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Sample records for conditional double knockout

  1. Double knockout mutants of Arabidopsis grown under normal conditions reveal that the plastidial phosphorylase isozyme participates in transitory starch metabolism.

    PubMed

    Malinova, Irina; Mahlow, Sebastian; Alseekh, Saleh; Orawetz, Tom; Fernie, Alisdair R; Baumann, Otto; Steup, Martin; Fettke, Joerg

    2014-02-01

    In leaves of two starch-related single-knockout lines lacking either the cytosolic transglucosidase (also designated as disproportionating enzyme 2, DPE2) or the maltose transporter (MEX1), the activity of the plastidial phosphorylase isozyme (PHS1) is increased. In both mutants, metabolism of starch-derived maltose is impaired but inhibition is effective at different subcellular sites. Two constitutive double knockout mutants were generated (designated as dpe2-1×phs1a and mex1×phs1b) both lacking functional PHS1. They reveal that in normally grown plants, the plastidial phosphorylase isozyme participates in transitory starch degradation and that the central carbon metabolism is closely integrated into the entire cell biology. All plants were grown either under continuous illumination or in a light-dark regime. Both double mutants were compromised in growth and, compared with the single knockout plants, possess less average leaf starch when grown in a light-dark regime. Starch and chlorophyll contents decline with leaf age. As revealed by transmission electron microscopy, mesophyll cells degrade chloroplasts, but degradation is not observed in plants grown under continuous illumination. The two double mutants possess similar but not identical phenotypes. When grown in a light-dark regime, mesophyll chloroplasts of dpe2-1×phs1a contain a single starch granule but under continuous illumination more granules per chloroplast are formed. The other double mutant synthesizes more granules under either growth condition. In continuous light, growth of both double mutants is similar to that of the parental single knockout lines. Metabolite profiles and oligoglucan patterns differ largely in the two double mutants.

  2. Conditional knockout of Foxc2 gene in kidney: efficient generation of conditional alleles of single-exon gene by double-selection system.

    PubMed

    Motojima, Masaru; Ogiwara, Sanae; Matsusaka, Taiji; Kim, Sang Yong; Sagawa, Nobuho; Abe, Koichiro; Ohtsuka, Masato

    2016-02-01

    Foxc2 is a single-exon gene and a key regulator in development of multiple organs, including kidney. To avoid embryonic lethality of conventional Foxc2 knockout mice, we conditionally deleted Foxc2 in kidneys. Conditional targeting of a single-exon gene involves the large floxed gene segment spanning from promoter region to coding region to avoid functional disruption of the gene by the insertion of a loxP site. Therefore, in ES cell clones surviving a conventional single-selection, e.g., neomycin-resistant gene (neo) alone, homologous recombination between the long floxed segment and target genome results in a high incidence of having only one loxP site adjacent to the selection marker. To avoid this limitation, we employed a double-selection system. We generated a Foxc2 targeting construct in which a floxed segment contained 4.6 kb mouse genome and two different selection marker genes, zeocin-resistant gene and neo, that were placed adjacent to each loxP site. After double-selection by zeocin and neomycin, 72 surviving clones were screened that yielded three correctly targeted clones. After floxed Foxc2 mice were generated by tetraploid complementation, we removed the two selection marker genes by a simultaneous-single microinjection of expression vectors for Dre and Flp recombinases into in vitro-fertilized eggs. To delete Foxc2 in mouse kidneys, floxed Foxc2 mice were mated with Pax2-Cre mice. Newborn Pax2-Cre; Foxc2(loxP/loxP) mice showed kidney hypoplasia and glomerular cysts. These results indicate the feasibility of generating floxed Foxc2 mice by double-selection system and simultaneous removal of selection markers with a single microinjection.

  3. Generation of conditional knockout alleles for PRL-3.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hong; Kong, Dong; Ge, Xiaomei; Gao, Xiang; Han, Xiao

    2011-11-01

    Phosphatase of regenerating liver-3 (PRL-3) is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) superfamily and is highly expressed in cancer metastases. For better understanding of the role of PRL-3 in tumor metastasis, we applied a rapid and efficient method for generating PRL-3 floxed mice and investigated its phenotypes. A BAC retrieval strategy was applied to construct the PRL-3 conditional gene-targeting vector. Exon 4 was selected for deletion to generate a nonfunctional prematurely terminated short peptide as it will cause a frame-shift mutation. Conditional knockout PRL-3 mice were generated by using the Cre-loxP system and were validated by Southern blot and RT-PCR analysis. Further analysis revealed the phenotype characteristics of PRL-3 knockout mice and wildtype mice. In this study, we successfully constructed the PRL-3 conditional knockout mice, which will be helpful to clarify the roles of PRL-3 and the mechanisms in tumor metastasis.

  4. A novel CBL-Bflox/flox mouse model allows tissue-selective fully conditional CBL/CBL-B double-knockout: CD4-Cre mediated CBL/CBL-B deletion occurs in both T-cells and hematopoietic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Goetz, Benjamin; An, Wei; Mohapatra, Bhopal; Zutshi, Neha; Iseka, Fany; Storck, Matthew D; Meza, Jane; Sheinin, Yuri; Band, Vimla; Band, Hamid

    2016-08-09

    CBL-family ubiquitin ligases are critical negative regulators of tyrosine kinase signaling, with a clear redundancy between CBL and CBL-B evident in the immune cell and hematopoietic stem cell studies. Since CBL and CBL-B are negative regulators of immune cell activation, elimination of their function to boost immune cell activities could be beneficial in tumor immunotherapy. However, mutations of CBL are associated with human leukemias, pointing to tumor suppressor roles of CBL proteins; hence, it is critical to assess the tumor-intrinsic roles of CBL and CBL-B in cancers. This has not been possible since the only available whole-body CBL-B knockout mice exhibit constitutive tumor rejection. We engineered a new CBL-Bflox/flox mouse, combined this with an existing CBLflox/flox mouse to generate CBLflox/flox; CBL-Bflox/flox mice, and tested the tissue-specific concurrent deletion of CBL and CBL-B using the widely-used CD4-Cre transgenic allele to produce a T-cell-specific double knockout. Altered T-cell development, constitutive peripheral T-cell activation, and a lethal multi-organ immune infiltration phenotype largely resembling the previous Lck-Cre driven floxed-CBL deletion on a CBL-B knockout background establish the usefulness of the new model for tissue-specific CBL/CBL-B deletion. Unexpectedly, CD4-Cre-induced deletion in a small fraction of hematopoietic stem cells led to expansion of certain non-T-cell lineages, suggesting caution in the use of CD4-Cre for T-cell-restricted gene deletion. The establishment of a new model of concurrent tissue-selective CBL/CBL-B deletion should allow a clear assessment of the tumor-intrinsic roles of CBL/CBL-B in non-myeloid malignancies and help test the potential for CBL/CBL-B inactivation in immunotherapy of tumors.

  5. A novel CBL-Bflox/flox mouse model allows tissue-selective fully conditional CBL/CBL-B double-knockout: CD4-Cre mediated CBL/CBL-B deletion occurs in both T-cells and hematopoietic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Goetz, Benjamin; An, Wei; Mohapatra, Bhopal; Zutshi, Neha; Iseka, Fany; Storck, Matthew D.; Meza, Jane; Sheinin, Yuri; Band, Vimla; Band, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    CBL-family ubiquitin ligases are critical negative regulators of tyrosine kinase signaling, with a clear redundancy between CBL and CBL-B evident in the immune cell and hematopoietic stem cell studies. Since CBL and CBL-B are negative regulators of immune cell activation, elimination of their function to boost immune cell activities could be beneficial in tumor immunotherapy. However, mutations of CBL are associated with human leukemias, pointing to tumor suppressor roles of CBL proteins; hence, it is critical to assess the tumor-intrinsic roles of CBL and CBL-B in cancers. This has not been possible since the only available whole-body CBL-B knockout mice exhibit constitutive tumor rejection. We engineered a new CBL-Bflox/flox mouse, combined this with an existing CBLflox/flox mouse to generate CBLflox/flox; CBL-Bflox/flox mice, and tested the tissue-specific concurrent deletion of CBL and CBL-B using the widely-used CD4-Cre transgenic allele to produce a T-cell-specific double knockout. Altered T-cell development, constitutive peripheral T-cell activation, and a lethal multi-organ immune infiltration phenotype largely resembling the previous Lck-Cre driven floxed-CBL deletion on a CBL-B knockout background establish the usefulness of the new model for tissue-specific CBL/CBL-B deletion. Unexpectedly, CD4-Cre-induced deletion in a small fraction of hematopoietic stem cells led to expansion of certain non-T-cell lineages, suggesting caution in the use of CD4-Cre for T-cell-restricted gene deletion. The establishment of a new model of concurrent tissue-selective CBL/CBL-B deletion should allow a clear assessment of the tumor-intrinsic roles of CBL/CBL-B in non-myeloid malignancies and help test the potential for CBL/CBL-B inactivation in immunotherapy of tumors. PMID:27276677

  6. Beyond knockouts: cre resources for conditional mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Stephen A.; Eppig, Janan T.; Smedley, Damian; Simpson, Elizabeth M.; Rosenthal, Nadia

    2013-01-01

    With the effort of the International Phenotyping Consortium (IMPC) to produce thousands of strains with conditional potential gathering steam, there is growing recognition that it must be supported by a rich toolbox of cre driver strains. The approaches to build cre strains have evolved in both sophistication and reliability, replacing first generation strains with tools that can target individual cell populations with incredible precision and specificity. The modest set of cre drivers generated by individual labs over the past 15+ years is now growing rapidly, thanks to a number of large-scale projects to produce new cre strains for the community. The power of this growing resource, however, depends upon the proper deep characterization of strain function, as even the best designed strain can display a variety of undesirable features that must be considered in experimental design. This must be coupled with the parallel development of informatics tools to provide functional data to the user, and facilitated access to the strains through public repositories. We will discuss the current progress on all of these fronts and the challenges that remain to ensure the scientific community can capitalize on the tremendous number of mouse resources at their disposal. PMID:22926223

  7. Preaxial Polydactyly in Sost/Sostdc1 Double Knockouts

    SciTech Connect

    Yee, C M; Collette, N M; Loots, G G

    2011-07-29

    In the United States, {approx}5% are born with congenital birth defects due to abnormal function of cellular processes and interactions. Sclerosteosis, a rare autosomal recessive disease, causes hyperostosis of the axial and appendicular skeleton, and patients present radial deviation, digit syndactyly, nail dysplasia, and overall high bone mineral density. Sclerosteosis is due to a loss of function of sclerostin (Sost). Sost is a Wnt (abbrev.) antagonist; when mutated, nonfunctional Sost results in hyperactive osteoblast activity which leads to abnormal high bone mass. Previous studies have shown that Sost overexpression in transgenic mice causes reduced bone mineral density and a variety of limb phenotypes ranging from lost, fused, and split phalanges. Consistent with clinical manifestations of Sclerosteosis, Sost knockout mice exhibit increased generalized bone mineral density and syndactyly of the digits. Sostdc1 is a paralog of Sost that has also been described as an antagonist of Wnt signaling, in developing tooth buds. Unlike Sost knockouts, Sostdc1 null mice do not display any limb abnormalities. To determine if Sost and Sostdc1 have redundant functions during limb patterning, we examined Sost; Sostdc1 mice determined that they exhibit a novel preaxial polydactyly phenotype with a low penetrance. LacZ staining, skeletal preparations, and in situ hybridization experiments were used to help characterize this novel phenotype and understand how this phenotype develops. We find Sost and Sostdc1 to have complementary expression patterns during limb development, and the loss of their expression alters the transcription of several key limb regulators, such as Fgf8, Shh and Grem.

  8. Generating double knockout mice to model genetic intervention for diabetic cardiomyopathy in humans.

    PubMed

    Chavali, Vishalakshi; Nandi, Shyam Sundar; Singh, Shree Ram; Mishra, Paras Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes is a rapidly increasing disease that enhances the chances of heart failure twofold to fourfold (as compared to age and sex matched nondiabetics) and becomes a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. There are two broad classifications of diabetes: type1 diabetes (T1D) and type2 diabetes (T2D). Several mice models mimic both T1D and T2D in humans. However, the genetic intervention to ameliorate diabetic cardiomyopathy in these mice often requires creating double knockout (DKO). In order to assess the therapeutic potential of a gene, that specific gene is either overexpressed (transgenic expression) or abrogated (knockout) in the diabetic mice. If the genetic mice model for diabetes is used, it is necessary to create DKO with transgenic/knockout of the target gene to investigate the specific role of that gene in pathological cardiac remodeling in diabetics. One of the important genes involved in extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling in diabetes is matrix metalloproteinase-9 (Mmp9). Mmp9 is a collagenase that remains latent in healthy hearts but induced in diabetic hearts. Activated Mmp9 degrades extracellular matrix (ECM) and increases matrix turnover causing cardiac fibrosis that leads to heart failure. Insulin2 mutant (Ins2+/-) Akita is a genetic model for T1D that becomes diabetic spontaneously at the age of 3-4 weeks and show robust hyperglycemia at the age of 10-12 weeks. It is a chronic model of T1D. In Ins2+/- Akita, Mmp9 is induced. To investigate the specific role of Mmp9 in diabetic hearts, it is necessary to create diabetic mice where Mmp9 gene is deleted. Here, we describe the method to generate Ins2+/-/Mmp9-/- (DKO) mice to determine whether the abrogation of Mmp9 ameliorates diabetic cardiomyopathy.

  9. Characterization of TG2 and TG1-TG2 double knock-out mouse epidermis.

    PubMed

    Pitolli, Consuelo; Pietroni, Valentina; Marekov, Lyuben; Terrinoni, Alessandro; Yamanishi, Kiyofumi; Mazzanti, Cinzia; Melino, Gerry; Candi, Eleonora

    2017-03-01

    Transglutaminases (TGs) are a family of enzymes that catalyse the formation of isopeptide bonds between the γ-carboxamide groups of glutamine residues and the ε-amino groups of lysine residues leading to cross-linking reactions among proteins. Four members, TG1, TG2, TG3, and TG5, of the nine mammalian enzymes are expressed in the skin. TG1, TG3 and TG5 crosslinking properties are fundamental for cornified envelope assembly. In contrast, the role of TG2 in keratinization has never been studied at biochemical level in vivo. In this study, taking advantage of the TG2 knock-out (KO) and TG1 heterozygous mice, we generated and characterized the epidermis of TG1-TG2 double knock-out (DKO) mice. We performed morphological analysis of the epidermis and evaluation of the expression of differentiation markers. In addition, we performed analysis of the amino acid composition from isolated corneocytes. We found a significant change in amino acid composition in TG1KO cornified cell envelopes (CEs) while TG2KO amino acid composition was similar to wild-type CEs. Our results confirm a key role of TG1 in skin differentiation and CE assembly and demonstrate that TG2 is not essential for CE assembly and skin formation.

  10. Normal maternal behavior, but increased pup mortality, in conditional oxytocin receptor knockout females.

    PubMed

    Macbeth, Abbe H; Stepp, Jennifer E; Lee, Heon-Jin; Young, W Scott; Caldwell, Heather K

    2010-10-01

    Oxytocin (Oxt) and the Oxt receptor (Oxtr) are implicated in the onset of maternal behavior in a variety of species. Recently, we developed two Oxtr knockout lines: a total body knockout (Oxtr-/-) and a conditional Oxtr knockout (OxtrFB/FB) in which the Oxtr is lacking only in regions of the forebrain, allowing knockout females to potentially nurse and care for their biological offspring. In the current study, we assessed maternal behavior of postpartum OxtrFB/FB females toward their own pups and maternal behavior of virgin Oxtr-/- females toward foster pups and compared knockouts of both lines to wildtype (Oxtr+/+) littermates. We found that both Oxtr-/- and OxtrFB/FB females appear to have largely normal maternal behaviors. However, with first litters, approximately 40% of the OxtrFB/FB knockout dams experienced high pup mortality, compared to fewer than 10% of the Oxtr+/+ dams. We then went on to test whether or not this phenotype occurred in subsequent litters or when the dams were exposed to an environmental disturbance. We found that regardless of the degree of external disturbance, OxtrFB/FB females lost more pups on their first and second litters compared to wildtype females. Possible reasons for higher pup mortality in OxtrFB/FB females are discussed.

  11. Dystrophin and utrophin "double knockout" dystrophic mice exhibit a spectrum of degenerative musculoskeletal abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Isaac, Christian; Wright, Adam; Usas, Arvydas; Li, Hongshuai; Tang, Ying; Mu, Xiaodong; Greco, Nicholas; Dong, Qing; Vo, Nam; Kang, James; Wang, Bing; Huard, Johnny

    2013-03-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a degenerative muscle disorder characterized by the lack of dystrophin expression at the sarcolemma of muscle fibers. In addition, DMD patients acquire osteopenia, fragility fractures, and scoliosis indicating that a deficiency in skeletal homeostasis coexists but little is known about the effects of DMD on bone and other connective tissues within the musculoskeletal system. Recent evidence has emerged implicating adult stem cell dysfunction in DMD myopathogenesis. Given the common mesenchymal origin of muscle and bone, we sought to investigate bone and other musculoskeletal tissues in a DMD mouse model. Here, we report that dystrophin-utrophin double knockout (dko) mice exhibit a spectrum of degenerative changes, outside skeletal muscle, in bone, articular cartilage, and intervertebral discs, in addition to reduced lifespan, muscle degeneration, spinal deformity, and cardiomyopathy previously reported. We also report these mice to have a reduced capacity for bone healing and exhibit spontaneous heterotopic ossification in the hind limb muscles. Therefore, we propose the dko mouse as a model for premature musculoskeletal aging and posit that a similar phenomenon may occur in patients with DMD.

  12. Hepatic caveolin-1 is enhanced in Cyp27a1/ApoE double knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Zurkinden, Line; Mansour, Yosef T; Rohrbach, Beatrice; Vogt, Bruno; Mistry, Hiten D; Escher, Geneviève

    2016-10-01

    Sterol 27-hydroxylase (CYP27A1) is involved in bile acid synthesis and cholesterol homoeostasis. Cyp27a1((-/-))/Apolipoprotein E((-/-)) double knockout mice (DKO) fed a western diet failed to develop atherosclerosis. Caveolin-1 (CAV-1), the main component of caveolae, is associated with lipid homoeostasis and has regulatory roles in vascular diseases. We hypothesized that liver CAV-1 would contribute to the athero-protective mechanism in DKO mice. Cyp27a1((+/+))/ApoE((-/-)) (ApoE KO), Cyp27a1((+/-))/ApoE((-/-)) (het), and DKO mice were fed a western diet for 2 months. Atherosclerotic plaque and CAV-1 protein were quantified in aortas. Hepatic Cav-1 mRNA was assessed using qPCR, CAV-1 protein by immunohistochemistry and western blotting. Total hepatic and plasma cholesterol was measured using chemiluminescence. Cholesterol efflux was performed in RAW264.7 cells, using mice plasma as acceptor. CAV-1 protein expression in aortas was increased in endothelial cells of DKO mice and negatively correlated with plaque surface (P < 0.05). In the liver, both CAV-1 protein and mRNA expression doubled in DKO, compared to ApoE KO and het mice (P < 0.001 for both) and was negatively correlated with total hepatic cholesterol (P < 0.05). Plasma from DKO, ApoE KO and het mice had the same efflux capacity. In the absence of CYP27A1, CAV-1 overexpression might have an additional athero-protective role by partly overcoming the defect in CYP27A1-mediated cholesterol efflux.

  13. Engineering of Conditional Class I Hdac Knockout Mice and Generation of a Time-Spatial Knockout by a Dual Recombination System.

    PubMed

    Bayer, Sieglinde; Wirth, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    The protein sequences of class I HDACs in mice and humans are 96-99 % identical. These highly conserved proteins have crucial roles in biological processes, such as proliferation and development, which is reflected in the lethality that occurs in conventional whole body knockout mice. Therefore, conditional knockouts are inevitable to investigate the functions of class I HDACs in mice. Here, we describe the generation of conditional class I Hdac knockout mice, using Hdac1 as an example. We explain a relatively quick procedure to generate the necessary target vectors by recombination-mediated genetic engineering and gateway techniques. Furthermore, we show how to culture, target, and screen for positively recombined ES cells. Additionally, we present a dual recombination system, which allows the deletion of class I Hdacs at any time by a tamoxifen inducible Cre.

  14. Generation and Behavioral Characterization of β-catenin Forebrain-Specific Conditional Knock-Out Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Todd D.; O'Donnell, Kelley C.; Picchini, Alyssa M.; Dow, Eliot R.; Chen, Guang; Manji, Husseini K.

    2009-01-01

    The canonical Wnt pathway and β-catenin have been implicated in the pathophysiology of mood disorders. We generated forebrain-specific CRE-mediated conditional β-catenin knockout mice to begin exploring the behavioral implications of decreased Wnt pathway signaling in the central nervous system. In situ hybridization revealed a progressive knockout of β-catenin that began between 2 and 4 weeks of age, and by 12 weeks resulted in considerably decreased β-catenin expression in regions of the forebrain, including the frontal cortex, hippocampus, and striatum. A significant decrease in protein levels of β-catenin in these brain regions was observed by western blot. Behavioral characterization of these mice in several tests (including the forced swim test, tail suspension test (TST), learned helplessness, response and sensitization to stimulants, and light/dark box among other tests) revealed relatively circumscribed alterations. In the TST, knockout mice spent significantly less time struggling (a depression-like phenotype). However, knockout mice did not differ from their wild-type littermates in the other behavioral tests of mood-related or anxiety-related behaviors. These results suggest that a considerable β-catenin reserve exists, and that a 50-70% β-catenin reduction in circumscribed brain regions is only capable of inducing subtle behavioral changes. Alternatively, regulating β-catenin may modulate drug effects rather than being a model of mood disorder pathophysiology per se. PMID:18299155

  15. Cerebellar defects in Pdss2 conditional knockout mice during embryonic development and in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Lu, Song; Lu, Lin-Yu; Liu, Meng-Fei; Yuan, Qiu-Ju; Sham, Mai-Har; Guan, Xin-Yuan; Huang, Jian-Dong

    2012-01-01

    PDSS2 is a gene that encodes one of the two subunits of trans-prenyl diphosphate synthase that is essential for ubiquinone biosynthesis. It is known that mutations in PDSS2 can cause primary ubiquinone deficiency in humans and a similar disease in mice. Cerebellum is the most often affected organ in ubiquinone deficiency, and cerebellar atrophy has been diagnosed in many infants with this disease. In this study, two Pdss2 conditional knockout mouse lines directed by Pax2-cre and Pcp2-cre were generated to investigate the effect of ubiquinone deficiency on cerebellum during embryonic development and in adulthood, respectively. The Pdss2(f/-); Pax2-cre mouse recapitulates some symptoms of ubiquinone deficiency in infants, including severe cerebellum hypoplasia and lipid accumulation in skeletal muscles at birth. During early cerebellum development (E12.5-14.5), Pdss2 knockout initially causes the delay of radial glial cell growth and neuron progenitor migration, so the growth of mutant cerebellum is retarded. During later development (E15.5-P0), increased ectopic apoptosis of neuroblasts and impaired cell proliferation result in the progression of cerebellum hypoplasia in the mutant. Thus, the mutant cerebellum contains fewer neurons at birth, and the cells are disorganized. The developmental defect of mutant cerebellum does not result from reduced Fgf8 expression before E12.5. Electron microscopy reveals mitochondrial defects and increased autophagic-like vacuolization that may arise in response to abnormal mitochondria in the mutant cerebellum. Nevertheless, the mutant mice die soon after birth probably due to cleft palate and micrognathia, which may result from Pdss2 knockout caused by ectopic Pax2-cre expression in the first branchial arch. On the other hand, the Pdss2(f/-); Pcp2-cre mouse is healthy at birth but gradually loses cerebellar Purkinje cells and develops ataxia-like symptoms at 9.5 months; thus this conditional knockout mouse may serve as a model for

  16. Perseverative instrumental and Pavlovian responding to conditioned stimuli in serotonin transporter knockout rats.

    PubMed

    Nonkes, Lourens J P; Homberg, Judith R

    2013-02-01

    Environmental stimuli can influence behavior via the process of Pavlovian conditioning. Recent genetic research suggests that some individuals are more sensitive to environmental stimuli for behavioral guidance than others. One important mediator of this effect is serotonin transporter (5-HTT) genetic variance, which increases sensitivity to Pavlovian conditioned stimuli through changes in the build-up of corticolimbic circuits. As these stimuli can have reinforcing effects on instrumental responding, we here investigated their effects on instrumental behavior in 5-HTT knockout rats and their wild-type counterparts by means of the signal attenuation paradigm. In this paradigm animals acquired a Pavlovian association between a stimulus and food reward, and subsequently they had to lever press in order to gain access to this food reward-associated stimulus. Thereafter, half of the animals underwent extinction training during which extinction of the primary Pavlovian association was induced via non-reinforced stimulus presentations, whereas the other half did not receive this training. During a final test session all animals were tested for instrumental responding for the non-reinforced Pavlovian conditioned stimulus, as well as instrumental and Pavlovian responding to the stimulus after an initial lever-press. No genotype differences were observed during the training and extinction sessions. However, during the test session 5-HTT knockout rats that had not received prior extinction training displayed excessive instrumental responding. This was specifically observed during presentation of the stimulus (induced by the first lever press) and was accompanied by an increased number of feeder visits after termination of the stimulus presentation. An additionally performed c-Fos immunohistochemistry study revealed that the behaviors in these animals were associated with abnormal c-Fos immunoreactivity in the orbitofrontal cortex and basolateral amygdala, regions important

  17. Enhanced dihydropyridine receptor calcium channel activity restores muscle strength in JP45/CASQ1 double knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Mosca, Barbara; Delbono, Osvaldo; Messi, Maria Laura; Bergamelli, Leda; Wang, Zhong-Min; Vukcevic, Mirko; Lopez, Ruben; Treves, Susan; Nishi, Miyuki; Takeshima, Hiroshi; Paolini, Cecilia; Martini, Marta; Rispoli, Giorgio; Protasi, Feliciano; Zorzato, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Muscle strength declines with age in part due to a decline of Ca2+ release from sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium stores. Skeletal muscle dihydropyridine receptors (Cav1.1) initiate muscle contraction by activating ryanodine receptors in the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Cav1.1 channel activity is enhanced by a retrograde stimulatory signal delivered by the ryanodine receptor. JP45 is a membrane protein interacting with Cav1.1 and the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ storage protein calsequestrin (CASQ1). Here we show that JP45 and CASQ1 strengthen skeletal muscle contraction by modulating Cav1.1 channel activity. Using muscle fibres from JP45 and CASQ1 double knockout mice, we demonstrate that Ca2+ transients evoked by tetanic stimulation are the result of massive Ca2+ influx due to enhanced Cav1.1 channel activity, which restores muscle strength in JP45/CASQ1 double knockout mice. We envision that JP45 and CASQ1 may be candidate targets for the development of new therapeutic strategies against decay of skeletal muscle strength caused by a decrease in sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ content. PMID:23443569

  18. Physcomitrella patens auxin conjugate synthetase (GH3) double knockout mutants are more resistant to Pythium infection than wild type.

    PubMed

    Mittag, Jennifer; Šola, Ivana; Rusak, Gordana; Ludwig-Müller, Jutta

    2015-07-01

    Auxin homeostasis is involved in many different plant developmental and stress responses. The auxin amino acid conjugate synthetases belonging to the GH3 family play major roles in the regulation of free indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) levels and the moss Physcomitrella patens has two GH3 genes in its genome. A role for IAA in several angiosperm--pathogen interactions was reported, however, in a moss--oomycete pathosystem it had not been published so far. Using GH3 double knockout lines we have investigated the role of auxin homeostasis during the infection of P. patens with the two oomycete species, Pythium debaryanum and Pythium irregulare. We show that infection with P. debaryanum caused stronger disease symptoms than with P. irregulare. Also, P. patens lines harboring fusion constructs of an auxin-inducible promoter from soybean (GmGH3) with a reporter (ß-glucuronidase) showed higher promoter induction after P. debaryanum infection than after P. irregulare, indicating a differential induction of the auxin response. Free IAA was induced upon P. debaryanum infection in wild type by 1.6-fold and in two GH3 double knockout (GH3-doKO) mutants by 4- to 5-fold. All GH3-doKO lines showed a reduced disease symptom progression compared to wild type. Since P. debaryanum can be inhibited in growth on medium containing IAA, these data might indicate that endogenous high auxin levels in P. patens GH3-doKO mutants lead to higher resistance against the oomycete.

  19. Double Knockout of the Na+-Driven Cl-/HCO3- Exchanger and Na+/Cl- Cotransporter Induces Hypokalemia and Volume Depletion.

    PubMed

    Sinning, Anne; Radionov, Nikita; Trepiccione, Francesco; López-Cayuqueo, Karen I; Jayat, Maximilien; Baron, Stéphanie; Cornière, Nicolas; Alexander, R Todd; Hadchouel, Juliette; Eladari, Dominique; Hübner, Christian A; Chambrey, Régine

    2017-01-01

    We recently described a novel thiazide-sensitive electroneutral NaCl transport mechanism resulting from the parallel operation of the Cl(-)/HCO3(-) exchanger pendrin and the Na(+)-driven Cl(-)/2HCO3(-) exchanger (NDCBE) in β-intercalated cells of the collecting duct. Although a role for pendrin in maintaining Na(+) balance, intravascular volume, and BP is well supported, there is no in vivo evidence for the role of NDCBE in maintaining Na(+) balance. Here, we show that deletion of NDCBE in mice caused only subtle perturbations of Na(+) homeostasis and provide evidence that the Na(+)/Cl(-) cotransporter (NCC) compensated for the inactivation of NDCBE. To unmask the role of NDCBE, we generated Ndcbe/Ncc double-knockout (dKO) mice. On a normal salt diet, dKO and single-knockout mice exhibited similar activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, whereas only dKO mice displayed a lower blood K(+) concentration. Furthermore, dKO mice displayed upregulation of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and the Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel BKCa. During NaCl depletion, only dKO mice developed marked intravascular volume contraction, despite dramatically increased renin activity. Notably, the increase in aldosterone levels expected on NaCl depletion was attenuated in dKO mice, and single-knockout and dKO mice had similar blood K(+) concentrations under this condition. In conclusion, NDCBE is necessary for maintaining sodium balance and intravascular volume during salt depletion or NCC inactivation in mice. Furthermore, NDCBE has an important role in the prevention of hypokalemia. Because NCC and NDCBE are both thiazide targets, the combined inhibition of NCC and the NDCBE/pendrin system may explain thiazide-induced hypokalemia in some patients.

  20. Generation of a conditional knockout allele for mammalian Spen protein Mint/SHARP.

    PubMed

    Yabe, Daisuke; Fukuda, Hitoshi; Aoki, Misayo; Yamada, Shuichi; Takebayashi, Shinji; Shinkura, Reiko; Yamamoto, Norio; Honjo, Tasuku

    2007-05-01

    The Spen protein family is found in worms, flies, and mammals, and is implicated in diverse biological processes from embryogenesis to aging. Spen proteins have three N-terminal RNA recognition motifs and a C-terminal SPOC domain. The mammalian Spen proteins Mint and its human ortholog SHARP interact with the Notch-signaling mediator RBP-J as well as Msx2 and several unliganded nuclear hormone receptors, and impart transcription-repressing activity to these molecules by recruiting corepressors through the SPOC domain. Despite these in vitro findings, Mint/SHARP's physiological role is largely unknown, because Mint germline knockouts are embryonic lethal. To analyze Mint/SHARP function in postnatal mice, we created Mint-floxed mice that allow the Cre/loxP-mediated conditional knockout of Mint. We analyzed Mint and RBP-J epistasis during Notch-dependent splenic B-lymphocyte development, and found that Mint suppresses Notch signaling through RBP-J. In addition, Mint deficiency caused severe hypoplasia in postnatal brain, suggesting it may regulate neuronal cell survival.

  1. Double knockout of Bax and Bak from kidney proximal tubules reduces unilateral urethral obstruction associated apoptosis and renal interstitial fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Shuqin; Li, Lin; Wei, Qingqing; Hao, Jielu; Su, Yunchao; Mei, Changlin; Dong, Zheng

    2017-01-01

    Interstitial fibrosis, a common pathological feature of chronic kidney diseases, is often associated with apoptosis in renal tissues. To determine the associated apoptotic pathway and its role in renal interstitial fibrosis, we established a mouse model in which Bax and Bak, two critical genes in the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis, were deleted specifically from kidney proximal tubules and used this model to examine renal apoptosis and interstitial fibrosis following unilateral urethral obstruction (UUO). It was shown that double knockout of Bax and Bak from proximal tubules attenuated renal tubular cell apoptosis and suppressed renal interstitial fibrosis in UUO. The results indicate that the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis contributes significantly to the tubular apoptosis and renal interstitial fibrosis in kidney diseases. PMID:28317867

  2. Keratinocytes display normal proliferation, survival and differentiation in conditional beta4-integrin knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Karine; Kreft, Maaike; Janssen, Hans; Calafat, Jero; Sonnenberg, Arnoud

    2005-03-01

    The alpha6beta4 integrin is located at the basal surface of keratinocytes, in hemidesmosomal structures that mediate stable adhesion of epidermal cells to the underlying basement membrane component laminin-5. The absence of alpha6beta4 integrin causes junctional epidermolysis bullosa, a severe blistering disease of the skin leading to perinatal death, confirming its essential role in mediating strong keratinocyte adhesion. Several studies have suggested that alpha6beta4 integrin can also regulate signaling cascades that control cell proliferation, survival and migration through a mechanism independent of its adhesive function. We have generated a conditional knockout mouse strain, in which the gene encoding the beta4 integrin subunit (Itgb4) was inactivated only in small stretches of the skin. These mice were viable and permitted an accurate analysis of the consequences of the loss of beta4 on various biological processes by comparing beta4-positive and -negative parts of the skin in the same animal. Despite the complete loss of hemidesmosomes in regions lacking alpha6beta4 integrin, the distribution of a range of adhesion receptors and basement membrane proteins was unaltered. Moreover, loss of alpha6beta4 did not affect squamous differentiation, proliferation or survival, except for areas in which keratinocytes had detached from the basement membrane. These in vivo observations were confirmed in vitro by using immortalized keratinocytes - derived from beta4-subunit conditional knockout mice - from which the gene encoding beta4 had been deleted by Cre-mediated recombination. Consistent with the established role of alpha6beta4 in adhesion strengthening, its loss from cells was found to increase their motility. Our findings clearly demonstrate that, after birth, epidermal differentiation, proliferation and survival all proceed normally in the absence of alpha6beta4, provided that cell adhesion is not compromised.

  3. Does murine spermatogenesis require WNT signalling? A lesson from Gpr177 conditional knockout mouse models.

    PubMed

    Chen, Su-Ren; Tang, J-X; Cheng, J-M; Hao, X-X; Wang, Y-Q; Wang, X-X; Liu, Y-X

    2016-06-30

    Wingless-related MMTV integration site (WNT) proteins and several other components of the WNT signalling pathway are expressed in the murine testes. However, mice mutant for WNT signalling effector β-catenin using different Cre drivers have phenotypes that are inconsistent with each other. The complexity and overlapping expression of WNT signalling cascades have prevented researchers from dissecting their function in spermatogenesis. Depletion of the Gpr177 gene (the mouse orthologue of Drosophila Wntless), which is required for the secretion of various WNTs, makes it possible to genetically dissect the overall effect of WNTs in testis development. In this study, the Gpr177 gene was conditionally depleted in germ cells (Gpr177(flox/flox), Mvh-Cre; Gpr177(flox/flox), Stra8-Cre) and Sertoli cells (Gpr177(flox/flox), Amh-Cre). No obvious defects in fertility and spermatogenesis were observed in these three Gpr177 conditional knockout (cKO) mice at 8 weeks. However, late-onset testicular atrophy and fertility decline in two germ cell-specific Gpr177 deletion mice were noted at 8 months. In contrast, we did not observe any abnormalities of spermatogenesis and fertility, even in 8-month-old Gpr177(flox/flox), Amh-Cre mice. Elevation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was detected in Gpr177 cKO germ cells and Sertoli cells and exhibited an age-dependent manner. However, significant increase in the activity of Caspase 3 was only observed in germ cells from 8-month-old germ cell-specific Gpr177 knockout mice. In conclusion, GPR177 in Sertoli cells had no apparent influence on spermatogenesis, whereas loss of GPR177 in germ cells disrupted spermatogenesis in an age-dependent manner via elevating ROS levels and triggering germ cell apoptosis.

  4. Does murine spermatogenesis require WNT signalling? A lesson from Gpr177 conditional knockout mouse models

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Su-Ren; Tang, J-X; Cheng, J-M; Hao, X-X; Wang, Y-Q; Wang, X-X; Liu, Y-X

    2016-01-01

    Wingless-related MMTV integration site (WNT) proteins and several other components of the WNT signalling pathway are expressed in the murine testes. However, mice mutant for WNT signalling effector β-catenin using different Cre drivers have phenotypes that are inconsistent with each other. The complexity and overlapping expression of WNT signalling cascades have prevented researchers from dissecting their function in spermatogenesis. Depletion of the Gpr177 gene (the mouse orthologue of Drosophila Wntless), which is required for the secretion of various WNTs, makes it possible to genetically dissect the overall effect of WNTs in testis development. In this study, the Gpr177 gene was conditionally depleted in germ cells (Gpr177flox/flox, Mvh-Cre; Gpr177flox/flox, Stra8-Cre) and Sertoli cells (Gpr177flox/flox, Amh-Cre). No obvious defects in fertility and spermatogenesis were observed in these three Gpr177 conditional knockout (cKO) mice at 8 weeks. However, late-onset testicular atrophy and fertility decline in two germ cell-specific Gpr177 deletion mice were noted at 8 months. In contrast, we did not observe any abnormalities of spermatogenesis and fertility, even in 8-month-old Gpr177flox/flox, Amh-Cre mice. Elevation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was detected in Gpr177 cKO germ cells and Sertoli cells and exhibited an age-dependent manner. However, significant increase in the activity of Caspase 3 was only observed in germ cells from 8-month-old germ cell-specific Gpr177 knockout mice. In conclusion, GPR177 in Sertoli cells had no apparent influence on spermatogenesis, whereas loss of GPR177 in germ cells disrupted spermatogenesis in an age-dependent manner via elevating ROS levels and triggering germ cell apoptosis. PMID:27362799

  5. Urat1-Uox double knockout mice are experimental animal models of renal hypouricemia and exercise-induced acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Hosoyamada, Makoto; Tsurumi, Yu; Hirano, Hidenori; Tomioka, Naoko H; Sekine, Yuko; Morisaki, Takayuki; Uchida, Shunya

    2016-12-01

    Renal hypouricemia (RHUC) is a hereditary disease characterized by a low level of plasma urate but with normal urinary urate excretion. RHUC type 1 is caused by mutations of the urate transporter URAT1 gene (SLC22A12). However, the plasma urate levels of URAT1 knockout mice are no different from those of wild-type mice. In the present study, a double knockout mouse, in which the URAT1 and uricase (Uox) genes were deleted (Urat1-Uox-DKO), were used as an experimental animal model of RHUC type 1 to investigate RHUC and excise-induced acute kidney injury (EIAKI). Mice were given a variable content of allopurinol for one week followed by HPLC measurement of urate and creatinine concentrations in spot urine and blood from the tail. The urinary excretion of urate in Urat1-Uox-DKO mice was approximately 25 times higher than those of humans. With allopurinol, the plasma urate levels of Urat1-Uox-DKO mice were lower than those of Uox-KO mice. There were no differences in the urinary urate excretions between Urat1-Uox-DKO and Uox-KO mice administered with 9 mg allopurinol /100 g feed. In the absence of allopurinol, plasma creatinine levels of some Urat1-Uox-DKO mice were higher than those of Uox-KO mice. Consequently, hypouricemia and normouricosuria may indicate that the Urat1-Uox-DKO mouse administered with allopurinol may represent a suitable animal model of RHUC type 1. Urat1-Uox-DKO mice without allopurinol exhibited acute kidney injury, thus providing additional benefit as a potential animal model for EIAKI. Finally, our data indicate that allopurinol appears to provide prophylactic effects for EIAKI.

  6. A Conditioned Aversion Study of Sucrose and SC45647 Taste in TRPM5 Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Eddy, Meghan C.; Eschle, Benjamin K.; Peterson, Darlene; Lauras, Nathan; Margolskee, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    Previously, published studies have reported mixed results regarding the role of the TRPM5 cation channel in signaling sweet taste by taste sensory cells. Some studies have reported a complete loss of sweet taste preference in TRPM5 knockout (KO) mice, whereas others have reported only a partial loss of sweet taste preference. This study reports the results of conditioned aversion studies designed to motivate wild-type (WT) and KO mice to respond to sweet substances. In conditioned taste aversion experiments, WT mice showed nearly complete LiCl-induced response suppression to sucrose and SC45647. In contrast, TRPM5 KO mice showed a much smaller conditioned aversion to either sweet substance, suggesting a compromised, but not absent, ability to detect sweet taste. A subsequent conditioned flavor aversion experiment was conducted to determine if TRPM5 KO mice were impaired in their ability to learn a conditioned aversion. In this experiment, KO and WT mice were conditioned to a mixture of SC45647 and amyl acetate (an odor cue). Although WT mice avoided both components of the stimulus mixture, they avoided SC45647 more than the odor cue. The KO mice also avoided both stimuli, but they avoided the odor component more than SC45647, suggesting that while the KO mice are capable of learning an aversion, to them the odor cue was more salient than the taste cue. Collectively, these findings suggest the TRPM5 KO mice have some residual ability to detect SC45647 and sucrose, and, like bitter, there may be a TRPM5-independent transduction pathway for detecting these substances. PMID:21987728

  7. Retinal Pre-Conditioning by CD59a Knockout Protects against Light-Induced Photoreceptor Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Brooks; Zhao, Liangliang; Bhuyan, Rupak; Bandyopadhyay, Mausumi; Lyubarsky, Arkady; Yu, Chen; Li, Yafeng; Kanu, Levi; Miwa, Takashi; Song, Wen-Chao; Finnemann, Silvia C.; Rohrer, Bärbel; Dunaief, Joshua L.

    2016-01-01

    Complement dysregulation plays a key role in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), but the specific mechanisms are incompletely understood. Complement also potentiates retinal degeneration in the murine light damage model. To test the retinal function of CD59a, a complement inhibitor, CD59a knockout (KO) mice were used for light damage (LD) experiments. Retinal degeneration and function were compared in WT versus KO mice following light damage. Gene expression changes, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and glial cell activation were also compared. At baseline, the ERG responses and rhodopsin levels were lower in CD59aKO compared to wild-type (WT) mice. Following LD, the ERG responses were better preserved in CD59aKO compared to WT mice. Correspondingly, the number of photoreceptors was higher in CD59aKO retinas than WT controls after LD. Under normal light conditions, CD59aKO mice had higher levels than WT for GFAP immunostaining in Müller cells, mRNA and protein levels of two ER-stress markers, and neurotrophic factors. The reduction in photon capture, together with the neurotrophic factor upregulation, may explain the structural and functional protection against LD in the CD59aKO. PMID:27893831

  8. Time-point and dosage of gene inactivation determine the tumor spectrum in conditional Ptch knockouts.

    PubMed

    Zibat, Arne; Uhmann, Anja; Nitzki, Frauke; Wijgerde, Mark; Frommhold, Anke; Heller, Tanja; Armstrong, Victor; Wojnowski, Leszek; Quintanilla-Martinez, Leticia; Reifenberger, Julia; Schulz-Schaeffer, Walter; Hahn, Heidi

    2009-06-01

    Mutations in Patched (PTCH) have been associated with tumors characteristic both for children [medulloblastoma (MB) and rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS)] and for elderly [basal cell carcinoma (BCC)]. The determinants of the variability in tumor onset and histology are unknown. We investigated the effects of the time-point and dosage of Ptch inactivation on tumor spectrum using conditional Ptch-knockout mice. Ptch heterozygosity induced prenatally resulted in the formation of RMS, which was accompanied by the silencing of the remaining wild-type Ptch allele. In contrast, RMS was observed neither after mono- nor biallelic postnatal deletion of Ptch. Postnatal biallelic deletion of Ptch led to BCC precancerous lesions of the gastrointestinal epithelium and mesenteric tumors. Hamartomatous gastrointestinal cystic tumors were induced by monoallelic, but not biallelic Ptch mutations, independently of the time-point of mutation induction. These data suggest that the expressivity of Ptch deficiency is largely determined by the time-point, the gene dose and mode of Ptch inactivation. Furthermore, they point to key differences in the tumorigenic mechanisms underlying adult and childhood tumors. The latter ones are unique among all tumors since their occurrence decreases rather than increases with age. A better understanding of mechanisms underlying this ontological restriction is of potential therapeutic value.

  9. Adult Conditional Knockout of PGC-1α Leads to Loss of Dopamine Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Haisong; Zhang, Shuran; Karuppagounder, Senthilkumar; Xu, Jinchong; Pletnikova, Olga; Troncoso, Juan C.; Pirooznia, Shelia; Andrabi, Shaida A.

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a chronic progressive neurodegenerative disorder. Recent studies have implicated a role for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator protein-1α (PGC-1α) in PD and in animal or cellular models of PD. The role of PGC-1α in the function and survival of substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) dopamine neurons is not clear. Here we find that there are four different PGC-1α isoforms expressed in SH-SY5Y cells, and these four isoforms are expressed across subregions of mouse brain. Adult conditional PGC-1α knock-out mice show a significant loss of dopaminergic neurons that is accompanied by a reduction of dopamine in the striatum. In human PD postmortem tissue from the SNpc, there is a reduction of PGC-1α isoforms and mitochondria markers. Our findings suggest that all four isoforms of PGC-1α are required for the proper expression of mitochondrial proteins in SNpc DA neurons and that PGC-1α is essential for SNpc DA neuronal survival, possibly through the maintenance of mitochondrial function. PMID:27622213

  10. Conditional knockout of the Slc5a6 gene in mouse intestine impairs biotin absorption.

    PubMed

    Ghosal, Abhisek; Lambrecht, Nils; Subramanya, Sandeep B; Kapadia, Rubina; Said, Hamid M

    2013-01-01

    The Slc5a6 gene expresses a plasma membrane protein involved in the transport of the water-soluble vitamin biotin; the transporter is commonly referred to as the sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT) because it also transports pantothenic acid and lipoic acid. The relative contribution of the SMVT system toward carrier-mediated biotin uptake in the native intestine in vivo has not been established. We used a Cre/lox technology to generate an intestine-specific (conditional) SMVT knockout (KO) mouse model to address this issue. The KO mice exhibited absence of expression of SMVT in the intestine compared with sex-matched littermates as well as the expected normal SMVT expression in other tissues. About two-thirds of the KO mice died prematurely between the age of 6 and 10 wk. Growth retardation, decreased bone density, decreased bone length, and decreased biotin status were observed in the KO mice. Microscopic analysis showed histological abnormalities in the small bowel (shortened villi, dysplasia) and cecum (chronic active inflammation, dysplasia) of the KO mice. In vivo (and in vitro) transport studies showed complete inhibition in carrier-mediated biotin uptake in the intestine of the KO mice compared with their control littermates. These studies provide the first in vivo confirmation in native intestine that SMVT is solely responsible for intestinal biotin uptake. These studies also provide evidence for a casual association between SMVT function and normal intestinal health.

  11. Ghrelin knockout mice show decreased voluntary alcohol consumption and reduced ethanol-induced conditioned place preference.

    PubMed

    Bahi, Amine; Tolle, Virginie; Fehrentz, Jean-Alain; Brunel, Luc; Martinez, Jean; Tomasetto, Catherine-Laure; Karam, Sherif M

    2013-05-01

    Recent work suggests that stomach-derived hormone ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1A) antagonism may reduce motivational aspects of ethanol intake. In the current study we hypothesized that the endogenous GHS-R1A agonist ghrelin modulates alcohol reward mechanisms. For this purpose ethanol-induced conditioned place preference (CPP), ethanol-induced locomotor stimulation and voluntary ethanol consumption in a two-bottle choice drinking paradigm were examined under conditions where ghrelin and its receptor were blocked, either using ghrelin knockout (KO) mice or the specific ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1A) antagonist "JMV2959". We showed that ghrelin KO mice displayed lower ethanol-induced CPP than their wild-type (WT) littermates. Consistently, when injected during CPP-acquisition, JMV2959 reduced CPP-expression in C57BL/6 mice. In addition, ethanol-induced locomotor stimulation was lower in ghrelin KO mice. Moreover, GHS-R1A blockade, using JMV2959, reduced alcohol-stimulated locomotion only in WT but not in ghrelin KO mice. When alcohol consumption and preference were assessed using the two-bottle choice test, both genetic deletion of ghrelin and pharmacological antagonism of the GHS-R1A (JMV2959) reduced voluntary alcohol consumption and preference. Finally, JMV2959-induced reduction of alcohol intake was only observed in WT but not in ghrelin KO mice. Taken together, these results suggest that ghrelin neurotransmission is necessary for the stimulatory effect of ethanol to occur, whereas lack of ghrelin leads to changes that reduce the voluntary intake as well as conditioned reward by ethanol. Our findings reveal a major, novel role for ghrelin in mediating ethanol behavior, and add to growing evidence that ghrelin is a key mediator of the effects of multiple abused drugs.

  12. Conditional Knockout of Prolyl Hydroxylase Domain Protein 2 Attenuates High Fat-Diet-Induced Cardiac Dysfunction in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Heng; Chen, Jian-Xiong

    2014-01-01

    Oxygen sensor prolyl hydroxylases (PHDs) play important roles in the regulation of HIF-α and cell metabolisms. This study was designed to investigate the direct role of PHD2 in high fat-diet (HFD)-induced cardiac dysfunction. In HFD fed mice, PHD2 expression was increased without significant changes in PHD1 and PHD3 levels in the heart. This was accompanied by a significant upregulation of myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MYD88) and NF-κB. To explore the role of PHD2 in HFD-induced cardiac dysfunction, PHD2 conditional knockout mice were fed a HFD for 16 weeks. Intriguingly, knockout of PHD2 significantly reduced MYD88 and NF-κb expression in HFD mouse hearts. Moreover, knockout of PHD2 inhibited TNFα and ICAM-1 expression, and reduced cell apoptosis and macrophage infiltration in HFD mice. This was accompanied by a significant improvement of cardiac function. Most importantly, conditional knockout of PHD2 at late stage in HFD mice significantly improved glucose tolerance and reversed cardiac dysfunction. Our studies demonstrate that PHD2 activity is a critical contributor to the HFD-induced cardiac dysfunction. Inhibition of PHD2 attenuates HFD-induced cardiac dysfunction by a mechanism involving suppression of MYD88/NF-κb pathway and inflammation. PMID:25546437

  13. Functional interplay between cylindromatosis and histone deacetylase 6 in ciliary homeostasis revealed by phenotypic analysis of double knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Ran, Jie; Yu, Fan; Qin, Juan; Zhang, Yijun; Yang, Yunfan; Li, Dengwen; Zhou, Jun; Liu, Min

    2016-01-01

    Cilia are present in most vertebrate tissues with a wide variety of functions, and abnormalities of cilia are linked to numerous human disorders. However, the molecular events underlying ciliary homeostasis are poorly understood. In this study, we generated double knockout (DKO) mice for the deubiquitinase cylindromatosis (CYLD) and histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6), two critical ciliary regulators. The Cyld/Hdac6 DKO mice were phenotypically normal and showed no obvious variances in weight or behavior compared with their wild-type littermates. Strikingly, Cyld loss-induced ciliary defects in the testis, trachea, and kidney were abrogated in the Cyld/Hdac6 DKO mice. In addition, the diminished α-tubulin acetylation and impaired sonic hedgehog signaling caused by loss of Cyld were largely restored by simultaneous deletion of Hdac6. We further found by immunofluorescence microscopy a colocalization of CYLD and HDAC6 at the centrosome/basal body and, interestingly, loss of Cyld promoted the localization of HDAC6 at the centrosome/basal body. These findings provide physiological insight into the ciliary role of the CYLD/HDAC6 axis and suggest a functional interplay between these two proteins in ciliary homeostasis. PMID:27028867

  14. Liver-specific inactivation of the abetalipoproteinemia gene completely abrogates very low density lipoprotein/low density lipoprotein production in a viable conditional knockout mouse.

    PubMed

    Chang, B H; Liao, W; Li, L; Nakamuta, M; Mack, D; Chan, L

    1999-03-05

    Conventional knockout of the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein large subunit (lMTP) gene is embryonic lethal in the homozygous state in mice. We have produced a conditional lMTP knockout mouse by inserting loxP sequences flanking exons 5 and 6 by gene targeting. Homozygous floxed mice were born live with normal plasma lipids. Intravenous injection of an adenovirus harboring Cre recombinase (AdCre1) produced deletion of exons 5 and 6 and disappearance of lMTP mRNA and immunoreactive protein in a liver-specific manner. There was also disappearance of plasma apolipoprotein (apo) B-100 and marked reduction in apoB-48 levels. Wild-type mice showed no response, and heterozygous mice, an intermediate response, to AdCre1. Wild-type mice doubled their plasma cholesterol level following a high cholesterol diet. This hypercholesterolemia was abolished in AdCre1-treated lMTP-/- mice, the result of a complete absence of very low/intermediate/low density lipoproteins and a slight reduction in high density lipoprotein. Heterozygous mice showed an intermediate lipoprotein phenotype. The rate of accumulation of plasma triglyceride following Triton WR1339 treatment in lMTP-/- mice was <10% that in wild-type animals, indicating a failure of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein production. Pulse-chase experiments using hepatocytes isolated from wild-type and lMTP-/- mice revealed a failure of apoB secretion in lMTP-/- animals. Therefore, the liver-specific inactivation of the lMTP gene completely abrogates apoB-100 and very low/intermediate/low density lipoprotein production. These conditional knockout mice are a useful in vivo model for studying the role of MTP in apoB biosynthesis and the biogenesis of apoB-containing lipoproteins.

  15. The sub-optimal phenotypes of double-knockout mutants of Escherichia coli depend on the order of gene deletions.†

    PubMed Central

    Gawand, Pratish; Abukar, Fatumina Said; Venayak, Naveen; Partow, Siavash; Motter, Adilson E.; Mahadevan, Radhakrishnan

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic networks are characterized by multiple redundant reactions that do not have a clear biological function. The redundancies in the metabolic networks are implicated in adaptation to random mutations and survival under different environmental conditions. Reactions that are not active under wild-type growth conditions, but get transiently activated after a mutation event such as gene deletion are known as latent reactions. Characterization of multiple-gene knockout mutants can identify the physiological roles of latent reactions. In this study, we characterized double-gene deletion mutants of E. coli with an aim to investigate the sub-optimal physiology of the mutants and the plausible roles of latent reactions. Specifically, we investigated the effects of deletion of the glyoxylate-shunt gene aceA (encoding a latent reaction enzyme, isocitrate lyase) on the growth characteristics of the mutant E. coli Δpgi. The deletion of aceA reduced the growth rate of E. coli Δpgi, indicating that the activation of the glyoxylate shunt plays an important role in adaptation of the mutant E. coli Δpgi. We also investigated the effect of the order of the gene deletions on the growth rates and substrate uptake rates of the double-gene deletion mutants. The results indicate that the order in which genes are deleted determines the phenotype of the mutants during the sub-optimal growth phase. To elucidate the mechanism behind the difference between the observed phenotypes, we carried out transcriptomic analysis and constraint-based modeling of the mutants. Transcriptomic analysis showed differential expression of the gene aceK (encoding the protein isocitrate dehydrogenase kinase) involved in controlling the isocitrate flux through the TCA cycle and the glyoxylate shunt. Higher acetate production in the E. coli ΔaceA1 Δpgi2 mutant was consistent with the increased aceK expression, which limits the TCA cycle flux and causes acetate production via overflow metabolism. PMID

  16. Conditional (intestinal-specific) knockout of the riboflavin transporter-3 (RFVT-3) impairs riboflavin absorption.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Veedamali S; Lambrecht, Nils; Lytle, Christian; Said, Hamid M

    2016-02-15

    Riboflavin (RF) is indispensable for normal cell metabolism, proliferation, and growth. The RFVT-3 protein (product of the Slc52a3 gene) is expressed in the gut with the expression being restricted to the apical membrane domain of the polarized intestinal epithelial cells. The relative contribution of RFVT-3 to total carrier-mediated RF uptake in the native intestine, however, is not clear. We addressed this issue in the current investigation using a conditional (intestinal-specific) RFVT-3 knockout (cKO) mouse model developed by the Cre/Lox approach. All RFVT-3 cKO mice were found to be RF deficient and showed a significant growth and development retardation; also, nearly two-thirds of them died prematurely between the age of 6 and 12 wk. In vivo (intestinal and colonic loops) and in vitro (native isolated intestinal epithelial cells) uptake studies showed a severe inhibition in carrier-mediated RF uptake in the cKO mice compared with control littermates. We also observed a significant increase in the level of expression of oxidative stress-responsive genes in the intestine of the cKO mice compared with control littermates. Supplementation of the RFVT-3 cKO mice with pharmacological doses of RF led to a complete correction of the growth retardation and to normalization in the level of expression of the oxidative stress-responsive genes in the gut. These results show, for the first time, that the RFVT-3 system is the main transporter involved in carrier-mediated RF uptake in the native mouse small and large intestine, and that its dysfunction impairs normal RF body homeostasis.

  17. Flavor preference conditioning by different sugars in sweet ageusic Trpm5 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Sclafani, Anthony; Ackroff, Karen

    2015-03-01

    Knockout (KO) mice missing the taste signaling protein Trpm5 have greatly attenuated sweetener preferences but develop strong preferences for glucose in 24-h tests, which is attributed to post-oral sugar conditioning. Trpm5 KO mice express mild preferences for galactose but no preferences for fructose in 24-h tests, which suggests that these sugars differ in their post-oral reinforcing effects. Here we investigated sugar-conditioned flavor preferences in Trpm5 KO and C57BL/6J wildtype (B6) mice. The mice were trained to consume a flavored (CS+, e.g. grape) 8% sugar solution and flavored (CS-, e.g., cherry) water on alternating days followed by two-bottle choice tests with CS+ vs. CS- flavors in water and with unflavored sugar vs. water. The KO mice displayed strong preferences (>80%) for the CS+ glucose and CS+ galactose but not for the CS+ fructose flavor. They also preferred glucose and galactose, but not fructose to water. In contrast, the B6 mice preferred all three CS+ flavors to the CS- flavor, and all three sugars to water. In tests with the non-metabolizable sugar α-methyl-d-glucopyranoside (MDG), the KO and B6 mice preferred 8% MDG to water but did not prefer the CS+ 8% MDG to CS-. However, they preferred a CS+ flavor mixed with 4% MDG over the CS- flavor. Trpm5 KO mice also preferred galactose and MDG to fructose in direct choice tests. The Trpm5 KO data indicate that glucose and, to a lesser extent, galactose and MDG have post-oral reinforcing actions that stimulate intake and preference while fructose has a much weaker effect. The CS+ flavor and sugar preferences of B6 mice may be mediated by the sweet taste and/or post-oral actions of the various sugars. Glucose, galactose, and MDG, but not fructose, are ligands for the sodium-glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1) which is implicated in post-oral sugar conditioning in B6 mice.

  18. Hypothalamic plasticity of neuropeptide Y is lacking in brain-type creatine kinase double knockout mice with defective thermoregulation.

    PubMed

    Van der Zee, Catharina E E M

    2013-11-05

    The neural substrate of adaptive thermoregulation in mice lacking both brain-type creatine kinase isoforms is further investigated. The cytosolic brain-type creatine kinase (CK-B) and mitochondrial ubiquitous creatine kinase (UbCKmit) are expressed in neural cells throughout the central and peripheral nervous system, where they have an important role in cellular energy homeostasis. Several integral functions appear altered when creatine kinases are absent in the brain (Jost et al., 2002; Streijger et al., 2004, 2005), which has been explained by inefficient neuronal transmission. The CK--/-- double knockout mice demonstrate every morning a body temperature drop of ~1.0 °C, and they have impaired thermogenesis, as revealed by severe hypothermia upon cold exposure. This defective thermoregulation is not associated with abnormal food intake, decreased locomotive activity, or increased torpor sensitivity. Although white and brown adipose tissue fat pads are diminished in CK--/-- mice, intravenous norepinephrine infusion results in a normal brown adipose tissue response with increasing core body temperatures, indicating that the sympathetic innervation functions correctly (Streijger et al., 2009). This study revealed c-fos changes following a cold challenge, and that neuropeptide Y levels were decreased in the paraventricular nucleus of wildtype, but not CK--/--, mice. A reduction in hypothalamic neuropeptide Y is coupled to increased uncoupling protein 1 expression in brown adipose tissue, resulting in thermogenesis. In CK--/-- mice the neuropeptide Y levels did not change. This lack of hypothalamic plasticity of neuropeptide Y might be the result of inefficient neuronal transmission or can be explained by the previous observation of reduced circulating levels of leptin in CK--/-- mice.

  19. Excitation-contraction coupling alterations in mdx and utrophin/dystrophin double knockout mice: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Capote, Joana; DiFranco, Marino; Vergara, Julio L

    2010-05-01

    The double knockout mouse for utrophin and dystrophin (utr(-/-)/mdx) has been proposed to be a better model of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) than the mdx mouse because the former displays more similar muscle pathology to that of the DMD patients. In this paper the properties of action potentials (APs) and Ca(2+) transients elicited by single and repetitive stimulation were studied to understand the excitation-contraction (EC) coupling alterations observed in muscle fibers from mdx and utr(-/-)/mdx mice. Based on the comparison of the AP durations with those of fibers from wild-type (WT) mice, fibers from both mdx and utr(-/-)/mdx mice could be divided in two groups: fibers with WT-like APs (group 1) and fibers with significantly longer APs (group 2). Although the proportion of fibers in group 2 was larger in utr(-/-)/mdx (36%) than in mdx mice (27%), the Ca(2+) release elicited by single stimulation was found to be similarly depressed (32-38%) in utr(-/-)/mdx and mdx fibers compared with WT counterparts regardless of the fiber's group. Stimulation at 100 Hz revealed that, with the exception of those from utr(-/-)/mdx mice, group 1 fibers were able to sustain Ca(2+) release for longer than group 2 fibers, which displayed an abrupt limitation even at the onset of the train. The differences in behavior between fibers in groups 1 and 2 became almost unnoticeable at 50 Hz stimulation. In general, fibers from utr(-/-)/mdx mice seem to display more persistent alterations in the EC coupling than those observed in the mdx model.

  20. Excitation-contraction coupling alterations in mdx and utrophin/dystrophin double knockout mice: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Capote, Joana; DiFranco, Marino

    2010-01-01

    The double knockout mouse for utrophin and dystrophin (utr−/−/mdx) has been proposed to be a better model of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) than the mdx mouse because the former displays more similar muscle pathology to that of the DMD patients. In this paper the properties of action potentials (APs) and Ca2+ transients elicited by single and repetitive stimulation were studied to understand the excitation-contraction (EC) coupling alterations observed in muscle fibers from mdx and utr−/−/mdx mice. Based on the comparison of the AP durations with those of fibers from wild-type (WT) mice, fibers from both mdx and utr−/−/mdx mice could be divided in two groups: fibers with WT-like APs (group 1) and fibers with significantly longer APs (group 2). Although the proportion of fibers in group 2 was larger in utr−/−/mdx (36%) than in mdx mice (27%), the Ca2+ release elicited by single stimulation was found to be similarly depressed (32–38%) in utr−/−/mdx and mdx fibers compared with WT counterparts regardless of the fiber's group. Stimulation at 100 Hz revealed that, with the exception of those from utr−/−/mdx mice, group 1 fibers were able to sustain Ca2+ release for longer than group 2 fibers, which displayed an abrupt limitation even at the onset of the train. The differences in behavior between fibers in groups 1 and 2 became almost unnoticeable at 50 Hz stimulation. In general, fibers from utr−/−/mdx mice seem to display more persistent alterations in the EC coupling than those observed in the mdx model. PMID:20130206

  1. CD24 knockout prevents colorectal cancer in chemically induced colon carcinogenesis and in APC(Min)/CD24 double knockout transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Naumov, Inna; Zilberberg, Alona; Shapira, Shiran; Avivi, Doran; Kazanov, Dina; Rosin-Arbesfeld, Rina; Arber, Nadir; Kraus, Sarah

    2014-09-01

    Increased expression of CD24 is seen in a large variety of solid tumors, including up to 90% of gastrointestinal (GI) tumors. Stable derivatives of SW480 colorectal cancer (CRC) cells that overexpress CD24 proliferate faster, and increase cell motility, saturation density, plating efficiency, and growth in soft agar. They also produce larger tumors in nude mice as compared to the parental SW480 cells. Most significantly, even depletion of one copy of the CD24 allele in the APC(Min/+) mice of a transgenic mouse model led to a dramatic reduction in tumor burden in all sections of the small intestine. Homozygous deletion of both CD24 alleles resulted in complete abolishment of tumor formation. Moreover, CD24 knockout mice exhibited resistance to chemically induced inflammation-associated CRC. Finally, a new signal transduction pathway is suggested: namely, CD24 expression downstream to COX2 and PGE2 synthesis, which is directly regulated by β-catenin. CD24 is shown in vitro and in vivo as being an important oncogene in the gut, and one that plays a critical role in the initiation and progression of carcinogenesis.

  2. Monitoring of Double Stud Wall Moisture Conditions in the Northeast

    SciTech Connect

    Ueno, K.

    2015-03-01

    Double-stud walls insulated with cellulose or low-density spray foam can have R-values of 40 or higher. However, double stud walls have a higher risk of interior-sourced condensation moisture damage, when compared with high-R approaches using exterior insulating sheathing.; Moisture conditions in double stud walls were monitored in Zone 5A (Massachusetts); three double stud assemblies were compared.

  3. Conditional calcineurin knockout mice exhibit multiple abnormal behaviors related to schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Leiter, Lorene M; Gerber, David J; Gainetdinov, Raul R; Sotnikova, Tatyana D; Zeng, Hongkui; Caron, Marc G; Tonegawa, Susumu

    2003-07-22

    Calcineurin (CN), a calcium- and calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase, plays a significant role in the central nervous system. Previously, we reported that forebrain-specific CN knockout mice (CN mutant mice) have impaired working memory. To further analyze the behavioral effects of CN deficiency, we subjected CN mutant mice to a comprehensive behavioral test battery. Mutant mice showed increased locomotor activity, decreased social interaction, and impairments in prepulse inhibition and latent inhibition. In addition, CN mutant mice displayed an increased response to the locomotor stimulating effects of MK-801. Collectively, the abnormalities of CN mutant mice are strikingly similar to those described for schizophrenia. We propose that alterations affecting CN signaling could comprise a contributing factor in schizophrenia pathogenesis.

  4. Dysregulation of synaptic plasticity precedes appearance of morphological defects in a Pten conditional knockout mouse model of autism.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Koichi; Gertner, Michael J; Zhou, Jing; Parada, Luis F; Bennett, Michael V L; Zukin, R Suzanne

    2013-03-19

    The phosphoinositide signaling system is a crucial regulator of neural development, cell survival, and plasticity. Phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) negatively regulates phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling and downstream targets. Nse-Cre Pten conditional knockout mice, in which Pten is ablated in granule cells of the dentate gyrus and pyramidal neurons of the hippocampal CA3, but not CA1, recapitulate many of the symptoms of humans with inactivating PTEN mutations, including progressive hypertrophy of the dentate gyrus and deficits in hippocampus-based social and cognitive behaviors. However, the impact of Pten loss on activity-dependent synaptic plasticity in this clinically relevant mouse model of Pten inactivation remains unclear. Here, we show that two phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase- and protein synthesis-dependent forms of synaptic plasticity, theta burst-induced long-term potentiation and metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR)-dependent long-term depression, are dysregulated at medial perforant path-to-dentate gyrus synapses of young Nse-Cre Pten conditional knockout mice before the onset of visible morphological abnormalities. In contrast, long-term potentiation and mGluR-dependent long-term depression are normal at CA3-CA1 pyramidal cell synapses at this age. Our results reveal that deletion of Pten in dentate granule cells dysregulates synaptic plasticity, a defect that may underlie abnormal social and cognitive behaviors observed in humans with Pten inactivating mutations and potentially other autism spectrum disorders.

  5. Pulmonary surfactant synthesis in miRNA-26a-1/miRNA-26a-2 double knockout mice generated using the CRISPR/Cas9 system

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying-Hui; Wu, Li-Zhi; Liang, Hong-Lu; Yang, Yang; Qiu, Jie; Kan, Qing; Zhu, Wen; Ma, Cheng-Ling; Zhou, Xiao-Yu

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary surfactant (PS), which is synthesized by type II alveolar epithelial cells (AECIIs), maintains alveolar integrity by reducing surface tension. Many premature neonates who lack adequate PS are predisposed to developing respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), one of the leading causes of neonatal morbidity and mortality. PS synthesis is influenced and regulated by various factors, including microRNAs. Previous in vitro studies have shown that PS synthesis is regulated by miR-26a in fetal rat AECIIs. This study aimed to investigate the role of miR-26a in PS synthesis in vivo. To obtain a miR-26a-1/miR-26a-2 double knockout mouse model, we used the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) system, an important genome editing technology. Real-time PCR was performed to determine the miR-26a levels in various organs, as well as the mRNA levels of surfactant-associated proteins. Moreover, AECIIs and surfactant-associated proteins in lung tissues were analyzed by hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistochemistry. Homozygous offspring of miR-26a-1/miR-26a-2 double knockout mice generated using the CRISPR/Cas9 system were successfully obtained, and PS synthesis and the number of AECIIs were significantly increased in the miR-26a knockout mice. These results indicate that miR-26a plays an important role in PS synthesis in AECIIs. PMID:28337265

  6. Choristoneura fumiferana multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus LEF-3-P143 complex can complement DNA replication and budded virus in an AcMNPV LEF-3-P143 double knockout bacmid.

    PubMed

    Yu, Mei; Carstens, Eric B

    2012-02-01

    Transient replication assays using Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) and Choristoneura fumiferana multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (CfMNPV) genes suggested that the interactions between P143, the viral helicase and LEF-3, a ssDNA-binding protein, may represent virus species specificity determinants. P143 and LEF-3 are essential for DNA replication in these assays and together with IE-1, the major immediate-early transcription factor, may be part of the viral replisome. In the current report, a lef-3/p143 double-knockout AcMNPV bacmid was constructed that was defective for viral DNA replication and late gene expression. When the homologous lef-3/p143 CfMNPV genes were introduced into this double-knockout bacmid, DNA replication was restored but the level of replication was lower, budded virus production was delayed, and the yields were reduced from those in an AcMNPV-rescue bacmid. These results suggest that to maximize virus replication, baculovirus replisome assembly and function requires protein-protein interactions between P143 and LEF-3, and other viral proteins.

  7. Orofacial movements in phospholipase C-related catalytically inactive protein-1/2 double knockout mice: Effect of the GABAergic agent diazepam and the D(1) dopamine receptor agonist SKF 83959.

