Science.gov

Sample records for condensed matter polymers

  1. Soft condensed matter: Polymers, complex fluids, and biomaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, D.

    1995-10-01

    Historians often characterize epochs through their dominant materials, clay, bronze, iron, and steel. From this perspective, the modern era is certainly the age of plastics. The progression from hard to soft materials suggests that the emerging era will be the age of {open_quotes}soft condensed matter.{close_quotes}

  2. Condensate dark matter stars

    SciTech Connect

    Li, X.Y.; Harko, T.; Cheng, K.S. E-mail: harko@hkucc.hku.hk

    2012-06-01

    We investigate the structure and stability properties of compact astrophysical objects that may be formed from the Bose-Einstein condensation of dark matter. Once the critical temperature of a boson gas is less than the critical temperature, a Bose-Einstein Condensation process can always take place during the cosmic history of the universe. Therefore we model the dark matter inside the star as a Bose-Einstein condensate. In the condensate dark matter star model, the dark matter equation of state can be described by a polytropic equation of state, with polytropic index equal to one. We derive the basic general relativistic equations describing the equilibrium structure of the condensate dark matter star with spherically symmetric static geometry. The structure equations of the condensate dark matter stars are studied numerically. The critical mass and radius of the dark matter star are given by M{sub crit} ≈ 2(l{sub a}/1fm){sup 1/2}(m{sub χ}/1 GeV){sup −3/2}M{sub s}un and R{sub crit} ≈ 1.1 × 10{sup 6}(l{sub a}/1 fm){sup 1/2}(m{sub χ}/1 GeV){sup −3/2} cm respectively, where l{sub a} and m{sub χ} are the scattering length and the mass of dark matter particle, respectively.

  3. Asymmetric condensed dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguirre, Anthony; Diez-Tejedor, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    We explore the viability of a boson dark matter candidate with an asymmetry between the number densities of particles and antiparticles. A simple thermal field theory analysis confirms that, under certain general conditions, this component would develop a Bose-Einstein condensate in the early universe that, for appropriate model parameters, could survive the ensuing cosmological evolution until now. The condensation of a dark matter component in equilibrium with the thermal plasma is a relativistic process, hence the amount of matter dictated by the charge asymmetry is complemented by a hot relic density frozen out at the time of decoupling. Contrary to the case of ordinary WIMPs, dark matter particles in a condensate must be lighter than a few tens of eV so that the density from thermal relics is not too large. Big-Bang nucleosynthesis constrains the temperature of decoupling to the scale of the QCD phase transition or above. This requires large dark matter-to-photon ratios and very weak interactions with standard model particles.

  4. Condensed Matter Nuclear Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biberian, Jean-Paul

    2006-02-01

    1. General. A tribute to gene Mallove - the "Genie" reactor / K. Wallace and R. Stringham. An update of LENR for ICCF-11 (short course, 10/31/04) / E. Storms. New physical effects in metal deuterides / P. L. Hagelstein ... [et al.]. Reproducibility, controllability, and optimization of LENR experiments / D. J. Nagel -- 2. Experiments. Electrochemistry. Evidence of electromagnetic radiation from Ni-H systems / S. Focardi ... [et al.]. Superwave reality / I. Dardik. Excess heat in electrolysis experiments at energetics technologies / I. Dardik ... [et al.]. "Excess heat" during electrolysis in platinum/K[symbol]CO[symbol]/nickel light water system / J. Tian ... [et al.]. Innovative procedure for the, in situ, measurement of the resistive thermal coefficient of H(D)/Pd during electrolysis; cross-comparison of new elements detected in the Th-Hg-Pd-D(H) electrolytic cells / F. Celani ... [et al.]. Emergence of a high-temperature superconductivity in hydrogen cycled Pd compounds as an evidence for superstoihiometric H/D sites / A. Lipson ... [et al.]. Plasma electrolysis. Calorimetry of energy-efficient glow discharge - apparatus design and calibration / T. B. Benson and T. O. Passell. Generation of heat and products during plasma electrolysis / T. Mizuno ... [et al.]. Glow discharge. Excess heat production in Pd/D during periodic pulse discharge current in various conditions / A. B. Karabut. Beam experiments. Accelerator experiments and theoretical models for the electron screening effect in metallic environments / A. Huke, K. Czerski, and P. Heide. Evidence for a target-material dependence of the neutron-proton branching ratio in d+d reactions for deuteron energies below 20keV / A. Huke ... [et al.]. Experiments on condensed matter nuclear events in Kobe University / T. Minari ... [et al.]. Electron screening constraints for the cold fusion / K. Czerski, P. Heide, and A. Huke. Cavitation. Low mass 1.6 MHz sonofusion reactor / R. Stringham. Particle detection. Research

  5. Condensed Matter Nuclear Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biberian, Jean-Paul

    2006-02-01

    1. General. A tribute to gene Mallove - the "Genie" reactor / K. Wallace and R. Stringham. An update of LENR for ICCF-11 (short course, 10/31/04) / E. Storms. New physical effects in metal deuterides / P. L. Hagelstein ... [et al.]. Reproducibility, controllability, and optimization of LENR experiments / D. J. Nagel -- 2. Experiments. Electrochemistry. Evidence of electromagnetic radiation from Ni-H systems / S. Focardi ... [et al.]. Superwave reality / I. Dardik. Excess heat in electrolysis experiments at energetics technologies / I. Dardik ... [et al.]. "Excess heat" during electrolysis in platinum/K[symbol]CO[symbol]/nickel light water system / J. Tian ... [et al.]. Innovative procedure for the, in situ, measurement of the resistive thermal coefficient of H(D)/Pd during electrolysis; cross-comparison of new elements detected in the Th-Hg-Pd-D(H) electrolytic cells / F. Celani ... [et al.]. Emergence of a high-temperature superconductivity in hydrogen cycled Pd compounds as an evidence for superstoihiometric H/D sites / A. Lipson ... [et al.]. Plasma electrolysis. Calorimetry of energy-efficient glow discharge - apparatus design and calibration / T. B. Benson and T. O. Passell. Generation of heat and products during plasma electrolysis / T. Mizuno ... [et al.]. Glow discharge. Excess heat production in Pd/D during periodic pulse discharge current in various conditions / A. B. Karabut. Beam experiments. Accelerator experiments and theoretical models for the electron screening effect in metallic environments / A. Huke, K. Czerski, and P. Heide. Evidence for a target-material dependence of the neutron-proton branching ratio in d+d reactions for deuteron energies below 20keV / A. Huke ... [et al.]. Experiments on condensed matter nuclear events in Kobe University / T. Minari ... [et al.]. Electron screening constraints for the cold fusion / K. Czerski, P. Heide, and A. Huke. Cavitation. Low mass 1.6 MHz sonofusion reactor / R. Stringham. Particle detection. Research

  6. Condensed Matter Nuclear Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Akito; Ota, Ken-Ichiro; Iwamura, Yashuhiro

    Preface -- 1. General. Progress in condensed matter nuclear science / A. Takahashi. Summary of ICCF-12 / X. Z. Li. Overview of light water/hydrogen-based low-energy nuclear reactions / G. H. Miley and P. J. Shrestha -- 2. Excess heat and He detection. Development of "DS-reactor" as the practical reactor of "cold fusion" based on the "DS-cell" with "DS-cathode" / Y. Arata and Y.-C. Zhang. Progress in excess of power experiments with electrochemical loading of deuterium in palladium / V. Violante ... [et al.]. Anomalous energy generation during conventional electrolysis / T. Mizuno and Y. Toriyabe. "Excess heat" induced by deuterium flux in palladium film / B. Liu ... [et al.]. Abnormal excess heat observed during Mizuno-type experiments / J.-F. Fauvarque, P. P. Clauzon and G. J.-M. Lallevé. Seebeck envelope calorimetry with a Pd|D[symbol]O + H[symbol]SO[symbol] electrolytic cell / W.-S. Zhang, J. Dash and Q. Wang. Observation and investigation of nuclear fusion and self-induced electric discharges in liquids / A. I. Koldamasov ... [et al.]. Description of a sensitive seebeck calorimeter used for cold fusion studies / E. Storms. Some recent results at ENEA / M. Apicella ... [et al.]. Heat measurement during plasma electrolysis / K. Iizumi ... [et al.]. Effect of an additive on thermal output during electrolysis of heavy water with a palladium cathode / Q. Wang and J. Dash. Thermal analysis of calorimetric systems / L. D'Aulerio ... [et al.]. Surface plasmons and low-energy nuclear reactions triggering / E. Castagna ... [et al.]. Production method for violent TCB jet plasma from cavity / F. Amini. New results and an ongoing excess heat controversy / L. Kowalski ... [et al.] -- 3. Transmutation. Observation of surface distribution of products by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry during D[symbol] gas permeation through Pd Complexes / Y. Iwamura ... [et al.]. Discharge experiment using Pd/CaO/Pd multi-layered cathode / S. Narita ... [et al.]. Producing transmutation

  7. Condensed Matter Nuclear Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Akito; Ota, Ken-Ichiro; Iwamura, Yashuhiro

    Preface -- 1. General. Progress in condensed matter nuclear science / A. Takahashi. Summary of ICCF-12 / X. Z. Li. Overview of light water/hydrogen-based low-energy nuclear reactions / G. H. Miley and P. J. Shrestha -- 2. Excess heat and He detection. Development of "DS-reactor" as the practical reactor of "cold fusion" based on the "DS-cell" with "DS-cathode" / Y. Arata and Y.-C. Zhang. Progress in excess of power experiments with electrochemical loading of deuterium in palladium / V. Violante ... [et al.]. Anomalous energy generation during conventional electrolysis / T. Mizuno and Y. Toriyabe. "Excess heat" induced by deuterium flux in palladium film / B. Liu ... [et al.]. Abnormal excess heat observed during Mizuno-type experiments / J.-F. Fauvarque, P. P. Clauzon and G. J.-M. Lallevé. Seebeck envelope calorimetry with a Pd|D[symbol]O + H[symbol]SO[symbol] electrolytic cell / W.-S. Zhang, J. Dash and Q. Wang. Observation and investigation of nuclear fusion and self-induced electric discharges in liquids / A. I. Koldamasov ... [et al.]. Description of a sensitive seebeck calorimeter used for cold fusion studies / E. Storms. Some recent results at ENEA / M. Apicella ... [et al.]. Heat measurement during plasma electrolysis / K. Iizumi ... [et al.]. Effect of an additive on thermal output during electrolysis of heavy water with a palladium cathode / Q. Wang and J. Dash. Thermal analysis of calorimetric systems / L. D'Aulerio ... [et al.]. Surface plasmons and low-energy nuclear reactions triggering / E. Castagna ... [et al.]. Production method for violent TCB jet plasma from cavity / F. Amini. New results and an ongoing excess heat controversy / L. Kowalski ... [et al.] -- 3. Transmutation. Observation of surface distribution of products by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry during D[symbol] gas permeation through Pd Complexes / Y. Iwamura ... [et al.]. Discharge experiment using Pd/CaO/Pd multi-layered cathode / S. Narita ... [et al.]. Producing transmutation

  8. Introduction. Cosmology meets condensed matter.

    PubMed

    Kibble, T W B; Pickett, G R

    2008-08-28

    At first sight, low-temperature condensed-matter physics and early Universe cosmology seem worlds apart. Yet, in the last few years a remarkable synergy has developed between the two. It has emerged that, in terms of their mathematical description, there are surprisingly close parallels between them. This interplay has been the subject of a very successful European Science Foundation (ESF) programme entitled COSLAB ('Cosmology in the Laboratory') that ran from 2001 to 2006, itself built on an earlier ESF network called TOPDEF ('Topological Defects: Non-equilibrium Field Theory in Particle Physics, Condensed Matter and Cosmology'). The articles presented in this issue of Philosophical Transactions A are based on talks given at the Royal Society Discussion Meeting 'Cosmology meets condensed matter', held on 28 and 29 January 2008. Many of the speakers had participated earlier in the COSLAB programme, but the strength of the field is illustrated by the presence also of quite a few new participants.

  9. Anderson and Condensed Matter Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramakrishnan, T. V.

    The legacy of P. W. Anderson, perhaps the most fertile and influential condensed matter physicist of the second half of the twentieth century, is briefly mentioned here. I note three pervasive values. They are: emergence with its constant tendency to surprise us and to stretch our imagination, the Baconian emphasis on the experimental moorings of modern science, and mechanism as the explanatory core. Out of his work, which is spread over more than six decades and in many ways has charted modern condensed matter physics, nearly a dozen seminal contributions, chosen idiosyncratically, are mentioned at the risk of leaving out many which may also have started subfields. Some of these are: antiferromagnestism and broken symmetry, superexchange and strong electron correlations, localization in disordered systems, gauge invariance and mass, and the resonating valence bond in magnetic systems as well as in high-temperature superconductivity...

  10. Physics through the 1990s: Condensed-matter physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The volume presents the current status of condensed-matter physics from developments since the 1970s to opportunities in the 1990s. Topics include electronic structure, vibrational properties, critical phenomena and phase transitions, magnetism, semiconductors, defects and diffusion, surfaces and interfaces, low-temperature physics, liquid-state physics, polymers, nonlinear dynamics, instabilities, and chaos. Appendices cover the connections between condensed-matter physics and applications of national interest, new experimental techniques and materials, laser spectroscopy, and national facilities for condensed-matter physics research. The needs of the research community regarding support for individual researchers and for national facilities are presented, as are recommendations for improved government-academic-industrial relations.

  11. Condensed matter analogues of cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kibble, Tom; Srivastava, Ajit

    2013-10-01

    It is always exciting when developments in one branch of physics turn out to have relevance in a quite different branch. It would be hard to find two branches farther apart in terms of energy scales than early-universe cosmology and low-temperature condensed matter physics. Nevertheless ideas about the formation of topological defects during rapid phase transitions that originated in the context of the very early universe have proved remarkably fruitful when applied to a variety of condensed matter systems. The mathematical frameworks for describing these systems can be very similar. This interconnection has led to a deeper understanding of the phenomena in condensed matter systems utilizing ideas from cosmology. At the same time, one can view these condensed matter analogues as providing, at least in a limited sense, experimental access to the phenomena of the early universe for which no direct probe is possible. As this special issue well illustrates, this remains a dynamic and exciting field. The basic idea is that when a system goes through a rapid symmetry-breaking phase transition from a symmetric phase into one with spontaneously broken symmetry, the order parameter may make different choices in different regions, creating domains that when they meet can trap defects. The scale of those domains, and hence the density of defects, is constrained by the rate at which the system goes through the transition and the speed with which order parameter information propagates. This is what has come to be known as the Kibble-Zurek mechanism. The resultant scaling laws have now been tested in a considerable variety of different systems. The earliest experiments illustrating the analogy between cosmology and condensed matter were in liquid crystals, in particular on the isotropic-to-nematic transition, primarily because it is very easy to induce the phase transition (typically at room temperature) and to image precisely what is going on. This field remains one of the

  12. Collision of Bose Condensate Dark Matter structures

    SciTech Connect

    Guzman, F. S.

    2008-12-04

    The status of the scalar field or Bose condensate dark matter model is presented. Results about the solitonic behavior in collision of structures is presented as a possible explanation to the recent-possibly-solitonic behavior in the bullet cluster merger. Some estimates about the possibility to simulate the bullet cluster under the Bose Condensate dark matter model are indicated.

  13. Condensed Matter Theories - Volume 22

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinholz, Heidi; Röpke, Gerd; de Llano, Manuel

    2007-09-01

    pke -- pt. H. Biophysics. Condensed matter physics of biomolecule systems in a differential geometric framework / H. Bohr, J.I. Ipsen and S. Markvorsen. The brain's view of the natural world in motion: computing structure from function using directional Fourier transformations / B.K. Dellen, J.W. Clark and R. Wessel -- pt. I. Quantum information. Control and error prevention in condensed matter quantum computing devices / M.S. Byrd and L.A. Wu. Maxent approaches to qubits / C.M. Sarris, A.N. Proto and F B. Malik -- pt. J. New formalisms. Thermal coherent states, a broader class of mixed coherent states, and generalized thermo-field dynamics / R.F. Bishop and A. Vourdas. Ergodic condition and magnetic models / M. Howard Lee. From thermodynamics to Maxent / A. Plastino and E. M.F. Curado. Recent progress in the density-matrix renormalization group / U. Schollwöck.

  14. The NSF Condensed Matter Physics Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokol, Paul

    The Condensed Matter Physics (CMP) program in the NSF Division of Materials Research (DMR) supports experimental, as well as combined experiment and theory projects investigating the fundamental physics behind phenomena exhibited by condensed matter systems. CMP is the largest Individual Investigator Award program in DMR and supports a broad portfolio of research spanning both hard and soft condensed matter. Representative research areas include: 1) phenomena at the nano- to macro-scale including: transport, magnetic, and optical phenomena; classical and quantum phase transitions; localization; electronic, magnetic, and lattice structure or excitations; superconductivity; topological insulators; and nonlinear dynamics. 2) low-temperature physics: quantum fluids and solids; 1D & 2D electron systems. 3) soft condensed matter: partially ordered fluids, granular and colloid physics, liquid crystals, and 4) understanding the fundamental physics of new states of matter as well as the physical behavior of condensed matter under extreme conditions e.g., low temperatures, high pressures, and high magnetic fields. In this talk I will review the current CMP portfolio and discuss future funding trends for the program. I will also describe recent activities in the program aimed at addressing the challenges facing current and future principal investigators.

  15. 40 CFR 721.5713 - Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5713 Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (generic). (a) Chemical... as a phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (PMN P-00-1220) is subject to reporting under this...

  16. 40 CFR 721.5713 - Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5713 Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (generic). (a) Chemical... as a phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (PMN P-00-1220) is subject to reporting under this...

  17. 40 CFR 721.5713 - Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5713 Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (generic). (a) Chemical... as a phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (PMN P-00-1220) is subject to reporting under this...

  18. 40 CFR 721.5713 - Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5713 Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (generic). (a) Chemical... as a phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (PMN P-00-1220) is subject to reporting under this...

  19. 40 CFR 721.5713 - Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5713 Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (generic). (a) Chemical... as a phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (PMN P-00-1220) is subject to reporting under this...

  20. Kaon condensation in dense stellar matter

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Chang-Hwan; Rho, M. |

    1995-03-01

    This article combines two talks given by the authors and is based on Works done in collaboration with G.E. Brown and D.P. Min on kaon condensation in dense baryonic medium treated in chiral perturbation theory using heavy-baryon formalism. It contains, in addition to what was recently published, astrophysical backgrounds for kaon condensation discussed by Brown and Bethe, a discussion on a renormalization-group analysis to meson condensation worked out together with H.K. Lee and S.J. Sin, and the recent results of K.M. Westerberg in the bound-state approach to the Skyrme model. Negatively charged kaons are predicted to condense at a critical density 2 {approx_lt} {rho}/{rho}o {approx_lt} 4, in the range to allow the intriguing new phenomena predicted by Brown and Bethe to take place in compact star matter.

  1. 40 CFR 721.10146 - Partially fluorinated condensation polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... polymer (generic). 721.10146 Section 721.10146 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10146 Partially fluorinated condensation polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as partially fluorinated condensation polymer (PMN P-07-87) is subject to reporting under...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10146 - Partially fluorinated condensation polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... polymer (generic). 721.10146 Section 721.10146 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10146 Partially fluorinated condensation polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as partially fluorinated condensation polymer (PMN P-07-87) is subject to reporting under...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10146 - Partially fluorinated condensation polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... polymer (generic). 721.10146 Section 721.10146 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10146 Partially fluorinated condensation polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as partially fluorinated condensation polymer (PMN P-07-87) is subject to reporting under...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10146 - Partially fluorinated condensation polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... polymer (generic). 721.10146 Section 721.10146 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10146 Partially fluorinated condensation polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as partially fluorinated condensation polymer (PMN P-07-87) is subject to reporting under...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10146 - Partially fluorinated condensation polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... polymer (generic). 721.10146 Section 721.10146 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10146 Partially fluorinated condensation polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as partially fluorinated condensation polymer (PMN P-07-87) is subject to reporting under...

  6. Infinite statistics condensate as a model of dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Ebadi, Zahra; Mirza, Behrouz; Mohammadzadeh, Hosein E-mail: b.mirza@cc.iut.ac.ir

    2013-11-01

    In some models, dark matter is considered as a condensate bosonic system. In this paper, we prove that condensation is also possible for particles that obey infinite statistics and derive the critical condensation temperature. We argue that a condensed state of a gas of very weakly interacting particles obeying infinite statistics could be considered as a consistent model of dark matter.

  7. Interstitialcy theory of simple condensed matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granato, Andrew V.

    2014-01-01

    A simple, more physical and compelling version of the Interstitialcy Theory of Simple Condensed Matter than that given previously is provided here. Also, computer simulation and direct and indirect experimental evidence is updated and reviewed. The theory is based on the properties of an interstitial in the interstitialcy, sometimes known as the dumbbell configuration. A free energy is derived, taking account of the unusually large shear susceptibility and vibrational entropy of the dumbbell to find the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of simple liquids and glasses. The connection between theory and experiment for some of the more notable properties of simple condensed matter found later is also discussed. The direct visual observation of interstitial diffusion to the surface in platinum near 20 K in irradiated thin films by Morgenstern et al. [M. Morgenstern, T. Michely, G. Comsa, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 1305 (1997)] is found to be sufficient compelling evidence for the interstitialcy theory.

  8. Condensed matter physicists shrink their horizons.

    PubMed

    Flam, F

    1993-04-01

    In the world of the condensed matter physicist, a micron is a chasm and a millimeter an ocean. At the March American Physical Society meeting in Seattle, some of the 4500 physicists probed the hazards of the micro world, where weird quantum effects can scramble information. Others outlined its opportunities: Molecular engineering that is leading to new information storage materials, and minute structures that could form tethers and containers in some future nanotechnology. PMID:17807173

  9. Majorana fermions in condensed-matter physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leggett, A. J.

    2016-06-01

    It is an honor and a pleasure to have been invited to give a talk in this conference celebrating the memory of the late Professor Abdus Salam. To my regret, I did not know Professor Salam personally, but I am very aware of his work and of his impact on my area of specialization, condensed matter physics, both intellectually through his ideas on spontaneously broken symmetry and more practically through his foundation of the ICTP. Since I assume that most of this audience are not specialized in condensed-matter physics, I thought I would talk about one topic which to some extent bridges this field and the particle-physics interests of Salam, namely Majorana fermions (M.F.s). However, as we shall see, the parallels which are often drawn in the current literature may be a bit too simplistic. I will devote most of this talk to a stripped-down exposition of the current orthodoxy concerning M.F.s. in condensed-matter physics and their possible applications to topological quantum computing (TQC), and then at the end briefly indicate why I believe this orthodoxy may be seriously misleading.

  10. Open problems in condensed matter physics, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Falicov, L.M.

    1988-08-01

    The 1970's and 1980's can be considered the third stage in the explosive development of condensed matter physics. After the very intensive research of the 1930's and 1940's, which followed the formulation of quantum mechanics, and the path-breaking activity of the 1950's and 1960's, the problems being faced now are much more complex and not always susceptible to simple modelling. The (subjectively) open problems discussed here are: high temperature superconductivity, its properties and the possible new mechanisms which lead to it; the integral and fractional quantum Hall effects; new forms of order in condensed-matter systems; the physics of disorder, especially the problem of spin glasses; the physics of complex anisotropic systems; the theoretical prediction of stable and metastable states of matter; the physics of highly correlated states (heavy fermions); the physics of artificially made structures, in particular heterostructures and highly metastable states of matter; the determination of the microscopic structure of surfaces; and chaos and highly nonlinear phnomena. 82 refs.

  11. Solitonic axion condensates modeling dark matter halos

    SciTech Connect

    Castañeda Valle, David Mielke, Eckehard W.

    2013-09-15

    Instead of fluid type dark matter (DM), axion-like scalar fields with a periodic self-interaction or some truncations of it are analyzed as a model of galaxy halos. It is probed if such cold Bose–Einstein type condensates could provide a viable soliton type interpretation of the DM ‘bullets’ observed by means of gravitational lensing in merging galaxy clusters. We study solitary waves for two self-interacting potentials in the relativistic Klein–Gordon equation, mainly in lower dimensions, and visualize the approximately shape-invariant collisions of two ‘lump’ type solitons. -- Highlights: •An axion model of dark matter is considered. •Collision of axion type solitons are studied in a two dimensional toy model. •Relations to dark matter collisions in galaxy clusters are proposed.

  12. The Future of Condensed Matter Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girvin, Steven

    2003-03-01

    Where are we? Where are we going? Where should we be going? Condensed matter systems have proven capable of existing in a marvelous variety of physical states that exhibit fundamental phenomena of interest even outside our subfield, particluarly in elementary particle physics. Will this continue or are the different subfields beginning to lose touch with each other as they mature? It is already clear that a large and unfortunate communication gulf has developed even inside our own community between the soft matter and electronic materials camps. Most members of our community have been proud to celebrate the technological relevance of our subfield. The past few decades have seen a marvelous synergy in which advances in condensed matter physics have led to technological advances. These in turn have permitted explorations of new realms and allowed new fundamental physics advances. Will this synergy continue or are we in danger of becoming technologically irrelevant? It is clear that we are entering a new era of confluence between atomic/molecular/optical physics and condensed matter physics. It is less clear but quite possible, that we are at the dawn of an age in which we will spin off a new subfield of quantum electrical engineering and quantum computation. Can we develop a useful understanding of complex materials? Whither nano-scale physics? Our colleagues in other subfields of physics seem to be better at communicating the excitement of their research to the public. What can we do on this front? I do not have answers to all these questions, but will at least attempt to make a few observations on them.

  13. Confined chiral polymer nematics: Ordering and spontaneous condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svenšek, Daniel; Podgornik, Rudolf

    2012-12-01

    We investigate condensation of a long confined chiral nematic polymer inside a spherical enclosure, mimicking condensation of DNA inside a viral capsid. The Landau-de Gennes nematic free-energy Ansatz appropriate for nematic polymers allows us to study the condensation process in detail with different boundary conditions at the enclosing wall that simulate repulsive and attractive polymer-surface interactions. By increasing the chirality, we observe a transformation of the toroidal condensate into a closed surface with an increasing genus, in some respects akin to the ordered domain formation observed in cryo-microscopy of bacteriophages.

  14. Computational Theory of Warm Condensed Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Barbee, T W; Surh, M P; Benedict, L X

    2001-02-25

    We have developed an improved computational theory of condensed matter in the regime where T {le} T{sub Fermi}. Previous methods of calculating the equation of state (EOS) relied on interpolation between low-temperature (solid) and high-temperature (plasma) limits, or employed severe approximations. Recent theoretical and experimental developments have highlighted the need for accurate EOS and opacity data in the intermediate temperature range and offer the opportunity to test theoretical models. We describe our results for EOS and optical properties for temperatures up to 10{sup 6} K, and describe directions for future work.

  15. Novel Quantum Condensates in Excitonic Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Littlewood, P. B.; Keeling, J. M. J.; Simons, B. D.; Eastham, P. R.; Marchetti, F. M.; Szymanska, M. H.

    2009-08-20

    These lectures interleave discussion of a novel physical problem of a new kind of condensate with teaching of the fundamental theoretical tools of quantum condensed matter field theory. Polaritons and excitons are light mass composite bosons that can be made inside solids in a number of different ways. As bosonic particles, they are liable to make a phase coherent ground state - generically called a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) - and these lectures present some models to describe that problem, as well as general approaches to the theory. The focus is very much to explain how mean-field-like approximations that are often presented heuristically can be derived in a systematic fashion by path integral methods. Going beyond the mean field theory then produces a systematic approach to calculation of the excitation energies, and the derivation of effective low energy theories that can be generalised to more complex dynamical and spatial situations than is practicable for the full theory, as well as to study statistical properties beyond the semi-classical regime. in particular, for the polariton problem, it allows one to connect the regimes of equilibrium BEC and non-equilibrium laser. The lectures are self-sufficient, but not highly detailed. The methodological aspects are covered in standard quantum field theory texts and the presentation here is deliberately cursory: the approach will be closest to the book of Altland and Simons. Since these lectures concern a particular type of condensate, reference should also be made to texts on BEC, for example by Pitaevskii and Stringari. A recent theoretically focussed review of polariton systems covers many of the technical issues associated with the polariton problem in greater depth and provides many further references.

  16. Novel Quantum Condensates in Excitonic Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littlewood, P. B.; Keeling, J. M. J.; Simons, B. D.; Eastham, P. R.; Marchetti, F. M.; Szymańska, M. H.

    2009-08-01

    These lectures interleave discussion of a novel physical problem of a new kind of condensate with teaching of the fundamental theoretical tools of quantum condensed matter field theory. Polaritons and excitons are light mass composite bosons that can be made inside solids in a number of different ways. As bosonic particles, they are liable to make a phase coherent ground state—generically called a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC)—and these lectures present some models to describe that problem, as well as general approaches to the theory. The focus is very much to explain how mean-field-like approximations that are often presented heuristically can be derived in a systematic fashion by path integral methods. Going beyond the mean field theory then produces a systematic approach to calculation of the excitation energies, and the derivation of effective low energy theories that can be generalised to more complex dynamical and spatial situations than is practicable for the full theory, as well as to study statistical properties beyond the semi-classical regime. in particular, for the polariton problem, it allows one to connect the regimes of equilibrium BEC and non-equilibrium laser. The lectures are self-sufficient, but not highly detailed. The methodological aspects are covered in standard quantum field theory texts and the presentation here is deliberately cursory: the approach will be closest to the book of Altland and Simons [1]. Since these lectures concern a particular type of condensate, reference should also be made to texts on BEC, for example by Pitaevskii and Stringari [2]. A recent theoretically focussed review of polariton systems is [3] covers many of the technical issues associated with the polariton problem in greater depth and provides many further references.

  17. Chiral magnetic effect in condensed matter systems

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Li, Qiang; Kharzeev, Dmitri E.

    2016-12-01

    The chiral magnetic effect is the generation of electrical current induced by chirality imbalance in the presence of magnetic field. It is a macroscopic manifestation of the quantum anomaly in relativistic field theory of chiral fermions. In the quark-gluon plasma, the axial anomaly induces topological charge changing transition that results in the generation of electrical current along the magnetic field. In condensed matter systems, the chiral magnetic effect was first predicted in the gapless semiconductors with tow energy bands having pointlike degeneracies. In addition, thirty years later after this prediction, the chiral magnetic effect was finally observed in the 3Dmore » Dirac/Weyl semimetals.« less

  18. Squeezed boson states in condensed matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sá de Melo, C. A. R.

    1991-12-01

    The possibility of the existence of squeezed states in interacting-boson condensed-matter systems is studied. These states are intimately related to the Bogoliubov and Valatin-Butler wave functions, and they are constructed as a possible ground state for the attractive-interaction Bose problem (AIBP) in a lattice, in which pair states can be formed. The pair ground state is constructed as variational many-body wave function for the AIBP by exploring the analogies with the dynamically generated photon squeezed states of quantum optics. The possible existence of these boson squeezed states is discussed in the context of biexcitons. In order to characterize the statistical properties of the pair (squeezed) state, the boson-field amplitude fluctuations, number probability distribution, and the second-order correlation function are calculated.

  19. Gravitational effects of condensate dark matter on compact stellar objects

    SciTech Connect

    Li, X.Y.; Wang, F.Y.; Cheng, K.S. E-mail: fayinwang@gmail.com

    2012-10-01

    We study the gravitational effect of non-self-annihilating dark matter on compact stellar objects. The self-interaction of condensate dark matter can give high accretion rate of dark matter onto stars. Phase transition to condensation state takes place when the dark matter density exceeds the critical value. A compact degenerate dark matter core is developed and alter the structure and stability of the stellar objects. Condensate dark matter admixed neutron stars is studied through the two-fluid TOV equation. The existence of condensate dark matter deforms the mass-radius relation of neutron stars and lower their maximum baryonic masses and radii. The possible effects on the Gamma-ray Burst rate in high redshift are discussed.

  20. Quantum entanglement in condensed matter systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laflorencie, Nicolas

    2016-08-01

    This review focuses on the field of quantum entanglement applied to condensed matter physics systems with strong correlations, a domain which has rapidly grown over the last decade. By tracing out part of the degrees of freedom of correlated quantum systems, useful and non-trivial information can be obtained through the study of the reduced density matrix, whose eigenvalue spectrum (the entanglement spectrum) and the associated Rényi entropies are now well recognized to contain key features. In particular, the celebrated area law for the entanglement entropy of ground-states will be discussed from the perspective of its subleading corrections which encode universal details of various quantum states of matter, e.g. symmetry breaking states or topological order. Going beyond entropies, the study of the low-lying part of the entanglement spectrum also allows to diagnose topological properties or give a direct access to the excitation spectrum of the edges, and may also raise significant questions about the underlying entanglement Hamiltonian. All these powerful tools can be further applied to shed some light on disordered quantum systems where impurity/disorder can conspire with quantum fluctuations to induce non-trivial effects. Disordered quantum spin systems, the Kondo effect, or the many-body localization problem, which have all been successfully (re)visited through the prism of quantum entanglement, will be discussed in detail. Finally, the issue of experimental access to entanglement measurement will be addressed, together with its most recent developments.

  1. On Strength at Yield in Condensed Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourne, Neil K.

    2015-10-01

    This paper concerns the lower of a range of thresholds that control the response of condensed matter under loading in compression, from the ambient laboratory state to the point at which the bond strength is overcome and warm dense matter is formed. One oft-used term is yield stress and its variation with the rise time of the loading pulse are considered in this first paper. This threshold shows a correlation between the length scale swept by the rise of the pulse and the defect distribution within the target for a range of materials. Strain rate is also a useful term that reflects the evolution of the stress state within a target but must be defined for a particular volume element containing a particular defect distribution to reflect continuum conditions acting within and thus applies to a defined length scale within a target. This overview of behavior suggests concepts borrowed from rate-independent plasticity have served the community well but that to advance it may be necessary to use viscoplastic concepts in constitutive descriptions for the future.

  2. Nucleon sigma term and quark condensate in nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    K. Tsushima; K. Saito; A. W. Thomas; A. Valcarce

    2007-03-01

    We study the bound nucleon sigma term and its effect on the quark condensate in nuclear matter. In the quark-meson coupling (QMC) model it is shown that the nuclear correction to the sigma term is small and negative. Thus, the correction decelerates the decrease of the quark condensate in nuclear matter. However, the quark condensate in nuclear matter is controlled primarily by the scalar-isoscalar sigma field of the model. It appreciably moderates the decrease relative to the leading term at densities around and larger than the normal nuclear matter density.

  3. CONDENSED MATTER: STRUCTURE, MECHANICAL AND THERMAL PROPERTIES: The Effect of Orientation Relaxation on Polymer Melt Crystallization Studied by Monte Carlo Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mao-Xiang

    2009-07-01

    We use dynamic Monte Carlo simulations to study the athermal relaxation of bulk extended chains and the isothermal crystallization in intermediately relaxed melts. It is found that the memory of chain orientations in the melt can significantly enhance the crystallization rates. The crystal orientation and lamellar thickness essentially depend on the orientational relaxation. Moreover, there is a transition of the nucleation mechanism during the isothermal crystallization from the intermediately relaxed melts. These results explain the mechanism of the self-nucleation by orientation and suggest that in flow-induced polymer crystallization, the orientational relaxation of chains decides the crystal orientation.

  4. Applications in biology and condensed matter physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faruqi, A. R.

    1991-12-01

    Position-sensitive detectors are a vital research tool in many areas of structural and molecular biology and condensed matter physics. The present review is mainly restricted to structural information obtained by X-ray scattering and diffraction and in DNA sequence analysis using autoradiography. Film has traditionally played the most important role, and for many applications is still the best medium for recording data, but advances in various types of detector technology has made them attractive, and in some cases essential alternatives. The requirements imposed by experiments vary a great deal and can be very demanding in terms of detector performance, e.g. in terms of count rates, particularly for synchrotron radiation, dynamic range, spatial resolution, ability to do time-resolved measurements on a millisecond time scale, differential and integral linearity and resistance to radiation damage. A brief review of detector properties will be presented and how they are matched in different cases with the experimental requirements along with a small selection of recent results and what new developments are needed to cope with the new generation of storage rings now under construction.

  5. Low Cost Polymer heat Exchangers for Condensing Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, Thomas; Trojanowski, Rebecca; Wei, George; Worek, Michael

    2015-09-30

    Work in this project sought to develop a suitable design for a low cost, corrosion resistant heat exchanger as part of a high efficiency condensing boiler. Based upon the design parameters and cost analysis several geometries and material options were explored. The project also quantified and demonstrated the durability of the selected polymer/filler composite under expected operating conditions. The core material idea included a polymer matrix with fillers for thermal conductivity improvement. While the work focused on conventional heating oil, this concept could also be applicable to natural gas, low sulfur heating oil, and biodiesel- although these are considered to be less challenging environments. An extruded polymer composite heat exchanger was designed, built, and tested during this project, demonstrating technical feasibility of this corrosion-resistant material approach. In such flue gas-to-air heat exchangers, the controlling resistance to heat transfer is in the gas-side convective layer and not in the tube material. For this reason, the lower thermal conductivity polymer composite heat exchanger can achieve overall heat transfer performance comparable to a metal heat exchanger. However, with the polymer composite, the surface temperature on the gas side will be higher, leading to a lower water vapor condensation rate.

  6. Recent Developments in Cold Fusion / Condensed Matter Nuclear Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivit, Steven B.

    2006-03-01

    Krivit is recognized internationally as an expert on the subject matter of cold fusion / condensed matter nuclear science. He is the editor of New Energy Times, the leading source of information for the field of cold fusion. He is the author of the 2005 book, The Rebirth of Cold Fusion and founder of New Energy Institute, an independent nonprofit public benefit corporation dedicated to accelerating the progress of new, sustainable and environmentally friendly energy sources.

  7. The 18th Annual Condensed Matter Physics Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaplin, Don; Hutchinson, Wayne; Yazidjoglou, Nick; Stewart, Glen

    The Handbook contains abstracts of oral and poster presentations covering various aspects of condensed matter physics such as magnetism, superconductivity, semiconductor materials and their properties, as well as the use of nuclear techniques in studies of these materials. 162 contributions have been considered to be in the INIS subject scope and were indexed separately.

  8. Report on the NASA Soft and Complex Condensed Matter Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Bhim (Technical Monitor); Chaikin, Paul; Nagel, Sidney

    2003-01-01

    During the past decade, NASA has been a leading U.S. supporter of soft and complex condensed matter research. Experiments in space shuttles, MIR, the International Space Station (ISS), as well as ground-based research have provided new insights into several areas including hard sphere colloids, crystal growth, phase ordering, and transport of complex fluids at the critical point. To help define the next generation of flight experiments needed to answer remaining important questions in the field of soft and complex condensed matter, NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Science sponsored a workshop on Soft and Complex Condensed Matter, March 6, 2003. This workshop asked leading members in the field of Soft and Complex Condensed Matter (at the APS March Meeting) to help identify exciting unanswered questions in the field, along with specific research topics for which the absence of gravity would enable significant results unobtainable by other means. The workshop was attended by 24 participants from universities across the U.S. and from five different countries (in addition to NASA GRC participants).

  9. Bose-Einstein Condensation of Dark Matter Axions

    SciTech Connect

    Sikivie, P.; Yang, Q.

    2009-09-11

    We show that cold dark matter axions thermalize and form a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). We obtain the axion state in a homogeneous and isotropic universe, and derive the equations governing small axion perturbations. Because they form a BEC, axions differ from ordinary cold dark matter in the nonlinear regime of structure formation and upon entering the horizon. Axion BEC provides a mechanism for the production of net overall rotation in dark matter halos, and for the alignment of cosmic microwave anisotropy multipoles.

  10. Bose-Einstein condensation of dark matter axions.

    PubMed

    Sikivie, P; Yang, Q

    2009-09-11

    We show that cold dark matter axions thermalize and form a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). We obtain the axion state in a homogeneous and isotropic universe, and derive the equations governing small axion perturbations. Because they form a BEC, axions differ from ordinary cold dark matter in the nonlinear regime of structure formation and upon entering the horizon. Axion BEC provides a mechanism for the production of net overall rotation in dark matter halos, and for the alignment of cosmic microwave anisotropy multipoles.

  11. A matter bounce by means of ghost condensation

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Chunshan; Brandenberger, Robert H.; Levasseur, Laurence Perreault E-mail: rhb@mx0.hep.physics.mcgill.ca

    2011-04-01

    Assuming the existence of a scalar field which undergoes 'ghost condensation' and which has a suitably chosen potential, it is possible to obtain a non-singular bouncing cosmology in the presence of regular matter and radiation. The potential for the ghost condensate field can be chosen such that the cosmological bounce is stable against the presence of anisotropic stress. Cosmological fluctuations on long wavelengths relevant to current cosmological observations pass through the bounce unaffected by the new physics which yields the bounce. Thus, this model allows for the realization of the 'matter bounce' scenario, an alternative to inflationary cosmology for the generation of the observed primordial fluctuations in which the inhomogeneities originate as quantum vacuum perturbations which exit the Hubble radius in the matter-dominated phase of contraction.

  12. PREFACE: The 11th General Conference of the Condensed Matter Division of the European Physical Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beeby, J. L.

    1991-01-01

    The 11th General Conference of the Condensed Matter Division of the European Physical Society was held in Exeter from 8-11 April 1991. The annual Condensed Matter meeting of the UK Institute of Physics, which would have been held in December 1990, was not scheduled in order that there should not be two similar meetings too close together. The Exeter EPS conference followed the traditional pattern for Condensed Matter Division conference by covering a very broad range of topics and including several plenary lectures. In addition, there was a lecture from one of the joint Hewlett-Packard prizewinners, Professor D Jerome, and the annual Mott Lecture was presented by Professor R G Clark. The invited lectures were divided into 5 parallel sessions, in part because of lecture theatre sizes, in which the topics roughly divided into semiconductors (2 sessions), metals and magnetism, high Tc superconductivity and heavy fermions, and soft matter and polymers. A number of contributors of abstracts for poster presentation were offered the opportunity of oral presentation. The three, very full poster sessions, were of a high standard and generated much interest and discussion. One can conclude that condensed matter physics is strong and active in Europe. The papers of the invited talks contained in this volume will allow conference participants the opportunity for further study of the work presented and will also allow those unable to attent the meeting to learn of the interesting results presented. With such a broad subject coverage it is difficult to order the papers in a wholly rational way; according they have been brought together under five broad headings. It is a pleasure to thank all those involved in the Organising and Programme Committees (see PDF file for detail) for their contributions to the Conference. The generosity of the Sponsors (see PDF file for list of sponsors) is gratefully acknowledged.

  13. A Scientific Cloud Computing Platform for Condensed Matter Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorissen, K.; Johnson, W.; Vila, F. D.; Rehr, J. J.

    2013-03-01

    Scientific Cloud Computing (SCC) makes possible calculations with high performance computational tools, without the need to purchase or maintain sophisticated hardware and software. We have recently developed an interface dubbed SC2IT that controls on-demand virtual Linux clusters within the Amazon EC2 cloud platform. Using this interface we have developed a more advanced, user-friendly SCC Platform configured especially for condensed matter calculations. This platform contains a GUI, based on a new Java version of SC2IT, that permits calculations of various materials properties. The cloud platform includes Virtual Machines preconfigured for parallel calculations and several precompiled and optimized materials science codes for electronic structure and x-ray and electron spectroscopy. Consequently this SCC makes state-of-the-art condensed matter calculations easy to access for general users. Proof-of-principle performance benchmarks show excellent parallelization and communication performance. Supported by NSF grant OCI-1048052

  14. Applications of lattice QCD techniques for condensed matter systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buividovich, P. V.; Ulybyshev, M. V.

    2016-08-01

    We review the application of lattice QCD techniques, most notably the Hybrid Monte Carlo (HMC) simulations, to first-principle study of tight-binding models of crystalline solids with strong inter-electron interactions. After providing a basic introduction into the HMC algorithm as applied to condensed matter systems, we review HMC simulations of graphene, which in the recent years have helped to understand the semimetal behavior of clean suspended graphene at the quantitative level. We also briefly summarize other novel physical results obtained in these simulations. Then we comment on the applicability of hybrid Monte Carlo to topological insulators and Dirac and Weyl semimetals and highlight some of the relevant open physical problems. Finally, we also touch upon the lattice strong-coupling expansion technique as applied to condensed matter systems.

  15. One Subject, Two Lands: My Journey in Condensed Matter Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramakrishnan, T. V.

    2016-03-01

    This is an account of a professional life in the field that was generally known as solid-state physics when I started working in it; India and the United States of America are the countries in which this life was largely played out. My attempts to understand various things in condensed matter physics, and efforts to put together people and activities in India in this field, are mainly the story.

  16. Dropwise Condensation Experiments with Humid Air at a Polymer Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Götze, P.; Philipp, Ch; Gross, U.

    2012-11-01

    A new test facility has been developed to investigate dropwise condensation heat transfer in a humid air environment. It is designed as a closed loop system in which air is circulated by a fan, enabling investigations in the following parameter ranges: velocity up to 20 m/s; Reynolds number up to 20,000; temperature 20 to 100 °C relative humidity up to 100 %. Heat transfer measurements are done with a specifically designed micro sensor which is flush mounted at one of the vertical surfaces of a horizontal flow channel 12 mm × 32 mm (inner width and height, respectively) and covered at its air-side surface by a newly developed polymer layer containing 20 % of carbon nanotubes for improvement of the thermal conductivity. A total of 8 thermocouples is embedded inside the sensor. Their readings serve as input data to a numerical model which enables consideration of heat losses and evaluation of surface temperature and heat flux. The measuring system allows to analyse the effects of heat flux, air-to-wall temperature difference, absolute and relative humidity, and Reynolds number on the heat transfer coefficient. Single phase heat transfer results show excellent agreement with well established correlations for turbulent air flow. The onset of dropwise condensation was detected with very good repeatability. This paper covers details of the experimental device, measuring system and data evaluation including accuracy considerations. Single phase and preliminary dropwise condensation results with humid air are reported.

  17. Coexistence of Kaon Condensation and Hyperons in Hadronic Matter and Its Relevance to Quark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muto, T.; Maruyama, T.; Tatsumi, T.

    2015-11-01

    Coexistence of kaon condensation and hyperons, which may be realized in neutron stars, is investigated on the basis of the relativistic mean-field theory combined with the effective chiral Lagrangian. It is shown that the kaon-condensed phase in hyperon-mixed matter is plausible, but it leads to a significant softening of the equation of state (EOS). We discuss indispensable effects which make the EOS stiffer so as to be consistent with recent neutron-star observations.

  18. Singularity resolution from polymer quantum matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreienbuehl, Andreas; Pawłowski, Tomasz

    2013-08-01

    We study the polymeric nature of quantum matter fields using the example of a Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker universe sourced by a minimally coupled massless scalar field. The model is treated in the symmetry reduced regime via deparametrization techniques, with the scale factor playing the role of time. Subsequently, the remaining dynamic degrees of freedom corresponding to the matter are polymer quantized. The analysis of the resulting genuine quantum dynamic shows that the big bang singularity is resolved, although with the form of the resolution differing significantly from that in the models with matter clocks: dynamically, the singularity is made passable rather than avoided. Furthermore, this analysis exposes crucial limitations to the so-called effective dynamic in loop quantum cosmology when applied outside of the most basic isotropic settings.

  19. Condensed matter effects on the structure of crystalline glucose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molteni, C.; Parrinello, M.

    1997-08-01

    By means of ab initio simulations based on the Car-Parrinello method, we have calculated the crystalline structures of σ-D-glucose, σ-D-glucose monohydrate and β-D-glucose. The good agreement with the available experimental data gives us confidence in the applicability of the method to carbohydrates and opens the path towards the investigation of more complex problems, where a quantum mechanical description is essential. Condensed matter effects are discussed by comparing the structures of the glucose molecule in the crystalline and gas phases.

  20. Pulsed-neutron techniques for condensed-matter research

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, B.S.; Carpenter, J.M.; Jorgensen, J.D.; Price, D.L.; Kamitakahara, W.

    1981-01-01

    Pulsed spallation sources are reviewed in a historical content as the latest generation of neutron sources in a line that started with the discovery of the neutron in 1932 and proceeded through research-reactor and accelerator-driven sources. The characteristics of the spallation sources are discussed in relation to their capabilities for structural and dynamical studies of condensed matter with slow neutrons and radiation effects research with fast neutrons. The new scientific opportunities opened up in these fields by the unique features of the sources are briefly reviewed, with some examples of completed work and experiments being planned.

  1. Use of ultracold neutrons for condensed-matter studies

    SciTech Connect

    Michaudon, A.

    1997-05-01

    Ultracold neutrons have such low velocities that they are reflected by most materials at all incident angles and can be stored in material bottles for long periods of time during which their intrinsic properties can be studied in great detail. These features have been mainly used for fundamental-physics studies including the detection of a possible neutron electric dipole moment and the precise determination of neutron-decay properties. Ultracold neutrons can also play a role in condensed-matter studies with the help of high-resolution spectrometers that use gravity as a strongly dispersive medium for low-velocity neutrons. Such studies have so far been limited by the low intensity of existing ultracold-neutron sources but could be reconsidered with more intense sources, which are now envisaged. This report provides a broad survey of the properties of ultracold neutrons (including their reflectivity by different types of samples), of ultracold-neutron spectrometers that are compared with other high-resolution instruments, of results obtained in the field of condensed matter with these instruments, and of neutron microscopes. All these subjects are illustrated by numerous examples.

  2. Condensed Matter Physics in Colombia is in its forties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camacho, Angela

    2015-03-01

    Physics in Colombia started to develop in the 70's as a research part of basic sciences with the acquisition, at that time, of large research equipments such as x-rays and EPR. Experimental work was soon supplemented by theoretical investigations, which led to the formation of research groups in condensed matter. In the early 80's existed such groups in five universities. In this report we present, after a short history of the main steps that guided the initial research subjects, the major areas already developed and the minor research groups that are in the stage of consolidation. Currently this type of work is done at least in 20 universities. We also show the actual numbers of researchers, publications, PhD students and laboratories discriminated in gender to complete an overview of Condensed Matter Physics in Colombia. Finally, we present a short review of the main theoretical issues that have been worked in the last decade focusing on low dimensional systems, their structural and optical properties

  3. Higgs Bosons in Particle Physics and in Condensed Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volovik, G. E.; Zubkov, M. A.

    2014-04-01

    Higgs bosons—the amplitude modes—have been experimentally investigated in condensed matter for many years. An example is superfluid 3He-B, where the broken symmetry leads to 4 Goldstone modes and at least 14 Higgs modes, which are characterized by angular momentum quantum number J and parity (Zeeman splitting of Higgs modes with J=2+ and J=2- in magnetic field has been observed in 80's). Based on the relation for the energy spectrum of these modes, Yoichiro Nambu proposed the general sum rule, which relates masses of Higgs bosons and masses of fermions. If this rule is applicable to Standard Model, one may expect that the observed Higgs boson with mass M H1=125 GeV has a Nambu partner—the second Higgs boson with mass M H2=325 GeV. Together they satisfy the Nambu relation , where M top is the top quark mass. Also the properties of the Higgs modes in superfluid 3He-A, where the symmetry breaking is similar to that of the Standard Model, suggest the possible existence of two electrically charged Higgs particles with masses M H+= M H-˜245 GeV, which together obey the Nambu rule . A certain excess of events at 325 GeV and at 245 GeV has been reported in 2011, though not confirmed in 2012 experiments. Besides, we consider the particular relativistic model of top—quark condensation that suggests the possibility that two twice degenerated Higgs bosons contribute to the Nambu sum rule. This gives the mass around 210 GeV for the Nambu partner of the 125 GeV Higgs boson. We also discuss the other possible lessons from the condensed matter to Standard Model, such as hidden symmetry, where light Higgs emerges as quasi Nambu-Goldstone mode, and the role of broken time reversal symmetry.

  4. Phi meson spectral moments and QCD condensates in nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubler, Philipp; Weise, Wolfram

    2016-10-01

    A detailed analysis of the lowest two moments of the ϕ meson spectral function in vacuum and nuclear matter is performed. The consistency is examined between the constraints derived from finite energy QCD sum rules and the spectra computed within an improved vector dominance model, incorporating the coupling of kaonic degrees of freedom with the bare ϕ meson. In the vacuum, recent accurate measurements of the e+e- →K+K- cross section allow us to determine the spectral function with high precision. In nuclear matter, the modification of the spectral function can be described by the interactions of the kaons from ϕ → K K ‾ with the surrounding nuclear medium. This leads primarily to a strong broadening and an asymmetric deformation of the ϕ meson peak structure. We confirm that, both in vacuum and nuclear matter, the zeroth and first moments of the corresponding spectral functions satisfy the requirements of the finite energy sum rules to a remarkable degree of accuracy. Limits on the strangeness sigma term of the nucleon are examined in this context. Applying our results to the second moment of the spectrum, we furthermore discuss constraints on four-quark condensates and the validity of the commonly used ground state saturation approximation.

  5. Condensed matter realization of the axial magnetic effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernodub, Maxim N.; Cortijo, Alberto; Grushin, Adolfo G.; Landsteiner, Karl; Vozmediano, María A. H.

    2014-02-01

    The axial magneticeffect, i.e., the generation of an energy current parallel to an axial magnetic field coupling with opposite signs to left- and right-handed fermions, is a nondissipative transport phenomenon intimately related to the gravitational contribution to the axial anomaly. An axial magnetic field emerges naturally in condensed matter in so-called Weyl semimetals. We present a measurable implementation of the axial magnetic effect. We show that the edge states of a Weyl semimetal at finite temperature possess a temperature dependent angular momentum in the direction of the vector potential intrinsic to the system. Such a realization provides a plausible context for the experimental confirmation of the elusive gravitational anomaly.

  6. Matter-wave recombiners for trapped Bose-Einstein condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berrada, T.; van Frank, S.; Bücker, R.; Schumm, T.; Schaff, J.-F.; Schmiedmayer, J.; Julía-Díaz, B.; Polls, A.

    2016-06-01

    Interferometry with trapped atomic Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) requires the development of techniques to recombine the two paths of the interferometer and map the accumulated phase difference to a measurable atom number difference. We have implemented and compared two recombining procedures in a double-well-based BEC interferometer. The first procedure utilizes the bosonic Josephson effect and controlled tunneling of atoms through the potential barrier, similar to laser light in an optical fiber coupler. The second one relies on the interference of the reflected and transmitted parts of the BEC wave function when impinging on the potential barrier, analogous to light impinging on a half-silvered mirror. Both schemes were implemented successfully, yielding an interferometric contrast of ˜20 % and 42% respectively. Building efficient matter-wave recombiners represents an important step towards the coherent manipulation of external quantum superposition states of BECs.

  7. The Sun is Condensed Matter and has a Real Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robitaille, Pierre-Marie

    2014-03-01

    The idea that the Sun was a gaseous in nature was born from 1858-65. At that time, a group of men, including Herbert Spencer, Father Angelo Secchi, Warren de la Rue, Balfour Stewart, and Benjamin Loewy, advanced that the Sun was a ball of gas. In 1865, Hervé Faye was the first to argue that the solar surface was merely an illusion. Dismissing all signs to the contrary, solar physics has promoted this idea to the present day, as manifested by the Standard Solar Model. In this work, overwhelming observational evidence will be presented that the Sun does indeed possess a distinct surface (see P.M. Robitaille, Forty Lines of Evidence for Condensed Matter -- The Sun on Trial: Liquid Metallic Hydrogen as a Solar Building Block, Progress in Physics, 2013, v. 4, 90-143). Our telescopes and satellites are sampling real structures on the surface of the Sun.

  8. Condensed matter physics of planets - Puzzles, progress and predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, D. J.

    1984-01-01

    Attention is given to some of the major unresolved issues concerned with the physics of planetary interiors. The important advances in observations, and experimental and theoretical investigations are briefly reviewed, and some areas for further study are identified, including: the characteristics of atomic and electronic degrees of freedom at the high pressures and temperatures typical of a condensed planetary core; the behavior of water at megabar pressures; and the nature of the core-alloy in the earth and in the core mantle phase boundary. Consideration is also given to the behavior of carbon at high pressures and temperatures in the presence of oxygen and hydrogen; the behavior of the volatile ice assemblage in Titan at pressures of 2-40 kbar; and the electrical conductivities of matter under planetary core conditions.

  9. Framework for Understanding Lenr Processes, Using Conventional Condensed Matter Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubb, Scott R.

    2006-02-01

    Conventional condensed matter physics provides a unifying framework for understanding low-energy nuclear reactions (LENRs) in solids. In the paper, standard many-body physics techniques are used to illustrate this fact. Specifically, the paper shows that formally the theories by Schwinger, Hagelstein, and Chubb and Chubb (C&C), all can be related to a common set of equations, associated with reaction rate and energy transfer, through a standard many-body physics procedure (R-matrix theory). In each case, particular forms of coherence are used that implicitly provide a mechanism for understanding how LENRs can proceed without the emission of high-energy particles. In addition, additional ideas, associated with Conventional Condensed Matter physics, are used to extend the earlier ion band state (IBS) model by C&C. The general model clarifies the origin of coherent processes that initiate LENRs, through the onset of ion conduction that can occur through ionic fluctuations in nanoscale crystals. In the case of PdDx, these fluctuations begin to occur as x → 1 in sub-lattice structures with characteristic dimensions of 60 nm. The resulting LENRs are triggered by the polarization between injected d's and electrons (immediately above the Fermi energy) that takes place in finite-size PdD crystals. During the prolonged charging of PdDx, the applied, external electric field induces these fluctuations through a form of Zener tunneling that mimics the kind of tunneling, predicted by Zener, that is responsible for possible conduction (referred to as Zener-electric breakdown) in insulators. But because the fluctuations are ionic, and they occur in PdD, nano-scale structures, a more appropriate characterization is Zener-ionic breakdown in nano-crystalline PdD. Using the underlying dynamics, it is possible to relate triggering times that are required for the initiation of the effect, to crystal size and externally applied fields.

  10. Integrating Condensed Matter Physics into a Liberal Arts Physics Curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collett, Jeffrey

    2008-03-01

    The emergence of nanoscale science into the popular consciousness presents an opportunity to attract and retain future condensed matter scientists. We inject nanoscale physics into recruiting activities and into the introductory and the core portions of the curriculum. Laboratory involvement and research opportunity play important roles in maintaining student engagement. We use inexpensive scanning tunneling (STM) and atomic force (AFM) microscopes to introduce students to nanoscale structure early in their college careers. Although the physics of tip-surface interactions is sophisticated, the resulting images can be interpreted intuitively. We use the STM in introductory modern physics to explore quantum tunneling and the properties of electrons at surfaces. An interdisciplinary course in nanoscience and nanotechnology course team-taught with chemists looks at nanoscale phenomena in physics, chemistry, and biology. Core quantum and statistical physics courses look at effects of quantum mechanics and quantum statistics in degenerate systems. An upper level solid-state physics course takes up traditional condensed matter topics from a structural perspective by beginning with a study of both elastic and inelastic scattering of x-rays from crystalline solids and liquid crystals. Students encounter reciprocal space concepts through the analysis of laboratory scattering data and by the development of the scattering theory. The course then examines the importance of scattering processes in band structure and in electrical and thermal conduction. A segment of the course is devoted to surface physics and nanostructures where we explore the effects of restricting particles to two-dimensional surfaces, one-dimensional wires, and zero-dimensional quantum dots.

