04-01

    In a period of accelerating sea level rise and increased tropical cyclone intensities, extreme 100 year coastal flood levels are rising rapidly along a number of tropical and subtropical coastlines. Meanwhile, whether from natural megadelta consolidation, post glacial rebound or overpumping of shallow aquifers, many coastal cities are sinking even faster than mean sea level is rising. Without significant investment in continually improved flood defence inevitably this means the risk of catastrophic flooding is rising, for many cities quite steeply. The experience of Hurricane Katrina and New Orleans may become seen as iconic for 21st Century catastrophe risk as more and more coastal cities are subject to similar calamities. The story of New Orleans also highlights many aspects of catastrophe risk management failures before and after extreme events. The city of New Orleans had already been flooded three times by storm surges in the 100 years before Katrina. After each flood, investments were made in improved flood defences but these investments dwindled through time as there appeared to be a reduced imperative to divert money to support abstract risk reduction. Meanwhile land subsidence and rising sea levels and storm surges meant that risk levels continued to rise, until the inevitable time when the city once again was flooded. As the city increasingly sinks below mean sea level the impact of each flood has become increasingly catastrophic, both in terms of areas flooded, property damage and casualties. While a major program of investment in improved flood defences has once again followed the catastrophic 2005 flood, Federal government agencies have given no assurance that levels of flood risk will be maintained below some designated threshold long term. Therefore another cycle of rising flood risk has now started that will inevitably eventually to lead to the city becoming reflooded. This cycle can only end with the eventual abandonment of much of the city area - an outcome that is deemed politically unacceptable. The loss consequences of rising levels of risk, improvements or degradation in flood defences and the potential outcomes of different catastrophic storm surges can only be explored in a Catastrophe loss model.

  8. A bill to allow a State or local government to construct levees on certain properties otherwise designated as open space lands.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Hoeven, John [R-ND

    2012-01-26

    07/23/2012 On motion to suspend the rules and pass the bill Failed by the Yeas and Nays: (2/3 required): 126 - 254 (Roll no. 500). (text: CR H5105) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Failed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  9. Proceedings of a Hydrology and Hydraulics Workshop on Riverine Levee Freeboard Held in Monticello, Minnesota on 27-29 August 1991

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-10

    levels due to the availability of additional years of stream gagc and rainfall data 5) Improved hydrologic and/or hydraulic modeling techniques FEMA is...abundant rainfall , varied topographic characteristics, numerous flood problems, and even more numerous hydrologic and hydraulic challenges. Flat developable...independently justified, are provided to avoid future flood problems, are mitigation features for project induced impacts or were directly authorized by

  10. Cultural Resources Survey of Gretna Phase 2 Levee Enlargement Item M-99.4 to 95.5-R, Jefferson Parish, Louisiana

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    1111ijor A. LACARRIERF. LATOUR , C, 1 1 _j JAw priacipal Ynxia r 7(h Xliurt District, U. Army, 1815. Scale f Miles C I P R E S S S ll- t ’if A N.. J" ri...Pierre Ste. Pe in 1815 (Bezou 1986:vi). The 1815 LaTour map shows this canal on the Derbigny property (Figure 8). The 1834 Zimpel plan (Figure 2) shows...New Orleans area, such as J.J. Krebs and Sons, and Gandolpho, Kuhn , Luecke and Associates, also have historic surveys of the Gretna project area. These

  11. A bill to allow a State or local government to construct levees on certain properties otherwise designated as open space lands.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Hoeven, John [R-ND

    2012-01-26

    07/23/2012 On motion to suspend the rules and pass the bill Failed by the Yeas and Nays: (2/3 required): 126 - 254 (Roll no. 500). (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Failed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  12. To ensure that Federal assistance provided under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act for the construction of certain emergency levees is not conditioned on the subsequent dismantlement of those levees, except as provided for in a status certificate, and for other purposes.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Kline, John [R-MN-2

    2011-10-24

    House - 10/25/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Economic Development, Public Buildings and Emergency Management. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  13. To ensure that Federal assistance provided under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act for the construction of certain emergency levees is not conditioned on the subsequent dismantlement of those levees, except as provided for in a status certificate, and for other purposes.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Kline, John [R-MN-2

    2011-10-24

    10/25/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Economic Development, Public Buildings and Emergency Management. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  14. To ensure that Federal assistance provided under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act for the construction of certain emergency levees is not conditioned on the subsequent dismantlement of those levees, except as provided for in a status certificate, and for other purposes.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Kline, John [R-MN-2

    2011-10-24

    10/25/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Economic Development, Public Buildings and Emergency Management. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  15. 1985 Hurricanes: JUAN, DANNY, ELENA.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-01

    Station, the 40 Arpent levee (west) and Claudet levee at Lockport, the Mobly/Serigny levee below Golden Meadow, the levee west of Pie -Theriot...in the vicinity of Pecan Island in Vermilion Parish. Shortly after Danny made landfall, it was downgraded to a tropical storm. Danny was a Category 1

  16. Kwaliteit van Expertsystemen: Algoritmen voor Integriteits-Controle (Quality of Expert Systems: Algorithms for Integrity Control)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-01

    gelegd kan worden tussen de gebanteerde ontwikkelmetbode en algoritmen voor integriteitscontrole. In concreto komt dit neer op: * Evaluatie van...feiten) te bepalen am de beperkingsregels te kunnen lacaliseren die getvalueeiti moeten warden. In concreto moeten twee feitenverzamelingen warden...gebanteerd worden. Consistentie bij Suwa komt in concreto neer op bet detecteren van drie soorten ’potentible fouten’ in de kennisbank: tegenstrijdigbeid

  17. Cultural Resources Intensive Survey and Testing of Mississippi River Levee Berms Crittenden and Desha Counties, Arkansas and Mississippi, Scott, Cape Girardeau and Pemiscot Counties, Missouri. Item R-846 Caruthersville, Pemiscot County, Missouri

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-01

    denizens and occurred in the study area. Maps presented by Simpson (1945) indicate that the genus Tapirus ( tapirs ) occurred in the study area...Museum of Natural History, No. 1136, pp. 20-27. 1945 Notes on Pleistocene and Recent Tapirs . Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural Histo y, Vol. 86

  18. Shallow Subsurface Geology, Geomorphology and Limited Cultural Resource Investigations of the Meredosia Village and Meredosia Lake Levee and Drainage Districts, Scott, Morgan, and Cass Counties, Illinois. St. Louis District Resource Management Report Number 17

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-01

    ST. LOUIS DISTRICT . LTURALRESOURCE MANAGEMENTREV)RT UMBER 17 AD-A2 4 5 724 SHALLOW SUBSURFACE GEOLOGY, GEOMORPHOLOGY AND LIMITED CULTURAL RESOURCE...RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER 4. TITLE (anud Subtle) SALW UTURFACL GEOLOGY, 5. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED GEOMORPHOLOGY AND LIMITED CULTURAL RESOURCE...RESOURCE MANAGEMENT REPORT NUMBER 17 Shallow Subsurface Geology, Geomorphology and Limited Cultural Resource Investigations of the Meredosia Village and

  19. Archeological and Historical Research on Avoca Plantation: Testing of Site 16 SMY 130 and Survey of Proposed Borrow Areas for EABPL (East Atchafalaya Basin Protection Levee) Item E-96, Saint Mary Parish, Louisiana

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    are baked clay balls or Poverty Point objects, microlith and lapidary industries, and earthworks (Webb 1977). Pottery is not abundant, but fiber...yielded decorated ceramics only of the late Marksville period: Marksville Incised, var . Yokena and Marksville Stamped, var . Manny. It is interesting...al. 24 II ,, I -n - ~ i~a/ i I (1978:Tables 29-30, Fig. 63) reported a ceramic assemblage composed of Coles Creek Incised, var . Stoner, Larto Red, vars

  20. Cuaderno de Recetas Ilustradas para Jovenes con Impedimentos--Para Estudiantes con Impedimentos Leves v Moderados (Notebook of Illustrated Recipes for Youth with Disabilities--For Students with Light and Moderate Disabilities).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puerto Rico State Dept. of Education, Hato Rey. Office of Special Education.

    This collection of recipes has been prepared with attention to the needs of students with disabilities who lack reading skills sufficient to be able to use ordinary cookbooks. Presentation in this illustrated form helps them understand the processes of food preparation as it introduces a basic culinary vocabulary. The teacher can use this…

  1. Costura Basica (Principios Basicos para el Estudiante con Impedimentos Leves y Moderados) Documento de Trabajo Guia Curricular para el Curso. Basic Sewing (Basic Principles for the Student with Light and Moderate Disabilities. Course Curriculum Guide. Working Document).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puerto Rico State Dept. of Education, Hato Rey. Office of Special Education.

    This guide has been prepared by the Puerto Rico Department of Public Instruction for special education teachers teaching domestic sewing. It includes informative and easy to comprehend material for students of both sexes with mild to moderate disabilities. The material is developed through varied strategies and activities that relate to the…

  2. Cultural Resources Intensive Survey and Testing of Mississippi River Levee Berms, Crittenden and Desha Counties, Arkansas and Mississippi, Scott, Cape Girardeau and Pemiscot Counties, Missouri Item R-618 Knowlton; Desha County, Arkansas.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-01

    three large felines occurred throughout the earlier United States. These include the puma (Felis concolour), jaguar (Panthera onca), and the giant jaguar...culture and the natural environment that had its beginnings in the culture area concepts of the ethnologists provided a base for cultural- ecological ...University Microfilms, Ann Arhor. ODUM, E. P. 1975 Ecology . Holt, New York. PERINO, GREGORY 1966 The Banks Village Site, Crittenden County, Arkansas

  3. Phase II Archaeological Testing of the Helmkamp Site (11MS2025) in Support of the Proposed Grassy Lake Pump Station and Associated Ditch Work, Wood River Drainage and Levee District, Madison County, Illinois

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    Internal Revenue Service ( IRS ). (2) The TIN may be used by the Government to collect and report on any delinquent amounts arising out of the offeror’s...the TIN provided hereunder may be matched with IRS records to verify the accuracy of the offeror’s TIN. (3) Taxpayer Identification Number (TIN...Thompson Project Archeologist 0 David W. Benn kHome Office Research Coordinator N1k . Box 347 307 22nd NE 24091 Yellow Ave. Cedar Rapids. IA 52402 Cresco, IA

  4. Shallowly Buried Archaeological Deposits and Geologic Context: Archaeological Survey in the Eldred and Spankey Drainage and Levee District, Greene County, Illinois. St. Louis District Cultural Resource Management Report Number 8

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    11 1 1 13 point Biface 45 1 12 68 Uniface 8 3 11 Retouched flake 3 1 4 I Drill 1 1 Metate 3 3 Hammerstone 1 1 SSite Tertiary flake 6 Blocky 2 Biface...Stem 1-1 1-f Middle Archaic Site-Notched 1-3 2-a Middle Archaic Site-Notched 3-1 2-b Middle Archaic Matanza 4-1 2-c Middle Archaic Matanza 1-4 2-d...Hardin Short Stem (d), Early Archaic expanding stem (e, f). 30 I I I I I I I I I I I I I Plate 2: Middle Archaic side notch Ca, b), Matanzas Cc, d

  5. Archeological Investigations Along the Lower Illinois River Floodplain: Cultural Resource Surveys fo the Hartwell and Nutwood Levee and Drainage Districts, Jersey and Greene Counties, Illinois. St. Louis District Cultural Resource Management Report Number 4

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-01

    68 Table 5. Representation of Cultural Components by Projectile Points...Early Woodland 2500 - 800 B.C. Late Archaic 5000 - 2500 B.C. Middle Archaic 8500 - 5000 B.C. Early Archaic 68 I associated with Late Woodland pottery...artifacts per site. Quasar has the highest number of artifacts ( 68 ) and the largest ratio of unifaces to bifaces (1 to 7). Wild Onion has the second highest

  6. Archeological Survey of Selected Areas and Testing of Site 3P0504 along the St. Francis Levee of the Oak Donnick Floodway Near the City of Marked Tree, Poinsett, County, Arkansas.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-02-01

    the Great River in boats constructed with nails forged from their weapons. They were harassed by t•he Indians in large fleets of canoes all the way to...or dowrn Crowley’s Ridge. That is, people did not penetrate or live in this envirornment unless they were equipped with boats , lines and other tools...500 Kilovolt Transmission Line Archeological Surveys byv Robert H. Lafferty III, D.D. Shaw, T.J. Padgett, N.L. Trubowitz, D.D. Jurney , S. Imhoff, and

  7. The Atchafalaya River Delta. Report 12. Two-Dimensional Modeling of Alternative Plans and Impacts on the Atchafalaya Bay and Terrebonne Marshes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    alternatives are presented. In summary, the extension of the Avoca Island Levee to Deer Island (Reach 2) resulted in an approximate 8 percent increase...elevations within areas east of the levee increased from 3.4 to 6.0 ft by year 2030. In each case tested, the Avoca Island Levee Extension to Reach 2...42 Effects of Avoca Island Levee Extension .......................... 43 Effect of Wax Lake Outlet Flow Control

  8. Anatomy and growth pattern of Amazon deep-sea fan as revealed by long-range side-scan sonar (GLORIA) and high-resolution seismic studies

    SciTech Connect

    Damuth, J.E.; Flood, R.D.; Kowsmann, R.O.; Belderson, R.H.; Gorini, M.A.