    PubMed

    Tomiyama, Katsunori; Song, Liqiu; Kobayashi, Masayuki; Kinsella, Anthony; Kanematsu, Takashi; Hirata, Masato; Koshikawa, Noriaki; Waddington, John L

    2010-09-01

    Orofacial movements are regulated by D(1)-like dopamine receptors interacting with additional mechanisms. Phospholipase C-related catalytically inactive protein (PRIP) regulates cell surface expression of GABA(A) receptors containing a gamma2 subunit. Mutant mice with double knockout of PRIP-1 and PRIP-2 were used to investigate aspects of GABAergic regulation of orofacial movements and interactions with D(1) mechanisms. Vertical jaw movements, tongue protrusions and movements of the head and vibrissae were reduced in PRIP-1/2 double knockouts. The GABA(A)ergic agent diazepam reduced movements of the head and vibrissae; these effects were unaltered in PRIP-1/2 double knockouts. The D(1)-like agonist SKF 83959 induced vertical jaw movements, incisor chattering, and movements of the head and vibrissae that were unaltered in PRIP-1/2 double knockouts. However, SKF 83959-induced tongue protrusions were reduced in PRIP-1/2 double knockouts. PRIP-mediated regulation of GABA(A)ergic receptor mechanisms influences topographically distinct aspects of orofacial movement and interacts with D(1) receptor systems.

  8. Spectroscopy of unbound states under quasifree scattering conditions: One-neutron knockout reaction of {sup 14}Be

    SciTech Connect

    Crespo, R.; Deltuva, A.; Rodriguez-Gallardo, M.; Cravo, E.; Fonseca, A. C.

    2009-01-15

    Full Faddeev-type calculations are performed for one-neutron knockout reaction of {sup 14}Be on proton target at 69 MeV/nucleon incident energy. Inclusive transverse momentum distributions for the outgoing ({sup 12}Be+n) system and semi-inclusive cross sections are presented. A significant proton-core single scattering contribution emerges where the valence neutron has nonzero angular momentum relative to the core. This indicates that distorted-wave impulse approximation is inadequate and the complete multiple scattering series must be taken into account for the considered reaction. The magnitude of the semi-inclusive cross section at quasifree scattering conditions is a clear signature of the angular momentum of the valence nucleon.

  9. Double incretin receptor knockout (DIRKO) mice reveal an essential role for the enteroinsular axis in transducing the glucoregulatory actions of DPP-IV inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Hansotia, Tanya; Baggio, Laurie L; Delmeire, Dominique; Hinke, Simon A; Yamada, Yuichiro; Tsukiyama, Katsushi; Seino, Yutaka; Holst, Jens J; Schuit, Frans; Drucker, D J

    2004-05-01

    Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) are gut-derived incretins that potentiate glucose clearance following nutrient ingestion. Elimination of incretin receptor action in GIPR(-/-) or GLP-1R(-/-) mice produces only modest impairment in glucose homeostasis, perhaps due to compensatory upregulation of the remaining incretin. We have now studied glucose homeostasis in double incretin receptor knockout (DIRKO) mice. DIRKO mice exhibit normal body weight and fail to exhibit an improved glycemic response after exogenous administration of GIP or the GLP-1R agonist exendin-4. Plasma glucagon and the hypoglycemic response to exogenous insulin were normal in DIRKO mice. Glycemic excursion was abnormally increased and levels of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion were decreased following oral but not intraperitoneal glucose challenge in DIRKO compared with GIPR(-/-) or GLP-1R(-/-) mice. Similarly, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and the response to forskolin were well preserved in perifused DIRKO islets. Although the dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) inhibitors valine pyrrolidide (Val-Pyr) and SYR106124 lowered glucose and increased plasma insulin in wild-type and single incretin receptor knockout mice, the glucose-lowering actions of DPP-IV inhibitors were eliminated in DIRKO mice. These findings demonstrate that glucose-stimulated insulin secretion is maintained despite complete absence of both incretin receptors, and they delineate a critical role for incretin receptors as essential downstream targets for the acute glucoregulatory actions of DPP-IV inhibitors.

  10. Deficits in acquisition and extinction of conditioned responses in mGluR7 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Goddyn, Hannelore; Callaerts-Vegh, Zsuzsanna; Stroobants, Stijn; Dirikx, Trinette; Vansteenwegen, Debora; Hermans, Dirk; van der Putten, Herman; D'Hooge, Rudi

    2008-07-01

    Metabotropic glutamate receptor 7 (mGluR7) is expressed in brain regions implicated in emotional learning and working memory, and previous behavioral experiments indicated contributions of mGluR7 to various complex behaviors. In the present study, we investigated the specific effects of mGluR7 deletion on a variety of conditioning paradigms that model crucial neurocognitive and psychopathological behavioral phenomena. Null-mutant mGluR7(-/-) mice displayed defects during scheduled appetitive conditioning, acquisition and extinction of appetitive odor conditioning, extinction of response suppression-based conditioned emotional responding (CER), acquisition of discriminative CER, and contextual fear conditioning. mGluR7(-/-) animals were slower to acquire the association between a conditioned stimulus and a positive or negative reinforcer, but eventually reached similar performance levels to their wildtype littermates. Notably, extinction learning of conditioned responses was slower in mGluR7(-/-) compared to wildtype animals. The observed delays in the acquisition of complicated stimulus associations across conditioning procedures may suggest a critical role for mGluR7 in neurocognitive functions and psychopathology.

  11. Prior fear conditioning does not impede enhanced active avoidance in serotonin transporter knockout rats.

    PubMed

    Schipper, Pieter; Henckens, Marloes J A G; Borghans, Bart; Hiemstra, Marlies; Kozicz, Tamas; Homberg, Judith R

    2017-03-07

    Stressors can be actively or passively coped with, and adequate adaption of the coping response to environmental conditions can reduce their potential deleterious effects. One major factor influencing stress coping behaviour is serotonin transporter (5-HTT) availability. Abolishment of 5-HTT is known to impair fear extinction but facilitates acquisition of signalled active avoidance (AA), a behavioural task in which an animal learns to avoid an aversive stimulus that is predicted by a cue. Flexibility in adapting coping behaviour to the nature of the stressor shapes resilience to stress-related disorders. Therefore, we investigated the relation between 5-HTT expression and ability to adapt a learned coping response to changing environmental conditions. To this end, we first established and consolidated a cue-conditioned passive fear response in 5-HTT(-/-) and wildtype rats. Next, we used the conditioned stimulus (CS) to signal oncoming shocks during signalled AA training in 5-HTT(-/-) and wildtype rats to study their capability to acquire an active coping response to the CS following fear conditioning. Finally, we investigated the behavioural response to the CS in a novel environment and measured freezing, exploration and self-grooming, behaviours reflective of stress coping strategy. We found that fear conditioned and sham conditioned 5-HTT(-/-) animals acquired the signalled AA response faster than wildtypes, while prior conditioning briefly delayed AA learning similarly in both genotypes. Subsequent exposure to the CS in the novel context reduced freezing and increased locomotion in 5-HTT(-/-) compared to wildtype rats. This indicates that improved AA performance in 5-HTT(-/-) rats resulted in a weaker residual passive fear response to the CS in a novel context. Fear conditioning prior to AA training did not affect freezing upon re-encountering the CS, although it did reduce locomotion in 5-HTT(-/-) rats. We conclude that independent of 5-HTT signalling, prior

  12. Conditional knockout of N-WASP in mouse fibroblast caused keratinocyte hyper proliferation and enhanced wound closure

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Neeraj; Kalailingam, Pazhanichamy; Tan, Kai Wei; Tan, Hui Bing; Sng, Ming Keat; Chan, Jeremy Soon Kiat; Tan, Nguan Soon; Thanabalu, Thirumaran

    2016-01-01

    Neural-Wiskott Aldrich Syndrome Protein (N-WASP) is expressed ubiquitously, regulates actin polymerization and is essential during mouse development. We have previously shown that N-WASP is critical for cell-ECM adhesion in fibroblasts. To characterize the role of N-WASP in fibroblast for skin development, we generated a conditional knockout mouse model in which fibroblast N-WASP was ablated using the Cre recombinase driven by Fibroblast Specific Protein promoter (Fsp-Cre). N-WASPFKO (N-WASPfl/fl; Fsp-cre) were born following Mendelian genetics, survived without any visible abnormalities for more than 1 year and were sexually reproductive, suggesting that expression of N-WASP in fibroblast is not critical for survival under laboratory conditions. Histological sections of N-WASPFKO mice skin (13 weeks old) showed thicker epidermis with higher percentage of cells staining for proliferation marker (PCNA), suggesting that N-WASP deficient fibroblasts promote keratinocyte proliferation. N-WASPFKO mice skin had elevated collagen content, elevated expression of FGF7 (keratinocyte growth factor) and TGFβ signaling proteins. Wound healing was faster in N-WASPFKO mice compared to control mice and N-WASP deficient fibroblasts were found to have enhanced collagen gel contraction properties. These results suggest that N-WASP deficiency in fibroblasts improves wound healing by growth factor-mediated enhancement of keratinocyte proliferation and increased wound contraction in mice. PMID:27909303

  13. Sucrose-conditioned flavor preferences in sweet ageusic T1r3 and Calhm1 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Sclafani, Anthony; Marambaud, Philippe; Ackroff, Karen

    2014-03-14

    The present study compared the ability of sweet ageusic T1r3 knockout (KO) and Calhm1 KO mice to acquire preferences for a sucrose-paired flavor as well as for unflavored sucrose. The KO and wildtype (WT) mice were given 24-h one-bottle access to 8% sucrose containing one flavor CS+, e.g., grape) and to water containing a different flavor (CS-, e.g., cherry) over 4 training days. In subsequent two-bottle tests with the flavors in water only, the T1r3 KO and Calhm1 KO mice, like WT mice, preferred the CS+ to the CS-. After training with flavored solutions, both KO groups also preferred unflavored 8% sucrose to water although Calhm1 KO mice required more sugar experience to match the preference of the T1r3 KO mice. These findings demonstrate that Calhm1 KO mice, like T1r3 KO mice and WT mice, are sensitive to the post-oral preference conditioning actions of sucrose and can discriminate sugar from water. Yet, despite their acquired sucrose preferences, the Calhm1 KO and T1r3 KO mice consumed only half as much sugar per day as did WT mice. Thus, sweet taste signaling elements are not needed in the gut for sugar conditioning, but sweet taste signaling in the mouth is essential for the full expression of sugar appetite.

  14. Divertor conditions near double null in Alcator C-Mod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunner, Dan; Labombard, Brian; Kuang, Adam; Terry, Jim; Mumgaard, Bob; Wolfe, Steve

    2016-10-01

    Many tokamak reactor designs utilize a double-null equilibrium for the boundary plasma because of the expected benefits of heat flux sharing between the two outer divertor leg as well as the attractiveness of the high-field side scrape-off layer plasma in double-null for RF actuators. However, there has been very little reported on boundary plasma conditions near double null, especially at the divertor plate. And, due to the narrow boundary plasma width, there is concern of the precision to which a double-null equilibrium must be controlled to maintain divertor heat flux sharing. To this end, a series of experiments were performed varying the magnetic balance around double null. The magnetic balance between the two nulls was scanned shot-to-shot in L-, I-, and H-mode plasmas. In addition, current and density scans were performed in L-mode plasmas. Results will be presented for relative balances of divertor particle and energy fluxes to the four divertors (inboard/outboard, upper/lower) as well as the sensitivity of changes in divertor conditions to the magnetic balance. Supported by USDoE Award DE-FC02-99ER54512.

  15. Synergistic Roles for G-protein γ3 and γ7 Subtypes in Seizure Susceptibility as Revealed in Double Knock-out Mice*

    PubMed Central

    Schwindinger, William F.; Mirshahi, Uyenlinh L.; Baylor, Kelly A.; Sheridan, Kathleen M.; Stauffer, Anna M.; Usefof, Stephanie; Stecker, Mark M.; Mirshahi, Tooraj; Robishaw, Janet D.

    2012-01-01

    The functions of different G-protein αβγ subunit combinations are traditionally ascribed to their various α components. However, the discovery of similarly diverse γ subtypes raises the possibility that they may also contribute to specificity. To test this possibility, we used a gene targeting approach to determine whether the closely related γ3 and γ7 subunits can perform functionally interchangeable roles in mice. In contrast to single knock-out mice that show normal survival, Gng3−/−Gng7−/− double knock-out mice display a progressive seizure disorder that dramatically reduces their median life span to only 75 days. Biochemical analyses reveal that the severe phenotype is not due to redundant roles for the two γ subunits in the same signaling pathway but rather is attributed to their unique actions in different signaling pathways. The results suggest that the γ3 subunit is a component of a Gi/o protein that is required for γ-aminobutyric acid, type B, receptor-regulated neuronal excitability, whereas the γ7 subunit is a component of a Golf protein that is responsible for A2A adenosine or D1 dopamine receptor-induced neuro-protective response. The development of this mouse model offers a novel experimental framework for exploring how signaling pathways integrate to produce normal brain function and how their combined dysfunction leads to spontaneous seizures and premature death. The results underscore the critical role of the γ subunit in this process. PMID:22207761

  16. Conditional Knockout of Breast Carcinoma Amplified Sequence 2 (BCAS2) in Mouse Forebrain Causes Dendritic Malformation via β-catenin

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chu-Wei; Chen, Yi-Wen; Lin, Yi-Rou; Chen, Po-Han; Chou, Meng-Hsuan; Lee, Li-Jen; Wang, Pei-Yu; Wu, June-Tai; Tsao, Yeou-Ping; Chen, Show-Li

    2016-01-01

    Breast carcinoma amplified sequence 2 (BCAS2) is a core component of the hPrP19 complex that controls RNA splicing. Here, we performed an exon array assay and showed that β-catenin is a target of BCAS2 splicing regulation. The regulation of dendrite growth and morphology by β-catenin is well documented. Therefore, we generated conditional knockout (cKO) mice to eliminate the BCAS2 expression in the forebrain to investigate the role of BCAS2 in dendrite growth. BCAS2 cKO mice showed a microcephaly-like phenotype with a reduced volume in the dentate gyrus (DG) and low levels of learning and memory, as evaluated using Morris water maze analysis and passive avoidance, respectively. Golgi staining revealed shorter dendrites, less dendritic complexity and decreased spine density in the DG of BCAS2 cKO mice. Moreover, the cKO mice displayed a short dendrite length in newborn neurons labeled by DCX, a marker of immature neurons, and BrdU incorporation. To further examine the mechanism underlying BCAS2-mediated dendritic malformation, we overexpressed β-catenin in BCAS2-depleted primary neurons and found that the dendritic growth was restored. In summary, BCAS2 is an upstream regulator of β-catenin gene expression and plays a role in dendrite growth at least partly through β-catenin. PMID:27713508

  17. Suppression of epithelial apoptosis and delayed mammary gland involution in mice with a conditional knockout of Stat3

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Rachel S.; Lourenco, Paula C.; Tonner, Elizabeth; Flint, David J.; Selbert, Stefan; Takeda, Kiyoshi; Akira, Shizuo; Clarke, Alan R.; Watson, Christine J.

    1999-01-01

    Mammary gland involution is characterized by extensive apoptosis of the epithelial cells. At the onset of involution, Stat3 is specifically activated. To address the function of this signaling molecule in mammary epithelial apoptosis, we have generated a conditional knockout of Stat3 using the Cre-lox recombination system. Following weaning, a decrease in apoptosis and a dramatic delay of involution occurred in Stat3 null mammary tissue. Involution is normally associated with a significant increase in IGFBP-5 levels. This was observed in control glands, but not in the absence of Stat3. IGFBP-5 has been suggested to induce apoptosis by sequestering IGF-1 to casein micelles, thereby inhibiting its survival function. Our findings suggest that IGFBP-5 is a direct or indirect target for Stat3 and its upregulation is essential to normal involution. No marked differences were seen in the regulation of Stat5, Bcl-xL, or Bax in the absence of Stat3. Precocious activation of Stat1 and increases in levels of p53 and p21 occurred and may act as compensatory mechanisms for the eventual initiation of involution observed in Stat3 null mammary glands. This is the first demonstration of the importance of a Stat factor in signaling the initiation of physiological apoptosis in vivo. PMID:10521404

  18. A Conditional Knockout Mouse Model Reveals a Critical Role of PKD1 in Osteoblast Differentiation and Bone Development

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shao; Xu, Wanfu; Xing, Zhe; Qian, Jiabi; Chen, Liping; Gu, Ruonan; Guo, Wenjing; Lai, Xiaoju; Zhao, Wanlu; Li, Songyu; Wang, Yaodong; Wang, Q. Jane; Deng, Fan

    2017-01-01

    The protein kinase D family of serine/threonine kinases, particularly PKD1, has been implicated in the regulation of a complex array of fundamental biological processes. However, its function and mechanism underlying PKD1-mediated the bone development and osteoblast differentiation are not fully understood. Here we demonstrate that loss of PKD1 function led to impaired bone development and osteoblast differentiation through STAT3 and p38 MAPK signaling using in vitro and in vivo bone-specific conditional PKD1-knockout (PKD1-KO) mice models. These mice developed markedly craniofacial dysplasia, scapula dysplasia, long bone length shortage and body weight decrease compared with wild-type littermates. Moreover, deletion of PKD1 in vivo reduced trabecular development and activity of osteoblast development, confirmed by Micro-CT and histological staining as well as expression of osteoblastic marker (OPN, Runx2 and OSX). Mechanistically, loss of PKD1 mediated the downregulation of osteoblast markers and impaired osteoblast differentiation through STAT3 and p38 MAPK signaling pathways. Taken together, these results demonstrated that PKD1 contributes to the osteoblast differentiation and bone development via elevation of osteoblast markers through activation of STAT3 and p38 MAPK signaling pathways. PMID:28084409

  19. Conditional knockout of polarity complex (atypical) PKCι reveals an anti-inflammatory function mediated by NF-κB

    PubMed Central

    Forteza, Radia; Figueroa, Yolanda; Mashukova, Anastasia; Dulam, Vipin; Salas, Pedro J.

    2016-01-01

    The conserved proteins of the polarity complex made up of atypical PKC (aPKC, isoforms ι and ζ), Par6, and Par3 determine asymmetry in several cell types, from Caenorhabditis elegans oocytes to vertebrate epithelia and neurons. We previously showed that aPKC is down-regulated in intestinal epithelia under inflammatory stimulation. Further, expression of constitutively active PKCι decreases NF-κB activity in an epithelial cell line, the opposite of the effect reported in other cells. Here we tested the hypothesis that aPKC has a dual function in epithelia, inhibiting the NF-κB pathway in addition to having a role in apicobasal polarity. We achieved full aPKC down-regulation in small intestine villi and colon surface epithelium using a conditional epithelium-specific knockout mouse. The results show that aPKC is dispensable for polarity after cell differentiation, except for known targets, including ROCK and ezrin, claudin-4 expression, and barrier permeability. The aPKC defect resulted in increased NF-κB activity, which could be rescued by IKK and ROCK inhibitors. It also increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines. In contrast, expression of anti-inflammatory IL-10 decreased. We conclude that epithelial aPKC acts upstream of multiple mechanisms that participate in the inflammatory response in the intestine, including, but not restricted to, NF-κB. PMID:27226486

  20. Virally expressed connexin26 restores gap junction function in the cochlea of conditional Gjb2 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Yu, Q; Wang, Y; Chang, Q; Wang, J; Gong, S; Li, H; Lin, X

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in GJB2, which codes for the gap junction (GJ) protein connexin26 (Cx26), are the most common causes of human nonsyndromic hereditary deafness. We inoculated modified adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors into the scala media of early postnatal conditional Gjb2 knockout mice to drive exogenous Cx26 expression. We found extensive virally expressed Cx26 in cells lining the scala media, and intercellular GJ network was re-established in the organ of Corti of mutant mouse cochlea. Widespread ectopic Cx26 expression neither formed ectopic GJs nor affected normal hearing thresholds in wild-type (WT) mice, suggesting that autonomous cellular mechanisms regulate proper membrane trafficking of exogenously expressed Cx26 and govern the functional manifestation of them. Functional recovery of GJ-mediated coupling among the supporting cells was observed. We found that both cell death in the organ of Corti and degeneration of spiral ganglion neurons in the cochlea of mutant mice were substantially reduced, although auditory brainstem responses did not show significant hearing improvement. This is the first report demonstrating that virally mediated gene therapy restored extensive GJ intercellular network among cochlear non-sensory cells in vivo. Such a treatment performed at early postnatal stages resulted in a partial rescue of disease phenotypes in the cochlea of the mutant mice.

  1. Ghrelin receptor-knockout mice display alterations in circadian rhythms of activity and feeding under constant lighting conditions.

    PubMed

    Lamont, E Waddington; Bruton, J; Blum, I D; Abizaid, A

    2014-01-01

    Ghrelin is an orexigenic hormone produced by the stomach. Ghrelin, however, may also be a modulator of the circadian system given that ghrelin receptors are expressed in the master clock, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and several outputs of this region. To investigate this, we performed analyses of running wheel activity and neuronal activation in wild type (WT) and growth hormone secretagogue receptor-knockout (GHSR-KO) mice under various lighting conditions. GHSR-KO and WT mice were maintained under constant dark (DD) or constant light (LL) with ad libitum access to food before being placed on a schedule of temporally restricted access to food (4 h/day) for 2 weeks. There were no differences between KO and WT mice in free-running period under DD, but GHSR-KO mice required more days to develop a high level of food anticipatory activity, and this was lower than that observed in WT mice. Under LL, GHSR-KO mice showed greater activity overall, lengthening of their circadian period, and more resistance to the disorganisational effects of LL. Furthermore, GHSR-KO mice showed greater activity overall, and greater activity in anticipation of a scheduled meal under LL. These behavioral effects were not correlated with changes in the circadian expression of the Fos, Per1 or Per2 proteins under any lighting conditions. These results suggest that the ghrelin receptor plays a role in modulating the activity of the circadian system under normal conditions and under restricted feeding schedules, but does so through mechanisms that remain to be determined.

  2. Maltodextrin and fat preference deficits in "taste-blind" P2X2/P2X3 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Sclafani, Anthony; Ackroff, Karen

    2014-07-01

    Adenosine triphosphate is a critical neurotransmitter in the gustatory response to the 5 primary tastes in mice. Genetic deletion of the purinergic P2X2/P2X3 receptor greatly reduces the neural and behavioral response to prototypical primary taste stimuli. In this study, we examined the behavioral response of P2X double knockout mice to maltodextrin and fat stimuli, which appear to activate additional taste channels. P2X double knockout and wild-type mice were given 24-h choice tests (vs. water) with ascending concentrations of Polycose and Intralipid. In Experiment 1, naive double knockout mice, unlike wild-type mice, were indifferent to dilute (0.5-4%) Polycose solutions but preferred concentrated (8-32%) Polycose to water. In a retest, the Polycose-experienced double knockout mice, like wild-type mice, preferred all Polycose concentrations. In Experiment 2, naive double knockout mice, unlike wild-type mice, were indifferent to dilute (0.313-2.5%) Intralipid emulsions but preferred concentrated (5-20%) Intralipid to water. In a retest, the fat-experienced double knockout mice, like wild-type mice, strongly preferred 0.313-5% Intralipid to water. These results indicate that the inherent preferences of mice for maltodextrin and fat are dependent upon adenosine triphosphate taste cell signaling. With experience, however, P2X double knockout mice develop strong preferences for the nontaste flavor qualities of maltodextrin and fat conditioned by the postoral actions of these nutrients.

  3. Double-strand break repair deficiency in NONO knockout murine embryonic fibroblasts and compensation by spontaneous upregulation of the PSPC1 paralog.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuyi; Li, Zhentian; Shu, Feng-Jue; Xiong, Hairong; Phillips, Andrew C; Dynan, William S

    2014-09-01

    NONO, SFPQ and PSPC1 make up a family of proteins with diverse roles in transcription, RNA processing and DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. To understand long-term effects of loss of NONO, we characterized murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) from knockout mice. In the absence of genotoxic stress, wild-type and mutant MEFs showed similar growth rates and cell cycle distributions, and the mutants were only mildly radiosensitive. Further investigation showed that NONO deficiency led to upregulation of PSPC1, which replaced NONO in a stable complex with SFPQ. Knockdown of PSPC1 in a NONO-deficient background led to severe radiosensitivity and delayed resolution of DSB repair foci. The DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) inhibitor, NU7741, sensitized wild-type and singly deficient MEFs, but had no additional effect on doubly deficient cells, suggesting that NONO/PSPC1 and DNA-PK function in the same pathway. We tested whether NONO and PSPC1 might also affect repair indirectly by influencing mRNA levels for other DSB repair genes. Of 12 genes tested, none were downregulated, and several were upregulated. Thus, NONO or related proteins are critical for DSB repair, NONO and PSPC1 are functional homologs with partially interchangeable functions and a compensatory response involving PSPC1 blunts the effect of NONO deficiency.

  4. TRANSCRIPTION ACTIVATOR-LIKE EFFECTOR NUCLEASE-Mediated Generation and Metabolic Analysis of Camalexin-Deficient cyp71a12 cyp71a13 Double Knockout Lines.

    PubMed

    Müller, Teresa M; Böttcher, Christoph; Morbitzer, Robert; Götz, Cornelia C; Lehmann, Johannes; Lahaye, Thomas; Glawischnig, Erich

    2015-07-01

    In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), a number of defense-related metabolites are synthesized via indole-3-acetonitrile (IAN), including camalexin and indole-3-carboxylic acid (ICOOH) derivatives. Cytochrome P450 71A13 (CYP71A13) is a key enzyme for camalexin biosynthesis and catalyzes the conversion of indole-3-acetaldoxime (IAOx) to IAN. The CYP71A13 gene is located in tandem with its close homolog CYP71A12, also encoding an IAOx dehydratase. However, for CYP71A12, indole-3-carbaldehyde and cyanide were identified as major reaction products. To clarify CYP71A12 function in vivo and to better understand IAN metabolism, we generated two cyp71a12 cyp71a13 double knockout mutant lines. CYP71A12-specific transcription activator-like effector nucleases were introduced into the cyp71a13 background, and very efficient somatic mutagenesis was achieved. We observed stable transmission of the cyp71a12 mutation to the following generations, which is a major challenge for targeted mutagenesis in Arabidopsis. In contrast to cyp71a13 plants, in which camalexin accumulation is partially reduced, double mutants synthesized only traces of camalexin, demonstrating that CYP71A12 contributes to camalexin biosynthesis in leaf tissue. A major role of CYP71A12 was identified for the inducible biosynthesis of ICOOH. Specifically, the ICOOH methyl ester was reduced to 12% of the wild-type level in AgNO3-challenged cyp71a12 leaves. In contrast, indole-3-carbaldehyde derivatives apparently are synthesized via alternative pathways, such as the degradation of indole glucosinolates. Based on these results, we present a model for this surprisingly complex metabolic network with multiple IAN sources and channeling of IAOx-derived IAN into camalexin biosynthesis. In conclusion, transcription activator-like effector nuclease-mediated mutation is a powerful tool for functional analysis of tandem genes in secondary metabolism.

  5. Opposing Roles of Double-Stranded RNA Effector Pathways and Viral Defense Proteins Revealed with CRISPR-Cas9 Knockout Cell Lines and Vaccinia Virus Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ruikang

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Vaccinia virus (VACV) decapping enzymes and cellular exoribonuclease Xrn1 catalyze successive steps in mRNA degradation and prevent double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) accumulation, whereas the viral E3 protein can bind dsRNA. We showed that dsRNA and E3 colocalized within cytoplasmic viral factories in cells infected with a decapping enzyme mutant as well as with wild-type VACV and that they coprecipitated with antibody. An E3 deletion mutant induced protein kinase R (PKR) and eukaryotic translation initiation factor alpha (eIF2α) phosphorylation earlier and more strongly than a decapping enzyme mutant even though less dsRNA was made, leading to more profound effects on viral gene expression. Human HAP1 and A549 cells were genetically modified by clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat-Cas9 (CRISPR-Cas9) to determine whether the same pathways restrict E3 and decapping mutants. The E3 mutant replicated in PKR knockout (KO) HAP1 cells in which RNase L is intrinsically inactive but only with a double knockout (DKO) of PKR and RNase L in A549 cells, indicating that both pathways decreased replication equivalently and that no additional dsRNA pathway was crucial. In contrast, replication of the decapping enzyme mutant increased significantly (though less than that of wild-type virus) in DKO A549 cells but not in DKO HAP1 cells where a smaller increase in viral protein synthesis occurred. Xrn1 KO A549 cells were viable but nonpermissive for VACV; however, wild-type and mutant viruses replicated in triple-KO cells in which RNase L and PKR were also inactivated. Since KO of PKR and RNase L was sufficient to enable VACV replication in the absence of E3 or Xrn1, the poor replication of the decapping mutant, particularly in HAP1 DKO, cells indicated additional translational defects. IMPORTANCE Viruses have evolved ways of preventing or counteracting the cascade of antiviral responses that double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) triggers in host cells. We showed that

  6. Functional and histological outcome after focal traumatic brain injury is not improved in conditional EphA4 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Hånell, Anders; Clausen, Fredrik; Djupsjö, Anders; Vallstedt, Anna; Patra, Kalicharan; Israelsson, Charlotte; Larhammar, Martin; Björk, Maria; Paixão, Sónia; Kullander, Klas; Marklund, Niklas

    2012-11-20

    We investigated the role of the axon guidance molecule EphA4 following traumatic brain injury (TBI) in mice. Neutralization of EphA4 improved motor function and axonal regeneration following experimental spinal cord injury (SCI). We hypothesized that genetic absence of EphA4 could improve functional and histological outcome following TBI. Using qRT-PCR in wild-type (WT) mice, we evaluated the EphA4 mRNA levels following controlled cortical impact (CCI) TBI or sham injury and found it to be downregulated in the hippocampus (p<0.05) but not the cortex ipsilateral to the injury at 24 h post-injury. Next, we evaluated the behavioral and histological outcome following CCI using WT mice and Emx1-Cre-driven conditional knockout (cKO) mice. In cKO mice, EphA4 was completely absent in the hippocampus and markedly reduced in the cortical regions from embryonic day 16, which was confirmed using Western blot analysis. EphA4 cKO mice had similar learning and memory abilities at 3 weeks post-TBI compared to WT controls, although brain-injured animals performed worse than sham-injured controls (p<0.05). EphA4 cKO mice performed similarly to WT mice in the rotarod and cylinder tests of motor function up to 29 days post-injury. TBI increased cortical and hippocampal astrocytosis (GFAP immunohistochemistry, p<0.05) and hippocampal sprouting (Timm stain, p<0.05) and induced a marked loss of hemispheric tissue (p<0.05). EphA4 cKO did not alter the histological outcome. Although our results may argue against a beneficial role for EphA4 in the recovery process following TBI, further studies including post-injury pharmacological neutralization of EphA4 are needed to define the role for EphA4 following TBI.

  7. Distribution of selected elements in atherosclerotic plaques of apoE/LDLR-double knockout mice subjected to dietary and pharmacological treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajda, Mariusz; Kowalska, Joanna; Banaś, Agnieszka; Banaś, Krzysztof; Kwiatek, Wojciech M.; Kostogrys, Renata B.; Mateuszuk, łukasz; ChŁopicki, Stefan; Litwin, Jan A.; Appel, Karen

    2011-10-01

    Gene-targeted, apolipoprotein E and LDL receptor-double knockout (apoE/LDLR -/-) mice represent a new animal model that displays severe hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. The aim of the present study was to show changes in histomorphology and in distribution of selected elements in atherosclerotic plaques of apoE/LDLR -/- mice fed egg-rich proatherosclerotic diet (5% egg-yolk lyophilisate) supplemented or not with perindopril (inhibitor of angiotensin converting enzyme; 2 mg/kg b.w.). Synchrotron radiation micro-X-ray fluorescence spectrometry was combined with histological stainings to determine distribution and concentration of trace and essential elements in atherosclerotic lesions. More advanced atherosclerotic lesions expressed by total area occupied by lipids (oil red-O staining) and by macrophages (CD68 immunohistochemistry) were observed in animals fed egg-rich diet. The perindopril treatment attenuated these effects. No significant differences were observed in the number of intimal smooth muscle cells (smooth muscle actin immunohistochemistry). In animals fed egg-rich diet significantly higher concentrations of Ca and significantly lower contents of S, Cl, , Fe, Cu, Zn and Se in atheromas were seen in comparison to chow diet-fed animals. After pharmacological treatment, concentrations of S, Cl, Fe, Cu, Zn and Se showed the tendency to achieve levels like in animals fed normal diet. K level differed only in group treated with perindopril. Concentration of P did not significantly vary in all experimental groups. Perindopril showed its potency to reduce atherosclerosis, as estimated by the size of the atheroma and content of pro- and antiatherogenic elements.

  8. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase-rescue of dystrophin/utrophin double knockout mice does not require nNOS localization to the cell membrane.

    PubMed

    Wehling-Henricks, Michelle; Tidball, James G

    2011-01-01

    Survival of dystrophin/utrophin double-knockout (dko) mice was increased by muscle-specific expression of a neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) transgene. Dko mice expressing the transgene (nNOS TG+/dko) experienced delayed onset of mortality and increased life-span. The nNOS TG+/dko mice demonstrated a significant decrease in the concentration of CD163+, M2c macrophages that can express arginase and promote fibrosis. The decrease in M2c macrophages was associated with a significant reduction in fibrosis of heart, diaphragm and hindlimb muscles of nNOS TG+/dko mice. The nNOS transgene had no effect on the concentration of cytolytic, CD68+, M1 macrophages. Accordingly, we did not observe any change in the extent of muscle fiber lysis in the nNOS TG+/dko mice. These findings show that nNOS/NO (nitric oxide)-mediated decreases in M2c macrophages lead to a reduction in the muscle fibrosis that is associated with increased mortality in mice lacking dystrophin and utrophin. Interestingly, the dramatic and beneficial effects of the nNOS transgene were not attributable to localization of nNOS protein at the cell membrane. We did not detect any nNOS protein at the sarcolemma in nNOS TG+/dko muscles. This important observation shows that sarcolemmal localization is not necessary for nNOS to have beneficial effects in dystrophic tissue and the presence of nNOS in the cytosol of dystrophic muscle fibers can ameliorate the pathology and most importantly, significantly increase life-span.

  9. Exogenous GLP-2 and IGF-I induce a differential intestinal response in IGF binding protein-3 and -5 double knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Murali, Sangita G.; Brinkman, Adam S.; Solverson, Patrick; Pun, Wing; Pintar, John E.

    2012-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) action is dependent on intestinal expression of IGF-I, and IGF-I action is modulated by IGF binding proteins (IGFBP). Our objective was to evaluate whether the intestinal response to GLP-2 or IGF-I is dependent on expression of IGFBP-3 and -5. Male, adult mice in six treatment groups, three wild-type (WT) and three double IGFBP-3/-5 knockout (KO), received twice daily intraperitoneal injections of GLP-2 (0.5 μg/g body wt), IGF-I (4 μg/g body wt), or PBS (vehicle) for 7 days. IGFBP-3/-5 KO mice showed a phenotype of lower plasma IGF-I concentration, but greater body weight and relative mass of visceral organs, compared with WT mice (P < 0.001). WT mice showed jejunal growth with either IGF-I or GLP-2 treatment. In KO mice, IGF-I did not stimulate jejunal growth, crypt mitosis, sucrase activity, and IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) expression, suggesting that the intestinotrophic actions of IGF-I are dependent on expression of IGFBP-3 and -5. In KO mice, GLP-2 induced significant increases in jejunal mucosal cellularity, crypt mitosis, villus height, and crypt depth that was associated with increased expression of the ErbB ligand epiregulin and decreased expression of IGF-I and IGF-IR. This suggests that in KO mice, GLP-2 action in jejunal mucosa is independent of the IGF-I system and linked with ErbB ligands. In summary, the intestinotrophic actions of IGF-I, but not GLP-2, in mucosa are dependent on IGFBP-3 and -5. These findings support the role of multiple downstream mediators for the mucosal growth induced by GLP-2. PMID:22281475

  10. Research tool: Validation of floxed α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor conditional knockout mice using in vitro and in vivo approaches.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Caterina M; Cortez, Ibdanelo; Gu, Zhenglin; Colón-Sáez, José O; Lamb, Patricia W; Wakamiya, Maki; Yakel, Jerrel L; Dineley, Kelly T

    2014-08-01

    There is much interest in α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in CNS function since they are found throughout peripheral tissues as well as being highly expressed in brain regions implicated in attention, learning and memory. As such, the role of these receptors in many aspects of CNS function and disease is being actively investigated. To date, only one null mouse model (A7KO) is available which is non-conditional and constitutive. Since α7 nAChRs are present on neurons and glia (including astrocytes), as well as being developmentally regulated, there is an unmet need for the technical capability to control α7 nAChR gene expression. Therefore we have generated mice in which the fourth exon of the α7 nAChR gene (Chrna7) is flanked by loxP sites (B6-Chrna7(LBDEx4007Ehs)) which we refer to as floxed α7 nAChR conditional knockout or α7nAChR(flox). We validated the chosen approach by mating α7nAChR(flox) with mice expressing Cre recombinase driven by the glial acidic fibrillary protein (GFAP)-Cre promoter (GFAP-A7KO) to test whether α7nAChR(flox), GFAP-A7KO and appropriate littermate controls performed equally in our standard Rodent In Vivo Assessment Core battery to assess general health, locomotion, emotional and cognitive behaviours. Neither α7nAChR(flox) nor GFAP-A7KO exhibited significant differences from littermate controls in any of the baseline behavioural assessments we conducted, similar to the 'first generation' non-conditional A7KO mice. We also determined that α7 nAChR binding sites were absent on GFAP-positive astrocytes in hippocampal slices obtained from GFAP-A7KO offspring from α7nAChR(flox) and GFAP-Cre crosses. Finally, we validated that Cre recombinase (Cre)-mediated excision led to functional, cell- and tissue-specific loss of α7 nAChRs by demonstrating that choline-induced α7 nAChR currents were present in Cre-negative, but not synapsin promoter-driven Cre-positive, CA1 pyramidal neurons. Additionally, electrophysiological

  11. Junction conditions in quadratic gravity: thin shells and double layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reina, Borja; Senovilla, José M. M.; Vera, Raül

    2016-05-01

    The junction conditions for the most general gravitational theory with a Lagrangian containing terms quadratic in the curvature are derived. We include the cases with a possible concentration of matter on the joining hypersurface—termed as thin shells, domain walls or braneworlds in the literature—as well as the proper matching conditions where only finite jumps of the energy-momentum tensor are allowed. In the latter case we prove that the matching conditions are more demanding than in general relativity. In the former case, we show that generically the shells/domain walls are of a new kind because they possess, in addition to the standard energy-momentum tensor, a double layer energy-momentum contribution which actually induces an external energy flux vector and an external scalar pressure/tension on the shell. We prove that all these contributions are necessary to make the entire energy-momentum tensor divergence-free, and we present the field equations satisfied by these energy-momentum quantities. The consequences of all these results are briefly analyzed.

  12. Conditional knockout of focal adhesion kinase in endothelial cells reveals its role in angiogenesis and vascular development in late embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Tang-Long; Park, Ann Y.-J.; Alcaraz, Ana; Peng, Xu; Jang, Ihnkyung; Koni, Pandelakis; Flavell, Richard A.; Gu, Hua; Guan, Jun-Lin

    2005-01-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a critical mediator of signal transduction by integrins and growth factor receptors in a variety of cells including endothelial cells (ECs). Here, we describe EC-specific knockout of FAK using a Cre-loxP approach. In contrast to the total FAK knockout, deletion of FAK specifically in ECs did not affect early embryonic development including normal vasculogenesis. However, in late embryogenesis, FAK deletion in the ECs led to defective angiogenesis in the embryos, yolk sac, and placenta, impaired vasculature and associated hemorrhage, edema, and developmental delay, and late embryonic lethal phenotype. Histologically, ECs and blood vessels in the mutant embryos present a disorganized, detached, and apoptotic appearance. Consistent with these phenotypes, deletion of FAK in ECs isolated from the floxed FAK mice led to reduced tubulogenesis, cell survival, proliferation, and migration in vitro. Together, these results strongly suggest a role of FAK in angiogenesis and vascular development due to its essential function in the regulation of multiple EC activities. PMID:15967814

  13. Monitoring of Double-Stud Wall Moisture Conditions in the Northeast

    SciTech Connect

    Ueno, K.

    2015-03-01

    Double-stud walls insulated with cellulose or low-density spray foam can have R-values of 40 or higher. However, double-stud walls have a higher risk of interior-sourced condensation moisture damage when compared with high-R approaches using exterior insulating sheathing. Moisture conditions in double-stud walls were monitored in Zone 5A (Massachusetts); three double-stud assemblies were compared.

  14. Conditional Knockout of Cav2.1 Disrupts the Accuracy of Spatial Recognition of CA1 Place Cells and Spatial/Contextual Recognition Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Dahee; Hwang, Yu J.; Ryu, Hoon; Kano, Masanobu; Sakimura, Kenji; Cho, Jeiwon

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal pyramidal neurons play an essential role in processing spatial information as implicated with its place-dependent firing. Although, previous slice physiology studies have reported that voltage gated calcium channels contribute to spike shapes and corresponding firing rate in the hippocampus, the roles of P/Q type calcium channels (Cav2.1) underlying neural activity in behaving mice have not been well-investigated. To determine physiological and behavioral roles of Cav2.1, we conducted place cell recordings in CA1 and hippocampus dependent learning/memory tasks using mice lacking Cav2.1 in hippocampal pyramidal neurons under CamK2α-Cre recombinase expression. Results suggested that impairments shown in behavioral tasks requiring spatial and contextual information processing were statistically significant while general neurological behaviors did not differ between groups. In particular, deficits were more profound in recognition than in acquisition. Furthermore, place cell recordings also revealed that the ability to recollect spatial representation on re-visit in the conditional knockout was also altered in terms of the cue recognition while the capability of a place cell to encode a place was intact compared to the control group. Interestingly, CA1 pyramidal neurons of conditional knockout mice showed reduced burst frequency as well as abnormal temporal patterns of burst spiking. These results provide potential evidence that Cav2.1 in hippocampal pyramidal cells modulates temporal integration of bursts, which, in turn, might influence the recognition of place field and consequently disrupt spatial recognition ability. PMID:27857685

  15. Phosphodiesterase 1B differentially modulates the effects of methamphetamine on locomotor activity and spatial learning through DARPP32-dependent pathways: evidence from PDE1B-DARPP32 double-knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Ehrman, L A; Williams, M T; Schaefer, T L; Gudelsky, G A; Reed, T M; Fienberg, A A; Greengard, P; Vorhees, C V

    2006-10-01

    Mice lacking phosphodiesterase 1B (PDE1B) exhibit an exaggerated locomotor response to D-methamphetamine and increased in vitro phosphorylation of DARPP32 (dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein, M r 32 kDa) at Thr34 in striatal brain slices treated with the D1 receptor agonist, SKF81297. These results indicated a possible regulatory role for PDE1B in pathways involving DARPP32. Here, we generated PDE1B x DARPP32 double-knockout (double-KO) mice to test the role of PDE1B in DARPP32-dependent pathways in vivo. Analysis of the response to d-methamphetamine on locomotor activity showed that the hyperactivity experienced by PDE1B mutant mice was blocked in PDE1B-/- x DARPP32-/- double-KO mice, consistent with participation of PDE1B and DARPP32 in the same pathway. Further behavioral testing in the elevated zero-maze revealed that DARPP32-/- mice showed a less anxious phenotype that was nullified in double-mutant mice. In contrast, in the Morris water maze, double-KO mice showed deficits in spatial reversal learning not observed in either single mutant compared with wild-type mice. The data suggest a role for PDE1B in locomotor responses to psychostimulants through modulation of DARPP32-dependent pathways; however, this modulation does not necessarily impact other behaviors, such as anxiety or learning. Instead, the phenotype of double-KOs observed in these latter tasks may be mediated through independent pathways.

  16. Conditional TRF1 knockout in the hematopoietic compartment leads to bone marrow failure and recapitulates clinical features of dyskeratosis congenita

    PubMed Central

    Beier, Fabian; Foronda, Miguel; Martinez, Paula; Blasco, Maria A.

    2014-01-01

    TRF1 is part of the shelterin complex, which binds telomeres and it is essential for their protection. Ablation of TRF1 induces sister telomere fusions and aberrant numbers of telomeric signals associated with telomere fragility. Dyskeratosis congenita is characterized by a mucocutaneous triad, bone marrow failure (BMF), and presence of short telomeres because of mutations in telomerase. A subset of patients, however, show mutations in the shelterin component TIN2, a TRF1-interacting protein, presenting a more severe phenotype and presence of very short telomeres despite normal telomerase activity. Allelic variations in TRF1 have been found associated with BMF. To address a possible role for TRF1 dysfunction in BMF, here we generated a mouse model with conditional TRF1 deletion in the hematopoietic system. Chronic TRF1 deletion results in increased DNA damage and cellular senescence, but not increased apoptosis, in BM progenitor cells, leading to severe aplasia. Importantly, increased compensatory proliferation of BM stem cells is associated with rapid telomere shortening and further increase in senescent cells in vivo, providing a mechanism for the very short telomeres of human patients with mutations in the shelterin TIN2. Together, these results represent proof of principle that mutations in TRF1 lead to the main clinical features of BMF. PMID:22932806

  17. Double-Shell Tank Construction: Extent of Condition

    SciTech Connect

    Venetz, Theodore J.; Gunter, Jason R.

    2014-05-13

    This presentation covers: quick recap of Hanford DSTs and the contribution of construction difficulties which led to the leak in tank AY-102; approach to Extent of Condition reviews; typical DST construction sequence; presentation of construction information resulting from extent of condition reviews of other DST farms with comparison to tank AY-102; and overall conclusion and impact of issues on the other DST tank farms.

  18. The effect of neuronal conditional knock-out of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in the MPTP mouse model of Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Mounsey, R.B.; Martin, H.L.; Nelson, M.C.; Evans, R.M.; Teismann, P.

    2015-01-01

    Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), namely PPARγ and PPARδ, has been shown to provide neuroprotection in a number of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease (PD). The observed neuroprotective effects in experimental models of PD have been linked to anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory actions. This study aimed to analyze the full influence of these receptors in neuroprotection by generating a nerve cell-specific conditional knock-out of these receptors and subjecting these genetically modified mice to the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) neurotoxin to model dopaminergic degeneration. Mice null for both receptors show the lowest levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive cell bodies following MPTP administration. Presence of one or both these receptors show a trend toward protection against this degeneration, as higher dopaminergic cell immunoreactivity and striatal monoamine levels are evident. These data supplement recent studies that have elected to use agonists of the receptors to regulate immune responses. The results place further importance on the activation of PPARs and the neuroprotective roles these have in inflammatory processes linked to neurodegenerative processes. PMID:26028469

  19. Facilitation of Direct Conditional Knockout of Essential Genes in Bacillus licheniformis DSM13 by Comparative Genetic Analysis and Manipulation of Genetic Competence▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Kerstin; Wollherr, Antje; Larsen, Michael; Rachinger, Michael; Liesegang, Heiko; Ehrenreich, Armin; Meinhardt, Friedhelm

    2010-01-01

    The genetic manageability of the biotechnologically important Bacillus licheniformis is hampered due to its poor transformability, whereas Bacillus subtilis efficiently takes up DNA during genetic competence, a quorum-sensing-dependent process. Since the sensor histidine kinase ComP, encoded by a gene of the quorum-sensing module comQXPA of B. licheniformis DSM13, was found to be inactive due to an insertion element within comP, the coding region was exchanged with a functional copy. Quorum sensing was restored, but the already-poor genetic competence dropped further. The inducible expression of the key regulator for the transcription of competence genes, ComK, in trans resulted in highly competent strains and facilitated the direct disruption of genes, as well as the conditional knockout of an essential operon. As ComK is inhibited at low cell densities by a proteolytic complex in which MecA binds ComK and such inhibition is antagonized by the interaction of MecA with ComS (the expression of the latter is controlled by cell density in B. subtilis), we performed an in silico analysis of MecA and the hitherto unidentified ComS, which revealed differences for competent and noncompetent strains, indicating that the reduced competence possibly is due to a nonfunctional coupling of the comQXPA-encoded quorum module and ComK. The obtained increased genetic tractability of this industrial workhorse should improve a wide array of scientific investigations. PMID:20543043

  20. Dementia and serious coexisting medical conditions: a double whammy.

    PubMed

    Maslow, Katie

    2004-09-01

    Research-based information about the prevalence of other serious medical conditions in people with dementia has become available only recently, and the true prevalence is not known, primarily because many people with dementia do not have a diagnosis. The existing information is sufficient, however, to show that these other conditions are common in people with dementia. It is also clear that coexisting medical conditions increase the use and cost of health care services for people with dementia, and conversely, dementia increases the use and cost of health care services for people with other serious medical conditions. Nurses and other healthcare professionals should expect to see these relationships in their elderly patients. They should know how to recognize possible dementia and assess, or obtain an assessment of, the patient's cognitive status. They should expect the worsening of cognitive and related symptoms in acutely ill people with dementia and try to eliminate factors that cause this worsening, to the extent possible, while assuring the family that the symptoms are likely to improve once the acute phase of illness or treatment is over. Families, nurses, and other health care professionals are challenged by the complex issues involved in caring for a person with both dementia and other serious medical conditions. Greater attention to these issues by informed and thoughtful clinicians will improve outcomes for the people and their family and professional caregivers.

  1. Phenotypes Associated with Knockouts of Eight Dense Granule Gene Loci (GRA2-9) in Virulent Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Rommereim, Leah M; Bellini, Valeria; Fox, Barbara A; Pètre, Graciane; Rak, Camille; Touquet, Bastien; Aldebert, Delphine; Dubremetz, Jean-François; Cesbron-Delauw, Marie-France; Mercier, Corinne; Bzik, David J

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii actively invades host cells and establishes a parasitophorous vacuole (PV) that accumulates many proteins secreted by the dense granules (GRA proteins). To date, at least 23 GRA proteins have been reported, though the function(s) of most of these proteins still remains unknown. We targeted gene knockouts at ten GRA gene loci (GRA1-10) to investigate the cellular roles and essentiality of these classical GRA proteins during acute infection in the virulent type I RH strain. While eight of these genes (GRA2-9) were successfully knocked out, targeted knockouts at the GRA1 and GRA10 loci were not obtained, suggesting these GRA proteins may be essential. As expected, the Δgra2 and Δgra6 knockouts failed to form an intravacuolar network (IVN). Surprisingly, Δgra7 exhibited hyper-formation of the IVN in both normal and lipid-free growth conditions. No morphological alterations were identified in parasite or PV structures in the Δgra3, Δgra4, Δgra5, Δgra8, or Δgra9 knockouts. With the exception of the Δgra3 and Δgra8 knockouts, all of the GRA knockouts exhibited defects in their infection rate in vitro. While the single GRA knockouts did not exhibit reduced replication rates in vitro, replication rate defects were observed in three double GRA knockout strains (Δgra4Δgra6, Δgra3Δgra5 and Δgra3Δgra7). However, the virulence of single or double GRA knockout strains in CD1 mice was not affected. Collectively, our results suggest that while the eight individual GRA proteins investigated in this study (GRA2-9) are not essential, several GRA proteins may provide redundant and potentially important functions during acute infection.

  2. Phenotypes Associated with Knockouts of Eight Dense Granule Gene Loci (GRA2-9) in Virulent Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Barbara A.; Pètre, Graciane; Rak, Camille; Touquet, Bastien; Aldebert, Delphine; Dubremetz, Jean-François; Cesbron-Delauw, Marie-France; Mercier, Corinne; Bzik, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii actively invades host cells and establishes a parasitophorous vacuole (PV) that accumulates many proteins secreted by the dense granules (GRA proteins). To date, at least 23 GRA proteins have been reported, though the function(s) of most of these proteins still remains unknown. We targeted gene knockouts at ten GRA gene loci (GRA1-10) to investigate the cellular roles and essentiality of these classical GRA proteins during acute infection in the virulent type I RH strain. While eight of these genes (GRA2-9) were successfully knocked out, targeted knockouts at the GRA1 and GRA10 loci were not obtained, suggesting these GRA proteins may be essential. As expected, the Δgra2 and Δgra6 knockouts failed to form an intravacuolar network (IVN). Surprisingly, Δgra7 exhibited hyper-formation of the IVN in both normal and lipid-free growth conditions. No morphological alterations were identified in parasite or PV structures in the Δgra3, Δgra4, Δgra5, Δgra8, or Δgra9 knockouts. With the exception of the Δgra3 and Δgra8 knockouts, all of the GRA knockouts exhibited defects in their infection rate in vitro. While the single GRA knockouts did not exhibit reduced replication rates in vitro, replication rate defects were observed in three double GRA knockout strains (Δgra4Δgra6, Δgra3Δgra5 and Δgra3Δgra7). However, the virulence of single or double GRA knockout strains in CD1 mice was not affected. Collectively, our results suggest that while the eight individual GRA proteins investigated in this study (GRA2-9) are not essential, several GRA proteins may provide redundant and potentially important functions during acute infection. PMID:27458822

  3. Establishment of Immortalized BMP2/4 Double Knock-Out Osteoblastic Cells Is Essential for Study of Osteoblast Growth, Differentiation, and Osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Li-An; Wang, Feng; Donly, Kevin J; Baker, Andrew; Wan, Chunyan; Luo, Daoshu; MacDougall, Mary; Chen, Shuo

    2016-06-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins 2 and 4 (BMP2/4) are essential for osteoblast differentiation and osteogenesis. Generation of a BMP2/4 dual knock-out ((ko/ko)) osteoblastic cell line is a valuable asset for studying effects of BMP2/4 on skeletal development. In this study, our goal was to create immortalized mouse deleted BMP2/4 osteoblasts by infecting adenoviruses with Cre recombinase and green fluorescent protein genes into immortalized murine floxed BMP2/4 osteoblasts. Transduced BMP2/4(ko/ko) cells were verified by green immunofluorescence and PCR. BMP2/4(ko/ko) osteoblasts exhibited small size, slow cell proliferation rate and cell growth was arrested in G1 and G2 phases. Expression of bone-relate genes was reduced in the BMP2/4(ko/ko) cells, resulting in delay of cell differentiation and mineralization. Importantly, extracellular matrix remodeling was impaired in the BMP2/4(ko/ko) osteoblasts as reflected by decreased Mmp-2 and Mmp-9 expressions. Cell differentiation and mineralization were rescued by exogenous BMP2 and/or BMP4. Therefore, we for the first time described establishment of an immortalized deleted BMP2/4 osteoblast line useful for study of mechanisms in regulating osteoblast lineages.

  4. Molecular mechanisms of cocaine reward: Combined dopamine and serotonin transporter knockouts eliminate cocaine place preference

    PubMed Central

    Sora, Ichiro; Hall, F. Scott; Andrews, Anne M.; Itokawa, Masanari; Li, Xiao-Fei; Wei, Hong-Bing; Wichems, Christine; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Murphy, Dennis L.; Uhl, George R.

    2001-01-01

    Cocaine blocks uptake by neuronal plasma membrane transporters for dopamine (DAT), serotonin (SERT), and norepinephrine (NET). Cocaine reward/reinforcement has been linked to actions at DAT or to blockade of SERT. However, knockouts of neither DAT, SERT, or NET reduce cocaine reward/reinforcement, leaving substantial uncertainty about cocaine's molecular mechanisms for reward. Conceivably, the molecular bases of cocaine reward might display sufficient redundancy that either DAT or SERT might be able to mediate cocaine reward in the other's absence. To test this hypothesis, we examined double knockout mice with deletions of one or both copies of both the DAT and SERT genes. These mice display viability, weight gain, histologic features, neurochemical parameters, and baseline behavioral features that allow tests of cocaine influences. Mice with even a single wild-type DAT gene copy and no SERT copies retain cocaine reward/reinforcement, as measured by conditioned place-preference testing. However, mice with no DAT and either no or one SERT gene copy display no preference for places where they have previously received cocaine. The serotonin dependence of cocaine reward in DAT knockout mice is thus confirmed by the elimination of cocaine place preference in DAT/SERT double knockout mice. These results provide insights into the brain molecular targets necessary for cocaine reward in knockout mice that develop in their absence and suggest novel strategies for anticocaine medication development. PMID:11320258

  5. Mu opioid receptors on primary afferent nav1.8 neurons contribute to opiate-induced analgesia: insight from conditional knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Weibel, Raphaël; Reiss, David; Karchewski, Laurie; Gardon, Olivier; Matifas, Audrey; Filliol, Dominique; Becker, Jérôme A J; Wood, John N; Kieffer, Brigitte L; Gaveriaux-Ruff, Claire

    2013-01-01

    Opiates are powerful drugs to treat severe pain, and act via mu opioid receptors distributed throughout the nervous system. Their clinical use is hampered by centrally-mediated adverse effects, including nausea or respiratory depression. Here we used a genetic approach to investigate the potential of peripheral mu opioid receptors as targets for pain treatment. We generated conditional knockout (cKO) mice in which mu opioid receptors are deleted specifically in primary afferent Nav1.8-positive neurons. Mutant animals were compared to controls for acute nociception, inflammatory pain, opiate-induced analgesia and constipation. There was a 76% decrease of mu receptor-positive neurons and a 60% reduction of mu-receptor mRNA in dorsal root ganglia of cKO mice. Mutant mice showed normal responses to heat, mechanical, visceral and chemical stimuli, as well as unchanged morphine antinociception and tolerance to antinociception in models of acute pain. Inflammatory pain developed similarly in cKO and controls mice after Complete Freund's Adjuvant. In the inflammation model, however, opiate-induced (morphine, fentanyl and loperamide) analgesia was reduced in mutant mice as compared to controls, and abolished at low doses. Morphine-induced constipation remained intact in cKO mice. We therefore genetically demonstrate for the first time that mu opioid receptors partly mediate opiate analgesia at the level of Nav1.8-positive sensory neurons. In our study, this mechanism operates under conditions of inflammatory pain, but not nociception. Previous pharmacology suggests that peripheral opiates may be clinically useful, and our data further demonstrate that Nav1.8 neuron-associated mu opioid receptors are feasible targets to alleviate some forms of persistent pain.

  6. Conditional knockout of TMEM16A/anoctamin1 abolishes the calcium-activated chloride current in mouse vomeronasal sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Amjad, Asma; Hernandez-Clavijo, Andres; Pifferi, Simone; Maurya, Devendra Kumar; Boccaccio, Anna; Franzot, Jessica; Rock, Jason; Menini, Anna

    2015-04-01

    Pheromones are substances released from animals that, when detected by the vomeronasal organ of other individuals of the same species, affect their physiology and behavior. Pheromone binding to receptors on microvilli on the dendritic knobs of vomeronasal sensory neurons activates a second messenger cascade to produce an increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration. Here, we used whole-cell and inside-out patch-clamp analysis to provide a functional characterization of currents activated by Ca(2+) in isolated mouse vomeronasal sensory neurons in the absence of intracellular K(+). In whole-cell recordings, the average current in 1.5 µM Ca(2+) and symmetrical Cl(-) was -382 pA at -100 mV. Ion substitution experiments and partial blockade by commonly used Cl(-) channel blockers indicated that Ca(2+) activates mainly anionic currents in these neurons. Recordings from inside-out patches from dendritic knobs of mouse vomeronasal sensory neurons confirmed the presence of Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels in the knobs and/or microvilli. We compared the electrophysiological properties of the native currents with those mediated by heterologously expressed TMEM16A/anoctamin1 or TMEM16B/anoctamin2 Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels, which are coexpressed in microvilli of mouse vomeronasal sensory neurons, and found a closer resemblance to those of TMEM16A. We used the Cre-loxP system to selectively knock out TMEM16A in cells expressing the olfactory marker protein, which is found in mature vomeronasal sensory neurons. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the specific ablation of TMEM16A in vomeronasal neurons. Ca(2+)-activated currents were abolished in vomeronasal sensory neurons of TMEM16A conditional knockout mice, demonstrating that TMEM16A is an essential component of Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) currents in mouse vomeronasal sensory neurons.

  7. Conditional knockout of TMEM16A/anoctamin1 abolishes the calcium-activated chloride current in mouse vomeronasal sensory neurons

    PubMed Central

    Amjad, Asma; Hernandez-Clavijo, Andres; Pifferi, Simone; Maurya, Devendra Kumar; Boccaccio, Anna; Franzot, Jessica; Rock, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Pheromones are substances released from animals that, when detected by the vomeronasal organ of other individuals of the same species, affect their physiology and behavior. Pheromone binding to receptors on microvilli on the dendritic knobs of vomeronasal sensory neurons activates a second messenger cascade to produce an increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration. Here, we used whole-cell and inside-out patch-clamp analysis to provide a functional characterization of currents activated by Ca2+ in isolated mouse vomeronasal sensory neurons in the absence of intracellular K+. In whole-cell recordings, the average current in 1.5 µM Ca2+ and symmetrical Cl− was −382 pA at −100 mV. Ion substitution experiments and partial blockade by commonly used Cl− channel blockers indicated that Ca2+ activates mainly anionic currents in these neurons. Recordings from inside-out patches from dendritic knobs of mouse vomeronasal sensory neurons confirmed the presence of Ca2+-activated Cl− channels in the knobs and/or microvilli. We compared the electrophysiological properties of the native currents with those mediated by heterologously expressed TMEM16A/anoctamin1 or TMEM16B/anoctamin2 Ca2+-activated Cl− channels, which are coexpressed in microvilli of mouse vomeronasal sensory neurons, and found a closer resemblance to those of TMEM16A. We used the Cre–loxP system to selectively knock out TMEM16A in cells expressing the olfactory marker protein, which is found in mature vomeronasal sensory neurons. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the specific ablation of TMEM16A in vomeronasal neurons. Ca2+-activated currents were abolished in vomeronasal sensory neurons of TMEM16A conditional knockout mice, demonstrating that TMEM16A is an essential component of Ca2+-activated Cl− currents in mouse vomeronasal sensory neurons. PMID:25779870

  8. Effects of supplementation on food intake, body weight and hepatic metabolites in the citrin/mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase double-knockout mouse model of human citrin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Saheki, Takeyori; Inoue, Kanako; Ono, Hiromi; Katsura, Natsumi; Yokogawa, Mana; Yoshidumi, Yukari; Furuie, Sumie; Kuroda, Eishi; Ushikai, Miharu; Asakawa, Akihiro; Inui, Akio; Eto, Kazuhiro; Kadowaki, Takashi; Sinasac, David S; Yamamura, Ken-Ichi; Kobayashi, Keiko

    2012-11-01

    The C57BL/6:Slc23a13(-/-);Gpd2(-/-) double-knockout (a.k.a., citrin/mitochondrial glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase double knockout or Ctrn/mGPD-KO) mouse displays phenotypic attributes of both neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis (NICCD) and adult-onset type II citrullinemia (CTLN2), making it a suitable model of human citrin deficiency. In the present study, we show that when mature Ctrn/mGPD-KO mice are switched from a standard chow diet (CE-2) to a purified maintenance diet (AIN-93M), this resulted in a significant loss of body weight as a result of reduced food intake compared to littermate mGPD-KO mice. However, supplementation of the purified maintenance diet with additional protein (from 14% to 22%; and concomitant reduction or corn starch), or with specific supplementation with alanine, sodium glutamate, sodium pyruvate or medium-chain triglycerides (MCT), led to increased food intake and body weight gain near or back to that on chow diet. No such effect was observed when supplementing the diet with other sources of fat that contain long-chain fatty acids. Furthermore, when these supplements were added to a sucrose solution administered enterally to the mice, which has been shown previously to lead to elevated blood ammonia as well as altered hepatic metabolite levels in Ctrn/mGPP-KO mice, this led to metabolic correction. The elevated hepatic glycerol 3-phosphate and citrulline levels after sucrose administration were suppressed by the administration of sodium pyruvate, alanine, sodium glutamate and MCT, although the effect of MCT was relatively small. Low hepatic citrate and increased lysine levels were only found to be corrected by sodium pyruvate, while alanine and sodium glutamate both corrected hepatic glutamate and aspartate levels. Overall, these results suggest that dietary factors including increased protein content, supplementation of specific amino acids like alanine and sodium glutamate, as well as sodium pyruvate and MCT all show beneficial

  9. Technology Solutions Case Study: Monitoring of Double Stud Wall Moisture Conditions in the Northeast, Devens, Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect

    2015-03-01

    Double stud walls have a higher risk of interior-sourced condensation moisture damage when compared with high-R approaches using exterior insulating sheathing. In this project, Building Science Corporation monitored moisture conditions in double-stud walls from 2011 through 2014 at a new production house located in Devens, Massachusetts. The builder, Transformations, Inc., has been using double-stud walls insulated with 12 in. of open cell polyurethane spray foam (ocSPF); however, the company has been considering a change to netted and blown cellulose insulation for cost reasons. Cellulose is a common choice for double-stud walls because of its lower cost (in most markets). However, cellulose is an air-permeable insulation, unlike spray foams, which increases interior moisture risks. The team compared three double-stud assemblies: 12 in. of ocSPF, 12 in. of cellulose, and 5-½ in. of ocSPF at the exterior of a double-stud wall (to approximate conventional 2 × 6 wall construction and insulation levels, acting as a control wall). These assemblies were repeated on the north and south orientations, for a total of six assemblies.

  10. Conditions for establishing quasistable double layers in the Earth's auroral upward current region

    SciTech Connect

    Main, D. S.; Newman, D. L.; Ergun, R. E.

    2010-12-15

    The strength and stability of simulated double layers at the ionosphere-auroral cavity boundary have been studied as a function of cold ionospheric electron temperature and density. The simulations are performed with an open boundary one-dimensional particle-in- cell (PIC) simulation and are initialized by imposing a density cavity within the simulation domain. The PIC simulation includes H{sup +} and O{sup +} ion beams, a hot H{sup +} background population, cold ionospheric electrons, and a hot electron population. It is shown that a double layer remains quasistable for a variety of initial conditions and plasma parameters. The average potential drop of the double layer is found to increase as the cold electron temperature decreases. However, in terms of cold electron density, the average potential drop of the double layer is found to increase up to some critical cold electron density and decreases above this value. Comparisons with FAST observations are made and agreement is found between simulation results and observations in the shape and width of the double layer. This study helps put a constraint on the plasma conditions in which a DL can be expected to form and remain quasistable.

  11. Double P2X2/P2X3 Purinergic Receptor Knockout Mice Do Not Taste NaCl or the Artificial Sweetener SC45647

    PubMed Central

    Eddy, Meghan C.; Eschle, Benjamin K.; Barrows, Jennell; Hallock, Robert M.; Finger, Thomas E.

    2009-01-01

    The P2X ionotropic purinergic receptors, P2X2 and P2X3, are essential for transmission of taste information from taste buds to the gustatory nerves. Mice lacking both P2X2 and P2X3 purinergic receptors (P2X2/P2X3Dbl−/−) exhibit no taste-evoked activity in the chorda tympani and glossopharyngeal nerves when stimulated with taste stimuli from any of the 5 classical taste quality groups (salt, sweet, sour, bitter, and umami) nor do the mice show taste preferences for sweet or umami, or avoidance of bitter substances (Finger et al. 2005. ATP signaling is crucial for communication from taste buds to gustatory nerves. Science. 310[5753]:1495–1499). Here, we compare the ability of P2X2/P2X3Dbl−/− mice and P2X2/P2X3Dbl+/+ wild-type (WT) mice to detect NaCl in brief-access tests and conditioned aversion paradigms. Brief-access testing with NaCl revealed that whereas WT mice decrease licking at 300 mM and above, the P2X2/P2X3Dbl−/− mice do not show any change in lick rates. In conditioned aversion tests, P2X2/P2X3Dbl−/− mice did not develop a learned aversion to NaCl or the artificial sweetener SC45647, both of which are easily avoided by conditioned WT mice. The inability of P2X2/P2X3Dbl−/− mice to show avoidance of these taste stimuli was not due to an inability to learn the task because both WT and P2X2/P2X3Dbl−/− mice learned to avoid a combination of SC45647 and amyl acetate (an odor cue). These data suggest that P2X2/P2X3Dbl−/− mice are unable to respond to NaCl or SC45647 as taste stimuli, mirroring the lack of gustatory nerve responses to these substances. PMID:19833661

  12. Building America Case Study: Monitoring of Double Stud Wall Moisture Conditions in the Northeast, Devens, Massachusetts (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-03-01

    Double-stud walls insulated with cellulose or low-density spray foam can have R-values of 40 or higher. However, double stud walls have a higher risk of interior-sourced condensation moisture damage, when compared with high-R approaches using exterior insulating sheathing. Moisture conditions in double stud walls were monitored in Zone 5A (Massachusetts); three double stud assemblies were compared.

  13. Deformation of double emulsions under conditions of flow cytometry hydrodynamic focusing.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shaohua; Huck, Wilhelm T S; Balabani, Stavroula

    2015-11-21

    Water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) microfluidics double emulsions offer a new route to compartmentalise reagents into isolated aqueous microenvironments while maintaining an aqueous carrier fluid phase; this enables compatibility with commercial flow cytometry systems such as fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Double emulsion (inner core) deformation under hydrodynamic focusing conditions that mimic the environment double emulsions experience in flow cytometry applications is of particular importance for droplet stability and cell viability. This paper reports on an experimental study of the dynamic deformation of aqueous cores of w/o/w double emulsions under hydrodynamic focusing, with the sheath flow directed at 45° to the sample flow. A number of factors affecting the inner core deformation and recovery were examined. Deformation was found to depend significantly on the core or shell viscosity, the droplet-to-sheath flow velocity ratio, and core and shell sizes. Core deformation was found to depend more on the type of surfactant rather concentration with high molecular weight surfactant exhibiting a negligible effect on deformation whereas low molecular weight surfactant enhancing deformation at low concentrations due to their lateral mobility at the interface.

  14. Sulfur isotopes link overwinter habitat use and breeding condition in Double-crested Cormorants.

    PubMed

    Hebert, Craig E; Bur, Michael; Sherman, David; Shutt, J Laird

    2008-04-01

    North American Double-crested Cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) populations have increased greatly. Both breeding and overwintering ground factors have likely contributed to these increases. However, demonstrating how overwintering conditions may affect breeding birds has not been possible because of the difficulty in linking breeding birds to their wintering grounds. Here, we demonstrate the utility of stable sulfur isotopes to elucidate overwintering habitat use by cormorants breeding on Lake Erie. Sulfur isotopes in feathers grown on overwintering grounds provided insights into the degree to which birds used freshwater vs. marine environments. The proportion of birds utilizing freshwater habitats increased through time. This change may have reflected increases in freshwater aquaculture (i.e., catfish) in the U.S. south. Examination of body condition in birds returning to breed on Lake Erie indicated that those individuals that solely used marine habitats for at least a portion of the overwintering period were in poorer condition than birds using freshwater. Enhanced foraging opportunities at aquaculture facilities may improve the fitness of individuals that have returned to breed after overwintering at such locations. This study is the first to demonstrate a linkage between overwinter habitat use and breeding ground parameters in Double-crested Cormorants. These results underscore that factors throughout the Mississippi flyway are likely acting together to regulate cormorant populations.

  15. Double resonance with Landesman-Lazer conditions for planar systems of ordinary differential equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonda, Alessandro; Garrione, Maurizio

    We prove the existence of periodic solutions for first order planar systems at resonance. The nonlinearity is indeed allowed to interact with two positively homogeneous Hamiltonians, both at resonance, and some kind of Landesman-Lazer conditions are assumed at both sides. We are thus able to obtain, as particular cases, the existence results proposed in the pioneering papers by Lazer and Leach (1969) [27], and by Frederickson and Lazer (1969) [18]. Our theorem also applies in the case of asymptotically piecewise linear systems, and in particular generalizes Fabry's results in Fabry (1995) [10], for scalar equations with double resonance with respect to the Dancer-Fučik spectrum.

  16. Bmp2 conditional knockout in osteoblasts and endothelial cells does not impair bone formation after injury or mechanical loading in adult mice.

