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Sample records for condensation drives partitioning

  1. Dual-phase reactor plant with partitioned isolation condenser

    DOEpatents

    Hui, Marvin M.

    1992-01-01

    A nuclear energy plant housing a boiling-water reactor utilizes an isolation condenser in which a single chamber is partitioned into a distributor plenum and a collector plenum. Steam accumulates in the distributor plenum and is conveyed to the collector plenum through an annular manifold that includes tubes extending through a condenser pool. The tubes provide for a transfer of heat from the steam, forming a condensate. The chamber has a disk-shaped base, a cylindrical sidewall, and a semispherical top. This geometry results in a compact design that exhibits significant performance and cost advantages over prior designs.

  2. Cytoskeletal Reorganization Drives Mesenchymal Condensation and Regulates Downstream Molecular Signaling.

    PubMed

    Ray, Poulomi; Chapman, Susan C

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal condensation occurs when specified mesenchyme cells self-organize over several days to form a distinctive cartilage template. Here, we determine how and when specified mesenchyme cells integrate mechanical and molecular information from their environment, forming cartilage condensations in the pharyngeal arches of chick embryos. By disrupting cytoskeletal reorganization, we demonstrate that dynamic cell shape changes drive condensation and modulate the response of the condensing cells to Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF), Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) and Transforming Growth Factor beta (TGF-β) signaling pathways. Rho Kinase (ROCK)-driven actomyosin contractions and Myosin II-generated differential cell cortex tension regulate these cell shape changes. Disruption of the condensation process inhibits the differentiation of the mesenchyme cells into chondrocytes, demonstrating that condensation regulates the fate of the mesenchyme cells. We also find that dorsal and ventral condensations undergo distinct cell shape changes. BMP signaling is instructive for dorsal condensation-specific cell shape changes. Moreover, condensations exhibit ventral characteristics in the absence of BMP signaling, suggesting that in the pharyngeal arches ventral morphology is the ground pattern. Overall, this study characterizes the interplay between cytoskeletal dynamics and molecular signaling in a self-organizing system during tissue morphogenesis.

  3. Chamber identity programs drive early functional partitioning of the heart.

    PubMed

    Mosimann, Christian; Panáková, Daniela; Werdich, Andreas A; Musso, Gabriel; Burger, Alexa; Lawson, Katy L; Carr, Logan A; Nevis, Kathleen R; Sabeh, M Khaled; Zhou, Yi; Davidson, Alan J; DiBiase, Anthony; Burns, Caroline E; Burns, C Geoffrey; MacRae, Calum A; Zon, Leonard I

    2015-08-26

    The vertebrate heart muscle (myocardium) develops from the first heart field (FHF) and expands by adding second heart field (SHF) cells. While both lineages exist already in teleosts, the primordial contributions of FHF and SHF to heart structure and function remain incompletely understood. Here we delineate the functional contribution of the FHF and SHF to the zebrafish heart using the cis-regulatory elements of the draculin (drl) gene. The drl reporters initially delineate the lateral plate mesoderm, including heart progenitors. Subsequent myocardial drl reporter expression restricts to FHF descendants. We harnessed this unique feature to uncover that loss of tbx5a and pitx2 affect relative FHF versus SHF contributions to the heart. High-resolution physiology reveals distinctive electrical properties of each heart field territory that define a functional boundary within the single zebrafish ventricle. Our data establish that the transcriptional program driving cardiac septation regulates physiologic ventricle partitioning, which successively provides mechanical advantages of sequential contraction.

  4. Ammonia Partitioning into the Condensed Phase in Winter Time Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, J. R.; Bililign, S.; Fiddler, M. N.; Leen, J. B.; Holloway, J. S.; Fibiger, D. L.; McDuffie, E. E.; Thornton, J. A.; Brown, S. S.

    2015-12-01

    Secondary aerosol (SOA) formation has been linked to health problems and environmental damage in regions impacted by the emission of gaseous NH3 and SO2. SOA formation, (NH4)2SO4 and NH4NO3, in the presence of NO NO2, is favored under high relative humidity and low temperature and low temperature conditions. In the East and Mid Atlantic regions of the United States humidity is low in wintertime. Utilizing ambient concentration data of gaseous NO, NO2, SO2 and NH3 collected aboard a survey aircraft we examined the partitioning of gaseous NH3 towards aerosol products. The calculated mixing ratio of gaseous SO2/NH3 correlated with relative humidity will give an indication of the potential SOA formation when the mixing ratio of other reactants is small in the region of interest. The data obtained originates from a series of night and day survey flights on a C-130 aircraft that occurred from February 3 to March 13, 2015 over the Eastern coastal region of the United States extending from New York to Florida. NOx was obtained from the Airborne Ring-down Nitrogen Oxide Laser Detector (ARNOLD) instrument (NOAA) and Thermal Dissociation-Laser Induced Fluorescence (TD-LIF) (UC Berkley). SO2 measurements were done using the TECO 43C SO2 analyzer and for NH3 measurements the an Ammonia Analyzer - Trace (NH3) (Los Gatos Research). Estimates of aerosol dry deposition fluxes are presented.

  5. Condensation and localization of the partitioning protein ParB on the bacterial chromosome.

    PubMed

    Broedersz, Chase P; Wang, Xindan; Meir, Yigal; Loparo, Joseph J; Rudner, David Z; Wingreen, Ned S

    2014-06-17

    The ParABS system mediates chromosome segregation and plasmid partitioning in many bacteria. As part of the partitioning mechanism, ParB proteins form a nucleoprotein complex at parS sites. The biophysical basis underlying ParB-DNA complex formation and localization remains elusive. Specifically, it is unclear whether ParB spreads in 1D along DNA or assembles into a 3D protein-DNA complex. We show that a combination of 1D spreading bonds and a single 3D bridging bond between ParB proteins constitutes a minimal model for a condensed ParB-DNA complex. This model implies a scaling behavior for ParB-mediated silencing of parS-flanking genes, which we confirm to be satisfied by experimental data from P1 plasmids. Furthermore, this model is consistent with experiments on the effects of DNA roadblocks on ParB localization. Finally, we show experimentally that a single parS site is necessary and sufficient for ParB-DNA complex formation in vivo. Together with our model, this suggests that ParB binding to parS triggers a conformational switch in ParB that overcomes a nucleation barrier. Conceptually, the combination of spreading and bridging bonds in our model provides a surface tension ensuring the condensation of the ParB-DNA complex, with analogies to liquid-like compartments such as nucleoli in eukaryotes.

  6. Condensation and localization of the partitioning protein ParB on the bacterial chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Broedersz, Chase P.; Wang, Xindan; Meir, Yigal; Loparo, Joseph J.; Rudner, David Z.; Wingreen, Ned S.

    2014-01-01

    The ParABS system mediates chromosome segregation and plasmid partitioning in many bacteria. As part of the partitioning mechanism, ParB proteins form a nucleoprotein complex at parS sites. The biophysical basis underlying ParB–DNA complex formation and localization remains elusive. Specifically, it is unclear whether ParB spreads in 1D along DNA or assembles into a 3D protein–DNA complex. We show that a combination of 1D spreading bonds and a single 3D bridging bond between ParB proteins constitutes a minimal model for a condensed ParB–DNA complex. This model implies a scaling behavior for ParB-mediated silencing of parS-flanking genes, which we confirm to be satisfied by experimental data from P1 plasmids. Furthermore, this model is consistent with experiments on the effects of DNA roadblocks on ParB localization. Finally, we show experimentally that a single parS site is necessary and sufficient for ParB–DNA complex formation in vivo. Together with our model, this suggests that ParB binding to parS triggers a conformational switch in ParB that overcomes a nucleation barrier. Conceptually, the combination of spreading and bridging bonds in our model provides a surface tension ensuring the condensation of the ParB–DNA complex, with analogies to liquid-like compartments such as nucleoli in eukaryotes. PMID:24927534

  7. Environmental constraints drive the partitioning of the soundscape in fishes.

    PubMed

    Ruppé, Laëtitia; Clément, Gaël; Herrel, Anthony; Ballesta, Laurent; Décamps, Thierry; Kéver, Loïc; Parmentier, Eric

    2015-05-12

    The underwater environment is more and more being depicted as particularly noisy, and the inventory of calling fishes is continuously increasing. However, it currently remains unknown how species share the soundscape and are able to communicate without misinterpreting the messages. Different mechanisms of interference avoidance have been documented in birds, mammals, and frogs, but little is known about interference avoidance in fishes. How fish thus partition the soundscape underwater remains unknown, as acoustic communication and its organization have never been studied at the level of fish communities. In this study, passive acoustic recordings were used to inventory sounds produced in a fish community (120 m depth) in an attempt to understand how different species partition the acoustic environment. We uncovered an important diversity of fish sounds, and 16 of the 37 different sounds recorded were sufficiently abundant to use in a quantitative analysis. We show that sonic activity allows a clear distinction between a diurnal and a nocturnal group of fishes. Moreover, frequencies of signals made during the day overlap, whereas there is a clear distinction between the different representatives of the nocturnal callers because of a lack of overlap in sound frequency. This first demonstration, to our knowledge, of interference avoidance in a fish community can be understood by the way sounds are used. In diurnal species, sounds are mostly used to support visual display, whereas nocturnal species are generally deprived of visual cues, resulting in acoustic constraints being more important.

  8. Environmental constraints drive the partitioning of the soundscape in fishes

    PubMed Central

    Ruppé, Laëtitia; Clément, Gaël; Herrel, Anthony; Ballesta, Laurent; Décamps, Thierry; Kéver, Loïc; Parmentier, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The underwater environment is more and more being depicted as particularly noisy, and the inventory of calling fishes is continuously increasing. However, it currently remains unknown how species share the soundscape and are able to communicate without misinterpreting the messages. Different mechanisms of interference avoidance have been documented in birds, mammals, and frogs, but little is known about interference avoidance in fishes. How fish thus partition the soundscape underwater remains unknown, as acoustic communication and its organization have never been studied at the level of fish communities. In this study, passive acoustic recordings were used to inventory sounds produced in a fish community (120 m depth) in an attempt to understand how different species partition the acoustic environment. We uncovered an important diversity of fish sounds, and 16 of the 37 different sounds recorded were sufficiently abundant to use in a quantitative analysis. We show that sonic activity allows a clear distinction between a diurnal and a nocturnal group of fishes. Moreover, frequencies of signals made during the day overlap, whereas there is a clear distinction between the different representatives of the nocturnal callers because of a lack of overlap in sound frequency. This first demonstration, to our knowledge, of interference avoidance in a fish community can be understood by the way sounds are used. In diurnal species, sounds are mostly used to support visual display, whereas nocturnal species are generally deprived of visual cues, resulting in acoustic constraints being more important. PMID:25848025

  9. Chemotaxis toward phytoplankton drives organic matter partitioning among marine bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Smriga, Steven; Fernandez, Vicente I.; Mitchell, James G.; Stocker, Roman

    2016-01-01

    The microenvironment surrounding individual phytoplankton cells is often rich in dissolved organic matter (DOM), which can attract bacteria by chemotaxis. These “phycospheres” may be prominent sources of resource heterogeneity in the ocean, affecting the growth of bacterial populations and the fate of DOM. However, these effects remain poorly quantified due to a lack of quantitative ecological frameworks. Here, we used video microscopy to dissect with unprecedented resolution the chemotactic accumulation of marine bacteria around individual Chaetoceros affinis diatoms undergoing lysis. The observed spatiotemporal distribution of bacteria was used in a resource utilization model to map the conditions under which competition between different bacterial groups favors chemotaxis. The model predicts that chemotactic, copiotrophic populations outcompete nonmotile, oligotrophic populations during diatom blooms and bloom collapse conditions, resulting in an increase in the ratio of motile to nonmotile cells and in the succession of populations. Partitioning of DOM between the two populations is strongly dependent on the overall concentration of bacteria and the diffusivity of different DOM substances, and within each population, the growth benefit from phycospheres is experienced by only a small fraction of cells. By informing a DOM utilization model with highly resolved behavioral data, the hybrid approach used here represents a new path toward the elusive goal of predicting the consequences of microscale interactions in the ocean. PMID:26802122

  10. Chemotaxis toward phytoplankton drives organic matter partitioning among marine bacteria.

    PubMed

    Smriga, Steven; Fernandez, Vicente I; Mitchell, James G; Stocker, Roman

    2016-02-09

    The microenvironment surrounding individual phytoplankton cells is often rich in dissolved organic matter (DOM), which can attract bacteria by chemotaxis. These "phycospheres" may be prominent sources of resource heterogeneity in the ocean, affecting the growth of bacterial populations and the fate of DOM. However, these effects remain poorly quantified due to a lack of quantitative ecological frameworks. Here, we used video microscopy to dissect with unprecedented resolution the chemotactic accumulation of marine bacteria around individual Chaetoceros affinis diatoms undergoing lysis. The observed spatiotemporal distribution of bacteria was used in a resource utilization model to map the conditions under which competition between different bacterial groups favors chemotaxis. The model predicts that chemotactic, copiotrophic populations outcompete nonmotile, oligotrophic populations during diatom blooms and bloom collapse conditions, resulting in an increase in the ratio of motile to nonmotile cells and in the succession of populations. Partitioning of DOM between the two populations is strongly dependent on the overall concentration of bacteria and the diffusivity of different DOM substances, and within each population, the growth benefit from phycospheres is experienced by only a small fraction of cells. By informing a DOM utilization model with highly resolved behavioral data, the hybrid approach used here represents a new path toward the elusive goal of predicting the consequences of microscale interactions in the ocean.

  11. A model for the condensation of the bacterial chromosome by the partitioning protein ParB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broedersz, Chase; Wingreen, Ned

    2013-03-01

    The molecular machinery responsible for faithful segregation of the chromosome in bacteria such as Caulobacter crescentus and Bacillus subtilis includes the ParABS a.k.a. Spo0J/Soj partitioning system. In Caulobacter, prior to division, hundreds of ParB proteins bind to the DNA near the origin of replication, and localize to one pole of the cell. Subsequently, the ParB-DNA complex is translocated to the far pole by the binding and retraction of the ParA spindle-like apparatus. Remarkably, the localization of ParB proteins to specific regions of the chromosome appears to be controlled by only a few centromeric parS binding sites. Although lateral interactions between DNA-bound ParB are likely to be important for their localization, the long-range order of ParB domains on the chromosome appears to be inconsistent with a picture in which protein-protein interactions are limited to neighboring DNA-bound proteins. We developed a coarse-grained Brownian dynamics model that allows for lateral and 3D protein-protein interactions among bound ParB proteins. Our model shows how such interactions can condense and organize the DNA spatially, and can control the localization and the long-range order of the DNA-bound proteins.

  12. Effect of condensate cycles in driving atmospheric circulation on brown dwarfs and directly imaged giant planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Xianyu; Showman, Adam

    2014-11-01

    Growing observations of brown dwarfs and directly imaged giant planets, including properties of the L/T transition, chemical disequilibrium, brightness variability, and surface maps have provided evidence for strong atmospheric circulation on these worlds. Previous studies that serve to understand the atmospheric circulation of brown dwarfs include modeling of convection from the interior both in a two-dimensional and global fashion, a two-layer shallow water model and a global circulation model with dry thermal perturbation at the bottom of atmosphere. These models show that interactions between the stably stratified layer and the convective interior can drive an atmospheric circulation, including zonal jets and/or vortices. However, these models are dry models, not including the condensation cycles such as silicate and iron in hot dwarfs. Condensation of water has previously been shown to play an important role on driving the zonal jets on four giant planets in our solar system. As such, condensation cycles of various species is believed to be an important source in driving the atmospheric circulation of brown dwarfs and directly imaged planets as well. Here we present results from three-dimensional simulations for the stably stratified atmospheres of brown dwarfs based on a general circulation model that includes the effect of a condensate cycle. Large-scale latent heating and molecular weight effect due to condensation of a single species are treated explicitly in our model. We examine the atmospheric circulation patterns of brown dwarfs caused by large-scale latent heating that results from condensation of silicates in hot dwarfs and water in the cold dwarfs. By varying the parameters such as abundances of condensates, effective temperature and rotational period, we explore possible configurations of the circulation, and determine implications for the observed cloud patchiness and brightness variability for brown dwarfs.

  13. Partitioning of rare earth elements between hibonite and melt and implications for nebular condensation of the rare earth elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Michael J.; Boynton, William V.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of oxygen fugacity on the partitioning of REEs between hibonite and silicate melt is investigated in hibonite-growth experiments at 1470 C. The experimental procedures and apparatus are described, and the results are presented in extensive tables and graphs and characterized in detail. The absolute activity coefficients in hibonite are estimated as 330 for La, 1200 for Eu(3+), and 24,000 for Yb. It is inferred that ideal solution behavior cannot be assumed when calculating REE condensation temperatures for (Ca, Al)-rich inclusions in carbonaceous chondrites.

  14. The Apollo 16 drive tube 60009/60010. II - Petrology and major element partitioning among the regolith components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaniman, D. T.; Papike, J. J.; Schweitzer, E. L.

    1978-01-01

    The paper summarizes petrographic and electron microprobe data from 22 polished thin sections that represent the total length of double drive tube 60009/60010 and discusses a new application of the method of modal recombination to estimate bulk chemistry. The modal recombination approach can be used to reliably calculate the chemistry of the greater than 0.02-mm size fraction and, more significantly, to derive the total major element partitioning among the regolith components.

  15. Partitioning of mobile ions between ion exchange polymers and aqueous salt solutions: importance of counter-ion condensation.

    PubMed

    Kamcev, Jovan; Galizia, Michele; Benedetti, Francesco M; Jang, Eui-Soung; Paul, Donald R; Freeman, Benny D; Manning, Gerald S

    2016-02-17

    Equilibrium partitioning of ions between a membrane and a contiguous external solution strongly influences transport properties of polymeric membranes used for water purification and energy generation applications. This study presents a theoretical framework to quantitatively predict ion sorption from aqueous electrolytes (e.g., NaCl, MgCl2) into charged (i.e., ion exchange) polymers. The model was compared with experimental NaCl, MgCl2, and CaCl2 sorption data in commercial cation and anion exchange membranes. Ion sorption in charged polymers was modeled using a thermodynamic approach based on Donnan theory coupled with Manning's counter-ion condensation theory to describe non-ideal behavior of ions in the membrane. Ion activity coefficients in solution were calculated using the Pitzer model. The resulting model, with no adjustable parameters, provides remarkably good agreement with experimental values of membrane mobile salt concentration. The generality of the model was further demonstrated using literature data for ion sorption of various electrolytes in charged polymers, including HCl sorption in Nafion.

  16. A genomics investigation of partitioning into and among flavonoid-derived condensed tannins for carbon sequestration in Populus

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, Scott, A; Tsai, Chung-jui; Lindroth, Richard, L

    2013-03-24

    The project set out to use comparative (genotype and treatment) and transgenic approaches to investigate the determinants of condensed tannin (CT) accrual and chemical variability in Populus. CT type and amount are thought to effect the decomposition of plant detritus in the soil, and thereby the sequestering of carbon in the soil. The stated objectives were: 1. Genome-wide transcriptome profiling (microarrays) to analyze structural gene, transcription factor and metabolite control of CT partitioning; 2. Transcriptomic (microarray) and chemical analysis of ontogenetic effects on CT and PG partitioning; and 3. Transgenic manipulation of flavonoid biosynthetic pathway genes to modify the control of CT composition. Objective 1: A number of approaches for perturbing CT content and chemistry were tested in Objective 1, and those included nitrogen deficit, leaf wounding, drought, and salicylic acid spraying. Drought had little effect on CTs in the genotypes we used. Plants exhibited unpredictability in their response to salicylic acid spraying, leading us to abandon its use. Reduced plant nitrogen status and leaf wounding caused reproducible and magnitudinally striking increases in leaf CT content. Microarray submissions to NCBI from those experiments are the following: GSE ID 14515: Comparative transcriptomics analysis of Populus leaves under nitrogen limitation: clone 1979. Public on Jan 04, 2010; Contributor(s) Harding SA, Tsai C GSE ID 14893: Comparative transcriptomics analysis of Populus leaves under nitrogen limitation: clone 3200. Public on Feb 19, 2009; Contributor(s) Harding SA, Tsai C GSE ID 16783 Wound-induced gene expression changes in Populus: 1 week; clone RM5. Status Public on Dec 01, 2009; Contributor(s) Harding SA, Tsai C GSE ID 16785 Wound-induced gene expression changes in Populus: 90 hours; clone RM5 Status Public on Dec 01, 2009; Contributor(s) Harding SA, Tsai C Although CT amount changed in response to treatments, CT composition was essentially

  17. Acid-catalyzed condensed-phase reactions of limonene and terpineol and their impacts on gas-to-particle partitioning in the formation of organic aerosols.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong Jie; Cheong, Gema Y L; Lau, Arthur P S; Chan, Chak K

    2010-07-15

    We investigated the condensed-phase reactions of biogenic VOCs with C double bond C bonds (limonene, C(10)H(16), and terpineol, C(10)H(18)O) catalyzed by sulfuric acid by both bulk solution (BS) experiments and gas-particle (GP) experiments using a flow cell reactor. Product analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) showed that cationic polymerization led to dimeric and trimeric product formation under conditions of relative humidity (RH) <20% (in the GP experiments) and a sulfuric acid concentration of 57.8 wt % (in the BS experiments), while hydration occurred under conditions of RH > 20% (in the GP experiments) and sulfuric acid concentrations of 46.3 wt % or lower (in the BS experiments). Apparent partitioning coefficients (K(p,rxn)) were estimated from the GP experiments by including the reaction products. Only under extremely low RH conditions (RH < 5%) did the values of K(p,rxn) ( approximately 5 x 10(-6) m(3)/microg for limonene and approximately 2 x 10(-5) m(3)/microg for terpineol) substantially exceed the physical partitioning coefficients (K(p) = 6.5 x 10(-8) m(3)/microg for limonene and =2.3 x 10(-6) m(3)/microg for terpineol) derived from the absorptive partitioning theory. At RH higher than 5%, the apparent partitioning coefficients (K(p,rxn)) of both limonene and terpineol were in the same order of magnitude as the K(p) values derived from the absorptive partitioning theory. Compared with other conditions including VOC concentration and degree of neutralization (by ammonium) of acidic particles, RH is a critical parameter that influences both the reaction mechanisms and the uptake ability (K(p,rxn) values) of these processes. The finding suggests that RH needs to be considered when taking the effects of acid-catalyzed reactions into account in estimating organic aerosol formation from C double bond C containing VOCs.

  18. Free energy partitioning analysis of the driving forces that determine ion density profiles near the water liquid-vapor interface.

    PubMed

    Arslanargin, Ayse; Beck, Thomas L

    2012-03-14

    Free energy partitioning analysis is employed to explore the driving forces for ions interacting with the water liquid-vapor interface using recently optimized point charge models for the ions and SPC/E water. The Na(+) and I(-) ions are examined as an example kosmotrope/chaotrope pair. The absolute hydration free energy is partitioned into cavity formation, attractive van der Waals, local electrostatic, and far-field electrostatic contributions. We first compute the bulk hydration free energy of the ions, followed by the free energy to insert the ions at the center of a water slab. Shifts of the ion free energies occur in the slab geometry consistent with the SPC/E surface potential of the water liquid-vapor interface. Then the free energy profiles are examined for ion passage from the slab center to the dividing surface. The profiles show that, for the large chaotropic I(-) ion, the relatively flat total free energy profile results from the near cancellation of several large contributions. The far-field electrostatic part of the free energy, largely due to the water liquid-vapor interface potential, has an important effect on ion distributions near the surface in the classical model. We conclude, however, that the individual forms of the local and far-field electrostatic contributions are expected to be model dependent when comparing classical and quantum results. The substantial attractive cavity free energy contribution for the larger I(-) ion suggests that there is a hydrophobic component important for chaotropic ion interactions with the interface.

  19. Driving Defect Modes of Bose-Einstein Condensates in Optical Lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Brazhnyi, Valeriy A.; Konotop, Vladimir V.; Perez-Garcia, Victor M.

    2006-02-17

    We present an approximate analytical theory and direct numerical computation of defect modes of a Bose-Einstein condensate loaded in an optical lattice and subject to an additional localized (defect) potential. Some of the modes are found to be remarkably stable and can be driven along the lattice by means of a defect moving following a steplike function defined by the period of Josephson oscillations and the macroscopic stability of the atoms.

  20. Condensation of FtsZ filaments can drive bacterial cell division.

    PubMed

    Lan, Ganhui; Daniels, Brian R; Dobrowsky, Terrence M; Wirtz, Denis; Sun, Sean X

    2009-01-06

    Forces are important in biological systems for accomplishing key cell functions, such as motility, organelle transport, and cell division. Currently, known force generation mechanisms typically involve motor proteins. In bacterial cells, no known motor proteins are involved in cell division. Instead, a division ring (Z-ring) consists of mostly FtsZ, FtsA, and ZipA is used to exerting a contractile force. The mechanism of force generation in bacterial cell division is unknown. Using computational modeling, we show that Z-ring formation results from the colocalization of FtsZ and FtsA mediated by the favorable alignment of FtsZ polymers. The model predicts that the Z-ring undergoes a condensation transition from a low-density state to a high-density state and generates a sufficient contractile force to achieve division. FtsZ GTP hydrolysis facilitates monomer turnover during the condensation transition, but does not directly generate forces. In vivo fluorescence measurements show that FtsZ density increases during division, in accord with model results. The mechanism is akin to van der Waals picture of gas-liquid condensation, and shows that organisms can exploit microphase transitions to generate mechanical forces.

  1. Chaos enhancing tunneling in a coupled Bose-Einstein condensate with a double driving.

    PubMed

    Rong, Shiguang; Hai, Wenhua; Xie, Qiongtao; Zhu, Qianquan

    2009-09-01

    We study the effects of chaotic dynamics on atomic tunneling between two weakly coupled Bose-Einstein condensates driven by a double-frequency periodic field. Under the Melnikov's chaos criterion, we divide the parameter space into three parts of different types, regular region, low-chaoticity region, and high-chaoticity region, and give the accurate boundaries between the different regions. It is found that the atomic tunneling can be enhanced in the presence of chaos. Particularly, in the high-chaoticity regions, the chaos-induced inversion of the population imbalance is observed numerically.

  2. Technical Note: Analytical Solution for Transient Partitioning and Reaction of a Condensing Vapor Species in a Droplet

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Albert T.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Seinfeld, John H.

    2014-03-28

    We present the exact analytical solution of the transient equation of gas-phase diffusion of a condensing vapor to, and diffusion and reaction in, an aqueous droplet. Droplet-phase reaction is represented by first-order chemistry. The solution facilitates study of the dynamic nature of the vapor uptake process as a function of droplet size, Henry’s law coefficient, and first-order reaction rate constant for conversion in the droplet phase.

  3. Enthalpy versus entropy: What drives hard-particle ordering in condensed phases?

    SciTech Connect

    Anthamatten, Mitchell; Ou, Jane J.; Weinfeld, Jeffrey A.; Chen, Shaw H.

    2016-07-27

    In support of mesoscopic-scale materials processing, spontaneous hard-particle ordering has been actively pursued for over a half-century. The generally accepted view that entropy alone can drive hard particle ordering is evaluated. Furthermore, a thermodynamic analysis of hard particle ordering was conducted and shown to agree with existing computations and experiments. Conclusions are that (i) hard particle ordering transitions between states in equilibrium are forbidden at constant volume but are allowed at constant pressure; (ii) spontaneous ordering transitions at constant pressure are driven by enthalpy, and (iii) ordering under constant volume necessarily involves a non-equilibrium initial state which has yet to be rigorously defined.

  4. Enthalpy versus entropy: What drives hard-particle ordering in condensed phases?

    DOE PAGES

    Anthamatten, Mitchell; Ou, Jane J.; Weinfeld, Jeffrey A.; ...

    2016-07-27

    In support of mesoscopic-scale materials processing, spontaneous hard-particle ordering has been actively pursued for over a half-century. The generally accepted view that entropy alone can drive hard particle ordering is evaluated. Furthermore, a thermodynamic analysis of hard particle ordering was conducted and shown to agree with existing computations and experiments. Conclusions are that (i) hard particle ordering transitions between states in equilibrium are forbidden at constant volume but are allowed at constant pressure; (ii) spontaneous ordering transitions at constant pressure are driven by enthalpy, and (iii) ordering under constant volume necessarily involves a non-equilibrium initial state which has yet tomore » be rigorously defined.« less

  5. Pore size regulates operating stomatal conductance, while stomatal densities drive the partitioning of conductance between leaf sides

    PubMed Central

    Fanourakis, Dimitrios; Giday, Habtamu; Milla, Rubén; Pieruschka, Roland; Kjaer, Katrine H.; Bolger, Marie; Vasilevski, Aleksandar; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Fiorani, Fabio; Ottosen, Carl-Otto

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Leaf gas exchange is influenced by stomatal size, density, distribution between the leaf adaxial and abaxial sides, as well as by pore dimensions. This study aims to quantify which of these traits mainly underlie genetic differences in operating stomatal conductance (gs) and addresses possible links between anatomical traits and regulation of pore width. Methods Stomatal responsiveness to desiccation, gs-related anatomical traits of each leaf side and estimated gs (based on these traits) were determined for 54 introgression lines (ILs) generated by introgressing segments of Solanum pennelli into the S. lycopersicum ‘M82’. A quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis for stomatal traits was also performed. Key Results A wide genetic variation in stomatal responsiveness to desiccation was observed, a large part of which was explained by stomatal length. Operating gs ranged over a factor of five between ILs. The pore area per stomatal area varied 8-fold among ILs (2–16 %), and was the main determinant of differences in operating gs between ILs. Operating gs was primarily positioned on the abaxial surface (60–83 %), due to higher abaxial stomatal density and, secondarily, to larger abaxial pore area. An analysis revealed 64 QTLs for stomatal traits in the ILs, most of which were in the direction of S. pennellii. Conclusions The data indicate that operating and maximum gs of non-stressed leaves maintained under stable conditions deviate considerably (by 45–91 %), because stomatal size inadequately reflects operating pore area (R2 = 0·46). Furthermore, it was found that variation between ILs in both stomatal sensitivity to desiccation and operating gs is associated with features of individual stoma. In contrast, genotypic variation in gs partitioning depends on the distribution of stomata between the leaf adaxial and abaxial epidermis. PMID:25538116

  6. Plasmid Partition Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Jamie C; Funnell, Barbara E

    2014-12-01

    The stable maintenance of low-copy-number plasmids in bacteria is actively driven by partition mechanisms that are responsible for the positioning of plasmids inside the cell. Partition systems are ubiquitous in the microbial world and are encoded by many bacterial chromosomes as well as plasmids. These systems, although different in sequence and mechanism, typically consist of two proteins and a DNA partition site, or prokaryotic centromere, on the plasmid or chromosome. One protein binds site-specifically to the centromere to form a partition complex, and the other protein uses the energy of nucleotide binding and hydrolysis to transport the plasmid, via interactions with this partition complex inside the cell. For plasmids, this minimal cassette is sufficient to direct proper segregation in bacterial cells. There has been significant progress in the last several years in our understanding of partition mechanisms. Two general areas that have developed are (i) the structural biology of partition proteins and their interactions with DNA and (ii) the action and dynamics of the partition ATPases that drive the process. In addition, systems that use tubulin-like GTPases to partition plasmids have recently been identified. In this chapter, we concentrate on these recent developments and the molecular details of plasmid partition mechanisms.

  7. Periodic driving control of Raman-induced spin-orbit coupling in Bose-Einstein condensates: The heating mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez Llorente, J. M.; Plata, J.

    2016-06-01

    We focus on a technique recently implemented for controlling the magnitude of synthetic spin-orbit coupling (SOC) in ultracold atoms in the Raman-coupling scenario. This technique uses a periodic modulation of the Raman-coupling amplitude to tune the SOC. Specifically, it has been shown that the effect of a high-frequency sinusoidal modulation of the Raman-laser intensity can be incorporated into the undriven Hamiltonian via effective parameters, whose adiabatic variation can therefore be used to tune the SOC. Here, we characterize the heating mechanisms that can be relevant to this method. We identify the main mechanism responsible for the heating observed in the experiments as basically rooted in driving-induced transfer of population to excited states. Characteristics of that process determined by the harmonic trapping, the decay of the excited states, and the technique used for preparing the system are discussed. Additional heating, rooted in departures from adiabaticity in the variation of the effective parameters, is also described. Our analytical study provides some clues that may be useful in the design of strategies for curbing the effects of heating on the efficiency of the control methods.

  8. Partition search

    SciTech Connect

    Ginsberg, M.L.

    1996-12-31

    We introduce a new form of game search called partition search that incorporates dependency analysis, allowing substantial reductions in the portion of the tree that needs to be expanded. Both theoretical results and experimental data are presented. For the game of bridge, partition search provides approximately as much of an improvement over existing methods as {alpha}-{beta} pruning provides over minimax.

  9. Condensation of chondrules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blander, M.

    1983-01-01

    Analysis of current experimental results concerned with the kinetic constraints on chondrule formation showed that the major physical properties of chondrules could have been produced by direct condensation of metastable liquid silicates droplets from a hot gas in the primordial nebula. It is argued that such a condensation process would have to be followed by crystallization, accretion, and partial comminution of the droplets. The chemical mechanisms driving this process are described, including: nucleation constraints on comminution and crystallization; slow transformations and chemical reactions in chain silicates; and the slow diffusion of ions. It is shown that the physical mechanisms for chondrule condensation are applicable to a broad spectrum of chondrule sources.

  10. Partition Equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, Michal; Tennenholtz, Moshe

    We introduce partition equilibrium and study its existence in resource selection games (RSG). In partition equilibrium the agents are partitioned into coalitions, and only deviations by the prescribed coalitions are considered. This is in difference to the classical concept of strong equilibrium according to which any subset of the agents may deviate. In resource selection games, each agent selects a resource from a set of resources, and its payoff is an increasing (or non-decreasing) function of the number of agents selecting its resource. While it has been shown that strong equilibrium exists in resource selection games, these games do not possess super-strong equilibrium, in which a fruitful deviation benefits at least one deviator without hurting any other deviator, even in the case of two identical resources with increasing cost functions. Similarly, strong equilibrium does not exist for that restricted two identical resources setting when the game is played repeatedly. We prove that for any given partition there exists a super-strong equilibrium for resource selection games of identical resources with increasing cost functions; we also show similar existence results for a variety of other classes of resource selection games. For the case of repeated games we identify partitions that guarantee the existence of strong equilibrium. Together, our work introduces a natural concept, which turns out to lead to positive and applicable results in one of the basic domains studied in the literature.

  11. Recovery of condensate water quality in power generator's surface condenser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurniawan, Lilik Adib

    2017-03-01

    In PT Badak NGL Plant, steam turbines are used to drive major power generators, compressors, and pumps. Steam exiting the turbines is condensed in surface condensers to be returned to boilers. Therefore, surface condenser performance and quality of condensate water are very important. One of the recent problem was caused by the leak of a surface condenser of Steam Turbine Power Generator. Thesteam turbine was overhauled, leaving the surface condenser idle and exposed to air for more than 1.5 years. Sea water ingress due to tube leaks worsens the corrosionof the condenser shell. The combination of mineral scale and corrosion product resulting high conductivity condensate at outlet condenser when we restarted up, beyond the acceptable limit. After assessing several options, chemical cleaning was the best way to overcome the problem according to condenser configuration. An 8 hour circulation of 5%wt citric acid had succeed reducing water conductivity from 50 μmhos/cm to below 5 μmhos/cm. The condensate water, then meets the required quality, i.e. pH 8.3 - 9.0; conductivity ≤ 5 μmhos/cm, therefore the power generator can be operated normally without any concern until now.

  12. Condensate fluctuations of interacting Bose gases within a microcanonical ensemble.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianhui; He, Jizhou; Ma, Yongli

    2011-05-01

    Based on counting statistics and Bogoliubov theory, we present a recurrence relation for the microcanonical partition function for a weakly interacting Bose gas with a finite number of particles in a cubic box. According to this microcanonical partition function, we calculate numerically the distribution function, condensate fraction, and condensate fluctuations for a finite and isolated Bose-Einstein condensate. For ideal and weakly interacting Bose gases, we compare the condensate fluctuations with those in the canonical ensemble. The present approach yields an accurate account of the condensate fluctuations for temperatures close to the critical region. We emphasize that the interactions between excited atoms turn out to be important for moderate temperatures.

  13. Condensate fluctuations of interacting Bose gases within a microcanonical ensemble

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Jianhui; He Jizhou; Ma Yongli

    2011-05-15

    Based on counting statistics and Bogoliubov theory, we present a recurrence relation for the microcanonical partition function for a weakly interacting Bose gas with a finite number of particles in a cubic box. According to this microcanonical partition function, we calculate numerically the distribution function, condensate fraction, and condensate fluctuations for a finite and isolated Bose-Einstein condensate. For ideal and weakly interacting Bose gases, we compare the condensate fluctuations with those in the canonical ensemble. The present approach yields an accurate account of the condensate fluctuations for temperatures close to the critical region. We emphasize that the interactions between excited atoms turn out to be important for moderate temperatures.

  14. CONDENSATION CAN

    DOEpatents

    Booth, E.T. Jr.; Pontius, R.B.; Jacobsohn, B.A.; Slade, C.B.

    1962-03-01

    An apparatus is designed for condensing a vapor to a solid at relatively low back pressures. The apparatus comprises a closed condensing chamber, a vapor inlet tube extending to the central region of the chamber, a co-axial tubular shield surrounding the inlet tube, means for heating the inlet tube at a point outside the condensing chamber, and means for refrigeratirg the said chamber. (AEC)

  15. Cell partition in two phase polymer systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, D. E.

    1979-01-01

    Aqueous phase-separated polymer solutions can be used as support media for the partition of biological macromolecules, organelles and cells. Cell separations using the technique have proven to be extremely sensitive to cell surface properties but application of the systems are limited to cells or aggregates which do not significantly while the phases are settling. Partition in zero g in principle removes this limitation but an external driving force must be applied to induce the phases to separate since their density difference disappears. We have recently shown that an applied electric field can supply the necessary driving force. We are proposing to utilize the NASA FES to study field-driven phase separation and cell partition on the ground and in zero g to help define the separation/partition process, with the ultimate goal being to develop partition as a zero g cell separation technique.

  16. Internally drained condenser for spacecraft thermal management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valenzuela, Javier A.; Drew, Brian C.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the results obtained to date in a program to develop a high heat flux condenser for use in two-phase spacecraft thermal management loops. The objective is to obtain a several fold increase in condensation heat transfer coefficient over those which can be achieved with shear-controlled or capillary-wick condensers. The internally drained condenser relies on shaped fins to develop a capillary pressure gradient over the surface of the fins and drive the condensate toward narrow drainage grooves separating the fins. The condensate then flows through a drainage network embedded in the condenser walls. Heat transfer coefficients of up to 8 W/sq cm C were measured in steam, providing a heat transfer enhancement ratio greater than a factor of 8. In the paper the proof-of-concept experiments are described and simplified models to predict the performance of the internally drained condenser are presented.

  17. Condensation polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, P. M.

    1989-01-01

    Polyimides belong to a class of polymers known as polyheterocyclics. Unlike most other high temperature polymers, polyimides can be prepared from a variety of inexpensive monomers by several synthetic routes. The glass transition and crystalline melt temperature, thermooxidative stability, toughness, dielectric constant, coefficient of thermal expansion, chemical stability, mechanical performance, etc. of polyimides can be controlled within certain boundaries. This versatility has permitted the development of various forms of polyimides. These include adhesives, composite matrices, coatings, films, moldings, fibers, foams and membranes. Polyimides are synthesized through both condensation (step-polymerization) and addition (chain growth polymerization) routes. The precursor materials used in addition polyimides or imide oligomers are prepared by condensation method. High molecular weight polyimide made via polycondensation or step-growth polymerization is studied. The various synthetic routes to condensation polyimides, structure/property relationships of condensation polyimides and composite properties of condensation polyimides are all studied. The focus is on the synthesis and chemical structure/property relationships of polyimides with particular emphasis on materials for composite application.

  18. Gravity triggered neutrino condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Barenboim, Gabriela

    2010-11-01

    In this work we use the Schwinger-Dyson equations to study the possibility that an enhanced gravitational attraction triggers the formation of a right-handed neutrino condensate, inducing dynamical symmetry breaking and generating a Majorana mass for the right-handed neutrino at a scale appropriate for the seesaw mechanism. The composite field formed by the condensate phase could drive an early epoch of inflation. We find that to the lowest order, the theory does not allow dynamical symmetry breaking. Nevertheless, thanks to the large number of matter fields in the model, the suppression by additional powers in G of higher order terms can be compensated, boosting them up to their lowest order counterparts. This way chiral symmetry can be broken dynamically and the infrared mass generated turns out to be in the expected range for a successful seesaw scenario.

  19. Spatially-partitioned many-body vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaiman, S.; Alon, O. E.

    2016-02-01

    A vortex in Bose-Einstein condensates is a localized object which looks much like a tiny tornado storm. It is well described by mean-field theory. In the present work we go beyond the current paradigm and introduce many-body vortices. These are made of spatially- partitioned clouds, carry definite total angular momentum, and are fragmented rather than condensed objects which can only be described beyond mean-field theory. A phase diagram based on a mean-field model assists in predicting the parameters where many-body vortices occur. Implications are briefly discussed.

  20. Treatment of evaporator condensates by pervaporation

    DOEpatents

    Blume, Ingo; Baker, Richard W.

    1990-01-01

    A pervaporation process for separating organic contaminants from evaporator condensate streams is disclosed. The process employs a permselective membrane that is selectively permeable to an organic component of the condensate. The process involves contacting the feed side of the membrane with a liquid condensate stream, and withdrawing from the permeate side a vapor enriched in the organic component. The driving force for the process is the in vapor pressure across the membrane. This difference may be provided for instance by maintaining a vacuum on the permeate side, or by condensing the permeate. The process offers a simple, economic alternative to other separation techniques.

  1. Partitioning ecosystems for sustainability.

    PubMed

    Murray, Martyn G

    2016-03-01

    Decline in the abundance of renewable natural resources (RNRs) coupled with increasing demands of an expanding human population will greatly intensify competition for Earth's natural resources during this century, yet curiously, analytical approaches to the management of productive ecosystems (ecological theory of wildlife harvesting, tragedy of the commons, green economics, and bioeconomics) give only peripheral attention to the driving influence of competition on resource exploitation. Here, I apply resource competition theory (RCT) to the exploitation of RNRs and derive four general policies in support of their sustainable and equitable use: (1) regulate resource extraction technology to avoid damage to the resource base; (2) increase efficiency of resource use and reduce waste at every step in the resource supply chain and distribution network; (3) partition ecosystems with the harvesting niche as the basic organizing principle for sustainable management of natural resources by multiple users; and (4) increase negative feedback between consumer and resource to bring about long-term sustainable use. A simple policy framework demonstrates how RCT integrates with other elements of sustainability science to better manage productive ecosystems. Several problem areas of RNR management are discussed in the light of RCT, including tragedy of the commons, overharvesting, resource collapse, bycatch, single species quotas, and simplification of ecosystems.

  2. Combined boiler feed and condensate pump

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Cooper, Titusville, N.J.

    1993-06-01

    A pump for drawing the condensate from a condenser and feeding it to a steam boiler is described, the combination comprising: an elongate casing adapted to be connected in a pipeline having an inlet for receiving the condensate from a steam condenser and an outlet for feeding the condensate to a steam boiler; a pump shaft mounted in said casing rotating in a pair of bearings spaced along said shaft and fixed in said casing; an electric motor mounted in said casing connected to one end of said shaft for driving it; control means for operating said electric motor; an inducer pump mounted at the other end of said shaft, driven by said shaft; a multiple stage centrifugal feed pump located in said casing driven by said shaft and receiving condensate from the inducer pump, pumping said condensate to a higher pressure suitable for feeding a steam boiler and delivering said condensate to the outlet of said pump, the multiple stage centrifugal feed pump being located adjacent said inducer pump; and said inducer pump being of the type to produce sufficient positive pressure for properly feeding condensate to said feed pump.

  3. Condensation model for the ESBWR passive condensers

    SciTech Connect

    Revankar, S. T.; Zhou, W.; Wolf, B.; Oh, S.

    2012-07-01

    In the General Electric's Economic simplified boiling water reactor (GE-ESBWR) the passive containment cooling system (PCCS) plays a major role in containment pressure control in case of an loss of coolant accident. The PCCS condenser must be able to remove sufficient energy from the reactor containment to prevent containment from exceeding its design pressure following a design basis accident. There are three PCCS condensation modes depending on the containment pressurization due to coolant discharge; complete condensation, cyclic venting and flow through mode. The present work reviews the models and presents model predictive capability along with comparison with existing data from separate effects test. The condensation models in thermal hydraulics code RELAP5 are also assessed to examine its application to various flow modes of condensation. The default model in the code predicts complete condensation well, and basically is Nusselt solution. The UCB model predicts through flow well. None of condensation model in RELAP5 predict complete condensation, cyclic venting, and through flow condensation consistently. New condensation correlations are given that accurately predict all three modes of PCCS condensation. (authors)

  4. 46. VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST OF CONDENSER NUMBER 2 (LEFT BACKGROUND) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST OF CONDENSER NUMBER 2 (LEFT BACKGROUND) AND MOTOR FOR PUMPING CONDENSER HOT WELL (LOWER CENTER OF PHOTOGRAPH). SPENT STEAM EXHAUSTED FROM THE TURBINE WAS CONDENSED BY A SPRAY OF BRACKISH WATER. THIS CREATED A PARTIAL VACUUM WHICH IMPROVED TURBINE EFFICIENCY. THE MIXTURE OF CONDENSED STEAM AND COOL BRACKISH WATER FELL TO THE BOTTOM OF THE CONDENSER INTO A HOT WELL. FROM THE WELL IT WAS PUMPED TO THE MAIN DISCHARGE FLUME. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  5. A biologically motivated partitioning of mortality.

    PubMed

    Carnes, B A; Olshansky, S J

    1997-01-01

    For over a century, actuaries and biologists working independently of each other have presented arguments for why total mortality needs to be partitioned into biologically meaningful subcomponents. These mortality partitions tended to overlook genetic diseases that are inherited because the partitions were motivated by a paradigm focused on aging. In this article, we combine and extend the concepts from these disciplines to develop a conceptual partitioning of total mortality into extrinsic and intrinsic causes of death. An extrinsic death is either caused or initiated by something that orginates outside the body of an individual, while an intrinsic death is either caused or initiated by processes that originate within the body. It is argued that extrinsic mortality has been a driving force in determining why we die when we do from intrinsic causes of death. This biologically motivated partitioning of mortality provides a useful perspective for researchers interested in comparative mortality analyses, the consequences of population aging, limits to human life expectancy, the progress made by the biomedical sciences against lethal diseases, and demographic models that predict the life expectancy of future populations.

  6. MULTIVARIATE KERNEL PARTITION PROCESS MIXTURES

    PubMed Central

    Dunson, David B.

    2013-01-01

    Mixtures provide a useful approach for relaxing parametric assumptions. Discrete mixture models induce clusters, typically with the same cluster allocation for each parameter in multivariate cases. As a more flexible approach that facilitates sparse nonparametric modeling of multivariate random effects distributions, this article proposes a kernel partition process (KPP) in which the cluster allocation varies for different parameters. The KPP is shown to be the driving measure for a multivariate ordered Chinese restaurant process that induces a highly-flexible dependence structure in local clustering. This structure allows the relative locations of the random effects to inform the clustering process, with spatially-proximal random effects likely to be assigned the same cluster index. An exact block Gibbs sampler is developed for posterior computation, avoiding truncation of the infinite measure. The methods are applied to hormone curve data, and a dependent KPP is proposed for classification from functional predictors. PMID:24478563

  7. iDriving (Intelligent Driving)

    SciTech Connect

    Malikopoulos, Andreas

    2012-09-17

    iDriving identifies the driving style factors that have a major impact on fuel economy. An optimization framework is used with the aim of optimizing a driving style with respect to these driving factors. A set of polynomial metamodels is constructed to reflect the responses produced in fuel economy by changing the driving factors. The optimization framework is used to develop a real-time feedback system, including visual instructions, to enable drivers to alter their driving styles in responses to actual driving conditions to improve fuel efficiency.

  8. Condensate Mixtures and Tunneling

    SciTech Connect

    Timmermans, E.

    1998-09-14

    The experimental study of condensate mixtures is a particularly exciting application of the recently developed atomic-trap Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) technology: such multiple condensates represent the first laboratory systems of distinguishable boson superfluid mixtures. In addition, as the authors point out in this paper, the possibility of inter-condensate tunneling greatly enhances the richness of the condensate mixture physics. Not only does tunneling give rise to the oscillating particle currents between condensates of different chemical potentials, such as those studied extensively in the condensed matter Josephson junction experiments, it also affects the near-equilibrium dynamics and stability of the condensate mixtures. In particular, the stabilizing influence of tunneling with respect to spatial separation (phase separation) could be of considerable practical importance to the atomic trap systems. Furthermore, the creation of mixtures of atomic and molecular condensates could introduce a novel type of tunneling process, involving the conversion of a pair of atomic condensate bosons into a single molecular condensate boson. The static description of condensate mixtures with such type of pair tunneling suggests the possibility of observing dilute condensates with the liquid-like property of a self-determined density.

  9. Condensates in Jovian Atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, R.

    1999-01-01

    Thermochemical equilibrium theory which starts with temperature/pressure profiles, compositional information and thermodynamic data for condensable species in the jovian planet atmospheres predicts layers of condensate clouds in the upper troposphere.

  10. Drugged Driving

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription Drugs & Cold ... in the past year. Middle Figure: Driving after marijuana use is more common than driving after alcohol ...

  11. Impaired Driving

    MedlinePlus

    Impaired driving is dangerous. It's the cause of more than half of all car crashes. It means operating a ... texting Having a medical condition which affects your driving For your safety and the safety of others, ...

  12. Equilibrium absorptive partitioning theory between multiple aerosol particle modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crooks, Matthew; Connolly, Paul; Topping, David; McFiggans, Gordon

    2016-10-01

    An existing equilibrium absorptive partitioning model for calculating the equilibrium gas and particle concentrations of multiple semi-volatile organics within a bulk aerosol is extended to allow for multiple involatile aerosol modes of different sizes and chemical compositions. In the bulk aerosol problem, the partitioning coefficient determines the fraction of the total concentration of semi-volatile material that is in the condensed phase of the aerosol. This work modifies this definition for multiple polydisperse aerosol modes to account for multiple condensed concentrations, one for each semi-volatile on each involatile aerosol mode. The pivotal assumption in this work is that each aerosol mode contains an involatile constituent, thus overcoming the potential problem of smaller particles evaporating completely and then condensing on the larger particles to create a monodisperse aerosol at equilibrium. A parameterisation is proposed in which the coupled non-linear system of equations is approximated by a simpler set of equations obtained by setting the organic mole fraction in the partitioning coefficient to be the same across all modes. By perturbing the condensed masses about this approximate solution a correction term is derived that accounts for many of the removed complexities. This method offers a greatly increased efficiency in calculating the solution without significant loss in accuracy, thus making it suitable for inclusion in large-scale models.

  13. Partitioning Breaks Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Fergal; McDaid, Aaron; Hurley, Neil

    Considering a clique as a conservative definition of community structure, we examine how graph partitioning algorithms interact with cliques. Many popular community-finding algorithms partition the entire graph into non-overlapping communities. We show that on a wide range of empirical networks, from different domains, significant numbers of cliques are split across the separate partitions produced by these algorithms. We then examine the largest connected component of the subgraph formed by retaining only edges in cliques, and apply partitioning strategies that explicitly minimise the number of cliques split. We further examine several modern overlapping community finding algorithms, in terms of the interaction between cliques and the communities they find, and in terms of the global overlap of the sets of communities they find. We conclude that, due to the connectedness of many networks, any community finding algorithm that produces partitions must fail to find at least some significant structures. Moreover, contrary to traditional intuition, in some empirical networks, strong ties and cliques frequently do cross community boundaries; much community structure is fundamentally overlapping and unpartitionable in nature.