    1988-08-01

    Imaging of the Amazon deep-sea fan with long-range side-scan sonar (GLORIA) has, for the first time, revealed the anatomy, trends, and growth pattern of distributary channels on this fan. Only one channel-levee system was active at any given time and extended from the Amazon Submarine Canyon downslope onto the lower fan (> 4,200 m). Formation of new channel-levee systems occurred when a currently active channel-levee system was cut off and abandoned through avulsion, and a new channel-levee system was established nearby. Through time, successive channel-levee formation and abandonment built two broad levee complexes consisting of groups of overlapping, coalescing segments of channel-levee systems across the present fan surface. These, plus older, now buried levee complexes, indicate that fan growth is radially outward and downslope through development of successive levee complexes. The most striking characteristic of the distributary channels is their intricate, often recurving, meanders with sinuosities of up to 2.5. Cutoffs and abandoned meander loops indicate that the channels migrate laterally through time. Channel bifurcation results predominantly from avulsion when flows breach a channel levee, thereby abandoning the present channel and establishing a new channel-levee segment nearby. No clear evidence of channel branching (i.e., division of a single channel into two active segments) or braiding was observed. 22 figs.

  9. Principios de Nutricion y Alimentacion del Adolescente (Para Estudiantes con Impedimentos Leves y Moderados). Guia Curricular para el Curso Documento de Trabajar. Principles of Nutrition and Food for the Adolescent (For Students with Light and Moderate Disabilities. Course Curriculum Guide. Working Document).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puerto Rico State Dept. of Education, Hato Rey. Office of Special Education.

    This curriculum guide, in Spanish, consists of a compilation of concepts, activities, and skills for the student with disabilities who receives services from the special education programs of Puerto Rico. Lesson plans cover the basic principles of nutrition, food handling, and food preparation for adolescents. The following units are presented…

  10. An Archeological Survey Along the Eastern Floodplain of the Lower Illinois River: Cultural Resource Survey of Selected Portions of the Meredosia and Meredosia Lake Drainage and Levee Districts, Scott, Cass and Morgan Counties, Illinois. St. Louis District Cultural Resource Management Report Number 19

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-01

    Youngblood typed the manu- script under the somewhat stressful conditions of producing multiple reports simultaneously. Additional typing was provided...or small trees. In the prairies of the American Bottoms east of St. Louis, Flagg (1838:188) described groves of wild plum and crabapple , as well as...unretouched and retouched artifacts. The majority of these are non-diagnostic and are probably items used and/or produced during any number of prehistoric

  11. Cultural Resources Survey and Literature Review of Planned Drainage Improvements Along and Adjacent to Ditch 1, Mississippi and Poinsett Counties, Arkansas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    such as the St. Francis River and occasional distributary streams. Natural levees are highest (the crest of a levee) near the river channel, and they...lakes, based on their interpretations of geomorphic and ecologic changes which follow a cut-off. m The backswamp in the study area lies between the...flow to cut and maintain a continuous, actively meandering course flanked by natural levees. The St. Francis River joins the course near Marked Tree

  12. 75 FR 21659 - Notice of Availability of a Draft Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ... Project in Cameron and Hidalgo Counties, TX AGENCY: United States Section, International Boundary and... for Arroyo Colorado South Levee Rehabilitation Project located in Cameron and Hidalgo Counties, Texas...

  13. 75 FR 77662 - United States Section; Notice of Availability of a Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ... Project in Cameron and Hidalgo Counties, TX AGENCY: United States Section, International Boundary and... for Arroyo Colorado South Levee Rehabilitation Project located in Cameron and Hidalgo Counties, Texas...

  14. 27 CFR 9.96 - Mississippi Delta.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the Illinois Central Gulf (I.C.G.) Railroad and the Mississippi River levee system, on the southeast...) Boundary Description. (i) From the starting point generally southward along the Mississippi River levee... one closest to the Mississippi River is the boundary. (ii) From the intersection described in...

  15. 27 CFR 9.96 - Mississippi Delta.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the Illinois Central Gulf (I.C.G.) Railroad and the Mississippi River levee system, on the southeast...) Boundary Description. (i) From the starting point generally southward along the Mississippi River levee... one closest to the Mississippi River is the boundary. (ii) From the intersection described in...

  16. 27 CFR 9.96 - Mississippi Delta.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the Illinois Central Gulf (I.C.G.) Railroad and the Mississippi River levee system, on the southeast...) Boundary Description. (i) From the starting point generally southward along the Mississippi River levee... one closest to the Mississippi River is the boundary. (ii) From the intersection described in...

  17. 27 CFR 9.96 - Mississippi Delta.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the Illinois Central Gulf (I.C.G.) Railroad and the Mississippi River levee system, on the southeast...) Boundary Description. (i) From the starting point generally southward along the Mississippi River levee... one closest to the Mississippi River is the boundary. (ii) From the intersection described in...

  18. 27 CFR 9.96 - Mississippi Delta.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the Illinois Central Gulf (I.C.G.) Railroad and the Mississippi River levee system, on the southeast...) Boundary Description. (i) From the starting point generally southward along the Mississippi River levee... one closest to the Mississippi River is the boundary. (ii) From the intersection described in...

  19. 1. OVERALL VIEW OF INTAKE PIER AND ACCESS BRIDGE, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OVERALL VIEW OF INTAKE PIER AND ACCESS BRIDGE, LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM WESTERN LEVEE OF THE SACRAMENTO RIVER. - Sacramento River Water Treatment Plant Intake Pier & Access Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River approximately 175 feet west of eastern levee on river; roughly .5 mile downstream from confluence of Sacramento & American Rivers, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  20. Laboratory measurements of acoustic, electrical resistivity, and erodibility of soils as a function of compaction

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Catastrophic floods resulting from the failure of dam and levee infrastructures can paralyze the economy and social life of large populations for long periods of time. The United States has over 100,000 miles of levees and the National Inventory of Dams lists approximately 79,000 U.S. dams. The de...

  1. Army Corps of Engineers: Better Guidance Could Improve Corps’ Information on Water Resources Projects Undertaken by Nonfederal Sponsors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    projects, such as levees for flood risk management. Under certain authorities, nonfederal sponsors, such as states and local governments, may...nonfederal sponsors to undertake studies or construction of federal water resources projects such as flood control projects. The 2014 act amended and...typically authorizes these projects in water resources development legislation for various purposes, including constructing levees for flood risk

  2. 33 CFR 208.10 - Local flood protection works; maintenance and operation of structures and facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the levee which might affect the stability of the levee section; (iii) No seepage, saturated areas, or... sand boils or unusual wetness of the landward slope and to be certain that: (i) There are no... are occurring; (ii) No undue settlement has occurred which affects the stability of the wall or its...

  3. Breach modelling by overflow with TELEMAC 2D: Comparison with large-scale experiments

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An erosion law has been implemented in TELEMAC 2D to represent the surface erosion process to model the breach formation of a levee. We focus on homogeneous and earth fill levee to simplify this first implementation. The first part of this study reveals the ability of this method to represent simu...

  4. 27 CFR 9.163 - Salado Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the levee on the east bank of the Delta-Mendota Canal in section 35, T5S, R7E; then (3) Proceed southeast approximately 0.3 miles along the Delta-Mendota Canal levee road to its intersection with...

  5. 27 CFR 9.163 - Salado Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the levee on the east bank of the Delta-Mendota Canal in section 35, T5S, R7E; then (3) Proceed southeast approximately 0.3 miles along the Delta-Mendota Canal levee road to its intersection with...

  6. 27 CFR 9.163 - Salado Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the levee on the east bank of the Delta-Mendota Canal in section 35, T5S, R7E; then (3) Proceed southeast approximately 0.3 miles along the Delta-Mendota Canal levee road to its intersection with...

  7. 27 CFR 9.163 - Salado Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the levee on the east bank of the Delta-Mendota Canal in section 35, T5S, R7E; then (3) Proceed southeast approximately 0.3 miles along the Delta-Mendota Canal levee road to its intersection with...

  8. 78 FR 6814 - Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Sacramento-San Joaquin...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-31

    ... for the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta Islands and Levees Feasibility Study AGENCY: Department of the... Islands and Levees Feasibility Study (Delta Study). The EIS will be prepared in accordance with the... agency for compliance with NEPA. The Delta Study will evaluate alternatives to meet the study goals...

  9. Geophysical methods for the assessment of earthen dams

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dams and levees are an integral part of the fluvial system in watersheds. Their stability is of utmost concern to the Nation and to those directly impacted should failure occur. There are some 88,000 dams and 110,000 miles of levees in the USA. Many of those are earthen embankments and structures su...

  10. 77 FR 63420 - Unblocking of Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons Pursuant to Executive Order 12978

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-16

    ... No. 31415437 (Colombia) (individual) . 23. VILLEGAS BOLANOS, Silver Amido, c/o CONSULTORIA EMPRESARIAL ESPECIALIZADA LTDA., Cali, Colombia; c/o GANADERIAS DEL VALLE S.A., Cali, Colombia; c/o CONCRETOS...

  11. National Dam Safety Program. Alcyon Lake Dam (NJ 00427) Delaware River Basin, Chestnut Branch-Mantua Creek, Gloucester County, New Jersey. Phase 1 Inspection Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-01

    froma small concreto , platform which extends out from the- culvert fas Ci,). The qate is divided into two section, and is mounted on a steel frame...se(ver al concreto fILurneS that0 e xiend fromn the, nrmcurhli me andI drain baick into the, reiser vo ir . AlIl were o-r i qi n a Iv e% qu i pped( wi

  12. Cyclic sediment deposition within Amazon deep-sea fan

    SciTech Connect

    Manley, P.L.; Flood, R.D.

    1988-08-01

    The Upper and middle Amazon Fan has grown in a cyclic fashion. An individual deposition cycle consists of (1) a widespread basal, acoustically transparent seismic unit (interpreted as debris-flow deposits) that fills and levels preexisting topographic lows, and (2) a levee complex built of overlapping channel-levee systems. Two and possibly three cycles have been identified within the Amazon Fan. The levee complex beneath one debris flow originated from a different submarine canyon than did the levee complex above the debris flow, suggesting that these levee complexes formed during different sea level lowstands. Calculations based on present sediment discharge of the Amazon River suggest that an entire levee complex can form within the time span of a single glacial stage, such as the Wisconsin; however, the levee complex probably could not have formed during the relatively short time interval when sea level rose rapidly at the end of a glacial stage. The basal seismic units (debris-flow deposits) may have been deposited at any time during sea level fluctuations. Although seismic evidence suggests that this cyclic sedimentation pattern may be related to glacio-eustatic sea level variations, cyclic fan growth may be attributed to other processes as well. For example, a bottom-simulating reflector (BSR) observed within the upper fan appears to be a gas hydrate. Migration of the hydrate phase boundary during sea level fluctuations and diapiric activity may be mechanisms for initiating widespread debris flows. 10 figs.

  13. Comparison of shallow-water and marsh-surface habitats associated with pipeline canals and natural channels in Louisiana salt marshes

    SciTech Connect

    Rozas, L.P.

    1992-11-01

    The primary objective of the study was to assess the effects of pipeline canals on the habitat function of inside-levee marshes. The degree to which inside-levee marshes function as nursery habitat for nekton residing in canals was examined by comparing densities of nekton on marshes adjacent to pipeline canals (inside-levee marshes) and natural tidal creeks. In addition, shallow subtidal habitats in the two environments (canals and natural channels) were compared by sampling nekton along the marsh edge at low tide and measuring predator encounter rates in both habitats.

  14. The Atchafalaya River Delta. Report 13. Summary Report of Delta Growth Predictions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    FCP) project on the Wax Lake Outlet, Avoca Island Levee extension to Deer Island (Figure 20), channel area, and lock operations. Table 3 presents a...Indicates that the feature was not activated. Er Indicates that the LAR/WLO channels were allowed to erode. 2 Indicates that the Avoca Island Levee was...impacts in the areas east of the Avoca Island Levee. The quasi-2D results of water-surface pro- files for LAR and WLO were computed for the 1973, 1975, and

  15. 75 FR 16080 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for Basewide Water Infrastructure...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... in the North County Times and San Clemente Sun Post News. The public is invited to attend the meeting... along the levee; a storm water drain system consisting of culverts, inlets, outlets, headwalls,...

  16. Sacramento River Water Treatment Plant Intake Pier & Access Bridge, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Sacramento River Water Treatment Plant Intake Pier & Access Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River approximately 175 feet west of eastern levee on river; roughly .5 mile downstream from confluence of Sacramento & American Rivers, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  17. 88. (Credit CBF) Twelve Mile Bayou Pumping Station and force ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    88. (Credit CBF) Twelve Mile Bayou Pumping Station and force main for pumping water over levee and into the canal (Blind Bayou), March 1913. - McNeil Street Pumping Station, McNeil Street & Cross Bayou, Shreveport, Caddo Parish, LA

  18. 72 FR 8361 - Intent To Prepare Supplement III to the Final Environmental Impact Statement, New Orleans to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2007-02-26

    ... levees on the west bank of the Mississippi River in Plaquemines Parish in order to provide improved storm surge protection and to protect evaucations routes; * * *'' ] FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Questions...