    PubMed

    McBride-Gagyi, Sarah Howe; McKenzie, Jennifer A; Buettmann, Evan G; Gardner, Michael J; Silva, Matthew J

    2015-12-01

    Post-natal osteogenesis after mechanical trauma or stimulus occurs through either endochondral healing, intramembranous healing or lamellar bone formation. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) is up-regulated in each of these osteogenic processes and is expressed by a variety of cells including osteoblasts and vascular cells. It is known that genetic knockout of Bmp2 in all cells or in osteo-chondroprogenitor cells completely abrogates endochondral healing after full fracture. However, the importance of BMP2 from differentiated osteoblasts and endothelial cells is not known. Moreover, the importance of BMP2 in non-endochondral bone formation such as intramembranous healing or lamellar bone formation is not known. Using inducible and tissue-specific Cre-lox mediated targeting of Bmp2 in adult (10-24 week old) mice, we assessed the role of BMP2 expression globally, by osteoblasts, and by vascular endothelial cells in endochondral healing, intramembranous healing and lamellar bone formation. These three osteogenic processes were modeled using full femur fracture, ulnar stress fracture, and ulnar non-damaging cyclic loading, respectively. Our results confirmed the requirement of BMP2 for endochondral fracture healing, as mice in which Bmp2 was knocked out in all cells prior to fracture failed to form a callus. Targeted deletion of Bmp2 in osteoblasts (osterix-expressing) or vascular endothelial cells (vascular endothelial cadherin-expressing) did not impact fracture healing in any way. Regarding non-endochondral bone formation, we found that BMP2 is largely dispensable for intramembranous bone formation after stress fracture and also not required for lamellar bone formation induced by mechanical loading. Taken together our results indicate that osteoblasts and endothelial cells are not a critical source of BMP2 in endochondral fracture healing, and that non-endochondral bone formation in the adult mouse is not as critically dependent on BMP2.

  17. Two Bessel Bridges Conditioned Never to Collide, Double Dirichlet Series, and Jacobi Theta Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katori, Makoto; Izumi, Minami; Kobayashi, Naoki

    2008-06-01

    It is known that the moments of the maximum value of a one-dimensional conditional Brownian motion, the three-dimensional Bessel bridge with duration 1 started from the origin, are expressed using the Riemann zeta function. We consider a system of two Bessel bridges, in which noncolliding condition is imposed. We show that the moments of the maximum value is then expressed using the double Dirichlet series, or using the integrals of products of the Jacobi theta functions and its derivatives. Since the present system will be provided as a diffusion scaling limit of a version of vicious walker model, the ensemble of 2-watermelons with a wall, the dominant terms in long-time asymptotics of moments of height of 2-watermelons are completely determined. For the height of 2-watermelons with a wall, the average value was recently studied by Fulmek by a method of enumerative combinatorics.

  18. Hanford Double-Shell Tank Extent-of-Condition Construction Review

    SciTech Connect

    Venetz, Theodore J.; Johnson, Jeremy M.; Gunter, Jason R.; Barnes, Travis J.; Washenfelder, Dennis J.; Boomer, Kayle D.

    2013-11-14

    During routine visual inspections of Hanford double-shell waste tank 241-AY-102 (AY-102), anomalies were identified on the annulus floor which resulted in further evaluations. Following a formal leak assessment in October 2012, Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) determined that the primary tank of AY-102 was leaking. The formal leak assessment, documented in RPP-ASMT-53793,Tank 241-AY-102 Leak Assessment Report, identified first-of-a-kind construction difficulties and trial-and-error repairs as major contributing factors to tank failure. To determine if improvements in double-shell tank (DST) construction occurred after construction of tank AY-102, a detailed review and evaluation of historical construction records were performed for the first three DST tank farms constructed, which included tanks 241-AY-101, 241-AZ-101, 241-AZ-102, 241-SY-101, 241-SY-102, and 241-SY-103. The review for these six tanks involved research and review of dozens of boxes of historical project documentation. These reviews form a basis to better understand the current condition of the three oldest Hanford DST farms. They provide a basis for changes to the current tank inspection program and also provide valuable insight into future tank use decisions. If new tanks are constructed in the future, these reviews provide valuable "lessons-learned" information about expected difficulties as well as construction practices and techniques that are likely to be successful.

  19. Hanford Double-Shell Tank Extent-of-Condition Review - 15498

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J. M.; Baide, D. D.; Barnes, T. J.; Boomer, K. D.; Gunter, J. R.; Venetz, T. J.

    2014-11-19

    During routine visual inspections of Hanford double-shell waste tank 241-AY-102 (AY-102), anomalies were identified on the annulus floor which resulted in further evaluations. Following a formal leak assessment in October 2012, Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) determined that the primary tank of AY-102 was leaking. A formal leak assessment, documented in RPP-ASMT-53793, Tank 241-AY-102 Leak Assessment Report, identified first-of-a-kind construction difficulties and trial-and-error repairs as major contributing factors to tank failure.1 To determine if improvements in double-shell tank (DST) construction occurred after construction of tank AY-102, a detailed review and evaluation of historical construction records was performed for Hanford’s remaining twenty-seven DSTs. Review involved research of 241 boxes of historical project documentation to better understand the condition of the Hanford DST farms, noting similarities in construction difficulties/issues to tank AY-102. Information gathered provides valuable insight regarding construction difficulties, future tank operations decisions, and guidance of the current tank inspection program. Should new waste storage tanks be constructed in the future, these reviews also provide valuable lessons-learned.

  20. Double torsion fracture mechanics testing of shales under chemically reactive conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X.; Callahan, O. A.; Holder, J. T.; Olson, J. E.; Eichhubl, P.

    2015-12-01

    Fracture properties of shales is vital for applications such as shale and tight gas development, and seal performance of carbon storage reservoirs. We analyze the fracture behavior from samples of Marcellus, Woodford, and Mancos shales using double-torsion (DT) load relaxation fracture tests. The DT test allows the determination of mode-I fracture toughness (KIC), subcritical crack growth index (SCI), and the stress-intensity factor vs crack velocity (K-V) curves. Samples are tested at ambient air and aqueous conditions with variable ionic concentrations of NaCl and CaCl2, and temperatures up to 70 to determine the effects of chemical/environmental conditions on fracture. Under ambient air condition, KIC determined from DT tests is 1.51±0.32, 0.85±0.25, 1.08±0.17 MPam1/2 for Marcellus, Woodford, and Mancos shales, respectively. Tests under water showed considerable change of KIC compared to ambient condition, with 10.6% increase for Marcellus, 36.5% decrease for Woodford, and 6.7% decrease for Mancos shales. SCI under ambient air condition is between 56 and 80 for the shales tested. The presence of water results in a significant reduction of the SCI from 70% to 85% compared to air condition. Tests under chemically reactive solutions are currently being performed with temperature control. K-V curves under ambient air conditions are linear with stable SCI throughout the load-relaxation period. However, tests conducted under water result in an initial cracking period with SCI values comparable to ambient air tests, which then gradually transition into stable but significantly lower SCI values of 10-20. The non-linear K-V curves reveal that crack propagation in shales is initially limited by the transport of chemical agents due to their low permeability. Only after the initial cracking do interactions at the crack tip lead to cracking controlled by faster stress corrosion reactions. The decrease of SCI in water indicates higher crack propagation velocity due to

  1. TRP vanilloid 2 knock-out mice are susceptible to perinatal lethality but display normal thermal and mechanical nociception.

    PubMed

    Park, Una; Vastani, Nisha; Guan, Yun; Raja, Srinivasa N; Koltzenburg, Martin; Caterina, Michael J

    2011-08-10

    TRP vanilloid 2 (TRPV2) is a nonselective cation channel expressed prominently in medium- to large-diameter sensory neurons that can be activated by extreme heat (>52°C). These features suggest that TRPV2 might be a transducer of noxious heat in vivo. TRPV2 can also be activated by hypoosmolarity or cell stretch, suggesting potential roles in mechanotransduction. To address the physiological functions of TRPV2 in somatosensation, we generated TRPV2 knock-out mice and examined their behavioral and electrophysiological responses to heat and mechanical stimuli. TRPV2 knock-out mice showed reduced embryonic weight and perinatal viability. As adults, surviving knock-out mice also exhibited a slightly reduced body weight. TRPV2 knock-out mice showed normal behavioral responses to noxious heat over a broad range of temperatures and normal responses to punctate mechanical stimuli, both in the basal state and under hyperalgesic conditions such as peripheral inflammation and L5 spinal nerve ligation. Moreover, behavioral assays of TRPV1/TRPV2 double knock-out mice or of TRPV2 knock-out mice treated with resiniferatoxin to desensitize TRPV1-expressing afferents revealed no thermosensory consequences of TRPV2 absence. In line with behavioral findings, electrophysiological recordings from skin afferents showed that C-fiber responses to heat and C- and Aδ-fiber responses to noxious mechanical stimuli were unimpaired in the absence of TRPV2. The prevalence of thermosensitive Aδ-fibers was too low to permit comparison between genotypes. Thus, TRPV2 is important for perinatal viability but is not essential for heat or mechanical nociception or hypersensitivity in the adult mouse.

  2. Essential role of chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor II in insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity revealed by conditional gene knockout.

    PubMed

    Bardoux, Pascale; Zhang, Pili; Flamez, Daisy; Perilhou, Anaïs; Lavin, Tiphaine Aguirre; Tanti, Jean-François; Hellemans, Karine; Gomas, Emmanuel; Godard, Cécile; Andreelli, Fabrizio; Buccheri, Maria Antonietta; Kahn, Axel; Le Marchand-Brustel, Yannick; Burcelin, Rémy; Schuit, Frans; Vasseur-Cognet, Mireille

    2005-05-01

    Chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor II (COUP-TFII) has been implicated in the control of blood glucose by its potent effect on expression and signaling of various nuclear receptors. To understand the role of COUP-TFII in glucose homeostasis, conditional COUP-TFII-deficient mice were generated and crossed with mice expressing Cre under the control of rat insulin II gene promoter, resulting in deletion of COUP-TFII in pancreatic beta-cells. Homozygous mutants died before birth for yet undetermined reasons. Heterozygous mice appeared healthy at birth and showed normal growth and fertility. When challenged intraperitoneally, the animals had glucose intolerance associated with reduced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Moreover, these heterozygous mice presented a mild increase in fasting and random-fed circulating insulin levels. In accordance, islets isolated from these animals exhibited higher insulin secretion in low glucose conditions and markedly decreased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Their pancreata presented normal microscopic architecture and insulin content up to 16 weeks of study. Altered insulin secretion was associated with peripheral insulin resistance in whole animals. It can be concluded that COUP-TFII is a new, important regulator of glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity.

  3. Superlubricity in centimetres-long double-walled carbon nanotubes under ambient conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rufan; Ning, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Yingying; Zheng, Quanshui; Chen, Qing; Xie, Huanhuan; Zhang, Qiang; Qian, Weizhong; Wei, Fei

    2013-12-01

    Friction and wear are two main causes of mechanical energy dissipation and component failure, especially in micro/nanomechanical systems with large surface-to-volume ratios. In the past decade there has been an increasing level of research interest regarding superlubricity, a phenomenon, also called structural superlubricity, in which friction almost vanishes between two incommensurate solid surfaces. However, all experimental structural superlubricity has been obtained on the microscale or nanoscale, and predominantly under high vacuum. Here, we show that superlubricity can be realized in centimetres-long double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) under ambient conditions. Centimetres-long inner shells can be pulled out continuously from such nanotubes, with an intershell friction lower than 1 nN that is independent of nanotube length. The shear strength of the DWCNTs is only several pascals, four orders of magnitude lower than the lowest reported value in CNTs and graphite. The perfect structure of the ultralong DWCNTs used in our experiments is essential for macroscale superlubricity.

  4. Superlubricity in centimetres-long double-walled carbon nanotubes under ambient conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Rufan; Ning, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Yingying; Zheng, Quanshui; Chen, Qing; Xie, Huanhuan; Zhang, Qiang; Qian, Weizhong; Wei, Fei

    2013-12-01

    Friction and wear are two main causes of mechanical energy dissipation and component failure, especially in micro/nanomechanical systems with large surface-to-volume ratios. In the past decade there has been an increasing level of research interest regarding superlubricity, a phenomenon, also called structural superlubricity, in which friction almost vanishes between two incommensurate solid surfaces. However, all experimental structural superlubricity has been obtained on the microscale or nanoscale, and predominantly under high vacuum. Here, we show that superlubricity can be realized in centimetres-long double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) under ambient conditions. Centimetres-long inner shells can be pulled out continuously from such nanotubes, with an intershell friction lower than 1 nN that is independent of nanotube length. The shear strength of the DWCNTs is only several pascals, four orders of magnitude lower than the lowest reported value in CNTs and graphite. The perfect structure of the ultralong DWCNTs used in our experiments is essential for macroscale superlubricity.

  5. Double Umbilical Cord Blood Transplantation with Reduced Intensity Conditioning and Sirolimus-Based GVHD Prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Cutler, Corey; Stevenson, Kristen; Kim, Haesook T.; Brown, Julia; McDonough, Sean; Herrera, Maria; Reynolds, Carol; Liney, Deborah; Kao, Grace; Ho, Vincent; Armand, Philippe; Koreth, John; Alyea, Edwin; Dey, Bimalangshu R.; Attar, Eyal; Spitzer, Thomas; Boussiotis, Vassiliki A.; Ritz, Jerome; Soiffer, Robert; Antin, Joseph H.; Ballen, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The main limitations to umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT) in adults are delayed engraftment, poor immunological reconstitution and high rates of non-relapse mortality (NRM). Double UCBT (DUCBT) has been used to circumvent the issue of low cell dose, but acute graft-vs.-host disease (GVHD) remains a significant problem. We describe our experience in 32 subjects who underwent DUCBT after reduced-intensity conditioning with fludarabine/melphalan/anti-thymocyte globulin and who received sirolimus and tacrolimus to prevent acute GVHD. Engraftment of neutrophils occurred in all patients at a median of 21 days, and platelet engraftment occurred at a median of 42 days. Three subjects had grade II-IV acute GVHD (9.4%) and chronic GVHD occurred in 4 subjects (cumulative incidence 12.5%). No deaths were caused by GVHD and NRM at 100 days was 12.5%. At two years, NRM, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 34.4%, 31.2% and 53.1%, respectively. As expected, immunologic reconstitution was slow, but PFS and OS were associated with reconstitution of CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocyte subsets, suggesting that recovery of adaptive immunity is required for prevention of infection and relapse after transplantation. In summary, sirolimus and tacrolimus provide excellent GVHD prophylaxis in DUCBT, and this regimen is associated with low NRM after DUCBT. PMID:20697368

  6. Tissue-specific conditional CCM2 knockout mice establish the essential role of endothelial CCM2 in angiogenesis: implications for human cerebral cavernous malformations

    PubMed Central

    Boulday, Gwénola; Blécon, Anne; Petit, Nathalie; Chareyre, Fabrice; Garcia, Luis A.; Niwa-Kawakita, Michiko; Giovannini, Marco; Tournier-Lasserve, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCM) are vascular malformations of the brain that lead to cerebral hemorrhages. In 20% of CCM patients, this results from an autosomal dominant condition caused by loss-of-function mutations in one of the three CCM genes. High expression levels of the CCM genes in the neuroepithelium indicate that CCM lesions might be caused by a loss of function of these genes in neural cells rather than in vascular cells. However, their in vivo function, particularly during cerebral angiogenesis, is totally unknown. We developed mice with constitutive and tissue-specific CCM2 deletions to investigate CCM2 function in vivo. Constitutive deletion of CCM2 leads to early embryonic death. Deletion of CCM2 from neuroglial precursor cells does not lead to cerebrovascular defects, whereas CCM2 is required in endothelial cells for proper vascular development. Deletion of CCM2 from endothelial cells severely affects angiogenesis, leading to morphogenic defects in the major arterial and venous blood vessels and in the heart, and results in embryonic lethality at mid-gestation. These findings establish the essential role of endothelial CCM2 for proper vascular development and strongly suggest that the endothelial cell is the primary target in the cascade of events leading from CCM2 mutations to CCM cerebrovascular lesions. PMID:19259391

  7. Conditional knock-out reveals a requirement for O-linked N-Acetylglucosaminase (O-GlcNAcase) in metabolic homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Keembiyehetty, Chithra; Love, Dona C; Harwood, Katryn R; Gavrilova, Oksana; Comly, Marcella E; Hanover, John A

    2015-03-13

    O-GlcNAc cycling is maintained by the reciprocal activities of the O-GlcNAc transferase and the O-GlcNAcase (OGA) enzymes. O-GlcNAc transferase is responsible for O-GlcNAc addition to serine and threonine (Ser/Thr) residues and OGA for its removal. Although the Oga gene (MGEA5) is a documented human diabetes susceptibility locus, its role in maintaining insulin-glucose homeostasis is unclear. Here, we report a conditional disruption of the Oga gene in the mouse. The resulting homozygous Oga null (KO) animals lack OGA enzymatic activity and exhibit elevated levels of the O-GlcNAc modification. The Oga KO animals showed nearly complete perinatal lethality associated with low circulating glucose and low liver glycogen stores. Defective insulin-responsive GSK3β phosphorylation was observed in both heterozygous (HET) and KO Oga animals. Although Oga HET animals were viable, they exhibited alterations in both transcription and metabolism. Transcriptome analysis using mouse embryonic fibroblasts revealed deregulation in the transcripts of both HET and KO animals specifically in genes associated with metabolism and growth. Additionally, metabolic profiling showed increased fat accumulation in HET and KO animals compared with WT, which was increased by a high fat diet. Reduced insulin sensitivity, glucose tolerance, and hyperleptinemia were also observed in HET and KO female mice. Notably, the respiratory exchange ratio of the HET animals was higher than that observed in WT animals, indicating the preferential utilization of glucose as an energy source. These results suggest that the loss of mouse OGA leads to defects in metabolic homeostasis culminating in obesity and insulin resistance.

  8. Conditional Knock-out Reveals a Requirement for O-Linked N-Acetylglucosaminase (O-GlcNAcase) in Metabolic Homeostasis*

    PubMed Central

    Keembiyehetty, Chithra; Love, Dona C.; Harwood, Katryn R.; Gavrilova, Oksana; Comly, Marcella E.; Hanover, John A.

    2015-01-01

    O-GlcNAc cycling is maintained by the reciprocal activities of the O-GlcNAc transferase and the O-GlcNAcase (OGA) enzymes. O-GlcNAc transferase is responsible for O-GlcNAc addition to serine and threonine (Ser/Thr) residues and OGA for its removal. Although the Oga gene (MGEA5) is a documented human diabetes susceptibility locus, its role in maintaining insulin-glucose homeostasis is unclear. Here, we report a conditional disruption of the Oga gene in the mouse. The resulting homozygous Oga null (KO) animals lack OGA enzymatic activity and exhibit elevated levels of the O-GlcNAc modification. The Oga KO animals showed nearly complete perinatal lethality associated with low circulating glucose and low liver glycogen stores. Defective insulin-responsive GSK3β phosphorylation was observed in both heterozygous (HET) and KO Oga animals. Although Oga HET animals were viable, they exhibited alterations in both transcription and metabolism. Transcriptome analysis using mouse embryonic fibroblasts revealed deregulation in the transcripts of both HET and KO animals specifically in genes associated with metabolism and growth. Additionally, metabolic profiling showed increased fat accumulation in HET and KO animals compared with WT, which was increased by a high fat diet. Reduced insulin sensitivity, glucose tolerance, and hyperleptinemia were also observed in HET and KO female mice. Notably, the respiratory exchange ratio of the HET animals was higher than that observed in WT animals, indicating the preferential utilization of glucose as an energy source. These results suggest that the loss of mouse OGA leads to defects in metabolic homeostasis culminating in obesity and insulin resistance. PMID:25596529

  9. Genetic evidence for Dnmt3a-dependent imprinting during oocyte growth obtained by conditional knockout with Zp3-Cre and complete exclusion of Dnmt3b by chimera formation.

    PubMed

    Kaneda, Masahiro; Hirasawa, Ryutaro; Chiba, Hatsune; Okano, Masaki; Li, En; Sasaki, Hiroyuki

    2010-03-01

    In the male and female germ-lines of mice, both of the two de novo DNA methyltransferases Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b are expressed. By the conditional knockout experiments using the Tnap-Cre gene, we previously showed that deletion of Dnmt3a in primordial germ cells disrupts paternal and maternal imprinting, however, Dnmt3b mutants did not show any defect. Here, we have knocked out Dnmt3a after birth in growing oocytes by using the Zp3-Cre gene and obtained genetic evidence that de novo methylation by Dnmt3a during the oocyte growth stage is indispensable for maternal imprinting. We also carried out DNA methylation analysis in the mutant oocytes and embryos and found that hypomethylation of imprinted genes in Dnmt3a-deficient oocytes was directly inherited to the embryos, but repetitive elements were re-methylated during development. Furthermore, we show that Dnmt3b-deficient cells can contribute to the male and female germ-lines in chimeric mice and can produce normal progeny, establishing that Dnmt3b is dispensable for mouse gametogenesis and imprinting. Finally, Dnmt3-related protein Dnmt3L is not only essential for methylation of imprinted genes but also enhances de novo methylation of repetitive elements in growing oocytes.

  10. Double-layer rotor magnetic shield performance analysis in high temperature superconducting synchronous generators under short circuit fault conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hekmati, Arsalan; Aliahmadi, Mehdi

    2016-12-01

    High temperature superconducting, HTS, synchronous machines benefit from a rotor magnetic shield in order to protect superconducting coils against asynchronous magnetic fields. This magnetic shield, however, suffers from exerted Lorentz forces generated in light of induced eddy currents during transient conditions, e.g. stator windings short-circuit fault. In addition, to the exerted electromagnetic forces, eddy current losses and the associated effects on the cryogenic system are the other consequences of shielding HTS coils. This study aims at investigating the Rotor Magnetic Shield, RMS, performance in HTS synchronous generators under stator winding short-circuit fault conditions. The induced eddy currents in different circumferential positions of the rotor magnetic shield along with associated Joule heating losses would be studied using 2-D time-stepping Finite Element Analysis, FEA. The investigation of Lorentz forces exerted on the magnetic shield during transient conditions has also been performed in this paper. The obtained results show that double line-to-ground fault is of the most importance among different types of short-circuit faults. It was revealed that when it comes to the design of the rotor magnetic shields, in addition to the eddy current distribution and the associated ohmic losses, two phase-to-ground fault should be taken into account since the produced electromagnetic forces in the time of fault conditions are more severe during double line-to-ground fault.

  11. Conditional knockdown of target gene expression by tetracycline regulated transcription of double strand RNA.

    PubMed

    Hou, Xubin; Omi, Minoru; Harada, Hidekiyo; Ishii, Shunsuke; Takahashi, Yoshiko; Nakamura, Harukazu

    2011-01-01

    In vivo electroporation has served as an effective tool for the study of developmental biology. Here we report tetracycline inducible gene knockdown by electroporation. Our system consists of genome integration of a cassette encoding long double strand RNA (dsRNA) of a gene of interest by electroporation, transcription of which is assured by RNA polymerase II, and induction of transcription of dsRNA by tetracyclin. Long dsRNA decapped by ribozyme in the cassette and without poly A tail is processed into siRNA within nuclei. We could successfully induce knockdown of En2 and Coactosin by Dox administration.

  12. Numerical Investigation on Hydrodynamic Characteristics of a Centrifugal Pump with a Double Volute at Off-Design Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, H. S.; Kim, K. Y.

    2016-11-01

    Severe radial thrust under off-design operating conditions can be harmful factor for centrifugal pumps. In the present work, effects of geometry of a double volute casing on the hydrodynamic performance of a centrifugal pump have been investigated focusing on off-design conditions. Three-dimensional steady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes analysis was carried out by using shear stress transport turbulence model. Numerical results for the hydrodynamic performance of the centrifugal pump were validated compared with experimental data. The hydraulic efficiency and radial thrust coefficient were used as performance parameters to evaluate the hydrodynamic characteristics of the centrifugal pump. The cross-sectional area ratio of the volute casing, the expansion coefficient of the rib structure, distance between the rib starting point and volute entrance, and radius of the volute entrance, were selected as geometric parameters. The results of parametric study show that performance parameters are significantly affected by both the geometric variables and operating conditions. Some configurations of the double volute casing showed outstanding performance in terms of the efficiency and radial thrust coefficient.

  13. Knockout, Transfer and Spectroscopic Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemper, Kirby; Keeley, Nicholas; Rusek, Krzysztof

    2011-10-01

    As derived quantities rather than observables, spectroscopic factors extracted from fits to data are model dependent. The main source of uncertainty is the choice of binding potential, but other factors such as adequate modeling of the reaction mechanism, the Perey effect, choice of distorting nuclear potentials etc. can also play a significant role. Recently, there has been some discussion of apparent discrepancies in spectroscopic factors derived from knockout reactions compared to those obtained from low-energy direct reactions. It should be possible to reconcile these discrepancies and we explore this prospect by attempting to describe the 10Be(d,t)9Be data of Nucl. Phys. A157, 305 (1970) using the 10Be/9Be form factors from a recent knockout study, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 162502 (2011). The influence of such factors as choice of distorting potentials and multi-step reactions paths will be explored.

  14. Double diabetes in Saudi Arabia: A new entity or an underestimated condition

    PubMed Central

    Braham, Rim; Alzaid, Aus; Robert, Asirvatham Alwin; Mujammami, Muhammad; Ahmad, Rania Ahmad; Zitouni, Monther; Sobki, Samia Hasan; Al Dawish, Mohamed Abdulaziz

    2016-01-01

    AIM To determine the clinical and biological characteristics of double diabetes (DD) among young people in Saudi Arabia. METHODS This was a retrospective descriptive chart review study including 312 young newly diagnosed diabetic patients (aged 12-20 years), whom were admitted over a five year period (January 2009 to December 2013). Family history of diabetes mellitus (DM) (first degree), physical body mass index (BMI), acanthosis nigricans, history of auto-immune disease and laboratory information for glycosylated hemoglobin, basal C peptide level and diabetes autoantibody response (anti-GAD, anti-IA2 and anti-ICA) were collected from medical report. A mean follow-up of 3 years for these patients was performed. RESULTS Patients were categorized into 4 groups, based on the autoantibody response (Ab+ or Ab-) and C-peptide secretion (β+ for fasting level 0.4-2.1 ng/mL and β- if < 0.4 ng/mL). Group1 (type 1a): Ab+ β- (21%), group 2 (type 1b): Ab- β- (9%), group 3 (DD): Ab+ β+ (31%) and group 4 (classic type 2 DM): Ab- β+ (39%). The mean age of the DD patients in our study was 15.1 ± 6.4 years. A total of 41% of the study population presented with diabetic ketoacidosis and 61% of the study population presented with positive family history of DM. The mean BMI was 26.8 kg/m2 with 64% of overweight or obese patients. Ninety two percent of the patients were started on insulin at the time of diagnosis. During a mean follow-up of 3 years, only 32% of the patients with DD required insulin and 78% were on metformin alone or with insulin. CONCLUSION Our findings enable us to arrive at the conclusion that almost one-third of the young Saudi diabetic patients reveal atypical forms of DM (double diabetes) expressing features resulting from both T1D and T2D. PMID:28031780

  15. Graphene-like Two-Dimensional Ionic Boron with Double Dirac Cones at Ambient Condition.

    PubMed

    Ma, Fengxian; Jiao, Yalong; Gao, Guoping; Gu, Yuantong; Bilic, Ante; Chen, Zhongfang; Du, Aijun

    2016-05-11

    Recently, partially ionic boron (γ-B28) has been predicted and observed in pure boron, in bulk phase and controlled by pressure [ Nature 2009 , 457 , 863 ]. By using ab initio evolutionary structure search, we report the prediction of ionic boron at a reduced dimension and ambient pressure, namely, the two-dimensional (2D) ionic boron. This 2D boron structure consists of graphene-like plane and B2 atom pairs with the P6/mmm space group and six atoms in the unit cell and has lower energy than the previously reported α-sheet structure and its analogues. Its dynamical and thermal stability are confirmed by the phonon-spectrum and ab initio molecular dynamics simulation. In addition, this phase exhibits double Dirac cones with massless Dirac Fermions due to the significant charge transfer between the graphene-like plane and B2 pair that enhances the energetic stability of the P6/mmm boron. A Fermi velocity (vf) as high as 2.3 × 10(6) m/s, which is even higher than that of graphene (0.82 × 10(6) m/s), is predicted for the P6/mmm boron. The present work is the first report of the 2D ionic boron at atmospheric pressure. The unique electronic structure renders the 2D ionic boron a promising 2D material for applications in nanoelectronics.

  16. The double Smiles rearrangement in neutral conditions leading to one of 10-(nitropyridinyl)dipyridothiazine isomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morak-Młodawska, Beata; Pluta, Krystian; Suwińska, Kinga; Jeleń, Małgorzata

    2017-04-01

    Phenothiazines are reported to exhibit very promising anticancer, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory activities, reversal of multidrug resistance and many other actions. Synthesis of phenotiazines is mostly carried cyclization of o-aminodiphenyl sulfides proceeded through the Smiles rearrangement. The modifications of the phenothiazine structure via the substitution of the benzene ring with the pyridine ring gave various pyridobenzothiazines and dipyridothiazines. The reaction of 3-amino-3'-nitro-2,2'-dipyridinyl sulfide with 4-chloro-3-nitropyridine in sole DMF led to one of four possible isomeric nitropyridinyldipyridothiazines. Two-dimensional 1H and 13C NMR experiments (COSY, ROESY, HSQC and HMBC) were used to reveal the right product structure as 10-(3'-nitro-4'-pyridinyl)dipyrido[2,3-b; 2',3'-e] [1,4]thiazine (10-(3'-nitro-4'-pyridinyl)-1,6-diazaphenothiazine). The final structure confirmation came from a single crystal X-ray analysis. This structure is the result of very rare reaction mechanism involving the double Smiles rearrangement of the Ssbnd N type. The tricyclic dipyridothiazine system is unexpectedly almost planar, with the butterfly angle of 176.39(4)° between two pyridine rings and 174.17(6)° between the halves of the thiazine ring (the NCCS) planes. The pyridinyl substituent is rotated about N10sbnd C11 bond and oriented almost perpendicularly to the tricyclic ring system with the dihedral angle between the two planar systems of 94.93(3)°. The nitropyridinyl substituent is located quasi-equatorially with the S⋯N10‒C11 angle of 176.92(8)°. The nitro group is tilted from the pyridine ring by 128.44(8)°.

  17. Conditionally fluorescent molecular probes for detecting single base changes in double-stranded DNA.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sherry Xi; Zhang, David Yu; Seelig, Georg

    2013-09-01

    Small variations in nucleic acid sequences can have far-reaching phenotypic consequences. Reliably distinguishing closely related sequences is therefore important for research and clinical applications. Here, we demonstrate that conditionally fluorescent DNA probes are capable of distinguishing variations of a single base in a stretch of target DNA. These probes use a novel programmable mechanism in which each single nucleotide polymorphism generates two thermodynamically destabilizing mismatch bubbles rather than the single mismatch formed during typical hybridization-based assays. Up to a 12,000-fold excess of a target that contains a single nucleotide polymorphism is required to generate the same fluorescence as one equivalent of the intended target, and detection works reliably over a wide range of conditions. Using these probes we detected point mutations in a 198 base-pair subsequence of the Escherichia coli rpoB gene. That our probes are constructed from multiple oligonucleotides circumvents synthesis limitations and enables long continuous DNA sequences to be probed.

  18. Conditionally fluorescent molecular probes for detecting single base changes in double-stranded DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Sherry Xi; Zhang, David Yu; Seelig, Georg

    2013-09-01

    Small variations in nucleic acid sequences can have far-reaching phenotypic consequences. Reliably distinguishing closely related sequences is therefore important for research and clinical applications. Here, we demonstrate that conditionally fluorescent DNA probes are capable of distinguishing variations of a single base in a stretch of target DNA. These probes use a novel programmable mechanism in which each single nucleotide polymorphism generates two thermodynamically destabilizing mismatch bubbles rather than the single mismatch formed during typical hybridization-based assays. Up to a 12,000-fold excess of a target that contains a single nucleotide polymorphism is required to generate the same fluorescence as one equivalent of the intended target, and detection works reliably over a wide range of conditions. Using these probes we detected point mutations in a 198 base-pair subsequence of the Escherichia coli rpoB gene. That our probes are constructed from multiple oligonucleotides circumvents synthesis limitations and enables long continuous DNA sequences to be probed.

  19. Study of soot production for double injections of n-dodecane in CI engine-like conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Moiz, Ahmed Abdul; Ameen, Muhsin M.; Lee, Seong-Young; Som, Sibendu

    2016-11-01

    Soot production mechanism in multiple injections is complex since it involves its dependence on turbulent interactions of constituting injections and their combustion progress. A concise study was performed in a constant-volume combustion vessel by considering a double injection scheme of 0.3 ms pilot injection, 0.5 ms dwell time and 1.2 ms main injection (nomenclature: 0.3/0.5/12 ms) with n-dodecane as fuel and replicating the thermodynamic operating condition of a compression ignition (CI) engine. Experimental ambient temperature variations of 900 K and 800 K were performed at 15% ambient oxygen level. Simultaneous planar laser-induced fluorescence (PUP) of formaldehyde and schlieren imaging techniques were employed to analyze the ignition and flame characteristics experimentally. These studies revealed almost similar heat release rates for a double injection at 900 K and 800 K ambient gas temperatures due to combustion of a longer main injection which is enhanced by pilot combustion event A lower soot production for 800 K ambient condition over 900 K case was observed, which was concluded to be due to its higher lift-off length which would allow for a leaner combustion of fuel-air mixtures. Numerical simulations were performed using a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) approach by extensively validating the 900 K double injection condition with respect to non-reacting vapor penetration profiles of both injections, reacting jet heat release rate and spatial as well as temporal (qualitative) soot production. As part of LES work, a dwell time variation of 0.65 ms (0.3/0.65/1.2 ms) was performed to reveal the sensitivity of soot production to variations in dwell time. It was observed numerically that marginally higher quasi steady lift-off length of the 0.3/0.65/1.2 ms injection causes increased entrainment of surrounding oxygen into the flame region. This leads to combustion of slightly leaner fuel-air mixture and hence relatively less soot when compared to a 0

  20. A Double Blind Randomized Clinical Trial of Remote Ischemic Conditioning in Live Donor Renal Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Michael L; Pattenden, Clare J; Barlow, Adam D; Hunter, James P; Lee, Gwyn; Hosgood, Sarah A

    2015-08-01

    Ischemic conditioning involves the delivery of short cycles of reversible ischemic injury in order to induce protection against subsequent more prolonged ischemia. This randomized controlled trial was designed to determine the safety and efficacy of remote ischemic conditioning (RC) in live donor kidney transplantation.This prospective randomized clinical trial, 80 patients undergoing live donor kidney transplantation were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to either RC or to a control group. RC consisted of cycles of lower limb ischemia induced by an arterial tourniquet cuff placed around the patient's thigh. In the RC treatment group, the cuff was inflated to 200 mm Hg or systolic pressure +25 mm Hg for 4 cycles of 5 min ischemia followed by 5 min reperfusion. In the control group, the blood pressure cuff was inflated to 25 mm Hg. Patients and medical staff were blinded to treatment allocation. The primary end-point was renal function measured by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at 1 and 3 months posttransplant.Donor and recipient demographics were similar in both groups (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in eGFR at 1 month (control 52 ± 14 vs RC 54 ± 17 mL/min; P = 0.686) or 3 months (control 50 ± 14 vs RC 49 ± 18 mL/min; P = 0.678) between the control and RC treatment groups. The RC technique did not cause any serious adverse effects.RC, using the protocol described here, did not improve renal function after live donor kidney transplantation.

  1. Knockout of GH3 genes in the moss Physcomitrella patens leads to increased IAA levels at elevated temperature and in darkness.

    PubMed

    Mittag, Jennifer; Gabrielyan, Anastasia; Ludwig-Müller, Jutta

    2015-12-01

    Two proteins of the GRETCHEN HAGEN3 (GH3) family of acyl acid amido synthetases from the moss Physcomitrella patens conjugate indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) to a series of amino acids. The possible function of altered auxin levels in the moss in response to two different growth perturbations, elevated temperatures and darkness, was analyzed using a) the recently described double knockout lines in both P. patens GH3 genes (GH3-doKO) and b) a previously characterized line harboring an auxin-inducible soybean GH3 promoter::reporter fused to β-glucuronidase (G1-GUS). The GUS activity as marker of the auxin response increased at higher temperatures and after cultivation in the darkness for a period of up to four weeks. Generally, the double knockout plants grew more slowly than the wild type (WT). The altered growth conditions influenced the phenotypes of the double knockout lines differently from that of WT moss. Higher temperatures negatively affected GH3-doKO plants compared to WT which was shown by stronger loss of chlorophyll. On the other hand, a positive effect was found on the concentrations of free IAA which increased at 28 °C in the GH3-doKO lines compared to WT plants. A different factor, namely darkness vs. a light/dark cycle caused the adverse phenotype concerning chlorophyll concentrations. Mutant moss plants showed higher chlorophyll concentrations than WT and these correlated with higher free IAA in the plant population that was classified as green. Our data show that growth perturbations result in higher free IAA levels in the GH3-doKO mutants, but in one case - growth in darkness - the mutants could cope better with the condition, whereas at elevated temperatures the mutants were more sensitive than WT. Thus, GH3 function in P. patens WT could lie in the regulation of IAA concentrations under unfavorable environmental conditions.

  2. Conditions for observing emergent SU(4) symmetry in a double quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikawa, Yunori; Curtin, Oliver J.; Hewson, Alex C.; Crow, Daniel J. G.; Bauer, Johannes

    2016-06-01

    We analyze conditions for the observation of a low-energy SU(4) fixed point in capacitively coupled quantum dots. One problem, due to dots with different couplings to their baths, has been considered by L. Tosi, P. Roura-Bas, and A. A. Aligia, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 27, 335601 (2015), 10.1088/0953-8984/27/33/335601. They showed how symmetry can be effectively restored via the adjustment of individual gates voltages, but they make the assumption of infinite on-dot and interdot interaction strengths. A related problem is the difference in the magnitudes between the on-dot and interdot strengths for capacitively coupled quantum dots. Here we examine both factors, based on a two-site Anderson model, using the numerical renormalization group to calculate the local spectral densities on the dots and the renormalized parameters that specify the low-energy fixed point. Our results support the conclusions of Tosi et al. that low-energy SU(4) symmetry can be restored, but asymptotically achieved only if the interdot interaction U12 is greater than or of the order of the bandwidth of the coupled conduction bath D , which might be difficult to achieve experimentally. By comparing the SU(4) Kondo results for a total dot occupation ntot=1 and 2, we conclude that the temperature dependence of the conductance is largely determined by the constraints of the Friedel sum rule rather than the SU(4) symmetry and suggest that an initial increase of the conductance with temperature is a distinguishing characteristic feature of an ntot=1 universal SU(4) fixed point.

  3. Dynamics of electrical double layer formation in room-temperature ionic liquids under constant-current charging conditions.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xikai; Huang, Jingsong; Zhao, Hui; Sumpter, Bobby G; Qiao, Rui

    2014-07-16

    We report detailed simulation results on the formation dynamics of an electrical double layer (EDL) inside an electrochemical cell featuring room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) enclosed between two planar electrodes. Under relatively small charging currents, the evolution of cell potential from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations during charging can be suitably predicted by the Landau-Ginzburg-type continuum model proposed recently (Bazant et al 2011 Phys. Rev. Lett. 106 046102). Under very large charging currents, the cell potential from MD simulations shows pronounced oscillation during the initial stage of charging, a feature not captured by the continuum model. Such oscillation originates from the sequential growth of the ionic space charge layers near the electrode surface. This allows the evolution of EDLs in RTILs with time, an atomistic process difficult to visualize experimentally, to be studied by analyzing the cell potential under constant-current charging conditions. While the continuum model cannot predict the potential oscillation under such far-from-equilibrium charging conditions, it can nevertheless qualitatively capture the growth of cell potential during the later stage of charging. Improving the continuum model by introducing frequency-dependent dielectric constant and density-dependent ion diffusion coefficients may help to further extend the applicability of the model. The evolution of ion density profiles is also compared between the MD and the continuum model, showing good agreement.

  4. Electric Double Layer Capacitor (EDLC) based Mismatching Losses Reduction under Fast-Shaded Conditions of PV Modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syafaruddin; Tanaka, Yasuyuki; Karatepe, Engin; Hiyama, Takashi

    Fast-moving irradiance condition is one of problems that need to be solved in the non-stationary conventional maximum power point (MPP) trackers of PV system. Under sudden irradiance changes, the output power is changed drastically that leads to the shifting in MPP voltage. Conventional MPP algorithms may start continuously to search for finding the optimum point. However, suddenly another shadow can occur prior to complete removing of previous shadow. Continuing the tracking process under this condition will cause to lose energy. This paper presents the electric double layer capacitor (EDLC) as the power compensation method for improving the maximum power transfer of PV system under short-term period of shading. Several scenarios are tested in this work by measurement the percentage of power compensation, for instance the effect of capacitor size to the period of shading, the effects of shading period to the level shading intensity and cell temperature. This paper is directly purposed to reduce the power losses for moving objects powered by solar energy, such as solar car and solar boat systems.

  5. MERGER RATES OF DOUBLE NEUTRON STARS AND STELLAR ORIGIN BLACK HOLES: THE IMPACT OF INITIAL CONDITIONS ON BINARY EVOLUTION PREDICTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Mink, S. E. de; Belczynski, K. E-mail: kbelczyn@astrouw.edu.pl

    2015-11-20

    The initial mass function (IMF), binary fraction, and distributions of binary parameters (mass ratios, separations, and eccentricities) are indispensable inputs for simulations of stellar populations. It is often claimed that these are poorly constrained, significantly affecting evolutionary predictions. Recently, dedicated observing campaigns have provided new constraints on the initial conditions for massive stars. Findings include a larger close binary fraction and a stronger preference for very tight systems. We investigate the impact on the predicted merger rates of neutron stars and black holes. Despite the changes with previous assumptions, we only find an increase of less than a factor of 2 (insignificant compared with evolutionary uncertainties of typically a factor of 10–100). We further show that the uncertainties in the new initial binary properties do not significantly affect (within a factor of 2) our predictions of double compact object merger rates. An exception is the uncertainty in IMF (variations by a factor of 6 up and down). No significant changes in the distributions of final component masses, mass ratios, chirp masses, and delay times are found. We conclude that the predictions are, for practical purposes, robust against uncertainties in the initial conditions concerning binary parameters, with the exception of the IMF. This eliminates an important layer of the many uncertain assumptions affecting the predictions of merger detection rates with the gravitational wave detectors aLIGO/aVirgo.

  6. Dynamics of electrical double layer formation in room-temperature ionic liquids under constant-current charging conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Xikai; Huang, Jingsong; Zhao, Hui; Sumpter, Bobby G; Qiao, Rui

    2014-01-01

    We report detailed simulation results on the formation dynamics of an electrical double layer (EDL) inside an electrochemical cell featuring room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) enclosed between two planar electrodes. Under relatively small charging currents, the evolution of cell potential during charging can be suitably predicted by the Landau-Ginzburg-type continuum model proposed recently (M. Z. Bazant, B. D. Storey, and A. A. Kornyshev, Phys. Rev. Lett., 106, 046102, 2011). Under very large charging currents, the cell potential shows pronounced oscillation during the initial stage of charging, a feature not captured by the continuum model. Such oscillation originates from the sequential growth of the ionic space charge layers near the electrode surface, allowing the evolution of EDLs in RTILs with time, an atomistic process difficult to visualize experimentally, to be studied by analyzing the cell potential under constant current charging conditions. While the continuum model cannot predict the potential oscillation under such far-from-equilibrium charging conditions, it can nevertheless qualitatively capture the growth of cell potential during the later stage of charging. Improving the continuum model by introducing frequency-dependent dielectric constant and density-dependent ion diffusion coefficients may help to further extend the applicability of the model. Keywords: ionic

  7. Properties of a planar electric double layer under extreme conditions investigated by classical density functional theory and Monte Carlo simulations.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shiqi; Lamperski, Stanisław; Zydorczak, Maria

    2014-08-14

    Monte Carlo (MC) simulation and classical density functional theory (DFT) results are reported for the structural and electrostatic properties of a planar electric double layer containing ions having highly asymmetric diameters or valencies under extreme concentration condition. In the applied DFT, for the excess free energy contribution due to the hard sphere repulsion, a recently elaborated extended form of the fundamental measure functional is used, and coupling of Coulombic and short range hard-sphere repulsion is described by a traditional second-order functional perturbation expansion approximation. Comparison between the MC and DFT results indicates that validity interval of the traditional DFT approximation expands to high ion valences running up to 3 and size asymmetry high up to diameter ratio of 4 whether the high valence ions or the large size ion are co- or counter-ions; and to a high bulk electrolyte concentration being close to the upper limit of the electrolyte mole concentration the MC simulation can deal with well. The DFT accuracy dependence on the ion parameters can be self-consistently explained using arguments of liquid state theory, and new EDL phenomena such as overscreening effect due to monovalent counter-ions, extreme layering effect of counter-ions, and appearance of a depletion layer with almost no counter- and co-ions are observed.

  8. The effect of double--blind carbohydrate ingestion during 60 km of self-paced exercise in warm ambient conditions.

    PubMed

    Nassif, Camila; Gomes, Aline Regina; Peixoto, Gustavo H C; Chagas, Mauro Heleno; Soares, Danusa Dias; Silami-Garcia, Emerson; Drinkwater, Eric J; Cannon, Jack; Marino, Frank E

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated double blind ingestions of placebo (PLA) versus 6% carbohydrate (CHO) either as capsules (c) or beverage (b) during 60 km self-paced cycling in the heat (32°C and 50% relative humidity). Ten well-trained males (mean ± SD: 26±3 years; 64.5±7.7 kg and 70.7±8.8 ml.kg-1.min-1 maximal oxygen consumption) completed four separate 60 km time trials (TT) punctuated by 1 km sprints (14, 29, 44, 59 km) whilst ingesting either PLAb or PLAc or CHOb or CHOc. The TT was not different among treatments (PLAb 130.2±11.2 min, CHOb 140.5±18.1 min, PLAc 143.1±29.2 min, CHOc 137.3±20.1 min; P>0.05). Effect size (Cohen's d) for time was only moderate when comparing CHOb - PLAb (d = 0.68) and PLAb - PLAc (d = 0.57) whereas all other ES were 'trivial' to 'small'. Mean speed throughout the trial was significantly higher for PLAb only (P<0.05). Power output was only different (P<0.05) between the sprints and low intensity efforts within and across conditions. Core and mean skin temperatures were similar among trials. We conclude that CHO ingestion is of little or no benefit as a beverage compared with placebo during 60 km TT in the heat.

  9. Near-IR CO2 Bands in the Mesosphere and Their Effect for Doubled CO2 Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fomichev, V. I.

    2004-05-01

    Absorption of solar energy by the near-infrared (NIR) CO2 bands provides an essential source of heating in the mesosphere. Between 65 and 85 km, this source can exceed 1 K/day and contribute up to 30~% to the total solar heating. Calculation of the solar heating in the NIR CO2 bands requires consideration of complex non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) processes in the CO2 molecule. The relatively small energy effect and narrow altitudinal region of importance, as well as the necessity to consider complicated NLTE processes, have accounted for the absence of an adequate parameterization for the NIR CO2 bands up to now. Recently such a parameterization has been developed and implemented into the Canadian Middle Atmosphere Model (CMAM). To examine the role of the NIR CO2 bands in the mesospheric energetics, this model has been used in a series of multi-year experiments for conditions of perpetual July. Numerical experiments have shown that inclusion of the NIR CO2 heating results in a significant thermal response of up to 8 K in the mesosphere for the current CO2 amount but does not significantly change the model thermal response induced by doubling of CO2.

  10. Impact of ATG-containing reduced-intensity conditioning after single- or double-unit allogeneic cord blood transplantation.

    PubMed

    Pascal, Laurent; Tucunduva, Luciana; Ruggeri, Annalisa; Blaise, Didier; Ceballos, Patrice; Chevallier, Patrice; Cornelissen, Jan; Maillard, Natacha; Tabrizi, Reza; Petersen, Eefke; Linkesch, Werner; Sengeloev, Henrik; Kenzey, Chantal; Pagliuca, Antonio; Holler, Ernst; Einsele, Hermann; Gluckman, Eliane; Rocha, Vanderson; Yakoub-Agha, Ibrahim

    2015-08-20

    We analyzed 661 adult patients who underwent single-unit (n = 226) or double-unit (n = 435) unrelated cord blood transplantation (UCBT) following a reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) consisting of low-dose total body irradiation (TBI), cyclophosphamide, and fludarabine (Cy/Flu/TBI200). Eighty-two patients received rabbit antithymocyte globulin (ATG) as part of the conditioning regimen (ATG group), whereas 579 did not (non-ATG group). Median age at UCBT was 54 years, and diagnoses were acute leukemias (51%), myelodysplastic syndrome/myeloproliferative neoplasm (19%), and lymphoproliferative diseases (30%). Forty-four percent of patients were transplanted with advanced disease. All patients received ≥4 antigens HLA-matched UCBT. Median number of collected total nucleated cells was 4.4 × 10(7)/kg. In the ATG group, on 64 evaluable patients, ATG was discontinued 1 (n = 27), 2 (n = 20), or > 2 days before the graft infusion (n = 17). In multivariate analyses, the use of ATG was associated with decreased incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease (hazard ratio [HR], 0.31; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.17-0.55; P < .0001), higher incidence of nonrelapse mortality (HR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.16-2.43; P = .0009), and decreased overall survival (HR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.19-2.415; P = .003). Collectively, our results suggest that the use of ATG could be detrimental, especially if given too close to graft infusion in adults undergoing UCBT following Cy/Flu/TBI200 regimen.

  11. Crack growth behavior under creep-fatigue conditions using compact and double edge notch tension-compression specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narasimha Chary, Santosh Balaji

    The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) has recently developed a new standard for creep-fatigue crack growth testing, E 2760-10, that supports testing compact specimens, C(T), under load controlled conditions. C(T) specimens are commonly used for fatigue and creep-fatigue crack growth testing under constant-load-amplitude conditions. The use of these specimens is limited to positive load ratios. They are also limited in the amount of crack growth data that can be developed at high stress intensity values due to accumulation of plastic and/or creep strains leading to ratcheting in the specimen. Testing under displacement control can potentially address these shortcomings of the load-controlled tests for which the C(T) geometry is unsuitable. A double edge notch tension-compression, DEN(T-C), specimen to perform displacement controlled creep-fatigue crack growth testing is developed and optimized with the help of finite element and boundary element analyses. Accurate expressions for estimating the fracture mechanics crack tip parameters such as the stress intensity parameter, K, the crack mouth opening displacement (CMOD), and the load-line displacement (LLD) are developed over a wide range of crack sizes for the DEN(T-C) specimen. A new compliance relationship for use in experimental testing has been developed by using the compliance form available in ASTM E-647 standard. Experimentally determined compliance value compared well with the new relation for C15 steel (AISI 1015) and P91 steel tested at room and elevated temperature conditions respectively. Fatigue crack growth rate data generated using the DEN(T-C) specimens on the two metallic materials are in good agreement with the data generated using standard compact specimens; thus validating the stress-intensity factor and the compliance equation for the double edge notch tension-compression specimen. The testing has shown that the DEN(T-C) specimen is prone to crack asymmetry issues. Through

  12. Conditional cash transfers and the double burden of malnutrition among children in Colombia: a quasi-experimental study.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Arana, Sandra; Avendano, Mauricio; Forde, Ian; van Lenthe, Frank J; Burdorf, Alex

    2016-05-28

    Conditional cash-transfer (CCT) programmes have been shown to improve the nutritional and health status of children from poor families. However, CCT programmes may have unintended and not fully known consequences by increasing the risk of overweight and obesity. We examined the impact of Familias en Acción (FA), a large CCT programme in Colombia, on the double burden of malnutrition among pre-school and school-aged children. Height and weight were measured before programme enrolment and during follow-ups in 1290 children from thirty-one treatment municipalities, being compared with 1584 children from sixty-two matched control municipalities. We used a difference-in-differences approach to evaluate the effect of FA on children's stunting, BMI z-scores, thinness, overweight and obesity, controlling for individual and municipality-level confounders. At baseline, the prevalences of stunting and overweight were 30·3 and 15·4 %, respectively, in treatment municipalities and 27·9 and 17·4 % in control municipalities. FA was associated with reduced odds of thinness (OR 0·26; 95 % CI 0·09, 0·75) and higher BMI-for-age z-scores (BMI z-scores) (β 0·14; 95 % CI 0·00, 0·27; P<0·05), although the latter was of small clinical significance. The prevalence of stunting, overweight and obesity decreased over time, but the effect of FA on these outcomes was not significant. The CCT programme in Colombia reduced the odds of thinness, but had no effect on stunting, a more prevalent outcome. The FA programme had no effect on overweight or obesity, although BMI z-scores were higher for children under treatment, raising the possibility of an increase of small clinical significance on BMI among pre-school and school-aged children.

  13. Kanamycin ototoxicity in glutamate transporter knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Yoshitaka; Hakuba, Nobuhiro; Hyodo, Jun; Taniguchi, Masafumi; Gyo, Kiyofumi

    2005-06-03

    Glutamate-aspartate transporter (GLAST), a powerful glutamate uptake system, removes released glutamate from the synaptic cleft and facilitates the re-use of glutamate as a neurotransmitter recycling system. Aminoglycoside-induced hearing loss is mediated via a glutamate excitotoxic process. We investigated the effect of aminoglycoside ototoxicity in GLAST knockout mice using the recorded auditory brainstem response (ABR) and number of hair cells in the cochlea. Kanamycin (100 mg/mL) was injected directly into the posterior semicircular canal of mice. Before the kanamycin treatment, there was no difference in the ABR threshold average between the wild-type and knockout mice. Kanamycin injection aggravated the ABR threshold in the GLAST knockout mice compared with the wild-type mice, and the IHC degeneration was more severe in the GLAST knockout mice. These findings suggest that GLAST plays an important role in preventing the degeneration of inner hair cells in aminoglycoside ototoxicity.

  14. [Gene knockout and knockin on the Escherichia coli lac operon loci using pBR322-red system].

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Yu, Mei; Li, Shan-Hu; Wang, Ming-Gang; Zhou, Jian-Guang

    2005-03-01

    pBR322-Red is a newly constructed recombineering plasmid, which contains a part of the pBR322 vector, a series of regulatory elements of lambda-prophage and Red recombination genes. In the beginning, we studied the best working conditions of pBR322-Red, and then modified lac operon in E. coli W3110 chromosome using the plasmid as follow: Firstly, we knockout the lacI gene using Red-mediated recombineering with overlapping single stranded DNA oligonucleotides. Secondly, we substituded the lacA and lacY genes with lacZ, a report gene, by Red-mediated linearized double strands DNA homologous recombination. Finally, we detected the expression of lacZ on these loci for the first time. The results suggested that pBR322-Red system is suitable for modifying W3110 chromosome with various recombination strategies.

  15. Stability of salt double-fortified with ferrous fumarate and potassium iodate or iodide under storage and distribution conditions in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Oshinowo, Toks; Diosady, Levente; Yusufali, Rizwan; Laleye, Louis

    2004-09-01

    The stability of table salt double-fortified with iron as ferrous fumarate, and with iodine as potassium iodide or potassium iodate, has been investigated under actual field conditions of storage and distribution in the coastal and highland regions of Kenya. Seven 200-g sample packets of double-fortified salt in sealed polyethylene bags and a similar packet containing a datalogger for monitoring temperature and humidity were packaged with 21 sample bags of salt from another study into a bundle, which then entered the distribution network from a salt manufacturer's facility to the consumer. Iodine retention values of up to 90% or more were obtained during the three-month study. Double-fortified salt was prepared using ferrous fumarate microencapsulated with a combination of binders and coloring agents and coated with soy stearine, in combination with either iodated salt or salt iodized with potassium iodide microencapsulated with dextrin and coated with soy stearine. Most of the ferrous iron was retained, with less than 17% being oxidized to the ferric state. The polyethylene film overwrap of salt packs in the bundles provided significant protection from ambient humidity. Salt double-fortified with iodine and microencapsulated iron ferrous fumarate premix was generally quite stable, because both iodine and ferrous iron were protected during distribution and retail in typical tropical conditions in Kenya's highlands and humid lowlands.

  16. Hair-Cell Mechanotransduction Persists in TRP Channel Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Niksch, Paul D.; Webber, Roxanna M.; Garcia-Gonzalez, Miguel; Watnick, Terry; Zhou, Jing; Vollrath, Melissa A.; Corey, David P.

    2016-01-01

    Members of the TRP superfamily of ion channels mediate mechanosensation in some organisms, and have been suggested as candidates for the mechanotransduction channel in vertebrate hair cells. Some TRP channels can be ruled out based on lack of an inner ear phenotype in knockout animals or pore properties not similar to the hair-cell channel. Such studies have excluded Trpv4, Trpa1, Trpml3, Trpm1, Trpm3, Trpc1, Trpc3, Trpc5, and Trpc6. However, others remain reasonable candidates. We used data from an RNA-seq analysis of gene expression in hair cells as well as data on TRP channel conductance to narrow the candidate group. We then characterized mice lacking functional Trpm2, Pkd2, Pkd2l1, Pkd2l2 and Pkd1l3, using scanning electron microscopy, auditory brainstem response, permeant dye accumulation, and single-cell electrophysiology. In all of these TRP-deficient mice, and in double and triple knockouts, mechanotransduction persisted. Together with published studies, these results argue against the participation of any of the 33 mouse TRP channels in hair cell transduction. PMID:27196058

  17. Mas receptor deficiency is associated with worsening of lipid profile and severe hepatic steatosis in ApoE-knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Silva, Analina R; Aguilar, Edenil C; Alvarez-Leite, Jacqueline I; da Silva, Rafaela F; Arantes, Rosa M E; Bader, Michael; Alenina, Natalia; Pelli, Graziano; Lenglet, Sébastien; Galan, Katia; Montecucco, Fabrizio; Mach, François; Santos, Sérgio H S; Santos, Robson A S

    2013-12-01

    The classical renin-angiotensin system pathway has been recently updated with the identification of additional molecules [such as angiotensin converting enzyme 2, ANG-(1-7), and Mas receptor] that might improve some pathophysiological processes in chronic inflammatory diseases. In the present study, we focused on the potential protective role of Mas receptor activation on mouse lipid profile, liver steatosis, and atherogenesis. Mas/apolipoprotein E (ApoE)-double-knockout (DKO) mice (based on C57BL/6 strain of 20 wk of age) were fed under normal diet and compared with aged-matched Mas and ApoE-single-knockout (KO), as well as wild-type mice. Mas/ApoE double deficiency was associated with increased serum levels of atherogenic fractions of cholesterol, triglycerides, and fasting glucose compared with wild-type or single KO. Serum levels of HDL or leptin in DKO were lower than in other groups. Hepatic lipid content as well as alanine aminotransferase serum levels were increased in DKO compared with wild-type or single-KO animals. Accordingly, the hepatic protein content of mediators related to atherosclerotic inflammation, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α and liver X receptor, was altered in an adverse way in DKO compared with ApoE-KO. On the other hand, DKO mice did not display increased atherogenesis and intraplaque inflammation compared with ApoE-KO group. In conclusion, Mas deletion in ApoE-KO mice was associated with development of severe liver steatosis and dyslipidemia without affecting concomitant atherosclerosis. Mas receptor activation might represent promising strategies for future treatments targeting both hepatic and metabolic alterations in chronic conditions clustering these disorders.

  18. Human knockout research: new horizons and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Alkuraya, Fowzan S

    2015-02-01

    Although numerous approaches have been pursued to understand the function of human genes, Mendelian genetics has by far provided the most compelling and medically actionable dataset. Biallelic loss-of-function (LOF) mutations are observed in the majority of autosomal recessive Mendelian disorders, representing natural human knockouts and offering a unique opportunity to study the physiological and developmental context of these genes. The restriction of such context to 'disease' states is artificial, however, and the recent ability to survey entire human genomes for biallelic LOF mutations has revealed a surprising landscape of knockout events in 'healthy' individuals, sparking interest in their role in phenotypic diversity beyond disease causation. As I discuss in this review, the potentially wide implications of human knockout research warrant increased investment and multidisciplinary collaborations to overcome existing challenges and reap its benefits.

  19. Lie symmetry analysis of a double-diffusive free convective slip flow with a convective boundary condition past a radiating vertical surface embedded in a porous medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afify, A. A.; Uddin, Md. J.

    2016-09-01

    A numerical study of a steady two-dimensional double-diffusive free convection boundary layer flow over a vertical surface embedded in a porous medium with slip flow and convective boundary conditions, heat generation/absorption, and solar radiation effects is performed. A scaling group of transformations is used to obtain the governing boundary layer equations and the boundary conditions. The transformed equations are then solved by the fourth- and fifth-order Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg numerical method with Maple 13. The results for the velocity, temperature, and concentration profiles, as well as the skin friction coefficient, the Nusselt number, and the Sherwood number are presented and discussed.

  20. What do aquaporin knockout studies tell us about fluid transport in epithelia?

    PubMed

    Maclaren, Oliver J; Sneyd, James; Crampin, Edmund J

    2013-04-01

    The investigation of near-isosmotic water transport in epithelia goes back over 100 years; however, debates over mechanism and pathway remain. Aquaporin (AQP) knockouts have been used by various research groups to test the hypothesis of an osmotic mechanism as well as to explore the paracellular versus transcellular pathway debate. Nonproportional reductions in the water permeability of a water-transporting epithelial cell (e.g., a reduction of around 80-90 %) compared to the reduction in overall water transport rate in the knockout animal (e.g., a reduction of 50-60 %) are commonly found. This nonproportionality has led to controversy over whether AQP knockout studies support or contradict the osmotic mechanism. Arguments raised for and against an interpretation supporting the osmotic mechanism typically have partially specified, implicit, or incorrect assumptions. We present a simple mathematical model of the osmotic mechanism with clear assumptions and, for models based on this mechanism, establish a baseline prediction of AQP knockout studies. We allow for deviations from isotonic/isosmotic conditions and utilize dimensional analysis to reduce the number of parameters that must be considered independently. This enables a single prediction curve to be used for multiple epithelial systems. We find that a simple, transcellular-only osmotic mechanism sufficiently predicts the results of knockout studies and find criticisms of this mechanism to be overstated. We note, however, that AQP knockout studies do not give sufficient information to definitively rule out an additional paracellular pathway.

  1. What do aquaporin knockout studies tell us about fluid transport in epithelia?

    PubMed Central

    Maclaren, Oliver J; Sneyd, James; Crampin, Edmund J

    2013-01-01

    The investigation of near-isosmotic water transport in epithelia goes back over 100 years; however debates over mechanism and pathway still remain. Aquaporin (AQP) knockouts have been used by various research groups to test the hypothesis of an osmotic mechanism, as well as to explore the paracellular vs transcellular pathway debate. Non-proportional reductions in the water permeability of a water-transporting epithelial cell (e.g. a reduction of around 80–90%) compared to the reduction in overall water transport rate in the knockout animal (e.g. a reduction of 50–60%) are commonly found. This non-proportionality has led to controversy over whether AQP knockout studies support or contradict the osmotic mechanism. Arguments raised for and against an interpretation supporting the osmotic mechanism typically have partially-specified, implicit or incorrect assumptions. We present a simple mathematical model of the osmotic mechanism with clear assumptions and, for models based on this mechanism, establish a baseline prediction of AQP knockout studies. We allow for deviations from isotonic/isosmotic conditions and utilize dimensional analysis to reduce the number of parameters that must be considered independently. This enables a single prediction curve to be used for multiple epithelial systems. We find that a simple, transcellular-only osmotic mechanism sufficiently predicts the results of knockout studies and find criticisms of this mechanism to be overstated. We note, however, that AQP knockout studies do not give sufficient information to definitively rule out an additional paracellular pathway. PMID:23430220

  2. Proton Knock-Out in Hall A

    SciTech Connect

    Kees de Jager

    2002-06-01

    Proton knock-out is studied in a broad program in Hall A at Jefferson Lab. The first experiment performed in Hall A studied the {sup 16}O(e,e'p) reaction. Since then proton knock-out experiments have studied a variety of aspects of that reaction, from single-nucleon properties to its mechanism, such as final-state interactions and two-body currents, in nuclei from {sup 2}H to {sup 16}O. In this review the results of this program will be summarized and an outlook given of future accomplishments.

  3. [Double responses].

    PubMed

    Motté, G; Dinanian, S; Sebag, C; Drieu, L; Slama, M

    1995-12-01

    Double response is a rare electrocardiographic phenomenon requiring two atrioventricular conduction pathways with very different electrophysiological properties. Double ventricular responses are the usual manifestation: an atrial depolarisation (spontaneous or provoked, anticipated or not) is followed by a first ventricular response dependent on an accessory pathway or a rapid nodal pathway and then a second response resulting from sufficiently delayed transmission through a nodal pathway for the ventricles to have recovered their excitability when the second wave of activation reaches them. A simple curiosity when isolated and occurring under unusual conditions, particularly during electrophysiological investigation of the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, the double response may initiate symptomatic non-reentrant junctional tachycardia when associated with nodal duality and repeating from atria in sinus rhythm. The functional incapacity and resistance to antiarrhythmic therapy may require referral for ablation of the slow pathway.

  4. Ultra-superovulation for the CRISPR-Cas9-mediated production of gene-knockout, single-amino-acid-substituted, and floxed mice.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Yoshiko; Sakuma, Tetsushi; Nishimichi, Norihisa; Yokosaki, Yasuyuki; Yanaka, Noriyuki; Takeo, Toru; Nakagata, Naomi; Yamamoto, Takashi

    2016-08-15

    Current advances in producing genetically modified mice using genome-editing technologies have indicated the need for improvement of limiting factors including zygote collection for microinjection and their cryopreservation. Recently, we developed a novel superovulation technique using inhibin antiserum and equine chorionic gonadotropin to promote follicle growth. This method enabled the increased production of fertilized oocytes via in vitro fertilization compared with the conventional superovulation method. Here, we verify that the ultra-superovulation technique can be used for the efficient generation of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9)-mediated knockout mice by microinjection of plasmid vector or ribonucleoprotein into zygotes. We also investigated whether single-amino-acid-substituted mice and conditional knockout mice could be generated. Founder mice bearing base substitutions were generated more efficiently by co-microinjection of Cas9 protein, a guide RNA and single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotide (ssODN) than by plasmid microinjection with ssODN. The conditional allele was successfully introduced by the one-step insertion of an ssODN designed to carry an exon flanked by two loxP sequences and homology arms using a double-cut CRISPR-Cas9 strategy. Our study presents a useful method for the CRISPR-Cas9-based generation of genetically modified mice from the viewpoints of animal welfare and work efficiency.

  5. Roles of hippocampal GABA(A) and muscarinic receptors in consolidation of context memory and context-shock association in contextual fear conditioning: a double dissociation study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shih-Dar; Liang, K C

    2012-07-01

    Contextual fear conditioning involves forming a context representation and associating it to a shock, both of which involved the dorsal hippocampus (DH) according to our recent findings. This study tested further whether the two processes may rely on different neurotransmitter systems in the DH. Male Wistar rats with cannula implanted into the DH were subjected to a two-phase training paradigm of contextual fear conditioning to separate context learning from context-shock association in two consecutive days. Immediately after each training phase, different groups of rats received bilateral intra-DH infusion of the GABA(A) agonist muscimol, 5HT(1A) agonist 8-OH-DPAT, NMDA antagonist APV or muscarinic antagonist scopolamine at various doses. On the third day, freezing behavior was tested in the conditioning context. Results showed that intra-DH infusion of muscimol impaired conditioned freezing only if it was given after context learning. In contrast, scopolamine impaired conditioned freezing only if it was given after context-shock training. Posttraining infusion of 8-OH-DPAT or APV had no effect on conditioned freezing when the drug was given at either phase. These results showed double dissociation for the hippocampal GABAergic and cholinergic systems in memory consolidation of contextual fear conditioning: forming context memory required deactivation of the GABA(A) receptors, while forming context-shock memory involved activation of the muscarinic receptors.

  6. Brain penetration of WEB 2086 (Apafant) and dantrolene in Mdr1a (P-glycoprotein) and Bcrp knockout rats.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Holger; Kishimoto, Wataru; Gansser, Dietmar; Tanswell, Paul; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2014-10-01

    Transporter gene knockout rat models are attracting increasing interest for mechanistic studies of new drugs as transporter substrates or inhibitors in vivo. However, limited data are available on the functional validity of such models at the blood-brain barrier. Therefore, the present study evaluated Mdr1a [P-glycoprotein (P-gp)], Bcrp, and combined Mdr1a/Bcrp knockout rat strains for the influence of P-gp and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) transport proteins on brain penetration of the selective test substrates [(14)C]WEB 2086 (3-[4-(2-chlorophenyl)-9-methyl-6H-thieno[3,2-f][1,2,4]triazolo-[4,3-a][1,4]-diazepin-2-yl]-1-(4-morpholinyl)-1-propanon) for P-gp and dantrolene for BCRP. Brain-to-plasma concentration ratios (BPR) were measured after intravenous coinfusions of 5.5 µmol/kg per hour [(14)C]WEB 2086 and 2 µmol/kg per hour dantrolene for 2 hours in groups of knockout or wild-type rats. Compared with wild-type controls, mean BPR of [(14)C]WEB 2086 increased 8-fold in Mdr1a knockouts, 9.5-fold in double Mdr1a/Bcrp knockouts, and 7.3-fold in zosuquidar-treated wild-type rats, but was unchanged in Bcrp knockout rats. Mean BPR of dantrolene increased 3.3-fold in Bcrp knockouts and 3.9-fold in double Mdr1a/Bcrp knockouts compared with wild type, but was unchanged in the Mdr1a knockouts. The human intestinal CaCo-2 cell bidirectional transport system in vitro confirmed the in vivo finding that [(14)C]WEB 2086 is a substrate of P-gp but not of BCRP. Therefore, Mdr1a, Bcrp, and combined Mdr1a/Bcrp knockout rats provide functional absence of these efflux transporters at the blood-brain barrier and are a suitable model for mechanistic studies on the brain penetration of drug candidates.

  7. Simultaneous paralogue knockout using a CRISPR-concatemer in mouse small intestinal organoids.

    PubMed

    Andersson-Rolf, Amanda; Merenda, Alessandra; Mustata, Roxana C; Li, Taibo; Dietmann, Sabine; Koo, Bon-Kyoung

    2016-10-27

    Approaches based on genetic modification have been invaluable for investigating a wide array of biological processes, with gain- and loss-of-function approaches frequently used to investigate gene function. However, the presence of paralogues, and hence possible genetic compensation, for many genes necessitates the knockout (KO) of all paralogous genes in order to observe clear phenotypic change. CRISPR technology, the most recently described tool for gene editing, can generate KOs with unprecedented ease and speed and has been used in adult stem cell-derived organoids for single gene knockout, gene knock-in and gene correction. However, the simultaneous targeting of multiple genes in organoids by CRISPR technology has not previously been described. Here we describe a rapid, scalable and cost effective method for generating double knockouts in organoids. By concatemerizing multiple gRNA expression cassettes, we generated a 'gRNA concatemer vector'. Our method allows the rapid assembly of annealed synthetic DNA oligos into the final vector in a single step. This approach facilitates simultaneous delivery of multiple gRNAs to allow up to 4 gene KO in one step, or potentially to increase the efficiency of gene knockout by providing multiple gRNAs targeting one gene. As a proof of concept, we knocked out negative regulators of the Wnt pathway in small intestinal organoids, thereby removing their growth dependence on the exogenous Wnt enhancer, R-spondin1.