  14. Condensation on Slippery Asymmetric Bumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kyoo-Chul; Kim, Philseok; Aizenberg, Joanna

    Controlling dropwise condensation by designing surfaces that enable droplets to grow rapidly and be shed as quickly as possible is fundamental to water harvesting systems, thermal power generation, distillation towers, etc. However, cutting-edge approaches based on micro/nanoscale textures suffer from intrinsic trade-offs that make it difficult to optimize both growth and transport at once. Here we present a conceptually different design approach based on principles derived from Namib desert beetles, cacti, and pitcher plants that synergistically couples both aspects of condensation and outperforms other synthetic surfaces. Inspired by an unconventional interpretation of the role of the beetle's bump geometry in promoting condensation, we show how to maximize vapor diffusion flux at the apex of convex millimetric bumps by optimizing curvature and shape. Integrating this apex geometry with a widening slope analogous to cactus spines couples rapid drop growth with fast directional transport, by creating a free energy profile that drives the drop down the slope. This coupling is further enhanced by a slippery, pitcher plant-inspired coating that facilitates feedback between coalescence-driven growth and capillary-driven motion. We further observe an unprecedented six-fold higher exponent in growth rate and much faster shedding time compared to other surfaces. We envision that our fundamental understanding and rational design strategy can be applied to a wide range of phase change applications.

  15. Condensation on Slippery Asymmetric Bumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kyoo-Chul; Kim, Philseok; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2016-11-01

    Controlling dropwise condensation by designing surfaces that enable droplets to grow rapidly and be shed as quickly as possible is fundamental to water harvesting systems, thermal power generation, distillation towers, etc. However, cutting-edge approaches based on micro/nanoscale textures suffer from intrinsic trade-offs that make it difficult to optimize both growth and transport at once. Here we present a conceptually different design approach based on principles derived from Namib desert beetles, cacti, and pitcher plants that synergistically couples both aspects of condensation and outperforms other synthetic surfaces. Inspired by an unconventional interpretation of the role of the beetle's bump geometry in promoting condensation, we show how to maximize vapor diffusion flux at the apex of convex millimetric bumps by optimizing curvature and shape. Integrating this apex geometry with a widening slope analogous to cactus spines couples rapid drop growth with fast directional transport, by creating a free energy profile that drives the drop down the slope. This coupling is further enhanced by a slippery, pitcher plant-inspired coating that facilitates feedback between coalescence-driven growth and capillary-driven motion. We further observe an unprecedented six-fold higher exponent in growth rate and much faster shedding time compared to other surfaces. We envision that our fundamental understanding and rational design strategy can be applied to a wide range of phase change applications.

  16. Intruder-induced change in condensation temperature of granular gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kuo-Ching; Hsieh, Wan-Lin; Lin, Chi-Hao

    2011-02-01

    The process from a gaseous state to a clustering state for a compartmentalized monodisperse granular gas is accompanied by a drop in the granular temperature to a condensation point. We show experimentally that adding an intruder generally results in a decrease in the condensation point, and a heavier intruder makes this decrease more pronounced. However, once the Brazil nut effect (the intruder on the top of clustering grains) occurs, the condensation point will rise. Through the balance of particle fluxes and the hydrodynamic balance of driving forces, we analytically calculated the condensation point for the monodisperse gases and the intruder-fluid mixtures. The analytical results match the experimental data.

  17. Iron Partitioning in Ferropericlase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braithwaite, J. W. H.; Stixrude, L. P.; Pinilla, C.; Holmstrom, E.

    2015-12-01

    Ferropericlase, (Mg,Fe)O, is the second most abundant mineral in the Earth's lower mantle. Whether iron favours the liquid or solid phase of (Mg,Fe)O has important implications for the Earth's mantle, both chemically and dynamically. As iron is much heavier than magnesium, the partitioning of iron between liquid and solid will lead to a contrast in densities. This difference in density will lead one phase to be more buoyant than the other and would help, in part, to explain how the mantle crystallised from the magma ocean of the Hadean eon to its current state. The partitioning of iron between the two phases is characterized by partition coefficients. Using ab-initio methods, thermodynamic integration and adiabatic switching these coefficients have been determined. Results are presented for pressures encompassing the region between the upper mantle and the core-mantle boundary (10-140GPa).

  18. FNAS phase partitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanalstine, James M.

    1993-01-01

    Project NAS8-36955 D.O. #100 initially involved the following tasks: (1) evaluation of various coatings' ability to control wall wetting and surface zeta potential expression; (2) testing various methods to mix and control the demixing of phase systems; and (3) videomicroscopic investigation of cell partition. Three complementary areas were identified for modification and extension of the original contract. They were: (1) identification of new supports for column cell partition; (2) electrokinetic detection of protein adsorption; and (3) emulsion studies related to bioseparations.

  19. Pile Driving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Machine-oriented structural engineering firm TERA, Inc. is engaged in a project to evaluate the reliability of offshore pile driving prediction methods to eventually predict the best pile driving technique for each new offshore oil platform. Phase I Pile driving records of 48 offshore platforms including such information as blow counts, soil composition and pertinent construction details were digitized. In Phase II, pile driving records were statistically compared with current methods of prediction. Result was development of modular software, the CRIPS80 Software Design Analyzer System, that companies can use to evaluate other prediction procedures or other data bases.

  20. High gliding fluid power generation system with fluid component separation and multiple condensers

    SciTech Connect

    Mahmoud, Ahmad M; Lee, Jaeseon; Radcliff, Thomas D

    2014-10-14

    An example power generation system includes a vapor generator, a turbine, a separator and a pump. In the separator, the multiple components of the working fluid are separated from each other and sent to separate condensers. Each of the separate condensers is configured for condensing a single component of the working fluid. Once each of the components condense back into a liquid form they are recombined and exhausted to a pump that in turn drives the working fluid back to the vapor generator.

  1. EPRI condensate polisher guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Larkin, B.A.; Webb, L.C.; Sawochka, S.G.; Crits, G.J.; Pocock, F.J.; Wirth, L.

    1995-01-01

    Cycle chemistry is one of the most important contributors to the loss of availability of generating units. Condensate polishing can significantly improve cycle chemistry by improving cycle water quality and minimizing the transport of contaminants in the power cycle. The EPRI-funded project described in this paper developed comprehensive guidelines for condensate polishing based upon information gathered from utility surveys, equipment vendors, and resin suppliers. Existing literature was also surveyed for pertinent input. Comprehensive guidelines which outline guidance for design, operation, maintenance, surveillance, management, and retrofitting of condensate polishing systems were developed. Economics of condensate polishing were evaluated and a roadmap for economic evaluation for utilities to follow was produced.

  2. Isotope fractionation of benzene during partitioning - Revisited.

    PubMed

    Kopinke, F-D; Georgi, A; Imfeld, G; Richnow, H-H

    2017-02-01

    Isotope fractionation between benzene-D0 and benzene-D6 caused by multi-step partitioning of the benzenes between water and two organic solvents, n-octane and 1-octanol, as well as between water and the gas phase, was measured. The obtained fractionation factors αH = KH/KD are αH = 1.080 ± 0.015 and αH = 1.074 ± 0.015 for extraction into n-octane and 1-octanol, respectively, and αH = 1.049 ± 0.010 for evaporation from aqueous solution. The comparison of solvent- and gas-phase partitioning reveals that about 2/3 of the driving force of fractionation is due to different interactions in the aqueous phase, whereas 1/3 is due to different interactions in the organic phase. The heavy benzene isotopologue behaves more 'hydrophilically' and the light one more 'hydrophobically'. This synergistic alignment gives rise to relatively large fractionation effects in partitioning between water and non-polar organic matter. In contrast to a previous study, there is no indication of strong fractionation by specific interactions between benzene and octanol. Partitioning under non-equilibrium conditions yields smaller apparent fractionation effects due to opposite trends of thermodynamic and kinetic fractionation parameters, i.e. partition and diffusion coefficients of the isotopologues. This may have consequences which should be taken into account when considering isotope fractionation due to sorption in environmental compartments.

  3. Distracted driving

    MedlinePlus

    ... the road Your hands on the wheel Your mind on driving Distracted driving occurs when something gets in the way of you doing all 3 things. Examples include: Talking on a cell phone Reading or sending text messages Eating and drinking Grooming ( ...

  4. Condensing Organic Aerosols in a Microphysical Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Y.; Tsigaridis, K.; Bauer, S.

    2015-12-01

    The condensation of organic aerosols is represented in a newly developed box-model scheme, where its effect on the growth and composition of particles are examined. We implemented the volatility-basis set (VBS) framework into the aerosol mixing state resolving microphysical scheme Multiconfiguration Aerosol TRacker of mIXing state (MATRIX). This new scheme is unique and advances the representation of organic aerosols in models in that, contrary to the traditional treatment of organic aerosols as non-volatile in most climate models and in the original version of MATRIX, this new scheme treats them as semi-volatile. Such treatment is important because low-volatility organics contribute significantly to the growth of particles. The new scheme includes several classes of semi-volatile organic compounds from the VBS framework that can partition among aerosol populations in MATRIX, thus representing the growth of particles via condensation of low volatility organic vapors. Results from test cases representing Mexico City and a Finish forrest condistions show good representation of the time evolutions of concentration for VBS species in the gas phase and in the condensed particulate phase. Emitted semi-volatile primary organic aerosols evaporate almost completely in the high volatile range, and they condense more efficiently in the low volatility range.

  5. Measure Guideline: Evaporative Condensers

    SciTech Connect

    German, A; Dakin, B.; Hoeschele, M.

    2012-03-01

    This measure guideline on evaporative condensers provides information on properly designing, installing, and maintaining evaporative condenser systems as well as understanding the benefits, costs, and tradeoffs. This is a prescriptive approach that outlines selection criteria, design and installation procedures, and operation and maintenance best practices.

  6. Geothermal steam condensate reinjection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chasteen, A. J.

    1974-01-01

    Geothermal electric generating plants which use condensing turbines and generate and excess of condensed steam which must be disposed of are discussed. At the Geysers, California, the largest geothermal development in the world, this steam condensate has been reinjected into the steam reservoir since 1968. A total of 3,150,000,000 gallons of steam condensate has been reinjected since that time with no noticeable effect on the adjacent producing wells. Currently, 3,700,000 gallons/day from 412 MW of installed capacity are being injected into 5 wells. Reinjection has also proven to be a satisfactory method of disposing of geothermal condensate a Imperial Valley, California, and at the Valles Caldera, New Mexico.

  7. Dementia & Driving

    MedlinePlus

    ... Caregiver Resource Center Family Care Navigator Research Registry Support Groups Caregiver Stories Connections e-Newsletter FCA+(plus) Services ... be like if you could no longer drive. Support groups provide a good venue for both the caregivers ...

  8. Condensation on slippery asymmetric bumps.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyoo-Chul; Kim, Philseok; Grinthal, Alison; He, Neil; Fox, David; Weaver, James C; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2016-03-03

    Controlling dropwise condensation is fundamental to water-harvesting systems, desalination, thermal power generation, air conditioning, distillation towers, and numerous other applications. For any of these, it is essential to design surfaces that enable droplets to grow rapidly and to be shed as quickly as possible. However, approaches based on microscale, nanoscale or molecular-scale textures suffer from intrinsic trade-offs that make it difficult to optimize both growth and transport at once. Here we present a conceptually different design approach--based on principles derived from Namib desert beetles, cacti, and pitcher plants--that synergistically combines these aspects of condensation and substantially outperforms other synthetic surfaces. Inspired by an unconventional interpretation of the role of the beetle's bumpy surface geometry in promoting condensation, and using theoretical modelling, we show how to maximize vapour diffusion fluxat the apex of convex millimetric bumps by optimizing the radius of curvature and cross-sectional shape. Integrating this apex geometry with a widening slope, analogous to cactus spines, directly couples facilitated droplet growth with fast directional transport, by creating a free-energy profile that drives the droplet down the slope before its growth rate can decrease. This coupling is further enhanced by a slippery, pitcher-plant-inspired nanocoating that facilitates feedback between coalescence-driven growth and capillary-driven motion on the way down. Bumps that are rationally designed to integrate these mechanisms are able to grow and transport large droplets even against gravity and overcome the effect of an unfavourable temperature gradient. We further observe an unprecedented sixfold-higher exponent of growth rate, faster onset, higher steady-state turnover rate, and a greater volume of water collected compared to other surfaces. We envision that this fundamental understanding and rational design strategy can be

  9. Condensation on slippery asymmetric bumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kyoo-Chul; Kim, Philseok; Grinthal, Alison; He, Neil; Fox, David; Weaver, James C.; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2016-03-01

    Controlling dropwise condensation is fundamental to water-harvesting systems, desalination, thermal power generation, air conditioning, distillation towers, and numerous other applications. For any of these, it is essential to design surfaces that enable droplets to grow rapidly and to be shed as quickly as possible. However, approaches based on microscale, nanoscale or molecular-scale textures suffer from intrinsic trade-offs that make it difficult to optimize both growth and transport at once. Here we present a conceptually different design approach—based on principles derived from Namib desert beetles, cacti, and pitcher plants—that synergistically combines these aspects of condensation and substantially outperforms other synthetic surfaces. Inspired by an unconventional interpretation of the role of the beetle’s bumpy surface geometry in promoting condensation, and using theoretical modelling, we show how to maximize vapour diffusion fluxat the apex of convex millimetric bumps by optimizing the radius of curvature and cross-sectional shape. Integrating this apex geometry with a widening slope, analogous to cactus spines, directly couples facilitated droplet growth with fast directional transport, by creating a free-energy profile that drives the droplet down the slope before its growth rate can decrease. This coupling is further enhanced by a slippery, pitcher-plant-inspired nanocoating that facilitates feedback between coalescence-driven growth and capillary-driven motion on the way down. Bumps that are rationally designed to integrate these mechanisms are able to grow and transport large droplets even against gravity and overcome the effect of an unfavourable temperature gradient. We further observe an unprecedented sixfold-higher exponent of growth rate, faster onset, higher steady-state turnover rate, and a greater volume of water collected compared to other surfaces. We envision that this fundamental understanding and rational design strategy can be

  10. Sedimentary condensation and authigenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Föllmi, Karl

    2016-04-01

    Most marine authigenic minerals form in sediments, which are subjected to condensation. Condensation processes lead to the formation of well individualized, extremely thin (< 1m) beds, which were accumulated during extremely long time periods (> 100ky), and which experienced authigenesis and the precipitation of glaucony, verdine, phosphate, iron and manganese oxyhydroxides, iron sulfide, carbonate and/or silica. They usually show complex internal stratigraphies, which result from an interplay of sediment accumulation, halts in sedimentation, sediment winnowing, erosion, reworking and bypass. They may include amalgamated faunas of different origin and age. Hardgrounds may be part of condensed beds and may embody strongly condensed beds by themselves. Sedimentary condensation is the result of a hydrodynamically active depositional regime, in which sediment accumulation, winnowing, erosion, reworking and bypass are processes, which alternate as a function of changes in the location and intensity of currents, and/or as the result of episodic high-energy events engendered by storms and gravity flow. Sedimentary condensation has been and still is a widespread phenomenon in past and present-day oceans. The present-day distribution of glaucony and verdine-rich sediments on shelves and upper slopes, phosphate-rich sediments and phosphorite on outer shelves and upper slopes, ferromanganese crusts on slopes, seamounts and submarine plateaus, and ferromanganese nodules on abyssal seafloors is a good indication of the importance of condensation processes today. In the past, we may add the occurrence of oolitic ironstone, carbonate hardgrounds, and eventually also silica layers in banded iron formations as indicators of the importance of condensation processes. Besides their economic value, condensed sediments are useful both as a carrier of geochemical proxies of paleoceanographic and paleoenvironmental change, as well as the product of episodes of paleoceanographic and

  11. 44. VIEW LOOKING EAST, OF WESTINGHOUSELEBLANC JET CONDENSER LOCATED UNDER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. VIEW LOOKING EAST, OF WESTINGHOUSE-LEBLANC JET CONDENSER LOCATED UNDER TURBINE NUMBER 3. THE SPHERICAL HOUSING AT THE TOP RIGHT OF THE PHOTOGRAPH IS A RELIEF VALVE. IN THE EVENTS OF TURBINE OVERPRESSURE THE RELIEF VALVE OPENS AND VENTS EXCESSIVE STEAM PRESSURE TO AN EXHAUST STACK THUS BYPASSING THE CONDENSER. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  12. Electrolyte vapor condenser

    DOEpatents

    Sederquist, R.A.; Szydlowski, D.F.; Sawyer, R.D.

    1983-02-08

    A system is disclosed for removing electrolyte from a fuel cell gas stream. The gas stream containing electrolyte vapor is supercooled utilizing conventional heat exchangers and the thus supercooled gas stream is passed over high surface area passive condensers. The condensed electrolyte is then drained from the condenser and the remainder of the gas stream passed on. The system is particularly useful for electrolytes such as phosphoric acid and molten carbonate, but can be used for other electrolyte cells and simple vapor separation as well. 3 figs.

  13. Key condenser failure mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Buecker, B.

    2009-04-15

    Eight practical lessons highlight many of the factors that can influence condenser tube corrosion at coal-fired utilities and the effects contaminant in-leakage can have on steam generating units. 1 ref., 4 figs.

  14. Chemical amplification based on fluid partitioning

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Brian L.; Colston, Jr., Billy W.; Elkin, Chris

    2006-05-09

    A system for nucleic acid amplification of a sample comprises partitioning the sample into partitioned sections and performing PCR on the partitioned sections of the sample. Another embodiment of the invention provides a system for nucleic acid amplification and detection of a sample comprising partitioning the sample into partitioned sections, performing PCR on the partitioned sections of the sample, and detecting and analyzing the partitioned sections of the sample.

  15. Measure Guideline: Evaporative Condensers

    SciTech Connect

    German, A.; Dakin, B.; Hoeschele, M.

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this measure guideline on evaporative condensers is to provide information on a cost-effective solution for energy and demand savings in homes with cooling loads. This is a prescriptive approach that outlines selection criteria, design and installation procedures, and operation and maintenance best practices. This document has been prepared to provide a process for properly designing, installing, and maintaining evaporative condenser systems as well as understanding the benefits, costs, and tradeoffs.

  16. Molecular equilibrium with condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, C. M.; Huebner, W. F.

    1990-02-01

    Minimization of the Gibbs energy of formation for species of chemical elements and compounds in their gas and condensed phases determines their relative abundances in a mixture in chemical equilibrium. The procedure is more general and more powerful than previous abundance determinations in multiphase astrophysical mixtures. Some results for astrophysical equations of state are presented, and the effects of condensation on opacity are briefly indicated.

  17. Partitioning the Quaternary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbard, Philip L.; Lewin, John

    2016-11-01

    We review the historical purposes and procedures for stratigraphical division and naming within the Quaternary, and summarize the current requirements for formal partitioning through the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS). A raft of new data and evidence has impacted traditional approaches: quasi-continuous records from ocean sediments and ice cores, new numerical dating techniques, and alternative macro-models, such as those provided through Sequence Stratigraphy and Earth-System Science. The practical usefulness of division remains, but there is now greater appreciation of complex Quaternary detail and the modelling of time continua, the latter also extending into the future. There are problems both of commission (what is done, but could be done better) and of omission (what gets left out) in partitioning the Quaternary. These include the challenge set by the use of unconformities as stage boundaries, how to deal with multiphase records in ocean and terrestrial sediments, what happened at the 'Early-Mid- (Middle) Pleistocene Transition', dealing with trends that cross phase boundaries, and the current controversial focus on how to subdivide the Holocene and formally define an 'Anthropocene'.

  18. Condensate dark matter stars

    SciTech Connect

    Li, X.Y.; Harko, T.; Cheng, K.S. E-mail: harko@hkucc.hku.hk

    2012-06-01

    We investigate the structure and stability properties of compact astrophysical objects that may be formed from the Bose-Einstein condensation of dark matter. Once the critical temperature of a boson gas is less than the critical temperature, a Bose-Einstein Condensation process can always take place during the cosmic history of the universe. Therefore we model the dark matter inside the star as a Bose-Einstein condensate. In the condensate dark matter star model, the dark matter equation of state can be described by a polytropic equation of state, with polytropic index equal to one. We derive the basic general relativistic equations describing the equilibrium structure of the condensate dark matter star with spherically symmetric static geometry. The structure equations of the condensate dark matter stars are studied numerically. The critical mass and radius of the dark matter star are given by M{sub crit} ≈ 2(l{sub a}/1fm){sup 1/2}(m{sub χ}/1 GeV){sup −3/2}M{sub s}un and R{sub crit} ≈ 1.1 × 10{sup 6}(l{sub a}/1 fm){sup 1/2}(m{sub χ}/1 GeV){sup −3/2} cm respectively, where l{sub a} and m{sub χ} are the scattering length and the mass of dark matter particle, respectively.

  19. Disk Drives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    A new material known as AlBeMet, developed by Brush Wellman for research applications in the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP) program, is now used for high performance disk drives. AlBeMet is a compression of aluminum, beryllium metal matrix composite. It reduces system weight and its high thermal conductivity can effectively remove heat and increase an electrical system's lifetime. The lighter, stiffer AlBeMet (AlBeMet 160) used in the disk drive means heads can be moved faster, improving disk performance.

  20. Sorting by Recursive Partitioning,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    asymptotic time-complexity. This paper has the following main parts: First, a Pidgin -Algol version of the algorithm is presented and we discuss the main...those sorted subsets e) end "UsingBin*; end "AdaptSorting. 4 "Figure 1: A condensed Pidgin -Algol version of Adaptsort eiFor some conditions that we will...algorithm which have to be completed in either linear or constant times (these required critical times appear as comments in the Pidgin -Algol version

  1. Partition Density Functional Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasserman, Adam

    2012-02-01

    Partition Density Functional Theory (PDFT) is a formally exact method for obtaining molecular properties from self-consistent calculations on isolated fragments [1,2]. For a given choice of fragmentation, PDFT outputs the (in principle exact) molecular energy and density, as well as fragment densities that sum to the correct molecular density. I describe our progress understanding the behavior of the fragment energies as a function of fragment occupations, derivative discontinuities, practical implementation, and applications of PDFT to small molecules. I also discuss implications for ground-state Density Functional Theory, such as the promise of PDFT to circumvent the delocalization error of approximate density functionals. [4pt] [1] M.H. Cohen and A. Wasserman, J. Phys. Chem. A, 111, 2229(2007).[0pt] [2] P. Elliott, K. Burke, M.H. Cohen, and A. Wasserman, Phys. Rev. A 82, 024501 (2010).

  2. Partitioning: splitting fact from fiction.

    PubMed

    Pike, Brian

    2012-05-01

    Many larger hospitals are sprawling complexes with endless corridors and rooms of varying purpose. While cleanliness and infection control are, understandably, leading considerations in any hospital building, fire safety also plays a crucial role. Here Brian Pike MBE, technical consultant at partitioning system designer and manufacturer, Komfort Workspace, looks at how current fire guidelines impact on the use of partitioning systems in hospital premises.

  3. Orientation-dependent impurity partitioning of colloidal crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozawa, Jun; Uda, Satoshi; Hu, Sumeng; Fujiwara, Kozo; Koizumi, Haruhiko

    2016-04-01

    Impurity partitioning during colloidal crystallization was investigated for grains with different orientations. Particles of various sizes were doped as impurities during the growth of colloidal polycrystals. The effective partition coefficient, keff, which is the impurity concentration in the solid (CS) divided by that in initial solution (CL), was measured for grains oriented in the [111] and [100] directions normal to the growth direction. The [111]-oriented grains were found to have a larger keff than [100]-oriented grains. This was analyzed by using the Thurmond and Struthers model. Though both [111]- and [100]-oriented grains were face centered cubic (fcc) structures, within several layers of crystals, the volume fraction of [111]-oriented grains was larger than that of [100]-oriented grains, yielding a larger driving force for nucleation, ΔGTr, and thus a larger equilibrium partition coefficient, k0, for [111]-oriented grains.

  4. Spermine Condenses DNA, but Not RNA Duplexes

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, Andrea M.; Tolokh, Igor S.; Pabit, Suzette A.; Baker, Nathan; Onufriev, Alexey V.; Pollack, Lois

    2017-01-01

    Interactions between the polyamine spermine and nucleic acids drive important cellular processes. Spermine condenses DNA, and some RNAs such as poly(rA):poly(rU). A large fraction of the spermine present in cells is bound to RNA, but apparently does not condense it. Here, we study the effect of spermine binding to short duplex RNA and DNA and compare our findings with predictions of molecular dynamics simulations. When small numbers of spermine are introduced, RNA with a designed sequence, containing a mixture of 14 GC pairs and 11 AU pairs, resists condensation relative to DNA of an equivalent sequence or to 25 base pair poly(rA):poly(rU) RNA. Comparison of wide-angle x-ray scattering profiles with simulation suggests that spermine is sequestered deep within the major groove of mixed sequence RNA, preventing condensation by limiting opportunities to bridge to other molecules as well as stabilizing the RNA by locking it into a particular conformation. In contrast, for DNA, simulations suggest that spermine binds external to the duplex, offering opportunities for intermolecular interaction. The goal of this study is to explain how RNA can remain soluble, and available for interaction with other molecules in the cell, despite the presence of spermine at concentrations high enough to precipitate DNA.

  5. Keeping condensers clean

    SciTech Connect

    Wicker, K.

    2006-04-15

    The humble condenser is among the biggest contributors to a steam power plant's efficiency. But although a clean condenser can provide great economic benefit, a dirty one can raise plant heat rate, resulting in large losses of generation revenue and/or unnecessarily high fuel bills. Conventional methods for cleaning fouled tubes range form chemicals to scrapers to brushes and hydro-blasters. This article compares the available options and describes how one power station, Omaha Public Power District's 600 MW North Omaha coal-fired power station, cleaned up its act. The makeup and cooling water of all its five units comes from the Missouri River. 6 figs.

  6. Efficient Driving of Piezoelectric Transducers Using a Biaxial Driving Technique.

    PubMed

    Pichardo, Samuel; Silva, Rafael R C; Rubel, Oleg; Curiel, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Efficient driving of piezoelectric materials is desirable when operating transducers for biomedical applications such as high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) or ultrasound imaging. More efficient operation reduces the electric power required to produce the desired bioeffect or contrast. Our preliminary work [Cole et al. Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter. 2014;26(13):135901.] suggested that driving transducers by applying orthogonal electric fields can significantly reduce the coercivity that opposes ferroelectric switching. We present here the experimental validation of this biaxial driving technique using piezoelectric ceramics typically used in HIFU. A set of narrow-band transducers was fabricated with two sets of electrodes placed in an orthogonal configuration (following the propagation and the lateral mode). The geometry of the ceramic was chosen to have a resonance frequency similar for the propagation and the lateral mode. The average (± s.d.) resonance frequency of the samples was 465.1 (± 1.5) kHz. Experiments were conducted in which each pair of electrodes was driven independently and measurements of effective acoustic power were obtained using the radiation force method. The efficiency (acoustic/electric power) of the biaxial driving method was compared to the results obtained when driving the ceramic using electrodes placed only in the pole direction. Our results indicate that the biaxial method increases efficiency from 50% to 125% relative to the using a single electric field.

  7. Efficient Driving of Piezoelectric Transducers Using a Biaxial Driving Technique

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Efficient driving of piezoelectric materials is desirable when operating transducers for biomedical applications such as high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) or ultrasound imaging. More efficient operation reduces the electric power required to produce the desired bioeffect or contrast. Our preliminary work [Cole et al. Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter. 2014;26(13):135901.] suggested that driving transducers by applying orthogonal electric fields can significantly reduce the coercivity that opposes ferroelectric switching. We present here the experimental validation of this biaxial driving technique using piezoelectric ceramics typically used in HIFU. A set of narrow-band transducers was fabricated with two sets of electrodes placed in an orthogonal configuration (following the propagation and the lateral mode). The geometry of the ceramic was chosen to have a resonance frequency similar for the propagation and the lateral mode. The average (± s.d.) resonance frequency of the samples was 465.1 (± 1.5) kHz. Experiments were conducted in which each pair of electrodes was driven independently and measurements of effective acoustic power were obtained using the radiation force method. The efficiency (acoustic/electric power) of the biaxial driving method was compared to the results obtained when driving the ceramic using electrodes placed only in the pole direction. Our results indicate that the biaxial method increases efficiency from 50% to 125% relative to the using a single electric field. PMID:26418550

  8. Optimal driving of Bose-Einstein condensates in optical cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Caneva, T.; Calarco, T.; Montangero, S.

    2014-12-04

    We apply quantum optimal control to enhance the performance of the experimental setup of Ref. [1], speeding up the system dynamics at time scales of the order of the quantum speed limit. We perform a fast crossing of the quantum phase transition the system undergoes under realistic experimental conditions, and we present a new scaling-based strategy to compute optimal pulses for systems at the thermodynamical limit.

  9. 47. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST OF UPPER SECTION OF JET CONDENSER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST OF UPPER SECTION OF JET CONDENSER NUMBER 2 (CENTER BACKGROUND). PIPE IN LEFT FOREGROUND IS THE BRACKISH WATER FEED MAIN AND ITS CONTROL VALVE. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  10. Simple simulations of DNA condensation.

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, M J

    2001-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations of a simple, bead-spring model of semiflexible polyelectrolytes such as DNA are performed. All charges are explicitly treated. Starting from extended, noncondensed conformations, condensed structures form in the simulations with tetravalent or trivalent counterions. No condensates form or are stable for divalent counterions. The mechanism by which condensates form is described. Briefly, condensation occurs because electrostatic interactions dominate entropy, and the favored coulombic structure is a charge-ordered state. Condensation is a generic phenomenon and occurs for a variety of polyelectrolyte parameters. Toroids and rods are the condensate structures. Toroids form preferentially when the molecular stiffness is sufficiently strong. PMID:11159388

  11. Simple Simulations of DNA Condensation

    SciTech Connect

    STEVENS,MARK J.

    2000-07-12

    Molecular dynamics simulations of a simple, bead-spring model of semiflexible polyelectrolytes such as DNA are performed. All charges are explicitly treated. Starting from extended, noncondensed conformations, condensed structures form in the simulations with tetravalent or trivalent counterions. No condensates form or are stable for divalent counterions. The mechanism by which condensates form is described. Briefly, condensation occurs because electrostatic interactions dominate entropy, and the favored Coulombic structure is a charge ordered state. Condensation is a generic phenomena and occurs for a variety of polyelectrolyte parameters. Toroids and rods are the condensate structures. Toroids form preferentially when the molecular stiffness is sufficiently strong.

  12. Efficient algorithms for a class of partitioning problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iqbal, M. Ashraf; Bokhari, Shahid H.

    1990-01-01

    The problem of optimally partitioning the modules of chain- or tree-like tasks over chain-structured or host-satellite multiple computer systems is addressed. This important class of problems includes many signal processing and industrial control applications. Prior research has resulted in a succession of faster exact and approximate algorithms for these problems. Polynomial exact and approximate algorithms are described for this class that are better than any of the previously reported algorithms. The approach is based on a preprocessing step that condenses the given chain or tree structured task into a monotonic chain or tree. The partitioning of this monotonic take can then be carried out using fast search techniques.

  13. Detail of Bright Angel stone vault, containing condenser, Hoffman condensation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of Bright Angel stone vault, containing condenser, Hoffman condensation pump, Jennings vacuum heating pump, and misc. pipes and valves. - Grand Canyon Village Utilities, Grand Canyon National Park, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  14. Condensate removal device

    DOEpatents

    Maddox, James W.; Berger, David D.

    1984-01-01

    A condensate removal device is disclosed which incorporates a strainer in unit with an orifice. The strainer is cylindrical with its longitudinal axis transverse to that of the vapor conduit in which it is mounted. The orifice is positioned inside the strainer proximate the end which is remoter from the vapor conduit.

  15. Partitioning kinetic energy during freewheeling wheelchair maneuvers.

    PubMed

    Medola, Fausto O; Dao, Phuc V; Caspall, Jayme J; Sprigle, Stephen

    2014-03-01

    This paper describes a systematic method to partition the kinetic energy (KE) of a free-wheeling wheelchair. An ultralightweight rigid frame wheelchair was instrumented with two axle-mounted encoders and data acquisition equipment to accurately measure the velocity of the drive wheels. A mathematical model was created combining physical specifications and geometry of the wheelchair and its components. Two able-bodied subjects propelled the wheelchair over four courses that involved straight and turning maneuvers at differing speeds. The KE of the wheelchair was divided into three components: translational, rotational, and turning energy. This technique was sensitive to the changing contributions of the three energy components across maneuvers. Translational energy represented the major component of total KE in all maneuvers except a zero radius turn in which turning energy was dominant. Both translational and rotational energies are directly related to wheelchair speed. Partitioning KE offers a useful means of investigating the dynamics of a moving wheelchair. The described technique permits analysis of KE imparted to the wheelchair during maneuvers involving changes in speed and direction, which are most representative of mobility in everyday life. This technique can be used to study the effort required to maneuver different types and configurations of wheelchairs.

  16. Nanostructure-induced DNA condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ting; Llizo, Axel; Wang, Chen; Xu, Guiying; Yang, Yanlian

    2013-08-01

    The control of the DNA condensation process is essential for compaction of DNA in chromatin, as well as for biological applications such as nonviral gene therapy. This review endeavours to reflect the progress of investigations on DNA condensation effects of nanostructure-based condensing agents (such as nanoparticles, nanotubes, cationic polymer and peptide agents) observed by using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and other techniques. The environmental effects on structural characteristics of nanostructure-induced DNA condensates are also discussed.

  17. Modeling the selective partitioning of cations into negatively charged nanopores in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lu; Garde, Shekhar

    2007-02-01

    Partitioning and transport of water and small solutes into and through nanopores are important to a variety of chemical and biological processes and applications. Here we study water structure in negatively charged model cylindrical [carbon nanotube (CNT)-like] nanopores, as well as the partitioning of positive ions of increasing size (Na+, K+, and Cs+) into the pore interior using extensive molecular dynamics simulations. Despite the simplicity of the simulation system—containing a short CNT-like nanopore in water carrying a uniformly distributed charge of qpore=-ne surrounded by n (=0,…,8) cations, making the overall system charge neutral—the results provide new and useful insights on both the pore hydration and ion partitioning. For n =0, that is, for a neutral nanopore, water molecules partition into the pore and form single-file hydrogen-bonded wire spanning the pore length. With increasing n, water molecules enter the pore from both ends with preferred orientations, resulting in a mutual repulsion between oriented water molecules at the pore center and creating a cavity-like low density region at the center. For low negative charge densities on the pore, the driving force for partitioning of positive ions into the pore is weak, and no partitioning is observed. Increasing the pore charge gradually leads to partitioning of positive ions into the pore. Interestingly, over a range of intermediate negative charge densities, nanopores display both thermodynamic as well as kinetic selectivity toward partitioning of the larger K+ and Cs+ ions into their interior over the smaller Na+ ions. Specifically, the driving force is in the order K+>Cs+>Na+, and K+ and Cs+ ions enter the pore much more rapidly than Na+ ions. At higher charge densities, the driving force for partitioning increases for all cations—it is highest for K+ ions—and becomes similar for Na+ and Cs+ ions. The variation of thermodynamic driving force and the average partitioning time with the

  18. Feshbach-Einstein Condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Rousseau, V. G.; Denteneer, P. J. H.

    2009-01-09

    We investigate the phase diagram of a two-species Bose-Hubbard model describing atoms and molecules on a lattice, interacting via a Feshbach resonance. We identify a region where the system exhibits an exotic super-Mott phase and regions with phases characterized by atomic and/or molecular condensates. Our approach is based on a recently developed exact quantum Monte Carlo algorithm: the stochastic Green function algorithm with tunable directionality. We confirm some of the results predicted by mean-field studies, but we also find disagreement with these studies. In particular, we find a phase with an atomic but no molecular condensate, which is missing in all mean-field phase diagrams.

  19. Gravitational vacuum condensate stars

    PubMed Central

    Mazur, Pawel O.; Mottola, Emil

    2004-01-01

    A new final state of gravitational collapse is proposed. By extending the concept of Bose–Einstein condensation to gravitational systems, a cold, dark, compact object with an interior de Sitter condensate pv = -ρv and an exterior Schwarzschild geometry of arbitrary total mass M is constructed. These regions are separated by a shell with a small but finite proper thickness ℓ of fluid with equation of state p = +ρ, replacing both the Schwarzschild and de Sitter classical horizons. The new solution has no singularities, no event horizons, and a global time. Its entropy is maximized under small fluctuations and is given by the standard hydrodynamic entropy of the thin shell, which is of the order kBℓMc/, instead of the Bekenstein–Hawking entropy formula, SBH = 4πkBGM2/c. Hence, unlike black holes, the new solution is thermodynamically stable and has no information paradox. PMID:15210982

  20. Sidestream condensate polishing for PWRs

    SciTech Connect

    Shor, S.W.W.; Yim, S.L.; Rios, J.; Liu, J.

    1986-06-01

    Condensate polishers are used in power plant condensate system to remove both particulate matter and ionized corrodents. Their conventional location is just downstream of the hotwell pumps (condensate pumps). Most polisher installations have enough flow capacity to polish 100% of the condensate. This inline configuration has some disadvantage, including a flow that varies with unit load and tends to disturb the polisher beds and reduce their effectiveness, and a potential for interrupting flow to the feedwater pumps. An alternate arrangement where water is extracted from either the condenser or the condensate system, polished and returned to the system, has been used in a few plants. Three different ways of doing this have been used: divide the condenser hotwell into two parts, one of which receives condensate from the tube bundles and the other of which is sheltered. Take unpolished condensate from the first part, purify it and return it to the other part from which the condensate pumps take suction; take unpolished condensate from one end of a divided header on the suction side of the hotwell pumps and after polishing it return it to the other end; and take unpolished condensate from a header on the discharge side of the condensate pumps, purify it and return it to the condensate system a short distance downstream. The three variants are analyzed in this report. It is concluded that the variant where the connections are on the discharge side of the condensate pumps is the most desirable for retrofitting, in all cases being far easier to retrofit than an inline polisher. In many cases it will be most desirable for new construction.

  1. Bose-Einstein Condensation

    SciTech Connect

    El-Sherbini, Th.M.

    2005-03-17

    This article gives a brief review of Bose-Einstein condensation. It is an exotic quantum phenomenon that was observed in dilute atomic gases for the first time in 1995. It exhibits a new state of matter in which a group of atoms behaves as a single particle. Experiments on this form of matter are relevant to many different areas of physics- from atomic clocks and quantum computing to super fluidity, superconductivity and quantum phase transition.

  2. Asymmetric condensed dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Aguirre, Anthony; Diez-Tejedor, Alberto E-mail: alberto.diez@fisica.ugto.mx

    2016-04-01

    We explore the viability of a boson dark matter candidate with an asymmetry between the number densities of particles and antiparticles. A simple thermal field theory analysis confirms that, under certain general conditions, this component would develop a Bose-Einstein condensate in the early universe that, for appropriate model parameters, could survive the ensuing cosmological evolution until now. The condensation of a dark matter component in equilibrium with the thermal plasma is a relativistic process, hence the amount of matter dictated by the charge asymmetry is complemented by a hot relic density frozen out at the time of decoupling. Contrary to the case of ordinary WIMPs, dark matter particles in a condensate must be lighter than a few tens of eV so that the density from thermal relics is not too large. Big-Bang nucleosynthesis constrains the temperature of decoupling to the scale of the QCD phase transition or above. This requires large dark matter-to-photon ratios and very weak interactions with standard model particles.

  3. Designing lipids for selective partitioning into liquid ordered membrane domains.

    PubMed

    Momin, Noor; Lee, Stacey; Gadok, Avinash K; Busch, David J; Bachand, George D; Hayden, Carl C; Stachowiak, Jeanne C; Sasaki, Darryl Y

    2015-04-28

    Self-organization of lipid molecules into specific membrane phases is key to the development of hierarchical molecular assemblies that mimic cellular structures. While the packing interaction of the lipid tails should provide the major driving force to direct lipid partitioning to ordered or disordered membrane domains, numerous examples show that the headgroup and spacer play important but undefined roles. We report here the development of several new biotinylated lipids that examine the role of spacer chemistry and structure on membrane phase partitioning. The new lipids were prepared with varying lengths of low molecular weight polyethylene glycol (EGn) spacers to examine how spacer hydrophilicity and length influence their partitioning behavior following binding with FITC-labeled streptavidin in liquid ordered (Lo) and liquid disordered (Ld) phase coexisting membranes. Partitioning coefficients (Kp Lo/Ld) of the biotinylated lipids were determined using fluorescence measurements in studies with giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs). Compared against DPPE-biotin, DPPE-cap-biotin, and DSPE-PEG2000-biotin lipids, the new dipalmityl-EGn-biotin lipids exhibited markedly enhanced partitioning into liquid ordered domains, achieving Kp of up to 7.3 with a decaethylene glycol spacer (DP-EG10-biotin). We further demonstrated biological relevance of the lipids with selective partitioning to lipid raft-like domains observed in giant plasma membrane vesicles (GPMVs) derived from mammalian cells. Our results found that the spacer group not only plays a pivotal role for designing lipids with phase selectivity but may also influence the structural order of the domain assemblies.

  4. Effect of spontaneous condensation on condensation heat transfer in the presence of non-condensable gases

    SciTech Connect

    Karl, J.; Hein, D.

    1999-07-01

    The presence of non condensable gases like nitrogen or air reduces the condensation heat transfer during condensation of binary steam mixtures. The non condensable gas accumulates in the vapor phase boundary layer and causes a high heat transfer resistance. Especially with high pressures and low water temperatures spontaneous condensation reduces heat transfer additionally. Fog forms within the steam-nitrogen boundary layer and the steam condenses on the water droplets of the fog layer. The convective mass transfer to the cooling water interface diminishes. Raman spectroscopy and film theory are used to quantify this effect locally. The calculation of overall condensation rates in large steam nitrogen systems requires to use three dimensional CFD codes. The paper presents equations to predict fog formation in the boundary layer which can be implemented in CFD codes.

  5. A measurable force driven by an excitonic condensate

    SciTech Connect

    Hakioğlu, T.; Özgün, Ege; Günay, Mehmet

    2014-04-21

    Free energy signatures related to the measurement of an emergent force (≈10{sup −9}N) due to the exciton condensate (EC) in Double Quantum Wells are predicted and experiments are proposed to measure the effects. The EC-force is attractive and reminiscent of the Casimir force between two perfect metallic plates, but also distinctively different from it by its driving mechanism and dependence on the parameters of the condensate. The proposed experiments are based on a recent experimental work on a driven micromechanical oscillator. Conclusive observations of EC in recent experiments also provide a strong promise for the observation of the EC-force.

  6. Design and installation of a condensate recovery system

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    The Grimethorpe Experimental Facility was designed to use steam from the Grimethorpe Power Station to drive the turbo-compressor during start-up. During this period, it was intended that steam produced in the Facility Steam/Water Circuit would be vented to atmosphere and the required condensate make-up would be supplied from storage tanks. The Condensate Recovery System (CRS) and its interconnection with the Facility is shown. The resulting changes of the thermodynamic conditions of the steam are shown. The system is capable of receiving the full output of the Steam/Water Circuit at design conditions of 440/sup 0/C, 30.3 bar abs.

  7. Temporal Partitioning on Multicore Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmud Pathan, Ristat; Hashi, Feysal; Stenstrom, Per; Green, Lars-Goran; Hult, Torbjorn; Sandin, Patrik

    2014-08-01

    This paper addresses the problem of ensuring temporal partitioning according to the ARINC-653 standard for integrating multiple applications on the same multicore platform. To employ temporal partitioning, we propose the design and analysis of a hierarchical scheduling framework (HSF) for multicore platform. In HSF, each application has a server task, which is mapped to one of the physical cores of the multicore platform. The HSF framework is based on scheduling at two-levels: (i) a system-level scheduler for each core schedules the server tasks that are mapped to that core, and (ii) a task- level scheduler for each application schedules the tasks of the application. This paper presents the design and analysis of this two-level HSF that can be used to ensure temporal partitioning and meeting all the deadlines of each application tasks. The effectiveness of our technique is demonstrated using real-world space applications provided by RUAG Space Sweden AB.

  8. Radionuclide Partitioning in an Underground Nuclear Test Cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, T P; Hu, Q; Zhao, P; Conrado, C L; Dickerson, R; Eaton, G F; Kersting, A B; Moran, J E; Nimz, G; Powell, B A; Ramon, E C; Ryerson, F J; Williams, R W; Wooddy, P T; Zavarin, M

    2009-01-09

    : chemical volatility effects that occur during the initial plasma condensation, and groundwater remobilization that occurs over a much longer time frame. Fission product partitioning is very sensitive to the early cooling history of the test cavity because the decay of short-lived (t{sub 1/2} < 1 hour) fission-chain precursors occurs on the same time scale as melt glass condensation. Fission product chains that include both volatile and refractory elements, like the mass 99, 125, and 129 chains, can show large variations in partitioning behavior depending on the cooling history of the cavity. Uranium exhibits similar behavior, though the chemical processes are poorly understood. The water temperature within the Chancellor cavity remains elevated (75 C) more than two decades after the test. Under hydrothermal conditions, high solubility chemical species such as {sup 125}Sb and {sup 129}I are readily dissolved and transported in solution. SEM analyses of melt glass samples show clear evidence of glass dissolution and secondary hydrothermal mineral deposition. Remobilization of {sup 99}Tc is also expected during hydrothermal activity, but moderately reducing conditions within the Chancellor cavity appear to limit the transport of {sup 99}Tc. It is recommended that the results from this study should be used together with the IAEA data to update the range in partitioning values for contaminant transport models at the Nevada National Security Site (formerly known as the Nevada Test Site).

  9. Condensed Matter Nuclear Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biberian, Jean-Paul

    2006-02-01

    1. General. A tribute to gene Mallove - the "Genie" reactor / K. Wallace and R. Stringham. An update of LENR for ICCF-11 (short course, 10/31/04) / E. Storms. New physical effects in metal deuterides / P. L. Hagelstein ... [et al.]. Reproducibility, controllability, and optimization of LENR experiments / D. J. Nagel -- 2. Experiments. Electrochemistry. Evidence of electromagnetic radiation from Ni-H systems / S. Focardi ... [et al.]. Superwave reality / I. Dardik. Excess heat in electrolysis experiments at energetics technologies / I. Dardik ... [et al.]. "Excess heat" during electrolysis in platinum/K[symbol]CO[symbol]/nickel light water system / J. Tian ... [et al.]. Innovative procedure for the, in situ, measurement of the resistive thermal coefficient of H(D)/Pd during electrolysis; cross-comparison of new elements detected in the Th-Hg-Pd-D(H) electrolytic cells / F. Celani ... [et al.]. Emergence of a high-temperature superconductivity in hydrogen cycled Pd compounds as an evidence for superstoihiometric H/D sites / A. Lipson ... [et al.]. Plasma electrolysis. Calorimetry of energy-efficient glow discharge - apparatus design and calibration / T. B. Benson and T. O. Passell. Generation of heat and products during plasma electrolysis / T. Mizuno ... [et al.]. Glow discharge. Excess heat production in Pd/D during periodic pulse discharge current in various conditions / A. B. Karabut. Beam experiments. Accelerator experiments and theoretical models for the electron screening effect in metallic environments / A. Huke, K. Czerski, and P. Heide. Evidence for a target-material dependence of the neutron-proton branching ratio in d+d reactions for deuteron energies below 20keV / A. Huke ... [et al.]. Experiments on condensed matter nuclear events in Kobe University / T. Minari ... [et al.]. Electron screening constraints for the cold fusion / K. Czerski, P. Heide, and A. Huke. Cavitation. Low mass 1.6 MHz sonofusion reactor / R. Stringham. Particle detection. Research

  10. Using Optimisation Techniques to Granulise Rough Set Partitions

    SciTech Connect

    Crossingham, Bodie; Marwala, Tshilidzi

    2007-11-02

    This paper presents an approach to optimise rough set partition sizes using various optimisation techniques. Three optimisation techniques are implemented to perform the granularisation process, namely, genetic algorithm (GA), hill climbing (HC) and simulated annealing (SA). These optimisation methods maximise the classification accuracy of the rough sets. The proposed rough set partition method is tested on a set of demographic properties of individuals obtained from the South African antenatal survey. The three techniques are compared in terms of their computational time, accuracy and number of rules produced when applied to the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) data set. The optimised methods results are compared to a well known non-optimised discretisation method, equal-width-bin partitioning (EWB). The accuracies achieved after optimising the partitions using GA, HC and SA are 66.89%, 65.84% and 65.48% respectively, compared to the accuracy of EWB of 59.86%. In addition to rough sets providing the plausabilities of the estimated HIV status, they also provide the linguistic rules describing how the demographic parameters drive the risk of HIV.

  11. Using Optimisation Techniques to Granulise Rough Set Partitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crossingham, Bodie; Marwala, Tshilidzi

    2007-11-01

    This paper presents an approach to optimise rough set partition sizes using various optimisation techniques. Three optimisation techniques are implemented to perform the granularisation process, namely, genetic algorithm (GA), hill climbing (HC) and simulated annealing (SA). These optimisation methods maximise the classification accuracy of the rough sets. The proposed rough set partition method is tested on a set of demographic properties of individuals obtained from the South African antenatal survey. The three techniques are compared in terms of their computational time, accuracy and number of rules produced when applied to the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) data set. The optimised methods results are compared to a well known non-optimised discretisation method, equal-width-bin partitioning (EWB). The accuracies achieved after optimising the partitions using GA, HC and SA are 66.89%, 65.84% and 65.48% respectively, compared to the accuracy of EWB of 59.86%. In addition to rough sets providing the plausabilities of the estimated HIV status, they also provide the linguistic rules describing how the demographic parameters drive the risk of HIV.

  12. Nanocarbon condensation in detonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastea, Sorin

    2017-02-01

    We analyze the definition of the Gibbs free energy of a nanoparticle in a reactive fluid environment, and propose an approach for predicting the size of carbon nanoparticles produced by the detonation of carbon-rich explosives that regards their condensation as a nucleation process and takes into account absolute entropy effects of the cluster population. The results are consistent with experimental observations and indicate that such entropy considerations are important for determining chemical equilibrium states in energetic materials that contain an excess of carbon. The analysis may be useful for other applications that deal with the nucleation of nanoparticles under reactive conditions.

  13. Condensed Plasmas under Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morfill, G. E.; Thomas, H. M.; Konopka, U.; Rothermel, H.; Zuzic, M.; Ivlev, A.; Goree, J.; Rogers, Rick (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Experiments under microgravity conditions were carried out to study 'condensed' (liquid and crystalline) states of a colloidal plasma (ions, electrons, and charged microspheres). Systems with approximately 10(exp 6) microspheres were produced. The observed systems represent new forms of matter--quasineutral, self-organized plasmas--the properties of which are largely unexplored. In contrast to laboratory measurements, the systems under microgravity are clearly three dimensional (as expected); they exhibit stable vortex flows, sometimes adjacent to crystalline regions, and a central 'void,' free of microspheres.

  14. Nanocarbon condensation in detonation

    PubMed Central

    Bastea, Sorin

    2017-01-01

    We analyze the definition of the Gibbs free energy of a nanoparticle in a reactive fluid environment, and propose an approach for predicting the size of carbon nanoparticles produced by the detonation of carbon-rich explosives that regards their condensation as a nucleation process and takes into account absolute entropy effects of the cluster population. The results are consistent with experimental observations and indicate that such entropy considerations are important for determining chemical equilibrium states in energetic materials that contain an excess of carbon. The analysis may be useful for other applications that deal with the nucleation of nanoparticles under reactive conditions. PMID:28176827

  15. Confinement Contains Condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; Roberts, Craig D.; Shrock, Robert; Tandy, Peter C.

    2012-03-12

    Dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and its connection to the generation of hadron masses has historically been viewed as a vacuum phenomenon. We argue that confinement makes such a position untenable. If quark-hadron duality is a reality in QCD, then condensates, those quantities that have commonly been viewed as constant empirical mass-scales that fill all spacetime, are instead wholly contained within hadrons; i.e., they are a property of hadrons themselves and expressed, e.g., in their Bethe-Salpeter or light-front wave functions. We explain that this paradigm is consistent with empirical evidence, and incidentally expose misconceptions in a recent Comment.