  19. ISOTOPIC EVIDENCE FOR NATURALLY OCCURRING SULFATE PONDS IN THE KANKAKEE RIVER BASIN, ILLINOIS-INDIANA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Design of constructed wetlands in the Kankakee watershed, Indiana, include pumping and distribution ditches leaving former channelized river levees intact. Resultant changes in shallow ground water - surface water interactions may be contributing elevated sulfate to wetland ponds...

  20. The Ebro Deep-Sea Fan system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, C.H.; Maldonado, A.; Coumes, F.; Got, H.; Manaco, A.

    1984-01-01

    The Ebro Fan System consists of en echelon channel-levee complexes, 50??20 km in area and 200-m thick. A few strong reflectors in a generally transparent seismic facies identify the sand-rich channel floors and levee crests. Numerous continuous acoustic reflectors characterize overbank turbidites and hemipelagites that blanket abandoned channel-levee complexes. The interlobe areas between channel complexes fill with homogeneous mud and sand from mass flow and overbank deposition; these exhibit a transparent seismic character. The steep continental rise and sediment 'drainage' of Valencia Trough at the end of the channel-levee complexes prevent the development of distributary channels and midfan lobe deposits. ?? 1984 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  1. 9. VIEW OF THE PRESSURE CULVERT STILLING BASIN, LOOKING NORTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF THE PRESSURE CULVERT STILLING BASIN, LOOKING NORTH. NOTE THE LEVEE TO THE RIGHT. - Wyoming Valley Flood Control System, Woodward Pumping Station, East of Toby Creek crossing by Erie-Lackawanna Railroad, Edwardsville, Luzerne County, PA

  2. 29 CFR 783.34 - Employees aboard vessels who are not “seamen”.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... 866). Thus, employees on floating equipment who are engaged in the construction of docks, levees... engaged in performing essentially industrial or excavation work (Sternberg Dredging Co. v. Walling, 158 F...

  3. Non-destructive monitoring of river embankments using GPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Prinzio, Monica; Bittelli, Marco; Castellarin, Attilio; Rossi Pisa, Paola

    2010-05-01

    Non-destructive investigations and controls of civil structures are improving day by day, however the scientific literature reports only a few documented cases of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) applications to the detection of voids and discontinuities in hydraulic defense structures such as river embankments and levee systems. GPR can assist decision making in a number of fields by enhancing our knowledge of subsurface features. We applied successfully GPR to the monitoring of river levees for the detectioning of animal burrows in river levees, which may trigger levee failures by piping. The manageability and the non-invasivity of GPR have resulted to be particularly suitable for this application. First because GPR is an extensive investigation method that enables one to rapidly cover a wide area, locating voids that are difficult and costly to locate using other intrusive methods. Second, GPR returns detailed information about the possible presence of voids and discontinuities within river embankments.

  4. Community implementation dynamics: nutrient management in the New York City and Chesapeake Bay watersheds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Conservation of natural resources has implications for international, national, and local citizens. The creation of natural resource management and conservation strategies can be affected by engagement with local citizens and competing interests between agencies and stakeholders at the varying leve...

  5. 78 FR 75939 - Bay Delta Habitat Conservation Plan and Natural Community Conservation Plan, Sacramento, CA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-13

    ..., and reducing future risks to the Delta from earthquakes, levee failure, and climate change. National.... Tuesday, January 28, 2014, 5 p.m. to 9 p.m., Hilton Garden Inn, 2200 Gateway Court, Fairfield, CA 94533....

  6. 78 FR 15879 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Sacramento River, Sacramento, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-13

    ....'' Click on Open Docket Folder on the line associated with this deviation. You may also visit the Docket... boat cruises or anticipated levee maintenance during this deviation period. No objections to the...

  7. 78 FR 23489 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Sacramento River, Sacramento, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-19

    ... Folder on the line associated with this deviation. You may also visit the Docket Management Facility in... waterway users. There are no scheduled river boat cruises or anticipated levee maintenance during this...

  8. 2. Photocopy of photograph (location of original unknown) Mary Mather, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photocopy of photograph (location of original unknown) Mary Mather, photographer, ca. 1920 GENERAL VIEW OF WEST (LEFT) AND SOUTH (RIGHT) FACADES, TAKEN FROM LEVEE - Bagatelle Plantation, East River Road (moved to Iberville Parish), Donaldsonville, Ascension Parish, LA

  9. Comparing Denitrification Rates and Carbon Sources in Commercial Scale Upflow Denitrification Biological Filters in Aquaculture

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aerobic biological filtration systems employing nitrifying bacteria to remediate excess ammonia and nitrite concentrations are common components of recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). However, significant water exchange may still be necessary to reduce nitrate concentrations to acceptable leve...

  10. Time-Frequency Methods for Structural Health Monitoring †

    PubMed Central

    Pyayt, Alexander L.; Kozionov, Alexey P.; Mokhov, Ilya I.; Lang, Bernhard; Meijer, Robert J.; Krzhizhanovskaya, Valeria V.; Sloot, Peter M. A.

    2014-01-01

    Detection of early warning signals for the imminent failure of large and complex engineered structures is a daunting challenge with many open research questions. In this paper we report on novel ways to perform Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) of flood protection systems (levees, earthen dikes and concrete dams) using sensor data. We present a robust data-driven anomaly detection method that combines time-frequency feature extraction, using wavelet analysis and phase shift, with one-sided classification techniques to identify the onset of failure anomalies in real-time sensor measurements. The methodology has been successfully tested at three operational levees. We detected a dam leakage in the retaining dam (Germany) and “strange” behaviour of sensors installed in a Boston levee (UK) and a Rhine levee (Germany). PMID:24625740

  11. 40 CFR Appendix D to Part 300 - Appropriate Actions and Methods of Remedying Releases

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS NATIONAL OIL AND HAZARDOUS...) Chutes and downpipes. (D) Levees. (E) Seepage basins and ditches. (F) Sedimentation basins and...

  12. Determination of channel capacity of the Sacramento River between Ordbend and Glenn, Butte and Glenn counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simpson, R.G.

    1976-01-01

    The adequacy of an 8.5-mi reach of the Sacramento River to carry flood flows is evaluated. The reach studied is in Butte and Glenn Counties, California, and extends northward from the present east-bank Sacramento River Flood Control Project levee near Glenn upstream to the Ord Ferry gaging station near Ordbend. There is a west-bank levee throughout the study reach. Flows analyzed range from 11,500 to 265,000 cfs. Computed water-surface elevations are based on topography obtained during September through November 1974. The present Sacramento River Flood Control Project levees at the downstream end of the study reach near Glenn are designed to contain flows up to 150,000 cfs. Water-surface elevations computed for flows of this magnitude are about 6 to 8 ft below the top of the existing west-bank levee throughout the study reach. (Woodard-USGS)

  13. 75 FR 18238 - United States Section; Final Environmental Impact Statement, Flood Control Improvements and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ..., Flood Control Improvements and Partial Levee Relocation, United States Section, International Boundary and Water Commission (USIBWC) Presidio Flood Control Project (FCP), Presidio, TX AGENCY: United States... potential consequences of each action alternative in reference to flood control improvements. Following the...

  14. 6. Typical top chord connection at hip vertical, east end ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Typical top chord connection at hip vertical, east end on north side, facing northeast - Campbell's Levee Bridge, Spanning South Fork, Forked Deer River at Westover Road, Jackson, Madison County, TN

  15. Differentiating submarine channel-related thin-bedded turbidite facies: Outcrop examples from the Rosario Formation, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Larissa; Callow, Richard; Kane, Ian; Kneller, Ben

    2017-08-01

    Thin-bedded turbidites deposited by sediment gravity flows that spill from submarine channels often contain significant volumes of sand in laterally continuous beds. These can make up over 50% of the channel-belt fill volume, and can thus form commercially important hydrocarbon reservoirs. Thin-bedded turbidites can be deposited in environments that include levees and depositional terraces, which are distinguished on the basis of their external morphology and internal architecture. Levees have a distinctive wedge shaped morphology, thinning away from the channel, and confine both channels (internal levees) and channel-belts (external levees). Terraces are flat-lying features that are elevated above the active channel within a broad channel-belt. Despite the ubiquity of terraces and levees in modern submarine channel systems, the recognition of these environments in outcrop and in the subsurface is challenging. In this outcrop study of the Upper Cretaceous Rosario Formation (Baja California, Mexico), lateral transects based on multiple logged sections of thin-bedded turbidites reveal systematic differences in sandstone layer thicknesses, sandstone proportion, palaeocurrents, sedimentary structures and ichnology between channel-belt and external levee thin-bedded turbidites. Depositional terrace deposits have a larger standard deviation in sandstone layer thicknesses than external levees because they are topographically lower, and experience a wider range of turbidity current sizes overspilling from different parts of the channel-belt. The thickness of sandstone layers within external levees decreases away from the channel-belt while those in depositional terraces are less laterally variable. Depositional terrace environments of the channel-belt are characterized by high bioturbation intensities, and contain distinctive trace fossil assemblages, often dominated by ichnofabrics of the echinoid trace fossil Scolicia. These assemblages contrast with the lower

  16. Application of Bridge Pier Scour Equations for Large Woody Vegetation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-01

    Abstract Existing bridge pier scour prediction equations exclude the influence of tree roots and the cross slope of levee embankments. Developed...for specific conditions, these equations do not include modeling of scour at trees near or on levee embankments. Therefore, existing bridge pier...scour models must be carefully evaluated and possibly modified before being applied to tree scour. The research conducted by the U.S. Army Engineer

  17. American River Watershed Project, California. Part 1: Main Report. Part 2: Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report. Supplemental Information Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-03-01

    Watershed Investigation Feasibility Report, which recommended construction of levee and related improvements in the Natomas area of Sacramento and a flood...detention dam on the North Fork American River upstream from Folsom Reservoir. Congress in 1992 authorized construction of the Natomas portion of the...34* Enlarge the eight existing river outlets in Folsom Dam "• Construct new river outlets in Folsom Dam "* Modify the levees along the lower American

  18. A Bosque Riparian Community Index Model for the Middle Rio Grande, Albuquerque, New Mexico: Model Documentation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    production) were identified as the system’s key anthropogenic drivers. The stressors (i.e., physical, chemical and biological changes to system ...encroachment and agricultural use, and 4) exotic species introductions. Each stressor altered ecosystem integrity2 within a water, soils , habitat and...with the aggrading riverbed prompted the building of levees along the floodway. However, the levee systems have confined the sediment and increased

  19. The Atchafalaya River Delta. Report 11. Two-Dimensional Modeling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-01

    western Terrebonne marshes, and to study various alternatives, particularly those concerning the Avoca Island Levee. The New Orleans District authorized...of existing Avoca Levee 2.10 2.68 3.10 Bayou Beouf at Amelia 2.35 2.93 5.06 GIW near Houma 2.29 2.86 4.10 Lake Decade 2.40 2.55 3.69 Bayou Penchant

  20. Susquehanna River Basin Flood Control Review Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    considered more favorable. Channel improvements which included dredging and/or constructing or raising existing levees at 7 locations ( Hornell , Avoca, Corning...Local channel improvements at Hornell , Avoca, Painted Post, Lisle, and Oxford were authorized after submission of the 1936 report. On 20 June 1936...Control Act of 1936 authorized detention reservoirs and related flood protection works for Binghamton, Hornell , and Corning, and levees at 29

  1. Walla Walla District History. Part 3. 1975-80

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    good portion of the library to Pullman. Maynard Hoffer searched the Records Holding Area for applicable materials, while Alice Zbinden and Judee ...ment of equipment. Repairs were made to levees the District had cons tructed in the Hei se-Roberts portion of the Snake River and to levees...34You can compute flood water hei ght, but you can compute it wrong. You get the right climatological occurrences and you’ll get water that you never

  2. Archeological Data Recovery at Darrow (16AN54), Ascension Parish, Louisiana.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-02-01

    primarily artifactual data from the original town deposits with which to examine questions of: archeological analysis methods in a Louisana river town...Previous Research 8 Interpretation of the Historic Maps 9 Research Goals 15 Historical Research Methods 21 Archeological Field Methods 22 Laboratory...Archeological Data Recovery at Darrow (16AN54) LIST OF FIGURES 1 Location Map 2 2 1909 Map of Early Levee 3 3 U.S. Darrowville New Levee Map , 1932 4 4

  3. Quantifying Channelized Submarine Depositional Systems From Bed to Basin Scale

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-01

    Biostratigraphic appli- cation and ecology of agglutinated foraminifera in Gulf of Mexico Basin Cenozoic exploration. GCAGS Transactions, 52:65-76, 2002. S.Q...Using seismic data from the Fisk Basin, Gulf of Mexico , I find that, during periods of broadly distributed, sheet-like deposition, equilibrium time is on...time scales for channel/levee com- plexes and sheet-like deposits: Fisk Basin, Gulf of Mexico 97 3.1 Introduction - Channel/levee complexes and

  4. Modeling flood dynamics along the superelevated channel belt of the Yellow River over the last 3000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yunzhen; Overeem, Irina; Kettner, Albert J.; Gao, Shu; Syvitski, James P. M.