  11. PION CONDENSATION IN A RELATIVISTIC FIELD THEORY CONSISTENT WITH BULK PROPERTIES OF NUCLEAR MATTER

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, B.; Glendenning, N.K.; Gyulassy, M.

    1980-07-01

    Pion condensation has not previously been investigated in a theory that accounts for the known bulk properties of nuclear matter, its saturation energy and density and compressibility. We have formulated and solved self-consistently, in the mean field approximation, a relativistic field theory that possesses a condensate solution and reproduces the correct bulk properties of nuclear matter, The theory is solved in its relativistically covariant form for a general class of space-time dependent pion condensates. Self-consistency and compatibility with bulk properties of nuclear matter turn out to be very stringent conditions on the existence and energy of the condensate, but they do allow a weak condensate energy to develop. The spin-isospin density oscillations, on the other hand, can be large. It is encouraging, as concerns the possible existence of new phases of nuclear matter, that this is so, unlike the Lee-Wick density isomer, that appears to be incompatible with nuclear matter properties.

  12. Dark matter as the Bose-Einstein condensation in loop quantum cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atazadeh, K.; Darabi, F.; Mousavi, M.

    2016-06-01

    We consider the FLRW universe in a loop quantum cosmological model filled with radiation, baryonic matter (with negligible pressure), dark energy, and dark matter. The dark matter sector is supposed to be of Bose-Einstein condensate type. The Bose-Einstein condensation process in a cosmological context by supposing it as an approximate first-order phase transition, has already been studied in the literature. Here, we study the evolution of the physical quantities related to the early universe description such as the energy density, temperature, and scale factor of the universe, before, during, and after the condensation process. We also consider in detail the evolution era of the universe in a mixed normal-condensate dark matter phase. The behavior and time evolution of the condensate dark matter fraction is also analyzed.

  13. Quantum cosmology, polymer matter, and modified collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreienbuehl, Andreas

    In this dissertation I address the following three questions: 1) how do different clocks compare in regard of the avoidance of the big bang singularity, 2) what is the high energy behavior of polymer quantized matter, and 3) how do quantum gravity effects modify the formation and the properties of black holes? To discuss 1), I consider an isotropic Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology sourced by a non-negative cosmological constant and a massless scalar field. I choose the scale factor as clock and, using a trick by Dirac, Schrodinger quantize the reduced square root Hamiltonian. From the resulting spinor equation I show that no semiclassical wave packet avoids the big bang. I compare this work with that in loop quantum cosmology, where the scalar field is chosen as time variable and the big bang is avoided. As for 2), I explain the details of a project with Professor Husain in which we study a scalar field on a curved background and perform a polymer Fock quantization of the matter degrees of freedom. The quantization is based on the assumption that the underlying field space is discrete and it therefore comes with a fundamental scale. This renders the usual operators on the Fock space scale dependent and causes a transition from a bosonic to a fermionic behavior in the ultraviolet regime. Finally for 3), I present work with Professor Husain and Professor Seahra on a modification of the Hamiltonian formulation of a massless scalar field minimally coupled to a spherically symmetric spacetime. The modification is designed to mimic polymer quantum effects in the region where the scalar field collapses and it is implemented in such a way that the symmetry group of general relativity is preserved. This causes a drastic change in the way black holes form and, thus, in their properties. Namely, the scalar field has to overcome a repulsion and black holes form with a finite mass. Furthermore, the modification gives rise to oscillations in the relation between the black

  14. Finite temperature effects in Bose-Einstein condensed dark matter halos

    SciTech Connect

    Harko, Tiberiu; Madarassy, Enikö J.M. E-mail: eniko.madarassy@physics.uu.se

    2012-01-01

    Once the critical temperature of a cosmological boson gas is less than the critical temperature, a Bose-Einstein Condensation process can always take place during the cosmic history of the universe. Zero temperature condensed dark matter can be described as a non-relativistic, Newtonian gravitational condensate, whose density and pressure are related by a barotropic equation of state, with barotropic index equal to one. In the present paper we analyze the effects of the finite dark matter temperature on the properties of the dark matter halos. We formulate the basic equations describing the finite temperature condensate, representing a generalized Gross-Pitaevskii equation that takes into account the presence of the thermal cloud. The static condensate and thermal cloud in thermodynamic equilibrium is analyzed in detail, by using the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov and Thomas-Fermi approximations. The condensed dark matter and thermal cloud density and mass profiles at finite temperatures are explicitly obtained. Our results show that when the temperature of the condensate and of the thermal cloud are much smaller than the critical Bose-Einstein transition temperature, the zero temperature density and mass profiles give an excellent description of the dark matter halos. However, finite temperature effects may play an important role in the early stages of the cosmological evolution of the dark matter condensates.

  15. Some recent condensed-matter applications of physical acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migliori, Albert

    2005-04-01

    A non-inclusive sampling of recent advances in the application of physical acoustics to condensed matter physics is presented. Work by Ogi et al. on resonant ultrasound microscopy to map nano-scale variations in elastic moduli provides a new twist to the use of resonances. Laser-ultrasound studies by Wright and Matsuda on photoacoustic effects in ultra-thin metallic and semiconductor films leads to new meso-scale ultrasound studies, while Isaak and Ohno push the symmetry limits and temperature range of resonant ultrasound modulus studies. Migliori and Ledbetter extract the final pieces of an unusually-well-characterized charge-density-wave phase transition and examine very odd elastic behavior in materials with negative thermal expansion, while Pantea demonstrates an all-digital pulse echo system for high pressure work. Souslov probes hidden order with pulse-echo studies in pulsed magnetic fields. [Work supported by the National Science Foundation, the Department of Energy and the State of Florida.

  16. Framework for Understanding LENR Processes, Using Ordinary Condensed Matter Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubb, Scott

    2005-03-01

    As I have emphasizedootnotetextS.R. Chubb, Proc. ICCF10 (in press). Also, http://www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/ChubbSRnutsandbol.pdf http://www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/ChubbSRnutsandbol.pdf, S.R. Chubb, Trans. Amer. Nuc. Soc. 88 , 618 (2003)., in discussions of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions(LENRs), mainstream many-body physics ideas have been largely ignored. A key point is that in condensed matter, delocalized, wave-like effects can allow large amounts of momentum to be transferred instantly to distant locations, without any particular particle (or particles) acquiring high velocity through a Broken Gauge Symmetry. Explicit features in the electronic structure explain how this can occur^1 in finite size PdD crystals, with real boundaries. The essential physics^1 can be related to standard many-body techniquesootnotetextBurke,P.G. and K.A. Berrington, Atomic and Molecular Processes:an R matrix Approach (Bristol: IOP Publishing, 1993).. In the paper, I examine this relationship, the relationship of the theory^1 to other LENR theories, and the importance of certain features (for example, boundaries^1) that are not included in the other LENR theories.

  17. Condensed Matter Lessons About the Origin of Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jannes, Gil

    2015-03-01

    It is widely hoped that quantum gravity will shed light on the question of the origin of time in physics. The currently dominant approaches to a candidate quantum theory of gravity have naturally evolved from general relativity, on the one hand, and from particle physics, on the other hand. A third important branch of twentieth century `fundamental' physics, condensed-matter physics, also offers an interesting perspective on quantum gravity, and thereby on the problem of time. The bottomline might sound disappointing: to understand the origin of time, much more experimental input is needed than what is available today. Moreover it is far from obvious that we will ever find out the true origin of physical time, even if we become able to directly probe physics at the Planck scale. But we might learn some interesting lessons about time and the structure of our universe in the process. A first lesson is that there are probably several characteristic scales associated with "quantum gravity" effects, rather than the single Planck scale usually considered. These can differ by several orders of magnitude, and thereby conspire to hide certain effects expected from quantum gravity, rendering them undetectable even with Planck-scale experiments. A more tentative conclusion is that the hierarchy between general relativity, special relativity and Newtonian physics, usually taken for granted, might have to be interpreted with caution.

  18. Topological framework for local structure analysis in condensed matter

    PubMed Central

    Lazar, Emanuel A.; Han, Jian; Srolovitz, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Physical systems are frequently modeled as sets of points in space, each representing the position of an atom, molecule, or mesoscale particle. As many properties of such systems depend on the underlying ordering of their constituent particles, understanding that structure is a primary objective of condensed matter research. Although perfect crystals are fully described by a set of translation and basis vectors, real-world materials are never perfect, as thermal vibrations and defects introduce significant deviation from ideal order. Meanwhile, liquids and glasses present yet more complexity. A complete understanding of structure thus remains a central, open problem. Here we propose a unified mathematical framework, based on the topology of the Voronoi cell of a particle, for classifying local structure in ordered and disordered systems that is powerful and practical. We explain the underlying reason why this topological description of local structure is better suited for structural analysis than continuous descriptions. We demonstrate the connection of this approach to the behavior of physical systems and explore how crystalline structure is compromised at elevated temperatures. We also illustrate potential applications to identifying defects in plastically deformed polycrystals at high temperatures, automating analysis of complex structures, and characterizing general disordered systems. PMID:26460045

  19. Low-energy electron-induced reactions in condensed matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arumainayagam, Christopher R.; Lee, Hsiao-Lu; Nelson, Rachel B.; Haines, David R.; Gunawardane, Richard P.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this review is to discuss post-irradiation analysis of low-energy (≤50 eV) electron-induced processes in nanoscale thin films. Because electron-induced surface reactions in monolayer adsorbates have been extensively reviewed, we will instead focus on low-energy electron-induced reactions in multilayer adsorbates. The latter studies, involving nanoscale thin films, serve to elucidate the pivotal role that the low-energy electron-induced reactions play in high-energy radiation-induced chemical reactions in condensed matter. Although electron-stimulated desorption (ESD) experiments conducted during irradiation have yielded vital information relevant to primary or initial electron-induced processes, we wish to demonstrate in this review that analyzing the products following low-energy electron irradiation can provide new insights into radiation chemistry. This review presents studies of electron-induced reactions in nanoscale films of molecular species such as oxygen, nitrogen trifluoride, water, alkanes, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, nitriles, halocarbons, alkane and phenyl thiols, thiophenes, ferrocene, amino acids, nucleotides, and DNA using post-irradiation techniques such as temperature-programmed desorption (TPD), reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS), gel electrophoresis, and microarray fluorescence. Post-irradiation temperature-programmed desorption, in particular, has been shown to be useful in identifying labile radiolysis products as demonstrated by the first identification of methoxymethanol as a reaction product of methanol radiolysis. Results of post-irradiation studies have been used not only to identify radiolysis products, but also to determine the dynamics of electron-induced reactions. For example, studies of the radiolysis yield as a function of incident electron energy have shown that dissociative

  20. Dark matter as a Bose-Einstein Condensate: the relativistic non-minimally coupled case

    SciTech Connect

    Bettoni, Dario; Colombo, Mattia; Liberati, Stefano E-mail: mattia.colombo@studenti.unitn.it

    2014-02-01

    Bose-Einstein Condensates have been recently proposed as dark matter candidates. In order to characterize the phenomenology associated to such models, we extend previous investigations by studying the general case of a relativistic BEC on a curved background including a non-minimal coupling to curvature. In particular, we discuss the possibility of a two phase cosmological evolution: a cold dark matter-like phase at the large scales/early times and a condensed phase inside dark matter halos. During the first phase dark matter is described by a minimally coupled weakly self-interacting scalar field, while in the second one dark matter condensates and, we shall argue, develops as a consequence the non-minimal coupling. Finally, we discuss how such non-minimal coupling could provide a new mechanism to address cold dark matter paradigm issues at galactic scales.

  1. FOREWORD: 18th International School on Condensed Matter Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimova-Malinovska, Doriana; Genova, Julia; Nesheva, Diana; Petrov, Alexander G.; Primatarowa, Marina T.

    2014-12-01

    We are delighted to present the Proceedings of the 18th International School on Condensed Matter Physics: Challenges of Nanoscale Science: Theory, Materials, Applications, organized by the Institute of Solid State Physics of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences and chaired by Professor Alexander G Petrov. On this occasion the School was held in memory of Professor Nikolay Kirov (1943-2013), former Director of the Institute and Chairman between 1991 and 1998. The 18ISCMP was one of several events dedicated to the 145th anniversary of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences in 2014, and was held in the welcoming Black Sea resort of St. Constantine and Helena near Varna, at the Hotel and Congress Centre Frederic Joliot-Curie. Participants from 16 countries delivered 32 invited lectures, and 71 contributed posters were presented over three lively and well-attended evening sessions. Manuscripts submitted to the Proceedings were refereed in accordance with the guidelines of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series, and we believe the papers published herein testify to the high technical quality and diversity of contributions. A satellite meeting, Transition Metal Oxide Thin Films - Functional Layers in Smart Windows and Water Splitting Devices: Technology and Optoelectronic Properties was held in parallel with the School (http://www.inera.org, 3-6 Sept 2014). This activity, which took place under the FP7-funded project INERA, offered opportunities for crossdisciplinary discussions and exchange of ideas between both sets of participants. As always, a major factor in the success of the 18ISCMP was the social programme, headed by the organized events (Welcome and Farewell Parties) and enhanced in no small measure by a variety of pleasant local restaurants, bars and beaches. We are most grateful to staff of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series for their continued support for the School, this being the third occasion on which the Proceedings have been published under its

  2. PREFACE: Symmetry and Structural Properties of Condensed Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lulek, Tadeusz; Wal, Andrzej; Lulek, Barbara

    2008-03-01

    This volume comprises the proceedings of the Ninth Summer School on Theoretical Physics under the leading title `Symmetry and Structural Properties of Condensed Matter' (SSPCM 2007). The school, organised by Rzeszów University of Technology, Poland, together with AGH University of Science and Technology, Cracow, Poland, in 5-12 September 2007 in Myczkowce. The meeting aimed to continue the series of biannual SSPCM schools (since 1990), and focused on the promotion of some advanced mathematical methods within the physics of condensed matter, with an emphasis on quantum information aspects. The main topics of the SSPCM07 school were the following: Quantum information and computing Finite dimensional Hilbert spaces Generating functions and exactly soluble models The Proceedings are divided into three parts accordingly. These topics can be seen as a natural continuation of the previous SSPCM05 school, aimed at studying interrelations between solid state physics and quantum informatics, as well as an extension of earlier SSPCM meetings, devoted to mathematical tools of condensed matter theory. The school gathered together more than 60 participants from 11 countries and 7 scientific centres in Poland. Some of them were there for the first time, and some had attended nearly all previous meetings. We had advanced researchers as well as their young collaborators and students. Acknowledgements The Organizing Committee wishes to express our gratitude to all participants for several their activities at the school and for creating so friendly and inspiring an atmosphere that one can talk about the term: `SSPCM society'. Special thanks are due to all lecturers, for preparing and presenting their talks, and for several valuable discussions. We also give thanks to all those who prepared manuscripts, giving us thus an opportunity to share their ideas, to all referees who improved significantly the quality of this volume, to all members of our International Advisory Committee, and

  3. Condensed matter research at the modernized IBR-2 reactor: from functional materials to nanobiotechnologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksenov, V. L.; Balagurov, A. M.; Kozlenko, D. P.

    2016-07-01

    An overview of the main scientific areas of condensed matter research, which are extended with the use of the IBR-2 high-flux research reactor, is presented. It is demonstrated that the spectrometer facility of the upgraded reactor has great potential for studying the structural, magnetic, and dynamical properties of novel functional materials and nanobiosystems, which ensures the leading position of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in neutron research of condensed matter for the long-term prospect.

  4. Dropwise condensation rate of water breath figures on polymer surfaces having similar surface free energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ucar, Ikrime O.; Erbil, H. Yildirim

    2012-10-01

    This study investigates the effect of surface roughness, wettability, water contact angle hysteresis (CAH) and wetting hysteresis (WH) of polymeric substrates to the water drop condensation rate. We used five polyolefin coatings whose surface free energies were in a close range of 30-37 mJ/m2 but having different surface roughness and CAH. The formation of water breath figures was monitored at a temperature just below the dew point. The initial number of the condensed droplets per unit area (N0) and droplet surface coverage were determined during the early stage of drop condensation where the droplet coalescence was negligible. It was found that the mean drop diameter of condensed droplets on these polymer surfaces grow according to a power law with exponent 1/3 of time, similar to the previous reports given in the literature. It was determined that surface roughness and corresponding CAH and WH properties of polymers have important effects on the number of nucleation sites and growth rate of the condensed water droplets. N0 values and the surface coverage increased with the increase in surface roughness, CAH and WH of the polymer surfaces. The total condensed water drop volume also increased with the increase in surface roughness in accordance with the increase of the number of nucleated droplets.

  5. Controlling profiles of polymer dots by switching between evaporation and condensation.

    PubMed

    Kajiya, Tadashi; Kobayashi, Wataru; Okuzono, Tohru; Doi, Masao

    2010-07-01

    We found that the profiles of the dots formed from the drying droplets of polymer solution can be modified by switching between the evaporation and condensation processes. When a polymer dot is exposed to solvent vapor during a certain time and is dried again, the dot profile changes from ringlike to flat. To obtain a flat dot, there exists an optimal exposure time. We conjecture that the change of the dot profile is due to the refluidization of the polymer film. Our results imply a new possibility for controlling the dot profile in inkjet printing technologies.

  6. FOREWORD: International Scientific Seminars on "Fundamental and Applied Problems of Photonics and Condensed Matter Physics"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurchenko, Stanislav; Ryzhii, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    International Scientific Seminars ''Fundamental and Applied Problems of Photonics and Condensed Matter Physics'' were held in Bauman Moscow State Technical University (BMSTU) in May - June 2014. The idea of the Seminars was to organize a series of meetings between young scientists and discuss actual problems and the latest results in Photonics and Condensed Matter Physics. There were eight Sessions: Modern Problems of Condensed Matter Physics; Laser Physics; Spectroscopy of Condensed Matter; Terahertz Optical Technology; Optical Signals Processing; Physics of Optical Strong Correlated Systems; Complex Dusty Plasma Physics; Biomediacal Applications of Photonics. Seminars were organized by the young group of scientists and students from Research and Educational Center ''Photonics and Infrared Technology'' at BMSTU. It brought a significant contribution to the development of youth science in the field of Physics and Photonics in Russia. More than 100 young scientists and students participated in the Seminars in spring - summer 2014. The International Scientific Seminars were supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grant # 14-08-06030-g). This volume contains proceedings of the International Scientific Seminars ''Fundamental and Applied Problems of Photonics and Condensed Matter Physics''. Stanislav Yurchenko and Viktor Ryzhii Bauman Moscow State Technical University

  7. Electronic polymers and soft-matter-like broken symmetries in underdoped cuprates

    PubMed Central

    Capati, M.; Caprara, S.; Di Castro, C.; Grilli, M.; Seibold, G.; Lorenzana, J.

    2015-01-01

    Empirical evidence in heavy fermion, pnictide and other systems suggests that unconventional superconductivity appears associated to some form of real-space electronic order. For the cuprates, despite several proposals, the emergence of order in the phase diagram between the commensurate antiferromagnetic state and the superconducting state is not well understood. Here we show that in this regime doped holes assemble in ‘electronic polymers'. Within a Monte Carlo study, we find that in clean systems by lowering the temperature the polymer melt condenses first in a smectic state and then in a Wigner crystal both with the addition of inversion symmetry breaking. Disorder blurs the positional order leaving a robust inversion symmetry breaking and a nematic order, accompanied by vector chiral spin order and with the persistence of a thermodynamic transition. Such electronic phases, whose properties are reminiscent of soft-matter physics, produce charge and spin responses in good accord with experiments. PMID:26144868

  8. Geometrical methods in soft condensed-matter physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kung, William

    We propose a geometrical picture of understanding the thermodynamic and elastic properties of charged and fuzzy colloidal crystals, by analogy to foams, as well as perform a computational exercise to confirm a new universality class for long polymers with non-trivial topologies. By the foam analogy, we relate the problem of thermodynamic stability to the Kelvin's problem of partitioning space into equal-volume cells of minimal surface area. In particular, we consider the face-centered cubic (FCC), body-centered cubic (BCC) and the beta-tungsten (A15) lattices. We write down the free energy of these solid phases directly in terms of geometric and microscopic parameters of the system, and we derive the theoretical phase diagram of an experimental charged colloidal systems [Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 1524 (1989)]. By considering deformations to the foam cells, we also compute the cubic elastic constants of these three lattices for charged and fuzzy colloids. In the polymer problem, we consider the critical behavior of polymers much longer than their persistence length, with built-in topological constraint in the form of Fuller's relation: Lk = Tw + Wr in a theta-solvent. We map the problem to the three-dimensional symmetric U( N)-Chern Simons theory as N → 0. To two-loop order, we find a new scaling regime for the topologically constrained polymers, with critical exponents that depend on the chemical potential for writhe which gives way to a fluctuation-induced first-order transition.

  9. Scope of controlled synthesis via chain-growth condensation polymerization: from aromatic polyamides to π-conjugated polymers.

    PubMed

    Yokozawa, Tsutomu; Ohta, Yoshihiro

    2013-09-28

    Conventional condensation polymerization proceeds in a step-growth polymerization manner, in which the generated polymers possess a broad molecular weight distribution, and control over molecular weight and polymer end groups is difficult. However, the mechanism of condensation polymerization of some monomers has been converted from step-growth to chain-growth by means of activation of the polymer end group, either due to the difference in substituent effects between the monomer and the polymer, or due to successive intramolecular transfer of catalyst to the polymer end. In this article, we review recent developments in chain-growth condensation polymerization (CGCP) in these two areas. The former approach has yielded many architectures containing aromatic polyamides and aromatic polyethers, with unique properties. In the latter case, the mechanism, catalysts, and initiators of Ni- and Pd-catalyzed coupling polymerizations leading to poly(alkylthiophene)s and poly(p-phenylene)s have been extensively investigated. Other well-defined π-conjugated polymers, such as polyfluorenes, n-type polymers, and alternating aryl polymers, have also been synthesized by means of catalyst-transfer condensation polymerization. Many π-conjugated polymer architectures prepared by utilizing catalyst-transfer condensation polymerization are not covered in this article.

  10. Bose-Einstein condensation of dark matter solves the core/cusp problem

    SciTech Connect

    Harko, T.

    2011-05-01

    We analyze the observed properties of dwarf galaxies, which are dark matter dominated astrophysical objects, by assuming that dark matter is in the form of a strongly-coupled, dilute Bose-Einstein condensate. The basic astrophysical properties of the condensate (density profile, rotational velocity, and mass profile, respectively), are derived from a variational principle. To test the validity of the model we compare first the tangential velocity equation of the model with a sample of eight rotation curves of dwarf galaxies. We find a good agreement between the theoretically predicted rotation curves (without any baryonic component) and the observational data. The mean value of the logarithmic inner slope of the mass density profile of dwarf galaxies is also obtained, and it is shown that the observed value of this parameter is in agreement with the theoretical results. The predictions of the Bose-Einstein condensate model are also systematically compared with the predictions of the standard Cold Dark Matter model. The non-singular density profiles of the Bose-Einstein condensed dark matter generally show the presence of an extended core, whose presence is due to the strong interaction between dark matter particles.

  11. BES-HEP Connections: Common Problems in Condensed Matter and High Energy Physics, Round Table Discussion

    SciTech Connect

    Fradkin, Eduardo; Maldacena, Juan; Chatterjee, Lali; Davenport, James W

    2015-02-02

    On February 2, 2015 the Offices of High Energy Physics (HEP) and Basic Energy Sciences (BES) convened a Round Table discussion among a group of physicists on ‘Common Problems in Condensed Matter and High Energy Physics’. This was motivated by the realization that both fields deal with quantum many body problems, share many of the same challenges, use quantum field theoretical approaches and have productively interacted in the past. The meeting brought together physicists with intersecting interests to explore recent developments and identify possible areas of collaboration.... Several topics were identified as offering great opportunity for discovery and advancement in both condensed matter physics and particle physics research. These included topological phases of matter, the use of entanglement as a tool to study nontrivial quantum systems in condensed matter and gravity, the gauge-gravity duality, non-Fermi liquids, the interplay of transport and anomalies, and strongly interacting disordered systems. Many of the condensed matter problems are realizable in laboratory experiments, where new methods beyond the usual quasi-particle approximation are needed to explain the observed exotic and anomalous results. Tools and techniques such as lattice gauge theories, numerical simulations of many-body systems, and tensor networks are seen as valuable to both communities and will likely benefit from collaborative development.

  12. Fermion condensate generates a new state of matter by making flat bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaginyan, V. R.; Popov, K. G.; Khodel, V. A.

    2014-09-01

    This short review paper is devoted to 90th anniversary of S.T. Belyaev birthday. Belyaev's ideas associated with the condensate state in Bose interacting systems have stimulated intensive studies of the possible manifestation of such a condensation in Fermi systems. In many Fermi systems and compounds at zero temperature a phase transition happens that leads to a quite specific state called fermion condensation. As a signal of such a fermion condensation quantum phase transition (FCQPT) serves unlimited increase of the effective mass of quasiparticles that determines the excitation spectrum and creates flat bands. We show that the class of Fermi liquids with the fermion condensate forms a new state of matter. We discuss the phase diagrams and the physical properties of systems located near that phase transition. A common and essential feature of such systems is quasiparticles different from those suggested by L.D. Landau by crucial dependence of their effective mass on temperature, external magnetic field, pressure, etc. It is demonstrated that a huge amount of experimental data collected on different compounds suggest that they, starting from some temperature and down, form the new state of matter, and are governed by the fermion condensation. Our discussion shows that the theory of fermion condensation develops completely good description of the NFL behavior of strongly correlated Fermi systems. Moreover, the fermion condensation can be considered as the universal reason for the NFL behavior observed in various HF metals, liquids, compounds with quantum spin liquids, and quasicrystals. We show that these systems exhibit universal scaling behavior of their thermodynamic properties. Therefore, the quantum critical physics of different strongly correlated compounds is universal, and emerges regardless of the underlying microscopic details of the compounds. This uniform behavior, governed by the universal quantum critical physics, allows us to view it as the main

  13. Critical temperature for {alpha}-particle condensation in asymmetric nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Sogo, Takaaki; Roepke, Gerd; Schuck, Peter

    2010-09-15

    The critical temperature for {alpha}-particle condensation in nuclear matter with Fermi surface imbalance between protons and neutrons is determined. The in-medium four-body Schroedinger equation, generalizing the Thouless criterion of the BCS transition, is applied using a Hartree-Fock wave function for the quartet projected onto zero total momentum in matter with different chemical potentials for protons and neutrons.

  14. Non-traditional Aharonov-Bohm effects in condensed matter

    SciTech Connect

    Krive, I.V. ); Rozhavsky, A.S. )

    1992-05-10

    In 1959, Aharonov and Bohm proposed an elegant experiment demonstrating observability of electromagnetic potentials (or, which is the same, the non-locality of the wave function of charged particles) in quantum mechanics. This paper discusses the Aharonov-Bohm effect, based on the fundamental principles of quantum theory, as the superposition principles, the quantum character of motion of particles and locality of the interaction of a charge with an electromagnetic potential L{sub int} = j{sub {mu}}A{sup {mu}}. It is thus no wonder that the Aharonov-Bohm's paper aroused much dispute which is still ongoing. Originally, the Aharonov-Bohm effect (ABE) means the dependence of the interference pattern on the magnetic fluid flux {phi} in a Gendaken experiment on a coherent electron beam in the field of an infinitely thin solenoid. Later, however, it became common to refer to the Aharonov-Bohm phenomenon wherever the characteristics of systems under study appear to depend on the flux {phi} in the absence of electric and magnetic fields. In this sense, it was highly interesting to analyze the ABE in condensed media (the many-particle Aharonov-Bohm effect), in particular to study the dependence of the thermodynamic and kinetic characteristics, e.g., of metal on the flux. Such a problem was first discussed by Byers and Yang who formulated the general theorems related to the ABE in conducting condensed media. The next important step was the work of Kulik who formulated a concrete model and calculated the flux-dependent contribution to the metal free energy and provided a first clear formulation of the requirements to reveal.

  15. Nuclear condensation and the equation of state of nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    De, J. N.; Samaddar, S. K.

    2007-10-15

    The isothermal compression of a dilute nucleonic gas invoking cluster degrees of freedom is studied in an equilibrium statistical model; this clusterized system is found to be more stable than the pure nucleonic system. The equation of state (EoS) of this matter, shows features qualitatively very similar to the one obtained from pure nucleonic gas. In the isothermal compression process, there is a sudden enhancement of clusterization at a transition density rendering features analogous to the gas-liquid phase transition in normal dilute nucleonic matter. Different observables like the caloric curves, heat capacities, isospin distillation, etc are studied in both the models. Possible changes in the observables due to recently indicated medium modifications in the symmetry energy are also investigated.

  16. Bose-Einstein Condensate Dark Matter Model Tested by Galactic Rotation Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwornik, Marek; Keresztes, Zoltán Gergely, László Á.

    2015-01-01

    Rotation curves of spiral galaxies are fundamental tools in the study of dark matter. Here we test the Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) dark matter model against rotation curve data of High and Low Surface Brightness (HSB and LSB) galaxies, respectively. When the rotational velocities increase over the whole observed range, the fit of the BEC model is similar to the one of the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) dark matter model. When however the rotation curves exhibit long flat regions, the NFW profiles provide a slightly better fit.

  17. Re-evaporation of condensed matter during the formation of the solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herndon, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    From the properties of matter the conclusion is derived that the mineral assemblage characteristic of most chondritic meteorites is not at all what is expected to form directly from solar matter. Rather, the major minerals of the ordinary chondrites have chemical compositions indicative of formation from a medium greatly depleted in hydrogen and somewhat deficient in oxygen relative to solar elemental abundance ratios. The re-evaporation of condensed material, after separation from a large fraction of the gaseous components of solar matter, will lead to a medium of the appropriate composition. Such re-evaporation must have occurred at a time prior to the formation of many primitive meteorites.

  18. Investigation of condensed matter by means of elastic thermal-neutron scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abov, Yu. G.; Dzheparov, F. S.; Elyutin, N. O.; Lvov, D. V.; Tyulyusov, A. N.

    2016-07-01

    The application of elastic thermal-neutron scattering in investigations of condensed matter that were performed at the Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics is described. An account of diffraction studies with weakly absorbing crystals, including studies of the anomalous-absorption effect and coherent effects in diffuse scattering, is given. Particular attention is given to exposing the method of multiple small-angle neutron scattering (MSANS). It is shown how information about matter inhomogeneities can be obtained by this method on the basis of Molière's theory. Prospects of the development of this method are outlined, and MSANS theory is formulated for a high concentration of matter inhomogeneities.

  19. Manipulating localized matter waves in multicomponent Bose-Einstein condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manikandan, K.; Muruganandam, P.; Senthilvelan, M.; Lakshmanan, M.

    2016-03-01

    We analyze vector localized solutions of two-component Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) with variable nonlinearity parameters and external trap potentials through a similarity transformation technique which transforms the two coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equations into a pair of coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations with constant coefficients under a specific integrability condition. In this analysis we consider three different types of external trap potentials: a time-independent trap, a time-dependent monotonic trap, and a time-dependent periodic trap. We point out the existence of different interesting localized structures; namely, rogue waves, dark- and bright-soliton rogue waves, and rogue-wave breatherlike structures for the above three cases of trap potentials. We show how the vector localized density profiles in a constant background get deformed when we tune the strength of the trap parameter. Furthermore, we investigate the nature of the trajectories of the nonautonomous rogue waves. We also construct the dark-dark rogue wave solution for the repulsive-repulsive interaction of two-component BECs and analyze the associated characteristics for the three different kinds of traps. We then deduce single-, two-, and three-composite rogue waves for three-component BECs and discuss the correlated characteristics when we tune the strength of the trap parameter for different trap potentials.

  20. Manipulating localized matter waves in multicomponent Bose-Einstein condensates.

    PubMed

    Manikandan, K; Muruganandam, P; Senthilvelan, M; Lakshmanan, M

    2016-03-01

    We analyze vector localized solutions of two-component Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) with variable nonlinearity parameters and external trap potentials through a similarity transformation technique which transforms the two coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equations into a pair of coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations with constant coefficients under a specific integrability condition. In this analysis we consider three different types of external trap potentials: a time-independent trap, a time-dependent monotonic trap, and a time-dependent periodic trap. We point out the existence of different interesting localized structures; namely, rogue waves, dark- and bright-soliton rogue waves, and rogue-wave breatherlike structures for the above three cases of trap potentials. We show how the vector localized density profiles in a constant background get deformed when we tune the strength of the trap parameter. Furthermore, we investigate the nature of the trajectories of the nonautonomous rogue waves. We also construct the dark-dark rogue wave solution for the repulsive-repulsive interaction of two-component BECs and analyze the associated characteristics for the three different kinds of traps. We then deduce single-, two-, and three-composite rogue waves for three-component BECs and discuss the correlated characteristics when we tune the strength of the trap parameter for different trap potentials.

  1. Manipulating localized matter waves in multicomponent Bose-Einstein condensates.

    PubMed

    Manikandan, K; Muruganandam, P; Senthilvelan, M; Lakshmanan, M

    2016-03-01

    We analyze vector localized solutions of two-component Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) with variable nonlinearity parameters and external trap potentials through a similarity transformation technique which transforms the two coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equations into a pair of coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations with constant coefficients under a specific integrability condition. In this analysis we consider three different types of external trap potentials: a time-independent trap, a time-dependent monotonic trap, and a time-dependent periodic trap. We point out the existence of different interesting localized structures; namely, rogue waves, dark- and bright-soliton rogue waves, and rogue-wave breatherlike structures for the above three cases of trap potentials. We show how the vector localized density profiles in a constant background get deformed when we tune the strength of the trap parameter. Furthermore, we investigate the nature of the trajectories of the nonautonomous rogue waves. We also construct the dark-dark rogue wave solution for the repulsive-repulsive interaction of two-component BECs and analyze the associated characteristics for the three different kinds of traps. We then deduce single-, two-, and three-composite rogue waves for three-component BECs and discuss the correlated characteristics when we tune the strength of the trap parameter for different trap potentials. PMID:27078349

  2. Simulations of Interfacial Phenomena in Soft Condensed Matter and Nanoscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binder, Kurt

    2014-05-01

    Computation of interfacial free energies between coexisting phases (e.g. saturated vapor coexisting with liquid) is a fundamental problem of classical statistical mechanics: the standard approach (dating back to van der Waals, Ginzburg-Landau, Cahn-Hillard · · ·) is based on the continuation of the free energy of homogeneous states throughout the two phase coexistence region. Beyond mean field this continuation does not exist, nor does an "intrinsic profile" of the interface exist! These problems can be overcome by computer simulation: one popular method is based on sampling the order parameter distribution function in the two-phase coexistence region, which yields information on the surface tension of planar interfaces (from "slab configurations") and of curved interfaces (from states containing "droplets"), elucidating the problem of the "Tolman length". Another method (suitable also for solid-liquid interfaces) analyzes the capillary wave broadening or the capillary wave spectrum; all these methods require a careful assessment of finite size effects. Related problems occur for excess free energies due to walls, needed to describe wetting phenomena, capillary condensation, heterogenous nucleation, etc. As an example, a thermodynamic integration method (based on "mixing" systems with and without walls) will be described, and an application to understand phase separation in nanoconfinement will be mentioned.

  3. - and Mesoscopic Soft Condensed Matter Architectures on Semiconductor Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuilov, Vladimir; Seo, Young-Soo; Ksenevich, Vitaly; Galibert, Jean; Sokolov, John; Rafailovich, Miriam

    2003-03-01

    A novel and simple approach of self-organized fabrication of two dimensional mesoscopic networks with the feature size down to 50 nm has been developed. The technique is based on the self-organized patterning in a thin layer of complex liquid (polymer solution) in the presence of humid atmosphere. Two dimensional mesoscopic honeycomb-shaped carbon structures were produced by high temperature annealing of nitrocellulose precursors [1]. The polymer network was also utilized as a mask for further reactive ion etching of surfaces with epi-layer of GaAs [2,3] and GaAs/AlGaAs ? -doped heterostructures [4]. The electrical transport in the obtained structures was studied in a temperature range from 1.9 to 300 K and in pulsed magnetic fields up to 35 T. A crossover from the Mott variable range hopping to the Colomb-gap Efros-Shklovskii variable range hopping has been observed experimentally in mesoscopic carbon structures [1]. At low fields, ln(R/R0) is proportional to B2. In the intermediate range, the magnetoresistance is linear on B. At high temperatures, if the hopping distance is comparable to the localization length, the observed small negative magnetoresistance in our samples is consistent to the weak-localization picture. Magnetoresistance of patterned GaAs/AlGaAs ?-doped structures is negative [4], which is relater to quantum interference in hopping regime. At B=0, the resistance showed typical behavior of a two-dimensional hopping. Below about 20 K, the data followed the Mott variable-range-hopping mechanism for two dimensions. Also, we have used diblock-copolymer system, self-assembled with L-B technique, to produce nano-patterns. These structures were utilized as templates for introducing metal nanopatterns on semiconductor surfaces by reactive ion beam etching for magnetic storage systems [5] and DNA separation on a flat surface [6] devices. 1. V.A. Samuilov, J. Galibert, V.K. Ksenevich, V.J. Goldman, M. Rafailovich, J. Sokolov, I.A. Bashmakov, V.A. Dorosinets

  4. Distributed bosonic states and condensed-matter fusion. Final report, April-September 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Chubb, S.R.; Chubb, T.A.

    1990-02-01

    The article explains how it is possible for deuterons separated by macroscopic distances to interact in a nuclear fashion through the formation of a Bose Bloch Condensate (BBC) within a solid. Under suitable conditions, the formation of a BBC may lead to nuclear fusion and a variety of heretofore unobserved nuclear processes. The application of these ideas is used to explain the anomalous heating of Pd through the electrolysis of D{sub 2}O and LiOD and conclude that only a small concentration of BBC deutrons is required. Various experiments associated with condensed matter fusion are suggested that may provide a test of our theory.

  5. Optical nanoscopy of transient states in condensed matter

    PubMed Central

    Kuschewski, F.; Kehr, S.C.; Green, B.; Bauer, Ch.; Gensch, M.; Eng, L.M.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the fundamental and nanoscale understanding of complex phenomena in materials research and the life sciences, witnessed considerable progress. However, elucidating the underlying mechanisms, governed by entangled degrees of freedom such as lattice, spin, orbit, and charge for solids or conformation, electric potentials, and ligands for proteins, has remained challenging. Techniques that allow for distinguishing between different contributions to these processes are hence urgently required. In this paper we demonstrate the application of scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM) as a novel type of nano-probe for tracking transient states of matter. We introduce a sideband-demodulation technique that allows for probing exclusively the stimuli-induced change of near-field optical properties. We exemplify this development by inspecting the decay of an electron-hole plasma generated in SiGe thin films through near-infrared laser pulses. Our approach can universally be applied to optically track ultrafast/-slow processes over the whole spectral range from UV to THz frequencies. PMID:26215769

  6. Coherent matter waves of a dipolar condensate in two-dimensional optical lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Aixia; Xue Jukui

    2010-07-15

    The coherent matter waves of a dipolar condensate in deep two-dimensional (2D) tilted and nontilted optical lattices are studied both analytically and numerically. It is shown that, in tilted lattices, by properly designing the sign and the magnitude of the contact interaction and the dipolar interaction, it is possible to control the decoherence of Bloch oscillations. Contrary to the usual short-range interacting Bose system, long-lived Bloch oscillations of the dipolar condensate are achieved when the dipolar interaction, the contact interaction, and the lattice dimension satisfy an analytical condition. Furthermore, we predict that, in untilted lattices, stable coherent 2D moving soliton and breather states of the dipolar condensate exist. This fact is very different from the purely short-range interacting Bose system (where the moving soliton cannot be stabilized in high-dimensional lattices). The dipolar interaction can lead to some novel phenomena that can not appear in short-range interacting BEC system.

  7. Cooling through quantum criticality and many-body effects in condensed matter and cold gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Bernd; Honecker, Andreas; Hofstetter, Walter; Tutsch, Ulrich; Lang, Michael

    2014-10-01

    This article reviews some recent developments for new cooling technologies in the fields of condensed matter physics and cold gases, both from an experimental and theoretical point of view. The main idea is to make use of distinct many-body interactions of the system to be cooled which can be some cooling stage or the material of interest itself, as is the case in ultracold gases. For condensed matter systems, we discuss magnetic cooling schemes based on a large magnetocaloric effect as a result of a nearby quantum phase transition and consider effects of geometrical frustration. For ultracold gases, we review many-body cooling techniques, such as spin-gradient and Pomeranchuk cooling, which can be applied in the presence of an optical lattice. We compare the cooling performance of these new techniques with that of conventional approaches and discuss state-of-the-art applications.

  8. Mass dependence of the Soret coefficient for atomic diffusion in condensed matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Wei-Feng; Lin, Zheng-Zhe; Ning, Xi-Jing

    2013-06-01

    Particle diffusion in condensed matters driven by thermal gradient, the so-called Ludwig-Soret effect, has been investigated for about 160 years, but up to the present, seldom do theories on atomic level understand a series of puzzles in relevant experiments. In this work, we derived an expression of Soret coefficient for atomic diffusion in condensed matter from a single atom statistic model with relevant parameters expressed in terms of atomic mass and the potential profile felt by the guest atom without empirical parameters. The reality of the model was strictly tested by molecular dynamics simulations, especially the result for He atom diffusing on graphene sheet, which suggests the Soret effect may be used to separate 3He from 4He.

  9. The beginnings of theoretical condensed matter physics in Rome: a personal remembrance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Castro, Carlo; Bonolis, Luisa

    2014-02-01

    This oral history interview provides a personal view on how theoretical condensed matter physics developed in Rome starting in the sixties of the last century. It then follows along the lines of research pursued by the interviewee up to the date of the interview, in March 2006. The topics considered range from the phenomenology of superfluid helium and superconductors, critical phenomena and renormalisation group approach, quantum fluids to strongly correlated electron systems and high temperature superconductors. Within these topics, fundamental problems of condensed matter physics are touched upon, such as the microscopic derivation of scaling, the metal-insulator transition and the interaction effects on disordered electron systems beyond the Anderson localisation, and the existence of heterogeneous states in cuprates. The English text presented here and revised by the authors is based on the original oral history interview recorded in Italian at Carlo Di Castro's office, Physics Department of Sapienza University, Rome, Italy, March 2006.

  10. Atomic-scale diffractive imaging of sub-cycle electron dynamics in condensed matter

    SciTech Connect

    Yakovlev, Vladislav S.; Stockman, Mark I.; Krausz, Ferenc; Baum, Peter

    2015-09-28

    For interaction of light with condensed-matter systems, we show with simulations that ultrafast electron and X-ray diffraction can provide a time-dependent record of charge-density maps with sub-cycle and atomic-scale resolutions. Using graphene as an example material, we predict that diffraction can reveal localised atomic-scale origins of optical and electronic phenomena. Here, we point out nontrivial relations between microscopic electric current and density in undoped graphene.

  11. Atomic-scale diffractive imaging of sub-cycle electron dynamics in condensed matter

    PubMed Central

    Yakovlev, Vladislav S.; Stockman, Mark I.; Krausz, Ferenc; Baum, Peter

    2015-01-01

    For interaction of light with condensed-matter systems, we show with simulations that ultrafast electron and X-ray diffraction can provide a time-dependent record of charge-density maps with sub-cycle and atomic-scale resolutions. Using graphene as an example material, we predict that diffraction can reveal localised atomic-scale origins of optical and electronic phenomena. In particular, we point out nontrivial relations between microscopic electric current and density in undoped graphene. PMID:26412407

  12. Robert Vivian Pound and the Discovery of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance in Condensed Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlish, Ursula

    2010-06-01

    This paper is based upon five interviews I conducted with Robert Vivian Pound in 2006-2007 and covers his childhood interest in radios, his time at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Radiation Laboratory during the Second World War, his work on the discovery of nuclear magnetic resonance in condensed matter, his travels as a professor at Harvard University, and his social interactions with other physicists.

  13. Reflections on the past, present and future of condensed matter physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leggett, Anthony

    I consider some of the ways in which the practice and even the definition of ''condensed-matter physics'' has evolved since its inception in the early twentieth century, with particular reference to its relationship to neighboring and even distant disciplines. I speculate on some possible directions in which the discipline may develop over the next few decades, emphasizing that there are still some very basic questions to which we currently have no satisfactory answers.

  14. Axion Bose-Einstein Condensation: a model beyond Cold Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Q.

    2010-08-30

    Cold dark matter axions form a Bose-Einstein condensate if the axions thermalize. Recently, it was found [1] that they do thermalize when the photon temperature reaches T{approx}100 eV(f/10{sup 12} GeV){sup 1/2} and that they continue to do so thereafter. We discuss the differences between axion BEC and CDM in the linear regime and the non-linear regime of evolution of density perturbations. We find that axion BEC provides a mechanism for the production of net overall rotation in dark matter halos, and for the alignment of cosmic microwave anisotropy multi-poles.

  15. Linking the gaseous and the condensed phases of matter: The slow electron and its interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Christophorou, L.G.

    1993-12-31

    The interfacing of the gaseous and the condensed phases of matter as effected by interphase and cluster studies on the behavior of key reactions involving slow electrons either as reacting initial particles or as products of the reactions themselves is discussed. Emphasis is placed on the measurement of both the cross sections and the energetics involved, although most of the available information to date is on the latter. The discussion is selectively focussed on electron scattering (especially the role of negative ion states in gases, clusters, and dense matter), ionization, electron attachment and photodetachment. The dominant role of the electric polarization of the medium is emphasized.

  16. Testing the Bose-Einstein Condensate dark matter model at galactic cluster scale

    SciTech Connect

    Harko, Tiberiu; Liang, Pengxiang; Liang, Shi-Dong; Mocanu, Gabriela E-mail: lpengx@mail2.sysu.edu.cn2 E-mail: gabriela.mocanu@ubbcluj.ro

    2015-11-01

    The possibility that dark matter may be in the form of a Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC) has been extensively explored at galactic scale. In particular, good fits for the galactic rotations curves have been obtained, and upper limits for the dark matter particle mass and scattering length have been estimated. In the present paper we extend the investigation of the properties of the BEC dark matter to the galactic cluster scale, involving dark matter dominated astrophysical systems formed of thousands of galaxies each. By considering that one of the major components of a galactic cluster, the intra-cluster hot gas, is described by King's β-model, and that both intra-cluster gas and dark matter are in hydrostatic equilibrium, bound by the same total mass profile, we derive the mass and density profiles of the BEC dark matter. In our analysis we consider several theoretical models, corresponding to isothermal hot gas and zero temperature BEC dark matter, non-isothermal gas and zero temperature dark matter, and isothermal gas and finite temperature BEC, respectively. The properties of the finite temperature BEC dark matter cluster are investigated in detail numerically. We compare our theoretical results with the observational data of 106 galactic clusters. Using a least-squares fitting, as well as the observational results for the dark matter self-interaction cross section, we obtain some upper bounds for the mass and scattering length of the dark matter particle. Our results suggest that the mass of the dark matter particle is of the order of μ eV, while the scattering length has values in the range of 10{sup −7} fm.

  17. An introduction to gauge-gravity duality and its application in condensed matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, A. G.

    2013-02-01

    The past few years have witnessed a remarkable crossover of string theoretical ideas from the abstract world of geometrical forms to the concrete experimental realm of condensed matter physics. The basis for this - variously known as holography, the AdS/CFT correspondence or gauge-gravity duality - comes from notions right at the cutting edge of string theory. Nevertheless, the insights afforded can often be expressed in ways very familiar to condensed matter physicists. ? The aim of this short, introductory review is to survey the ideas underpinning this crossover, in a way that - as far as possible - strips them of sophisticated mathematical formalism, whilst at the same time retaining their fundamental essence. I will sketch the areas in which progress has been made to date and highlight where the challenges and open questions lie. Finally, I will attempt to give a perspective upon these ideas. What contribution can we realistically expect from this approach and how might it be accommodated into the canon of condensed matter theory? Inevitably, any attempt to do this in such a rapidly evolving field will be superseded by events. Nevertheless, I hope that this will provide a useful way to think about gauge-gravity duality and the uncharted directions in which it might take us.

  18. Exploring matter-wave dynamics with a Bose-Einstein condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Rockson

    Bose-Einstein condensates of dilute gases provide a rich and versatile platform to study both single-particle and many-body quantum phenomena. This thesis describes several experiments using a Bose-Einstein condensate of Rb-87 as a model system to study novel matter-wave effects that traditionally arise in vastly different systems, yet are difficult to access. We study the scattering of a particle from a repulsive potential barrier in the non-asymptotic regime, for which the collision dynamics are on-going. Using a Bose-Einstein condensate interacting with a sharp repulsive potential, two distinct transient scattering effects are observed: one due to the momentary deceleration of particles atop the barrier, and one due to the abrupt discontinuity in phase written on the wavepacket in position-space, akin to quantum reflection. Both effects lead to a redistribution of momenta, resulting in a rich interference pattern that may be used to reconstruct the single-particle wavefunction. In a second experiment, we study the response of a particle in a periodic potential to an applied force. By abruptly applying an external force to a Bose-Einstein condensate in a one-dimensional optical lattice, we show that the initial response of a particle in a periodic potential is in fact characterized by the bare mass, and only over timescales long compared to that of interband dynamics is the usual effective mass an appropriate description. This breakdown of the effective mass description on fast timescales is difficult to observe in traditional solid state systems due to their large bandgaps and fast timescale of interband dynamics. Both these experiments make use of the condensate's long coherence length, and the ability to shape and modulate the external potential on timescales fast compared to the particle dynamics, allowing for observation of novel matter-wave effects.

  19. PREFACE: 17th International School on Condensed Matter Physics (ISCMP): Open Problems in Condensed Matter Physics, Biomedical Physics and their Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimova-Malinovska, Doriana; Nesheva, Diana; Pecheva, Emilia; Petrov, Alexander G.; Primatarowa, Marina T.

    2012-12-01

    We are pleased to introduce the Proceedings of the 17th International School on Condensed Matter Physics: Open Problems in Condensed Matter Physics, Biomedical Physics and their Applications, organized by the Institute of Solid State Physics of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. The Chairman of the School was Professor Alexander G Petrov. Like prior events, the School took place in the beautiful Black Sea resort of Saints Constantine and Helena near Varna, going back to the refurbished facilities of the Panorama hotel. Participants from 17 different countries delivered 31 invited lecturers and 78 posters, contributing through three sessions of poster presentations. Papers submitted to the Proceedings were refereed according to the high standards of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series and the accepted papers illustrate the diversity and the high level of the contributions. Not least significant factor for the success of the 17 ISCMP was the social program, both the organized events (Welcome and Farewell Parties) and the variety of pleasant local restaurants and beaches. Visits to the Archaeological Museum (rich in valuable gold treasures of the ancient Thracian culture) and to the famous rock monastery Aladja were organized for the participants from the Varna Municipality. These Proceedings are published for the second time by the Journal of Physics: Conference Series. We are grateful to the Journal's staff for supporting this idea. The Committee decided that the next event will take place again in Saints Constantine and Helena, 1-5 September 2014. It will be entitled: Challenges of the Nanoscale Science: Theory, Materials and Applications. Doriana Dimova-Malinovska, Diana Nesheva, Emilia Pecheva, Alexander G Petrov and Marina T Primatarowa Editors

  20. Amplification of matter rogue waves and breathers in quasi-two-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manikandan, K.; Senthilvelan, M.; Kraenkel, R. A.

    2016-02-01

    We construct rogue wave and breather solutions of a quasi-two-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation with a time-dependent interatomic interaction and external trap. We show that the trapping potential and an arbitrary functional parameter that present in the similarity transformation should satisfy a constraint for the considered equation to be integrable and yield the desired solutions. We consider two different forms of functional parameters and investigate how the density of the rogue wave and breather profiles vary with respect to these functional parameters. We also construct vector localized solutions of a two coupled quasi-two-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensate system. We then investigate how the vector localized density profiles modify in the constant density background with respect to the functional parameters. Our results may help to manipulate matter rogue waves experimentally in the two-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensate systems.

  1. Correlation functions for a di-neutron condensate in asymmetric nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isayev, A. A.

    2008-07-01

    Recent calculations with an effective isospin-dependent contact interaction show the possibility of the crossover from superfluidity of neutron Cooper pairs in the S10 pairing channel to Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of di-neutron bound states in dilute nuclear matter. The density and spin correlation functions are calculated for a di-neutron condensate in asymmetric nuclear matter with the aim of finding the possible features of the BCS-BEC crossover. It is shown that the zero-momentum transfer spin correlation function satisfies the sum rule at zero temperature. In symmetric nuclear matter, the density correlation function changes sign at low momentum transfer across the BCS-BEC transition, and this feature can be considered as a signature of the crossover. At finite isospin asymmetry, this criterion gives too large a value for the critical asymmetry αcd~0.9, at which the BEC state is quenched. Therefore, it can be trusted for the description of the density-driven BCS-BEC crossover of neutron pairs only at small isospin asymmetry. This result generalizes the conclusion of the study in Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 090402 (2005), where the change of sign of the density correlation function at low momentum transfer in two-component quantum fermionic atomic gas with the balanced populations of fermions of different species was considered as an unambiguous signature of the BCS-BEC transition.

  2. General Pade Effective Potential for Coulomb Problems in Condensed and Soft Matters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quyen, B. L.; Mai, D. N.; Hoa, N. M.; Van, T. T. T.; Hoai, N. L.; Viet, N. A.

    2014-09-01

    Effective potentials for finding the ground states and physical configurations have essential meaning in many Coulomb problems of condensed and soft matters. The ordinary n-Pade approximation potentials define as the ratio of Pi(r)/Pi+1(r), where Pi(r) are the polynomials of i-th order of charge separation r, give quite good fit and agreement of calculation results and experimental data for Coulomb problems, where screening effects are not important or exchange photons still are massless. In this work we consider a general Pade effective potential by included a factor of exponential form, which could give more accurate results also for above mentioned cases. This general Pade effective potentials with analytical expressions were useful to perform analytical calculations, estimations and to reduce the amount of computational time for future investigations in condensed and soft matter topics. For example of soft matter problems, we study the case of MS2 virus, the general Pade potential gives much more correct results comparing with ordinary Pade approximation.

  3. Focus on topological physics: from condensed matter to cold atoms and optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Hui; Rechtsman, Mikael; Lu, Yuan-Ming; Yang, Kun

    2016-08-01

    The notions of a topological phase and topological order were first introduced in the studies of integer and fractional quantum Hall effects, and further developed in the study of topological insulators and topological superconductors in the past decade. Topological concepts are now widely used in many branches of physics, not only limited to condensed matter systems but also in ultracold atomic systems, photonic materials and trapped ions. Papers published in this focus issue are direct testaments of that, and readers will gain a global view of how topology impacts different branches of contemporary physics. We hope that these pages will inspire new ideas through communication between different fields.

  4. Physics in the Andean Countries: A Perspective from Condensed Matter, Novel Materials and Nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto, P.

    2009-05-01

    We will discuss the current state of R&D in the fields of condensed matter, novel materials, and nanotechnology in the Andean nations. We will initially consider Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) to then visualize individual developments, as well as those for the region as a whole in these fields of knowledge in each of the nations constituting the Andean Region (Bolivia, Ecuador, Chile, Venezuela, Peru, and Colombia). Based on Science & Technology watch exercises in the countries involved, along with the Iberian American and Inter-American Science & Technology Network of Indicators (Red de indicadores de Ciencia y Tecnolog'ia (RICYT) iberoamericana e interamericana)1, we will reveal statistical data that will shed light on the development in the fields mentioned. As will be noted, total R&D investment in Latin American and Caribbean countries remained constant since 1997. In spite of having reached a general increase in publications without international collaboration in LAC nations, the countries with greatest research productivity in Latin America (Argentina, Mexico, Brazil, and Chile) have strengthened their international collaboration with the United States, France, Germany, and Italy through close links associated with the formation processes of their researchers. Academic and research integration is evaluated through joint authorship of scientific articles, evidencing close collaboration in fields of research. This principle has been used in the creation of cooperation networks among participating nations. As far as networks of research on condensed matter, novel materials, and nanotechnology, the Andean nations have not consolidated a regional network allowing permanent and effective cooperation in research and technological development; as would be expected, given their idiomatic and cultural similarities, their historical background, and geographical proximity, which have been integrating factors in other research areas or socio-economic aspects. This

  5. Condensed matter physics in the 21st century: The legacy of Jacques Friedel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchiat, Hélène; Villain, Jacques

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this dossier of Comptes rendus Physique devoted to the memory of Jacques Friedel is to give a panorama of his exceptional and numerous contributions to modern condensed matter physics. Since it is not possible to cover all the domains he investigated in a single volume, we have selected only a limited number of topics. We have tried, when possible, to present a juxtaposition of articles written by his former students or colleagues with others written instead by younger researchers whose work is inspired by important concepts originating from the work of Jacques Friedel, but who may have never met him.

  6. Polymers from amino acids: development of dual ester-urethane melt condensation approach and mechanistic aspects.

    PubMed

    Anantharaj, S; Jayakannan, M

    2012-08-13

    A new dual ester-urethane melt condensation methodology for biological monomers-amino acids was developed to synthesize new classes of thermoplastic polymers under eco-friendly and solvent-free polymerization approach. Naturally abundant L-amino acids were converted into dual functional ester-urethane monomers by tailor-made synthetic approach. Direct polycondensation of these amino acid monomers with commercial diols under melt condition produced high molecular weight poly(ester-urethane)s. The occurrence of the dual ester-urethane process and the structure of the new poly(ester-urethane)s were confirmed by (1)H and (13)C NMR. The new dual ester-urethane condensation approach was demonstrated for variety of amino acids: glycine, β-alanine, L-alanine, L-leucine, L-valine, and L-phenylalanine. MALDI-TOF-MS end group analysis confirmed that the amino acid monomers were thermally stable under the melt polymerization condition. The mechanism of melt process and the kinetics of the polycondensation were studied by model reactions and it was found that the amino acid monomer was very special in the sense that their ester and urethane functionality could be selectively reacted by polymerization temperature or catalyst. The new polymers were self-organized as β-sheet in aqueous or organic solvents and their thermal properties such as glass transition temperature and crystallinity could be readily varied using different l-amino acid monomers or diols in the feed. Thus, the current investigation opens up new platform of research activates for making thermally stable and renewable engineering thermoplastics from natural resource amino acids. PMID:22713137

  7. Effects of urea formaldehyde condensation polymer treatment of flaxseed on ruminal digestion and lactation in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, A; Yuan, K; Armendariz, C K; Highland, G; Bello, N M; Winowiski, T; Drouillard, J S; Titgemeyer, E C; Bradford, B J

    2013-06-01

    Flaxseed is a potent source of the n-3 fatty acid α-linolenic acid (ALA), yet most ALA is lost during ruminal biohydrogenation when ground flaxseed is fed to ruminants. Heat processing and urea formaldehyde condensation polymer (UFCP) treatment of flaxseed were investigated as possible means of protecting ALA from ruminal degradation. Ground flaxseed (GF), heated ground flaxseed (HGF), or UFCP-treated ground flaxseed (UFCPGF) were incubated for 0, 4, 8, and 12h in 4 ruminally cannulated multiparous lactating Holstein cows. Compared with GF, HGF and UFCPGF decreased ruminal disappearance of dry matter, crude protein, and ALA. Pepsin-digestible protein remaining after 12h of ruminal incubation was greater for UFCPGF and HGF than for GF. Twenty-four lactating Holstein cows (207 ± 37 d in milk, 668 ± 66 kg of body weight, and 1.33 ± 0.56 lactations) were then used in a randomized complete block design experiment with a basal feeding period to assess effects of flaxseed treatment on ALA enrichment of plasma and milk as well as lactational performance. No evidence existed that supplementation of HGF and UFCPGF affected dry matter intake, milk fat content, milk protein content, or energy-corrected milk yield, but UFCPGF marginally decreased milk yield compared with HGF. Plasma concentration of ALA was not affected by treatment. Concentrations of n-3 fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acids in milk fat were increased by UFCPGF relative to HGF, but ALA yield was not affected. Taken together, in situ results suggest that heat-treated flaxseed, with or without UFCP treatment, slowed ruminal disappearance of ALA. Feeding UFCP-treated flaxseed failed to alter ALA content of plasma or milk ALA yield relative to heating alone.