  16. Diffusion and Partitioning of Fluorescent Lipid Probes in Phospholipid Monolayers

    PubMed Central

    Gudmand, M.; Fidorra, Matthias; Bjørnholm, T.; Heimburg, T.

    2009-01-01

    The pressure-dependent diffusion and partitioning of single lipid fluorophores in DMPC and DPPC monolayers were investigated with the use of a custom-made monolayer trough mounted on a combined fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) and wide-field microscopy setup. It is shown that lipid diffusion, which is essential for the function of biological membranes, is heavily influenced by the lateral pressure and phase of the lipid structure. Both of these may change dynamically during, e.g., protein adsorption and desorption processes. Using FCS, we measured lipid diffusion coefficients over a wide range of lateral pressures in DMPC monolayers and fitted them to a free-area model as well as the direct experimental observable mean molecular area. FCS measurements on DPPC monolayers were also performed below the onset of the phase transition (Π < 5 mN/m). At higher pressures, FCS was not applicable for measuring diffusion coefficients in DPPC monolayers. Single-molecule fluorescence microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry clearly showed that this was due to heterogeneous partitioning of the lipid fluorophores in condensed phases. The results were compared with dye partitioning in giant lipid vesicles. These findings are significant in relation to the application of lipid fluorophores to study diffusion in both model systems and biological systems. PMID:19486682

  17. Cosmic curvature and condensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harwit, Martin

    1992-01-01

    It is shown that the universe may consist of a patchwork of domains with different Riemann curvature constants k = 0, +/-1. Features of a phase transition in which flat space breaks up in a transition 2k0 - k(-) + k(+) with initial scale factors R(-) = R(+) are postulated and explored. It is shown that such a transition is energetically permitted, has the equivalent of a Curie temperature, and can lead in a natural way to the formation of voids and galaxies. It is predicted that, if the ambient universe on average is well fitted by a purely k(-) space, with only occasional domains of k(+) containing galaxies, a density parameter of (A(z sub c + 1)) super -1 should be expected, where z sub c represents the redshift of the earliest objects to have condensed, and A takes on values ranging from about 5 to 3. Present observations of quasars would suggest a density of about 0.03 or 0.05, respectively, but it could be lower if earlier condensation took place.

  18. Pion condensation in holographic QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Albrecht, Dylan; Erlich, Joshua

    2010-11-01

    We study pion condensation at zero temperature in a hard-wall holographic model of hadrons with isospin chemical potential. We find that the transition from the hadronic phase to the pion condensate phase is first order except in a certain limit of model parameters. Our analysis suggests that immediately across the phase boundary the condensate acts as a stiff medium approaching the Zel'dovich limit of equal energy density and pressure.

  19. Understanding Partitive Division of Fractions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ott, Jack M.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Concrete experience should be a first step in the development of new abstract concepts and their symbolization. Presents concrete activities based on Hyde and Nelson's work with egg cartons and Steiner's work with money to develop students' understanding of partitive division when using fractions. (MDH)

  20. METAL PARTITIONING IN COMBUSTION PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article summarizes ongoing research efforts at the National Risk Management Research Laboratory of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency examining [high temperature] metal behavior within combustion environments. The partitioning of non-volatile (Cr and Ni), semi-volatil...

  1. Condensation heat transfer in a microgravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chow, L. C.; Parish, R. C.

    1986-01-01

    In the present treatment of the condensation heat transfer process in a microgravity environment, two mechanisms for condensate removal are analyzed in light of two problems: (1) film condensation on a flat, porous plate, with condensate being removed by wall suction; and (2) the analytical prediction of the heat transfer coefficient of condensing annular flows, where the condensate film is driven by vapor shear. Both suction and vapor shear can effectively drain the condensate, ensuring continuous operation in microgravity.

  2. Some trees with partition dimension three

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fredlina, Ketut Queena; Baskoro, Edy Tri

    2016-02-01

    The concept of partition dimension of a graph was introduced by Chartrand, E. Salehi and P. Zhang (1998) [2]. Let G(V, E) be a connected graph. For S ⊆ V (G) and v ∈ V (G), define the distance d(v, S) from v to S is min{d(v, x)|x ∈ S}. Let Π be an ordered partition of V (G) and Π = {S1, S2, ..., Sk }. The representation r(v|Π) of vertex v with respect to Π is (d(v, S1), d(v, S2), ..., d(v, Sk)). If the representations of all vertices are distinct, then the partition Π is called a resolving partition of G. The partition dimension of G is the minimum k such that G has a resolving partition with k partition classes. In this paper, we characterize some classes of trees with partition dimension three, namely olive trees, weeds, and centipedes.

  3. Condenser for photolithography system

    DOEpatents

    Sweatt, William C.

    2004-03-02

    A condenser for a photolithography system, in which a mask image from a mask is projected onto a wafer through a camera having an entrance pupil, includes a source of propagating radiation, a first mirror illuminated by the radiation, a mirror array illuminated by the radiation reflected from said first mirror, and a second mirror illuminated by the radiation reflected from the array. The mirror array includes a plurality of micromirrors. Each of the micromirrors is selectively actuatable independently of each other. The first mirror and the second mirror are disposed such that the source is imaged onto a plane of the mask and the mirror array is imaged into the entrance pupil of the camera.

  4. Microgravity condensing heat exchanger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Christopher M. (Inventor); Ma, Yonghui (Inventor); North, Andrew (Inventor); Weislogel, Mark M. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A heat exchanger having a plurality of heat exchanging aluminum fins with hydrophilic condensing surfaces which are stacked and clamped between two cold plates. The cold plates are aligned radially along a plane extending through the axis of a cylindrical duct and hold the stacked and clamped portions of the heat exchanging fins along the axis of the cylindrical duct. The fins extend outwardly from the clamped portions along approximately radial planes. The spacing between fins is symmetric about the cold plates, and are somewhat more closely spaced as the angle they make with the cold plates approaches 90.degree.. Passageways extend through the fins between vertex spaces which provide capillary storage and communicate with passageways formed in the stacked and clamped portions of the fins, which communicate with water drains connected to a pump externally to the duct. Water with no entrained air is drawn from the capillary spaces.

  5. Amine catalyzed condensation of tetraethylorthosilicate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, S.

    2001-01-01

    The catalysis of the condensation of hydrolyzed metal alkoxides by amines has been mentioned in the literature, but there has been no systematic study of their influence on the rate of the condensation reaction of the alkoxide and the microstructure of the resultant gel.

  6. APPARATUS FOR CONDENSATION AND SUBLIMATION

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, R.J.; Fuis, F. Jr.

    1958-10-01

    An apparatus is presented for the sublimation and condensation of uranium compounds in order to obtain an improved crystalline structure of this material. The apparatus comprises a vaporizing chamber and condensing structure connected thereto. There condenser is fitted with a removable liner having a demountable baffle attached to the liner by means of brackets and a removable pin. The baffle is of spiral cross-section and is provided with cooling coils disposed between the surfaces of the baffle for circulation of a temperature controlling liquid within the baffle. The cooling coll provides for controlllng the temperature of the baffle to insure formatlon of a satisfactory condensate, and the removable liner facilitates the removal of condensate formed during tbe sublimation process.

  7. Chromatin condensation during terminal erythropoiesis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Baobing; Yang, Jing; Ji, Peng

    2016-09-02

    Mammalian terminal erythropoiesis involves gradual but dramatic chromatin condensation steps that are essential for cell differentiation. Chromatin and nuclear condensation is followed by a unique enucleation process, which is believed to liberate more spaces for hemoglobin enrichment and enable the generation of a physically flexible mature red blood cell. Although these processes have been known for decades, the mechanisms are still unclear. Our recent study reveals an unexpected nuclear opening formation during mouse terminal erythropoiesis that requires caspase-3 activity. Major histones, except H2AZ, are partially released from the opening, which is important for chromatin condensation. Block of the nuclear opening through caspase inhibitor or knockdown of caspase-3 inhibits chromatin condensation and enucleation. We also demonstrate that nuclear opening and histone release are cell cycle regulated. These studies reveal a novel mechanism for chromatin condensation in mammalia terminal erythropoiesis.

  8. Partitioning sparse rectangular matrices for parallel processing

    SciTech Connect

    Kolda, T.G.

    1998-05-01

    The authors are interested in partitioning sparse rectangular matrices for parallel processing. The partitioning problem has been well-studied in the square symmetric case, but the rectangular problem has received very little attention. They will formalize the rectangular matrix partitioning problem and discuss several methods for solving it. They will extend the spectral partitioning method for symmetric matrices to the rectangular case and compare this method to three new methods -- the alternating partitioning method and two hybrid methods. The hybrid methods will be shown to be best.

  9. Niche partitioning of closely related symbiotic dinoflagellates.

    PubMed

    Sampayo, Eugenia M; Franceschinis, Lorenzo; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Dove, Sophie

    2007-09-01

    Reef-building corals are fundamental to the most diverse marine ecosystems, yet a detailed understanding of the processes involved in the establishment, persistence and ecology of the coral-dinoflagellate association remains largely unknown. This study explores symbiont diversity in relation to habitat by employing a broad-scale sampling regime using ITS2 and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Samples from Pocillopora damicornis, Stylophora pistillata and Seriatopora hystrix all harboured host-specific clade C symbiont types at Heron Island (Great Barrier Reef, Australia). While Ser. hystrix associated with a single symbiont profile along its entire depth distribution, both P. damicornis and Sty. pistillata associated with multiple symbiont profiles that showed a strong zonation with depth. It is shown that, with an increased sampling effort, previously identified 'rare' symbiont types within this group of host species are in fact environmental specialists. A multivariate approach was used to expand on the common distinction of symbionts by a single genetic identity. It shows merit in its capacity not only to include all the variability present within the marker region but also to reliably represent ecological diversification of symbionts. Furthermore, the cohesive species concept is explored to explain how niche partitioning may drive diversification of closely related symbiont lineages. This study provides thus evidence that closely related symbionts are ecologically distinct and fulfil their own niche within the ecosystem provided by the host and external environment.

  10. Unstable avoided crossing in coupled spinor condensates.

    PubMed

    Bernier, Nathan R; Dalla Torre, Emanuele G; Demler, Eugene

    2014-08-08

    We consider the dynamics of a Bose-Einstein condensate with two internal states, coupled through a coherent drive. We focus on a specific quench protocol, in which the sign of the coupling field is suddenly changed. At a mean-field level, the system is transferred from a minimum to a maximum of the coupling energy and can remain dynamically stable, in spite of the development of negative-frequency modes. In the presence of a nonzero detuning between the two states, the "charge" and "spin" modes couple, giving rise to an unstable avoided crossing. This phenomenon is generic to systems with two dispersing modes away from equilibrium and constitutes an example of class-I(o) nonequilibrium pattern formation in quantum systems.

  11. Coaxial Redundant Drives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brissette, R.

    1983-01-01

    Harmonic drives allow redundancy and high out put torque in small package. If main drive fails, standby drive takes over and produces torque along same axis as main drive. Uses include power units in robot for internal pipeline inspection, manipulators in deep submersible probes or other applications in which redundancy protects against costly failures.

  12. Characterization of spacecraft humidity condensate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muckle, Susan; Schultz, John R.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1994-01-01

    When construction of Space Station Freedom reaches the Permanent Manned Capability (PMC) stage, the Water Recovery and Management Subsystem will be fully operational such that (distilled) urine, spent hygiene water, and humidity condensate will be reclaimed to provide water of potable quality. The reclamation technologies currently baselined to process these waste waters include adsorption, ion exchange, catalytic oxidation, and disinfection. To ensure that the baseline technologies will be able to effectively remove those compounds presenting a health risk to the crew, the National Research Council has recommended that additional information be gathered on specific contaminants in waste waters representative of those to be encountered on the Space Station. With the application of new analytical methods and the analysis of waste water samples more representative of the Space Station environment, advances in the identification of the specific contaminants continue to be made. Efforts by the Water and Food Analytical Laboratory at JSC were successful in enlarging the database of contaminants in humidity condensate. These efforts have not only included the chemical characterization of condensate generated during ground-based studies, but most significantly the characterization of cabin and Spacelab condensate generated during Shuttle missions. The analytical results presented in this paper will be used to show how the composition of condensate varies amongst enclosed environments and thus the importance of collecting condensate from an environment close to that of the proposed Space Station. Although advances were made in the characterization of space condensate, complete characterization, particularly of the organics, requires further development of analytical methods.

  13. Condensation in Nanoporous Packed Beds.

    PubMed

    Ally, Javed; Molla, Shahnawaz; Mostowfi, Farshid

    2016-05-10

    In materials with tiny, nanometer-scale pores, liquid condensation is shifted from the bulk saturation pressure observed at larger scales. This effect is called capillary condensation and can block pores, which has major consequences in hydrocarbon production, as well as in fuel cells, catalysis, and powder adhesion. In this study, high pressure nanofluidic condensation studies are performed using propane and carbon dioxide in a colloidal crystal packed bed. Direct visualization allows the extent of condensation to be observed, as well as inference of the pore geometry from Bragg diffraction. We show experimentally that capillary condensation depends on pore geometry and wettability because these factors determine the shape of the menisci that coalesce when pore filling occurs, contrary to the typical assumption that all pore structures can be modeled as cylindrical and perfectly wetting. We also observe capillary condensation at higher pressures than has been done previously, which is important because many applications involving this phenomenon occur well above atmospheric pressure, and there is little, if any, experimental validation of capillary condensation at such pressures, particularly with direct visualization.

  14. Epimerization in peptide thioester condensation.

    PubMed

    Teruya, Kenta; Tanaka, Takeyuki; Kawakami, Toru; Akaji, Kenichi; Aimoto, Saburo

    2012-11-01

    Peptide segment couplings are now widely utilized in protein chemical synthesis. One of the key structures for the strategy is the peptide thioester. Peptide thioester condensation, in which a C-terminal peptide thioester is selectively activated by silver ions then condensed with an amino component, is a powerful tool. But the amino acid adjacent to the thioester is at risk of epimerization. During the preparation of peptide thioesters by the Boc solid-phase method, no substantial epimerization of the C-terminal amino acid was detected. Epimerization was, however, observed during a thioester-thiol exchange reaction and segment condensation in DMSO in the presence of a base. In contrast, thioester-thiol exchange reactions in aqueous solutions gave no epimerization. The epimerization during segment condensation was significantly suppressed with a less polar solvent that is applicable to segments in thioester peptide condensation. These results were applied to a longer peptide thioester condensation. The epimer content of the coupling product of 89 residues was reduced from 27% to 6% in a condensation between segments of 45 and 44 residues for the thioester and the amino component, respectively.

  15. Water condensation: a multiscale phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Kasper Risgaard; Fojan, Peter; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Gurevich, Leonid

    2014-02-01

    The condensation of water is a phenomenon occurring in multiple situations in everyday life, e.g., when fog is formed or when dew forms on the grass or on windows. This means that this phenomenon plays an important role within the different fields of science including meteorology, building physics, and chemistry. In this review we address condensation models and simulations with the main focus on heterogeneous condensation of water. The condensation process is, at first, described from a thermodynamic viewpoint where the nucleation step is described by the classical nucleation theory. Further, we address the shortcomings of the thermodynamic theory in describing the nucleation and emphasize the importance of nanoscale effects. This leads to the description of condensation from a molecular viewpoint. Also presented is how the nucleation can be simulated by use of molecular models, and how the condensation process is simulated on the macroscale using computational fluid dynamics. Finally, examples of hybrid models combining molecular and macroscale models for the simulation of condensation on a surface are presented.

  16. Steam condenser thermal design theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, B. J.

    Test data and prediction methods for condensation in steam condenser tube banks are reviewed. Standards for thermal rating; effect of vapor velocity; vapor shear and inundation in tube banks; correction factors to the Nusselt equation; and equations for the combined effect of vapor shear and inundation are discussed. Effects of noncondensible gases; tube side heat transfer; and expressions for combined tube side and shell side heat transfer are considered. Frictional, gravitational, momentum, and pressure drop trends; and the role of access lanes to reduce pressure drop are outlined. Computer models of condensers, including algebraic representations of the field equations, are summarized.

  17. Ecological partitioning and diversity in tropical planktonic foraminifera

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Ecological processes are increasingly being viewed as an important mode of diversification in the marine environment, where the high dispersal potential of pelagic organisms, and a lack of absolute barriers to gene flow may limit the occurrence of allopatric speciation through vicariance. Here we focus on the potential role of ecological partitioning in the diversification of a widely distributed group of marine protists, the planktonic foraminifera. Sampling was conducted in the tropical Arabian Sea, during the southwest (summer) monsoon, when pronounced environmental conditions result in a strong disparity in temperature, salinity and productivity between distinct northern and southern water masses. Results We uncovered extensive genetic diversity within the Arabian Sea planktonic foraminifera, identifying 13 morphospecies, represented by 20 distinct SSU rRNA genetic types. Several morphospecies/genetic types displayed non-random biogeographical distributions, partitioning between the northern and southern water masses, giving a strong indication of independent ecological adaptations. Conclusions We propose sea-surface primary productivity as the main factor driving the geographical segregation of Arabian Sea planktonic foraminifera, during the SW monsoon, with variations in symbiotic associations possibly playing a role in the specific ecological adaptations observed. Our findings suggest that ecological partitioning could be contributing to the high levels of 'cryptic' genetic diversity observed within the planktonic foraminifera, and support the view that ecological processes may play a key role in the diversification of marine pelagic organisms. PMID:22507289

  18. Counting Condensation Nuclei in the Antarctic Ozone Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, James Charles

    1994-01-01

    The work done on this grant primarily concerns the measurement of aerosol in the stratosphere from NASA ER-2 aircraft in studies of stratospheric ozone depletion in the northern and southern hemispheres. The ER-2 Condensation Nucleus Counter (CNC) measures the number concentration of particles in the diameter range of approximately 0.01 to 1 micron. The Passive Cavity Aerosol Spectrometer measures size distributions in the 0.17 to 3 micron diameter range. This instrument was upgraded during this grant period to a Focused Cavity Aerosol Spectrometer (FCAS). This upgrade permitted the instrument to measure particles as small as 0.05 micron in diameter. The inlet for the PCAS and FCAS was modified and characterized under this grant so that the modifications to the aerosol due to anisokinetic sampling and heating upon sampling and in transport to the measurement location were accounted for in the data analysis. These measurements permitted observations of particle production in the southern hemisphere winter polar vortex and observation of the impact of denitrification on the number concentration of the aerosol in the denitrified air. In the northern polar vortex, the measurements provided a characterization of the sulfate aerosol. Following the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in 1991, the measurements permitted an accurate characterization of the sulfate aerosol enhancements resulting from the eruption. This led to studies of the impact of heterogeneous chemistry on the partitioning of the partitioning of the reactive nitrogen species and the partitioning of the chlorine reservoir.

  19. Condensation heat transfer under a microgravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chow, L. C.

    1986-01-01

    A description of the condensation heat transfer process in microgravity is given. A review of the literature is also reported. The most essential element of condensation heat transfer in microgravity is the condensate removal mechanism. Two mechanisms for condensate removal are analyzed by looking into two problems. The first problem is concerned with film condensation on a flat porous plate with the condensate being removed by suction at the wall. The second problem is an analytical prediction of the heat transfer coefficient for condensing annular flows with the condensate film driven by the vapor shear. It is concluded that both suction and vapor shear can effectively drain the condensate to ensure continuous operation of the condensers operated under a microgravity environment. It is recommended that zero-g flight experiments be carried out to verify the prediction made in the present report. The results contained in this report should also aid in the design of future space condensers.

  20. Monitoring by Control Technique - Condensers

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Stationary source emissions monitoring is required to demonstrate that a source is meeting the requirements in Federal or state rules. This page is about condenser control techniques used to reduce pollutant emissions.

  1. Flow Boiling and Condensation Experiment

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Flow Boiling and Condensation Experiment is another investigation that examines the flow of a mixture of liquids and the vapors they produce when in contact with hot space system equipment. Coo...

  2. Laser system with partitioned prism

    SciTech Connect

    Nettleton, J. E.; Barr, D. N.

    1985-03-26

    An array of optical frequency-sensitive elements such as diffraction gratings or interference filters are arranged in a row, and the optical path of the laser cavity can be directed to include one of these elements. A partitioned optical prism consisting of a triangular portion and one or more paralleogramatic portions are used to direct the path. Between the portions are piezoelectric elements which, when energized, expand to provide an air gap between the portions and to allow total reflection of an optical ray at the surface of the prism next to the gap.

  3. Power semiconductor controlled drives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubey, Gopal K.

    This book presents power semiconductor controlled drives employing dc motors, induction motors, and synchronous motors. The dynamics of motor and load systems are covered. Open-loop and closed-loop drives are considered, and thyristor, power transistor, and GTO converters are discussed. In-depth coverage is given to ac drives, particularly those fed by voltage and current source inverters and cycloconverters. Full coverage is given to brushless and commutatorless dc drives, including load-commuted synchronous motor drives. Rectifier-controlled dc drives are presented in detail.

  4. On some trees having partition dimension four

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ida Bagus Kade Puja Arimbawa, K.; Baskoro, Edy Tri

    2016-02-01

    In 1998, G. Chartrand, E. Salehi and P. Zhang introduced the notion of partition dimension of a graph. Since then, the study of this graph parameter has received much attention. A number of results have been obtained to know the values of partition dimensions of various classes of graphs. However, for some particular classes of graphs, finding of their partition dimensions is still not completely solved, for instances a class of general tree. In this paper, we study the properties of trees having partition dimension 4. In particular, we show that, for olive trees O(n), its partition dimension is equal to 4 if and only if 8 ≤ n ≤ 17. We also characterize all centipede trees having partition dimension 4.

  5. Condensed Matter Nuclear Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Akito; Ota, Ken-Ichiro; Iwamura, Yashuhiro

    Preface -- 1. General. Progress in condensed matter nuclear science / A. Takahashi. Summary of ICCF-12 / X. Z. Li. Overview of light water/hydrogen-based low-energy nuclear reactions / G. H. Miley and P. J. Shrestha -- 2. Excess heat and He detection. Development of "DS-reactor" as the practical reactor of "cold fusion" based on the "DS-cell" with "DS-cathode" / Y. Arata and Y.-C. Zhang. Progress in excess of power experiments with electrochemical loading of deuterium in palladium / V. Violante ... [et al.]. Anomalous energy generation during conventional electrolysis / T. Mizuno and Y. Toriyabe. "Excess heat" induced by deuterium flux in palladium film / B. Liu ... [et al.]. Abnormal excess heat observed during Mizuno-type experiments / J.-F. Fauvarque, P. P. Clauzon and G. J.-M. Lallevé. Seebeck envelope calorimetry with a Pd|D[symbol]O + H[symbol]SO[symbol] electrolytic cell / W.-S. Zhang, J. Dash and Q. Wang. Observation and investigation of nuclear fusion and self-induced electric discharges in liquids / A. I. Koldamasov ... [et al.]. Description of a sensitive seebeck calorimeter used for cold fusion studies / E. Storms. Some recent results at ENEA / M. Apicella ... [et al.]. Heat measurement during plasma electrolysis / K. Iizumi ... [et al.]. Effect of an additive on thermal output during electrolysis of heavy water with a palladium cathode / Q. Wang and J. Dash. Thermal analysis of calorimetric systems / L. D'Aulerio ... [et al.]. Surface plasmons and low-energy nuclear reactions triggering / E. Castagna ... [et al.]. Production method for violent TCB jet plasma from cavity / F. Amini. New results and an ongoing excess heat controversy / L. Kowalski ... [et al.] -- 3. Transmutation. Observation of surface distribution of products by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry during D[symbol] gas permeation through Pd Complexes / Y. Iwamura ... [et al.]. Discharge experiment using Pd/CaO/Pd multi-layered cathode / S. Narita ... [et al.]. Producing transmutation

  6. Quantum principles and free particles. [evaluation of partitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The quantum principles that establish the energy levels and degeneracies needed to evaluate the partition functions are explored. The uncertainty principle is associated with the dual wave-particle nature of the model used to describe quantized gas particles. The Schroedinger wave equation is presented as a generalization of Maxwell's wave equation; the former applies to all particles while the Maxwell equation applies to the special case of photon particles. The size of the quantum cell in phase space and the representation of momentum as a space derivative operator follow from the uncertainty principle. A consequence of this is that steady-state problems that are space-time dependent for the classical model become only space dependent for the quantum model and are often easier to solve. The partition function is derived for quantized free particles and, at normal conditions, the result is the same as that given by the classical phase integral. The quantum corrections that occur at very low temperatures or high densities are derived. These corrections for the Einstein-Bose gas qualitatively describe the condensation effects that occur in liquid helium, but are unimportant for most practical purposes otherwise. However, the corrections for the Fermi-Dirac gas are important because they quantitatively describe the behavior of high-density conduction electron gases in metals and explain the zero point energy and low specific heat exhibited in this case.

  7. Displaying multimedia environmental partitioning by triangular diagrams

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.C.; Mackay, D.

    1995-11-01

    It is suggested that equilateral triangular diagrams are a useful method of depicting the equilibrium partitioning of organic chemicals among the three primary environmental media of the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, and the organosphere (natural organic matter and biotic lipids and waxes). The technique is useful for grouping chemicals into classes according to their partitioning tendencies, for depicting the incremental effects of substituents such as alkyl groups and chlorine, and for showing how partitioning changes in response to changes in temperature.

  8. Chemical amplification based on fluid partitioning in an immiscible liquid

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Brian L.; Colston, Bill W.; Elkin, Christopher J.

    2010-09-28

    A system for nucleic acid amplification of a sample comprises partitioning the sample into partitioned sections and performing PCR on the partitioned sections of the sample. Another embodiment of the invention provides a system for nucleic acid amplification and detection of a sample comprising partitioning the sample into partitioned sections, performing PCR on the partitioned sections of the sample, and detecting and analyzing the partitioned sections of the sample.

  9. The stringy instanton partition function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonelli, Giulio; Sciarappa, Antonio; Tanzini, Alessandro; Vasko, Petr

    2014-01-01

    We perform an exact computation of the gauged linear sigma model associated to a D1-D5 brane system on a resolved A 1 singularity. This is accomplished via supersymmetric localization on the blown-up two-sphere. We show that in the blow-down limit the partition function reduces to the Nekrasov partition function evaluating the equivariant volume of the instanton moduli space. For finite radius we obtain a tower of world-sheet instanton corrections, that we identify with the equivariant Gromov-Witten invariants of the ADHM moduli space. We show that these corrections can be encoded in a deformation of the Seiberg-Witten prepotential. From the mathematical viewpoint, the D1-D5 system under study displays a twofold nature: the D1-branes viewpoint captures the equivariant quantum cohomology of the ADHM instanton moduli space in the Givental formalism, and the D5-branes viewpoint is related to higher rank equivariant Donaldson-Thomas invariants of.

  10. Automatic analysis of D-partition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogaevskaya, V. G.

    2017-01-01

    The paper is dedicated to automatization of D-partition analysis. D-partition is one of the most common methods for determination of solution stability in systems with time-delayed feedback control and its dependency on values of control parameters. A transition from analytical form of D-partition to plain graph has been investigated. An algorithm of graph faces determination and calculation of count of characteristic equation roots with positive real part for appropriate area of D-partition has been developed. The algorithm keeps an information about analytical formulas for edges of faces. It allows to make further analytical research based on the results of computer analysis.

  11. Ocular disease and driving.

    PubMed

    Wood, Joanne M; Black, Alex A

    2016-09-01

    As the driving population ages, the number of drivers with visual impairment resulting from ocular disease will increase given the age-related prevalence of ocular disease. The increase in visual impairment in the driving population has a number of implications for driving outcomes. This review summarises current research regarding the impact of common ocular diseases on driving ability and safety, with particular focus on cataract, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, hemianopia and diabetic retinopathy. The evidence considered includes self-reported driving outcomes, driving performance (on-road and simulator-based) and various motor vehicle crash indices. Collectively, this review demonstrates that driving ability and safety are negatively affected by ocular disease; however, further research is needed in this area. Older drivers with ocular disease need to be aware of the negative consequences of their ocular condition and in the case where treatment options are available, encouraged to seek these earlier for optimum driving safety and quality of life benefits.

  12. Dementia and driving

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000028.htm Dementia and driving To use the sharing features on this page, ... their independence is being taken away. Signs That Driving May No Longer be Safe People with signs ...

  13. Safe driving for teens

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/pubmed/25837240 . Simons-Morton B, Ouimet MC. Parent involvement in novice teen driving: a review of the ... nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16788109 . Simons-Morton B. Parent involvement in novice teen driving: rationale, evidence of effects, ...

  14. Gear bearing drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, Brian (Inventor); Mavroidis, Constantinos (Inventor); Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A gear bearing drive provides a compact mechanism that operates as an actuator providing torque and as a joint providing support. The drive includes a gear arrangement integrating an external rotor DC motor within a sun gear. Locking surfaces maintain the components of the drive in alignment and provide support for axial loads and moments. The gear bearing drive has a variety of applications, including as a joint in robotic arms and prosthetic limbs.

  15. Advances in shell side condensation for refrigerants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Ralph L.

    The design of shell and tube condensers used in air conditioning and refrigeration applications is discussed. The geometry of interest involves condensation on the shell side of a horizontal tube bundle. Enhanced heat transfer geometries are typically used for condensation on the shell side. The heat transfer is removed by water on the tube side, which typically have tube side enhancement. Single tube and row effect condensation data are presented. Thermal design methods for sizing of the condenser are outlined.

  16. Sequential Dependencies in Driving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doshi, Anup; Tran, Cuong; Wilder, Matthew H.; Mozer, Michael C.; Trivedi, Mohan M.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of recent experience on current behavior has been studied extensively in simple laboratory tasks. We explore the nature of sequential effects in the more naturalistic setting of automobile driving. Driving is a safety-critical task in which delayed response times may have severe consequences. Using a realistic driving simulator, we find…

  17. Magnetic drive coupling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Edward L. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    The driving and driven members of a magnetic drive are separated by en enlarged gap to provide clearance for a conduit or other member. Flux pins in the gap maintain the torque transmitting capability of the drive. The spacing between two of the flux pins is increased to provide space for the conduit.

  18. Grieving while Driving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenblatt, Paul C.

    2004-01-01

    Secondary analysis of data from 84 people in 2 interview studies shows that some bereaved people grieve actively while driving. The grief can be intense, even years after a death. Grief while driving may erupt spontaneously or be set off by a wide range of reminders. Some bereaved people seem to save their grieving for times when they drive,…

  19. Bose-Einstein condensate strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harko, Tiberiu; Lake, Matthew J.

    2015-02-01

    We consider the possible existence of gravitationally bound general relativistic strings consisting of Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) matter which is described, in the Newtonian limit, by the zero temperature time-dependent nonlinear Schrödinger equation (the Gross-Pitaevskii equation), with repulsive interparticle interactions. In the Madelung representation of the wave function, the quantum dynamics of the condensate can be formulated in terms of the classical continuity equation and the hydrodynamic Euler equations. In the case of a condensate with quartic nonlinearity, the condensates can be described as a gas with two pressure terms, the interaction pressure, which is proportional to the square of the matter density, and the quantum pressure, which is without any classical analogue, though, when the number of particles in the system is high enough, the latter may be neglected. Assuming cylindrical symmetry, we analyze the physical properties of the BEC strings in both the interaction pressure and quantum pressure dominated limits, by numerically integrating the gravitational field equations. In this way we obtain a large class of stable stringlike astrophysical objects, whose basic parameters (mass density and radius) depend sensitively on the mass and scattering length of the condensate particle, as well as on the quantum pressure of the Bose-Einstein gas.

  20. Polariton condensates at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillet, Thierry; Brimont, Christelle

    2016-10-01

    We review the recent developments of the polariton physics in microcavities featuring the exciton-photon strong coupling at room temperature, and leading to the achievement of room-temperature polariton condensates. Such cavities embed active layers with robust excitons that present a large binding energy and a large oscillator strength, i.e. wide bandgap inorganic or organic semiconductors, or organic molecules. These various systems are compared, in terms of figures of merit and of common features related to their strong oscillator strength. The various demonstrations of polariton laser are compared, as well as their condensation phase diagrams. The room-temperature operation indeed allows a detailed investigation of the thermodynamic and out-of-equilibrium regimes of the condensation process. The crucial role of the spatial dynamics of the condensate formation is discussed, as well as the debated issue of the mechanism of stimulated relaxation from the reservoir to the condensate under non-resonant excitation. Finally the prospects of polariton devices are presented.

  1. Heat and mass transfer from a streaming hot saline water in an enclosure partitioned by an active baffle

    SciTech Connect

    Njomo, D.; Tchinda, R.; Kaptouom, E.

    1996-08-01

    Equations describing heat and mass exchanges in a closed cavity with hot saline water streaming on its base and partitioned by an externally cooled flat heat exchanger are numerically solved. The results obtained show that an increase of inlet saline water temperature or mass flow rate increases the heat and mass transfer between evaporation and condensation surfaces. Furthermore, external cooling of the condensation surface contributes significantly to the increase of these exchanges. The authors theoretical analysis is in reasonably good agreement with experimental results published in the literature for the practical heat exchange fluxes encountered in solar stills.

  2. Syncope and Driving.

    PubMed

    Guzman, Juan C; Morillo, Carlos A

    2015-08-01

    The occurrence of syncope while driving has obvious implications for personal and public safety. Neurally mediated syncope is the most common type of syncope in general and, thereby, also while driving. The presence of structural heart disease (reduced ejection fraction, previous myocardial infarction, significant congenital heart disease) potentially leads to high risk and should determine driving restrictions pending clarification of underlying heart disease and etiology of syncope. The clinical approach to syncope evaluation and recommendations for driving should not differ, whether or not the syncopal spell occurred while driving.

  3. Ionic partitioning and stomatal regulation

    PubMed Central

    Sanoubar, Rabab; Orsini, Francesco; Gianquinto, Giorgio Prosdocimi

    2013-01-01

    Vegetable grafting is commonly claimed to improve crop’s tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses, including salinity. Although the use of inter-specific graftings is relatively common, whether the improved salt tolerance should be attributed to the genotypic background rather than the grafting per se is a matter of discussion among scientists. It is clear that most of published research has to date overlooked the issue, with the mutual presence of self-grafted and non-grafted controls resulting to be quite rare within experimental evidences. It was recently demonstrated that the genotype of the rootstock and grafting per se are responsible respectively for the differential ion accumulation and partitioning as well as to the stomatal adaptation to the stress. The present paper contributes to the ongoing discussion with further data on the differences associated to salinity response in a range of grafted melon combinations. PMID:24309549

  4. Assimilate partitioning during reproductive growth

    SciTech Connect

    Finazzo, S.F.; Davenport, T.L.

    1987-04-01

    Leaves having various phyllotactic relationships to fruitlets were labeled for 1 hour with 10/sub r/Ci of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/. Fruitlets were also labeled. Fruitlets did fix /sup 14/CO/sub 2/. Translocation of radioactivity from the peel into the fruit occurred slowly and to a limited extent. No evidence of translocation out of the fruitlets was observed. Assimilate partitioning in avocado was strongly influenced by phyllotaxy. If a fruit and the labeled leaf had the same phyllotaxy then greater than 95% of the radiolabel was present in this fruit. When the fruit did not have the same phyllotaxy as the labeled leaf, the radiolabel distribution was skewed with 70% of the label going to a single adjacent position. Avocado fruitlets exhibit uniform labeling throughout a particular tissue. In avocado, assimilates preferentially move from leaves to fruits with the same phyllotaxy.

  5. HPAM: Hirshfeld partitioned atomic multipoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elking, Dennis M.; Perera, Lalith; Pedersen, Lee G.

    2012-02-01

    An implementation of the Hirshfeld (HD) and Hirshfeld-Iterated (HD-I) atomic charge density partitioning schemes is described. Atomic charges and atomic multipoles are calculated from the HD and HD-I atomic charge densities for arbitrary atomic multipole rank l on molecules of arbitrary shape and size. The HD and HD-I atomic charges/multipoles are tested by comparing molecular multipole moments and the electrostatic potential (ESP) surrounding a molecule with their reference ab initio values. In general, the HD-I atomic charges/multipoles are found to better reproduce ab initio electrostatic properties over HD atomic charges/multipoles. A systematic increase in precision for reproducing ab initio electrostatic properties is demonstrated by increasing the atomic multipole rank from l=0 (atomic charges) to l=4 (atomic hexadecapoles). Both HD and HD-I atomic multipoles up to rank l are shown to exactly reproduce ab initio molecular multipole moments of rank L for L⩽l. In addition, molecular dipole moments calculated by HD, HD-I, and ChelpG atomic charges only ( l=0) are compared with reference ab initio values. Significant errors in reproducing ab initio molecular dipole moments are found if only HD or HD-I atomic charges used. Program summaryProgram title: HPAM Catalogue identifier: AEKP_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEKP_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU General Public License v2 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 500 809 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 13 424 494 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C Computer: Any Operating system: Linux RAM: Typically, a few hundred megabytes Classification: 16.13 External routines: The program requires 'formatted checkpoint' files obtained from the Gaussian 03 or Gaussian 09 quantum chemistry program. Nature of problem: An ab initio

  6. Spacecraft Crew Cabin Condensation Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrillo, Laurie Y.; Rickman, Steven L.; Ungar, Eugene K.

    2013-01-01

    A report discusses a new technique to prevent condensation on the cabin walls of manned spacecraft exposed to the cold environment of space, as such condensation could lead to free water in the cabin. This could facilitate the growth of mold and bacteria, and could lead to oxidation and weakening of the cabin wall. This condensation control technique employs a passive method that uses spacecraft waste heat as the primary wallheating mechanism. A network of heat pipes is bonded to the crew cabin pressure vessel, as well as the pipes to each other, in order to provide for efficient heat transfer to the cabin walls and from one heat pipe to another. When properly sized, the heat-pipe network can maintain the crew cabin walls at a nearly uniform temperature. It can also accept and distribute spacecraft waste heat to maintain the pressure vessel above dew point.

  7. Condensed Astatine: Monatomic and Metallic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermann, Andreas; Hoffmann, Roald; Ashcroft, N. W.

    2013-09-01

    The condensed matter properties of the nominal terminating element of the halogen group with atomic number 85, astatine, are as yet unknown. In the intervening more than 70 years since its discovery significant advances have been made in substrate cooling and the other techniques necessary for the production of the element to the point where we might now enquire about the key properties astatine might have if it attained a condensed phase. This subject is addressed here using density functional theory and structural selection methods, with an accounting for relativistic physics that is essential. Condensed astatine is predicted to be quite different in fascinating ways from iodine, being already at 1 atm a metal, and monatomic at that, and possibly a superconductor (as is dense iodine).

  8. Condensed astatine: monatomic and metallic.

    PubMed

    Hermann, Andreas; Hoffmann, Roald; Ashcroft, N W

    2013-09-13

    The condensed matter properties of the nominal terminating element of the halogen group with atomic number 85, astatine, are as yet unknown. In the intervening more than 70 years since its discovery significant advances have been made in substrate cooling and the other techniques necessary for the production of the element to the point where we might now enquire about the key properties astatine might have if it attained a condensed phase. This subject is addressed here using density functional theory and structural selection methods, with an accounting for relativistic physics that is essential. Condensed astatine is predicted to be quite different in fascinating ways from iodine, being already at 1 atm a metal, and monatomic at that, and possibly a superconductor (as is dense iodine).

  9. Neuroamine condensations in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Collins, M A

    1980-01-01

    Non-enzymatic products of neuroamines and endogenous carbonyl compounds are apparent "normal" products in human metabolism, and their levels become increased during pathological conditions. DA condensation products--salsolinol, its O-methylated derivative, and methylated derivatives of 1-carboxyl-THP--are found normally in human urine, and the last TIQ is in human brain. Potential beta-carboline condensation products also occur in (aging) human lens tissue. Chronic drinking in alcoholics causes significant increases in urinary salsolinol and O-methyl-salsolinol, presumably due to the increased AcH which is made available. L-DOPA therapy (in Parkinson's disease) elevates urinary and tissue levels of the carboxylated THP derivatives, as well as of salsolinol and THP itself; hyperphenylalaninemia during PKU also increases tissue levels of a DA/phenylpyruvate-derived TIQ and an imine condensate of phenylethylamine and vitamin B6. These unusual products may interfere with neural dynamic processes, and produce cytotoxic metabolites.

  10. Introduction. Cosmology meets condensed matter.

    PubMed

    Kibble, T W B; Pickett, G R

    2008-08-28

    At first sight, low-temperature condensed-matter physics and early Universe cosmology seem worlds apart. Yet, in the last few years a remarkable synergy has developed between the two. It has emerged that, in terms of their mathematical description, there are surprisingly close parallels between them. This interplay has been the subject of a very successful European Science Foundation (ESF) programme entitled COSLAB ('Cosmology in the Laboratory') that ran from 2001 to 2006, itself built on an earlier ESF network called TOPDEF ('Topological Defects: Non-equilibrium Field Theory in Particle Physics, Condensed Matter and Cosmology'). The articles presented in this issue of Philosophical Transactions A are based on talks given at the Royal Society Discussion Meeting 'Cosmology meets condensed matter', held on 28 and 29 January 2008. Many of the speakers had participated earlier in the COSLAB programme, but the strength of the field is illustrated by the presence also of quite a few new participants.

  11. [On the partition of acupuncture academic schools].

    PubMed

    Yang, Pengyan; Luo, Xi; Xia, Youbing

    2016-05-01

    Nowadays extensive attention has been paid on the research of acupuncture academic schools, however, a widely accepted method of partition of acupuncture academic schools is still in need. In this paper, the methods of partition of acupuncture academic schools in the history have been arranged, and three typical methods of"partition of five schools" "partition of eighteen schools" and "two-stage based partition" are summarized. After adeep analysis on the disadvantages and advantages of these three methods, a new method of partition of acupuncture academic schools that is called "three-stage based partition" is proposed. In this method, after the overall acupuncture academic schools are divided into an ancient stage, a modern stage and a contemporary stage, each schoolis divided into its sub-school category. It is believed that this method of partition can remedy the weaknesses ofcurrent methods, but also explore a new model of inheritance and development under a different aspect through thedifferentiation and interaction of acupuncture academic schools at three stages.

  12. Continuous Graph Partitioning for Camera Network Surveillance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-23

    Symmetric Gossip partitioning algorithm The distributed algorithm presented in this section assumes a symmetric gossip -type communication protocol . In... gossip communication. We prove convergence of all these algorithms, and we analyze their performance in a simulation study. 2 Continuous Partitions of...section assumes an asymmetric broadcast communication protocol . In particular, at each iteration only one camera updates its state by using local

  13. Building Ecology and Partition Design. Technical Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Dept. of Education, Baltimore.

    This bulletin is intended as a resource for school system facility planners and architects who design schools. Ways in which decision makers can incorporate environmental concerns in the design of school buildings are detailed. Focus is on the design of interior partition systems. Partition systems in schools serve several purposes; they define…

  14. Graph Partitioning Models for Parallel Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, B.; Kolda, T.G.

    1999-03-02

    Calculations can naturally be described as graphs in which vertices represent computation and edges reflect data dependencies. By partitioning the vertices of a graph, the calculation can be divided among processors of a parallel computer. However, the standard methodology for graph partitioning minimizes the wrong metric and lacks expressibility. We survey several recently proposed alternatives and discuss their relative merits.

  15. Scrutinizing the pion condensed phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carignano, Stefano; Lepori, Luca; Mammarella, Andrea; Mannarelli, Massimo; Pagliaroli, Giulia

    2017-02-01

    When the isospin chemical potential exceeds the pion mass, charged pions condense in the zero-momentum state forming a superfluid. Chiral perturbation theory provides a very powerful tool for studying this phase. However, the formalism that is usually employed in this context does not clarify various aspects of the condensation mechanism and makes the identification of the soft modes problematic. We re-examine the pion condensed phase using different approaches within the chiral perturbation theory framework. As a first step, we perform a low-density expansion of the chiral Lagrangian valid close to the onset of the Bose-Einstein condensation. We obtain an effective theory that can be mapped to a Gross-Pitaevskii Lagrangian in which, remarkably, all the coefficients depend on the isospin chemical potential. The low-density expansion becomes unreliable deep in the pion condensed phase. For this reason, we develop an alternative field expansion deriving a low-energy Lagrangian analog to that of quantum magnets. By integrating out the "radial" fluctuations we obtain a soft Lagrangian in terms of the Nambu-Goldstone bosons arising from the breaking of the pion number symmetry. Finally, we test the robustness of the second-order transition between the normal and the pion condensed phase when next-to-leading-order chiral corrections are included. We determine the range of parameters for turning the second-order phase transition into a first-order one, finding that the currently accepted values of these corrections are unlikely to change the order of the phase transition.

  16. On the onset of surface condensation: formation and transition mechanisms of condensation mode

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Qiang; Sun, Jie; Wang, Qian; Wang, Wen; Wang, Hua Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been carried out to investigate the onset of surface condensation. On surfaces with different wettability, we snapshot different condensation modes (no-condensation, dropwise condensation and filmwise condensation) and quantitatively analyze their characteristics by temporal profiles of surface clusters. Two different types of formation of nanoscale droplets are identified, i.e. the formations with and without film-like condensate. We exhibit the effect of surface tensions on the formations of nanoscale droplets and film. We reveal the formation mechanisms of different condensation modes at nanoscale based on our simulation results and classical nucleation theory, which supplements the ‘classical hypotheses’ of the onset of dropwise condensation. We also reveal the transition mechanism between different condensation modes based on the competition between surface tensions and reveal that dropwise condensation represents the transition states from no-condensation to filmwise condensation. PMID:27481071

  17. On the onset of surface condensation: formation and transition mechanisms of condensation mode.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Qiang; Sun, Jie; Wang, Qian; Wang, Wen; Wang, Hua Sheng

    2016-08-02

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been carried out to investigate the onset of surface condensation. On surfaces with different wettability, we snapshot different condensation modes (no-condensation, dropwise condensation and filmwise condensation) and quantitatively analyze their characteristics by temporal profiles of surface clusters. Two different types of formation of nanoscale droplets are identified, i.e. the formations with and without film-like condensate. We exhibit the effect of surface tensions on the formations of nanoscale droplets and film. We reveal the formation mechanisms of different condensation modes at nanoscale based on our simulation results and classical nucleation theory, which supplements the 'classical hypotheses' of the onset of dropwise condensation. We also reveal the transition mechanism between different condensation modes based on the competition between surface tensions and reveal that dropwise condensation represents the transition states from no-condensation to filmwise condensation.

  18. New polymers for low-gravity purification of cells by phase partitioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    A potentially powerful technique for separating different biological cell types is based on the partitioning of these cells between the immiscible aqueous phases formed by solution of certain polymers in water. This process is gravity-limited because cells sediment rather than associate with the phase most favored on the basis of cell-phase interactions. In the present contract we have been involved in the synthesis of new polymers both to aid in understanding the partitioning process and to improve the quality of separations. The prime driving force behind the design of these polymers is to produce materials which will aid in space experiments to separate important cell types and to study the partitioning process in the absence of gravity (i.e., in an equilibrium state).

  19. Drill drive mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Dressel, Michael O.

    1979-01-01

    A drill drive mechanism is especially adapted to provide both rotational drive and axial feed for a drill of substantial diameter such as may be used for drilling holes for roof bolts in mine shafts. The drill shaft is made with a helical pattern of scroll-like projections on its surface for removal of cuttings. The drill drive mechanism includes a plurality of sprockets carrying two chains of drive links which are arranged to interlock around the drill shaft with each drive link having depressions which mate with the scroll-like projections. As the chain links move upwardly or downwardly the surfaces of the depressions in the links mate with the scroll projections to move the shaft axially. Tangs on the drive links mate with notch surfaces between scroll projections to provide a means for rotating the shaft. Projections on the drive links mate together at the center to hold the drive links tightly around the drill shaft. The entire chain drive mechanism is rotated around the drill shaft axis by means of a hydraulic motor and gear drive to cause rotation of the drill shaft. This gear drive also connects with a differential gearset which is interconnected with a second gear. A second motor is connected to the spider shaft of the differential gearset to produce differential movement (speeds) at the output gears of the differential gearset. This differential in speed is utilized to drive said second gear at a speed different from the speed of said gear drive, this speed differential being utilized to drive said sprockets for axial movement of said drill shaft.

  20. Condensed Matter Physics - Biology Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskaran, G.

    The field of condensed matter physics had its genesis this century and it has had a remarkable evolution. A closer look at its growth reveals a hidden aim in the collective consciousness of the field - a part of the development this century is a kind of warm up exercise to understand the nature of living condensed matter, namely the field of biology, by a growing new breed of scientists in the coming century. Through some examples the vitality of this interaction will be pointed out.

  1. Tripol condensate polishing - operational experience

    SciTech Connect

    Swainsbury, D.

    1995-01-01

    This paper gives a brief outline of the Mission Energy Management Australia Company who operate and maintain the Loy Yang B Power Station in the Latrobe Valley, Victoria, Australia. Details of the plant configuration, the water/steam circuit and cycle chemistry are discussed. The arrangement of the TRIPOL Condensate Polishing Plant and it`s operational modes are examined. Results of the first twelve months operation of the TRIPOL plant are detailed. Levels of crud removal during early commissioning phases employing the pre-filter are presented. Typical parameters achieved during a simulated condenser leak and an operational run beyond the ammonia break point are also documented.

  2. Andreev Reflection in Bosonic Condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Zapata, I.; Sols, F.

    2009-05-08

    We study the bosonic analog of Andreev reflection at a normal-superfluid interface where the superfluid is a boson condensate. We model the normal region as a zone where nonlinear effects can be neglected. Against the background of a decaying condensate, we identify a novel contribution to the current of reflected atoms. The group velocity of this Andreev reflected component differs from that of the normally reflected one. For a three-dimensional planar or two-dimensional linear interface Andreev reflection is neither specular nor conjugate.

  3. Purification of biomaterials by phase partitioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    A technique which is particularly suited to microgravity environments and which is potentially more powerful than electrophoresis is phase partitioning. Phase partitioning is purification by partitioning between the two immiscible aqueous layers formed by solution of the polymers poly(ethylene glycol) and dextran in water. This technique proved to be very useful for separations in one-g but is limited for cells because the cells are more dense than the phase solutions thus tend to sediment to the bottom of the container before reaching equilibrium with the preferred phase. There are three phases to work in this area: synthesis of new polymers for affinity phase partitioning; development of automated apparatus for ground-based separations; and design of apparatus for performing simple phase partitioning space experiments, including examination of mechanisms for separating phases in the absence of gravity.

  4. Parallel hypergraph partitioning for scientific computing.

    SciTech Connect

    Heaphy, Robert; Devine, Karen Dragon; Catalyurek, Umit; Bisseling, Robert; Hendrickson, Bruce Alan; Boman, Erik Gunnar

    2005-07-01

    Graph partitioning is often used for load balancing in parallel computing, but it is known that hypergraph partitioning has several advantages. First, hypergraphs more accurately model communication volume, and second, they are more expressive and can better represent nonsymmetric problems. Hypergraph partitioning is particularly suited to parallel sparse matrix-vector multiplication, a common kernel in scientific computing. We present a parallel software package for hypergraph (and sparse matrix) partitioning developed at Sandia National Labs. The algorithm is a variation on multilevel partitioning. Our parallel implementation is novel in that it uses a two-dimensional data distribution among processors. We present empirical results that show our parallel implementation achieves good speedup on several large problems (up to 33 million nonzeros) with up to 64 processors on a Linux cluster.

  5. Efficient multiple-way graph partitioning algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Dasdan, A.; Aykanat, C.

    1995-12-01

    Graph partitioning deals with evenly dividing a graph into two or more parts such that the total weight of edges interconnecting these parts, i.e., cutsize, is minimized. Graph partitioning has important applications in VLSI layout, mapping, and sparse Gaussian elimination. Since graph partitioning problem is NP-hard, we should resort to polynomial-time algorithms to obtain a good solution, or hopefully a near-optimal solution. Kernighan-Lin (KL) propsoed a 2-way partitioning algorithms. Fiduccia-Mattheyses (FM) introduced a faster version of KL algorithm. Sanchis (FMS) generalized FM algorithm to a multiple-way partitioning algorithm. Simulated Annealing (SA) is one of the most successful approaches that are not KL-based.