    2015-07-01

    The Yellow River, China, experienced >1000 levee breaches during the last 3000 years. A reduced-complexity model is developed in this study to explore the effects of climate change and human activity on flood levels, levee breaches, and river avulsions. The model integrates yearly morphological change along a channel belt with daily river fluxes and hourly evolution of levee breaches. Model sensitivity analysis reveals that under natural conditions, superelevation of the channel belt dominates flood frequency. When there is significant human-accelerated basin erosion and breach repair, the dominant factors shift to a combination of mean annual precipitation, superelevation, critical shear stress of weak channel banks, and the time interval between breach initiation and its repair. The effect of precipitation on flood frequency is amplified by land use changes in the hinterland, particularly in the erodible Loess Plateau. Uncertainty analysis estimates the most likely values of the dominant factors for six historical periods between 850 B.C. and A.D. 1839, which are used to quantitatively reconstruct flood dynamics. During 850 B.C. to A.D. 1839, when the sediment load increased fourfold, the breach recurrence interval was shortened from more than 500 years to less than 6 years, and the breach outflow rate increased 27 times. River management practices during A.D. 1579 to A.D. 1839 focused on levees and triggered a severe positive feedback of increased levee heights and flood hazard exacerbation. Raising the levee heights proved to be ineffective for sustainable flood management.

  5. Strategic floodplain reconnection for the Lower Tisza River, Hungary: Opportunities for flood-height reduction and floodplain-wetland reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guida, Ross J.; Swanson, Taylor L.; Remo, Jonathan W. F.; Kiss, Timea

    2015-02-01

    During the late 19th Century, the Tisza River's vast floodplain-wetland system was largely disconnected by levees, facilitating "reclamation" for agriculture and resulting in an estimated loss of over 90% of historical wetlands. While levees have been successful in preventing catastrophic flooding for a century, Lower Tisza flood stage records have been set repeatedly during the last 15 years. The decrease in the Tisza's current floodway carrying capacity has reduced the flood-protection level of the Tisza's aging levee system. Recently in Hungary, "Room for the River" policies have gained more prominence. To explore the possibilities of a room for the river approach along the Lower Tisza, we assess eight potential floodplain-reconnection scenarios between Csongrád, Hungary and the Hungary-Serbia border. A novel framework using hydrodynamic and geospatial modeling was used to perform planning-level evaluations of the tradeoffs between floodplain-reconnection scenarios and enhancement of the existing levee system. The scenarios evaluated include levee removal and levee setbacks to strategically reconnect significant historical wetlands while reducing flood levels. Scenario costs and human population impacts are also assessed. Impacts of reconnecting the Lower Tisza floodplain are compared to heightening levees, the prevailing strategy over the previous century. From a purely construction-cost perspective, heightening Lower Tisza levees is potentially the most cost-effective and politically expedient solution (i.e., impacts the least number of people). However, levee-heightening does not solve the long-term problem of reduced flood conveyance, which has been attributed to aggradation and increased floodplain roughness, nor does it result in wetland reconnection or enhancement of other floodplain ecosystem services. The suite of reconnection options we evaluate provides engineers, planners, and decision makers a framework from which they can further evaluate

  6. Autogenic limits on allogenic controls of submarine landform evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorrell, R. M.; McCaffrey, W. D.; Burns, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Seafloor channel avulsion events recorded in the stratigraphic architecture of submarine fans are often identified as signals of boundary change of the associated sediment supply system. However, interpretation of such signals that are persevered in the rock record is complicated by the interplay between internal (autogenic) forcing and external (allogenic) forcing on the system which may have caused the avulsion of the channel. To investigate the importance of autogenic forcing on seafloor channel evolution, novel models have been constructed which calculate the width-averaged growth of a channel levee system with progressive deposition. These models demonstrate that seafloor channel-levee systems are inherently unstable and will avulse purely subject to autogenic forcing. It is demonstrated that this instability arises as a function of geometric constraints on the cross-sectional shape of the evolving channel and its bounding levees under aggradational flow conditions. Analytical solutions to these simplified models demonstrate that change in the area of the channel is given by the comparative rate at which the bounding outer levee and channel are built up. Whilst the outer levee is built up faster than the channel, there is a relative increase in channel size - increasing the degree by which a flow is confined and thus the decreasing the likelihood of an avulsion. However, if the channel is built up faster than the outer levee the degree by which the flow is confined by the channel will decrease, and thus the likelihood of avulsion will increase. It is seen that as bounding levees become large, and thus cannot be built up as fast as the channel, the evolution of the channel is inherently limited. However, autogenic channel-levee instability likely arises over very long time periods, with the half-life of channel decay proportional to the channel-levee system size. Thus, it is expected that additional external (allogenic) forcing, such as boundary condition

  7. Debates—Perspectives on socio-hydrology: Capturing feedbacks between physical and social processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Baldassarre, Giuliano; Viglione, Alberto; Carr, Gemma; Kuil, Linda; Yan, Kun; Brandimarte, Luigia; Blöschl, Günter

    2015-06-01

    In flood risk assessment, there remains a lack of analytical frameworks capturing the dynamics emerging from two-way feedbacks between physical and social processes, such as adaptation and levee effect. The former, "adaptation effect", relates to the observation that the occurrence of more frequent flooding is often associated with decreasing vulnerability. The latter, "levee effect", relates to the observation that the non-occurrence of frequent flooding (possibly caused by flood protection structures, e.g. levees) is often associated to increasing vulnerability. As current analytical frameworks do not capture these dynamics, projections of future flood risk are not realistic. In this paper, we develop a new approach whereby the mutual interactions and continuous feedbacks between floods and societies are explicitly accounted for. Moreover, we show an application of this approach by using a socio-hydrological model to simulate the behavior of two main prototypes of societies: green societies, which cope with flooding by resettling out of flood-prone areas; and technological societies, which deal with flooding also by building levees or dikes. This application shows that the proposed approach is able to capture and explain the aforementioned dynamics (i.e. adaptation and levee effect) and therefore contribute to a better understanding of changes in flood risk, within an iterative process of theory development and empirical research.

  8. Influence of hydrologic modifications on Fraxinus pennsylvanica in the Mississippi River Alluvial Valley, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, Hugo K.W.; King, Sammy L.; Keim, Richard F.

    2015-01-01

    We used tree-ring analysis to examine radial growth response of a common, moderately flood-tolerant species (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall) to hydrologic and climatic variability for > 40 years before and after hydrologic modifications affecting two forest stands in the Mississippi River Alluvial Valley (USA): a stand without levees below dams and a stand within a ring levee. At the stand without levees below dams, spring flood stages decreased and overall growth increased after dam construction, which we attribute to a reduction in flood stress. At the stand within a ring levee, growth responded to the elimination of overbank flooding by shifting from being positively correlated with river stage to not being correlated with river stage. In general, growth in swales was positively correlated with river stage and Palmer Drought Severity Index (an index of soil moisture) for longer periods than flats. Growth decreased after levee construction, but swales were less impacted than flats likely because of differences in elevation and soils provide higher soil moisture. Results of this study indicate that broad-scale hydrologic processes differ in their effects on the flood regime, and the effects on growth of moderately flood-tolerant species such as F. pennsylvanica can be mediated by local-scale factors such as topographic position, which affects soil moisture.

  9. National Program for Inspection of Non-Federal Dams. Bailey Pond (MA 00180) Merrimack River Basin, Amesbury, Massachusetts. Phase I Inspection Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    Information does not appear to exist on the type, shear strength or permeability of the soil and/or rock materials of the embankment. c. Operating...istetpfoto tI about 20 ft.~ � Report to Coo Co= At Bailoy’s Fond Damn, north of Meorrimsac 0 Strooet. tho concreto face wi� is baely disintegrated

  10. National Program for Inspection of Non-Federal Dams. Cobble Mountain Reservoir Dam (MA 00068), Connecticut River Basin, Russell, Massachusetts. Phase I Inspection Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    in upper elevations. Bedrock is mica shist covered with glacial deposits of great variety and generally of low permeability . About 80% of the...less than Outlet Portal Steel grate barrier & door, not locked. Concreto shows genera.1l surface deterioration -h -’Z Cobble Mountain Dam . 11/15/79 F

  11. National Program for Inspection of Non-Federal Dams. Upper Banjo Pond Dam (MA 00185) Massachusetts Coastal Basin, Gloucester, Massachusetts. Phase I Inspection Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-01

    embankments. No other information is available concerning the concrete mix design or concrete strengths, type, shear strength or permeability of the soil...his office and wcnt to da- alone. Further impocton ocod - see that repnirs are made. A clnrer drlvcway has been built to t. and concreto steps to the

  12. Cobertura desarrollada de Puerto Rico

    Treesearch

    William A. Gould; Sebastian Martinuzzi; Olga M. Ramos Gonzalez

    2008-01-01

    Este mapa representa la cobertura desarrollada en Puerto Rico (Martinuzzi et al. 2007). Cobertura desarrollada se define aqui como areas urbanas, construidas y sin vegetacion, que resultan de actividad humana. Tipicamente, estas incluyen estructuras construidas, concreto, asfalto, u otra infraestructura. La cobertura desarrollada se creo mediante el analisis de...

  13. Post-Katrina fecal contamination in Violet Marsh near New Orleans.

    PubMed

    Furey, John S; Fredrickson, Herbert; Foote, Chris; Richmond, Margaret

    2007-06-01

    Fecal material entrained in New Orleans flood waters was pumped into the local environment. Violet Marsh received water pumped from St. Bernard Parish and the Lower Ninth Ward. Sediment core samples were collected from canals conducting water from these areas to pump stations and from locations within Violet Marsh. Viable indicator bacteria and fecal sterols were used to assess the levels of fecal material in sediment deposited after the levee failures and deeper sediments deposited before. Most of the cores had fecal coliform levels that exceed the biosolids criterion. All of the cores had fecal sterols that exceeded the suggested environmental quality criterion. Our data show both a long history of fecal contamination in Violet Marsh and an increase in fecal loading corresponding to the failure of the levee system. The work was performed as part of the Interagency Performance Evaluation Task Force investigation into the consequences of the failures of the New Orleans levee system.

  14. [Molecular characterisation and phenotypic description of two patients with reciprocal chromosomal aberrations in the region of the 3q29 microdeletion/microduplication syndromes].

    PubMed

    Quintela, I; Barros-Angueira, F; Perez-Gay, L; Dacruz, D; Castro-Gago, M; Carracedo, A; Eiris-Punal, J

    2015-09-16

    Introduccion. Los sindromes de microdelecion y microduplicacion 3q29 se caracterizan por una marcada heterogeneidad fenotipica, y el retraso del desarrollo y la discapacidad intelectual de grado leve-moderado son las manifestaciones clinicas mas frecuentes. Casos clinicos. Dos pacientes con aberraciones cromosomicas reciprocas en la region 3q29. La paciente con la microdelecion 3q29 presenta dificultades de aprendizaje, microcefalia limite, dismorfismo facial leve, deficit atencional e impulsividad, y rasgos ansiosos y obsesivos. El paciente con la microduplicacion 3q29 reciproca presenta dificultades de aprendizaje, dismorfismo facial leve y un perfil conductual disruptivo no asociado previamente con esta duplicacion. Conclusion. Se comparan los fenotipos de estos pacientes y se revisa la bibliografia de pacientes pediatricos con microdeleciones y microduplicaciones 3q29.

  15. REEVALUATION OF THE FLOOD AND THE FLOOD CONTROL PLAN AROUND THE DAIJUU WEIR IN THE YOSHINO RIVER BY USING THE WATER LEVEL DATA AND THE RIVER SURVEY MAP IN THE MEIJI ERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuo, Yuji; Yatunaga, Kazuo; Nakano, Susumu

    The authors analyzed the hydraulic features of the Daijuu Weir and neighboring levee of the Yoshino River in the historical perspective, as the structures are important factors of flood control for the river. Firstly, the authors analyzed the precious data of water level observations around the Weir started by De Rijke, a Dutch engineer in 1883. Then using a river survey map surveyed in 1901, they restored the status of levees of the Yoshino River before modern improvement works. Thirdly they analyzed a relationship between the Yoshino River Levee and the Daijuu Weir based on the newspaper articles of the fifty years of period from 1878 through 1927. As the conclusion they reevaluated the flood and flood control plan of the Yoshino River around the Daijuu Weir.

  16. Tradeoffs of strategically reconnecting rivers to their floodplains: The case of the Lower Illinois River (USA).

    PubMed

    Guida, Ross J; Remo, Jonathan W F; Secchi, Silvia

    2016-12-01

    During the latter half of the 19th Century and first half of the 20th Century, the Illinois River was heavily altered through leveeing off large portions of its floodplain, draining wetlands, and the construction of dams and river-training structures that facilitated navigation. As a result of these alterations, flood stages continue to rise, increasing flood risk and threatening to overtop levees along the La Grange Segment (LGS) of the Illinois River. Over the last two decades, more emphasis has been placed on reconnecting portions of floodplains to rivers in order to solve the long-term problem of rising flood heights attributed to continual heightening of levees to provide flood protection. Multiple studies have suggested that strategically reconnecting larger portions of the LGS could result in more sustainable floodplain management. However, the true costs and benefits of reconnecting the floodplain are not known. We use a novel hydrodynamic, geospatial, economic, and habitat suitability framework to assess the tradeoffs of strategically reconnecting the Illinois River to its floodplain in order to decrease flood risk, improve floodplain habitats, and limit the costs of reconnection. Costs include building-associated losses, lost agricultural profits, and levee removal and construction costs. Tested scenarios demonstrate that while flood heights and environmental benefits are maximized through the most aggressive levee setbacks and removals, these scenarios also have the highest costs. However, the tradeoff of implementing lower-cost scenarios is that there is less flood-height reduction and less floodplain habitat available. Several individual levee districts have high potential for reconnection based on limiting potential damages as well as providing floodplain habitat. To implement large-scale strategic floodplain reconnection, costs range from $1.2-$4.3 billion. As such, payments for ecosystem services will likely be necessary to compensate landowners for

  17. Channel systems and lobe construction in the Mississippi Fan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garrison, L. E.; Kenyon, Neil H.; Bouma, A.H.