  8. Knockout of Endothelial Cell-Derived Endothelin-1 Attenuates Skin Fibrosis but Accelerates Cutaneous Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Makino, Katsunari; Jinnin, Masatoshi; Aoi, Jun; Kajihara, Ikko; Makino, Takamitsu; Fukushima, Satoshi; Sakai, Keisuke; Nakayama, Kazuhiko; Emoto, Noriaki; Yanagisawa, Masashi; Ihn, Hironobu

    2014-01-01

    Endothelin (ET)-1 is known for the most potent vasoconstrictive peptide that is released mainly from endothelial cells. Several studies have reported ET-1 signaling is involved in the process of wound healing or fibrosis as well as vasodilation. However, little is known about the role of ET-1 in these processes. To clarify its mechanism, we compared skin fibrogenesis and wound repair between vascular endothelial cell-specific ET-1 knockout mice and their wild-type littermates. Bleomycin-injected fibrotic skin of the knockout mice showed significantly decreased skin thickness and collagen content compared to that of wild-type mice, indicating that bleomycin-induced skin fibrosis is attenuated in the knockout mice. The mRNA levels of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β were decreased in the bleomycin-treated skin of ET-1 knockout mice. On the other hand, skin wound healing was accelerated in ET-1 knockout mice, which was indicated by earlier granulation tissue reduction and re-epithelialization in these mice. The mRNA levels of TGF-β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) were reduced in the wound of ET-1 knockout mice. In endothelial ET-1 knockout mouse, the expression of TNF-α, CTGF and TGF-β was down-regulated. Bosentan, an antagonist of dual ET receptors, is known to attenuate skin fibrosis and accelerate wound healing in systemic sclerosis, and such contradictory effect may be mediated by above molecules. The endothelial cell-derived ET-1 is the potent therapeutic target in fibrosis or wound healing, and investigations of the overall regulatory mechanisms of these pathological conditions by ET-1 may lead to a new therapeutic approach. PMID:24853267

  9. Characterization of Kidney and Skeleton Phenotypes of Mice Double Heterozygous for Foxc1 and Foxc2.

    PubMed

    Motojima, Masaru; Tanimoto, Sho; Ohtsuka, Masato; Matsusaka, Taiji; Kume, Tsutomu; Abe, Koichiro

    2016-01-01

    Foxc1 and Foxc2 play key roles in mouse development. Foxc1 mutant mice develop duplex kidneys with double ureters, and lack calvarial and sternal bones. Foxc2 null mice have been reported to have glomerular abnormalities in the kidney and axial skeletal anomalies. Expression patterns of Foxc1 and Foxc2 overlap extensively and are believed to have interactive roles. However, cooperative roles of these factors in glomerular and skeletal development are unknown. Therefore, we examined the kidneys and skeleton of mice that were double heterozygous for Foxc1 and Foxc2. Double heterozygotes were generated by mating single heterozygotes for Foxc1 and Foxc2. Newborn double heterozygous mice showed many anomalies in the kidney and urinary tract resembling Foxc1 phenotypes, including duplex kidneys, double ureters, hydronephrosis and mega-ureter. Some mice had hydronephrosis alone. In addition to these macroscopic anomalies, some mice had abnormal glomeruli and disorganized glomerular capillaries observed in Foxc2 phenotypes. Interestingly, these mice also showed glomerular cysts not observed in the single-gene knockout of either Foxc1 or Foxc2 but observed in conditional knockout of Foxc2 in the kidney. Serial section analysis revealed that all cystic glomeruli were connected to proximal tubules, precluding the possibility of atubular glomeruli resulting in cyst formation. Dorsally opened vertebral arches and malformations of sternal bones in the double heterozygotes were phenotypes similar to Foxc1 null mice. Absent or split vertebral bodies in the double heterozygotes were phenotypes similar to Foxc2 null mice, whilst hydrocephalus noted in the Foxc1 phenotype was not observed. Thus, Foxc1 and Foxc2 have a role in kidney and axial skeleton development. These transcription factors might interact in the regulation of the embryogenesis of these organs.

  10. Knockout mouse production assisted by Blm knockdown

    PubMed Central

    FUKUDA, Mikiko; INOUE, Mayuko; MURAMATSU, Daisuke; MIYACHI, Hitoshi; SHINKAI, Yoichi

    2015-01-01

    Production of knockout mice using targeted embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is a powerful approach for investigating the function of specific genes in vivo. Although the protocol for gene targeting via homologous recombination (HR) in ESCs is already well established, the targeting efficiency varies at different target loci and is sometimes too low. It is known that knockdown of the Bloom syndrome gene, BLM, enhances HR-mediated gene targeting efficiencies in various cell lines. However, it has not yet been investigated whether this approach in ESCs is applicable for successful knockout mouse production. Therefore, we attempted to answer this question. Consistent with previous reports, Blm knockdown enhanced gene targeting efficiencies for three gene loci that we examined by 2.3–4.1-fold. Furthermore, the targeted ESC clones generated good chimeras and were successful in germline transmission. These data suggest that Blm knockdown provides a general benefit for efficient ESC-based and HR-mediated knockout mouse production. PMID:26598326

  11. Heat shock response: lessons from mouse knockouts.

    PubMed

    Christians, E S; Benjamin, I J

    2006-01-01

    Organisms are endowed with integrated regulatory networks that transduce and amplify incoming signals into effective responses, ultimately imparting cell death and/or survival pathways. As a conserved cytoprotective mechanism from bacteria to humans, the heat shock response has been established as a paradigm for inducible gene expression, stimulating the interests of biologists and clinicians alike to tackle fundamental questions related to the molecular switches, lineage-specific requirements, unique and/or redundant roles, and even efforts to harness the response therapeutically. Gene targeting studies in mice confirm HSF1 as a master regulator required for cell growth, embryonic development, and reproduction. For example, sterility of Hsf1-null female but not null male mice established strict requirements for maternal HSF1 expression in the oocyte. Yet Hsf2 knockouts by three independent laboratories have not fully clarified the role of mammalian HSF2 for normal development, fertility, and postnatal neuronal function. In contrast, Hsf4 knockouts have provided a consistent demonstration for HSF4's critical role during lens formation. In the future, molecular analysis of HSF knockout mice will bring new insights to HSF interactions, foster better understanding of gene regulation at the genome level, lead to a better integration of the HSF pathway in life beyond heat shock, the classical laboratory challenge.

  12. Conditional Estrogen Receptor Knockout Mouse Model for Studying Mammary Tumorigenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    8217 ends of the genomic DNA insert. We then compared this DNA sequence with the Celera gene bank using the BLAST software and found 97% sequence ...accuracy by restriction enzyme analysis and DNA sequencing (fig 3). The complete sequence of the 12.6 kb "targeting construct’ was sequenced from 5’ and 3...reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing this collection of

  13. Deep Neuromuscular Block Improves Surgical Conditions during Bariatric Surgery and Reduces Postoperative Pain: A Randomized Double Blind Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Torensma, Bart; Martini, Chris H.; Boon, Martijn; Olofsen, Erik; in ‘t Veld, Bas; Liem, Ronald S. L.; Knook, Mireille T. T.; Swank, Dingeman J.; Dahan, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Background It remains unknown whether the administration of a deep neuromuscular block (NMB) during bariatric surgery improves surgical conditions and patient outcome. The authors studied the effect of deep versus moderate NMB in laparoscopic bariatric surgery on surgical conditions and postoperative pain. Methods and Results One hundred patients scheduled to undergo elective bariatric surgery were randomized to a deep NMB (post-tetanic-count 2–3) or a moderate NMB (train-of-four 1–2). The quality of the surgical field was scored using the Leiden-Surgical Rating Scale (L-SRS), a 5-point scale ranging from 1 (extremely poor conditions) to 5 (optimal conditions). Three surgeons scored the L-SRS at 10-min intervals during surgery; postoperative pain scores were obtained in the postanesthesia-care-unit (PACU) and on the ward. Mean (95% confidence interval) L-SRS scores in moderate NMB 4.2 (4.0–4.4) versus 4.8 (4.7–4.9) in deep NMB (p < 0.001). Moderate NMB resulted in 17% of scores at L-SRS scores of 1–3, while deep NMB resulted in 100% scores at the high end of the L-SRS (4–5). Deep NMB led to improved pain scores in the PACU (4.6 (4.2–4.9) versus 3.9 (3.6–4.4), p = 0.03) and reduced shoulder pain on the ward (1.8 (1.5–2.1) versus 1.3 (1.1–1.5), p = 0.03). A composite score of pain and opioid use in the PACU favoured deep NMB (p = 0.001). Conclusions In bariatric surgery, deep relaxation has advantages for surgeon and patient. Compared to moderate NMB, deep NMB produced stable and improved surgical conditions with less postoperative pain. PMID:27936214

  14. Generation of knockout rabbits using transcription activator-like effector nucleases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Fan, Nana; Song, Jun; Zhong, Juan; Guo, Xiaogang; Tian, Weihua; Zhang, Quanjun; Cui, Fenggong; Li, Li; Newsome, Philip N; Frampton, Jon; Esteban, Miguel A; Lai, Liangxue

    2014-01-01

    Zinc-finger nucleases and transcription activator-like effector nucleases are novel gene-editing platforms contributing to redefine the boundaries of modern biological research. They are composed of a non-specific cleavage domain and a tailor made DNA-binding module, which enables a broad range of genetic modifications by inducing efficient DNA double-strand breaks at desired loci. Among other remarkable uses, these nucleases have been employed to produce gene knockouts in mid-size and large animals, such as rabbits and pigs, respectively. This approach is cost effective, relatively quick, and can produce invaluable models for human disease studies, biotechnology or agricultural purposes. Here we describe a protocol for the efficient generation of knockout rabbits using transcription activator-like effector nucleases, and a perspective of the field.

  15. Nitrate turnover in a peat soil under drained and rewetted conditions: results from a [(15)N]nitrate-bromide double-tracer study.

    PubMed

    Russow, Rolf; Tauchnitz, Nadine; Spott, Oliver; Mothes, Sibylle; Bernsdorf, Sabine; Meissner, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    Under natural conditions, peatlands are generally nitrate-limited. However, recent concerns about an additional N input into peatlands by atmospheric N deposition have highlighted the risk of an increased denitrification activity and hence the likelihood of a rise of emissions of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the turnover of added nitrate in a drained and a rewetted peatland using a [(15)N]nitrate-bromide double-tracer method. The double-tracer method allows a separation between physical effects (dilution, dispersion and dislocation) and microbial and chemical nitrate transformation by comparing with the conservative Br(-) tracer. In the drained peat site, low NO3(-) consumption rates have been observed. In contrast, NO3(-) consumption at the rewetted peat site rises rapidly to about 100% within 4 days after tracer application. Concomitantly, the (15)N abundances of nitrite and ammonium in soil water increased and lead to the conclusion that, besides commonly known NO3(-) reduction to nitrite (i.e. denitrification), a dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium has simultaneously taken place. The present study reveals that increasing NO3(-) inputs into rewetted peatlands via atmospheric deposition results in a rapid NO3(-) consumption, which could lead to an increase in N2O emissions into the atmosphere.

  16. Double Diffusive Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Mixed Convective Slip Flow along a Radiating Moving Vertical Flat Plate with Convective Boundary Condition

    PubMed Central

    Rashidi, Mohammad M.; Kavyani, Neda; Abelman, Shirley; Uddin, Mohammed J.; Freidoonimehr, Navid

    2014-01-01

    In this study combined heat and mass transfer by mixed convective flow along a moving vertical flat plate with hydrodynamic slip and thermal convective boundary condition is investigated. Using similarity variables, the governing nonlinear partial differential equations are converted into a system of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The transformed equations are then solved using a semi-numerical/analytical method called the differential transform method and results are compared with numerical results. Close agreement is found between the present method and the numerical method. Effects of the controlling parameters, including convective heat transfer, magnetic field, buoyancy ratio, hydrodynamic slip, mixed convective, Prandtl number and Schmidt number are investigated on the dimensionless velocity, temperature and concentration profiles. In addition effects of different parameters on the skin friction factor, , local Nusselt number, , and local Sherwood number are shown and explained through tables. PMID:25343360

  17. Double diffusive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) mixed convective slip flow along a radiating moving vertical flat plate with convective boundary condition.

    PubMed

    Rashidi, Mohammad M; Kavyani, Neda; Abelman, Shirley; Uddin, Mohammed J; Freidoonimehr, Navid

    2014-01-01

    In this study combined heat and mass transfer by mixed convective flow along a moving vertical flat plate with hydrodynamic slip and thermal convective boundary condition is investigated. Using similarity variables, the governing nonlinear partial differential equations are converted into a system of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The transformed equations are then solved using a semi-numerical/analytical method called the differential transform method and results are compared with numerical results. Close agreement is found between the present method and the numerical method. Effects of the controlling parameters, including convective heat transfer, magnetic field, buoyancy ratio, hydrodynamic slip, mixed convective, Prandtl number and Schmidt number are investigated on the dimensionless velocity, temperature and concentration profiles. In addition effects of different parameters on the skin friction factor, [Formula: see text], local Nusselt number, [Formula: see text], and local Sherwood number [Formula: see text] are shown and explained through tables.

  18. Universal statistics of the knockout tournament

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Seung Ki; Yi, Il Gu; Park, Hye Jin; Kim, Beom Jun

    2013-11-01

    We study statistics of the knockout tournament, where only the winner of a fixture progresses to the next. We assign a real number called competitiveness to each contestant and find that the resulting distribution of prize money follows a power law with an exponent close to unity if the competitiveness is a stable quantity and a decisive factor to win a match. Otherwise, the distribution is found narrow. The existing observation of power law distributions in various kinds of real sports tournaments therefore suggests that the rules of those games are constructed in such a way that it is possible to understand the games in terms of the contestants' inherent characteristics of competitiveness.

  19. Universal statistics of the knockout tournament.

    PubMed

    Baek, Seung Ki; Yi, Il Gu; Park, Hye Jin; Kim, Beom Jun

    2013-11-12

    We study statistics of the knockout tournament, where only the winner of a fixture progresses to the next. We assign a real number called competitiveness to each contestant and find that the resulting distribution of prize money follows a power law with an exponent close to unity if the competitiveness is a stable quantity and a decisive factor to win a match. Otherwise, the distribution is found narrow. The existing observation of power law distributions in various kinds of real sports tournaments therefore suggests that the rules of those games are constructed in such a way that it is possible to understand the games in terms of the contestants' inherent characteristics of competitiveness.

  20. The butyrylcholinesterase knockout mouse a research tool in the study of drug sensitivity, bio-distribution, obesity and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Duysen, Ellen G; Li, Bin; Lockridge, Oksana

    2009-05-01

    Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) mutations common in the human population may result in complete or partial BChE deficiency, making the BChE knockout (KO) mouse a model for human deficiencies. The BChE KO mouse cannot tolerate standard doses of the muscle relaxant succinylcholine or the Alzheimer's disease drugs huperzine A and donepezil. It is resistant to the asthma drug bambuterol. The importance of BChE in detoxication of cocaine has been demonstrated by hepatotoxicity and cardiotoxicity in cocaine-challenged BChE KO mice. The BChE KO mouse becomes obese on a high-fat diet, suggesting a role for BChE in fat metabolism. BChE serves as a backup for acetylcholinesterase by hydrolyzing the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in acetylcholinesterase knockout mice. Imaging studies show that BChE injected intrathecally crosses the blood-brain barrier. Mice, but not humans, have carboxylesterase in their blood. Carboxylesterase obscures the role of BChE in detoxication of organophosphorus pesticides. Future studies will make a double knockout that has neither BChE nor carboxylesterase. The double knockout is expected to be unusually sensitive to the toxicity of organophosphorus pesticides. Knowledge of drug sensitivities in the mouse model of human BChE deficiency will aid in understanding adverse drug effects in humans.

  1. Altered Reward Circuitry in the Norepinephrine Transporter Knockout Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Hall, F. Scott; Uhl, George R.; Bearer, Elaine L.; Jacobs, Russell E.

    2013-01-01

    Synaptic levels of the monoamine neurotransmitters dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine are modulated by their respective plasma membrane transporters, albeit with a few exceptions. Monoamine transporters remove monoamines from the synaptic cleft and thus influence the degree and duration of signaling. Abnormal concentrations of these neuronal transmitters are implicated in a number of neurological and psychiatric disorders, including addiction, depression, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. This work concentrates on the norepinephrine transporter (NET), using a battery of in vivo magnetic resonance imaging techniques and histological correlates to probe the effects of genetic deletion of the norepinephrine transporter on brain metabolism, anatomy and functional connectivity. MRS recorded in the striatum of NET knockout mice indicated a lower concentration of NAA that correlates with histological observations of subtle dysmorphisms in the striatum and internal capsule. As with DAT and SERT knockout mice, we detected minimal structural alterations in NET knockout mice by tensor-based morphometric analysis. In contrast, longitudinal imaging after stereotaxic prefrontal cortical injection of manganese, an established neuronal circuitry tracer, revealed that the reward circuit in the NET knockout mouse is biased toward anterior portions of the brain. This is similar to previous results observed for the dopamine transporter (DAT) knockout mouse, but dissimilar from work with serotonin transporter (SERT) knockout mice where Mn2+ tracings extended to more posterior structures than in wildtype animals. These observations correlate with behavioral studies indicating that SERT knockout mice display anxiety-like phenotypes, while NET knockouts and to a lesser extent DAT knockout mice display antidepressant-like phenotypic features. Thus, the mainly anterior activity detected with manganese-enhanced MRI in the DAT and NET knockout mice is likely indicative of

  2. [Preliminary exploration on knockout drops (Meng Han Agents)].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z

    1996-05-01

    This author points out, based on relevant materials, that knockout drops were vertigo powder. Due to homophonic reasons in Chinese language, the term "mingxuan" was transliterated into the former Chinese term (menghan). Knockout drops for medicinal use were merely made up of compound recipes containing stramonium flowers. The knockout drops in old fictions and opera books were powder of stramonium flower. The ingredients and application of such recipes are discussed here, the anti-remedies for such recipes are also mentioned.

  3. Repetitive grooming and sensorimotor abnormalities in an ephrin-A knockout model for Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Wurzman, Rachel; Forcelli, Patrick A; Griffey, Christopher J; Kromer, Lawrence F

    2015-02-01

    EphA receptors and ephrin-A ligands play important roles in neural development and synaptic plasticity in brain regions where expression persists into adulthood. Recently, EPHA3 and EPHA7 gene mutations were linked with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) and developmental neurological delays, respectively. Furthermore, deletions of ephrin-A2 or ephrin-A3, which exhibit high binding affinity for EphA3 and EphA7 receptors, are associated with subtle deficits in learning and memory behavior and abnormalities in dendritic spine morphology in the cortex and hippocampus in mice. To better characterize a potential role for these ligands in ASDs, we performed a comprehensive behavioral characterization of anxiety-like, sensorimotor, learning, and social behaviors in ephrin-A2/-A3 double knockout (DKO) mice. The predominant phenotype in DKO mice was repetitive and self-injurious grooming behaviors such as have been associated with corticostriatal circuit abnormalities in other rodent models of neuropsychiatric disorders. Consistent with ASDs specifically, DKO mice exhibited decreased preference for social interaction in the social approach assay, decreased locomotor activity in the open field, increased prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle, and a shift towards self-directed activity (e.g., grooming) in novel environments, such as marble burying. Although there were no gross deficits in cognitive assays, subtle differences in performance on fear conditioning and in the Morris water maze resembled traits observed in other rodent models of ASD. We therefore conclude that ephrin-A2/-A3 DKO mice have utility as a novel ASD model with an emphasis on sensory abnormalities and restricted, repetitive behavioral symptoms.

  4. The effect of dietary intake of coenzyme Q10 on skin parameters and condition: Results of a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Žmitek, Katja; Pogačnik, Tina; Mervic, Liljana; Žmitek, Janko; Pravst, Igor

    2017-01-02

    Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a natural constituent of foods and is also often used in both functional foods and supplements. In addition, it is a common ingredient of cosmetics where it is believed to reduce the signs of skin ageing. However, the existing data about the effect of dietary intake of CoQ10 on skin parameters and condition are scarce. To gain an insight into this issue, we conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled experiment with 33 healthy subjects. Our objective was to investigate the effects of 12 weeks of daily supplementation with 50 and 150 mg of CoQ10 on skin parameters and condition. Study was conducted with a water-soluble form of CoQ10 with superior bioavailability (Q10Vital(®) ). While the results of some previous in vitro studies showed possible protection in UVB response, we did not observe significant changes in the minimal erythema dose (MED). On the other hand, the intake of CoQ10 limited seasonal deterioration of viscoelasticity and reduced some visible signs of ageing. We determined significantly reduced wrinkles and microrelief lines, and improved skin smoothness. Supplementation with CoQ10 did not significantly affect skin hydration and dermis thickness. © 2016 BioFactors, 43(1):132-140, 2017.

  5. Effects of dynamic diffraction conditions on magnetic parameter determination in a double perovskite Sr2FeMoO6 using electron energy-loss magnetic chiral dichroism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Z C; Zhong, X Y; Jin, L; Chen, X F; Moritomo, Y; Mayer, J

    2016-12-30

    Electron energy-loss magnetic chiral dichroism (EMCD) spectroscopy, which is similar to the well-established X-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy (XMCD), can determine the quantitative magnetic parameters of materials with high spatial resolution. One of the major obstacles in quantitative analysis using the EMCD technique is the relatively poor signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), compared to XMCD. Here, in the example of a double perovskite Sr2FeMoO6, we predicted the optimal dynamical diffraction conditions such as sample thickness, crystallographic orientation and detection aperture position by theoretical simulations. By using the optimized conditions, we showed that the SNR of experimental EMCD spectra can be significantly improved and the error of quantitative magnetic parameter determined by EMCD technique can be remarkably lowered. Our results demonstrate that, with enhanced SNR, the EMCD technique can be a unique tool to understand the structure-property relationship of magnetic materials particularly in the high-density magnetic recording and spintronic devices by quantitatively determining magnetic structure and properties at the nanometer scale.

  6. Alternative donor transplantation after reduced intensity conditioning: results of parallel phase 2 trials using partially HLA-mismatched related bone marrow or unrelated double umbilical cord blood grafts

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Shelly L.; Karanes, Chatchada; Costa, Luciano J.; Wu, Juan; Devine, Steven M.; Wingard, John R.; Aljitawi, Omar S.; Cutler, Corey S.; Jagasia, Madan H.; Ballen, Karen K.; Eapen, Mary; O'Donnell, Paul V.

    2011-01-01

    The Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network conducted 2 parallel multicenter phase 2 trials for individuals with leukemia or lymphoma and no suitable related donor. Reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) was used with either unrelated double umbilical cord blood (dUCB) or HLA-haploidentical related donor bone marrow (Haplo-marrow) transplantation. For both trials, the transplantation conditioning regimen incorporated cyclophosphamide, fludarabine, and 200 cGy of total body irradiation. The 1-year probabilities of overall and progression-free survival were 54% and 46%, respectively, after dUCB transplantation (n = 50) and 62% and 48%, respectively, after Haplo-marrow transplantation (n = 50). The day +56 cumulative incidence of neutrophil recovery was 94% after dUCB and 96% after Haplo-marrow transplantation. The 100-day cumulative incidence of grade II-IV acute GVHD was 40% after dUCB and 32% after Haplo-marrow transplantation. The 1-year cumulative incidences of nonrelapse mortality and relapse after dUCB transplantation were 24% and 31%, respectively, with corresponding results of 7% and 45%, respectively, after Haplo-marrow transplantation. These multicenter studies confirm the utility of dUCB and Haplo-marrow as alternative donor sources and set the stage for a multicenter randomized clinical trial to assess the relative efficacy of these 2 strategies. The trials are registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov under NCT00864227 (BMT CTN 0604) and NCT00849147 (BMT CTN 0603). PMID:21527516

  7. Effect of fuel zoning and fuel nozzle design on pollution emissions at ground idle conditions for a double-annular ram-induction combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clements, T. R.

    1973-01-01

    An exhaust emission survey was conducted on a double-annular ram induction combustor at simulated ground idle conditions. The combustor was designed for a large augmented turbofan engine capable of sustained flight speeds up to Mach 3.0. The emission levels of total hydrocarbon (THC), carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and nitric oxide were measured. The effects of fuel zoning, fuel nozzle design, and operating conditions (inlet temperature and reference Mach number) on the level of these emissions were determined. At an overall combustor fuel/air ratio of 0.007, fuel zoning reduced THC emissions by a factor of 5 to 1. The reduction in THC emissions is attributed to the increase in local fuel/air ratio provided by the fuel zoning. An alternative method of increasing fuel/air ratio would be to operate with larger-than-normal compressor overboard bleed; however, analysis on this method indicated an increase in idle fuel consumption of 20 percent. The use of air-atomizing nozzles reduced the THC emissions by 2 to 1.

  8. Memory, double, shadow, and evil.

    PubMed

    McNamara, P

    1994-04-01

    In order to examine shadow dynamics the author explores the phenomenology and mythological associations of the 'double' or Doppelgänger. Current Jungian-inspired theories concerning relations of shadow and double are found to be limited because they do not explain (1) the process of personification of the psychic complex which gives rise to the double, (2) the immediate conditions under which doubling occurs, (3) the conditions which lead to the assignment of evil qualities to the double as shadow. The paper seeks to remedy each of the above limitations by redescribing shadow/double phenomena in terms of autonomous memory phenomena, both personal and trans-personal.

  9. Oxytocin and behavior: Lessons from knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Heather K; Aulino, Elizabeth A; Freeman, Angela R; Miller, Travis V; Witchey, Shannah K

    2017-02-01

    It is well established that the nonapeptide oxytocin (Oxt) is important for the neural modulation of behaviors in many mammalian species. Since its discovery in 1906 and synthesis in the early 1950s, elegant pharmacological work has helped identify specific neural substrates on which Oxt exerts its effects. More recently, mice with targeted genetic disruptions of the Oxt system-i.e., both the peptide and its receptor (the Oxtr)-have further defined Oxt's actions and laid some important scientific groundwork for studies in other species. In this article, we highlight the scientific contributions that various mouse knockouts of the Oxt system have made to our understanding of Oxt's modulation of behavior. We specifically focus on how the use of these mice has shed light on our understanding of social recognition memory, maternal behavior, aggression, and several nonsocial behaviors. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 77: 190-201, 2017.

  10. SU-C-BRE-07: Sensitivity Analysis of the Threshold Energy for the Creation of Strand Breaks and of Single and Double Strand Break Clustering Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Pater, P

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To analyse the sensitivity of the creation of strand breaks (SB) to the threshold energy (Eth) and thresholding method and to quantify the impact of clustering conditions on single strand break (SSB) and double strand break (DSB) yields. Methods: Monte Carlo simulations using Geant4-DNA were conducted for electron tracks of 280 eV to 220 keV in a geometrical DNA model composed of nucleosomes of 396 phospho-diester groups (PDGs) each. A strand break was created inside a PDG when the sum of all energy deposits (method 1) or energy transfers (method 2) was higher than Eth or when at least one interaction deposited (method 3) or transferred (method 4) an energy higher than Eth. SBs were then clustered into SSBs and DSBs using clustering scoring criteria from the literature and compared to our own. Results: The total number of SBs decreases as Eth is increased. In addition, thresholding on the energy transfers (methods 2 and 4) produces a higher SB count than when thresholding on energy deposits (methods 1 and 3). Method 2 produces a step-like function and should be avoided when attempting to optimize Eth. When SBs are grouped into damage patterns, clustering conditions can underestimated SSBs by up to 18 % and DSBs can be overestimated by up to 12 % compared to our own implementation. Conclusion: We show that two often underreported simulation parameters have a non-negligible effect on overall DNA damage yields. First more SBs are counted when using energy transfers to the PDG rather than energy deposits. Also, SBs grouped according to different clustering conditions can influence reported SSB and DSB by as much as 20%. Careful handling of these parameters is required when trying to compare DNA damage yields from different authors. Research funding from the governments of Canada and Quebec. PP acknowledges partial support by the CREATE Medical Physics Research Training Network grant of the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (Grant number: 432290)

  11. Glutamate transporter type 3 knockout reduces brain tolerance to focal brain ischemia in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Liaoliao; Zuo, Zhiyi

    2011-05-01

    Excitatory amino-acid transporters (EAATs) transport glutamate into cells under physiologic conditions. Excitatory amino-acid transporter type 3 (EAAT3) is the major neuronal EAAT and also uptakes cysteine, the rate-limiting substrate for synthesis of glutathione. Thus, we hypothesize that EAAT3 contributes to providing brain ischemic tolerance. Male 8-week-old EAAT3 knockout mice on CD-1 mouse gene background and wild-type CD-1 mice were subjected to right middle cerebral artery occlusion for 90 minutes. Their brain infarct volumes, neurologic functions, and brain levels of glutathione, nitrotyrosine, and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) were evaluated. The EAAT3 knockout mice had bigger brain infarct volumes and worse neurologic deficit scores and motor coordination functions than did wild-type mice, no matter whether these neurologic outcome parameters were evaluated at 24 hours or at 4 weeks after brain ischemia. The EAAT3 knockout mice contained higher levels of HNE in the ischemic penumbral cortex and in the nonischemic cerebral cortex than did wild-type mice. Glutathione levels in the ischemic and nonischemic cortices of EAAT3 knockout mice tended to be lower than those of wild-type mice. Our results suggest that EAAT3 is important in limiting ischemic brain injury after focal brain ischemia. This effect may involve attenuating brain oxidative stress.

  12. Use of a conditionally lethal gene in Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 to select for double recombinants and to entrap insertion sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Yuping; Wolk, C.P. )

    1990-06-01

    Use of the sacB gene provides a simple, effective, positive selection for double recombinants in Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120, a filamentous cyanobacterium. This gene, which encodes the secretory levansucrase of Bacillus subtilis, was inserted into the vector portion of a suicide plasmid bearing a mutant version of a chromosomal gene. Cells of colonies in which such a plasmid had integrated into the Anabaena chromosome through single recombination were plated on solid medium containing 5% sucrose. Under this condition, the presence of the sacB gene is lethal. A small fraction of the cells from initially sucrose-sensitive colonies became sucrose resistant; the majority of these sucrose-resistant derivatives had undergone a second recombinational event in which the sacB-containing vector had been lost and the wild-type form of the chromosomal gene had been replaced by the mutant form. By the use of this technique, they mutated two selected genes in the chromosome of Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120. The conditionally lethal nature of the sacB gene was also used to detect insertion sequences from this Anabaena strain. Sucrose-resistant colonies derived from cells bearing a sacB-containing autonomously replicating plasmid were analyzed. Five different, presumed insertion sequences were found to have inserted into the sacB gene of the plasmids in these colonies. One of them, denoted IS892, was characterized by physical mapping. It is 1.7 kilobases in size and is present in at least five copies in the genome of Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120.

  13. A double blind, randomised placebo controlled trial of topical 2% viscous lidocaine in improving oral intake in children with painful infectious mouth conditions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Painful infectious mouth conditions are a common presentation to emergency departments. Although self limiting, painful ulcerative lesions and inflamed mucosa can decrease oral intake and can lead to dehydration. Oral analgesia is of limited efficacy and is often refused by the patient. Despite widespread use of oral 2% viscous lidocaine for many years, there is little evidence for its efficacy as an analgesic and in aiding oral intake in children with painful infectious mouth conditions. This study aims to establish the effectiveness of 2% viscous lidocaine in increasing oral intake in these children by comparing it with placebo. Methods/Design This study is a randomised double-blind placebo controlled trial of children between 6 months and 8 years of age with painful infectious mouth conditions defined as gingivostomatitis (herpetic or non herpetic), ulcerative pharyngitis, herpangina and hand foot and mouth disease as assessed by the treating clinician in association with a history of poor oral fluid intake. It will be conducted at a single tertiary paediatric emergency department in Melbourne Australia. 20 patients have already been randomised to receive 2% lidocaine or placebo in a pilot study to determine the sample size in a preplanned adaptive design. A further 80 patients will be randomised to receive either 2% lidocaine or placebo. The placebo agent is identical to lidocaine in terms of appearance, flavour and smell. All clinical and research staff involved, patients and their parents will be blinded to treatment allocation. The primary endpoint is the amount of fluid ingested by each child, expressed in ml/kg, within 60 minutes from the time of administration of the study mixture. Secondary endpoints are the proportion of patients ingesting 5 ml/kg and 10 ml/kg at 30 and 60 minutes after drug administration and the incidence of adverse events. Longer term outcomes will include the proportion of patients requiring hospital admission and length

  14. Effects of oral intake of heat-killed Lactobacillus brevis SBC8803 (SBL88™) on dry skin conditions: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Masahiro; Saiki, Asako; Matsui, Yuuta; Tsuchimoto, Norihiko; Nakakita, Yasukazu; Takata, Yoshihiro; Nakamura, Takeshi

    2016-12-01

    Lactobacilli are important in intestinal homeostasis, which involves the regulation of immune function, digestive health, cholesterol absorption and intestinal tumor growth amongst others. Our previous investigations have suggested that oral intake of heat-killed Lactobacillus brevis (L. brevis) SBC8803 (SBL88™) suppresses dermatitis by modulating the immune function in an atopic dermatitis mouse model. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of heat-killed L. brevis SBC8803 intake on skin hydration conditions in humans. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted with volunteers with slightly higher levels of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) on the forearm. The subjects (126 people aged between 21 and 59 years) were randomly allocated to three groups so that the level of TEWL and the age were distributed equally among the groups. The subjects took placebo or heat-killed L. brevis SBC8803 at a daily dose of 25 or 50 mg for 12 weeks. Following the exclusion of eight subjects for plausible reasons (two withdrawals from the study, two for study violations, one for not meeting exclusion criteria and three due to their physical condition), 118 subjects were subjected to the analysis. The results of the present study revealed that following the analysis of the whole populations, marginal differences were observed in TEWL (for example, suppression of skin water loss) at the neck in the 25 mg/day group at week 8 and at the lower eye region in the 50 mg/day group at week 4 (P=0.05 and 0.09, respectively, compared with the placebo group analyzed by Dunnett's test). A significant increase in corneal hydration was also observed at the neck in the 25 mg/day group at week 12 (P=0.06, as compared with the placebo group as analyzed by Dunnett's test). In the analysis of the subpopulations whose habitual frequency of taking lactic fermentation products was less than once per week, the levels of corneal hydration at the neck (in the 50 mg

  15. Effects of oral intake of heat-killed Lactobacillus brevis SBC8803 (SBL88™) on dry skin conditions: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Masahiro; Saiki, Asako; Matsui, Yuuta; Tsuchimoto, Norihiko; Nakakita, Yasukazu; Takata, Yoshihiro; Nakamura, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacilli are important in intestinal homeostasis, which involves the regulation of immune function, digestive health, cholesterol absorption and intestinal tumor growth amongst others. Our previous investigations have suggested that oral intake of heat-killed Lactobacillus brevis (L. brevis) SBC8803 (SBL88™) suppresses dermatitis by modulating the immune function in an atopic dermatitis mouse model. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of heat-killed L. brevis SBC8803 intake on skin hydration conditions in humans. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted with volunteers with slightly higher levels of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) on the forearm. The subjects (126 people aged between 21 and 59 years) were randomly allocated to three groups so that the level of TEWL and the age were distributed equally among the groups. The subjects took placebo or heat-killed L. brevis SBC8803 at a daily dose of 25 or 50 mg for 12 weeks. Following the exclusion of eight subjects for plausible reasons (two withdrawals from the study, two for study violations, one for not meeting exclusion criteria and three due to their physical condition), 118 subjects were subjected to the analysis. The results of the present study revealed that following the analysis of the whole populations, marginal differences were observed in TEWL (for example, suppression of skin water loss) at the neck in the 25 mg/day group at week 8 and at the lower eye region in the 50 mg/day group at week 4 (P=0.05 and 0.09, respectively, compared with the placebo group analyzed by Dunnett's test). A significant increase in corneal hydration was also observed at the neck in the 25 mg/day group at week 12 (P=0.06, as compared with the placebo group as analyzed by Dunnett's test). In the analysis of the subpopulations whose habitual frequency of taking lactic fermentation products was less than once per week, the levels of corneal hydration at the neck (in the 50 mg

  16. AMPK: Lessons from transgenic and knockout animals

    PubMed Central

    Viollet, Benoit; Athea, Yoni; Mounier, Remi; Guigas, Bruno; Zarrinpashneh, Elham; Horman, Sandrine; Lantier, Louise; Hebrard, Sophie; Devin-Leclerc, Jocelyne; Beauloye, Christophe; Foretz, Marc; Andreelli, Fabrizio; Ventura-Clapier, Renee; Bertrand, Luc

    2009-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a phylogenetically conserved serine/threonine protein kinase, has been proposed to function as a ‘fuel gauge’ to monitor cellular energy status in response to nutritional environmental variations. AMPK system is a regulator of energy balance that, once activated by low energy status, switches on ATP-producing catabolic pathways (such as fatty acid oxidation and glycolysis), and switches off ATP-consuming anabolic pathways (such as lipogenesis), both by short-term effect on phosphorylation of regulatory proteins and by long-term effect on gene expression. Numerous observations obtained with pharmacological activators and agents that deplete intracellular ATP have been supportive of AMPK playing a role in the control of energy metabolism but none of these studies have provided conclusive evidence. Relatively recent developments in our understanding of precisely how AMPK complexes might operate to control energy metabolism is due in part to the development of transgenic and knockout mouse models. Although there are inevitable caveats with genetic models, some important findings have emerged. In the present review, we discuss recent findings obtained from animal models with inhibition or activation of AMPK signaling pathway. PMID:19273052

  17. Lipid transport in cholecystokinin knockout mice.

    PubMed

    King, Alexandra; Yang, Qing; Huesman, Sarah; Rider, Therese; Lo, Chunmin C

    2015-11-01

    Cholecystokinin (CCK) is released in response to lipid feeding and regulates pancreatic digestive enzymes vital to the absorption of nutrients. Our previous reports demonstrated that cholecystokinin knockout (CCK-KO) mice fed for 10 weeks of HFD had reduced body fat mass, but comparable glucose uptake by white adipose tissues and skeletal muscles. We hypothesized that CCK is involved in energy homeostasis and lipid transport from the small intestine to tissues in response to acute treatment with dietary lipids. CCK-KO mice with comparable fat absorption had increased energy expenditure and were resistant to HFD-induced obesity. Using intraduodenal infusion of butter fat and intravenous infusion using Liposyn III, we determined the mechanism of lipid transport from the small intestine to deposition in lymph and adipocytes in CCK-KO mice. CCK-KO mice had delayed secretion of Apo B48-chylomicrons, lipid transport to the lymphatic system, and triglyceride (TG)-derived fatty acid uptake by epididymal fat in response to acute treatment of intraduodenal lipids. In contrast, CCK-KO mice had comparable TG clearance and lipid uptake by white adipocytes in response to TGs in chylomicron-like emulsion. Thus, we concluded that CCK is important for lipid transport and energy expenditure to control body weight in response to dietary lipid feeding.

  18. Manipulation of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells for Knockout Mouse Production

    PubMed Central

    Limaye, Advait; Hall, Bradford; Kulkarni, Ashok B

    2009-01-01

    The establishment of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell liness has allowed for the generation of the knockout mouse. ES cells that are genetically altered in culture can then be manipulated to derive a whole mouse containing the desired mutation. To successfully generate a knockout mouse, however, the ES cells must be carefully cultivated in a pluripotent state throughout the gene targeting experiment. This unit describes detailed step-by-step protocols, reagents, equipment, and strategies needed for the successful generation of gene knockout embryonic stem cells using homologous recombination technologies. PMID:19731225

  19. Human Knockout Carriers: Dead, Diseased, Healthy, or Improved?

    PubMed Central

    Narasimhan, Vagheesh M.; Xue, Yali; Tyler-Smith, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Whole-genome and whole-exome sequence data from large numbers of individuals reveal that we all carry many variants predicted to inactivate genes (knockouts). This discovery raises questions about the phenotypic consequences of these knockouts and potentially allows us to study human gene function through the investigation of homozygous loss-of-function carriers. Here, we discuss strategies, recent results, and future prospects for large-scale human knockout studies. We examine their relevance to studying gene function, population genetics, and importantly, the implications for accurate clinical interpretations. PMID:26988438

  20. Effects of extreme thermal conditions on plasticity in breeding phenology and double-broodedness of Great Tits and Blue Tits in central Poland in 2013 and 2014.

    PubMed

    Glądalski, Michał; Bańbura, Mirosława; Kaliński, Adam; Markowski, Marcin; Skwarska, Joanna; Wawrzyniak, Jarosław; Zieliński, Piotr; Bańbura, Jerzy

    2016-11-01

    Many avian species in Europe breed earlier as a result of higher temperatures caused by global climate changes. Climate change means not only higher temperatures but also more frequent extreme weather events, sometimes contrasting with the long-term trends. It was suggested that we should look closely at every extreme phenomenon and its consequences for the phenology of organisms. Examining the limits of phenotypic plasticity may be an important goal for future research. Extremely low spring temperatures in 2013 (coldest spring in 40 years) resulted in birds laying unusually late, and it was followed in 2014 by the earliest breeding season on record (warmest spring in 40 years). Here, we present results concerning breeding phenology and double-broodedness in the Great Tit (Parus major) and the Blue Tit (Cyanistes caeruleus) in 2013 and 2014 in an urban parkland and a deciduous forest in central Poland. Great Tits started laying eggs 18.2 days later in 2013 than in 2014 in the parkland, whereas the analogous difference was 21.1 days in the forest. Blue Tits started laying eggs in the parkland 18.5 days later in 2013 than in 2014, while the analogous difference was 21.6 days in the forest. The difference in the proportion of second clutches in Great Tits between 2013 (fewer second clutches) and 2014 (more second clutches) was highly significant in the parkland and in the forest. This rather large extent of breeding plasticity has developed in reaction to challenges of irregular inter-annual variability of climatic conditions. Such a buffer of plasticity may be sufficient for Blue Tits and Great Tits to adjust the timing of breeding to the upcoming climate changes.

  1. Effects of extreme thermal conditions on plasticity in breeding phenology and double-broodedness of Great Tits and Blue Tits in central Poland in 2013 and 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glądalski, Michał; Bańbura, Mirosława; Kaliński, Adam; Markowski, Marcin; Skwarska, Joanna; Wawrzyniak, Jarosław; Zieliński, Piotr; Bańbura, Jerzy

    2016-11-01

    Many avian species in Europe breed earlier as a result of higher temperatures caused by global climate changes. Climate change means not only higher temperatures but also more frequent extreme weather events, sometimes contrasting with the long-term trends. It was suggested that we should look closely at every extreme phenomenon and its consequences for the phenology of organisms. Examining the limits of phenotypic plasticity may be an important goal for future research. Extremely low spring temperatures in 2013 (coldest spring in 40 years) resulted in birds laying unusually late, and it was followed in 2014 by the earliest breeding season on record (warmest spring in 40 years). Here, we present results concerning breeding phenology and double-broodedness in the Great Tit ( Parus major) and the Blue Tit ( Cyanistes caeruleus) in 2013 and 2014 in an urban parkland and a deciduous forest in central Poland. Great Tits started laying eggs 18.2 days later in 2013 than in 2014 in the parkland, whereas the analogous difference was 21.1 days in the forest. Blue Tits started laying eggs in the parkland 18.5 days later in 2013 than in 2014, while the analogous difference was 21.6 days in the forest. The difference in the proportion of second clutches in Great Tits between 2013 (fewer second clutches) and 2014 (more second clutches) was highly significant in the parkland and in the forest. This rather large extent of breeding plasticity has developed in reaction to challenges of irregular inter-annual variability of climatic conditions. Such a buffer of plasticity may be sufficient for Blue Tits and Great Tits to adjust the timing of breeding to the upcoming climate changes.

  2. A new ecamsule-containing SPF 40 sunscreen cream for the prevention of polymorphous light eruption: a double-blind, randomized, controlled study in maximized outdoor conditions.

    PubMed

    DeLeo, Vincent A; Clark, Scott; Fowler, Joseph; Poncet, Michel; Loesche, Christian; Soto, Pascale

    2009-02-01

    Polymorphous light eruption (PMLE) is an idiopathic photodermatosis elicited by UV radiation (UVR). The objective of this double-blind, randomized, controlled, intraindividual, bilateral comparison was to determine the efficacy of the UVA filters (ecamsule, avobenzone) present in the new sun protection factor (SPF) 40 sunscreen cream in preventing PMLE in maximized outdoor conditions (ie, exaggerated sun exposure). Safety also was assessed. Each participant was treated with SPF 40 sunscreen cream containing ecamsule 3%, octocrylene 10%, avobenzone 2%, and titanium dioxide 5% (tetrad) on one side of the body and either an ecamsule-deprived (triad-E) or avobenzone-deprived (triad-A) cream on the other side. Participants were subsequently exposed to incremental doses of sunlight for up to 6 days. The primary efficacy assessment was a composite relative success rate with 3 components. Success was defined as either a delayed time to onset of PMLE or a lower global severity of PMLE comparing one side of the body to the other side in the same participant. Safety evaluations included systemic adverse events (AEs). Of the 144 participants enrolled and randomized, 22 did not experience PMLE during the study duration under these maximized sun exposure conditions. A significantly greater number of successes were detected on the tetrad-treated side compared with either triad: 41 of 73 participants (56%) versus 8 of 73 participants (11%; P<.001) in the triad-E treatment group and 26 of 71 participants (36%) versus 11 of 71 participants (16%; P=.02) in the triad-A treatment group. Polymorphous light eruption appeared later with the tetrad than with either triad. The global severity of the PMLE flares was significantly lower with the tetrad than with both triads at end point (P<.001 and P=.02 for tetrad vs triad-E and tetrad vs triad-A, respectively). In this study, the SPF 40 sunscreen cream containing ecamsule 3%, octocrylene 10%, avobenzone 2%, and titanium dioxide 5% prevented

  3. Phenotype of the taurine transporter knockout mouse.

    PubMed

    Warskulat, Ulrich; Heller-Stilb, Birgit; Oermann, Evelyn; Zilles, Karl; Haas, Helmut; Lang, Florian; Häussinger, Dieter

    2007-01-01

    This chapter reports present knowledge on the properties of mice with disrupted gene coding for the taurine transporter (taut-/- mice). Study of those mice unraveled some of the roles of taurine and its membrane transport for the development and maintenance of normal organ functions and morphology. When compared with wild-type controls, taut-/- mice have decreased taurine levels in skeletal and heart muscle by about 98%, in brain, kidney, plasma, and retina by 80 to 90%, and in liver by about 70%. taut-/- mice exhibit a lower body mass as well as a strongly reduced exercise capacity compared with taut+/- and wild-type mice. Furthermore, taut-/- mice show a variety of pathological features, for example, subtle derangement of renal osmoregulation, changes in neuroreceptor expression, and loss of long-term potentiation in the striatum, and they develop clinically relevant age-dependent disorders, for example, visual, auditory, and olfactory dysfunctions, unspecific hepatitis, and liver fibrosis. Taurine-deficient animal models such as acutely dietary-manipulated foxes and cats, pharmacologically induced taurine-deficient rats, and taurine transporter knockout mouse are powerful tools allowing identification of the mechanisms and complexities of diseases mediated by impaired taurine transport and taurine depletion (Chapman et al., 1993; Heller-Stilb et al., 2002; Huxtable, 1992; Lake, 1993; Moise et al., 1991; Novotny et al., 1991; Pion et al., 1987; Timbrell et al., 1995; Warskulat et al., 2004, 2006b). Taurine, which is the most abundant amino acid in many tissues, is normally found in intracellular concentrations of 10 to 70 mmol/kg in mammalian heart, brain, skeletal muscle, liver, and retina (Chapman et al., 1993; Green et al., 1991; Huxable, 1992; Timbrell et al., 1995). These high taurine levels are maintained by an ubiquitous expression of Na(+)-dependent taurine transporter (TAUT) in the plasma membrane (Burg, 1995; Kwon and Handler, 1995; Lang et al., 1998

  4. Pleiotropic effects in Eya3 knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Söker, Torben; Dalke, Claudia; Puk, Oliver; Floss, Thomas; Becker, Lore; Bolle, Ines; Favor, Jack; Hans, Wolfgang; Hölter, Sabine M; Horsch, Marion; Kallnik, Magdalena; Kling, Eva; Moerth, Corinna; Schrewe, Anja; Stigloher, Christian; Topp, Stefanie; Gailus-Durner, Valerie; Naton, Beatrix; Beckers, Johannes; Fuchs, Helmut; Ivandic, Boris; Klopstock, Thomas; Schulz, Holger; Wolf, Eckhard; Wurst, Wolfgang; Bally-Cuif, Laure; de Angelis, Martin Hrabé; Graw, Jochen

    2008-01-01

    Background In Drosophila, mutations in the gene eyes absent (eya) lead to severe defects in eye development. The functions of its mammalian orthologs Eya1-4 are only partially understood and no mouse model exists for Eya3. Therefore, we characterized the phenotype of a new Eya3 knockout mouse mutant. Results Expression analysis of Eya3 by in-situ hybridizations and β-Gal-staining of Eya3 mutant mice revealed abundant expression of the gene throughout development, e.g. in brain, eyes, heart, somites and limbs suggesting pleiotropic effects of the mutated gene. A similar complex expression pattern was observed also in zebrafish embryos. The phenotype of young adult Eya3 mouse mutants was systematically analyzed within the German Mouse Clinic. There was no obvious defect in the eyes, ears and kidneys of Eya3 mutant mice. Homozygous mutants displayed decreased bone mineral content and shorter body length. In the lung, the tidal volume at rest was decreased, and electrocardiography showed increased JT- and PQ intervals as well as decreased QRS amplitude. Behavioral analysis of the mutants demonstrated a mild increase in exploratory behavior, but decreased locomotor activity and reduced muscle strength. Analysis of differential gene expression revealed 110 regulated genes in heart and brain. Using real-time PCR, we confirmed Nup155 being down regulated in both organs. Conclusion The loss of Eya3 in the mouse has no apparent effect on eye development. The wide-spread expression of Eya3 in mouse and zebrafish embryos is in contrast to the restricted expression pattern in Xenopus embryos. The loss of Eya3 in mice leads to a broad spectrum of minor physiological changes. Among them, the mutant mice move less than the wild-type mice and, together with the effects on respiratory, muscle and heart function, the mutation might lead to more severe effects when the mice become older. Therefore, future investigations of Eya3 function should focus on aging mice. PMID:19102749

  5. Sleep in Kcna2 knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Christopher L; Vyazovskiy, Vladyslav; Southard, Teresa; Chiu, Shing-Yan; Messing, Albee; Tononi, Giulio; Cirelli, Chiara

    2007-01-01

    Background Shaker codes for a Drosophila voltage-dependent potassium channel. Flies carrying Shaker null or hypomorphic mutations sleep 3–4 h/day instead of 8–14 h/day as their wild-type siblings do. Shaker-like channels are conserved across species but it is unknown whether they affect sleep in mammals. To address this issue, we studied sleep in Kcna2 knockout (KO) mice. Kcna2 codes for Kv1.2, the alpha subunit of a Shaker-like voltage-dependent potassium channel with high expression in the mammalian thalamocortical system. Results Continuous (24 h) electroencephalograph (EEG), electromyogram (EMG), and video recordings were used to measure sleep and waking in Kcna2 KO, heterozygous (HZ) and wild-type (WT) pups (P17) and HZ and WT adult mice (P67). Sleep stages were scored visually based on 4-s epochs. EEG power spectra (0–20 Hz) were calculated on consecutive 4-s epochs. KO pups die by P28 due to generalized seizures. At P17 seizures are either absent or very rare in KO pups (< 1% of the 24-h recording time), and abnormal EEG activity is only present during the seizure. KO pups have significantly less non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep (-23%) and significantly more waking (+21%) than HZ and WT siblings with no change in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep time. The decrease in NREM sleep is due to an increase in the number of waking episodes, with no change in number or duration of sleep episodes. Sleep patterns, daily amounts of sleep and waking, and the response to 6 h sleep deprivation are similar in HZ and WT adult mice. Conclusion Kv1.2, a mammalian homologue of Shaker, regulates neuronal excitability and affects NREM sleep. PMID:17925011

  6. Exploring the opioid system by gene knockout.

    PubMed

    Kieffer, Brigitte L; Gavériaux-Ruff, Claire

    2002-04-01

    The endogenous opioid system consists of three opioid peptide precursor genes encoding enkephalins (preproenkephalin, Penk), dynorphins (preprodynorphin, Pdyn) and beta-endorphin (betaend), proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and three receptor genes encoding mu-opiod receptor (MOR), delta-opiod receptor (DOR) and kappa-opiod receptor (KOR). In the past years, all six genes have been inactivated in mice by homologous recombination. The analysis of spontaneous behavior in mutant mice has demonstrated significant and distinct roles of each gene in modulating locomotion, pain perception and emotional behaviors. The observation of opposing phenotypes of MOR- and DOR-deficient mice in several behaviors highlights unexpected roles for DOR to be further explored genetically and using more specific delta compounds. The analysis of responses of mutant mice to exogenous opiates has definitely clarified the essential role of MOR in both morphine analgesia and addiction, and demonstrated that DOR and KOR remain promising targets for pain treatment. These studies also show that prototypic DOR agonists partially require MOR for their biological activity and provide some support for the postulated mu-delta interactions in vivo. Finally, data confirm and define a role for several genes of the opioid system in responses to other drugs of abuse, and the triple opioid receptor knockout mutant allows exploring non-classical opioid pharmacology. In summary, the study of null mutant mice has extended our previous knowledge of the opioid system by identifying the molecular players in opioid pharmacology and physiology. Future studies should involve parallel behavioral analysis of mice lacking receptors and peptides and will benefit from more sophisticated gene targeting approaches, including site-directed and anatomically-restricted mutations.

  7. Do open label blinded outcome studies of novel anticoagulants versus warfarin have equivalent validity to those carried out under double-blind conditions?

    PubMed

    O'Neil, William M; Welner, Sharon A; Lip, Gregory Y H

    2013-03-01

    Recent anticoagulants for stroke prevention in AF have been tested in active comparator controlled studies versus warfarin using two designs: double-blind, double-dummy and prospective randomised, open blinded endpoint (PROBE). The former requires elaborate procedures to maintain blinding, while PROBE does not. Outcomes of double-blind and PROBE designed studies of novel anticoagulants for AF, focusing on warfarin controls, were explored. Major, Phase III warfarin-controlled trials for stroke prevention in AF were identified. Odds ratios (ORs) of key outcomes for active comparators versus VKA and event rates for VKA arms were compared between designs, in context of baseline demographics and inclusion criteria. Identified trials studied five novel anticoagulants in three each of PROBE and double-blind design. For ORs of results across studies and outcomes, there was little pattern differentiating the two designs. Among VKA-control subjects, event rates for the primary outcome (stroke or systemic embolism) in PROBE trials at 1.74 %/year (95% confidence interval: 1.54-1.95) was not significantly different from that in double-blind trials, at 1.88 (1.73-2.03). Among other outcomes, VKA-treated subjects in both trial designs had similar event rates, apart from higher all-cause mortality in ROCKET AF, and lower myocardial infarction rates among the PROBE study patients. Although there are differences in outcome between PROBE and double blind trials, they do not appear to be design-related. The exacting requirements of double-blinding in AF trials may not be necessary.

  8. Methylphenidate restores novel object recognition in DARPP-32 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Heyser, Charles J; McNaughton, Caitlyn H; Vishnevetsky, Donna; Fienberg, Allen A

    2013-09-15

    Previously, we have shown that Dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein of 32kDa (DARPP-32) knockout mice required significantly more trials to reach criterion than wild-type mice in an operant reversal-learning task. The present study was conducted to examine adult male and female DARPP-32 knockout mice and wild-type controls in a novel object recognition test. Wild-type and knockout mice exhibited comparable behavior during the initial exploration trials. As expected, wild-type mice exhibited preferential exploration of the novel object during the substitution test, demonstrating recognition memory. In contrast, knockout mice did not show preferential exploration of the novel object, instead exhibiting an increase in exploration of all objects during the test trial. Given that the removal of DARPP-32 is an intracellular manipulation, it seemed possible to pharmacologically restore some cellular activity and behavior by stimulating dopamine receptors. Therefore, a second experiment was conducted examining the effect of methylphenidate. The results show that methylphenidate increased horizontal activity in both wild-type and knockout mice, though this increase was blunted in knockout mice. Pretreatment with methylphenidate significantly impaired novel object recognition in wild-type mice. In contrast, pretreatment with methylphenidate restored the behavior of DARPP-32 knockout mice to that observed in wild-type mice given saline. These results provide additional evidence for a functional role of DARPP-32 in the mediation of processes underlying learning and memory. These results also indicate that the behavioral deficits in DARPP-32 knockout mice may be restored by the administration of methylphenidate.

  9. Altered Sleep Homeostasis in Rev-erbα Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mang, Géraldine M.; La Spada, Francesco; Emmenegger, Yann; Chappuis, Sylvie; Ripperger, Jürgen A.; Albrecht, Urs; Franken, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: The nuclear receptor REV-ERBα is a potent, constitutive transcriptional repressor critical for the regulation of key circadian and metabolic genes. Recently, REV-ERBα's involvement in learning, neurogenesis, mood, and dopamine turnover was demonstrated suggesting a specific role in central nervous system functioning. We have previously shown that the brain expression of several core clock genes, including Rev-erbα, is modulated by sleep loss. We here test the consequences of a loss of REV-ERBα on the homeostatic regulation of sleep. Methods: EEG/EMG signals were recorded in Rev-erbα knockout (KO) mice and their wild type (WT) littermates during baseline, sleep deprivation, and recovery. Cortical gene expression measurements after sleep deprivation were contrasted to baseline. Results: Although baseline sleep/wake duration was remarkably similar, KO mice showed an advance of the sleep/wake distribution relative to the light-dark cycle. After sleep onset in baseline and after sleep deprivation, both EEG delta power (1–4 Hz) and sleep consolidation were reduced in KO mice indicating a slower increase of homeostatic sleep need during wakefulness. This slower increase might relate to the smaller increase in theta and gamma power observed in the waking EEG prior to sleep onset under both conditions. Indeed, the increased theta activity during wakefulness predicted delta power in subsequent NREM sleep. Lack of Rev-erbα increased Bmal1, Npas2, Clock, and Fabp7 expression, confirming the direct regulation of these genes by REV-ERBα also in the brain. Conclusions: Our results add further proof to the notion that clock genes are involved in sleep homeostasis. Because accumulating evidence directly links REV-ERBα to dopamine signaling the altered homeostatic regulation of sleep reported here are discussed in that context. Citation: Mang GM, La Spada F, Emmenegger Y, Chappuis S, Ripperger JA, Albrecht U, Franken P. Altered sleep homeostasis in Rev

  10. Modeling fragile X syndrome in the Fmr1 knockout mouse.

    PubMed

    Kazdoba, Tatiana M; Leach, Prescott T; Silverman, Jill L; Crawley, Jacqueline N

    2014-11-01

    Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is a commonly inherited form of intellectual disability and one of the leading genetic causes for autism spectrum disorder. Clinical symptoms of FXS can include impaired cognition, anxiety, hyperactivity, social phobia, and repetitive behaviors. FXS is caused by a CGG repeat mutation which expands a region on the X chromosome containing the FMR1 gene. In FXS, a full mutation (> 200 repeats) leads to hypermethylation of FMR1, an epigenetic mechanism that effectively silences FMR1 gene expression and reduces levels of the FMR1 gene product, fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). FMRP is an RNA-binding protein that is important for the regulation of protein expression. In an effort to further understand how loss of FMR1 and FMRP contribute to FXS symptomology, several FXS animal models have been created. The most well characterized rodent model is the Fmr1 knockout (KO) mouse, which lacks FMRP protein due to a disruption in its Fmr1 gene. Here, we review the behavioral phenotyping of the Fmr1 KO mouse to date, and discuss the clinical relevance of this mouse model to the human FXS condition. While much remains to be learned about FXS, the Fmr1 KO mouse is a valuable tool for understanding the repercussions of functional loss of FMRP and assessing the efficacy of pharmacological compounds in ameliorating the molecular and behavioral phenotypes relevant to FXS.

  11. Environmental enrichment induces behavioural disturbances in neuropeptide Y knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Reichmann, Florian; Wegerer, Vanessa; Jain, Piyush; Mayerhofer, Raphaela; Hassan, Ahmed M.; Fröhlich, Esther E.; Bock, Elisabeth; Pritz, Elisabeth; Herzog, Herbert; Holzer, Peter; Leitinger, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) refers to the provision of a complex and stimulating housing condition which improves well-being, behaviour and brain function of laboratory animals. The mechanisms behind these beneficial effects of EE are only partially understood. In the current report, we describe a link between EE and neuropeptide Y (NPY), based on findings from NPY knockout (KO) mice exposed to EE. Relative to EE-housed wildtype (WT) animals, NPY KO mice displayed altered behaviour as well as molecular and morphological changes in amygdala and hippocampus. Exposure of WT mice to EE reduced anxiety and decreased central glucocorticoid receptor expression, effects which were absent in NPY KO mice. In addition, NPY deletion altered the preference of EE items, and EE-housed NPY KO mice responded to stress with exaggerated hyperthermia, displayed impaired spatial memory, had higher hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA levels and altered hippocampal synaptic plasticity, effects which were not seen in WT mice. Accordingly, these findings suggest that NPY contributes to the anxiolytic effect of EE and that NPY deletion reverses the beneficial effects of EE into a negative experience. The NPY system could thus be a target for “enviromimetics”, therapeutics which reproduce the beneficial effects of enhanced environmental stimulation. PMID:27305846

  12. Alleviation of high-fat diet-induced fatty liver damage in group IVA phospholipase A2-knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Ii, Hiromi; Yokoyama, Naoki; Yoshida, Shintaro; Tsutsumi, Kae; Hatakeyama, Shinji; Sato, Takashi; Ishihara, Keiichi; Akiba, Satoshi

    2009-12-01

    Hepatic fat deposition with hepatocellular damage, a feature of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, is mediated by several putative factors including prostaglandins. In the present study, we examined whether group IVA phospholipase A(2) (IVA-PLA(2)), which catalyzes the first step in prostanoid biosynthesis, is involved in the development of fatty liver, using IVA-PLA(2)-knockout mice. Male wild-type mice on high-fat diets (20% fat and 1.25% cholesterol) developed hepatocellular vacuolation and liver hypertrophy with an increase in the serum levels of liver damage marker aminotransferases when compared with wild-type mice fed normal diets. These high-fat diet-induced alterations were markedly decreased in IVA-PLA(2)-knockout mice. Hepatic triacylglycerol content was lower in IVA-PLA(2)-knockout mice than in wild-type mice under normal dietary conditions. Although high-fat diets increased hepatic triacylglycerol content in both genotypes, the degree was lower in IVA-PLA(2)-knockout mice than in wild-type mice. Under the high-fat dietary conditions, IVA-PLA(2)-knockout mice had lower epididymal fat pad weight and smaller adipocytes than wild-type mice. The serum level of prostaglandin E(2), which has a fat storage effect, was lower in IVA-PLA(2)-knockout mice than in wild-type mice, irrespective of the kind of diet. In both genotypes, high-fat diets increased serum leptin levels equally between the two groups, but did not affect the serum levels of adiponectin, resistin, free fatty acid, triacylglycerol, glucose, or insulin. Our findings suggest that a deficiency of IVA-PLA(2) alleviates fatty liver damage caused by high-fat diets, probably because of the lower generation of IVA-PLA(2) metabolites, such as prostaglandin E(2). IVA-PLA(2) could be a promising therapeutic target for obesity-related diseases including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

  13. Gene knockout by targeted mutagenesis in a hemimetabolous insect, the two-spotted cricket Gryllus bimaculatus, using TALENs.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Takahito; Noji, Sumihare; Mito, Taro

    2014-08-15

    Hemimetabolous, or incompletely metamorphosing, insects are phylogenetically basal. These insects include many deleterious species. The cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus, is an emerging model for hemimetabolous insects, based on the success of RNA interference (RNAi)-based gene-functional analyses and transgenic technology. Taking advantage of genome-editing technologies in this species would greatly promote functional genomics studies. Genome editing using transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) has proven to be an effective method for site-specific genome manipulation in various species. TALENs are artificial nucleases that are capable of inducing DNA double-strand breaks into specified target sequences. Here, we describe a protocol for TALEN-based gene knockout in G. bimaculatus, including a mutant selection scheme via mutation detection assays, for generating homozygous knockout organisms.

  14. GeneKnockout by Targeted Mutagenesis in a Hemimetabolous Insect, the Two-Spotted Cricket Gryllus bimaculatus, using TALENs.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Takahito; Noji, Sumihare; Mito, Taro

    2016-01-01

    Hemimetabolous, or incompletely metamorphosing, insects are phylogenetically basal. These insects include many deleterious species. The cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus, is an emerging model for hemimetabolous insects, based on the success of RNA interference (RNAi)-based gene-functional analyses and transgenic technology. Taking advantage of genome-editing technologies in this species would greatly promote functional genomics studies. Genome editing using transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) has proven to be an effective method for site-specific genome manipulation in various species. TALENs are artificial nucleases that are capable of inducing DNA double-strand breaks into specified target sequences. Here, we describe a protocol for TALEN-based gene knockout in G. bimaculatus, including a mutant selection scheme via mutation detection assays, for generating homozygous knockout organisms.

  15. Cigarette smoke exposure aggravates air space enlargement and alveolar cell apoptosis in Smad3 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Laszlo; Farkas, Daniela; Warburton, David; Gauldie, Jack; Shi, Wei; Stampfli, Martin R; Voelkel, Norbert F; Kolb, Martin

    2011-10-01

    The concept of genetic susceptibility factors predisposing cigarette smokers to develop emphysema stems from the clinical observation that only a fraction of smokers develop clinically significant chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We investigated whether Smad3 knockout mice, which develop spontaneous air space enlargement after birth because of a defect in transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling, develop enhanced alveolar cell apoptosis and air space enlargement following cigarette smoke exposure. We investigated Smad3(-/-) and Smad3(+/+) mice at different adult ages and determined air space enlargement, alveolar cell proliferation, and apoptosis. Furthermore, laser-capture microdissection and real-time PCR were used to measure compartment-specific gene expression. We then compared the effects of cigarette smoke exposure on Smad3(-/-) and littermate controls. Smad3 knockout resulted in the development of air space enlargement in the adult mouse and was associated with decreased alveolar VEGF levels and activity and increased alveolar cell apoptosis. Cigarette smoke exposure aggravated air space enlargement and alveolar cell apoptosis. We also found increased Smad2 protein expression and phosphorylation, which was enhanced following cigarette smoke exposure, in Smad3-knockout animals. Double immunofluorescence analysis revealed that endothelial apoptosis started before epithelial apoptosis. Our data indicate that balanced TGF-β signaling is not only important for regulation of extracellular matrix turnover, but also for alveolar cell homeostasis. Impaired signaling via the Smad3 pathway results in alveolar cell apoptosis and alveolar destruction, likely via increased Smad2 and reduced VEGF expression and might represent a predisposition for accelerated development of emphysema due to cigarette smoke exposure.

  16. Comprehensive phenotypic analysis of knockout mice deficient in cyclin G1 and cyclin G2

    PubMed Central

    Ohno, Shouichi; Ikeda, Jun-ichiro; Naito, Yoko; Okuzaki, Daisuke; Sasakura, Towa; Fukushima, Kohshiro; Nishikawa, Yukihiro; Ota, Kaori; Kato, Yorika; Wang, Mian; Torigata, Kosuke; Kasama, Takashi; Uchihashi, Toshihiro; Miura, Daisaku; Yabuta, Norikazu; Morii, Eiichi; Nojima, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Cyclin G1 (CycG1) and Cyclin G2 (CycG2) play similar roles during the DNA damage response (DDR), but their detailed roles remain elusive. To investigate their distinct roles, we generated knockout mice deficient in CycG1 (G1KO) or CycG2 (G2KO), as well as double knockout mice (DKO) deficient in both proteins. All knockouts developed normally and were fertile. Generation of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) from these mice revealed that G2KO MEFs, but not G1KO or DKO MEFs, were resistant to DNA damage insults caused by camptothecin and ionizing radiation (IR) and underwent cell cycle arrest. CycG2, but not CycG1, co-localized with γH2AX foci in the nucleus after γ-IR, and γH2AX-mediated DNA repair and dephosphorylation of CHK2 were delayed in G2KO MEFs. H2AX associated with CycG1, CycG2, and protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), suggesting that γH2AX affects the function of PP2A via direct interaction with its B’γ subunit. Furthermore, expression of CycG2, but not CycG1, was abnormal in various cancer cell lines. Kaplan–Meier curves based on TCGA data disclosed that head and neck cancer patients with reduced CycG2 expression have poorer clinical prognoses. Taken together, our data suggest that reduced CycG2 expression could be useful as a novel prognostic marker of cancer. PMID:27982046

  17. Photocatalytic organic transformation by layered double hydroxides: highly efficient and selective oxidation of primary aromatic amines to their imines under ambient aerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiu-Jie; Chen, Bin; Li, Xu-Bing; Zheng, Li-Qiang; Wu, Li-Zhu; Tung, Chen-Ho

    2014-06-25

    We report the first application of layered double hydroxide as a photocatalyst in the transformation of primary aromatic amines to their corresponding imines with high efficiency and selectivity by using oxygen in an air atmosphere as a terminal oxidant under light irradiation.

  18. Retinoid-related orphan receptor γ (RORγ) adult induced knockout mice develop lymphoblastic lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Liljevald, Maria; Rehnberg, Maria; Söderberg, Magnus; Ramnegård, Marie; Börjesson, Jenny; Luciani, Donatella; Krutrök, Nina; Brändén, Lena; Johansson, Camilla; Xu, Xiufeng; Bjursell, Mikael; Sjögren, Anna-Karin; Hornberg, Jorrit; Andersson, Ulf; Keeling, David; Jirholt, Johan

    2016-11-01

    RORγ is a nuclear hormone receptor which controls polarization of naive CD4(+) T-cells into proinflammatory Th17 cells. Pharmacological antagonism of RORγ has therapeutic potential for autoimmune diseases; however, this mechanism may potentially carry target-related safety risks, as mice deficient in Rorc, the gene encoding RORγ, develop T-cell lymphoma with 50% frequency. Due to the requirement of RORγ during development, the Rorc knockout (KO) animals lack secondary lymphoid organs and have a dysregulation in the generation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. We wanted to extend the evaluation of RORγ deficiency to address the question whether lymphomas, similar to those observed in the Rorc KO, would develop in an animal with an otherwise intact adult immune system. Accordingly, we designed a conditional RORγ knockout mouse (Rorc CKO) where the Rorc locus could be deleted in adult animals. Based on these studies we can confirm that these animals also develop lymphoma in a similar time frame as embryonic Rorc knockouts. This study also suggests that in animals where the gene deletion is incomplete, the thymus undergoes a rapid selection process replacing Rorc deficient cells with remnant thymocytes carrying a functional Rorc locus and that subsequently, these animals do not develop lymphoblastic lymphoma.