  6. Recovery of small bioparticles by interfacial partitioning.

    PubMed

    Jauregi, P; Hoeben, M A; van der Lans, R G J M; Kwant, G; van der Wielen, L A M

    2002-05-20

    In this article, a qualitative study of the recovery of small bioparticles by interfacial partitioning in liquid-liquid biphasic systems is presented. A range of crystallised biomolecules with varying polarities have been chosen such as glycine, phenylglycine and ampicillin. Liquid-liquid biphasic systems in a range of polarity differences were selected such as an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS), water-butanol and water-hexanol. The results indicate that interfacial partitioning of crystals occurs even when their density exceeds that of the individual liquid phases. Yet, not all crystals partition to the same extent to the interface to form a stable and thick interphase layer. This indicates some degree of selectivity. From the analysis of these results in relation to the physicochemical properties of the crystals and the liquid phases, a hypothetical mechanism for the interfacial partitioning is deduced. Overall these results support the potential of interfacial partitioning as a large scale separation technology.

  7. Entropy Production Within a Pulsed Bose-Einstein Condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinisch, Christoph; Holthaus, Martin

    2016-10-01

    We suggest to subject anharmonically trapped Bose-Einstein condensates to sinusoidal forcing with a smooth, slowly changing envelope, and to measure the coherence of the system after such pulses. In a series of measurements with successively increased maximum forcing strength, one then expects an adiabatic return of the condensate to its initial state as long as the pulses remain sufficiently weak. In contrast, once the maximum driving amplitude exceeds a certain critical value there should be a drastic loss of coherence, reflecting significant heating induced by the pulse. This predicted experimental signature is traced to the loss of an effective adiabatic invariant, and to the ensuing breakdown of adiabatic motion of the system's Floquet state when the many-body dynamics become chaotic. Our scenario is illustrated with the help of a two-site model of a forced bosonic Josephson junction, but should also hold for other, experimentally accessible configurations.

  8. Condensation on Highly Superheated Surfaces: Unstable Thin Films in a Wickless Heat Pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundan, Akshay; Nguyen, Thao T. T.; Plawsky, Joel L.; Wayner, Peter C.; Chao, David F.; Sicker, Ronald J.

    2017-03-01

    A wickless heat pipe was operated on the International Space Station to provide a better understanding of how the microgravity environment might alter the physical and interfacial forces driving evaporation and condensation. Traditional heat pipes are divided into three zones: evaporation at the heated end, condensation at the cooled end, and intermediate or adiabatic in between. The microgravity experiments reported herein show that the situation may be dramatically more complicated. Beyond a threshold heat input, there was a transition from evaporation at the heated end to large-scale condensation, even as surface temperatures exceeded the boiling point by 160 K. The hotter the surface, the more vapor was condensed onto it. The condensation process at the heated end is initiated by thickness and temperature disturbances in the thin liquid film that wet the solid surface. Those disturbances effectively leave the vapor "superheated" in that region. Condensation is amplified and sustained by the high Marangoni stresses that exist near the heater and that drive liquid to cooler regions of the device.

  9. Condensation on Highly Superheated Surfaces: Unstable Thin Films in a Wickless Heat Pipe.

    PubMed

    Kundan, Akshay; Nguyen, Thao T T; Plawsky, Joel L; Wayner, Peter C; Chao, David F; Sicker, Ronald J

    2017-03-03

    A wickless heat pipe was operated on the International Space Station to provide a better understanding of how the microgravity environment might alter the physical and interfacial forces driving evaporation and condensation. Traditional heat pipes are divided into three zones: evaporation at the heated end, condensation at the cooled end, and intermediate or adiabatic in between. The microgravity experiments reported herein show that the situation may be dramatically more complicated. Beyond a threshold heat input, there was a transition from evaporation at the heated end to large-scale condensation, even as surface temperatures exceeded the boiling point by 160 K. The hotter the surface, the more vapor was condensed onto it. The condensation process at the heated end is initiated by thickness and temperature disturbances in the thin liquid film that wet the solid surface. Those disturbances effectively leave the vapor "superheated" in that region. Condensation is amplified and sustained by the high Marangoni stresses that exist near the heater and that drive liquid to cooler regions of the device.

  10. Parametric resonance of capillary waves at the interface between two immiscible Bose-Einstein condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobyakov, D.; Bychkov, V.; Lundh, E.; Bezett, A.; Marklund, M.

    2012-08-01

    We study the parametric resonance of capillary waves on the interface between two immiscible Bose-Einstein condensates pushed towards each other by an oscillating force. Guided by analytical models, we solve numerically the coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equations for a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate at zero temperature. We show that, at moderate amplitudes of the driving force, the instability is stabilized due to nonlinear modifications of the oscillation frequency. When the amplitude of the driving force is large enough, we observe a detachment of droplets from the Bose-Einstein condensates, resulting in the generation of quantum vortices (skyrmions). We analytically investigate the vortex dynamics, and conditions of quantized vortex generation.

  11. Visualization of early chromosome condensation

    PubMed Central

    Kireeva, Natashe; Lakonishok, Margot; Kireev, Igor; Hirano, Tatsuya; Belmont, Andrew S.

    2004-01-01

    Current models of mitotic chromosome structure are based largely on the examination of maximally condensed metaphase chromosomes. Here, we test these models by correlating the distribution of two scaffold components with the appearance of prophase chromosome folding intermediates. We confirm an axial distribution of topoisomerase IIα and the condensin subunit, structural maintenance of chromosomes 2 (SMC2), in unextracted metaphase chromosomes, with SMC2 localizing to a 150–200-nm-diameter central core. In contrast to predictions of radial loop/scaffold models, this axial distribution does not appear until late prophase, after formation of uniformly condensed middle prophase chromosomes. Instead, SMC2 associates throughout early and middle prophase chromatids, frequently forming foci over the chromosome exterior. Early prophase condensation occurs through folding of large-scale chromatin fibers into condensed masses. These resolve into linear, 200–300-nm-diameter middle prophase chromatids that double in diameter by late prophase. We propose a unified model of chromosome structure in which hierarchical levels of chromatin folding are stabilized late in mitosis by an axial “glue.” PMID:15353545

  12. Magnetofermionic condensate in two dimensions

    PubMed Central

    Kulik, L. V.; Zhuravlev, A. S.; Dickmann, S.; Gorbunov, A. V.; Timofeev, V. B.; Kukushkin, I. V.; Schmult, S.

    2016-01-01

    Coherent condensate states of particles obeying either Bose or Fermi statistics are in the focus of interest in modern physics. Here we report on condensation of collective excitations with Bose statistics, cyclotron magnetoexcitons, in a high-mobility two-dimensional electron system in a magnetic field. At low temperatures, the dense non-equilibrium ensemble of long-lived triplet magnetoexcitons exhibits both a drastic reduction in the viscosity and a steep enhancement in the response to the external electromagnetic field. The observed effects are related to formation of a super-absorbing state interacting coherently with the electromagnetic field. Simultaneously, the electrons below the Fermi level form a super-emitting state. The effects are explicable from the viewpoint of a coherent condensate phase in a non-equilibrium system of two-dimensional fermions with a fully quantized energy spectrum. The condensation occurs in the space of vectors of magnetic translations, a property providing a completely new landscape for future physical investigations. PMID:27848969

  13. Linker DNA destabilizes condensed chromatin.

    PubMed

    Green, G R; Ferlita, R R; Walkenhorst, W F; Poccia, D L

    2001-01-01

    The contribution of the linker region to maintenance of condensed chromatin was examined in two model systems, namely sea urchin sperm nuclei and chicken red blood cell nuclei. Linkerless nuclei, prepared by extensive digestion with micrococcal nuclease, were compared with Native nuclei using several assays, including microscopic appearance, nuclear turbidity, salt stability, and trypsin resistance. Chromatin in the Linkerless nuclei was highly condensed, resembling pyknotic chromatin in apoptotic cells. Linkerless nuclei were more stable in low ionic strength buffers and more resistant to trypsin than Native nuclei. Analysis of histones from the trypsinized nuclei by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that specific histone H1, H2B, and H3 tail regions stabilized linker DNA in condensed nuclei. Thermal denaturation of soluble chromatin preparations from differentially trypsinized sperm nuclei demonstrated that the N-terminal regions of histones Sp H1, Sp H2B, and H3 bind tightly to linker DNA, causing it to denature at a high temperature. We conclude that linker DNA exerts a disruptive force on condensed chromatin structure which is counteracted by binding of specific histone tail regions to the linker DNA. The inherent instability of the linker region may be significant in all eukaryotic chromatins and may promote gene activation in living cells.

  14. Magnetofermionic condensate in two dimensions.

    PubMed

    Kulik, L V; Zhuravlev, A S; Dickmann, S; Gorbunov, A V; Timofeev, V B; Kukushkin, I V; Schmult, S

    2016-11-16

    Coherent condensate states of particles obeying either Bose or Fermi statistics are in the focus of interest in modern physics. Here we report on condensation of collective excitations with Bose statistics, cyclotron magnetoexcitons, in a high-mobility two-dimensional electron system in a magnetic field. At low temperatures, the dense non-equilibrium ensemble of long-lived triplet magnetoexcitons exhibits both a drastic reduction in the viscosity and a steep enhancement in the response to the external electromagnetic field. The observed effects are related to formation of a super-absorbing state interacting coherently with the electromagnetic field. Simultaneously, the electrons below the Fermi level form a super-emitting state. The effects are explicable from the viewpoint of a coherent condensate phase in a non-equilibrium system of two-dimensional fermions with a fully quantized energy spectrum. The condensation occurs in the space of vectors of magnetic translations, a property providing a completely new landscape for future physical investigations.

  15. Approaching Bose-Einstein Condensation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrari, Loris

    2011-01-01

    Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) is discussed at the level of an advanced course of statistical thermodynamics, clarifying some formal and physical aspects that are usually not covered by the standard pedagogical literature. The non-conventional approach adopted starts by showing that the continuum limit, in certain cases, cancels out the crucial…

  16. Magnetofermionic condensate in two dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulik, L. V.; Zhuravlev, A. S.; Dickmann, S.; Gorbunov, A. V.; Timofeev, V. B.; Kukushkin, I. V.; Schmult, S.

    2016-11-01

    Coherent condensate states of particles obeying either Bose or Fermi statistics are in the focus of interest in modern physics. Here we report on condensation of collective excitations with Bose statistics, cyclotron magnetoexcitons, in a high-mobility two-dimensional electron system in a magnetic field. At low temperatures, the dense non-equilibrium ensemble of long-lived triplet magnetoexcitons exhibits both a drastic reduction in the viscosity and a steep enhancement in the response to the external electromagnetic field. The observed effects are related to formation of a super-absorbing state interacting coherently with the electromagnetic field. Simultaneously, the electrons below the Fermi level form a super-emitting state. The effects are explicable from the viewpoint of a coherent condensate phase in a non-equilibrium system of two-dimensional fermions with a fully quantized energy spectrum. The condensation occurs in the space of vectors of magnetic translations, a property providing a completely new landscape for future physical investigations.

  17. Multi-shell model of ion-induced nucleic acid condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolokh, Igor S.; Drozdetski, Aleksander V.; Pollack, Lois; Baker, Nathan A.; Onufriev, Alexey V.

    2016-04-01

    We present a semi-quantitative model of condensation of short nucleic acid (NA) duplexes induced by trivalent cobalt(iii) hexammine (CoHex) ions. The model is based on partitioning of bound counterion distribution around single NA duplex into "external" and "internal" ion binding shells distinguished by the proximity to duplex helical axis. In the aggregated phase the shells overlap, which leads to significantly increased attraction of CoHex ions in these overlaps with the neighboring duplexes. The duplex aggregation free energy is decomposed into attractive and repulsive components in such a way that they can be represented by simple analytical expressions with parameters derived from molecular dynamic simulations and numerical solutions of Poisson equation. The attractive term depends on the fractions of bound ions in the overlapping shells and affinity of CoHex to the "external" shell of nearly neutralized duplex. The repulsive components of the free energy are duplex configurational entropy loss upon the aggregation and the electrostatic repulsion of the duplexes that remains after neutralization by bound CoHex ions. The estimates of the aggregation free energy are consistent with the experimental range of NA duplex condensation propensities, including the unusually poor condensation of RNA structures and subtle sequence effects upon DNA condensation. The model predicts that, in contrast to DNA, RNA duplexes may condense into tighter packed aggregates with a higher degree of duplex neutralization. An appreciable CoHex mediated RNA-RNA attraction requires closer inter-duplex separation to engage CoHex ions (bound mostly in the "internal" shell of RNA) into short-range attractive interactions. The model also predicts that longer NA fragments will condense more readily than shorter ones. The ability of this model to explain experimentally observed trends in NA condensation lends support to proposed NA condensation picture based on the multivalent "ion binding

  18. Genomic Instability in Human Pluripotent Stem Cells Arises from Replicative Stress and Chromosome Condensation Defects.

    PubMed

    Lamm, Noa; Ben-David, Uri; Golan-Lev, Tamar; Storchová, Zuzana; Benvenisty, Nissim; Kerem, Batsheva

    2016-02-04

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) frequently acquire chromosomal aberrations such as aneuploidy in culture. These aberrations progressively increase over time and may compromise the properties and clinical utility of the cells. The underlying mechanisms that drive initial genomic instability and its continued progression are largely unknown. Here, we show that aneuploid hPSCs undergo DNA replication stress, resulting in defective chromosome condensation and segregation. Aneuploid hPSCs show altered levels of actin cytoskeletal genes controlled by the transcription factor SRF, and overexpression of SRF rescues impaired chromosome condensation and segregation defects in aneuploid hPSCs. Furthermore, SRF downregulation in diploid hPSCs induces replication stress and perturbed condensation similar to that seen in aneuploid cells. Together, these results suggest that decreased SRF expression induces replicative stress and chromosomal condensation defects that underlie the ongoing chromosomal instability seen in aneuploid hPSCs. A similar mechanism may also operate during initiation of instability in diploid cells.

  19. Marihuana and driving.

    PubMed

    Moskowitz, H

    1985-08-01

    A review was performed of the marihuana and driving literature, both epidemiological and experimental. It was noted that epidemiological studies face considerable difficulties in obtaining estimates of risks involved for drivers utilizing marihuana due to the rapid decline in blood levels of tetrahydrocannabinol. On the other hand, experimental studies examining the relationship between administered marihuana dose and performance have identified many driving-related areas as exhibiting impairment. Areas impaired include coordination, tracking, perception, vigilance and performance in both driving simulators and on the road. Other behavioral areas of lesser importance for driving also exhibited evidence of impairment by marihuana. Areas for further research are suggested.

  20. Partitioned Bayesian analyses, partition choice, and the phylogenetic relationships of scincid lizards.

    PubMed

    Brandley, Matthew C; Schmitz, Andreas; Reeder, Tod W

    2005-06-01

    Partitioned Bayesian analyses of approximately 2.2 kb of nucleotide sequence data (mtDNA) were used to elucidate phylogenetic relationships among 30 scincid lizard genera. Few partitioned Bayesian analyses exist in the literature, resulting in a lack of methods to determine the appropriate number of and identity of partitions. Thus, a criterion, based on the Bayes factor, for selecting among competing partitioning strategies is proposed and tested. Improvements in both mean -lnL and estimated posterior probabilities were observed when specific models and parameter estimates were assumed for partitions of the total data set. This result is expected given that the 95% credible intervals of model parameter estimates for numerous partitions do not overlap and it reveals that different data partitions may evolve quite differently. We further demonstrate that how one partitions the data (by gene, codon position, etc.) is shown to be a greater concern than simply the overall number of partitions. Using the criterion of the 2 ln Bayes factor > 10, the phylogenetic analysis employing the largest number of partitions was decisively better than all other strategies. Strategies that partitioned the ND1 gene by codon position performed better than other partition strategies, regardless of the overall number of partitions. Scincidae, Acontinae, Lygosominae, east Asian and North American "Eumeces" + Neoseps; North African Eumeces, Scincus, and Scincopus, and a large group primarily from sub-Saharan Africa, Madagascar, and neighboring islands are monophyletic. Feylinia, a limbless group of previously uncertain relationships, is nested within a "scincine" clade from sub-Saharan Africa. We reject the hypothesis that the nearly limbless dibamids are derived from within the Scincidae, but cannot reject the hypothesis that they represent the sister taxon to skinks. Amphiglossus, Chalcides, the acontines Acontias and Typhlosaurus, and Scincinae are paraphyletic. The globally widespread

  1. REE Partitioning in Lunar Minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rapp, J. F.; Lapen, T. J.; Draper, D. S.

    2015-01-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) are an extremely useful tool in modeling lunar magmatic processes. Here we present the first experimentally derived plagioclase/melt partition coefficients in lunar compositions covering the entire suite of REE. Positive europium anomalies are ubiquitous in the plagioclase-rich rocks of the lunar highlands, and complementary negative Eu anomalies are found in most lunar basalts. These features are taken as evidence of a large-scale differentiation event, with crystallization of a global-scale lunar magma ocean (LMO) resulting in a plagioclase flotation crust and a mafic lunar interior from which mare basalts were subsequently derived. However, the extent of the Eu anomaly in lunar rocks is variable. Fagan and Neal [1] reported highly anorthitic plagioclase grains in lunar impact melt rock 60635,19 that displayed negative Eu anomalies as well as the more usual positive anomalies. Indeed some grains in the sample are reported to display both positive and negative anomalies. Judging from cathodoluminescence images, these anomalies do not appear to be associated with crystal overgrowths or zones.

  2. Spectral partitioning in diffraction tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Lehman, S K; Chambers, D H; Candy, J V

    1999-06-14

    The scattering mechanism of diffraction tomography is described by the integral form of the Helmholtz equation. The goal of diffraction tomography is to invert this equation in order to reconstruct the object function from the measured scattered fields. During the forward propagation process, the spatial spectrum of the object under investigation is ''smeared,'' by a convolution in the spectral domain, across the propagating and evanescent regions of the received field. Hence, care must be taken in performing the reconstruction, as the object's spectral information has been moved into regions where it may be considered to be noise rather than useful information. This will reduce the quality and resolution of the reconstruction. We show haw the object's spectrum can be partitioned into resolvable and non-resolvable parts based upon the cutoff between the propagating and evanescent fields. Operating under the Born approximation, we develop a beam-forming on transmit approach to direct the energy into either the propagating or evanescent parts of the spectrum. In this manner, we may individually interrogate the propagating and evanescent regions of the object spectrum.

  3. Partitioning of regular computation on multiprocessor systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Fung Fung

    1988-01-01

    Problem partitioning of regular computation over two dimensional meshes on multiprocessor systems is examined. The regular computation model considered involves repetitive evaluation of values at each mesh point with local communication. The computational workload and the communication pattern are the same at each mesh point. The regular computation model arises in numerical solutions of partial differential equations and simulations of cellular automata. Given a communication pattern, a systematic way to generate a family of partitions is presented. The influence of various partitioning schemes on performance is compared on the basis of computation to communication ratio.

  4. Partitioning of regular computation on multiprocessor systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Fung F.

    1990-01-01

    Problem partitioning of regular computation over two dimensional meshes on multiprocessor systems is examined. The regular computation model considered involves repetitive evaluation of values at each mesh point with local communication. The computational workload and the communication pattern are the same at each mesh point. The regular computation model arises in numerical solutions of partial differential equations and simulations of cellular automata. Given a communication pattern, a systematic way to generate a family of partitions is presented. The influence of various partitioning schemes on performance is compared on the basis of computation to communication ratio.

  5. Partitioning of regular computation on multiprocessor systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, F. . Computer Systems Lab.)

    1990-07-01

    Problem partitioning of regular computation over two-dimensional meshes on multiprocessor systems is examined. The regular computation model considered involves repetitive evaluation of values at each mesh point with local communication. The computational workload and the communication pattern are the same at each mesh point. The regular computation model arises in numerical solutions of partial differential equations and simulations of cellular automata. Given a communication pattern, a systematic way to generate a family of partitions is presented. The influence of various partitioning schemes on performance is compared on the basis of computation to communication ratio.

  6. Dipolar condensates with tilted dipoles in a pancake-shaped confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Chinmayee; Nath, Rejish

    2016-09-01

    The effect of dipolar orientation with respect to the condensate plane on the mean-field dynamics of dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates in a pancake-shaped confinement is discussed. The stability of a quasi-two-dimensional condensate, with respect to the tilting angle, is found to be different from a two-dimensional layer of dipoles, indicating the relevance of the transverse extension while characterizing two-dimensional dipolar systems. An anisotropic excitation spectrum exhibiting a highly tunable, rotonlike minimum can arise entirely from the dipole-dipole interactions, by tilting the dipoles. At the magic angle and in the absence of contact interactions, the long-wavelength excitations are not phononlike and always unstable. The post-roton-instability dynamics, in contrast to phonon instability, in a uniform condensate, is featured by a transient, defect-free, stripe pattern, which eventually undergoes local collapses, and driving the condensate back into the stable regime can make them sustained for longer. Hopping between stripes has been observed before it melts into a uniform state in the presence of dissipation. Finally, we discuss a class of solutions, in which a quasi-two-dimensional condensate is self-trapped in one direction, as well as a regime of interaction parameters, including attractive short-range interactions, at which a two-dimensional anisotropic soliton can be stabilized, and we show that a chromium condensate with a relatively small number of atoms is well suited for this.

  7. Film condensation in a horizontal rectangular duct

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Qing; Suryanarayana, N. V.

    1992-01-01

    Condensation heat transfer in an annular flow regime with and without interfacial waves was experimentally investigated. The study included measurements of heat transfer rate with condensation of vapor flowing inside a horizontal rectangular duct and experiments on the initiation of interfacial waves in condensation, and adiabatic air-liquid flow. An analytical model for the condensation was developed to predict condensate film thickness and heat transfer coefficients. Some conclusions drawn from the study are that the condensate film thickness was very thin (less than 0.6 mm). The average heat transfer coefficient increased with increasing the inlet vapor velocity. The local heat transfer coefficient decreased with the axial distance of the condensing surface, with the largest change at the leading edge of the test section. The interfacial shear stress, which consisted of the momentum shear stress and the adiabatic shear stress, appeared to have a significant effect on the heat transfer coefficients. In the experiment, the condensate flow along the condensing surface experienced a smooth flow, a two-dimensional wavy flow, and a three-dimensional wavy flow. In the condensation experiment, the local wave length decreased with the axial distance of the condensing surface and the average wave length decreased with increasing inlet vapor velocity, while the wave speed increased with increasing vapor velocity. The heat transfer measurements are reliable. And, the ultrasonic technique was effective for measuring the condensate film thickness when the surface was smooth or had waves of small amplitude.

  8. Proceedings: 2000 Workshop on Condensate Polishing

    SciTech Connect

    2001-06-01

    Condensate polishing maintains control of impurities in the nuclear power plant and allows the unit to operate more reliably. This report presents proceedings of EPRI's 2000 Workshop on Condensate Polishing, where 30 papers were presented on current issues and utility experience involving condensate polishing at both pressurized water reactor (PWR) and boiling water reactor (BWR) plants.

  9. Exciton-polaritons condensate in a microwire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamoun, O.; Jaziri, S.

    2013-12-01

    Recently, polariton condensation has been claimed in microwires. Numerical solutions of the time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii equation that describes the behavior of the condensate in a trap and exciton-polariton interaction, have been obtained. In this work we study theoretically exciton-polariton one dimensional condensation in several quantized states.

  10. The Partitioning of Acetic, Formic, and Phosphoric Acids Between Liquid Water and Steam

    SciTech Connect

    Gruszkiewicz, M.S.; Marshall, S.L.; Palmer, D.A.; Simonson, J.M.

    1999-06-22

    The chemical carryover of impurities and treatment chemicals from the boiler to the steam phase, and ultimately to the low-pressure turbine and condenser, can be quantified based on laboratory experiments preformed over ranges of temperature, pH, and composition. The two major assumptions are that thermodynamic equilibrium is maintained and no deposition, adsorption or decomposition occurs. The most recent results on acetic, formic and phosphoric acids are presented with consideration of the effects of hydrolysis and dimerization reactions. Complications arising from thermal decomposition of the organic acids are discussed. The partitioning constants for these acids and other solutes measured in this program have been incorporated into a simple thermodynamic computer code that calculates the effect of chemical and mechanical carryover on the composition of the condensate formed to varying extents in the water/steam cycle.

  11. Condensed matter analogues of cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kibble, Tom; Srivastava, Ajit

    2013-10-01

    It is always exciting when developments in one branch of physics turn out to have relevance in a quite different branch. It would be hard to find two branches farther apart in terms of energy scales than early-universe cosmology and low-temperature condensed matter physics. Nevertheless ideas about the formation of topological defects during rapid phase transitions that originated in the context of the very early universe have proved remarkably fruitful when applied to a variety of condensed matter systems. The mathematical frameworks for describing these systems can be very similar. This interconnection has led to a deeper understanding of the phenomena in condensed matter systems utilizing ideas from cosmology. At the same time, one can view these condensed matter analogues as providing, at least in a limited sense, experimental access to the phenomena of the early universe for which no direct probe is possible. As this special issue well illustrates, this remains a dynamic and exciting field. The basic idea is that when a system goes through a rapid symmetry-breaking phase transition from a symmetric phase into one with spontaneously broken symmetry, the order parameter may make different choices in different regions, creating domains that when they meet can trap defects. The scale of those domains, and hence the density of defects, is constrained by the rate at which the system goes through the transition and the speed with which order parameter information propagates. This is what has come to be known as the Kibble-Zurek mechanism. The resultant scaling laws have now been tested in a considerable variety of different systems. The earliest experiments illustrating the analogy between cosmology and condensed matter were in liquid crystals, in particular on the isotropic-to-nematic transition, primarily because it is very easy to induce the phase transition (typically at room temperature) and to image precisely what is going on. This field remains one of the

  12. Piezoelectric drive circuit

    DOEpatents

    Treu, C.A. Jr.

    1999-08-31

    A piezoelectric motor drive circuit is provided which utilizes the piezoelectric elements as oscillators and a Meacham half-bridge approach to develop feedback from the motor ground circuit to produce a signal to drive amplifiers to power the motor. The circuit automatically compensates for shifts in harmonic frequency of the piezoelectric elements due to pressure and temperature changes. 7 figs.

  13. Piezoelectric drive circuit

    DOEpatents

    Treu, Jr., Charles A.

    1999-08-31

    A piezoelectric motor drive circuit is provided which utilizes the piezoelectric elements as oscillators and a Meacham half-bridge approach to develop feedback from the motor ground circuit to produce a signal to drive amplifiers to power the motor. The circuit automatically compensates for shifts in harmonic frequency of the piezoelectric elements due to pressure and temperature changes.

  14. Electric vehicles: Driving range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempton, Willett

    2016-09-01

    For uptake of electric vehicles to increase, consumers' driving-range needs must be fulfilled. Analysis of the driving patterns of personal vehicles in the US now shows that today's electric vehicles can meet all travel needs on almost 90% of days from a single overnight charge.

  15. Merging Groups to Maximize Object Partition Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klastorin, T. D.

    1980-01-01

    The problem of objectively comparing two independently determined partitions of N objects or variables is discussed. A similarity measure based on the simple matching coefficient is defined and related to previously suggested measures. (Author/JKS)

  16. Cell Partition in Two Polymer Aqueous Phases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    Partition of biological cells in two phase aqueous polymer systems is recognized as a powerful separation technique which is limited by gravity. The synthesis of new, selective polymer ligand conjugates to be used in affinity partition separations is of interest. The two most commonly used polymers in two phase partitioning are dextran and polyethylene glycol. A thorough review of the chemistry of these polymers was begun, particularly in the area of protein attachment. Preliminary studies indicate the importance in affinity partitioning of minimizing gravity induced randomizing forces in the phase separation process. The PEG-protein conjugates that were prepared appear to be ideally suited for achieving high quality purifications in a microgravity environment. An interesting spin-off of this synthetic work was the observation of catalytic activity for certain of our polymer derivatives.

  17. Synthesis on evaporation partitioning using stable isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coenders-Gerrits, Miriam; Bogaard, Thom; Wenninger, Jochen; Jonson Sutanto, Samuel

    2015-04-01

    Partitioning of evaporation into productive (transpiration) and non-productive evaporation (interception, soil evaporation) is of highest importance for water management practices, irrigation scheme design, and climate modeling. Despite this urge, the magnitude of the ratio of transpiration over total evaporation is still under debate and poorly understood due to measuring difficulties. However, with the current development in isotope measuring devices, new opportunities arise to untangle the partitioning of evaporation. In this paper we synthesize the opportunities and limitations using stable water isotopes in evaporation partitioning. We will analyze a set of field as well as laboratory studies to demonstrate the different evaporation components for various climate and vegetation conditions using stable isotopes 18O/16O and 2H/1H. Experimental data on evaporation partitioning of crops, grass, shrubs and trees are presented and we will discuss the specific experimental set-ups and data collection methods. The paper will be a synthesis of these studies.

  18. Reducing variance in batch partitioning measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Mariner, Paul E.

    2010-08-11

    The partitioning experiment is commonly performed with little or no attention to reducing measurement variance. Batch test procedures such as those used to measure K{sub d} values (e.g., ASTM D 4646 and EPA402 -R-99-004A) do not explain how to evaluate measurement uncertainty nor how to minimize measurement variance. In fact, ASTM D 4646 prescribes a sorbent:water ratio that prevents variance minimization. Consequently, the variance of a set of partitioning measurements can be extreme and even absurd. Such data sets, which are commonplace, hamper probabilistic modeling efforts. An error-savvy design requires adjustment of the solution:sorbent ratio so that approximately half of the sorbate partitions to the sorbent. Results of Monte Carlo simulations indicate that this simple step can markedly improve the precision and statistical characterization of partitioning uncertainty.

  19. Connections between groundwater flow and transpiration partitioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxwell, Reed M.; Condon, Laura E.

    2016-07-01

    Understanding freshwater fluxes at continental scales will help us better predict hydrologic response and manage our terrestrial water resources. The partitioning of evapotranspiration into bare soil evaporation and plant transpiration remains a key uncertainty in the terrestrial water balance. We used integrated hydrologic simulations that couple vegetation and land-energy processes with surface and subsurface hydrology to study transpiration partitioning at the continental scale. Both latent heat flux and partitioning are connected to water table depth, and including lateral groundwater flow in the model increases transpiration partitioning from 47 ± 13 to 62 ± 12%. This suggests that lateral groundwater flow, which is generally simplified or excluded in Earth system models, may provide a missing link for reconciling observations and global models of terrestrial water fluxes.

  20. Connections between groundwater flow and transpiration partitioning.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Reed M; Condon, Laura E

    2016-07-22

    Understanding freshwater fluxes at continental scales will help us better predict hydrologic response and manage our terrestrial water resources. The partitioning of evapotranspiration into bare soil evaporation and plant transpiration remains a key uncertainty in the terrestrial water balance. We used integrated hydrologic simulations that couple vegetation and land-energy processes with surface and subsurface hydrology to study transpiration partitioning at the continental scale. Both latent heat flux and partitioning are connected to water table depth, and including lateral groundwater flow in the model increases transpiration partitioning from 47 ± 13 to 62 ± 12%. This suggests that lateral groundwater flow, which is generally simplified or excluded in Earth system models, may provide a missing link for reconciling observations and global models of terrestrial water fluxes.

  1. Polymer Bose-Einstein condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellanos, E.; Chacón-Acosta, G.

    2013-05-01

    In this work we analyze a non-interacting one-dimensional polymer Bose-Einstein condensate in a harmonic trap within the semiclassical approximation. We use an effective Hamiltonian coming from the polymer quantization that arises in loop quantum gravity. We calculate the number of particles in order to obtain the critical temperature. The Bose-Einstein functions are replaced by series, whose high order terms are related to powers of the polymer length. It is shown that the condensation temperature presents a shift respect to the standard case, for small values of the polymer scale. In typical experimental conditions, it is possible to establish a bound for λ2 up to ≲10-16 m2. To improve this bound we should decrease the frequency of the trap and also decrease the number of particles.

  2. Deriving the Hirshfeld partitioning using distance metrics

    SciTech Connect

    Heidar-Zadeh, Farnaz; Ayers, Paul W.; Bultinck, Patrick

    2014-09-07

    The atoms in molecules associated with the Hirshfeld partitioning minimize the generalized Hellinger-Bhattacharya distance to the reference pro-atom densities. Moreover, the reference pro-atoms can be chosen by minimizing the distance between the pro-molecule density and the true molecular density. This provides an alternative to both the heuristic “stockholder” and the mathematical information-theoretic interpretations of the Hirshfeld partitioning. These results extend to any member of the family of f-divergences.

  3. Extreme-UV lithography condenser

    DOEpatents

    Sweatt, William C.; Sweeney, Donald W.; Shafer, David; McGuire, James

    2001-01-01

    Condenser system for use with a ringfield camera in projection lithography where the condenser includes a series of segments of a parent aspheric mirror having one foci at a quasi-point source of radiation and the other foci at the radius of a ringfield have all but one or all of their beams translated and rotated by sets of mirrors such that all of the beams pass through the real entrance pupil of a ringfield camera about one of the beams and fall onto the ringfield radius as a coincident image as an arc of the ringfield. The condenser has a set of correcting mirrors with one of the correcting mirrors of each set, or a mirror that is common to said sets of mirrors, from which the radiation emanates, is a concave mirror that is positioned to shape a beam segment having a chord angle of about 25 to 85 degrees into a second beam segment having a chord angle of about 0 to 60 degrees.

  4. Certificate Revocation Using Fine Grained Certificate Space Partitioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyal, Vipul

    A new certificate revocation system is presented. The basic idea is to divide the certificate space into several partitions, the number of partitions being dependent on the PKI environment. Each partition contains the status of a set of certificates. A partition may either expire or be renewed at the end of a time slot. This is done efficiently using hash chains.

  5. Condensation shocks in hypersonic nitrogen tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, Susan T.; Griffith, Wayland C.; Lederer, Melissa; Ragsdale, William C.; Yanta, William J.

    1990-01-01

    Experimental observations and a theoretical model for the onset and disappearance of condensation are provided for hypersonic flows of pure nitrogen at M = 10, 14, and 18. A method for analyzing the thermodynamic and flow properties of a partially condensed mixture from known supply conditions and measured Pitot pressure yields the local static pressure and temperature, mass fraction of the nitrogen condensed, and the Mach number of the partially condensed flow based on frozen sound speed. The transition between partially condensed-supercooled flow is found to occur at 22-25 K isobaric supercooling with the corresponding mass fraction condensed being 12-14 percent over a range of two orders of magnitude in local static pressure. The heat released and vapor mass removed during condensation ultimately raise the local pressure and temperature and reduce the flow Mach number.

  6. Disoriented chiral condensate formation from tubes of hot quark plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Abada, A.; Birse, M.C.

    1998-01-01

    We investigate the time evolution of a system of quarks interacting with {sigma} and pion fields starting from an initial configuration consisting of a tube of hot quark plasma undergoing a boost-invariant longitudinal expansion. We work within the framework of the linear sigma model using classical transport equations for the quarks coupled to the mean-field equations for the meson fields. In certain cases we find strong amplifications of any initial pion fields. For large-radius tubes, starting from quark densities that are very close to critical, we find that a disoriented chiral condensate can form in the center of the tube. Eventually the collapse of the tube drives this state back to the true vacuum. This process converts the disoriented condensate, dominated by long-wavelength pion modes, into a coherent excitation of the pion field that includes significant components with transverse momenta of around 400 MeV. In contrast, for narrow tubes or larger initial temperatures, amplification occurs only via the pion-laser-like mechanism found previously for spherical systems. In addition, we find that explicit chiral symmetry breaking significantly suppresses the formation of disoriented condensates. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  7. Numerical Simulations of Helicity Condensation in the Solar Corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhao, L.; DeVore, C. R.; Antiochos, S. K.; Zurbuchen, T. H.

    2015-01-01

    The helicity condensation model has been proposed by Antiochos (2013) to explain the observed smoothness of coronal loops and the observed buildup of magnetic shear at filament channels. The basic hypothesis of the model is that magnetic reconnection in the corona causes the magnetic stress injected by photospheric motions to collect only at those special locations where prominences form. In this work we present the first detailed quantitative MHD simulations of the reconnection evolution proposed by the helicity condensation model. We use the well-known ansatz of modeling the closed corona as an initially uniform field between two horizontal photospheric plates. The system is driven by applying photospheric rotational flows that inject magnetic helicity into the system. The flows are confined to a finite region on the photosphere so as to mimic the finite flux system of, for example, a bipolar active region. The calculations demonstrate that, contrary to common belief, coronal loops having opposite helicity do not reconnect, whereas loops having the same sense of helicity do reconnect. Furthermore, we find that for a given amount of helicity injected into the corona, the evolution of the magnetic shear is insensitive to whether the pattern of driving photospheric motions is fixed or quasi-random. In all cases, the shear propagates via reconnection to the boundary of the flow region while the total magnetic helicity is conserved, as predicted by the model. We discuss the implications of our results for solar observations and for future, more realistic simulations of the helicity condensation process.

  8. Analogue gravitational phenomena in Bose-Einstein condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finazzi, Stefano

    2012-08-01

    Analogue gravity is based on the simple observation that perturbations propagating in several physical systems can be described by a quantum field theory in a curved spacetime. While phenomena like Hawking radiation are hardly detectable in astrophysical black holes, these effects may be experimentally tested in analogue systems. In this Thesis, focusing on Bose-Einstein condensates, we present our recent results about analogue models of gravity from three main perspectives: as laboratory tests of quantum field theory in curved spacetime, for the techniques that they provide to address various issues in general relativity, and as toy models of quantum gravity. The robustness of Hawking-like particle creation is investigated in flows with a single black hole horizon. Furthermore, we find that condensates with two (white and black) horizons develop a dynamical instability known in general relativity as black hole laser effect. Using techniques borrowed from analogue gravity, we also show that warp drives, which are general relativistic spacetimes allowing faster-than-light travel, are unstable. Finally, the cosmological constant issue is investigated from an analogue gravity perspective and relativistic Bose-Einstein condensates are proposed as new analogue systems with novel interesting properties.

  9. Driving and dementia

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Linda; Molnar, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective To provide primary care physicians with an approach to driving safety concerns when older persons present with memory difficulties. Sources of information The approach is based on an accredited memory clinic training program developed by the Centre for Family Medicine Primary Care Collaborative Memory Clinic. Main message One of the most challenging aspects of dementia care is the assessment of driving safety. Drivers with dementia are at higher risk of motor vehicle collisions, yet many drivers with mild dementia might be safely able to continue driving for several years. Because safe driving is dependent on multiple cognitive and functional skills, clinicians should carefully consider many factors when determining if cognitive concerns affect driving safety. Specific findings on corroborated history and office-based cognitive testing might aid in the physician’s decisions to refer for comprehensive on-road driving evaluation and whether to notify transportation authorities in accordance with provincial reporting requirements. Sensitive communication and a person-centred approach are essential. Conclusion Primary care physicians must consider many factors when determining if cognitive concerns might affect driving safety in older drivers. PMID:28115437

  10. Superconductivity from doublon condensation in the ionic Hubbard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samanta, Abhisek; Sensarma, Rajdeep

    2016-12-01

    In the ionic Hubbard model, the on-site repulsion U , which drives a Mott insulator, and the ionic potential V , which drives a band insulator, compete with each other to open up a window of charge fluctuations when U ˜V . We study this model on square and cubic lattices in the limit of large U and V , with V ˜U . Using an effective Hamiltonian and a slave-boson approach with both doublons and holons, we find that the system undergoes a phase transition as a function of V from an antiferromagnetic Mott insulator to a paramagnetic insulator with strong singlet correlations, which is driven by a condensate of "neutral" doublon-holon pairs. On further increasing V , the system undergoes another phase transition to a superconducting phase driven by condensate of "charged" doublons and holons. The superfluid phase, characterized by the presence of a coherent (but gapped) fermionic quasiparticle and h c /e flux quantization, has a high Tc˜t , which shows a dome-shaped behavior as a function of V . The paramagnetic insulator phase has a deconfined U(1) gauge field and associated gapless photon excitations. We also discuss how these phases can be detected in the ultracold-atom context.

  11. Multi-shell model of ion-induced nucleic acid condensation

    SciTech Connect

    Tolokh, Igor S.; Drozdetski, Aleksander V.; Pollack, Lois; Baker, Nathan A.; Onufriev, Alexey V.

    2016-04-21

    We present a semi-quantitative model of condensation of short nucleic acid (NA) duplexes in- duced by tri-valent cobalt hexammine (CoHex) ions. The model is based on partitioning of bound counterion distribution around single NA duplex into “external” and “internal” ion binding shells distinguished by the proximity to duplex helical axis. The duplex aggregation free energy is de- composed into attraction and repulsion components represented by simple analytic expressions. The source of the short-range attraction between NA duplexes in the aggregated phase is the in- teraction of CoHex ions in the overlapping regions of the “external” shells with the oppositely charged duplexes. The attraction depends on CoHex binding affinity to the “external” shell of nearly neutralized duplex and the number of ions in the shell overlapping volume. For a given NA duplex sequence and structure, these parameters are estimated from molecular dynamics simula- tion. The attraction is opposed by the residual repulsion of nearly neutralized duplexes as well as duplex configurational entropy loss upon aggregation. The estimates of the aggregation free energy are consistent with the experimental range of NA duplex condensation propensities, including the unusually poor condensation of RNA structures and subtle sequence effects upon DNA conden- sation. The model predicts that, in contrast to DNA, RNA duplexes may condense into tighter packed aggregates with a higher degree of duplex neutralization. The model also predicts that longer NA fragments will condense easier than shorter ones. The ability of this model to explain experimentally observed trends in NA condensation, lends support to proposed NA condensation picture based on the multivalent “ion binding shells”.

  12. Drive System Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handschuh, Robert F.

    2007-01-01

    An overview of the NASA Glenn Research Center Drive Systems Research will be presented. The primary purpose of this research is to improve performance, reliability, and integrity of aerospace drive systems and space mechanisms. The research is conducted through a combination of in-house, academia, and through contractors. Research is conducted through computer code development and validated through component and system testing. The drive system activity currently has four major thrust areas including: thermal behavior of high speed gearing, health and usage monitoring, advanced components, and space mechanisms.

  13. Vision and Driving

    PubMed Central

    Owsley, Cynthia; McGwin, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    Driving is the primary means of personal travel in many countries and is relies heavily on vision for its successful execution. Research over the past few decades has addressed the role of vision in driver safety (motor vehicle collision involvement) and in driver performance (both on-road and using interactive simulators in the laboratory). Here we critically review what is currently known about the role of various aspects of visual function in driving. We also discuss translational research issues on vision screening for licensure and re-licensure and rehabilitation of visually impaired persons who want to drive. PMID:20580907

  14. The Test Drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image taken at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory shows engineers rehearsing the sol 133 (June 8, 2004) drive into 'Endurance' crater by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity. Engineers and scientists have recreated the martian surface and slope the rover will encounter using a combination of bare and thinly sand-coated rocks, simulated martian 'blueberries' and a platform tilted at a 25-degree angle. The results of this test convinced engineers that the rover was capable of driving up and down a straight slope before it attempted the actual drive on Mars.

  15. Fast wave current drive

    SciTech Connect

    Goree, J.; Ono, M.; Colestock, P.; Horton, R.; McNeill, D.; Park, H.

    1985-07-01

    Fast wave current drive is demonstrated in the Princeton ACT-I toroidal device. The fast Alfven wave, in the range of high ion-cyclotron harmonics, produced 40 A of current from 1 kW of rf power coupled into the plasma by fast wave loop antenna. This wave excites a steady current by damping on the energetic tail of the electron distribution function in the same way as lower-hybrid current drive, except that fast wave current drive is appropriate for higher plasma densities.

  16. Transitional adsorption and partition of nonpolar and polar aromatic contaminants by biochars of pine needles with different pyrolytic temperatures.

    PubMed

    Chen, Baoliang; Zhou, Dandan; Zhu, Lizhong

    2008-07-15

    The combined adsorption and partition effects of biochars with varying fractions of noncarbonized organic matter have not been clearly defined. Biochars, produced by pyrolysis of pine needles at different temperatures (100-700 degrees C, referred as P100-P700), were characterized by elemental analysis, BET-N2 surface areas and FTIR. Sorption isotherms of naphthalene, nitrobenzene, and m-dinitrobenzene from water to the biochars were compared. Sorption parameters (N and logKf) are linearly related to sorbent aromaticities, which increase with the pyrolytic temperature. Sorption mechanisms of biochars are evolved from partitioning-dominant at low pyrolytic temperatures to adsorption-dominant at higher pyrolytic temperatures. The quantitative contributions of adsorption and partition are determined by the relative carbonized and noncarbonized fractions and their surface and bulk properties. The partition of P100-P300 biochars originates from an amorphous aliphatic fraction, which is enhanced with a reduction of the substrate polarity; for P400-P600, the partition occurs with a condensed aromatic core that diminishes with a further reduction of the polarity. Simultaneously, the adsorption component exhibits a transition from a polarity-selective (P200-P400) to a porosity-selective (P500-P600) process, and displays no selectivity with P700 and AC in which the adsorptive saturation capacities are comparable to predicted values based on the monolayer surface coverage of molecule.

  17. [Driving and Alzheimer's disease].

    PubMed

    Roche, Jean

    2005-09-01

    Although most aged people remain safe drivers, a greater risk for crashes due to medical conditions is observed in the elderly. Impairment of important functions for safe driving such as visuospatial skills, attention, memory and judgement are observed in dementia, particularly in Alzheimer's disease. The accident rate increases from 9.4 accidents per million vehicle kilometers traveled for 80 to 85 year-old drivers, but raises to 163.6 for drivers with moderate AD. Patients and their families should be informed that patients with mild dementia related to Alzheimer's disease (stage 1 on the Clinical Dementia Rating, CDR), have a substantially increased rate of traffic accidents and therefore should not drive. But subjects in the pre-dementia phase (stage 0.5 at the CDR, mild cognitive impairment) also pose significant driving safety problems. In most States of the USA, and many European countries, but not in France, law requires regular investigating of driving performance in the elderly.

  18. [Driving and aging].

    PubMed

    Cantón-Cortés, David; Durán Segura, Mercedes; Castro Ramírez, Cándida

    2010-01-01

    The number of older people who continue to drive is constantly increasing. However, whether older people have more traffic accidents than other age groups is unclear. This age group has certain risk factors due to decreased motor, sensory and cognitive functions and also has greater frailty and vulnerability to injury. However, older drivers are aware of their heightened crash risk and employ certain compensatory actions, avoiding traveling under threatening conditions (dense traffic, bad weather or night driving), traveling by well-known routes and driving carefully. In view of these apparent contradictions, the present study attempts to discern the real crash risk and the driving and crash patterns characteristic of this population, which is continually increasing in industrialized countries.

  19. Control rod drive

    SciTech Connect

    Hawke, Basil C.

    1986-01-01

    A control rod drive uses gravitational forces to insert one or more control rods upwardly into a reactor core from beneath the reactor core under emergency conditions. The preferred control rod drive includes a vertically movable weight and a mechanism operatively associating the weight with the control rod so that downward movement of the weight is translated into upward movement of the control rod. The preferred control rod drive further includes an electric motor for driving the control rods under normal conditions, an electrically actuated clutch which automatically disengages the motor during a power failure and a decelerator for bringing the control rod to a controlled stop when it is inserted under emergency conditions into a reactor core.

  20. Assessment: A Driving Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakow, Steven J.

    1992-01-01

    Asserts that educational assessment drives the curriculum. Thus, assessment is very important in contemplating reform in science education. Assessment should be an integral part of the instructional process, utilizing diagnostic testing, monitoring, and summative evaluations. (PR)

  1. Occupation Statistics of a Bose-Einstein Condensate for a Driven Landau-Zener Crossing

    SciTech Connect

    Smith-Mannschott, Katrina; Chuchem, Maya; Cohen, Doron; Hiller, Moritz; Kottos, Tsampikos

    2009-06-12

    We consider an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate loaded in a biased double-well trap with tunneling rate K and interatomic interaction U. The Bose-Einstein condensate is prepared such that all N atoms are in the left well. We drive the system by sweeping the potential difference E between the two wells. Depending on the interaction u=NU/K and the sweep rate E, we distinguish three dynamical regimes: adiabatic, diabatic, and sudden and consider the occupation statistics of the final state. The analysis goes beyond mean-field theory and is complemented by a semiclassical picture.

  2. Occupation statistics of a Bose-Einstein condensate for a driven Landau-Zener crossing.

    PubMed

    Smith-Mannschott, Katrina; Chuchem, Maya; Hiller, Moritz; Kottos, Tsampikos; Cohen, Doron

    2009-06-12

    We consider an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate loaded in a biased double-well trap with tunneling rate K and interatomic interaction U. The Bose-Einstein condensate is prepared such that all N atoms are in the left well. We drive the system by sweeping the potential difference E between the two wells. Depending on the interaction u=NU/K and the sweep rate E, we distinguish three dynamical regimes: adiabatic, diabatic, and sudden and consider the occupation statistics of the final state. The analysis goes beyond mean-field theory and is complemented by a semiclassical picture.

  3. CONTROL ROD DRIVE

    DOEpatents

    Chapellier, R.A.

    1960-05-24

    BS>A drive mechanism was invented for the control rod of a nuclear reactor. Power is provided by an electric motor and an outside source of fluid pressure is utilized in conjunction with the fluid pressure within the reactor to balance the loadings on the motor. The force exerted on the drive mechanism in the direction of scramming the rod is derived from the reactor fluid pressure so that failure of the outside pressure source will cause prompt scramming of the rod.

  4. Common drive unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, R. C.; Fink, R. A.; Moore, E. A.

    1987-01-01

    The Common Drive Unit (CDU) is a high reliability rotary actuator with many versatile applications in mechanism designs. The CDU incorporates a set of redundant motor-brake assemblies driving a single output shaft through differential. Tachometers provide speed information in the AC version. Operation of both motors, as compared to the operation of one motor, will yield the same output torque with twice the output speed.

  5. Direct drive wind turbine

    DOEpatents

    Bywaters, Garrett; Danforth, William; Bevington, Christopher; Stowell, Jesse; Costin, Daniel

    2006-07-11

    A wind turbine is provided that minimizes the size of the drive train and nacelle while maintaining the power electronics and transformer at the top of the tower. The turbine includes a direct drive generator having an integrated disk brake positioned radially inside the stator while minimizing the potential for contamination. The turbine further includes a means for mounting a transformer below the nacelle within the tower.

  6. Direct drive wind turbine

    DOEpatents

    Bywaters, Garrett; Danforth, William; Bevington, Christopher; Jesse, Stowell; Costin, Daniel

    2007-02-27

    A wind turbine is provided that minimizes the size of the drive train and nacelle while maintaining the power electronics and transformer at the top of the tower. The turbine includes a direct drive generator having an integrated disk brake positioned radially inside the stator while minimizing the potential for contamination. The turbine further includes a means for mounting a transformer below the nacelle within the tower.

  7. Direct drive wind turbine

    DOEpatents

    Bywaters, Garrett Lee; Danforth, William; Bevington, Christopher; Stowell, Jesse; Costin, Daniel

    2006-09-19

    A wind turbine is provided that minimizes the size of the drive train and nacelle while maintaining the power electronics and transformer at the top of the tower. The turbine includes a direct drive generator having an integrated disk brake positioned radially inside the stator while minimizing the potential for contamination. The turbine further includes a means for mounting a transformer below the nacelle within the tower.

  8. Direct drive wind turbine

    DOEpatents

    Bywaters, Garrett; Danforth, William; Bevington, Christopher; Jesse, Stowell; Costin, Daniel

    2006-10-10

    A wind turbine is provided that minimizes the size of the drive train and nacelle while maintaining the power electronics and transformer at the top of the tower. The turbine includes a direct drive generator having an integrated disk brake positioned radially inside the stator while minimizing the potential for contamination. The turbine further includes a means for mounting a transformer below the nacelle within the tower.