    1982-01-01

    Morphological features on the Mississippi Fan in the eastern Gulf of Mexico were mapped using GLORIA II, a long-range side-scan sonar system. Prominent is a sinuous channel flanked by well-developed levees and occasional crevasse splays. The channel follows the axis and thickest part of the youngest fan lobe; seismic-reflection profiles offer evidence that its course has remained essentially constant throughout lobe development. Local modification and possible erosion of levees by currents indicates a present state of inactivity. Superficial sliding has affected part of the fan lobe, but does not appear to have been a factor in lobe construction. ?? 1982 A. M. Dowden, Inc.

  18. Analyses of water, core material, and elutriate samples collected near Buras, Louisiana (New Orleans to Venice, Louisiana, Hurricane Protection Project)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leone, Harold A.

    1977-01-01

    Eight core-material-sampling sites were chosen by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers as possible borrow areas for fill material to be used in levee contruction near Buras, La. Eleven receiving-water sites also were selected to represent the water that will contact the porposed levees. Analyses of selected nutrients, metals, pesticides, and other organic constitutents were performed upon these bed-material and native-water samples as well as upon elutriate samples of specific core material-receiving water systems. The results of these analyses are presented without interpretation. (Woodard-USGS)

  19. Analyses of water, core material, and elutriate samples collected near Galliano, Louisiana: Larose to Golden Meadow, Louisiana, Hurricane Protection Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leone, Harold L.

    1977-01-01

    Seven core-material-sampling sites were chosen by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers as possible borrow areas for fill material to be used in levee construction near Galliano La. Four receiving-water sites also were selected to represent the water that will contact the proposed levees. Analyses of selected nutrients, metals, pesticides, and other organic constituents were performed upon these bed-material and native-water samples as well as upon elutriate samples of specific core material-receiving water systems. The results of these analyses are presented without interpretation. (Woodard-USGS)

  20. Sedimentation, accretion, and subsidence in marshes of Barataria Basin, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Hatton, R.S.; DeLaune, R.D.; Patrick, W.H. Jr.

    1983-05-01

    Vertical accretion and sediment accumulation rates were determined from the distribution of /sup 137/Cs in cores collected from fresh water, intermediate, brackish, and salt marshes in the Barataria Basin, Louisiana. Vertical accretion rates vary from about 1.3 cm.yr/sup -1/ in levee areas to 0.7 in backmarshes. Mineral sediment content of the marsh soil profile decreased with distance from the coast. Except in natural levee areas, marsh accretion rates are less than subsidence measured by water level data, however this alone cannot account for observed land-loss patterns in the basin area.

  1. 75 FR 21252 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    ... 404 of the Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. 1344) for placement of fill into jurisdictional waters of the... walls, constructing seepage berms, and constructing setback levees. 3. Scoping Process. a. A public... and hydraulics; water quality; biological resources (i.e., fisheries, vegetation and...

  2. Downstream on the Mississippi.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parfit, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Recounts a trip down the Lower Mississippi River starting in Memphis, describing the features of the river at different stops along the way. Aspects of life along the river discussed include the levee system built to contain the waters, flooding on the river, and travel on the river. (MDH)

  3. Coherence of erodibility for erosion processes and different scales

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Erosion is one of the least reliably defined elements of many hydraulic projects. Earthen embankments (i.e. dams and levees) are an example of hydraulic projects for which erosion and erodibility have not been reliably defined in the past. Characterizing material erodibility is one of the essentia...

  4. Internal erosion and impact of erosion resistance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The two most common causes of earthen embankment and levee failure are embankment overtopping and internal erosion. Internal erosion occurs when water flows through a cavity, crack, and/or other opening within the embankment. These openings may be a result of inadequate compaction during construct...

  5. Erodibility characteristics of embankment materials

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Erosion is one of the least reliably defined elements of many hydraulic projects. Earthen embankments (i.e. dams and levees) are an example of hydraulic projects in which erosion and material erodibility have not been reliably defined in the past. Recent as well as past embankment failures have he...

  6. Preparing Minority Populations for Emergencies: Connecting to Build a More Resilient Community

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    break of the New Orleans levees, thereby selectively flooding poor areas and saving financial institutions.108 This event lives on in the memories and...discourse, and 3) with the preferred forms of autobiographic telling, which may influence the types of stories people tell themselves about

  7. Connecting the Disconnected: Scholar Activists and Education Reform in Post-Katrina New Orleans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Daniella Ann

    2014-01-01

    When Hurricane Katrina slammed into New Orleans on August 29, 2005, the failure of the levees resulted in the largest single human-made disaster in the United States. In addition to the physical devastation of the city, the landscape of public schools in New Orleans was permanently altered, as was the national dialogue about school reform in the…

  8. 50 CFR 32.44 - Missouri.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... each day. 3. We prohibit shooting at deer that are on any portion of the main perimeter levee. 4. We... refuge staff before removing them from the refuge. iv. Shooting hours end at 3:00 p.m. each day. v... hunters into the hunt boundary up to 2 hours prior to legal shooting time. 3. Hunting will stop at 12...

  9. 50 CFR 32.44 - Missouri.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... prohibit shooting at deer that are on any portion of the main perimeter levee. 4. We allow use of portable... hunter access to the public hunting from 11/2 hours before legal shooting time until 11/2 hours after legal shooting time. 3. We require that all hunters register at the hunter sign-in stations and...

  10. 10. DETAIL VIEW OF LOWER LEVEL OF INTAKE PIER SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. DETAIL VIEW OF LOWER LEVEL OF INTAKE PIER SHOWING THE RIVER HEIGHT INDICATOR, ONE OF THE FIVE GATE OPENINGS, AND MOORINGS, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Sacramento River Water Treatment Plant Intake Pier & Access Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River approximately 175 feet west of eastern levee on river; roughly .5 mile downstream from confluence of Sacramento & American Rivers, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  11. 9. VIEW OF INTAKE PIER AND MAIN SPAN OF ACCESS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF INTAKE PIER AND MAIN SPAN OF ACCESS BRIDGE FROM WATER LEVEL, LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Sacramento River Water Treatment Plant Intake Pier & Access Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River approximately 175 feet west of eastern levee on river; roughly .5 mile downstream from confluence of Sacramento & American Rivers, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  12. 44 CFR 80.19 - Land use and oversight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...: Walled buildings, levees, dikes, or floodwalls, paved roads, highways, bridges, cemeteries, landfills... allowable uses. (2) No new structures or improvements will be built on the property except as indicated... before the construction of the structure begins. (3) Any improvements on the property shall be in...

  13. Socioecological disparities in New Orleans following Hurricane Katrina

    Treesearch

    Joshua A. Lewis; Wayne C. Zipperer; Henrik Ernstson; Brittany Bernik; Rebecca Hazen; Thomas Elmqvist; Michael J. Blum

    2017-01-01

    Despite growing interest in urban resilience, remarkably little is known about vegetation dynamics in the aftermath of disasters. In this study, we examined the composition and structure of plant communities across New Orleans (Louisiana, USA) following catastrophic flooding triggered by levee failures during Hurricane Katrina in 2005. Focusing on eight...

  14. Considerations in Identifying and Attacking the Enemy’s Center of Gravity,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-14

    1941 Crusader and 1942 Bustard Hunt operations - in order to identify insights and lessons applicable to center of gravity at the operational level...I II. ANALYSIS OF OPERATION CRUSADER ................. 9 III. ANALYSIS OF OPERATION BUSTARD HUNT ............ 19 S, IV. CONCLUSIONS...28 APPENDIX A (MAPS FOR CRUSADER) ................. 31 APPENDIX B (MAPS FOR BUSTARD HUNT) ............. 35 ENDNOTES

  15. In utero glucocorticoid (GLC) exposure and maternal undernutrition reduce fetal skeletal muscle mass by different mechanisms in rats

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Both maternal undernutrition and exposure of the fetus to above normal levels of GLC impair skeletal muscle growth. The degree to which the effects of maternal undernutrition on fetal skeletal muscle growth are a direct result of nutrient deficit or secondary to the presence of above normal GLC leve...

  16. Leading in the Worst of Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Cynthia B.; Taylor, Denny

    2006-01-01

    On Monday, August 29, 2005, Hurricane Katrina and the floodwaters from the breeched levees destroyed all 14 schools in Louisiana's St. Bernard Parish. Although most residents had been evacuated before the hurricane hit, 1,500 men, women, and children rode out the storm in Chalmette High School. The district superintendent and the school leadership…

  17. PLANAR VIEW OF NORTHWEST CORNER OF LOCK WALL, EXTERIOR OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PLANAR VIEW OF NORTHWEST CORNER OF LOCK WALL, EXTERIOR OF UPPER GATES (NORTHERN) ON LEFT, BAFFLES FOR DRAINING OF LOCK ON RIGHT, LEVEE IN BACKGROUND, VIEW TOWARDS WEST - Moore Haven Lock, Hurricane Gate No. 1, Cross-State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Moore Haven, Glades County, FL

  18. DISTANT VIEW OF EXTERIOR OD UPPER (NORTHERN) LOCK GATES, WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DISTANT VIEW OF EXTERIOR OD UPPER (NORTHERN) LOCK GATES, WITH TIMBER GUIDE WALL AND CONTROL HOUSE ON RIGHT AND TIMBER PYLONS AND LEVEE ON LEFT, BAFFLES ARE IN FRONT OF GATES FOR THE DRAINING OF THE LOCK, VIEW TOWARDS SOUTH - Moore Haven Lock, Hurricane Gate No. 1, Cross-State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Moore Haven, Glades County, FL

  19. 75 FR 56133 - Savannah Coastal Refuges' Complex, GA and SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ... boundary. At Savannah NWR, the focus would increase on acquiring lands from willing sellers by any viable... alternative, we would protect and maintain all refuge lands, primarily focusing on the needs of threatened and... open lands. All ponds, levees, moist-soil water management units, and water control structures...

  20. Contingency Contracting in Support of Conus Disasters: A Case Study of the 1994 Northridge Earthquake, 2005 Hurricane Katrina and 2012 Hurricane Sandy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    41  Figure 10.  New Orleans levee breaches (Bird of Paradise 5...countless homes were lost as a result of irreparable damage. In comparison to other U.S. disasters, including 2005 Hurricane Katina and 2012 Hurricane...Because of this reality, hundreds of thousands of Los Angeles citizens lost access to the northern area of the county. Traffic was also deterred in

  1. 44 CFR 59.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... tidal barriers, dams, reservoirs, levees or dikes. These specialized flood modifying works are those... improvements under the Coastal Barrier Resources Act (Pub. L. 97-348)), includes substantial improvement, and... Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, and the Commonwealth of the...

  2. Boussinesq Modeling for Inlets, Harbors, and Structures (Bouss-2D)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-30

    coastal structures, levees, groins, beaches, dunes and barrier islands ; breaking-induced nearshore circulation; wave- current interaction at channels...around artificial islands ; and impacts of vessel-generated waves on coastal shorelines and river banks. BMT can represent wave reflection

  3. 44 CFR 59.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... tidal barriers, dams, reservoirs, levees or dikes. These specialized flood modifying works are those... improvements under the Coastal Barrier Resources Act (Pub. L. 97-348)), includes substantial improvement, and... Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, and the Commonwealth of the...

  4. 44 CFR 59.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... tidal barriers, dams, reservoirs, levees or dikes. These specialized flood modifying works are those... improvements under the Coastal Barrier Resources Act (Pub. L. 97-348)), includes substantial improvement, and... Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, and the Commonwealth of the...

  5. 44 CFR 59.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... tidal barriers, dams, reservoirs, levees or dikes. These specialized flood modifying works are those... improvements under the Coastal Barrier Resources Act (Pub. L. 97-348)), includes substantial improvement, and... Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, and the Commonwealth of the...

  6. 44 CFR 59.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... tidal barriers, dams, reservoirs, levees or dikes. These specialized flood modifying works are those... improvements under the Coastal Barrier Resources Act (Pub. L. 97-348)), includes substantial improvement, and... Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, and the Commonwealth of the...

  7. A survey of catfish pond water chemistry parameters for copper toxicity modelling

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Water samples were collected from 20 catfish ponds in 2015 to obtain data useful in predicting copper toxicity and chemical behavior. Ponds were located in major catfish producing areas of west Alabama, east Arkansas, and Mississippi. Pond types included traditional levee ponds, split-ponds, water...