  8. Cosmological perturbations during the Bose-Einstein condensation of dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Freitas, R.C.; Gonçalves, S.V.B. E-mail: sergio.vitorino@pq.cnpq.br

    2013-04-01

    In the present work, we analyze the evolution of the scalar and tensorial perturbations and the quantities relevant for the physical description of the Universe, as the density contrast of the scalar perturbations and the gravitational waves energy density during the Bose-Einstein condensation of dark matter. The behavior of these parameters during the Bose-Einstein phase transition of dark matter is analyzed in details. To study the cosmological dynamics and evolution of scalar and tensorial perturbations in a Universe with and without cosmological constant we use both analytical and numerical methods. The Bose-Einstein phase transition modifies the evolution of gravitational waves of cosmological origin, as well as the process of large-scale structure formation.

  9. High-performance computational condensed-matter physics in the cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehr, J. J.; Svec, L.; Gardner, J. P.; Prange, M. P.

    2009-03-01

    We demonstrate the feasibility of high performance scientific computation in condensed-matter physics using cloud computers as an alternative to traditional computational tools. The availability of these large, virtualized pools of compute resources raises the possibility of a new compute paradigm for scientific research with many advantages. For research groups, cloud computing provides convenient access to reliable, high performance clusters and storage, without the need to purchase and maintain sophisticated hardware. For developers, virtualization allows scientific codes to be pre-installed on machine images, facilitating control over the computational environment. Detailed tests are presented for the parallelized versions of the electronic structure code SIESTA ootnotetextJ. Soler et al., J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 14, 2745 (2002). and for the x-ray spectroscopy code FEFF ootnotetextA. Ankudinov et al., Phys. Rev. B 65, 104107 (2002). including CPU, network, and I/O performance, using the the Amazon EC2 Elastic Cloud.

  10. Matter-wave interference versus spontaneous pattern formation in spinor Bose-Einstein condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witkowski, Marcin; Gartman, Rafał; Nagórny, Bartłomiej; Piotrowski, Marcin; Płodzień, Marcin; Sacha, Krzysztof; Szczepkowski, Jacek; Zachorowski, Jerzy; Zawada, Michał; Gawlik, Wojciech

    2013-08-01

    We describe effects of matter-wave interference of spinor states in the 87Rb Bose-Einstein condensate. The components of the F=2 manifold are populated by forced Majorana transitions and then fall freely due to gravity in an applied magnetic field. Weak inhomogeneities of the magnetic field, present in the experiment, impose relative velocities onto different mF components, which show up as interference patterns upon measurement of atomic density distributions with a Stern-Gerlach imaging method. We show that interference effects may appear in experiments even if gradients of the magnetic field components are eliminated but higher-order inhomogeneity is present and the duration of the interaction is long enough. In particular, we show that the resulting matter-wave interference patterns can mimic spontaneous pattern formation in the quantum gas.

  11. Growth of perturbations in an expanding universe with Bose-Einstein condensate dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavanis, P. H.

    2012-01-01

    We study the growth of perturbations in an expanding Newtonian universe with Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) dark matter. We first ignore special relativistic effects and derive a differential equation that governs the evolution of the density contrast in the linear regime. This equation, which takes quantum pressure and self-interaction into account, can be solved analytically in several cases. We argue that an attractive self-interaction can enhance the Jeans instability and fasten the formation of structures. Then, we take pressure effects (coming from special relativity) into account in the evolution of the cosmic fluid and add the contribution of radiation, baryons, and dark energy (cosmological constant). For BEC dark matter with repulsive self-interaction (positive pressure) the scale factor increases more rapidly than in the standard ΛCDM model where dark matter is pressureless, while it increases less rapidly for BEC dark matter with attractive self-interaction (negative pressure). We study the linear development of the perturbations in these two cases and show that the perturbations grow faster in BEC dark matter than in pressureless dark matter. Finally, we consider a "dark fluid" with a generalized equation of state p = (αρ + kρ2)c2 having a component p = kρ2c2 similar to BEC dark matter and a component p = αρc2 mimicking the effect of the cosmological constant (dark energy). We find optimal parameters that give good agreement with the standard ΛCDM model that assumes a finite cosmological constant.

  12. Mixtures of Charged Bosons Confined in Harmonic Traps and Bose-Einstein Condensation Mechanism for Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions and Transmutation Processes in Condensed Matters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yeong E.; Zubarev, Alexander L.

    2006-02-01

    A mixture of two different species of positively charged bosons in harmonic traps is considered in the mean-field approximation. It is shown that depending on the ratio of parameters, the two components may coexist in same regions of space, in spite of the Coulomb repulsion between the two species. Application of this result is discussed for the generalization of the Bose-Einstein condensation mechanism for low-energy nuclear reaction (LENR) and transmutation processes in condensed matters. For the case of deutron-lithium (d + Li) LENR, the result indicates that (d + 6Li) reactions may dominate over (d + d) reactions in LENR experiments.

  13. PHOTOEMISSION AS A PROBE OF THE COLLECTIVE EXCITATIONS IN CONDENSED MATTER SYSTEMS.

    SciTech Connect

    JOHNSON, P.D.; VALLA, T.

    2006-08-01

    New developments in instrumentation have recently allowed photoemission measurements to be performed with very high energy and momentum resolution.[1] This has allowed detailed studies of the self-energy corrections to the lifetime and mass renormalization of excitations in the vicinity of the Fermi level. These developments come at an opportune time. Indeed the discovery of high temperature superconductivity in the cuprates and related systems is presenting a range of challenges for condensed matter physics.[2] Does the mechanism of high T{sub c} superconductivity represent new physics? Do we need to go beyond Landau's concept of the Fermi liquid?[3] What, if any, is the evidence for the presence or absence of quasiparticles in the excitation spectra of these complex oxides? The energy resolution of the new instruments is comparable to or better than the energy or temperature scale of superconductivity and the energy of many collective excitations. As such, photoemission has again become recognized as an important probe of condensed matter. Studies of the high T{sub c} superconductors and related materials are aided by the observation that they are two dimensional. To understand this, we note that the photoemission process results in both an excited photoelectron and a photohole in the final state. Thus the experimentally measured photoemission peak is broadened to a width reflecting contributions from both the finite lifetime of the photohole and the momentum broadening of the outgoing photoelectron.

  14. History of the APS Topical Group on Shock Compression of Condensed Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Forbes, J W

    2001-10-19

    In order to provide broader scientific recognition and to advance the science of shock compressed condensed matter, a group of American Physical Society (APS) members worked within the Society to make this field an active part of the APS. Individual papers were presented at APS meetings starting in the 1940's and shock wave sessions were organized starting with the 1967 Pasadena meeting. Shock wave topical conferences began in 1979 in Pullman, WA. Signatures were obtained on a petition in 1984 from a balanced cross-section of the shock wave community to form an APS Topical Group (TG). The APS Council officially accepted the formation of the Shock Compression of Condensed Matter (SCCM) TG at its October 1984 meeting. This action firmly aligned the shock wave field with a major physical science organization. Most early topical conferences were sanctioned by the APS while those held after 1992 were official APS meetings. The topical group organizes a shock wave topical conference in odd numbered years while participating in shock wavehigh pressure sessions at APS general meetings in even numbered years.

  15. The History of the APS Shock Compression of Condensed Matter Topical Group

    SciTech Connect

    Forbes, J W

    2001-05-02

    In order to provide broader scientific recognition and to advance the science of shock compressed condensed matter, a group of American Physical Society (APS) members worked within the Society to make this field an active part of the APS. Individual papers were presented at APS meetings starting in the 1940's and shock wave sessions were organized starting with the 1967 Pasadena meeting. Shock wave topical conferences began in 1979 in Pullman, WA. Signatures were obtained on a petition in 1984 from a balanced cross-section of the shock wave community to form an APS Topical Group (TG). The APS Council officially accepted the formation of the Shock Compression of Condensed Matter (SCCM) TG at its October 1984 meeting. This action firmly aligned the shock wave field with a major physical science organization. Most early topical conferences were sanctioned by the APS while those held after 1992 were official APS meetings. The topical group organizes a shock wave topical conference in odd numbered years while participating in shock wave/high pressure sessions at APS general meetings in even numbered years.

  16. Creating a Community to Strengthen the Broader Impacts of Condensed Matter Physics Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adenwalla, Shireen; Bosley, Jocelyn; Voth, Gregory; Smith, Leigh

    The Broader Impacts (BI) merit criteria set out by the National Science Foundation are essential for building the public support necessary for science to flourish. Condensed matter physicists (CMP) have made transformative impacts on our society, but these are often invisible to the public. Communicating the societal benefits of our research can be challenging, because CMP consists of many independent research groups for whom effective engagement in the public arena is not necessarily a forte. Other BI activities, such as engaging K-12 students and teachers to increase scientific literacy and strengthen the STEM workforce, may be very effective, but these are often isolated and short in duration. To increase the visibility of CMP and to make the implementation of BI activities more efficient, we have created a website with two sides: a public side to communicate to a broad audience exciting scientific discoveries in CMP and the technologies they enable, and a private side for condensed matter researchers to communicate with one another about effective broader impact activities. Here we discuss the content of the new website, and the best practices we have identified for communicating the excitement of CMP research to the broadest possible audience. Nsf-DMR 1550737, 1550724 and 1550681.

  17. Connection between the nuclear matter mean-field equation of state and the quark and gluon condensates at high density

    SciTech Connect

    Malheiro, M.; Dey, M.; Delfino, A.; Dey, J. |||

    1997-01-01

    It is known now that chiral symmetry restoration requires the meson-nucleon couplings to be density-dependent in nuclear-matter mean-field models. We further show that, quite generally, the quark and gluon condensates in medium are related to the trace of the energy-momentum tensor of nuclear matter and in these models the incompressibility K must be less than 3 times the chemical potential {mu}. In the critical density {rho}{sub c}, the gluon condensate is only reduced by 20{percent}, indicating a larger effective nucleon mass. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  18. Investigations on the usefulness of the Massively Parallel Processor for study of electronic properties of atomic and condensed matter systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Das, T. P.

    1988-01-01

    The usefulness of the Massively Parallel Processor (MPP) for investigation of electronic structures and hyperfine properties of atomic and condensed matter systems was explored. The major effort was directed towards the preparation of algorithms for parallelization of the computational procedure being used on serial computers for electronic structure calculations in condensed matter systems. Detailed descriptions of investigations and results are reported, including MPP adaptation of self-consistent charge extended Hueckel (SCCEH) procedure, MPP adaptation of the first-principles Hartree-Fock cluster procedure for electronic structures of large molecules and solid state systems, and MPP adaptation of the many-body procedure for atomic systems.

  19. Galactic cold dark matter as a Bose-Einstein condensate of WISPs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires, M. O. C.; de Souza, J. C. C.

    2012-11-01

    We propose here the dark matter content of galaxies as a cold bosonic fluid composed of Weakly Interacting Slim Particles (WISPs), represented by spin-0 axion-like particles and spin-1 hidden bosons, thermalized in the Bose-Einstein condensation state and bounded by their self-gravitational potential. We analyze two zero-momentum configurations: the polar phases in which spin alignment of two neighbouring particles is anti-parallel and the ferromagnetic phases in which every particle spin is aligned in the same direction. Using the mean field approximation we derive the Gross-Pitaevskii equations for both cases, and, supposing the dark matter to be a polytropic fluid, we describe the particles density profile as Thomas-Fermi distributions characterized by the halo radii and in terms of the scattering lengths and mass of each particle. By comparing this model with data obtained from 42 spiral galaxies and 19 Low Surface Brightness (LSB) galaxies, we constrain the dark matter particle mass to the range 10-6-10-4 eV and we find the lower bound for the scattering length to be of the order 10-14 fm.

  20. Galactic cold dark matter as a Bose-Einstein condensate of WISPs

    SciTech Connect

    Pires, M.O.C.; Souza, J.C.C. de E-mail: jose.souza@ufabc.edu.br

    2012-11-01

    We propose here the dark matter content of galaxies as a cold bosonic fluid composed of Weakly Interacting Slim Particles (WISPs), represented by spin-0 axion-like particles and spin-1 hidden bosons, thermalized in the Bose-Einstein condensation state and bounded by their self-gravitational potential. We analyze two zero-momentum configurations: the polar phases in which spin alignment of two neighbouring particles is anti-parallel and the ferromagnetic phases in which every particle spin is aligned in the same direction. Using the mean field approximation we derive the Gross-Pitaevskii equations for both cases, and, supposing the dark matter to be a polytropic fluid, we describe the particles density profile as Thomas-Fermi distributions characterized by the halo radii and in terms of the scattering lengths and mass of each particle. By comparing this model with data obtained from 42 spiral galaxies and 19 Low Surface Brightness (LSB) galaxies, we constrain the dark matter particle mass to the range 10{sup −6}–10{sup −4} eV and we find the lower bound for the scattering length to be of the order 10{sup −14} fm.

  1. Matter wave switching in Bose-Einstein condensates via intensity redistribution soliton interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Rajendran, S.; Lakshmanan, M.; Muruganandam, P.

    2011-02-15

    Using time dependent nonlinear (s-wave scattering length) coupling between the components of a weakly interacting two component Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), we show the possibility of matter wave switching (fraction of atoms transfer) between the components via shape changing/intensity redistribution (matter redistribution) soliton interactions. We investigate the exact bright-bright N-soliton solution of an effective one-dimensional (1D) two component BEC by suitably tailoring the trap potential, atomic scattering length, and atom gain or loss. In particular, we show that the effective 1D coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equations with time dependent parameters can be transformed into the well known completely integrable Manakov model described by coupled nonlinear Schroedinger equations by effecting a change of variables of the coordinates and the wave functions under certain conditions related to the time dependent parameters. We obtain the one-soliton solution and demonstrate the shape changing/matter redistribution interactions of two and three-soliton solutions for the time-independent expulsive harmonic trap potential, periodically modulated harmonic trap potential, and kinklike modulated harmonic trap potential. The standard elastic collision of solitons occur only for a specific choice of soliton parameters.

  2. Qualification of niobium materials for superconducting radio frequency cavity applications: View of a condensed matter physicist

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, S. B.; Myneni, G. R.

    2015-12-04

    We address the issue of qualifications of the niobium materials to be used for superconducting radio frequency (SCRF) cavity fabrications, from the point of view of a condensed matter physicist/materials scientist. We focus on the particular materials properties of niobium required for the functioning a SCRF cavity, and how to optimize the same properties for the best SCRF cavity performance in a reproducible manner. In this way the niobium materials will not necessarily be characterized by their purity alone, but in terms of those materials properties, which will define the limit of the SCRF cavity performance and also other related material properties, which will help to sustain this best SCRF cavity performance. Furthermore we point out the need of standardization of the post fabrication processing of the niobium-SCRF cavities, which does not impair the optimized superconducting and thermal properties of the starting niobium-materials required for the reproducible performance of the SCRF cavities according to the design values.

  3. Yang-Baxter integrable models in experiments: from condensed matter to ultracold atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batchelor, Murray T.; Foerster, Angela

    2016-04-01

    The Yang-Baxter equation has long been recognised as the masterkey to integrability, providing the basis for exactly solved models which capture the fundamental physics of a number of realistic classical and quantum systems. In this article we provide an introductory survey of the impact of Yang-Baxter integrable models on experiments in condensed matter physics and ultracold atoms. A number of prominent examples are covered, including the hard-hexagon model, the Heisenberg spin chain, the transverse quantum Ising chain, a spin ladder model, the Lieb-Liniger Bose gas, the Gaudin-Yang Fermi gas and the two-site Bose-Hubbard model. The review concludes by pointing to some other recent developments with promise for further progress.

  4. Matter-wave interactions in two-component Bose-Einstein condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Sheng-Chang; Dou, Fu-Quan

    2015-08-01

    We investigate two vector-soliton-like matter waves collisions in two-component Bose-Einstein condensates with attractive interactions and Gaussian barrier. We present a detailed numerical analysis of the roles of atomic interactions, barrier, relative velocity, and relative phase in collisional dynamics. We show that the interspecies interactions are crucial to make the wave packet propagate as a “breather”. We find that the collision-induced trajectory shifts of waves are mainly determined by the intraspecies interactions and proportional to them in the weak nonlinearity regime. Moreover, we explore the meeting time of colliding waves and find it depends on the competition between barrier potential and atomic interactions. Particularly, we study the collisions of two waves with a slight velocity asymmetry (or with different relative phases) and the waves merging and split are demonstrated. The underlying inelastic mechanism closely related to energy exchange is briefly discussed as well.

  5. Generation of directional, coherent matter beams through dynamical instabilities in Bose-Einstein condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, Graham R.; Johnsson, Mattias T.

    2010-09-15

    We present a theoretical analysis of a coupled, two-state Bose-Einstein condensate with nonequal scattering lengths and show that dynamical instabilities can be excited. We demonstrate that these instabilities are exponentially amplified, resulting in highly directional, oppositely propagating, coherent matter beams at specific momenta. To accomplish this we prove that the mean field of our system is periodic and extend the standard Bogoliubov approach to consider a time-dependent, but cyclic, background. This allows us to use Floquet's theorem to gain analytic insight into such systems, rather than employing the usual Bogoliubov-de Gennes approach, which is usually limited to numerical solutions. We apply our theory to the metastable helium atom laser experiment by Dall et al. [Phys. Rev. A 79, 011601(R) (2009)] and show that it explains the anomalous beam profiles they observed. Finally, we demonstrate that the paired particle beams will be Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entangled on formation.

  6. PREFACE: 13th General Conference of the Condensed Matter Division of the European Physical Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, H.; Klein, R.; Schwoerer, M.

    1993-01-01

    The 13th General Conference of the Condensed Matter Division of the European Physical Society was held in conjunction with the Frühjahrstagung des Arbeitskreises Festkörperphysik der Deutschen Physikalischen Gesellschaft from March 29 till April 2, 1993, in Regensburg. The programme comprised 3,134 contributions : 8 Plenary Talks, 171 Invited Talks, 1,480 Contributed Talks, 1,441 Poster Presentations, 1 Public Evening Talk and 33 Exhibitors Reports. The abstracts have been published as Europhysics Conference Abstracts, Volume 17A/Verhandlungen der Deutschen Physikalischen Gesellschaft 5/1993. The table (see PDF file) shows the distribution of the Plenary and Invited Speakers as well as of the participants according to countries within and outside of Europe. The conference was the largest meeting of physicists held in Germany to date. It was a manifestation of the enormous scientific activity in both basic and applied research in the fields of Condensed Matter Physics in Europe. Most of the research work, which was presented at the conference, was done by young physicists. They represent a large human capital in Europe. Most of the senior physicists and many of our young colleagues maintain scientific cooperations, and also personal friendships, which are and which have been almost independent of national barriers over the past three decades. The latter is to a large extent due to the European Physical Society which always cultivated these contacts, especially between the eastern and western parts of Europe. We would like to express our sincere thanks to the members of the Programme Committee. By their intensive work, which was free from national interests, a scientific programme was prepared, which covered the entire field of Condensed Matter Physics. About 70% of the Plenary and Invited Speakers came from 20 different foreign countries and about 30% from Germany. The meeting therefore has been a truly European Conference. For the young physicists, the number of

  7. Piezoresistive Soft Condensed Matter Sensor for Body-Mounted Vital Function Applications

    PubMed Central

    Melnykowycz, Mark; Tschudin, Michael; Clemens, Frank

    2016-01-01

    A soft condensed matter sensor (SCMS) designed to measure strains on the human body is presented. The hybrid material based on carbon black (CB) and a thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) was bonded to a textile elastic band and used as a sensor on the human wrist to measure hand motion by detecting the movement of tendons in the wrist. Additionally it was able to track the blood pulse wave of a person, allowing for the determination of pulse wave peaks corresponding to the systole and diastole blood pressures in order to calculate the heart rate. Sensor characterization was done using mechanical cycle testing, and the band sensor achieved a gauge factor of 4–6.3 while displaying low signal relaxation when held at a strain levels. Near-linear signal performance was displayed when loading to successively higher strain levels up to 50% strain. PMID:26959025

  8. Parametric amplification of matter waves in dipolar spinor Bose-Einstein condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Deuretzbacher, F.; Gebreyesus, G.; Santos, L.; Topic, O.; Scherer, M.; Luecke, B.; Ertmer, W.; Klempt, C.; Arlt, J.

    2010-11-15

    Spin-changing collisions may lead under proper conditions to the parametric amplification of matter waves in spinor Bose-Einstein condensates. Magnetic dipole-dipole interactions, although typically very weak in alkali-metal atoms, are shown to play a very relevant role in the amplification process. We show that these interactions may lead to a strong dependence of the amplification dynamics on the angle between the trap axis and the magnetic-field orientation. We analyze as well the important role played by magnetic-field gradients, which also modify strongly the amplification process. Magnetic-field gradients, hence, must be carefully controlled in future experiments, in order to observe clearly the effects of the dipolar interactions in the amplification dynamics.

  9. Measurement of Viscoelastic Properties of Condensed Matter using Magnetic Resonance Elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruwel, Marco L. H.; Latta, Peter; Matwiy, Brendon; Sboto-Frankenstein, Uta; Gervai, Patricia; Tomanek, Boguslaw

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is a phase contrast technique that provides a non-invasive means of evaluating the viscoelastic properties of soft condensed matter. This has a profound bio-medical significance as it allows for the virtual palpation of areas of the body usually not accessible to the hands of a medical practitioner, such as the brain. Applications of MRE are not restricted to bio-medical applications, however, the viscoelastic properties of prepackaged food products can also non-invasively be determined. Here we describe the design and use of a modular MRE acoustic actuator that can be used for experiments ranging from the human brain to pre-packaged food products. The unique feature of the used actuator design is its simplicity and flexibility, which allows easy reconfiguration.

  10. Perspective: Structural dynamics in condensed matter mapped by femtosecond x-ray diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Elsaesser, T.; Woerner, M.

    2014-01-14

    Ultrashort soft and hard x-ray pulses are sensitive probes of structural dynamics on the picometer length and femtosecond time scales of electronic and atomic motions. Recent progress in generating such pulses has initiated new directions of condensed matter research, exploiting a variety of x-ray absorption, scattering, and diffraction methods to probe photoinduced structural dynamics. Atomic motion, changes of local structure and long-range order, as well as correlated electron motion and charge transfer have been resolved in space and time, providing a most direct access to the physical mechanisms and interactions driving reversible and irreversible changes of structure. This perspective combines an overview of recent advances in femtosecond x-ray diffraction with a discussion on ongoing and future developments.

  11. Three-dimensional nonlinear microspectroscopy and imaging of soft condensed matter.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shan; Wysolmerski, Robert B; Ganikhanov, Feruz

    2011-10-01

    We report on the realization of a sensitive microspectroscopy and imaging approach based on a three-color femtosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) technique with high spectral, time, and spatial resolution. Independently tunable, high-repetition rate optical parametric oscillators were used to attain a dynamic range of 5 orders of magnitude for time-domain CARS signal. The attained sensitivity permitted tracing the decay of weak and structurally complex Raman active modes in soft condensed matter. Application of this approach to imaging of the biological specimen shows a great potential in quantitative characterization of live biological media with an ability to access inter- and intra-molecular interactions. PMID:21964118

  12. Advanced Car-Parrinello Techniques: Path Integrals and Nonadiabaticity in Condensed Matter Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marx, D.

    Extensions of Car-Parrinello (CP) ab initio molecular dynamics are presented for efficient treatments of nuclear quantum effects and electronically nonadiabatic processes in the realm of condensed matter simulations. Ab initio path integrals, being a combination of CP propagation of the electrons in conjunction with path integral MD sampling of the nuclei, allow to investigate quantum phenomena, such as the influence of zero-point motion and proton tunneling, in chemically complex systems. Nonadiabatic ab initio simulations rely on the coupling of the Kohn-Sham ground state, S 0, and the first excited electronic state, S 1, obtained within the restricted open-shell Kohn- Sham (ROKS) approach using Tully's surface hopping algorithm. The efficient evaluation of the nonadiabatic couplings together with an "on-the-fly" updating scheme makes possible nonadiabatic ab initio simulations of systems of similar complexity as those typically studied by ground-state CP methods. This method is thus ideally suited to study photoinduced reactions of large molecular systems, particularly in condensed phases.

  13. Cosmological constraints on Bose-Einstein-condensed scalar field dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bohua; Rindler-Daller, Tanja; Shapiro, Paul R.

    2014-04-01

    Despite the great successes of the cold dark matter (CDM) model in explaining a wide range of observations of the global evolution and the formation of galaxies and large-scale structure in the Universe, the origin and microscopic nature of dark matter is still unknown. The most common form of CDM considered to date is that of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), but, so far, attempts to detect WIMPs directly or indirectly have not yet succeeded, and the allowed range of particle parameters has been significantly restricted. Some of the cosmological predictions for this kind of CDM are even in apparent conflict with observations (e.g., cuspy-cored halos and an overabundance of satellite dwarf galaxies). For these reasons, it is important to consider the consequences of different forms of CDM. We focus here on the hypothesis that the dark matter is comprised, instead, of ultralight bosons that form a Bose-Einstein condensate, described by a complex scalar field, for which particle number per unit comoving volume is conserved. We start from the Klein-Gordon and Einstein field equations to describe the evolution of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe in the presence of this kind of dark matter. We find that, in addition to the radiation-, matter-, and Λ-dominated phases familiar from the standard CDM model, there is an earlier phase of scalar-field domination, which is special to this model. In addition, while WIMP CDM is nonrelativistic at all times after it decouples, the equation of state of Bose-Einstein condensed scalar field dark matter (SFDM) is found to be relativistic at early times, evolving from stiff (p ¯=ρ ¯) to radiationlike (p ¯=ρ ¯/3), before it becomes nonrelativistic and CDM-like at late times (p ¯=0). The timing of the transitions between these phases and regimes is shown to yield fundamental constraints on the SFDM model parameters, particle mass m, and self-interaction coupling strength λ. We show that SFDM is compatible with

  14. Zoology of condensed matter: framids, ordinary stuff, extra-ordinary stuff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolis, Alberto; Penco, Riccardo; Piazza, Federico; Rattazzi, Riccardo

    2015-06-01

    We classify condensed matter systems in terms of the spacetime symmetries they spontaneously break. In particular, we characterize condensed matter itself as any state in a Poincaré-invariant theory that spontaneously breaks Lorentz boosts while preserving at large distances some form of spatial translations, time-translations, and possibly spatial rotations. Surprisingly, the simplest, most minimal system achieving this symmetry breaking pattern — the framid — does not seem to be realized in Nature. Instead, Nature usually adopts a more cumbersome strategy: that of introducing internal translational symmetries — and possibly rotational ones — and of spontaneously breaking them along with their space-time counterparts, while preserving unbroken diagonal subgroups. This symmetry breaking pattern describes the infrared dynamics of ordinary solids, fluids, superfluids, and — if they exist — supersolids. A third, "extra-ordinary", possibility involves replacing these internal symmetries with other symmetries that do not commute with the Poincaré group, for instance the galileon symmetry, supersymmetry or gauge symmetries. Among these options, we pick the systems based on the galileon symmetry, the " galileids", for a more detailed study. Despite some similarity, all different patterns produce truly distinct physical systems with different observable properties. For instance, the low-energy 2 → 2 scattering amplitudes for the Goldstone excitations in the cases of framids, solids and galileids scale respectively as E 2, E 4, and E 6. Similarly the energy momentum tensor in the ground state is "trivial" for framids ( ρ + p = 0), normal for solids ( ρ + p > 0) and even inhomogenous for galileids.

  15. Research in the Theory of Condensed Matter and Elementary Particles: Final Report, September 1, 1984 - November 30, 1987

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Friedan, D.; Kadanoff, L.; Nambu, Y.; Shenker, S.

    1988-04-01

    Progress is reported in the field of condensed matter physics in the area of two-dimensional critical phenomena, specifically results allowing complete classification of all possible two-dimensional critical phenomena in a certain domain. In the field of high energy physics, progress is reported in string and conformal field theory, and supersymmetry.

  16. Research in the theory of condensed matter and elementary particles: Final report, September 1, 1984-November 30, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Friedan, D.; Kadanoff, L.; Nambu, Y.; Shenker, S.

    1988-04-01

    Progress is reported in the field of condensed matter physics in the area of two-dimensional critical phenomena, specifically results allowing complete classification of all possible two-dimensional critical phenomena in a certain domain. In the field of high energy physics, progress is reported in string and conformal field theory, and supersymmetry.

  17. Vienna Soil-Organic-Matter Modeler--Generating condensed-phase models of humic substances.

    PubMed

    Sündermann, Axel; Solc, Roland; Tunega, Daniel; Haberhauer, Georg; Gerzabek, Martin H; Oostenbrink, Chris

    2015-11-01

    Humic substances are ubiquitous in the environment and have manifold functions. While their composition is well known, information on the chemical structure and three-dimensional conformation is scarce. Here we describe the Vienna Soil-Organic-Matter Modeler, which is an online tool to generate condensed phase computer models of humic substances (http://somm.boku.ac.at). Many different models can be created that reflect the diversity in composition and conformations of the constituting molecules. To exemplify the modeler, 18 different models are generated based on two experimentally determined compositions, to explicitly study the effect of varying e.g. the amount of water molecules in the models or the pH. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed on the models, which were subsequently analyzed in terms of structure, interactions and dynamics, linking macroscopic observables to the microscopic composition of the systems. We are convinced that this new tool opens the way for a wide range of in silico studies on soil organic matter. PMID:26521208

  18. Vienna Soil-Organic-Matter Modeler--Generating condensed-phase models of humic substances.

    PubMed

    Sündermann, Axel; Solc, Roland; Tunega, Daniel; Haberhauer, Georg; Gerzabek, Martin H; Oostenbrink, Chris

    2015-11-01

    Humic substances are ubiquitous in the environment and have manifold functions. While their composition is well known, information on the chemical structure and three-dimensional conformation is scarce. Here we describe the Vienna Soil-Organic-Matter Modeler, which is an online tool to generate condensed phase computer models of humic substances (http://somm.boku.ac.at). Many different models can be created that reflect the diversity in composition and conformations of the constituting molecules. To exemplify the modeler, 18 different models are generated based on two experimentally determined compositions, to explicitly study the effect of varying e.g. the amount of water molecules in the models or the pH. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed on the models, which were subsequently analyzed in terms of structure, interactions and dynamics, linking macroscopic observables to the microscopic composition of the systems. We are convinced that this new tool opens the way for a wide range of in silico studies on soil organic matter.

  19. Interference pattern in the collision of structures in the Bose-Einstein condensate dark matter model: Comparison with fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, J. A; Guzman, F. S.

    2011-05-15

    In order to explore nonlinear effects on the distribution of matter during collisions within the Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) dark matter model driven by the Schroedinger-Poisson system of equations, we study the head-on collision of structures and focus on the interference pattern formation in the density of matter during the collision process. We explore the possibility that the collision of two structures of fluid matter modeled with an ideal gas equation of state also forms interference patterns and found a negative result. Given that a fluid is the most common flavor of dark matter models, we conclude that one fingerprint of the BEC dark matter model is the pattern formation in the density during a collision of structures.

  20. Light in condensed matter in the upper atmosphere as the origin of homochirality: circularly polarized light from Rydberg matter.

    PubMed

    Holmlid, Leif

    2009-01-01

    Clouds of the condensed excited Rydberg matter (RM) exist in the atmospheres of comets and planetary bodies (most easily observed at Mercury and the Moon), where they surround the entire bodies. Vast such clouds are recently proposed to exist in the upper atmosphere of Earth (giving rise to the enormous features called noctilucent clouds, polar mesospheric clouds, and polar mesospheric summer radar echoes). It has been shown in experiments with RM that linearly polarized visible light scattered from an RM layer is transformed to circularly polarized light with a probability of approximately 50%. The circular Rydberg electrons in the magnetic field in the RM may be chiral scatterers. The magnetic and anisotropic RM medium acts as a circular polarizer probably by delaying one of the perpendicular components of the light wave. The delay process involved is called Rabi-flopping and gives delays of the order of femtoseconds. This strong effect thus gives intense circularly polarized visible and UV light within RM clouds. Amino acids and other chiral molecules will experience a strong interaction with this light field in the upper atmospheres of planets. The interaction will vary with the stereogenic conformation of the molecules and in all probability promote the survival of one enantiomer. Here, this strong effect is proposed to be the origin of homochirality. The formation of amino acids in the RM clouds is probably facilitated by the catalytic effect of RM. PMID:19586392

  1. Light in condensed matter in the upper atmosphere as the origin of homochirality: circularly polarized light from Rydberg matter.

    PubMed

    Holmlid, Leif

    2009-01-01

    Clouds of the condensed excited Rydberg matter (RM) exist in the atmospheres of comets and planetary bodies (most easily observed at Mercury and the Moon), where they surround the entire bodies. Vast such clouds are recently proposed to exist in the upper atmosphere of Earth (giving rise to the enormous features called noctilucent clouds, polar mesospheric clouds, and polar mesospheric summer radar echoes). It has been shown in experiments with RM that linearly polarized visible light scattered from an RM layer is transformed to circularly polarized light with a probability of approximately 50%. The circular Rydberg electrons in the magnetic field in the RM may be chiral scatterers. The magnetic and anisotropic RM medium acts as a circular polarizer probably by delaying one of the perpendicular components of the light wave. The delay process involved is called Rabi-flopping and gives delays of the order of femtoseconds. This strong effect thus gives intense circularly polarized visible and UV light within RM clouds. Amino acids and other chiral molecules will experience a strong interaction with this light field in the upper atmospheres of planets. The interaction will vary with the stereogenic conformation of the molecules and in all probability promote the survival of one enantiomer. Here, this strong effect is proposed to be the origin of homochirality. The formation of amino acids in the RM clouds is probably facilitated by the catalytic effect of RM.

  2. Shock compression of condensed matter using Eulerian multimaterial method: Applications to multidimensional shocks, deflagration, detonation, and laser ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Yoh, Jack J.; Kim, Ki-hong

    2008-06-01

    The reactive flow analysis of high energy material is performed using hydro shock compression of condensed matter (SCCM) tool that is being developed for handling complex multimaterial dynamics involving energetic and inert matters. Typically, the reacting flows of high energy materials such as fires and explosions give rise to strong nonlinear shock waves and high strain rate deformation of metallic confinements at unusually high pressure and temperature. In order to address difficulties associated with analyzing such complex systems, we have developed a suite of modeling capabilities for elegantly handling large gradients and high strain rates in solids as well as reactive shock waves present in gaseous phase. Mathematical formulation of explosive dynamics involving condensed matter is explained with an emphasis on validating and application of hydro-SCCM to a series of problems of high-speed multimaterial dynamics in nature. A detailed numerical description of a level-set based reactive ghost fluid approach is reported in a separate paper.

  3. Opportunities for Condensed Matter Research at the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network (http://www.nnin.org)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Sandip

    2004-03-01

    A major challenge in science and engineering research at the nano-scale, and particularly for condensed matter, is the availability of infrastructure that can allow easy and quick implementation of structures, devices, or more complex systems necessary for making rigorous measurements or for other exploratory directions of interest. The experiments connect across length scales - nanometer and up, employ a variety of materials and techniques of assembly and patterning, and require a complex knowledge-mix derived from other research areas and tools that require skill and are hard to access. The National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network (NNIN; www.nnin.org) is an NSF-funded infrastructure of open shared facilities across the country that enables the national community to pursue research and technology development that can benefit from nanotechnology. The NNIN provides easy hands-on access to external users, remote usage, staff support, low cost usage, knowledge infrastructure, and brings together an extensive coordinated array of instruments for fabrication, synthesis, and characterization together with other infrastructure. Particularly relevant to condensed matter physics (e.g., in experiments involving single-electron transistor or its use in ultra-sensitive measurements, or measurements across a single nano-scale structure such as a molecule or a nanocrystal, development of new apparatus that allows X-ray measurements of soft materials, etc.) is the ability to integrate the small length scale through synthesis and electron-beam lithography, growth and deposition of a variety materials with controlled properties, patterning of complex shapes in the three-dimensions, connecting such structures, characterization, and the ability to achieve this quickly and at low cost. NNIN tool resources that span focused-ion beam, electron microscopy, spectroscopic techniques, etc. for characterization; synthesis, growth, deposition, etc. for assembling; lithography, etching

  4. EDITORIAL: Richard Palmer: celebrating 37 years with Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter Richard Palmer: celebrating 37 years with Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferry, David

    2009-01-01

    It is with a great deal of both happiness and sadness that I have to announce that we are losing one of the real strengths of the Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter (JPCM). Dr Richard Palmer, our Senior Publisher, announced his retirement, and this issue marks the first without his involvement. Of course, we are happy that he will get to enjoy his retirement, but we are sad to lose such a valuable member of our team. Richard first started work at IOP Publishing in March 1971 as an Editorial Assistant with Journal of Physics B: Atomic and Molecular Physics. After a few months, he transferred to Journal of Physics C: Solid State Physics. During his first year, he was sent on a residential publishing training course and asked to sign an undertaking to stay at IOP Publishing for at least two years. Although Richard refused to sign, as he did not want to commit himself, he has remained with the journal since then. The following year, the Assistant Editor of Journal of Physics C: Solid State Physics, Malcolm Haines, walked out without notice in order to work on his family vineyard in France, and Richard stepped into the breach. In those days, external editors had a much more hands-on role in IOP Publishing and he had to travel to Harwell to be interviewed by Alan Lidiard, the Honorary Editor of Journal of Physics C: Solid State Physics, before being given the job of Assistant Editor permanently. I am told that in those days the job consisted mainly of editing and proofreading and peer review. There was no journal development work. At some point in the early 1980s, production and peer review were split into separate departments and Richard then headed a group of journals consisting of Journal of Physics C: Solid State Physics, Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics and Journal of Physics F: Metal Physics, Semiconductor Science and Technology, Superconductor Science and Technology, Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, and later Nanotechnology and Modelling and Simulation

  5. Cosmological Constraints on Bose-Einstein-Condensed Scalar Field Dark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, B.; Rindler-Daller, T.; Shapiro, P. R.

    2013-10-01

    We focus on the hypothesis that the darkmatter is comprised of ultralight bosons that form a Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC), described by a complex scalar field. We calculate the evolution of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) universe in the presence of the BEC scalar field dark matter (SFDM).We find that, while WIMP CDM is non-relativistic at all times after it decouples, the equation of state of SFDM is found to be relativistic at early times, evolving from stiff (p¯ =r¯ ) to radiation-like (p¯ =r¯/3), before it becomes non-relativistic and CDM-like at late times (p¯ = 0. The stiff phase is a distinctive feature of our model. The timing of the transitions between these phases and regimes is shown to yield fundamental constraints on the SFDM model parameters, particle mass m and self-interaction coupling strength l . We show that SFDM is compatible with observations of the evolving background universe, by deriving the range of particle parameters required to match observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and the abundances of the light elements produced by Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN), including Neff, the effective number of neutrino species, and the epoch of matter-radiation equality zeq. This yields m ≥ 2.4× 10-21eV/c2 and 9.5×10-19eV-1cm3 ≤l /(mc2)2 ≤ 4×10-17eV-1cm3. Indeed, our model can accommodate current observations in which Neff is higher at the BBN epoch than at zeq, probed by the CMB, which is otherwise unexplained by the standard CDM model involving WIMPs.

  6. A firmware-defined digital direct-sampling NMR spectrometer for condensed matter physics

    SciTech Connect

    Pikulski, M. Shiroka, T.; Ott, H.-R.; Mesot, J.

    2014-09-15

    We report on the design and implementation of a new digital, broad-band nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometer suitable for probing condensed matter. The spectrometer uses direct sampling in both transmission and reception. It relies on a single, commercially-available signal processing device with a user-accessible field-programmable gate array (FPGA). Its functions are defined exclusively by the FPGA firmware and the application software. Besides allowing for fast replication, flexibility, and extensibility, our software-based solution preserves the option to reuse the components for other projects. The device operates up to 400 MHz without, and up to 800 MHz with undersampling, respectively. Digital down-conversion with ±10 MHz passband is provided on the receiver side. The system supports high repetition rates and has virtually no intrinsic dead time. We describe briefly how the spectrometer integrates into the experimental setup and present test data which demonstrates that its performance is competitive with that of conventional designs.

  7. Terahertz waves: a tool for condensed matter, the life sciences and astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawano, Yukio

    2013-06-01

    In the wide range of the electromagnetic wave spectrum, the terahertz (THz) frequency region has for a long time been an unexplored region and its technological development has been left behind. Nowadays, however, science and technology based on THz electromagnetic waves have been increasingly progressing and are still growing. In the THz region, both features of 'wave' and 'light' appear, enabling the manipulation of the THz wave from both approaches of electronics and optics/photonics. From the viewpoint of research targets, THz technology is expected to be the key for unlocking mysteries behind quantum effects in condensed-matter physics, life activities in biology, and the birth of the celestial bodies in astronomy. In addition to such fundamental sciences, THz spectroscopy and imaging can be used as a powerful tool for nondestructive remote inspection in industrial and medical fields. In this article I review cutting-edge technologies of THz sensing, imaging and spectroscopy, and describe how effectively the THz measurements are applied to various researches.

  8. Monotone Riemannian metrics and dynamic structure factor in condensed matter physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonchev, N. S.

    2016-07-01

    An analytical approach is developed to the problem of computation of monotone Riemannian metrics (e.g., Bogoliubov-Kubo-Mori, Bures, Chernoff, etc.) on the set of quantum states. The obtained expressions originate from the Morozova, C ̆ encov, and Petz correspondence of monotone metrics to operator monotone functions. The used mathematical technique provides analytical expansions in terms of the thermodynamic mean values of iterated (nested) commutators of a model Hamiltonian T with the operator S involved through the control parameter h. Due to the sum rules for the frequency moments of the dynamic structure factor, new presentations for the monotone Riemannian metrics are obtained. Particularly, relations between any monotone Riemannian metric and the usual thermodynamic susceptibility or the variance of the operator S are discussed. If the symmetry properties of the Hamiltonian are given in terms of generators of some Lie algebra, the obtained expansions may be evaluated in a closed form. These issues are tested on a class of model systems studied in condensed matter physics.

  9. The Impact of Pulsed Spallation Neutron Sources on Condensed Matter Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finney, J. L.

    1993-03-01

    The exploitation of neutron scattering techniques in studies of the structure and dynamics of condensed matter has been one of the major scientific successes of the past 20 years. Based initially on high flux reactors, which produce continuous beams of neutrons, a wide range of pure and applied problems in physics, chemistry, biological sciences, engineering, materials and earth sciences have been tackled, and much new understanding gained. More recently, sources based on proton accelerators have been built, and their particular characteristics - all of which derive from the fact that sharp pulses of neutrons are produced at frequencies of between 20 and 50 Hz - explored. These characteristics, which allow science to be done that would be difficult, inefficient or impossible on a reactor source, have greatly widened the range of scientific problems that can be tackled using neutrons. This chapter gives examples from experiments performed on the most powerful such source - ISIS in the UK - and looks forward briefly to future developments in the next millenium.

  10. I.I. Rabi Prize Lecture: Bose-Einstein condensates - matter with laser-like properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketterle, Wolfgang

    1997-04-01

    Several studies of Bose-Einstein condensation in a dilute gas of sodium atoms have been performed. Bose-condensates were produced by evaporative cooling in a tightly-confining magnetic "cloverleaf" trap and observed either by absorption imaging or non-destructive phase contrast imaging. We have observed the formation of a Bose condensate and low-lying collective excitations. An rf output coupler allowed the controlled extraction of multiple pulses of atoms from a trapped Bose condensate. Two condensates were produced by evaporative cooling in a double-well potential. When the condensates were released and overlapped, high contrast interference was observed proving the coherence of the condensates. The controlled extraction of coherent atoms is a rudimentary realization of an atom laser.

  11. New constraints for low-momentum electronic excitations in condensed matter: fundamental consequences from classical and quantum dielectric theory.

    PubMed

    Chantler, C T; Bourke, J D

    2015-11-18

    We present new constraints for the transportation behaviour of low-momentum electronic excitations in condensed matter systems, and demonstrate that these have both a fundamental physical interpretation and a significant impact on the description of low-energy inelastic electron scattering. The dispersion behaviour and characteristic lifetime properties of plasmon and single-electron excitations are investigated using popular classical, semi-classical and quantum dielectric models. We find that, irrespective of constrained agreement to the well known high-momentum and high-energy Bethe ridge limit, standard descriptions of low-momentum electron excitations are inconsistent and unphysical. These observations have direct impact on calculations of transport properties such as inelastic mean free paths, stopping powers and escape depths of charged particles in condensed matter systems. PMID:26490726

  12. New constraints for low-momentum electronic excitations in condensed matter: fundamental consequences from classical and quantum dielectric theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chantler, C. T.; Bourke, J. D.

    2015-11-01

    We present new constraints for the transportation behaviour of low-momentum electronic excitations in condensed matter systems, and demonstrate that these have both a fundamental physical interpretation and a significant impact on the description of low-energy inelastic electron scattering. The dispersion behaviour and characteristic lifetime properties of plasmon and single-electron excitations are investigated using popular classical, semi-classical and quantum dielectric models. We find that, irrespective of constrained agreement to the well known high-momentum and high-energy Bethe ridge limit, standard descriptions of low-momentum electron excitations are inconsistent and unphysical. These observations have direct impact on calculations of transport properties such as inelastic mean free paths, stopping powers and escape depths of charged particles in condensed matter systems.

  13. Condensed-matter ab initio approach for strongly correlated electrons: Application to a quantum spin liquid candidate

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaji, Youhei

    2015-12-31

    Recently, condensed-matter ab initio approaches to strongly correlated electrons confined in crystalline solids have been developed and applied to transition-metal oxides and molecular conductors. In this paper, an ab initio scheme based on constrained random phase approximations and localized Wannier orbitals is applied to a spin liquid candidate Na{sub 2}IrO{sub 3} and is shown to reproduce experimentally observed specific heat.

  14. The CHX Beamline at NSLS-II: a Tool to probe Structure and Dynamics in Soft-Condensed Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fluerasu, Andrei; Wiegart, Lutz

    2012-02-01

    The Coherent Hard X-ray (CHX) beamline currently under construction at NSLS-II (Brookhaven National Laboratory) will serve as an optimized tool for the study of structure and dynamics in soft condensed matter. The unprecedented coherent flux will enable the study of dynamics in soft matter systems down to microsecond time scales via X-ray Photon Correlation Spectroscopy (XPCS). The available scattering geometries such as (GI)SAXS and (GI)WAXS can be used in a simultaneous fashion to collect static and dynamic scattering information on length scales ranging from supramolecular assemblies to atomic distances.

  15. Affleck-Dine baryogenesis, condensate fragmentation and gravitino dark matter in gauge-mediation with a large messenger mass

    SciTech Connect

    Doddato, Francesca; McDonald, John E-mail: j.mcdonald@lancaster.ac.uk

    2011-06-01

    We study the conditions for successful Affleck-Dine baryogenesis and the origin of gravitino dark matter in GMSB models. AD baryogenesis in GMSB models is ruled out by neutron star stability unless Q-balls are unstable and decay before nucleosynthesis. Unstable Q-balls can form if the messenger mass scale is larger than the flat-direction field Φ when the condensate fragments. We provide an example based on AD baryogenesis along a d = 6 flat direction for the case where m{sub 3/2} ≈ 2GeV, as predicted by gravitino dark matter from Q-ball decay. Using a phenomenological GMSB potential which models the Φ dependence of the SUSY breaking terms, we numerically solve for the evolution of Φ and show that the messenger mass can be sufficiently close to the flat-direction field when the condensate fragments. We compute the corresponding reheating temperature and the baryonic charge of the condensate fragments and show that the charge is large enough to produce late-decaying Q-balls which can be the origin of gravitino dark matter.

  16. PREFACE: 10th Summer School on Theoretical Physics 'Symmetry and Structural Properties of Condensed Matter'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lulek, Tadeusz; Wal, Andrzej; Lulek, Barbara

    2010-03-01

    This volume contains the Proceedings of the Tenth Summer School on Theoretical Physics under the banner title 'Symmetry and Structural Properties of Condensed Matter' (SSPCM 2009). The School was organized by Rzeszow University of Technology, Poland, in cooperation with AGH University of Science and Technology, Cracow, Poland, and took place on 2-9 September 2009 in Myczkowce, Poland. With this meeting we have reached the round number ten of the series of biannual SSPCM schools, which started in 1990 and were focused on some advanced mathematical methods of condensed matter physics. The first five meetings were held in Zajaczkowo near Poznan, under the auspices of The Institute of Physics of Adam Mickiewicz University, and the last five in Myczkowce near Rzeszów, in the south-eastern part of Poland. Within these two decades several young workers who started at kindergarten lectures at SSPCM, have now reached their PhD degrees, professorships and authority. Proceedings of the first seven SSPCM meetings were published as separate volumes by World Scientific, and the last two as volumes 30 and 104 of Journal of Physics: Conference Series. The present meeting is also the third of the last schools which put the emphasis on quantum informatics. The main topics of our jubilee SSPCM'09 are the following: Information processing, entanglement, and tensor calculus, Integrable models and unitary symmetry, Finite systems and nanophysics. The Proceedings are divided into three parts accordingly. The school gathered together 55 participants from seven countries and several scientific centers in Poland, accommodating again advanced research with young collaborators and students. Acknowledgements The Organizing Committee would like to express its gratitude to all participants for their many activities during the School and for creating a friendly and inspiring atmosphere within our SSPCM society. Special thanks are due to all lecturers for preparing and presenting their talks and

  17. Anomalous nuclear reactions in condensed matter: Recent results and open questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, S. E.; Palmer, E. P.; Czirr, J. B.; Decker, D. L.; Jensen, G. L.; Thorne, J. M.; Taylor, S. F.; Rafelski, J.

    1990-06-01

    We have observed clear signatures for neutron emission during deuteron infusion into metals, implying the occurrence of nuclear fusion in condensed matter near room temperature. The low-level nuclear phenomenon has been demonstrated in collaborative experiments at Brigham Young University, at the Gran Sasso laboratory in Italy, and at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. We have shown that neutron emission can be induced in metals using both electrochemical and variational temperature/pressure means to generate non-equilibrium conditions. Observed average neutron emission rates are approximately 0.04-0.4 no/ s. Current efforts focus on trying to understand and control the phenomenon. In particular, we wish to understand the correlation of neutron yields with parameters such as hydrogen/metal ion ratio, pressure (induced, for example, by electrical field or gas pressure or mechanical pressure), temperature variation, hydride phase changes, and surface conditions, e.g., a palladium coating on titanium. We want to know if fusion arises due to the close proximity of the deuterons in the lattice (piezonuclear fusion), or possibly from “microscopic hot fusion”, accompanying strong electric fields at propagating cracks in the hydride. The latter interpretation would imply neutron emission in bursts. Our experiments show clear evidence for emission of ˜102 neutrons in bursts lasting <128 μs, although random neutron-singles emissions were also observed. Experiments now underway to compare the d-d, and p-d, and d-t reaction rates will be important to a consistent description of the new phenomenon. Careful scrutiny of this effect could increase our understanding of heat, helium-3, and tritium production in the earth, other planets, and even the stars.

  18. PREFACE: REXS 2013 - Workshop on Resonant Elastic X-ray Scattering in Condensed Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beutier, G.; Mazzoli, C.; Yakhou, F.; Brown, S. D.; Bombardi, A.; Collins, S. P.

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this workshop was to bring together experts in experimental and theoretical aspects of resonant elastic x-ray scattering, along with researchers who are new to the field, to discuss important recent results and the fundamentals of the technique. The meeting was a great success, with the first day dedicated to students and new researchers in the field, who received introductory lectures and tutorials. All conference delegates were invited either to make an oral presentation or to present a poster, accompanied by a short talk. The first two papers selected for the REXS13 proceedings (Grenier & Joly and Helliwell) give a basic background to the theory of REXS and applications across a wide range of scientific areas. The remainder of the papers report on some of the latest scientific results obtained by applying the REXS technique to contemporary problems in condensed matter, materials and x-ray physics. It is hoped that these proceedings provide a snapshot of the current status of a vibrant and diverse scientific technique that will be of value not just to those who attended the workshop but also to any other reader with an interest in the subject. Local Scientific Committee REXS13 International Scientific Advisory Committee M Altarelli, European XFEL, Germany F de Bergevin, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, France J Garcia-Ruiz, Universidad de Zaragoza, Spain A I Goldman, Iowa State University, USA M Goldmann, Institut Nanosciences, France T Schulli, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, France C R Natoli, Laboratori Nazionali de Frascati, Italy G Materlik, Diamond Light Source, UK L Paolasini, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, France U Staub, Paul Scherrer Institut, Switzerland K Finkelstein, Cornell University, USA Y Murakami, Photon Factory, Japan REXS13 Local Scientific Committee G Beutier, CNRS Grenoble, France C Mazzoli, Politecnico di Milano, Italy F Yakhou, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, France S D Brown, XMaS UK CRG

  19. Invited article: High-pressure techniques for condensed matter physics at low temperature.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yejun; Jaramillo, R; Wang, Jiyang; Ren, Yang; Rosenbaum, T F

    2010-04-01

    Condensed matter experiments at high pressure accentuate the need for accurate pressure scales over a broad range of temperatures, as well as placing a premium on a homogeneous pressure environment. However, challenges remain in diamond anvil cell technology, including both the quality of various pressure transmitting media and the accuracy of secondary pressure scales at low temperature. We directly calibrate the ruby fluorescence R1 line shift with pressure at T=4.5 K using high-resolution x-ray powder diffraction measurements of the silver lattice constant and its known equation of state up to P=16 GPa. Our results reveal a ruby pressure scale at low temperatures that differs by 6% from the best available ruby scale at room T. We also use ruby fluorescence to characterize the pressure inhomogeneity and anisotropy in two representative and commonly used pressure media, helium and methanol:ethanol 4:1, under the same preparation conditions for pressures up to 20 GPa at T=5 K. Contrary to the accepted wisdom, both media show equal levels of pressure inhomogeneity measured over the same area, with a consistent DeltaP/P per unit area of +/-1.8 %/(10(4) microm(2)) from 0 to 20 GPa. The helium medium shows an essentially constant deviatoric stress of 0.021+/-0.011 GPa up to 16 GPa, while the methanol:ethanol mixture shows a similar level of anisotropy up to 10 GPa, above which the anisotropy increases. The quality of both pressure media is further examined under the more stringent requirements of single crystal x-ray diffraction at cryogenic temperature. For such experiments we conclude that the ratio of sample-to-pressure chamber volume is a critical parameter in maintaining sample quality at high pressure, and may affect the choice of pressure medium.

  20. Applying and assessing some semi-local density functionals for condensed matter physics and quantum chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Pan

    Density functional theory (DFT) is a widely used quantum mechanical method for the simulation of the electronic structure of atoms, molecules, and solids. The only part that needs to be approximated is the exchange-correlation energy as a functional of the electron density. After many-year development, there is a huge variety of exchange-correlation functionals. According to the ingredients, an exchange-correlation functional can be classified as a semi-local functional or beyond. A semi-local functional can be nonempirical or empirical and only uses locality information, such as electron density, gradient of the density, Laplacian of the density, and kinetic energy density. Unlike a non-local functional that uses non-locality information, a semi-local functional is computationally efficient and can be applied to large systems. The meta-generalized gradient approximation (meta-GGA), which is the highest-level semi-local functional, has the potential to give a good description for condensed matter physics and quantum chemistry. We built the self-consistent revised Tao-Perdew-Staroverov-Scuseria (revTPSS) meta-GGA into the band-structure program BAND to test the performances of some self-consistent semi-local functionals on lattice constant with a 58-solid test set. The self-consistent effect of revTPSS was also discussed. The vibration of a crystal has a contribution to the ground state energy of a system, which is the zero-point energy at zero temperature. It has anharmonicity at the equilibrium geometry. The standard DFT doesn't consider the zero-point energy of a crystal. We used density functional perturbation theory (DFPT), which is a powerful and flexible theoretical technique within the density functional framework, to study the zero-point energy and make a correction to the lattice constant. The method was compared to a traditional zero-point anharmonic expansion method that is based on the Debye and Dugdale-MacDonald approximations. We also tested some new

  1. Role of minerals in the thermal alteration of organic matter. I - Generation of gases and condensates under dry condition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tannenbaum, E.; Kaplan, I. R.

    1985-01-01

    Pyrolysis experiments conducted at 200 and 300 C on kerogen and bitumen from the Monterey formation and on the Green River Formation kerogen with montmorillonite, illite, and calcite added are described. The pyrolysis products are identified and gas and condensate analyses are performed. A catalytic effect is detected in the pyrolysis of kerogen with montmorillonite; however, illite and calcite display no catalytic activity. The increased production of C1-C6 hydrocarbons and the dominance of branched hydrocarbons in the C4-C6 range reveals a catalytic influence. It is observed that the catalysis of montmorillonite is greater during bitumen pyrolysis than for kerogen, and catalysis with minerals affects the production of CO2. It is concluded that a mineral matrix is important in determining the type and amount of gases and condensates forming from organic matter under thermal stress.

  2. Trapping of water vapor from an atmosphere by condensed silicate matter formed by high-temperature pulse vaporization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerasimov, M. V.; Dikov, Yu. P.; Yakovlev, O. I.; Wlotzka, F.

    1993-01-01

    The origin of planetary atmospheres is thought to be the result of bombardment of a growing planet by massive planetesimals. According to some models, the accumulation of released water vapor and/or carbon dioxide can result in the formation of a dense and hot primordial atmosphere. Among source and sink processes of atmospheric water vapor the formation of hydroxides was considered mainly as rehydration of dehydrated minerals (foresterite and enstatite). From our point of view, the formation of hydroxides is not limited to rehydration. Condensation of small silicate particles in a spreading vapor cloud and their interaction with a wet atmosphere can also result in the origin of hydrated phases which have no genetic connections with initial water bearing minerals. We present results of two experiments of a simulated interaction of condensed silicate matter which originated during vaporization of dry clinopyroxene in a wet helium atmosphere.

  3. Partitioning of mobile ions between ion exchange polymers and aqueous salt solutions: importance of counter-ion condensation.