  9. Electric Drive Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-01

    Track-Laying Combat Vehicles , and (3) Parametric Study of Electric Drive Component Technologies. The technology survey results are given in a separate...and projections of future electric drive system improvements relative to combat vehicle applications. Unclassified SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS...273 5.7.2.3.1 DC Homopolar Drum Machine, Design and Performance 5-278 APPENDIX A 19.5 TON AND 40.0 TON VEHICLE SPECIFICATION APPENDIX B ELECTRIC

  10. Condensing efficiency of the truncated cone condenser and its comparison with the Winston cone condenser in terahertz region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Makoto; Hiromoto, Norihisa

    2015-01-01

    The angle-dependent condensing efficiency of a truncated cone condenser (TCC) in the terahertz (THz) region has been examined by 2D ray tracing and 3D electromagnetic simulation. The condensing efficiency in the THz region is transferred to that in the optical region by theoretical dispersive reflection from a rough surface, and it is confirmed that the latter is consistent with the measured condensing efficiency in the optical region. Although the TCC has a gradual field of view (FOV) compared with the Winston cone condenser (WCC), we improved the steepness of the FOV by adding a baffle before the input aperture of the TCC. We also proved that the TCC has a high condensing efficiency at around normal incidence in comparison with the WCC in the THz region.

  11. Self-driving carsickness.

    PubMed

    Diels, Cyriel; Bos, Jelte E

    2016-03-01

    This paper discusses the predicted increase in the occurrence and severity of motion sickness in self-driving cars. Self-driving cars have the potential to lead to significant benefits. From the driver's perspective, the direct benefits of this technology are considered increased comfort and productivity. However, we here show that the envisaged scenarios all lead to an increased risk of motion sickness. As such, the benefits this technology is assumed to bring may not be capitalised on, in particular by those already susceptible to motion sickness. This can negatively affect user acceptance and uptake and, in turn, limit the potential socioeconomic benefits that this emerging technology may provide. Following a discussion on the causes of motion sickness in the context of self-driving cars, we present guidelines to steer the design and development of automated vehicle technologies. The aim is to limit or avoid the impact of motion sickness and ultimately promote the uptake of self-driving cars. Attention is also given to less well known consequences of motion sickness, in particular negative aftereffects such as postural instability, and detrimental effects on task performance and how this may impact the use and design of self-driving cars. We conclude that basic perceptual mechanisms need to be considered in the design process whereby self-driving cars cannot simply be thought of as living rooms, offices, or entertainment venues on wheels.

  12. Dementia and driving.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, D; Neubauer, K; Boyle, M; Gerrard, J; Surmon, D; Wilcock, G K

    1992-04-01

    Many European countries test cars, but not their drivers, as they age. There is evidence to suggest that human factors are more important than vehicular factors as causes of motor crashes. The elderly also are involved in more accidents per distance travelled than middle-aged drivers. As the UK relies on self-certification of health by drivers over the age of 70 years, we examined the driving practices of patients with dementia attending a Memory Clinic. Nearly one-fifth of 329 patients with documented dementia continued to drive after the onset of dementia, and impaired driving ability was noted in two-thirds of these. Their families experienced great difficulty in persuading patients to stop driving, and had to invoke outside help in many cases. Neuropsychological tests did not help to identify those who drove badly while activity of daily living scores were related to driving ability. These findings suggest that many patients with dementia drive in an unsafe fashion after the onset of the illness. The present system of self-certification of health by the elderly for driver-licensing purposes needs to be reassessed.

  13. Photoreactivity of condensed species on Titan's aerosols analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleury, Benjamin; Gudipati, Murthy; Carrasco, Nathalie

    2016-10-01

    Titan's aerosols formation is initiated in the upper atmospheric layers at about 1000 km by the dissociation and the ionization of N2 and CH4 by the VUV solar photons [1]. Then, they aggregate and sediment to the surface. The temperatures of the stratosphere and the troposphere [3] (measured by the HASI instrument onboard the Huygens probe [2]) allow the condensation of many volatile organics on the solid aerosols, forming organic ice coating on the aerosol polymers. We will present an experimental study simulating this process and discuss the photoreactivity of condensed species on Titan's aerosols analogues in the atmosphere and on the surface. We demonstrated experimentally that the organic aerosols, which cover the Titan's surface, drive the photoreactivity of condensed species such as acetylene when they are irradiated with long wavelength photons (λ > 300 nm). This result highlights that Titan's surface remains active despite the absorption of the most energetic photons by the atmosphere.AcknowledgmentsThis work is supported by NASA Solar System Workings grant " Photochemistry in Titan's Lower Atmosphere". The research work has been carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. NC acknowledges the European Research Council for their financial support (ERC Starting Grant PRIMCHEM, grant agreement n°636829).References[1] Waite, J. H., et al., The process of Tholin formation in Titan's upper atmosphere, (2007), Science 316, 870-875.[2] Fulchignoni, M., et al., In situ measurements of the physical characteristics of Titan's environment, (2005), Nature 438, 785-791[3] Lavvas, P., et al., Condensation in Titan's atmosphere at the Huygens landing site, (2011), Icarus 215, 732-750.

  14. On Localized Vapor Pressure Gradients Governing Condensation and Frost Phenomena.

    PubMed

    Nath, Saurabh; Boreyko, Jonathan B

    2016-08-23

    Interdroplet vapor pressure gradients are the driving mechanism for several phase-change phenomena such as condensation dry zones, interdroplet ice bridging, dry zones around ice, and frost halos. Despite the fundamental nature of the underlying pressure gradients, the majority of studies on these emerging phenomena have been primarily empirical. Using classical nucleation theory and Becker-Döring embryo formation kinetics, here we calculate the pressure field for all possible modes of condensation and desublimation in order to gain fundamental insight into how pressure gradients govern the behavior of dry zones, condensation frosting, and frost halos. Our findings reveal that in a variety of phase-change systems the thermodynamically favorable mode of nucleation can switch between condensation and desublimation depending upon the temperature and wettability of the surface. The calculated pressure field is used to model the length of a dry zone around liquid or ice droplets over a broad parameter space. The long-standing question of whether the vapor pressure at the interface of growing frost is saturated or supersaturated is resolved by considering the kinetics of interdroplet ice bridging. Finally, on the basis of theoretical calculations, we propose that there exists a new mode of frost halo that is yet to be experimentally observed; a bimodal phase map is developed, demonstrating its dependence on the temperature and wettability of the underlying substrate. We hope that the model and predictions contained herein will assist future efforts to exploit localized vapor pressure gradients for the design of spatially controlled or antifrosting phase-change systems.

  15. Hydraulic drive system prevents backlash

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acord, J. D.

    1965-01-01

    Hydraulic drive system uses a second drive motor operating at reduced torque. This exerts a relative braking action which eliminates the normal gear train backlash that is intolerable when driving certain heavy loads.

  16. Screening of pesticides for environmental partitioning tendency.

    PubMed

    Gramatica, Paola; Di Guardo, Antonio

    2002-06-01

    The partitioning tendency of chemicals, in this study pesticides in particular, into different environmental compartments depends mainly on the concurrent relevance of the physico-chemical properties of the chemical itself. To rank the pesticides according to their distribution tendencies in the different environmental compartments we propose a multivariate approach: the combination, by principal component analysis, of those physico-chemical properties like organic carbon partition coefficient (Koc), n-octanol/water partition coefficient (Kow), water solubility (Sw), vapour pressure and Henry's law constant (H) that are more relevant to the determination of environmental partitioning. The resultant macrovariables, the PC1 and PC2 scores here named leaching index (LIN) and volatality index (VIN), are proposed as preliminary environmental partitioning indexes in different media. These two indexes are modeled by theoretical molecular descriptors with satisfactory predictive power. Such an approach allows a rapid pre-determination and screening of the environmental distribution of pesticides starting only from the molecular structure of the pesticide, without any a priori knowledge of the physico-chemical properties.

  17. Octanol/air partitioning of polychlorinated biphenyls

    SciTech Connect

    Komp, P.; McLachlan, M.S.

    1997-12-01

    The partitioning of 16 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) between air and 1-octanol was investigated using a fugacity meter. The measurements were conducted over an environmentally relevant temperature range (10--43 C). For a given congener the measured 1-octanol/air partition coefficient K{sub OA} was exponentially proportional to the reciprocal temperature. The enthalpy of phase change (octanol to air) {Delta}H{sub OA} ranged from 71 to 93 kJ/mol. Up to log K{sub OA} values of 9.37 (corresponding to 2,2{prime},3,4{prime},5{prime},6-hexachlorobiphenyl), the enthalpy of phase change was similar to the enthalpy of vaporization of the subcooled liquid PCB. For the less volatile congeners (log K{sub OA} > 9.37), the enthalpies of vaporization exceeded the enthalpies of phase change, the difference increasing with increasing log K{sub OA}. Solubilities of the PCBs in 1-octanol were calculated from the data, and the results were in excellent agreement with octanol solubilities calculated using the OCTASOL fragment method. A very good correlation between the measured octanol/air partition coefficients and values calculated from octanol/water and air/water partition coefficients was obtained. This yielded a method to estimate reliably the octanol/air partitioning of all PCB congeners.

  18. Marine Steam Condenser Design Optimization.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    Rerf . 61. !kS 2XLI: Those parametars which the opti heztion proqran ms--faitted to change in order to improre’the esign. Pesin variablis appear oely on...subroutine SEC& LC is called. 5. jZ.~ This subroutine determines all the parameters of each of the sectors in the condenser by row. The first...force the pressure losses to converge to a single value. Once steam flow to the sectors has been adjusted, the sector and row analysis in SEC& LC is

  19. Direct condensation by humid air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwab, S.; Schiebelsberger, B.

    1980-12-01

    The practicability of direct condensation with humid air (DKFL) for waste heat removal from thermal power plants was investigated with regard to technical, economical and environmental aspects. The adjustment of a uniform trickling-water film was examined. A vertical test tube was erected to study the phenomenon of a trickling-water film. A pilot plant with a vertical tube-bundle was installed to evaluate the main process parameters. The applicability of the cooling system is judged. A theoretical model was derived for the design of a DKFL apparatus. A vertical geometry for the test tube has essential operational and economical advantages in comparison with a horizontal one.

  20. Turbulent Distortion of Condensate Accretion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hazoume, R.; Orou Chabi, J.; Johnson, J. A., III

    1997-01-01

    When a simple model for the relationship between the density-temperature fluctuation correlation and mean values is used, we determine that the rate of change of turbulent intensity can influence directly the accretion rate of droplets. Considerable interest exists in the accretion rate for condensates in nonequilibrium flow with icing and the potential role which reactant accretion can play in nonequilibrium exothermic reactant processes. Turbulence is thought to play an important role in such flows. It has already been experimentally determined that turbulence influences the sizes of droplets in the heterogeneous nucleation of supersaturated vapors. This paper addresses the issue of the possible influence of turbulence on the accretion rate of droplets.

  1. Interactions of nucleic acids with fluorescent dyes: spectral properties of condensed complexes.

    PubMed

    Kapuscinski, J

    1990-09-01

    Interaction of cations with nucleic acids (NA) often results in condensation of the product. The driving force of aromatic cation-induced condensation is the cooperative interaction between ligand and single-stranded (ss) NA. This type of reaction is highly specific with regard to the primary and secondary structure of NA, and results in destabilization of the latter. The spectral properties of fluorescent intercalating and non-intercalating ligands [acridine orange, pyronin Y(G), DAPI, Hoechst 33258, and Hoechst 33342]-NA complexes were studied in both the relaxed and condensed form. The changes in absorption, excitation, and fluorescence emission spectra and fluorescence yield that followed the condensation were examined. Although some of these effects can be explained by changes in solvation of the fluorophore and its interaction with NA bases and the solvent, the overall effect of condensation on spectral properties of the complex is unpredictable. In particular, no correlation was found between these effects and the ds DNA binding mode of these ligands. Nevertheless, the spectral data associated with polymer condensation can yield information about the composition and structure of NA and can explain some nonspecific interactions of these probes.

  2. Bio-oil fractionation and condensation

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Robert C; Jones, Samuel T; Pollard, Anthony

    2013-07-02

    A method of fractionating bio-oil vapors which involves providing bio-oil vapors comprising bio-oil constituents is described. The bio-oil vapors are cooled in a first stage which comprises a condenser having passages for the bio-oil separated by a heat conducting wall from passages for a coolant. The coolant in the condenser of the first stage is maintained at a substantially constant temperature, set at a temperature in the range of 75 to 100.degree. C., to condense a first liquid fraction of liquefied bio-oil constituents in the condenser of the first stage. The first liquid fraction of liquified bio-oil constituents from the condenser in the first stage is collected. Also described are steps for subsequently recovering further liquid fractions of liquefied bio-oil constituents. Particular compositions of bio-oil condensation products are also described.

  3. The EPRL intertwiners and corrected partition function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamiński, Wojciech; Kisielowski, Marcin; Lewandowski, Jerzy

    2010-08-01

    Do the SU(2) intertwiners parametrize the space of the Engle, Pereira, Rovelli, Livine (EPRL) solutions to the simplicity constraint? What is the complete form of the partition function written in terms of this parametrization? We prove that the EPRL map is injective in the general n-valent vertex case for the Barbero-Immirzi parameter less than 1. We find, however, that the EPRL map is not isometric. In the consequence, a partition function can be defined either using the EPRL intertwiners Hilbert product or the SU(2) intertwiners Hilbert product. We use the EPRL one and derive a new, complete formula for the partition function. Next, we view it in terms of the SU(2) intertwiners. The result, however, goes beyond the SU(2) spin-foam models' framework and the original EPRL proposal.

  4. New parallel SOR method by domain partitioning

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, D.; Adams, L.

    1999-07-01

    In this paper the authors propose and analyze a new parallel SOR method, the PSOR method, formulated by using domain partitioning and interprocessor data communication techniques. They prove that the PSOR method has the same asymptotic rate of convergence as the Red/Black (R/B) SOR method for the five-point stencil on both strip and block partitions, and as the four-color (R/B/G/O) SOR method for the nine-point stencil on strip partitions. They also demonstrate the parallel performance of the PSOR method on four different MIMD multiprocessors (a KSR1, an Intel Delta, a Paragon, and an IBM SP2). Finally, they compare the parallel performance of PSOR, R/B SOR, and R/B/G/O SOR. Numerical results on the Paragon indicate that PSOR is more efficient than R/B SOR and R/B/G/O SOR in both computation and interprocessor data communication.

  5. Factorization of the bosonic partition function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsharafat, Ayed; Chair, Noureddine

    2017-04-01

    The factorization formula in the non-interacting quantum field theories that relates the fermionic partition function to the bosonic partition function considered recently by Chair (2013) [3] is obtained for the harmonic oscillator using the path integral formulation. By using the latter, the fermionic partition function turns out to be the ratio of two determinants of the same operator (∂τ + ω), whose eigenmodes being both periodic on the imaginary time intervals [ 0 , 2 β ], [ 0 , β ]. The natural generalization of the factorization formula when β →2m β is derived, such a factorization implies that the bosonic oscillator at temperature β can be seen as a non-interacting mixture of a bosonic oscillator at temperature 2m β and m-fermionic oscillators at different temperatures 2 m - k β, k = 1 , 2 , … , m. As a consequence, a general relationship between the bosonic and fermionic thermal zeta functions is deduced.

  6. Parallel algorithms for dynamically partitioning unstructured grids

    SciTech Connect

    Diniz, P.; Plimpton, S.; Hendrickson, B.; Leland, R.

    1994-10-01

    Grid partitioning is the method of choice for decomposing a wide variety of computational problems into naturally parallel pieces. In problems where computational load on the grid or the grid itself changes as the simulation progresses, the ability to repartition dynamically and in parallel is attractive for achieving higher performance. We describe three algorithms suitable for parallel dynamic load-balancing which attempt to partition unstructured grids so that computational load is balanced and communication is minimized. The execution time of algorithms and the quality of the partitions they generate are compared to results from serial partitioners for two large grids. The integration of the algorithms into a parallel particle simulation is also briefly discussed.

  7. Mental workload and driving

    PubMed Central

    Paxion, Julie; Galy, Edith; Berthelon, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this review is to identify the most representative measures of subjective and objective mental workload in driving, and to understand how the subjective and objective levels of mental workload influence the performance as a function of situation complexity and driving experience, i.e., to verify whether the increase of situation complexity and the lack of experience increase the subjective and physiological levels of mental workload and lead to driving performance impairments. This review will be useful to both researchers designing an experimental study of mental workload and to designers of drivers’ training content. In the first part, we will broach the theoretical approach with two factors of mental workload and performance, i.e., situation complexity and driving experience. Indeed, a low complex situation (e.g., highways), or conversely a high complex situation (e.g., town) can provoke an overload. Additionally, performing the driving tasks implies producing a high effort for novice drivers who have not totally automated the driving activity. In the second part, we will focus on subjective measures of mental workload. A comparison of questionnaires usually used in driving will allow identifying the most appropriate ones as a function of different criteria. Moreover, we will review the empirical studies to verify if the subjective level of mental workload is high in simple and very complex situations, especially for novice drivers compared to the experienced ones. In the third part, we will focus on physiological measures. A comparison of physiological indicators will be realized in order to identify the most correlated to mental workload. An empirical review will also take the effect of situation complexity and experience on these physiological indicators into consideration. Finally, a more nuanced comparison between subjective and physiological measures will be established from the impact on situation complexity and experience. PMID:25520678

  8. DNA condensation in one dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardatscher, Günther; Bracha, Dan; Daube, Shirley S.; Vonshak, Ohad; Simmel, Friedrich C.; Bar-Ziv, Roy H.

    2016-12-01

    DNA can be programmed to assemble into a variety of shapes and patterns on the nanoscale and can act as a template for hybrid nanostructures such as conducting wires, protein arrays and field-effect transistors. Current DNA nanostructures are typically in the sub-micrometre range, limited by the sequence space and length of the assembled strands. Here we show that on a patterned biochip, DNA chains collapse into one-dimensional (1D) fibres that are 20 nm wide and around 70 µm long, each comprising approximately 35 co-aligned chains at its cross-section. Electron beam writing on a photocleavable monolayer was used to immobilize and pattern the DNA molecules, which condense into 1D bundles in the presence of spermidine. DNA condensation can propagate and split at junctions, cross gaps and create domain walls between counterpropagating fronts. This system is inherently adept at solving probabilistic problems and was used to find the possible paths through a maze and to evaluate stochastic switching circuits. This technique could be used to propagate biological or ionic signals in combination with sequence-specific DNA nanotechnology or for gene expression in cell-free DNA compartments.

  9. Condensation in horizontal heat exchanger tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Leyer, S.; Zacharias, T.; Maisberger, F.; Lamm, M.; Vallee, C.; Beyer, M.; Hampel, U.

    2012-07-01

    Many innovative reactor concepts for Generation III nuclear power plants use passive safety equipment for residual heat removal. These systems use two phase natural circulation. Heat transfer to the coolant results in a density difference providing the driving head for the required mass flow. By balancing the pressure drop the system finds its operational mode. Therefore the systems depend on a strong link between heat transfer and pressure drop determining the mass flow through the system. In order to be able to analyze these kind of systems with the help of state of the art computer codes the implemented numerical models for heat transfer, pressure drop or two phase flow structure must be able to predict the system performance in a wide parameter range. Goal of the program is to optimize the numerical models and therefore the performance of computer codes analyzing passive systems. Within the project the heat transfer capacity of a heat exchanger tube will be investigated. Therefore the tube will be equipped with detectors, both temperature and pressure, in several directions perpendicular to the tube axis to be able to resolve the angular heat transfer. In parallel the flow structure of a two phase flow inside and along the tube will be detected with the help of x-ray tomography. The water cooling outside of the tube will be realized by forced convection. It will be possible to combine the flow structure measurement with an angular resolved heat transfer for a wide parameter range. The test rig is set up at the TOPLFOW facility at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), so that it will be possible to vary the pressure between 5 and 70 bar. The steam mass content will be varied between 0 and 100 percent. The results will be compared to the large scaled Emergency Condenser Tests performed at the INKA test facility in Karlstein (Germany). The paper will explain the test setup and the status of the project will be presented. (authors)

  10. Ultra-low threshold polariton condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steger, Mark; Fluegel, Brian; Alberi, Kirstin; Snoke, David W.; Pfeiffer, Loren N.; West, Ken; Mascarenhas, Angelo

    2017-03-01

    We demonstrate condensation of microcavity polaritons with a very sharp threshold occuring at two orders of magnitude lower pump intensity than previous demonstrations of condensation. The long cavity-lifetime and trapping and pumping geometries are crucial to the realization of this low threshold. Polariton condensation, or "polariton lasing" has long been proposed as a promising source of coherent light at lower threshold than traditional lasing, and these results suggest methods to bring this threshold even lower.

  11. High-temperature condensates in carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossman, L.

    1977-01-01

    Equilibrium thermodynamic calculations of the sequence of condensation of minerals from a cooling gas of solar composition play an important role in explaining the mineralogy and trace element content of different types of inclusions in carbonaceous chondrites. Group IV B iron meteorites and enstatite chondrites may also be direct condensates from the solar nebula. Condensation theory provides a framework within which chemical fractionations between different classes of chondrites may be understood.

  12. Ultra-low threshold polariton condensation.

    PubMed

    Steger, Mark; Fluegel, Brian; Alberi, Kirstin; Snoke, David W; Pfeiffer, Loren N; West, Ken; Mascarenhas, Angelo

    2017-03-15

    We demonstrate the condensation of microcavity polaritons with a very sharp threshold occurring at a two orders of magnitude pump intensity lower than previous demonstrations of condensation. The long cavity lifetime and trapping and pumping geometries are crucial to the realization of this low threshold. Polariton condensation, or "polariton lasing" has long been proposed as a promising source of coherent light at a lower threshold than traditional lasing, and these results indicate some considerations for optimizing designs for lower thresholds.

  13. Mechanistic insights of rapid liver regeneration after associating liver partition and portal vein ligation for stage hepatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Moris, Demetrios; Vernadakis, Spyridon; Papalampros, Alexandros; Vailas, Michail; Dimitrokallis, Nikolaos; Petrou, Athanasios; Dimitroulis, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    AIM To highlight the potential mechanisms of regeneration in the Associating Liver Partition and Portal vein ligation for Stage hepatectomy models (clinical and experimental) that could unlock the myth behind the extraordinary capability of the liver for regeneration, which would help in designing new therapeutic options for the regenerative drive in difficult setup, such as chronic liver diseases. Associating Liver Partition and Portal vein ligation for Stage hepatectomy has been recently advocated to induce rapid future liver remnant hypertrophy that significantly shortens the time for the second stage hepatectomy. The introduction of Associating Liver Partition and Portal vein ligation for Stage hepatectomy in the surgical armamentarium of therapeutic tools for liver surgeons represented a real breakthrough in the history of liver surgery. METHODS A comprehensive literature review of Associating Liver Partition and Portal vein ligation for Stage hepatectomy and its utility in liver regeneration is performed. RESULTS Liver regeneration after Associating Liver Partition and Portal vein ligation for Stage hepatectomy is a combination of portal flow changes and parenchymal transection that generate a systematic response inducing hepatocyte proliferation and remodeling. CONCLUSION Associating Liver Partition and Portal vein ligation for Stage hepatectomy represents a real breakthrough in the history of liver surgery because it offers rapid liver regeneration potential that facilitate resection of liver tumors that were previously though unresectable. The jury is still out though in terms of safety, efficacy and oncological outcomes. As far as Associating Liver Partition and Portal vein ligation for Stage hepatectomy -induced liver regeneration is concerned, further research on the field should focus on the role of non-parenchymal cells in liver regeneration as well as on the effect of Associating Liver Partition and Portal vein ligation for Stage hepatectomy in liver

  14. Partitioning SAT Instances for Distributed Solving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyvärinen, Antti E. J.; Junttila, Tommi; Niemelä, Ilkka

    In this paper we study the problem of solving hard propositional satisfiability problem (SAT) instances in a computing grid or cloud, where run times and communication between parallel running computations are limited.We study analytically an approach where the instance is partitioned iteratively into a tree of subproblems and each node in the tree is solved in parallel.We present new methods for constructing partitions which combine clause learning and lookahead. The methods are incorporated into the iterative approach and its performance is demonstrated with an extensive comparison against the best sequential solvers in the SAT competition 2009 as well as against two efficient parallel solvers.

  15. Chiral partition functions of quantum Hall droplets

    SciTech Connect

    Cappelli, Andrea Viola, Giovanni; Zemba, Guillermo R.

    2010-02-15

    Chiral partition functions of conformal field theory describe the edge excitations of isolated Hall droplets. They are characterized by an index specifying the quasiparticle sector and transform among themselves by a finite-dimensional representation of the modular group. The partition functions are derived and used to describe electron transitions leading to Coulomb blockade conductance peaks. We find the peak patterns for Abelian hierarchical states and non-Abelian Read-Rezayi states, and compare them. Experimental observation of these features can check the qualitative properties of the conformal field theory description, such as the decomposition of the Hilbert space into sectors, involving charged and neutral parts, and the fusion rules.

  16. Cochlear implant in incomplete partition type I.

    PubMed

    Berrettini, S; Forli, F; De Vito, A; Bruschini, L; Quaranta, N

    2013-02-01

    In this investigation, we report on 4 patients affected by incomplete partition type I submitted to cochlear implant at our institutions. Preoperative, surgical, mapping and follow-up issues as well as results in cases with this complex malformation are described. The cases reported in the present study confirm that cochlear implantation in patients with incomplete partition type I may be challenging for cochlear implant teams. The results are variable, but in many cases satisfactory, and are mainly related to the surgical placement of the electrode and residual neural nerve fibres. Moreover, in some cases the association of cochlear nerve abnormalities and other disabilities may significantly affect results.

  17. DEDRICK DRIVE, LOOKING NORTH FROM SOUTH END OF DEDRICK DRIVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DEDRICK DRIVE, LOOKING NORTH FROM SOUTH END OF DEDRICK DRIVE NEAR BUILDING 80 - Pacific Coast Torpedo Station, Keyport Industrial District, Both sides of Second Street, between Dedrick Drive and Liberty Bay and one building west of Dedrick Drive and south of Second Street, Keyport, Kitsap County, WA

  18. Driving Anger and Driving Behavior in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Tracy L.; Deffenbacher, Jerry L.; Rosen, Lee A.; Barkley, Russell A.; Rodricks, Trisha

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study assesses whether anger in the context of driving is associated with the negative driving outcomes experienced by individuals with ADHD. Method: ADHD adults (n = 56) complete measures of driving anger, driving anger expression, angry thoughts behind the wheel, and aggressive, risky, and crash-related behavior. Results are…

  19. Evaporative condensing minimizes system power requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Knebel, D.E.

    1997-04-01

    Evaporative condensing is a heat-rejection technology widely applied with industrial refrigeration. When employed with HVAC systems it can reduce electrical energy and demand consumption of an HVAC system by 20 to 40%, depending on location, compared to air-cooled condensing. Evaporative condensing allows direct-expansion (DX) systems to achieve energy and demand consumption comparable to the most efficient chilled water central plant systems. As the industry focuses its attention on solving the problems of energy conservation, demand reduction, and global warming, high-efficiency air conditioning systems utilizing evaporative condensing provide a reliable and cost-effective solution today. This article addresses the advantages of evaporative condensing over air-cooled and water-cooled condensing in DX packaged systems as well as chiller/cooling tower systems. A review of condensing methods and standard system operating characteristics will be used as examples to illustrate the thermodynamic benefits of evaporative condensing. Requirements for successful operation of evaporative condensers will be discussed.

  20. Vapor condensation on a turbulent liquid interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmick, M. R.; Khoo, B. C.; Sonin, A. A.

    1987-01-01

    An experimental investigation which seeks the fundamental relationship between the interfacial condensation rate and the parameters which control it when the liquid side is turbulent is discussed. The scaling laws for free-surface condensation are discussed for this case. It is argued that the condensation of cryogenic liquids can, in principle, be simulated in experiments using steam and water. Data are presented for the condensation rate in terms of the dimensionless scaling parameters which involve the fluid properties and the liquid-side turbulence velocity and length scales.

  1. Advances in modelling of condensation phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, W.S.; Zaltsgendler, E.; Hanna, B.

    1997-07-01

    The physical parameters in the modelling of condensation phenomena in the CANDU reactor system codes are discussed. The experimental programs used for thermal-hydraulic code validation in the Canadian nuclear industry are briefly described. The modelling of vapour generation and in particular condensation plays a key role in modelling of postulated reactor transients. The condensation models adopted in the current state-of-the-art two-fluid CANDU reactor thermal-hydraulic system codes (CATHENA and TUF) are described. As examples of the modelling challenges faced, the simulation of a cold water injection experiment by CATHENA and the simulation of a condensation induced water hammer experiment by TUF are described.

  2. Driving anger in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Sullman, Mark J M; Stephens, Amanda N; Yong, Michelle

    2014-10-01

    The present study examined the types of situations that cause Malaysian drivers to become angry. The 33-item version of the driver anger scale (Deffenbacher et al., 1994) was used to investigate driver anger amongst a sample of 339 drivers. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the fit of the original six-factor model (discourtesy, traffic obstructions, hostile gestures, slow driving, illegal driving and police presence), after removing one item and allowing three error pairs to covary, was satisfactory. Female drivers reported more anger, than males, caused by traffic obstruction and hostile gestures. Age was also negatively related to five (discourtesy, traffic obstructions, hostile gestures, slow driving and police presence) of the six factors and also to the total DAS score. Furthermore, although they were not directly related to crash involvement, several of the six forms of driving anger were significantly related to the crash-related conditions of: near misses, loss of concentration, having lost control of a vehicle and being ticketed. Overall the pattern of findings made in the present research were broadly similar to those from Western countries, indicating that the DAS is a valid measure of driving anger even among non-European based cultures.

  3. Concentrations of arsenic, antimony, and boron in steam and steam condensate at The Geysers, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, C.L.; Ficklin, W.H.; Thompson, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Studies at The Geysers Geothermal Field, California indicate that under some circumstances elements that are transported in the vapor phase can become enriched in the liquid phase. Waters from two condensate traps (steam traps) on steam lines at The Geysers are enriched with arsenic, antimony, and boron compared to the concentrations of these elements in coexisting steam. Concentrations of boron in condensate-trap waters were as high as 160 mg/L, arsenic as high as 35 mg/L, and antimony as high as 200 ??g/L. Enrichment of arsenic, antimony, and boron is at least partially controlled by the partitioning of these elements into the liquid phase, according to their vapor-liquid distribution coefficients, after they are transported in steam. Several of the elements that are most soluble in steam, including arsenic and antimony, are part of the trace-element suite that characterizes precious-metal epithermal ore deposits. ?? 1987.

  4. Lorentz-violating effects in the Bose-Einstein condensation of an ideal bosonic gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casana, Rodolfo; da Silva, Kleber A. T.

    2015-03-01

    We have studied the effects of Lorentz-violation in the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of an ideal boson gas, by assessing both the nonrelativistic and ultrarelativistic limits. Our model describes a massive complex scalar field coupled to a CPT-even and Lorentz-violating background. We first analyze the nonrelativistic case, at this level by using experimental data, we obtain upper-bounds for some LIV parameters. In the sequel, we have constructed the partition function for the relativistic ideal boson gas which to be able of a consistent description requires the imposition of severe restrictions on some LIV coefficients. In both cases, we have demonstrated that the LIV contributions are contained in an overall factor, which multiplies almost all thermodynamical properties. An exception is the fraction of the condensed particles.

  5. Recombination Drives Vertebrate Genome Contraction

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Kiwoong; Ellegren, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Selective and/or neutral processes may govern variation in DNA content and, ultimately, genome size. The observation in several organisms of a negative correlation between recombination rate and intron size could be compatible with a neutral model in which recombination is mutagenic for length changes. We used whole-genome data on small insertions and deletions within transposable elements from chicken and zebra finch to demonstrate clear links between recombination rate and a number of attributes of reduced DNA content. Recombination rate was negatively correlated with the length of introns, transposable elements, and intergenic spacer and with the rate of short insertions. Importantly, it was positively correlated with gene density, the rate of short deletions, the deletion bias, and the net change in sequence length. All these observations point at a pattern of more condensed genome structure in regions of high recombination. Based on the observed rates of small insertions and deletions and assuming that these rates are representative for the whole genome, we estimate that the genome of the most recent common ancestor of birds and lizards has lost nearly 20% of its DNA content up until the present. Expansion of transposable elements can counteract the effect of deletions in an equilibrium mutation model; however, since the activity of transposable elements has been low in the avian lineage, the deletion bias is likely to have had a significant effect on genome size evolution in dinosaurs and birds, contributing to the maintenance of a small genome. We also demonstrate that most of the observed correlations between recombination rate and genome contraction parameters are seen in the human genome, including for segregating indel polymorphisms. Our data are compatible with a neutral model in which recombination drives vertebrate genome size evolution and gives no direct support for a role of natural selection in this process. PMID:22570634

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: NEW CONDENSATOR, INC.--THE CONDENSATOR DIESEL ENGINE RETROFIT CRANKCASE VENTILATION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's Environmental Technology Verification Program has tested New Condensator Inc.'s Condensator Diesel Engine Retrofit Crankcase Ventilation System. Brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), the ratio of engine fuel consumption to the engine power output, was evaluated for engine...

  7. U.S. DRIVE

    SciTech Connect

    2012-03-16

    U.S. DRIVE, which stands for United States Driving Research and Innovation for Vehicle efficiency and Energy sustainability, is an expanded government-industry partnership among the U.S. Department of Energy; USCAR, representing Chrysler Group LLC, Ford Motor Company and General Motors; Tesla Motors; five energy companies – BP America, Chevron Corporation, ConocoPhillips, ExxonMobil Corporation, and Shell Oil Products US; two utilities – Southern California Edison and Michigan-based DTE Energy; and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The U.S. DRIVE mission is to accelerate the development of pre-competitive and innovative technologies to enable a full range of affordable and clean advanced light-duty vehicles, as well as related energy infrastructure.

  8. Ceramic vane drive joint

    DOEpatents

    Smale, Charles H.

    1981-01-01

    A variable geometry gas turbine has an array of ceramic composition vanes positioned by an actuating ring coupled through a plurality of circumferentially spaced turbine vane levers to the outer end of a metallic vane drive shaft at each of the ceramic vanes. Each of the ceramic vanes has an end slot of bow tie configuration including flared end segments and a center slot therebetween. Each of the vane drive shafts has a cross head with ends thereof spaced with respect to the sides of the end slot to define clearance for free expansion of the cross head with respect to the vane and the cross head being configured to uniformly distribute drive loads across bearing surfaces of the vane slot.

  9. Contrasting the Evaporation and Condensation of Water from Glassy and Amorphous Aerosol Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, J. P.; Bones, D. L.; Power, R.; Lienhard, D.; Krieger, U. K.

    2012-04-01

    The partitioning of water between the condensed and gas phases in atmospheric aerosol is usually assumed to occur instantaneously and to be regulated by solution thermodynamics. However, the persistence of high viscosity, glassy and amorphous aerosol to low relative humidity without crystallisation occurring is now widely recognised, suggesting that the timescale for water transport to or from the particle during condensation or evaporation may be significant. A kinetic limitation on water transport could have important implications for understanding hygroscopic growth measurements made on ambient particles, the ability of particles to act as ice nuclei or cloud condensation nuclei, the kinetics of chemical aging/heterogeneous chemistry, and the rate or condensation/evaporation of semi-volatile organic components. In this study we will report on measurements of the timescale of water transport to and from glassy aerosol and ultra-high viscosity solution droplets using aerosol optical tweezers to investigate the time-response of single particles to changes in relative humidity. As a benchmark system, mixed component aerosol particles containing sucrose and sodium chloride have been used; varying the mole fractions of the two solutes allows a wide range of solution viscosities to be studied. We will show that coarse particles can take many thousands of seconds to equilibrate in size and that the timescale correlates with the estimated bulk viscosity of the particle. We will also confirm that significant inhomogeneities in particle composition can be established during evaporation or condensation. Using the experimental data to benchmark a model for equilibration time, predictions can be made of the timescale for the equilibration of accumulation mode particles during water condensation or evaporation and these predictions will be described and their significance explored. Finally, the coalescence dynamics of highly viscous aerosol particles will be reported

  10. Modeling Gas-Particle Partitioning of SOA: Effects of Aerosol Physical State and RH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuend, A.; Seinfeld, J.

    2011-12-01

    Aged tropospheric aerosol particles contain mixtures of inorganic salts, acids, water, and a large variety of organic compounds. In liquid aerosol particles non-ideal mixing of all species determines whether the condensed phase undergoes liquid-liquid phase separation or whether it is stable in a single mixed phase, and whether it contains solid salts in equilibrium with their saturated solution. The extended thermodynamic model AIOMFAC is able to predict such phase states by representing the variety of organic components using functional groups within a group-contribution concept. The number and composition of different condensed phases impacts the diversity of reaction media for multiphase chemistry and the gas-particle partitioning of semivolatile species. Recent studies show that under certain conditions biogenic and other organic-rich particles can be present in a highly viscous, semisolid or amorphous solid physical state, with consequences regarding reaction kinetics and mass transfer limitations. We present results of new gas-particle partitioning computations for aerosol chamber data using a model based on AIOMFAC activity coefficients and state-of-the-art vapor pressure estimation methods. Different environmental conditions in terms of temperature, relative humidity (RH), salt content, amount of precursor VOCs, and physical state of the particles are considered. We show how modifications of absorptive and adsorptive gas-particle mass transfer affects the total aerosol mass in the calculations and how the results of these modeling approaches compare to data of aerosol chamber experiments, such as alpha-pinene oxidation SOA. For a condensed phase in a mixed liquid state containing ammonium sulfate, the model predicts liquid-liquid phase separation up to high RH in case of, on average, moderately hydrophilic organic compounds, such as first generation oxidation products of alpha-pinene. The computations also reveal that treating liquid phases as ideal

  11. Microlinear piezo drive experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azin, A. V.; Bogdanov, E. P.; Rikkonen, S. V.; Ponomarev, S. V.; Khramtsov, A. M.

    2017-02-01

    The article embraces the experimental description of the micro linear piezo drive intended for the peripheral cord tensioner in the reflecting surface shape regulator system for large-sized transformable spacecraft antenna reflectors. The research target is the experimental investigation of the micro linear piezo drive to determine the stable oscillatory system operating modes which would include improved energy conversion parameters. The following points are briefly presented: test stand construction-design of the peripheral cord tensioner; the determined frequency characteristics and the identified resonant and actual frequencies of an oscillatory system under inertia load. A series of experiments has been conducted for both different preliminary voltages and inertia mass values.

  12. CONTROL ROD DRIVE

    DOEpatents

    Chapellier, R.A.; Rogers, I.

    1961-06-27

    Accurate and controlled drive for the control rod is from an electric motor. A hydraulic arrangement is provided to balance a piston against which a control rod is urged by the application of fluid pressure. The electric motor drive of the control rod for normal operation is made through the aforementioned piston. In the event scramming is required, the fluid pressure urging the control rod against the piston is relieved and an opposite fluid pressure is applied. The lack of mechanical connection between the electric motor and control rod facilitates the scramming operation.

  13. MATRIX-VBS Condensing Organic Aerosols in an Aerosol Microphysics Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, Chloe Y.; Tsigaridis, Konstas; Bauer, Susanne E.

    2015-01-01

    The condensation of organic aerosols is represented in a newly developed box-model scheme, where its effect on the growth and composition of particles are examined. We implemented the volatility-basis set (VBS) framework into the aerosol mixing state resolving microphysical scheme Multiconfiguration Aerosol TRacker of mIXing state (MATRIX). This new scheme is unique and advances the representation of organic aerosols in models in that, contrary to the traditional treatment of organic aerosols as non-volatile in most climate models and in the original version of MATRIX, this new scheme treats them as semi-volatile. Such treatment is important because low-volatility organics contribute significantly to the growth of particles. The new scheme includes several classes of semi-volatile organic compounds from the VBS framework that can partition among aerosol populations in MATRIX, thus representing the growth of particles via condensation of low volatility organic vapors. Results from test cases representing Mexico City and a Finish forrest condistions show good representation of the time evolutions of concentration for VBS species in the gas phase and in the condensed particulate phase. Emitted semi-volatile primary organic aerosols evaporate almost completely in the high volatile range, and they condense more efficiently in the low volatility range.

  14. Comparing the mechanism of water condensation and evaporation in glassy aerosol.

    PubMed

    Bones, David L; Reid, Jonathan P; Lienhard, Daniel M; Krieger, Ulrich K

    2012-07-17

    Atmospheric models generally assume that aerosol particles are in equilibrium with the surrounding gas phase. However, recent observations that secondary organic aerosols can exist in a glassy state have highlighted the need to more fully understand the kinetic limitations that may control water partitioning in ambient particles. Here, we explore the influence of slow water diffusion in the condensed aerosol phase on the rates of both condensation and evaporation, demonstrating that significant inhibition in mass transfer occurs for ultraviscous aerosol, not just for glassy aerosol. Using coarse mode (3-4 um radius) ternary sucrose/sodium chloride/aqueous droplets as a proxy for multicomponent ambient aerosol, we demonstrate that the timescale for particle equilibration correlates with bulk viscosity and can be ≫10(3) s. Extrapolation of these timescales to particle sizes in the accumulation mode (e.g., approximately 100 nm) by applying the Stokes-Einstein equation suggests that the kinetic limitations imposed on mass transfer of water by slow bulk phase diffusion must be more fully investigated for atmospheric aerosol. Measurements have been made on particles covering a range in dynamic viscosity from < 0.1 to > 10(13) Pa s. We also retrieve the radial inhomogeneities apparent in particle composition during condensation and evaporation and contrast the dynamics of slow dissolution of a viscous core into a labile shell during condensation with the slow percolation of water during evaporation through a more homogeneous viscous particle bulk.

  15. Demonstration of Nautilus Centripetal Capillary Condenser Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, RIchard; Tang, Linh; Wambolt, Spencer; Golliher, Eric; Agui, Juan

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a proof of concept effort for development of a Nautilus Centripetal Capillary Condenser (NCCC or NC3) used for microgravity compatible water recovery from moist air with integral passive phase separation. Removal of liquid condensate from the air stream exiting a condenser is readily performed here on Earth. In order to perform this function in space however, without gravity or mechanical action, other tactics including utilization of inertial, drag and capillary forces are required. Within the NC3, liquid water forms via condensation on cold condenser surfaces as humid air passes along multiple spiral channels, each in its own plane, all together forming a stacked plate assembly. Non-mechanical inertial forces are employed to transfer condensate, as it forms, via centripetal action to the outer perimeter of each channel. A V-shaped groove, constructed on this outer edge of the spiral channel, increases local capillary forces thereby retaining the liquid. Air drag then pulls the liquid along to a collection region near the center of the device. Dry air produced by each parallel spiral channel is combined in a common orthogonal, out-of-plane conduit passing down the axial center of the stacked device. Similarly, the parallel condensate streams are combined and removed from the condenser/separator through yet another out-of-plane axial conduit. NC3 is an integration of conventional finned condenser operation, combined with static phase separation and capillary transport phenomena. A Mars' transit mission would be a logical application for this technology where gravity is absent and the use of vibrating, energy-intensive, motor-driven centrifugal separators is undesired. Here a vapor stream from either the Heat Melt Compactor or the Carbon dioxide Reduction Assembly, for example, would be dried to a dew point of 10 deg using a passive NC3 condenser/separator with the precious water condensate recycled to the water bus.

  16. An Experimental Study of Filmwise Condensation on Horizontal Enhanced Condenser Tubing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    with a 51 mm thick sheet of Johns - Manville Aerotube insulation. 22 D. CONDENSATE AND FEEDWATER SYSTEMS The condensate and feedwater systems are shown...desuperheater. The condensate and feedwater lines are insulated with 25.4 mm thick Johns - Manville Aerotube insulation. E. COOLING WATER SYSTEM The cooling

  17. Wave function of a microwave-driven Bose-Einstein magnon condensate

    SciTech Connect

    Rezende, Sergio M.

    2010-01-01

    It has been observed experimentally that a magnon gas in a film of yttrium-iron garnet at room temperature driven by a microwave field exhibits Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) when the driving power exceeds a critical value. In a previous paper we presented a model for the dynamics of the magnon system in wave-vector space that provides firm theoretical support for the formation of the BEC. Here we show that the wave function of the magnon condensate in configuration space satisfies a Gross-Pitaevskii equation similarly to other BEC systems. The theory is consistent with the previous model in wave-vector space, and its results are in qualitative agreement with recent measurements of the spatial distribution of the magnon condensate driven by a nonuniform microwave field.

  18. Delayed response of a fermion pair condensate to a modulation of the interaction strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plata, J.

    2009-09-01

    The effect of a sinusoidal modulation of the interaction strength on a fermion pair condensate is analytically studied. The system is described by a generalization of the coupled fermion-boson model that incorporates a time-dependent intermode coupling induced via a magnetic Feshbach resonance. Nontrivial effects are shown to emerge depending on the relative magnitude of the modulation period and the relaxation time of the condensate. Specifically, a nonadiabatic modulation drives the system out of thermal equilibrium: the external field induces a variation of the quasiparticle energies, and, in turn, a disequilibrium of the associated populations. The subsequent relaxation process is studied and an analytical description of the gap dynamics is obtained. Recent experimental findings are explained: the delay observed in the response to the applied field is understood as a temperature effect linked to the condensate relaxation time.

  19. Partitioning and lipophilicity in quantitative structure-activity relationships.

    PubMed Central

    Dearden, J C

    1985-01-01

    The history of the relationship of biological activity to partition coefficient and related properties is briefly reviewed. The dominance of partition coefficient in quantitation of structure-activity relationships is emphasized, although the importance of other factors is also demonstrated. Various mathematical models of in vivo transport and binding are discussed; most of these involve partitioning as the primary mechanism of transport. The models describe observed quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) well on the whole, confirming that partitioning is of key importance in in vivo behavior of a xenobiotic. The partition coefficient is shown to correlate with numerous other parameters representing bulk, such as molecular weight, volume and surface area, parachor and calculated indices such as molecular connectivity; this is especially so for apolar molecules, because for polar molecules lipophilicity factors into both bulk and polar or hydrogen bonding components. The relationship of partition coefficient to chromatographic parameters is discussed, and it is shown that such parameters, which are often readily obtainable experimentally, can successfully supplant partition coefficient in QSARs. The relationship of aqueous solubility with partition coefficient is examined in detail. Correlations are observed, even with solid compounds, and these can be used to predict solubility. The additive/constitutive nature of partition coefficient is discussed extensively, as are the available schemes for the calculation of partition coefficient. Finally the use of partition coefficient to provide structural information is considered. It is shown that partition coefficient can be a valuable structural tool, especially if the enthalpy and entropy of partitioning are available. PMID:3905374

  20. Equivalence of partition properties and determinacy

    PubMed Central

    Kechris, Alexander S.; Woodin, W. Hugh

    1983-01-01

    It is shown that, within L(ℝ), the smallest inner model of set theory containing the reals, the axiom of determinacy is equivalent to the existence of arbitrarily large cardinals below Θ with the strong partition property κ → (κ)κ. PMID:16593299

  1. Mapping Pesticide Partition Coefficients By Electromagnetic Induction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A potential method for reducing pesticide leaching is to base application rates on the leaching potential of a specific chemical and soil combination. However, leaching is determined in part by the partitioning of the chemical between the soil and soil solution, which varies across a field. Standard...

  2. Solute partitioning and filtration by extracellular matrices

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Christina L.; Ferrell, Nicholas; Schnell, Lisa; Dubnisheva, Anna; Zydney, Andrew L.; Yurchenco, Peter D.; Roy, Shuvo

    2009-01-01

    The physiology of glomerular filtration remains mechanistically obscure despite its importance in disease. The correspondence between proteinuria and foot process effacement suggests podocytes as the locus of the filtration barrier. If so, retained macromolecules ought to accumulate at the filtration barrier, an effect called concentration polarization. Literature data indicate macromolecule concentrations decrease from subendothelial to subepithelial glomerular basement membrane (GBM), as would be expected if the GBM were itself the filter. The objective of this study was to obtain insights into the possible role of the GBM in protein retention by performing fundamental experimental and theoretical studies on the properties of three model gels. Solute partitioning and filtration through thin gels of a commercially available laminin-rich extracellular matrix, Matrigel, were measured using a polydisperse polysaccharide tracer molecule, Ficoll 70. Solute partitioning into laminin gels and lens basement membrane (LBM) were measured using Ficoll 70. A novel model of a laminin gel was numerically simulated, as well as a mixed structure-random-fiber model for LBM. Experimental partitioning was predicted by numerical simulations. Sieving coefficients through thin gels of Matrigel were size dependent and strongly flux dependent. The observed flux dependence arose from compression of the gel in response to the applied pressure. Gel compression may alter solute partitioning into extracellular matrix at physiologic pressures present in the glomerular capillary. This suggests a physical mechanism coupling podocyte structure to permeability characteristics of the GBM. PMID:19587146

  3. A review of approaches for evapotranspiration partitioning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Partitioning of evapotranspiration (ET) into evaporation from the soil surface (E) and transpiration (T) is challenging but important in order to assess biomass production and the allocation of increasingly scarce water resources. Generally T is the desired component with the water being used to enh...

  4. A Partition Formula for Fibonacci Numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fahr, Philipp; Ringerl, Claus Michael

    2008-02-01

    We present a partition formula for the even index Fibonacci numbers. The formula is motivated by the appearance of these Fibonacci numbers in the representation theory of the socalled 3-Kronecker quiver, i.e., the oriented graph with two vertices and three arrows in the same direction.

  5. 25 CFR 152.33 - Partition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER ISSUANCE OF PATENTS IN FEE, CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY, REMOVAL OF RESTRICTIONS, AND SALE OF CERTAIN INDIAN LANDS Partitions in Kind of Inherited Allotments § 152..., regardless of their competency, patents in fee to be issued to the competent heirs for their shares and...

  6. 25 CFR 152.33 - Partition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER ISSUANCE OF PATENTS IN FEE, CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY, REMOVAL OF RESTRICTIONS, AND SALE OF CERTAIN INDIAN LANDS Partitions in Kind of Inherited Allotments § 152..., regardless of their competency, patents in fee to be issued to the competent heirs for their shares and...

  7. 25 CFR 152.33 - Partition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER ISSUANCE OF PATENTS IN FEE, CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY, REMOVAL OF RESTRICTIONS, AND SALE OF CERTAIN INDIAN LANDS Partitions in Kind of Inherited Allotments § 152..., regardless of their competency, patents in fee to be issued to the competent heirs for their shares and...

  8. 25 CFR 152.33 - Partition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER ISSUANCE OF PATENTS IN FEE, CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY, REMOVAL OF RESTRICTIONS, AND SALE OF CERTAIN INDIAN LANDS Partitions in Kind of Inherited Allotments § 152..., regardless of their competency, patents in fee to be issued to the competent heirs for their shares and...

  9. 25 CFR 152.33 - Partition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER ISSUANCE OF PATENTS IN FEE, CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY, REMOVAL OF RESTRICTIONS, AND SALE OF CERTAIN INDIAN LANDS Partitions in Kind of Inherited Allotments § 152..., regardless of their competency, patents in fee to be issued to the competent heirs for their shares and...

  10. Set Partitions and the Multiplication Principle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockwood, Elise; Caughman, John S., IV

    2016-01-01

    To further understand student thinking in the context of combinatorial enumeration, we examine student work on a problem involving set partitions. In this context, we note some key features of the multiplication principle that were often not attended to by students. We also share a productive way of thinking that emerged for several students who…

  11. Zr partitioning and kinetics and mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, L. A.

    1973-01-01

    The results of investigations concerning the cooling histories of lunar rocks are reported. Publications resulting from this research are listed. Studies discussed include the partitioning of Zr between FeTi03 and Fe2Ti04 in the presence of Fe + Zr02, and ulvospinel reduction.

  12. Application of partition technology to particle electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Alstine, James M.; Harris, J. Milton; Karr, Laurel J.; Bamberger, Stephan; Matsos, Helen C.; Snyder, Robert S.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of polymer-ligand concentration on particle electrophoretic mobility and partition in aqueous polymer two-phase systems are investigated. Polymer coating chemistry and affinity ligand synthesis, purification, and analysis are conducted. It is observed that poly (ethylene glycol)-ligands are effective for controlling particle electrophoretic mobility.