  8. 77 FR 12818 - Intent To Prepare a Draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Rio Grande...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ... Salado was filed with the Council on Environmental Quality in 1977. An SEIS evaluating the effects of the... withstand long- duration floods and evaluating effects to recently listed endangered species was filed with... draft SEIS is being developed to evaluate effects of revised levee design and additional...

  9. A Study of Differential Problem Solving Behaviors in Processing a Science Text Passage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betkouski, Marianne B.; McDonald, Sandra Kirk

    This study investigated how students processed information obtained by reading a passage related to inertial reference frames. Two groups of 10th-grade students (one group consisting of students identified as potential National Merit Scholars and another consisting of students enrolled in level-I biology) read a science text passage and answered a…

  10. 76 FR 81421 - Eligible Obligations, Charitable Contributions, Nonmember Deposits, Fixed Assets, Investments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-28

    ... ``political subdivision'' in the nonmember deposit rule are defined in paragraphs (c) and (d) of Sec. 745.1... exclusive use and control. It also includes drainage, irrigation, navigation improvement, levee, sanitary... 701.36(d), 742.4(a)(3). The Board proposes to amend the fixed assets rule to extend the...

  11. Lessons: Katrina and Beginning Anew

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirylo, James D.

    2005-01-01

    New Orleans, fondly known in better days for its spectacular cuisine, cool jazz, and good times, was the leading story on television news broadcasts the world over when a massive hurricane came. As Katrina took its destructive path, culminating in the devastating rupture of ill-prepared levee systems, the world was riveted by stories about the…

  12. Initial Development of Riparian and Marsh Vegetation on Dredged-material Islands in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, California

    Treesearch

    A. Sidney England; Mark K. Sogge; Roy A. Woodward

    1989-01-01

    Natural vegetation establishment and development were monitored for 3 1/2 years on a new, dredged-material island located within the breached levees at Donlon Island in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta. Vegetation measurements and maps prepared annually indicate that marsh and riparian vegetation types have developed rapidly. Topographic data for the island has...

  13. Into the Second Century: Memphis Engineer District, 1976-1981

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    channel improve- ments, including strengthening the main stem levees. The 1928 act adopted the plan proposed by Major General Edgar Jadwin, Chief of...Fish Commis- sion, Memphis Engineer District, St. Francis Pumping Station File, December 8, 1976. 4Major Rovert A. Morin , Jr., Acting District Engineer

  14. Phase I Marine Archeological Remote Sensing Survey of the Proposed Mississippi River Sand Borrow Sites for the Louisiana Coastal Area Barrier Shoreline Restoration Project, Plaquemines Parish, Louisiana

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    forest . Principal overstory within the oak forest would have been water oak {Quercus nigra), overcup oak {Quercus lyrata), cottonwood {Populus...Forestiera acuminata), water locust (Gleditsia aquatica), and honey locust (Gleditsia triacanthos). The understory of these forests typically...between the natural levee oak forest and adjacent marsh is covered by dense shrubs and cane (Penfound and Hathaway 1938; R. Christopher Goodwin

  15. Nocturnal intermittency in surface CO2 concentrations in sub-Saharan Africa

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Data obtained over four adjacent fields of differing management practices in Zimbabwe illustrate the role of atmospheric intermittency as a mechanism for transferring CO2 between the surface and the atmosphere above. At night, limited atmospheric mixing permits CO2 concentrations to increase to leve...

  16. Pronghorn virus, genomic and antigenic characterization and detection in free ranging ungulates in the US

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objective: In addition to the recognized/classic species within the pestivirus genus there are putative species. One of these is pronghorn virus (PHV). PHV was first isolated from an immature, blind pronghorn antelope in the state of Wyoming. The objectives of these studies were to determine leve...

  17. 78 FR 16479 - Revised Notice of Intent To Prepare a joint Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ... amended) (33 U.S.C. 408), and Section 404 of the Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. 1344), for the proposed.../city/flood . WSAFCA is planning the Southport Sacramento River EIP to implement flood-risk management measures along the Sacramento River South Levee in the City of West Sacramento, Yolo County, CA. Since...

  18. Simulated response and effects to oil exposure in an estuarine fish species

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experimental toxicity data alone lack ecological relevance to assess more realistic situations, such as variable exposure to a contaminant and long-term impact. Evaluating the implications of sublethal effects or behavioral response to exposure requires long-term, population-leve...

  19. Civic Engagement about Climate Change: A Case Study of Three Educators and Their Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Thomas; Marri, Anand R.

    2012-01-01

    This collective case study examined how three educators (a high school social studies teacher, a university social studies teacher educator, and minister teaching an adult population) used a multimedia based curriculum guide, "Teaching the Levees", to teach about climate change to examine public priorities in relation to the environment.…

  20. Creating a disease risk map for West Nile virus for surveillance in Central Texas using a Geographic Information System and Remote Sensing technologies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Following the discovery of the West Nile virus (WNv) in Brazos County, TX in 2002, mosquito research personnel at Texas A&M University established a routine WNv mosquito vector surveillance program in the county. In 2004, a map of Brazos County was created depicting areas that had a heightened leve...

  1. Characterizing the Exposure of Regional-Scale Air Quality in the Northeastern United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Clean Air Act (CAA) requires that the United States (U.S.) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) set National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for pollutants considered harmful to human health and the environment. Previous research has shown that high ambient ozone leve...

  2. Three dimensional numerical modeling of flow and pollutant transport in a flooding area of 2008 US Midwest Flood

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This paper presents the development and application of a three-dimensional numerical model for simulating the flow field and pollutant transport in a flood zone near the confluence of the Mississippi River and Iowa River in Oakville, Iowa. Due to a levee breaching along the Iowa River during the US ...

  3. Unauthorized Appropriations and Expiring Authorizations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-01-11

    levees Expiration Date: September 30> 1996 FY 1996 Appropriations Authorized: $ 5,000,000 P. L. 101-619 National Environmental Education Act * EPA programs...for environmental education Expiration Date: September 30, 1996 FY 1996 Appropriations Authorized: $ 14>000,000 P. L. 101-596 Great Lakes Critical

  4. Sulfur Mustard Induces Apoptosis in Lung Epithelial Cells via a Caspase Amplification Loop

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    absolute requirement for removal of caspase-6 prodomain. Cell Death Differ. 9, 1046–1056. Dabrowska, M.I., Becks , L.L., Lelli Jr., J.L., Levee, M.G...Breton, P., Bren- ner, C., Boisvieux- Ulrich , E., Marano, F., 2006. Inhibition of caspase-dependent mitochondrial permeability transition protects airway

  5. 76 FR 29215 - Notice of Intent To Prepare Draft Environmental Impact Statements/Environmental Impact Reports...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ... through-seepage, under- seepage, and embankment instability (e.g., overly steepened slopes). Alternatives considered may include measures such as slurry cutoff walls, seepage berms, stability berms, internal drains, relief wells, sheet-pile walls, slope flattening, and potential new levee alignments. As part of the...

  6. Depositional processes of a meandering channel on Mississippi fan

    SciTech Connect

    Kastens, K.A.; Shor, A.N.

    1985-02-01

    A continuous, meandering, leveed channel traverses the Mississippi fan from the continental slope to the abyssal plain. Using water-gun seismic reflection profiling, 3.5- and 4.5-kHz profiling, and SeaMARC I side-scan sonar, the authors surveyed a 30-km (16-nmi) long channel segment midway between the slope break and channel terminus, where the channel bends through a tight meander with a 2.8-km (1.5-nmi) radius of curvature. At the entrance to each meander bend, the outer levee is unusually low, similar to the crevasses observed in rivers. The levees are constructed of an acoustically opaque unit and draped with an acoustically laminated unit; these are interpreted as coarser and finer grained overbank deposits, respectively. A series of high-amplitude seismic reflectors underlying the channel axis are interpreted as coarse sediments deposited from the base of turbidity currents. When last active, the channel was more than 100 m (300 ft) deep, but it has been filled to the brim by acoustically transparent units, leaving a levee crest/thalweg relief of as little as 5 m (16 ft). These channel-filling units are interpreted as debris flows. The upper surface of the debris flows is sculpted by flowline-parallel, side-scan lineations where the flow was unimpeded and by arcuate ridges transverse to the flow where bathymetric obstacles constrained the flow. 10 figures.

  7. Katrina's Children: Social Policy Considerations for Children in Disasters. Social Policy Report. Volume 21, Number 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osofsky, Joy D.; Osofsky, Howard J.; Harris, William W.

    2007-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina resulted in a disaster of proportions not previously known in the United States. The traumatic experiences of children and families during Hurricane Katrina, the flooding that resulted from the breach of the levees, the evacuation, and the aftermath are unprecedented. In responding to the enormous mental health needs of children…

  8. Geotechnical reconnaissance of the Mississippi River Delta flood-protection system after Hurricane Katrina: Chapter 3C in Science and the storms-the USGS response to the hurricanes of 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luna, Ronaldo; Summers, David; Hoffman, David; Rogers, J. David; Sevi, Adam; Witt, Emitt C.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the post-Hurricane Katrina conditions of the flood-protection system of levees and floodwalls that failed in the environs of the Mississippi River Delta and New Orleans, La. Damage conditions and suggested mechanisms of failure are presented from the geotechnical point of view.

  9. 17. INTAKE PIER, BRIDGE STRESS SHEET, SHEET 8 OF 117, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. INTAKE PIER, BRIDGE STRESS SHEET, SHEET 8 OF 117, 1920. - Sacramento River Water Treatment Plant Intake Pier & Access Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River approximately 175 feet west of eastern levee on river; roughly .5 mile downstream from confluence of Sacramento & American Rivers, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  10. Connecting the Disconnected: Scholar Activists and Education Reform in Post-Katrina New Orleans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Daniella Ann

    2014-01-01

    When Hurricane Katrina slammed into New Orleans on August 29, 2005, the failure of the levees resulted in the largest single human-made disaster in the United States. In addition to the physical devastation of the city, the landscape of public schools in New Orleans was permanently altered, as was the national dialogue about school reform in the…

  11. 77 FR 62490 - Performance Review Board Appointments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-15

    ... and Staff Offices Parham, Gregory L., Armstrong, Kent W.; Bange, Gerald A.; Baumes, Harry S.; Bender....; Chasteen, G. Taylor; Christian, Lisa A.; Clanton, Michael W.; Coffee, Richard; Farington, Kim S.; Foster..., Bethany; Kaplan, David; Lautner, Elizabeth; Levings, Randall L.; McCammon, Sally L.; McCluskey,...

  12. Geologic Controls of Sand Boil Formation at Buck Chute, Mississippi

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-06-30

    information system (GIS), researchers concluded that the thin blanket associated with point bar deposits, abandoned channel deposits causing a blocked...Industry Research and Information Association (CIRIA). 2013. The international levee handbook. London, UK: Construction Industry Research and...Information Association . Fisk, H.N. 1944. Geologic investigations of the alluvial valley of the Lower Mississippi River. Vicksburg, MS: Mississippi River

  13. Katrina and the Privilege of Despair: Welch's Model of Connection in Teaching for Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Alicia D.; Brooks, Julia G.; Gunzenhauser, Michael G.

    2008-01-01

    In this essay, the authors note a particular air of apathy in relation to the post-Katrina era expressed in teacher education classes. They are concerned with what the cultural levees mean for justice-oriented educators. How might they find ways to foster in their students connections of empathy and solidarity with those experiencing these…

  14. Gulf Coast Wetlands

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Wetlands of the Gulf Coast     ... web of estuarine channels and extensive coastal wetlands that provide important habitat for fisheries. The city of New Orleans ... or below sea level. The city is protected by levees, but the wetlands which also function as a buffer from storm surges have been ...

  15. Status of Major Acquisitions As of September 30, 1981: Better Reporting Essential to Controlling Cost Growth

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-22

    SHARE OF ESTIMATE > o M X M PROJECT NAME CATEGORY I...OC/GAO-ID ELK CREEK LAKE CON OR 34 CHAWANESQUE LAKE CON PA 26 PORTUGUES ...MILL CREEK 50 MO. LEVEE SYSTEM 51 NEW ORLEANS TO VENICE 52 PAINTSVILLE LAKE 53 PHOENIX & VICINITY 54 PORT ARTHUR VICINITY 55 PORTUGUES & BUCANA

  16. Mathematical modeling of flooding due to river bank failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viero, Daniele Pietro; D'Alpaos, Andrea; Carniello, Luca; Defina, Andrea

    2013-09-01

    Modeling of flooding events resulting from bank overflooding and levee breaching is of relevant social and environmental interest. Two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamic models integrating the shallow water equations turn out to be very effective tools for the purpose at hand. Many of the available models also use 1D channel elements, fully coupled to the 2D model, to simulate the flow of small channels dissecting the urban and rural areas, and 1D elements, referred to as 1D-links, to efficiently model the flow over levees, road and rail embankments, bunds, the flow through control gates, either free or submerged, and the operation of other hydraulic structures. In this work we propose a physically-based 1D-link to model breach formation and evolution in fluvial levees, and levee failure due to either piping or overtopping. The proposed 1D-link is then embedded in a 1D-2D hydrodynamic model, thus accounting for critical feedbacks between breach formation and changes in the hydrodynamic flow field. The breach model also includes the possibility of simulating breach closure, an important feature particularly in the view of hydraulic risk assessment and management of the emergency. The model is applied to five different case studies and the results of the numerical simulations compare favorably with field observations displaying a good agreement in terms of urban and rural flooded areas, water levels within the channel, final breach widths, and water volumes flowed through the breach.