  19. Selection-independent generation of gene knockout mouse embryonic stem cells using zinc-finger nucleases.

    PubMed

    Osiak, Anna; Radecke, Frank; Guhl, Eva; Radecke, Sarah; Dannemann, Nadine; Lütge, Fabienne; Glage, Silke; Rudolph, Cornelia; Cantz, Tobias; Schwarz, Klaus; Heilbronn, Regine; Cathomen, Toni

    2011-01-01

    Gene knockout in murine embryonic stem cells (ESCs) has been an invaluable tool to study gene function in vitro or to generate animal models with altered phenotypes. Gene targeting using standard techniques, however, is rather inefficient and typically does not exceed frequencies of 10(-6). In consequence, the usage of complex positive/negative selection strategies to isolate targeted clones has been necessary. Here, we present a rapid single-step approach to generate a gene knockout in mouse ESCs using engineered zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs). Upon transient expression of ZFNs, the target gene is cleaved by the designer nucleases and then repaired by non-homologous end-joining, an error-prone DNA repair process that introduces insertions/deletions at the break site and therefore leads to functional null mutations. To explore and quantify the potential of ZFNs to generate a gene knockout in pluripotent stem cells, we generated a mouse ESC line containing an X-chromosomally integrated EGFP marker gene. Applying optimized conditions, the EGFP locus was disrupted in up to 8% of ESCs after transfection of the ZFN expression vectors, thus obviating the need of selection markers to identify targeted cells, which may impede or complicate downstream applications. Both activity and ZFN-associated cytotoxicity was dependent on vector dose and the architecture of the nuclease domain. Importantly, teratoma formation assays of selected ESC clones confirmed that ZFN-treated ESCs maintained pluripotency. In conclusion, the described ZFN-based approach represents a fast strategy for generating gene knockouts in ESCs in a selection-independent fashion that should be easily transferrable to other pluripotent stem cells.

  20. Selection-Independent Generation of Gene Knockout Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells Using Zinc-Finger Nucleases

    PubMed Central

    Osiak, Anna; Radecke, Frank; Guhl, Eva; Radecke, Sarah; Dannemann, Nadine; Lütge, Fabienne; Glage, Silke; Rudolph, Cornelia; Cantz, Tobias; Schwarz, Klaus; Heilbronn, Regine; Cathomen, Toni

    2011-01-01

    Gene knockout in murine embryonic stem cells (ESCs) has been an invaluable tool to study gene function in vitro or to generate animal models with altered phenotypes. Gene targeting using standard techniques, however, is rather inefficient and typically does not exceed frequencies of 10−6. In consequence, the usage of complex positive/negative selection strategies to isolate targeted clones has been necessary. Here, we present a rapid single-step approach to generate a gene knockout in mouse ESCs using engineered zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs). Upon transient expression of ZFNs, the target gene is cleaved by the designer nucleases and then repaired by non-homologous end-joining, an error-prone DNA repair process that introduces insertions/deletions at the break site and therefore leads to functional null mutations. To explore and quantify the potential of ZFNs to generate a gene knockout in pluripotent stem cells, we generated a mouse ESC line containing an X-chromosomally integrated EGFP marker gene. Applying optimized conditions, the EGFP locus was disrupted in up to 8% of ESCs after transfection of the ZFN expression vectors, thus obviating the need of selection markers to identify targeted cells, which may impede or complicate downstream applications. Both activity and ZFN-associated cytotoxicity was dependent on vector dose and the architecture of the nuclease domain. Importantly, teratoma formation assays of selected ESC clones confirmed that ZFN-treated ESCs maintained pluripotency. In conclusion, the described ZFN-based approach represents a fast strategy for generating gene knockouts in ESCs in a selection-independent fashion that should be easily transferrable to other pluripotent stem cells. PMID:22194948

  1. [Upregulation of P2X3 receptors in dorsal root ganglion of TRPV1 knockout female mice].

    PubMed

    Fang, Xiao; Shi, Xiao-Han; Huang, Li-Bin; Rong, Wei-Fang; Ma, Bei

    2014-08-25

    The study was aimed to investigate the changes in mechanical pain threshold in the condition of chronic inflammatory pain after transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) gene was knockout. Hind-paw intraplantar injection of complete freund's adjuvant (CFA, 20 μL) produced peripheral inflammation in wild-type and TRPV1 knockout female mice. The mechanical pain thresholds were measured during the 8 days after injection and pre-injection by using Von-Frey hair. Nine days after injection, mice were killed and the differences of expression of c-Fos and P2X3 receptor in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and spinal cord dorsal horn were examined by Western blotting between the two groups. Compared with that in wild-type mice, the mechanical pain threshold was increased significantly in TRPV1 knockout mice (P < 0.05); 3 days after CFA injection, the baseline mechanical pain threshold in the TRPV1 knockout mice group was significantly higher than that in the wild-type mice group (P < 0.05); The result of Western blotting showed that the expression of c-Fos protein both in DRG and spinal cord dorsal horn of TRPV1 knockout mice group was decreased significantly compared with that in wild-type mice group (P < 0.01, P < 0.05), while the expression of P2X3 receptor in DRG of TRPV1 knockout mice group was increased significantly compared with that in wild-type mice group (P < 0.05). Our findings indicate that TRPV1 may influence the peripheral mechanical pain threshold by mediating the expression of c-Fos protein both in DRG and spinal cord dorsal horn and changing the expression of P2X3 receptor in DRG.

  2. Beta-oxidation in hepatocyte cultures from mice with peroxisomal gene knockouts.

    PubMed

    Dirkx, Ruud; Meyhi, Els; Asselberghs, Stanny; Reddy, Janardan; Baes, Myriam; Van Veldhoven, Paul P

    2007-06-08

    Beta-oxidation of carboxylates takes place both in mitochondria and peroxisomes and in each pathway parallel enzymes exist for each conversion step. In order to better define the substrate specificities of these enzymes and in particular the elusive role of peroxisomal MFP-1, hepatocyte cultures from mice with peroxisomal gene knockouts were used to assess the consequences on substrate degradation. Hepatocytes from mice with liver selective elimination of peroxisomes displayed severely impaired oxidation of 2-methylhexadecanoic acid, the bile acid intermediate trihydroxycholestanoic acid (THCA), and tetradecanedioic acid. In contrast, mitochondrial beta-oxidation rates of palmitate were doubled, despite the severely affected inner mitochondrial membrane. As expected, beta-oxidation of the branched chain compounds 2-methylhexadecanoic acid and THCA was reduced in hepatocytes from mice with inactivation of MFP-2. More surprisingly, dicarboxylic fatty acid oxidation was impaired in MFP-1 but not in MFP-2 knockout hepatocytes, indicating that MFP-1 might play more than an obsolete role in peroxisomal beta-oxidation.

  3. Production of CMAH Knockout Preimplantation Embryos Derived From Immortalized Porcine Cells Via TALE Nucleases.

    PubMed

    Moon, JoonHo; Lee, Choongil; Kim, Su Jin; Choi, Ji-Yei; Lee, Byeong Chun; Kim, Jin-Soo; Jang, Goo

    2014-05-27

    Although noncancerous immortalized cell lines have been developed by introducing genes into human and murine somatic cells, such cell lines have not been available in large domesticated animals like pigs. For immortalizing porcine cells, primary porcine fetal fibroblasts were isolated and cultured using the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene. After selecting cells with neomycin for 2 weeks, outgrowing colonized cells were picked up and subcultured for expansion. Immortalized cells were cultured for more than 9 months without changing their doubling time (~24 hours) or their diameter (< 20 µm) while control cells became replicatively senescent during the same period. Even a single cell expanded to confluence in 100 mm dishes. Furthermore, to knockout the CMAH gene, designed plasmids encoding a transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALENs) pairs were transfected into the immortalized cells. Each single colony was analyzed by the mutation-sensitive T7 endonuclease I assay, fluorescent PCR, and dideoxy sequencing to obtain three independent clonal populations of cells that contained biallelic modifications. One CMAH knockout clone was chosen and used for somatic cell nuclear transfer. Cloned embryos developed to the blastocyst stage. In conclusion, we demonstrated that immortalized porcine fibroblasts were successfully established using the human hTERT gene, and the TALENs enabled biallelic gene disruptions in these immortalized cells.

  4. Uptake and catabolism of modified LDL in scavenger-receptor class A type I/II knock-out mice.

    PubMed Central

    Van Berkel, T J; Van Velzen, A; Kruijt, J K; Suzuki, H; Kodama, T

    1998-01-01

    The liver is the major organ responsible for the uptake of modified low-density lipoprotein (LDL) from the blood circulation, with endothelial and Kupffer cells as major cellular uptake sites. Scavenger-receptors, which include various classes, are held responsible for this uptake. Mice deficient in scavenger-receptor class A types I and II were created and the fate of acetylated LDL (Ac-LDL) in vivo and its interaction with liver endothelial, Kupffer and peritoneal macrophages was characterized. Surprisingly, the decay in vivo (t12 < 2 min), tissue distribution and liver uptake (at 5 min it was 77.4 +/- 4.6% of the injected dose) of Ac-LDL in the knock-out mice were not significantly different from control mice (t12 < 2 min and liver uptake 79.1 +/- 4.6% of the injected dose). A separation of mice liver cells into parenchymal, endothelial and Kupffer cells 10 min after injection of Ac-LDL indicated that in both control and knock-out mice the liver endothelial cells were responsible for more than 70% of the liver uptake. Both in control and knock-out mice, preinjection of polyinosinic acid (poly I, 200 microg) completely blocked the liver uptake, indicating that both in control and knock-out mice the scavenger-receptors are sensitive to poly I. Preinjection of suboptimal poly I concentrations (20 and 50 microg) provided evidence that the serum decay and liver uptake of Ac-LDL is more readily inhibited in the knock-out mice as compared with the control mice, indicating less efficient removal of Ac-LDL in vivo in the knock-out mice under these conditions. Studies in vitro with isolated liver endothelial and Kupffer cells from knock-out mice indicate that the cell association of Ac-LDL during 2 h at 37 degrees C is 50 and 53% of the control, respectively, whereas the degradation reaches values of 58 and 63%. For peritoneal macrophages from knock-out mice the cell association of Ac-LDL was identical to the control mice whereas the Ac-LDL degradation in cells from the

  5. Genetic knockout and pharmacologic inhibition of NCX2 cause natriuresis and hypercalciuria.

    PubMed

    Gotoh, Yusuke; Kita, Satomi; Fujii, Makoto; Tagashira, Hideaki; Horie, Ichiro; Arai, Yuji; Uchida, Shinichi; Iwamoto, Takahiro

    2015-01-09

    The Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX) is a bidirectional transporter that is controlled by membrane potential and transmembrane gradients of Na(+) and Ca(2+). Although two isoforms of NCX1 and NCX2 are coexpressed on the basolateral membrane of the distal nephron, the functional significance of these isoforms is not entirely clear. Therefore, we used NCX1- and NCX2-heterozygote knockout mice (KO) and their double KO, as well as isoform-selective NCX inhibitors, to determine the roles of NCX isoforms in urine formation and electrolyte excretion in mice. NCX inhibitors, particularly NCX2-sensitive inhibitors, caused a dose-dependent natriuresis and in a higher dose, moreover, hypercalciuria. Consistently, NCX1-KO possessed normal renal function similar to wild-type mice (WT), whereas NCX2-KO and double KO exhibited moderate natriuresis and hypercalciuria. Notably, renal responses to YM-244769 were equivalently observed in NCX1-KO and WT, but disappeared in NCX2-KO and double KO. Thus, functional inhibition of NCX2 initially causes natriuresis, and further inhibition of NCX2 produces hypercalciuria, suggesting that the functional significance of NCX2 lies in Na(+) and Ca(2+) reabsorption of the kidney.

  6. Comprehensive behavioral analysis of cluster of differentiation 47 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Koshimizu, Hisatsugu; Takao, Keizo; Matozaki, Takashi; Ohnishi, Hiroshi; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Cluster of differentiation 47 (CD47) is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily which functions as a ligand for the extracellular region of signal regulatory protein α (SIRPα), a protein which is abundantly expressed in the brain. Previous studies, including ours, have demonstrated that both CD47 and SIRPα fulfill various functions in the central nervous system (CNS), such as the modulation of synaptic transmission and neuronal cell survival. We previously reported that CD47 is involved in the regulation of depression-like behavior of mice in the forced swim test through its modulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of SIRPα. However, other potential behavioral functions of CD47 remain largely unknown. In this study, in an effort to further investigate functional roles of CD47 in the CNS, CD47 knockout (KO) mice and their wild-type littermates were subjected to a battery of behavioral tests. CD47 KO mice displayed decreased prepulse inhibition, while the startle response did not differ between genotypes. The mutants exhibited slightly but significantly decreased sociability and social novelty preference in Crawley's three-chamber social approach test, whereas in social interaction tests in which experimental and stimulus mice have direct contact with each other in a freely moving setting in a novel environment or home cage, there were no significant differences between the genotypes. While previous studies suggested that CD47 regulates fear memory in the inhibitory avoidance test in rodents, our CD47 KO mice exhibited normal fear and spatial memory in the fear conditioning and the Barnes maze tests, respectively. These findings suggest that CD47 is potentially involved in the regulation of sensorimotor gating and social behavior in mice.

  7. Maximal Oxygen Consumption Is Reduced in Aquaporin-1 Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Al-Samir, Samer; Goossens, Dominique; Cartron, Jean-Pierre; Nielsen, Søren; Scherbarth, Frank; Steinlechner, Stephan; Gros, Gerolf; Endeward, Volker

    2016-01-01

    We have measured maximal oxygen consumption (V˙O2,max) of mice lacking one or two of the established mouse red-cell CO2 channels AQP1, AQP9, and Rhag. We intended to study whether these proteins, by acting as channels for O2, determine O2 exchange in the lung and in the periphery. We found that V˙O2,max as determined by the Helox technique is reduced by ~16%, when AQP1 is knocked out, but not when AQP9 or Rhag are lacking. This figure holds for animals respiring normoxic as well as hypoxic gas mixtures. To see whether the reduction of V˙O2,max is due to impaired O2 uptake in the lung, we measured carotid arterial O2 saturation (SO2) by pulse oximetry. Neither under normoxic (inspiratory O2 21%) nor under hypoxic conditions (11% O2) is there a difference in SO2 between AQP1null and WT mice, suggesting that AQP1 is not critical for O2 uptake in the lung. The fact that the % reduction of V˙O2,max is identical in normoxia and hypoxia indicates moreover that the limitation of V˙O2,max is not due to an O2 diffusion problem, neither in the lung nor in the periphery. Instead, it appears likely that AQP1null animals exhibit a reduced V˙O2,max due to the reduced wall thickness and muscle mass of the left ventricles of their hearts, as reported previously. We conclude that very likely the properties of the hearts of AQP1 knockout mice cause a reduced maximal cardiac output and thus cause a reduced V˙O2,max, which constitutes a new phenotype of these mice. PMID:27559317

  8. Using engineered endonucleases to create knockout and knockin zebrafish models.

    PubMed

    Bedell, Victoria M; Ekker, Stephen C

    2015-01-01

    Over the last few years, the technology to create targeted knockout and knockin zebrafish animals has exploded. We have gained the ability to create targeted knockouts through the use of zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR associated system (CRISPR/Cas). Furthermore, using the high-efficiency TALEN system, we were able to create knockin zebrafish using a single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) protocol described here. Through the use of these technologies, the zebrafish has become a valuable vertebrate model and an excellent bridge between the invertebrate and mammalian model systems for the study of human disease.

  9. Knockout targeting of the Drosophila nap1 gene and examination of DNA repair tracts in the recombination products.

    PubMed Central

    Lankenau, Susanne; Barnickel, Thorsten; Marhold, Joachim; Lyko, Frank; Mechler, Bernard M; Lankenau, Dirk-Henner

    2003-01-01

    We used ends-in gene targeting to generate knockout mutations of the nucleosome assembly protein 1 (Nap1) gene in Drosophila melanogaster. Three independent targeted null-knockout mutations were produced. No wild-type NAP1 protein could be detected in protein extracts. Homozygous Nap1(KO) knockout flies were either embryonic lethal or poorly viable adult escapers. Three additional targeted recombination products were viable. To gain insight into the underlying molecular processes we examined conversion tracts in the recombination products. In nearly all cases the I-SceI endonuclease site of the donor vector was replaced by the wild-type Nap1 sequence. This indicated exonuclease processing at the site of the double-strand break (DSB), followed by replicative repair at donor-target junctions. The targeting products are best interpreted either by the classical DSB repair model or by the break-induced recombination (BIR) model. Synthesis-dependent strand annealing (SDSA), which is another important recombinational repair pathway in the germline, does not explain ends-in targeting products. We conclude that this example of gene targeting at the Nap1 locus provides added support for the efficiency of this method and its usefulness in targeting any arbitrary locus in the Drosophila genome. PMID:12618400

  10. Phenotype of the Cyp1a1/1a2/1b1(−/−) Triple-Knockout Mouse*

    PubMed Central

    Dragin, Nadine; Shi, Zhanquan; Madan, Rajat; Karp, Christopher L.; Sartor, Maureen A.; Chen, Chi; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Nebert, Daniel W.

    2009-01-01

    Crossing the Cyp1a1/1a2(−/−) double-knockout mouse with the Cyp1b1(−/−) single-knockout mouse, we generated the Cyp1a1/1a2/1b1(−/−) triple-knockout mouse. In this triple-knockout mouse, statistically significant phenotypes (with incomplete penetrance) included slower weight gain and greater risk of embryolethality before gestational day 11, hydrocephalus, hermaphroditism, and cystic ovaries. Oral benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) daily for 18 days in the Cyp1a1/1a2(−/−) produced the same degree of marked immunosuppression as seen in the Cyp1a1(−/−) mouse; we believe this reflects the absence of intestinal CYP1A1. Oral BaP-treated Cyp1a1/1a2/1b1(−/−) mice showed the same “rescued” response as that seen in the Cyp1a1/1b1(−/−) mouse; we believe this reflects the absence of CYP1B1 in immune tissues. Urinary metabolite profiles were dramatically different between untreated triple-knockout and wild-type; principal components analysis showed that the shifts in urinary metabolite patterns in oral BaP-treated triple-knockout and wild-type mice were also strikingly different. Liver microarray cDNA differential expression (comparing triple-knockout with wild-type) revealed at least 89 genes up- and 62 genes down-regulated (P-value ≤0.00086). Gene Ontology “classes of genes” most perturbed in the untreated triple-knockout (compared with wild-type) include lipid, steroid, and cholesterol biosynthesis and metabolism; nucleosome and chromatin assembly; carboxylic and organic acid metabolism; metal-ion binding; and ion homeostasis. In the triple-knockout compared with the wild-type mice, response to zymosan-induced peritonitis was strikingly exaggerated, which may well reflect down-regulation of Socs2 expression. If a single common molecular pathway is responsible for all of these phenotypes, we suggest that functional effects of the loss of all three Cyp1 genes could be explained by perturbations in CYP1-mediated eicosanoid production, catabolism and

  11. Myeloid cell-specific inositol polyphosphate-4-phosphatase type I knockout mice impair bacteria clearance in a murine peritonitis model.

    PubMed

    Morioka, Shin; Nigorikawa, Kiyomi; Sasaki, Junko; Hazeki, Kaoru; Kasuu, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Takehiko; Hazeki, Osamu

    2016-08-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling has been implicated in the anti-inflammatory response in a mouse model of endotoxemia and sepsis. The present study focused on the role of inositol polyphosphate-4-phosphatase type I (Inpp4a), which dephosphorylates PtdIns(3,4)P2 to PtdIns(3)P, in bacterial infections. We prepared myeloid cell-specific Inpp4a-conditional knockout mice. Macrophages from these mice showed increased Akt phosphorylation and reduced production of inflammatory cytokines in response to LPS or Escherichia coli in vitro The Inpp4a knockout mice survived for a shorter time than wild type mice after i.p. infection with E. coli, with less production of inflammatory cytokines. Additionally, E. coli clearance from blood and lung was significantly impaired in the knockout mice. A likely mechanism is that the Inpp4a-catalyzed dephosphorylation of PtdIns(3,4)P2 down-regulates Akt pathways, which, in turn, increases the production of inflammatory mediators. This mechanism at least fits the decreased E. coli clearance and short survival in the Inpp4a knockout mice.

  12. Raphe serotonin neuron-specific oxytocin receptor knockout reduces aggression without affecting anxiety-like behavior in male mice only

    PubMed Central

    Pagani, Jerome H.; Williams Avram, Sarah K.; Cui, Zhenzhong; Song, June; Mezey, Éva; Senerth, Julia M.; Baumann, Michael H.; Young, W. Scott

    2015-01-01

    Serotonin and oxytocin influence aggressive and anxiety-like behaviors, though it is unclear how the two may interact. That the oxytocin receptor is expressed in the serotonergic raphe nuclei suggests a mechanism by which the two neurotransmitters may cooperatively influence behavior. We hypothesized that oxytocin acts on raphe neurons to influence serotonergically-mediated anxiety-like, aggressive and parental care behaviors. We eliminated expression of the oxytocin receptor in raphe neurons by crossing mice expressing Cre recombinase under control of the serotonin transporter promoter (Slc6a4) with our conditional oxytocin receptor knockout line. The knockout mice generated by this cross are normal across a range of behavioral measures: there are no effects for either sex on locomotion in an open-field, olfactory habituation/dishabituation or, surprisingly, anxiety-like behaviors in the elevated O and plus mazes. There was a profound deficit in male aggression: only one of 11 raphe oxytocin receptor knockouts showed any aggressive behavior, compared to eight of 11 wildtypes. In contrast, female knockouts displayed no deficits in maternal behavior or aggression. Our results show that oxytocin, via its effects on raphe neurons, is a key regulator of resident-intruder aggression in males but not maternal aggression. Furthermore, this reduction in male aggression is quite different from the effects reported previously after forebrain or total elimination of oxytocin receptors. Finally, we conclude that when constitutively eliminated, oxytocin receptors expressed by serotonin cells do not contribute to baseline anxiety-like behaviors or maternal care. PMID:25677455

  13. Steady flow and heat transfer analysis of Phan-Thein-Tanner fluid in double-layer optical fiber coating analysis with Slip Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Zeeshan; Shah, Rehan Ali; Islam, Saeed; Jan, Bilal; Imran, Muhammad; Tahir, Farisa

    2016-01-01

    Modern optical fibers require double-layer coating on the glass fiber to provide protection from signal attenuation and mechanical damage. The most important plastic resins used in wires and optical fibers are plastic polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and low-high density polyethylene (LDPE/HDPE), nylon and Polysulfone. In this paper, double-layer optical fiber coating is performed using melt polymer satisfying PTT fluid model in a pressure type die using wet-on-wet coating process. The assumption of fully developed flow of Phan-Thien-Tanner (PTT) fluid model, two-layer liquid flows of an immiscible fluid is modeled in an annular die, where the fiber is dragged at a higher speed. The equations characterizing the flow and heat transfer phenomena are solved exactly and the effects of emerging parameters (Deborah and slip parameters, characteristic velocity, radii ratio and Brinkman numbers on the axial velocity, flow rate, thickness of coated fiber optics, and temperature distribution) are reported in graphs. It is shown that an increase in the non-Newtonian parameters increase the velocity in the absence or presence of slip parameters which coincides with related work. The comparison is done with experimental work by taking λ → 0 (non-Newtonian parameter). PMID:27708412

  14. Steady flow and heat transfer analysis of Phan-Thein-Tanner fluid in double-layer optical fiber coating analysis with Slip Conditions.

    PubMed

    Khan, Zeeshan; Shah, Rehan Ali; Islam, Saeed; Jan, Bilal; Imran, Muhammad; Tahir, Farisa

    2016-10-06

    Modern optical fibers require double-layer coating on the glass fiber to provide protection from signal attenuation and mechanical damage. The most important plastic resins used in wires and optical fibers are plastic polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and low-high density polyethylene (LDPE/HDPE), nylon and Polysulfone. In this paper, double-layer optical fiber coating is performed using melt polymer satisfying PTT fluid model in a pressure type die using wet-on-wet coating process. The assumption of fully developed flow of Phan-Thien-Tanner (PTT) fluid model, two-layer liquid flows of an immiscible fluid is modeled in an annular die, where the fiber is dragged at a higher speed. The equations characterizing the flow and heat transfer phenomena are solved exactly and the effects of emerging parameters (Deborah and slip parameters, characteristic velocity, radii ratio and Brinkman numbers on the axial velocity, flow rate, thickness of coated fiber optics, and temperature distribution) are reported in graphs. It is shown that an increase in the non-Newtonian parameters increase the velocity in the absence or presence of slip parameters which coincides with related work. The comparison is done with experimental work by taking λ → 0 (non-Newtonian parameter).

  15. Steady flow and heat transfer analysis of Phan-Thein-Tanner fluid in double-layer optical fiber coating analysis with Slip Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Zeeshan; Shah, Rehan Ali; Islam, Saeed; Jan, Bilal; Imran, Muhammad; Tahir, Farisa

    2016-10-01

    Modern optical fibers require double-layer coating on the glass fiber to provide protection from signal attenuation and mechanical damage. The most important plastic resins used in wires and optical fibers are plastic polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and low-high density polyethylene (LDPE/HDPE), nylon and Polysulfone. In this paper, double-layer optical fiber coating is performed using melt polymer satisfying PTT fluid model in a pressure type die using wet-on-wet coating process. The assumption of fully developed flow of Phan-Thien-Tanner (PTT) fluid model, two-layer liquid flows of an immiscible fluid is modeled in an annular die, where the fiber is dragged at a higher speed. The equations characterizing the flow and heat transfer phenomena are solved exactly and the effects of emerging parameters (Deborah and slip parameters, characteristic velocity, radii ratio and Brinkman numbers on the axial velocity, flow rate, thickness of coated fiber optics, and temperature distribution) are reported in graphs. It is shown that an increase in the non-Newtonian parameters increase the velocity in the absence or presence of slip parameters which coincides with related work. The comparison is done with experimental work by taking λ → 0 (non-Newtonian parameter).

  16. One-neutron knockout from 51-55 Sc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwertel, S.; Maierbeck, P.; Krücken, R.; Gernhäuser, R.; Kröll, T.; Alvarez-Pol, H.; Aksouh, F.; Aumann, T.; Behr, K.; Benjamim, E. A.; Benlliure, J.; Bildstein, V.; Böhmer, M.; Boretzky, K.; Borge, M. J. G.; Brünle, A.; Bürger, A.; Caamaño, M.; Casarejos, E.; Chatillon, A.; Chulkov, L. V.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Enders, J.; Eppinger, K.; Faestermann, T.; Friese, J.; Fabbietti, L.; Gascón, M.; Geissel, H.; Gerl, J.; Gorska, M.; Hansen, P. G.; Jonson, B.; Kanungo, R.; Kiselev, O.; Kojouharov, I.; Klimkiewicz, A.; Kurtukian, T.; Kurz, N.; Larsson, K.; Le Bleis, T.; Mahata, K.; Maier, L.; Nilsson, T.; Nociforo, C.; Nyman, G.; Pascual-Izarra, C.; Perea, A.; Perez, D.; Prochazka, A.; Rodriguez-Tajes, C.; Rossi, D.; Schaffner, H.; Schrieder, G.; Simon, H.; Sitar, B.; Stanoiu, M.; Sümmerer, K.; Tengblad, O.; Weick, H.; Winkler, S.; Brown, B. A.; Otsuka, T.; Tostevin, J. A.; Rae, W. D. M.

    2012-12-01

    Results are presented from a one-neutron knockout experiment at relativistic energies of ≈ 420 A MeV on 51-55Sc using the GSI Fragment Separator as a two-stage magnetic spectrometer and the MINIBALL array for gamma-ray detection. Inclusive longitudinal momentum distributions and cross-sections were measured enabling the determination of the contributions corresponding to knockout from the ν p_{1/2} , ν p_{3/2} , ( L = 1 and ν f_{7/2} , ν f_{5/2} ( L = 3 neutron orbitals. The observed L = 1 and L = 3 contributions are compared with theoretical cross-sections using eikonal knockout theory and spectroscopic factors from shell model calculations using the GXPF1A interaction. The measured inclusive knockout cross-sections generally follow the trends expected theoretically and given by the spectroscopic strength predicted from the shell model calculations. However, the deduced L = 1 cross-sections are generally 30-40% higher while the L = 3 contributions are about a factor of two smaller than predicted. This points to a promotion of neutrons from the ν f_{7/2} to the ν p_{3/2} orbital indicating a weakening of the N = 28 shell gap in these nuclei. While this is not predicted for the phenomenological GXPF1A interaction such a weakening is predicted by recent calculations using realistic low-momentum interactions V_{low k} obtained by evolving a chiral N3LO nucleon-nucleon potential.

  17. Knockout mice in understanding the mechanism of action of lithium.

    PubMed

    Agam, Galila; Bersudsky, Yuly; Berry, Gerard T; Moechars, Diederik; Lavi-Avnon, Yael; Belmaker, R H

    2009-10-01

    Lithium inhibits IMPase (inositol monophosphatase) activity, as well as inositol transporter function. To determine whether one or more of these mechanisms might underlie lithium's behavioural effects, we studied Impa1 (encoding IMPase) and Smit1 (sodium-myo-inositol transporter 1)-knockout mice. In brains of adult homozygous Impa1-knockout mice, IMPase activity was found to be decreased; however, inositol levels were not found to be altered. Behavioural analysis indicated decreased immobility in the forced-swim test as well as a strongly increased sensitivity to pilocarpine-induced seizures. These are behaviours robustly induced by lithium. In homozygous Smit1-knockout mice, free inositol levels were decreased in the frontal cortex and hippocampus. These animals behave like lithium-treated animals in the model of pilocarpine seizures and in the Porsolt forced-swim test model of depression. In contrast with O'Brien et al. [O'Brien, Harper, Jove, Woodgett, Maretto, Piccolo and Klein (2004) J. Neurosci. 24, 6791-6798], we could not confirm that heterozygous Gsk3b (glycogen synthase kinase 3beta)-knockout mice exhibit decreased immobility in the Porsolt forced-swim test or decreased amphetamine-induced hyperactivity in a manner mimicking lithium's behavioural effects. These data support the role of inositol-related processes rather than GSK3beta in the mechanism of the therapeutic action of lithium.

  18. Central nervous system-specific knockout of steroidogenic factor 1.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Woo; Zhao, Liping; Parker, Keith L

    2009-03-05

    Steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) is a nuclear receptor that plays important roles in the hypothalamus-pituitary-steroidogenic organ axis. Global knockout studies in mice revealed the essential in vivo roles of SF-1 in the ventromedial hypothalamic (VMH) nucleus, adrenal glands, and gonads. One limitation of global SF-1 knockout mice is their early postnatal death from adrenocortical insufficiency. To overcome limitations of the global knockout mice and to delineate the roles of SF-1 in the brain, we used Cre/loxP recombination technology to genetically ablate SF-1 specifically in the central nervous system (CNS). Mice with CNS-specific knockout of SF-1 mediated by nestin-Cre showed increased anxiety-like behavior, revealing a crucial role of SF-1 in a complex behavioral phenotype. Our studies with CNS-specific SF-1 KO mice also defined roles of SF-1 in regulating the VMH expression of target genes implicated in anxiety and energy homeostasis. Therefore, this review will focus on our recent studies defining the functional roles of SF-1 in the VMH linked to anxiety and energy homeostasis.

  19. Hepatic changes in metabolic gene expression in old ghrelin and ghrelin receptor knockout mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ghrelin knockout (GKO) and ghrelin receptor (growth hormone secretagogue receptor) knockout (GHSRKO) mice exhibit enhanced insulin sensitivity, but the mechanism is unclear. Insulin sensitivity declines with age and is inversely associated with accumulation of lipid in liver, a key glucoregulatory ...

  20. Behavioral characterization of P311 knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Gregory A.; Rodriguiz, Ramona M.; Greene, Robert I.; Daniell, Xiaoju; Henry, Stanley C.; Crooks, Kristy R.; Kotloski, Robert; Tessarollo, Lino; Phillips, Lindsey E.; Wetsel, William C.

    2013-01-01

    P311 is an 8-kDa protein that is expressed in many brain regions, particularly the hippocampus, cerebellum and olfactory lobes, and is under stringent regulation by developmental, mitogenic and other physiological stimuli. P311 is thought to be involved in the transformation and motility of neural cells; however, its role in normal brain physiology is undefined. To address this point, P311-deficient mice were developed through gene targeting and their behaviors were characterized. Mutants displayed no overt abnormalities, bred normally and had normal survival rates. Additionally, no deficiencies were noted in motor co-ordination, balance, hearing or olfactory discrimination. Nevertheless, P311-deficient mice showed altered behavioral responses in learning and memory. These included impaired responses in social transmission of food preference, Morris water maze and contextual fear conditioning. Additionally, mutants displayed altered emotional responses as indicated by decreased freezing in contextual and cued fear conditioning and reduced fear-potentiated startle. Together, these data establish P311 as playing an important role in learning and memory processes and emotional responses. PMID:18616608

  1. Antibiotic-free segregational plasmid stabilization in Escherichia coli owing to the knockout of triosephosphate isomerase (tpiA)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Segregational stability of plasmids is of major concern for recombinant bacterial production strains. One of the best strategies to counteract plasmid loss is the use of auxotrophic mutants which are complemented with the lacking gene along with the product-relevant ones. However, these knockout mutants often show unwanted growth in complex standard media or no growth at all under uncomplemented conditions. This led to the choice of a gene for knockout that only connects two essential arms of an essential metabolic pathway – the glycolysis. Results Triosephosphate isomerase was chosen because its knockout will have a tremendous effect on growth on glucose as well as on glycerol. On glycerol the effect is almost absolute whereas on glucose growth is still possible, but with considerably lower rate than usual. This feature is essential because it may render cloning easier. This enzymatic activity was successfully tested as an alternative to antibiotic-based plasmid selection. Expression of a model recombinant β-glucanase in continuous cultivation was possible with stable maintenance of the plasmid. In addition, the complementation of tpiA knockout strains by the corresponding plasmids and their growth characteristics were tested on a series of complex and synthetic media. The accumulation of methylglyoxal during the growth of tpiA-deficient strains was shown to be a possible cause for the growth disadvantage of these strains in comparison to the parent strain for the Keio Collection strain or the complemented knock-out strain. Conclusion Through the use of this new auxotrophic complementation system, antibiotic-free cloning and selection of recombinant plasmid were possible. Continuous cultivation and recombinant protein expression with high segregational stability over an extended time period was also demonstrated. PMID:24745552

  2. Appetitively motivated instrumental learning in SynGAP heterozygous knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Muhia, Mary; Feldon, Joram; Knuesel, Irene; Yee, Benjamin K

    2009-10-01

    The synaptic Ras/Rap-GTPase-activating protein (SynGAP) regulates specific intracellular events following N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) activation. Here, the impact of SynGAP heterozygous knockout (SG+/-) on NMDAR-dependent functions was assessed using different positive reinforcement schedules in instrumental conditioning. The knockout did not affect the temporal control of operant responding under a fixed interval (FI) schedule, but led to a putative enhancement in response vigor and/or disinhibition. When examined on differential reinforcement of low rates of response (DRL) schedules, SG+/- mice showed increased responding under DRL-4s and DRL-8s, without impairing the response efficiency (total rewards/total lever presses) because both rewarded and nonrewarded presses were elevated. Motivation was unaffected as evaluated using a progressive ratio (PR) schedule. Yet, SG+/- mice persisted in responding during extinction at the end of PR training, although an equivalent phenotype was not evident in extinction learning following FI-20s training. This extinction phenotype is therefore schedule-specific and cannot be generalized to Pavlovian conditioning. In conclusion, constitutive SynGAP reduction increases vigor in the execution of learned operant behavior without compromising its temporal control, yielding effects readily distinguishable from NMDAR blockade.

  3. Theory of nonmonotonic double layers

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.Y.

    1987-12-01

    A simple graphic method of solving the Vlasov--Poisson system associated with nonlinear eigenvalue conditions for arbitrary potential structures is presented. A general analytic formulation for nonmonotonic double layers is presented and illustrated with some particular closed form solutions. This class of double layers satisfies the time stationary Vlasov--Poisson system while requiring a Sagdeev potential, which is a double-valued function of the physical potential. It follows that any distribution function having a density representation as any integer or noninteger power series of potential can never satisfy the nonmonotonic double-layer boundary conditions. A Korteweg--de Vries-like equation is found showing a relationship among the speed of the nonmonotonic double layer, its scale length, and its degree of asymmetry.

  4. Double Layers in Astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Alton C. (Editor); Moorehead, Tauna W. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    Topics addressed include: laboratory double layers; ion-acoustic double layers; pumping potential wells; ion phase-space vortices; weak double layers; electric fields and double layers in plasmas; auroral double layers; double layer formation in a plasma; beamed emission from gamma-ray burst source; double layers and extragalactic jets; and electric potential between plasma sheet clouds.

  5. Double screening

    SciTech Connect

    Gratia, Pierre; Hu, Wayne; Joyce, Austin; Ribeiro, Raquel H.

    2016-06-15

    Attempts to modify gravity in the infrared typically require a screening mechanism to ensure consistency with local tests of gravity. These screening mechanisms fit into three broad classes; we investigate theories which are capable of exhibiting more than one type of screening. Specifically, we focus on a simple model which exhibits both Vainshtein and kinetic screening. We point out that due to the two characteristic length scales in the problem, the type of screening that dominates depends on the mass of the sourcing object, allowing for different phenomenology at different scales. We consider embedding this double screening phenomenology in a broader cosmological scenario and show that the simplest examples that exhibit double screening are radiatively stable.

  6. Knockout driven reactions in complex molecules and their clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatchell, Michael; Zettergren, Henning

    2016-08-01

    Energetic ions lose some of their kinetic energy when interacting with electrons or nuclei in matter. Here, we discuss combined experimental and theoretical studies on such impulse driven reactions in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), fullerenes, and pure or mixed clusters of these molecules. These studies show that the nature of excitation is important for how complex molecular systems respond to ion/atom impact. Rutherford-like nuclear scattering processes may lead to prompt atom knockout and formation of highly reactive fragments, while heating of the molecular electron clouds in general lead to formation of more stable and less reactive fragments. In this topical review, we focus on recent studies of knockout driven reactions, and present new calculations of the angular dependent threshold (displacement) energies for such processes in PAHs. The so-formed fragments may efficiently form covalent bonds with neighboring molecules in clusters. These unique molecular growth processes may be important in astrophysical environments such as low velocity shock waves.

  7. A STAT-1 knockout mouse model for Machupo virus pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Machupo virus (MACV), a member of the Arenaviridae, causes Bolivian hemorrhagic fever, with ~20% lethality in humans. The pathogenesis of MACV infection is poorly understood, and there are no clinically proven treatments for disease. This is due, in part, to a paucity of small animal models for MACV infection in which to discover and explore candidate therapeutics. Methods Mice lacking signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT-1) were infected with MACV. Lethality, viral replication, metabolic changes, hematology, histopathology, and systemic cytokine expression were analyzed throughout the course of infection. Results We report here that STAT-1 knockout mice succumbed to MACV infection within 7-8 days, and presented some relevant clinical and histopathological manifestations of disease. Furthermore, the model was used to validate the efficacy of ribavirin in protection against infection. Conclusions The STAT-1 knockout mouse model can be a useful small animal model for drug testing and preliminary immunological analysis of lethal MACV infection. PMID:21672221

  8. Deconstructing mammalian reproduction: using knockouts to define fertility pathways.

    PubMed

    Roy, Angshumoy; Matzuk, Martin M

    2006-02-01

    Reproduction is the sine qua non for the propagation of species and continuation of life. It is a complex biological process that is regulated by multiple factors during the reproductive life of an organism. Over the past decade, the molecular mechanisms regulating reproduction in mammals have been rapidly unraveled by the study of a vast number of mouse gene knockouts with impaired fertility. The use of reverse genetics to generate null mutants in mice through targeted disruption of specific genes has enabled researchers to identify essential regulators of spermatogenesis and oogenesis in vivo and model human disorders affecting reproduction. This review focuses on the merits, utility, and the variations of the knockout technology in studies of reproduction in mammals.

  9. Human Genetic Disorders and Knockout Mice Deficient in Glycosaminoglycan

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are constructed through the stepwise addition of respective monosaccharides by various glycosyltransferases and maturated by epimerases and sulfotransferases. The structural diversity of GAG polysaccharides, including their sulfation patterns and sequential arrangements, is essential for a wide range of biological activities such as cell signaling, cell proliferation, tissue morphogenesis, and interactions with various growth factors. Studies using knockout mice of enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of the GAG side chains of proteoglycans have revealed their physiological functions. Furthermore, mutations in the human genes encoding glycosyltransferases, sulfotransferases, and related enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of GAGs cause a number of genetic disorders including chondrodysplasia, spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, and Ehlers-Danlos syndromes. This review focused on the increasing number of glycobiological studies on knockout mice and genetic diseases caused by disturbances in the biosynthetic enzymes for GAGs. PMID:25126564

  10. Using engineered endonucleases to create knockout and knockin zebrafish models

    PubMed Central

    Bedell, Victoria M.; Ekker, Stephen C.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Over the last few years, the technology to create targeted knockout and knockin zebrafish animals has exploded. We have gained the ability to create targeted knockouts through the use of zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR associated system (CRISPR/Cas). Furthermore, using the high-efficiency TALEN system, we were able to create knockin zebrafish using a single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) protocol described here. Through the use of these technologies, the zebrafish has become a valuable vertebrate model and an excellent bridge between the invertebrate and mammalian model systems for the study of human disease. PMID:25408414

  11. An IPTG Inducible Conditional Expression System for Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Ravishankar, Sudha; Ambady, Anisha; Ramu, Haripriya; Mudugal, Naina Vinay; Tunduguru, Ragadeepthi; Anbarasu, Anand; Sharma, Umender K.; Sambandamurthy, Vasan K.; Ramaiah, Sudha

    2015-01-01

    Conditional expression strains serve as a valuable tool to study the essentiality and to establish the vulnerability of a target under investigation in a drug discovery program. While essentiality implies an absolute requirement of a target function, vulnerability provides valuable information on the extent to which a target function needs to be depleted to achieve bacterial growth inhibition followed by cell death. The critical feature of an ideal conditional expression system is its ability to tightly regulate gene expression to achieve the full spectrum spanning from a high level of expression in order to support growth and near zero level of expression to mimic conditions of gene knockout. A number of bacterial conditional expression systems have been reported for use in mycobacteria. The utility of an isopropylthiogalactoside (IPTG) inducible system in mycobacteria has been reported for protein overexpression and anti-sense gene expression from a replicating multi-copy plasmid. Herein, we report the development of a versatile set of non-replicating IPTG inducible vectors for mycobacteria which can be used for generation of conditional expression strains through homologous recombination. The role of a single lac operator versus a double lac operator to regulate gene expression was evaluated by monitoring the expression levels of β-galactosidase in Mycobacterium smegmatis. These studies indicated a significant level of leaky expression from the vector with a single lac operator but none from the vector with double lac operator. The significance of the double lac operator vector for target validation was established by monitoring the growth kinetics of an inhA, a rpoB and a ftsZ conditional expression strain grown in the presence of different concentrations of IPTG. The utility of this inducible system in identifying target specific inhibitors was established by screening a focussed library of small molecules using an inhA and a rpoB conditional expression

  12. Cadherin 13: Human cis-Regulation and Selectively Altered Addiction Phenotypes and Cerebral Cortical Dopamine in Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Drgonova, Jana; Walther, Donna; Hartstein, G Luke; Bukhari, Mohammad O; Baumann, Michael H; Katz, Jonathan; Hall, F Scott; Arnold, Elizabeth R; Flax, Shaun; Riley, Anthony; Rivero, Olga; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Troncoso, Juan; Ranscht, Barbara; Uhl, George R

    2016-01-01

    The cadherin 13 (CDH13) gene encodes a cell adhesion molecule likely to influence development and connections of brain circuits that modulate addiction, locomotion and cognition, including those that involve midbrain dopamine neurons. Human CDH13 mRNA expression differs by more than 80% in postmortem cerebral cortical samples from individuals with different CDH13 genotypes, supporting examination of mice with altered CDH13 expression as models for common human variation at this locus. Constitutive CDH13 knockout mice display evidence for changed cocaine reward: shifted dose response relationship in tests of cocaine-conditioned place preference using doses that do not alter cocaine-conditioned taste aversion. Reduced adult CDH13 expression in conditional knockouts also alters cocaine reward in ways that correlate with individual differences in cortical CDH13 mRNA levels. In control and comparison behavioral assessments, knockout mice display modestly quicker acquisition of rotarod and water maze tasks, with a trend toward faster acquisition of 5-choice serial reaction time tasks that otherwise displayed no genotype-related differences. They display significant differences in locomotion in some settings, with larger effects in males. In assessments of brain changes that might contribute to these behavioral differences, there are selective alterations of dopamine levels, dopamine/metabolite ratios, dopaminergic fiber densities and mRNA encoding the activity dependent transcription factor npas4 in cerebral cortex of knockout mice. These novel data and previously reported human associations of CDH13 variants with addiction, individual differences in responses to stimulant administration and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) phenotypes suggest that levels of CDH13 expression, through mechanisms likely to include effects on mesocortical dopamine, influence stimulant reward and may contribute modestly to cognitive and locomotor phenotypes relevant to ADHD

  13. In Silico Knockout Studies of Xenophagic Capturing of Salmonella

    PubMed Central

    Scheidel, Jennifer; Amstein, Leonie; Ackermann, Jörg; Dikic, Ivan; Koch, Ina

    2016-01-01

    The degradation of cytosol-invading pathogens by autophagy, a process known as xenophagy, is an important mechanism of the innate immune system. Inside the host, Salmonella Typhimurium invades epithelial cells and resides within a specialized intracellular compartment, the Salmonella-containing vacuole. A fraction of these bacteria does not persist inside the vacuole and enters the host cytosol. Salmonella Typhimurium that invades the host cytosol becomes a target of the autophagy machinery for degradation. The xenophagy pathway has recently been discovered, and the exact molecular processes are not entirely characterized. Complete kinetic data for each molecular process is not available, so far. We developed a mathematical model of the xenophagy pathway to investigate this key defense mechanism. In this paper, we present a Petri net model of Salmonella xenophagy in epithelial cells. The model is based on functional information derived from literature data. It comprises the molecular mechanism of galectin-8-dependent and ubiquitin-dependent autophagy, including regulatory processes, like nutrient-dependent regulation of autophagy and TBK1-dependent activation of the autophagy receptor, OPTN. To model the activation of TBK1, we proposed a new mechanism of TBK1 activation, suggesting a spatial and temporal regulation of this process. Using standard Petri net analysis techniques, we found basic functional modules, which describe different pathways of the autophagic capture of Salmonella and reflect the basic dynamics of the system. To verify the model, we performed in silico knockout experiments. We introduced a new concept of knockout analysis to systematically compute and visualize the results, using an in silico knockout matrix. The results of the in silico knockout analyses were consistent with published experimental results and provide a basis for future investigations of the Salmonella xenophagy pathway. PMID:27906974

  14. Generation of Gene Knockout Mice by ES Cell Microinjection

    PubMed Central

    Longenecker, Glenn; Kulkarni, Ashok B

    2009-01-01

    This unit lists and describes protocols used in the production of chimeric mice leading to the generation of gene knockout mice. These protocols include the collection of blastocyst embryos, ES cell injection, and uterine transfer of injected blastocysts. Support protocols in the superovulation of blastocyst donor mice, generation of pseudopregnant recipients, fabrication of glass pipettes, and generation of germline mice are also included. Practical tips and solutions are mentioned to help troubleshoot problems that may occur. PMID:19731226

  15. Double-disease management or one care manager for two chronic conditions: pilot feasibility study of nurse telephonic disease management for depression and congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Cole, Steven A; Farber, Nancy C; Weiner, Joseph S; Sulfaro, Michelle; Katzelnick, David J; Blader, Joseph C

    2006-10-01

    This study assessed the feasibility of a telephonic nurse double-disease management program (DDMP) for patients with depression and congestive heart failure. Thirty-five patients with depression and congestive heart failure were entered into a novel DDMP modeled after Wagner's chronic illness care model and implemented as part of a 13-month Breakthrough Series Collaborative administered by the Institute of Healthcare Improvement. Twenty-four patients remained in the program long enough to complete at least one follow-up assessment (ie, 6 weeks or longer). Patients were entered into the program based on depression severity scores from either the interactive voice response (IVR) version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) or the self-administered (or telephonic) Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ). Because use of the IVR version of the HADS was eliminated after several weeks into the program (because of poor patient acceptance), 19 patients had both entry and follow-up scores on the same instrument (PHQ). Depression "response" was defined as a 50% improvement in PHQ score. Mixed models regression was used to test the statistical significance of change in PHQ scores over time. Patient and clinician reports were obtained to evaluate program acceptability and satisfaction. Eighty-two percent of patients (n = 11) with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) responded, and 75% of patients (n = 8) with "other depression" (PHQ score < 10) responded. Mean change in PHQ scores for the sample as a whole improved significantly over the 24 weeks of the program (p < 0.0003), as well as for those with major depression and other depression considered separately (p < 0.01 for both). In some patients who refused medication, depression seemed to respond to self-management support interventions of the care manager. Based on patient acceptance and clinicians' reports, the program appeared feasible and possibly effective. DDMP appears feasible and possibly effective. Future

  16. Knock-Out Models Reveal New Aquaporin Functions

    PubMed Central

    Verkman, Alan S.

    2013-01-01

    Knockout mice have been informative in the discovery of unexpected biological functions of aquaporins. Knockout mice have confirmed the predicted roles of aquaporins in transepithelial fluid transport, as in the urinary concentrating mechanism and glandular fluid secretion. A less obvious, though predictable role of aquaporins is in tissue swelling under stress, as in the brain in stroke, tumor and infection. Phenotype analysis of aquaporin knockout mice has revealed several unexpected cellular roles of aquaporins whose mechanisms are being elucidated. Aquaporins facilitate cell migration, as seen in aquaporin-dependent tumor angiogenesis and tumor metastasis, by a mechanism that may involve facilitated water transport in lamellipodia of migrating cells. The ‘aquaglyceroporins’, aquaporins that transport both glycerol and water, regulate glycerol content in epidermis, fat and other tissues, and lead to a multiplicity of interesting consequences of gene disruption including dry skin, resistance to skin carcinogenesis, impaired cell proliferation and altered fat metabolism. An even more surprising role of a mammalian aquaporin is in neural signal transduction in the central nervous system. The many roles of aquaporins might be exploited for clinical benefit by modulation of aquaporin expression/function – as diuretics, and in the treatment of brain swelling, glaucoma, epilepsy, obesity and cancer. PMID:19096787

  17. The evolution of thymic lymphomas in p53 knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Dudgeon, Crissy; Chan, Chang; Kang, Wenfeng; Sun, Yvonne; Emerson, Ryan; Robins, Harlan

    2014-01-01

    Germline deletion of the p53 gene in mice gives rise to spontaneous thymic (T-cell) lymphomas. In this study, the p53 knockout mouse was employed as a model to study the mutational evolution of tumorigenesis. The clonality of the T-cell repertoire from p53 knockout and wild-type thymic cells was analyzed at various ages employing TCRβ sequencing. These data demonstrate that p53 knockout thymic lymphomas arose in an oligoclonal fashion, with tumors evolving dominant clones over time. Exon sequencing of tumor DNA revealed that all of the independently derived oligoclonal mouse tumors had a deletion in the Pten gene prior to the formation of the TCRβ rearrangement, produced early in development. This was followed in each independent clone of the thymic lymphoma by the amplification or overexpression of cyclin Ds and Cdk6. Alterations in the expression of Ikaros were common and blocked further development of CD-4/CD-8 T cells. While the frequency of point mutations in the genome of these lymphomas was one per megabase, there were a tremendous number of copy number variations producing the tumors’ driver mutations. The initial inherited loss of p53 functions appeared to delineate an order of genetic alterations selected for during the evolution of these thymic lymphomas. PMID:25452272

  18. Impairments in the Initiation of Maternal Behavior in Oxytocin Receptor Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Rich, Megan E.; deCárdenas, Emily J.; Lee, Heon-Jin; Caldwell, Heather K.

    2014-01-01

    Oxytocin (Oxt) acting through its single receptor subtype, the Oxtr, is important for the coordination of physiology and behavior associated with parturition and maternal care. Knockout mouse models have been helpful in exploring the contributions of Oxt to maternal behavior, including total body Oxt knockout (Oxt −/−) mice, forebrain conditional Oxtr knockout (Oxtr FB/FB) mice, and total body Oxtr knockout (Oxtr −/−) mice. Since Oxtr −/− mice are unable to lactate, maternal behavior has only been examined in virgin females, or in dams within a few hours of parturition, and there have been no studies that have examined their anxiety-like and depression-like behavior following parturition. To improve our understanding of how the absence of Oxt signaling affects maternal behavior, mood and anxiety, we designed a study using Oxtr −/− mice that separated nursing behavior from other aspects of maternal care, such as licking and grooming by thelectomizing (i.e. removing the nipples) of Oxtr +/+ mice and sham-thelectomizing Oxtr −/− mice, and pairing both genotypes with a wet nurse. We then measured pup abandonment, maternal behavior, and postpartum anxiety-like and depression-like behaviors. We hypothesized that genetic disruption of the Oxtr would impact maternal care, mood and anxiety. Specifically, we predicted that Oxtr −/− dams would have impaired maternal care and increased anxiety-like and depression-like behaviors in the postpartum period. We found that Oxtr −/− dams had significantly higher levels of pup abandonment compared to controls, which is consistent with previous work in Oxtr FB/FB mice. Interestingly, Oxtr −/− dams that initiated maternal care did not differ from wildtype controls in measures of maternal behavior. We also did not find any evidence of altered anxiety-like or depressive-like behavior in the postpartum period of Oxtr −/− dams. Thus, our data suggest that Oxt lowers the threshold for the initiation of

  19. Effect of iclR and arcA knockouts on biomass formation and metabolic fluxes in Escherichia coli K12 and its implications on understanding the metabolism of Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Gene expression is regulated through a complex interplay of different transcription factors (TFs) which can enhance or inhibit gene transcription. ArcA is a global regulator that regulates genes involved in different metabolic pathways, while IclR as a local regulator, controls the transcription of the glyoxylate pathway genes of the aceBAK operon. This study investigates the physiological and metabolic consequences of arcA and iclR deletions on E. coli K12 MG1655 under glucose abundant and limiting conditions and compares the results with the metabolic characteristics of E. coli BL21 (DE3). Results The deletion of arcA and iclR results in an increase in the biomass yield both under glucose abundant and limiting conditions, approaching the maximum theoretical yield of 0.65 c-mole/c-mole glucose under glucose abundant conditions. This can be explained by the lower flux through several CO2 producing pathways in the E. coli K12 ΔarcAΔiclR double knockout strain. Due to iclR gene deletion, the glyoxylate pathway is activated resulting in a redirection of 30% of the isocitrate molecules directly to succinate and malate without CO2 production. Furthermore, a higher flux at the entrance of the TCA was noticed due to arcA gene deletion, resulting in a reduced production of acetate and less carbon loss. Under glucose limiting conditions the flux through the glyoxylate pathway is further increased in the ΔiclR knockout strain, but this effect was not observed in the double knockout strain. Also a striking correlation between the glyoxylate flux data and the isocitrate lyase activity was observed for almost all strains and under both growth conditions, illustrating the transcriptional control of this pathway. Finally, similar central metabolic fluxes were observed in E. coli K12 ΔarcA ΔiclR compared to the industrially relevant E. coli BL21 (DE3), especially with respect to the pentose pathway, the glyoxylate pathway, and the TCA fluxes. In addition, a

  20. Neuronal NCX1 overexpression induces stroke resistance while knockout induces vulnerability via Akt.

    PubMed

    Molinaro, Pasquale; Sirabella, Rossana; Pignataro, Giuseppe; Petrozziello, Tiziana; Secondo, Agnese; Boscia, Francesca; Vinciguerra, Antonio; Cuomo, Ornella; Philipson, Kenneth D; De Felice, Mario; Di Lauro, Roberto; Di Renzo, Gianfranco; Annunziato, Lucio

    2016-10-01

    Three different Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX) isoforms, NCX1, NCX2, and NCX3, are expressed in brain where they play a relevant role in maintaining Na(+) and Ca(2+) homeostasis. Although the neuroprotective roles of NCX2 and NCX3 in stroke have been elucidated, the relevance of NCX1 is still unknown because of embryonic lethality of its knocking-out, heart dysfunctions when it is overexpressed, and the lack of selectivity in currently available drugs. To overcome these limitations we generated two conditional genetically modified mice that upon tamoxifen administration showed a selective decrease or increase of NCX1 in cortical and hippocampal neurons. Interestingly, in cortex and hippocampus NCX1 overexpression increased, where NCX1 knock-out reduced, both exchanger activity and Akt1 phosphorylation, a neuronal survival signaling. More important, mice overexpressing NCX1 showed a reduced ischemic volume and an amelioration of focal and general deficits when subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. Conversely, NCX1-knock-out mice displayed a worsening of brain damage, focal and neurological deficits with a decrease in Akt phosphorylation. These results support the idea that NCX1 overexpression/activation may represent a feasible therapeutic opportunity in stroke intervention.

  1. Knockout of AtMKK1 enhances salt tolerance and modifies metabolic activities in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Conroy, Chad; Ching, Jacqueline; Gao, Yan; Wang, Xiaojing; Rampitsch, Christof; Xing, Tim

    2013-05-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways represent a crucial regulatory mechanism in plant development. The ability to activate and inactivate MAPK pathways rapidly in response to changing conditions helps plants to adapt to a changing environment. AtMKK1 is a stress response kinase that is capable of activating the MAPK proteins AtMPK3, AtMPK4 and AtMPK6. To elucidate its mode of action further, several tests were undertaken to examine the response of AtMKK1 to salt stress using a knockout (KO) mutant of AtMKK1. We found that AtMKK1 mutant plants tolerated elevated levels of salt during both germination and adulthood. Proteomic analysis indicated that the level of the α subunit of mitochrondrial H(+)-ATPase, mitochrondial NADH dehydrogenase and mitochrondrial formate dehydrogenase was enhanced in AtMKK1 knockout mutants upon high salinity stress. The level of formate dehydrogenase was further confirmed by immunoblotting and enzyme assay. The possible involvement of these enzymes in salt tolerance is discussed.

  2. Immune malfunction in the GPR39 zinc receptor of knockout mice: Its relationship to depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Młyniec, Katarzyna; Trojan, Ewa; Ślusarczyk, Joanna; Głombik, Katarzyna; Basta-Kaim, Agnieszka; Budziszewska, Bogusława; Skrzeszewski, Jakub; Siwek, Agata; Holst, Birgitte; Nowak, Gabriel

    2016-02-15

    Depression is a serious psychiatric disorder affecting not only the monaminergic, glutamatergic, and GABAergic neurosystems, but also the immune system. Patients suffering from depression show disturbance in the immune parameters as well as increased susceptibility to infections. Zinc is well known as an anti-inflammatory agent, and its link with depression has been proved, zinc deficiency causing depression- and anxiety-like behavior with immune malfunction. It has been discovered that trace-element zinc acts as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system via zinc receptor GPR39. In this study we investigated whether GPR39 knockout would cause depressive-like behavior as measured by the forced swim test, and whether these changes would coexist with immune malfunction. In GPR39 knockout mice versus a wild-type control we found: i) depressive-like behavior; ii) significantly reduced thymus weight; (iii) reduced cell viability of splenocytes; iv) reduced proliferative response of splenocytes; and v) increased IL-6 production of splenocytes after ConA stimulation and decreased IL-1b and IL-6 release after LPS stimulation. The results indicate depressive-like behavior in GPR39 KO animals with an immune response similar to that observed in depressive disorder. Here for the first time we show immunological changes under GPR39-deficient conditions.

  3. BDNF-restricted knockout mice as an animal model for aggression.

    PubMed

    Ito, W; Chehab, M; Thakur, S; Li, J; Morozov, A

    2011-04-01

    Mice with global deletion of one brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) allele or with forebrain-restricted deletion of both alleles show elevated aggression, but this phenotype is accompanied by other behavioral changes, including increases in anxiety and deficits in cognition. Here we performed behavioral characterization of conditional BDNF knockout mice generated using a Cre recombinase driver line, KA1-Cre, which expresses Cre in few areas of brain: highly at hippocampal area CA3 and moderately in dentate gyrus, cerebellum and facial nerve nucleus. The mutant animals exhibited elevated conspecific aggression and social dominance, but did not show changes in anxiety-like behaviors assessed using the elevated plus maze and open field test. There were no changes in depression-like behaviors tested in the forced swim test, but small increase in immobility in the tail suspension test. In cognitive tasks, mutants showed normal social recognition and normal spatial and fear memory, but exhibited a deficit in object recognition. Thus, this knockout can serve as a robust model for BDNF-dependent aggression and object recognition deficiency.

  4. CRISPR knockout rat cytochrome P450 3A1/2 model for advancing drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics research.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jian; Shao, Yanjiao; Qin, Xuan; Liu, Daozhi; Chen, Ang; Li, Dali; Liu, Mingyao; Wang, Xin

    2017-02-20

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A accounts for nearly 30% of the total CYP enzymes in the human liver and participates in the metabolism of over 50% of clinical drugs. Moreover, CYP3A plays an important role in chemical metabolism, toxicity, and carcinogenicity. New animal models are needed to investigate CYP3A functions, especially for drug metabolism. In this report, Cyp3a1/2 double knockout (KO) rats were generated by CRISPR-Cas9 technology, and then were characterized for viability and physiological status. The Cyp3a1/2 double KO rats were viable and fertile, and had no obvious physiological abnormities. Compared with the wild-type (WT) rat, Cyp3a1/2 expression was completely absent in the liver of the KO rat. In vitro and in vivo metabolic studies of the CYP3A1/2 substrates indicated that CYP3A1/2 was functionally inactive in double KO rats. The Cyp3a1/2 double KO rat model was successfully generated and characterized. The Cyp3a1/2 KO rats are a novel rodent animal model that will be a powerful tool for the study of the physiological and pharmacological roles of CYP3A, especially in drug and chemical metabolism in vivo.

  5. CRISPR knockout rat cytochrome P450 3A1/2 model for advancing drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics research

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jian; Shao, Yanjiao; Qin, Xuan; Liu, Daozhi; Chen, Ang; Li, Dali; Liu, Mingyao; Wang, Xin

    2017-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A accounts for nearly 30% of the total CYP enzymes in the human liver and participates in the metabolism of over 50% of clinical drugs. Moreover, CYP3A plays an important role in chemical metabolism, toxicity, and carcinogenicity. New animal models are needed to investigate CYP3A functions, especially for drug metabolism. In this report, Cyp3a1/2 double knockout (KO) rats were generated by CRISPR-Cas9 technology, and then were characterized for viability and physiological status. The Cyp3a1/2 double KO rats were viable and fertile, and had no obvious physiological abnormities. Compared with the wild-type (WT) rat, Cyp3a1/2 expression was completely absent in the liver of the KO rat. In vitro and in vivo metabolic studies of the CYP3A1/2 substrates indicated that CYP3A1/2 was functionally inactive in double KO rats. The Cyp3a1/2 double KO rat model was successfully generated and characterized. The Cyp3a1/2 KO rats are a novel rodent animal model that will be a powerful tool for the study of the physiological and pharmacological roles of CYP3A, especially in drug and chemical metabolism in vivo. PMID:28218310

  6. A double-strand break can trigger immunoglobulin gene conversion

    PubMed Central

    Bastianello, Giulia; Arakawa, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    All three B cell-specific activities of the immunoglobulin (Ig) gene re-modeling system—gene conversion, somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination—require activation-induced deaminase (AID). AID-induced DNA lesions must be further processed and dissected into different DNA recombination pathways. In order to characterize potential intermediates for Ig gene conversion, we inserted an I-SceI recognition site into the complementarity determining region 1 (CDR1) of the Ig light chain locus of the AID knockout DT40 cell line, and conditionally expressed I-SceI endonuclease. Here, we show that a double-strand break (DSB) in CDR1 is sufficient to trigger Ig gene conversion in the absence of AID. The pattern and pseudogene usage of DSB-induced gene conversion were comparable to those of AID-induced gene conversion; surprisingly, sometimes a single DSB induced multiple gene conversion events. These constitute direct evidence that a DSB in the V region can be an intermediate for gene conversion. The fate of the DNA lesion downstream of a DSB had more flexibility than that of AID, suggesting two alternative models: (i) DSBs during the physiological gene conversion are in the minority compared to single-strand breaks (SSBs), which are frequently generated following DNA deamination, or (ii) the physiological gene conversion is mediated by a tightly regulated DSB that is locally protected from non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) or other non-homologous DNA recombination machineries. PMID:27701075

  7. Adh1 and Adh1/4 knockout mice as possible rodent models for presymptomatic Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Anvret, Anna; Ran, Caroline; Westerlund, Marie; Gellhaar, Sandra; Lindqvist, Eva; Pernold, Karin; Lundströmer, Karin; Duester, Gregg; Felder, Michael R; Galter, Dagmar; Belin, Andrea Carmine

    2012-02-01

    Alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH) catalyze the reversible metabolism of many types of alcohols and aldehydes to prevent the possible toxic accumulation of these compounds. ADHs are of interest in Parkinson's disease (PD) since these compounds can be harmful to dopamine (DA) neurons. Genetic variants in ADH1C and ADH4 have been found to associate with PD and lack of Adh4 gene activity in a mouse model has recently been reported to induce changes in the DA system. Adh1 knockout (Adh1-/-) and Adh1/4 double knockout (Adh1/4-/-) mice were investigated for possible changes in DA system related activity, biochemical parameters and olfactory function compared to wild-type (WT) mice. Locomotor activity was tested at ∼7 (adult) and >15 months of age to mimic the late onset of PD. Adh1-/- and Adh1/4-/- mice displayed a significantly higher spontaneous locomotor activity than WT littermates. Both apomorphine and d-amphetamine increased total distance activity in Adh1-/- mice at both age intervals and in Adh1/4-/- mice at 7 months of age compared to WT mice. No significant changes were found regarding olfactory function, however biochemical data showed decreased 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC)/DA ratios in the olfactory bulb and decreased homovanillic acid (HVA)/DA ratios in the olfactory bulb, frontal cortex and striatum of Adh1/4-/- mice compared to WT mice. Our results suggest that lack of Adh1 alone or Adh1 and Adh4 together lead to changes in DA system related behavior, and that these knockout mice might be possible rodent models to study presymptomatic PD.

  8. Generation of TALEN-mediated FH knockout rat model.

    PubMed

    Yu, Dandan; Zhong, Yali; Li, Xiaoran; Li, Yaqing; Li, Xiaoli; Cao, Jing; Fan, Zhirui; Fan, Huijie; Yuan, Long; Xu, Benling; Yuan, Yuan; Zhang, Hongquan; Ji, Zhenyu; Wen, Jian-Guo; Zhang, Mingzhi; Nesland, Jahn M; Suo, Zhenhe

    2016-09-20

    Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) are valuable tools for precise genome engineering of laboratory animals. Here we utilized this technique for efficient site-specific gene modification to create a fumarate hydratase (FH) gene knockout rat model, in which there was an 11 base-pair deletion in the first exon of the FH gene in 111 rats. 18 live-born targeted mutation offsprings were produced from 80 injected zygotes with 22.5% efficiency, indicating high TALEN knockout success in rat zygots. Only heterozygous deletion was observed in the offsprings. Sixteen pairs of heterozygous FH knockout (FH+/-) rats were arranged for mating experiments for six months without any homozygous KO rat identified. Sequencing from the pregnant rats embryo samples showed no homozygous FH KO, indicating that homozygous FH KO is embryonically lethal. Comparatively, the litter size was decreased in both male and female FH+/- KO rats. There was no behaviour difference between the FH+/- KO and the control rats except that the FH+/- KO male rats showed significantly higher body weight in the 16-week observation period. Clinical haematology and biochemical examinations showed hematopoietic and kidney dysfunction in the FH+/- KO rats. Small foci of anaplastic lesions of tubular epithelial cells around glomeruli were identified in the FH+/- kidney, and these anaplastic cells were comparatively positive for Ki67, p53 and Sox9, and such findings are most probably related to the kidney dysfunction reflected by the biochemical examinations of the rats. In conclusion, we have successfully established an FH+/- KO rat model, which will be useful for further functional FH studies.

  9. Generation of TALEN-mediated FH knockout rat model

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Dandan; Zhong, Yali; Li, Xiaoran; Li, Yaqing; Li, Xiaoli; Cao, Jing; Fan, Zhirui; Fan, Huijie; Yuan, Long; Xu, Benling; Yuan, Yuan; Zhang, Hongquan; Ji, Zhenyu; Wen, Jian-Guo; Zhang, Mingzhi; Nesland, Jahn M.; Suo, Zhenhe

    2016-01-01

    Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) are valuable tools for precise genome engineering of laboratory animals. Here we utilized this technique for efficient site-specific gene modification to create a fumarate hydratase (FH) gene knockout rat model, in which there was an 11 base-pair deletion in the first exon of the FH gene in 111 rats. 18 live-born targeted mutation offsprings were produced from 80 injected zygotes with 22.5% efficiency, indicating high TALEN knockout success in rat zygots. Only heterozygous deletion was observed in the offsprings. Sixteen pairs of heterozygous FH knockout (FH+/−) rats were arranged for mating experiments for six months without any homozygous KO rat identified. Sequencing from the pregnant rats embryo samples showed no homozygous FH KO, indicating that homozygous FH KO is embryonically lethal. Comparatively, the litter size was decreased in both male and female FH+/− KO rats. There was no behaviour difference between the FH+/− KO and the control rats except that the FH+/− KO male rats showed significantly higher body weight in the 16-week observation period. Clinical haematology and biochemical examinations showed hematopoietic and kidney dysfunction in the FH+/− KO rats. Small foci of anaplastic lesions of tubular epithelial cells around glomeruli were identified in the FH+/− kidney, and these anaplastic cells were comparatively positive for Ki67, p53 and Sox9, and such findings are most probably related to the kidney dysfunction reflected by the biochemical examinations of the rats. In conclusion, we have successfully established an FH+/− KO rat model, which will be useful for further functional FH studies. PMID:27556703

  10. Pre-Equilibrium Cluster Emission with Pickup and Knockout

    SciTech Connect

    Betak, E.

    2005-05-24

    We present a generalization of the Iwamoto-Harada-Bisplinghoff pre-equilibrium model of light cluster formation and emission, which is enhanced by allowing for possible admixtures of knockout for strongly coupled ejectiles, like {alpha}'s. The model is able to attain the Weisskopf-Ewing formula for compound-nucleus decay at long-time limit; it keeps the philosophy of pre-equilibrium decay during the equilibration stage and it describes the initial phase of a reaction as direct process(es) expressed using the language of the exciton model.

  11. Normal Taste Acceptance and Preference of PANX1 Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Aleman, Tiffany R.; Ellis, Hillary T.; Ohmoto, Makoto; Matsumoto, Ichiro; Shestopalov, Val I.; Mitchell, Claire H.; Foskett, J. Kevin; Poole, Rachel L.

    2015-01-01

    Taste compounds detected by G protein-coupled receptors on the apical surface of Type 2 taste cells initiate an intracellular molecular cascade culminating in the release of ATP. It has been suggested that this ATP release is accomplished by pannexin 1 (PANX1). However, we report here that PANX1 knockout mice do not differ from wild-type controls in response to representative taste solutions, measured using 5-s brief-access tests or 48-h two-bottle choice tests. This implies that PANX1 is unnecessary for taste detection and consequently that ATP release from Type 2 taste cells does not require PANX1. PMID:25987548

  12. An interesting prenatal diagnosis: double aneuploidy.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Cetin; Eris, Serenat; Yalcin, Yakup; Sen Selim, Halime

    2013-01-01

    Double aneuploidy, the existence of two chromosomal abnormalities in the same individual, is a rare condition. Early diagnosis of this condition is important to offer termination of pregnancy in genetic counselling. Cytogenetic analysis with amniocentesis and ultrasound examination is valuable for diagnosis of double aneuploidy. In this report we present a case with the karyotype of 48XXY+21 diagnosed prenatally.