  13. Counterion condensation on heparin oligomers.

    PubMed

    Minsky, Burcu Baykal; Atmuri, Anand; Kaltashov, Igor A; Dubin, Paul L

    2013-04-08

    The electropherogram of native heparin shows a broad distribution of mobilities μ, which truncates abruptly at a notably high μ = 4.7 × 10(-4) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). This highly skewed mobility distribution is also found for the 20-saccharide chain, which shows from mass spectrometry a more uniform (symmetrical) with respect to sulfation level. Since a partially degraded heparin exhibits oligomer peaks with μ> 5 × 10(-4) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) (appearing to escape the limitation of the mobility value for native heparin), we examined the electrophoretic behavior of chain-length monodisperse heparin oligomers. Their mobilities varied inversely with the logarithm of the contour length, L, for L from 3 to 10 nm and reached an asymptotic limit for L > 20 nm. The generality of this effect was indicated by similar behavior for oligomers of poly(styrene sulfonate). A recent theory of polyelectrolyte end effects (Manning, G. S. Macromolecules2008, 41, 6217-6227), in which chain termini exhibit reduced counterion condensation was found to quantitatively account for these results. A qualitative explanation for the anomalously high value of μ of native heparin, 10-20% higher than those seen for synthetic polyelectrolytes of higher linear charge density, is suggested on the basis of similar junction effects (Manning, G. S. Macromolecules2008, 41, 6217-6227), which reduce counterion condensation at the interfaces of regions of high and low sulfation. We suggest that these effects should be considered in models for the biofunctionality of the regulated high and low sulfation (NS/NA) domains of heparan sulfate.

  14. Tunable Vapor-Condensed Nanolenses

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Nanostructured optical components, such as nanolenses, direct light at subwavelength scales to enable, among others, high-resolution lithography, miniaturization of photonic circuits, and nanoscopic imaging of biostructures. A major challenge in fabricating nanolenses is the appropriate positioning of the lens with respect to the sample while simultaneously ensuring it adopts the optimal size and shape for the intended use. One application of particular interest is the enhancement of contrast and signal-to-noise ratio in the imaging of nanoscale objects, especially over wide fields-of-view (FOVs), which typically come with limited resolution and sensitivity for imaging nano-objects. Here we present a self-assembly method for fabricating time- and temperature-tunable nanolenses based on the condensation of a polymeric liquid around a nanoparticle, which we apply to the high-throughput on-chip detection of spheroids smaller than 40 nm, rod-shaped particles with diameter smaller than 20 nm, and biofunctionalized nanoparticles, all across an ultralarge FOV of >20 mm2. Previous nanoparticle imaging efforts across similar FOVs have detected spheroids no smaller than 100 nm, and therefore our results demonstrate the detection of particles >15-fold smaller in volume, which in free space have >240 times weaker Rayleigh scattering compared to the particle sizes detected in earlier wide-field imaging work. This entire platform, with its tunable nanolens condensation and wide-field imaging functions, is also miniaturized into a cost-effective and portable device, which might be especially important for field use, mobile sensing, and diagnostics applications, including, for example, the measurement of viral load in bodily fluids. PMID:24979060

  15. Molecular attraction of condensed bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derjaguin, B. V.; Abrikosova, I. I.; Lifshitz, E. M.

    2015-09-01

    From the Editorial Board. As a contribution to commemorating the 100th anniversary of the birth of Evgenii Mikhailovich Lifshitz, it was found appropriate by the Editorial Board of Uspekhi Fizicheskikh Nauk (UFN) [Physics-Uspekhi] journal that the materials of the jubilee-associated Scientific Session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences published in this issue (pp. 877-905) be augmented by the review paper "Molecular attraction of condensed bodies" reproduced from a 1958 UFN issue. Included in this review, in addition to an account by Evgenii Mikhailovich Lifshitz of his theory of molecular attractive forces between condensed bodies (first published in Zhurnal Eksperimental'noi i Teoreticheskoi Fiziki (ZhETF) in 1955 and in its English translation Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Physics (JETP) in 1956), is a summary of a series of experimental studies beginning in 1949 by Irina Igorevna Abrikosova at the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR in a laboratory led by Boris Vladimirovich Derjaguin (1902-1994), a Corresponding Member of the USSR Academy of Sciences. In 1958, however, UFN was not yet available in English translation, so the material of the review is insufficiently accessible to the present-day English-speaking reader. This is the reason why the UFN Editorial Board decided to contribute to celebrating the 100th anniversary of E M Lifshitz's birthday by reproducing on the journal's pages a 1958 review paper which contains both E M Lifshitz's theory itself and the experimental data that underpinned it (for an account of how Evgenii Mikhailovich Lifshitz was enlisted to explain the experimental results of I I Abrikosova and B V Derjaguin, see the letter to the editors N P Danilova on page 925 of this jubilee collection of publications).

  16. New technology in condensate polishing

    SciTech Connect

    Kunin, R.; Salem, E.; Libutti, B. . Water Div.)

    1992-08-01

    Sulfonic acid ion exchange resins. when carried into a boiler or steam generator, thermally decompose releasing large amounts of corrosive, sulfates. Replacement of the sulfonic acid resin with a carboxylic acid resin would eliminate this source of contamination. The sulfonic acid resin is a strong acid: the carboxylic acid resin is a weak acid. The carboxylic acid resin alone is not capable of splitting salts which limits its use to mixed resin beds or to its use in single or individual beds with feeds of high alkalinity or high pH values. Laboratory, pilot plant and full scale plant tests compared the two resins in precoat filters. When the resins in mixed beds were in the acid form, the weakly acid resin was almost as effective in removing sodium ion as the strongly acid resin. In the ammonium form. the weakly acid resin was generally more effective in removing sodium than the strongly acid resin. Condensate polishing reduced the sodium ion to a few parts per billion (ppB). Complete resin separation before regeneration is more important for the weakly acid resin than for the strongly acid resin. Another development found that the hydrazine reaction with oxygen could be catalyzed by powdered activated carbon combined with microfibers on a Powdex substrate. The carbon should be thoroughly washed to reduce its residual sodium content. In plant tests, the carbon reduced the oxygen concentration in condensate about 50% during startup. In preliminary tests believed to be typical, carbon lowered the oxygen concentration below 10 ppB in about 6 hours compared to 18 hours without the carbon. Oxygen is also reduced during normal operation.

  17. CFD simulation of water vapour condensation in the presence of non-condensable gas in vertical cylindrical condensers

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jun-De

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the simulation of the condensation of water vapour in the presence of non-condensable gas using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for turbulent flows in a vertical cylindrical condenser tube. The simulation accounts for the turbulent flow of the gas mixture, the condenser wall and the turbulent flow of the coolant in the annular channel with no assumptions of constant wall temperature or heat flux. The condensate film is assumed to occupy a negligible volume and its effect on the condensation of the water vapour has been taken into account by imposing a set of boundary conditions. A new strategy is used to overcome the limitation of the currently available commercial CFD package to solve the simultaneous simulation of flows involving multispecies and fluids of gas and liquid in separate channels. The results from the CFD simulations are compared with the experimental results from the literature for the condensation of water vapour with air as the non-condensable gas and for inlet mass fraction of the water vapour from 0.66 to 0.98. The CFD simulation results in general agree well with the directly measured quantities and it is found that the variation of heat flux in the condenser tube is more complex than a simple polynomial curve fit. The CFD results also show that, at least for flows involving high water vapour content, the axial velocity of the gas mixture at the interface between the gas mixture and the condensate film is in general not small and cannot be neglected. PMID:24850953

  18. The difference between partitioning and distribution from a thermodynamic point of view: NSAIDs as an example.

    PubMed

    Perlovich, German L; Kurkov, Sergey V; Bauer-Brandl, Annette

    2006-02-01

    Solubility and solvation of some NSAIDs were studied in their non-ionic (aqueous buffers of pH 2.0) and ionic molecular form (pH 7.4) over a wide temperature interval. Absolute scale values for the thermodynamic terms (Gibbs energy, enthalpy and entropy) were obtained. Thermodynamic parameters of the transfer of the molecules from one buffer to the other (representing protonation/deprotonation) were derived. It has been found that the thermodynamic characteristics of solvation (hydration) of (+)- and (+/-)-IBP in the buffers show a difference, which is larger than the experimental error. This may be explained by differences in the association states of the molecules in solution. For the other NSAIDs studied, a correlation between the Gibbs energy of transfer, deltaG(tr) (pH 7.4-->pH 2.0) and the pK(a)-value, and a compensation effect between the enthalpic and entropic terms have been revealed. Thermodynamic aspects of the transfer process from the buffers to n-octanol were analysed. The two types of the transfer processes (non-dissociated molecule to octanol (partitioning), and dissociated form to octanol (distribution)) have essentially different driving forces: partitioning is enthalpy driven, whereas the transfer of the ionic form is entropy driven. The following points are discussed: (a) significance of using water-octanol systems (logP as a measure of drug lipophilicity) to describe biological membranes (lipid systems); (b) differences in thermodynamic aspects of the partitioning/distribution processes of these systems; (c) advantages of the present transfer method approach in comparison with temperature dependencies of logP to analyse the driving forces of partitioning/distribution.

  19. Missing mass approximations for the partition function of stimulus driven Ising models.

    PubMed

    Haslinger, Robert; Ba, Demba; Galuske, Ralf; Williams, Ziv; Pipa, Gordon

    2013-01-01

    Ising models are routinely used to quantify the second order, functional structure of neural populations. With some recent exceptions, they generally do not include the influence of time varying stimulus drive. Yet if the dynamics of network function are to be understood, time varying stimuli must be taken into account. Inclusion of stimulus drive carries a heavy computational burden because the partition function becomes stimulus dependent and must be separately calculated for all unique stimuli observed. This potentially increases computation time by the length of the data set. Here we present an extremely fast, yet simply implemented, method for approximating the stimulus dependent partition function in minutes or seconds. Noting that the most probable spike patterns (which are few) occur in the training data, we sum partition function terms corresponding to those patterns explicitly. We then approximate the sum over the remaining patterns (which are improbable, but many) by casting it in terms of the stimulus modulated missing mass (total stimulus dependent probability of all patterns not observed in the training data). We use a product of conditioned logistic regression models to approximate the stimulus modulated missing mass. This method has complexity of roughly O(LNNpat) where is L the data length, N the number of neurons and N pat the number of unique patterns in the data, contrasting with the O(L2 (N) ) complexity of alternate methods. Using multiple unit recordings from rat hippocampus, macaque DLPFC and cat Area 18 we demonstrate our method requires orders of magnitude less computation time than Monte Carlo methods and can approximate the stimulus driven partition function more accurately than either Monte Carlo methods or deterministic approximations. This advance allows stimuli to be easily included in Ising models making them suitable for studying population based stimulus encoding.

  20. Under What Conditions Can Equilibrium Gas-Particle Partitioning Be Expected to Hold in the Atmosphere?

    PubMed

    Mai, Huajun; Shiraiwa, Manabu; Flagan, Richard C; Seinfeld, John H

    2015-10-06

    The prevailing treatment of secondary organic aerosol formation in atmospheric models is based on the assumption of instantaneous gas-particle equilibrium for the condensing species, yet compelling experimental evidence indicates that organic aerosols can exhibit the properties of highly viscous, semisolid particles, for which gas-particle equilibrium may be achieved slowly. The approach to gas-particle equilibrium partitioning is controlled by gas-phase diffusion, interfacial transport, and particle-phase diffusion. Here we evaluate the controlling processes and the time scale to achieve gas-particle equilibrium as a function of the volatility of the condensing species, its surface accommodation coefficient, and its particle-phase diffusivity. For particles in the size range of typical atmospheric organic aerosols (∼50-500 nm), the time scale to establish gas-particle equilibrium is generally governed either by interfacial accommodation or particle-phase diffusion. The rate of approach to equilibrium varies, depending on whether the bulk vapor concentration is constant, typical of an open system, or decreasing as a result of condensation into the particles, typical of a closed system.

  1. Dynamic Condensation of Mass and Stiffness Matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, N.

    1995-12-01

    Details are given of a procedure for condensing the mass and stiffness matrices of a structure for dynamic analysis. The condensed model is based on choosing ncnatural frequencies and the corresponding modes of original model. The model is constructed so that (1) it has ncnatural frequencies equal to those of the original model, (2) the modes φ ifcless than i,j = 1, 2, . . . , ncare the same as those for the master co-ordinates in the corresponding modes of the original and (3) the responses of the condensed system at the co-ordinates Xcdue to forces at these co-ordinates, at one particular chosen frequency, are the same as those of the original system. The natural frequencies, the corresponding modes and the dynamic responses used for the condensation can be obtained from finite element analysis of the original structure. The method has been applied to the modelling of two common structures to examine its applicability. Comparisons between the performance of the condensed models obtained by means of the dynamic condensation method and that of the models obtained by the Guyan method have been conducted. The results of the example show that the condensed models determined by the dynamic condensation method retain the natural frequencies and modal shapes and perform better in describing the dynamic responses of the structures than do the corresponding models obtained by the Guyan method.

  2. Drinking influences exhaled breath condensate acidity.

    PubMed

    Kullmann, Tamás; Barta, Imre; Antus, Balázs; Horváth, Ildikó

    2008-01-01

    Exhaled breath condensate analysis is a developing method for investigating airway pathology. Impact of food and drink on breath condensate composition has not been systematically addressed. The aim of the study was to follow exhaled breath condensate pH after drinking an acidic and a neutral beverage. Breath condensate, capillary blood, and urine of 12 healthy volunteers were collected before and after drinking either 1 l of coke or 1 l of mineral water. The pH of each sample was determined with a blood gas analyzer. The mean difference between the pH of two breath condensate samples collected within 15 min before drinking was 0.13+/-0.03. Condensate pH decreased significantly from 6.29+/-0.02 to 6.24+/-0.02 (p<0.03) after drinking coke and from 6.37+/-0.03 to 6.22+/-0.04 (p<0.003) after drinking water. Drinking coke induced significant changes in blood and urine pH as well. Drinking influences exhaled breath condensate composition and may contribute to the variability of exhaled breath condensate pH.

  3. Soliton resonance in bose-einstein condensate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, Michail; Kulikov, I.

    2002-01-01

    A new phenomenon in nonlinear dispersive systems, including a Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC), has been described. It is based upon a resonance between an externally induced soliton and 'eigen-solitons' of the homogeneous cubic Schrodinger equation. There have been shown that a moving source of positive /negative potential induces bright /dark solitons in an attractive / repulsive Bose condensate.

  4. Nephron induction revisited: from caps to condensates.

    PubMed

    Sariola, Hannu

    2002-01-01

    Conversion of mesenchyme to epithelium in the metanephric kidney is clearly a multimolecular, multistep and partly redundant process. The present short review focuses on a neglected morphological aspect of kidney differentiation: the development of two transitory mesenchymal condensations that precede epithelial differentiation of nephrons. The first appearing condensate covers the tips of the collecting ducts and is termed a cap condensate. In the early kidney rudiment this structure has been referred to as a primary or early condensate. A few cells of the cap condensate (maybe only four to six cells), situated at the lateral edge of the cap, start proliferating rapidly and form a pretubular aggregate (or pretubular condensate), which converts to secretory nephron epithelia and finally segregates to different tubule segments. Throughout nephrogenesis, the cap condensates and pretubular aggregates are clearly distinguishable structures that show only partly overlapping gene expression profiles. Apart from being the source for the pretubular aggregates, the role of the cap condensate is unknown. It is now proposed that the cap regulates ureteric branching morphogenesis.

  5. Proceedings: 2002 Workshop on Condensate Polishing

    SciTech Connect

    2002-06-01

    Condensate polishing aims to control impurities in a nuclear power plant, thus allowing the unit to operate more reliably. This report contains the work presented at EPRI's 2002 Workshop on Condensate Polishing, where 36 papers were presented on current issues, research, and utility experiences involving polishing issues at both pressurized water reactor (PWR) and boiling water reactor (BWR) units.

  6. Fragmentation of Bose-Einstein condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Erich J.; Ho, Tin-Lun; Ueda, Masahito; Baym, Gordon

    2006-09-01

    We present the theory of bosonic systems with multiple condensates, providing a unified description of various model systems that are found in the literature. We discuss how degeneracies, interactions, and symmetries conspire to give rise to this unusual behavior. We show that as degeneracies multiply, so do the varieties of fragmentation, eventually leading to strongly correlated states with no trace of condensation.

  7. Enhancement of Condensation on a Vertical Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Rencai; Hatanaka, Tsutomu; Nishio, Shigefumi

    In previous study, the characteristic of the condensation heat transfer on the dispersed vertical surface were investigated experimentally for the application of the finned surface to the thermoelectric generator utilizing boiling and condensation as the electrodes of the thermoelectric module. A prediction model for this diapered finned surface was proposed, based on Adamek-Webb model of the condensation on a finned tube. In this study, a condensation heat transfer experiment on a vertical dispersed finned surfaces using FC5312 was carried out, in order to enhance the condensation heat transfer coefficient by optimizing the fin size on a dispersed heat transfer surface. Experimental parameters were the fin width, thickness, height and the dispersed fin length. As the results, it was found from the experiment there was a dispersed fin length corresponding to the condensation at the maximum and its value was 1.75 mm. As the characteristic, the condensation changed from slowly increasing to rapidly increasing and then decreasing at a steep grade, with decreasing the dispersed fin length. In addition, the fin height did not affect this optimum dispersed fin length and the dispersed fin length affects the dependence of the condensation on different fin thickness. Further, the prediction values have a good agreement with the experimental data except the case of short dispersed fin length.

  8. Hydrophilic structures for condensation management in appliances

    DOEpatents

    Kuehl, Steven John; Vonderhaar, John J.; Wu, Guolian; Wu, Mianxue

    2016-02-02

    An appliance that includes a cabinet having an exterior surface; a refrigeration compartment located within the cabinet; and a hydrophilic structure disposed on the exterior surface. The hydrophilic structure is configured to spread condensation. The appliance further includes a wicking structure located in proximity to the hydrophilic structure, and the wicking structure is configured to receive the condensation.

  9. Collision of Bose Condensate Dark Matter structures

    SciTech Connect

    Guzman, F. S.

    2008-12-04

    The status of the scalar field or Bose condensate dark matter model is presented. Results about the solitonic behavior in collision of structures is presented as a possible explanation to the recent-possibly-solitonic behavior in the bullet cluster merger. Some estimates about the possibility to simulate the bullet cluster under the Bose Condensate dark matter model are indicated.

  10. Teachers with Drive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coggins, Celine; Diffenbaugh, P. K.

    2013-01-01

    For students in U.S. classrooms today, the odds of being assigned to an inexperienced teacher are higher than they have ever been because so many teachers, some in the top 20 percent of effectiveness are leaving the classroom in their first five years. Coggins and Diffenbaugh turn to Daniel Pink's work on drive to determine how to motivate…

  11. DrivePy

    SciTech Connect

    King, Ryan; Guo, Yi

    2014-08-30

    DrivePy is physics-based drivetrain model that sizes drivetrain components based on aerodynamic and operational loads for use in a systems engineering model. It also calculates costs based on empirical data collected by NREL's National Wind Technology Center.

  12. Magnetized drive fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Rosensweig, R.E.; Zahn, M.

    1986-04-01

    A process is described for recovering a first fluid from a porous subterranean formation which comprises injecting a displacement fluid in an effective amount to displace the first fluid, injecting a ferrofluid, applying a magnetic field containing a gradient of field intensity within the formation, driving the displacement fluid through the formation with the ferrofluid and recovering first fluid.

  13. Drive-Through Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Margie

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how the early childhood field's approach to staff training reflects the drive-through, fast-food culture. Year after year directors send their teachers to workshops to get some quick refresher techniques. The author suggests that rather than focusing professional development on topics, focus on observing…

  14. Flywheel sickle drive mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Guinn, R.K.

    1989-03-21

    A releasable, eccentric drive mechanism is described, comprising: a first shaft extending along a central axis and presenting a generally cylindrical portion; a second shaft extending along a reference axis substantially parallel to the central axis in offset relation to the latter and having a generally cylindrical portion; a drive member having structure defining an opening including a first, generally cylindrical region receiving over one half of the circumference of the first shaft portion and a second, generally cylindrical region receiving over one half of the circumference of the second shaft portion, the second region being in side-by-side relationship to the first region and in open communication with the latter, the first shaft portion and the second shaft portion each including a substantially flat wall section extending in a plane substantially perpendicular to a reference plane passing through the central axis and the reference axis, each of the wall sections being inclined relative to the central axis in complemental, flat engagement with each other; and means coupled to one of the drive member and the second shaft for urging the first shaft in a longitudinal direction generally toward the second shaft in order to bring the wall section of the first shaft into a position of flat, wedging contact with the wall section of the second shaft and in contact with the structure defining the opening in order to securely interconnect the first shaft, the second shaft and the drive member.

  15. Driving While Intoxicated.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brick, John

    Alcohol intoxication increases the risk of highway accidents, the relative risk of crash probability increasing as a function of blood alcohol content (BAC). Because alcohol use is more prevalent than use of other drugs, more is known about the relationship between alcohol use and driving. Most states presume a BAC of .10% to be evidence of drunk…

  16. The Drive to Influence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Diego

    2017-01-01

    At the heart of the educational vocation is a drive to influence, to meaningfully affect the learning and development of others. For adult educators working in higher education, daily activities--from teaching classes to supervising student research to attending faculty meetings to sitting on advisory boards--are full of opportunities to…

  17. CSI: Hard Drive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturgeon, Julie

    2008-01-01

    Acting on information from students who reported seeing a classmate looking at inappropriate material on a school computer, school officials used forensics software to plunge the depths of the PC's hard drive, searching for evidence of improper activity. Images were found in a deleted Internet Explorer cache as well as deleted file space.…

  18. Open software tools for eddy covariance flux partitioning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agro-ecosystem management and assessment will benefit greatly from the development of reliable techniques for partitioning evapotranspiration (ET) into evaporation (E) and transpiration (T). Among other activities, flux partitioning can aid in evaluating consumptive vs. non-consumptive agricultural...

  19. Splitting in the excitation spectrum of a Bose-Einstein condensate undergoing strong Rabi oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Rowen, E.; Ozeri, R.; Katz, N.; Gershnabel, E.; Davidson, N.

    2005-11-15

    We report on a measurement of splitting in the excitation spectrum of a condensate driven by an optical traveling wave. Experimental results are compared to a numerical solution of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, and analyzed by a simple two-level model and by the more complete band theory, treating the driving beams as an optical lattice. In this picture, the splitting is a manifestation of the energy gap between neighboring bands that opens on the boundary of the Brillouin zone.

  20. Vortex-nucleating Zeeman resonance in axisymmetric rotating Bose-Einstein condensates.

    PubMed

    Reinisch, Gilbert

    2007-09-21

    By use of the Larmor equivalence between uniform rotation and a magnetic field, we consider in the strong-interaction Thomas-Fermi regime the single centered vortex as the first Zeeman-like excited state of the axisymmetric rotating Bose-Einstein condensate. This yields a resonant-drive nucleation mechanism whose threshold is in quite good agreement with ENS, MIT, and JILA experimental results.

  1. Film condensation in a horizontal rectangular duct

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Qing; Suryanarayana, N. V.

    1993-01-01

    Condensation heat transfer in a horizontal rectangular duct was experimentally and analytically investigated. To prevent the dripping of condensate on the film, the experiment was conducted inside a horizontal rectangular duct with vapor condensing only on the bottom cooled plate of the duct. R-113 and FC-72 (Fluorinert Electronic Fluid developed by the 3M Company) were used as the condensing fluids. The experimental program included measurements of film thickness, local and average heat transfer coefficients, wave length, wave speed, and a study of wave initiation. The measured film thickness was used to obtain the local heat transfer coefficient. The wave initiation was studied both with condensation and with an adiabatic air-liquid flow. The test sections used in both experiments were identical.

  2. Resource partitioning along multiple niche axes drives functional diversity in parrotfishes on Caribbean coral reefs.

    PubMed

    Adam, Thomas C; Kelley, Megan; Ruttenberg, Benjamin I; Burkepile, Deron E

    2015-12-01

    The recent loss of key consumers to exploitation and habitat degradation has significantly altered community dynamics and ecosystem function across many ecosystems worldwide. Predicting the impacts of consumer losses requires knowing the level of functional diversity that exists within a consumer assemblage. In this study, we document functional diversity among nine species of parrotfishes on Caribbean coral reefs. Parrotfishes are key herbivores that facilitate the maintenance and recovery of coral-dominated reefs by controlling algae and provisioning space for the recruitment of corals. We observed large functional differences among two genera of parrotfishes that were driven by differences in diet. Fishes in the genus Scarus targeted filamentous algal turf assemblages, crustose coralline algae, and endolithic algae and avoided macroalgae, while fishes in the genus Sparisoma preferentially targeted macroalgae. However, species with similar diets were dissimilar in other attributes, including the habitats they frequented, the types of substrate they fed from, and the spatial scale at which they foraged. These differences indicate that species that appear to be functionally redundant when looking at diet alone exhibit high levels of complementarity when we consider multiple functional traits. By identifying key functional differences among parrotfishes, we provide critical information needed to manage parrotfishes to enhance the resilience of coral-dominated reefs and reverse phase shifts on algal-dominated reefs throughout the wider Caribbean. Further, our study provides a framework for predicting the impacts of consumer losses in other species rich ecosystems.

  3. Using Reward/Utility Based Impact Scores in Partitioning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    ing approach called Reward/Utility-Based Impact ( RUBI ). RUBI nds an e ective partitioning of agents while requir- ing no prior domain knowledge...provides better performance by discovering a non-trivial agent partitioning, and leads to faster simulations. We test RUBI in the Air Tra c Flow Management...partitioning with RUBI in the ATFMP, there is a 37% increase in per- formance, with a 510x speed up per simulation step over non-partitioning approaches

  4. Condensed Matter Theories - Volume 22

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinholz, Heidi; Röpke, Gerd; de Llano, Manuel

    2007-09-01

    pt. A. Fermi liquids. Pressure comparison between the spherical cellular model and the Thomas-Fermi model / G.A. Baker, Jr. Pair excitations and vertex corrections in Fermi fluids and the dynamic structure function of two-dimension 3He / H.M. Böhm, H. Godfrin, E. Krotscheck, H.J. Lauter, M. Meschke and M. Panholzer. Condensation of helium in wedges / E.S. Hernádez ... [et al.]. Non-Fermi liquid behavior from the Fermi-liquid approach / V.A. Khodel ... [et al.]. Theory of third sound and stability of thin 3He-4He superfluid films / E. Krotscheck and M.D. Miller. Pairing in asymmetrical Fermi systems / K.F. Quader and R. Liao. Ground-state properties of small 3He drops from quantum Monte Carlo simulations / E. Sola, J. Casulleras and J. Boronat. Ground-state energy and compressibility of a disordered two-dimensional electron gas / Tanatar ... [et al.]. Quasiexcitons in photoluminescence of incompressible quantum liquids / A. Wójs, A.G ladysiewicz and J.J. Quinn -- pt. B. Bose liquids. Quantum Boltzmann liquids / K.A. Gernoth, M L. Ristig and T. Lindenau. Condensate fraction in the dynamic structure function of Bose fluids / M. Saarela, F. Mazzanti and V. Apaja -- pt. C. Strongly-correlated electronic systems. Electron gas in high-field nanoscopic transport: metallic carbon nanotubes / F. Green and D. Neilson. Evolution and destruction of the Kondo effect in a capacitively coupled double dot system / D.E. Logan and M.R. Galpin. The method of increments-a wavefunction-based Ab-Initio correlation method for solids / B. Paulus. Fractionally charged excitations on frustrated lattices / E. Runge, F. Pollmann and P. Fulde. 5f Electrons in actinides: dual nature and photoemission spectra / G. Zwicknagl -- pt. D. Magnetism. Magnetism in disordered two-dimensional Kondo-Necklace / W. Brenig. On the de Haas-can Alphen oscillation in 2D / S. Fujita and D.L. Morabito. Dynamics in one-dimensional spin systems-density matrix reformalization group study / S. Nishimoto and M

  5. 47 CFR 27.904 - Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Geographic partitioning and spectrum... partitioning and spectrum disaggregation. An entity that acquires a portion of a 1670-1675 MHz band licensee's geographic area or spectrum subject to a geographic partitioning or spectrum disaggregation agreement...

  6. 47 CFR 27.805 - Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Geographic partitioning and spectrum... partitioning and spectrum disaggregation. An entity that acquires a portion of a 1.4 GHz band licensee's geographic area or spectrum subject to a geographic partitioning or spectrum disaggregation agreement...

  7. 47 CFR 90.911 - Partitioned licenses and disaggregated spectrum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Partitioned licenses and disaggregated spectrum... Specialized Mobile Radio Service § 90.911 Partitioned licenses and disaggregated spectrum. (a) Eligibility...) that constitute the partitioned area. (2) Disaggregation. Spectrum may be disaggregated in any...

  8. 47 CFR 27.805 - Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Geographic partitioning and spectrum... partitioning and spectrum disaggregation. An entity that acquires a portion of a 1.4 GHz band licensee's geographic area or spectrum subject to a geographic partitioning or spectrum disaggregation agreement...

  9. 47 CFR 90.911 - Partitioned licenses and disaggregated spectrum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Partitioned licenses and disaggregated spectrum... Specialized Mobile Radio Service § 90.911 Partitioned licenses and disaggregated spectrum. (a) Eligibility...) that constitute the partitioned area. (2) Disaggregation. Spectrum may be disaggregated in any...

  10. 47 CFR 90.911 - Partitioned licenses and disaggregated spectrum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Partitioned licenses and disaggregated spectrum... Specialized Mobile Radio Service § 90.911 Partitioned licenses and disaggregated spectrum. (a) Eligibility...) that constitute the partitioned area. (2) Disaggregation. Spectrum may be disaggregated in any...

  11. 47 CFR 95.823 - Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Geographic partitioning and spectrum... Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation. (a) Eligibility. Parties seeking Commission approval of geographic partitioning or spectrum disaggregation of 218-219 MHz Service system licenses shall request...

  12. 47 CFR 27.904 - Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Geographic partitioning and spectrum... partitioning and spectrum disaggregation. An entity that acquires a portion of a 1670-1675 MHz band licensee's geographic area or spectrum subject to a geographic partitioning or spectrum disaggregation agreement...

  13. 47 CFR 27.904 - Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Geographic partitioning and spectrum... partitioning and spectrum disaggregation. An entity that acquires a portion of a 1670-1675 MHz band licensee's geographic area or spectrum subject to a geographic partitioning or spectrum disaggregation agreement...

  14. 47 CFR 27.805 - Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Geographic partitioning and spectrum... partitioning and spectrum disaggregation. An entity that acquires a portion of a 1.4 GHz band licensee's geographic area or spectrum subject to a geographic partitioning or spectrum disaggregation agreement...

  15. 47 CFR 27.904 - Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Geographic partitioning and spectrum... partitioning and spectrum disaggregation. An entity that acquires a portion of a 1670-1675 MHz band licensee's geographic area or spectrum subject to a geographic partitioning or spectrum disaggregation agreement...

  16. 47 CFR 95.823 - Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Geographic partitioning and spectrum... Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation. (a) Eligibility. Parties seeking Commission approval of geographic partitioning or spectrum disaggregation of 218-219 MHz Service system licenses shall request...

  17. 47 CFR 90.813 - Partitioned licenses and disaggregated spectrum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Partitioned licenses and disaggregated spectrum... Specialized Mobile Radio Service § 90.813 Partitioned licenses and disaggregated spectrum. (a) Eligibility.... Spectrum may be disaggregated in any amount. (3) Combined partitioning and disaggregation. The...

  18. 47 CFR 90.813 - Partitioned licenses and disaggregated spectrum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Partitioned licenses and disaggregated spectrum... Specialized Mobile Radio Service § 90.813 Partitioned licenses and disaggregated spectrum. (a) Eligibility.... Spectrum may be disaggregated in any amount. (3) Combined partitioning and disaggregation. The...

  19. 47 CFR 90.911 - Partitioned licenses and disaggregated spectrum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Partitioned licenses and disaggregated spectrum... Specialized Mobile Radio Service § 90.911 Partitioned licenses and disaggregated spectrum. (a) Eligibility...) that constitute the partitioned area. (2) Disaggregation. Spectrum may be disaggregated in any...

  20. 47 CFR 90.813 - Partitioned licenses and disaggregated spectrum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Partitioned licenses and disaggregated spectrum... Specialized Mobile Radio Service § 90.813 Partitioned licenses and disaggregated spectrum. (a) Eligibility.... Spectrum may be disaggregated in any amount. (3) Combined partitioning and disaggregation. The...

  1. 47 CFR 27.904 - Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Geographic partitioning and spectrum... partitioning and spectrum disaggregation. An entity that acquires a portion of a 1670-1675 MHz band licensee's geographic area or spectrum subject to a geographic partitioning or spectrum disaggregation agreement...

  2. 47 CFR 95.823 - Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Geographic partitioning and spectrum... Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation. (a) Eligibility. Parties seeking Commission approval of geographic partitioning or spectrum disaggregation of 218-219 MHz Service system licenses shall request...

  3. 47 CFR 90.813 - Partitioned licenses and disaggregated spectrum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Partitioned licenses and disaggregated spectrum... Specialized Mobile Radio Service § 90.813 Partitioned licenses and disaggregated spectrum. (a) Eligibility.... Spectrum may be disaggregated in any amount. (3) Combined partitioning and disaggregation. The...

  4. 47 CFR 90.911 - Partitioned licenses and disaggregated spectrum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Partitioned licenses and disaggregated spectrum... Specialized Mobile Radio Service § 90.911 Partitioned licenses and disaggregated spectrum. (a) Eligibility...) that constitute the partitioned area. (2) Disaggregation. Spectrum may be disaggregated in any...

  5. 47 CFR 95.823 - Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Geographic partitioning and spectrum... Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation. (a) Eligibility. Parties seeking Commission approval of geographic partitioning or spectrum disaggregation of 218-219 MHz Service system licenses shall request...

  6. 47 CFR 27.805 - Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Geographic partitioning and spectrum... partitioning and spectrum disaggregation. An entity that acquires a portion of a 1.4 GHz band licensee's geographic area or spectrum subject to a geographic partitioning or spectrum disaggregation agreement...

  7. 47 CFR 95.823 - Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Geographic partitioning and spectrum... Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation. (a) Eligibility. Parties seeking Commission approval of geographic partitioning or spectrum disaggregation of 218-219 MHz Service system licenses shall request...

  8. 47 CFR 90.813 - Partitioned licenses and disaggregated spectrum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Partitioned licenses and disaggregated spectrum... Specialized Mobile Radio Service § 90.813 Partitioned licenses and disaggregated spectrum. (a) Eligibility.... Spectrum may be disaggregated in any amount. (3) Combined partitioning and disaggregation. The...

  9. 47 CFR 27.805 - Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Geographic partitioning and spectrum... partitioning and spectrum disaggregation. An entity that acquires a portion of a 1.4 GHz band licensee's geographic area or spectrum subject to a geographic partitioning or spectrum disaggregation agreement...

  10. 33. Elevation of Doors / Typical Cement Toilet Partitions / ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Elevation of Doors / Typical Cement Toilet Partitions / Typical Cement Shower Bath Partitions / Typical Marble Shower Bath Partitions / Dispensary Cupboard Supply Room Cupboard Similar / Section / Kitchen Cupboard and Sink / Screened Porch Cupboard (drawing 10) - Whittier State School, Hospital & Receiving Building, 11850 East Whittier Boulevard, Whittier, Los Angeles County, CA

  11. Water Evaporation and Condensation by a Phase-Field Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabrizio, Mauro; Grandi, Diego; Molari, Luisa

    2016-10-01

    We develop a phase-field model for the liquid-vapor phase transition. The model aims to describe in a thermodynamically consistent way the phase change phenomenon coupled with the macroscopic motion of the fluid. The phase field φ in [0, 1] describes the liquid fraction at any point and the overall water density is a function of the phase field and the pressure. An extra gaseous substance (e.g. air) is allowed in the system and contributes to the mechanical pressure. The phase transition is described by a Ginzburg-Landau equation. The parameter that drives the transition is the partial vapor pressure, which is the relevant quantity for condensation and evaporation phenomena. Moreover, a velocity-dependent term contributes to the phase change in the transition layers where a vapor pressure gradient exists.

  12. DETAIL VIEW OF MARISCAL WORKS CONDENSER STACK, THE END OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF MARISCAL WORKS CONDENSER STACK, THE END OF THE CONDENSING SYSTEM, REUSED BY VIVIANNA WORKS AS THE END OF THEIR CONDENSING SYSTEM, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Mariscal Quicksilver Mine & Reduction Works, Terlingua, Brewster County, TX

  13. 26. DETAIL VIEW OF MARISCAL WORKS CONDENSER STACK, THE END ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. DETAIL VIEW OF MARISCAL WORKS CONDENSER STACK, THE END OF THE CONDENSING SYSTEM, REUSED BY VIVIANNA WORKS AS THE END OF THEIR CONDENSING SYSTEM, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Mariscal Quicksilver Mine & Reduction Works, Terlingua, Brewster County, TX

  14. NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF HELICITY CONDENSATION IN THE SOLAR CORONA

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, L.; Zurbuchen, T. H.; DeVore, C. R.; Antiochos, S. K.

    2015-05-20

    The helicity condensation model has been proposed by Antiochos to explain the observed smoothness of coronal loops and the observed buildup of magnetic shear at filament channels. The basic hypothesis of the model is that magnetic reconnection in the corona causes the magnetic stress injected by photospheric motions to collect only at those special locations where prominences are observed to form. In this work we present the first detailed quantitative MHD simulations of the reconnection evolution proposed by the helicity condensation model. We use the well-known ansatz of modeling the closed corona as an initially uniform field between two horizontal photospheric plates. The system is driven by applying photospheric rotational flows that inject magnetic helicity into the corona. The flows are confined to a finite region on the photosphere so as to mimic the finite flux system of a bipolar active region, for example. The calculations demonstrate that, contrary to common belief, opposite helicity twists do not lead to significant reconnection in such a coronal system, whereas twists with the same sense of helicity do produce substantial reconnection. Furthermore, we find that for a given amount of helicity injected into the corona, the evolution of the magnetic shear is insensitive to whether the pattern of driving photospheric motions is fixed or quasi-random. In all cases, the shear propagates via reconnection to the boundary of the flow region while the total magnetic helicity is conserved, as predicted by the model. We discuss the implications of our results for solar observations and for future, more realistic simulations of the helicity condensation process.

  15. Determination of partition and diffusion coefficients of formaldehyde in selected building materials and impact of relative humidity.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jing; Zhang, Jianshun S; Liu, Xiaoyu; Gao, Zhi

    2012-06-01

    The partition and effective diffusion coefficients of formaldehyde were measured for three materials (conventional gypsum wallboard, "green" gypsum wallboard, and "green" carpet) under three relative humidity (RH) conditions (20%, 50%, and 70% RH). The "green" materials contained recycled materials and were friendly to environment. A dynamic dual-chamber test method was used. Results showed that a higher relative humidity led to a larger effective diffusion coefficient for two kinds of wallboards and carpet. The carpet was also found to be very permeable resulting in an effective diffusion coefficient at the same order of magnitude with the formaldehyde diffusion coefficient in air. The partition coefficient (K(ma)) of formaldehyde in conventional wallboard was 1.52 times larger at 50% RH than at 20% RH, whereas it decreased slightly from 50% to 70% RH, presumably due to the combined effects of water solubility of formaldehyde and micro-pore blocking by condensed moisture at the high RH level. The partition coefficient of formaldehyde increased slightly with the increase of relative humidity in "green" wallboard and "green" carpet. At the same relative humidity level, the "green" wallboard had larger partition coefficient and effective diffusion coefficient than the conventional wallboard, presumably due to the micro-pore structure differences between the two materials. The data generated could be used to assess the sorption effects of formaldehyde on building materials and to evaluate its impact on the formaldehyde concentration in buildings.

  16. Mitotic Golgi partitioning is driven by the membrane-fissioning protein CtBP3/BARS.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo Carcedo, Cristina; Bonazzi, Matteo; Spanò, Stefania; Turacchio, Gabriele; Colanzi, Antonino; Luini, Alberto; Corda, Daniela

    2004-07-02

    Organelle inheritance is an essential feature of all eukaryotic cells. As with other organelles, the Golgi complex partitions between daughter cells through the fission of its membranes into numerous tubulovesicular fragments. We found that the protein CtBP3/BARS (BARS) was responsible for driving the fission of Golgi membranes during mitosis in vivo. Moreover, by in vitro analysis, we identified two stages of this Golgi fragmentation process: disassembly of the Golgi stacks into a tubular network, and BARS-dependent fission of these tubules. Finally, this BARS-induced fission of Golgi membranes controlled the G2-to-prophase transition of the cell cycle, and hence cell division.

  17. Vapor condensation onto a non-volatile liquid drop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inci, Levent; Bowles, Richard K.

    2013-12-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations of miscible and partially miscible binary Lennard-Jones mixtures are used to study the dynamics and thermodynamics of vapor condensation onto a non-volatile liquid drop in the canonical ensemble. When the system volume is large, the driving force for condensation is low and only a submonolayer of the solvent is adsorbed onto the liquid drop. A small degree of mixing of the solvent phase into the core of the particles occurs for the miscible system. At smaller volumes, complete film formation is observed and the dynamics of film growth are dominated by cluster-cluster coalescence. Mixing into the core of the droplet is also observed for partially miscible systems below an onset volume suggesting the presence of a solubility transition. We also develop a non-volatile liquid drop model, based on the capillarity approximations, that exhibits a solubility transition between small and large drops for partially miscible mixtures and has a hysteresis loop similar to the one observed in the deliquescence of small soluble salt particles. The properties of the model are compared to our simulation results and the model is used to study the formulation of classical nucleation theory for systems with low free energy barriers.

  18. Vapor condensation onto a non-volatile liquid drop

    SciTech Connect

    Inci, Levent; Bowles, Richard K.

    2013-12-07

    Molecular dynamics simulations of miscible and partially miscible binary Lennard–Jones mixtures are used to study the dynamics and thermodynamics of vapor condensation onto a non-volatile liquid drop in the canonical ensemble. When the system volume is large, the driving force for condensation is low and only a submonolayer of the solvent is adsorbed onto the liquid drop. A small degree of mixing of the solvent phase into the core of the particles occurs for the miscible system. At smaller volumes, complete film formation is observed and the dynamics of film growth are dominated by cluster-cluster coalescence. Mixing into the core of the droplet is also observed for partially miscible systems below an onset volume suggesting the presence of a solubility transition. We also develop a non-volatile liquid drop model, based on the capillarity approximations, that exhibits a solubility transition between small and large drops for partially miscible mixtures and has a hysteresis loop similar to the one observed in the deliquescence of small soluble salt particles. The properties of the model are compared to our simulation results and the model is used to study the formulation of classical nucleation theory for systems with low free energy barriers.

  19. Effect of nonionic surfactant partitioning on the dissolution kinetics of residual perchloroethylene in a model porous medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharmin, Rumana; Ioannidis, Marios A.; Legge, Raymond L.

    2006-01-01

    At concentrations above the critical micelle concentration, surfactants can significantly enhance the solubilization of residual nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPL) and, for this reason, are the focus of research on surfactant-enhanced aquifer remediation (SEAR). As a consequence of their amphiphilic nature, surfactants may also partition to various extents between the organic and aqueous phases, thereby affecting SEAR performance. We report here on the observation and analysis of the effect of surfactant partitioning on the dissolution kinetics of residual perchloroethylene (PCE) by aqueous solutions (1000 mg/L) of the non-ionic surfactant Triton X-100 in a model porous medium. For this fluid system, batch equilibration experiments showed that the surfactant partitions strongly into the NAPL (NAPL-water partition coefficient equal to 12.5). Dynamic interfacial tension (IFT) measurements were employed to study surfactant diffusion and interfacial adsorption. The dynamic IFT measurements were consistent with partitioning of the surfactant between the two liquid phases. PCE dissolution experiments, conducted in a transparent glass micromodel using an aqueous surfactant solution, were contrasted to experiments using clean water. Surfactant partitioning was observed to delay significantly the onset of micellar solubilization of PCE, an observation reproduced by a numerical model. This effect is attributed to the reduction of surfactant concentration in the immediate vicinity of the NAPL-water interface, which accompanies transport of the surfactant into the NAPL. Accordingly, it is suggested that both the rate and the extent of diffusion of the surfactant into the NAPL affect the onset of and the driving force for micellar solubilization. While many surfactants do not readily partition in NAPL, this possibility must be considered when selecting non-ionic surfactants for the enhanced solubilization of residual chlorinated solvents in porous media.

  20. [Driving ability with multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Küst, J; Dettmers, C

    2014-07-01

    Driving is an important issue for young patients, especially for those whose walking capacity is impaired. Driving might support the patient's social and vocational participation. The question as to whether a patient with multiple sclerosis (MS) is restricted in the ability to drive a car depends on neurological and neuropsychological deficits, self-awareness, insight into deficits and ability to compensate for loss of function. Because of the enormous variability of symptoms in MS the question is highly individualized. A practical driving test under supervision of a driving instructor (possibly accompanied by a neuropsychologist) might be helpful in providing both patient and relatives adequate feedback on driving abilities.

  1. Sex Chromosome Drive

    PubMed Central

    Helleu, Quentin; Gérard, Pierre R.; Montchamp-Moreau, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Sex chromosome drivers are selfish elements that subvert Mendel's first law of segregation and therefore are overrepresented among the products of meiosis. The sex-biased progeny produced then fuels an extended genetic conflict between the driver and the rest of the genome. Many examples of sex chromosome drive are known, but the occurrence of this phenomenon is probably largely underestimated because of the difficulty to detect it. Remarkably, nearly all sex chromosome drivers are found in two clades, Rodentia and Diptera. Although very little is known about the molecular and cellular mechanisms of drive, epigenetic processes such as chromatin regulation could be involved in many instances. Yet, its evolutionary consequences are far-reaching, from the evolution of mating systems and sex determination to the emergence of new species. PMID:25524548

  2. [Cannabis affects driving skills].

    PubMed

    Khiabani, Hassan Z; Christophersen, Asbjørg S; Mørland, Jørg

    2007-03-01

    Delta (9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the most important psychoactive substance in cannabis, is frequently detected in blood from apprehended drivers suspected for drugged driving. Both experimental and epidemiological studies have demonstrated the negative effects of THC upon cognitive functions and psychomotor skills. These effects could last longer than a measurable concentration of THC in blood. Culpability studies have recently demonstrated an increased risk of becoming responsible in fatal or injurious traffic accidents, even with low blood concentrations of THC. It has also been demonstrated that there is a correlation between the degree of impairment, the drug dose and the THC blood concentration. It is very important to focus on the negative effect of cannabis on fitness to drive in order to prevent injuries and loss of human life and to avoid large economic consequences to the society.

  3. Magnetostrictive direct drive motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naik, Dipak; Dehoff, P. H.

    1990-01-01

    Developing magnetostrictive direct drive research motors to power robot joints is discussed. These type motors are expected to produce extraordinary torque density, to be able to perform microradian incremental steps and to be self-braking and safe with the power off. Several types of motor designs have been attempted using magnetostrictive materials. One of the candidate approaches (the magnetostrictive roller drive) is described. The method in which the design will function is described as is the reason why this approach is inherently superior to the other approaches. Following this, the design will be modelled and its expected performance predicted. This particular candidate design is currently undergoing detailed engineering with prototype construction and testing scheduled for mid 1991.

  4. Advanced Motor Drives Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehsani, M.; Tchamdjou, A.

    1997-01-01

    This report presents an evaluation of advanced motor drive systems as a replacement for the hydrazine fueled APU units. The replacement technology must meet several requirements which are particular to the space applications and the Orbiter in general. Some of these requirements are high efficiency, small size, high power density. In the first part of the study several motors are compared, based on their characteristics and in light of the Orbiter requirements. The best candidate, the brushless DC is chosen because of its particularly good performance with regards to efficiency. Several power electronics drive technologies including the conventional three-phase hard switched and several soft-switched inverters are then presented. In the last part of the study, a soft-switched inverter is analyzed and compared to its conventional hard-switched counterpart. Optimal efficiency is a basic requirement for space applications and the soft-switched technology represents an unavoidable trend for the future.

  5. The Benefits of Adaptive Partitioning for Parallel AMR Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Steensland, Johan

    2008-07-01

    Parallel adaptive mesh refinement methods potentially lead to realistic modeling of complex three-dimensional physical phenomena. However, the dynamics inherent in these methods present significant challenges in data partitioning and load balancing. Significant human resources, including time, effort, experience, and knowledge, are required for determining the optimal partitioning technique for each new simulation. In reality, scientists resort to using the on-board partitioner of the computational framework, or to using the partitioning industry standard, ParMetis. Adaptive partitioning refers to repeatedly selecting, configuring and invoking the optimal partitioning technique at run-time, based on the current state of the computer and application. In theory, adaptive partitioning automatically delivers superior performance and eliminates the need for repeatedly spending valuable human resources for determining the optimal static partitioning technique. In practice, however, enabling frameworks are non-existent due to the inherent significant inter-disciplinary research challenges. This paper presents a study of a simple implementation of adaptive partitioning and discusses implied potential benefits from the perspective of common groups of users within computational science. The study is based on a large set of data derived from experiments including six real-life, multi-time-step adaptive applications from various scientific domains, five complementing and fundamentally different partitioning techniques, a large set of parameters corresponding to a wide spectrum of computing environments, and a flexible cost function that considers the relative impact of multiple partitioning metrics and diverse partitioning objectives. The results show that even a simple implementation of adaptive partitioning can automatically generate results statistically equivalent to the best static partitioning. Thus, it is possible to effectively eliminate the problem of determining the

  6. Enhancing dropwise condensation through bioinspired wettability patterning.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Aritra; Beaini, Sara; Zhang, Bong June; Ganguly, Ranjan; Megaridis, Constantine M

    2014-11-04

    Dropwise condensation (DWC) heat transfer depends strongly on the maximum diameter (Dmax) of condensate droplets departing from the condenser surface. This study presents a facile technique implemented to gain control of Dmax in DWC within vapor/air atmospheres. We demonstrate how this approach can enhance the corresponding heat transfer rate by harnessing the capillary forces in the removal of the condensate from the surface. We examine various hydrophilic-superhydrophilic patterns, which, respectively, sustain and combine DWC and filmwise condensation on the substrate. The material system uses laser-patterned masking and chemical etching to achieve the desired wettability contrast and does not employ any hydrophobizing agent. By applying alternating straight parallel strips of hydrophilic (contact angle ∼78°) mirror-finish aluminum and superhydrophilic regions (etched aluminum) on the condensing surface, we show that the average maximum droplet size on the less-wettable domains is nearly 42% of the width of the corresponding strips. An overall improvement in the condensate collection rate, up to 19% (as compared to the control case of DWC on mirror-finish aluminum) was achieved by using an interdigitated superhydrophilic track pattern (on the mirror-finish hydrophilic surface) inspired by the vein network of plant leaves. The bioinspired interdigitated pattern is found to outperform the straight hydrophilic-superhydrophilic pattern design, particularly under higher humidity conditions in the presence of noncondensable gases (NCG), a condition that is more challenging for maintaining sustained DWC.

  7. Boson condensation in topologically ordered quantum liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neupert, Titus; He, Huan; von Keyserlingk, Curt; Sierra, Germán; Bernevig, B. Andrei

    2016-03-01

    Boson condensation in topological quantum field theories (TQFT) has been previously investigated through the formalism of Frobenius algebras and the use of vertex lifting coefficients. While general, this formalism is physically opaque and computationally arduous: analyses of TQFT condensation are practically performed on a case by case basis and for very simple theories only, mostly not using the Frobenius algebra formalism. In this paper, we provide a way of treating boson condensation that is computationally efficient. With a minimal set of physical assumptions, such as commutativity of lifting and the definition of confined particles, we can prove a number of theorems linking Boson condensation in TQFT with chiral algebra extensions, and with the factorization of completely positive matrices over Z+. We present numerically efficient ways of obtaining a condensed theory fusion algebra and S matrices; and we then use our formalism to prove several theorems for the S and T matrices of simple current condensation and of theories which upon condensation result in a low number of confined particles. We also show that our formalism easily reproduces results existent in the mathematical literature such as the noncondensability of five and ten layers of the Fibonacci TQFT.