    PubMed

    Kamcev, Jovan; Galizia, Michele; Benedetti, Francesco M; Jang, Eui-Soung; Paul, Donald R; Freeman, Benny D; Manning, Gerald S

    2016-02-17

    Equilibrium partitioning of ions between a membrane and a contiguous external solution strongly influences transport properties of polymeric membranes used for water purification and energy generation applications. This study presents a theoretical framework to quantitatively predict ion sorption from aqueous electrolytes (e.g., NaCl, MgCl2) into charged (i.e., ion exchange) polymers. The model was compared with experimental NaCl, MgCl2, and CaCl2 sorption data in commercial cation and anion exchange membranes. Ion sorption in charged polymers was modeled using a thermodynamic approach based on Donnan theory coupled with Manning's counter-ion condensation theory to describe non-ideal behavior of ions in the membrane. Ion activity coefficients in solution were calculated using the Pitzer model. The resulting model, with no adjustable parameters, provides remarkably good agreement with experimental values of membrane mobile salt concentration. The generality of the model was further demonstrated using literature data for ion sorption of various electrolytes in charged polymers, including HCl sorption in Nafion. PMID:26840776

  4. Mechanistic aspects of superacid mediated condensation of polyphenols with ketones. Implications for polymer synthesis.

    PubMed

    López, Gustavo; Cruz, Olivia H; Garza, Lilian I Olvera; Zolotukhin, Mikhail G; Fomine, Serguei

    2014-10-01

    A detailed computational study of possible reaction paths for methanesulfonic and triflic acid mediated polyhydroxyalkylation reaction between resorcinol and trifluoracetone accompanied by cyclodehydration to give 9H-xanthene containing polymers has been carried out at M06-2X/6-311+G level of theory. A cluster solvation model was used for the calculations. The calculations revealed that the most kinetically favorable reaction path involves the cyclodehydration occurring during the polymer forming step. In this case 9H-xanthene formation is promoted by the activated phenyl ring in Wheland intermediate assisting the aromatic nucleophilic substitution of OH group which leads to the cyclization. It has been demonstrated that the inability of methanesulfonic acid to catalyze the formation of 9H-xanthene containing polymers is due to the very high barrier of the rate limiting step of the polymer forming reaction and not the cyclodehydration process. PMID:25296891

  5. Using bespoke fluorescence microscopy to study the soft condensed matter of living cells at the single molecule level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Q.; Harriman, O.; Leake, M. C.

    2011-03-01

    The use of bespoke imaging tools and analysis can offer significant insight into the living counterpart of soft condensed matter. The soft matter of biological systems consists of molecular building blocks, a staple of which is protein. Protein molecules, so small that 1 billion would fit on the full-stop at the end of this sentence, carry out most of the vital activities in living cells. Many of these processes require the assembly of multiple proteins into remarkable biological machines. Obtaining the blueprints for the architecture of these machines is essential for understanding the workings of the cell. Here, we discuss recent biological physics experiments on functional single-celled organisms in which one can apply bespoke fluorescence microscopy imaging and analysis to monitor the number and dynamics of several different proteins at the nanometre length scale to a precision of single molecules.

  6. Discontinuous Bubble Nucleation Due to a Metastable Condensation Transition in Polymer-CO2 Mixtures.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaofei; Cristancho, Diego E; Costeux, Stéphane; Wang, Zhen-Gang

    2013-05-16

    We combine a newly developed density-functional theory with the string method to calculate the minimum free energy path of bubble nucleation in compressible polymer-CO2 mixtures. Nucleation is initiated by saturating the polymer liquid with high pressure CO2 and subsequently reducing the pressure to ambient condition. Below a critical temperature, we find that there is a discontinuous drop in the nucleation barrier with increased initial CO2 pressure, as a result of an underlying metastable transition from a CO2-rich-vapor phase to a CO2-rich-liquid phase. This phenomenon is different from previously proposed nucleation mechanisms involving metastable transitions.

  7. The antimicrobial polymer PHMB enters cells and selectively condenses bacterial chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Chindera, Kantaraja; Mahato, Manohar; Kumar Sharma, Ashwani; Horsley, Harry; Kloc-Muniak, Klaudia; Kamaruzzaman, Nor Fadhilah; Kumar, Satish; McFarlane, Alexander; Stach, Jem; Bentin, Thomas; Good, Liam

    2016-01-01

    To combat infection and antimicrobial resistance, it is helpful to elucidate drug mechanism(s) of action. Here we examined how the widely used antimicrobial polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) kills bacteria selectively over host cells. Contrary to the accepted model of microbial membrane disruption by PHMB, we observed cell entry into a range of bacterial species, and treated bacteria displayed cell division arrest and chromosome condensation, suggesting DNA binding as an alternative antimicrobial mechanism. A DNA-level mechanism was confirmed by observations that PHMB formed nanoparticles when mixed with isolated bacterial chromosomal DNA and its effects on growth were suppressed by pairwise combination with the DNA binding ligand Hoechst 33258. PHMB also entered mammalian cells, but was trapped within endosomes and excluded from nuclei. Therefore, PHMB displays differential access to bacterial and mammalian cellular DNA and selectively binds and condenses bacterial chromosomes. Because acquired resistance to PHMB has not been reported, selective chromosome condensation provides an unanticipated paradigm for antimicrobial action that may not succumb to resistance. PMID:26996206

  8. Two-dimensional multiwire gas proportional detector for X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy of condensed matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Tae Joo; Dierker, Steven B.; Smith, Graham C.

    2008-03-01

    Details of a two-dimensional (2-D) multiwire gas proportional detector for X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) of condensed matter are described. The characteristics of the gas proportional detector at 8 keV, 0.3 pC anode charge, and 3 bar (absolute) of Xe/10%CO 2 are as follows: 8.5×10 -7 counts/s (100×100 μm 2) dark count rate, ˜μs time resolution, ˜48 and 73 μm position resolution (FWHM) along and across the anode wire direction, respectively, and ˜80% quantum efficiency. The effects of incident photon energy, anode charge (i.e., gain), gas drift depth, and gas pressure on position resolution are discussed. Static and dynamic speckle patterns, measured from disordered aerogel and polystyrene/polybutadiene blends by a partially coherent synchrotron X-ray source, demonstrate that a 2-D multiwire gas proportional detector is very suitable for the dynamic study of condensed matter with relaxation times in the order of μs to 10 3 s and atomic length scale.

  9. The concept of anti-integrability applied to dynamical systems and to structural and electronic models in condensed matter physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubry, Serge

    1994-02-01

    Many models for structures in condensed matter can be associated with Hamiltonian dynamical systems with discrete time. This connection is due to the fact that both models are defined by the minimisation or the extremalisation of the same variational form called “free energy” in the first case and “action” in the second case. Thus, the results obtained for the first class of problems turn out to have applications for the second class and vice-versa, but however, with a physical interpretation which is totally different. For example, the breaking of the KAM tori and the occurrence of chaos in the standard map turns out to correspond to a pinning transition and the occurrence of chaotic metastable states in the associated Frenkel-Kontorowa models. The anti-integrable limit for structural problems is a very natural limit where the “atoms” of the structure become disconnected. It corresponds to a highly singular limit for the associated dynamical system which up to now did not focus much attention. The associated dynamical system becomes undeterministic and just reduces to a Bernoulli shift. Nevertheless, a perturbation theorem can be established at this limit which proves the persistence of chaotic trajectories when the dynamical system returns to be deterministic. This result is extended to a large class of dynamical systems with discrete time including non-Hamiltonian systems. An anti-integrable limit can also be found in the adiabatic Holstein model describing electrons coupled to phonons at several dimensions and some extensions which are not apparently connected to any dynamical system. Then the anti-integrable limit is obtained when the electronic kinetic energy vanishes. Treating this kinetic energy in an exact perturbation theory, allows one to prove new results concerning the existence of bipolaronic, polaronic and mixed polaronic-bipolaronic insulators. The possible extension of the KAM theory to the small electron-phonon coupling regime and

  10. Localized spatially nonlinear matter waves in atomic-molecular Bose-Einstein condensates with space-modulated nonlinearity.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yu-Qin; Li, Ji; Han, Wei; Wang, Deng-Shan; Liu, Wu-Ming

    2016-01-01

    The intrinsic nonlinearity is the most remarkable characteristic of the Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) systems. Many studies have been done on atomic BECs with time- and space- modulated nonlinearities, while there is few work considering the atomic-molecular BECs with space-modulated nonlinearities. Here, we obtain two kinds of Jacobi elliptic solutions and a family of rational solutions of the atomic-molecular BECs with trapping potential and space-modulated nonlinearity and consider the effect of three-body interaction on the localized matter wave solutions. The topological properties of the localized nonlinear matter wave for no coupling are analysed: the parity of nonlinear matter wave functions depends only on the principal quantum number n, and the numbers of the density packets for each quantum state depend on both the principal quantum number n and the secondary quantum number l. When the coupling is not zero, the localized nonlinear matter waves given by the rational function, their topological properties are independent of the principal quantum number n, only depend on the secondary quantum number l. The Raman detuning and the chemical potential can change the number and the shape of the density packets. The stability of the Jacobi elliptic solutions depends on the principal quantum number n, while the stability of the rational solutions depends on the chemical potential and Raman detuning.

  11. Localized spatially nonlinear matter waves in atomic-molecular Bose-Einstein condensates with space-modulated nonlinearity

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Yu-Qin; Li, Ji; Han, Wei; Wang, Deng-Shan; Liu, Wu-Ming

    2016-01-01

    The intrinsic nonlinearity is the most remarkable characteristic of the Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) systems. Many studies have been done on atomic BECs with time- and space- modulated nonlinearities, while there is few work considering the atomic-molecular BECs with space-modulated nonlinearities. Here, we obtain two kinds of Jacobi elliptic solutions and a family of rational solutions of the atomic-molecular BECs with trapping potential and space-modulated nonlinearity and consider the effect of three-body interaction on the localized matter wave solutions. The topological properties of the localized nonlinear matter wave for no coupling are analysed: the parity of nonlinear matter wave functions depends only on the principal quantum number n, and the numbers of the density packets for each quantum state depend on both the principal quantum number n and the secondary quantum number l. When the coupling is not zero, the localized nonlinear matter waves given by the rational function, their topological properties are independent of the principal quantum number n, only depend on the secondary quantum number l. The Raman detuning and the chemical potential can change the number and the shape of the density packets. The stability of the Jacobi elliptic solutions depends on the principal quantum number n, while the stability of the rational solutions depends on the chemical potential and Raman detuning. PMID:27403634

  12. BOOK REVIEW: Many-Body Quantum Theory in Condensed Matter Physics—An Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, D. E.

    2005-02-01

    This is undoubtedly an ambitious book. It aims to provide a wide ranging, yet self-contained and pedagogical introduction to techniques of quantum many-body theory in condensed matter physics, without losing mathematical `rigor' (which I hope means rigour), and with an eye on physical insight, motivation and application. The authors certainly bring plenty of experience to the task, the book having grown out of their graduate lectures at the Niels Bohr Institute in Copenhagen over a five year period, with the feedback and refinement this presumably brings. The book is also of course ambitious in another sense, for it competes in the tight market of general graduate/advanced undergraduate texts on many-particle physics. Prospective punters will thus want reasons to prefer it to, or at least give it space beside, well established texts in the field. Subject-wise, the book is a good mix of the ancient and modern, the standard and less so. Obligatory chapters deal with the formal cornerstones of many-body theory, from second quantization, time-dependence in quantum mechanics and linear response theory, to Green's function and Feynman diagrams. Traditional topics are well covered, including two chapters on the electron gas, chapters on phonons and electron phonon coupling, and a concise account of superconductivity (confined, no doubt judiciously, to the conventional BCS case). Less mandatory, albeit conceptually vital, subjects are also aired. These include a chapter on Fermi liquid theory, from both semi-classical and microscopic perspectives, and a freestanding account of one-dimensional electron gases and Luttinger liquids which, given the enormity of the topic, is about as concise as it could be without sacrificing clarity. Quite naturally, the authors' own interests also influence the choice of material covered. A persistent theme, which brings a healthy topicality to the book, is the area of transport in mesoscopic systems or nanostructures. Two chapters, some

  13. BOOK REVIEW: Many-Body Quantum Theory in Condensed Matter Physics—An Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, D. E.

    2005-02-01

    This is undoubtedly an ambitious book. It aims to provide a wide ranging, yet self-contained and pedagogical introduction to techniques of quantum many-body theory in condensed matter physics, without losing mathematical `rigor' (which I hope means rigour), and with an eye on physical insight, motivation and application. The authors certainly bring plenty of experience to the task, the book having grown out of their graduate lectures at the Niels Bohr Institute in Copenhagen over a five year period, with the feedback and refinement this presumably brings. The book is also of course ambitious in another sense, for it competes in the tight market of general graduate/advanced undergraduate texts on many-particle physics. Prospective punters will thus want reasons to prefer it to, or at least give it space beside, well established texts in the field. Subject-wise, the book is a good mix of the ancient and modern, the standard and less so. Obligatory chapters deal with the formal cornerstones of many-body theory, from second quantization, time-dependence in quantum mechanics and linear response theory, to Green's function and Feynman diagrams. Traditional topics are well covered, including two chapters on the electron gas, chapters on phonons and electron phonon coupling, and a concise account of superconductivity (confined, no doubt judiciously, to the conventional BCS case). Less mandatory, albeit conceptually vital, subjects are also aired. These include a chapter on Fermi liquid theory, from both semi-classical and microscopic perspectives, and a freestanding account of one-dimensional electron gases and Luttinger liquids which, given the enormity of the topic, is about as concise as it could be without sacrificing clarity. Quite naturally, the authors' own interests also influence the choice of material covered. A persistent theme, which brings a healthy topicality to the book, is the area of transport in mesoscopic systems or nanostructures. Two chapters, some

  14. Celebrating Soft Matter's 10th Anniversary: Topology matters: structure and dynamics of ring polymers.

    PubMed

    Richter, D; Goossen, S; Wischnewski, A

    2015-11-28

    Considering topology among all polymer architectures polymer rings are unique, as they are the simplest closed structures without ends. In this review we present recent experimental advances addressing the structure and dynamics of rings. We focus mainly on neutron scattering results that reveal experimental insight on a molecular scale. We first briefly reflect on the progress in ring chemistry that made the experimental access possible. Structural investigations characterizing rings as compact objects in the melts are put into theoretical context. In contrast to the plateau regime common for all other high molecular weight polymer systems, the dynamic modulus of pure ring systems is characterized by a power law decay, while the viscosity displays a much weaker molecular weight dependence as a corresponding linear melt. The dynamics of ring melts is uniquely addressed by neutron spin-echo spectroscopy. The sub-diffusive center of mass motion at short times agrees well with simulation as well as theoretical concepts. In the internal dynamics the basic length scale of the ring molecule, the loop size, manifests itself clearly. The experiments reveal strong evidence for loop motions and call for further theoretical work describing them. Finally, small fractions of ring molecules in linear melts turn out to be very sensitive probes in order to scrutinize the dynamics of the host with the potential to reveal fundamental aspects of the dynamics of branched polymer systems. PMID:26406787

  15. Celebrating Soft Matter's 10th Anniversary: Topology matters: structure and dynamics of ring polymers.

    PubMed

    Richter, D; Goossen, S; Wischnewski, A

    2015-11-28

    Considering topology among all polymer architectures polymer rings are unique, as they are the simplest closed structures without ends. In this review we present recent experimental advances addressing the structure and dynamics of rings. We focus mainly on neutron scattering results that reveal experimental insight on a molecular scale. We first briefly reflect on the progress in ring chemistry that made the experimental access possible. Structural investigations characterizing rings as compact objects in the melts are put into theoretical context. In contrast to the plateau regime common for all other high molecular weight polymer systems, the dynamic modulus of pure ring systems is characterized by a power law decay, while the viscosity displays a much weaker molecular weight dependence as a corresponding linear melt. The dynamics of ring melts is uniquely addressed by neutron spin-echo spectroscopy. The sub-diffusive center of mass motion at short times agrees well with simulation as well as theoretical concepts. In the internal dynamics the basic length scale of the ring molecule, the loop size, manifests itself clearly. The experiments reveal strong evidence for loop motions and call for further theoretical work describing them. Finally, small fractions of ring molecules in linear melts turn out to be very sensitive probes in order to scrutinize the dynamics of the host with the potential to reveal fundamental aspects of the dynamics of branched polymer systems.

  16. Unusual vortex matter in rotating Bose-Einstein condensates with SU(2) broken symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galteland, Peder; Babaev, Egor; Sudbo, Asle

    2015-03-01

    We consider a Ginzburg-Landau model of a rotating two-component Bose-Einstein condensate with SU(2) broken symmetry through the use of numerical Monte Carlo techniques. We include the full spectrum of thermal amplitude- and phase-fluctuations. The model exhibits an unusual state of global phase coherence with no accompanying vortex line lattice. This state has no counterpart in single-component condensates. The conditions for such a state are experimentally realizable in, e.g., homonuclear mixes of atomic gases in separate hyperfine states, tuned to the SU(2) point with Feshbach resonance techniques. This work was supported by the Norwegian Research Council and the Norwegian Consortium for High-Performance Computing.

  17. Sculpting quasi-one-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensate to generate calibrated matter waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akram, Javed; Pelster, Axel

    2016-02-01

    We explore theoretically how to tune the dynamics of a quasi-one-dimensional harmonically trapped Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) due to an additional red- and blue-detuned Hermite-Gaussian dimple trap (HGdT). To this end we study a BEC in a highly nonequilibrium state, which is not possible in a traditional harmonically confined trap. Our system is modeled by a time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii equation, which is numerically solved by the Crank-Nicolson method in both imaginary and real time. For equilibrium, we obtain a condensate with two bumps or dips which are induced by the chosen TEM01 mode for the red- or blue-detuned HGdT, respectively. Afterward, in time-of-flight dynamics, we examine the adherence or decay of the two bumps or dips in the condensate, which are induced by the still present red- or blue-detuned HGdT, respectively. On the other hand, once the red or blue HGdT potential is switched off, shock waves or bi-trains of gray or dark pair-solitons are created. During this process it is found that the generation of gray or dark pair-soliton bi-trains are generic phenomena of collisions of moderately or fully fragmented BEC. Additionally, it turns out that the special shape of generated solitons in the harmonically trapped BEC firmly depends upon the geometry of the HGdT.

  18. Defect matter-wave gap solitons in spin-orbit-coupled Bose-Einstein condensates in Zeeman lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xing; Li, Huagang; Shi, Zhiwei

    2016-09-01

    We report on the properties of fundamental defect matter-wave gap solitons in spin-orbit-coupled Bose-Einstein condensates in one-dimensional Zeeman lattices with attractive nonlinearity. One component of these solitons is a real even function, and the other is an imaginary odd function. When the defect is repulsive, these solitons can be stable in the semi-infinite, first, and second gaps. Increasing the strength of spin-orbit coupling, stable defect gap-stripe solitons in the semi-infinite and first gaps are found. However, for an attractive defect, the solitons only stably exist in the semi-infinite gap and cannot be close to the lower edge of the first Bloch band.

  19. The electromagnetic response of a relativistic Fermi gas at finite temperatures: Applications to condensed-matter systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes-Gómez, E.; Oliveira, L. E.; de Carvalho, C. A. A.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the electromagnetic response of a relativistic Fermi gas at finite temperatures. Our theoretical results are first-order in the fine-structure constant. The electromagnetic permittivity and permeability are introduced via general constitutive relations in reciprocal space, and computed for different values of the gas density and temperature. As expected, the electric permittivity of the relativistic Fermi gas is found in good agreement with the Lindhard dielectric function in the low-temperature limit. Applications to condensed-matter physics are briefly discussed. In particular, theoretical results are in good agreement with experimental measurements of the plasmon energy in graphite and tin oxide, as functions of both the temperature and wave vector. We stress that the present electromagnetic response of a relativistic Fermi gas at finite temperatures could be of potential interest in future plasmonic and photonic investigations.

  20. Oliver E. Buckley Condensed Matter Prize Talk: High-resolution Photoemission Studies of the High Tc Superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Peter

    2011-03-01

    In the last decade, high resolution angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy has evolved into one of the most powerful probes of the electronic structure of condensed matter systems. This development reflects new technological advances coupled to the enormous research effort devoted to the study of strongly correlated systems, particularly the high Tc cuprate superconductors. Two decades after their initial discovery the latter still present some of the biggest challenges for materials science. In this talk we review some of the developments in new instrumentation and analysis techniques in photoemission and include discussion of both self-energy effects and Fermi surface studies. In the latter case, the discussion will focus on the pseudogap phase of the underdoped cuprates with particular reference to an observed particle-hole asymmetry and the possibility of hole pockets. Work at Brookhaven is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy.

  1. Apparatus to study matter-wave quantum optics in spin space in a sodium spinor Bose-Einstein condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nematollahi, Delaram; Zhang, Qimin; Altermatt, Joseph; Zhong, Shan; Goodman, Matthew; Bhagat, Anita; Schwettmann, Arne

    2016-05-01

    We present our apparatus designed to study matter-wave quantum optics in spin space, including our recently finished vacuum system and laser systems. Microwave-dressed spin-exchange collisions in a sodium spinor Bose-Einstein condensate provide a precisely controllable nonlinear interaction that generates squeezing and acts as a source of entanglement. As a consequence of this entanglement between atoms with magnetic quantum numbers m = +1 and m = -1, the noise of population measurements can be reduced below the shot noise. Versatile microwave pulse sequences will be used to implement an interferometer, a phase-sensitive amplifier and other devices. With an added ion detector to detect Rydberg atoms via pulsed-field ionization, we plan to study the effect of Rydberg excitations on the spin evolution of the ultracold gas.

  2. Matter-waves in Bose-Einstein condensates with spin-orbit and Rabi couplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiquillo, Emerson

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) reduction of a quantum field theory starting from the three-dimensional (3D) many-body Hamiltonian of interacting bosons with spin-orbit (SO) and Rabi couplings. We obtain the effective time-dependent 1D and 2D nonpolynomial Heisenberg equations for both the repulsive and attractive signs of the inter-atomic interaction. Our findings show that in the case in which the many-body state coincides with the Glauber coherent state, the 1D and 2D Heisenberg equations become 1D and 2D nonpolynomial Schrödinger equations (NPSEs). These models were derived in a mean-field approximation from 3D Gross-Pitaevskii equation (GPE), describing a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) with SO and Rabi couplings. In the present work self-repulsive and self-attractive localized solutions of the 1D NPSE and the 1D GPE are obtained in a numerical form. The combined action of SO and Rabi couplings produces conspicuous sidelobes on the density profile, for both signs of the interaction. In the case of the attractive nonlinearity, an essential result is the possibility of getting an unstable condensate by the increasing of SO coupling.

  3. Role of minerals in the thermal alteration of organic matter--I: generation of gases and condensates under dry condition.

    PubMed

    Tannenbaum, E; Kaplan, I R

    1985-01-01

    Pyrolysis experiments were carried out on Monterey formation kerogen and bitumen and Green River formation kerogen (Type II and I, respectively), in the presence and absence of montmorillonite, illite and calcite at 200 and 300 degrees C for 2-2000 hours. The pyrolysis products were identified and quantified and the results of the measurements on the gas and condensate range are reported here. A significant catalytic effect was observed for the pyrolysis of kerogen with montmorillonite, whereas small or no effects were observed with illite and calcite, respectively. Catalytic activity was evident by the production of up to five times higher C1-C6 hydrocarbons for kerogen with montmorillonite than for kerogen alone, and by the dominance of branched hydrocarbons in the C4-C6 range (up to 90% of the total amount at any single carbon number). This latter effect in the presence of montmorillonite is attributed to cracking via a carbonium-ion [carbocation] intermediate which forms on the acidic sites of the day. No catalytic effect, however, was observed for generation of methane and C2 hydrocarbons which form by thermal cracking. The catalysis of montmorillonite was significantly greater during pyrolysis of bitumen than for kerogen, which may point to the importance of the early formed bitumen as an intermediate in the production of low molecular weight hydrocarbons. Catalysis by minerals was also observed for the production of carbon dioxide. These results stress the importance of the mineral matrix in determining the type and amount of gases and condensates forming from the associated organic matter under thermal stress. The literature contains examples of gas distribution in the geologic column which can be accounted for by selective mineral catalysis, mainly during early stages of organic matter maturation. PMID:11539655

  4. [Determination and Emission of Condensable Particulate Matter from Coal-fired Power Plants].

    PubMed

    Pei, Bing

    2015-05-01

    The sampling-analysis method for CPM of stationary source was established and the sampling device was developed. The determination method was compared with EPA method 202 and applied in real-world test in coal-fired power plants. The result showed the average CPM emission concentration in the coal-fired power plant was (21.2 ± 3.5) mg · m(-3) while the FPM was (20.6 ± 10.0) mg · m(-3) during the same sampling period according to the method in the national standard. The high-efficiency dust removal device could efficiently reduce FPM emission but showed insignificant effect on CPM. The mass contribution of CPM to TPM would rise after high-efficiency dust removal rebuilding project, to which more attention should be paid. The condensate contributed 68% to CPM mass while the filter contributed 32%, and the organic component contributed little to CPM, accounting for only 1%. PMID:26314098

  5. [Determination and Emission of Condensable Particulate Matter from Coal-fired Power Plants].

    PubMed

    Pei, Bing

    2015-05-01

    The sampling-analysis method for CPM of stationary source was established and the sampling device was developed. The determination method was compared with EPA method 202 and applied in real-world test in coal-fired power plants. The result showed the average CPM emission concentration in the coal-fired power plant was (21.2 ± 3.5) mg · m(-3) while the FPM was (20.6 ± 10.0) mg · m(-3) during the same sampling period according to the method in the national standard. The high-efficiency dust removal device could efficiently reduce FPM emission but showed insignificant effect on CPM. The mass contribution of CPM to TPM would rise after high-efficiency dust removal rebuilding project, to which more attention should be paid. The condensate contributed 68% to CPM mass while the filter contributed 32%, and the organic component contributed little to CPM, accounting for only 1%.

  6. Condensation polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, P. M.

    1989-01-01

    Polyimides belong to a class of polymers known as polyheterocyclics. Unlike most other high temperature polymers, polyimides can be prepared from a variety of inexpensive monomers by several synthetic routes. The glass transition and crystalline melt temperature, thermooxidative stability, toughness, dielectric constant, coefficient of thermal expansion, chemical stability, mechanical performance, etc. of polyimides can be controlled within certain boundaries. This versatility has permitted the development of various forms of polyimides. These include adhesives, composite matrices, coatings, films, moldings, fibers, foams and membranes. Polyimides are synthesized through both condensation (step-polymerization) and addition (chain growth polymerization) routes. The precursor materials used in addition polyimides or imide oligomers are prepared by condensation method. High molecular weight polyimide made via polycondensation or step-growth polymerization is studied. The various synthetic routes to condensation polyimides, structure/property relationships of condensation polyimides and composite properties of condensation polyimides are all studied. The focus is on the synthesis and chemical structure/property relationships of polyimides with particular emphasis on materials for composite application.

  7. Formation of cluster systems in condensed matters and IR spectra of liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnikov, G.; Ignatenko, N.; Krasnych, P.; Melnikov, V.; Cherkasov, E.

    2016-02-01

    Modern approaches to the interpretation of IR spectra of polyatomic liquids are based on cluster models of the structure of matter. First of all it concerns the far infrared region of the spectrum (20-300 cm-1) where rotationally libration motions in the structure of clusters are found. This work is a continuation of research conducted by the authors earlier [G. Melnikov at al. 2015 IOP Conf. Ser Mater. Sci. Eng. 81 p 012032]. The authors have adopted a model in which the appearance of spectral bands is explained by to libration oscillations vibrations of dimers with different configurations in the structure of clusters.

  8. Towards a realization of the condensed-matter-gravity correspondence in string theory via consistent Abelian truncation of the Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena model.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Asadig; Murugan, Jeff; Nastase, Horatiu

    2012-11-01

    We present an embedding of the three-dimensional relativistic Landau-Ginzburg model for condensed matter systems in an N = 6, U(N) × U(N) Chern-Simons-matter theory [the Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena model] by consistently truncating the latter to an Abelian effective field theory encoding the collective dynamics of O(N) of the O(N(2)) modes. In fact, depending on the vacuum expectation value on one of the Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena scalars, a mass deformation parameter μ and the Chern-Simons level number k, our Abelianization prescription allows us to interpolate between the Abelian Higgs model with its usual multivortex solutions and a Ø(4) theory. We sketch a simple condensed matter model that reproduces all the salient features of the Abelianization. In this context, the Abelianization can be interpreted as giving a dimensional reduction from four dimensions.

  9. Towards a realization of the condensed-matter-gravity correspondence in string theory via consistent Abelian truncation of the Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena model.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Asadig; Murugan, Jeff; Nastase, Horatiu

    2012-11-01

    We present an embedding of the three-dimensional relativistic Landau-Ginzburg model for condensed matter systems in an N = 6, U(N) × U(N) Chern-Simons-matter theory [the Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena model] by consistently truncating the latter to an Abelian effective field theory encoding the collective dynamics of O(N) of the O(N(2)) modes. In fact, depending on the vacuum expectation value on one of the Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena scalars, a mass deformation parameter μ and the Chern-Simons level number k, our Abelianization prescription allows us to interpolate between the Abelian Higgs model with its usual multivortex solutions and a Ø(4) theory. We sketch a simple condensed matter model that reproduces all the salient features of the Abelianization. In this context, the Abelianization can be interpreted as giving a dimensional reduction from four dimensions. PMID:23215268

  10. THE COLOR GLASS CONDENSATE.

    SciTech Connect

    MCLERRAN,L.

    2001-08-26

    The Color Glass Condensate is a state of high density gluonic matter which controls the high energy limit of hadronic interactions. Its properties are important for the initial conditions for matter produced at RHIC.

  11. PREFACE: 1st International Workshop on Theoretical and Computational Physics: Condensed Matter, Soft Matter and Materials Physics & 38th National Conference on Theoretical Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-09-01

    This volume contains selected papers presented at the 38th National Conference on Theoretical Physics (NCTP-38) and the 1st International Workshop on Theoretical and Computational Physics: Condensed Matter, Soft Matter and Materials Physics (IWTCP-1). Both the conference and the workshop were held from 29 July to 1 August 2013 in Pullman hotel, Da Nang, Vietnam. The IWTCP-1 was a new activity of the Vietnamese Theoretical Physics Society (VTPS) organized in association with the 38th National Conference on Theoretical Physics (NCTP-38), the most well-known annual scientific forum dedicated to the dissemination of the latest development in the field of theoretical physics within the country. The IWTCP-1 was also an External Activity of the Asia Pacific Center for Theoretical Physics (APCTP). The overriding goal of the IWTCP is to provide an international forum for scientists and engineers from academia to share ideas, problems and solution relating to the recent advances in theoretical physics as well as in computational physics. The main IWTCP motivation is to foster scientific exchanges between the Vietnamese theoretical and computational physics community and world-wide scientists as well as to promote high-standard level of research and education activities for young physicists in the country. About 110 participants coming from 10 countries participated in the conference and the workshop. 4 invited talks, 18 oral contributions and 46 posters were presented at the conference. In the workshop we had one keynote lecture and 9 invited talks presented by international experts in the fields of theoretical and computational physics, together with 14 oral and 33 poster contributions. The proceedings were edited by Nguyen Tri Lan, Trinh Xuan Hoang, and Nguyen Ai Viet. We would like to thank all invited speakers, participants and sponsors for making the conference and the workshop successful. Nguyen Ai Viet Chair of NCTP-38 and IWTCP-1

  12. Self-healing antimicrobial polymer coating with efficacy in the presence of organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastarrachea, Luis J.; Goddard, Julie M.

    2016-08-01

    A method to prepare a self-healing, antimicrobial polymer coating that retains efficacy against Escherichia coli O157:H7 in the presence of organic matter is reported. A coating composed of branched polyethyleneimine (PEI) and styrene maleic anhydride copolymer (SMA) was applied to a maleic anhydride functionalized polypropylene support. The chemistry of the polymer coating was designed to impart hydrophobicity due to the styrene subunits, intrinsic antimicrobial character (>99.9% reduction) from the cationic primary amine groups, and enhanced antimicrobial character (> 99.99% reduction) after chlorination of N-halamine forming groups. Antimicrobial effectiveness was demonstrated under conditions of increasing organic load. Up to 500 ppm horse serum, chlorinated coatings retained full antimicrobial character (>99.99% reduction). Even at 50,000 ppm of horse serum, the coating provided ∼90% reduction as prepared, and between ∼75% and ∼80% reduction in the form of N-halamines. Microscopy confirmed no evidence of bacterial adhesion on the coating surface. Finally, the coating exhibited self-healing properties after exposure to acid and alkaline solutions and restoration by heat, as confirmed through spectroscopy from the rebuilding of characteristic chemical bonds. Such robust antimicrobial polymer coatings with efficacy under conditions of increasing organic load may support reducing microbial cross-contamination in food and biomedical industries.

  13. CONDENSED MATTER: STRUCTURE, MECHANICAL AND THERMAL PROPERTIES: Low-Energy Collective Excitation of Bose-Einstein Condensates in an Anisotropic Magnetic Trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lu; Wang, Xiao-Rui; Li, Ke; Tan, Xin-Zhou; Xiong, Hong-Wei; Lu, Bao-Long

    2009-07-01

    We experimentally investigate the collective excitation of 87Rb Bose-Einstein condensates confined in a cigar-shaped magnetic trap (QUIC trap). Using a method of magnetic perturbation, the center-of-mass oscillation of the condensate is excited, so that the radial trapping frequency of the QUIC trap can be precisely determined. A high-order excitation, characterized by a fast shape oscillation, also occurs simultaneously, with a noticeable damping in the oscillation amplitude compared with the oscillation of the center of mass. The measured oscillation frequencies, associated with these two low-energy excitation modes, agree well with theoretical predictions based on the Gross-Pitaevskii equation.

  14. Stable dropwise condensation for enhancing heat transfer via the initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) of grafted polymer films.

    PubMed

    Paxson, Adam T; Yagüe, Jose L; Gleason, Karen K; Varanasi, Kripa K

    2014-01-22

    Ultra-thin copolymer films are deposited by initiated chemical deposition (iCVD) to investigate their performance under the condensation of water vapor. By forming a grafted interface between the coating and the substrate, the films exhibit stable dropwise condensation even when subjected to 100 °C steam. The applicability of the iCVD to complex substrate geometries is demonstrated on a copper condenser coil.

  15. Wave Structure Studies in Condensed Matter Physics — Single Crystals to Magnetic Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asay, James R.

    2004-07-01

    Wave structure methods have played an important role in probing mechanical and physical states of matter under dynamic loading. Applications cover a broad spectrum of research, including dynamic yielding; shock-induced phase transformations; energetic reactions, tensile and compressive strength; and viscoplastic deformation. A large variety of experimental configurations have been developed to explore these phenomena using an extensive range of time-resolved diagnostics. These methods were developed on single-stage light gas guns for the most part, but extended to higher-pressure capabilities, including explosive loading, propellant guns and two-stage light gas guns. More recently, peak pressures accessible with these methods have been extended to even higher impact velocities and pressures through novel experimental platforms, including a modified two-stage light gas gun that increases impact velocities to about 15 km/s, magnetically driven flyer plates that extend the velocities above 20 km/s, and laser-induced shock loading which increases peak pressures even further. In addition to shock compression studies, magnetic loading enables a new application of wave structure studies using large amplitude ramp waves to probe shockless, or nearly isentropic compression, to pressures exceeding 3 Mbar. Furthermore, the use of time-resolved diagnostics to measure the structure of magnetically induced ramp waves provides off-Hugoniot data unachievable with other methods. In this presentation, I will give a brief summary of wave structure techniques for studying thermomechanical and physical properties and discuss several examples from the research that my colleagues and I have performed using these methods.

  16. Many-body quantum electrodynamics networks: Non-equilibrium condensed matter physics with light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Hur, Karyn; Henriet, Loïc; Petrescu, Alexandru; Plekhanov, Kirill; Roux, Guillaume; Schiró, Marco

    2016-10-01

    We review recent developments regarding the quantum dynamics and many-body physics with light, in superconducting circuits and Josephson analogues, by analogy with atomic physics. We start with quantum impurity models addressing dissipative and driven systems. Both theorists and experimentalists are making efforts towards the characterization of these non-equilibrium quantum systems. We show how Josephson junction systems can implement the equivalent of the Kondo effect with microwave photons. The Kondo effect can be characterized by a renormalized light frequency and a peak in the Rayleigh elastic transmission of a photon. We also address the physics of hybrid systems comprising mesoscopic quantum dot devices coupled with an electromagnetic resonator. Then, we discuss extensions to Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) Networks allowing one to engineer the Jaynes-Cummings lattice and Rabi lattice models through the presence of superconducting qubits in the cavities. This opens the door to novel many-body physics with light out of equilibrium, in relation with the Mott-superfluid transition observed with ultra-cold atoms in optical lattices. Then, we summarize recent theoretical predictions for realizing topological phases with light. Synthetic gauge fields and spin-orbit couplings have been successfully implemented in quantum materials and with ultra-cold atoms in optical lattices - using time-dependent Floquet perturbations periodic in time, for example - as well as in photonic lattice systems. Finally, we discuss the Josephson effect related to Bose-Hubbard models in ladder and two-dimensional geometries, producing phase coherence and Meissner currents. The Bose-Hubbard model is related to the Jaynes-Cummings lattice model in the large detuning limit between light and matter (the superconducting qubits). In the presence of synthetic gauge fields, we show that Meissner currents subsist in an insulating Mott phase.

  17. Dynamics of kink, antikink, bright, generalized Jacobi elliptic function solutions of matter-wave condensates with time-dependent two- and three-body interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belobo Belobo, D.; Ben-Bolie, G. H.; Kofane, T. C.

    2015-04-01

    By using the F-expansion method associated with four auxiliary equations, i.e., the Bernoulli equation, the Riccati equation, the Lenard equation, and the hyperbolic equation, we present exact explicit solutions describing the dynamics of matter-wave condensates with time-varying two- and three-body nonlinearities. Condensates are trapped in a harmonic potential and they exchange atoms with the thermal cloud. These solutions include the generalized Jacobi elliptic function solutions, hyperbolic function solutions, and trigonometric function solutions. In addition, we have also found rational function solutions. Solutions constructed here have many free parameters that can be used to manipulate and control some important features of the condensate, such as the position, width, velocity, acceleration, and homogeneous phase. The stability of the solutions is confirmed by their long-time numerical behavior.

  18. Transmission hard X-ray microscope with increased view field using planar refractive objectives and condensers made of SU-8 polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reznikova, Elena; Weitkamp, Timm; Nazmov, Vladimir; Simon, Markus; Last, Arndt; Saile, Volker

    2009-09-01

    Planar X-ray refractive lenses in crossed geometry providing 2D focusing are fabricated from SU-8 polymer using tilted deep X-ray lithography. The profiles of the objective lens elements are parabolic. The lens elements for the condensers were designed with a power of the surface function of 1.5, 1.7 and 2 to vary the field of views for a transmission X-ray microscope (TXM). With these lenses a TXM was set up at the ESRF beamline BM-5 for a photon energy of 15 keV. Different test nanostructures were imaged with this TXM using inline phase-contrast, with X-ray magnification factors of 29, demonstrated spatial detail resolution of 100 nm (half-period of lines and spaces) and exposure times around 10 s. Further improvement of a TXM based on the SU-8 lenses using refractive condensers with large apertures is considered with the aim to reduce exposure times.

  19. Discussion on the energy content of the galactic dark matter Bose-Einstein condensate halo in the Thomas-Fermi approximation

    SciTech Connect

    De Souza, J.C.C.; Pires, M.O.C. E-mail: marcelo.pires@ufabc.edu.br

    2014-03-01

    We show that the galactic dark matter halo, considered composed of an axionlike particles Bose-Einstein condensate [6] trapped by a self-graviting potential [5], may be stable in the Thomas-Fermi approximation since appropriate choices for the dark matter particle mass and scattering length are made. The demonstration is performed by means of the calculation of the potential, kinetic and self-interaction energy terms of a galactic halo described by a Boehmer-Harko density profile. We discuss the validity of the Thomas-Fermi approximation for the halo system, and show that the kinetic energy contribution is indeed negligible.

  20. Spectroscopic Evidence of Anthropogenic Compounds Extraction from Polymers by Fluorescent Dissolved Organic Matter in Natural Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, M.; Trojzuck, A.; Voss, D.; Gassmann, S.; Zielinski, O.

    2016-04-01

    FDOM is one of the most important carriers of anthropogenic compounds in natural waters. It can combine with environmental contaminants and polymers to form diverse chemical structures. To this end, here a microfluidic chip was designed for the analysis of these changes in fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) fingerprints due to thermal treatment and varying time intervals of exposure. Excitation Emission Matrix Spectroscopy (EEMS) approach was utilized to detect and identify the inherent compounds in sampled FDOM. Strong direct correlations were founded, Spearman rank correlation values (ρ = 0.85 at α = 0.1, n = 4) and linear correlation R2 = 0.8359 were noted between thermal treatment pattern 2 and fluorescence intensity of samples. Materials, acrylic based glue and cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) polymer, used to design the microfluidic sensor were determined to possess unique spectral features in the ultraviolet to green spectrum using EEMS. The study therefore provides an insight on methods to identify contaminants in natural waters. This underlines the potential of optical sensors providing measurements at fast intervals, enabling environmental monitoring.

  1. Molecular view modeling of atmospheric organic particulate matter: Incorporating molecular structure and co-condensation of water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankow, James F.; Marks, Marguerite C.; Barsanti, Kelley C.; Mahmud, Abdullah; Asher, William E.; Li, Jingyi; Ying, Qi; Jathar, Shantanu H.; Kleeman, Michael J.

    2015-12-01

    Most urban and regional models used to predict levels of organic particulate matter (OPM) are based on fundamental equations for gas/particle partitioning, but make the highly simplifying, anonymized-view (AV) assumptions that OPM levels are not affected by either: a) the molecular characteristics of the condensing organic compounds (other than simple volatility); or b) co-condensation of water as driven by non-zero relative humidity (RH) values. The simplifying assumptions have allowed parameterized chamber results for formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) (e.g., "two-product" (2p) coefficients) to be incorporated in chemical transport models. However, a return towards a less simplistic (and more computationally demanding) molecular view (MV) is needed that acknowledges that atmospheric OPM is a mixture of organic compounds with differing polarities, water, and in some cases dissolved salts. The higher computational cost of MV modeling results from a need for iterative calculations of the composition-dependent gas/particle partition coefficient values. MV modeling of OPM that considered water uptake (but not dissolved salts) was carried out for the southeast United States for the period August 29 through September 7, 2006. Three model variants were used at three universities: CMAQ-RH-2p (at PSU), UCD/CIT-RH-2p (at UCD), and CMAQ-RH-MCM (at TAMU). With the first two, MV structural characteristics (carbon number and numbers of functional groups) were assigned to each of the 2p products used in CMAQv.4.7.1 such that resulting predicted Kp,i values matched those in CMAQv.4.7.1. When water uptake was allowed, most runs assumed that uptake occurred only into the SOA portion, and imposed immiscibility of SOA with primary organic aerosol (POA). (POA is often viewed as rather non-polar, while SOA is commonly viewed as moderately-to-rather polar. Some runs with UCD/CIT-RH-2p were used to investigate the effects of POA/SOA miscibility.) CMAQ-RH-MCM used MCM to

  2. Block Ignition Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) with Condensed Matter Cluster Type Targets for p-B11 Powered Space Propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Miley, George H.; Hora, H.; Badziak, J.; Wolowski, J.; Sheng Zhengming; Zhang Jie; Osman, F.; Zhang Weiyan; Tuhe Xia

    2009-03-16

    The use of laser-driven Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) for space propulsion has been the subject of several earlier conceptual design studies, (see: Orth, 1998; and other references therein). However, these studies were based on older ICF technology using either 'direct' or 'in-direct x-ray driven' type target irradiation. Important new directions have opened for laser ICF in recent years following the development of 'chirped' lasers capable of ultra short pulses with powers of TW up to few PW which leads to the concept of 'fast ignition (FI)' to achieve higher energy gains from target implosions. In a recent publication the authors showed that use of a modified type of FI, termed 'block ignition' (Miley et al., 2008), could meet many of the requirements anticipated (but not then available) by the designs of the Vehicle for Interplanetary Space Transport Applications (VISTA) ICF fusion propulsion ship (Orth, 2008) for deep space missions. Subsequently the first author devised and presented concepts for imbedding high density condensed matter 'clusters' of deuterium into the target to obtain ultra high local fusion reaction rates (Miley, 2008). Such rates are possible due to the high density of the clusters (over an order of magnitude above cryogenic deuterium). Once compressed by the implosion, the yet higher density gives an ultra high reaction rate over the cluster volume since the fusion rate is proportional to the square of the fuel density. Most recently, a new discovery discussed here indicates that the target matrix could be composed of B{sup 11} with proton clusters imbedded. This then makes p-B{sup 11} fusion practical, assuming all of the physics issues such as stability of the clusters during compression are resolved. Indeed, p-B{sup 11} power is ideal for fusion propulsion since it has a minimum of unwanted side products while giving most of the reaction energy to energetic alpha particles which can be directed into an exhaust (propulsion) nozzle

  3. Construction of supramolecular polymer by enzyme-triggered covalent condensation of CB[8]-FGG-based supramonomer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zupeng; Fang, Yu; Luo, Quan; Liu, Shengda; An, Guo; Hou, Chunxi; Lang, Chao; Xu, Jiayun; Dong, Zeyuan; Liu, Junqiu

    2016-02-01

    A rapid and effective enzymatic strategy for the fabrication of a supramolecular polymer is presented for the first time, in which a bifunctional ternary host-guest supramonomer is first prepared followed by subsequent enzymatic coupling of supramonomers.

  4. Construction of supramolecular polymer by enzyme-triggered covalent condensation of CB[8]-FGG-based supramonomer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zupeng; Fang, Yu; Luo, Quan; Liu, Shengda; An, Guo; Hou, Chunxi; Lang, Chao; Xu, Jiayun; Dong, Zeyuan; Liu, Junqiu

    2016-02-01

    A rapid and effective enzymatic strategy for the fabrication of a supramolecular polymer is presented for the first time, in which a bifunctional ternary host-guest supramonomer is first prepared followed by subsequent enzymatic coupling of supramonomers. PMID:26686377

  5. High-Sensitivity Nuclear Magnetic Resonance at Giga-Pascal Pressures: A New Tool for Probing Electronic and Chemical Properties of Condensed Matter under Extreme Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Thomas; Haase, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) is one of the most important techniques for the study of condensed matter systems, their chemical structure, and their electronic properties. The application of high pressure enables one to synthesize new materials, but the response of known materials to high pressure is a very useful tool for studying their electronic structure and developing theories. For example, high-pressure synthesis might be at the origin of life; and understanding the behavior of small molecules under extreme pressure will tell us more about fundamental processes in our universe. It is no wonder that there has always been great interest in having NMR available at high pressures. Unfortunately, the desired pressures are often well into the Giga-Pascal (GPa) range and require special anvil cell devices where only very small, secluded volumes are available. This has restricted the use of NMR almost entirely in the past, and only recently, a new approach to high-sensitivity GPa NMR, which has a resonating micro-coil inside the sample chamber, was put forward. This approach enables us to achieve high sensitivity with experiments that bring the power of NMR to Giga-Pascal pressure condensed matter research. First applications, the detection of a topological electronic transition in ordinary aluminum metal and the closing of the pseudo-gap in high-temperature superconductivity, show the power of such an approach. Meanwhile, the range of achievable pressures was increased tremendously with a new generation of anvil cells (up to 10.1 GPa), that fit standard-bore NMR magnets. This approach might become a new, important tool for the investigation of many condensed matter systems, in chemistry, geochemistry, and in physics, since we can now watch structural changes with the eyes of a very versatile probe. PMID:25350694

  6. High-sensitivity nuclear magnetic resonance at Giga-Pascal pressures: a new tool for probing electronic and chemical properties of condensed matter under extreme conditions.

    PubMed

    Meier, Thomas; Haase, Jürgen

    2014-10-10

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) is one of the most important techniques for the study of condensed matter systems, their chemical structure, and their electronic properties. The application of high pressure enables one to synthesize new materials, but the response of known materials to high pressure is a very useful tool for studying their electronic structure and developing theories. For example, high-pressure synthesis might be at the origin of life; and understanding the behavior of small molecules under extreme pressure will tell us more about fundamental processes in our universe. It is no wonder that there has always been great interest in having NMR available at high pressures. Unfortunately, the desired pressures are often well into the Giga-Pascal (GPa) range and require special anvil cell devices where only very small, secluded volumes are available. This has restricted the use of NMR almost entirely in the past, and only recently, a new approach to high-sensitivity GPa NMR, which has a resonating micro-coil inside the sample chamber, was put forward. This approach enables us to achieve high sensitivity with experiments that bring the power of NMR to Giga-Pascal pressure condensed matter research. First applications, the detection of a topological electronic transition in ordinary aluminum metal and the closing of the pseudo-gap in high-temperature superconductivity, show the power of such an approach. Meanwhile, the range of achievable pressures was increased tremendously with a new generation of anvil cells (up to 10.1 GPa), that fit standard-bore NMR magnets. This approach might become a new, important tool for the investigation of many condensed matter systems, in chemistry, geochemistry, and in physics, since we can now watch structural changes with the eyes of a very versatile probe.

  7. High-sensitivity nuclear magnetic resonance at Giga-Pascal pressures: a new tool for probing electronic and chemical properties of condensed matter under extreme conditions.

    PubMed

    Meier, Thomas; Haase, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) is one of the most important techniques for the study of condensed matter systems, their chemical structure, and their electronic properties. The application of high pressure enables one to synthesize new materials, but the response of known materials to high pressure is a very useful tool for studying their electronic structure and developing theories. For example, high-pressure synthesis might be at the origin of life; and understanding the behavior of small molecules under extreme pressure will tell us more about fundamental processes in our universe. It is no wonder that there has always been great interest in having NMR available at high pressures. Unfortunately, the desired pressures are often well into the Giga-Pascal (GPa) range and require special anvil cell devices where only very small, secluded volumes are available. This has restricted the use of NMR almost entirely in the past, and only recently, a new approach to high-sensitivity GPa NMR, which has a resonating micro-coil inside the sample chamber, was put forward. This approach enables us to achieve high sensitivity with experiments that bring the power of NMR to Giga-Pascal pressure condensed matter research. First applications, the detection of a topological electronic transition in ordinary aluminum metal and the closing of the pseudo-gap in high-temperature superconductivity, show the power of such an approach. Meanwhile, the range of achievable pressures was increased tremendously with a new generation of anvil cells (up to 10.1 GPa), that fit standard-bore NMR magnets. This approach might become a new, important tool for the investigation of many condensed matter systems, in chemistry, geochemistry, and in physics, since we can now watch structural changes with the eyes of a very versatile probe. PMID:25350694

  8. Polariton condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Snoke, David; Littlewood, Peter

    2010-08-15

    Most students of physics know about the special properties of Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) as demonstrated in the two best-known examples: superfluid helium-4, first reported in 1938, and condensates of trapped atomic gases, first observed in 1995. (See the article by Wolfgang Ketterle in PHYSICS TODAY, December 1999, page 30.) Many also know that superfluid {sup 3}He and superconducting metals contain BECs of fermion pairs. An underlying principle of all those condensed-matter systems, known as quantum fluids, is that an even number of fermions with half-integer spin can be combined to make a composite boson with integer spin. Such composite bosons, like all bosons, have the property that below some critical temperature--roughly the temperature at which the thermal de Broglie wavelength becomes comparable to the distance between the bosons--the total free energy is minimized by having a macroscopic number of bosons enter a single quantum state and form a macroscopic, coherent matter wave. Remarkably, the effect of interparticle repulsion is to lead to quantum mechanical exchange interactions that make that state robust, since the exchange interactions add coherently.

  9. Seeking the Limits of Low-Temperature Nuclear Fusion: Sticking in Muon-Catalyzed Fusion, and Piezonuclear Fusion in Deuterium/condensed Matter Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Stuart F.

    Studies seeking an upper limit of two types of low temperature nuclear fusion is presented. The upper limit for muon catalyzed fusion is generally considered to be the number of fusions per muon obtainable. The limiting factor has been found to be how often the muon remains bound to the alpha produced by the fusion, known as the "sticking fraction." Experiments directly measuring the sticking and determining the sticking using high tritium fractions are presented. In deuterium/condensed matter systems the question is nearly whether nuclear fusion proceeds at all. Experiments where neutrons around deuterided titanium and palladium are measured are presented.

  10. Plan for the future of neutron research on condensed matter: an Argonne National Laboratory report prepared in response to the Report of the Review Panel on Neutron Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    1981-01-27

    The Review Panel on Neutron Scattering has recommended an expanded budget to allow systematic development of the field. An alternative plan for the future of neutron research on condensed matter is presented here, in case it is not possible to fund the expanded budget. This plan leads, in a rational and logical way, to a world-class neutron source that will ensure the vitality of the field and exploit the many benefits that state-of-the-art neutron facilities can bring to programs in the materials and biological sciences. 2 tables. (RWR)

  11. Soft matter beats hard matter: rupturing of thin metallic films induced by mass transport in photosensitive polymer films.

    PubMed

    Yadavalli, Nataraja Sekhar; Linde, Felix; Kopyshev, Alexey; Santer, Svetlana

    2013-08-28

    The interface between thin films of metal and polymer materials play a significant role in modern flexible microelectronics viz., metal contacts on polymer substrates, printed electronics and prosthetic devices. The major emphasis in metal-polymer interface is on studying how the externally applied stress in the polymer substrate leads to the deformation and cracks in metal film and vice versa. Usually, the deformation process involves strains varying over large lateral dimensions because of excessive stress at local imperfections. Here we show that the seemingly random phenomena at macroscopic scales can be rendered rather controllable at submicrometer length scales. Recently, we have created a metal-polymer interface system with strains varying over periods of several hundred nanometers. This was achieved by exploiting the formation of surface relief grating (SRG) within the azobenzene containing photosensitive polymer film upon irradiation with light interference pattern. Up to a thickness of 60 nm, the adsorbed metal film adapts neatly to the forming relief, until it ultimately ruptures into an array of stripes by formation of highly regular and uniform cracks along the maxima and minima of the polymer topography. This surprising phenomenon has far-reaching implications. This is the first time a direct probe is available to estimate the forces emerging in SRG formation in glassy polymers. Furthermore, crack formation in thin metal films can be studied literally in slow motion, which could lead to substantial improvements in the design process of flexible electronics. Finally, cracks are produced uniformly and at high density, contrary to common sense. This could offer new strategies for precise nanofabrication procedures mechanical in character.

  12. CONDENSED MATTER: STRUCTURE, MECHANICAL AND THERMAL PROPERTIES: Self-Organization of Weighted Networks in Connection with the Misanthrope Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Qing-Kuan; Zhu, Jian-Yang

    2009-08-01

    From an undirected random graph, by the weight redistribution of the edges, we obtain a weighted network. The weight redistribution of the edges can be connected to the well-known Misanthrope process, in which distinguishable particles hop among different urns. Under specific conditions, the condensation phenomena can be observed, i.e., nearly all the edges connect to one vertex in the network. When there is no condensation, by adjusting the parameters, the strength distribution can be scale-free or exponentially decreasing. The numerical results fit well with the analytical ones.

  13. Computational Studies of Condensed Matter Systems: Manganese Vanadium Oxide and 2D attractive Hubbard model with spin-dependent disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanguneri, Ravindra

    In this dissertation, we describe two projects, organized into two chapters, which comprise the study of condensed matter systems using self-consistent mean-field theories. In the first chapter, we study the exchange constants of MnV2O 4 using linear response, based on the magnetic force theorem (MFT), and the LSDA+U approximation of DFT in the LMTO basis. We obtain the exchanges for three different orbital orderings of the Vanadium atoms of the spinel. We then map the exchange constants to a Heisenberg model with single-ion anisotropy and solve for the spin-wave excitations in the non-collinear, low temperature phase of the spinel. The single-ion anisotropy parameters are obtained from an atomic multiplet exact-diagonalization program, taking into effect the crystal-field (CF) splitting and the spin-orbit coupling (SOC). We find good agreement between the spin-waves of one of our orbital ordered setups with previously reported experimental spin-waves as determined by neutron-scattering. We can therefore determine the correct orbital order (OO) from various proposals. In the second chapter, we show that the presence of a spin-dependent random potential in a superconductor or a superfluid atomic gas leads to distinct transitions at which the energy gap and average order parameter vanish, generating an intermediate gapless superfluid phase, in marked contrast to the case of spin-symmetric randomness where no such gapless superfluid phase is seen. By allowing the pairing amplitude to become inhomogeneous, the gapless superconducting phase persists to considerably higher disorder compared to the much earlier prediction of Abrikosov-Gor'kov. The low-lying excited states are located predominantly in regions where the pairing amplitude vanishes and coexist with the superfluid regions with a finite pairing. Our results are based on inhomogeneous Bogoliubov-de Gennes (BdG) mean field theory for a two dimensional attractive Hubbard model with spin

  14. Polymers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, David C.

    1986-01-01

    Presents an open-ended experiment which has students exploring polymer chemistry and reverse osmosis. This activity involves construction of a polymer membrane, use of it in a simple osmosis experiment, and application of its principles in solving a science-technology-society problem. (ML)

  15. Quantitative extraction of organic tracer compounds from ambient particulate matter collected on polymer substrates.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qinyue; Alexandrova, Olga A; Herckes, Pierre; Allen, Jonathan O

    2009-05-15

    Organic compounds in ambient particulate matter (PM) samples are used as tracers for PM source apportionment. These PM samples are collected using high volume samplers; one such sampler is an impactor in which polyurethane foam (PUF) and polypropylene foam (PPF) are used as the substrates. The polymer substrates have the advantage of limiting particle bounce artifacts during sampling; however these substrates may contain background organic additives. A protocol of two extractions with isopropanol followed by three extractions with dichloromethane (DCM) was developed for both substrate precleaning and analyte extraction. Some residual organic contaminants were present after precleaning; expressed as concentrations in a 24-h ambient PM sample, the residual amounts were 1 microg m(-3) for plasticizers and antioxidants, and 10 ng m(-3) for n-alkanes with carbon number lower than 26. The quantification limit for all other organic tracer compounds was approximately 0.1 ng m(-3) in a 24-h ambient PM sample. Recovery experiments were done using NIST Standard Reference Material (SRM) Urban Dust (1649a); the average recoveries for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from PPF and PUF substrates were 117+/-8% and 107+/-11%, respectively. Replicate extractions were also done using the ambient samples collected in Nogales, Arizona. The relative differences between repeat analyses were less than 10% for 47 organic tracer compounds quantified. After the first extraction of ambient samples, less than 7% of organic tracer compounds remained in the extracted substrates. This method can be used to quantify a suite of semi- and non-polar organic tracer compounds suitable for source apportionment studies in 24-h ambient PM samples.