  13. Mildly Increased Mechanical Nociceptive Sensitivity in REV-ERBα Knock-out Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jaehyun; Ko, Hyoung-Gon; Kim, Kyungjin

    2016-01-01

    Nociception is one of the most complex senses that is affected not only by external stimulation but also internal conditions. Previous studies have suggested that circadian rhythm is important in modulating nociception. REV-ERBα knock-out (KO) mice have disrupted circadian rhythm and altered mood-related phenotypes. In this study, we examined the role of REV-ERBα in inflammatory nociception. We found that the nociceptive sensitivity of KO mice was partially enhanced in mechanical nociception. However, this partial alteration was independent of the circadian rhythm. Taken together, deletion of REV-ERBα induced a mild change in mechanical nociceptive sensitivity but this alteration was not dependent on the circadian rhythm. PMID:28035185

  14. Generation of myometrium-specific Bmal1 knockout mice for parturition analysis.

    PubMed

    Ratajczak, Christine K; Asada, Minoru; Allen, Gregg C; McMahon, Douglas G; Muglia, Lisa M; Smith, Donté; Bhattacharyya, Sandip; Muglia, Louis J

    2012-01-01

    Human and rodent studies indicate a role for circadian rhythmicity and associated clock gene expression in supporting normal parturition. The importance of clock gene expression in tissues besides the suprachiasmatic nucleus is emerging. Here, a Bmal1 conditional knockout mouse line and a novel Cre transgenic mouse line were used to examine the role of myometrial Bmal1 in parturition. Ninety-two percent (22/24) of control females but only 64% (14/22) of females with disrupted myometrial Bmal1 completed parturition during the expected time window of 5p.m. on Day 19 through to 9a.m. on Day 19.5 of gestation. However, neither serum progesterone levels nor uterine transcript expression of the contractile-associated proteins Connexin43 and Oxytocin receptor differed between females with disrupted myometrial Bmal1 and controls during late gestation. The data indicate a role for myometrial Bmal1 in maintaining normal time of day of parturition.

  15. Zinc Finger Nuclease Mediated Knockout of ADP-Dependent Glucokinase in Cancer Cell Lines: Effects on Cell Survival and Mitochondrial Oxidative Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Susan; Morrison, Shona; Connor, Tim; Su, Jiechuang; Print, Cristin G.; Ronimus, Ron S.; McGee, Sean L.; Wilson, William R.

    2013-01-01

    Zinc finger nucleases (ZFN) are powerful tools for editing genes in cells. Here we use ZFNs to interrogate the biological function of ADPGK, which encodes an ADP-dependent glucokinase (ADPGK), in human tumour cell lines. The hypothesis we tested is that ADPGK utilises ADP to phosphorylate glucose under conditions where ATP becomes limiting, such as hypoxia. We characterised two ZFN knockout clones in each of two lines (H460 and HCT116). All four clones had frameshift mutations in all alleles at the target site in exon 1 of ADPGK, and were ADPGK-null by immunoblotting. ADPGK knockout had little or no effect on cell proliferation, but compromised the ability of H460 cells to survive siRNA silencing of hexokinase-2 under oxic conditions, with clonogenic survival falling from 21±3% for the parental line to 6.4±0.8% (p = 0.002) and 4.3±0.8% (p = 0.001) for the two knockouts. A similar increased sensitivity to clonogenic cell killing was observed under anoxia. No such changes were found when ADPGK was knocked out in HCT116 cells, for which the parental line was less sensitive than H460 to anoxia and to hexokinase-2 silencing. While knockout of ADPGK in HCT116 cells caused few changes in global gene expression, knockout of ADPGK in H460 cells caused notable up-regulation of mRNAs encoding cell adhesion proteins. Surprisingly, we could discern no consistent effect on glycolysis as measured by glucose consumption or lactate formation under anoxia, or extracellular acidification rate (Seahorse XF analyser) under oxic conditions in a variety of media. However, oxygen consumption rates were generally lower in the ADPGK knockouts, in some cases markedly so. Collectively, the results demonstrate that ADPGK can contribute to tumour cell survival under conditions of high glycolytic dependence, but the phenotype resulting from knockout of ADPGK is cell line dependent and appears to be unrelated to priming of glycolysis in these lines. PMID:23799003

  16. Dnd knockout ablates germ cells and demonstrates germ cell independent sex differentiation in Atlantic salmon.

    PubMed

    Wargelius, Anna; Leininger, Sven; Skaftnesmo, Kai Ove; Kleppe, Lene; Andersson, Eva; Taranger, Geir Lasse; Schulz, Rüdiger W; Edvardsen, Rolf B

    2016-02-18

    Introgression of farmed salmon escapees into wild stocks is a major threat to the genetic integrity of wild populations. Using germ cell-free fish in aquaculture may mitigate this problem. Our study investigated whether it is possible to produce germ cell-free salmon in F0 by using CRISPR-Cas9 to knock out dnd, a factor required for germ cell survival in vertebrates. To avoid studying mosaic animals, sgRNA targeting alb was simultaneously used as a visual tracer since the phenotype of alb KO is complete loss of pigmentation. Induced mutations for the tracer (alb) and the target (dnd) genes were highly correlated and produced germ cell-less fish lacking pigmentation, underlining the suitability of alb KO to serve as tracer for targeted double allelic mutations in F0 animals in species with prohibitively long generation times. This is also the first report describing dnd knockout in any fish species. Analyzing gene expression and histology of dnd KO fish revealed that sex differentiation of the somatic compartment does not depend on the presence of germ cells. However, the organization of the ovarian somatic compartment seems compromised in mutant fish.

  17. Dnd knockout ablates germ cells and demonstrates germ cell independent sex differentiation in Atlantic salmon

    PubMed Central

    Wargelius, Anna; Leininger, Sven; Skaftnesmo, Kai Ove; Kleppe, Lene; Andersson, Eva; Taranger, Geir Lasse; Schulz, Rüdiger W; Edvardsen, Rolf B

    2016-01-01

    Introgression of farmed salmon escapees into wild stocks is a major threat to the genetic integrity of wild populations. Using germ cell-free fish in aquaculture may mitigate this problem. Our study investigated whether it is possible to produce germ cell-free salmon in F0 by using CRISPR-Cas9 to knock out dnd, a factor required for germ cell survival in vertebrates. To avoid studying mosaic animals, sgRNA targeting alb was simultaneously used as a visual tracer since the phenotype of alb KO is complete loss of pigmentation. Induced mutations for the tracer (alb) and the target (dnd) genes were highly correlated and produced germ cell-less fish lacking pigmentation, underlining the suitability of alb KO to serve as tracer for targeted double allelic mutations in F0 animals in species with prohibitively long generation times. This is also the first report describing dnd knockout in any fish species. Analyzing gene expression and histology of dnd KO fish revealed that sex differentiation of the somatic compartment does not depend on the presence of germ cells. However, the organization of the ovarian somatic compartment seems compromised in mutant fish. PMID:26888627

  18. Generation of myostatin B knockout yellow catfish (Tachysurus fulvidraco) using transcription activator-like effector nucleases.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhangji; Ge, Jiachun; Xu, Zhiqiang; Dong, Xiaohua; Cao, Shasha; Pan, Jianlin; Zhao, Qingshun

    2014-06-01

    Myostatin (Mstn), a member of the transforming growth factor β superfamily, plays an inhibiting role in mammalian muscle growth. Mammals like human, cattle, mouse, sheep, and dog carrying null alleles of Mstn display a double-muscle phenotype. Mstn is conserved in fish; however, little is known whether the fish with mutated mstn display a similar phenotype to mammals because of the lack of mutant fish with mstn null alleles. Previously, we knocked out one of the duplicated copies of myostatin gene (mstna) in yellow catfish using zinc-finger nucleases. In this study, we report the identification of the second myostatin gene (mstnb) and knockout of mstnb in yellow catfish. The gene comprises three exons. It is predicted to encode 373 amino acid residues. The predicted protein exhibits 59.3% identity with yellow catfish Mstna and 57.3% identity with human MSTN. Employing TALEN (transcription activator-like effector nucleases) technology, we obtained two founders (from four randomly selected founders) of yellow catfish carrying the mutated mstnb gene in their germ cells. Totally, six mutated alleles of mstnb were obtained from the founders. Among the six alleles, four are nonframeshift and two are frameshift mutation. The frameshift mutated alleles include mstnb(nju22), an 8 bp deletion, and mstnb(nju24), a complex type of mutation comprising a 7 bp deletion and a 12 bp insertion. They are predicted to encode function null Mstnb. Our results will help to understand the roles of mstn genes in fish growth.

  19. TALEN-based knockout library for human microRNAs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Kook; Wee, Gabbine; Park, Joha; Kim, Jongkyu; Baek, Daehyun; Kim, Jin-Soo; Kim, V Narry

    2013-12-01

    Various technical tools have been developed to probe the functions of microRNAs (miRNAs), yet their application has been limited by low efficacy and specificity. To overcome the limitations, we used transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) to knock out human miRNA genes. We designed and produced a library of 540 pairs of TALENs for 274 miRNA loci, focusing on potentially important miRNAs. The knockout procedure takes only 2-4 weeks and can be applied to any cell type. As a case study, we generated knockout cells for two related miRNAs, miR-141 and miR-200c, which belong to the highly conserved miR-200 family. Interestingly, miR-141 and miR-200c, despite their overall similarity, suppress largely nonoverlapping groups of targets, thus suggesting that functional miRNA-target interaction requires strict seed-pairing. Our study illustrates the potency of TALEN technology and provides useful resources for miRNA research.

  20. Maize-targeted mutagenesis: A knockout resource for maize.

    PubMed

    May, Bruce P; Liu, Hong; Vollbrecht, Erik; Senior, Lynn; Rabinowicz, Pablo D; Roh, Donna; Pan, Xiaokang; Stein, Lincoln; Freeling, Mike; Alexander, Danny; Martienssen, Rob

    2003-09-30

    We describe an efficient system for site-selected transposon mutagenesis in maize. A total of 43,776 F1 plants were generated by using Robertson's Mutator (Mu) pollen parents and self-pollinated to establish a library of transposon-mutagenized seed. The frequency of new seed mutants was between 10-4 and 10-5 per F1 plant. As a service to the maize community, maize-targeted mutagenesis selects insertions in genes of interest from this library by using the PCR. Pedigree, knockout, sequence, phenotype, and other information is stored in a powerful interactive database (maize-targeted mutagenesis database) that enables analysis of the entire population and the handling of knockout requests. By inhibiting Mu activity in most F1 plants, we sought to reduce somatic insertions that may cause false positives selected from pooled tissue. By monitoring the remaining Mu activity in the F2, however, we demonstrate that seed phenotypes depend on it, and false positives occur in lines that appear to lack it. We conclude that more than half of all mutations arising in this population are suppressed on losing Mu activity. These results have implications for epigenetic models of inbreeding and for functional genomics.

  1. Ultrastructural analysis of megakaryocytes in GPV knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Poujol, C; Ramakrishnan, V; DeGuzman, F; Nurden, A T; Phillips, D R; Nurden, P

    2000-08-01

    Lesions in the genes for GPIb alpha, GPIb beta or GPIX result in a bleeding diathesis, the Bernard-Soulier syndrome (BSS), which associates a platelet adhesion defect with thrombocytopenia, giant platelets and abnormal megakaryocytes (MK). The role of GPV, also absent in BSS, was recently addressed by gene targeting in mice. While a negative modulator function for GPV on thrombin-induced platelet responses was found in one model, the absence of GP V had no effect on GPIb-IX expression or platelet adhesion. Our study extends previous results and reports that electron microscopy of bone marrow from the GPV knockout mice revealed a normal MK ultrastructure and development of the demarcation membrane system (DMS). There was a usual presence of MK fragments in the bone marrow vascular sinus. Immunogold labelling of MK from the knockout mice showed a normal distribution of GPIb-IX in the DMS and on the cell surface. The distribution of fibrinogen, vWF and P-selectin was unchanged with, interestingly, P-selectin also localised within the DMS in both situations. Thus GPV is not crucial to MK development and platelet production, consistent with the fact that no mutation in the GPV gene has as yet been described in BSS.

  2. Norepinephrine transporter heterozygous knockout mice exhibit altered transport and behavior.

    PubMed

    Fentress, H M; Klar, R; Krueger, J J; Sabb, T; Redmon, S N; Wallace, N M; Shirey-Rice, J K; Hahn, M K

    2013-11-01

    The norepinephrine (NE) transporter (NET) regulates synaptic NE availability for noradrenergic signaling in the brain and sympathetic nervous system. Although genetic variation leading to a loss of NET expression has been implicated in psychiatric and cardiovascular disorders, complete NET deficiency has not been found in people, limiting the utility of NET knockout mice as a model for genetically driven NET dysfunction. Here, we investigate NET expression in NET heterozygous knockout male mice (NET(+/-) ), demonstrating that they display an approximately 50% reduction in NET protein levels. Surprisingly, these mice display no significant deficit in NET activity assessed in hippocampal and cortical synaptosomes. We found that this compensation in NET activity was due to enhanced activity of surface-resident transporters, as opposed to surface recruitment of NET protein or compensation through other transport mechanisms, including serotonin, dopamine or organic cation transporters. We hypothesize that loss of NET protein in the NET(+/-) mouse establishes an activated state of existing surface NET proteins. The NET(+/-) mice exhibit increased anxiety in the open field and light-dark box and display deficits in reversal learning in the Morris water maze. These data suggest that recovery of near basal activity in NET(+/-) mice appears to be insufficient to limit anxiety responses or support cognitive performance that might involve noradrenergic neurotransmission. The NET(+/-) mice represent a unique model to study the loss and resultant compensatory changes in NET that may be relevant to behavior and physiology in human NET deficiency disorders.

  3. RAG1/2 knockout pigs with severe combined immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiao; Guo, Xiaogang; Fan, Nana; Song, Jun; Zhao, Bentian; Ouyang, Zhen; Liu, Zhaoming; Zhao, Yu; Yan, Quanmei; Yi, Xiaoling; Schambach, Axel; Frampton, Jon; Esteban, Miguel A; Yang, Dongshan; Yang, Huaqiang; Lai, Liangxue

    2014-08-01

    Pigs share many physiological, biochemical, and anatomical similarities with humans and have emerged as valuable large animal models for biomedical research. Considering the advantages in immune system resemblance, suitable size, and longevity for clinical practical and monitoring purpose, SCID pigs bearing dysfunctional RAG could serve as important experimental tools for regenerative medicine, allograft and xenograft transplantation, and reconstitution experiments related to the immune system. In this study, we report the generation and phenotypic characterization of RAG1 and RAG2 knockout pigs using transcription activator-like effector nucleases. Porcine fetal fibroblasts were genetically engineered using transcription activator-like effector nucleases and then used to provide donor nuclei for somatic cell nuclear transfer. We obtained 27 live cloned piglets; among these piglets, 9 were targeted with biallelic mutations in RAG1, 3 were targeted with biallelic mutations in RAG2, and 10 were targeted with a monoallelic mutation in RAG2. Piglets with biallelic mutations in either RAG1 or RAG2 exhibited hypoplasia of immune organs, failed to perform V(D)J rearrangement, and lost mature B and T cells. These immunodeficient RAG1/2 knockout pigs are promising tools for biomedical and translational research.

  4. Core features of frontotemporal dementia recapitulated in progranulin knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Ghoshal, N.; Dearborn, J.T.; Wozniak, D.F.; Cairns, N.J.

    2011-01-01

    Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is typified by behavioral and cognitive changes manifested as altered social comportment and impaired memory performance. To investigate the neurodegenerative consequences of progranulin gene (GRN) mutations, which cause an inherited form of FTD, we used previously generated progranulin knockout mice (Grn-/-). Specifically, we characterized two cohorts of early and later middle-age wild type and knockout mice using a battery of tests to assess neurological integrity and behavioral phenotypes analogous to FTD. The Grn-/- mice exhibited reduced social engagement and learning and memory deficits. Immunohistochemical approaches were used to demonstrate the presence of lesions characteristic of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) with GRN mutation including ubiquitination, microgliosis, and reactive astrocytosis, the pathological substrate of FTD. Importantly, Grn-/- mice also have decreased overall survival compared to Grn+/+ mice. These data suggest that the Grn-/- mouse reproduces some core features of FTD with respect to behavior, pathology, and survival. This murine model may serve as a valuable in vivo model of FTLD with GRN mutation through which molecular mechanisms underlying the disease can be further dissected. PMID:21933710

  5. Norepinephrine Transporter Heterozygous Knockout Mice Exhibit Altered Transport and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Fentress, HM; Klar, R; Krueger, JK; Sabb, T; Redmon, SN; Wallace, NM; Shirey-Rice, JK; Hahn, MK

    2013-01-01

    The norepinephrine (NE) transporter (NET) regulates synaptic NE availability for noradrenergic signaling in the brain and sympathetic nervous system. Although genetic variation leading to a loss of NET expression has been implicated in psychiatric and cardiovascular disorders, complete NET deficiency has not been found in people, limiting the utility of NET knockout mice as a model for genetically-driven NET dysfunction. Here, we investigate NET expression in NET heterozygous knockout male mice (NET+/−), demonstrating that they display an ~50% reduction in NET protein levels. Surprisingly, these mice display no significant deficit in NET activity, assessed in hippocampal and cortical synaptosomes. We found that this compensation in NET activity was due to enhanced activity of surface-resident transporters, as opposed to surface recruitment of NET protein or compensation through other transport mechanisms, including serotonin, dopamine or organic cation transporters. We hypothesize that loss of NET protein in the NET+/− mouse establishes an activated state of existing, surface NET proteins. NET+/− mice exhibit increased anxiety in the open field and light-dark box and display deficits in reversal learning in the Morris Water Maze. These data suggest recovery of near basal activity in NET+/− mice appears to be insufficient to limit anxiety responses or support cognitive performance that might involve noradrenergic neurotransmission. The NET+/− mice represent a unique model to study the loss and resultant compensatory changes in NET that may be relevant to behavior and physiology in human NET deficiency disorders. PMID:24102798

  6. A T-DNA Insertion Knockout of the Bifunctional Lysine-Ketoglutarate Reductase/Saccharopine Dehydrogenase Gene Elevates Lysine Levels in Arabidopsis Seeds1

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiaohong; Tang, Guiliang; Granier, Fabienne; Bouchez, David; Galili, Gad

    2001-01-01

    Plants possess both anabolic and catabolic pathways for the essential amino acid lysine (Lys). However, although the biosynthetic pathway was clearly shown to regulate Lys accumulation in plants, the functional significance of Lys catabolism has not been experimentally elucidated. To address this issue, we have isolated an Arabidopsis knockout mutant with a T-DNA inserted into exon 13 of the gene encoding Lys ketoglutarate reductase/saccharopine dehydrogenase. This bifunctional enzyme controls the first two steps of Lys catabolism. The phenotype of the LKR/SDH knockout was indistinguishable from wild-type plants under normal growth conditions, suggesting that Lys catabolism is not an essential pathway under standard growth conditions. However, mature seeds of the knockout mutant over-accumulated Lys compared with wild-type plants. This report provides the first direct evidence for the functional significance of Lys catabolism in regulating Lys accumulation in seeds. Such a knockout mutant may also provide new perspectives to improve the level of the essential amino acid Lys in plant seeds. PMID:11500552

  7. Heat generation in double layer capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiffer, Julia; Linzen, Dirk; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    Thermal management is a key issue concerning lifetime and performance of double layer capacitors and battery technologies. Double layer capacitor modules for hybrid vehicles are subject to heavy duty cycling conditions and therefore significant heat generation occurs. High temperature causes accelerated aging of the double layer capacitors and hence reduced lifetime. To investigate the thermal behavior of double layer capacitors, thermal measurements during charge/discharge cycles were performed. These measurements show that heat generation in double layer capacitors is the superposition of an irreversible Joule heat generation and a reversible heat generation caused by a change in entropy. A mathematical representation of both parts is provided.

  8. Double injection/single detection asymmetric flow injection manifold for spectrophotometric determination of ascorbic acid and uric acid: Selection the optimal conditions by MCDM approach based on different criteria weighting methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boroumand, Samira; Chamjangali, Mansour Arab; Bagherian, Ghadamali

    2017-03-01

    A simple and sensitive double injection/single detector flow injection analysis (FIA) method is proposed for the simultaneous kinetic determination of ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA). This method is based upon the difference between the rates of the AA and UA reactions with Fe3 + in the presence of 1, 10-phenanthroline (phen). The absorbance of Fe2 +/1, 10-phenanthroline (Fe-phen) complex obtained as the product was measured spectrophotometrically at 510 nm. To reach a good accuracy in the differential kinetic determination via the mathematical manipulations of the transient signals, different criteria were considered in the selection of the optimum conditions. The multi criteria decision making (MCDM) approach was applied for the selection of the optimum conditions. The importance weights of the evaluation criteria were determined using the analytic hierarchy process, entropy method, and compromised weighting (CW). The experimental conditions (alternatives) were ranked by the technique for order preference by similarity to an ideal solution. Under the selected optimum conditions, the obtained analytical signals were linear in the ranges of 0.50-5.00 and 0.50-4.00 mg L- 1 for AA and UA, respectively. The 3σ detection limits were 0.07 mg L- 1 for AA and 0.12 mg L- 1 for UA. The relative standard deviations for four replicate determinations of AA and UA were 2.03% and 3.30% respectively. The method was also applied for the analysis of analytes in the blood serum, Vitamine C tablets, and tap water with satisfactory results.

  9. Double injection/single detection asymmetric flow injection manifold for spectrophotometric determination of ascorbic acid and uric acid: Selection the optimal conditions by MCDM approach based on different criteria weighting methods.

    PubMed

    Boroumand, Samira; Chamjangali, Mansour Arab; Bagherian, Ghadamali

    2017-03-05

    A simple and sensitive double injection/single detector flow injection analysis (FIA) method is proposed for the simultaneous kinetic determination of ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA). This method is based upon the difference between the rates of the AA and UA reactions with Fe(3+) in the presence of 1, 10-phenanthroline (phen). The absorbance of Fe(2+)/1, 10-phenanthroline (Fe-phen) complex obtained as the product was measured spectrophotometrically at 510nm. To reach a good accuracy in the differential kinetic determination via the mathematical manipulations of the transient signals, different criteria were considered in the selection of the optimum conditions. The multi criteria decision making (MCDM) approach was applied for the selection of the optimum conditions. The importance weights of the evaluation criteria were determined using the analytic hierarchy process, entropy method, and compromised weighting (CW). The experimental conditions (alternatives) were ranked by the technique for order preference by similarity to an ideal solution. Under the selected optimum conditions, the obtained analytical signals were linear in the ranges of 0.50-5.00 and 0.50-4.00mgL(-1) for AA and UA, respectively. The 3σ detection limits were 0.07mgL(-1) for AA and 0.12mgL(-1) for UA. The relative standard deviations for four replicate determinations of AA and UA were 2.03% and 3.30% respectively. The method was also applied for the analysis of analytes in the blood serum, Vitamine C tablets, and tap water with satisfactory results.

  10. Impaired Long-term Potentiation and Enhanced Neuronal Excitability in the Amygdala of CaV1.3 Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    McKinney, Brandon C.; Sze, Wilson; Lee, Benjamin; Murphy, Geoffrey G.

    2009-01-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that mice in which the gene for the L-type voltage-gated calcium channel CaV1.3 is deleted (CaV1.3 knockout mice) exhibit an impaired ability to consolidate contextually-conditioned fear. Given that this form of Pavlovian fear conditioning is critically dependent on the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA), we were interested in the mechanisms by which CaV1.3 contributes to BLA neurophysiology. In the present study, we used in vitro amygdala slices prepared from CaV1.3 knockout mice and wild-type littermates to explore the role of CaV1.3 in long-term potentiation (LTP) and intrinsic neuronal excitability in the BLA. We found that LTP in the lateral nucleus (LA) of the BLA, induced by high-frequency stimulation of the external capsule, was significantly reduced in CaV1.3 knockout mice. Additionally, we found that BLA principal neurons from CaV1.3 knockout mice were hyperexcitable, exhibiting significant increases in firing rates and decreased interspike intervals in response to prolonged somatic depolarization. This aberrant increase in neuronal excitability appears to be at least in part due to a concomitant reduction in the slow component of the post-burst afterhyperpolarization. Together, these results demonstrate altered neuronal function in the BLA of CaV1.3 knockout mice which may account for the impaired ability of these mice to consolidate contextually-conditioned fear. PMID:19595780

  11. NHE1 knockout reduces blood pressure and arterial media/lumen ratio with no effect on resting pH(i) in the vascular wall.

    PubMed

    Boedtkjer, Ebbe; Damkier, Helle H; Aalkjaer, Christian

    2012-04-15

    Acid–base transport in the vascular wall remains incompletely understood. Here, we investigated (a) implications of Na(+)/H(+) exchanger NHE1 knockout for vascular smooth muscle (VSMC) and endothelial cell (EC) pH(i) regulation, mesenteric artery morphology, vasomotor function and blood pressure regulation, and (b) consequences of sustained EC and VSMC acidification for vasomotor function. Na(+)/H(+) exchange activity was abolished in VSMCs and ECs from NHE1 knockout mice, but with CO(2)/HCO(3)(−) present, steady-state pH(i) was unaffected. Active tension was 30% smaller in arteries from NHE1 knockout than wild-type mice, and media thickness equally reduced. Number of VSMCs per unit artery length was unchanged whereas volume and cross-sectional area of individual VSMCs were reduced. Media stress, force production per VSMC cross-sectional area and VSMC Ca(2+) responses were unaffected. Blood pressure was 25 mmHg lower in NHE1 knockout than wild-type mice. Omission of CO(2)/HCO(3)(−) caused VSMCs and ECs to acidify substantially more in NHE1 knockout (0.3–0.6 pH-units) than wild-type (0.02–0.1 pH units) mice. Removing CO(2)/HCO(3)(−) inhibited acetylcholine-induced NO-mediated relaxations in arteries from NHE1 knockout but not wild-type mice. Without CO(2)/HCO(3)(−), effects of NO synthase and rho kinase inhibition on noradrenaline-induced contractions were smaller in arteries from NHE1 knockout than wild-type mice whereas the EC Ca(2+) response to acetylcholine, VSMC Ca(2+) response to noradrenaline and vasorelaxation to S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine were unaffected. In conclusion, NHE1 mediates the Na(+)/H(+) exchange in ECs and VSMCs. Under physiological conditions, CO(2)/HCO(3)(−)-dependent mechanisms mask the pH(i)-regulatory function of NHE1. NHE1 knockout causes hypotrophy of VSMCs, reduced artery tension and lower blood pressure. At acidic pH(i), NO-mediated vasorelaxation and rho kinase-dependent VSMC Ca(2+) sensitivity are reduced.

  12. Opposing effects of Apoe/Apoa1 double deletion on amyloid-β pathology and cognitive performance in APP mice

    PubMed Central

    Fitz, Nicholas F.; Tapias, Victor; Cronican, Andrea A.; Castranio, Emilie L.; Saleem, Muzamil; Carter, Alexis Y.; Lefterova, Martina

    2015-01-01

    See Corona and Landreth (doi:10.1093/awv300) for a scientific commentary on this article. ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (encoded by ABCA1) regulates cholesterol efflux from cells to apolipoproteins A-I and E (ApoA-I and APOE; encoded by APOA1 and APOE, respectively) and the generation of high density lipoproteins. In Abca1 knockout mice (Abca1ko), high density lipoproteins and ApoA-I are virtually lacking, and total APOE and APOE-containing lipoproteins in brain substantially decreased. As the ε4 allele of APOE is the major genetic risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer’s disease, ABCA1 role as a modifier of APOE lipidation is of significance for this disease. Reportedly, Abca1 deficiency in mice expressing human APP accelerates amyloid deposition and behaviour deficits. We used APP/PS1dE9 mice crossed to Apoe and Apoa1 knockout mice to generate Apoe/Apoa1 double-knockout mice. We hypothesized that Apoe/Apoa1 double-knockout mice would mimic the phenotype of APP/Abca1ko mice in regards to amyloid plaques and cognitive deficits. Amyloid pathology, peripheral lipoprotein metabolism, cognitive deficits and dendritic morphology of Apoe/Apoa1 double-knockout mice were compared to APP/Abca1ko, APP/PS1dE9, and single Apoa1 and Apoe knockouts. Contrary to our prediction, the results demonstrate that double deletion of Apoe and Apoa1 ameliorated the amyloid pathology, including amyloid plaques and soluble amyloid. In double knockout mice we show that 125I-amyloid-β microinjected into the central nervous system cleared at a rate twice faster compared to Abca1 knockout mice. We tested the effect of Apoe, Apoa1 or Abca1 deficiency on spreading of exogenous amyloid-β seeds injected into the brain of young pre-depositing APP mice. The results show that lack of Abca1 augments dissemination of exogenous amyloid significantly more than the lack of Apoe. In the periphery, Apoe/Apoa1 double-knockout mice exhibited substantial atherosclerosis and very high levels of low

  13. Seeing Double

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesic, Peter

    2003-10-01

    The separateness and connection of individuals is perhaps the central question of human life: What, exactly, is my individuality? To what degree is it unique? To what degree can it be shared, and how? To the many philosophical and literary speculations about these topics over time, modern science has added the curious twist of quantum theory, which requires that the elementary particles of which everything consists have no individuality at all. All aspects of chemistry depend on this lack of individuality, as do many branches of physics. From where, then, does our individuality come? In Seeing Double, Peter Pesic invites readers to explore this intriguing set of questions. He draws on literary and historical examples that open the mind (from Homer to Martin Guerre to Kafka), philosophical analyses that have helped to make our thinking and speech more precise, and scientific work that has enabled us to characterize the phenomena of nature. Though he does not try to be all-inclusive, Pesic presents a broad range of ideas, building toward a specific point of view: that the crux of modern quantum theory is its clash with our ordinary concept of individuality. This represents a departure from the usual understanding of quantum theory. Pesic argues that what is bizarre about quantum theory becomes more intelligible as we reconsider what we mean by individuality and identity in ordinary experience. In turn, quantum identity opens a new perspective on us. Peter Pesic is a Tutor and Musician-in-Residence at St. John's College, Santa Fe, New Mexico. He has a Ph.D. in physics from Stanford University.

  14. Double Your Major, Double Your Return?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Rossi, Alison F.; Hersch, Joni

    2008-01-01

    We use the 2003 National Survey of College Graduates to provide the first estimates of the effect on earnings of having a double major. Overall, double majoring increases earnings by 2.3% relative to having a single major among college graduates without graduate degrees. Most of the gains from having a double major come from choosing fields across…

  15. Reductive dechlorination of chlorinated ethenes under oxidation-reduction conditions and potentiometric surfaces in two trichloroethene-contaminated zones at the Double Eagle and Fourth Street Superfund sites in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braun, Christopher L.

    2004-01-01

    The Double Eagle Refining Superfund site and the Fourth Street Abandoned Refinery Superfund site are in northeast Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, adjacent to one another. The Double Eagle facility became a Superfund site on the basis of contamination from lead and volatile organic compounds; the Fourth Street facility on the basis of volatile organic compounds, pesticides, and acid-base neutral compounds. The study documented in this report was done to investigate whether reductive dechlorination of chlorinated ethenes under oxidation-reduction conditions is occurring in two zones of the Garber-Wellington aquifer (shallow zone 30–60 to 75 feet below land surface, deep zone 75 to 160 feet below land surface) at the sites; and to construct potentiometric surfaces of the two water-yielding zones to determine the directions of groundwater flow at the sites. The presence in some wells of intermediate products of reductive dechlorination, dichloroethene and vinyl chloride, is an indication that reductive dechlorination of trichloroethene is occurring. Dissolved oxygen concentrations (less than 0.5 milligram per liter) indicate that consumption of dissolved oxygen likely had occurred in the oxygen-reducing microbial process associated with reductive dechlorination. Concentrations of nitrate and nitrite nitrogen (generally less than 2.0 and 0.06 milligrams per liter, respectively) indicate that nitrate reduction probably is not a key process in either aquifer zone. Concentrations of ferrous iron greater than 1.00 milligram per liter in the majority of wells sampled indicate that iron reduction is probable. Concentrations of sulfide less than 0.05 milligram per liter in all wells indicate that sulfate reduction probably is not a key process in either zone. The presence of methane in ground water is an indication of strongly reducing conditions that facilitate reductive dechlorination. Methane was detected in all but one well. In the shallow zone in the eastern part of the study

  16. Kidney development and gene expression in the HIF2alpha knockout mouse.

    PubMed

    Steenhard, Brooke M; Freeburg, Paul B; Isom, Kathryn; Stroganova, Larysa; Borza, Dorin-Bogdan; Hudson, Billy G; St John, Patricia L; Zelenchuk, Adrian; Abrahamson, Dale R

    2007-04-01

    The hypoxia-inducible transcription factor-2 (HIF2), a heterodimer composed of HIF2alpha and HIF1beta subunits, drives expression of genes essential for vascularization, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2, Flk-1). Here, we used a HIF2alpha/LacZ transgenic mouse to define patterns of HIF2alpha transcription during kidney development and maturation. Our results from embryonic heterozygotes showed HIF2alpha/LacZ expression by apparently all renal endothelial cells. At 4 weeks of age, glomerular mesangial and vascular smooth muscle cells were also positive together with endothelial cells. These expression patterns were confirmed by electron microscopy using Bluo-gal as a beta-galactosidase substrate. Small numbers of glomerular and tubular epithelial cells were also positive at all stages examined. Light and electron microscopic examination of kidneys from HIF2alpha null embryos showed no defects in renal vascular development or nephrogenesis. Similarly, the same amounts of Flk-1 protein were seen on Western blots of kidney extracts from homozygous and heterozygous HIF2alpha mutants. To examine responsiveness of HIF2alpha null kidneys to hypoxia, embryonic day 13.5 metanephroi were cultured in room air or in mild (5% O(2)) hypoxia. For both heterozygous and null samples, VEGF mRNA levels doubled when metanephroi were cultured in mild hypoxia. Anterior chamber grafts of embryonic HIF2alpha knockouts were morphologically indistinguishable from heterozygous grafts. Endothelial markers, platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule and BsLB4, as well as glomerular epithelial markers, GLEPP1 and WT-1, were all expressed appropriately. Finally, we undertook quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction of kidneys from HIF2alpha null embryos and wild-type siblings and found no compensatory up-regulation of HIF1alpha or -3alpha. Our results show that, although HIF2alpha was widely transcribed by kidney endothelium and vascular

  17. Inference of gene regulatory networks from genome-wide knockout fitness data

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liming; Wang, Xiaodong; Arkin, Adam P.; Samoilov, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    Motivation: Genome-wide fitness is an emerging type of high-throughput biological data generated for individual organisms by creating libraries of knockouts, subjecting them to broad ranges of environmental conditions, and measuring the resulting clone-specific fitnesses. Since fitness is an organism-scale measure of gene regulatory network behaviour, it may offer certain advantages when insights into such phenotypical and functional features are of primary interest over individual gene expression. Previous works have shown that genome-wide fitness data can be used to uncover novel gene regulatory interactions, when compared with results of more conventional gene expression analysis. Yet, to date, few algorithms have been proposed for systematically using genome-wide mutant fitness data for gene regulatory network inference. Results: In this article, we describe a model and propose an inference algorithm for using fitness data from knockout libraries to identify underlying gene regulatory networks. Unlike most prior methods, the presented approach captures not only structural, but also dynamical and non-linear nature of biomolecular systems involved. A state–space model with non-linear basis is used for dynamically describing gene regulatory networks. Network structure is then elucidated by estimating unknown model parameters. Unscented Kalman filter is used to cope with the non-linearities introduced in the model, which also enables the algorithm to run in on-line mode for practical use. Here, we demonstrate that the algorithm provides satisfying results for both synthetic data as well as empirical measurements of GAL network in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and TyrR–LiuR network in bacteria Shewanella oneidensis. Availability: MATLAB code and datasets are available to download at http://www.duke.edu/∼lw174/Fitness.zip and http://genomics.lbl.gov/supplemental/fitness-bioinf/ Contact: wangx@ee.columbia.edu or mssamoilov@lbl.gov Supplementary information

  18. Delayed liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy in adiponectin knockout mice

    SciTech Connect

    Ezaki, Hisao; Yoshida, Yuichi; Saji, Yukiko; Takemura, Takayo; Fukushima, Juichi; Matsumoto, Hitoshi; Kamada, Yoshihiro; Wada, Akira; Igura, Takumi; Kihara, Shinji; Funahashi, Tohru; Shimomura, Iichiro; Tamura, Shinji; Kiso, Shinichi Hayashi, Norio

    2009-01-02

    We previously demonstrated that adiponectin has anti-fibrogenic and anti-inflammatory effects in the liver of mouse models of various liver diseases. However, its role in liver regeneration remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the role of adiponectin in liver regeneration. We assessed liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy in wild-type (WT) and adiponectin knockout (KO) mice. We analyzed DNA replication and various signaling pathways involved in cell proliferation and metabolism. Adiponectin KO mice exhibited delayed DNA replication and increased lipid accumulation in the regenerating liver. The expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) {alpha} and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1), a key enzyme in mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, were decreased in adiponectin KO mice, suggesting possible contribution of altered fat metabolism to these phenomena. Collectively, the present results highlight a new role for adiponectin in the process of liver regeneration.

  19. Progranulin Knockout Accelerates Intervertebral Disc Degeneration in Aging Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yun-peng; Tian, Qing-yun; Liu, Ben; Cuellar, Jason; Richbourgh, Brendon; Jia, Tang-hong; Liu, Chuan-ju

    2015-01-01

    Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is a common degenerative disease, yet much is unknown about the mechanisms during its pathogenesis. Herein we investigated whether progranulin (PGRN), a chondroprotective growth factor, is associated with IVD degeneration. PGRN was detectable in both human and murine IVD. The levels of PGRN were upregulated in murine IVD tissue during aging process. Loss of PGRN resulted in an early onset of degenerative changes in the IVD tissue and altered expressions of the degeneration-associated molecules in the mouse IVD tissue. Moreover, PGRN knockout mice exhibited accelerated IVD matrix degeneration, abnormal bone formation and exaggerated bone resorption in vertebra with aging. The acceleration of IVD degeneration observed in PGRN null mice was probably due to the enhanced activation of NF-κB signaling and β-catenin signaling. Taken together, PGRN may play a critical role in homeostasis of IVD, and may serve as a potential molecular target for prevention and treatment of disc degenerative diseases. PMID:25777988

  20. Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 Knockout Abrogates Radiation Induced Pulmonary Inflammation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallahan, Dennis E.; Virudachalam, Subbulakshmi

    1997-06-01

    Increased expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1; CD54) is induced by exposure to ionizing radiation. The lung was used as a model to study the role of ICAM-1 in the pathogenesis of the radiation-induced inflammation-like response. ICAM-1 expression increased in the pulmonary microvascular endothelium and not in the endothelium of larger pulmonary vessels following treatment of mice with thoracic irradiation. To quantify radiation-induced ICAM-1 expression, we utilized fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis of anti-ICAM-1 antibody labeling of pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells from human cadaver donors (HMVEC-L cells). Fluorochrome conjugates and UV microscopy were used to quantify the fluorescence intensity of ICAM in the irradiated lung. These studies showed a dose- and time-dependent increase in ICAM-1 expression in the pulmonary microvascular endothelium. Peak expression occurred at 24 h, while threshold dose was as low as 2 Gy. To determine whether ICAM-1 is required for inflammatory cell infiltration into the irradiated lung, the anti-ICAM-1 blocking antibody was administered by tail vein injection to mice following thoracic irradiation. Inflammatory cells were quantified by immunofluorescence for leukocyte common antigen (CD45). Mice treated with the anti-ICAM-1 blocking antibody showed attenuation of inflammatory cell infiltration into the lung in response to ionizing radiation exposure. To verify the requirement of ICAM-1 in the inflammation-like radiation response, we utilized the ICAM-1 knockout mouse. ICAM-1 was not expressed in the lungs of ICAM-1-deficient mice following treatment with thoracic irradiation. ICAM-1 knockout mice had no increase in the inflammatory cell infiltration into the lung in response to thoracic irradiation. These studies demonstrate a radiation dose-dependent increase in ICAM-1 expression in the pulmonary microvascular endothelium, and show that ICAM-1 is required for inflammatory cell infiltration

  1. Reduced Extinction of Hippocampal-Dependent Memories in CPEB Knockout Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zearfoss, N. Ruth; Richter, Joel D.; Berger-Sweeney, Joanne

    2006-01-01

    CPEB is a sequence-specific RNA binding protein that regulates translation at synapses. In neurons of CPEB knockout mice, synaptic efficacy is reduced. Here, we have performed a battery of behavioral tests and find that relative to wild-type animals, CPEB knockout mice, although similar on many baseline behaviors, have reduced extinction of…

  2. Electrophysiological and Ultrastructural Characterization of Neuromuscular Junctions in Diaphragm Muscle of Acetylcholinesterase Knockout Mice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    Electrophysiological and Ultrastructural Characterization of Neuromuscular Junctions in 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Diaphragm Muscle of Acetylcholinesterase Knockout Mice...AChE +/+) and acetylcholinesterase knockout (AChE -/-) mice to determine the compensatory mechanism manifested by the neuromuscular junction to...had smaller nerve terminals and diminished pre- and postsynaptic surface contacts relative to neuromuscular junctions of AChE +/+ mice. The

  3. Health and population effects of rare gene knockouts in adult humans with related parents.

    PubMed

    Narasimhan, Vagheesh M; Hunt, Karen A; Mason, Dan; Baker, Christopher L; Karczewski, Konrad J; Barnes, Michael R; Barnett, Anthony H; Bates, Chris; Bellary, Srikanth; Bockett, Nicholas A; Giorda, Kristina; Griffiths, Christopher J; Hemingway, Harry; Jia, Zhilong; Kelly, M Ann; Khawaja, Hajrah A; Lek, Monkol; McCarthy, Shane; McEachan, Rosie; O'Donnell-Luria, Anne; Paigen, Kenneth; Parisinos, Constantinos A; Sheridan, Eamonn; Southgate, Laura; Tee, Louise; Thomas, Mark; Xue, Yali; Schnall-Levin, Michael; Petkov, Petko M; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Maher, Eamonn R; Trembath, Richard C; MacArthur, Daniel G; Wright, John; Durbin, Richard; van Heel, David A

    2016-04-22

    Examining complete gene knockouts within a viable organism can inform on gene function. We sequenced the exomes of 3222 British adults of Pakistani heritage with high parental relatedness, discovering 1111 rare-variant homozygous genotypes with predicted loss of function (knockouts) in 781 genes. We observed 13.7% fewer homozygous knockout genotypes than we expected, implying an average load of 1.6 recessive-lethal-equivalent loss-of-function (LOF) variants per adult. When genetic data were linked to the individuals' lifelong health records, we observed no significant relationship between gene knockouts and clinical consultation or prescription rate. In this data set, we identified a healthy PRDM9-knockout mother and performed phased genome sequencing on her, her child, and control individuals. Our results show that meiotic recombination sites are localized away from PRDM9-dependent hotspots. Thus, natural LOF variants inform on essential genetic loci and demonstrate PRDM9 redundancy in humans.

  4. Health and population effects of rare gene knockouts in adult humans with related parents

    PubMed Central

    Narasimhan, Vagheesh M.; Hunt, Karen A.; Mason, Dan; Baker, Christopher L.; Karczewski, Konrad J.; Barnes, Michael R.; Barnett, Anthony H.; Bates, Chris; Bellary, Srikanth; Bockett, Nicholas A.; Giorda, Kristina; Griffiths, Christopher J.; Hemingway, Harry; Jia, Zhilong; Kelly, M. Ann; Khawaja, Hajrah A.; Lek, Monkol; McCarthy, Shane; McEachan, Rosie; O’Donnell-Luria, Anne; Paigen, Kenneth; Parisinos, Constantinos A.; Sheridan, Eamonn; Southgate, Laura; Tee, Louise; Thomas, Mark; Xue, Yali; Schnall-Levin, Michael; Petkov, Petko M.; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Maher, Eamonn R.; Trembath, Richard C.; MacArthur, Daniel G.; Wright, John; Durbin, Richard; van Heel, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Examining complete gene knockouts within a viable organism can inform on gene function. We sequenced the exomes of 3,222 British Pakistani-heritage adults with high parental relatedness, discovering 1,111 rare-variant homozygous genotypes with predicted loss of gene function (knockouts) in 781 genes. We observed 13.7% fewer than expected homozygous knockout genotypes, implying an average load of 1.6 recessive-lethal-equivalent LOF variants per adult. Linking genetic data to lifelong health records, knockouts were not associated with clinical consultation or prescription rate. In this dataset we identified a healthy PRDM9 knockout mother, and performed phased genome sequencing on her, her child and controls, which showed meiotic recombination sites localised away from PRDM9-dependent hotspots. Thus, natural LOF variants inform upon essential genetic loci, and demonstrate PRDM9 redundancy in humans. PMID:26940866

  5. Motivational effects of ethanol in DARPP-32 knock-out mice.

    PubMed

    Risinger, F O; Freeman, P A; Greengard, P; Fienberg, A A

    2001-01-01

    DARPP-32 (dopamine and adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate-regulated phosphoprotein, 32 kDa) is an important component of dopaminergic function in brain areas thought to be important for drug and alcohol addiction. The present experiments characterized the acquisition of ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion, ethanol-induced conditioned place preference, and ethanol self-administration in DARPP-32 knock-out (KO) mice compared to wild-type (WT) controls. For taste conditioning, KO and WT mice received access to 0.2 m NaCl solution followed immediately by intraperitoneal injection of 0-4 gm/kg ethanol. Ethanol produced dose-dependent conditioned taste aversion that was the same in both genotypes. For place conditioning, KO and WT mice received eight pairings of a tactile stimulus with ethanol (2 gm/kg, i.p.), and a different stimulus with saline. Ethanol produced increases in locomotor activity during conditioning, with KO mice showing higher activity levels after ethanol compared to WT mice. WT mice, but not KO mice, acquired conditioned preference for the ethanol-paired stimulus. In the self-administration procedure, KO and WT mice were trained to lever press for access to 10% v/v ethanol. Subsequently, the mice had 23 hr/d access to food, ethanol, and water. Response patterns were determined using 0-30% v/v ethanol concentrations. WT mice displayed concentration-dependent responding for ethanol. Responding on the ethanol lever by KO mice did not change as a function of ethanol concentration. Saccharin (0.2% w/v) was subsequently added to the ethanol mixture, and responding was examined at 0, 5, 10, and 20% ethanol concentrations. Ethanol responding increased in both genotypes, although WT mice showed higher rates at all concentrations.

  6. MOMDIS: a Glauber model computer code for knockout reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertulani, C. A.; Gade, A.

    2006-09-01

    A computer program is described to calculate momentum distributions in stripping and diffraction dissociation reactions. A Glauber model is used with the scattering wavefunctions calculated in the eikonal approximation. The program is appropriate for knockout reactions at intermediate energy collisions ( 30 MeV⩽E/nucleon⩽2000 MeV). It is particularly useful for reactions involving unstable nuclear beams, or exotic nuclei (e.g., neutron-rich nuclei), and studies of single-particle occupancy probabilities (spectroscopic factors) and other related physical observables. Such studies are an essential part of the scientific program of radioactive beam facilities, as in for instance the proposed RIA (Rare Isotope Accelerator) facility in the US. Program summaryTitle of program: MOMDIS (MOMentum DIStributions) Catalogue identifier:ADXZ_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADXZ_v1_0 Computers: The code has been created on an IBM-PC, but also runs on UNIX or LINUX machines Operating systems: WINDOWS or UNIX Program language used: Fortran-77 Memory required to execute with typical data: 16 Mbytes of RAM memory and 2 MB of hard disk space No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 6255 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 63 568 Distribution format: tar.gz Nature of physical problem: The program calculates bound wavefunctions, eikonal S-matrices, total cross-sections and momentum distributions of interest in nuclear knockout reactions at intermediate energies. Method of solution: Solves the radial Schrödinger equation for bound states. A Numerov integration is used outwardly and inwardly and a matching at the nuclear surface is done to obtain the energy and the bound state wavefunction with good accuracy. The S-matrices are obtained using eikonal wavefunctions and the "t- ρρ" method to obtain the eikonal phase-shifts. The momentum distributions are obtained by means of a Gaussian expansion of

  7. Complementation Test of Rpe65 Knockout and Tvrm148

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Charles B.; Chrenek, Micah A.; Foster, Stephanie L.; Duncan, Todd; Redmond, T. Michael; Pardue, Machelle T.; Boatright, Jeffrey H.; Nickerson, John M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. A mouse mutation, tvrm148, was previously reported as resulting in retinal degeneration. Tvrm148 and Rpe65 map between markers D3Mit147 and D3Mit19 on a genetic map, but the physical map places RPE65 outside the markers. We asked if Rpe65 or perhaps another nearby gene is mutated and if the mutant reduced 11-cis-retinal levels. We studied the impact of the tvrm148 mutation on visual function, morphology, and retinoid levels. Methods. Normal phase HPLC was used to measure retinoid levels. Rpe65+/+, tvrm148/+ (T+/−), tvrm148/tvrm148 (T−/−), RPE65KO/KO (Rpe65−/−), and Rpe65T/− mice visual function was measured by optokinetic tracking (OKT) and electroretinography (ERG). Morphology was assessed by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). qRT-PCR was used to measure Rpe65 mRNA levels. Immunoblotting measured the size and amount of RPE65 protein. Results. The knockout and tvrm148 alleles did not complement. No 11-cis-retinal was detected in T−/− or Rpe65−/− mice. Visual acuity in Rpe65+/+ and T+/− mouse was ∼0.382 c/d, but 0.037 c/d in T−/− mice at postnatal day 210 (P210). ERG response in T−/− mice was undetectable except at bright flash intensities. Outer nuclear layer (ONL) thickness in T−/− mice was ∼70% of Rpe65+/+ by P210. Rpe65 mRNA levels in T−/− mice were unchanged, yet 14.5% of Rpe65+/+ protein levels was detected. Protein size was unchanged. Conclusions. A complementation test revealed the RPE65 knockout and tvrm148 alleles do not complement, proving that the tvrm148 mutation is in Rpe65. Behavioral, physiological, molecular, biochemical, and histological approaches indicate that tvrm148 is a null allele of Rpe65. PMID:23778877

  8. Requirement for the eIF4E binding proteins for the synergistic down-regulation of protein synthesis by hypertonic conditions and mTOR inhibition.

    PubMed

    Clemens, Michael J; Elia, Androulla; Morley, Simon J

    2013-01-01

    The protein kinase mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) regulates the phosphorylation and activity of several proteins that have the potential to control translation, including p70S6 kinase and the eIF4E binding proteins 4E-BP1 and 4E-BP2. In spite of this, in exponentially growing cells overall protein synthesis is often resistant to mTOR inhibitors. We report here that sensitivity of wild-type mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) to mTOR inhibitors can be greatly increased when the cells are subjected to the physiological stress imposed by hypertonic conditions. In contrast, protein synthesis in MEFs with a double knockout of 4E-BP1 and 4E-BP2 remains resistant to mTOR inhibitors under these conditions. Phosphorylation of p70S6 kinase and protein kinase B (Akt) is blocked by the mTOR inhibitor Ku0063794 equally well in both wild-type and 4E-BP knockout cells, under both normal and hypertonic conditions. The response of protein synthesis to hypertonic stress itself does not require the 4E-BPs. These data suggest that under certain stress conditions: (i) translation has a greater requirement for mTOR activity and (ii) there is an absolute requirement for the 4E-BPs for regulation by mTOR. Importantly, dephosphorylation of p70S6 kinase and Akt is not sufficient to affect protein synthesis acutely.

  9. Subregion-Specific p300 Conditional Knock-Out Mice Exhibit Long-Term Memory Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveira, Ana M. M.; Estevez, Marcel A.; Hawk, Joshua D.; Grimes, Shannon; Brindle, Paul K.; Abel, Ted

    2011-01-01

    Histone acetylation plays a critical role during long-term memory formation. Several studies have demonstrated that the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) CBP is required during long-term memory formation, but the involvement of other HAT proteins has not been extensively investigated. The HATs CBP and p300 have at least 400 described interacting…

  10. [An efficient genetic knockout system based on linear DNA fragment homologous recombination for halophilic archaea].

    PubMed

    Xiaoli, Wang; Chuang, Jiang; Jianhua, Liu; Xipeng, Liu

    2015-04-01

    With the development of functional genomics, gene-knockout is becoming an important tool to elucidate gene functions in vivo. As a good model strain for archaeal genetics, Haloferax volcanii has received more attention. Although several genetic manipulation systems have been developed for some halophilic archaea, it is time-consuming because of the low percentage of positive clones during the second-recombination selection. These classical gene knockout methods are based on DNA recombination between the genomic homologous sequence and the circular suicide plasmid, which carries a pyrE selection marker and two DNA fragments homologous to the upstream and downstream fragments of the target gene. Many wild-type clones are obtained through a reverse recombination between the plasmid and genome in the classic gene knockout method. Therefore, it is necessary to develop an efficient gene knockout system to increase the positive clone percentage. Here we report an improved gene knockout method using a linear DNA cassette consisting of upstream and downstream homologous fragments, and the pyrE marker. Gene deletions were subsequently detected by colony PCR analysis. We determined the efficiency of our knockout method by deleting the xpb2 gene from the H. volcanii genome, with the percentage of positive clones higher than 50%. Our method provides an efficient gene knockout strategy for halophilic archaea.

  11. Iron regulatory protein-2 knockout increases perihematomal ferritin expression and cell viability after intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mai; Awe, Olatilewa O; Chen-Roetling, Jing; Regan, Raymond F

    2010-06-14

    Iron is deposited in perihematomal tissue after an intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), and may contribute to oxidative injury. Cell culture studies have demonstrated that enhancing ferritin expression by targeting iron regulatory protein (IRP) binding activity reduces cellular vulnerability to iron and hemoglobin. In order to assess the therapeutic potential of this approach after striatal ICH, the effect of IRP1 or IRP2 gene knockout on ferritin expression and injury was quantified. Striatal ferritin in IRP1 knockout mice was similar to that in wild-type controls 3 days after stereotactic injection of artificial CSF or autologous blood. Corresponding levels in IRP2 knockouts were increased by 11-fold and 8.4-fold, respectively, compared with wild-type. Protein carbonylation, a sensitive marker of hemoglobin neurotoxicity, was increased by 2.4-fold in blood-injected wild-type striata, was not altered by IRP1 knockout, but was reduced by approximately 60% by IRP2 knockout. Perihematomal cell viability in wild-type mice, assessed by MTT assay, was approximately half of that in contralateral striata at 3 days, and was significantly increased in IRP2 knockouts but not in IRP1 knockouts. Protection was also observed when hemorrhage was induced by collagenase injection. These results suggest that IRP2 binding activity reduces ferritin expression in the striatum after ICH, preventing an optimal response to elevated local iron concentrations. IRP2 binding activity may be a novel therapeutic target after hemorrhagic CNS injuries.

  12. Iron Regulatory Protein-2 Knockout Increases Perihematomal Ferritin Expression and Cell Viability after Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mai; Awe, Olatilewa O.; Chen-Roetling, Jing; Regan, Raymond F.

    2010-01-01

    Iron is deposited in perihematomal tissue after an intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), and may contribute to oxidative injury. Cell culture studies have demonstrated that enhancing ferritin expression by targeting iron regulatory protein (IRP) binding activity reduces cellular vulnerability to iron and hemoglobin. In order to assess the therapeutic potential of this approach after striatal ICH, the effect of IRP1 or IRP2 gene knockout on ferritin expression and injury was quantified. Striatal ferritin in IRP1 knockout mice was similar to that in wild-type controls three days after stereotactic injection of artificial CSF or autologous blood. Corresponding levels in IRP2 knockouts were increased by 11-fold and 8.4-fold, respectively, compared with wild-type. Protein carbonylation, a sensitive marker of hemoglobin neurotoxicity, was increased by 2.4-fold in blood-injected wild-type striata, was not altered by IRP1 knockout, but was reduced by approximately 60% by IRP2 knockout. Perihematomal cell viability in wild-type mice, assessed by MTT assay, was approximately half of that in contralateral striata at three days, and was significantly increased in IRP2 knockouts but not in IRP1 knockouts. Protection was also observed when hemorrhage was induced by collagenase injection. These results suggest that IRP2 binding activity reduces ferritin expression in the striatum after ICH, preventing an optimal response to elevated local iron concentrations. IRP2 binding activity may be a novel therapeutic target after hemorrhagic CNS injuries. PMID:20399759

  13. Current driven weak double layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chanteur, Gerard

    1987-01-01

    Double layers in plasmas can be created by different means. For example, a potential difference forms between two plasmas with different temperatures, in a plasma jet flowing along a converging magnetic field, in a quiescent plasma submitted to an external difference of potential, or in a turbulent plasma carrying an electric charge. The first three cases can be current-free, but not necessarily, although the numerical simulations were made under such conditions for the first two points. Apart from the third case, which is mainly of interest for laboratory experiments, these double layers are good candidates for accelerating the auroral electrons to the few kiloelectron volts observed.

  14. Kv4.2 knockout mice demonstrate increased susceptibility to convulsant stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Barnwell, L. Forbes S.; Lugo, Joaquin N.; Lee, Wai Ling; Willis, Sarah E.; Gertz, Shira J.; Hrachovy, Richard A.; Anderson, Anne E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Kv4.2 subunits contribute to the pore-forming region of channels that express a transient, A-type K+ current (A-current) in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cell dendrites. Here, the A-current plays an important role in signal processing and synaptic integration. Kv4.2 knockout mice show a near elimination of the A-current in area CA1 dendrites producing increased excitability in this region. In these studies, we evaluated young adult Kv4.2 knockout mice for spontaneous seizures and the response to convulsant stimulation in the whole animal in vivo and in hippocampal slices in vitro. Methods Electroencephalogram electrode-implanted Kv4.2 knockout and wildtype mice were observed for spontaneous behavioral and electrographic seizures. The latency to seizure and status epilepticus onset in Kv4.2 knockout and wildtype mice was assessed following intraperitoneal injection of kainate. Extracellular field potential recordings were performed in hippocampal slices from Kv4.2 knockout and wildtype mice following the bath application of bicuculline. Results No spontaneous behavioral or electrographic seizures were observed in Kv4.2 knockout mice. Following kainate, Kv4.2 knockout mice demonstrated a decreased seizure and status epilepticus latency as well as increased mortality compared to wildtype littermates. The background strain modified the seizure susceptibility phenotype in Kv4.2 knockout mice. In response to bicuculline, slices from Kv4.2 knockout mice exhibited an increase in epileptiform bursting in area CA1 as compared to wildtype littermates. Discussion These studies show that loss of Kv4.2 channels is associated with enhanced susceptibility to convulsant stimulation, supporting the concept that Kv4.2 deficiency may contribute to aberrant network excitability and regulate seizure threshold. PMID:19453702

  15. Muscular pre-conditioning using light-emitting diode therapy (LEDT) for high-intensity exercise: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial with a single elite runner.

    PubMed

    Ferraresi, Cleber; Beltrame, Thomas; Fabrizzi, Fernando; do Nascimento, Eduardo Sanches Pereira; Karsten, Marlus; Francisco, Cristina de Oliveira; Borghi-Silva, Audrey; Catai, Aparecida Maria; Cardoso, Daniel Rodrigues; Ferreira, Antonio Gilberto; Hamblin, Michael R; Bagnato, Vanderlei Salvador; Parizotto, Nivaldo Antonio

    2015-07-01

    Recently, low-level laser (light) therapy (LLLT) has been used to improve muscle performance. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of near-infrared light-emitting diode therapy (LEDT) and its mechanisms of action to improve muscle performance in an elite athlete. The kinetics of oxygen uptake (VO2), blood and urine markers of muscle damage (creatine kinase--CK and alanine), and fatigue (lactate) were analyzed. Additionally, some metabolic parameters were assessed in urine using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H NMR). A LED cluster with 50 LEDs (λ = 850 nm; 50 mW 15 s; 37.5 J) was applied on legs, arms and trunk muscles of a single runner athlete 5 min before a high-intense constant workload running exercise on treadmill. The athlete received either Placebo-1-LEDT; Placebo-2-LEDT; or Effective-LEDT in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial with washout period of 7 d between each test. LEDT improved the speed of the muscular VO2 adaptation (∼-9 s), decreased O2 deficit (∼-10 L), increased the VO2 from the slow component phase (∼+348 ml min(-1)), and increased the time limit of exercise (∼+589 s). LEDT decreased blood and urine markers of muscle damage and fatigue (CK, alanine and lactate levels). The results suggest that a muscular pre-conditioning regimen using LEDT before intense exercises could modulate metabolic and renal function to achieve better performance.

  16. Olmesartan vs ramipril in the treatment of hypertension and associated clinical conditions in the elderly: a reanalysis of two large double-blind, randomized studies at the light of the most recent blood pressure targets recommended by guidelines.

    PubMed

    Omboni, Stefano; Malacco, Ettore; Mallion, Jean-Michel; Volpe, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present the results of a reanalysis of the data of two large randomized, double-blind, parallel group studies with a similar design, comparing the efficacy of an angiotensin-receptor blocker (olmesartan medoxomil) with that of an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ramipril), by applying two different blood pressure targets recently recommended by hypertension guidelines for all patients, irrespective of the presence of diabetes (<140/90 mmHg), and for elderly hypertensive patients (<150/90 mmHg). The efficacy of olmesartan was not negatively affected by age, sex, hypertension type, diabetes status or other concomitant clinical conditions, or cardiovascular risk factors. In most cases, olmesartan provided better blood pressure control than ramipril. Olmesartan was significantly more effective than ramipril in male patients, in younger patients (aged 65-69 years), in those with metabolic syndrome, obesity, dyslipidemia, preserved renal function, diastolic ± systolic hypertension, and, in general, in patients with a high or very high cardiovascular risk. Interestingly, patients previously untreated or treated with two or more antihypertensive drugs showed a significantly larger response with olmesartan than with ramipril. Thus, our results confirm the good efficacy of olmesartan in elderly hypertensives even when new blood pressure targets for antihypertensive treatment are considered. Such results may be relevant for the clinical practice, providing some hint on the possible different response of elderly hypertensive patients to two different drugs acting on the renin-angiotensin system, when patients are targeted according to the blood pressure levels recommended by recent hypertension guidelines.

  17. Impact of a trace element supplementation programme on health and performance of cross-breed (Bos indicus x Bos taurus) dairy cattle under tropical farming conditions: a double-blinded randomized field trial.

    PubMed

    Dermauw, V; Dierenfeld, E; Du Laing, G; Buyse, J; Brochier, B; Van Gucht, S; Duchateau, L; Janssens, G P J

    2015-06-01

    Small-scale urban dairy farms (n = 16) in and around Jimma, Ethiopia with cross-bred (Bos indicus × Bos taurus) cows were enrolled in a double-blinded intervention study to investigate the effect of a trace element supplementation programme on trace element status and milk concentrations as well as performance [body condition score (BCS), milk yield, leptin], milk composition, antioxidant status (ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS)], blood biochemistry, serum proteins and immune response (antibody titre upon rabies vaccination). The farms were allocated to a (1) placebo or (2) Cu, Zn, Se, Co and I supplementation treatment for 150 d. On days 0 and 120, four lactating cows per farm were sampled for milk and plasma, and on day 150 for serum, following primo-vaccination. Cu deficiency was present in 17% and marginal Se deficiency in 30% of initially sampled cows, while no Zn shortage was detected. Over 120 days, trace element supplementation caused a bigger increase in plasma Se and Cu concentrations, but also a larger decrease of plasma Fe concentrations. A larger increase in milk Se concentrations was observed in the supplemented group, whereas none of the other elements were affected. BCS decreased more over time in the supplemented group. None of the other parameters of performance and antioxidant status nor milk composition or blood biochemistry was affected by treatment. Antibody response to rabies vaccination did not differ between groups, whereas α1-globulins tended to be lower and β-globulins tended to be higher in the supplemented group. In conclusion, despite improved Cu and Se status and Se concentrations in milk, cows on tropical urban dairy farms did not seem to benefit from trace element supplementation, with respect to the parameters investigated.

  18. First Behavioural Characterisation of a Knockout Mouse Model for the Transforming Growth Factor (TGF)-β Superfamily Cytokine, MIC-1/GDF15

    PubMed Central

    Low, Jac Kee; Ambikairajah, Ananthan; Shang, Kani; Brown, David A.; Tsai, Vicky W. W.; Breit, Samuel N.; Karl, Tim

    2017-01-01

    Macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1), also known as growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15), is a stress response cytokine. MIC-1/GDF15 is secreted into the cerebrospinal fluid and increased levels of MIC-1/GDF15 are associated with a variety of diseases including cognitive decline. Furthermore, Mic-1/Gdf15 knockout mice (Mic-1 KO) weigh more, have increased adiposity, associated with increased spontaneous food intake, and exhibit reduced basal energy expenditure and physical activity. The current study was designed to comprehensively determine the role of MIC-1/GDF15 on behavioural domains of male and female knockout mice including locomotion, exploration, anxiety, cognition, social behaviours, and sensorimotor gating. Mic-1 KO mice exhibited a task-dependent increase in locomotion and exploration and reduced anxiety-related behaviours across tests. Spatial working memory and social behaviours were not affected by Mic-1/Gdf15 deficiency. Interestingly, knockout mice formed an increased association with the conditioned stimulus in fear conditioning testing and also displayed significantly improved prepulse inhibition. Overall sex effects were evident for social behaviours, fear conditioning, and sensorimotor gating. This is the first study defining the role of Mic-1/Gdf15 in a number of behavioural domains. Whether the observed impact is based on direct actions of Mic-1/Gdf15 deficiency on the CNS or whether the behavioural effects are mediated by indirect actions on e.g. other neurotransmitter systems must be clarified in future studies. PMID:28081177

  19. Cognitive abnormalities and hippocampal alterations in monoamine oxidase A and B knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Singh, Chanpreet; Bortolato, Marco; Bali, Namrata; Godar, Sean C; Scott, Anna L; Chen, Kevin; Thompson, Richard F; Shih, Jean C

    2013-07-30

    The monoamine oxidase isoenzymes (MAOs) A and B play important roles in the homeostasis of monoaminergic neurotransmitters. The combined deficiency of MAO A and B results in significantly elevated levels of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine), norepinephrine, dopamine, and β-phenylethylamine; in humans and mice, these neurochemical changes are accompanied by neurodevelopmental perturbations as well as autistic-like responses. Ample evidence indicates that normal levels of monoamines in the hippocampus, amygdala, frontal cortex, and cerebellum are required for the integrity of learning and memory. Thus, in the present study, the cognitive status of MAO A/B knockout (KO) mice was examined with a wide array of behavioral tests. In comparison with male wild-type littermates, MAO A/B KO mice exhibited abnormally high and overgeneralized fear conditioning and enhanced eye-blink conditioning. These alterations were accompanied by significant increases in hippocampal long-term potentiation and alterations in the relative expression of NMDA glutamate receptor subunits. Our data suggest that chronic elevations of monoamines, because of the absence of MAO A and MAO B, cause functional alterations that are accompanied with changes in the cellular mechanisms underlying learning and memory. The characteristics exhibited by MAO A/B KO mice highlight the potential of these animals as a useful tool to provide further insight into the molecular bases of disorders associated with abnormal monoaminergic profiles.

  20. A comparative study of the characterization of miR-155 in knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dong; Cui, Yongchun; Li, Bin; Luo, Xiaokang; Li, Bo; Tang, Yue

    2017-01-01

    miR-155 is one of the most important miRNAs and plays a very important role in numerous biological processes. However, few studies have characterized this miRNA in mice under normal physiological conditions. We aimed to characterize miR-155 in vivo by using a comparative analysis. In our study, we compared miR-155 knockout (KO) mice with C57BL/6 wild type (WT) mice in order to characterize miR-155 in mice under normal physiological conditions using many evaluation methods, including a reproductive performance analysis, growth curve, ultrasonic estimation, haematological examination, and histopathological analysis. These analyses showed no significant differences between groups in the main evaluation indices. The growth and development were nearly normal for all mice and did not differ between the control and model groups. Using a comparative analysis and a summary of related studies published in recent years, we found that miR-155 was not essential for normal physiological processes in 8-week-old mice. miR-155 deficiency did not affect the development and growth of naturally ageing mice during the 42 days after birth. Thus, studying the complex biological functions of miR-155 requires the further use of KO mouse models. PMID:28278287

  1. Auxin/AID versus conventional knockouts: distinguishing the roles of CENP-T/W in mitotic kinetochore assembly and stability

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Laura; Booth, Daniel G.; Vargiu, Giulia; Ohta, Shinya; deLima Alves, Flavia; Samejima, Kumiko; Fukagawa, Tatsuo; Rappsilber, Juri; Earnshaw, William C.

    2016-01-01

    Most studies using knockout technologies to examine protein function have relied either on shutting off transcription (conventional conditional knockouts with tetracycline-regulated gene expression or gene disruption) or destroying the mature mRNA (RNAi technology). In both cases, the target protein is lost at a rate determined by its intrinsic half-life. Thus, protein levels typically fall over at least 1–3 days, and cells continue to cycle while exposed to a decreasing concentration of the protein. Here we characterise the kinetochore proteome of mitotic chromosomes isolated from a cell line in which the essential kinetochore protein CENP-T is present as an auxin-inducible degron (AID) fusion protein that is fully functional and able to support the viability of the cells. Stripping of the protein from chromosomes in early mitosis via targeted proteasomal degradation reveals the dependency of other proteins on CENP-T for their maintenance in kinetochores. We compare these results with the kinetochore proteome of conventional CENP-T/W knockouts. As the cell cycle is mostly formed from G1, S and G2 phases a gradual loss of CENP-T/W levels is more likely to reflect dependencies associated with kinetochore assembly pre-mitosis and upon entry into mitosis. Interestingly, a putative super-complex involving Rod-Zw10-zwilch (RZZ complex), Spindly, Mad1/Mad2 and CENP-E requires the function of CENP-T/W during kinetochore assembly for its stable association with the outer kinetochore, but once assembled remains associated with chromosomes after stripping of CENP-T during mitosis. This study highlights the different roles core kinetochore components may play in the assembly of kinetochores (upon entry into mitosis) versus the maintenance of specific components (during mitosis). PMID:26791246

  2. Loss of Urinary Macromolecules in Mice Causes Interstitial and Intratubular Renal Calcification Dependent on the Underlying Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xue-Ru; Lieske, John C.; Evan, Andrew P.; Sommer, Andre J.; Liaw, Lucy; Mo, Lan

    2008-09-01

    Urinary protein macromolecules have long been thought to play a role in influencing the various phases of urolithiasis including nucleation, growth, aggregation of mineral crystals and their subsequent adhesion to the renal epithelial cells. However, compelling evidence regarding their precise role was lacking, due partly to the fact that most prior studies were done in vitro and results were highly variable depending on the experimental conditions. The advent of genetic engineering technology has made it possible to study urinary protein macromolecules within an in vivo biological system. Indeed, recent studies have begun to shed light on the net effects of loss of one or more macromolecules on the earliest steps of urolithiasis. This paper focuses on the in vivo consequences of inactivating Tamm-Horsfall protein and/or osteopontin, two major urinary glycoproteins, using the knockout approach. The renal phenotypes of both single and double knockout mice under spontaneous or hyperoxaluric conditions will be described. The functional significance of the urinary macromolecules as critical defense factors against renal calcification will also be discussed.