  8. Diquark Bose-Einstein condensation

    SciTech Connect

    Nawa, K.; Nakano, E.; Yabu, H.

    2006-08-01

    Bose-Einstein condensation of composite diquarks in quark matter (the color superconductor phase) is discussed using the quasichemical equilibrium theory at a relatively low-density region near the deconfinement phase transition, where dynamical quark-pair fluctuations are assumed to be described as bosonic degrees of freedom (diquarks). A general formulation is given for the diquark formation and particle-antiparticle pair-creation processes in the relativistic framework, and some interesting properties are shown, which are characteristic for the relativistic many-body system. Behaviors of transition temperature and phase diagram of the quark-diquark matter are generally presented in model parameter space, and their asymptotic behaviors are also discussed. As an application to the color superconductivity, the transition temperatures and the quark and diquark density profiles are calculated in case with constituent/current quarks, where the diquark is in the bound/resonant state. We obtained T{sub C}{approx}60-80 MeV for constituent quarks and T{sub C}{approx}130 MeV for current quarks at a moderate density ({rho}{sub b}{approx}3{rho}{sub 0}). The method is also developed to include interdiquark interactions into the quasichemical equilibrium theory within a mean-field approximation, and it is found that a possible repulsive diquark-diquark interaction lowers the transition temperature by {approx}50%.

  9. Condensation Processes in Astrophysical Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nuth, Joseph A., III; Rietmeijer, Frans J. M.; Hill, Hugh G. M.

    2002-01-01

    Astrophysical systems present an intriguing set of challenges for laboratory chemists. Chemistry occurs in regions considered an excellent vacuum by laboratory standards and at temperatures that would vaporize laboratory equipment. Outflows around Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars have timescales ranging from seconds to weeks depending on the distance of the region of interest from the star and, on the way significant changes in the state variables are defined. The atmospheres in normal stars may only change significantly on several billion-year timescales. Most laboratory experiments carried out to understand astrophysical processes are not done at conditions that perfectly match the natural suite of state variables or timescales appropriate for natural conditions. Experimenters must make use of simple analog experiments that place limits on the behavior of natural systems, often extrapolating to lower-pressure and/or higher-temperature environments. Nevertheless, we argue that well-conceived experiments will often provide insights into astrophysical processes that are impossible to obtain through models or observations. This is especially true for complex chemical phenomena such as the formation and metamorphism of refractory grains under a range of astrophysical conditions. Data obtained in our laboratory has been surprising in numerous ways, ranging from the composition of the condensates to the thermal evolution of their spectral properties. None of this information could have been predicted from first principals and would not have been credible even if it had.

  10. Ice-condenser aerosol tests

    SciTech Connect

    Ligotke, M.W.; Eschbach, E.J.; Winegardner, W.K. )

    1991-09-01

    This report presents the results of an experimental investigation of aerosol particle transport and capture using a full-scale height and reduced-scale cross section test facility based on the design of the ice compartment of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) ice-condenser containment system. Results of 38 tests included thermal-hydraulic as well as aerosol particle data. Particle retention in the test section was greatly influenced by thermal-hydraulic and aerosol test parameters. Test-average decontamination factor (DF) ranged between 1.0 and 36 (retentions between {approximately}0 and 97.2%). The measured test-average particle retentions for tests without and with ice and steam ranged between DF = 1.0 and 2.2 and DF = 2.4 and 36, respectively. In order to apparent importance, parameters that caused particle retention in the test section in the presence of ice were steam mole fraction (SMF), noncondensible gas flow rate (residence time), particle solubility, and inlet particle size. Ice-basket section noncondensible flows greater than 0.1 m{sup 3}/s resulted in stable thermal stratification whereas flows less than 0.1 m{sup 3}/s resulted in thermal behavior termed meandering with frequent temperature crossovers between flow channels. 10 refs., 66 figs., 16 tabs.

  11. Driving on the Descartes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut John W. Young, Apollo 16 mission commander, drives the 'Rover', Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) to its final parking place near the end of the third extravehicular activity (EVA-3) at the Descartes landing site. Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., Lunar Module pilot, took this photograph looking southward. The flank of Stone Mountain can be seen on the horizon at left. The shadow of the Lunar Module 'Orion' is visible in the foreground.

  12. Gear Drive Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Philadelphia Gear Corporation used two COSMIC computer programs; one dealing with shrink fit analysis and the other with rotor dynamics problems in computerized design and test work. The programs were used to verify existing in-house programs to insure design accuracy by checking its company-developed computer methods against procedures developed by other organizations. Its specialty is in custom units for unique applications, such as Coast Guard ice breaking ships, steel mill drives, coal crusher, sewage treatment equipment and electricity.

  13. Variable reluctance drive system

    SciTech Connect

    Lipo, T.A.; Liang, F.

    1995-10-17

    A variable reluctance drive system including a motor and corresponding converter for improved current commutation is described. The motor incorporates a salient pole rotor and a salient pole stator having one or more full pitch windings which operate by mutual inductance to transfer the current from the active short pitch winding following phase alignment. This increases output torque and/or speed and permits a number of simple and economical converter circuits. 17 figs.

  14. Measurement of the iodine partition coefficient

    SciTech Connect

    Furrer, M.; Cripps, R.C.; Gubler, R.

    1985-08-01

    The hydrolysis of iodine is complicated because it involves a number of species that differ considerably in their individual volatilities. Large uncertainties exist in the thermodynamic data of some of the iodine species, especially at temperatures above 25C. Because of this, an experiment was undertaken to measure the partition coefficient under varying physical and chemical conditions. Measurements of P were made for a temperature range of 21 to 113C under well-defined conditions (liquid molar concentration, pH, and redox potential) for inorganic iodine. The experimental results are interpreted with the aid of an analytical model and published thermodynamic data. A good agreement between calculated and measured values was found. The experimental setup allows the determination of very high partition coefficients up to a value of 2.0 X 10W. This is demonstrated by adding cesium-iodide to the fuel pool water of a boiling water reactor.

  15. Number Partitioning via Quantum Adiabatic Computation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smelyanskiy, Vadim N.; Toussaint, Udo; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We study both analytically and numerically the complexity of the adiabatic quantum evolution algorithm applied to random instances of combinatorial optimization problems. We use as an example the NP-complete set partition problem and obtain an asymptotic expression for the minimal gap separating the ground and exited states of a system during the execution of the algorithm. We show that for computationally hard problem instances the size of the minimal gap scales exponentially with the problem size. This result is in qualitative agreement with the direct numerical simulation of the algorithm for small instances of the set partition problem. We describe the statistical properties of the optimization problem that are responsible for the exponential behavior of the algorithm.

  16. Analysis of fractals with combined partition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dedovich, T. G.; Tokarev, M. V.

    2016-03-01

    The space—time properties in the general theory of relativity, as well as the discreteness and non-Archimedean property of space in the quantum theory of gravitation, are discussed. It is emphasized that the properties of bodies in non-Archimedean spaces coincide with the properties of the field of P-adic numbers and fractals. It is suggested that parton showers, used for describing interactions between particles and nuclei at high energies, have a fractal structure. A mechanism of fractal formation with combined partition is considered. The modified SePaC method is offered for the analysis of such fractals. The BC, PaC, and SePaC methods for determining a fractal dimension and other fractal characteristics (numbers of levels and values of a base of forming a fractal) are considered. It is found that the SePaC method has advantages for the analysis of fractals with combined partition.

  17. Dynamic criteria for partitioning and transmutation

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, A.H. )

    1991-11-01

    Because of the slow progress being made in the national geologic repository program, the idea of partitioning and transmuting (P-T) long-lived radionuclides resurfaces as a potential improvement in high-level radioactive waste management. It seems theoretically possible to reduce the overall problems of radioactive waste by repeatedly partitioning and recycling wastes into actinide-free wastes, but there are recognizable difficulties and negative consequences that may overshadow the long-term benefits. This paper addresses some of the criteria that might be used to achieve an optimal P-T concept development, i.e., to minimize the negative short-term impact and to maximize both short-term and long-term benefits.

  18. Partition-DFT on the water dimer.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Sara; Nafziger, Jonathan; Restrepo, Albeiro; Wasserman, Adam

    2017-02-21

    As is well known, the ground-state symmetry group of the water dimer switches from its equilibrium Cs-character to C2h-character as the distance between the two oxygen atoms of the dimer decreases below RO-O∼2.5 Å. For a range of RO-O between 1 and 5 Å, and for both symmetries, we apply Partition Density Functional Theory (PDFT) to find the unique monomer densities that sum to the correct dimer densities while minimizing the sum of the monomer energies. We calculate the work involved in deforming the isolated monomer densities and find that it is slightly larger for the Cs geometry for all RO-O. We discuss how the PDFT densities and the corresponding partition potentials support the orbital-interaction picture of hydrogen-bond formation.

  19. Bipartite graph partitioning and data clustering

    SciTech Connect

    Zha, Hongyuan; He, Xiaofeng; Ding, Chris; Gu, Ming; Simon, Horst D.

    2001-05-07

    Many data types arising from data mining applications can be modeled as bipartite graphs, examples include terms and documents in a text corpus, customers and purchasing items in market basket analysis and reviewers and movies in a movie recommender system. In this paper, the authors propose a new data clustering method based on partitioning the underlying biopartite graph. The partition is constructed by minimizing a normalized sum of edge weights between unmatched pairs of vertices of the bipartite graph. They show that an approximate solution to the minimization problem can be obtained by computing a partial singular value decomposition (SVD) of the associated edge weight matrix of the bipartite graph. They point out the connection of their clustering algorithm to correspondence analysis used in multivariate analysis. They also briefly discuss the issue of assigning data objects to multiple clusters. In the experimental results, they apply their clustering algorithm to the problem of document clustering to illustrate its effectiveness and efficiency.

  20. Butalbital and driving impairment.

    PubMed

    Yeakel, Jillian K; Logan, Barry K

    2013-07-01

    Butalbital (Fiorinal(®)), used in the treatment of migraines and muscle pain, is the most commonly encountered barbiturate in impaired driving cases. It has central nervous system (CNS) depressant properties, including sedation, drowsiness, and feelings of intoxication, which can contribute to driving impairment. Twenty-six driving under the influence cases are reviewed including results from field sobriety tests and toxicology testing. Blood samples were screened using enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique immunoassay, and the presence of butalbital was confirmed and quantified using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, gas chromatography with flame ionization detection, or gas chromatography nitrogen/phosphorus detection. Butalbital concentrations ranged from 1.0 to 30.2 mg/L, with a mean and median of 16.0 mg/L. General impairment indicators in these cases included horizontal and vertical nystagmus, lack of convergence, poor motor coordination, and balance and speech problems, which are common to CNS depressant intoxication, similar to that associated with alcohol. These findings indicate the importance of toxicological testing for butalbital in cases where CNS depressants are indicated.

  1. [Automobile driving capacity in dementia].

    PubMed

    Seeger, Rolf

    2015-04-01

    Dementia influences at an early stage the driving aptitude of motor vehicle steering persons. Every year in Switzerland, around 16'000 driving permit holders suffer newly from dementia; therefore the driving aptitude is questioned, especially because of possibly limited executive functions. Individuals with early-stage dementia often may show a dangerous driving stile. However, a mild dementia does not a priori exclude the driving aptitude, and less than half of these drivers can continue driving for another 1 - 3 years. In contrast, there is no further driving aptitude in presence of moderate dementia. In the assessment of driving aptitude, the underlying cause of dementia is always taken into account. Cognitive short tests such as the Mini-Mental Status Exam, Clock Drawing Test and Trail-Making Test are not suitable to make reliable statements about the aptitude to drive, but these tests are very important for the initial diagnosis of dementia in primary care practice and can lead the way for further examination concerning driving aptitude. The legally prescribed regular check-up for motorists aged over 70 years in Switzerland provides an ideal opportunity for early detection of incipient dementia. The practical procedure for the assessment of aptitude to drive in the primary care practice is presented. The physician-guided on-road driving test represents a meaningful, practical and relatively cost-effective tool for the evaluation of driving aptitude in cases of doubt.

  2. Partition algebraic design of asynchronous sequential circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maki, Gary K.; Chen, Kristen Q.; Gopalakrishnan, Suresh K.

    1993-01-01

    Tracey's Theorem has long been recognized as essential in generating state assignments for asynchronous sequential circuits. This paper shows that partitioning variables derived from Tracey's Theorem also has a significant impact in generating the design equations. Moreover, this theorem is important to the fundamental understanding of asynchronous sequential operation. The results of this work simplify asynchronous logic design. Moreover, detection of safe circuits is made easier.

  3. Partitioning coefficients between olivine and silicate melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bédard, J. H.

    2005-08-01

    Variation of Nernst partition coefficients ( D) between olivine and silicate melts cannot be neglected when modeling partial melting and fractional crystallization. Published natural and experimental olivine/liquidD data were examined for covariation with pressure, temperature, olivine forsterite content, and melt SiO 2, H 2O, MgO and MgO/MgO + FeO total. Values of olivine/liquidD generally increase with decreasing temperature and melt MgO content, and with increasing melt SiO 2 content, but generally show poor correlations with other variables. Multi-element olivine/liquidD profiles calculated from regressions of D REE-Sc-Y vs. melt MgO content are compared to results of the Lattice Strain Model to link melt MgO and: D0 (the strain compensated partition coefficient), EM3+ (Young's Modulus), and r0 (the size of the M site). Ln D0 varies linearly with Ln MgO in the melt; EM3+ varies linearly with melt MgO, with a dog-leg at ca. 1.5% MgO; and r0 remains constant at 0.807 Å. These equations are then used to calculate olivine/liquidD for these elements using the Lattice Strain Model. These empirical parameterizations of olivine/liquidD variations yield results comparable to experimental or natural partitioning data, and can easily be integrated into existing trace element modeling algorithms. The olivine/liquidD data suggest that basaltic melts in equilibrium with pure olivine may acquire small negative Ta-Hf-Zr-Ti anomalies, but that negative Nb anomalies are unlikely to develop. Misfits between results of the Lattice Strain Model and most light rare earth and large ion lithophile partitioning data suggest that kinetic effects may limit the lower value of D for extremely incompatible elements in natural situations characterized by high cooling/crystallization rates.

  4. Pure Partition Functions of Multiple SLEs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kytölä, Kalle; Peltola, Eveliina

    2016-08-01

    Multiple Schramm-Loewner Evolutions (SLE) are conformally invariant random processes of several curves, whose construction by growth processes relies on partition functions—Möbius covariant solutions to a system of second order partial differential equations. In this article, we use a quantum group technique to construct a distinguished basis of solutions, which conjecturally correspond to the extremal points of the convex set of probability measures of multiple SLEs.

  5. Hardware Index to Set Partition Converter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    www.jstatsoft.org/ 8. Knuth , D.E.: Volume 4 Generating all combinations and permutations. In: The Art of Computer Programming, Fascicle 3. Addison...especially requires high-speed enumeration of partitions. Recent research in computational molecular biology has shown the importance of par- titions...speed generation of combinations, as well as the generation of random combina- tions for use in reconfigurable computers . It can also be viewed as a

  6. Environment Partitioning and Reactivity of Polybrominated Diphenylethers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hua, Inez; Iraci, Laura T.; Jafvert, Chad; Bezares-Cruz, Juan

    2004-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are an important class of flame retardants. Annual global demand for these compounds was over 67,000 metric tons in 2001. PBDEs have recently been extensively investigated as environmental contaminants because they have been detected in air, sediment, and tissue samples from urban and remote areas. Important issues include quantifying PBDE partitioning in various environmental compartments, and elucidating transformation pathways. The partitioning of PBDE congeners to aerosols was estimated for 16 sites in the United States, Canada, and Mexico. The aerosol particles were PM2.5, the total suspended particle (TSP) concentration varied between 3.0 - 55.4 micro g/cubic meter, and the organic fraction ranged from 11 - 41%; these data are published values for each site. It is estimated that the largest fraction of each PBDE associated with the aerosol particles occurs in Mexico City, and the smallest fraction in Colorado Plateau. Although the organic fraction in Mexico City is about 60% of that observed in the Colorado Plateau, the TSP is larger by a factor of about 18.5, and it is the difference in TSP that strongly influences the fraction of particle-bound PBDE in this case. PBDE partitioning to PM2.5 particles also varies seasonally because of temperature variations. For the less brominated congeners the percentage that is particle-bound is relatively low, regardless of air temperature. In contrast, the heavier congeners exhibit a significant temperature dependence: as the temperature decreases (fall, winter) the percentage of PBDE that is particle-bound increases. The partitioning calculations complement experimental data indicating that decabromodiphenyl ether (DBDE) dissolved in hexane transforms very rapidly when irradiated with solar light. DBDE is the most highly brominated PBDE congener (10 bromine atoms) and occurs in the commercial formulation which is subject to the largest global demand.

  7. 12. ANGLED VIEW OF THE SCOTT FURNACE WITH PRIMARY CONDENSER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. ANGLED VIEW OF THE SCOTT FURNACE WITH PRIMARY CONDENSER AND SOUTH SECONDARY CONDENSER IN BACKGROUND, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Mariscal Quicksilver Mine & Reduction Works, Terlingua, Brewster County, TX

  8. Toward an Experimental Quantum Chemistry: Exploring a New Energy Partitioning.

    PubMed

    Rahm, Martin; Hoffmann, Roald

    2015-08-19

    Following the work of L. C. Allen, this work begins by relating the central chemical concept of electronegativity with the average binding energy of electrons in a system. The average electron binding energy, χ̅, is in principle accessible from experiment, through photoelectron and X-ray spectroscopy. It can also be estimated theoretically. χ̅ has a rigorous and understandable connection to the total energy. That connection defines a new kind of energy decomposition scheme. The changing total energy in a reaction has three primary contributions to it: the average electron binding energy, the nuclear-nuclear repulsion, and multielectron interactions. This partitioning allows one to gain insight into the predominant factors behind a particular energetic preference. We can conclude whether an energy change in a transformation is favored or resisted by collective changes to the binding energy of electrons, the movement of nuclei, or multielectron interactions. For example, in the classical formation of H2 from atoms, orbital interactions dominate nearly canceling nuclear-nuclear repulsion and two-electron interactions. While in electron attachment to an H atom, the multielectron interactions drive the reaction. Looking at the balance of average electron binding energy, multielectron, and nuclear-nuclear contributions one can judge when more traditional electronegativity arguments can be justifiably invoked in the rationalization of a particular chemical event.

  9. Partitioning of initial energy release in a tunnel environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felts, Joshua E.; Lee, Richard J.; Mychajlonka, Kyle; Davis, Andy

    2017-01-01

    After the detonation of an explosive charge in the closed end of a tunnel, product gases and metal fuels can continue to react with one another as well as combust with the available air while expanding down the tunnel. It is that total reaction that drives the blast wave at long distances from the charge. The initial energy release was calculated from pressure wave time of arrival at distances of 5 to 30 tunnel diameters away for several explosives in a 127-mm diameter tunnel using point blast theory. For similarly sized explosives, the anaerobic energy was measured using a detonation calorimeter. Comparisons were made for four explosives: one nearly ideal, two with aluminum, and one with aluminum and an oxidizer. The measured tunnel and calorimeter energies were equal, within error, for the near-ideal explosive. The other three explosives had tunnel and calorimeter energies higher than that which can be accounted for from the detonable ingredients alone, especially in the tunnel. The differences between the tunnel and calorimeter for the three aluminized explosives were taken to be from aerobic combustion of aluminum. The presence of higher concentrations of aluminum or an oxidizer enhanced the amount of aerobic combustion of aluminum. The aluminized explosive with additional oxidizer consumed more than twice the aluminum of the other two in the tunnel. More experiments are needed to better define the early partitioning of anaerobic and aerobic combustion of aluminum in the small-scale tunnel.

  10. Dropwise condensation dynamics in humid air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo Chacon, Julian Eduardo

    Dropwise condensation of atmospheric water vapor is important in multiple practical engineering applications. The roles of environmental factors and surface morphology/chemistry on the condensation dynamics need to be better understood to enable efficient water-harvesting, dehumidication, and other psychrometric processes. Systems and surfaces that promote faster condensation rates and self-shedding of condensate droplets could lead to improved mass transfer rates and higher water yields in harvesting applications. The thesis presents the design and construction of an experimental facility that allows visualization of the condensation process as a function of relative humidity. Dropwise condensation experiments are performed on a vertically oriented, hydrophobic surface at a controlled relative humidity and surface subcooling temperature. The distribution and growth of water droplets are monitored across the surface at different relative humidities (45%, 50%, 55%, and 70%) at a constant surface subcooling temperature of 15 °C below the ambient temperature. The droplet growth dynamics exhibits a strong dependency on relative humidity in the early stages during which there is a large population of small droplets on the surface and single droplet growth dominates over coalescence effects. At later stages, the dynamics of droplet growth is insensitive to relative humidity due to the dominance of coalescence effects. The overall volumetric rate of condensation on the surface is also assessed as a function of time and ambient relative humidity. Low relative humidity conditions not only slow the absolute rate of condensation, but also prolong an initial transient regime over which the condensation rate remains significantly below the steady-state value. The current state-of-the-art in dropwise condensation research indicates the need for systematic experimental investigations as a function of relative humidity. The improved understanding of the relative humidity

  11. Vortices and turbulence in trapped atomic condensates

    PubMed Central

    White, Angela C.; Anderson, Brian P.; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.

    2014-01-01

    After more than a decade of experiments generating and studying the physics of quantized vortices in atomic gas Bose–Einstein condensates, research is beginning to focus on the roles of vortices in quantum turbulence, as well as other measures of quantum turbulence in atomic condensates. Such research directions have the potential to uncover new insights into quantum turbulence, vortices, and superfluidity and also explore the similarities and differences between quantum and classical turbulence in entirely new settings. Here we present a critical assessment of theoretical and experimental studies in this emerging field of quantum turbulence in atomic condensates. PMID:24704880

  12. Heterogeneous Vapor Condensation in Boundary Layers

    SciTech Connect

    Bonilla, L. L.; Carpio, A.; Neu, J. C.

    2008-09-01

    We consider heterogeneous condensation of vapors mixed with a carrier gas in stagnation point boundary layer flow near a cold wall in the presence of solid particles much larger than the mean free path of vapor particles. The supersaturated vapor condenses on the particles by diffusion, particles and droplets are thermophoretically attracted to the wall. We sketch three asymptotic theories of the condensation process, calculate the flow-induced shift in the dew point interface, vapor density profile and deposition rates at the wall, and compare them to direct numerical simulation.

  13. Microscopic theory of equilibrium polariton condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Fei; Wu, Fengcheng; Xie, Ming; Su, Jung-Jung; MacDonald, A. H.

    2016-12-01

    We present a microscopic theory of the equilibrium polariton condensate state of a semiconductor quantum well in a planar optical cavity. The theory accounts for the adjustment of matter excitations to the presence of a coherent photon field, predicts effective polariton-polariton interaction strengths that are weaker and condensate exciton fractions that are smaller than in the commonly employed exciton-photon model, and yields effective Rabi coupling strengths that depend on the detuning of the cavity-photon energy relative to the bare exciton energy. The dressed quasiparticle bands that appear naturally in the theory provide a mechanism for electrical manipulation of polariton condensates.

  14. Peptide partitioning properties from direct insertion studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ulmschneider, Martin; Smith, Jeremy C; Ulmschneider, Jakob

    2010-06-01

    Partitioning properties of polypeptides are at the heart of biological membrane phenomena and their precise quantification is vital for ab-initio structure prediction and the accurate simulation of membrane protein folding and function. Recently the cellular translocon machinery has been employed to determine membrane insertion propensities and transfer energetics for a series of polyleucine segments embedded in a carrier sequence. We show here that the insertion propensity, pathway, and transfer energetics into synthetic POPC bilayers can be fully described by direct atomistic peptide partitioning simulations. The insertion probability as a function of peptide length follows two-state Boltzmann statistics, in agreement with the experiments. The simulations expose a systematic offset between translocon-mediated and direct insertion free energies. Compared to the experiment the insertion threshold is shifted toward shorter peptides by 2 leucine residues. The simulations reveal many hitherto unknown atomic-resolution details about the partitioning process and promise to provide a powerful tool for urgently needed calibration of lipid parameters to match experimentally observed peptide transfer energies.

  15. Airborne phthalate partitioning to cotton clothing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Glenn; Li, Hongwan; Mishra, Santosh; Buechlein, Melissa

    2015-08-01

    Accumulation on indoor surfaces and fabrics can increase dermal uptake and non-dietary ingestion of semi-volatile organic compounds. To better understand the potential for dermal uptake of phthalates from clothing, we measured the mass accumulation on cotton fabrics of two phthalate esters commonly identified in indoor air: diethylphthalate (DEP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP). In 10-day chamber experiments, we observed strong air-to-cloth partitioning of these phthalates to shirts and jean material. Area-normalized partition coefficients ranged from 209 to 411 (μg/m2)/(μg/m3) for DEP and 2850 to 6580 (μg/m2)/(μg/m3) for DnBP. Clothing volume-normalized partition coefficients averaged 2.6 × 105 (μg/m3)/(μg/m3) for DEP and 3.9 × 106 (μg/m3)/(μg/m3) for DnBP. At equilibrium, we estimate that a typical set of cotton clothing can sorb DnBP from the equivalent of >10,000 m3 of indoor air, thereby substantially decreasing external mass-transfer barriers to dermal uptake. Further, we estimate that a significant fraction of a child's body burden of DnBP may come from mouthing fabric material that has been equilibrated with indoor air.

  16. Diversity partitioning during the Cambrian radiation

    PubMed Central

    Na, Lin; Kiessling, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    The fossil record offers unique insights into the environmental and geographic partitioning of biodiversity during global diversifications. We explored biodiversity patterns during the Cambrian radiation, the most dramatic radiation in Earth history. We assessed how the overall increase in global diversity was partitioned between within-community (alpha) and between-community (beta) components and how beta diversity was partitioned among environments and geographic regions. Changes in gamma diversity in the Cambrian were chiefly driven by changes in beta diversity. The combined trajectories of alpha and beta diversity during the initial diversification suggest low competition and high predation within communities. Beta diversity has similar trajectories both among environments and geographic regions, but turnover between adjacent paleocontinents was probably the main driver of diversification. Our study elucidates that global biodiversity during the Cambrian radiation was driven by niche contraction at local scales and vicariance at continental scales. The latter supports previous arguments for the importance of plate tectonics in the Cambrian radiation, namely the breakup of Pannotia. PMID:25825755

  17. Microbial partitioning to settleable particles in stormwater.

    PubMed

    Characklis, Gregory W; Dilts, Mackenzie J; Simmons, Otto D; Likirdopulos, Christina A; Krometis, Leigh-Anne H; Sobsey, Mark D

    2005-05-01

    The degree to which microbes in the water column associate with settleable particles has important implications for microbial transport in receiving waters, as well as for microbial removal via sedimentation (i.e. detention basins). The partitioning behavior of several bacterial, protozoan and viral indicator organisms is explored in three urban streams under both storm and dry weather conditions. The fraction of organisms associated with settleable particles in stormwater is estimated through use of a centrifugation technique which is calibrated using suspensions of standard particles (e.g., glass, latex). The fraction of organisms associated with settleable particles varies by type of microbe, and the partitioning behavior of each organism generally changes between dry weather and storm conditions. Bacterial indicator organisms (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci) exhibited relatively consistent behavior, with an average of 20-35% of organisms associated with these particles in background samples and 30-55% in storm samples. Clostridium perfringens spores exhibited the highest average level of particle association, with storm values varying from 50% to 70%. Results related to total coliphage partitioning were more variable, with 20-60% associated with particles during storms. These estimates should be valuable in surface water quality modeling efforts, many of which currently assume that all microbes exist as free (unattached) organisms.

  18. Phase partitioning experiment (8-IML-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Donald E.

    1992-01-01

    Phase partitioning is a method of separating biological cells and macromolecules via their differential distribution in two phase aqueous polymer solutions. The ultimate goal of the experiment is to test the hypothesis that the efficiency of separation of closely related cell types, by partitioning in immiscible aqueous phases, will be enhanced in the non-convective environment provided by space. Before a cell separation experiment can be performed, the demixing of immiscible aqueous polymer solutions must be understood and controlled in order to optimize the experimental conditions for a cell separation experiment in the future. The present Phase Partitioning Experiment (PPE) is the third in a series, the first two flew on STS 51-D in Apr. 1985 and STS 26 in Oct. 1988. In those experiments the immiscible aqueous phases demixed spontaneously at different rates, the final disposition being one in which the phase which wetted the container wall surrounded the second phase which formed an 'egg yolk' in the center of the chamber.

  19. Equilibrium Partitioning Sediment Benchmarks (ESBs) for the ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document describes procedures to determine the concentrations of nonionic organic chemicals in sediment interstitial waters. In previous ESB documents, the general equilibrium partitioning (EqP) approach was chosen for the derivation of sediment benchmarks because it accounts for the varying bioavailability of chemicals in different sediments and allows for the incorporation of the appropriate biological effects concentration. This provides for the derivation of benchmarks that are causally linked to the specific chemical, applicable across sediments, and appropriately protective of benthic organisms.  This equilibrium partitioning sediment benchmark (ESB) document was prepared by scientists from the Atlantic Ecology Division, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, and Western Ecology Division, the Office of Water, and private consultants. The document describes procedures to determine the interstitial water concentrations of nonionic organic chemicals in contaminated sediments. Based on these concentrations, guidance is provided on the derivation of toxic units to assess whether the sediments are likely to cause adverse effects to benthic organisms. The equilibrium partitioning (EqP) approach was chosen because it is based on the concentrations of chemical(s) that are known to be harmful and bioavailable in the environment.  This document, and five others published over the last nine years, will be useful for the Program Offices, including Superfund, a

  20. Biogeography of time partitioning in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Bennie, Jonathan J.; Duffy, James P.; Inger, Richard; Gaston, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    Many animals regulate their activity over a 24-h sleep–wake cycle, concentrating their peak periods of activity to coincide with the hours of daylight, darkness, or twilight, or using different periods of light and darkness in more complex ways. These behavioral differences, which are in themselves functional traits, are associated with suites of physiological and morphological adaptations with implications for the ecological roles of species. The biogeography of diel time partitioning is, however, poorly understood. Here, we document basic biogeographic patterns of time partitioning by mammals and ecologically relevant large-scale patterns of natural variation in “illuminated activity time” constrained by temperature, and we determine how well the first of these are predicted by the second. Although the majority of mammals are nocturnal, the distributions of diurnal and crepuscular species richness are strongly associated with the availability of biologically useful daylight and twilight, respectively. Cathemerality is associated with relatively long hours of daylight and twilight in the northern Holarctic region, whereas the proportion of nocturnal species is highest in arid regions and lowest at extreme high altitudes. Although thermal constraints on activity have been identified as key to the distributions of organisms, constraints due to functional adaptation to the light environment are less well studied. Global patterns in diversity are constrained by the availability of the temporal niche; disruption of these constraints by the spread of artificial lighting and anthropogenic climate change, and the potential effects on time partitioning, are likely to be critical influences on species’ future distributions. PMID:25225371

  1. Biogeography of time partitioning in mammals.

    PubMed

    Bennie, Jonathan J; Duffy, James P; Inger, Richard; Gaston, Kevin J

    2014-09-23

    Many animals regulate their activity over a 24-h sleep-wake cycle, concentrating their peak periods of activity to coincide with the hours of daylight, darkness, or twilight, or using different periods of light and darkness in more complex ways. These behavioral differences, which are in themselves functional traits, are associated with suites of physiological and morphological adaptations with implications for the ecological roles of species. The biogeography of diel time partitioning is, however, poorly understood. Here, we document basic biogeographic patterns of time partitioning by mammals and ecologically relevant large-scale patterns of natural variation in "illuminated activity time" constrained by temperature, and we determine how well the first of these are predicted by the second. Although the majority of mammals are nocturnal, the distributions of diurnal and crepuscular species richness are strongly associated with the availability of biologically useful daylight and twilight, respectively. Cathemerality is associated with relatively long hours of daylight and twilight in the northern Holarctic region, whereas the proportion of nocturnal species is highest in arid regions and lowest at extreme high altitudes. Although thermal constraints on activity have been identified as key to the distributions of organisms, constraints due to functional adaptation to the light environment are less well studied. Global patterns in diversity are constrained by the availability of the temporal niche; disruption of these constraints by the spread of artificial lighting and anthropogenic climate change, and the potential effects on time partitioning, are likely to be critical influences on species' future distributions.

  2. On bottleneck partitioning k-ary n-cubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicol, David M.; Mao, Weizhen

    1994-01-01

    Graph partitioning is a topic of extensive interest, with applications to parallel processing. In this context graph nodes typically represent computation, and edges represent communication. One seeks to distribute the workload by partitioning the graph so that every processor has approximately the same workload, and the communication cost (measured as a function of edges exposed by the partition) is minimized. Measures of partition quality vary; in this paper we consider a processor's cost to be the sum of its computation and communication costs, and consider the cost of a partition to be the bottleneck, or maximal processor cost induced by the partition. For a general graph the problem of finding an optimal partitioning is intractable. In this paper we restrict our attention to the class of k-art n-cube graphs with uniformly weighted nodes. Given mild restrictions on the node weight and number of processors, we identify partitions yielding the smallest bottleneck. We also demonstrate by example that some restrictions are necessary for the partitions we identify to be optimal. In particular, there exist cases where partitions that evenly partition nodes need not be optimal.

  3. Polymers as Reference Partitioning Phase: Polymer Calibration for an Analytically Operational Approach To Quantify Multimedia Phase Partitioning.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Dorothea; Witt, Gesine; Smedes, Foppe; Mayer, Philipp

    2016-06-07

    Polymers are increasingly applied for the enrichment of hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs) from various types of samples and media in many analytical partitioning-based measuring techniques. We propose using polymers as a reference partitioning phase and introduce polymer-polymer partitioning as the basis for a deeper insight into partitioning differences of HOCs between polymers, calibrating analytical methods, and consistency checking of existing and calculation of new partition coefficients. Polymer-polymer partition coefficients were determined for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) by equilibrating 13 silicones, including polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and low-density polyethylene (LDPE) in methanol-water solutions. Methanol as cosolvent ensured that all polymers reached equilibrium while its effect on the polymers' properties did not significantly affect silicone-silicone partition coefficients. However, we noticed minor cosolvent effects on determined polymer-polymer partition coefficients. Polymer-polymer partition coefficients near unity confirmed identical absorption capacities of several PDMS materials, whereas larger deviations from unity were indicated within the group of silicones and between silicones and LDPE. Uncertainty in polymer volume due to imprecise coating thickness or the presence of fillers was identified as the source of error for partition coefficients. New polymer-based (LDPE-lipid, PDMS-air) and multimedia partition coefficients (lipid-water, air-water) were calculated by applying the new concept of a polymer as reference partitioning phase and by using polymer-polymer partition coefficients as conversion factors. The present study encourages the use of polymer-polymer partition coefficients, recognizing that polymers can serve as a linking third phase for a quantitative understanding of equilibrium partitioning of HOCs between any two phases.

  4. Safety-Critical Partitioned Software Architecture: A Partitioned Software Architecture for Robotic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horvath, Greg; Chung, Seung H.; Cilloniz-Bicchi, Ferner

    2011-01-01

    The flight software on virtually every mission currently managed by JPL has several major flaws that make it vulnerable to potentially fatal software defects. Many of these problems can be addressed by recently developed partitioned operating systems (OS). JPL has avoided adopting a partitioned operating system on its flight missions, primarily because doing so would require significant changes in flight software design, and the risks associated with changes of that magnitude cannot be accepted by an active flight project. The choice of a partitioned OS can have a dramatic effect on the overall system and software architecture, allowing for realization of benefits far beyond the concerns typically associated with the choice of OS. Specifically, we believe that a partitioned operating system, when coupled with an appropriate architecture, can provide a strong infrastructure for developing systems for which reusability, modifiability, testability, and reliability are essential qualities. By adopting a partitioned OS, projects can gain benefits throughout the entire development lifecycle, from requirements and design, all the way to implementation, testing, and operations.

  5. Deterministic entanglement generation from driving through quantum phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xin-Yu; Zou, Yi-Quan; Wu, Ling-Na; Liu, Qi; Han, Ming-Fei; Tey, Meng Khoon; You, Li

    2017-02-01

    Many-body entanglement is often created through the system evolution, aided by nonlinear interactions between the constituting particles. These very dynamics, however, can also lead to fluctuations and degradation of the entanglement if the interactions cannot be controlled. Here, we demonstrate near-deterministic generation of an entangled twin-Fock condensate of ~11,000 atoms by driving a rubidium-87 Bose-Einstein condensate undergoing spin mixing through two consecutive quantum phase transitions (QPTs). We directly observe number squeezing of 10.7 ± 0.6 decibels and normalized collective spin length of 0.99 ± 0.01. Together, these observations allow us to infer an entanglement-enhanced phase sensitivity of ~6 decibels beyond the standard quantum limit and an entanglement breadth of ~910 atoms. Our work highlights the power of generating large-scale useful entanglement by taking advantage of the different entanglement landscapes separated by QPTs.

  6. Hydrological modelling of a small catchment using SWAT-2000 Ensuring correct flow partitioning for contaminant modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannan, N.; White, S. M.; Worrall, F.; Whelan, M. J.

    2007-02-01

    SummaryThe performance of the SWAT-2000 model was evaluated using stream flow at the outlet of the 142 ha Colworth catchment (Bedfordshire, UK). This catchment has been monitored since October 1999. The soil type consists of clay loam soil over stony calcareous clay and a rotation of wheat, oil seed rape, grass, beans and peas is grown. Much of the catchment is tile drained. Acceptable performance in hydrological modelling, along with correct simulation of the processes driving the water balance were essential first requirements for predicting contaminant transport. Initial results from SWAT-2000 identified some necessary modifications in the model source code for correct simulation of processes driving water balance. After modification of the code, hydrological simulation, crop growth and evapotranspiration (ET) patterns were realistic when compared with empirical data. Acceptable model performance (based on a number of error measures) was obtained in final model runs, with reasonable runoff partitioning into overland flow, tile drainage and base flow.

  7. Condensed Matter Theories: Volume 25

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludeña, Eduardo V.; Bishop, Raymond F.; Iza, Peter

    2011-03-01

    dynamics and density functional theory. Exchange-correlation functionals from the identical-particle Ornstein-Zernike equation: Basic formulation and numerical algorithms / R. Cuevas-Saavedra and P. W. Ayers. Features and catalytic properties of RhCu: A review / S. Gonzalez, C. Sousa and F. Illas. Kinetic energy functionals: Exact ones from analytic model wave functions and approximate ones in orbital-free molecular dynamics / V. V. Karasiev ... [et al.]. Numerical analysis of hydrogen storage in carbon nanopores / C. Wexler ... [et al.] -- pt. F. Superconductivity. Generalized Bose-Einstein condensation in superconductivity / M. de Llano. Kohn anomaly energy in conventional superconductors equals twice the energy of the superconducting gap: How and why? / R. Chaudhury and M. P. Das. Collective excitations in superconductors and semiconductors in the presence of a condensed phase / Z. Koinov. Thermal expansion of ferromagnetic superconductors: Possible application to UGe[symbol] / N. Hatayama and R. Konno. Generalized superconducting gap in a Boson-Fermion model / T. A. Mamedov and M. de Llano. Influence of domain walls in the superconductor/ferromagnet proximity effect / E. J. Patino. Spin singlet and triplet superconductivity induced by correlated hopping interactions / L. A. Perez, J. S. Millan and C. Wang -- pt. G. Statistical mechanics, relativistic quantum mechanics. Boltzmann's ergodic hypothesis: A meeting place for two cultures / M. H. Lee. Electron-electron interaction in the non-relativistic limit / F. B. Malik.

  8. Drive Diagnostic Filter Wheel Control

    SciTech Connect

    Uhlich, D.

    2007-07-17

    DrD Filter Wheel Control is National Instrument's Labview software that drives a Drive Diagnostic filter wheel. The software can drive the filter wheel between each end limit, detect the positive and negative limit and each home position and post the stepper motot values to an Excel spreadsheet. The software can also be used to cycle the assembly between the end limits.

  9. Drive alignment pays maintenance dividends

    SciTech Connect

    Fedder, R.

    2008-12-15

    Proper alignment of the motor and gear drive on conveying and processing equipment will result in longer bearing and coupling life, along with lower maintenance costs. Selecting an alignment free drive package instead of a traditional foot mounted drive and motor is a major advancement toward these goals. 4 photos.

  10. The condensation of water on adsorbed viruses.

    PubMed

    Alonso, José María; Tatti, Francesco; Chuvilin, Andrey; Mam, Keriya; Ondarçuhu, Thierry; Bittner, Alexander M

    2013-11-26

    The wetting and dewetting behavior of biological nanostructures and to a greater degree single molecules is not well-known even though their contact with water is the basis for all biology. Here, we show that environmental electron microscopy (EM) can be applied as a means of imaging the condensation of water onto viruses. We captured the formation of submicrometer water droplets and filaments on single viral particles by environmental EM and by environmental transmission EM. The condensate structures are compatible with capillary condensation between adsorbed virus particles and with known droplet shapes on patterned surfaces. Our results confirm that such droplets exist down to <50 nm. The viruses preserved their shape after a condensation/evaporation cycle as expected from their stability in air and water. Moreover we developed procedures that overcome problems of beam damage and of resolving structures with a low atomic number.

  11. Nonlinear interactions in an organic polariton condensate.

    PubMed

    Daskalakis, K S; Maier, S A; Murray, R; Kéna-Cohen, S

    2014-03-01

    Under the right conditions, cavity polaritons form a macroscopic condensate in the ground state. The fascinating nonlinear behaviour of this condensate is largely dictated by the strength of polariton-polariton interactions. In inorganic semiconductors, these result principally from the Coulomb interaction between Wannier-Mott excitons. Such interactions are considerably weaker for the tightly bound Frenkel excitons characteristic of organic semiconductors and were notably absent in the first reported demonstration of organic polariton lasing. In this work, we demonstrate the realization of an organic polariton condensate, at room temperature, in a microcavity containing a thin film of 2,7-bis[9,9-di(4-methylphenyl)-fluoren-2-yl]-9,9-di(4-methylphenyl)fluorene. On reaching threshold, we observe the spontaneous formation of a linearly polarized condensate, which exhibits a superlinear power dependence, long-range order and a power-dependent blueshift: a clear signature of Frenkel polariton interactions.

  12. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Observation of Phonon Condensate.

    PubMed

    Altfeder, Igor; Voevodin, Andrey A; Check, Michael H; Eichfeld, Sarah M; Robinson, Joshua A; Balatsky, Alexander V

    2017-02-22

    Using quantum tunneling of electrons into vibrating surface atoms, phonon oscillations can be observed on the atomic scale. Phonon interference patterns with unusually large signal amplitudes have been revealed by scanning tunneling microscopy in intercalated van der Waals heterostructures. Our results show that the effective radius of these phonon quasi-bound states, the real-space distribution of phonon standing wave amplitudes, the scattering phase shifts, and the nonlinear intermode coupling strongly depend on the presence of defect-induced scattering resonance. The observed coherence of these quasi-bound states most likely arises from phase- and frequency-synchronized dynamics of all phonon modes, and indicates the formation of many-body condensate of optical phonons around resonant defects. We found that increasing the strength of the scattering resonance causes the increase of the condensate droplet radius without affecting the condensate fraction inside it. The condensate can be observed at room temperature.

  13. Condenser design for AMTEC power conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowley, Christopher J.

    1991-01-01

    The condenser and the electrodes are the two elements of an alkali metal thermal-to-electric conversion (AMTEC) cell which most greatly affect the energy conversion performance. A condenser is described which accomplishes two critical functions in an AMTEC cell: management of the fluid under microgravity conditions and optimization of conversion efficiency. The first function is achieved via the use of a controlled surface shape, along with drainage grooves and arteries to collect the fluid. Capillary forces manage the fluid in microgravity and dominate hydrostatic effects on the ground so the device is ground-testable. The second function is achieved via a smooth film of highly reflective liquid sodium on the condensing surface, resulting in minimization of parasitic heat losses due to radiation heat transfer. Power conversion efficiencies of 25 percent to 30 percent are estimated with this condenser using present technology for the electrodes.

  14. Ferromagnetic properties of charged vector boson condensate

    SciTech Connect

    Dolgov, Alexander D.; Lepidi, Angela; Piccinelli, Gabriella E-mail: lepidi@fe.infn.it

    2010-08-01

    Bose-Einstein condensation of W bosons in the early universe is studied. It is shown that, in the broken phase of the standard electroweak theory, the condensed W bosons form a ferromagnetic state with aligned spins. In this case the primeval plasma may be spontaneously magnetized inside macroscopically large domains and form magnetic fields which may be the seeds for the observed today galactic and intergalactic fields. However, in a modified theory, e.g. in a theory with stronger quartic self interactions of gauge bosons e.g. due to a smaller value of the weak mixing angle, antiferromagnetic condensation is possible. In the latter case W bosons form scalar condensate with macroscopically large electric charge density i.e. with a large average value of the bilinear product of W-vector fields but with microscopically small average value of the field itself.

  15. Kaon condensation in dense stellar matter

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Chang-Hwan; Rho, M. |

    1995-03-01

    This article combines two talks given by the authors and is based on Works done in collaboration with G.E. Brown and D.P. Min on kaon condensation in dense baryonic medium treated in chiral perturbation theory using heavy-baryon formalism. It contains, in addition to what was recently published, astrophysical backgrounds for kaon condensation discussed by Brown and Bethe, a discussion on a renormalization-group analysis to meson condensation worked out together with H.K. Lee and S.J. Sin, and the recent results of K.M. Westerberg in the bound-state approach to the Skyrme model. Negatively charged kaons are predicted to condense at a critical density 2 {approx_lt} {rho}/{rho}o {approx_lt} 4, in the range to allow the intriguing new phenomena predicted by Brown and Bethe to take place in compact star matter.

  16. Ghost Condensation in N=1 Supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koehn, Michael; Lehners, Jean-Luc; Ovrut, Burt

    We present the theory of an N=1 supersymmetric ghost condensate coupled to supergravity using a general formalism for constructing locally supersymmetric higher-derivative chiral superfield actions. The theory admits a ghost condensate vacuum in de Sitter spacetime. Expanded around this vacuum, the scalar sector is shown to be ghost-free with no spatial gradient instabilities. The fermion sector is found to consist of a massless chiral fermion and a massless gravitino. The ghost condensate vacuum spontaneously breaks local supersymmetry with the chiral field as the Goldstone fermion. Although potentially able to get a mass through the super-Higgs effect, the vanishing superpotential in the ghost condensate theory renders the gravitino massless.

  17. Condensation and Hydrolysis - An Optical Problem?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellett, N. C.; Johnstone, A. H.

    1974-01-01

    Recent surveys have shown that pupils find the topics of esterification and condensation difficult. Reasons for the difficulty are not clear. Described is research designed to determine where the difficulties were visual or conceptual in origin. (RH)

  18. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Observation of Phonon Condensate

    PubMed Central

    Altfeder, Igor; Voevodin, Andrey A.; Check, Michael H.; Eichfeld, Sarah M.; Robinson, Joshua A.; Balatsky, Alexander V.

    2017-01-01

    Using quantum tunneling of electrons into vibrating surface atoms, phonon oscillations can be observed on the atomic scale. Phonon interference patterns with unusually large signal amplitudes have been revealed by scanning tunneling microscopy in intercalated van der Waals heterostructures. Our results show that the effective radius of these phonon quasi-bound states, the real-space distribution of phonon standing wave amplitudes, the scattering phase shifts, and the nonlinear intermode coupling strongly depend on the presence of defect-induced scattering resonance. The observed coherence of these quasi-bound states most likely arises from phase- and frequency-synchronized dynamics of all phonon modes, and indicates the formation of many-body condensate of optical phonons around resonant defects. We found that increasing the strength of the scattering resonance causes the increase of the condensate droplet radius without affecting the condensate fraction inside it. The condensate can be observed at room temperature. PMID:28225066

  19. Condensed-matter trio scoop Dirac prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durrani, Matin

    2012-09-01

    Three condensed-matter physicists, who have advanced our understanding of a strange type of material known as a "topological insulator", have won this year's Dirac medal from the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) in Trieste, Italy.

  20. Recent developments in Bose-Einstein condensation

    SciTech Connect

    Kalman, G.

    1997-09-22

    This paper contains viewgraphs on developments on Bose-Einstein condensation. Some topics covered are: strongly coupled coulomb systems; standard response functions of the first and second kind; dynamical mean field theory; quasi localized charge approximation; and the main equations.

  1. Passive control of unsteady condensation shock wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setoguchi, Toshiaki; Matsuo, Shigeru; Shimamoto, Katsumi; Yasugi, Shinichi; Yu, Shen

    2000-12-01

    A rapid expansion of moist air or steam in a supersonic nozzle gives rise to nonequilibrium condensation phenomena. Thereby, if the heat released by condensation of water vapour exceeds a certain quantity, the flow will become unstable and periodic flow oscillations of the unsteady condensation shock wave will occur. For the passive control of shock-boundary layer interaction using the porous wall with a plenum underneath, many papers have been presented on the application of the technique to transonic airfoil flows. In this paper, the passive technique is applied to three types of oscillations of the unsteady condensation shock wave generated in a supersonic nozzle in order to suppress the unsteady behavior. As a result, the effects of number of slits and length of cavity on the aspect of flow field have been clarified numerically using a 3rd-order MUSCL type TVD finite-difference scheme with a second-order fractional-step for time integration.

  2. Condensation Front Migration in a Protoplanetary Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Sanford S.

    2004-01-01

    Condensation front dynamics are investigated in the mid-solar nebula region. A quasi-steady model of the evolving nebula is combined with equilibrium vapor pressure curves to determine evolutionary condensation fronts for selected species. These fronts are found to migrate inwards from the far-nebula to final positions during a period of 10(exp 7) years. The physical process governing this movement is a combination of local viscous heating and luminescent heating from the central star. Two luminescent heating models are used and their effects on the ultimate radial position of the condensation front are discussed. At first the fronts move much faster than the nebular accretion velocity, but after a time the accreting gas and dust overtakes the slowing condensation front.

  3. Molecular equilibrium with condensation. [in astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharp, C. M.; Huebner, W. F.

    1990-01-01

    Minimization of the Gibbs energy of formation for species of chemical elements and compounds in their gas and condensed phases determines their relative abundances in a mixture in chemical equilibrium. The procedure is more general and more powerful than previous abundance determinations in multiphase astrophysical mixtures. Some results for astrophysical equations of state are presented, and the effects of condensation on opacity are briefly indicated.

  4. Condensate polishers add operating reliability and flexibility

    SciTech Connect

    Layman, C.M.; Bennett, L.L.

    2008-08-15

    Many of today's advanced steam generators favour either an all-volatile treatment or oxygenated treatment chemistry programme, both of which require strict maintenance of an ultra-pure boiler fedwater ro condensate system. Those requirements are many times at odds with the lower-quality water sources, such as greywater, available for plant makeup and cooling water. Adding a condensate polisher can be a simple, cost-effective solution. 4 figs.

  5. Dynamic simulation recalls condensate piping event

    SciTech Connect

    Farrell, R.J.; Reneberg, K.O. ); Moy, H.C. )

    1994-05-01

    This article describes how experience gained from simulating and reconstructing a condensate piping event will be used by Consolidated Edison to analyze control system problems. A cooperative effort by Con Edison and the Chemical Engineering Department at Polytechnic University used modular modeling system to investigate the probable cause of a Con Edison condensate piping event. Con Edison commissioned the work to serve as a case study for the more general problem of control systems analysis using dynamic simulation and MMS.