  16. Organometallic Polymers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carraher, Charles E., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Reactions utilized to incorporate a metal-containing moiety into a polymer chain (addition, condensation, and coordination) are considered, emphasizing that these reactions also apply to smaller molecules. (JN)

  17. Influence of natural organic matter on transport and retention of polymer coated silver nanoparticles in porous media.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xinyao; Lin, Shihong; Wiesner, Mark R

    2014-01-15

    Interactions between organic matter (OM) and engineered polymer coatings as they affect the retention of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) polymer-coated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were studied. Two distinct types of OM-cysteine representing low molecular weight multivalent functional groups, and Suwannee River Humic Acid (HA) representing high molecular weight polymers, were investigated with respect to their effects on particle stability in aggregation and deposition. Aggregation of the PVP coated AgNPs (PVP-AgNPs) was enhanced by cysteine addition at high ionic strengths, which was attributed to cysteine binding to the AgNPs and replacing the otherwise steric stabilizing agent PVP. In contrast the addition of HA did not increase aggregation rates and decreased PVP-AgNP deposition to the silica porous medium, consistent with enhanced electrosteric stabilization by the HA. Although cysteine also reduced deposition in the porous medium, the mechanisms of reduced deposition appear to be enhanced electric double layer (EDL) interaction at low ionic strengths. At higher ionic strengths, aggregation was favored leading to lower deposition due to smaller diffusion coefficients and single collector efficiencies despite the reduced EDL interactions. PMID:24295767

  18. Correlation to Predict Collision Efficiency of Natural Organic Matter (NOM)- and Polymer- coated Nanoparticles in Porous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowry, G. V.; Phenrat, T.; Cisneros, C. M.; Schoenfelder, D. P.; Fagerlund, F.; Kim, H.; Illangasekare, T.; Tilton, R. D.

    2008-12-01

    The fate of manufactured nanoparticles released to the environment is of great interest due to their increasing use in consumer products and their potential risk to the environment and human health. Manufactured nanomaterials typically have a polymeric surface coating to provide specific functionality, or will adsorb natural organic matter (NOM) once released into the environment. Adsorbed polymer and NOM can provide electrosteic repulsions that enhance the migration of nanoparticles in porous media. Semi-empirical correlations to predict the collision efficiency of electrostatically stabilized (uncoated) colloids are available, however, they are not applicable to nanomaterials coated with polymeric or NOM layers. We present a semi- empirical correlation to predict the collision efficiency of NOM and polymer-coated nanomaterials in saturated porous media. The adsorbed mass and adsorbed layer properties (including thickness) are determined and particle breakthrough curves are generated for a number of particle and coating types. Regression analysis is then used to develop a semi-empirical correlation that includes a parameter (NLEK) representing electrosteric repulsions afforded by adsorbed NOM or polymer. The correlation appears robust over a range of four particle and four coating types and should be a valuable tool for predicting the relative mobility of different manufactured and natural nanomaterials based on a few measurable properties.

  19. Introduction to Polymer Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Frank W.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews the physical and chemical properties of polymers and the two major methods of polymer synthesis: addition (chain, chain-growth, or chain-reaction), and condensation (step-growth or step-reaction) polymerization. (JN)

  20. Origin of organic matter in the early solar system. VII - The organic polymer in carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayatsu, R.; Matsuoka, S.; Anders, E.; Scott, R. G.; Studier, M. H.

    1977-01-01

    Degradation techniques, including pyrolysis, depolymerization, and oxidation, were used to study the insoluble polymer from the Murchison C2 chondrite. Oxidation with Cr2O7(2-) or O2/UV led to the identification of 15 aromatic ring systems. Of 11 aliphatic acids identified, three dicarboxylic acids presumably came from hydroaromatic portions of the polymer, whereas eight monocarboxylic acids probably derive from bridging groups or ring substituents. Depolymerization with CF3COO4 yielded some of the same ring systems, as well as alkanes (C1 through C8) and alkenes (C2 through C8), alkyl (C1 through C5) benzenes and naphthalenes, and methyl- or dimethyl -indene, -indane, -phenol, -pyrrole, and -pyridine. All these compounds were detected below 200 C, and are therefore probably indigenous constituents. The properties of the meteoritic polymer were compared with the properties of a synthetic polymer produced by the Fischer-Tropsch reaction. It is suggested that the meteoritic polymer was also produced by surface catalysis.

  1. Responsive Polymers End-Tethered in Solid-State Nanochannels: When Nanoconfinement Really Matters

    SciTech Connect

    Tagliazucchi, Mario; Azzaroni, Omar; Szleifer, Igal

    2010-09-08

    Solid state nanochannels modified with supramolecular architectures are a new and interesting class of stimuli-responsive nanofluidic element. Their fundamental understanding requires describing the behavior of soft-materials in confined geometries and its responses to changes in solution conditions. Here, a nanochannel modified with a polyelectrolyte brush is studied with a molecular theory that incorporates the conformational behavior of the polymers, electrostatic, van der Waals, and repulsive interactions coupled with the ability of the polymer segments to regulate their charge through acid-base equilibrium. The theory predicts pH-dependent ionic conductivity in excellent agreement with experimental observations. The polymer chains undergo large conformational changes triggered by variations in the outer solution environment and the conductivity of the device is shown to be controlled by the charge state of the polymer. The degree of polymer charge is largely affected by charge regulation and nanoconfinement effects. The molecular calculations show that the apparent pKa inside the pore departs from that in solution when increasing the curvature of the nanochannel.

  2. Kaon Condensation with Lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Detmold, Will; Detmold, William; Detmold, Will; Detmold, William; Savage, Martin; Walker-Loud, Andre; Orginos, Konstantinos; Torok, Aaron

    2008-09-01

    doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.78.054514
    Kaon condensation may play an important role in the structure of hadronic matter at densities greater than that of nuclear matter, as exist in the interior of neutron stars. We present the results of the first lattice QCD calculation of kaon condensation obtained by studying systems containing up to twelve charged kaons. Surprisingly, the equation of state of the condensate is remarkably well reproduced by leading order chiral perturbation theory. We determine the three-kaon interaction from the multi-kaon systems and update our results for pion condensates.

  3. Methods for studying the coherent 4D structural dynamics of free molecules and condensed state of matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishchenko, A. A.; Bagratashvili, V. N.; Avilov, A. S.

    2011-09-01

    Studies in the coupled 4D spatial and temporal continuum are necessary for understanding the dynamic features of molecular systems with a complex profile of the potential energy surface. The introduction of time sweep into diffraction methods and the development of principles for studying coherent processes have revealed new approaches to the analysis of the dynamics of wave packets, the intermediate products and the transition state of the reaction center, and short-lived compounds in gaseous and condensed media. The use of picosecond and femtosecond electron probe pulses, synchronized with excitation laser pulses, determined the development of ultrafast electron crystallography, time-resolved X-ray diffraction, and dynamic transmission electron microscopy (DTEM). One of the most promising applications of the developed diffraction methods is the characterization and visualization of the processes occurring upon the photoexcitation of free molecules and biological objects and the analysis of surface and thin films. The whole set of spectral and diffraction methods based on different physical principles, which are complementary and make it possible to perform the photoexcitation of nuclei and electrons and carry out diagnostics of their dynamics at ultrashort time sequences, reveal new possibilities for studies with the necessary integration of the "structure-dynamics-function" triad in chemistry, biology, and materials science.

  4. CONDENSED MATTER: STRUCTURE, THERMAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES: Electronic, thermodynamic and elastic properties of pyrite RuO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ze-Jin; Guo, Yun-Dong; Wang, Guang-Chang; Li, Jin; Dai, Wei; Liu, Jin-Chao; Cheng, Xin-Lu; Yang, Xiang-Dong

    2009-11-01

    This paper calculates the elastic, thermodynamic and electronic properties of pyrite (Pabar 3) RuO2 by the plane-wave pseudopotential density functional theory (DFT) method. The lattice parameters, normalized elastic constants, Cauchy pressure, brittle-ductile relations, heat capacity and Debye temperature are successfully obtained. The Murnaghan equation of state shows that pyrite RuO2 is a potential superhard material. Internal coordinate parameter increases with pressure, which disagrees with experimental data. An analysis based on electronic structure and the pseudogap reveals that the bonding nature in RuO2 is a combination of covalent, ionic and metallic bonding. A study of the elastic properties indicates that the pyrite phase is isotropic under usual conditions. The relationship between brittleness and ductility shows that pyrite RuO2 behaves in a ductile matter at zero pressure and the degree of ductility increases with pressure.

  5. Cellular ferroelectrets for electroactive polymer hybrid systems: soft matter integrated devices with advanced functionality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwödiauer, Reinhard; Graz, Ingrid; Kaltenbrunner, Martin; Keplinger, Christoph; Bartu, Petr; Buchberger, Gerda; Ortwein, Christoph; Bauer, Siegfried

    2008-03-01

    Thin polymer foams with a closed cell void-structure can be internally charged by silent or partial discharges within the voids. The resulting material, which carries positive and negative charges on the internal void surfaces is called a ferroelectret. Ferroelectrets behave like typical ferroelectrics, hence they provide a novel class of ferroic materials. The soft foams are strongly piezoelectric in the 3-direction, but show negligible piezoelectric response in the transverse direction. This, together with a very low pyroelectric coefficient, make ferroelectrets highly suitable for flexible electroactive transducer element which can be integrated in thin bendable organic electronic devices. Here we describe some fundamental characteristics of cellular ferroelectrets and present a number of promising examples for a possible combination with various functional polymer systems. Our examples focus on flexible ferroelectret field-effect transistor systems for large-area sensor skins and microphones, flexible large-array position detectors (touchpad), and stretchable large-array pressure sensors.

  6. Particulate products and new polymers for a more efficient removal of dissolved organic matter in drinking water resources.

    PubMed

    Treguer, R; Couvert, A; Wolbert, D; Suty, H; Randon, G

    2007-08-01

    More restricting legislation on dissolved organic carbon (DOC), especially when applied to waters with high DOC contents and low turbidity, urges the drinking water industry to improve the removal of dissolved organic matter (DOM). Jar tests were carried out on sand-filtered water (SFW) and raw water (RW), with respectively 50 different particulate compounds and different cationic polymers. Analytical measurements of DOC and UV absorbance at 254 nm, as well as a characterisation by size exclusion chromatography (SEC), were performed in order to determine the efficiency of the process. Experiments on SFW showed that activated carbon was the only compound able to remove efficiently the residual DOC remaining after conventional treatments (up to 40% of reduction). Other trials on RW using mixes of ferric chloride (FeCl3) and cationic polymers (polyamines and polyDADMAC) pointed out that the molecular mass and the reticulation ratios have a significant influence on the efficiency of the treatment. Finally, the addition of activated carbons to the previous reagents significantly improved the observed removal efficiencies by similar amounts.

  7. An overview of Experimental Condensed Matter Physics in Argentina by 2014, and Oxides for Non Volatile Memory Devices: The MeMOSat Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Pablo

    2015-03-01

    In the first part of my talk, I will describe the status of the experimental research in Condensed Matter Physics in Argentina, biased towards developments related to micro and nanotechnology. In the second part, I will describe the MeMOSat Project, a consortium aimed at producing non-volatile memory devices to work in aggressive environments, like those found in the aerospace and nuclear industries. Our devices rely on the Resistive Switching mechanism, which produces a permanent but reversible change in the electrical resistance across a metal-insulator-metal structure by means of a pulsed protocol of electrical stimuli. Our project is devoted to the study of Memory Mechanisms in Oxides (MeMO) in order to establish a technological platform that tests the Resistive RAM (ReRAM) technology for aerospace applications. A review of MeMOSat's activities is presented, covering the initial Proof of Concept in ceramic millimeter sized samples; the study of different oxide-metal couples including (LaPr)2/3Ca1/3MnO, La2/3Ca1/3MnO3, YBa2Cu3O7, TiO2, HfO2, MgO and CuO; and recent miniaturized arrays of micrometer sized devices controlled by in-house designed electronics, which were launched with the BugSat01 satellite in June2014 by the argentinian company Satellogic.

  8. Basic concept for an accelerator-driven subcritical system to be used as a long-pulse neutron source for Condensed Matter research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivanco, R.; Ghiglino, A.; de Vicente, J. P.; Sordo, F.; Terrón, S.; Magán, M.; Perlado, J. M.; Bermejo, F. J.

    2014-12-01

    A model for an accelerator-driven subcritical system to be operated as a source of cold neutrons for Condensed Matter research is developed at the conceptual level. Its baseline layout relies upon proven accelerator, spalattion target and fuel array technologies, and consists in a proton accelerator able to deliver some 67.5 mA of proton beam with kinetic energy 0.6 GeV, a pulse length of 2.86 ms, and repetition rate of 14 Hz. The particle beam hits a target of conventional design that is surrounded by a multiplicative core made of fissile/fertile material, composed by a subcritical array of fuel bars made of aluminium Cermet cooled by light water poisoned with boric acid. Relatively low enriched uranium is chosen as fissile material. An optimisation of several parameters is carried out, using as components of the objective function several characteristics pertaining the cold neutron pulse. The results show that the optimal device will deliver up to 80% of the cold neutron flux expected for some of the ongoing projects using a significantly lower proton beam power than that managed in such projects. The total power developed within the core rises up to 22.8 MW, and the criticality range shifts to a final keff value of around 0.9 after the 50 days cycle.

  9. Bose-Einstein Condensation

    SciTech Connect

    El-Sherbini, Th.M.

    2005-03-17

    This article gives a brief review of Bose-Einstein condensation. It is an exotic quantum phenomenon that was observed in dilute atomic gases for the first time in 1995. It exhibits a new state of matter in which a group of atoms behaves as a single particle. Experiments on this form of matter are relevant to many different areas of physics- from atomic clocks and quantum computing to super fluidity, superconductivity and quantum phase transition.

  10. Photon condensation: A new paradigm for Bose-Einstein condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajan, Renju; Ramesh Babu, P.; Senthilnathan, K.

    2016-10-01

    Bose-Einstein condensation is a state of matter known to be responsible for peculiar properties exhibited by superfluid Helium-4 and superconductors. Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) in its pure form is realizable with alkali atoms under ultra-cold temperatures. In this paper, we review the experimental scheme that demonstrates the atomic Bose-Einstein condensate. We also elaborate on the theoretical framework for atomic Bose-Einstein condensation, which includes statistical mechanics and the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. As an extension, we discuss Bose-Einstein condensation of photons realized in a fluorescent dye filled optical microcavity. We analyze this phenomenon based on the generalized Planck's law in statistical mechanics. Further, a comparison is made between photon condensate and laser. We describe how photon condensate may be a possible alternative for lasers since it does not require an energy consuming population inversion process.

  11. Organic matter induced mobilization of polymer-coated silver nanoparticles from water-saturated sand.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xinyao; Yin, Ziyi; Chen, Fangmin; Hu, Jingjing; Yang, Yuesuo

    2015-10-01

    Mobilization of polymer-coated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by anionic surfactant (sodium dodecylbenzenesulphonate: SDBS), amino acid derivative (N-acetylcysteine: NAC), and chelate (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid: EDTA) in water-saturated sand medium was explored based on carefully designed column tests. Exposure experiments monitoring the size evolution of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) coated AgNPs in organic solutions confirm the capacity of SDBS, NAC and EDTA to partly displace PVP. Single Pulse Column Experiment (SPCE) results show both the PVP polymer and the silver core controlled AgNP deposition while the effect of the PVP was dominant. Results of Co-injected Pulse Column Experiments (CPCEs) where AgNP and SDBS or NAC were co-injected into the column following a very short mixing (<1 s) disprove our hypothesis that coating-alternation by particle associated organic would mobilize irreversibly deposited particles from the uncoated sand, while surface charge modification by adsorbed NAC was identified as a potential mobilizing mechanism for AgNP from the iron-oxide-coated sand. Triple Pulse Column Experiment (TPCE) results confirm that such a charging effect of the adsorbed organic molecules may enable SDBS and NAC to mobilize AgNPs from the iron-oxide-coated sands. TPCE results with five distinct levels of SDBS indicate that concentration-stimulated change in the SDBS format from an individual to a micelle significantly increased the mobilizing efficiency and site blockage of SDBS. Although being an electrolyte, EDTA did not mobilize AgNPs, as the case with SDBS or NAC, as it dissolved the iron oxides which in turn prevented EDTA adsorption on sand. The findings have implications for better understanding the behavior of polymer-coated nanoparticles in organic-presented groundwater systems, i.e., detachment-associated uncertainty in exposure prediction of the nanomaterials. PMID:26011614

  12. Organic matter induced mobilization of polymer-coated silver nanoparticles from water-saturated sand.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xinyao; Yin, Ziyi; Chen, Fangmin; Hu, Jingjing; Yang, Yuesuo

    2015-10-01

    Mobilization of polymer-coated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by anionic surfactant (sodium dodecylbenzenesulphonate: SDBS), amino acid derivative (N-acetylcysteine: NAC), and chelate (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid: EDTA) in water-saturated sand medium was explored based on carefully designed column tests. Exposure experiments monitoring the size evolution of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) coated AgNPs in organic solutions confirm the capacity of SDBS, NAC and EDTA to partly displace PVP. Single Pulse Column Experiment (SPCE) results show both the PVP polymer and the silver core controlled AgNP deposition while the effect of the PVP was dominant. Results of Co-injected Pulse Column Experiments (CPCEs) where AgNP and SDBS or NAC were co-injected into the column following a very short mixing (<1 s) disprove our hypothesis that coating-alternation by particle associated organic would mobilize irreversibly deposited particles from the uncoated sand, while surface charge modification by adsorbed NAC was identified as a potential mobilizing mechanism for AgNP from the iron-oxide-coated sand. Triple Pulse Column Experiment (TPCE) results confirm that such a charging effect of the adsorbed organic molecules may enable SDBS and NAC to mobilize AgNPs from the iron-oxide-coated sands. TPCE results with five distinct levels of SDBS indicate that concentration-stimulated change in the SDBS format from an individual to a micelle significantly increased the mobilizing efficiency and site blockage of SDBS. Although being an electrolyte, EDTA did not mobilize AgNPs, as the case with SDBS or NAC, as it dissolved the iron oxides which in turn prevented EDTA adsorption on sand. The findings have implications for better understanding the behavior of polymer-coated nanoparticles in organic-presented groundwater systems, i.e., detachment-associated uncertainty in exposure prediction of the nanomaterials.

  13. Determination of the effective transverse coherence of the neutron wave packet as employed in reflectivity investigations of condensed-matter structures. I. Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majkrzak, Charles F.; Metting, Christopher; Maranville, Brian B.; Dura, Joseph A.; Satija, Sushil; Udovic, Terrence; Berk, Norman F.

    2014-03-01

    The primary purpose of this investigation is to determine the effective coherent extent of the neutron wave packet transverse to its mean propagation vector k when it is prepared in a typical instrument used to study the structure of materials in thin film form via specular reflection. There are two principal reasons for doing so. One has to do with the fundamental physical interest in the characteristics of a free neutron as a quantum object, while the other is of a more practical nature, relating to the understanding of how to interpret elastic scattering data when the neutron is employed as a probe of condensed-matter structure on an atomic or nanometer scale. Knowing such a basic physical characteristic as the neutron's effective transverse coherence can dictate how to properly analyze specular reflectivity data obtained for material film structures possessing some amount of in-plane inhomogeneity. In this study we describe a means of measuring the effective transverse coherence length of the neutron wave packet by specular reflection from a series of diffraction gratings of different spacings. Complementary nonspecular measurements of the widths of grating reflections were also performed, which corroborate the specular results. (This paper principally describes measurements interpreted according to the theoretical picture presented in a companion paper.) Each grating was fabricated by lift-off photolithography patterning of a nickel film (approximately 1000 Å thick) formed by physical vapor deposition on a flat silicon crystal surface. The grating periods ranged from 10 μm (5 μm Ni stripe, 5 μm intervening space) to several hundred microns. The transverse coherence length, modeled as the width of the wave packet, was determined from an analysis of the specular reflectivity curves of the set of gratings.

  14. Condensed matter astrophysics: A prescription for determining the species-specific composition and quantity of interstellar dust using x-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Julia C.; Xiang, Jingen; Ravel, Bruce; Kortright, Jeffrey B; Flanagan, Kathryn

    2009-01-05

    We present a newtechnique for determining the quantity and composition of dust in astrophysical environments using<6 keV X-rays.We argue that high-resolution X-ray spectra as enabled by the Chandra and XMM-Newton gratings should be considered a powerful and viable new resource for delving into a relatively unexplored regime for directlydetermining dust properties: composition, quantity, and distribution.We present initial cross section measurements of astrophysically likely iron-based dust candidates taken at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Advanced Light Source synchrotron beamline, as an illustrative tool for the formulation of our technique for determining the quantity and composition of interstellar dust with X-rays. (Cross sections for the materials presented here will be made available for astrophysical modeling in the near future.) Focused at the 700 eV Fe LIII and LII photoelectric edges, we discuss a technique for modeling dust properties in the soft X-rays using L-edge data to complement K-edge X-ray absorption fine structure analysis techniques discussed by Lee& Ravel. The paper is intended to be a techniques paper of interest and useful to both condensed matter experimentalists andastrophysicists. For the experimentalists, we offer a new prescription for normalizing relatively low signal-to-noise ratio L-edge cross section measurements. For astrophysics interests, we discuss the use of X-ray absorption spectra for determining dust composition in cold and ionized astrophysical environments and a new method for determining species-specific gas and dust ratios. Possible astrophysical applications of interest, including relevance to Sagittarius A*, are offered. Prospects for improving on this work in future X-ray missions with higher throughput and spectral resolution are also presented in the context of spectral resolution goals for gratings and calorimeters, for proposed and planned missions such as Astro-H and the International X

  15. Additive and synergistic effects on plant growth from polymers and organic matter applied to soil simultaneously

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, A.; Wallace, G.A.

    1986-05-01

    The effect of applying to soil combinations of organic sources was tested and an anionic polyacrylamide and both singly on emergence and growth of tomato and wheat plants. The interactions were generally additive and synergistic. The organic sources and polyacrylamide often had a sparing effect on the need for the other. In one test with an organic source high in N (6%), there was a negative interaction on growth of tomato plants between the polyacrylamide and the organic source. In a test in which the polyacrylamide was applied to soil in solution with a high application of composted manure, the interaction on growth of tomato seedlings was additive. Maximum response for tomatoes for soils low in soil organic matter to polyacrylamide was obtained for low 224 kg ha/sup -1/) rather than high (448 and 1120 kg ha/sup -1/) application levels with or without addition of other organics. Interaction between polyacrylamide and organics on plant growth varied with soil characteristics.

  16. Condensed matter physics and chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Nellis, W.J.

    1995-10-01

    The proposed Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) upgrade is ideally suited for science-based stockpile stewardship (SBSS) because LANSCE is a highly-intensity pulsed neutron source located at a nuclear weapons design laboratory. The attributes of a high-intensity pulsed source are essential for performing experiments on Pu and other materials important for SBSS. Neutrons can accurately probe thick bulk specimens, probe thin layers both freestanding and embedded in thicker specimens, and provide time-resolution for some phenomena. Both ordered structures and disorder in solids, liquids, and amorphous materials can be characterized, as well as phase transition. Because LANSCE is at a nuclear design laboratory, specimens important for SBSS issues are available. Los Alamos National Laboratory is an appropriate place to develop the requisite hardware to accommodate SBSS specimens, such as Pu.

  17. Investigation of condensed matter fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, S.E.; Berrondo, M.; Czirr, J.B.; Decker, D.L.; Harrison, K.; Jensen, G.L.; Palmer, E.P.; Rees, L.B.; Taylor, S.; Vanfleet, H.B.; Wang, J.C.; Bennion, D.N.; Harb, J.N.; Pitt, W.G.; Thorne, J.M.; Anderson, A.N.; McMurtry, G.; Murphy, N.; Goff, F.E.

    1990-12-01

    Work on muon-catalyzed fusion led to research on a possible new type of fusion occurring in hydrogen isotopes embedded in metal lattices. While the nuclear-product yields observed to date are so small as to require careful further checking, rates observed over short times appear sufficiently large to suggest that significant neutrons and triton yields could be realized -- if the process could be understood and controlled. During 1990, we have developed two charged-particle detection systems and three new neutron detectors. A segmented, high-efficiency neutron counter was taken into 600 m underground in a mine in Colorado for studies out of the cosmic-ray background. Significant neutron emissions were observed in this environment in both deuterium-gas-loaded metals and in electrolytic cells, confirming our earlier observations.

  18. CONDENSATION CAN

    DOEpatents

    Booth, E.T. Jr.; Pontius, R.B.; Jacobsohn, B.A.; Slade, C.B.

    1962-03-01

    An apparatus is designed for condensing a vapor to a solid at relatively low back pressures. The apparatus comprises a closed condensing chamber, a vapor inlet tube extending to the central region of the chamber, a co-axial tubular shield surrounding the inlet tube, means for heating the inlet tube at a point outside the condensing chamber, and means for refrigeratirg the said chamber. (AEC)

  19. A macromolecular crowding study of RNA folding and activity: polymer pore size matters! (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Börner, Richard; Fiorini, Erica; Paudel, Bishnu; Rueda, David; Sigel, Roland K. O.

    2016-03-01

    Catalytic RNAs, like the group IIB intron ribozyme of S. cerevesiae, require a high magnesium(II) concentration to show folding and function in vitro [1]. In contrast, in vivo conditions are characterized by a highly crowded cellular environment and much lower ion concentration. Molecular crowding agents are a widespread tool to mimic cellular crowding [2]. However, particular physical/chemical properties explaining the crowders influence are mostly not understood. In this study, we gain new insights on how polymer properties like viscosity, pore size etc. influence the activity and folding of a large RNA. We combined bulk activity assays and single-molecule Förster Resonance Energy Transfer experiments, screening the PEG volume fraction (%) and molecular weight (MW). Our results revealed that upon the influence of crowding agents, a compaction of the underlying structure depends on the PEG % and the presence of different PEG MW and % unveiled an optimal pore size in terms of catalytic activity. In summary, an increasing density of the crowding environment shifts the RNA towards the most compact state, but the ribozyme is only active if the crowders network matches its size [4]. We interpret the most compact state as necessary, but not sufficient, to keep the ribozyme active. Financial support from the European Research Council (MIRNA N° 259092, to RKOS), the Swiss National Fund (SNF), and the Forschungskredit Grant of the University of Zürich (FK-14-096 and 15-092 to RB) are gratefully acknowledged. [1] Swisher J.F., Su L.J., Brenowitz M., Anderson V.E., Pyle A.M., J. Mol. Bio., 315, 297-310 (2002). [2] Kilburn D., Roh J.H., Guo L., Briber R.M., Woodson S.A., JACS, 132, 8690-6 (2010). [3] Steiner M., Karunatilaka K.S., Sigel R.K.O., Rueda D., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.,105, 13853-8 (2008). [4] aBörner R, Fiorini E, Sigel R.K.O., Chimia, 69, 207-212 (2015).; bFiorini E., Paudel B., Börner R., Rueda D., Sigel R.K.O., submitted. [5] König S.L.B., Hadzic M

  20. Formation and characterization of DNA-polymer-condensates based on poly(2-methyl-2-oxazoline) grafted poly(L-lysine) for non-viral delivery of therapeutic DNA.

    PubMed

    von Erlach, Thomas; Zwicker, Sven; Pidhatika, Bidhari; Konradi, Rupert; Textor, Marcus; Hall, Heike; Lühmann, Tessa

    2011-08-01

    Successful gene delivery systems deliver DNA in a controlled manner combined with minimal toxicity and high transfection efficiency. Here we investigated 15 different copolymers of poly(l-lysine)-graft-poly(2-methyl-2-oxazoline) (PLL-g-PMOXA) of variable grafting densities and PMOXA molecular weights for their potential to complex and deliver plasmid DNA. PLL(20)g(7)PMOXA(4) formed at N/P charge ratio of 3.125 was found to transfect 9 ± 1.6% of COS-7 cells without impairment of cell viability. Furthermore these PLL-g-PMOXA-DNA condensates were internalized 2 h after transfection and localized in the perinuclear region after 6 h. The condensates displayed a hydrodynamic diameter of ∼100 nm and were found to be stable in serum and after 70 °C heat treatment, moreover the condensates protected DNA against DNase-I digestion. The findings suggest that DNA-PMOXA-g-PLL condensate formation for efficient DNA-delivery strongly depends on PMOXA grafting density and molecular weight showing an optimum at low grafting density between 7 and 14% and medium N/P charge ratio (3.125-6.25). Thus, PLL(20)g(7)PMOXA(4) copolymers might be promising as alternative to PLL-g-PEG-DNA condensates for delivery of therapeutic DNA.

  1. Axions: Bose Einstein condensate or classical field?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Sacha

    2015-05-01

    The axion is a motivated dark matter candidate, so it would be interesting to find features in Large Scale Structures specific to axion dark matter. Such features were proposed for a Bose Einstein condensate of axions, leading to confusion in the literature (to which I contributed) about whether axions condense due to their gravitational interactions. This note argues that the Bose Einstein condensation of axions is a red herring: the axion dark matter produced by the misalignment mechanism is already a classical field, which has the distinctive features attributed to the axion condensate (BE condensates are described as classical fields). This note also estimates that the rate at which axion particles condense to the field, or the field evaporates to particles, is negligible.

  2. Vacuum flash evaporated polymer composites

    DOEpatents

    Affinito, John D.; Gross, Mark E.

    1997-01-01

    A method for fabrication of polymer composite layers in a vacuum is disclosed. More specifically, the method of dissolving salts in a monomer solution, vacuum flash evaporating the solution, condensing the flash evaporated solution as a liquid film, and forming the condensed liquid film into a polymer composite layer on a substrate is disclosed.

  3. Vacuum flash evaporated polymer composites

    DOEpatents

    Affinito, J.D.; Gross, M.E.

    1997-10-28

    A method for fabrication of polymer composite layers in a vacuum is disclosed. More specifically, the method of dissolving salts in a monomer solution, vacuum flash evaporating the solution, condensing the flash evaporated solution as a liquid film, and forming the condensed liquid film into a polymer composite layer on a substrate is disclosed.

  4. Self-interfering matter-wave patterns generated by a moving laser obstacle in a two-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensate inside a power trap cut off by box potential boundaries

    SciTech Connect

    Sakhel, Roger R.; Sakhel, Asaad R.; Ghassib, Humam B.

    2011-09-15

    We report the observation of highly energetic self-interfering matter-wave (SIMW) patterns generated by a moving obstacle in a two-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) inside a power trap cut off by hard-wall box potential boundaries. The obstacle initially excites circular dispersive waves radiating away from the center of the trap which are reflected from hard-wall box boundaries at the edges of the trap. The resulting interference between outgoing waves from the center of the trap and reflected waves from the box boundaries institutes, to the best of our knowledge, unprecedented SIMW patterns. For this purpose we simulated the time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii equation using the split-step Crank-Nicolson method and the obstacle was modelled by a moving impenetrable Gaussian potential barrier. Various trapping geometries are considered in which the dynamics of the spatial and momentum density, as well as the energy, are considered. The momentum dynamics reveal an oscillatory behavior for the condensate fraction, indicative of excitations out of and de-excitations back into the condensate state. An oscillatory pattern for the energy dynamics reveals the presence of solitons in the system. Some vortex features are also obtained.

  5. Spatial coherence of a polariton condensate.

    PubMed

    Deng, Hui; Solomon, Glenn S; Hey, Rudolf; Ploog, Klaus H; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa

    2007-09-21

    We perform Young's double-slit experiment to study the spatial coherence properties of a two-dimensional dynamic condensate of semiconductor microcavity polaritons. The coherence length of the system is measured as a function of the pump rate, which confirms a spontaneous buildup of macroscopic coherence in the condensed phase. An independent measurement reveals that the position and momentum uncertainty product of the condensate is close to the Heisenberg limit. An experimental realization of such a minimum uncertainty wave packet of the polariton condensate opens a door to coherent matter-wave phenomena such as Josephson oscillation, superfluidity, and solitons in solid state condensate systems.

  6. THE COLOR GLASS CONDENSATE, RHIC AND HERA.

    SciTech Connect

    MCLERRAN,L.

    2002-04-30

    In this talk, I discuss a universal form of matter, the Color Glass Condensate. It is this matter which composes the low x part of all hadronic wavefunctions. The experimental programs at RHIC and HERA, and future programs at LHC and eRHIC may allow us to probe and study the properties of this matter.

  7. Condensate and feedwater systems, pumps, and water chemistry. Volume seven

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Subject matter includes condensate and feedwater systems (general features of condensate and feedwater systems, condenser hotwell level control, condensate flow, feedwater flow), pumps (principles of fluid flow, types of pumps, centrifugal pumps, positive displacement pumps, jet pumps, pump operating characteristics) and water chemistry (water chemistry fundamentals, corrosion, scaling, radiochemistry, water chemistry control processes, water pretreatment, PWR water chemistry, BWR water chemistry, condenser circulating water chemistry.

  8. Inflation from gravitino condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavromatos, Nick E.

    2015-07-01

    We review work on the formation of gravitino condensates via the super-Higgs effect in the early Universe. This is a scenario for both inflating the early universe and breaking local supersymmetry(supergravity), entirely independent of any coupling to external matter. The goldstino mode associated with the breaking of (global) supersymmetry is “eaten” by the gravitino field, which becomes massive (via its own vacuum condensation) and breaks supergravity dynamically. The most natural association of gravitino condensates with inflation proceeds in an indirect way, via a Starobinsky-type inflation, in the massive gravitino phase. This inflationary phase is associated with scalar modes hidden in the higher order curvature corrections of the effective action arising from integrating out massive gravitino degrees of freedom. The scenario is in agreement with Planck data phenomenology in a natural and phenomenologically-relevant range of parameters, namely Grand-Unified-Theory values for the supersymmetry breaking energy scale and dynamically-induced gravitino mass. A hill-top inflation, on the other hand, which could also occur in the model, whereby the role of the inflaton field is played by the gravitino condensate itself, would require significant fine tuning in the inflaton's wave function renormalisation and thus may be discarded on naturalness grounds.

  9. Gravity triggered neutrino condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Barenboim, Gabriela

    2010-11-01

    In this work we use the Schwinger-Dyson equations to study the possibility that an enhanced gravitational attraction triggers the formation of a right-handed neutrino condensate, inducing dynamical symmetry breaking and generating a Majorana mass for the right-handed neutrino at a scale appropriate for the seesaw mechanism. The composite field formed by the condensate phase could drive an early epoch of inflation. We find that to the lowest order, the theory does not allow dynamical symmetry breaking. Nevertheless, thanks to the large number of matter fields in the model, the suppression by additional powers in G of higher order terms can be compensated, boosting them up to their lowest order counterparts. This way chiral symmetry can be broken dynamically and the infrared mass generated turns out to be in the expected range for a successful seesaw scenario.

  10. Bose-Einstein condensation of cesium.

    PubMed

    Weber, Tino; Herbig, Jens; Mark, Michael; Nägerl, Hanns-Christoph; Grimm, Rudolf

    2003-01-10

    Bose-Einstein condensation of cesium atoms is achieved by evaporative cooling using optical trapping techniques. The ability to tune the interactions between the ultracold atoms by an external magnetic field is crucial to obtain the condensate and offers intriguing features for potential applications. We explore various regimes of condensate self-interaction (attractive, repulsive, and null interaction strength) and demonstrate properties of imploding, exploding, and non-interacting quantum matter. PMID:12471267

  11. Highly cross-linked nanoporous polymers

    DOEpatents

    Steckle, Jr., Warren P.; Apen, Paul G.; Mitchell, Michael A.

    1997-01-01

    Condensation polymerization followed by a supercritical extraction step can be used to obtain highly cross-linked nanoporous polymers with high surface area, controlled pore sizes and rigid structural integrity. The invention polymers are useful for applications requiring separation membranes.

  12. Highly cross-linked nanoporous polymers

    DOEpatents

    Steckle, Jr., Warren P.; Apen, Paul G.; Mitchell, Michael A.

    1998-01-01

    Condensation polymerization followed by a supercritical extraction step can be used to obtain highly cross-linked nanoporous polymers with high surface area, controlled pore sizes and rigid structural integrity. The invention polymers are useful for applications requiring separation membranes.

  13. Condensed Plasmas under Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morfill, G. E.; Thomas, H. M.; Konopka, U.; Rothermel, H.; Zuzic, M.; Ivlev, A.; Goree, J.; Rogers, Rick (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Experiments under microgravity conditions were carried out to study 'condensed' (liquid and crystalline) states of a colloidal plasma (ions, electrons, and charged microspheres). Systems with approximately 10(exp 6) microspheres were produced. The observed systems represent new forms of matter--quasineutral, self-organized plasmas--the properties of which are largely unexplored. In contrast to laboratory measurements, the systems under microgravity are clearly three dimensional (as expected); they exhibit stable vortex flows, sometimes adjacent to crystalline regions, and a central 'void,' free of microspheres.

  14. PolyGraph: a Polymer Visualization system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutkosky, Ashok; Tarazi, Najeeb; Lieberman Aiden, Erez

    2012-02-01

    Rapid advances in computational hardware and parallelization have made complex simulations of large polymers increasingly ubiquitous. However, visualizing such simulations remains a challenge. Here we present PolyGraph, a Blender-powered visualization system for complex polymer simulations. As a specific example, we study molecular dynamics simulations of condensing polymers. We illustrate our initial simulation results, suggesting that formation of local beads is an initial step in the condensation process. (This finding is consistent with earlier conjectures about polymer condensation.) PolyGraph makes it possible to create precise and visually appealing clips of polymer simulations. *contributed equally

  15. Harnessing the instabilities of soft matter: Dynamically tuning of wetting, assembly and pattern transformation in polymer microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ying

    2008-10-01

    In this dissertation, we have investigated the fabrication, mechanical instability and applications of two kinds of polymer micro/nano-structures: high-aspect-ratio (HAR) polymer pillar arrays, and periodic porous elastomer membranes. For HAR polymer pillar arrays, we demonstrated the fabrication of high-aspect-ratio (up to 18) polymer micropillars with different shapes and dimensions by replica molding. Capillary force lithography (CFL) is also demonstrated as a simple and flexible method to fabricate microstructures with controlled aspect ratios. Meanwhile, by introducing conventional photoresist SU-8, CFL is successfully coupled with photolithography and used to create hierarchical 2D or 3D structures, which greatly expand the capability of current capillary force lithography. The mechanical stability of HAR structures with varied materials and different aspect ratio, density and shape were also studied and the results show that the adhesive forces from environment are the major cause of structure collapsing. When HAR polymer pillars are subjected to different solvents treatment, both capillary force and solvent swelling need to be considered to completely understand the structure instability. On HAR micropillar array, thermoresponsive polymer brushes, poly ( N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm), were selectively grafted at different locations for dynamically tuning surface wetting or pattern assembly. When the temperature changed from 40°C to 20°, depending on the location of polymer brushes, different wetting transitions, either from a composite solid/air state (Cassie state) to a composite solid/liquid state (Hemi-wicking state) or a transition between two Cassie states were observed. Meanwhile, the dynamically tuning of water contact angle enables us to control capillary drying force and thus harness pattern collapse to create superlattice micropatterns. For periodic porous elastomer membrane, a novel pattern transformation effect is discovered due to the

  16. CONDENSED MATTER: STRUCTURE, MECHANICAL AND THERMAL PROPERTIES: Growth of High Quality Strained-Si on Ultra-Thin SiGe-on-Insulator Substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xu-Yan; Liu, Wei-Li; Ma, Xiao-Bo; Chen, Chao; Song, Zhi-Tang; Lin, Cheng-Lu

    2009-11-01

    Ultra-thin and near-fully relaxed SiGe substrate is fabricated using a modified Ge condensation technique, and then a 25-nm-thick biaxially tensile strained-Si with a low rms roughness is epitaxially deposited on a SiGeon-Insulator (SGOI) substrate by ultra high vacuum chemical vapor deposition (UHVCVD). High-Resolution cross-sectional transmission electron microscope (HR-XTEM) observations reveal that the strained-Si/SiGe layer is dislocation-free and the atoms at the interface are well aligned. Furthermore, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) results show a sharp interface between layers and a uniform distribution of Ge in the SiGe layer. One percent in-plane tensile strain in the strained-Si layer is confirmed by ultraviolet (UV) Raman spectra, and the stress maintained even after a 30-s rapid thermal annealing (RTA) process at 1000°C According to those results, devices based on strained-Si are expected to have a better performance than the conventional ones.

  17. Shape memory polymer medical device

    DOEpatents

    Maitland, Duncan; Benett, William J.; Bearinger, Jane P.; Wilson, Thomas S.; Small, IV, Ward; Schumann, Daniel L.; Jensen, Wayne A.; Ortega, Jason M.; Marion, III, John E.; Loge, Jeffrey M.

    2010-06-29

    A system for removing matter from a conduit. The system includes the steps of passing a transport vehicle and a shape memory polymer material through the conduit, transmitting energy to the shape memory polymer material for moving the shape memory polymer material from a first shape to a second and different shape, and withdrawing the transport vehicle and the shape memory polymer material through the conduit carrying the matter.

  18. Multiscale Dynamics in Soft-Matter Systems: Enzyme Catalysis, Sec-Facilitated Protein Translocation, and Ion-Conduction in Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Thomas

    Nature exhibits dynamics that span extraordinary ranges of space and time. In some cases, these dynamical hierarchies are well separated, simplifying their understanding and description. But chemistry and biology are replete with examples of dynamically coupled scales. In this talk, we will discuss the use of high-performance computing and new simulation methods that enable the inclusion of nuclear quantum effects, such as zero point energy and tunneling, in the reaction dynamics of enzymes, as well as coarse-graining strategies to enable minute-timescale simulations of protein targeting to cell membranes and ion-conduction in polymer electrolytes for lithium-ion battery applications.

  19. Condensed astatine: monatomic and metallic.

    PubMed

    Hermann, Andreas; Hoffmann, Roald; Ashcroft, N W

    2013-09-13

    The condensed matter properties of the nominal terminating element of the halogen group with atomic number 85, astatine, are as yet unknown. In the intervening more than 70 years since its discovery significant advances have been made in substrate cooling and the other techniques necessary for the production of the element to the point where we might now enquire about the key properties astatine might have if it attained a condensed phase. This subject is addressed here using density functional theory and structural selection methods, with an accounting for relativistic physics that is essential. Condensed astatine is predicted to be quite different in fascinating ways from iodine, being already at 1 atm a metal, and monatomic at that, and possibly a superconductor (as is dense iodine). PMID:24074111

  20. Condensed astatine: monatomic and metallic.

    PubMed

    Hermann, Andreas; Hoffmann, Roald; Ashcroft, N W

    2013-09-13

    The condensed matter properties of the nominal terminating element of the halogen group with atomic number 85, astatine, are as yet unknown. In the intervening more than 70 years since its discovery significant advances have been made in substrate cooling and the other techniques necessary for the production of the element to the point where we might now enquire about the key properties astatine might have if it attained a condensed phase. This subject is addressed here using density functional theory and structural selection methods, with an accounting for relativistic physics that is essential. Condensed astatine is predicted to be quite different in fascinating ways from iodine, being already at 1 atm a metal, and monatomic at that, and possibly a superconductor (as is dense iodine).

  1. Condensed Astatine: Monatomic and Metallic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermann, Andreas; Hoffmann, Roald; Ashcroft, N. W.

    2013-09-01

    The condensed matter properties of the nominal terminating element of the halogen group with atomic number 85, astatine, are as yet unknown. In the intervening more than 70 years since its discovery significant advances have been made in substrate cooling and the other techniques necessary for the production of the element to the point where we might now enquire about the key properties astatine might have if it attained a condensed phase. This subject is addressed here using density functional theory and structural selection methods, with an accounting for relativistic physics that is essential. Condensed astatine is predicted to be quite different in fascinating ways from iodine, being already at 1 atm a metal, and monatomic at that, and possibly a superconductor (as is dense iodine).

  2. Processing fragile matter: effect of polymer graft modification on the mechanical properties and processibility of (nano-) particulate solids.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Michael; Choi, Jihoon; Hui, Chin Min; Chen, Beibei; Korkmaz, Emrullah; Yan, Jiajun; Margel, Shlomo; Ozdoganlar, O Burak; Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof; Bockstaller, Michael R

    2016-04-21

    The effect of polymer modification on the deformation characteristics and processibility of particle assembly structures is analyzed as a function of particle size and degree of polymerization of surface-tethered chains. A pronounced increase of the fracture toughness (by approximately one order of magnitude) is observed as the degree of polymerization exceeds a threshold value that increases with particle size. The threshold value is interpreted as being related to the transition of tethered chains from stretched-to-relaxed conformation (and the associated entanglement of tethered chains) and agrees with predictions from scaling theory. The increase in toughness is reduced with increasing particle size - this effect is rationalized as a consequence of the decrease of entanglement density with increasing dimension of interstitial (void) space in particle array structures. The increased fracture toughness of particle brush materials (with sufficient degree of polymerization of tethered chains) enables the fabrication of ordered colloidal films and even complex 3D shapes by scalable polymer processing techniques, such as spin coating and micromolding. The results, therefore, suggest new opportunities for the processing of colloidal material systems that could find application in the economical fabrication of functional components or systems compromised of colloidal materials.

  3. Processing fragile matter: effect of polymer graft modification on the mechanical properties and processibility of (nano-) particulate solids.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Michael; Choi, Jihoon; Hui, Chin Min; Chen, Beibei; Korkmaz, Emrullah; Yan, Jiajun; Margel, Shlomo; Ozdoganlar, O Burak; Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof; Bockstaller, Michael R

    2016-04-21

    The effect of polymer modification on the deformation characteristics and processibility of particle assembly structures is analyzed as a function of particle size and degree of polymerization of surface-tethered chains. A pronounced increase of the fracture toughness (by approximately one order of magnitude) is observed as the degree of polymerization exceeds a threshold value that increases with particle size. The threshold value is interpreted as being related to the transition of tethered chains from stretched-to-relaxed conformation (and the associated entanglement of tethered chains) and agrees with predictions from scaling theory. The increase in toughness is reduced with increasing particle size - this effect is rationalized as a consequence of the decrease of entanglement density with increasing dimension of interstitial (void) space in particle array structures. The increased fracture toughness of particle brush materials (with sufficient degree of polymerization of tethered chains) enables the fabrication of ordered colloidal films and even complex 3D shapes by scalable polymer processing techniques, such as spin coating and micromolding. The results, therefore, suggest new opportunities for the processing of colloidal material systems that could find application in the economical fabrication of functional components or systems compromised of colloidal materials. PMID:26979521

  4. Condensation heat transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, J. W.

    The paper gives a brief description of some of the better understood aspects of condensation heat transfer and includes discussion of the liquid-vapour interface, natural and forced convection laminar film condensation and dropwise condensation.

  5. Condensation model for the ESBWR passive condensers

    SciTech Connect

    Revankar, S. T.; Zhou, W.; Wolf, B.; Oh, S.

    2012-07-01

    In the General Electric's Economic simplified boiling water reactor (GE-ESBWR) the passive containment cooling system (PCCS) plays a major role in containment pressure control in case of an loss of coolant accident. The PCCS condenser must be able to remove sufficient energy from the reactor containment to prevent containment from exceeding its design pressure following a design basis accident. There are three PCCS condensation modes depending on the containment pressurization due to coolant discharge; complete condensation, cyclic venting and flow through mode. The present work reviews the models and presents model predictive capability along with comparison with existing data from separate effects test. The condensation models in thermal hydraulics code RELAP5 are also assessed to examine its application to various flow modes of condensation. The default model in the code predicts complete condensation well, and basically is Nusselt solution. The UCB model predicts through flow well. None of condensation model in RELAP5 predict complete condensation, cyclic venting, and through flow condensation consistently. New condensation correlations are given that accurately predict all three modes of PCCS condensation. (authors)

  6. The Color Glass Condensate and the Glasma: Two Lectures.

    SciTech Connect

    McLerran,L.

    2007-08-29

    These two lectures concern the Color Glass Condensate and the Glasma. These are forms of matter which might be studied in high energy hadronic collisions. The Color Glass Condensate is high energy density gluonic matter. It constitutes the part of a hadron wave function important for high energy processes. The Glasma is matter produced from the Color Glass Condensate in the first instants after a collision of two high energy hadrons. Both types of matter are associated with coherent fields. The Color Glass Condensate is static and related to a hadron wavefunction, where the Glasma is transient and evolves quickly after a collision. I present the properties of such matter, and some aspects of what is known of their properties.

  7. Organosiloxane-grafted natural polymer coatings

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1998-01-01

    A new family of polysaccharide graft polymers are provided as corrosion resistant coatings having antimicrobial properties which are useful on light metals such as aluminum, magnesium, zinc, steel and their alloys. Methods of making the polysaccharide graft polymers are also included. The methods of making the polysaccharide graft polymers involve reacting a polysaccharide source with an antimicrobial agent under conditions of hydrolysis-condensation.

  8. A self-strain feedback tuning-fork-shaped ionic polymer metal composite clamping actuator with soft matter elasticity-detecting capability for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Feng, Guo-Hua; Huang, Wei-Lun

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a smart tuning-fork-shaped ionic polymer metal composite (IPMC) clamping actuator for biomedical applications. The two fingers of the actuator, which perform the clamping motion, can be electrically controlled through a unique electrode design on the IPMC material. The generated displacement or strain of the fingers can be sensed using an integrated soft strain-gage sensor. The IPMC actuator and associated soft strain gage were fabricated using a micromachining technique. A 13.5×4×2 mm(3) actuator was shaped from Nafion solution and a selectively grown metal electrode formed the active region. The strain gage consisted of patterned copper foil and polyethylene as a substrate. The relationship between the strain gage voltage output and the displacement at the front end of the actuator's fingers was characterized. The equivalent Young's modulus, 13.65 MPa, of the soft-strain-gage-integrated IPMC finger was analyzed. The produced clamping force exhibited a linear increasing rate of 1.07 mN/s, based on a dc driving voltage of 7 V. Using the developed actuator to clamp soft matter and simultaneously acquire its Young's modulus was achieved. This demonstrated the feasibility of the palpation function and the potential use of the actuator in minimally invasive surgery.

  9. A self-strain feedback tuning-fork-shaped ionic polymer metal composite clamping actuator with soft matter elasticity-detecting capability for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Feng, Guo-Hua; Huang, Wei-Lun

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a smart tuning-fork-shaped ionic polymer metal composite (IPMC) clamping actuator for biomedical applications. The two fingers of the actuator, which perform the clamping motion, can be electrically controlled through a unique electrode design on the IPMC material. The generated displacement or strain of the fingers can be sensed using an integrated soft strain-gage sensor. The IPMC actuator and associated soft strain gage were fabricated using a micromachining technique. A 13.5×4×2 mm(3) actuator was shaped from Nafion solution and a selectively grown metal electrode formed the active region. The strain gage consisted of patterned copper foil and polyethylene as a substrate. The relationship between the strain gage voltage output and the displacement at the front end of the actuator's fingers was characterized. The equivalent Young's modulus, 13.65 MPa, of the soft-strain-gage-integrated IPMC finger was analyzed. The produced clamping force exhibited a linear increasing rate of 1.07 mN/s, based on a dc driving voltage of 7 V. Using the developed actuator to clamp soft matter and simultaneously acquire its Young's modulus was achieved. This demonstrated the feasibility of the palpation function and the potential use of the actuator in minimally invasive surgery. PMID:25491826

  10. Dropwise condensation heat transfer of steam on a polytethefluoroethylene film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xuehu; Tao, Bai; Chen, Jiabin; Xu, Dunqi; Lin, Jifang

    2001-07-01

    Excellent dropwise condensation of steam was observed on a polytethefluoroethylene (PTFE) coated plate. The experimental results indicated that the condensation heat transfer performance was increased by 30 to 47 times when compared with film condensation values at the same surface subcooling degrees. The random fluctuation of the surface temperature was resulted from the high thermal conductivity of the copper substrate and the ultra thin coated polymer film with lower surface free energy. The effect of the steam temperature for pressures near atmospheric pressure on the dropwise condensation heat transfer characteristics was investigated as well.

  11. Bose-Einstein condensation in microgravity.

    PubMed

    van Zoest, T; Gaaloul, N; Singh, Y; Ahlers, H; Herr, W; Seidel, S T; Ertmer, W; Rasel, E; Eckart, M; Kajari, E; Arnold, S; Nandi, G; Schleich, W P; Walser, R; Vogel, A; Sengstock, K; Bongs, K; Lewoczko-Adamczyk, W; Schiemangk, M; Schuldt, T; Peters, A; Könemann, T; Müntinga, H; Lämmerzahl, C; Dittus, H; Steinmetz, T; Hänsch, T W; Reichel, J

    2010-06-18

    Albert Einstein's insight that it is impossible to distinguish a local experiment in a "freely falling elevator" from one in free space led to the development of the theory of general relativity. The wave nature of matter manifests itself in a striking way in Bose-Einstein condensates, where millions of atoms lose their identity and can be described by a single macroscopic wave function. We combine these two topics and report the preparation and observation of a Bose-Einstein condensate during free fall in a 146-meter-tall evacuated drop tower. During the expansion over 1 second, the atoms form a giant coherent matter wave that is delocalized on a millimeter scale, which represents a promising source for matter-wave interferometry to test the universality of free fall with quantum matter.

  12. Bose-Einstein Condensation in Microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Zoest, T.; Gaaloul, N.; Singh, Y.; Ahlers, H.; Herr, W.; Seidel, S. T.; Ertmer, W.; Rasel, E.; Eckart, M.; Kajari, E.; Arnold, S.; Nandi, G.; Schleich, W. P.; Walser, R.; Vogel, A.; Sengstock, K.; Bongs, K.; Lewoczko-Adamczyk, W.; Schiemangk, M.; Schuldt, T.; Peters, A.; Könemann, T.; Müntinga, H.; Lämmerzahl, C.; Dittus, H.; Steinmetz, T.; Hänsch, T. W.; Reichel, J.

    2010-06-01

    Albert Einstein’s insight that it is impossible to distinguish a local experiment in a “freely falling elevator” from one in free space led to the development of the theory of general relativity. The wave nature of matter manifests itself in a striking way in Bose-Einstein condensates, where millions of atoms lose their identity and can be described by a single macroscopic wave function. We combine these two topics and report the preparation and observation of a Bose-Einstein condensate during free fall in a 146-meter-tall evacuated drop tower. During the expansion over 1 second, the atoms form a giant coherent matter wave that is delocalized on a millimeter scale, which represents a promising source for matter-wave interferometry to test the universality of free fall with quantum matter.

  13. Bose-Einstein condensation in microgravity.

    PubMed

    van Zoest, T; Gaaloul, N; Singh, Y; Ahlers, H; Herr, W; Seidel, S T; Ertmer, W; Rasel, E; Eckart, M; Kajari, E; Arnold, S; Nandi, G; Schleich, W P; Walser, R; Vogel, A; Sengstock, K; Bongs, K; Lewoczko-Adamczyk, W; Schiemangk, M; Schuldt, T; Peters, A; Könemann, T; Müntinga, H; Lämmerzahl, C; Dittus, H; Steinmetz, T; Hänsch, T W; Reichel, J

    2010-06-18

    Albert Einstein's insight that it is impossible to distinguish a local experiment in a "freely falling elevator" from one in free space led to the development of the theory of general relativity. The wave nature of matter manifests itself in a striking way in Bose-Einstein condensates, where millions of atoms lose their identity and can be described by a single macroscopic wave function. We combine these two topics and report the preparation and observation of a Bose-Einstein condensate during free fall in a 146-meter-tall evacuated drop tower. During the expansion over 1 second, the atoms form a giant coherent matter wave that is delocalized on a millimeter scale, which represents a promising source for matter-wave interferometry to test the universality of free fall with quantum matter. PMID:20558713

  14. Condensates in Jovian Atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, R.

    1999-01-01

    Thermochemical equilibrium theory which starts with temperature/pressure profiles, compositional information and thermodynamic data for condensable species in the jovian planet atmospheres predicts layers of condensate clouds in the upper troposphere.

  15. Modeling semiflexible polymer networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broedersz, C. P.; MacKintosh, F. C.

    2014-07-01

    This is an overview of theoretical approaches to semiflexible polymers and their networks. Such semiflexible polymers have large bending rigidities that can compete with the entropic tendency of a chain to crumple up into a random coil. Many studies on semiflexible polymers and their assemblies have been motivated by their importance in biology. Indeed, cross-linked networks of semiflexible polymers form a major structural component of tissue and living cells. Reconstituted networks of such biopolymers have emerged as a new class of biological soft matter systems with remarkable material properties, which have spurred many of the theoretical developments discussed here. Starting from the mechanics and dynamics of individual semiflexible polymers, the physics of semiflexible bundles, entangled solutions, and disordered cross-linked networks are reviewed. Finally, recent developments on marginally stable fibrous networks, which exhibit critical behavior similar to other marginal systems such as jammed soft matter, are discussed.

  16. Statistical Mechanics and Applications in Condensed Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Castro, Carlo; Raimondi, Roberto

    2015-08-01

    Preface; 1. Thermodynamics: a brief overview; 2. Kinetics; 3. From Boltzmann to Gibbs; 4. More ensembles; 5. The thermodynamic limit and its thermodynamic stability; 6. Density matrix and quantum statistical mechanics; 7. The quantum gases; 8. Mean-field theories and critical phenomena; 9. Second quantization and Hartree-Fock approximation; 10. Linear response and fluctuation-dissipation theorem in quantum systems: equilibrium and small deviations; 11. Brownian motion and transport in disordered systems; 12. Fermi liquids; 13. The Landau theory of the second order phase transitions; 14. The Landau-Wilson model for critical phenomena; 15. Superfluidity and superconductivity; 16. The scaling theory; 17. The renormalization group approach; 18. Thermal Green functions; 19. The microscopic foundations of Fermi liquids; 20. The Luttinger liquid; 21. Quantum interference effects in disordered electron systems; Appendix A. The central limit theorem; Appendix B. Some useful properties of the Euler Gamma function; Appendix C. Proof of the second theorem of Yang and Lee; Appendix D. The most probable distribution for the quantum gases; Appendix E. Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein integrals; Appendix F. The Fermi gas in a uniform magnetic field: Landau diamagnetism; Appendix G. Ising and gas-lattice models; Appendix H. Sum over discrete Matsubara frequencies; Appendix I. Hydrodynamics of the two-fluid model of superfluidity; Appendix J. The Cooper problem in the theory of superconductivity; Appendix K. Superconductive fluctuations phenomena; Appendix L. Diagrammatic aspects of the exact solution of the Tomonaga Luttinger model; Appendix M. Details on the theory of the disordered Fermi liquid; References; Author index; Index.

  17. Condensed matter at high shock pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Nellis, W.J.; Holmes, N.C.; Mitchell, A.C.; Radousky, H.B.; Hamilton, D.

    1985-07-12

    Experimental techniques are described for shock waves in liquids: Hugoniot equation-of-state, shock temperature and emission spectroscopy, electrical conductivity, and Raman spectroscopy. Experimental data are reviewed and presented in terms of phenomena that occur at high densities and temperatures in shocked He, Ar, N/sub 2/, CO, SiO/sub 2/-aerogel, H/sub 2/O, and C/sub 6/H/sub 6/. The superconducting properties of Nb metal shocked to 100 GPa (1 Mbar) and recovered intact are discussed in terms of prospects for synthesizing novel, metastable materials. Ultrahigh pressure data for Cu is reviewed in the range 0.3 to 6TPa (3 to 60 Mbar). 56 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Measuring Entanglement in Condensed Matter Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cramer, M.; Wunderlich, H.; Plenio, M. B.