  3. 2-Cysteine Peroxiredoxins and Thylakoid Ascorbate Peroxidase Create a Water-Water Cycle That Is Essential to Protect the Photosynthetic Apparatus under High Light Stress Conditions1

    PubMed Central

    Awad, Jasmin; Stotz, Henrik U.; Fekete, Agnes; Krischke, Markus; Engert, Cornelia; Havaux, Michel; Berger, Susanne; Mueller, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    Different peroxidases, including 2-cysteine (2-Cys) peroxiredoxins (PRXs) and thylakoid ascorbate peroxidase (tAPX), have been proposed to be involved in the water-water cycle (WWC) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-mediated signaling in plastids. We generated an Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) double-mutant line deficient in the two plastid 2-Cys PRXs (2-Cys PRX A and B, 2cpa 2cpb) and a triple mutant deficient in 2-Cys PRXs and tAPX (2cpa 2cpb tapx). In contrast to wild-type and tapx single-knockout plants, 2cpa 2cpb double-knockout plants showed an impairment of photosynthetic efficiency and became photobleached under high light (HL) growth conditions. In addition, double-mutant plants also generated elevated levels of superoxide anion radicals, H2O2, and carbonylated proteins but lacked anthocyanin accumulation under HL stress conditions. Under HL conditions, 2-Cys PRXs seem to be essential in maintaining the WWC, whereas tAPX is dispensable. By comparison, this HL-sensitive phenotype was more severe in 2cpa 2cpb tapx triple-mutant plants, indicating that tAPX partially compensates for the loss of functional 2-Cys PRXs by mutation or inactivation by overoxidation. In response to HL, H2O2- and photooxidative stress-responsive marker genes were found to be dramatically up-regulated in 2cpa 2cpb tapx but not 2cpa 2cpb mutant plants, suggesting that HL-induced plastid to nucleus retrograde photooxidative stress signaling takes place after loss or inactivation of the WWC enzymes 2-Cys PRX A, 2-Cys PRX B, and tAPX. PMID:25667319

  4. Accelerated retinal aging in PACAP knock-out mice.

    PubMed

    Kovács-Valasek, Andrea; Szabadfi, Krisztina; Dénes, Viktória; Szalontai, Bálint; Tamás, Andrea; Kiss, Péter; Szabó, Aliz; Setalo, Gyorgy; Reglődi, Dóra; Gábriel, Robert

    2017-02-13

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neurotrophic and neuroprotective peptide. PACAP and its receptors are widely distributed in the retina. A number of reports provided evidence that PACAP is neuroprotective in retinal degenerations. The current study compared retina cell type-specific differences in young (3-4months) and aged adults (14-16months), of wild-type (WT) mice and knock-out (KO) mice lacking endogenous PACAP production during the course of aging. Histological, immunocytochemical and Western blot examinations were performed. The staining for standard neurochemical markers (tyrosine hydroxylase for dopaminergic cells, calbindin 28 kDa for horizontal cells, protein kinase Cα for rod bipolar cells) of young adult PACAP KO retinas showed no substantial alterations compared to young adult WT retinas, except for the specific PACAP receptor (PAC1-R) staining. We could not detect PAC1-R immunoreactivity in bipolar and horizontal cells in young adult PACAP KO animals. Some other age-related changes were observed only in the PACAP KO mice only. These alterations included horizontal and rod bipolar cell dendritic sprouting into the photoreceptor layer and decreased ganglion cell number. Also, Müller glial cells showed elevated GFAP expression compared to the aging WT retinas. Furthermore, Western blot analyses revealed significant differences between the phosphorylation state of ERK1/2 and JNK in KO mice, indicating alterations in the MAPK signaling pathway. These results support the conclusion that endogenous PACAP contributes to protection against aging of the nervous system.

  5. Behavioral and neuroanatomical abnormalities in pleiotrophin knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Krellman, Jason W; Ruiz, Henry H; Marciano, Veronica A; Mondrow, Bracha; Croll, Susan D

    2014-01-01

    Pleiotrophin (PTN) is an extracellular matrix-associated protein with neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects that is involved in a variety of neurodevelopmental processes. Data regarding the cognitive-behavioral and neuroanatomical phenotype of pleiotrophin knockout (KO) mice is limited. The purpose of this study was to more fully characterize this phenotype, with emphasis on the domains of learning and memory, cognitive-behavioral flexibility, exploratory behavior and anxiety, social behavior, and the neuronal and vascular microstructure of the lateral entorhinal cortex (EC). PTN KOs exhibited cognitive rigidity, heightened anxiety, behavioral reticence in novel contexts and novel social interactions suggestive of neophobia, and lamina-specific decreases in neuronal area and increases in neuronal density in the lateral EC. Initial learning of spatial and other associative tasks, as well as vascular density in the lateral EC, was normal in the KOs. These data suggest that the absence of PTN in vivo is associated with disruption of specific cognitive and affective processes, raising the possibility that further study of PTN KOs might have implications for the study of human disorders with similar features.

  6. Immunosympathectomy as the first phenotypic knockout with antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Cattaneo, Antonino

    2013-01-01

    In a PNAS Classic Article published in 1960, Rita Levi-Montalcini offered formal and conclusive proof that endogenous NGF was responsible for the survival of sympathetic neurons in vivo. Thus ended an experimental tour de force lasting a decade, starting with the demonstration that a humoral factor, produced from a tumor transplanted in a chicken embryo, was responsible for stimulating outgrowth of nerve fibers from sympathetic and sensory neurons. From a more general methodological point of view, this work provided a breakthrough in the quest to achieve targeted loss of function and experimentally validate the function of biological molecules. Finally, this work provided an example of the ablation of a specific neuronal subpopulation in an otherwise intact nervous system, an immunological knife of unsurpassed effectiveness and precision. The novelty and the importance of the PNAS Classic Article is discussed here, collocating it within the context of the particular moment of the NGF discovery saga, of Rita Levi-Montalcini's scientific and academic career, and of the general scientific context of those years. This seminal work, involving the use of antibodies for phenotypic knockout in vivo, planted seeds that were to bear new fruit many years later with the advent of monoclonal antibodies and recombinant antibody technologies. PMID:23515328

  7. Boolean Network Model Predicts Knockout Mutant Phenotypes of Fission Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Davidich, Maria I.; Bornholdt, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Boolean networks (or: networks of switches) are extremely simple mathematical models of biochemical signaling networks. Under certain circumstances, Boolean networks, despite their simplicity, are capable of predicting dynamical activation patterns of gene regulatory networks in living cells. For example, the temporal sequence of cell cycle activation patterns in yeasts S. pombe and S. cerevisiae are faithfully reproduced by Boolean network models. An interesting question is whether this simple model class could also predict a more complex cellular phenomenology as, for example, the cell cycle dynamics under various knockout mutants instead of the wild type dynamics, only. Here we show that a Boolean network model for the cell cycle control network of yeast S. pombe correctly predicts viability of a large number of known mutants. So far this had been left to the more detailed differential equation models of the biochemical kinetics of the yeast cell cycle network and was commonly thought to be out of reach for models as simplistic as Boolean networks. The new results support our vision that Boolean networks may complement other mathematical models in systems biology to a larger extent than expected so far, and may fill a gap where simplicity of the model and a preference for an overall dynamical blueprint of cellular regulation, instead of biochemical details, are in the focus. PMID:24069138

  8. Knockout of Foxp2 disrupts vocal development in mice

    PubMed Central

    Castellucci, Gregg A.; McGinley, Matthew J.; McCormick, David A.

    2016-01-01

    The FOXP2 gene is important for the development of proper speech motor control in humans. However, the role of the gene in general vocal behavior in other mammals, including mice, is unclear. Here, we track the vocal development of Foxp2 heterozygous knockout (Foxp2+/−) mice and their wildtype (WT) littermates from juvenile to adult ages, and observe severe abnormalities in the courtship song of Foxp2+/− mice. In comparison to their WT littermates, Foxp2+/− mice vocalized less, produced shorter syllable sequences, and possessed an abnormal syllable inventory. In addition, Foxp2+/− song also exhibited irregular rhythmic structure, and its development did not follow the consistent trajectories observed in WT vocalizations. These results demonstrate that the Foxp2 gene is critical for normal vocal behavior in juvenile and adult mice, and that Foxp2 mutant mice may provide a tractable model system for the study of the gene’s role in general vocal motor control. PMID:26980647

  9. Drop tests of the Three Mile Island knockout canister

    SciTech Connect

    Box, W.D.; Aaron, W.S.; Shappert, L.B.; Childress, P.C.; Quinn, G.J.; Smith, J.V.

    1986-09-01

    A type of Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) defueling canister, called a ''knockout'' canister, was subjected to a series of drop tests at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Drop Test Facility. These tests were designed to confirm the structural integrity of internal fixed neutron poisons in support of a request for NRC licensing of this type of canister for the shipment of TMI-2 reactor fuel debris to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for the Core Examination R and D Program. Work conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory included (1) precise physical measurements of the internal poison rod configuration before assembly, (2) canister assembly and welding, (3) nondestructive examination (an initial hydrostatic pressure test and an x-ray profile of the internals before and after each drop test), (4) addition of a simulated fuel load, (5) instrumentation of the canister for each drop test, (6) fabrication of a cask simulation vessel with a developed and tested foam impact limiter, (7) use of refrigeration facilities to cool the canister to well below freezing prior to three of the drops, (8) recording the drop test with still, high-speed, and normal-speed photography, (9) recording the accelerometer measurements during impact, (10) disassembly and post-test examination with precise physical measurements, and (11) preparation of the final report.

  10. Reduced ultrasonic vocalizations in vasopressin 1b knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Scattoni, M L; McFarlane, H G; Zhodzishsky, V; Caldwell, H K; Young, W S; Ricceri, L; Crawley, J N

    2008-03-05

    The neuropeptides oxytocin and vasopressin have been implicated in rodent social and affiliative behaviors, including social bonding, parental care, social recognition, social memory, vocalizations, territoriality, and aggression, as well as components of human social behaviors and the etiology of autism. Previous investigations of mice with various manipulations of the oxytocin and vasopressin systems reported unusual levels of ultrasonic vocalizations in social settings. We employed a vasopressin 1b receptor (Avpr1b) knockout mouse to evaluate the role of the vasopressin 1b receptor subtype in the emission of ultrasonic vocalizations in adult and infant mice. Avpr1b null mutant female mice emitted fewer ultrasonic vocalizations, and their vocalizations were generally at lower frequencies, during a resident-intruder test. Avpr1b null mutant pups emitted ultrasonic vocalizations similar to heterozygote and wildtype littermates when separated from the nest on postnatal days 3, 6, 9, and 12. However, maternal potentiation of ultrasonic vocalizations in Avpr1b null and heterozygote mutants was absent, when tested at postnatal day 9. These results indicate that Avpr1b null mutant mice are impaired in the modulation of ultrasonic vocalizations within different social contexts at infant and adult ages.

  11. Results of gal-knockout porcine thymokidney xenografts.

    PubMed

    Griesemer, A D; Hirakata, A; Shimizu, A; Moran, S; Tena, A; Iwaki, H; Ishikawa, Y; Schule, P; Arn, J S; Robson, S C; Fishman, J A; Sykes, M; Sachs, D H; Yamada, K

    2009-12-01

    Clinical transplantation for the treatment of end-stage organ disease is limited by a shortage of donor organs. Successful xenotransplantation could immediately overcome this limitation. The development of homozygous alpha1,3-galactosyltransferase knockout (GalT-KO) pigs removed hyperacute rejection as the major immunologic hurdle to xenotransplantation. Nevertheless, GalT-KO organs stimulate robust immunologic responses that are not prevented by immunosuppressive drugs. Murine studies show that recipient thymopoiesis in thymic xenografts induces xenotolerance. We transplanted life-supporting composite thymokidneys (composite thymus and kidneys) prepared in GalT-KO miniature swine to baboons in an attempt to induce tolerance in a preclinical xenotransplant model. Here, we report the results of seven xenogenic thymokidney transplants using a steroid-free immunosuppressive regimen that eliminated whole-body irradiation in all but one recipient. The regimen resulted in average recipient survival of over 50 days. This was associated with donor-specific unresponsiveness in vitro and early baboon thymopoiesis in the porcine thymus tissue of these grafts, suggesting the development of T-cell tolerance. The kidney grafts had no signs of cellular infiltration or deposition of IgG, and no grafts were lost due to rejection. These results show that xenogeneic thymus transplantation can support early primate thymopoiesis, which in turn may induce T-cell tolerance to solid organ xenografts.

  12. Results of Gal-Knockout porcine thymokidney xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Griesemer, Adam D.; Hirakata, Atsushi; Shimizu, Akira; Moran, Shannon; Tena, Aseda; Iwaki, Hideyuki; Ishikawa, Yoshinori; Schule, Patrick; Arn, J. Scott; Robson, Simon C.; Fishman, Jay A.; Sykes, Megan; Sachs, David H.; Yamada, Kazuhiko

    2009-01-01

    Clinical transplantation for the treatment of end-stage organ disease is limited by a shortage of donor organs. Successful xenotransplantation could immediately overcome this limitation. The development of homozygous α1,3-galactosyltransferase knockout (GalT-KO) pigs removed hyperacute rejection as the major immunologic hurdle to xenotransplantation. Nevertheless, GalT-KO organs stimulate robust immunologic responses that are not prevented by immunosuppressive drugs. Murine studies show that recipient thymopoiesis in thymic xenografts induces xenotolerance. We transplanted life-supporting composite thymokidneys prepared in GalT-KO miniature swine to baboons in an attempt to induce tolerance in a pre-clinical xenotransplant model. Here, we report the results of 7 xenogenic thymokidney transplants using a steroid-free immunosuppressive regimen that eliminated whole body irradiation in all but 1 recipient. The regimen resulted in average recipient survival of over 50 days. This was associated with donor-specific unresponsiveness in vitro and early baboon thymopoiesis in the porcine thymus tissue of these grafts, suggesting the development of T cell tolerance. The kidney grafts had no signs of cellular infiltration or deposition of IgG, and no grafts were lost due to rejection. These results show that xenogeneic thymus transplantation can support early human thymopoiesis, which in turn may induce T cell tolerance to solid organ xenografts. PMID:19845583

  13. Adenylate kinase 1 knockout mice have normal thiamine triphosphate levels.

    PubMed

    Makarchikov, Alexander F; Wins, Pierre; Janssen, Edwin; Wieringa, Bé; Grisar, Thierry; Bettendorff, Lucien

    2002-10-21

    Thiamine triphosphate (ThTP) is found at low concentrations in most animal tissues and it may act as a phosphate donor for the phosphorylation of proteins, suggesting a potential role in cell signaling. Two mechanisms have been proposed for the enzymatic synthesis of ThTP. A thiamine diphosphate (ThDP) kinase (ThDP+ATP if ThTP+ADP) has been purified from brewer's yeast and shown to exist in rat liver. However, other data suggest that, at least in skeletal muscle, adenylate kinase 1 (AK1) is responsible for ThTP synthesis. In this study, we show that AK1 knockout mice have normal ThTP levels in skeletal muscle, heart, brain, liver and kidney, demonstrating that AK1 is not responsible for ThTP synthesis in those tissues. We predict that the high ThTP content of particular tissues like the Electrophorus electricus electric organ, or pig and chicken skeletal muscle is more tightly correlated with high ThDP kinase activity or low soluble ThTPase activity than with non-stringent substrate specificity and high activity of adenylate kinase.

  14. Gastrointestinal Pathology in Juvenile and Adult CFTR-Knockout Ferrets

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xingshen; Olivier, Alicia K.; Yi, Yaling; Pope, Christopher E.; Hayden, Hillary S.; Liang, Bo; Sui, Hongshu; Zhou, Weihong; Hager, Kyle R.; Zhang, Yulong; Liu, Xiaoming; Yan, Ziying; Fisher, John T.; Keiser, Nicholas W.; Song, Yi; Tyler, Scott R.; Goeken, J. Adam; Kinyon, Joann M.; Radey, Matthew C.; Fligg, Danielle; Wang, Xiaoyan; Xie, Weiliang; Lynch, Thomas J.; Kaminsky, Paul M.; Brittnacher, Mitchell J.; Miller, Samuel I.; Parekh, Kalpaj; Meyerholz, David K.; Hoffman, Lucas R.; Frana, Timothy; Stewart, Zoe A.; Engelhardt, John F.

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a multiorgan disease caused by loss of a functional cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel in many epithelia of the body. Here we report the pathology observed in the gastrointestinal organs of juvenile to adult CFTR-knockout ferrets. CF gastrointestinal manifestations included gastric ulceration, intestinal bacterial overgrowth with villous atrophy, and rectal prolapse. Metagenomic phylogenetic analysis of fecal microbiota by deep sequencing revealed considerable genotype-independent microbial diversity between animals, with the majority of taxa overlapping between CF and non-CF pairs. CF hepatic manifestations were variable, but included steatosis, necrosis, biliary hyperplasia, and biliary fibrosis. Gallbladder cystic mucosal hyperplasia was commonly found in 67% of CF animals. The majority of CF animals (85%) had pancreatic abnormalities, including extensive fibrosis, loss of exocrine pancreas, and islet disorganization. Interestingly, 2 of 13 CF animals retained predominantly normal pancreatic histology (84% to 94%) at time of death. Fecal elastase-1 levels from these CF animals were similar to non-CF controls, whereas all other CF animals evaluated were pancreatic insufficient (<2 μg elastase-1 per gram of feces). These findings suggest that genetic factors likely influence the extent of exocrine pancreas disease in CF ferrets and have implications for the etiology of pancreatic sufficiency in CF patients. In summary, these studies demonstrate that the CF ferret model develops gastrointestinal pathology similar to CF patients. PMID:24637292

  15. The biology of novel animal genes: Mouse APEX gene knockout

    SciTech Connect

    MacInnes, M.; Altherr, M.R.; Ludwig, D.; Pedersen, R.; Mold, C.

    1997-07-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The controlled breeding of novel genes into mice, including the gene knockout (KO), or conversely by adding back transgenes provide powerful genetic technologies that together suffice to determine in large part the biological role(s) of novel genes. Inbred mouse remains the best understood and most useful mammalian experimental system available for tackling the biology of novel genes. The major mammalian apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease (APE), is involved in a key step in the repair of spontaneous and induced AP sites in DNA. Efficient repair of these lesions is imperative to prevent the stable incorporation of mutations into the cellular genome which may lead to cell death or transformation. Loss or modulation of base excison repair activity in vivo may elevate the spontaneous mutation rate in cells, and may lead to a substantial increase in the incidence of cancer. Despite extensive biochemical analysis, however, the significance of these individual APE functions in vivo has not been elucidated. Mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells heterozygous for a deletion mutation in APE have been generated and whole animals containing the APE mutation have been derived from these ES cells. Animals homozygous for the APE null mutation die early in gestation, underscoring the biological significance of this DNA repair gene.

  16. Sensorimotor development in neonatal progesterone receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Willing, Jari; Wagner, Christine K

    2014-01-01

    Early exposure to steroid hormones can permanently and dramatically alter neural development. This is best understood in the organizational effects of hormones during development of brain regions involved in reproductive behaviors or neuroendocrine function. However, recent evidence strongly suggests that steroid hormones play a vital role in shaping brain regions involved in cognitive behavior such as the cerebral cortex. The most abundantly expressed steroid hormone receptor in the developing rodent cortex is the progesterone receptor (PR). In the rat, PR is initially expressed in the developmentally-critical subplate at E18, and subsequently in laminas V and II/III through the first three postnatal weeks (Quadros et al. [2007] J Comp Neurol 504:42-56; Lopez & Wagner [2009]: J Comp Neurol 512:124-139), coinciding with significant periods of dendritic maturation, the arrival of afferents and synaptogenesis. In the present study, we investigated PR expression in the neonatal mouse somatosensory cortex. Additionally, to investigate the potential role of PR in developing cortex, we examined sensorimotor function in the first two postnatal weeks in PR knockout mice and their wildtype (WT) and heterozygous (HZ) counterparts. While the three genotypes were similar in most regards, PRKO and HZ mice lost the rooting reflex 2-3 days earlier than WT mice. These studies represent the first developmental behavioral assessment of PRKO mice and suggest PR expression may play an important role in the maturation of cortical connectivity and sensorimotor integration.

  17. Bone growth and turnover in progesterone receptor knockout mice.

    SciTech Connect

    Rickard, David J.; Iwaniec, Urszula T.; Evans, Glenda; Hefferan, Theresa E.; Hunter, Jaime C.; Waters, Katrina M.; Lydon, John P.; O'Malley, Bert W.; Khosla, Sundeep; Spelsberg, Thomas C.; Turner, Russell T.

    2008-05-01

    The role of progesterone receptor (PR) signaling in skeletal metabolism is controversial. To address whether signaling through the PR is necessary for normal bone growth and turnover, we performed histomorphometric and mCT analyses of bone from homozygous female PR knockout (PRKO) mice at 6, 12, and 26 weeks of age. These mice possess a null mutation of the PR locus, which blocks the gene expression of A and B isoforms of PR. Body weight gain, uterine weight gain and tibia longitudinal bone growth was normal in PRKO mice. In contrast, total and cortical bone mass were increased in long bones of post-pubertal (12 and 26-week-old) PRKO mice, whereas cancellous bone mass was normal in the tibia but increased in the humerus. The striking 57% decrease in cancellous bone from the proximal tibia metaphysis which occurred between 6 and 26 weeks in WT mice was abolished in PRKO mice. The improved bone balance in aging PRKO mice was associated with elevated bone formation and a tendency toward reduced osteoclast perimeter. Taken together, these findings suggest that PR signaling in mice attenuates the accumulation of cortical bone mass during adolescence and is required for early age-related loss of cancellous bone.

  18. Delayed wound healing in CXCR2 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Devalaraja, R M; Nanney, L B; Du, J; Qian, Q; Yu, Y; Devalaraja, M N; Richmond, A

    2000-08-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that the CXC chemokine, MGSA/GRO-alpha and its receptor, CXCR2, are expressed during wound healing by keratinocytes and endothelial cells at areas where epithelialization and neovascularization occur. The process of wound healing is dependent on leukocyte recruitment, keratinocyte proliferation and migration, and angiogenesis. These processes may be mediated in part by CXC chemokines, such as interleukin-8 and MGSA/GRO-alpha. To examine further the significance of CXC chemokines in wound healing, full excisional wounds were created on CXCR2 wild-type (+/+), heterozygous (+/-), or knockout (-/-) mice. Wounds were histologically analyzed for neutrophil and monocyte infiltration, neovascularization and epithelialization at days 3, 5, 7, and 10 postwounding. The CXCR2 -/- mice exhibited defective neutrophil recruitment, an altered temporal pattern of monocyte recruitment, and altered secretion of interleukin-1beta. Significant delays in wound healing parameters, including epithelialization and decreased neovascularization, were also observed in CXCR2 -/- mice. In vitro wounding experiments with cultures of keratinocytes established from -/- and +/+ mice revealed a retardation in wound closure in CXCR2 -/- keratinocytes, suggesting a role for this receptor on keratinocytes in epithelial resurfacing that is independent of neutrophil recruitment. These in vitro and in vivo studies further establish a pathophysiologic role for CXCR2 during cutaneous wound repair.

  19. One-neutron knockout reaction from 20C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Jongwon; Samurai Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    Recent researches in neutron-rich nuclei have demonstrated that the depth of each single-particle level varies from that in stable nuclei : some of the well-known magic numbers disappear and new shell closures develop. Cross-shell excitation, transition of a nucleon across a shell gap, can be exploit to probe changes in shell structure. The present work aims at exploration of neutron-unbound states of 19C, especially a hole- state populated by cross-shell excitation, via a one-neutron knockout reaction. The experiment was performed at the RIBF facility in RIKEN. A 20C secondary beam produced by BigRIPS with an energy of 280 MeV/nucleon impinged on a carbon target placed before the SAMURAI spectrometer. By taking full advantage of the analyzer system comprised of a large-acceptance super-conducting dipole magnet, associated tracking detectors, and a large volume neutron detector system, an invariant mass spectrum for the system of 18C + n was reconstructed. Three unbound excited states in 19C were identified including the unknown 1 /21+ state at 2.90 MeV in excitation energy. Details of the measurement and analysis along with results will be presented.

  20. Neurodegeneration in a Drosophila model of adrenoleukodystrophy: the roles of the Bubblegum and Double bubble acyl-CoA synthetases

    PubMed Central

    Sivachenko, Anna; Gordon, Hannah B.; Kimball, Suzanne S.; Gavin, Erin J.; Bonkowsky, Joshua L.; Letsou, Anthea

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Debilitating neurodegenerative conditions with metabolic origins affect millions of individuals worldwide. Still, for most of these neurometabolic disorders there are neither cures nor disease-modifying therapies, and novel animal models are needed for elucidation of disease pathology and identification of potential therapeutic agents. To date, metabolic neurodegenerative disease has been modeled in animals with only limited success, in part because existing models constitute analyses of single mutants and have thus overlooked potential redundancy within metabolic gene pathways associated with disease. Here, we present the first analysis of a very-long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase (ACS) double mutant. We show that the Drosophila bubblegum (bgm) and double bubble (dbb) genes have overlapping functions, and that the consequences of double knockout of both bubblegum and double bubble in the fly brain are profound, affecting behavior and brain morphology, and providing the best paradigm to date for an animal model of adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD), a fatal childhood neurodegenerative disease associated with the accumulation of very-long-chain fatty acids. Using this more fully penetrant model of disease to interrogate brain morphology at the level of electron microscopy, we show that dysregulation of fatty acid metabolism via disruption of ACS function in vivo is causal of neurodegenerative pathologies that are evident in both neuronal cells and their supporting cell populations, and leads ultimately to lytic cell death in affected areas of the brain. Finally, in an extension of our model system to the study of human disease, we describe our identification of an individual with leukodystrophy who harbors a rare mutation in SLC27a6 (encoding a very-long-chain ACS), a human homolog of bgm and dbb. PMID:26893370

  1. Double field theory inspired cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Houwen; Yang, Haitang E-mail: hyanga@scu.edu.cn

    2014-07-01

    Double field theory proposes a generalized spacetime action possessing manifest T-duality on the level of component fields. We calculate the cosmological solutions of double field theory with vanishing Kalb-Ramond field. It turns out that double field theory provides a more consistent way to construct cosmological solutions than the standard string cosmology. We construct solutions for vanishing and non-vanishing symmetry preserving dilaton potentials. The solutions assemble the pre- and post-big bang evolutions in one single line element. Our results show a smooth evolution from an anisotropic early stage to an isotropic phase without any special initial conditions in contrast to previous models. In addition, we demonstrate that the contraction of the dual space automatically leads to both an inflation phase and a decelerated expansion of the ordinary space during different evolution stages.

  2. Effect of Cyp27A1 gene dosage on atherosclerosis development in ApoE-knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Zurkinden, Line; Solcà, Curzio; Vögeli, Isabelle A; Vogt, Bruno; Ackermann, Daniel; Erickson, Sandra K; Frey, Felix J; Sviridov, Dmitri; Escher, Geneviève

    2014-03-01

    In humans, sterol 27-hydroxylase (CYP27A1) deficiency leads to cholesterol deposition in tendons and vasculature. Thus, in addition to its role in bile acid synthesis, where it converts cholesterol to 27-hydroxycholesterol (27-OHC), CYP27A1 may also be atheroprotective. Cyp27A1-deficient (Cyp27A1(-/-)) mice were crossed with apolipoprotein E (apoE)-deficient mice. Cyp27A1(+/+)/apoE(-/-) [ApoE-knockout (KO)], Cyp27A1(+/-)/apoE(-/-) heterozygous (het), and Cyp27A1(-/-)/apoE(-/-) [double-knockout (DKO)] mice were challenged with a Western diet (WD) for 3 and 6 mo. ApoE-KO mice fed a chow diet or a WD were used as the control. The severity of atherosclerosis in DKO mice was reduced 10-fold. Compared with the control, the DKO mice had no 27-OHC, total plasma cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein and very low density lipoprotein (LDL/VLDL) concentrations were reduced 2-fold, and HDL was elevated 2-fold. Expression of hepatic CYP7A1, CYP3A, and CYP8B1 were 5- to 10-fold higher. 3-Hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) activity increased 4-fold. Fecal cholesterol was increased. In contrast, het mice fed a WD developed accelerated atherosclerosis and severe skin lesions, possibly because of reduced reverse cholesterol transport due to diminished 27-OHC production. CYP27A1 activity is involved in the control of cholesterol homeostasis and development of atherosclerosis with a distinct gene dose-dependent effect.

  3. Double shrinking sparse dimension reduction.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tianyi; Tao, Dacheng

    2013-01-01

    Learning tasks such as classification and clustering usually perform better and cost less (time and space) on compressed representations than on the original data. Previous works mainly compress data via dimension reduction. In this paper, we propose "double shrinking" to compress image data on both dimensionality and cardinality via building either sparse low-dimensional representations or a sparse projection matrix for dimension reduction. We formulate a double shrinking model (DSM) as an l(1) regularized variance maximization with constraint ||x||(2)=1, and develop a double shrinking algorithm (DSA) to optimize DSM. DSA is a path-following algorithm that can build the whole solution path of locally optimal solutions of different sparse levels. Each solution on the path is a "warm start" for searching the next sparser one. In each iteration of DSA, the direction, the step size, and the Lagrangian multiplier are deduced from the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker conditions. The magnitudes of trivial variables are shrunk and the importances of critical variables are simultaneously augmented along the selected direction with the determined step length. Double shrinking can be applied to manifold learning and feature selections for better interpretation of features, and can be combined with classification and clustering to boost their performance. The experimental results suggest that double shrinking produces efficient and effective data compression.

  4. Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorini, Ettore

    2007-06-01

    The recent results showing the presence of neutrino oscillations clearly indicate that the difference between the squared mass of neutrinos of different flavors is different from zero, but are unable to determine the nature and the absolute value of the neutrino mass. Neutrinoless double beta decay (DBD) is at present the most powerful tool to ascertain if the neutrino is a Majorana particle and to determine under this condition the absolute value of its mass. The results already obtained in this lepton violating process will be reported and the two presently running DBD experiments briefly discussed. The future second generation experiments will be reviewed with special emphasis to those already partially approved. In conclusion the peculiar and interdisciplinary nature of these searches will be stressed in their exciting aim to discover if neutrino is Dirac or Majorana particle.

  5. [A double gallbladder].

    PubMed

    Mink van der Molen, A B; Salu, M K

    1991-04-06

    A 59-year-old woman is described with symptomatic cholelithiasis. A double gallbladder was incidentally found during abdominal surgery. The literature on a double gallbladder is reviewed with respect to incidence, anatomy, diagnosis and therapy.

  6. INDUCTION OF MAMMARY GLAND DEVELOPMENT IN ESTROGEN RECEPTOR-ALPHA KNOCKOUT MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mammary glands from the estrogen receptor knockout ( ERKO) mouse do not undergo ductal morphogenesis or alveolar development. Disrupted Er signaling may result in reduced estrogen-responsive gene products in the mammary gland or reduced mammotropic hormones that contribute t...

  7. Dcdc2 knockout mice display exacerbated developmental disruptions following knockdown of doublecortin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Yin, X; Rosen, G; Gabel, L; Guadiana, S M; Sarkisian, M R; Galaburda, A M; Loturco, J J

    2011-09-08

    The dyslexia-associated gene DCDC2 is a member of the DCX family of genes known to play roles in neurogenesis, neuronal migration, and differentiation. Here we report the first phenotypic analysis of a Dcdc2 knockout mouse. Comparisons between Dcdc2 knockout mice and wild-type (wt) littermates revealed no significant differences in neuronal migration, neocortical lamination, neuronal cilliogenesis or dendritic differentiation. Considering previous studies showing genetic interactions and potential functional redundancy among members of the DCX family, we tested whether decreasing Dcx expression by RNAi would differentially impair neurodevelopment in Dcdc2 knockouts and wild-type mice. Consistent with this hypothesis, we found that deficits in neuronal migration, and dendritic growth caused by RNAi of Dcx were more severe in Dcdc2 knockouts than in wild-type mice with the same transfection. These results indicate that Dcdc2 is not required for neurogenesis, neuronal migration or differentiation in mice, but may have partial functional redundancy with Dcx.

  8. Knock-Outs, Stick-Outs, Cut-Outs: Clipping Paths Separate Objects from Background.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Bradley

    1998-01-01

    Outlines a six-step process that allows computer operators, using Photoshop software, to create "knock-outs" to precisely define the path that will serve to separate the object from the background. (SR)

  9. Chromosome doubling method

    DOEpatents

    Kato, Akio

    2006-11-14

    The invention provides methods for chromosome doubling in plants. The technique overcomes the low yields of doubled progeny associated with the use of prior techniques for doubling chromosomes in plants such as grasses. The technique can be used in large scale applications and has been demonstrated to be highly effective in maize. Following treatment in accordance with the invention, plants remain amenable to self fertilization, thereby allowing the efficient isolation of doubled progeny plants.

  10. The double identity of linguistic doubling.

    PubMed

    Berent, Iris; Bat-El, Outi; Brentari, Diane; Dupuis, Amanda; Vaknin-Nusbaum, Vered

    2016-11-29

    Does knowledge of language consist of abstract principles, or is it fully embodied in the sensorimotor system? To address this question, we investigate the double identity of doubling (e.g., slaflaf, or generally, XX; where X stands for a phonological constituent). Across languages, doubling is known to elicit conflicting preferences at different levels of linguistic analysis (phonology vs. morphology). Here, we show that these preferences are active in the brains of individual speakers, and they are demonstrably distinct from sensorimotor pressures. We first demonstrate that doubling in novel English words elicits divergent percepts: Viewed as meaningless (phonological) forms, doubling is disliked (e.g., slaflaf < slafmak), but once doubling in form is systematically linked to meaning (e.g., slaf = ball, slaflaf = balls), the doubling aversion shifts into a reliable (morphological) preference. We next show that sign-naive speakers spontaneously project these principles to novel signs in American Sign Language, and their capacity to do so depends on the structure of their spoken language (English vs. Hebrew). These results demonstrate that linguistic preferences doubly dissociate from sensorimotor demands: A single stimulus can elicit diverse percepts, yet these percepts are invariant across stimulus modality--for speech and signs. These conclusions are in line with the possibility that some linguistic principles are abstract, and they apply broadly across language modality.

  11. Guwiyang Wurra--'Fire Mouse': a global gene knockout model for TSPO/PBR drug development, loss-of-function and mechanisms of compensation studies.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Ryan J; Liu, Guo-Jun; Banati, Richard B

    2015-08-01

    The highly conserved 18-kDa translocator protein (TSPO) or peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR), is being investigated as a diagnostic and therapeutic target for disease conditions ranging from inflammation to neurodegeneration and behavioural illnesses. Many functions have been attributed to TSPO/PBR including a role in the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP), steroidogenesis and energy metabolism. In this review, we detail the recent developments in determining the physiological role of TSPO/PBR, specifically based on data obtained from the recently generated Tspo knockout mouse models. In addition to defining the role of TSPO/PBR, we also describe the value of Tspo knockout mice in determining the selectivity, specificity and presence of any off-target effects of TSPO/PBR ligands.

  12. Analysis of microsatellite polymorphism in inbred knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Baofen; Du, Xiaoyan; Zhao, Jing; Yang, Huixin; Wang, Chao; Wu, Yanhua; Lu, Jing; Wang, Ying; Chen, Zhenwen

    2012-01-01

    Previously, we found that the genotype of 42 out of 198 mouse microsatellite loci, which are distributed among all chromosomes except the Y chromosome, changed from monomorphism to polymorphism (CMP) in a genetically modified inbred mouse strain. In this study, we further examined whether CMP also relates to the homologous recombination in gene knockout (KO) mouse strains. The same 42 microsatellite loci were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 29 KO inbred mouse strains via short tandem sequence repeat (STR) scanning and direct sequence cloning to justify microsatellite polymorphisms. The C57BL/6J and 129 mouse strains, from which these 29 KO mice were derived, were chosen as the background controls. The results indicated that 10 out of 42 (23.8%) loci showed CMP in some of these mouse strains. Except for the trinucleotide repeat locus of D3Mit22, which had microsatellite CMP in strain number 9, the core sequences of the remaining 41 loci were dinucleotide repeats, and 9 out of 41 (21.95%) showed CMPs among detected mouse strains. However, 11 out of 29 (37.9%) KO mice strains were recognized as having CMPs. The popular dinucleotide motifs in CMP were (TG)(n) (50%, 2/4), followed by (GT)(n) (27.27%, 3/11) and (CA)(n) (23.08%, 3/13). The microsatellite CMP in (CT)(n) and (AG)(n) repeats were 20% (1/5). According to cloning sequencing results, 6 KO mouse strains showed insertions of nucleotides whereas 1 showed a deletion. Furthermore, 2 loci (D13Mit3 and D14Mit102) revealed CMP in 2 strains, and mouse strain number 9 showed CMPs in two loci (D3Mit22 and D13Mit3) simultaneously. Collectively, these results indicated that microsatellite polymorphisms were present in the examined inbred KO mice.

  13. HFE gene knockout produces mouse model of hereditary hemochromatosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiao Yan; Tomatsu, Shunji; Fleming, Robert E.; Parkkila, Seppo; Waheed, Abdul; Jiang, Jinxing; Fei, Ying; Brunt, Elizabeth M.; Ruddy, David A.; Prass, Cynthia E.; Schatzman, Randall C.; O’Neill, Rosemary; Britton, Robert S.; Bacon, Bruce R.; Sly, William S.

    1998-01-01

    Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) is a common autosomal recessive disease characterized by increased iron absorption and progressive iron storage that results in damage to major organs in the body. Recently, a candidate gene for HH called HFE encoding a major histocompatibility complex class I-like protein was identified by positional cloning. Nearly 90% of Caucasian HH patients have been found to be homozygous for the same mutation (C282Y) in the HFE gene. To test the hypothesis that the HFE gene is involved in regulation of iron homeostasis, we studied the effects of a targeted disruption of the murine homologue of the HFE gene. The HFE-deficient mice showed profound differences in parameters of iron homeostasis. Even on a standard diet, by 10 weeks of age, fasting transferrin saturation was significantly elevated compared with normal littermates (96 ± 5% vs. 77 ± 3%, P < 0.007), and hepatic iron concentration was 8-fold higher than that of wild-type littermates (2,071 ± 450 vs. 255 ± 23 μg/g dry wt, P < 0.002). Stainable hepatic iron in the HFE mutant mice was predominantly in hepatocytes in a periportal distribution. Iron concentrations in spleen, heart, and kidney were not significantly different. Erythroid parameters were normal, indicating that the anemia did not contribute to the increased iron storage. This study shows that the HFE protein is involved in the regulation of iron homeostasis and that mutations in this gene are responsible for HH. The knockout mouse model of HH will facilitate investigation into the pathogenesis of increased iron accumulation in HH and provide opportunities to evaluate therapeutic strategies for prevention or correction of iron overload. PMID:9482913

  14. Targeting cancer using KAT inhibitors to mimic lethal knockouts

    PubMed Central

    Brown, James A.L.; Bourke, Emer; Eriksson, Leif A.; Kerin, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Two opposing enzyme classes regulate fundamental elements of genome maintenance, gene regulation and metabolism, either through addition of an acetyl moiety by histone acetyltransferases (HATs) or its removal by histone de-acetyltransferases (HDAC), and are exciting targets for drug development. Importantly, dysfunctional acetylation has been implicated in numerous diseases, including cancer. Within the HAT superfamily the MYST family holds particular interest, as its members are directly involved in the DNA damage response and repair pathways and crucially, several members have been shown to be down-regulated in common cancers (such as breast and prostate). In the present study we focus on the development of lysine (K) acetyltransferase inhibitors (KATi) targeting the MYST family member Tip60 (Kat5), an essential protein, designed or discovered through screening libraries. Importantly, Tip60 has been demonstrated to be significantly down-regulated in many cancers which urgently require new treatment options. We highlight current and future efforts employing these KATi as cancer treatments and their ability to synergize and enhance current cancer treatments. We investigate the different methods of KATi production or discovery, their mechanisms and their validation models. Importantly, the utility of KATi is based on a key concept: using KATi to abrogate the activity of an already down-regulated essential protein (effectively creating a lethal knockout) provides another innovative mechanism for targeting cancer cells, while significantly minimizing any off-target effects to normal cells. This approach, combined with the rapidly developing interest in KATi, suggests that KATi have a bright future for providing truly personalized therapies. PMID:27528742

  15. Increased anxiety-related behaviour in Hint1 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Varadarajulu, Jeeva; Lebar, Maria; Krishnamoorthy, Gurumoorthy; Habelt, Sonja; Lu, Jia; Bernard Weinstein, I; Li, Haiyang; Holsboer, Florian; Turck, Christoph W; Touma, Chadi

    2011-07-07

    Several reports have implicated a role for the histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein-1 (Hint1) in psychiatric disorders. We have studied the emotional behaviour of male Hint1 knockout (Hint1 KO) mice in a battery of tests and performed biochemical analyses on brain tissue. The behavioural analysis revealed that Hint1 KO mice exhibit an increased emotionality phenotype compared to wildtype (WT) mice, while no significant differences in locomotion or general exploratory activity were noted. In the elevated plus-maze (EPM) test, the Hint1 KO animals entered the open arms of the apparatus less often than WT littermates. Similarly, in the dark-light box test, Hint1 KO mice spent less time in the lit compartment and the number of entries were reduced, which further confirmed an increased anxiety-related behaviour. Moreover, the Hint1 KO animals showed significantly more struggling and less floating behaviour in the forced swim test (FST), indicating an increased emotional arousal in aversive situations. Hint1 is known as a protein kinase C (PKC) interacting protein. Western blot analysis showed that PKCγ expression was elevated in Hint1 KO compared to WT mice. Interestingly, PKCγ mRNA levels of the two groups did not show a significant difference, implying a post-transcriptional PKCγ regulation. In addition, PKC enzymatic activity was increased in Hint1 KO compared to WT mice. In summary, our results indicate a role for Hint1 and PKCγ in modulating anxiety-related and stress-coping behaviour in mice.

  16. Analysis of Microsatellite Polymorphism in Inbred Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jing; Yang, Huixin; Wang, Chao; Wu, Yanhua; Lu, Jing; Wang, Ying; Chen, Zhenwen

    2012-01-01

    Previously, we found that the genotype of 42 out of 198 mouse microsatellite loci, which are distributed among all chromosomes except the Y chromosome, changed from monomorphism to polymorphism (CMP) in a genetically modified inbred mouse strain. In this study, we further examined whether CMP also relates to the homologous recombination in gene knockout (KO) mouse strains. The same 42 microsatellite loci were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 29 KO inbred mouse strains via short tandem sequence repeat (STR) scanning and direct sequence cloning to justify microsatellite polymorphisms. The C57BL/6J and 129 mouse strains, from which these 29 KO mice were derived, were chosen as the background controls. The results indicated that 10 out of 42 (23.8%) loci showed CMP in some of these mouse strains. Except for the trinucleotide repeat locus of D3Mit22, which had microsatellite CMP in strain number 9, the core sequences of the remaining 41 loci were dinucleotide repeats, and 9 out of 41 (21.95%) showed CMPs among detected mouse strains. However, 11 out of 29 (37.9%) KO mice strains were recognized as having CMPs. The popular dinucleotide motifs in CMP were (TG)n (50%, 2/4), followed by (GT)n (27.27%, 3/11) and (CA)n (23.08%, 3/13). The microsatellite CMP in (CT)n and (AG)n repeats were 20% (1/5). According to cloning sequencing results, 6 KO mouse strains showed insertions of nucleotides whereas 1 showed a deletion. Furthermore, 2 loci (D13Mit3 and D14Mit102) revealed CMP in 2 strains, and mouse strain number 9 showed CMPs in two loci (D3Mit22 and D13Mit3) simultaneously. Collectively, these results indicated that microsatellite polymorphisms were present in the examined inbred KO mice. PMID:22509320

  17. Feeding-elicited cataplexy in orexin knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Clark, E L; Baumann, C R; Cano, G; Scammell, T E; Mochizuki, T

    2009-07-21

    Mice lacking orexin/hypocretin signaling have sudden episodes of atonia and paralysis during active wakefulness. These events strongly resemble cataplexy, episodes of sudden muscle weakness triggered by strong positive emotions in people with narcolepsy, but it remains unknown whether murine cataplexy is triggered by positive emotions. To determine whether positive emotions elicit murine cataplexy, we placed orexin knockout (KO) mice on a scheduled feeding protocol with regular or highly palatable food. Baseline sleep/wake behavior was recorded with ad libitum regular chow. Mice were then placed on a scheduled feeding protocol in which they received 60% of their normal amount of chow 3 h after dark onset for the next 10 days. Wild-type and KO mice rapidly entrained to scheduled feeding with regular chow, with more wake and locomotor activity prior to the feeding time. On day 10 of scheduled feeding, orexin KO mice had slightly more cataplexy during the food-anticipation period and more cataplexy in the second half of the dark period, when they may have been foraging for residual food. To test whether more palatable food increases cataplexy, mice were then switched to scheduled feeding with an isocaloric amount of Froot Loops, a food often used as a reward in behavioral studies. With this highly palatable food, orexin KO mice had much more cataplexy during the food-anticipation period and throughout the dark period. The increase in cataplexy with scheduled feeding, especially with highly palatable food, suggests that positive emotions may trigger cataplexy in mice, just as in people with narcolepsy. Establishing this connection helps validate orexin KO mice as an excellent model of human narcolepsy and provides an opportunity to better understand the mechanisms that trigger cataplexy.

  18. Xenobiotic transporters: ascribing function from gene knockout and mutation studies.

    PubMed

    Klaassen, Curtis D; Lu, Hong

    2008-02-01

    Transporter-mediated absorption, secretion, and reabsorption of chemicals are increasingly recognized as important determinants in the biological activities of many xenobiotics. In recent years, the rapid progress in generating and characterizing mice with targeted deletion of transporters has greatly increased our knowledge of the functions of transporters in the pharmacokinetics/toxicokinetics of xenobiotics. In this introduction, we focus on functions of transporters learned from experiments on knockout mice as well as humans and rodents with natural mutations of these transporters. We limit our discussion to transporters that either directly transport xenobiotics or are important in biliary excretion or cellular defenses, namely multidrug resistance, multidrug resistance-associated proteins, breast cancer resistance protein, organic anion transporting polypeptides, organic anion transporters, organic cation transporters, nucleoside transporters, peptide transporters, bile acid transporters, cholesterol transporters, and phospholipid transporters, as well as metal transporters. Efflux transporters in intestine, liver, kidney, brain, testes, and placenta can efflux xenobiotics out of cells and serve as barriers against the entrance of xenobiotics into cells, whereas many xenobiotics enter the biological system via uptake transporters. The functional importance of a given transporter in each tissue depends on its substrate specificity, expression level, and the presence/absence of other transporters with overlapping substrate preferences. Nevertheless, a transporter may affect a tissue independent of its local expression by altering systemic metabolism. Further studies on the gene regulation and function of transporters, as well as the interrelationship between transporters and phase I/II xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes, will provide a complete framework for developing novel strategies to protect us from xenobiotic insults.

  19. Knockout of leucine aminopeptidase in Toxoplasma gondii using CRISPR/Cas9.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jun; Jia, Honglin; Zheng, Yonghui

    2015-02-01

    Leucine aminopeptidases of the M17 peptidase family represent ideal drug targets for therapies directed against the pathogens Plasmodium, Babesia and Trypanosoma. Previously, we characterised Toxoplasma gondii leucine aminopeptidase and demonstrated its role in regulating the levels of free amino acids. In this study, we evaluated the potential of T. gondii leucine aminopeptidase as a drug target in T. gondii by a knockout method. Existing knockout methods for T. gondii have many drawbacks; therefore, we developed a new technique that takes advantage of the CRISPR/Cas9 system. We first chose a Cas9 target site in the gene encoding T. gondii leucine aminopeptidase and then constructed a knockout vector containing Cas9 and the single guide RNA. After transfection, single tachyzoites were cloned in 96-well plates by limiting dilution. Two transfected strains derived from a single clone were cultured in Vero cells, and then subjected to expression analysis by western blotting. The phenotypic analysis revealed that knockout of T. gondii leucine aminopeptidase resulted in inhibition of attachment/invasion and replication; both the growth and attachment/invasion capacity of knockout parasites were restored by complementation with a synonymously substituted allele of T. gondii leucine aminopeptidase. Mouse experiments demonstrated that T. gondii leucine aminopeptidase knockout somewhat reduced the pathogenicity of T. gondii. An enzymatic activity assay showed that T. gondii leucine aminopeptidase knockout reduced the processing of a leucine aminopeptidase-specific substrate in T. gondii. The absence of leucine aminopeptidase activity could be slightly compensated for in T. gondii. Overall, T. gondii leucine aminopeptidase knockout influenced the growth of T. gondii, but did not completely block parasite development, virulence or enzymatic activity. Therefore, we conclude that leucine aminopeptidase would be useful only as an adjunctive drug target in T. gondii.

  20. Analysis of knockout mutants reveals non-redundant functions of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase isoforms in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Pham, Phuong Anh; Wahl, Vanessa; Tohge, Takayuki; de Souza, Laise Rosado; Zhang, Youjun; Do, Phuc Thi; Olas, Justyna J; Stitt, Mark; Araújo, Wagner L; Fernie, Alisdair R

    2015-11-01

    The enzyme poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP) has a dual function being involved both in the poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation and being a constituent of the NAD(+) salvage pathway. To date most studies, both in plant and non-plant systems, have focused on the signaling role of PARP in poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation rather than any role that can be ascribed to its metabolic function. In order to address this question we here used a combination of expression, transcript and protein localization studies of all three PARP isoforms of Arabidopsis alongside physiological analysis of the corresponding mutants. Our analyses indicated that whilst all isoforms of PARP were localized to the nucleus they are also present in non-nuclear locations with parp1 and parp3 also localised in the cytosol, and parp2 also present in the mitochondria. We next isolated and characterized insertional knockout mutants of all three isoforms confirming a complete knockout in the full length transcript levels of the target genes as well as a reduced total leaf NAD hydrolase activity in the two isoforms (PARP1, PARP2) that are highly expressed in leaves. Physiological evaluation of the mutant lines revealed that they displayed distinctive metabolic and root growth characteristics albeit unaltered leaf morphology under optimal growth conditions. We therefore conclude that the PARP isoforms play non-redundant non-nuclear metabolic roles and that their function is highly important in rapidly growing tissues such as the shoot apical meristem, roots and seeds.

  1. Cytokine knockouts in reproduction: the use of gene ablation to dissect roles of cytokines in reproductive biology.

    PubMed

    Ingman, Wendy V; Jones, Rebecca L

    2008-01-01

    Cytokines play many diverse and important roles in reproductive biology, and dissecting the complex interactions between these proteins and the different reproductive organs is a difficult task. One approach is to use gene ablation, or 'knockout', to analyse the effect of deletion of a single cytokine on mouse reproductive function. This review summarizes the essential roles of cytokines in reproductive biology that have been revealed by gene knockout studies, including development and regulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gondal axis, ovarian folliculogenesis, implantation and immune system modulation during pregnancy. However, successful utilization of this approach must consider the caveats associated with gene ablation studies, e.g. embryonic lethality, systemic effects of cytokine ablation on local reproductive processes and the limited exposure to pathogens in mice housed in laboratory conditions. New sophisticated technology that temporally or spatially regulates gene ablation can overcome some of these limitations. Discoveries on the roles of cytokines in reproductive function uncovered by gene ablation studies can now be applied to improve in vitro fertilization for infertile couples and in the development of contraceptive therapies.

  2. Hyperlipidemia-Associated Renal Damage Decreases Klotho Expression in Kidneys from ApoE Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sastre, Cristina; Rubio-Navarro, Alfonso; Buendía, Irene; Gómez-Guerrero, Carmen; Blanco, Julia; Mas, Sebastian; Egido, Jesús; Blanco-Colio, Luis Miguel; Ortiz, Alberto; Moreno, Juan Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Background Klotho is a renal protein with anti-aging properties that is downregulated in conditions related to kidney injury. Hyperlipidemia accelerates the progression of renal damage, but the mechanisms of the deleterious effects of hyperlipidemia remain unclear. Methods We evaluated whether hyperlipidemia modulates Klotho expression in kidneys from C57BL/6 and hyperlipidemic apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE KO) mice fed with a normal chow diet (ND) or a Western-type high cholesterol-fat diet (HC) for 5 to 10 weeks, respectively. Results In ApoE KO mice, the HC diet increased serum and renal cholesterol levels, kidney injury severity, kidney macrophage infiltration and inflammatory chemokine expression. A significant reduction in Klotho mRNA and protein expression was observed in kidneys from hypercholesteromic ApoE KO mice fed a HC diet as compared with controls, both at 5 and 10 weeks. In order to study the mechanism involved in Klotho down-regulation, murine tubular epithelial cells were treated with ox-LDL. Oxidized-LDL were effectively uptaken by tubular cells and decreased both Klotho mRNA and protein expression in a time- and dose-dependent manner in these cells. Finally, NF-κB and ERK inhibitors prevented ox-LDL-induced Klotho downregulation. Conclusion Our results suggest that hyperlipidemia-associated kidney injury decreases renal expression of Klotho. Therefore, Klotho could be a key element explaining the relationship between hyperlipidemia and aging with renal disease. PMID:24386260

  3. GABAA-receptor modification in taurine transporter knockout mice causes striatal disinhibition.

    PubMed

    Sergeeva, O A; Fleischer, W; Chepkova, A N; Warskulat, U; Häussinger, D; Siebler, M; Haas, H L

    2007-12-01

    The Striatum is involved in the regulation of movements and motor skills. We have shown previously, that the osmolyte and neuromodulator taurine plays a role in striatal plasticity. We demonstrate now that hereditary taurine deficiency in taurine-transporter knock-out (TAUT KO) mice results in disinhibition of striatal network activity, which can be corrected by taurine supplementation. Modification of GABAA but not glycine receptors (taurine is a ligand for both receptor types) underlies this disinhibition. Whole-cell recordings from acutely isolated as well as cultured striatal neurons revealed a decreased agonist sensitivity of the GABAA receptor in TAUT KO neurons in the absence of changes in the maximal GABA-evoked current amplitude. The striatal GABA level in TAUT KO mice was unchanged. The amplitude enhancement of spontaneous IPSCs by zolpidem was stronger in TAUT KO than in wild-type (WT) animals. Tonic inhibition was absent in striatal neurons under control conditions but was detected after incubation with the GABA-transaminase inhibitor vigabatrin: bicuculline induced a larger shift of baseline current in WT as compared to TAUT KO neurons. Lack of taurine leads to reduced sensitivity of synaptic and extrasynaptic GABAA receptors and consequently to disinhibition. These findings help in understanding neuropathologies accompanied by the loss of endogenous taurine, for instance in hepatic encephalopathy.

  4. Investigations of Salmonella enterica serovar newport infections of oysters by using immunohistochemistry and knockout mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Christopher M; Dial, Sharon M; Day, William A; Joens, Lynn A

    2012-04-01

    The consumption of raw oysters is an important risk factor in the acquisition of food-borne disease, with Salmonella being one of a number of pathogens that have been found in market oysters. Previous work by our lab found that Salmonella was capable of surviving in oysters for over 2 months under laboratory conditions, and this study sought to further investigate Salmonella's tissue affinity and mechanism of persistence within the oysters. Immunohistochemistry was used to show that Salmonella was capable of breaching the epithelial barriers, infecting the deeper connective tissues of the oysters, and evading destruction by the oysters' phagocytic hemocytes. To further investigate the mechanism of these infections, genes vital to the function of Salmonella's two main type III secretion systems were disrupted and the survivability of these knockout mutants within oysters was assayed. When the Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 and 2 mutant strains were exposed to oysters, there were no detectable deficiencies in their abilities to survive, suggesting that Salmonella's long-term infection of oysters does not rely upon these two important pathogenicity islands and must be due to some other, currently unknown, mechanism.

  5. Highly potent anti-human GPVI monoclonal antibodies derived from GPVI knockout mouse immunization.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Yutaka; Takizawa, Hisao; Gong, Xiaoqi; Le, Sang; Lockyer, Simon; Okuyama, Keiji; Tanaka, Michinori; Yoshitake, Masuhiro; Tandon, Narendra N; Kambayashi, Junichi

    2007-01-01

    Recent progress in the understanding of thrombus formation has suggested an important role for glycoprotein (GP) VI in this process. To clarify the exact role in detail, it is necessary to use specific, high affinity inhibitory antibodies. However, possibly due to the conserved structure of GPVI among species, it has been difficult to obtain potent antibodies. In this study, we developed highly potent anti-human GPVI monoclonal antibodies using GPVI knockout mice for immunization. Fab fragments of these antibodies, named OM1 and OM2, potently inhibit collagen-induced platelet aggregation. The IC(50) values for OM1 and OM2 are 0.6+/-0.05 and 1.7+/-0.5 microg/mL, respectively, showing potency greater than, or equal to that of abciximab (1.7+/-0.3 microg/mL), an anti-GPIIb/IIIa antibody. Fab fragments of OM1 and OM2 also potently inhibit collagen-induced ATP release, thromboxane A(2) formation, and platelet adhesion to immobilized collagen under static and flow conditions. Interestingly, platelet aggregation induced with collagen-related peptide was potently inhibited by OM2 but not OM1, indicating that OM1 recognizes an epitope that is different from collagen-related peptide-binding site on GPVI. These results suggest that OM1 and OM2 may be useful tools to understand the role of GPVI in thrombus formation. Furthermore, these antibodies have the potential to be developed as a new class of therapeutic tool.

  6. Chronic immobilization in the malpar1 knockout mice increases oxidative stress in the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    García-Fernández, María; Castilla-Ortega, Estela; Pedraza, Carmen; Blanco, Eduardo; Hurtado-Guerrero, Isaac; Barbancho, Miguel Angel; Chun, Jerold; Rodríguez-de-Fonseca, Fernando; Estivill-Torrús, Guillermo; Santín Núñez, Luis Javier

    2012-10-01

    The lysophosphatidic acid LPA₁ receptor has recently been involved in the adaptation of the hippocampus to chronic stress. The absence of LPA₁ receptor aggravates the chronic stress-induced impairment of both hippocampal neurogenesis and apoptosis that were accompanied with hippocampus-dependent memory deficits. Apoptotic death and neurogenesis in the hippocampus are regulated by oxidative stress. In the present work, we studied the involvement of LPA₁ receptor signaling pathway in the regulation of the hippocampal redox after chronic stress. To this end, we used malpar1 knockout (KO) and wild-type mice assigned to either chronic stress (21 days of restraint, 3 h/day) or control conditions. Lipid peroxidation, the activity of the antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPX), as well as mitochondrial function stimulation, monitored through the activity of cytochrome c oxidase (COX), were studied in the hippocampus. Our results showed that chronic immobilization stress enhanced lipid peroxidation as well as the activity of the antioxidant enzymes studied (CAT, SOD, and GPX). This effect was only observed in absence of LPA₁ receptor. Furthermore, only malpar1 KO mice submitted to chronic stress exhibited a severe downregulation of the COX activity, suggesting the presence of mitochondrial damage. Altogether, these results suggest that malpar1 KO mice display enhanced oxidative stress in the hippocampus after chronic stress. This may be involved in the hippocampal abnormalities observed in this genotype after chronic immobilization, including memory, neurogenesis, and apoptosis.

  7. Knockout of Drosophila RNase ZL impairs mitochondrial transcript processing, respiration and cell cycle progression

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Xie; Dubrovsky, Edward B.

    2015-01-01

    RNase ZL is a highly conserved tRNA 3′-end processing endoribonuclease. Similar to its mammalian counterpart, Drosophila RNase ZL (dRNaseZ) has a mitochondria targeting signal (MTS) flanked by two methionines at the N-terminus. Alternative translation initiation yields two protein forms: the long one is mitochondrial, and the short one may localize in the nucleus or cytosol. Here, we have generated a mitochondria specific knockout of the dRNaseZ gene. In this in vivo model, cells deprived of dRNaseZ activity display impaired mitochondrial polycistronic transcript processing, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a switch to aerobic glycolysis compensating for cellular ATP. Damaged mitochondria impose a cell cycle delay at the G2 phase disrupting cell proliferation without affecting cell viability. Antioxidants attenuate genotoxic stress and rescue cell proliferation, implying a critical role for ROS. We suggest that under a low-stress condition, ROS activate tumor suppressor p53, which modulates cell cycle progression and promotes cell survival. Transcriptional profiling of p53 targets confirms upregulation of antioxidant and cycB-Cdk1 inhibitor genes without induction of apoptotic genes. This study implicates Drosophila RNase ZL in a novel retrograde signaling pathway initiated by the damage in mitochondria and manifested in a cell cycle delay before the mitotic entry. PMID:26553808

  8. Autistic-Like Traits and Cerebellar Dysfunction in Purkinje Cell PTEN Knock-Out Mice.

    PubMed

    Cupolillo, Dario; Hoxha, Eriola; Faralli, Alessio; De Luca, Annarita; Rossi, Ferdinando; Tempia, Filippo; Carulli, Daniela

    2016-05-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by impaired social interaction, isolated areas of interest, and insistence on sameness. Mutations in Phosphatase and tensin homolog missing on chromosome 10 (PTEN) have been reported in individuals with ASDs. Recent evidence highlights a crucial role of the cerebellum in the etiopathogenesis of ASDs. In the present study we analyzed the specific contribution of cerebellar Purkinje cell (PC) PTEN loss to these disorders. Using the Cre-loxP recombination system, we generated conditional knockout mice in which PTEN inactivation was induced specifically in PCs. We investigated PC morphology and physiology as well as sociability, repetitive behavior, motor learning, and cognitive inflexibility of adult PC PTEN-mutant mice. Loss of PTEN in PCs results in autistic-like traits, including impaired sociability, repetitive behavior and deficits in motor learning. Mutant PCs appear hypertrophic and show structural abnormalities in dendrites and axons, decreased excitability, disrupted parallel fiber and climbing fiber synapses and late-onset cell death. Our results unveil new roles of PTEN in PC function and provide the first evidence of a link between the loss of PTEN in PCs and the genesis of ASD-like traits.

  9. Phospholipase D δ knock-out mutants are tolerant to severe drought stress

    PubMed Central

    Distéfano, Ayelen M; Valiñas, Matías A; Scuffi, Denise; Lamattina, Lorenzo; ten Have, Arjen; García-Mata, Carlos; Laxalt, Ana M

    2015-01-01

    Phospholipase D (PLD) is involved in different plant processes, ranging from responses to abiotic and biotic stress to plant development. Phospholipase Dδ (PLDδ) is activated in dehydration and salt stress, producing the lipid second messenger phosphatidic acid. In this work we show that pldδ Arabidopsis mutants were more tolerant to severe drought than wild-type plants. PLDδ has been shown to be required for ABA regulation of stomatal closure of isolated epidermal peels. However, there was no significant difference in stomatal conductance at the whole plant level between wild-type and pldδ mutants. Since PLD hydrolyses structural phospholipids, then we looked at membrane integrity. Ion leakage measurements showed that during dehydration of leaf discs pldδ mutant has less membrane degradation compared to the wild-type. We further analyzed the mutants and showed that pldδ have higher mRNA levels of RAB18 and RD29A compared to wild-type plants under normal growth conditions. Transient expression of AtPLDδ in Nicotiana benthamiana plants induced a wilting phenotype. These findings suggest that, in wt plants PLDδ disrupt membranes in severe drought stress and, in the absence of the protein (PLDδ knock-out) might drought-prime the plants, making them more tolerant to severe drought stress. The results are discussed in relation to PLDδ role in guard cell signaling and drought tolerance. PMID:26340512

  10. Phospholipase D δ knock-out mutants are tolerant to severe drought stress.

    PubMed

    Distéfano, Ayelen M; Valiñas, Matías A; Scuffi, Denise; Lamattina, Lorenzo; Ten Have, Arjen; García-Mata, Carlos; Laxalt, Ana M

    2015-01-01

    Phospholipase D (PLD) is involved in different plant processes, ranging from responses to abiotic and biotic stress to plant development. Phospholipase Dδ (PLDδ) is activated in dehydration and salt stress, producing the lipid second messenger phosphatidic acid. In this work we show that pldδ Arabidopsis mutants were more tolerant to severe drought than wild-type plants. PLDδ has been shown to be required for ABA regulation of stomatal closure of isolated epidermal peels. However, there was no significant difference in stomatal conductance at the whole plant level between wild-type and pldδ mutants. Since PLD hydrolyses structural phospholipids, then we looked at membrane integrity. Ion leakage measurements showed that during dehydration of leaf discs pldδ mutant has less membrane degradation compared to the wild-type. We further analyzed the mutants and showed that pldδ have higher mRNA levels of RAB18 and RD29A compared to wild-type plants under normal growth conditions. Transient expression of AtPLDδ in Nicotiana benthamiana plants induced a wilting phenotype. These findings suggest that, in wt plants PLDδ disrupt membranes in severe drought stress and, in the absence of the protein (PLDδ knock-out) might drought-prime the plants, making them more tolerant to severe drought stress. The results are discussed in relation to PLDδ role in guard cell signaling and drought tolerance.

  11. Altered Neurocircuitry in the Dopamine Transporter Knockout Mouse Brain

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaowei; Bearer, Elaine L.; Boulat, Benoit; Hall, F. Scott; Uhl, George R.; Jacobs, Russell E.

    2010-01-01

    The plasma membrane transporters for the monoamine neurotransmitters dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine modulate the dynamics of these monoamine neurotransmitters. Thus, activity of these transporters has significant consequences for monoamine activity throughout the brain and for a number of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Gene knockout (KO) mice that reduce or eliminate expression of each of these monoamine transporters have provided a wealth of new information about the function of these proteins at molecular, physiological and behavioral levels. In the present work we use the unique properties of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to probe the effects of altered dopaminergic dynamics on meso-scale neuronal circuitry and overall brain morphology, since changes at these levels of organization might help to account for some of the extensive pharmacological and behavioral differences observed in dopamine transporter (DAT) KO mice. Despite the smaller size of these animals, voxel-wise statistical comparison of high resolution structural MR images indicated little morphological change as a consequence of DAT KO. Likewise, proton magnetic resonance spectra recorded in the striatum indicated no significant changes in detectable metabolite concentrations between DAT KO and wild-type (WT) mice. In contrast, alterations in the circuitry from the prefrontal cortex to the mesocortical limbic system, an important brain component intimately tied to function of mesolimbic/mesocortical dopamine reward pathways, were revealed by manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI). Analysis of co-registered MEMRI images taken over the 26 hours after introduction of Mn2+ into the prefrontal cortex indicated that DAT KO mice have a truncated Mn2+ distribution within this circuitry with little accumulation beyond the thalamus or contralateral to the injection site. By contrast, WT littermates exhibit Mn2+ transport into more posterior midbrain nuclei and contralateral mesolimbic structures at

  12. Neuron-specific (pro)renin receptor knockout prevents the development of salt-sensitive hypertension.

    PubMed

    Li, Wencheng; Peng, Hua; Mehaffey, Eamonn P; Kimball, Christie D; Grobe, Justin L; van Gool, Jeanette M G; Sullivan, Michelle N; Earley, Scott; Danser, A H Jan; Ichihara, Atsuhiro; Feng, Yumei

    2014-02-01

    The (pro)renin receptor (PRR), which binds both renin and prorenin, is a newly discovered component of the renin-angiotensin system that is highly expressed in the central nervous system. The significance of brain PRRs in mediating local angiotensin II formation and regulating blood pressure remains unclear. The current study was performed to test the hypothesis that PRR-mediated, nonproteolytic activation of prorenin is the main source of angiotensin II in the brain. Thus, PRR knockout in the brain is expected to prevent angiotensin II formation and development of deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt-induced hypertension. A neuron-specific PRR (ATP6AP2) knockout mouse model was generated using the Cre-LoxP system. Physiological parameters were recorded by telemetry. PRR expression, detected by immunostaining and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, was significantly decreased in the brains of knockout mice compared with wild-type mice. Intracerebroventricular infusion of mouse prorenin increased blood pressure and angiotensin II formation in wild-type mice. This hypertensive response was abolished in PRR-knockout mice in association with a reduction in angiotensin II levels. Deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt increased PRR expression and angiotensin II formation in the brains of wild-type mice, an effect that was attenuated in PRR-knockout mice. PRR knockout in neurons prevented the development of deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt-induced hypertension as well as activation of cardiac and vasomotor sympathetic tone. In conclusion, nonproteolytic activation of prorenin through binding to the PRR mediates angiotensin II formation in the brain. Neuron-specific PRR knockout prevents the development of deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt-induced hypertension, possibly through diminished angiotensin II formation.

  13. Phenotypic assessment of THC discriminative stimulus properties in fatty acid amide hydrolase knockout and wildtype mice.

    PubMed

    Walentiny, D Matthew; Vann, Robert E; Wiley, Jenny L

    2015-06-01

    A number of studies have examined the ability of the endogenous cannabinoid anandamide to elicit Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-like subjective effects, as modeled through the THC discrimination paradigm. In the present study, we compared transgenic mice lacking fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), the enzyme primarily responsible for anandamide catabolism, to wildtype counterparts in a THC discrimination procedure. THC (5.6 mg/kg) served as a discriminative stimulus in both genotypes, with similar THC dose-response curves between groups. Anandamide fully substituted for THC in FAAH knockout, but not wildtype, mice. Conversely, the metabolically stable anandamide analog O-1812 fully substituted in both groups, but was more potent in knockouts. The CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant dose-dependently attenuated THC generalization in both groups and anandamide substitution in FAAH knockouts. Pharmacological inhibition of monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), the primary catabolic enzyme for the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), with JZL184 resulted in full substitution for THC in FAAH knockout mice and nearly full substitution in wildtypes. Quantification of brain endocannabinoid levels revealed expected elevations in anandamide in FAAH knockout mice compared to wildtypes and equipotent dose-dependent elevations in 2-AG following JZL184 administration. Dual inhibition of FAAH and MAGL with JZL195 resulted in roughly equipotent increases in THC-appropriate responding in both groups. While the notable similarity in THC's discriminative stimulus effects across genotype suggests that the increased baseline brain anandamide levels (as seen in FAAH knockout mice) do not alter THC's subjective effects, FAAH knockout mice are more sensitive to the THC-like effects of pharmacologically induced increases in anandamide and MAGL inhibition (e.g., JZL184).

  14. Quantitative X-Ray Imaging of Intraplaque Hemorrhage in Aortas of ApoE-/-/LDL-/- Double Knockout Mice

    SciTech Connect

    Langheinrich,A.; Michniewicz, A.; Sedding, D.; Lai, B.; Jorgensen, S.; Bohle, R.; Ritman, E.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To determine if hemorrhage into an arterial wall can be detected in CT images by virtue of the iron content. Materials and Methods: Aortas from male apoE-/-/LDL-/- mice (n = 31) were infused in situ with contrast agent, for micro-CT scanning and histology. Roentgen-opacities within the aortic walls were identified by histology and micro-x-ray fluorescence to be iron or calcium. Dual-energy scanning was performed at 2 energy levels using synchrotron-based micro-CT [(2 {mu}m)3 voxels, 16 and 20 keV] and 64-slice CT (0.4 x 0.4 x 0.6 mm voxels, 80 and 120 kVp). Results: Opacities were identified as hemorrhage-related clusters of multiple punctate deposits, containing both Fe (0.48 x 10-12 g/voxel) and Ca (3.18 x 10-2 g/voxel), or as isolated confluent accumulations of exclusively calcium. Subtraction of the dual-energy CT scans discriminated iron from calcium deposits. Conclusion: Detection and quantification of iron deposits in hemorrhaged atherosclerotic lesions is feasible by dual-energy CT imaging.