  6. Enhancement of Condensation on a Vertical Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Rencai; Hatanaka, Tsutomu; Nishio, Shigefumi

    In previous study, the characteristic of the condensation heat transfer on the dispersed vertical surface were investigated experimentally for the application of the finned surface to the thermoelectric generator utilizing boiling and condensation as the electrodes of the thermoelectric module. A prediction model for this diapered finned surface was proposed, based on Adamek-Webb model of the condensation on a finned tube. In this study, a condensation heat transfer experiment on a vertical dispersed finned surfaces using FC5312 was carried out, in order to enhance the condensation heat transfer coefficient by optimizing the fin size on a dispersed heat transfer surface. The object of the experiment was limited to the rectangular fin with the height of 3 mm. Experimental parameters were the temperature difference, the fin groove width, the fin thickness and the dispersing size on the vertical direction. As the results, it was found from the experiment that the dependence of the condensation heat transfer coefficient on the dispersed size is controlled by the fin groove width. That is, the condensation heat transfer coefficient will increase for a smaller fin groove width and will decrease for a larger fin groove width, with decreasing of the dispersing size. Moreover, there is an optimum fin thickness at which the condensation heat transfer coefficient becomes the maximum in the case of constant fin groove width for both size of the fin groove width. This effect of the fin thickness is more significant for the smaller fin groove width. Further, the prediction values exhibit a good agreement with the experimental data in the present experiment.

  7. Offset Compound Gear Drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, Mark A.; Handschuh, Robert F.; Lewicki, David G.

    2010-01-01

    The Offset Compound Gear Drive is an in-line, discrete, two-speed device utilizing a special offset compound gear that has both an internal tooth configuration on the input end and external tooth configuration on the output end, thus allowing it to mesh in series, simultaneously, with both a smaller external tooth input gear and a larger internal tooth output gear. This unique geometry and offset axis permits the compound gear to mesh with the smaller diameter input gear and the larger diameter output gear, both of which are on the same central, or primary, centerline. This configuration results in a compact in-line reduction gear set consisting of fewer gears and bearings than a conventional planetary gear train. Switching between the two output ratios is accomplished through a main control clutch and sprag. Power flow to the above is transmitted through concentric power paths. Low-speed operation is accomplished in two meshes. For the purpose of illustrating the low-speed output operation, the following example pitch diameters are given. A 5.0 pitch diameter (PD) input gear to 7.50 PD (internal tooth) intermediate gear (0.667 reduction mesh), and a 7.50 PD (external tooth) intermediate gear to a 10.00 PD output gear (0.750 reduction mesh). Note that it is not required that the intermediate gears on the offset axis be of the same diameter. For this example, the resultant low-speed ratio is 2:1 (output speed = 0.500; product of stage one 0.667 reduction and stage two 0.750 stage reduction). The design is not restricted to the example pitch diameters, or output ratio. From the output gear, power is transmitted through a hollow drive shaft, which, in turn, drives a sprag during which time the main clutch is disengaged.

  8. High dimensional data clustering by partitioning the hypergraphs using dense subgraph partition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xili; Tian, Shoucai; Lu, Yonggang

    2015-12-01

    Due to the curse of dimensionality, traditional clustering methods usually fail to produce meaningful results for the high dimensional data. Hypergraph partition is believed to be a promising method for dealing with this challenge. In this paper, we first construct a graph G from the data by defining an adjacency relationship between the data points using Shared Reverse k Nearest Neighbors (SRNN). Then a hypergraph is created from the graph G by defining the hyperedges to be all the maximal cliques in the graph G. After the hypergraph is produced, a powerful hypergraph partitioning method called dense subgraph partition (DSP) combined with the k-medoids method is used to produce the final clustering results. The proposed method is evaluated on several real high-dimensional datasets, and the experimental results show that the proposed method can improve the clustering results of the high dimensional data compared with applying k-medoids method directly on the original data.

  9. Base drive circuit

    DOEpatents

    Lange, Arnold C.

    1995-01-01

    An improved base drive circuit (10) having a level shifter (24) for providing bistable input signals to a pair of non-linear delays (30, 32). The non-linear delays (30, 32) provide gate control to a corresponding pair of field effect transistors (100, 106) through a corresponding pair of buffer components (88, 94). The non-linear delays (30, 32) provide delayed turn-on for each of the field effect transistors (100, 106) while an associated pair of transistors (72, 80) shunt the non-linear delays (30, 32) during turn-off of the associated field effect transistor (100, 106).

  10. Generative design drives manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, Frank A.

    1989-04-01

    This paper reviews the collaboration that is being forced on Engineering and Manufacturing as they move from the manual translation of Engineering drawings toward automatic decoding of Product Data Definitions (PDDs), a pre-requisite to integrated manufacture. Based on case studies and implementation experience gained over the last decade, it defines the step-by-step evolution of a generative design capability that will drive manufacturing logic. It reviews the changing relationship of Engineering to Manufacturing and Industrial Engineering and the challenge this presents to manufacturing management in its struggle to remain competitive in both domestic and international markets.

  11. Engine valve driving apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Masuda, S.; Uesugi, T.; Oda, H.

    1989-01-03

    An engine valve driving apparatus for an internal combustion engine having a cam driven engine valve is described. It consists of a camshaft rotatable in synchronism with rotation of a crankshaft of an engine and a movable cam member supported by the camshaft for axial movement and prevented from turning relative to the camshaft. The movable cam member can be axially shifted between an operative position wherein the cam member is cooperative with a member of the engine valve so as to cause an operation of the engine valve and an inoperative position wherein the cam member is out of cooperation with the member.

  12. Modular droplet actuator drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollack, Michael G. (Inventor); Paik, Philip (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A droplet actuator drive including a detection apparatus for sensing a property of a droplet on a droplet actuator; circuitry for controlling the detection apparatus electronically coupled to the detection apparatus; a droplet actuator cartridge connector arranged so that when a droplet actuator cartridge electronically is coupled thereto: the droplet actuator cartridge is aligned with the detection apparatus; and the detection apparatus can sense the property of the droplet on a droplet actuator; circuitry for controlling a droplet actuator coupled to the droplet actuator connector; and the droplet actuator circuitry may be coupled to a processor.

  13. HLH Drive System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-09-01

    M4 1" 4 C. C, 4 10 rYV .104 14144 \\- // S/ / " I 3.025 DPII 36 TEETH 2 n )r lj < ~( NEW ) _ _ _ 7986 RPM Figure 40. Combiner Configuration 6, Reference...based on testing of th le CH- 4 ` -7 •-• ’’• stage p lanet bearing , primarily from fa ilures in the • : , - gram of Reference 19. The test results are...USAAMRDL-TR-77-38 r, . . HLH DRIVE SYSTEM -I Boeing Vertol Company P.O. Box 16858 4 • Philadelphia, Pa. 19142 0 September 1977 4Q Final Report

  14. Base drive circuit

    DOEpatents

    Lange, A.C.

    1995-04-04

    An improved base drive circuit having a level shifter for providing bistable input signals to a pair of non-linear delays. The non-linear delays provide gate control to a corresponding pair of field effect transistors through a corresponding pair of buffer components. The non-linear delays provide delayed turn-on for each of the field effect transistors while an associated pair of transistors shunt the non-linear delays during turn-off of the associated field effect transistor. 2 figures.

  15. Theory of partitioning of disease prevalence and mortality in observational data.

    PubMed

    Akushevich, I; Yashkin, A P; Kravchenko, J; Fang, F; Arbeev, K; Sloan, F; Yashin, A I

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we present a new theory of partitioning of disease prevalence and incidence-based mortality and demonstrate how this theory practically works for analyses of Medicare data. In the theory, the prevalence of a disease and incidence-based mortality are modeled in terms of disease incidence and survival after diagnosis supplemented by information on disease prevalence at the initial age and year available in a dataset. Partitioning of the trends of prevalence and mortality is calculated with minimal assumptions. The resulting expressions for the components of the trends are given by continuous functions of data. The estimator is consistent and stable. The developed methodology is applied for data on type 2 diabetes using individual records from a nationally representative 5% sample of Medicare beneficiaries age 65+. Numerical estimates show excellent concordance between empirical estimates and theoretical predictions. Evaluated partitioning model showed that both prevalence and mortality increase with time. The primary driving factors of the observed prevalence increase are improved survival and increased prevalence at age 65. The increase in diabetes-related mortality is driven by increased prevalence and unobserved trends in time-periods and age-groups outside of the range of the data used in the study. Finally, the properties of the new estimator, possible statistical and systematical uncertainties, and future practical applications of this methodology in epidemiology, demography, public health and health forecasting are discussed.

  16. Plasma membrane partitioning: from macro-domains to new views on plasmodesmata.

    PubMed

    Boutté, Yohann; Moreau, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Compartmentalization of cellular functions relies on partitioning of domains of diverse sizes within the plasma membrane (PM). Macro-domains measure several micrometers and contain specific proteins concentrated to specific sides (apical, basal, and lateral) of the PM conferring a polarity to the cell. Cell polarity is one of the driving forces in tissue and growth patterning. To maintain macro-domains within the PM, eukaryotic cells exert diverse mechanisms to counteract the free lateral diffusion of proteins. Protein activation/inactivation, endocytosis, PM recycling of transmembrane proteins and the role of diffusion barriers in macro-domains partitioning at PM will be discussed. Moreover, as plasmodesmata (PDs) are domains inserted within the PM which also mediate tissue and growth patterning, it is essential to understand how segregation of specific set of proteins is maintained at PDs while PDs domains are smaller in size compared to macro-domains. Here, we will present mechanisms allowing restriction of proteins at PM macro-domains, but for which molecular components have been found in PDs proteome. We will explore the hypothesis that partitioning of macro-domains and PDs may be ruled by similar mechanisms.

  17. Dual condensates at finite isospin chemical potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhao; Miao, Qing

    2016-02-01

    The dual observables as order parameters for center symmetry are tested at finite isospin chemical potential μI in a Polyakov-loop enhanced chiral model of QCD with physical quark masses. As a counterpart of the dressed Polyakov-loop, the first Fourier moment of pion condensate is introduced for μI >mπ / 2 under the temporal twisted boundary conditions for quarks. We demonstrate that this dual condensate exhibits the similar temperature dependence as the conventional Polyakov-loop. We confirm that its rapid increase with T is driven by the evaporating of pion condensation. On the other hand, the dressed Polyakov-loop shows abnormal thermal behavior, which even decreases with T at low temperatures due to the influence of pion condensate. We also find that the dressed Polyakov-loop always rises most steeply at the chiral transition temperature, which is consistent with the previous results in Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model and its variants without considering the center symmetry. Since both quantities are strongly affected by the chiral symmetry and pion condensation, we conclude that it is difficult to clarify the deconfinement transition from the dual condensates in this situation within this model.

  18. Interstitial Condensation Risk at Thermal Rehabilitated Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baran, I.; Bliuc, I.; Iacob, A.; Dumitrescu, L.; Pescaru, R. A.; Helepciuc, C.

    2016-11-01

    The increasing thermal insulation degree of existing residential buildings, aiming to reduce the energy requirements for ensuring the indoor comfort, has as expected effect the elimination of condensation risk. However, in some cases this phenomenon occurs, both on the inner surface of the closing element and also in its structure. The surface condensation causes can be identified and can be easily removed. Instead, the causes and even the presence of interstitial condensation are more difficult to be observed. But the moistening of the insulation materials and the reduction of thermal insulation capacity or even its total degradation, contravene into a large extent or totally to the main purpose of the additional thermal protection. To avoid such situations, it is necessary to respect some principles concerning the structure, resulted from the knowledge of the water vapour diffusion behaviour of various materials. It is known that condensation vulnerability is higher for the additional thermal protection solutions by disposing the insulating material on the inside surface of the closing element. But practice has shown that the condensation phenomenon is not totally excluded neither in the case of outside thermal insulation - which is the current solution applied to the rehabilitation works - if the principles mentioned above are not known and respected. In this paper two models are compared on which the risk of interstitial condensation can be checked. The analysis made on two structures of exterior walls with thermal insulation demonstrates the need for additional verifications before proposing a solution for thermal rehabilitation of the envelope elements.

  19. Numerical simulation of condensation on structured surfaces.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiaowu; Yao, Zhaohui; Hao, Pengfei

    2014-11-25

    Condensation of liquid droplets on solid surfaces happens widely in nature and industrial processes. This phase-change phenomenon has great effect on the performance of some microfluidic devices. On the basis of micro- and nanotechnology, superhydrophobic structured surfaces can be well-fabricated. In this work, the nucleating and growth of droplets on different structured surfaces are investigated numerically. The dynamic behavior of droplets during the condensation is simulated by the multiphase lattice Boltzmann method (LBM), which has the ability to incorporate the microscopic interactions, including fluid-fluid interaction and fluid-surface interaction. The results by the LBM show that, besides the chemical properties of surfaces, the topography of structures on solid surfaces influences the condensation process. For superhydrophobic surfaces, the spacing and height of microridges have significant influence on the nucleation sites. This mechanism provides an effective way for prevention of wetting on surfaces in engineering applications. Moreover, it suggests a way to prevent ice formation on surfaces caused by the condensation of subcooled water. For hydrophilic surfaces, however, microstructures may be submerged by the liquid films adhering to the surfaces. In this case, microstructures will fail to control the condensation process. Our research provides an optimized way for designing surfaces for condensation in engineering systems.

  20. Condensation-induced waterhammer in a vertical upfill pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Zaltsgendler, E.; Tahir, A.; Leung, R.K.

    1996-12-31

    Waterhammer can be defined as a rapid pressure increase occurring in a piping system caused by a sudden change in the liquid velocity. A classic example is the pressure spike due to rapid closure of a valve. In nuclear power plants, as well as in conventional plants, there are other mechanisms for initiating waterhammer aside from valve closure. One of them is a steam bubble collapse in a pipe due to contact with subcooled water. This is condensation-induced waterhammer (CIWH). One of the important papers on CIWH is by Chou and Griffith. The tests were performed at a small driving force and consequently low waterhammer pressure spike ({approximately}70 kPa). To get experimental data for large driving forces and high waterhammer pressure spike ({approximately}10 MPa), a test facility has been built at Ontario Hydro Technologies (OHT). Funding for the work has been provided by the Ontario Hydro Darlington nuclear generating station. In these experiments, the subcooled water has been injected into saturated steam. The steam temperature ranged from 100 to 142{degrees}C. The experiments were initiated by quickly opening a ball valve. During the experimental program, significant data scatter was recorded. This data scatter was very large at high temperature (142{degrees}C). The purpose of this paper is to develop an understanding of the main phenomena for CIWH, to define the reason for the data scatter, and to illustrate the results of implementation of the proposed mechanism into a thermal-hydraulic code.

  1. Condensation of the air-steam mixture in a vertical tube condenser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havlík, Jan; Dlouhý, Tomáš

    2016-03-01

    This paper deals with the condensation of water vapour in the presence of non-condensable air. Experimental and theoretical solutions of this problem are presented here. A heat exchanger for the condensation of industrial waste steam containing infiltrated air was designed. The condenser consists of a bundle of vertical tubes in which the steam condenses as it flows downwards with cooling water flowing outside the tubes in the opposite direction. Experiments with pure steam and with mixtures of steam with added air were carried out to find the dependence of the condensation heat transfer coefficient (HTC) on the air concentration in the steam mixture. The experimental results were compared with the theoretical formulas describing the cases. The theoretical determination of the HTC is based on the Nusselt model of steam condensation on a vertical wall, where the analogy of heat and mass transfer is used to take into account the behaviour of air in a steam mixture during the condensation process. The resulting dependencies obtained from the experiments and obtained from the theoretical model have similar results. The significant decrease in the condensation HTC, which begins at very low air concentrations in a steam mixture, was confirmed.

  2. A brief history of partitions of numbers, partition functions and their modern applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debnath, Lokenath

    2016-04-01

    'Number rules the universe.' The Pythagoras 'If you wish to forsee the future of mathematics our course is to study the history and present conditions of the science.' Henri Poincaré 'The primary source (Urqell) of all mathematics are integers.' Hermann Minkowski This paper is written to commemorate the centennial anniversary of the Mathematical Association of America. It deals with a short history of different kinds of natural numbers including triangular, square, pentagonal, hexagonal and k-gonal numbers, and their simple properties and their geometrical representations. Included are Euclid's and Pythagorean's main contributions to elementary number theory with the main contents of the Euclid Elements of the 13-volume masterpiece of mathematical work. This is followed by Euler's new discovery of the additive number theory based on partitions of numbers. Special attention is given to many examples, Euler's theorems on partitions of numbers with geometrical representations of Ferrers' graphs, Young's diagrams, Lagrange's four-square theorem and the celebrated Waring problem. Included are Euler's generating functions for the partitions of numbers, Euler's pentagonal number theorem, Gauss' triangular and square number theorems and the Jacobi triple product identity. Applications of the theory of partitions of numbers to different statistics such as the Bose- Einstein, Fermi- Dirac, Gentile, and Maxwell- Boltzmann statistics are briefly discussed. Special attention is given to pedagogical information through historical approach to number theory so that students and teachers at the school, college and university levels can become familiar with the basic concepts of partitions of numbers, partition functions and their modern applications, and can pursue advanced study and research in analytical and computational number theory.

  3. Implementation of non-condensable gases condensation suppression model into the WCOBRA/TRAC-TF2 LOCA safety evaluation code

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, J.; Cao, L.; Ohkawa, K.; Frepoli, C.

    2012-07-01

    The non-condensable gases condensation suppression model is important for a realistic LOCA safety analysis code. A condensation suppression model for direct contact condensation was previously developed by Westinghouse using first principles. The model is believed to be an accurate description of the direct contact condensation process in the presence of non-condensable gases. The Westinghouse condensation suppression model is further revised by applying a more physical model. The revised condensation suppression model is thus implemented into the WCOBRA/TRAC-TF2 LOCA safety evaluation code for both 3-D module (COBRA-TF) and 1-D module (TRAC-PF1). Parametric study using the revised Westinghouse condensation suppression model is conducted. Additionally, the performance of non-condensable gases condensation suppression model is examined in the ACHILLES (ISP-25) separate effects test and LOFT L2-5 (ISP-13) integral effects test. (authors)

  4. Advances in traction drive technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, S. H.; Anderson, N. E.; Rohn, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    Traction drives are traced from early uses as main transmissions in automobiles at the turn of the century to modern, high-powered traction drives capable of transmitting hundreds of horsepower. Recent advances in technology are described which enable today's traction drive to be a serious candidate for off-highway vehicles and helicopter applications. Improvements in materials, traction fluids, design techniques, power loss and life prediction methods will be highlighted. Performance characteristics of the Nasvytis fixed-ratio drive are given. Promising future drive applications, such as helicopter main transmissions and servo-control positioning mechanisms are also addressed.

  5. Condensation and Evaporation of Solar System Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, A. M.; Richter, F. M.

    2003-12-01

    It is widely believed that the materials making up the solar system were derived from a nebular gas and dust cloud that went through an early high-temperature stage during which virtually all of the material was in the gas phase. At one time, it was thought that the entire inner solar nebula was hot, but it is now believed that most material was processed through regions where high temperatures were achieved. Certainly some material, such as presolar grains (cf., Mendybaev et al., 2002a), has never been exposed to high temperatures. As the system cooled, solids and perhaps liquids began to condense, but at some point the partially condensed materials became isolated from the remaining gas. Various lines of evidence support this view. At the largest scale, there is the observation that the Earth, Moon, Mars, and all chondritic meteorites except for the CI chondrites are depleted to varying degrees in the abundances of moderately volatile elements relative to bulk solar system composition. The CI chondrites reflect the bulk composition of the solar system for all but hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and the rare gases, the most volatile elements (see Chapter 1.03; Palme et al., 1988; McDonough and Sun, 1995; Humayun and Cassen, 2000). The depletions in moderately volatile elements are, to a significant degree, correlated with condensation temperature, suggesting progressive removal of gas as condensation proceeded ( Cassen, 1996). Additional observations that can be explained by partial condensation are that various particularly primitive components of meteorites (e.g., calcium-, aluminum-rich refractory inclusions, and certain metal grains) have mineralogy and/or details of their chemical composition that are remarkably similar to what is calculated for equilibrium condensates from a solar composition gas. For example, the calcium-, aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) in chondritic meteorites have compositions very similar to that calculated for the first 5% of total

  6. Fast wave current drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goree, J.; Ono, M.; Colestock, P.; Horton, R.; McNeill, D.; Park, H.

    1985-07-01

    Experiments on the fast wave in the range of high ion cyclotron harmonics in the ACT-1 device show that current drive is possible with the fast wave just as it is for the lower hybrid wave, except that it is suitable for higher plasma densities. A 140° loop antenna launched the high ion cyclotron harmonic fast wave [ω/Ω=O(10)] into a He+ plasma with ne≂4×1012 cm-3 and B=4.5 kG. Probe and magnetic loop diagnostics and FIR laser scattering confirmed the presence of the fast wave, and the Rogowski loop indicated that the circulating plasma current increased by up to 40A with 1 kW of coupled power, which is comparable to lower hybrid current drive in the same device with the same unidirectional fast electron beam used as the target for the rf. A phased antenna array would be used for FWCD in a tokamak without the E-beam.

  7. Mitotic chromosome condensation in vertebrates

    SciTech Connect

    Vagnarelli, Paola

    2012-07-15

    Work from several laboratories over the past 10-15 years has revealed that, within the interphase nucleus, chromosomes are organized into spatially distinct territories [T. Cremer, C. Cremer, Chromosome territories, nuclear architecture and gene regulation in mammalian cells, Nat. Rev. Genet. 2 (2001) 292-301 and T. Cremer, M. Cremer, S. Dietzel, S. Muller, I. Solovei, S. Fakan, Chromosome territories-a functional nuclear landscape, Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 18 (2006) 307-316]. The overall compaction level and intranuclear location varies as a function of gene density for both entire chromosomes [J.A. Croft, J.M. Bridger, S. Boyle, P. Perry, P. Teague,W.A. Bickmore, Differences in the localization and morphology of chromosomes in the human nucleus, J. Cell Biol. 145 (1999) 1119-1131] and specific chromosomal regions [N.L. Mahy, P.E. Perry, S. Gilchrist, R.A. Baldock, W.A. Bickmore, Spatial organization of active and inactive genes and noncoding DNA within chromosome territories, J. Cell Biol. 157 (2002) 579-589] (Fig. 1A, A'). In prophase, when cyclin B activity reaches a high threshold, chromosome condensation occurs followed by Nuclear Envelope Breakdown (NEB) [1]. At this point vertebrate chromosomes appear as compact structures harboring an attachment point for the spindle microtubules physically recognizable as a primary constriction where the two sister chromatids are held together. The transition from an unshaped interphase chromosome to the highly structured mitotic chromosome (compare Figs. 1A and B) has fascinated researchers for several decades now; however a definite picture of how this process is achieved and regulated is not yet in our hands and it will require more investigation to comprehend the complete process. From a biochemical point of view a vertebrate mitotic chromosomes is composed of DNA, histone proteins (60%) and non-histone proteins (40%) [6]. I will discuss below what is known to date on the contribution of these two different classes of

  8. Improved Cloud Condensation Nucleus Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leu, Ming-Taun

    2010-01-01

    An improved thermal-gradient cloud condensation nucleus spectrometer (CCNS) has been designed to provide several enhancements over prior thermal- gradient counters, including fast response and high-sensitivity detection covering a wide range of supersaturations. CCNSs are used in laboratory research on the relationships among aerosols, supersaturation of air, and the formation of clouds. The operational characteristics of prior counters are such that it takes long times to determine aerosol critical supersaturations. Hence, there is a need for a CCNS capable of rapid scanning through a wide range of supersaturations. The present improved CCNS satisfies this need. The improved thermal-gradient CCNS (see Figure 1) incorporates the following notable features: a) The main chamber is bounded on the top and bottom by parallel thick copper plates, which are joined by a thermally conductive vertical wall on one side and a thermally nonconductive wall on the opposite side. b) To establish a temperature gradient needed to establish a supersaturation gradient, water at two different regulated temperatures is pumped through tubes along the edges of the copper plates at the thermally-nonconductive-wall side. Figure 2 presents an example of temperature and supersaturation gradients for one combination of regulated temperatures at the thermally-nonconductive-wall edges of the copper plates. c) To enable measurement of the temperature gradient, ten thermocouples are cemented to the external surfaces of the copper plates (five on the top plate and five on the bottom plate), spaced at equal intervals along the width axis of the main chamber near the outlet end. d) Pieces of filter paper or cotton felt are cemented onto the interior surfaces of the copper plates and, prior to each experimental run, are saturated with water to establish a supersaturation field inside the main chamber. e) A flow of monodisperse aerosol and a dilution flow of humid air are introduced into the main

  9. Glaucoma and Driving: On-Road Driving Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Joanne M.; Black, Alex A.; Mallon, Kerry; Thomas, Ravi; Owsley, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To comprehensively investigate the types of driving errors and locations that are most problematic for older drivers with glaucoma compared to those without glaucoma using a standardized on-road assessment. Methods Participants included 75 drivers with glaucoma (mean = 73.2±6.0 years) with mild to moderate field loss (better-eye MD = -1.21 dB; worse-eye MD = -7.75 dB) and 70 age-matched controls without glaucoma (mean = 72.6 ± 5.0 years). On-road driving performance was assessed in a dual-brake vehicle by an occupational therapist using a standardized scoring system which assessed the types of driving errors and the locations where they were made and the number of critical errors that required an instructor intervention. Driving safety was rated on a 10-point scale. Self-reported driving ability and difficulties were recorded using the Driving Habits Questionnaire. Results Drivers with glaucoma were rated as significantly less safe, made more driving errors, and had almost double the rate of critical errors than those without glaucoma. Driving errors involved lane positioning and planning/approach, and were significantly more likely to occur at traffic lights and yield/give-way intersections. There were few between group differences in self-reported driving ability. Conclusions Older drivers with glaucoma with even mild to moderate field loss exhibit impairments in driving ability, particularly during complex driving situations that involve tactical problems with lane-position, planning ahead and observation. These results, together with the fact that these drivers self-report their driving to be relatively good, reinforce the need for evidence-based on-road assessments for evaluating driving fitness. PMID:27472221

  10. What is the effective molecular polarizability of water in condensed phases?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Xiaochuan; Lu, Deyu

    Electronic polarization plays a crucial role in determining the structural and dynamical properties of water with different boundary conditions. Although it is well known that the molecular polarization in condensed phases behaves substantially differently from that in the vacuum due to the intermolecular interaction, these environmental effects have not been fully understood from first principles methods. As a result, how to rigorously define and calculate the effective molecular polarizability of a water molecule in different chemical environments remains an open question. The answer to this question not only improves our fundamental understanding of water, but also has immediate practical impact on computational modeling of water, e.g, through an accurate polarizable force field model. A main challenge to this puzzle arises from the intrinsic non-local nature of the electronic susceptibility.Recently we developed an ab initio local dielectric response theory [arxiv 1508.03563] that partitions dielectric response in real space based on a Wannier representation. In this work we apply this method to compute the effective molecular polarizability of water in the condensed phase, and discuss how the effective molecular polarizability evolves from gas phase to the condensed phase. This research used resources of the Center for Functional Nanomaterials, which is a U.S. DOE Office of Science Facility, at Brookhaven National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-SC0012704.

  11. 46 CFR 56.50-35 - Condensate pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Condensate pumps. 56.50-35 Section 56.50-35 Shipping... APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-35 Condensate pumps. Two means shall be provided for discharging the condensate from the main condenser, one of which shall be...

  12. 46 CFR 56.50-35 - Condensate pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Condensate pumps. 56.50-35 Section 56.50-35 Shipping... APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-35 Condensate pumps. Two means shall be provided for discharging the condensate from the main condenser, one of which shall be...

  13. 46 CFR 56.50-35 - Condensate pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Condensate pumps. 56.50-35 Section 56.50-35 Shipping... APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-35 Condensate pumps. Two means shall be provided for discharging the condensate from the main condenser, one of which shall be...

  14. 46 CFR 56.50-35 - Condensate pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Condensate pumps. 56.50-35 Section 56.50-35 Shipping... APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-35 Condensate pumps. Two means shall be provided for discharging the condensate from the main condenser, one of which shall be...

  15. 46 CFR 56.50-35 - Condensate pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condensate pumps. 56.50-35 Section 56.50-35 Shipping... APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-35 Condensate pumps. Two means shall be provided for discharging the condensate from the main condenser, one of which shall be...

  16. Infinite statistics condensate as a model of dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Ebadi, Zahra; Mirza, Behrouz; Mohammadzadeh, Hosein E-mail: b.mirza@cc.iut.ac.ir

    2013-11-01

    In some models, dark matter is considered as a condensate bosonic system. In this paper, we prove that condensation is also possible for particles that obey infinite statistics and derive the critical condensation temperature. We argue that a condensed state of a gas of very weakly interacting particles obeying infinite statistics could be considered as a consistent model of dark matter.

  17. Effects of sulfur on lead partitioning during sludge incineration based on experiments and thermodynamic calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jing-yong; Huang, Shu-jie; Sun, Shui-yu; Ning, Xun-an; He, Rui-zhe; Li, Xiao-ming; Chen, Tao; Luo, Guang-qian; Xie, Wu-ming; Wang, Yu-jie; Zhuo, Zhong-xu; Fu, Jie-wen

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • A thermodynamic equilibrium calculation was carried out. • Effects of three types of sulfurs on Pb distribution were investigated. • The mechanism for three types of sulfurs acting on Pb partitioning were proposed. • Lead partitioning and species in bottom ash and fly ash were identified. - Abstract: Experiments in a tubular furnace reactor and thermodynamic equilibrium calculations were conducted to investigate the impact of sulfur compounds on the migration of lead (Pb) during sludge incineration. Representative samples of typical sludge with and without the addition of sulfur compounds were combusted at 850 °C, and the partitioning of Pb in the solid phase (bottom ash) and gas phase (fly ash and flue gas) was quantified. The results indicate that three types of sulfur compounds (S, Na{sub 2}S and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) added to the sludge could facilitate the volatilization of Pb in the gas phase (fly ash and flue gas) into metal sulfates displacing its sulfides and some of its oxides. The effect of promoting Pb volatilization by adding Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and Na{sub 2}S was superior to that of the addition of S. In bottom ash, different metallic sulfides were found in the forms of lead sulfide, aluminosilicate minerals, and polymetallic-sulfides, which were minimally volatilized. The chemical equilibrium calculations indicated that sulfur stabilizes Pb in the form of PbSO{sub 4}(s) at low temperatures (<1000 K). The equilibrium calculation prediction also suggested that SiO{sub 2}, CaO, TiO{sub 2}, and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} containing materials function as condensed phase solids in the temperature range of 800–1100 K as sorbents to stabilize Pb. However, in the presence of sulfur or chlorine or the co-existence of sulfur and chlorine, these sorbents were inactive. The effect of sulfur on Pb partitioning in the sludge incineration process mainly depended on the gas phase reaction, the surface reaction, the volatilization of products, and the

  18. Boron, beryllium, and lithium, partitioning in olivine

    SciTech Connect

    Neroda, Elizabeth

    1996-05-01

    A one atmosphere experimental study was performed to determine the mineral/melt partition coefficients for B, Be, and Li in forsteritic olivine. Two compositions were chosen along the 1350{degrees}C isotherm, 1b (Fo{sub 17.3} Ab{sub 82.7} An{sub 0} by weight) and 8c (Fo{sub 30} Ab{sub 23.3} An{sub 47.8}, by weight) were then combined in equal amounts to form a composition was doped with 25ppm Li, B, Yb, Nb, Zr, Sr, and Hf, 50ppm Sm, and 100ppm Be, Nd, Ce, and Rb. Electron and ion microprobe analyses showed that the olivine crystals and surrounding glasses were homogeneous with respect to major and trace elements. Partition coefficients calculated from these analyses are as follows: 1b: D{sub B} = 4.41 ({+-} 2.3) E-03, D{sub Be} = 2.86 ({+-} 0.45) E-03, D{sub Li} = 1.54 ({+-} 0.21) E-01, 50/50: D{sub B} = 2.86 ({+-} 0.5) E-03, D{sub Be} = 2.07 ({+-} 0.09) E-03, D{sub Li} = 1.51 ({+-} 0.18) E-01, 8c: D{sub B} = 6.05 ({+-} 1.5) E-03, D{sub Be} = 1.81 ({+-} 0.03) E-03, D{sub Li} = 1.31 ({+-} 0.09) E-01. The results of this study will combined with similar data for other minerals as part of a larger study to understand the partitioning behavior of B, Be, and Li in melting of the upper mantle at subduction zones.

  19. Enhanced tubes for steam condensers. Volume 1, Summary of condensation and fouling; Volume 2, Detailed study of steam condensation

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, R.L.; Chamra, L.; Jaber, H.

    1992-02-01

    Electric utility steam condensers typically use plain tubes made of titanium, stainless steel, or copper alloys. Approximately two-thirds of the total thermal resistance is on the water side of the plain tube. This program seeks to conceive and develop a tube geometry that has special enhancement geometries on the tube (water) side and the steam (shell) side. This ``enhanced`` tube geometry, will provide increased heat transfer coefficients. The enhanced tubes will allow the steam to condense at a lower temperature. The reduced condensing temperature will reduce the turbine heat rate, and increase the plant peak load capability. Water side fouling and fouling control is a very important consideration affecting the choice of the tube side enhancement. Hence, we have consciously considered fouling potential in our selection of the tube side surface geometry. Using appropriate correlations and theoretical models, we have designed condensation and water side surface geometries that will provide high performance and be cleanable using sponge ball cleaning. Commercial tube manufacturers have made the required tube geometries for test purposes. The heat transfer test program includes measurement of the condensation and water side heat transfer coefficients. Fouling tests are being run to measure the waterside fouling resistance, and to the test the ability of the sponge ball cleaning system to clean the tubes.

  20. Partitioning technique for discrete quantum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, L.; Song, Z.

    2011-06-15

    We develop the partitioning technique for quantum discrete systems. The graph consists of several subgraphs: a central graph and several branch graphs, with each branch graph being rooted by an individual node on the central one. We show that the effective Hamiltonian on the central graph can be constructed by adding additional potentials on the branch-root nodes, which generates the same result as does the the original Hamiltonian on the entire graph. Exactly solvable models are presented to demonstrate the main points of this paper.

  1. The minimal length and quantum partition functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasiyan-Motlaq, M.; Pedram, P.

    2014-08-01

    We study the thermodynamics of various physical systems in the framework of the generalized uncertainty principle that implies a minimal length uncertainty proportional to the Planck length. We present a general scheme to analytically calculate the quantum partition function of the physical systems to first order of the deformation parameter based on the behavior of the modified energy spectrum and compare our results with the classical approach. Also, we find the modified internal energy and heat capacity of the systems for the anti-Snyder framework.

  2. Light period regulation of carbohydrate partitioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janes, Harry W.

    1994-01-01

    We have shown that the photosynthetic period is important in regulating carbon partitioning. Even when the same amount of carbon is fixed over a 24h period considerably more is translocated out of the leaf under the longer photosynthetic period. This is extremely important when parts of the plant other than the leaves are to be sold. It is also important to notice the amount of carbon respired in the short photosynthetic period. The light period effect on carbohydrate fixation, dark respiration, and translocation is shown in this report.

  3. Ionosphere-Thermosphere Coupling and Energy Partitioning During Two HSS Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verkhoglyadova, Olga; Mannucci, Anthony; Meng, Xing; Tsurutani, Bruce; Mlynczak, Martin; Hunt, Linda; Redmon, Robert; Green, Janet

    2015-04-01

    We analyze external driving of the ionosphere-thermosphere (IT) system during two CIR-HSS events, on 29 April - 4 May 2011 and on 8-12 May 2012. By studying similar CIR-HSS events in the same phase of a solar cycle and the same season we aim to understand differences and similarities in the magnetosphere-IT coupling caused by external driving and other factors (pre-conditioning or driving from below). We focus on understanding energy and momentum transfer (with solar wind coupling functions, Joule heating, nitric oxide (NO) infrared cooling radiation and energetic particle precipitation) and corresponding energy partitioning in the IT system. We utilize observations from DMSP, POES/MEPED and TIMED/SABER. We use the Global Ionosphere-Thermosphere Model (GITM, Ridley et al., 2006) with different driving inputs to understand the IT response. We outline a physics-based approach for forecasting moderate to intense storms in the Earth's upper atmosphere caused by solar wind disturbances. Ridley, A. J., Y. Deng, and G. Toth (2006), The global ionosphere-thermosphere model, Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 68(8), 839-864, doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2006.01.008.

  4. Nanoscopic structure of DNA condensed for gene delivery.

    PubMed Central

    Dunlap, D D; Maggi, A; Soria, M R; Monaco, L

    1997-01-01

    Scanning force microscopy was used to examine DNA condensates prepared with varying stoichiometries of lipospermine or polyethylenimine in physiological solution. For the first time, individual DNA strands were clearly visualized in incomplete condensates without drying. Using lipospermine at sub-saturating concentrations, discrete nuclei of condensation were observed often surrounded by folded loops of DNA. Similar packing of DNA loops occurred for polyethylenimine-induced condensation. Increasing the amount of the condensing agent led to the progressive coalescence or aggregation of initial condensation nuclei through folding rather than winding the DNA. At over-saturating charge ratios of the cationic lipid or polymer to DNA, condensates had sizes smaller than or equal to those measured previously in electron micrographs. Polyethylenimine condensates were more compact than lipospermine condensates and both produced more homogeneously compacted plasmids when used in a 2-4-fold charge excess. The size and morphology of the condensates may affect their efficiency in transfection. PMID:9224610

  5. Parallel Processing of Big Point Clouds Using Z-Order Partitioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alis, C.; Boehm, J.; Liu, K.

    2016-06-01

    As laser scanning technology improves and costs are coming down, the amount of point cloud data being generated can be prohibitively difficult and expensive to process on a single machine. This data explosion is not only limited to point cloud data. Voluminous amounts of high-dimensionality and quickly accumulating data, collectively known as Big Data, such as those generated by social media, Internet of Things devices and commercial transactions, are becoming more prevalent as well. New computing paradigms and frameworks are being developed to efficiently handle the processing of Big Data, many of which utilize a compute cluster composed of several commodity grade machines to process chunks of data in parallel. A central concept in many of these frameworks is data locality. By its nature, Big Data is large enough that the entire dataset would not fit on the memory and hard drives of a single node hence replicating the entire dataset to each worker node is impractical. The data must then be partitioned across worker nodes in a manner that minimises data transfer across the network. This is a challenge for point cloud data because there exist different ways to partition data and they may require data transfer. We propose a partitioning based on Z-order which is a form of locality-sensitive hashing. The Z-order or Morton code is computed by dividing each dimension to form a grid then interleaving the binary representation of each dimension. For example, the Z-order code for the grid square with coordinates (x = 1 = 012, y = 3 = 112) is 10112 = 11. The number of points in each partition is controlled by the number of bits per dimension: the more bits, the fewer the points. The number of bits per dimension also controls the level of detail with more bits yielding finer partitioning. We present this partitioning method by implementing it on Apache Spark and investigating how different parameters affect the accuracy and running time of the k nearest neighbour algorithm

  6. Fluid(s)/Melt Partitioning of COHSCl Volatiles and Associated Controls on Volcanic Degassing (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    -enriched fluid is the first fluid that exsolves in magma, because the [fluid/melt] partition coefficients for CO2 exceed those for H2O, S, and Cl. Thus, S partitions strongly in favor of aqueous-carbonic fluids even when fluid exsolution first occurs at depth. This has consequences for processes of magmatic gas sparging of S by CO2-enriched fluids, for compositions of silicate melt inclusions representing fluid(s)-saturated magmas, and for S/C ratios of volcanic gases. Although Cl is generally the least abundant of the four primary volatiles, Cl exerts a fundamental influence on the phase equilibria of vapor only, vapor plus saline liquid, or saline liquid only for magmas as they ascend to near-surface depths. This influence is exacerbated by the addition of CO2, because the size of the stability field of vapor plus saline liquid increases dramatically as the Cl and CO2 concentrations of magmas increase even to modest magmatic levels. The condensation of a saline liquid from vapor-saturated melt exerts strong controls on the associated partitioning behavior of H2O and S, impacts compositions of silicate melt inclusions, and affects S/Cl and C/Cl ratios of volcanic gases. [Teague et al., 2008, EOS/AGU 89(53), V21B-2086; Lesne et al., 2011, J.Pet. Vol. 52, p. 1737-1762; Witham et al., 2012, Comp. & Geoscien. Vol. 45, p. 87-97.

  7. Bacterial plasmid partition machinery: a minimalist approach to survival.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Maria A

    2012-02-01

    The accurate segregation or partition of replicated DNA is essential for ensuring stable genome transmission. Partition of bacterial plasmids requires only three elements: a centromere-like DNA site and two proteins, a partition NTPase, and a centromere-binding protein (CBP). Because of this simplicity, partition systems have served as tractable model systems to study the fundamental molecular mechanisms required for DNA segregation at an atomic level. In the last few years, great progress has been made in this endeavor. Surprisingly, these studies have revealed that although the basic partition components are functionally conserved between three types of plasmid partition systems, these systems employ distinct mechanisms of DNA segregation. This review summarizes the molecular insights into plasmid segregation that have been achieved through these recent structural studies.

  8. The use of coarse, separable, condensed-phase organic carbon particles to characterize desorption resistance of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in contaminated sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Chai, Y.Z.; Kochetkov, A.; Reible, D.D.

    2007-07-15

    Physical separations were employed to characterize the source of desorption-resistant behavior for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in laboratory- and field-contaminated sediments. Size and density separation of laboratory-contaminated sediments did not effectively separate the amorphous-phase (volatile) and condensed-phase (nonvolatile) organic carbon as measured by thermal oxidation at 375 {sup o}C. These separations also did not result in sediment fractions with significantly different desorption characteristics as measured by apparent partition coefficients. Coarse particles from a field-contaminated sediment from Utica Harbor (UH; Utica, NY, USA), however, could be directly separated into sandy fractions and organic fractions that were composed of woody organic matter, charcoal or charred vegetative matter, and coal-like and coal-cinder particles. Chemical analysis showed that coal-like (glassy, nonporous) and coal-cinder (porous, sintered) particles exhibited very high PAH concentrations and high apparent partition coefficients. These particles also exhibited significantly higher condensed-phase (nonvolatile) organic carbon contents as defined by thermal oxidation at 375{sup o}C. The apparent partition coefficients of PAHs in the coal-cinder particles were a good indication of the apparent partition coefficients in the desorption-resistant fraction of UH sediment, indicating that the coarse particles provided a reasonable characterization of the desorption-resistance phenomena in these sediments even though the coarse fractions represented less than 25% of the organic carbon in the whole sediment.

  9. Cyclable Condensation and Hierarchical Assembly of Metastable Reflectin Proteins, the Drivers of Tunable Biophotonics*

    PubMed Central

    Levenson, Robert; Bracken, Colton; Bush, Nicole; Morse, Daniel E.

    2016-01-01

    Reversible changes in the phosphorylation of reflectin proteins have been shown to drive the tunability of color and brightness of light reflected from specialized cells in the skin of squids and related cephalopods. We show here, using dynamic light scattering, electron microscopy, and fluorescence analyses, that reversible titration of the excess positive charges of the reflectins, comparable with that produced by phosphorylation, is sufficient to drive the reversible condensation and hierarchical assembly of these proteins. The results suggest a two-stage process in which charge neutralization first triggers condensation, resulting in the emergence of previously cryptic structures that subsequently mediate reversible, hierarchical assembly. The extent to which cyclability is seen in the in vitro formation and disassembly of complexes estimated to contain several thousand reflectin molecules suggests that intrinsic sequence- and structure-determined specificity governs the reversible condensation and assembly of the reflectins and that these processes are therefore sufficient to produce the reversible changes in refractive index, thickness, and spacing of the reflectin-containing subcellular Bragg lamellae to change the brightness and color of reflected light. This molecular mechanism points to the metastability of reflectins as the centrally important design principle governing biophotonic tunability in this system. PMID:26719342

  10. [Car driving and psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Jonas, Carol

    2015-10-01

    Among the specialties involved in the order of 31 August 2010, psychiatry is in Chapter IV alongside addictive behavior and drug use may impair the ability of the driver. As well as for personal vehicles for professional vehicles the incompatibility of health with driving exists when clinical factors can interfere with the skills required of the driver. There would simply absolute incompatibility for psychoses in active phase. In the other phases of psychosis is at the discretion of specialist as for illiteracy or social maladjustment. The role of the authorized psychiatrist is therefore always subjective. This article also makes room for attention-deficit disorder with hyperactivity (ADHD), not listed, but the subject of numerous articles in the English literature.

  11. Rotary drive mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Kenderdine, Eugene W.

    1991-01-01

    A rotary drive mechanism includes a rotary solenoid having a stator and multi-poled rotor. A moving member rotates with the rotor and is biased by a biasing device. The biasing device causes a further rotational movement after rotation by the rotary solenoid. Thus, energization of the rotary solenoid moves the member in one direction to one position and biases the biasing device against the member. Subsequently, de-energization of the rotary solenoid causes the biasing device to move the member in the same direction to another position from where the moving member is again movable by energization and de-energization of the rotary solenoid. Preferably, the moving member is a multi-lobed cam having the same number of lobes as the rotor has poles. An anti-overdrive device is also preferably provided for preventing overdrive in the forward direction or a reverse rotation of the moving member and for precisely aligning the moving member.

  12. Magnetostrictive direct drive motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naik, Dipak; Dehoff, P. H.

    1992-01-01

    A new rare earth alloy, Terfenol-D, combines low frequency operation and extremely high energy density with high magnetostriction. Its material properties make it suitable as a drive element for actuators requiring high output torque. The high strains, the high forces and the high controllability of Terfenol alloys provide a powerful and challenging basis for new ways to generate motion in actuators. Two prototypes of motors using Terfenol-D rods were developed at NASA Goddard. The basic principles of operation are provided of the motor along with other relevant details. A conceptual design of a torque limiting safety clutch/brake under development is illustrated. Also, preliminary design drawings of a linear actuator using Terfenol-D is shown.

  13. What Drives Blend Miscibility?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Ronald; Lipson, Jane

    2014-03-01

    With no mixture data available, can one predict phase behavior in polymeric systems based on pure component information only? Due to the very weak entropic drive for large molecules to mix, predicting and understanding miscibility behavior is indeed very difficult. However, while not perfect, some a priori insight is attainable when pure component properties are analyzed within the framework of a theoretical model. A theory provides a platform, allowing one to define quantities and other measures that may not always be directly measurable, but, are physically appealing and insightful none-the-less. Are there properties that can explain for example, why a polymer like polyisobutylene (PIB) exhibits such different phase behavior compared to other polyolefins? Applying our simple lattice-based equation of state, we have recently analyzed a large number of different polymers. In this talk we will present insights from trends and patterns we have observed. Work supported by the National Science Foundation.

  14. QUICK RELEASABLE DRIVE

    DOEpatents

    Dickson, J.J.

    1958-07-01

    A quick releasable mechanical drive system suitable for use in a nuclear reactor is described. A small reversible motor positions a control rod by means of a worm and gear speed reducer, a magnetic torque clutch, and a bell crank. As the control rod is raised to the operating position, a heavy coil spring is compressed. In the event of an emergency indicated by either a''scram'' signal or a power failure, the current to the magnetic clutch is cut off, thereby freeing the coil spring and the bell crank positioner from the motor and speed reduction gearing. The coil spring will immediately act upon the bell crank to cause the insertion of the control rod. This arrangement will allow the slow, accurate positioning of the control rod during reactor operation, while providing an independent force to rapidly insert the rod in the event of an emergency.

  15. GENOTOXICITY OF TEN CIGARETTE SMOKE CONDENSATES IN FOUR TEST SYSTEMS: COMPARISONS BETWEEN ASSAYS AND CONDENSATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    What is the study?
    This the first assessment of a set of cigarette smoke condensates from a range of cigarette types in a variety (4) of short-term genotoxicity assays.
    Why was it done?
    No such comparative study of cigarette smoke condensates has been reported. H...

  16. Toward understanding driving forces in membrane protein folding.

    PubMed

    Hong, Heedeok

    2014-12-15

    α-Helical membrane proteins are largely composed of nonpolar residues that are embedded in the lipid bilayer. An enigma in the folding of membrane proteins is how a polypeptide chain can be condensed into the compact folded state in the environment where the hydrophobic effect cannot strongly drive molecular interactions. Probably other forces such as van der Waals packing, hydrogen bonding, and weakly polar interactions, which are regarded less important in the folding of water-soluble proteins, should emerge. However, it is not clearly understood how those individual forces operate and how they are balanced for stabilizing membrane proteins. Studying this problem is not a trivial task mainly because of the methodological challenges in controlling the reversible folding of membrane proteins in the lipid bilayer. Overcoming the hurdles, meaningful progress has been made in the field in the last few decades. This review will focus on recent studies tackling the problem of driving forces in membrane protein folding.

  17. Automatic partitioning of unstructured grids into connected components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dagum, Leonardo

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents two partitioning schemes that guarantee connected components given a connected initial grid. Connected components are important for convergence of methods such as domain decomposition or multigrid. For many of the grids tested, the schemes produce partitions as good (in terms of number of cut edges) or better than spectral partitioning and require only modest computational resources. This paper describes the two schemes in detail and presents comparison results from a number of two and three dimensional unstructured grids.

  18. An experimental study of trace element partitioning between perovskite, hibonite and melt: Equilibrium values

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, A. K.; Lofgren, G. E.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1993-01-01

    The presence of perovskite (CATiO3) and hibonite (Ca Al12O19) within different regions of Calcium-, Aluminum-rich Inclusions (CAI) and the trace element concentrations of these minerals in each circumstance, constrain models of precursor formation, nebular condensation, the thermal history of inclusions with relict perovskite and hibonite, and the formation of the Wark-Lovering rim. At present mineral/melt partition coefficient data for hibonite are limited to a few elements in simple experimental systems, or to those derived from hibonite-glass pairs in hibonite/glass microspherules. Similarly, there is only limited data on perovskite D that are applicable to meteorite compositions. Apart from the importance of partitioning studies to meteorite research, D values also are invaluable in the development of thermodynamic models, especially when data is available for a large number of elements that have different ionic charge and radii. In addition, study of the effect of rapid cooling on partitioning is crucial to our understanding of meteorite inclusions. To expand our knowledge of mineral/melt D for perovskite and hibonite, a study was instituted where D values are obtained in both equilibrium and dynamic cooling experiments. As an initial phase of this study mineral/melt D was measured for major elements (Ca, Mg, Al, Ti, and Si), 15 rare earth elements (La-Lu) and 8 other elements (Ba, Sr, U, Th, Nb, Zr, Hf, and Ge) in perovskite and hibonite grown under equilibrium conditions, in bulk compositions that are respectively similar to Compact Type A (CTA) CAI and to a hibonite/glass microspherule. Experimental mixes were doped with REE at 20-50x chondritic (ch) abundances, Ba at 50 ppm, Sr, Hf, Nb, and Zr at 100 ppm and, U and Th at 200 ppm. Trace element abundances were measured with the PANURGE ion microprobe. Major element compositions were obtained by electron microprobe analysis.

  19. Apparatus for chemical amplification based on fluid partitioning in an immiscible liquid

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Brian L [Lodi, CA; Colston, Bill W [San Ramon, CA; Elkin, Christopher J [San Ramon, CA

    2012-05-08

    A system for nucleic acid amplification of a sample comprises partitioning the sample into partitioned sections and performing PCR on the partitioned sections of the sample. Another embodiment of the invention provides a system for nucleic acid amplification and detection of a sample comprising partitioning the sample into partitioned sections, performing PCR on the partitioned sections of the sample, and detecting and analyzing the partitioned sections of the sample.

  20. Method for chemical amplification based on fluid partitioning in an immiscible liquid

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Brian L.; Colston, Bill W.; Elkin, Christopher J.

    2015-06-02

    A system for nucleic acid amplification of a sample comprises partitioning the sample into partitioned sections and performing PCR on the partitioned sections of the sample. Another embodiment of the invention provides a system for nucleic acid amplification and detection of a sample comprising partitioning the sample into partitioned sections, performing PCR on the partitioned sections of the sample, and detecting and analyzing the partitioned sections of the sample.