    2011-01-14

    We show how entanglement may be quantified in spin and cold atom many-body systems using standard experimental techniques only. The scheme requires no assumptions on the state in the laboratory, and a lower bound to the entanglement can be read off directly from the scattering cross section of neutrons deflected from solid state samples or the time-of-flight distribution of cold atoms in optical lattices, respectively. This removes a major obstacle which so far has prevented the direct and quantitative experimental study of genuine quantum correlations in many-body systems: The need for a full characterization of the state to quantify the entanglement contained in it. Instead, the scheme presented here relies solely on global measurements that are routinely performed and is versatile enough to accommodate systems and measurements different from the ones we exemplify in this work.

  19. Holography, black holes and condensed matter physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentle, Simon Adam

    In this thesis we employ holographic techniques to explore strongly-coupled quantum field theories at non-zero temperature and density. First we consider a state dual to a charged black hole with planar horizon and compute retarded Green's functions for conserved currents in the shear channel. We demonstrate the intricate motion of their poles and stress the importance of the residues at the poles beyond the hydrodynamic regime. We then explore the collective excitations of holographic quantum liquids arising on D3/D5 and D3/D7 brane intersections as a function of temperature and magnetic field in the probe limit. We observe a crossover from hydrodynamic charge diffusion to a sound mode similar to the zero sound mode in the collisionless regime of a Landau Fermi liquid. The location of this crossover is approximately independent of the magnetic field. The sound mode has a gap proportional to the magnetic field, leading to strong suppression of spectral weight for intermediate frequencies and sufficiently large magnetic fields. In the second part we explore the solution space of AdS gravity in the hope of learning general lessons about such theories. First we study charged scalar solitons in global AdS4. These solutions have a rich phase space and exhibit critical behaviour as a function of the scalar charge and scalar boundary conditions. We demonstrate how the planar limit of global solitons coincides generically with the zero-temperature limit of black branes with charged scalar hair. We exhibit these features in both phenomenological models and consistent truncations of eleven-dimensional supergravity. We then discover new branches of hairy black brane in SO(6) gauged supergravity. Despite the imbalance provided by three chemical potentials conjugate to the three R-charges, there is always at least one branch with charged scalar hair, emerging at a temperature where the normal phase is locally thermodynamically stable.

  20. Surface and bulk excitations in condensed matter

    SciTech Connect

    Ritchie, R.H.

    1988-01-01

    In this lecture collective and single-particle electron excitations of solids will be discussed with emphasis on the properties of metallic and semiconducting materials. However, some of the general properties of long-wavelength collective modes to be discussed are valid for insulators as well, and some considerations apply to nuclear excitations such as optical or acoustical phonons, dipolar plasmons, etc. The concept of elementary excitations in solids, pioneered by Bohm and Pines almost 4 decades ago, has proved to be extremely useful in understanding the properties of systems of many particles, especially in respect to the response to the action of external probes. 32 refs., 12 figs.

  1. Computer simulation radiation damages in condensed matters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kupchishin, A. I.; Kupchishin, A. A.; Voronova, N. A.; Kirdyashkin, V. I.; Gyngazov, V. A.

    2016-02-01

    As part of the cascade-probability method were calculated the energy spectra of primary knocked-out atoms and the concentration of radiation-induced defects in a number of metals irradiated by electrons. As follows from the formulas, the number of Frenkel pairs at a given depth depends on three variables having certain physical meaning: firstly, Cd (Ea h) is proportional to the average energy of the considered depth of the PKA (if it is higher, than the greater number of atoms it will displace); secondly is inversely proportional to the path length λ2 for the formation of the PKA (if λ1 is higher than is the smaller the probability of interaction) and thirdly is inversely proportional to Ed. In this case calculations are in satisfactory agreement with the experimental data (for example, copper and aluminum).

  2. Nuclear techniques in studies of condensed matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Jag J.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear techniques have played an important role in the studies of materials over the past several decades. For example, X-ray diffraction, neutron diffraction, neutron activation, and particle- or photon-induced X-ray emission techniques have been used extensively for the elucidation of structural and compositional details of materials. Several new techniques have been developed recently. Four such techniques are briefly reviewed which have great potential in the study and development of new materials. Of these four, Mossbauer spectroscopy, muon spin rotation, and positron annihilation spectroscopy techniques exploit their great sensitivity to the local atomic environments in the test materials. Interest in synchrotron radiation, on the other hand, stems from its special properties, such as high intensity, high degree of polarization, and high monochromaticity. It is hoped that this brief review will stimulate interest in the exploitation of these newer techniques for the development of improved materials.

  3. Magnons in a box: Condensation and Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Fang; Olf, Ryan; Wu, Shun; Kadau, Holger; Marti, G. Edward; Stamper-Kurn, Dan

    2016-05-01

    Ultracold gases offer us a remarkable window into the quantum world, allowing direct access to a wide range of manybody and condensed matter phenomena at convenient macroscopic length and time scales. However, producing ultracold gases at ever lower entropy, and measuring statistical properties such as temperature in these low entropy regimes, is a persistent challenge. Magnons, gapless spin excitations of spinor Bose Einstein Condensate (BEC), are expected to behave like free particles. We show that magnons can be used to cool BEC in a deep trap and serve as a thermometer to measure temperatures at extremely low entropy-per-particle. Unlike atoms trapped in a harmonic trap, trapped magnons experience a box potential due to near exact cancellation of the trapping potential by the mean-field interaction within the condensate. We observe the quasi-condensation of magnon excitations within this nature-made box.

  4. Black holes in the ghost condensate

    SciTech Connect

    Mukohyama, Shinji

    2005-05-15

    We investigate how the ghost condensate reacts to black holes immersed in it. A ghost condensate defines a hypersurface-orthogonal congruence of timelike curves, each of which has the tangent vector u{sup {mu}}=-g{sup {mu}}{sup {nu}}{partial_derivative}{sub {nu}}{phi}. It is argued that the ghost condensate in this picture approximately corresponds to a congruence of geodesics. In other words, the ghost condensate accretes into a black hole just like a pressureless dust. Correspondingly, if the energy density of the ghost condensate at large distance is set to an extremely small value by cosmic expansion then the late-time accretion rate of the ghost condensate should be negligible. The accretion rate remains very small even if effects of higher derivative terms are taken into account, provided that the black hole is sufficiently large. It is also discussed how to reconcile the black-hole accretion with the possibility that the ghost condensate might behave like dark matter.

  5. A multi-field approach to DNA condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ran, Shi-Yong; Jia, Jun-Li

    2015-12-01

    DNA condensation is an important process in many fields including life sciences, polymer physics, and applied technology. In the nucleus, DNA is condensed into chromosomes. In polymer physics, DNA is treated as a semi-flexible molecule and a polyelectrolyte. Many agents, including multi-valent cations, surfactants, and neutral poor solvents, can cause DNA condensation, also referred to as coil-globule transition. Moreover, DNA condensation has been used for extraction and gene delivery in applied technology. Many physical theories have been presented to elucidate the mechanism underlying DNA condensation, including the counterion correlation theory, the electrostatic zipper theory, and the hydration force theory. Recently several single-molecule studies have focused on DNA condensation, shedding new light on old concepts. In this document, the multi-field concepts and theories related to DNA condensation are introduced and clarified as well as the advances and considerations of single-molecule DNA condensation experiments are introduced. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 21204065 and 20934004) and the Natural Science Foundation of Zhejiang Province, China (Grant No. Y4110357).

  6. Proceedings: Condenser technology conference

    SciTech Connect

    Tsou, J.L. ); Mussalli, Y.G. )

    1991-08-01

    Seam surface condenser and associated systems performance strongly affects availability and heat rate in nuclear and fossil power plants. Thirty-six papers presented at a 1990 conference discuss research results, industry experience, and case histories of condenser problems and solutions. This report contains papers on life extension, performance improvement, corrosion and failure analysis, fouling prevention, and recommendation for future R D. The information represents recent work on condenser problems and solutions to improve the procurement, operation, and maintenance functions of power plant personnel. Several key points follow: A nuclear and a fossil power plant report show that replacing titanium tube bundles improves condenser availability and performance. One paper reports 10 years of experience with enhanced heat transfer tubes in utility condensers. The newly developed enhanced condenser tubes could further improve condensing heat transfer. A new resistance summation method improves the accuracy of condenser performance prediction, especially for stainless steel and titanium tubed condensers. Several papers describe improved condenser fouling monitoring techniques, including a review of zebra mussel issues.

  7. Condensed-matter physics: History matters for a stirred superfluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Matthew J.; Helmerson, Kristian

    2014-02-01

    The observation of path dependence in the response of a superfluid to stirring promises potential applications in precision rotation sensing, and provides a test bed for microscopic theories of ultracold atomic gases. See Letter p.200

  8. Polymer films

    DOEpatents

    Granick, Steve; Sukhishvili, Svetlana A.

    2008-12-30

    A film contains a first polymer having a plurality of hydrogen bond donating moieties, and a second polymer having a plurality of hydrogen bond accepting moieties. The second polymer is hydrogen bonded to the first polymer.

  9. Polymer films

    DOEpatents

    Granick, Steve; Sukhishvili, Svetlana A.

    2004-05-25

    A film contains a first polymer having a plurality of hydrogen bond donating moieties, and a second polymer having a plurality of hydrogen bond accepting moieties. The second polymer is hydrogen bonded to the first polymer.

  10. Condensates in Quantum Chromodynamics and the Cosmological Constant

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; Shrock, Robert

    2009-05-08

    Casher and Susskind have noted that in the light-front description, spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is a property of hadronic wavefunctions and not of the vacuum. Here we show from several physical perspectives that, because of color confinement, quark and gluon QCD condensates are associated with the internal dynamics of hadrons. We discuss condensates using condensed matter analogues, the AdS/CFT correspondence, and the Bethe-Salpeter/Dyson-Schwinger approach for bound states. Our analysis is in agreement with the Casher and Susskind model and the explicit demonstration of 'in-hadron' condensates by Roberts et al., using the Bethe-Salpeter/Dyson-Schwinger formalism for QCD bound states. These results imply that QCD condensates give zero contribution to the cosmological constant, since all of the gravitational effects of the in-hadron condensates are already included in the normal contribution from hadron masses.

  11. Instability-induced pattern formation of photoactivated functional polymers.

    PubMed

    Galinski, Henning; Ambrosio, Antonio; Maddalena, Pasqualino; Schenker, Iwan; Spolenak, Ralph; Capasso, Federico

    2014-12-01

    Since the pioneering work of Turing on the formation principles of animal coat patterns [Turing AM (1952) Phil Trans R Soc Lond B 237(641):37-72], such as the stripes of a tiger, great effort has been made to understand and explain various phenomena of self-assembly and pattern formation. Prominent examples are the spontaneous demixing in emulsions, such as mixtures of water and oil [Herzig EM, et al. (2007) Nat Mater 6:966-971]; the distribution of matter in the universe [Kibble TWB (1976) J Phys A: Math Gen 9(8):1387]; surface reconstruction in ionic crystals [Clark KW, et al. (2012) Nanotechnol 23(18):185306]; and the pattern formation caused by phase transitions in metal alloys, polymer mixtures and binary Bose-Einstein condensates [Sabbatini J, et al. (2011) Phys Rev Lett 107:230402]. Photoactivated pattern formation in functional polymers has attracted major interest due to its potential applications in molecular electronics and photoresponsive systems. Here we demonstrate that photoactivated pattern formation on azobenzene-containing polymer films can be entirely explained by the physical concept of phase separation. Using experiments and simulations, we show that phase separation is caused by an instability created by the photoactivated transitions between two immiscible states of the polymer. In addition, we have shown in accordance with theory, that polarized light has a striking effect on pattern formation indicated by enhanced phase separation.

  12. Instability-induced pattern formation of photoactivated functional polymers

    PubMed Central

    Ambrosio, Antonio; Maddalena, Pasqualino; Schenker, Iwan; Spolenak, Ralph; Capasso, Federico

    2014-01-01

    Since the pioneering work of Turing on the formation principles of animal coat patterns [Turing AM (1952) Phil Trans R Soc Lond B 237(641):37–72], such as the stripes of a tiger, great effort has been made to understand and explain various phenomena of self-assembly and pattern formation. Prominent examples are the spontaneous demixing in emulsions, such as mixtures of water and oil [Herzig EM, et al. (2007) Nat Mater 6:966–971]; the distribution of matter in the universe [Kibble TWB (1976) J Phys A: Math Gen 9(8):1387]; surface reconstruction in ionic crystals [Clark KW, et al. (2012) Nanotechnol 23(18):185306]; and the pattern formation caused by phase transitions in metal alloys, polymer mixtures and binary Bose–Einstein condensates [Sabbatini J, et al. (2011) Phys Rev Lett 107:230402]. Photoactivated pattern formation in functional polymers has attracted major interest due to its potential applications in molecular electronics and photoresponsive systems. Here we demonstrate that photoactivated pattern formation on azobenzene-containing polymer films can be entirely explained by the physical concept of phase separation. Using experiments and simulations, we show that phase separation is caused by an instability created by the photoactivated transitions between two immiscible states of the polymer. In addition, we have shown in accordance with theory, that polarized light has a striking effect on pattern formation indicated by enhanced phase separation. PMID:25404346

  13. Instability-induced pattern formation of photoactivated functional polymers.

    PubMed

    Galinski, Henning; Ambrosio, Antonio; Maddalena, Pasqualino; Schenker, Iwan; Spolenak, Ralph; Capasso, Federico

    2014-12-01

    Since the pioneering work of Turing on the formation principles of animal coat patterns [Turing AM (1952) Phil Trans R Soc Lond B 237(641):37-72], such as the stripes of a tiger, great effort has been made to understand and explain various phenomena of self-assembly and pattern formation. Prominent examples are the spontaneous demixing in emulsions, such as mixtures of water and oil [Herzig EM, et al. (2007) Nat Mater 6:966-971]; the distribution of matter in the universe [Kibble TWB (1976) J Phys A: Math Gen 9(8):1387]; surface reconstruction in ionic crystals [Clark KW, et al. (2012) Nanotechnol 23(18):185306]; and the pattern formation caused by phase transitions in metal alloys, polymer mixtures and binary Bose-Einstein condensates [Sabbatini J, et al. (2011) Phys Rev Lett 107:230402]. Photoactivated pattern formation in functional polymers has attracted major interest due to its potential applications in molecular electronics and photoresponsive systems. Here we demonstrate that photoactivated pattern formation on azobenzene-containing polymer films can be entirely explained by the physical concept of phase separation. Using experiments and simulations, we show that phase separation is caused by an instability created by the photoactivated transitions between two immiscible states of the polymer. In addition, we have shown in accordance with theory, that polarized light has a striking effect on pattern formation indicated by enhanced phase separation. PMID:25404346

  14. Viscoelastic cationic polymers containing the urethane linkage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, A. (Inventor)

    1972-01-01

    A method for the synthesis and manufacturing of elastomeric compositions and articles containing quaternary nitrogen centers and condensation residues along the polymeric backbone of the centers is presented. Linear and cross-linked straight chain and block polymers having a wide damping temperature range were synthesized. Formulae for the viscoelastic cationic polymers are presented.

  15. Highly cross-linked nanoporous polymers

    DOEpatents

    Steckle, W.P. Jr.; Apen, P.G.; Mitchell, M.A.

    1998-01-20

    Condensation polymerization followed by a supercritical extraction step can be used to obtain highly cross-linked nanoporous polymers with high surface area, controlled pore sizes and rigid structural integrity. The invention polymers are useful for applications requiring separation membranes. 1 fig.

  16. Measure Guideline: Evaporative Condensers

    SciTech Connect

    German, A; Dakin, B.; Hoeschele, M.

    2012-03-01

    This measure guideline on evaporative condensers provides information on properly designing, installing, and maintaining evaporative condenser systems as well as understanding the benefits, costs, and tradeoffs. This is a prescriptive approach that outlines selection criteria, design and installation procedures, and operation and maintenance best practices.

  17. Geothermal steam condensate reinjection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chasteen, A. J.

    1974-01-01

    Geothermal electric generating plants which use condensing turbines and generate and excess of condensed steam which must be disposed of are discussed. At the Geysers, California, the largest geothermal development in the world, this steam condensate has been reinjected into the steam reservoir since 1968. A total of 3,150,000,000 gallons of steam condensate has been reinjected since that time with no noticeable effect on the adjacent producing wells. Currently, 3,700,000 gallons/day from 412 MW of installed capacity are being injected into 5 wells. Reinjection has also proven to be a satisfactory method of disposing of geothermal condensate a Imperial Valley, California, and at the Valles Caldera, New Mexico.

  18. Freeze-Tolerant Condensers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowley, Christopher J.; Elkouhk, Nabil

    2004-01-01

    Two condensers designed for use in dissipating heat carried by working fluids feature two-phase, self-adjusting configurations such that their working lengths automatically vary to suit their input power levels and/or heat-sink temperatures. A key advantage of these condensers is that they can function even if the temperatures of their heat sinks fall below the freezing temperatures of their working fluids and the fluids freeze. The condensers can even be restarted from the frozen condition. The top part of the figure depicts the layout of the first condenser. A two-phase (liquid and vapor) condenser/vapor tube is thermally connected to a heat sink typically, a radiatively or convectively cooled metal panel. A single-phase (liquid) condensate-return tube (return artery) is also thermally connected to the heat sink. At intervals along their lengths, the condenser/vapor tube and the return artery are interconnected through porous plugs. This condenser configuration affords tolerance of freezing, variable effective thermal conductance (such that the return temperature remains nearly constant, independently of the ultimate sink temperature), and overall pressure drop smaller than it would be without the porous interconnections. An additional benefit of this configuration is that the condenser can be made to recover from the completely frozen condition either without using heaters, or else with the help of heaters much smaller than would otherwise be needed. The second condenser affords the same advantages and is based on a similar principle, but it has a different configuration that affords improved flow of working fluid, simplified construction, reduced weight, and faster recovery from a frozen condition.

  19. PREFACE: IUMRS-ICA 2008 Symposium, Sessions 'X. Applications of Synchrotron Radiation and Neutron Beam to Soft Matter Science' and 'Y. Frontier of Polymeric Nano-Soft-Materials - Precision Polymer Synthesis, Self-assembling and Their Functionalization'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahara, Atsushi; Kawahara, Seiichi

    2009-09-01

    Applications of Synchrotron Radiation and Neutron Beam to Soft Matter Science (Symposium X of IUMRS-ICA2008) Toshiji Kanaya, Kohji Tashiro, Kazuo Sakura Keiji Tanaka, Sono Sasaki, Naoya Torikai, Moonhor Ree, Kookheon Char, Charles C Han, Atsushi Takahara This volume contains peer-reviewed invited and contributed papers that were presented in Symposium X 'Applications of Synchrotron Radiation and Neutron Beam to Soft Matter Science' at the IUMRS International Conference in Asia 2008 (IUMRS-ICA 2008), which was held on 9-13 December 2008, at Nagoya Congress Center, Nagoya, Japan. Structure analyses of soft materials based on synchrotron radiation (SR) and neutron beam have been developed steadily. Small-angle scattering and wide-angle diffraction techniques clarified the higher-order structure as well as time dependence of structure development such as crystallization and microphase-separation. On the other hand, reflectivity, grazing-incidence scattering and diffraction techniques revealed the surface and interface structural features of soft materials. From the viewpoint of strong interests on the development of SR and neutron beam techniques for soft materials, the objective of this symposium is to provide an interdisciplinary forum for the discussion of recent advances in research, development, and applications of SR and neutron beams to soft matter science. In this symposium, 21 oral papers containing 16 invited papers and 14 poster papers from China, India, Korea, Taiwan, and Japan were presented during the three-day symposium. As a result of the review of poster and oral presentations of young scientists by symposium chairs, Dr Kummetha Raghunatha Reddy (Toyota Technological Institute) received the IUMRS-ICA 2008 Young Researcher Award. We are grateful to all invited speakers and many participants for valuable contributions and active discussions. Organizing committee of Symposium (IUMRS-ICA 2008) Professor Toshiji Kanaya (Kyoto University) Professor Kohji

  20. Ghost dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Furukawa, Tomonori; Yokoyama, Shuichiro; Ichiki, Kiyotomo; Sugiyama, Naoshi; Mukohyama, Shinji E-mail: shu@a.phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp E-mail: naoshi@a.phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp

    2010-05-01

    We revisit ghost dark matter, the possibility that ghost condensation may serve as an alternative to dark matter. In particular, we investigate the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) background evolution and the large-scale structure (LSS) in the ΛGDM universe, i.e. a late-time universe dominated by a cosmological constant and ghost dark matter. The FRW background of the ΛGDM universe is indistinguishable from that of the standard ΛCDM universe if M∼>1eV, where M is the scale of spontaneous Lorentz breaking. From the LSS we find a stronger bound: M∼>10eV. For smaller M, ghost dark matter would have non-negligible sound speed after the matter-radiation equality, and thus the matter power spectrum would significantly differ from observation. These bounds are compatible with the phenomenological upper bound M∼<100GeV known in the literature.

  1. Organosiloxane-grafted natural polymer coatings

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1998-12-01

    A new family of polysaccharide graft polymers are provided as corrosion resistant coatings having antimicrobial properties which are useful on light metals such as aluminum, magnesium, zinc, steel and their alloys. Methods of making the polysaccharide graft polymers are also included. The methods of making the polysaccharide graft polymers involve reacting a polysaccharide source with an antimicrobial agent under conditions of hydrolysis-condensation. 17 figs.

  2. EDITORIAL: Focus on Nanostructured Soft Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reineker, Peter; Schülz, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Nanostructures in general are playing a more and more important role in the physics and chemistry of condensed matter systems including both hard and soft materials. This Focus Issue concentrates particularly on recent developments in Nanostructured Soft Matter Systems. Many interesting questions related to both fundamental and applied research in this field have arisen. Some of them are connected to the chemical reactions that take place during the irreversible formation of soft matter systems. Others refer to the theoretical and experimental investigations of structures and topologies of `nanostructured soft matter', e.g. heterogeneous polymers and polymer networks, or soft matter at low dimensions or in constrained geometries. Additional research has also been devoted to the dynamics of other complex nanostructured systems, such as the structure formation on the basis of polymer systems and polyelectrolytes, and several kinds of phase transitions on nano- and microscales. The contributions collected here present the most up-to-date research results on all of these topics. New Journal of Physics, as an electronic journal, is perfectly suited for the presentation of the complex results that the experimental and theoretical investigations reported here yield. The articles that will follow provide a number of excellent examples of the use of animations, movies and colour features for the added benefit of the reader. Focus on Nanostructured Soft Matter Contents Phase separation kinetics in compressible polymer solutions: computer simulation of the early stages Peter Virnau, Marcus Müller, Luis González MacDowell and Kurt Binder Spectral dynamics in the B800 band of LH2 from Rhodospirillum molischianum: a single-molecule study Clemens Hofmann, Thijs J Aartsma, Hartmut Michel and Jürgen Köhler Adsorption of polyacrylic acid on self-assembled monolayers investigated by single-molecule force spectroscopy Claudia Friedsam, Aránzazu Del Campo Bécares, Ulrich Jonas

  3. THE COLOUR GLASS CONDENSATE: AN INTRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    IANCU,E.; LEONIDOV,A.; MCLERRAN,L.

    2001-08-06

    In these lectures, the authors develop the theory of the Colour Glass Condensate. This is the matter made of gluons in the high density environment characteristic of deep inelastic scattering or hadron-hadron collisions at very high energy. The lectures are self contained and comprehensive. They start with a phenomenological introduction, develop the theory of classical gluon fields appropriate for the Colour Glass, and end with a derivation and discussion of the renormalization group equations which determine this effective theory.

  4. Sedimentary condensation and authigenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Föllmi, Karl

    2016-04-01

    Most marine authigenic minerals form in sediments, which are subjected to condensation. Condensation processes lead to the formation of well individualized, extremely thin (< 1m) beds, which were accumulated during extremely long time periods (> 100ky), and which experienced authigenesis and the precipitation of glaucony, verdine, phosphate, iron and manganese oxyhydroxides, iron sulfide, carbonate and/or silica. They usually show complex internal stratigraphies, which result from an interplay of sediment accumulation, halts in sedimentation, sediment winnowing, erosion, reworking and bypass. They may include amalgamated faunas of different origin and age. Hardgrounds may be part of condensed beds and may embody strongly condensed beds by themselves. Sedimentary condensation is the result of a hydrodynamically active depositional regime, in which sediment accumulation, winnowing, erosion, reworking and bypass are processes, which alternate as a function of changes in the location and intensity of currents, and/or as the result of episodic high-energy events engendered by storms and gravity flow. Sedimentary condensation has been and still is a widespread phenomenon in past and present-day oceans. The present-day distribution of glaucony and verdine-rich sediments on shelves and upper slopes, phosphate-rich sediments and phosphorite on outer shelves and upper slopes, ferromanganese crusts on slopes, seamounts and submarine plateaus, and ferromanganese nodules on abyssal seafloors is a good indication of the importance of condensation processes today. In the past, we may add the occurrence of oolitic ironstone, carbonate hardgrounds, and eventually also silica layers in banded iron formations as indicators of the importance of condensation processes. Besides their economic value, condensed sediments are useful both as a carrier of geochemical proxies of paleoceanographic and paleoenvironmental change, as well as the product of episodes of paleoceanographic and

  5. Electrolyte vapor condenser

    DOEpatents

    Sederquist, Richard A.; Szydlowski, Donald F.; Sawyer, Richard D.

    1983-01-01

    A system is disclosed for removing electrolyte from a fuel cell gas stream. The gas stream containing electrolyte vapor is supercooled utilizing conventional heat exchangers and the thus supercooled gas stream is passed over high surface area passive condensers. The condensed electrolyte is then drained from the condenser and the remainder of the gas stream passed on. The system is particularly useful for electrolytes such as phosphoric acid and molten carbonate, but can be used for other electrolyte cells and simple vapor separation as well.

  6. Electrolyte vapor condenser

    DOEpatents

    Sederquist, R.A.; Szydlowski, D.F.; Sawyer, R.D.

    1983-02-08

    A system is disclosed for removing electrolyte from a fuel cell gas stream. The gas stream containing electrolyte vapor is supercooled utilizing conventional heat exchangers and the thus supercooled gas stream is passed over high surface area passive condensers. The condensed electrolyte is then drained from the condenser and the remainder of the gas stream passed on. The system is particularly useful for electrolytes such as phosphoric acid and molten carbonate, but can be used for other electrolyte cells and simple vapor separation as well. 3 figs.

  7. Revealing the dark side of a bright exciton–polariton condensate

    PubMed Central

    Ménard, J. -M.; Poellmann, C.; Porer, M.; Leierseder, U.; Galopin, E.; Lemaître, A.; Amo, A.; Bloch, J.; Huber, R.

    2014-01-01

    Condensation of bosons causes spectacular phenomena such as superfluidity or superconductivity. Understanding the nature of the condensed particles is crucial for active control of such quantum phases. Fascinating possibilities emerge from condensates of light–matter-coupled excitations, such as exciton–polaritons, photons hybridized with hydrogen-like bound electron–hole pairs. So far, only the photon component has been resolved, while even the mere existence of excitons in the condensed regime has been challenged. Here we trace the matter component of polariton condensates by monitoring intra-excitonic terahertz transitions. We study how a reservoir of optically dark excitons forms and feeds the degenerate state. Unlike atomic gases, the atom-like transition in excitons is dramatically renormalized on macroscopic ground state population. Our results establish fundamental differences between polariton condensation and photon lasing and open possibilities for coherent control of condensates. PMID:25115964

  8. Revealing the dark side of a bright exciton-polariton condensate.

    PubMed

    Ménard, J-M; Poellmann, C; Porer, M; Leierseder, U; Galopin, E; Lemaître, A; Amo, A; Bloch, J; Huber, R

    2014-01-01

    Condensation of bosons causes spectacular phenomena such as superfluidity or superconductivity. Understanding the nature of the condensed particles is crucial for active control of such quantum phases. Fascinating possibilities emerge from condensates of light-matter-coupled excitations, such as exciton-polaritons, photons hybridized with hydrogen-like bound electron-hole pairs. So far, only the photon component has been resolved, while even the mere existence of excitons in the condensed regime has been challenged. Here we trace the matter component of polariton condensates by monitoring intra-excitonic terahertz transitions. We study how a reservoir of optically dark excitons forms and feeds the degenerate state. Unlike atomic gases, the atom-like transition in excitons is dramatically renormalized on macroscopic ground state population. Our results establish fundamental differences between polariton condensation and photon lasing and open possibilities for coherent control of condensates. PMID:25115964

  9. Measurement of condensable vapor contribution to PM10 emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, A.D.; Martin, R.S.; Harris, D.B.

    1985-06-21

    This paper describes the wood-stove dilution-sampling system, the results of laboratory characterization of the device, and field measurements of residential woodstove emissions. Under EPA contract, a stack dilution sampling system (SDSS) for field measurement of condensable emissions was designed and constructed . This train was used to measure condensable components of inhalable particulate matter at several sources. Also developed under EPA contract was the ESDSS, a reduced-scale dilution sampling system, which is mechanically suitable for fireplace and wood-heater emissions measurement. Residential wood stoves emit large quantities of condensable as well as volatile and semi-volatile organic species. Thus, in order to adequately assess the effect of wood stove particulate emissions on the near-source environment, measurement techniques must be used that do not discriminate against the condensable emissions. Ambient particulate samplers collect the wood stove particulate matter after the plume-mixing dilution and cooling process.

  10. Condensation and Evaporation of Solar System Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, A. M.; Richter, F. M.

    2003-12-01

    condensable matter (see Chapter 1.08; Grossman, 1973; Wänke et al., 1974; Grossman and Ganapathy, 1976; Grossman et al., 1977), where CI chondrites are taken to represent total condensable matter.Elemental abundance patterns ordered by volatility certainly could have been produced by partial condensation, but they could also have been caused by partial evaporation. The relative importance of these opposite processes is still subject to debate and uncertainty. It should be remembered that condensation calculations typically assume chemical equilibrium in a closed system, in which case the system has no memory of the path by which it arrived at a given state, and thus the chemical and isotopic composition of the condensed phase cannot be used to distinguish between partial condensation and partial evaporation. Humayun and Clayton (1995) have taken a somewhat different view by arguing that condensation and evaporation are distinguishable, in that evaporation, but not condensation, will produce isotopically fractionated residues. With this idea in mind, they carefully measured the potassium isotopic compositions of a broad range of solar system materials with different degrees of potassium depletion and found them to be indistinguishable. This they took as evidence that evaporation could not have been a significant process in determining the diverse elemental abundance patterns of the various solar system materials they measured, because had evaporation been important in fractionating potassium it would have also fractionated the potassium isotopes. We will qualify this line of reasoning by arguing that evaporation and condensation can under certain conditions produce isotopically fractionated condensed phases (i.e., that partial evaporation can produce isotopically heavy residues and that partial condensation can produce isotopically light condensates) but that under other conditions both can produce elemental fractionations without significant isotopic fractionation. The

  11. Division of Chemical Education: Condensed Norms: ACS Examinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Condensed norms are presented for the most recent American Chemical Society examinations. These are the polymer chemistry form 1978, organic chemistry form 1978, physical chemistry form 1976 I, brief qualitative analysis form 1977B, and brief organic chemistry form 1977B examinations. (BB)

  12. Ghost condensate busting

    SciTech Connect

    Bilic, Neven; Tupper, Gary B; Viollier, Raoul D E-mail: gary.tupper@uct.ac.za

    2008-09-15

    Applying the Thomas-Fermi approximation to renormalizable field theories, we construct ghost condensation models that are free of the instabilities associated with violations of the null-energy condition.

  13. Pion condensation and instabilities: current theory and experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Gyulassy, M.

    1980-05-01

    Current calculations of pion condensation phenomena in symmetric nuclear matter are reviewed. The RPA and MFA methods are compared. Latest results (LBL-10572) with a relativistic MFA theory constrained by bulk nuclear properties are presented. The differences between equilibrium (condensation) and nonequilibrium (dynamic) instabilities are discussed. Finally, two-proton correlation experiments aimed at looking for critical scattering phenomena and two-pion correlation experiments aimed at looking for pion field coherence are analyzed. 10 figures, 2 tables.

  14. Many-body approach for quartet condensation in strong coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Sogo, Takaaki; Roepke, Gerd; Schuck, Peter

    2010-06-15

    The theory for condensation of higher fermionic clusters is developed. Fully self-consistent nonlinear equations for the quartet order parameter in strongly coupled fermionic systems are established and solved. The breakdown of the quasiparticle picture is pointed out. Derivation of numerically tractable approximation is described. The momentum projected factorization ansatz for the order parameter is employed. As a definite example, the condensation of alpha particles in nuclear matter is worked out.

  15. Measure Guideline: Evaporative Condensers

    SciTech Connect

    German, A.; Dakin, B.; Hoeschele, M.

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this measure guideline on evaporative condensers is to provide information on a cost-effective solution for energy and demand savings in homes with cooling loads. This is a prescriptive approach that outlines selection criteria, design and installation procedures, and operation and maintenance best practices. This document has been prepared to provide a process for properly designing, installing, and maintaining evaporative condenser systems as well as understanding the benefits, costs, and tradeoffs.

  16. Optical superfluid phase transitions and trapping of polariton condensates.

    PubMed

    Cristofolini, P; Dreismann, A; Christmann, G; Franchetti, G; Berloff, N G; Tsotsis, P; Hatzopoulos, Z; Savvidis, P G; Baumberg, J J

    2013-05-01

    Semiconductor microcavities are used to support freely flowing polariton quantum liquids allowing the direct observation and optical manipulation of macroscopic quantum states. Incoherent optical excitation at a point produces radially expanding condensate clouds within the planar geometry. By using arbitrary configurations of multiple pump spots, we discover a geometrically controlled phase transition, switching from the coherent phase-locking of multiple condensates to the formation of a single trapped condensate. The condensation threshold becomes strongly dependent on the programmed superfluid geometry and sensitive to cooperative interactions between condensates. We directly image persistently circulating superfluid and show how flows of light-matter quasiparticles are dominated by the quantum pressure in such configurable laser-written potential landscapes.

  17. The thermodynamics of polymer mixing and compression in the semidilute regime.

    PubMed

    Chan, Nikko Y; Dunstan, Dave E

    2010-08-19

    Polymers present a fascinating range of mechanical properties in the extension, compression, and flow of soft condensed matter. Entropy determines the physics of the elastic material behavior of polymeric systems in deformation. Classical models of polymer dynamics have assumed chain entanglement and resulting reptation in concentrated polymer solutions. Here, we present a thermodynamic treatment of interacting chains in solution with increasing concentration from the dilute to concentrated regimes. As the polymer chain concentration increases above the critical overlap, the chains must either compress or overlap and entangle, resulting in a decrease in chain configurational entropy. The free energy of chain entanglement is shown to be less favored than compression at concentrations above the critical overlap. Elastic forces act on the chains to reduce the dimensions to the ideal random walk size with increasing concentration. At significantly higher concentrations, the free energies reach an asymptote where chain compression and entanglement are simultaneously possible. Entanglement and reptation are shown to be statistically improbable in the semidilute regime, and it is concluded that the compression of polymer chains is favored at semidilute concentrations.

  18. Vector azimuthons in two-component Bose-Einstein condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Lashkin, Volodymyr M.; Ostrovskaya, Elena A.; Desyatnikov, Anton S.; Kivshar, Yuri S.

    2009-07-15

    We introduce matter-wave vector azimuthons, i.e., spatially localized vortex states with azimuthal modulations of density, in multicomponent Bose-Einstein condensates. These localized states generalize spatially modulated vortex solitons introduced earlier in nonlinear optics [A. S. Desyatnikov, A. A. Sukhorukov, and Yu. S. Kivshar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203904 (2005)] and Bose-Einstein condensates [V. M. Lashkin, Phys. Rev. A 77, 025602 (2008)]. We find, numerically, nonrotating and rotating two-component azimuthons in a Bose-Einstein condensate with a negative scattering length confined by a quasi-two-dimensional parabolic trap.

  19. Hydrogen cyanide polymers, comets and the origin of life.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Clifford N; Minard, Robert D

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen cyanide polymers--heterogeneous solids ranging in colour from yellow to orange to brown to black--could be major components of the dark matter observed on many bodies of the outer solar system including asteroids, moons, planets and, especially, comets. The presence on cometary nuclei of frozen volatiles such as methane, ammonia and water subjected to high energy sources makes them attractive sites for the ready formation and condensed-phase polymerization of hydrogen cyanide. This could account for the dark crust observed on Comet Halley in 1986 by the Vega and Giotto missions. Dust emanating from its nucleus would arise partly from HCN polymers as suggested by the Giotto detection of free hydrogen cyanide, CN radicals, solid particles consisting only of H, C and N, or only of H, C, N, O, and nitrogen-containing organic compounds. Further evidence for cometary HCN polymers could be expected from in situ analysis of the ejected material from Comet Tempel 1 after collision with the impactor probe from the two-stage Deep Impact mission on July 4, 2005. Even more revealing will be actual samples of dust collected from the coma of Comet Wild 2 by the Stardust mission, due to return to Earth in January 2006 for analyses which we have predicted will detect these polymers and related compounds. In situ results have already shown that nitriles and polymers of hydrogen cyanide are probable components of the cometary dust that struck the Cometary and Interstellar Dust Analyzer of the Stardust spacecraft as it approached Comet Wild 2 on January 2, 2004. Preliminary evidence (January 2005) obtained by the Huygens probe of the ongoing Cassini-Huygens mission to Saturn and its satellites indicates the presence of nitrogen-containing organic compounds in the refractory organic cores of the aerosols that give rise to the orange haze high in the atmosphere of Titan, Saturn's largest moon. Our continuing investigations suggest that HCN polymers are basically of two types

  20. Hydrogen cyanide polymers, comets and the origin of life.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Clifford N; Minard, Robert D

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen cyanide polymers--heterogeneous solids ranging in colour from yellow to orange to brown to black--could be major components of the dark matter observed on many bodies of the outer solar system including asteroids, moons, planets and, especially, comets. The presence on cometary nuclei of frozen volatiles such as methane, ammonia and water subjected to high energy sources makes them attractive sites for the ready formation and condensed-phase polymerization of hydrogen cyanide. This could account for the dark crust observed on Comet Halley in 1986 by the Vega and Giotto missions. Dust emanating from its nucleus would arise partly from HCN polymers as suggested by the Giotto detection of free hydrogen cyanide, CN radicals, solid particles consisting only of H, C and N, or only of H, C, N, O, and nitrogen-containing organic compounds. Further evidence for cometary HCN polymers could be expected from in situ analysis of the ejected material from Comet Tempel 1 after collision with the impactor probe from the two-stage Deep Impact mission on July 4, 2005. Even more revealing will be actual samples of dust collected from the coma of Comet Wild 2 by the Stardust mission, due to return to Earth in January 2006 for analyses which we have predicted will detect these polymers and related compounds. In situ results have already shown that nitriles and polymers of hydrogen cyanide are probable components of the cometary dust that struck the Cometary and Interstellar Dust Analyzer of the Stardust spacecraft as it approached Comet Wild 2 on January 2, 2004. Preliminary evidence (January 2005) obtained by the Huygens probe of the ongoing Cassini-Huygens mission to Saturn and its satellites indicates the presence of nitrogen-containing organic compounds in the refractory organic cores of the aerosols that give rise to the orange haze high in the atmosphere of Titan, Saturn's largest moon. Our continuing investigations suggest that HCN polymers are basically of two types

  1. Physics of {pi}-meson condensation and high temperature cuprate superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Sushkov, O. P.

    2009-08-15

    The idea of condensation of the Goldstone {pi}-meson field in nuclear matter had been put forward a long time ago. However, it was established that the normal nuclear density is too low, it is not sufficient to condensate {pi} mesons. This is why the {pi} condensation has never been observed. Recent experimental and theoretical studies of high-temperature cuprate superconductors have revealed condensation of Goldstone magnons, the effect fully analogous to the {pi} condensation. The magnon condensation has been observed. It is clear now that quantum fluctuations play a crucial role in the condensation, in particular they drive a quantum phase transition that destroys the condensate at some density of fermions.

  2. Diquark Bose-Einstein condensation

    SciTech Connect

    Nawa, K.; Nakano, E.; Yabu, H.

    2006-08-01

    Bose-Einstein condensation of composite diquarks in quark matter (the color superconductor phase) is discussed using the quasichemical equilibrium theory at a relatively low-density region near the deconfinement phase transition, where dynamical quark-pair fluctuations are assumed to be described as bosonic degrees of freedom (diquarks). A general formulation is given for the diquark formation and particle-antiparticle pair-creation processes in the relativistic framework, and some interesting properties are shown, which are characteristic for the relativistic many-body system. Behaviors of transition temperature and phase diagram of the quark-diquark matter are generally presented in model parameter space, and their asymptotic behaviors are also discussed. As an application to the color superconductivity, the transition temperatures and the quark and diquark density profiles are calculated in case with constituent/current quarks, where the diquark is in the bound/resonant state. We obtained T{sub C}{approx}60-80 MeV for constituent quarks and T{sub C}{approx}130 MeV for current quarks at a moderate density ({rho}{sub b}{approx}3{rho}{sub 0}). The method is also developed to include interdiquark interactions into the quasichemical equilibrium theory within a mean-field approximation, and it is found that a possible repulsive diquark-diquark interaction lowers the transition temperature by {approx}50%.

  3. Strongly Interacting Matter at High Energy Density

    SciTech Connect

    McLerran,L.

    2008-09-07

    This lecture concerns the properties of strongly interacting matter (which is described by Quantum Chromodynamics) at very high energy density. I review the properties of matter at high temperature, discussing the deconfinement phase transition. At high baryon density and low temperature, large N{sub c} arguments are developed which suggest that high baryonic density matter is a third form of matter, Quarkyonic Matter, that is distinct from confined hadronic matter and deconfined matter. I finally discuss the Color Glass Condensate which controls the high energy limit of QCD, and forms the low x part of a hadron wavefunction. The Glasma is introduced as matter formed by the Color Glass Condensate which eventually thermalizes into a Quark Gluon Plasma.

  4. Microgravity Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    A one-day, interactive workshop considering the effects of gravity on polymer materials science was held in Cleveland, Ohio, on May 9, 1985. Selected programmatic and technical issues were reviewed to introduce the field to workshop participants. Parallel discussions were conducted in three disciplinary working groups: polymer chemistry, polymer physics, and polymer engineering. This proceedings presents summaries of the workshop discussions and conclusions.

  5. Bose-Einstein Condensation in Extended Microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scharringhausen, Marco; Quantus Team; Rasel, Ernst Maria

    2012-07-01

    The setup and the envisaged experiment timeline of the QUANTUS-III experiment onboard a sounding rocket to be started in the near future are presented. The major intention of QUANTUS-III is the stable generation of a number of Bose-Einstein condensates as a source for atom interferometry during several minutes of microgravity onboard the sounding rocket. Later missions aim at the realization of atom interferoemeters as precursor satellite missions. These condesates will be generated serially, allowing a large number of repeatable tests. Within such Bose-Einstein condensates, millions of atoms lose their identity and can be described by a single macroscopic wave function. During the expansion over several seconds, the atoms form a giant coherent matter wave that is delocalized on a millimeter scale, which represents a promising source for matter-wave interferometry to test the universality of free fall with quantum matter. Cold quantum gases and, in particular, Bose-Einstein condensates represent a new state of matter which is nowadays established in many laboratories. They offer unique insights into a broad range of fundamental physics as well as prospects for novel quantum sensors. Microgravity will substantially extend the science of quantum gases towards nowadays inaccessible regimes at lowest temperatures, to macroscopic dimensions, and to unequalled durations of unperturbed evolution of these distinguished quantum objects. Right now, the QUANTUS-III experiment is in the development phase, taking heritage from QUANTUS-I and QUANTUS-II. Major components of the engineering model are available. Boundary conditions of the rocket, requirements of the experiment and interface considerations are presented. This include laser stabilization, vacuum technology and magnetic shielding. The planned trajectory of the rocket will have an apogee of 200 - 300 km and a total microgravity time of 4 - 7 minutes, both depending on the total experiment mass.

  6. Synthesis of improved moisture resistant polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orell, M. K.

    1979-01-01

    The use of difluoromaleimide-capped prepolymers to provide improved moisture resistant polymers was investigated. Six different prepolymer formulations were prepared by two different methods. One method utilized the PMR approach to polyimides and the second method employed the normal condensation route to provide fully imidized prepolymers. Polymer specimens cured at 450 F exhibited adequate long-term stability in air at 400 F. Moisture absorption studies were conducted on one polymer formulation. Neat Polymer specimens exhibited weight gains of up to 2% (w/w) after exposure to 100% relative humidity at 344K (160 F) for 400 hours.

  7. Interference of Bose-Einstein condensates.

    PubMed

    Band, Y B

    2008-12-18

    A formalism for describing the coherence and interference properties of two atomic clouds of Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC) is presented, which is applicable even in the opposite limits when the BEC clouds are initially coherent and when they are initially independent. First, we develop a mean-field theory wherein one mean-field mode is used, and then, for fragmented (i.e., independent) condensates, we use a mean-field theory with two modes. We then develop a full two-mode field theory, with a field operator composed of a sum of two terms containing matter wave mode functions phi1 and phi2, that multiply the destruction operators of the modes, a1 and a2. When atom-atom interactions are present and when the mode functions overlap, the matter wave mode functions phi1 and phi2 develop components moving to the right and left, and this results in interference fringes in the density. At the many-body level, another source of interference arises from expectation values of the form (a(i)+a(j)) with i double dagger j, which become nonzero due to tunneling and interactions. We detail how these two sources of interference affect the density profile and the density-density correlation functions of Bose-Einstein condensates in the coherent and in the fragmented regimes.

  8. Binary Polymer Brushes of Strongly Immiscible Polymers.

    PubMed

    Chu, Elza; Babar, Tashnia; Bruist, Michael F; Sidorenko, Alexander

    2015-06-17

    The phenomenon of microphase separation is an example of self-assembly in soft matter and has been observed in block copolymers (BCPs) and similar materials (i.e., supramolecular assemblies (SMAs) and homo/block copolymer blends (HBCs)). In this study, we use microphase separation to construct responsive polymer brushes that collapse to generate periodic surfaces. This is achieved by a chemical reaction between the minor block (10%, poly(4-vinylpyridine)) of the block copolymer and a substrate. The major block of polystyrene (PS) forms mosaic-like arrays of grafted patches that are 10-20 nm in size. Depending on the nature of the assembly (SMA, HBC, or neat BCP) and annealing method (exposure to vapors of different solvents or heating above the glass transition temperature), a range of "mosaic" brushes with different parameters can be obtained. Successive grafting of a secondary polymer (polyacrylamide, PAAm) results in the fabrication of binary polymer brushes (BPBs). Upon being exposed to specific selective solvents, BPBs may adopt different conformations. The surface tension and adhesion of the binary brush are governed by the polymer occupying the top stratum. The "mosaic" brush approach allows for a combination of strongly immiscible polymers in one brush. This facilitates substantial contrast in the surface properties upon switching, previously only possible for substrates composed of predetermined nanostructures. We also demonstrate a possible application of such PS/PAAm brushes in a tunable bioadhesion-bioadhesive (PS on top) or nonbioadhesive (PAAm on top) surface as revealed by Escherichia coli bacterial seeding.

  9. Keeping condensers clean

    SciTech Connect

    Wicker, K.

    2006-04-15

    The humble condenser is among the biggest contributors to a steam power plant's efficiency. But although a clean condenser can provide great economic benefit, a dirty one can raise plant heat rate, resulting in large losses of generation revenue and/or unnecessarily high fuel bills. Conventional methods for cleaning fouled tubes range form chemicals to scrapers to brushes and hydro-blasters. This article compares the available options and describes how one power station, Omaha Public Power District's 600 MW North Omaha coal-fired power station, cleaned up its act. The makeup and cooling water of all its five units comes from the Missouri River. 6 figs.

  10. Simple Simulations of DNA Condensation

    SciTech Connect

    STEVENS,MARK J.

    2000-07-12

    Molecular dynamics simulations of a simple, bead-spring model of semiflexible polyelectrolytes such as DNA are performed. All charges are explicitly treated. Starting from extended, noncondensed conformations, condensed structures form in the simulations with tetravalent or trivalent counterions. No condensates form or are stable for divalent counterions. The mechanism by which condensates form is described. Briefly, condensation occurs because electrostatic interactions dominate entropy, and the favored Coulombic structure is a charge ordered state. Condensation is a generic phenomena and occurs for a variety of polyelectrolyte parameters. Toroids and rods are the condensate structures. Toroids form preferentially when the molecular stiffness is sufficiently strong.

  11. Detail of Bright Angel stone vault, containing condenser, Hoffman condensation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of Bright Angel stone vault, containing condenser, Hoffman condensation pump, Jennings vacuum heating pump, and misc. pipes and valves. - Grand Canyon Village Utilities, Grand Canyon National Park, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  12. Noble gas trapping by laboratory carbon condensates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niemeyer, S.; Marti, K.

    1982-01-01

    Trapping of noble gases by carbon-rich matter was investigated by synthesizing carbon condensates in a noble gas atmosphere. Laser evaporation of a solid carbon target yielded submicron grains which proved to be efficient noble gas trappers (Xe distribution coefficients up to 13 cu cm STP/g-atm). The carbon condensates are better noble gas trappers than previously reported synthetic samples, except one, but coefficients inferred for meteoritic acid-residues are still orders of magnitude higher. The trapped noble gases are loosely bound and elementally strongly fractionated, but isotopic fractionations were not detected. Although this experiment does not simulate nebular conditions, the results support the evidence that carbon-rich phases in meteorites may be carriers of noble gases from early solar system reservoirs. The trapped elemental noble gas fractionations are remarkably similar to both those inferred for meteorites and those of planetary atmospheres for earth, Mars and Venus.

  13. Astrophysical Bose-Einstein condensates and superradiance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühnel, Florian; Rampf, Cornelius

    2014-11-01

    We investigate gravitational analogue models to describe slowly rotating objects (e.g., dark-matter halos, or boson stars) in terms of Bose-Einstein condensates, trapped in their own gravitational potentials. We begin with a modified Gross-Pitaevskii equation, and show that the resulting background equations of motion are stable, as long as the rotational component is treated as a small perturbation. The dynamics of the fluctuations of the velocity potential are effectively governed by the Klein-Gordon equation of an "Eulerian metric," where we derive the latter by the use of a relativistic Lagrangian extrapolation. Superradiant scattering on such objects is studied. We derive conditions for its occurrence and estimate its strength. Our investigations might give an observational handle to phenomenologically constrain Bose-Einstein condensates.

  14. Density Density Correlation Function for a Bose-Einstein Condensate Analog Black Hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Paul; Balbinot, Roberto; Fabbri, Alessandro; Parentani, Renaud

    2013-04-01

    The density density correlation function is computed for an analog black hole which consists of a Bose-Einstein condensate with an acoustic horizon. The method used relies only on quantum field theory in curved spacetime techniques. A comparison with the results obtained by ab initio full condensed matter calculations is given, confirming the validity of the approximation used provided the profile of the flow varies smoothly on scales compared to the condensate healing length.

  15. Condensate removal device

    DOEpatents

    Maddox, James W.; Berger, David D.

    1984-01-01

    A condensate removal device is disclosed which incorporates a strainer in unit with an orifice. The strainer is cylindrical with its longitudinal axis transverse to that of the vapor conduit in which it is mounted. The orifice is positioned inside the strainer proximate the end which is remoter from the vapor conduit.

  16. Bose-Einstein condensation on a microelectronic chip.

    PubMed

    Hänsel, W; Hommelhoff, P; Hänsch, T W; Reichel, J

    2001-10-01

    Although Bose-Einstein condensates of ultracold atoms have been experimentally realizable for several years, their formation and manipulation still impose considerable technical challenges. An all-optical technique that enables faster production of Bose-Einstein condensates was recently reported. Here we demonstrate that the formation of a condensate can be greatly simplified using a microscopic magnetic trap on a chip. We achieve Bose-Einstein condensation inside the single vapour cell of a magneto-optical trap in as little as 700 ms-more than a factor of ten faster than typical experiments, and a factor of three faster than the all-optical technique. A coherent matter wave is emitted normal to the chip surface when the trapped atoms are released into free fall; alternatively, we couple the condensate into an 'atomic conveyor belt', which is used to transport the condensed cloud non-destructively over a macroscopic distance parallel to the chip surface. The possibility of manipulating laser-like coherent matter waves with such an integrated atom-optical system holds promise for applications in interferometry, holography, microscopy, atom lithography and quantum information processing.

  17. Bose-Einstein condensation on a microelectronic chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hänsel, W.; Hommelhoff, P.; Hänsch, T. W.; Reichel, J.

    2001-10-01

    Although Bose-Einstein condensates of ultracold atoms have been experimentally realizable for several years, their formation and manipulation still impose considerable technical challenges. An all-optical technique that enables faster production of Bose-Einstein condensates was recently reported. Here we demonstrate that the formation of a condensate can be greatly simplified using a microscopic magnetic trap on a chip. We achieve Bose-Einstein condensation inside the single vapour cell of a magneto-optical trap in as little as 700ms-more than a factor of ten faster than typical experiments, and a factor of three faster than the all-optical technique. A coherent matter wave is emitted normal to the chip surface when the trapped atoms are released into free fall; alternatively, we couple the condensate into an `atomic conveyor belt', which is used to transport the condensed cloud non-destructively over a macroscopic distance parallel to the chip surface. The possibility of manipulating laser-like coherent matter waves with such an integrated atom-optical system holds promise for applications in interferometry, holography, microscopy, atom lithography and quantum information processing.

  18. STRANGE GOINGS ON IN QUARK MATTER.

    SciTech Connect

    SCHAFER,T.

    2001-06-05

    We review recent work on how the superfluid state of three flavor quark matter is affected by non-zero quark masses and chemical potentials. The study of hadronic matter at high baryon density has recently attracted a lot of interest. At zero baryon density chiral symmetry is broken by a quark-anti-quark condensate. At high density condensation in the quark-anti-quark channel is suppressed. Instead, attractive interactions in the color anti-symmetric quark-quark channel favor the formation of diquark condensates. As a consequence, cold dense quark matter is expected to be a color superconductor. The symmetry breaking pattern depends on the density, the number of quark flavors, and their masses. A particularly symmetric phase is the color-flavor-locked (CFL) phase of three flavor quark matter. This phase is believed to be the true ground state of ordinary matter at very large density.

  19. Dark matter and cosmological nucleosynthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, D. N.

    1986-01-01

    Existing dark matter problems, i.e., dynamics, galaxy formation and inflation, are considered, along with a model which proposes dark baryons as the bulk of missing matter in a fractal universe. It is shown that no combination of dark, nonbaryonic matter can either provide a cosmological density parameter value near unity or, as in the case of high energy neutrinos, allow formation of condensed matter at epochs when quasars already existed. The possibility that correlations among galactic clusters are scale-free is discussed. Such a distribution of matter would yield a fractal of 1.2, close to a one-dimensional universe. Biasing, cosmic superstrings, and percolated explosions and hot dark matter are theoretical approaches that would satisfy the D = 1.2 fractal model of the large-scale structure of the universe and which would also allow sufficient dark matter in halos to close the universe.

  20. Manure ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from beef cattle fed condensed tannins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of three levels of condensed tannins fed to 27 beef feed yard steers on ammonia and GHG emissions from manure. Condensed tannins were fed at rates of 0, 0.5 and 1.0 percent on a dry matter basis. Manure and urine were collected from two periods over 6 d...

  1. Exciton-photon correlations in bosonic condensates of exciton-polaritons.

    PubMed

    Kavokin, Alexey V; Sheremet, Alexandra S; Shelykh, Ivan A; Lagoudakis, Pavlos G; Rubo, Yuri G

    2015-07-08

    Exciton-polaritons are mixed light-matter quasiparticles. We have developed a statistical model describing stochastic exciton-photon transitions within a condensate of exciton polaritons. We show that the exciton-photon correlator depends on the rate of incoherent exciton-photon transformations in the condensate. We discuss implications of this effect for the quantum statistics of photons emitted by polariton lasers.

  2. Scanning Cryogenic Magnetometry with a Bose-Einstein Condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lev, Benjamin; Straquadine, Joshua; Yang, Fan

    2016-05-01

    Microscopy techniques co-opted from nonlinear optics and high energy physics have complemented solid-state probes in elucidating exotic order manifest in condensed matter systems. We present a novel scanning magnetometer which adds the techniques of ultracold atomic physics to the condensed matter toolbox. Our device, the Scanning Quantum CRyogenic Atom Microscope (SQCRAMscope) uses a one-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensate of 87 Rb to image magnetic and electric fields near surfaces between room and cryogenic temperatures, and allows for rapid sample changes while retaining UHV compatibility for atomic experiments. We present our characterization of the spatial resolution and magnetic field sensitivity of the device, and discuss the advantages and applications of this magnetometry technique. In particular, we will discuss our plans for performing local transport measurements in technologically relevant materials such as Fe-based superconductors and topological insulators.

  3. On the effects of intercalators in DNA condensation: a force spectroscopy and gel electrophoresis study.

    PubMed

    Rocha, M S; Cavalcante, A G; Silva, R; Ramos, E B

    2014-05-01

    In this work we have characterized the effects of the intercalator ethidium bromide (EtBr) on the DNA condensation process by using force spectroscopy and gel electrophoresis. We have tested two condensing agents: spermine (spm(4+)), a tetravalent cationic amine which promotes cation-induced DNA condensation, and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), a neutral polymer which promotes DNA ψ-condensation. Two different types of experiments were performed. In the first type, bare DNA molecules disperse in solution are first treated with EtBr for intercalation, and then the condensing agent is added to the sample with the purpose of verifying the effects of the intercalator in hindering DNA condensation. In the second experiment type, the bare DNA molecules are first condensed, and then the intercalator is added to the sample in order to verify its influence on the previously condensed DNA. The results obtained with the two different experimental techniques used agree very well, indicating that previously intercalated EtBr can hinder both cation-induced and ψ-condensation, being more efficient in the first case. On the other hand, EtBr has little effect on the previously formed cation-induced condensates, but is efficient in unfolding the ψ-condensates.

  4. Thermalization of gluons with Bose-Einstein condensation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhe; Zhou, Kai; Zhuang, Pengfei; Greiner, Carsten

    2015-05-01

    We study the thermalization of gluons far from thermal equilibrium in relativistic kinetic theory. The initial distribution of gluons is assumed to resemble that in the early stage of ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions. Only elastic scatterings in static, nonexpanding gluonic matter are considered. At first we show that the occurrence of condensation in the limit of vanishing particle mass requires a general constraint for the scattering matrix element. Then the thermalization of gluons with Bose-Einstein condensation is demonstrated in a transport calculation. We see a continuously increasing overpopulation of low energy gluons, followed by a decrease to the equilibrium distribution, when the condensation occurs. The times of the completion of the gluon condensation and of the entropy production are calculated. These times scale inversely with the energy density.

  5. Polyphosphazine-based polymer materials

    DOEpatents

    Fox, Robert V.; Avci, Recep; Groenewold, Gary S.

    2010-05-25

    Methods of removing contaminant matter from porous materials include applying a polymer material to a contaminated surface, irradiating the contaminated surface to cause redistribution of contaminant matter, and removing at least a portion of the polymer material from the surface. Systems for decontaminating a contaminated structure comprising porous material include a radiation device configured to emit electromagnetic radiation toward a surface of a structure, and at least one spray device configured to apply a capture material onto the surface of the structure. Polymer materials that can be used in such methods and systems include polyphosphazine-based polymer materials having polyphosphazine backbone segments and side chain groups that include selected functional groups. The selected functional groups may include iminos, oximes, carboxylates, sulfonates, .beta.-diketones, phosphine sulfides, phosphates, phosphites, phosphonates, phosphinates, phosphine oxides, monothio phosphinic acids, and dithio phosphinic acids.