  17. The Kabu-ido system: a pioneering solution for uncoordinated groundwater pumping in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endo, T.

    2015-11-01

    The Kabu-ido system was a customary institution for groundwater management in a ring levee area of the Tokai region in Japan. It consists of three programs, a permit system for groundwater pumping, groundwater pricing, and economic compensation. The purpose of this paper is to clarify characteristics of the Kabu-ido as a groundwater management institution.

  18. The Four-Element Framework: An Integrated Test and Evaluation Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-14

    Capabilities & Limitations Any lower level system item limitations? START NO NONO YES YES YES Determine system item capabilities. All lower level...is Unresolved All measure standards met? END Document Mission Task Capabilities and Limitations Any system item limitations? START NO NONO YES YES

  19. Cigarrillos de mentol | Smokefree Español

    Cancer.gov

    ¿Qué es el mentol? El mentol es una sustancia encontrada naturalmente en las plantas de menta, tales como la menta fresca y la hierbabuena. Deja una sensación refrescante y se usa frecuentemente para aliviar el dolor y la irritación leve, y para prevenir infecciones [1].

  20. Application of GPR to the monitoring of river embankments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Prinzio, Monica; Bittelli, Marco; Castellarin, Attilio; Pisa, Paola Rossi

    2010-06-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) can assist decision making in a number of fields by enhancing our knowledge of subsurface features. Non-destructive investigations and controls of civil structures are improving day by day, however the scientific literature reports only a few documented cases of GPR applications to the detection of voids and discontinuities in hydraulic defense structures such as river embankments and levee systems. We applied GPR to the monitoring of river levees for detecting animal burrows, which may trigger levee failures by piping. The manageability and the non-invasiveness of GPR have resulted to be particularly suitable for this application. First because GPR is an extensive investigation method that enables one to rapidly cover a wide area, locating voids that are difficult and costly to locate using other intrusive methods. Second, GPR returns detailed information about the possible presence of voids and discontinuities within river embankments. We document a series of successful GPR applications to detect animal burrows in river levees.

  1. NASA Images Mississippi River Flooding in Louisiana

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-05-19

    NASA Terra spacecraft shows the water flow after the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers opened the Morganza Spillway, a flood control structure along the western bank of the Mississippi River in Louisiana, to ease flooding along levee systems on May 14, 2011.

  2. 7. CLOSEUP VIEW OF THE PUMP DISCHARGE CHANNEL, AND THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. CLOSEUP VIEW OF THE PUMP DISCHARGE CHANNEL, AND THE DISCHARGE WEIR OF THE FOR PUMPS NO. 2 AND 3, LOOKING NORTHEAST. THE SERVICE BRIDGE PROVIDED ACCESS TO THE LEVEE OVER TOBY CREEK. - Wyoming Valley Flood Control System, Woodward Pumping Station, East of Toby Creek crossing by Erie-Lackawanna Railroad, Edwardsville, Luzerne County, PA

  3. Blue Marsh Lake, Bernville Protective Works. Design Memorandum Number 13 Schuylkill River basin. Tulpehocken Creek, Pennsylvania

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-03-01

    Wildlife Species. Phasianus colchicus - Ring- necked Pheasant Sylvilagus floridanus - Cottontail Rabbit Vulpes fulva - Red Fox Odocoileus virginianus - whi...the pumps to be excercised without water In the sump. The storm pumps will discharge through individual, 6-foot dia- meter over-the-levee discharge

  4. Plants of the Bayshore.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachle, Leo; And Others

    This field guide gives pictures and descriptions of plants that can be found along the San Francisco Bayshore, especially along the Hayward shoreline. The plants are divided into three categories, those of the mud-flat zone, the drier zone, and the levee zone. Eighteen plants are represented in all. The guide is designed to be used alone, with an…

  5. Sacramento River Flood Control Project, California, Mid-Valley Area, Phase III. Design Memorandum, Volume 1 of 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-08-01

    1944 and May 1950 and incorporated under Sacramento River and Major and Minor Tributaries. Although construction of the project was initiated in 1918...many of the levees were originally constructed by local interests prior to that time and subsequently modified and adopted as part of the project...6-1 6.02. Reconstruction Plans .. ................................... 6-2 6.03. Construction Considerations

  6. Predators, prey, and natural disasters attract ecologists.

    PubMed

    Mlot, C

    1993-08-27

    Some 2200 ecologists turned out for the 78th annual meeting of the Ecological Society of America (ESA), held in Madison, Wisconsin, 31 July to 4 August. Among the offerings: reports on the effect of dams and levees on large river ecology, predator-prey interactions, how parasites might control evolution, and the impact of clearcutting on soil organisms.

  7. Remnant Bottomland Forests near the Terminus of the Mississippi River in Southeastern Louisiana

    Treesearch

    David A. White; Stephanie A. Skojac

    2002-01-01

    The woody communities of seven of the most intact bottomland hardwood forests of southeastern Louisiana are described. The seven forests are on old levee ridges associated with past distributaries of the Mississippi River. The communities were divided by diameter size class into overstory (>10.0 cm dbh) and understory (3.0 cm >...

  8. The Impact of Chinese Development of Nuclear Weapons on the Pakistan-Indian Dispute

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1966-04-08

    Conference of Dec. 10, 1962." Dept of State Bulletin, Vol. 47, 31 Dec. 1962, p. 998. (Statement of recent US efforts on Kashmir.) 65. Salam , Abdus ...34 RoyaJ Central Asaln Journal, Viii. 51, Oct. 1964, p. 223. 39 Abdus Sal am, !Pak i sLa I- -The Case for Tecict I Cal leve I plmielt , BHlleLtln of

  9. Making Ethnic Citizens: The Politics and Practice of Education in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Graham K.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the politics and practice of education in Malaysia within the context of ethnicity and nation building. Public education in Malaysia--particularly, but not exclusively, at the pre-university level--is promoted as a nation-building tool, seeking to inculcate a sense of Malaysian-ness and patriotism. Simultaneously, however,…

  10. Public Opinion on Long Island about the Vietnam War: A School Year Project Using Local Sources and Perspectives in the Classroom and in Student Research Papers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howlett, Charles

    2004-01-01

    A school-year research experiment using primary resources to teach an important national issue--protest movements against the Vietnam War at the local level--is an excellent way to motivate students and energize classroom teaching. Every local community in America has its own story to tell about the war in Vietnam. Whether it is about a local son…

  11. Climate Change: Federal Efforts Under Way to Assess Water Infrastructure Vulnerabilities and Address Adaptation Challenges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    navigation, flood and coastal storm damage reduction, hydropower , and water supply, among other things. Established in 1902, Reclamation constructed...Adaptation infrastructure, including reservoirs, hydropower facilities, commercial inland waterways, harbors, and levee systems. In June 2011, in response...following: navigation, flood and coastal storm damage reduction, environment, hydropower , regulatory, recreation, emergency management, and water

  12. From Classroom to Gallery: Building Community and Preserving Heritage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, Kate

    2012-01-01

    When the levees broke during Hurricane Katrina in 2005, eighty percent of New Orleans flooded, and the citizens who returned to the evacuated city had to rebuild their homes, cultural institutions, and school system. This article records how The Ogden Museum of Southern Art, University of New Orleans, was able to collaborate with a charter school…

  13. Good News for New Orleans: Early Evidence Shows Reforms Lifting Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Douglas N.

    2015-01-01

    What happened to the New Orleans public schools following the tragic levee breeches after Hurricane Katrina is truly unprecedented. Within the span of one year, all public-school employees were fired, the teacher contract expired and was not replaced, and most attendance zones were eliminated. The state took control of almost all public schools…

  14. Revisiting the Gulf Coast after Katrina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Principal, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In August 2005, the world witnessed one of the most destructive natural disasters on America's mainland. Hurricane Katrina, followed a month later by Hurricane Rita, brought more than broken levees, flooded streets and homes, and destroyed businesses. It caused changes in the dynamics and the demographic and cultural makeup of the region. One of…

  15. Out of New Orleans: Race, Class, and Researching the Katrina Diaspora

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Jerome E.

    2008-01-01

    The torrential rains from Hurricane Katrina, the breaking of the levees, and the subsequent flooding of New Orleans resulted in another Black Diaspora. This article focuses on Black children and families who were displaced by Hurricane Katrina but now reside in cities, towns, and suburbs outside of the Crescent City. Informed by the author's…

  16. New Orleans, LA, District: Report of the Secretary of the Army on Civil Works Activities for FY 2011

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    2010 West Des Moines RR/WC December 2010 West Matanzas Drainage and Levee District, IL December 2010 Wolf Creek March 1983...1,719,613 contributed funds. 67. Excludes $1,858,000 contributed funds. 68 . Excludes $351,000 contributed funds 69. Excludes $2,373,000 contributed funds

  17. Enhancing highly unsaturated omega-3 fatty acids in phase-fed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) using Alaskan fish oils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this research was to investigate differences in the kinetics of fatty acids (FA) deposition in fillets of market-sized (approximately 450g) rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed diets containing commercial Alaskan fish oils versus menhaden oil. Comparisons were made with FA leve...

  18. From Classroom to Gallery: Building Community and Preserving Heritage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, Kate

    2012-01-01

    When the levees broke during Hurricane Katrina in 2005, eighty percent of New Orleans flooded, and the citizens who returned to the evacuated city had to rebuild their homes, cultural institutions, and school system. This article records how The Ogden Museum of Southern Art, University of New Orleans, was able to collaborate with a charter school…

  19. Good News for New Orleans: Early Evidence Shows Reforms Lifting Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Douglas N.

    2015-01-01

    What happened to the New Orleans public schools following the tragic levee breeches after Hurricane Katrina is truly unprecedented. Within the span of one year, all public-school employees were fired, the teacher contract expired and was not replaced, and most attendance zones were eliminated. The state took control of almost all public schools…

  20. Revisiting the Gulf Coast after Katrina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Principal, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In August 2005, the world witnessed one of the most destructive natural disasters on America's mainland. Hurricane Katrina, followed a month later by Hurricane Rita, brought more than broken levees, flooded streets and homes, and destroyed businesses. It caused changes in the dynamics and the demographic and cultural makeup of the region. One of…

  1. 4. VIEW OF THE WEST FACADE. NOTE THE BRIDGES FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF THE WEST FACADE. NOTE THE BRIDGES FROM THE D.L. & W. R.R. WOODWARD SIDING AND MAIN LINE IN THE LEFT FOREGROUND. PHOTO IS FROM THE LEVEE CROSSING TOBY CREEK FACING EAST. - Wyoming Valley Flood Control System, Woodward Pumping Station, East of Toby Creek crossing by Erie-Lackawanna Railroad, Edwardsville, Luzerne County, PA

  2. Macronutrients use efficiency and changes in chemical properties of an oxisol as influenced by phosphorus fertilization and tropical cover crops

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cover crops are important components of copping systems due to their beneficial effects on soil physical, chemical and biological properties. A green house experiment was conducted to evaluate influence of phosphorus (P) fertilization on nutrient use efficiency of 14 tropical cover crops. The P leve...

  3. Single Aflatoxin Contaminated Corn Kernel Analysis with Fluorescence Hyperspectral Image

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aflatoxins are toxic secondary metabolites of the fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, among others. Aflatoxin contaminated corn is toxic to domestic animals when ingested in feed and is a known carcinogen associated with liver and lung cancer in humans. Consequently, aflatoxin leve...

  4. Hyperspectral image classification and development of fluorescence index for single corn kernels infected with Aspergillus flavus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aflatoxins are toxic secondary metabolites predominantly produced by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. Aflatoxin contaminated corn is toxic to domestic animals when ingested in feed and is a known carcinogen associated with liver and lung cancer in humans. Consequently, aflatoxin leve...

  5. Downstream on the Mississippi.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parfit, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Recounts a trip down the Lower Mississippi River starting in Memphis, describing the features of the river at different stops along the way. Aspects of life along the river discussed include the levee system built to contain the waters, flooding on the river, and travel on the river. (MDH)

  6. Starting Anew

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Lydia

    2006-01-01

    Hundreds of higher education faculty lost their jobs in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina. New Orleans' colleges and universities were forced to cancel fall semester classes after the city's levee system failed, submerging 80 percent of the city just weeks before the academic year began. Damage assessments began even before the deadly storm's…

  7. Earthen embankment breaching

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A large number of embankment structures, including dams, levees, dikes, and barriers, have been built by humans. These structures play a very important role in flood defense, while many are also used for water supply, power generation, transportation, sediment retention, etc. Since these structure...