  6. On the possible role of organic melanoidin polymers as matrices for prebiotic activity.

    PubMed

    Nissenbaum, A; Kenyon, D H; Oro, J

    1975-12-29

    One of the major diagenetic pathways of organic matter in recent sediments involves the condensation of cellular constituents, particularly amino acids and sugars, into insoluble melanoidin-type polymers. These polymers consist mainly of humic and fulvic acids and make up the major part of the organic carbon reservoir in recent sediments. We suggest that a similar set of reactions between abiotically formed amino acids and sugars, and more generally between aldehydes and amines, occurred on a large scale in the prebiotic hydrosphere. The rapid formation of this insoluble polymeric material would have removed the bulk of the dissolved organic carbon from the primitive oceans and would thus have prevented the formation of an "organic soup". Melanoidin polymers have several properties which make them attractive hypothetical precursors of contemporary oxidation-reduction coenzymes: 1. they contain heterocyclic nitrogen compounds similar to the nitrogenous bases; 2. they contain a high concentration of stable free radicals; and 3. they tend to concentrate those heavy metals which play prominent roles in contemporary enzymic redox processes. The prebiotic formation of similar polymers could, therefore, have provided the starting point for a basic class of biochemical reactions. We suggest that the prebiotic scenario involved chemical and protoenzymic reactions at the sediment-ocean interface in relatively shallow waters and under conditions not much different from those of the recent environment.

  7. Thermally resistant polymers for fuel tank sealants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webster, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    Imide-linked perfluoroalkylene ether polymers, that were developed for the high temperature fuel tank sealant application, are discussed. Modifications of polymer structure and properties were realized through use of a new aromatic dianhydride intermediate containing an ether-linked perfluoroalkylene segment. Tests of thermal, oxidative and hydrolytic stability, fuel resistance, and adhesion are discussed along with tensile strength and elongation results. Efforts to effect a low temperature condensation of amic acid prepolymer to form imide links inside are described.

  8. Feshbach-Einstein Condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Rousseau, V. G.; Denteneer, P. J. H.

    2009-01-09

    We investigate the phase diagram of a two-species Bose-Hubbard model describing atoms and molecules on a lattice, interacting via a Feshbach resonance. We identify a region where the system exhibits an exotic super-Mott phase and regions with phases characterized by atomic and/or molecular condensates. Our approach is based on a recently developed exact quantum Monte Carlo algorithm: the stochastic Green function algorithm with tunable directionality. We confirm some of the results predicted by mean-field studies, but we also find disagreement with these studies. In particular, we find a phase with an atomic but no molecular condensate, which is missing in all mean-field phase diagrams.

  9. Multilayer graphene condenser microphone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todorović, Dejan; Matković, Aleksandar; Milićević, Marijana; Jovanović, Djordje; Gajić, Radoš; Salom, Iva; Spasenović, Marko

    2015-12-01

    Vibrating membranes are the cornerstone of acoustic technology, forming the backbone of modern loudspeakers and microphones. Acoustic performance of a condenser microphone is derived mainly from the membrane’s size, surface mass and achievable static tension. The widely studied and available nickel has been a dominant membrane material for professional microphones for several decades. In this paper we introduce multilayer graphene as a membrane material for condenser microphones. The graphene device outperforms a high end commercial nickel-based microphone over a significant part of the audio spectrum, with a larger than 10 dB enhancement of sensitivity. Our experimental results are supported with numerical simulations, which also show that a 300 layer thick graphene membrane under maximum tension would offer excellent extension of the frequency range, up to 1 MHz.

  10. Piezoelectric Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, J. S.; Ounaies, Z.; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to detail the current theoretical understanding of the origin of piezoelectric and ferroelectric phenomena in polymers; to present the state-of-the-art in piezoelectric polymers and emerging material systems that exhibit promising properties; and to discuss key characterization methods, fundamental modeling approaches, and applications of piezoelectric polymers. Piezoelectric polymers have been known to exist for more than forty years, but in recent years they have gained notoriety as a valuable class of smart materials.

  11. Chondrules as condensation products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, J. A.; Mcsween, H. Y., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The formation of meteoritic chondrules via condensation from the primordial solar nebula is discussed. Chondrule formation in regions where the gas/dust ratio was enhanced, and where transient high energy events heated the gas and temporarily vaporized the dust, is advocated. The observed diversity of chondrule types can be understood as resulting from local variations in the initial gas/dust proportions and other parameters.

  12. Process of treating gas condensate

    SciTech Connect

    Hitzel, H.

    1984-11-06

    The sewage consists of gas condensates from coal-gasifying plants and/or coal chemical plants and contains the anions SO/sub 4/--, SCN-, NO/sub 3/-, Cl- and F- in a total of at least 2 mval/l and contains organic matter corresponding to a chemical oxygen demand of at least 1000 mg/l. The sewage is passed through a biological purification stage, and a succeeding fine purification stage. In an anion exchanger, strong anions are exchanged with hydrogen carbonate ions. The water leaving the anion exchange stage has an alkalinity of at least 2 mval/l and is passed at least in part through a cation exchanger before the water is recycled to the sewage. The water which has left the anion exchanger may be used as cooling water in a cooling tower before or after the cation exchanger. Organic acids are used for regeneration in the cation exchanger and the regeneration eluate is added to the sewage which is to be treated in the biological purification stage.

  13. Raman amplification of matter waves

    SciTech Connect

    Schneble, Dominik; Campbell, Gretchen K.; Streed, Erik W.; Boyd, Micah; Pritchard, David E.; Ketterle, Wolfgang

    2004-04-01

    We demonstrate a Raman amplifier for matter waves, where the amplified atoms and the gain medium are in two different hyperfine states. This amplifier is based on a form of superradiance that arises from self-stimulated Raman scattering in a Bose-Einstein condensate.

  14. Dark Matter, the MCSSM and lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Joel Giedt, Anthony Thomas, Ross Young

    2009-11-01

    Recent lattice measurements have given accurate estimates of the quark condensates in the proton. We use these results to significantly improve the dark matter predictions in benchmark models within the constrained minimal supersymmetric standard model. The predicted spin-independent cross sections are at least an order of magnitude smaller than previously suggested and our results have significant consequences for dark matter searches.

  15. Demonstration of Feasibility of X-Ray Free Electron Laser Studies of Dynamics of Nanoparticles in Entangled Polymer Melts

    PubMed Central

    Carnis, Jerome; Cha, Wonsuk; Wingert, James; Kang, Jinback; Jiang, Zhang; Song, Sanghoon; Sikorski, Marcin; Robert, Aymeric; Gutt, Christian; Chen, San-Wen; Dai, Yeling; Ma, Yicong; Guo, Hongyu; Lurio, Laurence B.; Shpyrko, Oleg; Narayanan, Suresh; Cui, Mengmeng; Kosif, Irem; Emrick, Todd; Russell, Thomas P.; Lee, Hae Cheol; Yu, Chung-Jong; Grübel, Gerhard; Sinha, Sunil K.; Kim, Hyunjung

    2014-01-01

    The recent advent of hard x-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) opens new areas of science due to their exceptional brightness, coherence, and time structure. In principle, such sources enable studies of dynamics of condensed matter systems over times ranging from femtoseconds to seconds. However, the studies of “slow” dynamics in polymeric materials still remain in question due to the characteristics of the XFEL beam and concerns about sample damage. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of measuring the relaxation dynamics of gold nanoparticles suspended in polymer melts using X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS), while also monitoring eventual X-ray induced damage. In spite of inherently large pulse-to-pulse intensity and position variations of the XFEL beam, measurements can be realized at slow time scales. The X-ray induced damage and heating are less than initially expected for soft matter materials. PMID:25109363

  16. Does size matter? Study of performance of pseudo-ELISAs based on molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles prepared for analytes of different sizes.

    PubMed

    Cáceres, C; Canfarotta, F; Chianella, I; Pereira, E; Moczko, E; Esen, C; Guerreiro, A; Piletska, E; Whitcombe, M J; Piletsky, S A

    2016-02-21

    The aim of this work is to evaluate whether the size of the analyte used as template for the synthesis of molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles (nanoMIPs) can affect their performance in pseudo-enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (pseudo-ELISAs). Successful demonstration of a nanoMIPs-based pseudo-ELISA for vancomycin (1449.3 g mol(-1)) was demonstrated earlier. In the present investigation, the following analytes were selected: horseradish peroxidase (HRP, 44 kDa), cytochrome C (Cyt C, 12 kDa) biotin (244.31 g mol(-1)) and melamine (126.12 g mol(-1)). NanoMIPs with a similar composition for all analytes were synthesised by persulfate-initiated polymerisation in water. In addition, core-shell nanoMIPs coated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and imprinted for melamine were produced in organics and tested. The polymerisation of the nanoparticles was done using a solid-phase approach with the correspondent template immobilised on glass beads. The performance of the nanoMIPs used as replacement for antibodies in direct pseudo-ELISA (for the enzymes) and competitive pseudo-ELISA for the smaller analytes was investigated. For the competitive mode we rely on competition for the binding to the nanoparticles between free analyte and corresponding analyte-HRP conjugate. The results revealed that the best performances were obtained for nanoMIPs synthesised in aqueous media for the larger analytes. In addition, this approach was successful for biotin but completely failed for the smallest template melamine. This problem was solved using nanoMIP prepared by UV polymerisation in an organic media with a PEG shell. This study demonstrates that the preparation of nanoMIP by solid-phase approach can produce material with high affinity and potential to replace antibodies in ELISA tests for both large and small analytes. This makes this technology versatile and applicable to practically any target analyte and diagnostic field. PMID:26796951

  17. Does size matter? Study of performance of pseudo-ELISAs based on molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles prepared for analytes of different sizes.

    PubMed

    Cáceres, C; Canfarotta, F; Chianella, I; Pereira, E; Moczko, E; Esen, C; Guerreiro, A; Piletska, E; Whitcombe, M J; Piletsky, S A

    2016-02-21

    The aim of this work is to evaluate whether the size of the analyte used as template for the synthesis of molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles (nanoMIPs) can affect their performance in pseudo-enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (pseudo-ELISAs). Successful demonstration of a nanoMIPs-based pseudo-ELISA for vancomycin (1449.3 g mol(-1)) was demonstrated earlier. In the present investigation, the following analytes were selected: horseradish peroxidase (HRP, 44 kDa), cytochrome C (Cyt C, 12 kDa) biotin (244.31 g mol(-1)) and melamine (126.12 g mol(-1)). NanoMIPs with a similar composition for all analytes were synthesised by persulfate-initiated polymerisation in water. In addition, core-shell nanoMIPs coated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and imprinted for melamine were produced in organics and tested. The polymerisation of the nanoparticles was done using a solid-phase approach with the correspondent template immobilised on glass beads. The performance of the nanoMIPs used as replacement for antibodies in direct pseudo-ELISA (for the enzymes) and competitive pseudo-ELISA for the smaller analytes was investigated. For the competitive mode we rely on competition for the binding to the nanoparticles between free analyte and corresponding analyte-HRP conjugate. The results revealed that the best performances were obtained for nanoMIPs synthesised in aqueous media for the larger analytes. In addition, this approach was successful for biotin but completely failed for the smallest template melamine. This problem was solved using nanoMIP prepared by UV polymerisation in an organic media with a PEG shell. This study demonstrates that the preparation of nanoMIP by solid-phase approach can produce material with high affinity and potential to replace antibodies in ELISA tests for both large and small analytes. This makes this technology versatile and applicable to practically any target analyte and diagnostic field.

  18. Photoaddressable Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieringer, T.

    Polymers are the perfect materials for a variety of applications in almost every field of technical as well as human life. Because of their macromolecular architecture there are a lot of degrees of freedom in the synthesis of polymers. Owing to the change of their functional composition, they can be tailored even for quite difficult demands. Since a whole industry deals with the processing of polymers, cheap production lines have been developed for almost every polymer. This is the reason why not only the molecular composition but even the price of polymers has been optimized. Therefore these materials can be considered as encouraging components even in highly sophisticated areas of applications.

  19. Familon model of dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burdyuzha, V.; Lalakulich, O.; Ponomarev, Yu.; Vereshkov, G.

    2004-05-01

    If the next fundamental level of matter occurs (preons), then dark matter must consist of familons containing a 'hot' component from massless particles and a 'cold' component from massive particles. During the evolution of the Universe this dark matter occurred up to late-time relativistic phase transitions the temperatures of which were different. Fluctuations created by these phase transitions had a fractal character. As a result the structuration of dark matter (and therefore the baryon subsystem) occurred, and in the Universe some characteristic scales which have caused this phenomenon arise naturally. Familons are collective excitations of non-perturbative preon condensates that could be produced during an earlier relativistic phase transition. For structuration of dark matter (and the baryon component), three generations of particles are necessary. The first generation of particles produced the observed baryon world. The second and third generations produced dark matter from particles that appeared when symmetry between the generations was spontaneously broken.

  20. CONDENSED MATTER: STRUCTURE, THERMAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES: Numerical study on the thermo-stress of ZrO2 thermal barrier coatings by high-intensity pulsed ion beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Di; Liu, Chen; Zhu Xiao, Peng; Lei, Kai Ming

    2009-11-01

    This paper studies numerically the thermo-mechanical effects of ZrO2 thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) irradiated by a high-intensity pulsed ion beam in consideration of the surface structure. Taking the deposited energy of ion beams in TBCs as the source term in the thermal conduction equation, the distribution of temperature in TBCs was simulated. Then, based on the distribution, the evolution of thermal stress was calculated by the finite element method. The results show that tensile radial stress formed at the valley of TBC surfaces after irradiation by HIPIB. Therefore, if cracks happen, they must be at valleys instead of peaks. As for the stress waves, no matter whether through peak or valley position, tensile and compressive stresses are present alternately inside TBCs along the depth direction, and the strength of stress decreases with time.

  1. Effect of spontaneous condensation on condensation heat transfer in the presence of non-condensable gases

    SciTech Connect

    Karl, J.; Hein, D.

    1999-07-01

    The presence of non condensable gases like nitrogen or air reduces the condensation heat transfer during condensation of binary steam mixtures. The non condensable gas accumulates in the vapor phase boundary layer and causes a high heat transfer resistance. Especially with high pressures and low water temperatures spontaneous condensation reduces heat transfer additionally. Fog forms within the steam-nitrogen boundary layer and the steam condenses on the water droplets of the fog layer. The convective mass transfer to the cooling water interface diminishes. Raman spectroscopy and film theory are used to quantify this effect locally. The calculation of overall condensation rates in large steam nitrogen systems requires to use three dimensional CFD codes. The paper presents equations to predict fog formation in the boundary layer which can be implemented in CFD codes.

  2. A cucurbit[5]uril analogue from dimethylpropanediurea-formaldehyde condensation.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiaoqing; Yao, Xuyang; Huang, Xinghua; Wang, Qiaochun; Tian, He

    2015-02-18

    A new host was prepared for the first time from propanediurea-formaldehyde condensation. is soluble in both water and common organic solvents, and binds protonated amines in a 1 : 2 stoichiometry in H2O with the K1 and K2 values on the order of 10(3) M(-1). The self-assembly of with 1,4-xylylene diamine dihydrochloride results in the formation of a linear supramolecular polymer. PMID:25582698

  3. Deformation in Thin Glassy Polymer Films from Surface towards Interior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Mithun; de Silva, Johann P.; Cross, Graham L. W.

    Polymer thin glassy films occupy an important place in last two decades of condensed matter research, concerning its surprising surface mobility and spatially dependent structural relaxation. However, ranges of cleverly designed indirect measurements on confined polymer glassy films already probed its mechanical properties; it is still a challenging task to directly probe such small confined volume through conventional mechanical testing. We have designed confined layer compression testing with a precisely designed and aligned flat probe during nanoindentation, which was further accompanied with atomic force microscopy. Due to natural confinement from the surrounding material, we show that a state of `uniaxial strain' is created beneath the probe under small axial strains. By this methodology we are able to directly probe uniaxial flows under both anelastic and plastic conditions while doing controlled creep studies at different positions in the film starting from surface towards interior. Depending on the extent of deformation, we found ranges of effects, such as densification, anelastic yield, and plastic yield. Enhanced creep rate upon deformation supports the idea of `deformation induced mobility'. Work performed at Trinity College Dublin.

  4. Thiazolothiazole-linked porous organic polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Xiang; Tian, Chengcheng; Jin, Tian; Wang, Jitong; Mahurin, Shannon Mark; Mei, Wenwen; Xiong, Yan; Hu, Jun; Feng, Xinliang; Liu, Honglai; Dai, Sheng

    2014-10-07

    In this study, thiazolothiazole-linked porous organic polymers have been synthesized from a facile catalyst-free condensation reaction between aldehydes and dithiooxamide under solvothermal conditions. The resultant porous frameworks exhibit a highly selective uptake of CO2 over N2 under ambient conditions.

  5. Thiazolothiazole-linked porous organic polymers

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhu, Xiang; Tian, Chengcheng; Jin, Tian; Wang, Jitong; Mahurin, Shannon Mark; Mei, Wenwen; Xiong, Yan; Hu, Jun; Feng, Xinliang; Liu, Honglai; et al

    2014-10-07

    In this study, thiazolothiazole-linked porous organic polymers have been synthesized from a facile catalyst-free condensation reaction between aldehydes and dithiooxamide under solvothermal conditions. The resultant porous frameworks exhibit a highly selective uptake of CO2 over N2 under ambient conditions.

  6. Confinement Contains Condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; Roberts, Craig D.; Shrock, Robert; Tandy, Peter C.

    2012-03-12

    Dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and its connection to the generation of hadron masses has historically been viewed as a vacuum phenomenon. We argue that confinement makes such a position untenable. If quark-hadron duality is a reality in QCD, then condensates, those quantities that have commonly been viewed as constant empirical mass-scales that fill all spacetime, are instead wholly contained within hadrons; i.e., they are a property of hadrons themselves and expressed, e.g., in their Bethe-Salpeter or light-front wave functions. We explain that this paradigm is consistent with empirical evidence, and incidentally expose misconceptions in a recent Comment.

  7. Expansion in condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Chakrabarti, J.; Sajjad Zahir, M.

    1985-03-01

    We show that the product of local current operators in quantum chromodynamics (QCD), when expanded in terms of condensates, such as psi-barpsi, G/sup a//sub munu/ G/sup a//sub munu/, psi-barGAMMA psipsi-barGAMMApsi, f/sub a/bcG/sup a//sub munu/G/sup b//sub nualpha/ x G/sup c//sub alphamu/, etc., yields a series in Planck's constant. This, however, provides no hint that the higher terms in such an expansion may be less significant.

  8. Excitation spectrum of Bose-Einstein Condensates with modified dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mossman, Maren; Khamehchi, M. A.; Engels, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Bose-Einstein Condensates provide a flexible platform to model a wide variety of condensed matter phenomena. To this goal, Raman dressing schemes and dynamical lattices have emerged as a premier tool, allowing for a modification of the dispersion relation leading to spin-orbit coupling and artificial gauge fields. Using Bragg spectroscopy, we investigate the collective excitation spectrum of BECs with engineered dispersion relations and study consequences of a roton-like minimum that can be softened by changing Raman dressing parameters. We report on the current status and future directions of our experiments. This work is supported by NSF.

  9. Ghost Condensation and Modification of Gravity at Long distances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luty, Markus

    2004-05-01

    This talk will describe the physics of a "ghost condensate", a new kind of cosmological fluid that can fill the universe and give rise to novel gravitational effects. The fluid has a preferred rest frame, but is nonetheless compatible with maximally symmetric spacetimes such as flat space or de Sitter. In the presence of a ghost condensate, gravity is modified in a nontrivial way at large distances and late times. New phenomena include new contributions to dark energy and dark matter, antigravity, new spin-dependent forces, and oscillatory potentials. All of this new physics can be described by a completely explicit and consistent effective field theory.

  10. Condensates in quantum chromodynamics and the cosmological constant

    PubMed Central

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; Shrock, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Casher and Susskind [Casher A, Susskind L (1974) Phys Rev 9:436–460] have noted that in the light-front description, spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking is a property of hadronic wavefunctions and not of the vacuum. Here we show from several physical perspectives that, because of color confinement, quark and gluon condensates in quantum chromodynamics (QCD) are associated with the internal dynamics of hadrons. We discuss condensates using condensed matter analogues, the Anti de Sitter/conformal field theory correspondence, and the Bethe–Salpeter–Dyson–Schwinger approach for bound states. Our analysis is in agreement with the Casher and Susskind model and the explicit demonstration of “in-hadron” condensates by Roberts and coworkers [Maris P, Roberts CD, Tandy PC (1998) Phys Lett B 420:267–273], using the Bethe–Salpeter–Dyson–Schwinger formalism for QCD-bound states. These results imply that QCD condensates give zero contribution to the cosmological constant, because all of the gravitational effects of the in-hadron condensates are already included in the normal contribution from hadron masses.

  11. Quantitative assessment of DNA condensation.

    PubMed

    Trubetskoy, V S; Slattum, P M; Hagstrom, J E; Wolff, J A; Budker, V G

    1999-02-15

    A fluorescent method is proposed for assessing DNA condensation in aqueous solutions with variety of condensing agents. The technique is based on the effect of concentration-dependent self-quenching of covalently bound fluorophores upon DNA collapse. The method allows a more precise determination of charge equivalency in titration experiments with various polycations. The technique's ability to determine the number of DNA molecules that are condensed together in close proximity is under further investigation.

  12. Mitotic chromosome structure and condensation.

    PubMed

    Belmont, Andrew S

    2006-12-01

    Mitotic chromosome structure has been the cell biology equivalent of a 'riddle, wrapped in a mystery, inside an enigma'. Observations that genetic knockout or knockdown of condensin subunits or topoisomerase II cause only minimal perturbation in overall chromosome condensation, together with analysis of early stages of chromosome condensation and effects produced by histone H1 depletion, suggest a need to reconsider textbook models of mitotic chromosome condensation and organization. PMID:17046228

  13. Colloidal stability of CeO2 nanoparticles coated with either natural organic matter or organic polymers under various hydrochemical conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dippon, Urs; Pabst, Silke; Klitzke, Sondra

    2016-04-01

    The worldwide marked for engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) is growing and concerns on the environmental fate- and toxicity of ENPs are rising. Understanding the transport of ENPs within and between environmental compartments such as surface water and groundwater is crucial for exposition modeling, risk assessment and ultimately the protection of drinking water resources. The transport of ENPs is strongly influenced by the surface properties and aggregation behavior of the particles, which is strongly controlled by synthetic and natural organic coatings. Both, surface properties and aggregation characteristics are also key properties for the industrial application of ENPs, which leads to the development and commercialization of an increasing number of surface-functionalized ENPs. These include metals and oxides such as Cerium dioxide (CeO2) with various organic coatings. Therefore, we investigate CeO2 ENPs with different surface coatings such as weakly anionic polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) or strongly anionic poly acrylic acid (PAA) with respect to their colloidal stability in aqueous matrix under various hydrochemical conditions (pH, ionic strength) and their transport behavior in sand filter columns. Furthermore, we investigate the interaction of naturally occurring organic matter (NOM) with CeO2 ENPs and its effect on surface charge (zeta potential), colloidal stability and transport. While uncoated CeO2 ENPs aggregate at pH > 4 in aqueous matrix, our results show that PAA and PVA surface coatings as well as NOM sorbed to CeO2-NP surfaces can stabilize CeO2 ENPs under neutral and alkaline pH conditions in 1 mM KCl solution. Under slightly acidic conditions, differences between the three particle types were observed. PVA can stabilize particle suspensions in presence of 1 mM KCl at pH > 4.3, PAA at pH >4.0 and NOM at >3.2. While the presence of KCl did not influence particle size of NOM-CeO2 ENPs, CaCl2 at >2 mM lead to aggregation. Further results on the influence of KCl

  14. Strange Disoriented Chiral Condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Aziz, Mohamed; Gavin, Sean

    2002-10-01

    Enhancement of omega and anti-omega baryon production in Pb+Pb collisions at the CERN SPS can be explained by the formation of many small regions of disordered chiral condensate. This explanation implies that neutral and charged kaons as well as pions must exhibit novel isospin fluctuations. Fluctuations due to transient behavior of the Polyakov Loop condensate can produce similar phenomena. Kapusta and Gavin have computed the distribution of the fraction of neutral pions and kaons from such regions. We proposed robust statistical observables that can be used to extract the novel isospin fluctuations from background contributions in neutral/charged pion and K-short/K-charged correlation measurements at RHIC and LHC. The STAR experiment is currently examining K-short/K-charged correlations. Note that Pruneau, Voloshin and Gavin have proposed similar observables to study net-charge fluctuations. To obtain a baseline for comparison to RHIC and SPS experiments, Abdel-Aziz and Gavin compute these observables using numerical simulations using HIJING and URQMD event generators. We also obtain limits on the size and number of disordered regions by comparing to photon and charged-pion searches from WA98 and other SPS experiments. We will compare to the first results from STAR K-short/K-charged analysis.

  15. Polymer adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joanny, Jean-Francois

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this talk is to review Pierre-Gilles deGennes' work on polymer adsorption and the impact that it has now in our understanding of this problem. We will first present the self-consistent mean-field theory and its applications to adsorption and depletion. De Gennes most important contribution is probably the derivation of the self-similar power law density profile for adsorbed polymer layers that we will present next, emphasizing the differences between the tail sections and the loop sections of the adsorbed polymers. We will then discuss the kinetics of polymer adsorption and the penetration of a new polymer chain in an adsobed layer that DeGennes described very elegantly in analogy with a quantum tunneling problem. Finally, we will discuss the role of polymer adsorption for colloid stabilization.

  16. Dynamics of Spin-Orbit Coupled Bose-Einstein Condensates in a Random Potential.

    PubMed

    Mardonov, Sh; Modugno, M; Sherman, E Ya

    2015-10-30

    Disorder plays a crucial role in spin dynamics in solids and condensed matter systems. We demonstrate that for a spin-orbit coupled Bose-Einstein condensate in a random potential two mechanisms of spin evolution that can be characterized as "precessional" and "anomalous" are at work simultaneously. The precessional mechanism, typical for solids, is due to the condensate displacement. The unconventional anomalous mechanism is due to the spin-dependent velocity producing the distribution of the condensate spin polarization. The condensate expansion is accompanied by a random displacement and fragmentation, where it becomes sparse, as clearly revealed in the spin dynamics. Thus, different stages of the evolution can be characterized by looking at the condensate spin.

  17. Dynamics of Spin-Orbit Coupled Bose-Einstein Condensates in a Random Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mardonov, Sh.; Modugno, M.; Sherman, E. Ya.

    2015-10-01

    Disorder plays a crucial role in spin dynamics in solids and condensed matter systems. We demonstrate that for a spin-orbit coupled Bose-Einstein condensate in a random potential two mechanisms of spin evolution that can be characterized as "precessional" and "anomalous" are at work simultaneously. The precessional mechanism, typical for solids, is due to the condensate displacement. The unconventional anomalous mechanism is due to the spin-dependent velocity producing the distribution of the condensate spin polarization. The condensate expansion is accompanied by a random displacement and fragmentation, where it becomes sparse, as clearly revealed in the spin dynamics. Thus, different stages of the evolution can be characterized by looking at the condensate spin.

  18. Polymer Chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha; Roberson, Luke; Caraccio, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes new technologies in polymer and material chemistry that benefits NASA programs and missions. The topics include: 1) What are Polymers?; 2) History of Polymer Chemistry; 3) Composites/Materials Development at KSC; 4) Why Wiring; 5) Next Generation Wiring Materials; 6) Wire System Materials and Integration; 7) Self-Healing Wire Repair; 8) Smart Wiring Summary; 9) Fire and Polymers; 10) Aerogel Technology; 11) Aerogel Composites; 12) Aerogels for Oil Remediation; 13) KSC's Solution; 14) Chemochromic Hydrogen Sensors; 15) STS-130 and 131 Operations; 16) HyperPigment; 17) Antimicrobial Materials; 18) Conductive Inks Formulations for Multiple Applications; and 19) Testing and Processing Equipment.

  19. Star Polymers.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jing M; McKenzie, Thomas G; Fu, Qiang; Wong, Edgar H H; Xu, Jiangtao; An, Zesheng; Shanmugam, Sivaprakash; Davis, Thomas P; Boyer, Cyrille; Qiao, Greg G

    2016-06-22

    Recent advances in controlled/living polymerization techniques and highly efficient coupling chemistries have enabled the facile synthesis of complex polymer architectures with controlled dimensions and functionality. As an example, star polymers consist of many linear polymers fused at a central point with a large number of chain end functionalities. Owing to this exclusive structure, star polymers exhibit some remarkable characteristics and properties unattainable by simple linear polymers. Hence, they constitute a unique class of technologically important nanomaterials that have been utilized or are currently under audition for many applications in life sciences and nanotechnologies. This article first provides a comprehensive summary of synthetic strategies towards star polymers, then reviews the latest developments in the synthesis and characterization methods of star macromolecules, and lastly outlines emerging applications and current commercial use of star-shaped polymers. The aim of this work is to promote star polymer research, generate new avenues of scientific investigation, and provide contemporary perspectives on chemical innovation that may expedite the commercialization of new star nanomaterials. We envision in the not-too-distant future star polymers will play an increasingly important role in materials science and nanotechnology in both academic and industrial settings.

  20. Silicate condensation in Mira variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gail, Hans-Peter; Scholz, Michael; Pucci, Annemarie

    2016-06-01

    Context. The formation of dust in winds of cool and highly evolved stars and the rate of injection of dust into the interstellar medium is not yet completely understood, despite the importance of the process for the evolution of stars and galaxies. This holds in particular for oxygen-rich stars, where it is still not known which process is responsible for the formation of the necessary seed particles of their silicate dust. Aims: We study whether the condensation of silicate dust in Mira envelopes could be caused by cluster formation by the abundant SiO molecules. Methods: We solve the dust nucleation and growth equations in the co-moving frame of a fixed mass element for a simplified model of the pulsational motions of matter in the outer layers of a Mira variable, which is guided by a numerical model for Mira pulsations. It is assumed that seed particles form through the clustering of SiO. The calculation of the nucleation rate is based on published experimental data. The quantity of dust formed is calculated via a moment method and the calculation of radiation pressure on dusty gas is based on a dirty silicate model. Results: Dust nucleation occurs in the model at the upper culmination of the trajectory of a gas parcel where it stays for a considerable time at low temperatures. Subsequent dust growth occurs during the descending part of the motion and continues after the next shock reversed motion. It is found that sufficient dust forms that radiation pressure exceeds the gravitational pull of the stars such that the mass element is finally driven out of the star. Conclusions: Nucleation of dust particles by clustering of the abundant SiO molecules could be the mechanism that triggers silicate dust formation in Miras.

  1. Condensation Processes in Geothermal Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norman, D. I.; Moore, J. N.

    2005-12-01

    We model condensation processes in geothermal systems to understand how this process changes fluid chemistry. We assume two processes operate in geothermal systems: 1) condensation of a vapor phase derived by boiling an aqueous geothermal fluid into a cool near surface water and 2) condensation of a magmatic vapor by a deep circulating meteoric thermal fluid. It is assumed that the condensation process has two stages. Initially the condensing fluid is under saturated in gaseous species. Condensation of the vapor phase continues until the pressure on the fluid equals the sum of the partial pressures of water and the dissolved gaseous species. At that time bubbles flux through the condensing fluid. In time the fluid and fluxing gas phase come to equilibrium. Calculation shows that during the second stage of the condensation process the liquid phase becomes enriched in more soluble gaseous species like CO2 and H2S, and depleted in less soluble species like CH4 and N2. Stage 2 condensation processes can therefore be monitored by ratios of more and less condensable species like CO2/N2. Condensation of vapor released by boiling geothermal fluids results in liquids with high concentrations of H2S and CO2 like is seen in geothermal system steam-heated waters. Condensation of a magmatic vapor into circulating meteoric water has been proposed, but not well demonstrated. We compare to our models the Cerro Prieto, Mexico gas analysis data set collected over twelve years time by USGS personnel. It was assumed for modeling that the Cerro Prieto geothermal fluids are circulating meteoritic fluids with N2/Ar ratios about 40 to which is added a magmatic vapor with N2/Ar ratio = 400. The Cerro Prieto analyses show a strong correlation between N2/Ar and CO2/N2 as predicted by calculation. Two dimensional image plots of well N2/Ar + CO2/N2 show a bull's-eye pattern on the geothermal field. Image plots of analyses collected over a year or less time show N2/Ar and CO2/N2 hot spots

  2. Phase transition analogous to Bose-Einstein condensation in systems of noninteracting surfactant aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuesta, José A.; Sear, Richard P.

    2002-03-01

    Ideal bosons and a classical system of monomers that aggregate forming noninteracting ring polymers are known to have the same partition function. So, the ring polymers have a phase transition, the analogue of Bose-Einstein condensation of bosons. At this phase transition macroscopic polymers are formed. The link between these systems is made via Feynman's path integrals: these integrals are the same for the trajectories of the bosons in imaginary time and for the configurations of the polymers. We show that a transition of this general form occurs within a whole class of aggregating systems. Examples are the lamellae formation in suspensions of disclike micelles or the emulsification failure observed in water-oil-surfactant emulsions. As with bosons, the transition occurs even when aggregates do not interact. The λ-transition in 4He is believed to be Bose-Einstein condensation modified by interatomic interactions. We suggest that interaggregate interactions too only modify the transition we have found.

  3. Condenser for photolithography system

    SciTech Connect

    Sweatt, William C.

    2004-03-02

    A condenser for a photolithography system, in which a mask image from a mask is projected onto a wafer through a camera having an entrance pupil, includes a source of propagating radiation, a first mirror illuminated by the radiation, a mirror array illuminated by the radiation reflected from said first mirror, and a second mirror illuminated by the radiation reflected from the array. The mirror array includes a plurality of micromirrors. Each of the micromirrors is selectively actuatable independently of each other. The first mirror and the second mirror are disposed such that the source is imaged onto a plane of the mask and the mirror array is imaged into the entrance pupil of the camera.

  4. Microgravity condensing heat exchanger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Christopher M. (Inventor); Ma, Yonghui (Inventor); North, Andrew (Inventor); Weislogel, Mark M. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A heat exchanger having a plurality of heat exchanging aluminum fins with hydrophilic condensing surfaces which are stacked and clamped between two cold plates. The cold plates are aligned radially along a plane extending through the axis of a cylindrical duct and hold the stacked and clamped portions of the heat exchanging fins along the axis of the cylindrical duct. The fins extend outwardly from the clamped portions along approximately radial planes. The spacing between fins is symmetric about the cold plates, and are somewhat more closely spaced as the angle they make with the cold plates approaches 90.degree.. Passageways extend through the fins between vertex spaces which provide capillary storage and communicate with passageways formed in the stacked and clamped portions of the fins, which communicate with water drains connected to a pump externally to the duct. Water with no entrained air is drawn from the capillary spaces.

  5. Soft matter in hard confinement: phase transition thermodynamics, structure, texture, diffusion and flow in nanoporous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Patrick

    2015-03-01

    Spatial confinement in nanoporous media affects the structure, thermodynamics and mobility of molecular soft matter often markedly. This article reviews thermodynamic equilibrium phenomena, such as physisorption, capillary condensation, crystallisation, self-diffusion, and structural phase transitions as well as selected aspects of the emerging field of spatially confined, non-equilibrium physics, i.e. the rheology of liquids, capillarity-driven flow phenomena, and imbibition front broadening in nanoporous materials. The observations in the nanoscale systems are related to the corresponding bulk phenomenologies. The complexity of the confined molecular species is varied from simple building blocks, like noble gas atoms, normal alkanes and alcohols to liquid crystals, polymers, ionic liquids, proteins and water. Mostly, experiments with mesoporous solids of alumina, gold, carbon, silica, and silicon with pore diameters ranging from a few up to 50 nm are presented. The observed peculiarities of nanopore-confined condensed matter are also discussed with regard to applications. A particular emphasis is put on texture formation upon crystallisation in nanoporous media, a topic both of high fundamental interest and of increasing nanotechnological importance, e.g. for the synthesis of organic/inorganic hybrid materials by melt infiltration, the usage of nanoporous solids in crystal nucleation or in template-assisted electrochemical deposition of nano structures.

  6. Soft matter in hard confinement: phase transition thermodynamics, structure, texture, diffusion and flow in nanoporous media.

    PubMed

    Huber, Patrick

    2015-03-18

    Spatial confinement in nanoporous media affects the structure, thermodynamics and mobility of molecular soft matter often markedly. This article reviews thermodynamic equilibrium phenomena, such as physisorption, capillary condensation, crystallisation, self-diffusion, and structural phase transitions as well as selected aspects of the emerging field of spatially confined, non-equilibrium physics, i.e. the rheology of liquids, capillarity-driven flow phenomena, and imbibition front broadening in nanoporous materials. The observations in the nanoscale systems are related to the corresponding bulk phenomenologies. The complexity of the confined molecular species is varied from simple building blocks, like noble gas atoms, normal alkanes and alcohols to liquid crystals, polymers, ionic liquids, proteins and water. Mostly, experiments with mesoporous solids of alumina, gold, carbon, silica, and silicon with pore diameters ranging from a few up to 50 nm are presented. The observed peculiarities of nanopore-confined condensed matter are also discussed with regard to applications. A particular emphasis is put on texture formation upon crystallisation in nanoporous media, a topic both of high fundamental interest and of increasing nanotechnological importance, e.g. for the synthesis of organic/inorganic hybrid materials by melt infiltration, the usage of nanoporous solids in crystal nucleation or in template-assisted electrochemical deposition of nano structures.

  7. Amine catalyzed condensation of tetraethylorthosilicate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, S.

    2001-01-01

    The catalysis of the condensation of hydrolyzed metal alkoxides by amines has been mentioned in the literature, but there has been no systematic study of their influence on the rate of the condensation reaction of the alkoxide and the microstructure of the resultant gel.

  8. Multiphase Equations of State for Polymer Materials at High Dynamic Pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khishchenko, Konstantin V.

    2015-06-01

    Equations of state for materials over a wide range of pressures and temperatures are necessary for numerical simulations of shock-wave processes in condensed matter. Accuracy of calculation results is determined mainly by adequacy of equation of state of a medium. In this work, a new multiphase equation-of-state model is proposed with taking into account the polymorphic phase transformations, melting and evaporation. Thermodynamic calculations are carried out for 2 polymer materials (polymethylmethacrylate and polytetrafluoroethylene) in a broad region of the phase diagram. Obtained results are presented in comparison with available data of experiments at high dynamic pressures in shock and release waves. This work is supported by RSF, Grant 14-50-00124.

  9. Organic particulate matter formation at varying relative humidity using surrogate secondary and primary organic compounds with activity corrections in the condensed phase obtained using a method based on the Wilson equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, E. I.; Pankow, J. F.

    2010-06-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation in the atmosphere is currently often modeled using a multiple lumped "two-product" (N·2p) approach. The N·2p approach neglects: 1) variation of activity coefficient (ζi) values and mean molecular weight MW in the particulate matter (PM) phase; 2) water uptake into the PM; and 3) the possibility of phase separation in the PM. This study considers these effects by adopting an (N·2p)ζpMW,ζ approach (θ is a phase index). Specific chemical structures are assigned to 25 lumped SOA compounds and to 15 representative primary organic aerosol (POA) compounds to allow calculation of ζi and MW values. The SOA structure assignments are based on chamber-derived 2p gas/particle partition coefficient values coupled with known effects of structure on vapor pressure pL,io (atm). To facilitate adoption of the (N·2p)ζpMW,θ approach in large-scale models, this study also develops CP-Wilson.1 (Chang-Pankow-Wilson.1), a group-contribution ζi-prediction method that is more computationally economical than the UNIFAC model of Fredenslund et al. (1975). Group parameter values required by CP-Wilson.1 are obtained by fitting ζi values to predictions from UNIFAC. The (N·2p)ζpMW,θ approach is applied (using CP-Wilson.1) to several real α-pinene/O3 chamber cases for high reacted hydrocarbon levels (ΔHC≈400 to 1000 μg m-3) when relative humidity (RH) ≍50%. Good agreement between the chamber and predicted results is obtained using both the (N·2p)ζpMW,θ and N·2p approaches, indicating relatively small water effects under these conditions. However, for a hypothetical α-pinene/O3 case at ΔHC=30 μg m-3 and

  10. Polymers & People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lentz, Linda; Robinson, Thomas; Martin, Elizabeth; Miller, Mary; Ashburn, Norma

    2004-01-01

    Each Tuesday during the fall of 2002, teams of high school students from three South Carolina counties conducted a four-hour polymer institute for their peers. In less than two months, over 300 students visited the Charleston County Public Library in Charleston, South Carolina, to explore DNA, nylon, rubber, gluep, and other polymers. Teams of…

  11. Coherent control of optical information with matter wave dynamics.

    PubMed

    Ginsberg, Naomi S; Garner, Sean R; Hau, Lene Vestergaard

    2007-02-01

    In recent years, significant progress has been achieved in manipulating matter with light, and light with matter. Resonant laser fields interacting with cold, dense atom clouds provide a particularly rich system. Such light fields interact strongly with the internal electrons of the atoms, and couple directly to external atomic motion through recoil momenta imparted when photons are absorbed and emitted. Ultraslow light propagation in Bose-Einstein condensates represents an extreme example of resonant light manipulation using cold atoms. Here we demonstrate that a slow light pulse can be stopped and stored in one Bose-Einstein condensate and subsequently revived from a totally different condensate, 160 mum away; information is transferred through conversion of the optical pulse into a travelling matter wave. In the presence of an optical coupling field, a probe laser pulse is first injected into one of the condensates where it is spatially compressed to a length much shorter than the coherent extent of the condensate. The coupling field is then turned off, leaving the atoms in the first condensate in quantum superposition states that comprise a stationary component and a recoiling component in a different internal state. The amplitude and phase of the spatially localized light pulse are imprinted on the recoiling part of the wavefunction, which moves towards the second condensate. When this 'messenger' atom pulse is embedded in the second condensate, the system is re-illuminated with the coupling laser. The probe light is driven back on and the messenger pulse is coherently added to the matter field of the second condensate by way of slow-light-mediated atomic matter-wave amplification. The revived light pulse records the relative amplitude and phase between the recoiling atomic imprint and the revival condensate. Our results provide a dramatic demonstration of coherent optical information processing with matter wave dynamics. Such quantum control may find

  12. APPARATUS FOR CONDENSATION AND SUBLIMATION

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, R.J.; Fuis, F. Jr.

    1958-10-01

    An apparatus is presented for the sublimation and condensation of uranium compounds in order to obtain an improved crystalline structure of this material. The apparatus comprises a vaporizing chamber and condensing structure connected thereto. There condenser is fitted with a removable liner having a demountable baffle attached to the liner by means of brackets and a removable pin. The baffle is of spiral cross-section and is provided with cooling coils disposed between the surfaces of the baffle for circulation of a temperature controlling liquid within the baffle. The cooling coll provides for controlllng the temperature of the baffle to insure formatlon of a satisfactory condensate, and the removable liner facilitates the removal of condensate formed during tbe sublimation process.

  13. HEAVY ION COLLISIONS AND NEW FORMS OF MATTER

    SciTech Connect

    MCLERRAN,L.

    2007-07-02

    I discuss forms of high energy density matter in QCD. These include the Color Glass Condensate, the Glasma and the Quark Gluon Plasma. These all might be studied in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions, and the Color Glass Condensate might also be probed in electron-hadron collisions. I present the properties of such matter, and some aspects of what is known of their properties.

  14. Water condensation: a multiscale phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Kasper Risgaard; Fojan, Peter; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Gurevich, Leonid

    2014-02-01

    The condensation of water is a phenomenon occurring in multiple situations in everyday life, e.g., when fog is formed or when dew forms on the grass or on windows. This means that this phenomenon plays an important role within the different fields of science including meteorology, building physics, and chemistry. In this review we address condensation models and simulations with the main focus on heterogeneous condensation of water. The condensation process is, at first, described from a thermodynamic viewpoint where the nucleation step is described by the classical nucleation theory. Further, we address the shortcomings of the thermodynamic theory in describing the nucleation and emphasize the importance of nanoscale effects. This leads to the description of condensation from a molecular viewpoint. Also presented is how the nucleation can be simulated by use of molecular models, and how the condensation process is simulated on the macroscale using computational fluid dynamics. Finally, examples of hybrid models combining molecular and macroscale models for the simulation of condensation on a surface are presented.

  15. Condensation in Nanoporous Packed Beds.

    PubMed

    Ally, Javed; Molla, Shahnawaz; Mostowfi, Farshid

    2016-05-10

    In materials with tiny, nanometer-scale pores, liquid condensation is shifted from the bulk saturation pressure observed at larger scales. This effect is called capillary condensation and can block pores, which has major consequences in hydrocarbon production, as well as in fuel cells, catalysis, and powder adhesion. In this study, high pressure nanofluidic condensation studies are performed using propane and carbon dioxide in a colloidal crystal packed bed. Direct visualization allows the extent of condensation to be observed, as well as inference of the pore geometry from Bragg diffraction. We show experimentally that capillary condensation depends on pore geometry and wettability because these factors determine the shape of the menisci that coalesce when pore filling occurs, contrary to the typical assumption that all pore structures can be modeled as cylindrical and perfectly wetting. We also observe capillary condensation at higher pressures than has been done previously, which is important because many applications involving this phenomenon occur well above atmospheric pressure, and there is little, if any, experimental validation of capillary condensation at such pressures, particularly with direct visualization.

  16. Epimerization in peptide thioester condensation.

    PubMed

    Teruya, Kenta; Tanaka, Takeyuki; Kawakami, Toru; Akaji, Kenichi; Aimoto, Saburo

    2012-11-01

    Peptide segment couplings are now widely utilized in protein chemical synthesis. One of the key structures for the strategy is the peptide thioester. Peptide thioester condensation, in which a C-terminal peptide thioester is selectively activated by silver ions then condensed with an amino component, is a powerful tool. But the amino acid adjacent to the thioester is at risk of epimerization. During the preparation of peptide thioesters by the Boc solid-phase method, no substantial epimerization of the C-terminal amino acid was detected. Epimerization was, however, observed during a thioester-thiol exchange reaction and segment condensation in DMSO in the presence of a base. In contrast, thioester-thiol exchange reactions in aqueous solutions gave no epimerization. The epimerization during segment condensation was significantly suppressed with a less polar solvent that is applicable to segments in thioester peptide condensation. These results were applied to a longer peptide thioester condensation. The epimer content of the coupling product of 89 residues was reduced from 27% to 6% in a condensation between segments of 45 and 44 residues for the thioester and the amino component, respectively.

  17. Characterization of spacecraft humidity condensate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muckle, Susan; Schultz, John R.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1994-01-01

    When construction of Space Station Freedom reaches the Permanent Manned Capability (PMC) stage, the Water Recovery and Management Subsystem will be fully operational such that (distilled) urine, spent hygiene water, and humidity condensate will be reclaimed to provide water of potable quality. The reclamation technologies currently baselined to process these waste waters include adsorption, ion exchange, catalytic oxidation, and disinfection. To ensure that the baseline technologies will be able to effectively remove those compounds presenting a health risk to the crew, the National Research Council has recommended that additional information be gathered on specific contaminants in waste waters representative of those to be encountered on the Space Station. With the application of new analytical methods and the analysis of waste water samples more representative of the Space Station environment, advances in the identification of the specific contaminants continue to be made. Efforts by the Water and Food Analytical Laboratory at JSC were successful in enlarging the database of contaminants in humidity condensate. These efforts have not only included the chemical characterization of condensate generated during ground-based studies, but most significantly the characterization of cabin and Spacelab condensate generated during Shuttle missions. The analytical results presented in this paper will be used to show how the composition of condensate varies amongst enclosed environments and thus the importance of collecting condensate from an environment close to that of the proposed Space Station. Although advances were made in the characterization of space condensate, complete characterization, particularly of the organics, requires further development of analytical methods.

  18. The evolutionary design of condensers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bejan, A.; Lee, J.; Lorente, S.; Kim, Y.

    2015-03-01

    Condensers are flow architectures needed to provide high rates of condensation (or cooling) per unit volume, in enclosures with fixed volume. Their design has not changed from configurations consisting of the banks of horizontal tubes. In this paper, we outline a free path to evolving the design by exploring new features of flow configuration: flattened tubes, multiple tube sizes, arrays of flattened tubes, vertical tubes with turbulent film flow, forced convection condensation instead of gravity driven condensation, and the optimal length of a horizontal tube, i.e., the number of tubes in a column aligned with vapor cross flow. We show that the condensation density can be increased sizably by varying freely and without bias the morphology of the flow system: the shapes and arrangement of the cooled surfaces on which condensation occurs. The evolution of technology is described in terms of the special time direction of the useful (purposeful) changes in the configuration (shapes, arrangements) of surfaces on which flow/condensation occurs. This explains what "evolution" means. It is an important step for physics, not just technology.

  19. Condensation in Nanoporous Packed Beds.

    PubMed

    Ally, Javed; Molla, Shahnawaz; Mostowfi, Farshid

    2016-05-10

    In materials with tiny, nanometer-scale pores, liquid condensation is shifted from the bulk saturation pressure observed at larger scales. This effect is called capillary condensation and can block pores, which has major consequences in hydrocarbon production, as well as in fuel cells, catalysis, and powder adhesion. In this study, high pressure nanofluidic condensation studies are performed using propane and carbon dioxide in a colloidal crystal packed bed. Direct visualization allows the extent of condensation to be observed, as well as inference of the pore geometry from Bragg diffraction. We show experimentally that capillary condensation depends on pore geometry and wettability because these factors determine the shape of the menisci that coalesce when pore filling occurs, contrary to the typical assumption that all pore structures can be modeled as cylindrical and perfectly wetting. We also observe capillary condensation at higher pressures than has been done previously, which is important because many applications involving this phenomenon occur well above atmospheric pressure, and there is little, if any, experimental validation of capillary condensation at such pressures, particularly with direct visualization. PMID:27115446

  20. Steam generators, turbines, and condensers. Volume six

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Volume six covers steam generators (How steam is generated, steam generation in a PWR, vertical U-tube steam generators, once-through steam generators, how much steam do steam generators make.), turbines (basic turbine principles, impulse turbines, reaction turbines, turbine stages, turbine arrangements, turbine steam flow, steam admission to turbines, turbine seals and supports, turbine oil system, generators), and condensers (need for condensers, basic condenser principles, condenser arrangements, heat transfer in condensers, air removal from condensers, circulating water system, heat loss to the circulating water system, factors affecting condenser performance, condenser auxiliaries).

  1. When matter matters

    SciTech Connect

    Easson, Damien A.; Sawicki, Ignacy; Vikman, Alexander E-mail: ignacy.sawicki@uni-heidelberg.de

    2013-07-01

    We study a recently proposed scenario for the early universe:Subluminal Galilean Genesis. We prove that without any other matter present in the spatially flat Friedmann universe, the perturbations of the Galileon scalar field propagate with a speed at most equal to the speed of light. This proof applies to all cosmological solutions — to the whole phase space. However, in a more realistic situation, when one includes any matter which is not directly coupled to the Galileon, there always exists a region of phase space where these perturbations propagate superluminally, indeed with arbitrarily high speed. We illustrate our analytic proof with numerical computations. We discuss the implications of this result for the possible UV completion of the model.

  2. Polymer nanolithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vance, Jennifer M.

    Nanolithography involves making patterns of materials with at least one dimension less than 100 nanometers. Surprisingly, writable CDs can provide polymer nanostructures for pennies a piece. Building on work previously done in the Drain lab, with an inherited home-built oven press, this research will explore the relationships between polymer chemical reactivity, polymer printing, and material surface energies. In addition, a relatively inexpensive entry point into high school and undergraduate education in nanolithography is presented. The ability to pattern cheaply at the nanoscale and microscale is necessary and attractive for many technologies towards biosensors, organic light emitting diodes, identification tags, layered devices, and transistors.

  3. Strongly Interacting Matter Matter at Very High Energy Density: 3 Lectures in Zakopane

    SciTech Connect

    McLerran, L.

    2010-06-09

    These lectures concern the properties of strongly interacting matter at very high energy density. I begin with the Color Glass Condensate and the Glasma, matter that controls the earliest times in hadronic collisions. I then describe the Quark Gluon Plasma, matter produced from the thermalized remnants of the Glasma. Finally, I describe high density baryonic matter, in particular Quarkyonic matter. The discussion will be intuitive and based on simple structural aspects of QCD. There will be some discussion of experimental tests of these ideas.

  4. Coupled counterrotating polariton condensates in optically defined annular potentials.

    PubMed

    Dreismann, Alexander; Cristofolini, Peter; Balili, Ryan; Christmann, Gabriel; Pinsker, Florian; Berloff, Natasha G; Hatzopoulos, Zacharias; Savvidis, Pavlos G; Baumberg, Jeremy J

    2014-06-17

    Polariton condensates are macroscopic quantum states formed by half-matter half-light quasiparticles, thus connecting the phenomena of atomic Bose-Einstein condensation, superfluidity, and photon lasing. Here we report the spontaneous formation of such condensates in programmable potential landscapes generated by two concentric circles of light. The imposed geometry supports the emergence of annular states that extend up to 100 μm, yet are fully coherent and exhibit a spatial structure that remains stable for minutes at a time. These states exhibit a petal-like intensity distribution arising due to the interaction of two superfluids counterpropagating in the circular waveguide defined by the optical potential. In stark contrast to annular modes in conventional lasing systems, the resulting standing wave patterns exhibit only minimal overlap with the pump laser itself. We theoretically describe the system using a complex Ginzburg-Landau equation, which indicates why the condensate wants to rotate. Experimentally, we demonstrate the ability to precisely control the structure of the petal condensates both by carefully modifying the excitation geometry as well as perturbing the system on ultrafast timescales to reveal unexpected superfluid dynamics. PMID:24889642

  5. Coupled counterrotating polariton condensates in optically defined annular potentials

    PubMed Central

    Dreismann, Alexander; Cristofolini, Peter; Balili, Ryan; Christmann, Gabriel; Pinsker, Florian; Berloff, Natasha G.; Hatzopoulos, Zacharias; Savvidis, Pavlos G.; Baumberg, Jeremy J.

    2014-01-01

    Polariton condensates are macroscopic quantum states formed by half-matter half-light quasiparticles, thus connecting the phenomena of atomic Bose–Einstein condensation, superfluidity, and photon lasing. Here we report the spontaneous formation of such condensates in programmable potential landscapes generated by two concentric circles of light. The imposed geometry supports the emergence of annular states that extend up to 100 μm, yet are fully coherent and exhibit a spatial structure that remains stable for minutes at a time. These states exhibit a petal-like intensity distribution arising due to the interaction of two superfluids counterpropagating in the circular waveguide defined by the optical potential. In stark contrast to annular modes in conventional lasing systems, the resulting standing wave patterns exhibit only minimal overlap with the pump laser itself. We theoretically describe the system using a complex Ginzburg–Landau equation, which indicates why the condensate wants to rotate. Experimentally, we demonstrate the ability to precisely control the structure of the petal condensates both by carefully modifying the excitation geometry as well as perturbing the system on ultrafast timescales to reveal unexpected superfluid dynamics. PMID:24889642

  6. Coupling a single electron to a Bose-Einstein condensate.

    PubMed

    Balewski, Jonathan B; Krupp, Alexander T; Gaj, Anita; Peter, David; Büchler, Hans Peter; Löw, Robert; Hofferberth, Sebastian; Pfau, Tilman

    2013-10-31

    The coupling of electrons to matter lies at the heart of our understanding of material properties such as electrical conductivity. Electron-phonon coupling can lead to the formation of a Cooper pair out of two repelling electrons, which forms the basis for Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer superconductivity. Here we study the interaction of a single localized electron with a Bose-Einstein condensate and show that the electron can excite phonons and eventually trigger a collective oscillation of the whole condensate. We find that the coupling is surprisingly strong compared to that of ionic impurities, owing to the more favourable mass ratio. The electron is held in place by a single charged ionic core, forming a Rydberg bound state. This Rydberg electron is described by a wavefunction extending to a size of up to eight micrometres, comparable to the dimensions of the condensate. In such a state, corresponding to a principal quantum number of n = 202, the Rydberg electron is interacting with several tens of thousands of condensed atoms contained within its orbit. We observe surprisingly long lifetimes and finite size effects caused by the electron exploring the outer regions of the condensate. We anticipate future experiments on electron orbital imaging, the investigation of phonon-mediated coupling of single electrons, and applications in quantum optics.

  7. Behavior of luminous matter in the head-on encounter of two ultralight BEC dark matter halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzmán, F. S.; González, J. A.; Cruz-Pérez, J. P.

    2016-05-01

    Within the context of ultralight Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) dark matter, we analyze the head-on encounters of two structures. These structures are made of a BEC component, which is a ground-state equilibrium solution of the Gross-Pitaevskii-Poisson (GPP) system, together with a component of luminous matter. The evolution of the condensate dark matter is carried out by solving the time-dependent GPP equations, whereas the luminous matter is modeled with particles interacting gravitationally on top of the BEC dark matter halos. We track the evolution of frontal encounters for various values of the collision velocity and analyze the high-velocity regime showing solitonic behavior of the BEC halos and that of slow velocities producing a single final structure. We measure the relative velocity of the dark matter with respect to the luminous matter after the encounters in the solitonic case and track the evolution of luminous matter in the case of merger.

  8. Coulomb interactions and fermion condensation

    SciTech Connect

    Capstick, S.; Cutkosky, R.E.; Joensen, M.A. ); Wang, K.C. )

    1990-08-15

    The influence of the Coulomb interaction in states containing massless and flavorless fermion-antifermion pairs is studied, using a continuum formulation within the finite volume {ital S}{sup 3}. Several different forms for the Coulomb interaction are examined, including confining potentials as well as nonconfining potentials. The calculations show that if the interaction is strong enough, the Coulomb interaction leads to condensation of pairs, and that this condensation has a chiral character. The condensation does not depend on whether the interaction is confining. It is found that simplified variational approximations are not accurate enough for an adequate description of the states.

  9. Neonatal hygroscopic condenser humidifier.

    PubMed

    Gedeon, A; Mebius, C; Palmer, K

    1987-01-01

    A hygroscopic condenser humidifier was developed for neonates on mechanical ventilation and was evaluated by laboratory tests and clinically. Humidification provided by the unit was measured in the 10- to 50-ml tidal-volume range at ambient temperatures of 24 degrees C and 38 degrees C. The effect of a leaking patient connection on device performance was investigated. Leakage rates were measured routinely in a neonatal ICU and surgery to determine the clinical significance. In the entire tidal volume and temperature range, the unit provided an inspiratory water content in excess of 30 g/m3 when the leak fraction (volume leaked/volume delivered at Y-piece) was less than 15%. This was found in three out of four cases. In about one out of ten cases, the leak exceeded 30%, which invariably led to corrective action, such as repositioning or changing the endotracheal tube. However, even at a 30% leak, a water content of about 26 g/m3 was still available for humidifying the inspired gas, which corresponds to normal physiologic conditions found in the trachea for nasal breathing of room air.

  10. Diquark condensation effects on hot quark star configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öztas, A.; Blaschke, D.; Fredriksson, S.; Grigorian, H.

    The equation of state for quark matter is derived for a nonlocal, chiral quark model within the mean field approximation. We investigate the effects of a variation of the form-factors of the interaction on the phase diagram of quark matter. Special emphasis is on the occurrence of a diquark condensate which signals a phase transition to color superconductivity and its effects on the equation of state under the condition of β- equilibrium and charge neutrality. We calculate the quark star configurations by solving the Tolman- Oppenheimer- Volkoff equations and obtain for the transition from a hot, normal quark matter core of a protoneutron star to a cool diquark condensed one a release of binding energy of the order of ΔMc2 ~ 1053 erg. We find that this energy could not serve as an engine for explosive phenomena since the phase transition is not first order. Contrary to naive expectations the mass defect increases when for a given temperature we neglect the possibility of diquark condensation.

  11. Diquark condensation effects on hot quark star configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaschke, D.; Fredriksson, S.; Grigorian, H.; Öztasş, A. M.

    2004-05-01

    The equation of state for quark matter is derived for a nonlocal, chiral quark model within the mean field approximation. We investigate the effects of a variation of the formfactors of the interaction on the phase diagram of quark matter. Special emphasis is on the occurrence of a diquark condensate which signals a phase transition to color superconductivity and its effects on the equation of state under the condition of β-equilibrium and charge neutrality. We calculate the quark star configurations by solving the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equations and obtain for the transition from a hot, normal quark matter core of a protoneutron star to a cool diquark condensed one a release of binding energy of the order of ΔMc2~1053 erg. We find that this energy could not serve as an engine for explosive phenomena since the phase transition is not first order. Contrary to naive expectations the mass defect increases when for a given temperature we neglect the possibility of diquark condensation.

  12. Using condenser performance measurements to optimize condenser cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Wolff, P.J.; March, A.; Pearson, H.S.

    1996-05-01

    Because plant personnel perform condenser monitoring primarily to determine cleaning schedules, the accuracy and repeatability of a technique should be viewed within the context of a condenser cleaning schedule. Lower accuracy is acceptable if the cleaning schedule arising from that system is identical to a cleaning schedule arising from a technique with higher accuracy. Three condenser performance monitors were implemented and compared within the context of a condenser cleaning schedule to determine the relative advantages of different condenser monitoring techniques. These systems include a novel on-line system that consists of an electromagnetic flowmeter and an RTD mounted in a compact waterproof cylinder, an overall on-line system, and routine plant tests. The fouling measurements from each system are used in an optimization program which automatically computes a cleaning schedule that minitrack the combined cost of cleaning and the cost of increased fuel consumption caused by condenser fouling. The cleaning schedules resulting from each system`s measurements are compared. The optimization routine is also used to evaluate the sensitivity of optimal cleaning schedules to fouling rate and of the cost in dollars for non-optimal cleaning.

  13. Polymers All Around You!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gertz, Susan

    Background information on natural polymers, synthetic polymers, and the properties of polymers is presented as an introduction to this curriculum guide. Details are provided on the use of polymer products in consumer goods, polymer recycling, polymer densities, the making of a polymer such as GLUEP, polyvinyl alcohol, dissolving plastics, polymers…

  14. Hierarchical condensation near phase equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olemskoi, A. I.; Yushchenko, O. V.; Borisyuk, V. N.; Zhilenko, T. I.; Kosminska, Yu. O.; Perekrestov, V. I.

    2012-06-01

    A novel mechanism of new phase formation is studied both experimentally and theoretically in the example of quasi-equilibrium stationary condensation in an ion-plasma sputterer. Copper condensates are obtained to demonstrate that a specific network structure is formed as a result of self-assembly in the course of deposition. The fractal pattern related is inherent in the phenomena of diffusion limited aggregation. Condensate nuclei are shown to form statistical ensemble of hierarchically subordinated objects distributed in ultrametric space. The Langevin equation and the Fokker-Planck equation related are found to describe stationary distribution of thermodynamic potential variations at condensation. Time dependence of the formation probability of branching structures is found to clarify the experimental situation.

  15. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics of wealth condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Dieter

    2006-09-01

    We analyze wealth condensation for a wide class of stochastic economy models on the basis of the economic analog of thermodynamic potentials, termed transfer potentials. The economy model is based on three common transfers modes of wealth: random transfer, profit proportional to wealth and motivation of poor agents to work harder. The economies never reach steady state. Wealth condensation is the result of stochastic tunneling through a metastable transfer potential. In accordance with reality, both wealth and income distribution transiently show Pareto tails for high-income subjects. For metastable transfer potentials, exponential wealth condensation is a robust feature. For example with 10% annual profit 1% of the population owns 50% of the wealth after 50 years. The time to reach such a strong wealth condensation is a hyperbolic function of the annual profit rate.

  16. Flow Boiling and Condensation Experiment

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Flow Boiling and Condensation Experiment is another investigation that examines the flow of a mixture of liquids and the vapors they produce when in contact with hot space system equipment. Coo...

  17. Generalized Klein-Gordon models: behavior around the ground state condensate.

    PubMed

    Kuetche, Victor K

    2014-07-01

    In this work, we investigate the balance between the nonlinear and linear interaction energy of an interparticle anharmonic system in the vicinity of the ground state condensate. As a result, we find that the nonlinear interaction energy is very significant in the vicinity of each degree of freedom. We address some potential applications of the findings to miscellaneous areas of interests such as soliton theory, hydrodynamics, solid state physics, ferromagnetic and ferroelectric domain walls, condensed matter physics, and particle physics, among others.

  18. Josephson Effect in Trapped Spin-orbit Coupled Bose-Einstein Condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Wai Ho

    Spin-orbit coupling (SOC) has given rise to many novel states of matter including topological insulators and superconductors. Recent experimental realization of SOC in neutral cold atom systems have opened a new avenue to study its effects in Bose-Einstein condensate. In this study, we discuss the Josephson-like mode in the spin-orbit coupled condensate, and study its decoherence due to thermal effect. We discuss experimental implications of our results.

  19. Exciton-photon correlations in bosonic condensates of exciton-polaritons

    PubMed Central

    Kavokin, Alexey V.; Sheremet, Alexandra S.; Shelykh, Ivan A.; Lagoudakis, Pavlos G.; Rubo, Yuri G.

    2015-01-01

    Exciton-polaritons are mixed light-matter quasiparticles. We have developed a statistical model describing stochastic exciton-photon transitions within a condensate of exciton polaritons. We show that the exciton-photon correlator depends on the rate of incoherent exciton-photon transformations in the condensate. We discuss implications of this effect for the quantum statistics of photons emitted by polariton lasers. PMID:26153979

  20. Generalized Klein-Gordon models: Behavior around the ground state condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuetche, Victor K.

    2014-07-01

    In this work, we investigate the balance between the nonlinear and linear interaction energy of an interparticle anharmonic system in the vicinity of the ground state condensate. As a result, we find that the nonlinear interaction energy is very significant in the vicinity of each degree of freedom. We address some potential applications of the findings to miscellaneous areas of interests such as soliton theory, hydrodynamics, solid state physics, ferromagnetic and ferroelectric domain walls, condensed matter physics, and particle physics, among others.

  1. Carbonaceous Matter in Growing Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, M. V.; Stangl, C. M.; Horan, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric nanoparticles constitute the greatest portion of ambient aerosol loading by number. A major source of atmospheric nanoparticles is new particle formation (NPF), a gas to particle conversion process whereby clusters nucleate from gas phase precursors to form clusters on the order of one or a few nanometers and then grow rapidly to climatically relevant sizes. A substantial fraction of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) are thought to arise from NPF. In order to better predict the frequency, growth rates, and climatic impacts of NPF, knowledge of the chemical mechanisms by which nucleated nanoparticles grow is needed. The two main contributors to particle growth are (neutralized) sulfate and carbonaceous matter. Particle growth by sulfuric acid condensation is generally well understood, though uncertainty remains about the extent of base neutralization and the relative roles of ammonia and amines. Much less is known about carbonaceous matter, and field measurements suggest that nitrogen-containing species are important. In this presentation, recent work by our group will be described that uses a combination of ambient measurements, laboratory experiments and computational work to study carbonaceous matter in growing nanoparticles. These studies span a range of particle sizes from the initial adsorption of molecules onto a nanometer-size ammonium bisulfate seed cluster to reactions in particles that are large enough to support condensed-phase chemistry.

  2. Magneto-exciton-polariton condensation in a sub-wavelength high contrast grating based vertical microcavity

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, J.; Brodbeck, S.; Worschech, L.; Kamp, M.; Schneider, C.; Höfling, S.; Zhang, B.; Wang, Z.; Deng, H.

    2014-03-03

    We comparably investigate the diamagnetic shift of an uncoupled quantum well exciton with a microcavity exciton-polariton condensate on the same device. The sample is composed of multiple GaAs quantum wells in an AlAs microcavity, surrounded by a Bragg reflector and a sub-wavelength high contrast grating reflector. Our study introduces an independent and easily applicable technique, namely, the measurement of the condensate diamagnetic shift, which directly probes matter contributions in polariton condensates and hence discriminates it from a conventional photon laser.

  3. Maxwell electromagnetism as an emergent phenomenon in condensed matter.

    PubMed

    Rehn, J; Moessner, R

    2016-08-28

    The formulation of a complete theory of classical electromagnetism by Maxwell is one of the milestones of science. The capacity of many-body systems to provide emergent mini-universes with vacua quite distinct from the one we inhabit was only recognized much later. Here, we provide an account of how simple systems of localized spins manage to emulate Maxwell electromagnetism in their low-energy behaviour. They are much less constrained by symmetry considerations than the relativistically invariant electromagnetic vacuum, as their substrate provides a non-relativistic background with even translational invariance broken. They can exhibit rich behaviour not encountered in conventional electromagnetism. This includes the existence of magnetic monopole excitations arising from fractionalization of magnetic dipoles; as well as the capacity of disorder, by generating defects on the lattice scale, to produce novel physics, as exemplified by topological spin glassiness or random Coulomb magnetism.This article is part of the themed issue 'Unifying physics and technology in light of Maxwell's equations'. PMID:27458263

  4. (X-ray diffraction experiments with condenser matter)

    SciTech Connect

    Coppens, P.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses research on the following topics: high-{Tc} superconductors; The response of crystal to an applied electric field; quasicrystals; surface structure and kinetics of surface layer formation; EXAFS studies of superconductors and heterostructures; effect of iron on the crystal structure of perovskite; x-ray detector development; and SAXS experiments. (LSP)

  5. Condensed-matter physics: Attractive electrons from nanoengineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontos, Takis

    2016-07-01

    Electrons repel each other because they are negatively charged. An experiment now confirms a fifty-year-old theory that electrons can also attract one another as a result of repulsion from other electrons. See Letter p.395

  6. Oliver E. Buckley Condensed Matter Prize Lecture: Topological Insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kane, Charles

    2012-02-01

    A topological insulator is a material that is an insulator on its interior, but has special conducting states on its surface. These surface states are unlike any other known two dimensional conductor. They are characterized by a unique Dirac type dispersion relation and are protected by a topological property of the material's underlying electronic band structure. In this talk we will outline our path to the theoretical discovery of this phase and describe the physical properties of the two dimensional topological insulator - also known as a quantum spin Hall insulator - as well as its three dimensional generalization. We will then go on to discuss more recent developments, including the topological classification of point and line defects in topological insulators and superconductors. The latter may provide a venue for observing Majorana fermion states and for realizing proposals for topological quantum computation.

  7. The Brain: An Intriguing Piece of Condensed Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotterill, Rodney M. J.

    1986-01-01

    The human brain consists of approximately one hundred thousand million cells, arranged in a variety of structures, the largest of which is the familiar neocortex. These cells, or neurons, possess the vital property of excitability, which is dependent upon the differential diffusion characteristics of their bounding membranes. The cells receive and transmit electrical impulses through their numerous tentacle-like extensions, and the signals are passed from one cell to another by the chemical messengers called neurotransmitters, which diffuse across the narrow inter-cell gaps known as synapses. The efficiency of the transmission process is chemically modifiable, and this is believed to imbue the neural network with the ability to learn and remember. The response to a variety of input patterns has been studied in a vector model assembly of interconnected neurons. The time evolution of the injected signal is followed, attention being paid to both its subsequent topology and phase. The model is realistic in that it includes action potential impulses in the axon regions, statistically distributed synaptic delays, and electronics waves in the dendrites. Of particular interest were the frequency response of the system, and its dependence on the proportions of excitatory and inhibitory synapses. The relevance of the concept of coherence length was also critically examined, in such disparate contexts as association autism and the primary visual processes in the retina. Coherence, and the more general issue of correction, were also considered in connection with memory models, including those of the holographics type. This brief account also includes reference to such unlikely topics as fever and the dreaming state.

  8. Inelastic scattering in condensed matter with high intensity Moessbauer radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Yelon, W.B.; Schupp, G.

    1993-02-01

    The QUEGS facility at MURR has produced a number of new results and demonstrated the range of potential applications of high resolution, high intensity Moessbauer scattering. This work has been carried out by both MU and Purdue researchers and includes published results on Na, W, pentadecane, polydimethylsiloxane and other systems, manuscripts submitted on alkali halides (Phys. Rev. B) and accurate Moessbauer lineshape measurements (Phys. Rev. C), and manuscripts in preparation on glycerol, NiAl and Moessbauer spectra obtained by modulating a scattering crystal. Recently, new collaborations have been initiated which will substantially enhance our efforts. These are with W. Steiner (Vienna), G. Coddens (Saclay), and R. D. Taylor (Los Alamos). Steiner is experienced with Fe-57 Moessbauer scattering, while Coddens specializes in quasielastic neutron scattering; both of these areas naturally complement our work. R. D. Taylor has pioneered Moessbauer spectroscopy from the time of its discovery and has already made important contributions to our study of lattice dynamics and superconductivity for lead alloyed with small quantities of tin. At the same time, a significant instrument upgrade is underway, funded in part by the DOE-URIP program.

  9. (Gamma scattering in condensed matter with high intensity Moessbauer radiation)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses: quasielastic scattering studies on glycerol; gamma-ray scattering from alkali halides; lattice dynamics in metals; Moessbauer neutron scattering, x-ray diffraction, and macroscopic studies of high {Tc} superconductors containing tungsten; NiAl scattering studies; and atomic interference factors and nuclear Casimir effect.

  10. Plasma production from shock compression of condensed matter

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, T.H.; Marsh, S.P.

    1995-09-01

    The experimental investigation of HE-driven, phased, cylindrical, SS liner implosion has yielded many interesting results. Plasma and radiation are found to be copiously produced. Plasmas with velocity up to 17 cm/{mu}s are observed. The temperature in the expansion surface reaches 8 - 10 eV and stays hot for tens of microseconds. The signatures of plasma interactions with the imploding wall and the glass port are clearly identified. Finally, a cluster of cooler but still self-luminous, high-density debris is observed to travel at 1.8 cm/{mu}s. Additional experiments were carried out to study the plasma flow and reconvergence inside the liner cavity by inserting a diverting disk along the axis of implosion. Significant emission of vuv and soft x-rays is detected. All the experiments are guided by the calculations using the MESA 2D hydrocode and the results agree with many of the predictions.

  11. Investigation of cold nuclear fusion in condensed matter

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, S.E.; Berrondo, M.; Czirr, J.B.; Decker, D.L.; Harrison, K.; Jensen, G.L.; Palmer, E.P.; Rees, L.B.; Shelton, D.S.; Taylor, S.; Vanfleet, H.B.; Wang, J.C.; Bennion, D.N.; Harb, J.N.; Pitt, W.G.; Thorne, J.M. ); Anderson, A.N. ); McMurtry, G.; Murphy, N. . Hawai

    1992-12-29

    Recent research has been directed towards finding means to produce neutron emissions at will, to demonstrate reproducibility, and to permit in-depth studies of the origin of neutron emissions. this goal has been pursued in the Kamiokande detector in Japan and has led to the development of a deep underground laboratory in a tunnel in the Wasatch mountains near Brigham Young University. New counters for low-level neutron emissions are being utilized. Calorimetric tools have also been developed.

  12. Investigation of cold nuclear fusion in condensed matter. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, S.E.; Berrondo, M.; Czirr, J.B.; Decker, D.L.; Harrison, K.; Jensen, G.L.; Palmer, E.P.; Rees, L.B.; Shelton, D.S.; Taylor, S.; Vanfleet, H.B.; Wang, J.C.; Bennion, D.N.; Harb, J.N.; Pitt, W.G.; Thorne, J.M.; Anderson, A.N.; McMurtry, G.; Murphy, N.; Goff, F.E.

    1992-12-29

    Recent research has been directed towards finding means to produce neutron emissions at will, to demonstrate reproducibility, and to permit in-depth studies of the origin of neutron emissions. this goal has been pursued in the Kamiokande detector in Japan and has led to the development of a deep underground laboratory in a tunnel in the Wasatch mountains near Brigham Young University. New counters for low-level neutron emissions are being utilized. Calorimetric tools have also been developed.

  13. Condensed matter physics at surfaces and interfaces of solids

    SciTech Connect

    Mele, E.J.

    1992-01-01

    This research program is focused on structural and elastic properties of crystalline solids and interfaces between solids. We are particularly interested in novel forms of structural ordering and the effects of this ordering on the lattice dynamical properties. We are currently studying structural and vibrational properties of the surfaces of the elemental alkaline earths (particularly Be), and structural phenomena in the doped fullerites.

  14. Shock pressures induced in condensed matter by laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swift, Damian C.; Tierney, Thomas E.; Kopp, Roger A.; Gammel, J. Tinka

    2004-03-01

    The Trident laser was used to induce shock waves in samples of solid elements, with atomic numbers ranging from Be to Au, using pulses of 527 nm light around 1 ns long with irradiances of the order of 0.1 to 10 PW/m2. States induced by the resulting ablation process were investigated using laser Doppler velocimetry to measure the velocity history of the opposite surface. By varying the energy in the laser pulse, relations were inferred between the irradiance and the induced pressure. For samples in vacuo, an irradiance constant in time does not produce a constant pressure. Radiation hydrodynamics simulations were used to investigate the relationship between the precise pulse shape and the pressure history. In this regime of time and irradiance, it was possible to reproduce the experimental data to within their uncertainty by including conductivity-dependent deposition of laser energy, heat conduction, gray radiation diffusion, and three temperature hydrodynamics in the treatment of the plasma, with ionizations calculated using the Thomas-Fermi equation. States induced in the solid sample were fairly insensitive to the details of modeling in the plasma, so Hugoniot points may be estimated from experiments of this type given a reasonable model of the plasma. More useful applications include the generation of dynamic loading to investigate compressive strength and phase transitions, and for sample recovery.

  15. Inelastic scattering in condensed matter with high intensity Moessbauer radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yelon, W. B.; Schupp, G.

    1991-05-01

    We give a progress report for the work which has been carried out in the last three years with DOE support. A facility for high-intensity Moessbauer scattering is not fully operational at the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR) as well as a facility at Purdue, using special isotopes produced at MURR. High precision, fundamental Moessbauer effect studies have been carried out using Bragg scattering filters to suppress unwanted radiation. These have led to a Fourier transform method for describing Moessbauer effect (ME) lineshape and a direct method of fitting ME data to the convolution integral. These methods allow complete correction for source resonance self absorption and the accurate representation of interference effects that add an asymmetric component to the ME lines. We have begun applying these techniques to attenuated ME sources whose central peak has been attenuated by stationary resonant absorbers, to make a novel independent determination of interference parameters and line-shape behavior in the resonance asymptotic region. This analysis is important to both fundamental ME studies and to scattering studies for which a deconvolution is essential for extracting the correct recoilless fractions and interference parameters. A number of scattering studies have been successfully carried out including a study of the thermal diffuse scattering in Si, which led to an analysis of the resolution function for gamma-ray scattering. Also studied was the anharmonic motion in Na metal and the charge density wave satellite reflection Debye-Waller factor in TaS2, which indicate phason rather than phonon behavior. Using a specially constructed sample cell which enables us to vary temperatures from -10 C to 110 C, we have begun quasielastic diffusion studies in viscous liquids and current results are summarized. Included are the temperature and Q dependence of the scattering in pentadecane and diffusion in glycerol.

  16. Scattering of Soft Condensed Matter: From Fundaments to Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stribeck, N.

    In the past decade experimental technique has been on a fast pace, whereas the development of data evolution methods is proceeding slowly. In fact, most of the progress of 30 years achieved in the field of method has not even been disseminated, and the skills required to transform methodical ideas into computer programs appear to be declining. Thus, it is not astonishing to find more and more publications based on the interpretation of untreated raw data, even if it would have been rewarding "to cut the raw diamond". Hence, there is good reason to try and lower the threshold both with respect to theory and with respect to the development of practical algorithms.

  17. Condensed-matter physics: Superconducting electrons go missing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaanen, Jan

    2016-08-01

    'Overdoped' high-temperature superconductors, which have a high density of charge carriers, were thought to be well understood. An experiment challenges what we know about quantum physics in such systems. See Letter p.309

  18. Condensed-matter physics: Multitasking materials from atomic templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiebig, Manfred

    2016-09-01

    Two 'failed' materials can perform much better when united. Such a combination exhibits magnetization and electric polarization up to room temperature, providing a basis for new magnetoelectric devices. See Letter p.523

  19. Condensed Matter Deuterium Cluster Target for Study of Pycnonuclear Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaoling; George, Miley

    2009-11-01

    Fusion reactions have two main classes: thermonuclear and the pycnonuclear. Thermonuclear fusion occurs in low density high temperature plasmas, and is very sensitive to the ion temperature due to Columbic repulsion effects. As the density increases, the Columbic potential barrier is depressed by increased electron screening, allowing fusion at lower temperatures. This type of nuclear reaction is termed a pycnonuclear fusion and is the basis for astrophysical fusion. Ichimarua [1] proposed a laboratory study of this process using explosive mechanical compression of H/D to metallic densities, which would be extremely difficult to implement. Instead, our recent research suggests that metallic-like H/D ``clusters'' can be formed in dislocation loops of thin Palladium foils through electrochemical processes. [2] If this technique is used as a laser compression target, the compressed cluster density would allow study of pycnonuclear reactions. This provides a means of studying astrophysical fusion process, and could also lead to an important non-cryogenic ICF target. [2] [4pt] [1] S. Ichimaru, H. Kitamura. Phys. Plasmas, 6, 2649 (1999) [0pt] [2] G. Miley and X. Yang, Deuterium Cluster Target for Ultra-High Density, 18TH TOFE, San Francisco, CA Sep. 28 -- Oct. 2, 2008

  20. Scaling and pattern formation in condensed matter systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Pak Yuen

    In this dissertation, I present analytical and numerical work regarding the scaling behavior of three physical systems. I begin by analyzing the scaling behavior of Griffiths ferromagnets near the Griffiths-paramagnetic transition point. By deriving the asymptotic behavior of the magnetization of the system using an ansatz for the Yang-Lee zero density, I find that the scaling behavior of Griffiths ferromagnet is dominated by an essential singularity in the external magnetic field. Excellent agreement is found by comparing this prediction to the experimental data on La 0.7Ca0.3MnO3, from which I also extract the critical exponents. Next I report on a mathematical framework to describe landscape formation due to carbonate precipitation near geothermal hot springs. I derive analytically the shape and stability of the spherically symmetric domes. The solution agrees with field observations and simulation results. In addition, I apply a similar conceptual framework to study the formation and stability of stalactites in limestone caves. The shape of stalactites is calculated and the solution is found to be unconditionally stable, as opposite to the unstable dome solutions. By studying the linear stability of a uniform sheet of fluid flowing down a constant slope, moreover, I show that our theory gives results that are consistent with the scale-free terraced landscapes observed. Finally, I study multiscale patterns in polycrystalline materials, with the phase field crystal (PFC) model. I first show that the complex amplitudes representation incorporates the correct form of nonlinear elasticity. I then analyze the plastic properties of the model by applying a shearing force. Dislocation avalanches, which resembling the scaling behavior in driven ferromagnetic, are observed. Critical exponents are extracted from power laws extending over 5 decades. I extend the PFC model to accommodate actual atomic configurations and vacancies. I use the extended PFC model to simulate a liquid and reproduce the correct form of the two-point correlation functions. Finally, I extend the PFC model to describing binary systems. The resulting theory describes both atomic hopping events on microscopic scales and diffusion on macroscopic scales. It also reproduces the activated Arrhenius form of the diffusion coefficient.

  1. Mesoscopic structure formation in condensed matter due to vacuum fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Siddhartha; Gupta, Kumar S.; Coey, J. M. D.

    2015-10-01

    An observable influence of zero-point fluctuations of the vacuum electromagnetic field on bound electrons is well known in the hydrogen atom, where it produces the Lamb shift. Here, we adapt an approach used to explain the Lamb shift in terms of a slight expansion of the orbits due to interaction with the zero-point field and apply it to assemblies of N electrons that are modeled as independent atomically bound two-level systems. The effect is to stabilize a collective ground-state energy, which leads to a prediction of novel effects at room temperature for quasi-two-dimensional systems over a range of parameters in the model, namely, N , the two-level excitation energy ℏ ω and the ionization energy ℏ ω +ɛ . Some mesoscopic systems where these effects may be observable include water sheaths on protein or DNA, surfaces of gaseous nanobubbles, and the magnetic response of inhomogeneous, electronically dilute oxides. No such effects are envisaged for uniform three-dimensional systems.

  2. Rapid Drop Dynamics During Superhydrophobic Condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Boreyko, Jonathan; Chen, Chuan-Hua

    2008-11-01

    Rapid drop motion is observed on superhydrophobic surfaces during condensation; condensate drops with diameter of order 10 μm can move at above 100G and 0.1 m/s. When water vapor condenses on a horizontal superhydrophobic surface, condensate drops move in a seemingly random direction. The observed motion is attributed to the energy released through coalescence of neighboring condensate drops. A scaling analysis captured the initial acceleration and terminal velocity. Our work is a step forward in understanding the dynamics of superhydrophobic condensation occurring in both natural water-repellant plants and engineered dropwise condensers.

  3. Carbon dioxide-soluble polymers and swellable polymers for carbon dioxide applications

    DOEpatents

    DeSimone, Joseph M.; Birnbaum, Eva; Carbonell, Ruben G.; Crette, Stephanie; McClain, James B.; McCleskey, T. Mark; Powell, Kimberly R.; Romack, Timothy J.; Tumas, William

    2004-06-08

    A method for carrying out a catalysis reaction in carbon dioxide comprising contacting a fluid mixture with a catalyst bound to a polymer, the fluid mixture comprising at least one reactant and carbon dioxide, wherein the reactant interacts with the catalyst to form a reaction product. A composition of matter comprises carbon dioxide and a polymer and a reactant present in the carbon dioxide. The polymer has bound thereto a catalyst at a plurality of chains along the length of the polymer, and wherein the reactant interacts with the catalyst to form a reaction product.

  4. Review of oxidative degradations of certain heterocyclic polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayo, F. R.

    1971-01-01

    The curing and decompositions of polyphenylenes and several nitrogen-containing condensation polymers, particularly polybenzimidazoles and pyrones, are reviewed critically. It is concluded that the condensations are usually imperfect and incomplete and that in most of the published work the late stages of the condensation are complicated by the beginnings of the charring and carbonization processes. Most discussions of mechanisms in this range are highly speculative and of little value. The most promising fields for further research are at lower temperatures, where slow oxidation processes deserve study, and at higher temperatures, where it may be possible to influence carbonization processes to obtain better products.

  5. Integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer for Bose-Einstein condensates.

    PubMed

    Berrada, T; van Frank, S; Bücker, R; Schumm, T; Schaff, J-F; Schmiedmayer, J

    2013-01-01

    Particle-wave duality enables the construction of interferometers for matter waves, which complement optical interferometers in precision measurement devices. This requires the development of atom-optics analogues to beam splitters, phase shifters and recombiners. Integrating these elements into a single device has been a long-standing goal. Here we demonstrate a full Mach-Zehnder sequence with trapped Bose-Einstein condensates confined on an atom chip. Particle interactions in our Bose-Einstein condensate matter waves lead to a nonlinearity, absent in photon optics. We exploit it to generate a non-classical state having reduced number fluctuations inside the interferometer. Making use of spatially separated wave packets, a controlled phase shift is applied and read out by a non-adiabatic matter-wave recombiner. We demonstrate coherence times a factor of three beyond what is expected for coherent states, highlighting the potential of entanglement as a resource for metrology. Our results pave the way for integrated quantum-enhanced matter-wave sensors. PMID:23804159

  6. Antimocrobial Polymer

    DOEpatents

    McDonald, William F.; Huang, Zhi-Heng; Wright, Stacy C.

    2005-09-06

    A polymeric composition having antimicrobial properties and a process for rendering the surface of a substrate antimicrobial are disclosed. The composition comprises a crosslinked chemical combination of (i) a polymer having amino group-containing side chains along a backbone forming the polymer, (ii) an antimicrobial agent selected from quaternary ammonium compounds, gentian violet compounds, substituted or unsubstituted phenols, biguanide compounds, iodine compounds, and mixtures thereof, and (iii) a crosslinking agent containing functional groups capable of reacting with the amino groups. In one embodiment, the polymer is a polyamide formed from a maleic anhydride or maleic acid ester monomer and alkylamines thereby producing a polyamide having amino substituted alkyl chains on one side of the polyamide backbone; the crosslinking agent is a phosphine having the general formula (A)3P wherein A is hydroxyalkyl; and the antimicrobial agent is chlorhexidine, dimethylchlorophenol, cetyl pyridinium chloride, gentian violet, triclosan, thymol, iodine, and mixtures thereof.

  7. Antimicrobial Polymer

    DOEpatents

    McDonald, William F.; Wright, Stacy C.; Taylor, Andrew C.

    2004-09-28

    A polymeric composition having antimicrobial properties and a process for rendering the surface of a substrate antimicrobial are disclosed. The polymeric composition comprises a crosslinked chemical combination of (i) a polymer having amino group-containing side chains along a backbone forming the polymer, (ii) an antimicrobial agent selected from metals, metal alloys, metal salts, metal complexes and mixtures thereof, and (iii) a crosslinking agent containing functional groups capable of reacting with the amino groups. In one example embodiment, the polymer is a polyamide formed from a maleic anhydride or maleic acid ester monomer and alkylamines thereby producing a polyamide having amino substituted alkyl chains on one side of the polyamide backbone; the crosslinking agent is a phosphine having the general formula (A).sub.3 P wherein A is hydroxyalkyl; and the metallic antimicrobial agent is selected from chelated silver ions, silver metal, chelated copper ions, copper metal, chelated zinc ions, zinc metal and mixtures thereof.

  8. Polariton condensates at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillet, Thierry; Brimont, Christelle

    2016-10-01

    We review the recent developments of the polariton physics in microcavities featuring the exciton-photon strong coupling at room temperature, and leading to the achievement of room-temperature polariton condensates. Such cavities embed active layers with robust excitons that present a large binding energy and a large oscillator strength, i.e. wide bandgap inorganic or organic semiconductors, or organic molecules. These various systems are compared, in terms of figures of merit and of common features related to their strong oscillator strength. The various demonstrations of polariton laser are compared, as well as their condensation phase diagrams. The room-temperature operation indeed allows a detailed investigation of the thermodynamic and out-of-equilibrium regimes of the condensation process. The crucial role of the spatial dynamics of the condensate formation is discussed, as well as the debated issue of the mechanism of stimulated relaxation from the reservoir to the condensate under non-resonant excitation. Finally the prospects of polariton devices are presented.

  9. Condensation modes in magnetized plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    An, Chang-Hyuk

    1986-01-01

    Condensation modes in magnetized cylindrical plasmas, with concentration on how magnetic field affects the stability were studied. It is found that the effects of magnetic field (shear, twist, and strength) on the condensation modes are different depending on the wave vector. For modes whose wave vector is not perpendicular to magnetic field lines the plasma motion is mainly along the field lines; the effects of magnetic field on the modes are negligible except on the heat flow parallel to the field line. For a mode which is localized near a surface where the wave vector is perpendicular to the field line, the plasma moves perpendicular to the line carrying the field line into the condensed region; magnetic field affects the mode by building up magnetic pressure in the condensed region. The stability of condensation modes strongly depends on how density and temperature vary with field twist. The stable nature of global quiescent prominence magnetic configurations implies that prominences form for low field twist for which ideal MHD modes are stable; plasma temperature should increase with field twist for stable prominence formation.

  10. Materials studies for preventing corrosion in condensing environments

    SciTech Connect

    Kukacka, L.E.; Sugama, T. )

    1991-10-01

    The objective of this project is to determine the fundamental interfacial requirements for low-cost, organic and inorganic materials resistive to corrosion in condensing furnace exhausts. This research effort is being focused to provide information regarding corrosion resistance, heat transfer, material cost, fabrication method and cost, and product reliability since all are important in the final design and production of a heat exchanger. Results to date indicate that organic and inorganic-type polymer coating systems applied to low cost metals such as mild steel and aluminum provide good corrosion protection. The thermal stability of these polymers plus the identification of the interfacial requirements needed to utilize them with reactive filler materials should also make their use as bulk composites feasible.

  11. RHIC PHYSICS: THE QUARK GLUON PLASMA AND THE COLOR GLASS CONDENSATE: 4 LECTURES

    SciTech Connect

    MCLERRAN,L.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of these lectures is to provide an introduction to the physics issues which are being studied in the RHIC heavy ion program. These center around the production of new states of matter. The Quark Gluon Plasma is thermal matter which once existed in the big bang which may be made at RHIC. The Color Glass Condensate is a universal form of matter which controls the high energy limit of strong interactions. Both such forms of matter might be produced and probed at RHIC.

  12. Role Reversal in a Bose-Condensed Optomechanical System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Keye; Meystre, Pierre; Zhang, Weiping

    2012-06-01

    We analyze the optomechanicslike properties of a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) trapped inside an optical resonator and driven by both a classical and a quantized light field. We find that this system exhibits the nature of role reversal between the matter-wave field and the quantized light field. As a result, the matter-wave field now plays the role of the quantized light field, and the quantized light field behaves like a movable mirror, in contrast to the familiar situation in BEC-based cavity optomechanics [Brennecke et al., Science 322, 235 (2008)SCIEAS0036-807510.1126/science.1163218; Murch et al., Nature Phys.NPAHAX1745-2473 4, 561 (2008)10.1038/nphys965]. We demonstrate that this system can lead to the creation of a variety of nonclassical matter-wave fields, in particular, cat states, and discuss several possible protocols to measure their Wigner function.

  13. On the onset of surface condensation: formation and transition mechanisms of condensation mode

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Qiang; Sun, Jie; Wang, Qian; Wang, Wen; Wang, Hua Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been carried out to investigate the onset of surface condensation. On surfaces with different wettability, we snapshot different condensation modes (no-condensation, dropwise condensation and filmwise condensation) and quantitatively analyze their characteristics by temporal profiles of surface clusters. Two different types of formation of nanoscale droplets are identified, i.e. the formations with and without film-like condensate. We exhibit the effect of surface tensions on the formations of nanoscale droplets and film. We reveal the formation mechanisms of different condensation modes at nanoscale based on our simulation results and classical nucleation theory, which supplements the ‘classical hypotheses’ of the onset of dropwise condensation. We also reveal the transition mechanism between different condensation modes based on the competition between surface tensions and reveal that dropwise condensation represents the transition states from no-condensation to filmwise condensation. PMID:27481071

  14. On the onset of surface condensation: formation and transition mechanisms of condensation mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Qiang; Sun, Jie; Wang, Qian; Wang, Wen; Wang, Hua Sheng

    2016-08-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been carried out to investigate the onset of surface condensation. On surfaces with different wettability, we snapshot different condensation modes (no-condensation, dropwise condensation and filmwise condensation) and quantitatively analyze their characteristics by temporal profiles of surface clusters. Two different types of formation of nanoscale droplets are identified, i.e. the formations with and without film-like condensate. We exhibit the effect of surface tensions on the formations of nanoscale droplets and film. We reveal the formation mechanisms of different condensation modes at nanoscale based on our simulation results and classical nucleation theory, which supplements the ‘classical hypotheses’ of the onset of dropwise condensation. We also reveal the transition mechanism between different condensation modes based on the competition between surface tensions and reveal that dropwise condensation represents the transition states from no-condensation to filmwise condensation.

  15. On the onset of surface condensation: formation and transition mechanisms of condensation mode.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Qiang; Sun, Jie; Wang, Qian; Wang, Wen; Wang, Hua Sheng

    2016-08-02

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been carried out to investigate the onset of surface condensation. On surfaces with different wettability, we snapshot different condensation modes (no-condensation, dropwise condensation and filmwise condensation) and quantitatively analyze their characteristics by temporal profiles of surface clusters. Two different types of formation of nanoscale droplets are identified, i.e. the formations with and without film-like condensate. We exhibit the effect of surface tensions on the formations of nanoscale droplets and film. We reveal the formation mechanisms of different condensation modes at nanoscale based on our simulation results and classical nucleation theory, which supplements the 'classical hypotheses' of the onset of dropwise condensation. We also reveal the transition mechanism between different condensation modes based on the competition between surface tensions and reveal that dropwise condensation represents the transition states from no-condensation to filmwise condensation.

  16. On the onset of surface condensation: formation and transition mechanisms of condensation mode.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Qiang; Sun, Jie; Wang, Qian; Wang, Wen; Wang, Hua Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been carried out to investigate the onset of surface condensation. On surfaces with different wettability, we snapshot different condensation modes (no-condensation, dropwise condensation and filmwise condensation) and quantitatively analyze their characteristics by temporal profiles of surface clusters. Two different types of formation of nanoscale droplets are identified, i.e. the formations with and without film-like condensate. We exhibit the effect of surface tensions on the formations of nanoscale droplets and film. We reveal the formation mechanisms of different condensation modes at nanoscale based on our simulation results and classical nucleation theory, which supplements the 'classical hypotheses' of the onset of dropwise condensation. We also reveal the transition mechanism between different condensation modes based on the competition between surface tensions and reveal that dropwise condensation represents the transition states from no-condensation to filmwise condensation. PMID:27481071

  17. Design and Fabrication of a Hybrid Superhydrophobic-Hydrophilic Surface That Exhibits Stable Dropwise Condensation.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Bikash; Mac Giolla Eain, Marc; Xu, QianFeng; Egan, Vanessa M; Punch, Jeff; Lyons, Alan M

    2015-10-28

    Condensation of water vapor is an essential process in power generation, water collection, and thermal management. Dropwise condensation, where condensed droplets are removed from the surface before coalescing into a film, has been shown to increase the heat transfer efficiency and water collection ability of many surfaces. Numerous efforts have been made to create surfaces which can promote dropwise condensation, including superhydrophobic surfaces on which water droplets are highly mobile. However, the challenge with using such surfaces in condensing environments is that hydrophobic coatings can degrade and/or water droplets on superhydrophobic surfaces transition from the mobile Cassie to the wetted Wenzel state over time and condensation shifts to a less-effective filmwise mechanism. To meet the need for a heat-transfer surface that can maintain stable dropwise condensation, we designed and fabricated a hybrid superhydrophobic-hydrophilic surface. An array of hydrophilic needles, thermally connected to a heat sink, was forced through a robust superhydrophobic polymer film. Condensation occurs preferentially on the needle surface due to differences in wettability and temperature. As the droplet grows, the liquid drop on the needle remains in the Cassie state and does not wet the underlying superhydrophobic surface. The water collection rate on this surface was studied using different surface tilt angles, needle array pitch values, and needle heights. Water condensation rates on the hybrid surface were shown to be 4 times greater than for a planar copper surface and twice as large for silanized silicon or superhydrophobic surfaces without hydrophilic features. A convection-conduction heat transfer model was developed; predicted water condensation rates were in good agreement with experimental observations. This type of hybrid superhydrophobic-hydrophilic surface with a larger array of needles is low-cost, robust, and scalable and so could be used for heat

  18. Coherent atomic soliton molecules for matter-wave switching

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Chenyun; Berloff, Natalia G.; Perez-Garcia, Victor M.; Novoa, David; Carpentier, Alicia V.; Michinel, Humberto

    2011-05-15

    We discuss the dynamics of interacting dark-bright two-dimensional vector solitons in multicomponent immiscible bulk Bose-Einstein condensates. We describe matter-wave molecules without a scalar counterpart that can be seen as bound states of vector objects. We also analyze the possibility of using these structures as building blocks for the design of matter-wave switchers.

  19. Spacecraft Crew Cabin Condensation Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrillo, Laurie Y.; Rickman, Steven L.; Ungar, Eugene K.

    2013-01-01

    A report discusses a new technique to prevent condensation on the cabin walls of manned spacecraft exposed to the cold environment of space, as such condensation could lead to free water in the cabin. This could facilitate the growth of mold and bacteria, and could lead to oxidation and weakening of the cabin wall. This condensation control technique employs a passive method that uses spacecraft waste heat as the primary wallheating mechanism. A network of heat pipes is bonded to the crew cabin pressure vessel, as well as the pipes to each other, in order to provide for efficient heat transfer to the cabin walls and from one heat pipe to another. When properly sized, the heat-pipe network can maintain the crew cabin walls at a nearly uniform temperature. It can also accept and distribute spacecraft waste heat to maintain the pressure vessel above dew point.

  20. Condensed hydrogen for thermonuclear fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Kucheyev, S. O.; Hamza, A. V.

    2010-11-15

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) power, in either pure fusion or fission-fusion hybrid reactors, is a possible solution for future world's energy demands. Formation of uniform layers of a condensed hydrogen fuel in ICF targets has been a long standing materials physics challenge. Here, we review the progress in this field. After a brief discussion of the major ICF target designs and the basic properties of condensed hydrogens, we review both liquid and solid layering methods, physical mechanisms causing layer nonuniformity, growth of hydrogen single crystals, attempts to prepare amorphous and nanostructured hydrogens, and mechanical deformation behavior. Emphasis is given to current challenges defining future research areas in the field of condensed hydrogens for fusion energy applications.

  1. Theory and simulations of toroidal and rod-like structures in single-molecule DNA condensation.

    PubMed

    Cortini, Ruggero; Caré, Bertrand R; Victor, Jean-Marc; Barbi, Maria

    2015-03-14

    DNA condensation by multivalent cations plays a crucial role in genome packaging in viruses and sperm heads, and has been extensively studied using single-molecule experimental methods. In those experiments, the values of the critical condensation forces have been used to estimate the amplitude of the attractive DNA-DNA interactions. Here, to describe these experiments, we developed an analytical model and a rigid body Langevin dynamics assay to investigate the behavior of a polymer with self-interactions, in the presence of a traction force applied at its extremities. We model self-interactions using a pairwise attractive potential, thereby treating the counterions implicitly. The analytical model allows to accurately predict the equilibrium structures of toroidal and rod-like condensed structures, and the dependence of the critical condensation force on the DNA length. We find that the critical condensation force depends strongly on the length of the DNA, and finite-size effects are important for molecules of length up to 10(5)μm. Our Langevin dynamics simulations show that the force-extension behavior of the rod-like structures is very different from the toroidal ones, so that their presence in experiments should be easily detectable. In double-stranded DNA condensation experiments, the signature of the presence of rod-like structures was not unambiguously detected, suggesting that the polyamines used to condense DNA may protect it from bending sharply as needed in the rod-like structures.

  2. Theory and simulations of toroidal and rod-like structures in single-molecule DNA condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortini, Ruggero; Caré, Bertrand R.; Victor, Jean-Marc; Barbi, Maria

    2015-03-01

    DNA condensation by multivalent cations plays a crucial role in genome packaging in viruses and sperm heads, and has been extensively studied using single-molecule experimental methods. In those experiments, the values of the critical condensation forces have been used to estimate the amplitude of the attractive DNA-DNA interactions. Here, to describe these experiments, we developed an analytical model and a rigid body Langevin dynamics assay to investigate the behavior of a polymer with self-interactions, in the presence of a traction force applied at its extremities. We model self-interactions using a pairwise attractive potential, thereby treating the counterions implicitly. The analytical model allows to accurately predict the equilibrium structures of toroidal and rod-like condensed structures, and the dependence of the critical condensation force on the DNA length. We find that the critical condensation force depends strongly on the length of the DNA, and finite-size effects are important for molecules of length up to 105μm. Our Langevin dynamics simulations show that the force-extension behavior of the rod-like structures is very different from the toroidal ones, so that their presence in experiments should be easily detectable. In double-stranded DNA condensation experiments, the signature of the presence of rod-like structures was not unambiguously detected, suggesting that the polyamines used to condense DNA may protect it from bending sharply as needed in the rod-like structures.

  3. Gravity Effects in Condensing and Evaporating Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hermanson, J. C.; Som, S. M.; Allen, J. S.; Pedersen, P. C.

    2004-01-01

    A general overview of gravity effects in condensing and evaporating films is presented. The topics include: 1) Research Overview; 2) NASA Recognizes Critical Need for Condensation & Evaporation Research to Enable Human Exploration of Space; 3) Condensation and Evaporation Research in Reduced Gravity is Enabling for AHST Technology Needs; 4) Differing Role of Surface Tension on Condensing/Evaporating Film Stability; 5) Fluid Mechanisms in Condensing and Evaporating Films in Reduced Gravity; 6) Research Plan; 7) Experimental Configurations for Condensing Films; 8) Laboratory Condensation Test Cell; 9) Aircraft Experiment; 10) Condensation Study Current Test Conditions; 11) Diagnostics; 12) Shadowgraph Images of Condensing n- pentane Film in Unstable (-1g) Configuration; 13) Condensing n-Pentane Film in Normal Gravity (-1g) at Constant Pressure; 14) Condensing n-Pentane Film in Normal Gravity (-1g) with Cyclic Pressure; 15) Non-condensing Pumped Film in Normal Gravity (-1g); 16) Heat Transfer Coefficient in Developing, Unstable Condensing Film in Normal Gravity; 17) Heat Transfer for Unsteady Condensing Film (-1g); 18) Ultrasound Measurement of Film Thickness N-pentane Film, Stable (+1g) Configuration; and 19) Ultrasound Measurement of Film Thickness N-pentane Film, Unstable (-1g) Configuration.

  4. Quantum cosmology of (loop) quantum gravity condensates: an example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gielen, Steffen

    2014-08-01

    Spatially homogeneous universes can be described in (loop) quantum gravity as condensates of elementary excitations of space. Their treatment is easiest in the second-quantized group field theory formalism, which allows the adaptation of techniques from the description of Bose-Einstein condensates in condensed matter physics. Dynamical equations for the states can be derived directly from the underlying quantum gravity dynamics. The analogue of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation defines an anisotropic quantum cosmology model, in which the condensate wavefunction becomes a quantum cosmology wavefunction on minisuperspace. To illustrate this general formalism, we give a mapping of the gauge-invariant geometric data for a tetrahedron to a minisuperspace of homogeneous anisotropic three-metrics. We then study an example for which we give the resulting quantum cosmology model in the general anisotropic case and derive the general analytical solution for isotropic universes. We discuss the interpretation of these solutions. We suggest that the WKB approximation used in previous studies, corresponding to semiclassical fundamental degrees of freedom of quantum geometry, should be replaced by a notion of semiclassicality that refers to large-scale observables instead.

  5. Gravitino condensates in the early universe and inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavromatos, Nick E.

    2015-05-01

    We review work on the formation of gravitino condensates via the super-Higgs effect in the early Universe. This is a scenario for both inflating the early universe and breaking local super-symmetry (supergravity), entirely independent of any coupling to external matter. The goldstino mode associated with the breaking of (global) super-symmetry is "eaten" by the gravitino field, which becomes massive (via its own vacuum condensation) and breaks the local supersymmetry (supergravity) dynamically. The most natural association of gravitino condensates with inflation proceeds in an indirect way, via a Starobinsky-inflation-type phase. The higher-order curvature corrections of the (quantum) effective action of gravitino condensates induced by integrating out massive gravitino degrees of freedom in a curved space-time background, in the broken-supergravity phase, are responsible for inducing a scalar mode which inflates the Universe. The scenario is in agreement with Planck data phenomenology in a natural and phenomenologically-relevant range of parameters, namely Grand-Unified-Theory values for the super-symmetry breaking energy scale and dynamically-induced gravitino mass.

  6. Polymer Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Curtis W.

    1979-01-01

    Described is a series of four graduate level courses in polymer science, offered or currently in preparation, at Stanford University. Course descriptions and a list of required and recommended texts are included. Detailed course outlines for two of the courses are presented. (BT)

  7. Functional polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Wegner, G.

    2000-01-01

    Improving the existing polymer materials and the designing of model polymers need fundamental insights into the structure and dynamics over a large range of length and time scales. Consequently, a host of quite different methods needs to be applied to gain insights into the molecular and supramolecular structures and interactions that determine the performance of these materials. Supramolecular structures derived from shape persistent (stiff) macromolecules are used as examples to demonstrate the correlation between chemical structure, order phenomena and performance in applications concerning advanced or developing technologies: organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) and separator membranes in lithium based batteries and fuel cells. Polymers are also important as additives in the manufacture and the processing of other materials. The design of block copolymers to control the nucleation and growth of inorganic particles precipitating from aqueous solutions (mineralization) is discussed as well as the use of block copolymers to optimize the processing of ceramic pieces and objects. Finally, the modification of surfaces by polymers including aspects of biocompatibility is discussed. Some remarks concerning the importance of recent developments and advances in synthesis of macromolecular materials are also given.

  8. Polymer solutions

    DOEpatents

    Krawczyk, Gerhard Erich; Miller, Kevin Michael

    2011-07-26

    There is provided a method of making a polymer solution comprising polymerizing one or more monomer in a solvent, wherein said monomer comprises one or more ethylenically unsaturated monomer that is a multi-functional Michael donor, and wherein said solvent comprises 40% or more by weight, based on the weight of said solvent, one or more multi-functional Michael donor.

  9. Turbulent mixing condensation nucleus counter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavliev, Rashid

    The construction and operating principles of the Turbulent Mixing Condensation Nucleus Counter (TM CNC) are described. Estimations based on the semiempirical theory of turbulent jets and the classical theory of nucleation and growth show the possibility of detecting particles as small as 2.5 nm without the interference of homogeneous nucleation. This conclusion was confirmed experimentally during the International Workshop on Intercomparison of Condensation Nuclei and Aerosol Particle Counters (Vienna, Austria). Number concentration, measured by the Turbulent Mixing CNC and other participating instruments, is found to be essentially equal.

  10. Condensation in Titan's lower atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavvas, P.; Griffith, C. A.; Yelle, R. V.

    2011-10-01

    We present a self-consistent description of Titan's aerosols-clouds-gases system and compare our results with the optical properties retrieved from measurements made by the Descent Imager / Spectral Radiometer (DISR) experiment on the Huygens probe [4]. Our calculations include the condensation of methane, ethane and hydrogen cyanide on photochemical aerosols produced in the thermosphere. Our results suggest that the two distinct extinction layers observed by DISR below 80 km are produced by HCN and methane condensation, respectively, while for the Huygens' equatorial conditions simulated here, the contribution of ethane clouds to the total opacity is negligible

  11. Adiabatic preparation of Floquet condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinisch, Christoph; Holthaus, Martin

    2016-10-01

    We argue that a Bose-Einstein condensate can be transformed into a Floquet condensate, that is, into a periodically time-dependent many-particle state possessing the coherence properties of a mesoscopically occupied single-particle Floquet state. Our reasoning is based on the observation that the denseness of the many-body system's quasienergy spectrum does not necessarily obstruct effectively adiabatic transport. Employing the idealized model of a driven bosonic Josephson junction, we demonstrate that only a small amount of Floquet entropy is generated when a driving force with judiciously chosen frequency and maximum amplitude is turned on smoothly.

  12. Dynamical studies of confined fluids and polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabowski, Christopher A.

    Soft matter, a class of materials including polymers, colloids, and surfactant molecules, are ubiquitous in our everyday lives. Plastics, soaps, foods and living organisms are mostly comprised of soft materials. Research conducted to understand soft matter behavior at the molecular level is essential to create new materials with unique properties. Self-healing plastics, targeted drug delivery, and nanowire assemblies have all been further advanced by soft matter research. The author of this dissertation investigates fundamental soft matter systems, including polymer solutions and melts, colloid dispersions in polymer melts, and interfacial fluids. The dynamics of polymers and confined fluids were studied using the single-molecule sensitive technique of fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). Here, fluorescent dyes are attached to polymer coils or by introducing free dyes directly into the solution/film. Complementary experiments were also performed, utilizing atomic force microscopy (AFM) and ellipsometry. FCS and AFM experiments demonstrated the significant difference in properties of thin fluid films of the nearly spherical, nonpolar molecule TEHOS (tetrakis(2-ethylhexoxy)silane) when compared to its bulk counterpart. AFM experiments confirmed TEHOS orders in layers near a solid substrate. FCS experiments show that free dyes introduced in these thin films do not have a single diffusion coefficient, indicating that these films have heterogeneity at the molecular level. FCS experiments have been applied to study the diffusion of gold colloids. The diffusion of gold colloids in polymer melts was found to dramatically depart from the Stokes-Einstein prediction when colloid size was smaller than the surrounding polymer mesh size. This effect is explained by noting the viscosity experienced by the colloid is not equivalent to the overall bulk viscosity of the polymer melt. The conformational change of polymers immersed in a binary solvent was measured via FCS

  13. Dark Matters

    ScienceCinema

    Joseph Silk

    2016-07-12

    One of the greatest mysteries in the cosmos is that it is mostly dark.  Astronomers and particle physicists today are seeking to unravel the nature of this mysterious, but pervasive dark matter which has profoundly influenced the formation of structure in the universe.  I will describe the complex interplay between galaxy formation and dark matter detectability and review recent attempts to measure particle dark matter by direct and indirect means.

  14. Dark Matters

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph Silk

    2009-09-23

    One of the greatest mysteries in the cosmos is that it is mostly dark.  Astronomers and particle physicists today are seeking to unravel the nature of this mysterious, but pervasive dark matter which has profoundly influenced the formation of structure in the universe.  I will describe the complex interplay between galaxy formation and dark matter detectability and review recent attempts to measure particle dark matter by direct and indirect means.

  15. Structure-to-glass transition temperature relationships in high temperature stable condensation polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alston, W. B.; Gratz, R. F.

    1985-01-01

    The presence of a hexafluoroisopropylidene (6F) connecting group in aryl dianhydrides used to prepare aromatic condensation polyimides provides high glass transition temperature (T sub g) polyimides with excellent thermo-oxidative stability. The purpose of this study was to determine if a trifluorophenyl-ethylidene (3F) connecting group would have a similar effect on the T sub g of aromatic condensation polyimides. A new dianhydride containing the 3F connecting group was synthesized. This dianhydride and an aromatic diamine also containing the 3F connecting group were used together and in various combinations with known diamines or known dianhydrides, respectively, to prepare new 3F containing condensation polyimides. Known polyimides, including some with the 6F connecting linkage, were also prepared for comparison purposes. The new 3F containing polymers and the comparison polymers were prepared by condensation polymerization via the traditional amic-acid polymerization method in N,N-dimethylacetamide solvent. The solutions were characterized by determining their inherent viscosities and then were thermally converted into polyimide films under nitrogen atmosphere at 300 to 500 C, usually 350 C. The T sub g's of the films and resin discs were then determined by thermomechanical analysis and were correlated as a function of the final processing temperatures of the films and resin discs. The results showed that similarities existed in the T sub g's depending on the nature of the connecting linkage in the monomers used to prepare the condensation polyimides.

  16. Interacting trapped bosons yield fragmented condensate states in low dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Uwe R.; Bader, Philipp

    2010-07-15

    We investigate the level population statistics and degree of coherence encoded in the single-particle density matrix of harmonically trapped low-dimensional [quasi-one-dimensional (quasi-1D) or quasi-two-dimensional (quasi-2D)] Bose gases with repulsive contact interactions. Using a variational analysis, we derive fragmentation of the condensate in the weakly confining directions into two (quasi-1D) and three (quasi-2D) mutually incoherent macroscopic pieces, upon increasing a dimensionless interaction measure beyond a critical value. Fragmented condensate many-body states in low-dimensional systems therefore occur well before the thermodynamic limit of infinite extension is reached, in which phase fluctuations of the matter wave field create an infinite number of nonmacroscopic fragments.

  17. Interferometry with Bose-Einstein condensates in microgravity.

    PubMed

    Müntinga, H; Ahlers, H; Krutzik, M; Wenzlawski, A; Arnold, S; Becker, D; Bongs, K; Dittus, H; Duncker, H; Gaaloul, N; Gherasim, C; Giese, E; Grzeschik, C; Hänsch, T W; Hellmig, O; Herr, W; Herrmann, S; Kajari, E; Kleinert, S; Lämmerzahl, C; Lewoczko-Adamczyk, W; Malcolm, J; Meyer, N; Nolte, R; Peters, A; Popp, M; Reichel, J; Roura, A; Rudolph, J; Schiemangk, M; Schneider, M; Seidel, S T; Sengstock, K; Tamma, V; Valenzuela, T; Vogel, A; Walser, R; Wendrich, T; Windpassinger, P; Zeller, W; van Zoest, T; Ertmer, W; Schleich, W P; Rasel, E M

    2013-03-01

    Atom interferometers covering macroscopic domains of space-time are a spectacular manifestation of the wave nature of matter. Because of their unique coherence properties, Bose-Einstein condensates are ideal sources for an atom interferometer in extended free fall. In this Letter we report on the realization of an asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer operated with a Bose-Einstein condensate in microgravity. The resulting interference pattern is similar to the one in the far field of a double slit and shows a linear scaling with the time the wave packets expand. We employ delta-kick cooling in order to enhance the signal and extend our atom interferometer. Our experiments demonstrate the high potential of interferometers operated with quantum gases for probing the fundamental concepts of quantum mechanics and general relativity. PMID:23496709

  18. Scanning Cryogenic Magnetometry with a 1D Bose Einstein Condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straquadine, Joshua; Yang, Fan; Lev, Benjamin

    We present a novel scanning probe magnetometer suitable for cryogenic studies, in which the probe is a Bose-Einstein condensate of 87Rb. The system is designed for rapid sample changes and operation between 35 K and room temperature while remaining compatible with the UHV requirements of ultracold atom experiments. We demonstrate a spatial resolution (FWHM) of 2.6 μm and a repeatability of 1.9 +/- 1.0 nT. We also show that the system is operating close to the fundamental measurement limits set by photon shot noise and atom shot noise. Our scanning quantum cryogenic atom microscope is suitable for fundamental studies of transport and magnetism in condensed matter systems such as high-temperature superconductors and topological insulators. We discuss the advantages and applications of this magnetometry technique.

  19. Basic Program Plan. Condensed Version.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Center for Research and Development in Teaching.

    This condensed version of the Basic Program Plan for the Stanford Center for Research and Development in Teaching (SCDRT) outlines the proposed plans of substantive programs over the next several years (beginning December 1, 1972). Information on projected costs and the Center's institutional capabilities for administering, reviewing, and…

  20. Approaching Bose-Einstein Condensation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrari, Loris

    2011-01-01

    Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) is discussed at the level of an advanced course of statistical thermodynamics, clarifying some formal and physical aspects that are usually not covered by the standard pedagogical literature. The non-conventional approach adopted starts by showing that the continuum limit, in certain cases, cancels out the crucial…