  8. OBLIQUE VIEW OF REAR (NORTH) AND EAST SIDES OF GENERATOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF REAR (NORTH) AND EAST SIDES OF GENERATOR HOUSE, DIESEL TANK IN FOREGROUND, LOCKTENDER'S HOUSE AND LEVEE ON RIGHT, FIRE PUMP HOUSE AND MAINTENANCE DEPOT SLIP ON LEFT - Moore Haven Lock, Generator House, Cross-State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Moore Haven, Glades County, FL

  9. The US Air Force Response to Hurricane Katrina

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-17

    canals of New Orleans. Failures of floodwalls along those canals and overtopping of levees in the east left 80% of the city flooded for weeks. Of some... Blanco asked for 40,000 federal troops.4 Once the governors of the affected states requested federal assistance, the Federal Emergency Management Agency

  10. Caring for the Individual Student and the Community of Learners: Interlocking Relationships and Comprehensive School Climate Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Jonathan; Hamilton, Rhia Olivia

    2009-01-01

    Understanding people and school communities is complex. Facilitating helpful and meaningful change--at an individual or school-wide level--is challenging. As a clinician-educator and a socially and emotionally informed educator, we describe what we do and do not understand about School ABC. We suggest that at the school and individual levels,…

  11. Educational and Vocational Goals of Rural Youth in North Carolina, Technical Bulletin No. 163.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sperry, Irwin V.; Kivett, Vira R.

    The purposes of this study were (1) to describe similarities and differences in educational goals of rural youth and of their parents for them, and (2) to determine the relationships of the similarities and differences to such factors as membership or non-membership in clubs, sex, leve l of living, residence, size of family, state, and area. The…

  12. Characterizing the Exposure of Regional-Scale Air Quality in the Northeastern United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Clean Air Act (CAA) requires that the United States (U.S.) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) set National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for pollutants considered harmful to human health and the environment. Previous research has shown that high ambient ozone leve...

  13. Physiological effects of Meloidogyne incognita infection on cotton genotypes with differing levels of resistance in the greenhouse

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Greenhouse tests were conducted to evaluate 1) the effect of Meloidogyne incognita infection in cotton on plant growth and physiology including the height-to-node ratio, chlorophyll content, dark adapted quantum yield of photosystem II, and leaf area, and 2) the extent to which moderate or high leve...

  14. Development and validation of a 2D dam break process model

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Flooding due to dam or levee breach often results in detrimental impact on the people and their properties in the flooding zone. The embankment breach process is often caused by overtopping or internal erosion due to excessive water in a reservoir or a river. This study is to develop a practical nu...

  15. 12 CFR 330.15 - Accounts held by government depositors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accounts held by government depositors. 330.15 Section 330.15 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF..., improvement, levee, sanitary, school or power districts, and bridge or port authorities and other...

  16. Starting Anew

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Lydia

    2006-01-01

    Hundreds of higher education faculty lost their jobs in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina. New Orleans' colleges and universities were forced to cancel fall semester classes after the city's levee system failed, submerging 80 percent of the city just weeks before the academic year began. Damage assessments began even before the deadly storm's…

  17. Out of New Orleans: Race, Class, and Researching the Katrina Diaspora

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Jerome E.

    2008-01-01

    The torrential rains from Hurricane Katrina, the breaking of the levees, and the subsequent flooding of New Orleans resulted in another Black Diaspora. This article focuses on Black children and families who were displaced by Hurricane Katrina but now reside in cities, towns, and suburbs outside of the Crescent City. Informed by the author's…

  18. 21. COMPLETION OF INTAKE CONDUITS REVISED, PIPE SECTIONS AND PLANS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. COMPLETION OF INTAKE CONDUITS REVISED, PIPE SECTIONS AND PLANS, SHEET 117 OF 117, 1922. - Sacramento River Water Treatment Plant Intake Pier & Access Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River approximately 175 feet west of eastern levee on river; roughly .5 mile downstream from confluence of Sacramento & American Rivers, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  19. Public Opinion on Long Island about the Vietnam War: A School Year Project Using Local Sources and Perspectives in the Classroom and in Student Research Papers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howlett, Charles

    2004-01-01

    A school-year research experiment using primary resources to teach an important national issue--protest movements against the Vietnam War at the local level--is an excellent way to motivate students and energize classroom teaching. Every local community in America has its own story to tell about the war in Vietnam. Whether it is about a local son…

  20. Breaking seed dormancy of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.): A review

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a perennial warm-season grass identified as a model species for bioenergy feedstock. Established switchgrass stand are very resilient to environmental fluctuations, however, seed dormancy and weak seedling vigor make establishment difficult. Seeds with high leve...

  1. Methodology for predicting maximum velocity and shear stress in a sinuous channel with bendway weirs using 1-D HEC-RAS modeling results

    Treesearch

    Paul Sclafani

    2011-01-01

    The Middle Rio Grande is a 29-mi reach of the Rio Grande River in central New Mexico that extends from downstream of Cochiti Dam to Bernalillo, New Mexico. A series of anthropogenic factors including the construction of flood control levees and Cochiti Dam have altered the historically-braided morphology of the Middle Rio Grande to a more sinuous, degrading reach, with...

  2. Necessarily Cumbersome, Messy, and Slow: Community Collaborative Work within Art Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filipovic, Yaël

    2013-01-01

    Building relationships and community collaborations--especially on an institutional level--is a slow and long-term process. These types of innovative, experimental, and long-term collaborations with community organizations and groups often lead art institutions to reflect on the value and place of their institutional structures when engaging in…

  3. Design and fish culture considerations for catfish farming in split ponds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Split ponds are simple, pond-based aquaculture systems constructed by dividing an existing catfish pond into two unequal basins with an earthen levee. Fish are confined in the smaller basin (usually about 15-20% of total water area) while the larger basin serves as a waste-treatment lagoon. A high-v...

  4. Civic Engagement about Climate Change: A Case Study of Three Educators and Their Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Thomas; Marri, Anand R.

    2012-01-01

    This collective case study examined how three educators (a high school social studies teacher, a university social studies teacher educator, and minister teaching an adult population) used a multimedia based curriculum guide, "Teaching the Levees", to teach about climate change to examine public priorities in relation to the environment.…

  5. Revegetation of Riparian Trees and Shrubs on Alluvial Soils Along the Upper Sacramento River, 1987-1988

    Treesearch

    Steven P. Chainey; F. Jordan Lang; Skip Mills

    1989-01-01

    Two sites on the Sacramento River near Red Bluff and Colusa, California were planted with seven native tree species plus valley elderberry (a shrub) in an effort to mitigate for the loss of woody riparian vegetation from bank protection construction projects in the area. The stateowned environmental easements on terraces on the river side of the levees had been planted...

  6. Simulated response and effects to oil exposure in an estuarine fish species

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experimental toxicity data alone lack ecological relevance to assess more realistic situations, such as variable exposure to a contaminant and long-term impact. Evaluating the implications of sublethal effects or behavioral response to exposure requires long-term, population-leve...

  7. Insecticide use and crop selection in regions with high GM adoption rates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    South Dakota has recently experienced a significant increase in the proportion of acres treated with insecticide. Unfortunately, data on insecticide usage by crop at the county level is not available. The following case study seeks to uncover the reasons for this increase by analyzing county-leve...

  8. New Orleans to Venice, Louisiana, Hurricane Protection Project: Draft Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act Report on Reach C and Barrier Features. Supplement 2. Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement. Appendixes,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-01

    tree species where appropriate. The configuration of borrow pits proposed for the batture area could be modified to maximize sedimentation rates and thus...bottomland hardwood species where conditions would be conducive to their growth . -’ -*,.. 4. Unavoidable impacts to Resource Category 2 bottomland hardwood... duckweed , frogbit, bladderwort, coontail, and widgeon grass. Upland developed habitat consists of existing levees, roads, agricultural areas

  9. 14. PROJECT PLAN, INTAKE PIER, RAW WATER CONDUITS, PUMPING STATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. PROJECT PLAN, INTAKE PIER, RAW WATER CONDUITS, PUMPING STATION FORCE MAINS, TREATED WATER PIPELINES, AND FILTRATION PLANT, SHEET 1 OF 117, 1920. - Sacramento River Water Treatment Plant Intake Pier & Access Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River approximately 175 feet west of eastern levee on river; roughly .5 mile downstream from confluence of Sacramento & American Rivers, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  10. Cultural Resources Survey of Terrestrial and Off-Shore Locations, Lake Pontchartrain and Vicinity Hurricane Protection Project, Louisiana.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-16

    Swanson 1975:87-88). The area west of the town, along the natural levee of the Mississippi was soon settled by Palatine and Swiss Germans, and...navigation. In addi- tion, the decayed breakwater at Milneburg and so-called "deadheads" (saw logs partially sunken in the lake) were definite hazards

  11. Preliminary waste acceptance criteria for the ICPP spent fuel and waste management technology development program

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, L.L.; Shikashio, R.

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this document is to identify requirements to be met by the Producer/Shipper of Spent Nuclear Fuel/High-LeveL Waste SNF/HLW in order for DOE to be able to accept the packaged materials. This includes defining both standard and nonstandard waste forms.

  12. Necessarily Cumbersome, Messy, and Slow: Community Collaborative Work within Art Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filipovic, Yaël

    2013-01-01

    Building relationships and community collaborations--especially on an institutional level--is a slow and long-term process. These types of innovative, experimental, and long-term collaborations with community organizations and groups often lead art institutions to reflect on the value and place of their institutional structures when engaging in…

  13. Delta Subsidence in California: The Sinking Heart of the State

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingebritsen, S.E.; Ikehara, M.E.; Galloway, D.L.; Jones, D.R.

    2000-01-01

    The Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta of California once was a great tidal freshwater marsh blanketed by peat and peaty alluvium. Beginning in the late 1800s, levees were built along the stream channels, and the land thus protected from flooding was drained, cleared, and planted. Although the Delta is now an exceptionally rich agricultural area (over a $500 million crop value in 1993), its unique value is as a source of freshwater for the rest of the State. It is the heart of a massive north-to-south waterdelivery system. Much of this water is pumped southward for use in the San Joaquin Valley and elsewhere in central and southern California. The leveed tracts and islands help to protect water-export facilities in the southern Delta from saltwater intrusion by displacing water and maintaining favorable freshwater gradients. However, ongoing subsidence behind the levees reduces levee stability and, thus, threatens to degrade water quality in the massive north-to-south water-transfer system.

  14. EPIC and APEX: Model use, calibration, and validation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) and Agricultural Policy/Environmental eXtender (APEX) models have been developed to assess a wide variety of agricultural water resource, water quality, and other environmental problems. The EPIC model is designed to be applied at a field-scale leve...

  15. Flooding and Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, 2011

    2011-01-01

    According to the Federal Emergency Management Agency, flooding is the nation's most common natural disaster. Some floods develop slowly during an extended period of rain or in a warming trend following a heavy snow. Flash floods can occur quickly, without any visible sign of rain. Catastrophic floods are associated with burst dams and levees,…

  16. 76 FR 36318 - Safety Zone; Waterway Closure, Morgan City-Port Allen Route From Mile Marker 0 to Port Allen Lock

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... and tows from destruction, loss or injury due to hazards associated with rising flood water. DATES... the general public, levee system, vessels and tows from the hazards associated with rising flood water... hazards associated with rising flood water on the Morgan City-Port Allen Route. Basis and Purpose...

  17. Leading in the Worst of Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Cynthia B.; Taylor, Denny

    2006-01-01

    On Monday, August 29, 2005, Hurricane Katrina and the floodwaters from the breeched levees destroyed all 14 schools in Louisiana's St. Bernard Parish. Although most residents had been evacuated before the hurricane hit, 1,500 men, women, and children rode out the storm in Chalmette High School. The district superintendent and the school leadership…

  18. Best Practices and Simultaneous Compliance

    EPA Science Inventory

    This wrap-up presentation to the workshop covers several topics concerning how lead and copper compliance under the Lead and Copper Rule should be integrated into an overall “simultaneous compliance” framework with other organizations. The LCR requires “optimization” of lead leve...

  19. 75 FR 7522 - United States Section; Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement, Flood...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... Environmental Impact Statement, Flood Control Improvements and Partial Levee Relocation, Presidio Flood Control...). ACTION: Notice of Availability of Final Environmental Impact Statement. SUMMARY: Pursuant to section 102..., International Boundary and Water Commission (USIBWC) has prepared a Final Environmental Impact Statement (Final...

  20. Internal geometry, seismic facies, and petroleum potential of canyons and inner fan channels of the Indus submarine fan

    SciTech Connect

    McHargue, T.R.; Webb, J.E.

    1986-02-01

    The Indus Fan, the second largest submarine fan in the world, covers 1,250,000 km/sup 2/ (500,000 mi/sup 2/) and contains sediment more than 7 km (23,000 ft) thick. Multichannel (24-fold) CDP seismic data provide the bases for evaluating the Indus Fan and consist of four seismic facies. Of these, only the high-amplitude, discontinuous (H-D) facies is thought to contain reservoir-quality sandstones. The H-D facies is confined to the axes of leveed channels. Canyon-channel systems that fed the fan in the past can be divided into three zones. The degradational zone is composed of an erosional canyon complex filled by prodelta mud. The transitional zone, located near the canyon mouth, consists of superimposed channels that initially were erosional but eventually aggraded and developed levees. The headward termination of the H-D facies occurs in this zone. The aggradational zone consists of superimposed leveed channels confined solely by their own levees. The proximal termination of the H-D facies near canyon mouths implies the presence of reservoir-quality sandstone surrounded by source/seal mudstone in the transitional zone. This stratigraphic trapping geometry and structural leads may represent a vast, untapped petroleum province.