  15. Attenuation of experimental colitis in glutathione peroxidase 1 and catalase double knockout mice through enhancing regulatory T cell function.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung-Ran; Lee, Anbok; Choi, Eun-Jeong; Kie, Jeong-Hae; Lim, Woosung; Lee, Hyeon Kook; Moon, Byung-In; Seoh, Ju-Young

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the progression of inflammatory diseases including inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Meanwhile, several studies suggested the protective role of ROS in immune-mediated inflammatory diseases, and it was recently reported that dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis was attenuated in mice with an elevated level of ROS due to deficiency of peroxiredoxin II. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are critical in the prevention of IBD and Treg function was reported to be closely associated with ROS level, but it has been investigated only in lowered levels of ROS so far. In the present study, in order to clarify the relationship between ROS level and Treg function, and their role in the pathogenesis of IBD, we investigated mice with an elevated level of ROS due to deficiency of both glutathione peroxidase (GPx)-1 and catalase (Cat) for the susceptibility of DSS-induced colitis in association with Treg function. The results showed that DSS-induced colitis was attenuated and Tregs were hyperfunctional in GPx1-/- × Cat-/- mice. In vivo administration of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) aggravated DSS-induced colitis and decreased Treg function to the level comparable to WT mice. Attenuated Th17 cell differentiation from naïve CD4+ cells as well as impaired production of IL-6 and IL-17A by splenocytes upon stimulation suggested anti-inflammatory tendency of GPx1-/- × Cat-/- mice. Suppression of Stat3 activation in association with enhancement of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase and FoxP3 expression might be involved in the immunosuppressive mechanism of GPx1-/- × Cat-/- mice. Taken together, it is implied that ROS level is critical in the regulation of Treg function, and IBD may be attenuated in appropriately elevated levels of ROS.

  16. Low dystrophin levels increase survival and improve muscle pathology and function in dystrophin/utrophin double-knockout mice.

    PubMed

    van Putten, Maaike; Hulsker, Margriet; Young, Courtney; Nadarajah, Vishna D; Heemskerk, Hans; van der Weerd, Louise; 't Hoen, Peter A C; van Ommen, Gert-Jan B; Aartsma-Rus, Annemieke M

    2013-06-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a severe muscle-wasting disorder caused by the lack of functional dystrophin. There is no cure, but several clinical trials aimed to restore the synthesis of functional dystrophin are underway. The dystrophin levels needed for improvement of muscle pathology, function, and overall vitality are not known. Here, we describe the mdx/utrn(-/-)/Xist(Δhs) mouse model, which expresses a range of low dystrophin levels, depending on the degree of skewing of X inactivation in a utrophin-negative background. Mdx/utrn(-/-) mice develop severe muscle weakness, kyphosis, respiratory and heart failure, and premature death closely resembling DMD pathology. We show that at dystrophin levels < 4%, survival and motor function in these animals are greatly improved. In mice expressing >4% dystrophin, histopathology is ameliorated, as well. These findings suggest that the dystrophin levels needed to benefit vitality and functioning of patients with DMD might be lower than those needed for full protection against muscle damage.

  17. Attenuation of lithium-induced natriuresis and kaliuresis in P2Y₂ receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yue; Li, Lijun; Kohan, Donald E; Ecelbarger, Carolyn M; Kishore, Bellamkonda K

    2013-08-01

    Whole body knockout (KO) of the P2Y₂ receptor (P2Y₂R) results in enhanced vasopressin V2 receptor activity and increased renal Na⁺ conservation. We hypothesized that P2Y₂R KO mice would be less sensitive to lithium-induced natriuresis and kaliuresis due to attenuated downregulation of one or more of the major renal Na⁺ or K⁺ transporter/channel proteins. KO and wild-type (WT) mice were fed a control or lithium-added diet (40 mmol/kg food) for 14 days. Lithium-induced natriuresis and kaliuresis were significantly (~25%) attenuated in KO mice. The subunits of the epithelial Na⁺ channel (ENaC) were variably affected by lithium and genotype, but, overall, medullary levels were decreased substantially by lithium (15-60%) in both genotypes. In contrast, cortical, β-, and γ-ENaC were increased by lithium (~50%), but only in WT mice. Moreover, an assessment of ENaC activity by benzamil sensitivity suggested that lithium increased ENaC activity in WT mice but in not KO mice. In contrast, medullary levels of Na⁺-K⁺-2Cl⁻ cotransporter 2 and cortical levels of the renal outer medullary K⁺ channel were not downregulated by lithium and were significantly (15-76%) higher in KO mice under both dietary conditions. In addition, under control conditions, tissue osmolality of the inner medulla as well as furosemide sensitivity were significantly higher in KO mice versus WT mice. Therefore, we suggest that increased expression of these proteins, particularly in the control state, reduces Na⁺ delivery to the distal nephron and provides a buffer to attenuate collecting duct-mediated natriuresis and kaliuresis. Additional studies are warranted to explore the potential therapeutic benefits of purinergic antagonism.

  18. Erythrocytes from GGTA1/CMAH knockout pigs: implications for xenotransfusion and testing in non-human primates

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zheng-Yu; Burlak, Christopher; Estrada, Jose L.; Li, Ping; Tector, Matthew F.; Tector, A. Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Background Pig erythrocytes are potentially useful to solve the worldwide shortage of human blood for transfusion. Domestic pig erythrocytes, however, express antigens that are bound by human preformed antibodies. Advances in genetic engineering have made it possible to rapidly knock out the genes of multiple xenoantigens, namely galactose α1,3 galactose (aGal) and N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc). We have recently targeted the GGTA1 and CMAH genes with zinc finger endonucleases resulting in double knockout pigs that no longer express aGal or Neu5Gc and attract significantly fewer human antibodies. In this study, we characterized erythrocytes from domestic and genetically modified pigs, baboons, chimpanzees, and humans for binding of human and baboon natural antibody, and complement mediated lysis. Methods Distribution of anti Neu5Gc IgG and IgM in pooled human AB serum was analyzed by ELISA. Erythrocytes from domestic pigs (Dom), aGal knockout pigs (GGTA1 KO), aGal and Neu5Gc double knockout pigs (GGTA1/CMAH KO), baboons, chimpanzees, and humans were analyzed by flow cytometry for aGal and Neu5Gc expression. In vitro comparative analysis of erythrocytes was conducted with pooled human AB serum and baboon serum. Total antibody binding was accessed by hemagglutination; complement-dependent lysis was measured by hemolytic assay; IgG or IgM binding to erythrocytes was characterized by flow cytometry. Results The pooled human AB serum contained 0.38 μg/ml anti Neu5Gc IgG and 0.085 μg/ml anti Neu5Gc IgM. Both Gal and Neu5Gc were not detectable on GGTA1/CMAH KO erythrocytes. Hemagglutinaion of GGTA1/CMAH KO erythrocytes with human serum was 3.5-fold lower compared to GGTA1 KO erythrocytes, but 1.6-fold greater when agglutinated with baboon serum. Hemolysis of GGTA1/CMAH KO erythrocytes by human serum (25%) was reduced 9-fold compared to GGTA1 KO erythrocytes, but increased 1.64-fold by baboon serum. Human IgG binding was reduced 27-fold on GGTA1/CMAH KO erythrocytes

  19. Monoglyceride lipase deficiency modulates endocannabinoid signaling and improves plaque stability in ApoE-knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Vujic, Nemanja; Schlager, Stefanie; Eichmann, Thomas O.; Madreiter-Sokolowski, Corina T.; Goeritzer, Madeleine; Rainer, Silvia; Schauer, Silvia; Rosenberger, Angelika; Woelfler, Albert; Doddapattar, Prakash; Zimmermann, Robert; Hoefler, Gerald; Lass, Achim; Graier, Wolfgang F.; Radovic, Branislav; Kratky, Dagmar

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Monoglyceride lipase (MGL) catalyzes the final step of lipolysis by degrading monoglyceride (MG) to glycerol and fatty acid. MGL also hydrolyzes and thereby deactivates 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG), the most abundant endocannabinoid in the mammalian system. 2-AG acts as full agonist on cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1R) and CB2R, which are mainly expressed in brain and immune cells, respectively. Thus, we speculated that in the absence of MGL, increased 2-AG concentrations mediate CB2R signaling in immune cells to modulate inflammatory responses, thereby affecting the development of atherosclerosis. Methods and results We generated apolipoprotein E (ApoE)/MGL double-knockout (DKO) mice and challenged them with Western-type diet for 9 weeks. Despite systemically increased 2-AG concentrations in DKO mice, CB2R-mediated signaling remains fully functional, arguing against CB2R desensitization. We found increased plaque formation in both en face aortae (1.3-fold, p = 0.028) and aortic valve sections (1.5-fold, p = 0.0010) in DKO mice. Interestingly, DKO mice also presented reduced lipid (12%, p = 0.031) and macrophage content (18%, p = 0.061), elevated intraplaque smooth muscle staining (1.4-fold, p = 0.016) and thicker fibrous caps (1.8-fold, p = 0.0032), together with a higher ratio of collagen to necrotic core area (2.5-fold, p = 0.0003) and expanded collagen content (1.6-fold, p = 0.0007), which suggest formation of less vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques. Treatment with a CB2R inverse agonist prevents these effects in DKO mice, demonstrating that the observed plaque phenotype in DKO mice originates from CB2R activation. Conclusion Loss of MGL modulates endocannabinoid signaling in CB2R-expressing cells, which concomitantly affects the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. We conclude that despite larger lesion size loss of MGL improves atherosclerotic plaque stability. Thus, pharmacological MGL inhibition may be a novel intervention to reduce

  20. Random Splicing of Several Exons Caused by a Single Base Change in the Target Exon of CRISPR/Cas9 Mediated Gene Knockout

    PubMed Central

    Kapahnke, Marcel; Banning, Antje; Tikkanen, Ritva

    2016-01-01

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated sequence 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) system is widely used for genome editing purposes as it facilitates an efficient knockout of a specific gene in, e.g. cultured cells. Targeted double-strand breaks are introduced to the target sequence of the guide RNAs, which activates the cellular DNA repair mechanism for non-homologous-end-joining, resulting in unprecise repair and introduction of small deletions or insertions. Due to this, sequence alterations in the coding region of the target gene frequently cause frame-shift mutations, facilitating degradation of the mRNA. We here show that such CRISPR/Cas9-mediated alterations in the target exon may also result in altered splicing of the respective pre-mRNA, most likely due to mutations of splice-regulatory sequences. Using the human FLOT-1 gene as an example, we demonstrate that such altered splicing products also give rise to aberrant protein products. These may potentially function as dominant-negative proteins and thus interfere with the interpretation of the data generated with these cell lines. Since most researchers only control the consequences of CRISPR knockout at genomic and protein level, our data should encourage to also check the alterations at the mRNA level. PMID:27983621

  1. Observing Double Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genet, Russell M.; Fulton, B. J.; Bianco, Federica B.; Martinez, John; Baxter, John; Brewer, Mark; Carro, Joseph; Collins, Sarah; Estrada, Chris; Johnson, Jolyon; Salam, Akash; Wallen, Vera; Warren, Naomi; Smith, Thomas C.; Armstrong, James D.; McGaughey, Steve; Pye, John; Mohanan, Kakkala; Church, Rebecca

    2012-05-01

    Double stars have been systematically observed since William Herschel initiated his program in 1779. In 1803 he reported that, to his surprise, many of the systems he had been observing for a quarter century were gravitationally bound binary stars. In 1830 the first binary orbital solution was obtained, leading eventually to the determination of stellar masses. Double star observations have been a prolific field, with observations and discoveries - often made by students and amateurs - routinely published in a number of specialized journals such as the Journal of Double Star Observations. All published double star observations from Herschel's to the present have been incorporated in the Washington Double Star Catalog. In addition to reviewing the history of visual double stars, we discuss four observational technologies and illustrate these with our own observational results from both California and Hawaii on telescopes ranging from small SCTs to the 2-meter Faulkes Telescope North on Haleakala. Two of these technologies are visual observations aimed primarily at published "hands-on" student science education, and CCD observations of both bright and very faint doubles. The other two are recent technologies that have launched a double star renaissance. These are lucky imaging and speckle interferometry, both of which can use electron-multiplying CCD cameras to allow short (30 ms or less) exposures that are read out at high speed with very low noise. Analysis of thousands of high speed exposures allows normal seeing limitations to be overcome so very close doubles can be accurately measured.

  2. Knockouts of high-ranking males have limited impact on baboon social networks.

    PubMed

    Franz, Mathias; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C

    Social network structures can crucially impact complex social processes such as collective behaviour or the transmission of information and diseases. However, currently it is poorly understood how social networks change over time. Previous studies on primates suggest that `knockouts' (due to death or dispersal) of high-ranking individuals might be important drivers for structural changes in animal social networks. Here we test this hypothesis using long-term data on a natural population of baboons, examining the effects of 29 natural knockouts of alpha or beta males on adult female social networks. We investigated whether and how knockouts affected (1) changes in grooming and association rates among adult females, and (2) changes in mean degree and global clustering coefficient in these networks. The only significant effect that we found was a decrease in mean degree in grooming networks in the first month after knockouts, but this decrease was rather small, and grooming networks rebounded to baseline levels by the second month after knockouts. Taken together our results indicate that the removal of high-ranking males has only limited or no lasting effects on social networks of adult female baboons. This finding calls into question the hypothesis that the removal of high-ranking individuals has a destabilizing effect on social network structures in social animals.

  3. Glutamate transporter type 3 knockout leads to decreased heart rate possibly via parasympathetic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Deng, Jiao; Li, Jiejie; Li, Liaoliao; Feng, Chenzhuo; Xiong, Lize; Zuo, Zhiyi

    2013-08-01

    Parasympathetic tone is a dominant neural regulator for basal heart rate. Glutamate transporters (EAAT) via their glutamate uptake functions regulate glutamate neurotransmission in the central nervous system. We showed that EAAT type 3 (EAAT3) knockout mice had a slower heart rate than wild-type mice when they were anesthetized. We design this study to determine whether non-anesthetized EAAT3 knockout mice have a slower heart rate and, if so, what may be the mechanism for this effect. Young adult EAAT3 knockout mice had slower heart rates than those of their littermate wild-type mice no matter whether they were awake or anesthetized. This difference was abolished by atropine, a parasympatholytic drug. Carbamylcholine chloride, a parasympathomimetic drug, equally effectively reduced the heart rates of wild-type and EAAT3 knockout mice. Positive immunostaining for EAAT3 was found in the area of nuclei deriving fibers for vagus nerve. There was no positive staining for the EAATs in the sinoatrial node. These results suggest that EAAT3 knockout mice have a slower heart rate at rest. This effect may be caused by an increased parasympathetic tone possibly due to increased glutamate neurotransmission in the central nervous system. These findings indicate that regulation of heart rate, a vital sign, is one of the EAAT biological functions.

  4. Disease phenotype of a ferret CFTR-knockout model of cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xingshen; Sui, Hongshu; Fisher, John T.; Yan, Ziying; Liu, Xiaoming; Cho, Hyung-Ju; Joo, Nam Soo; Zhang, Yulong; Zhou, Weihong; Yi, Yaling; Kinyon, Joann M.; Lei-Butters, Diana C.; Griffin, Michelle A.; Naumann, Paul; Luo, Meihui; Ascher, Jill; Wang, Kai; Frana, Timothy; Wine, Jeffrey J.; Meyerholz, David K.; Engelhardt, John F.

    2010-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a recessive disease that affects multiple organs. It is caused by mutations in CFTR. Animal modeling of this disease has been challenging, with species- and strain-specific differences in organ biology and CFTR function influencing the emergence of disease pathology. Here, we report the phenotype of a CFTR-knockout ferret model of CF. Neonatal CFTR-knockout ferrets demonstrated many of the characteristics of human CF disease, including defective airway chloride transport and submucosal gland fluid secretion; variably penetrant meconium ileus (MI); pancreatic, liver, and vas deferens disease; and a predisposition to lung infection in the early postnatal period. Severe malabsorption by the gastrointestinal (GI) tract was the primary cause of death in CFTR-knockout kits that escaped MI. Elevated liver function tests in CFTR-knockout kits were corrected by oral administration of ursodeoxycholic acid, and the addition of an oral proton-pump inhibitor improved weight gain and survival. To overcome the limitations imposed by the severe intestinal phenotype, we cloned 4 gut-corrected transgenic CFTR-knockout kits that expressed ferret CFTR specifically in the intestine. One clone passed feces normally and demonstrated no detectable ferret CFTR expression in the lung or liver. The animals described in this study are likely to be useful tools for dissecting CF disease pathogenesis and developing treatments. PMID:20739752

  5. The knockout of secretin in cerebellar Purkinje cells impairs mouse motor coordination and motor learning.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Chung, Sookja Kim; Chow, Billy Kwok Chong

    2014-05-01

    Secretin (SCT) was first considered to be a gut hormone regulating gastrointestinal functions when discovered. Recently, however, central actions of SCT have drawn intense research interest and are supported by the broad distribution of SCT in specific neuronal populations and by in vivo physiological studies regarding its role in water homeostasis and food intake. The direct action of SCT on a central neuron was first discovered in cerebellar Purkinje cells in which SCT from cerebellar Purkinje cells was found to potentiate GABAergic inhibitory transmission from presynaptic basket cells. Because Purkinje neurons have a major role in motor coordination and learning functions, we hypothesize a behavioral modulatory function for SCT. In this study, we successfully generated a mouse model in which the SCT gene was deleted specifically in Purkinje cells. This mouse line was tested together with SCT knockout and SCT receptor knockout mice in a full battery of behavioral tasks. We found that the knockout of SCT in Purkinje neurons did not affect general motor ability or the anxiety level in open field tests. However, knockout mice did exhibit impairments in neuromuscular strength, motor coordination, and motor learning abilities, as shown by wire hanging, vertical climbing, and rotarod tests. In addition, SCT knockout in Purkinje cells possibly led to the delayed development of motor neurons, as supported by the later occurrence of key neural reflexes. In summary, our data suggest a role in motor coordination and motor learning for SCT expressed in cerebellar Purkinje cells.

  6. Gene Knockout Identification Using an Extension of Bees Hill Flux Balance Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Choon, Yee Wen; Mohamad, Mohd Saberi; Deris, Safaai; Chong, Chuii Khim; Omatu, Sigeru; Corchado, Juan Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Microbial strain optimisation for the overproduction of a desired phenotype has been a popular topic in recent years. Gene knockout is a genetic engineering technique that can modify the metabolism of microbial cells to obtain desirable phenotypes. Optimisation algorithms have been developed to identify the effects of gene knockout. However, the complexities of metabolic networks have made the process of identifying the effects of genetic modification on desirable phenotypes challenging. Furthermore, a vast number of reactions in cellular metabolism often lead to a combinatorial problem in obtaining optimal gene knockout. The computational time increases exponentially as the size of the problem increases. This work reports an extension of Bees Hill Flux Balance Analysis (BHFBA) to identify optimal gene knockouts to maximise the production yield of desired phenotypes while sustaining the growth rate. This proposed method functions by integrating OptKnock into BHFBA for validating the results automatically. The results show that the extension of BHFBA is suitable, reliable, and applicable in predicting gene knockout. Through several experiments conducted on Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, and Clostridium thermocellum as model organisms, extension of BHFBA has shown better performance in terms of computational time, stability, growth rate, and production yield of desired phenotypes. PMID:25874200

  7. Effects of morphine on pentobarbital-induced responses in mu-opioid receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Y; Ho, I K; Jang, C G; Tanaka, S; Ma, T; Loh, H H; Ko, K H

    2001-03-15

    Effects of morphine on the potentiation of pentobarbital-induced responses were investigated using mu-opioid receptor knockout mice. The duration of loss of righting reflex, hypothermia, and loss of motor coordination induced by pentobarbital were measured after pretreatment with either morphine or saline. Morphine pretreatment failed to show potentiation of both pentobarbital-induced loss of righting reflex and hypothermia in mu-opioid receptor knockout mice, while it significantly potentiated these responses in the wild-type controls. For motor incoordination test, morphine potentiated pentobarbital-induced motor incoordination in the wild-type mice. However, morphine may have opposite effects in the mu-opioid receptor knockout mice. These results demonstrate that synergism between morphine and pentobarbital is not detected in mu-opioid receptor knockout mice and that potentiation of pentobarbital-induced loss of righting reflex and hypothermia by morphine is mediated through mu-opioid receptor. It was interesting to note that pentobarbital-induced decrease in body temperature was less severe in mu-opioid receptor knockout mice than in wild-type mice.

  8. The broken mouse: the role of development, plasticity and environment in the interpretation of phenotypic changes in knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Gingrich, J A; Hen, R

    2000-02-01

    With the advent of gene knockout technology has arisen the problem of how to interpret the resulting phenotypic changes in mice lacking specific genes. This problem is especially relevant when applied to behavioral phenotypes of knockout mice, which are difficult to interpret. Of particular interest are the roles of development and compensatory changes, as well as other factors, such as the influence of the gene knockout on nearby genes, the effect of the genetic background strain, maternal behavioral influences, and pleiotrophy.

  9. Generation of Knockout Rats with X-Linked Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (X-SCID) Using Zinc-Finger Nucleases

    PubMed Central

    Mashimo, Tomoji; Takizawa, Akiko; Voigt, Birger; Yoshimi, Kazuto; Hiai, Hiroshi; Kuramoto, Takashi; Serikawa, Tadao

    2010-01-01

    Background Although the rat is extensively used as a laboratory model, the inability to utilize germ line-competent rat embryonic stem (ES) cells has been a major drawback for studies that aim to elucidate gene functions. Recently, zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) were successfully used to create genome-specific double-stranded breaks and thereby induce targeted gene mutations in a wide variety of organisms including plants, drosophila, zebrafish, etc. Methodology/Principal Findings We report here on ZFN-induced gene targeting of the rat interleukin 2 receptor gamma (Il2rg) locus, where orthologous human and mouse mutations cause X-linked severe combined immune deficiency (X-SCID). Co-injection of mRNAs encoding custom-designed ZFNs into the pronucleus of fertilized oocytes yielded genetically modified offspring at rates greater than 20%, which possessed a wide variety of deletion/insertion mutations. ZFN-modified founders faithfully transmitted their genetic changes to the next generation along with the severe combined immune deficiency phenotype. Conclusions and Significance The efficient and rapid generation of gene knockout rats shows that using ZFN technology is a new strategy for creating gene-targeted rat models of human diseases. In addition, the X-SCID rats that were established in this study will be valuable in vivo tools for evaluating drug treatment or gene therapy as well as model systems for examining the treatment of xenotransplanted malignancies. PMID:20111598

  10. In vivo assessment of coronary flow and cardiac function after bolus adenosine injection in adenosine receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Teng, Bunyen; Tilley, Stephen L; Ledent, Catherine; Mustafa, S Jamal

    2016-06-01

    Bolus injections of adenosine and the A2A adenosine receptor (AR) selective agonist (regadenoson) are used clinically as a substitute for a stress test in people who cannot exercise. Using isolated tissue preparations, our lab has shown that coronary flow and cardiac effects of adenosine are mostly regulated by the AR subtypes A1, A2A, and A2B In this study, we used ultrasound imaging to measure the in vivo effects of adenosine on coronary blood flow (left coronary artery) and cardiac function in anesthetized wild-type, A1 knockout (KO), A2AKO, A2BKO, A3KO, A1, and A3 double KO (A1/3 DKO) and A2A and A2B double KO (A2A/2B DKO) mice in real time. Echocardiographic and Doppler studies were performed using a Visualsonic Vevo 2100 ultrasound system. Coronary blood flow (CBF) baseline data were obtained when animals were anesthetized with 1% isoflourane. Diameter (D) and velocity time integral (VTI) were measured on the left coronary arteries (CBF = ((π/4) × D(2) × VTI × HR)/1000). CBF changes were the highest within 2 min of injection (about 10 mg/kg). Heart rate, cardiac output, and stroke volume were measured by tracing the left ventricle long axis. Our data support a role for the A2 AR in CBF and further support our conclusions of previous studies from isolated tissues. Adenosine-mediated decreases in cardiac output and stroke volume may be A2B and/or A3 AR-mediated; however, the A1 and A2 ARs also play roles in overall cardiac function. These data further provide a powerful translational tool in studying the cardiovascular effects of adenosine in disease states.

  11. Production of α1,3-galactosyltransferase and cytidine monophosphate-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase gene double-deficient pigs by CRISPR/Cas9 and handmade cloning

    PubMed Central

    GAO, Hanchao; ZHAO, Chengjiang; XIANG, Xi; LI, Yong; ZHAO, Yanli; LI, Zesong; PAN, Dengke; DAI, Yifan; HARA, Hidetaka; COOPER, David K.C.; CAI, Zhiming; MOU, Lisha

    2016-01-01

    Gene-knockout pigs hold great promise as a solution to the shortage of organs from donor animals for xenotransplantation. Several groups have generated gene-knockout pigs via clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated 9 (Cas9) and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Herein, we adopted a simple and micromanipulator-free method, handmade cloning (HMC) instead of SCNT, to generate double gene-knockout pigs. First, we applied the CRISPR/Cas9 system to target α1,3-galactosyltransferase (GGTA1) and cytidine monophosphate-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase (CMAH) genes simultaneously in porcine fetal fibroblast cells (PFFs), which were derived from wild-type Chinese domestic miniature Wuzhishan pigs. Cell colonies were obtained by screening and were identified by Surveyor assay and sequencing. Next, we chose the GGTA1/CMAH double-knockout (DKO) cells for HMC to produce piglets. As a result, we obtained 11 live bi-allelic GGTA1/CMAH DKO piglets with the identical phenotype. Compared to cells from GGTA1-knockout pigs, human antibody binding and antibody-mediated complement-dependent cytotoxicity were significantly reduced in cells from GGTA1/CMAH DKO pigs, which demonstrated that our pigs would exhibit reduced humoral rejection in xenotransplantation. These data suggested that the combination of CRISPR/Cas9 and HMC technology provided an efficient and new strategy for producing pigs with multiple genetic modifications. PMID:27725344

  12. Production of α1,3-galactosyltransferase and cytidine monophosphate-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase gene double-deficient pigs by CRISPR/Cas9 and handmade cloning.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hanchao; Zhao, Chengjiang; Xiang, Xi; Li, Yong; Zhao, Yanli; Li, Zesong; Pan, Dengke; Dai, Yifan; Hara, Hidetaka; Cooper, David K C; Cai, Zhiming; Mou, Lisha

    2017-02-16

    Gene-knockout pigs hold great promise as a solution to the shortage of organs from donor animals for xenotransplantation. Several groups have generated gene-knockout pigs via clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated 9 (Cas9) and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Herein, we adopted a simple and micromanipulator-free method, handmade cloning (HMC) instead of SCNT, to generate double gene-knockout pigs. First, we applied the CRISPR/Cas9 system to target α1,3-galactosyltransferase (GGTA1) and cytidine monophosphate-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase (CMAH) genes simultaneously in porcine fetal fibroblast cells (PFFs), which were derived from wild-type Chinese domestic miniature Wuzhishan pigs. Cell colonies were obtained by screening and were identified by Surveyor assay and sequencing. Next, we chose the GGTA1/CMAH double-knockout (DKO) cells for HMC to produce piglets. As a result, we obtained 11 live bi-allelic GGTA1/CMAH DKO piglets with the identical phenotype. Compared to cells from GGTA1-knockout pigs, human antibody binding and antibody-mediated complement-dependent cytotoxicity were significantly reduced in cells from GGTA1/CMAH DKO pigs, which demonstrated that our pigs would exhibit reduced humoral rejection in xenotransplantation. These data suggested that the combination of CRISPR/Cas9 and HMC technology provided an efficient and new strategy for producing pigs with multiple genetic modifications.

  13. MR histology of advanced atherosclerotic lesions of ApoE- knockout mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumova, A.; Yarnykh, V.; Ferguson, M.; Rosenfeld, M.; Yuan, C.

    2016-02-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine the feasibility of determining the composition of advanced atherosclerotic plaques in fixed ApoE-knockout mice and to develop a time-efficient microimaging protocol for MR histological imaging on mice. Five formalin-fixed transgenic ApoE-knockout mice were imaged at the 9.4T Bruker BioSpec MR scanner using 3D spoiled gradient-echo sequence with an isotropic field of view of 24 mm3; TR 20.8 ms; TE 2.6 ms; flip angle 20°, resulted voxel size 47 × 63 × 94 pm3. MRI examination has shown that advanced atherosclerotic lesions of aorta, innominate and carotid arteries in ApoE-knockout mice are characterized by high calcification and presence of the large fibrofatty nodules. MRI quantification of atherosclerotic lesion components corresponded to histological assessment of plaque composition with a correlation coefficient of 0.98.

  14. Double Diffusive Plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, Bruce; Lee, Brace

    2008-11-01

    Sour gas flares attempt to dispose of deadly H2S gas through combustion. What does not burn rises as a buoyant plume. But the gas is heavier than air at room temperature, so as the rising gas cools eventually it becomes negatively buoyant and descends back to the ground. Ultimately, our intent is to predict the concentrations of the gas at ground level in realistic atmospheric conditions. As a first step towards this goal we have performed laboratory experiments examining the structure of a steady state plume of hot and salty water that rises buoyantly near the source and descends as a fountain after it has cooled sufficiently. We call this a double-diffusive plume because its evolution is dictated by the different (turbulent) diffusivities of heat and salt. A temperature and conductivity probe measures both the salinity and temperature along the centreline of the plume. The supposed axisymmetric structure of the salinity concentration as it changes with height is determined by light-attenuation methods. To help interpret the results, a theory has been successfully adapted from the work of Bloomfield and Kerr (2000), who developed coupled equations describing the structure of fountains. Introducing a new empirical parameter for the relative rates of turbulent heat and salt diffusion, the predictions are found to agree favourably with experimental results.

  15. Multidimensional period doubling structures.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong Yup; Flom, Dvir; Ben-Abraham, Shelomo I

    2016-05-01

    This paper develops the formalism necessary to generalize the period doubling sequence to arbitrary dimension by straightforward extension of the substitution and recursion rules. It is shown that the period doubling structures of arbitrary dimension are pure point diffractive. The symmetries of the structures are pointed out.

  16. Effect of knockout of α2δ-1 on action potentials in mouse sensory neurons

    PubMed Central

    Margas, Wojciech; Ferron, Laurent; Nieto-Rostro, Manuela; Schwartz, Arnold; Dolphin, Annette C.

    2016-01-01

    Gene deletion of the voltage-gated calcium channel auxiliary subunit α2δ-1 has been shown previously to have a cardiovascular phenotype, and a reduction in mechano- and cold sensitivity, coupled with delayed development of neuropathic allodynia. We have also previously shown that dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neuron calcium channel currents were significantly reduced in α2δ-1 knockout mice. To extend our findings in these sensory neurons, we have examined here the properties of action potentials (APs) in DRG neurons from α2δ-1 knockout mice in comparison to their wild-type (WT) littermates, in order to dissect how the calcium channels that are affected by α2δ-1 knockout are involved in setting the duration of individual APs and their firing frequency. Our main findings are that there is reduced Ca2+ entry on single AP stimulation, particularly in the axon proximal segment, reduced AP duration and reduced firing frequency to a 400 ms stimulation in α2δ-1 knockout neurons, consistent with the expected role of voltage-gated calcium channels in these events. Furthermore, lower intracellular Ca2+ buffering also resulted in reduced AP duration, and a lower frequency of AP firing in WT neurons, mimicking the effect of α2δ-1 knockout. By contrast, we did not obtain any consistent evidence for the involvement of Ca2+-activation of large conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK) and small conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK) channels in these events. In conclusion, the reduced Ca2+ elevation as a result of single AP stimulation is likely to result from the reduced duration of the AP in α2δ-1 knockout sensory neurons. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Evolution brings Ca2+ and ATP together to control life and death’. PMID:27377724

  17. Effects of HAb18G/CD147 knockout on hepatocellular carcinoma cells in vitro using a novel zinc-finger nuclease-targeted gene knockout approach.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong-Wei; Yang, Xiang-Min; Tang, Juan; Wang, Shi-Jie; Chen, Zhi-Nan; Jiang, Jian-Li

    2015-03-01

    HAb18G/CD147 belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily and predominantly functions as an inducer of matrix metalloproteinase secretion for tumor invasion and metastasis. This study was designed to investigate the effects of HAb18G/CD147 knockout on hepatocellular carcinoma cells using zinc-finger nuclease (ZFNs)-targeted gene knockout approach. The HCC cell line SMMC-7721 was used for ZFNs-targeted cleavage of the HAb18G/CD147 gene. RT-PCR and Western blot assays were used to detect HAb18G/CD147 expression. HAb18G phenotypic changes following HAb18G/CD147 knockout in SMMC-K7721 cells were assessed using tumor cell adhesion, invasion, migration and colony formation and flow cytometric assays. These data demonstrated that tumor cell adhesion, invasion, migration, and colony formation capabilities of SMMC-K7721 were significantly reduced compared to parental cells or SMMC-7721 with re-expression of HAb18G/CD147 protein transfected with HAb18G/CD147 cDNA. Moreover, knockout of HAb18G/CD147 expression also induced SMMC-K7721 cells to undergo apoptosis compared to SMMC-7721 and SMMC-R7721 (P < 0.01). Molecularly, protein expression of p53 was induced in these cells, but re-expression of HAb18G/CD147 reduced p53 levels in SMMC-R7721 cells, possibly through inhibition of the PI3K-Akt-MDM2 signaling pathway. The findings provide a novel insight into the mechanisms underlying HAb18G/CD147-induced progression of HCC cells.

  18. Single and Compound Knock-outs of MicroRNA (miRNA)-155 and Its Angiogenic Gene Target CCN1 in Mice Alter Vascular and Neovascular Growth in the Retina via Resident Microglia.

    PubMed

    Yan, Lulu; Lee, Sangmi; Lazzaro, Douglas R; Aranda, Jacob; Grant, Maria B; Chaqour, Brahim

    2015-09-18

    The response of the retina to ischemic insult typically leads to aberrant retinal neovascularization, a major cause of blindness. The epigenetic regulation of angiogenic gene expression by miRNAs provides new prospects for their therapeutic utility in retinal neovascularization. Here, we focus on miR-155, a microRNA functionally important in inflammation, which is of paramount importance in the pathogenesis of retinal neovascularization. Whereas constitutive miR-155-deficiency in mice results in mild vascular defects, forced expression of miR-155 causes endothelial hyperplasia and increases microglia count and activation. The mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy, which recapitulates ischemia-induced aberrant neovessel growth, is characterized by increased expression of miR-155 and localized areas of microglia activation. Interestingly, miR-155 deficiency in mice reduces microglial activation, curtails abnormal vessel growth, and allows for rapid normalization of the retinal vasculature following ischemic insult. miR-155 binds to the 3'-UTR and represses the expression of the CCN1 gene, which encodes an extracellular matrix-associated integrin-binding protein that both promotes physiological angiogenesis and harnesses growth factor-induced abnormal angiogenic responses. Single CCN1 deficiency or double CCN1 and miR-155 knock-out in mice causes retinal vascular malformations typical of faulty maturation, mimicking the vascular alterations of miR-155 gain of function. During development, the miR-155/CCN1 regulatory axis balances the proangiogenic and proinflammatory activities of microglia to allow for their function as guideposts for sprout fusion and anastomosis. Under ischemic conditions, dysregulated miR-155 and CCN1 expression increases the inflammatory load and microglial activation, prompting aberrant angiogenic responses. Thus, miR-155 functions in tandem with CCN1 to modulate inflammation-induced vascular homeostasis and repair.

  19. Kv4.2 knockout mice display learning and memory deficits in the Lashley maze

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Gregory D.; Gao, Nan; Lugo, Joaquin N.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Potassium channels have been shown to be involved in neural plasticity and learning. Kv4.2 is a subunit of the A-type potassium channel. Kv4.2 channels modulate excitability in the dendrites of pyramidal neurons in the cortex and hippocampus. Deletion of Kv4.2 results in spatial learning and conditioned fear deficits; however, previous studies have only examined deletion of Kv4.2 in aversive learning tests. Methods: For the current study, we used the Lashley maze as an appetitive learning test. We examined Kv4.2 wildtype (WT) and knockout (KO) mice in the Lashley maze over 4 days during adulthood. The first day consisted of habituating the mice to the maze. The mice then received five trials per day for the next 3 days. The number of errors and the time to the goal box was recorded for each trial. The goal box contained a weigh boat with an appetitive reward (gelatin with sugar). There was an intertrial interval of 15 minutes. Results: We found that Kv4.2 KO mice committed more errors across the trials compared to the WT mice p<0.001. There was no difference in the latency to find the goal box over the period. Discussion: Our finding that deletion of Kv4.2 resulted in more errors in the Lashley maze across 15 trials contribute to a growing body of evidence that Kv4.2 channels are significantly involved in learning and memory. PMID:28163893

  20. Impaired cognitive discrimination and discoordination of coupled theta-gamma oscillations in Fmr1 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Radwan, Basma; Dvorak, Dino; Fenton, André A

    2016-04-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) patients do not make the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). The absence of FMRP causes dysregulated translation, abnormal synaptic plasticity and the most common form of inherited intellectual disability. But FMRP loss has minimal effects on memory itself, making it difficult to understand why the absence of FMRP impairs memory discrimination and increases risk of autistic symptoms in patients, such as exaggerated responses to environmental changes. While Fmr1 knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice perform cognitive discrimination tasks, we find abnormal patterns of coupling between theta and gamma oscillations in perisomatic and dendritic hippocampal CA1 local field potentials of the KO. Perisomatic CA1 theta-gamma phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) decreases with familiarity in both the WT and KO, but activating an invisible shock zone, subsequently changing its location, or turning it off, changes the pattern of oscillatory events in the LFPs recorded along the somato-dendritic axis of CA1. The cognition-dependent changes of this pattern of neural activity are relatively constrained in WT mice compared to KO mice, which exhibit abnormally weak changes during the cognitive challenge caused by changing the location of the shock zone and exaggerated patterns of change when the shock zone is turned off. Such pathophysiology might explain how dysregulated translation leads to intellectual disability in FXS. These findings demonstrate major functional abnormalities after the loss of FMRP in the dynamics of neural oscillations and that these impairments would be difficult to detect by steady-state measurements with the subject at rest or in steady conditions.

  1. Striatal magnetic resonance spectroscopy abnormalities in young adult SAPAP3 knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Mintzopoulos, Dionyssios; Gillis, Timothy E.; Robertson, Holly R.; Dalia, Triana; Feng, Guoping; Rauch, Scott L.; Kaufman, Marc J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is a debilitating condition with lifetime prevalence of 1–3%. OCD typically arises in youth but delays in diagnosis impede optimal treatment and developmental studies of the disorder. Research using genetically modified rodents may provide models of etiology that enable earlier detection and intervention. The SAPAP3 knockout (KO) transgenic mouse was developed as an animal model of OCD and related disorders (OCRD). KO mice exhibit compulsive self-grooming behavior analogous to behaviors found in people with OCRD. Striatal hyperactivity has been reported in these mice and in humans with OCD. Methods Striatal and medial frontal cortex 9.4 Tesla proton spectra were acquired from young adult SAPAP3 KO and wild-type control mice to determine whether KO mice have metabolic and neurochemical abnormalities. Results Young adult KO mice had lower striatal lactate (P=0.006) and glutathione (P=0.039) levels. Among all mice, striatal lactate and glutathione levels were associated (R=0.73, P=0.007). We found no group differences in medial frontal cortex metabolites. At the age range studied, only 1 of 8 KO mice had skin lesions indicative of severe compulsive grooming. Conclusion Young adult SAPAP3 KO mice have striatal but not medial frontal cortex MRS abnormalities that may reflect striatal hypermetabolism accompanied by oxidative stress. These abnormalities typically preceded the onset of severe compulsive grooming. Our findings are consistent with striatal hypermetabolism in OCD. Together, these results suggest that striatal MRS measures of lactate or glutathione might be useful biomarkers for early detection of risk for developing compulsive behavior disorders. PMID:26858992

  2. Mood and memory-associated behaviors in neuropeptide Y5 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Ito, Masanobu; Dumont, Yvan; Quirion, Remi

    2013-04-01

    Recent data led to suggest that in addition to Y1 and Y2 subtypes, Y5 receptors may be involved in mood-related behaviors (Morales-Medina et al., 2010). In the present study, using a battery of behavioral tests to assess anxiety and depression-like paradigms, as well as memory function, we evaluated the potential behavioral changes induced in mice devoid of Y5 receptors. Those paradigms were assessed using the open field (OF), elevated plus maze (EPM), forced swim test (FST), social interaction test (SI), object recognition test (ORT) and Morris water maze (MWM) in Y5 knockout (KO) mice and wild type (WT) animals. In the tests associated to anxiety related behaviors (OF, EPM and SI), no difference for locomotion and time spent in the lateral area of open field were observed between Y5 KO and WT mice. Similar results were observed for time and number of entries in open arms in EPM. Additionally, in SI test, Y5 KO mice spent same amount of time and number of entries in the stranger chamber as compared to WT animals. In the FST, as compared to WT mice, Y5 KO mice had similar immobility time on day 1. No memory dysfunction was observed in the MWM and ORT in Y5 KO mice, as compared to WT. Altogether these data suggest that under basal conditions Y5 KO and WT mice display similar mood behaviors and memory functions. However, as compared to WT, Y5 KO mice display increased grooming and rearing in the OF, lower ratio entries in open arms in the EPM and increased immobility time on the second day of the FST.

  3. Effect of mineralocorticoid treatment in mice with collecting duct-specific knockout of endothelin-1.

    PubMed

    Lynch, I Jeanette; Welch, Amanda K; Gumz, Michelle L; Kohan, Donald E; Cain, Brian D; Wingo, Charles S

    2015-12-15

    Aldosterone increases blood pressure (BP) by stimulating sodium (Na) reabsorption within the distal nephron and collecting duct (CD). Aldosterone also stimulates endothelin-1 (ET-1) production that acts within the CD to inhibit Na reabsorption via a negative feedback mechanism. We tested the hypothesis that this renal aldosterone-endothelin feedback system regulates electrolyte balance and BP by comparing the effect of a high-salt (NaCl) diet and mineralocorticoid stimulation in control and CD-specific ET-1 knockout (CD ET-1 KO) mice. Metabolic balance and radiotelemetric BP were measured before and after treatment with desoxycorticosterone pivalate (DOCP) in mice fed a high-salt diet with saline to drink. CD ET-1 KO mice consumed more high-salt diet and saline and had greater urine output than controls. CD ET-1 KO mice exhibited increased BP and greater fluid retention and body weight than controls on a high-salt diet. DOCP with high-salt feeding further increased BP in CD ET-1 KO mice, and by the end of the study the CD ET-1 KO mice were substantially hypernatremic. Unlike controls, CD ET-1 KO mice failed to respond acutely or escape from DOCP treatment. We conclude that local ET-1 production in the CD is required for the appropriate renal response to Na loading and that lack of local ET-1 results in abnormal fluid and electrolyte handling when challenged with a high-salt diet and with DOCP treatment. Additionally, local ET-1 production is necessary, under these experimental conditions, for renal compensation to and escape from the chronic effects of mineralocorticoids.

  4. Dopamine D3 receptor knockout mice exhibit abnormal nociception in a sex-different manner.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Xing, Bo; Chu, Zheng; Liu, Fei; Lei, Gang; Zhu, Li; Gao, Ya; Chen, Teng; Dang, Yong-Hui

    2016-09-26

    Pain is a complex and subjective experience. Previous studies have shown that mice lacking the dopamine D3 receptor (D3RKO) exhibit hypoalgesia, indicating a role of the D3 receptor in modulation of nociception. Given that there are sex differences in pain perception, there may be differences in responses to nociceptive stimuli between male and female D3RKO mice. In the current study, we examined the role of the D3 receptor in modulating nociception in male and female D3RKO mice. Acute thermal pain was modeled by hot-plate test. This test was performed at different temperatures including 52°C, 55°C, and 58°C. The von Frey hair test was applied to evaluate mechanical pain. And persistent pain produced by peripheral tissue injury and inflammation was modeled by formalin test. In the hot-plate test, compared with wild-type (WT) mice, D3RKO mice generally exhibited longer latencies at each of the three temperatures. Specially, male D3RKO mice showed hypoalgesia compared with male WT mice when the temperature was 55°C, while for the female mice, there was a statistical difference between genotypes when the test condition was 52°C. In the von Frey hair test, both male and female D3RKO mice exhibited hypoalgesia. In the formalin test, the male D3RKO mice displayed a similar nociceptive behavior as their sex-matched WT littermates, whereas significantly depressed late-phase formalin-induced nociceptive behaviors were observed in the female mutants. These findings indicated that the D3 receptor affects nociceptive behaviors in a sex-specific manner and that its absence induces more analgesic behavior in the female knockout mice. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Differential cytokine expression in skin graft healing in inducible nitric oxide synthase knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Most, D; Efron, D T; Shi, H P; Tantry, U S; Barbul, A

    2001-10-01

    Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and its product, nitric oxide, have been shown to play important roles in wound biology. The present study was performed to investigate the role of iNOS in modulating the cytokine cascade during the complex process of skin graft wound healing.Fifteen iNOS-knockout mice and 15 wild-type C57BL/6J mice were subjected to autogenous 1-cm2 intrascapular full-thickness skin grafts. Three animals in each group were killed on postoperative days 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14. Specimens were then analyzed using nonisotopic in situ hybridization versus mRNA of tumor growth factor-beta1, vascular endothelial growth factor, iNOS, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and basic fibroblast growth factor, as well as positive and negative control probes. Positive cells in both grafts and wound beds were counted using a Leica microgrid. Scar thickness was measured with a Leica micrometer. Data were analyzed using the unpaired Student's t test. Expression of iNOS was 2- to 4-fold higher in knockout mice than in wild-type mice on postoperative days 5, 7, and 14. Expression of eNOS was 2- to 2.5-fold higher in knockout mice than in wild-type mice on postoperative days 5 and 7. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha expression was 2- to 7-fold higher in knockout mice than in wild-type mice on all postoperative days. In contrast, expression levels of angiogenic/fibrogenic cytokines (vascular endothelial growth factor, basis fibroblast growth factor, and tumor growth factor-beta1) were 2.5- to 4-fold higher in wild-type mice than in knockout mice. Scars were 1.5- to 2.5-fold thicker in knockout mice than in wild-type mice at all time points. All of the above results represent statistically significant differences (p < 0.05). Significantly different patterns of cytokine expression were seen in knockout and wild-type mice. Although the scar layer was thicker in knockout mice, it showed much greater infiltration with inflammatory cells. These

  6. Invariant Mass Spectroscopy of 17C via One-Neutron Knockout Reaction of 18C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sunji; Hwang, Jongwon; Satou, Yoshiteru; Orr, Nigel A.; Nakamura, Takashi; Kondo, Yosuke; Gibelin, Julien; Achouri, N. Lynda; Aumann, Thomas; Baba, Hidetada; Delaunay, Franck; Doornenbal, Pieter; Fukuda, Naoki; Inabe, Naohito; Isobe, Tadaaki; Kameda, Daisuke; Kanno, Daiki; Kobayashi, Nobuyuki; Kobayashi, Toshio; Kubo, Toshiyuki; Leblond, Sylvain; Lee, Jenny; Marqués, F. Miguel; Minakata, Ryogo; Motobayashi, Tohru; Murai, Daichi; Murakami, Tetsuya; Muto, Kotomi; Nakashima, Tomohiro; Nakatsuka, Noritsugu; Navin, Alahari; Nishi, Seijiro; Ogoshi, Shun; Otsu, Hideaki; Sato, Hiromi; Shimizu, Yohei; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Kento; Takeda, Hiroyuki; Takeuchi, Satoshi; Tanaka, Ryuki; Togano, Yasuhiro; Tuff, Adam G.; Vandebrouck, Marine; Yoneda, Ken-ichiro

    Unbound states in 17C were investigated via one-neutron knockout of 18C. The experiment was performed using SAMURAI spectrometer in RIBF at RIKEN. By invariant mass spectroscopy, three resonances were measured at excitation energies of 3.03(12), 2.74(3), and 4.03(6) MeV as preliminary results. For the excited state at 2.74(3) MeV, the parallel momentum distribution was satisfactorily described by the distribution calculated for p-wave knockout from 18C.

  7. Triple immunoglobulin gene knockout transchromosomic cattle: bovine lambda cluster deletion and its effect on fully human polyclonal antibody production.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Hiroaki; Sano, Akiko; Wu, Hua; Jiao, Jin-An; Kasinathan, Poothappillai; Sullivan, Eddie J; Wang, Zhongde; Kuroiwa, Yoshimi

    2014-01-01

    Towards the goal of producing fully human polyclonal antibodies (hpAbs or hIgGs) in transchromosomic (Tc) cattle, we previously reported that Tc cattle carrying a human artificial chromosome (HAC) comprising the entire unrearranged human immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy-chain (hIGH), kappa-chain (hIGK), and lambda-chain (hIGL) germline loci produced physiological levels of hIgGs when both of the bovine immunoglobulin mu heavy-chains, bIGHM and bIGHML1, were homozygously inactivated (bIGHM-/-, bIGHML1-/-; double knockouts or DKO). However, because endogenous bovine immunoglobulin light chain loci are still intact, the light chains are produced both from the hIGK and hIGL genomic loci on the HAC and from the endogenous bovine kappa-chain (bIGK) and lambda-chain (bIGL) genomic loci, resulting in the production of fully hIgGs (both Ig heavy-chains and light-chains are of human origin: hIgG/hIgκ or hIgG/hIgλ) and chimeric hIgGs (Ig heavy-chains are of human origin while the Ig light-chains are of bovine origin: hIgG/bIgκ or hIgG/bIgλ). To improve fully hIgG production in Tc cattle, we here report the deletion of the entire bIGL joining (J) and constant (C) gene cluster (bIGLJ1-IGLC1 to bIGLJ5-IGLC5) by employing Cre/loxP mediated site-specific chromosome recombination and the production of triple knockout (bIGHM-/-, bIGHML1-/- and bIGL-/-; TKO) Tc cattle. We further demonstrate that bIGL cluster deletion greatly improves fully hIgGs production in the sera of TKO Tc cattle, with 51.3% fully hIgGs (hIgG/hIgκ plus hIgG/hIgλ).

  8. Enhanced nonlinear susceptibility via double-double electromagnetically induced transparency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alotaibi, Hessa M. M.; Sanders, Barry C.

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the nonlinear optical susceptibility of an alkali-metal atom with tripod electronic configuration responsible for generating cross-phase modulation and self-phase modulation under the condition of double-double electromagnetically induced transparency. Our investigation demonstrates an enhancement in the nonlinear optical susceptibility of an alkali-metal atom by a factor of 1000 in the region of the second transparency window. This enhancement is in comparison with the atom's susceptibility in the first transparency window for the same parameters under the same conditions. Nonlinear-absorption enhancement arises by canceling Raman-gain generation, which arises when the probe and signal fields have equal intensities. At the center of the second transparency window, we obtain the condition required to attain a nonvanishing nonlinear optical susceptibility. In the bare-state picture, the coupling field must be off resonant from a bare-to-bare-state transition, while working in the semiclassical dressed picture required the signal field to be tuned off resonantly with a bare-to-dressed-state transition. The relation that governs the values of coupling- and signal-field detuning are also obtained. Our scheme exhibits the fact that the second transparency window has advantages over the first transparency window with respect to obtaining an enhanced Kerr effect, and our calculation includes simulation of both low-temperature and Doppler-broadened regimes.

  9. Emerging double helical nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Meng-Qiang; Zhang, Qiang; Tian, Gui-Li; Wei, Fei

    2014-08-21

    As one of the most important and land-mark structures found in nature, a double helix consists of two congruent single helices with the same axis or a translation along the axis. This double helical structure renders the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) the crucial biomolecule in evolution and metabolism. DNA-like double helical nanostructures are probably the most fantastic yet ubiquitous geometry at the nanoscale level, which are expected to exhibit exceptional and even rather different properties due to the unique organization of the two single helices and their synergistic effect. The organization of nanomaterials into double helical structures is an emerging hot topic for nanomaterials science due to their promising exceptional unique properties and applications. This review focuses on the state-of-the-art research progress for the fabrication of double-helical nanostructures based on 'bottom-up' and 'top-down' strategies. The relevant nanoscale, mesoscale, and macroscopic scale fabrication methods, as well as the properties of the double helical nanostructures are included. Critical perspectives are devoted to the synthesis principles and potential applications in this emerging research area. A multidisciplinary approach from the scope of nanoscience, physics, chemistry, materials, engineering, and other application areas is still required to the well-controlled and large-scale synthesis, mechanism, property, and application exploration of double helical nanostructures.

  10. Revisiting double Dirac delta potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Zafar; Kumar, Sachin; Sharma, Mayank; Sharma, Vibhu

    2016-07-01

    We study a general double Dirac delta potential to show that this is the simplest yet still versatile solvable potential to introduce double wells, avoided crossings, resonances and perfect transmission (T = 1). Perfect transmission energies turn out to be the critical property of symmetric and anti-symmetric cases wherein these discrete energies are found to correspond to the eigenvalues of a Dirac delta potential placed symmetrically between two rigid walls. For well(s) or barrier(s), perfect transmission (or zero reflectivity, R(E)) at energy E=0 is non-intuitive. However, this has been found earlier and called the ‘threshold anomaly’. Here we show that it is a critical phenomenon and we can have 0≤slant R(0)\\lt 1 when the parameters of the double delta potential satisfy an interesting condition. We also invoke a zero-energy and zero curvature eigenstate (\\psi (x)={Ax}+B) of the delta well between two symmetric rigid walls for R(0)=0. We resolve that the resonant energies and the perfect transmission energies are different and they arise differently.

  11. Higher spin double field theory: a proposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekaert, Xavier; Park, Jeong-Hyuck

    2016-07-01

    We construct a double field theory coupled to the fields present in Vasiliev's equations. Employing the "semi-covariant" differential geometry, we spell a functional in which each term is completely covariant with respect to O(4, 4) T-duality, doubled diffeomorphisms, Spin(1, 3) local Lorentz symmetry and, separately, HS(4) higher spin gauge symmetry. We identify a minimal set of BPS-like conditions whose solutions automatically satisfy the full Euler-Lagrange equations. As such a solution, we derive a linear dilaton vacuum. With extra algebraic constraints further supplemented, the BPS-like conditions reduce to the bosonic Vasiliev equations.

  12. Serotonin Transporter Knockout Rats Show Improved Strategy Set-Shifting and Reduced Latent Inhibition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nonkes, Lourens J. P.; van de Vondervoort, Ilse I. G. M.; de Leeuw, Mark J. C.; Wijlaars, Linda P.; Maes, Joseph H. R.; Homberg, Judith R.

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral flexibility is a cognitive process depending on prefrontal areas allowing adaptive responses to environmental changes. Serotonin transporter knockout (5-HTT[superscript -/-]) rodents show improved reversal learning in addition to orbitofrontal cortex changes. Another form of behavioral flexibility, extradimensional strategy set-shifting…

  13. Altered Expression of EPO Might Underlie Hepatic Hemangiomas in LRRK2 Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Kaifu; Zhang, Zhuohua

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a severe neurodegenerative disorder caused by progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta of the midbrain. The molecular mechanism of PD pathogenesis is unclear. Mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene are a common genetic cause of familial and sporadic PD. However, studies on LRRK2 mutant mice revealed no visible dopaminergic neuronal loss in the midbrain. While surveying a LRRK2 knockout mouse strain, we found that old animals developed age-dependent hepatic vascular growths similar to cavernous hemangiomas. In livers of these hemangioma-positive LRRK2 knockout mice, we detected an increased expression of the HIF-2α protein and significant reactivation of the expression of the HIF-2α target gene erythropoietin (EPO), a finding consistent with a role of the HIF-2α pathway in blood vessel vascularization. We also found that the kidney EPO expression was reduced to 20% of the wild-type level in 18-month-old LRRK2 knockout mice. Unexpectedly, this reduction was restored to wild-type levels when the knockout mice were 22 months to 23 months old, implying a feedback mechanism regulating kidney EPO expression. Our findings reveal a novel function of LRRK2 in regulating EPO expression and imply a potentially novel relationship between PD genes and hematopoiesis. PMID:27872856

  14. Altered Expression of EPO Might Underlie Hepatic Hemangiomas in LRRK2 Knockout Mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ben; Xiao, Kaifu; Zhang, Zhuohua; Ma, Long

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a severe neurodegenerative disorder caused by progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta of the midbrain. The molecular mechanism of PD pathogenesis is unclear. Mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene are a common genetic cause of familial and sporadic PD. However, studies on LRRK2 mutant mice revealed no visible dopaminergic neuronal loss in the midbrain. While surveying a LRRK2 knockout mouse strain, we found that old animals developed age-dependent hepatic vascular growths similar to cavernous hemangiomas. In livers of these hemangioma-positive LRRK2 knockout mice, we detected an increased expression of the HIF-2α protein and significant reactivation of the expression of the HIF-2α target gene erythropoietin (EPO), a finding consistent with a role of the HIF-2α pathway in blood vessel vascularization. We also found that the kidney EPO expression was reduced to 20% of the wild-type level in 18-month-old LRRK2 knockout mice. Unexpectedly, this reduction was restored to wild-type levels when the knockout mice were 22 months to 23 months old, implying a feedback mechanism regulating kidney EPO expression. Our findings reveal a novel function of LRRK2 in regulating EPO expression and imply a potentially novel relationship between PD genes and hematopoiesis.

  15. Increased Renal Proximal Convoluted Tubule Transport Contributes to Hypertension in Cyp4a14 Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Quigley, Raymond; Chakravarty, Sumana; Zhao, Xueying; Imig, John D.; Capdevila, Jorge H.

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aims Disrupting the enzyme Cyp4a14 in mice leads to hypertension, which is more severe in the male mice and appears to be due to androgen excess. Because the Cyp4a14 enzyme is located in the proximal tubule of the kidney, we hypothesized that there could be dysregulation of transport in this segment that could contribute to the hypertension. Methods Wild-type (SV/129) mice and mice that had targeted disruption of the Cyp4a14 gene were studied. Proximal convoluted tubules (PCT) from knockout and wild-type mice were dissected and perfused in vitrofor measurement of volume absorption (JV). Expression of the sodium-hydrogen exchanger 3 (NHE3), the predominant transporter responsible for sodium transport in this segment, was measured by immunoblot. Renal vascular (afferent arteriole) responses to angiotensin and endothelin were also measured. Results PCT volume absorption was elevated in tubules from the Cyp4a14 knockout mice as compared to the wild-type mice. Brush border membrane NHE3 expression was almost 2-fold higher in Cyp4a14 knockout mice than in wild-type mice. No difference was found in the afferent arteriolar response. Conclusion Thus, hypertension in the Cyp4a14 knockout mice appears to be driven by excessive fluid reabsorption in the proximal tubule, which is secondary to overexpression of NHE3. PMID:19713718

  16. SPERM MOTILITY IN HSF1 KNOCKOUT MICE AFTER HEAT SHOCK IS ASSOCIATED WITH FERTILITY DEFICITS

    EPA Science Inventory

    SPERM MOTILITY IN HSF1 KNOCKOUT MICE AFTER HEAT SHOCK IS ASSOCIATED WITH FERTILITY DEFICITS. L.F. Strader*, S.D. Perreault, J.C. Luft*, and D.J. Dix*. US EPA/ORD, Reproductive Toxicology Div., Research Triangle Park, NC
    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) protect cells from environm...

  17. Targeted gene knockout in mammalian cells by using engineered zinc-finger nucleases

    PubMed Central

    Santiago, Yolanda; Chan, Edmond; Liu, Pei-Qi; Orlando, Salvatore; Zhang, Lin; Urnov, Fyodor D.; Holmes, Michael C.; Guschin, Dmitry; Waite, Adam; Miller, Jeffrey C.; Rebar, Edward J.; Gregory, Philip D.; Klug, Aaron; Collingwood, Trevor N.

    2008-01-01

    Gene knockout is the most powerful tool for determining gene function or permanently modifying the phenotypic characteristics of a cell. Existing methods for gene disruption are limited by their efficiency, time to completion, and/or the potential for confounding off-target effects. Here, we demonstrate a rapid single-step approach to targeted gene knockout in mammalian cells, using engineered zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs). ZFNs can be designed to target a chosen locus with high specificity. Upon transient expression of these nucleases the target gene is first cleaved by the ZFNs and then repaired by a natural—but imperfect—DNA repair process, nonhomologous end joining. This often results in the generation of mutant (null) alleles. As proof of concept for this approach we designed ZFNs to target the dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) gene in a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line. We observed biallelic gene disruption at frequencies >1%, thus obviating the need for selection markers. Three new genetically distinct DHFR−/− cell lines were generated. Each new line exhibited growth and functional properties consistent with the specific knockout of the DHFR gene. Importantly, target gene disruption is complete within 2–3 days of transient ZFN delivery, thus enabling the isolation of the resultant DHFR−/− cell lines within 1 month. These data demonstrate further the utility of ZFNs for rapid mammalian cell line engineering and establish a new method for gene knockout with application to reverse genetics, functional genomics, drug discovery, and therapeutic recombinant protein production. PMID:18359850

  18. Brief Report: Altered Social Behavior in Isolation-Reared "Fmr1" Knockout Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitzer, Andrew M.; Roth, Alexandra K.; Nawrocki, Lauren; Wrenn, Craige C.; Valdovinos, Maria G.

    2013-01-01

    Social behavior abnormalities in Fragile X syndrome (FXS) are characterized by social withdrawal, anxiety, and deficits in social cognition. To assess these deficits, a model of FXS, the "Fmr1" knockout mouse ("Fmr1" KO), has been utilized. This mouse model has a null mutation in the fragile X mental retardation 1 gene ("Fmr1") and displays…

  19. IdealKnock: A framework for efficiently identifying knockout strategies leading to targeted overproduction.

    PubMed

    Gu, Deqing; Zhang, Cheng; Zhou, Shengguo; Wei, Liujing; Hua, Qiang

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, computer aided redesigning methods based on genome-scale metabolic network models (GEMs) have played important roles in metabolic engineering studies; however, most of these methods are hindered by intractable computing times. In particular, methods that predict knockout strategies leading to overproduction of desired biochemical are generally unable to do high level prediction because the computational time will increase exponentially. In this study, we propose a new framework named IdealKnock, which is able to efficiently evaluate potentials of the production for different biochemical in a system by merely knocking out pathways. In addition, it is also capable of searching knockout strategies when combined with the OptKnock or OptGene framework. Furthermore, unlike other methods, IdealKnock suggests a series of mutants with targeted overproduction, which enables researchers to select the one of greatest interest for experimental validation. By testing the overproduction of a large number of native metabolites, IdealKnock showed its advantage in successfully breaking through the limitation of maximum knockout number in reasonable time and suggesting knockout strategies with better performance than other methods. In addition, gene-reaction relationship is well considered in the proposed framework.

  20. Highly Efficient Genome Editing via CRISPR/Cas9 to Create Clock Gene Knockout Cells.

    PubMed

    Korge, Sandra; Grudziecki, Astrid; Kramer, Achim

    2015-10-01

    Targeted genome editing using CRISPR/Cas9 is a relatively new, revolutionary technology allowing for efficient and directed alterations of the genome. It has been widely used for loss-of-function studies in animals and cell lines but has not yet been used to study circadian rhythms. Here, we describe the application of CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing for the generation of an F-box and leucine-rich repeat protein 3 (Fbxl3) knockout in a human cell line. Genomic alterations at the Fbxl3 locus occurred with very high efficiency (70%-100%) and specificity at both alleles, resulting in insertions and deletions that led to premature stop codons and hence FBXL3 knockout. Fbxl3 knockout cells displayed low amplitude and long period oscillations of Bmal1-luciferase reporter activity as well as increased CRY1 protein stability in line with previously published phenotypes for Fbxl3 knockout in mice. Thus, CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing should be highly valuable for studying circadian rhythms not only in human cells but also in classic model systems as well as nonmodel organisms.

  1. The Importance of Immunohistochemical Analyses in Evaluating the Phenotype of Kv Channel Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Menegola, Milena; Clark, Eliana; Trimmer, James S.

    2012-01-01

    Summary To gain insights into the phenotype of Kv1.1 and Kv4.2 knockout mice, we used immunohistochemistry to analyze expression of component principal or α subunits and auxiliary subunits of neuronal Kv channels in knockout mouse brains. Genetic ablation of the Kv1.1 α subunit did not result in compensatory changes in the expression levels or subcellular distribution of related ion channel subunits in hippocampal medial perforant path and mossy fiber nerve terminals, where high levels of Kv1.1 are normally expressed. Genetic ablation of the Kv4.2 α subunit did not result in altered neuronal cytoarchitecture of the hippocampus. While Kv4.2 knockout mice did not exhibit compensatory changes in the expression levels or subcellular distribution of the related Kv4.3 α subunit, we found dramatic decreases in the cellular and subcellular expression of specific KChIPs that reflected their degree of association and colocalization with Kv4.2 in wild-type mouse and rat brains. These studies highlight the insights that can be gained by performing detailed immunohistochemical analyses of Kv channel knockout mouse brains. PMID:22612819

  2. Double Degenerate Binary Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Yakut, K.

    2011-09-21

    In this study, angular momentum loss via gravitational radiation in double degenerate binary (DDB)systems (NS + NS, NS + WD, WD + WD, and AM CVn) is studied. Energy loss by gravitational waves has been estimated for each type of systems.

  3. PrP{sup C} displays an essential protective role from oxidative stress in an astrocyte cell line derived from PrP{sup C} knockout mice

    SciTech Connect

    Bertuchi, Fernanda R.; Bourgeon, Dominique M.G.; Landemberger, Michele C.; Martins, Vilma R.; Cerchiaro, Giselle

    2012-02-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PrP{sup C} in solution acts as a radical scavenger. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PrP{sup C} reduces hydrogen peroxide toxicity in astrocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increase in ROS disrupted the cell cycle in the PrP{sup C}-knockout astrocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PrP{sup C} prevents the cell death independently of an SOD-like activity. -- Abstract: The PrP{sup C} protein, which is especially present in the cellular membrane of nervous system cells, has been extensively studied for its controversial antioxidant activity. In this study, we elucidated the free radical scavenger activity of purified murine PrP{sup C} in solution and its participation as a cell protector in astrocytes that were subjected to treatment with an oxidant. In vitro and using an EPR spin-trapping technique, we observed that PrP{sup C} decreased the oxidation of the DMPO trap in a Fenton reaction system (Cu{sup 2+}/ascorbate/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}), which was demonstrated by approximately 70% less DMPO/OH{sup {center_dot}}. In cultured PrP{sup C}-knockout astrocytes from mice, the absence of PrP{sup C} caused an increase in intracellular ROS (reactive oxygen species) generation during the first 3 h of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} treatment. This rapid increase in ROS disrupted the cell cycle in the PrP{sup C}-knockout astrocytes, which increased the population of cells in the sub-G1 phase when compared with cultured wild-type astrocytes. We conclude that PrP{sup C} in solution acts as a radical scavenger, and in astrocytes, it is essential for protection from oxidative stress caused by an external chemical agent, which is a likely condition in human neurodegenerative CNS disorders and pathological conditions such as ischemia.

  4. Global Nav1.7 knockout mice recapitulate the phenotype of human congenital indifference to pain.

    PubMed

    Gingras, Jacinthe; Smith, Sarah; Matson, David J; Johnson, Danielle; Nye, Kim; Couture, Lauren; Feric, Elma; Yin, Ruoyuan; Moyer, Bryan D; Peterson, Matthew L; Rottman, James B; Beiler, Rudolph J; Malmberg, Annika B; McDonough, Stefan I

    2014-01-01

    Clinical genetic studies have shown that loss of Nav1.7 function leads to the complete loss of acute pain perception. The global deletion is reported lethal in mice, however, and studies of mice with promoter-specific deletions of Nav1.7 have suggested that the role of Nav1.7 in pain transduction depends on the precise form of pain. We developed genetic and animal husbandry strategies that overcame the neonatal-lethal phenotype and enabled construction of a global Nav1.7 knockout mouse. Knockouts were anatomically normal, reached adulthood, and had phenotype wholly analogous to human congenital indifference to pain (CIP): compared to littermates, knockouts showed no defects in mechanical sensitivity or overall movement yet were completely insensitive to painful tactile, thermal, and chemical stimuli and were anosmic. Knockouts also showed no painful behaviors resulting from peripheral injection of nonselective sodium channel activators, did not develop complete Freund's adjuvant-induced thermal hyperalgesia, and were insensitive to intra-dermal histamine injection. Tetrodotoxin-sensitive sodium current recorded from cell bodies of isolated sensory neurons and the mechanically-evoked spiking of C-fibers in a skin-nerve preparation each were reduced but not eliminated in tissue from knockouts compared to littermates. Results support a role for Nav1.7 that is conserved between rodents and humans and suggest several possibly translatable biomarkers for the study of Nav1.7-targeted therapeutics. Results further suggest that Nav1.7 may retain its key role in persistent as well as acute forms of pain.

  5. FMR1 Knockout mice: A model to study fragile X mental retardation

    SciTech Connect

    Oostra, B.A.; Bakker, C.E.; Reyniers, E.

    1994-09-01

    The fragile X syndrome is the most frequent form of inherited mental retardation in humans with an incidence of 1 in 1250 males and 1 in 2500 females. The clinical syndrome includes moderate to severe mental retardation, autistic behavior, macroorchidism, and facial features, such as long face with mandibular prognathism and large, everted ears. The molecular basis for this disease is a large expansion of a triplet repeat (CGG){sub n} in the 5{prime} untranslated region of the FMR1 gene. Due to this large expansion of the CGG repeat, the promoter region becomes methylated and the FMR1 gene is subsequently silenced. Hardly anything is known about the physiologic function of FMR1 and the pathologic mechanisms leading to these symptoms. Since the FMR1 gene is highly conserved in the mouse, we used the mouse to design a knockout model for the fragile X syndrome. These knockout mice lacking Fmrp have normal litter size suggesting that FMR1 is not essential in human gametogenesis and embryonic development. The knockout mice show the abnormalities also seen in the affected organs of human patients. Mutant mice show a gradual development through time of macroorchidism. In the knockout mice we observed cognitive defects in the form of deficits in learning (as shown by the hidden platform Morris water maze task) and behavioral abnormalities such as increased exploratory behavior and hyperactivity. Therefore this knockout mouse may serve as a valuable tool in studying the role of FMR1 in the fragile X syndrome and may serve as a model to elucidate the mechanisms involved in macroorchidism, abnormal behavior, and mental retardation.

  6. Knockout mutations of insulin-like peptide genes enhance sexual receptivity in Drosophila virgin females.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kazuki; Sakai, Takaomi

    2016-01-01

    In the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster, females take the initiative to mate successfully because they decide whether to mate or not. However, little is known about the molecular and neuronal mechanisms regulating sexual receptivity in virgin females. Genetic tools available in Drosophila are useful for identifying molecules and neural circuits involved in the regulation of sexual receptivity. We previously demonstrated that insulin-producing cells (IPCs) in the female brain are critical to the regulation of female sexual receptivity. Ablation and inactivation of IPCs enhance female sexual receptivity, suggesting that neurosecretion from IPCs inhibits female sexual receptivity. IPCs produce and release insulin-like peptides (Ilps) that modulate various biological processes such as metabolism, growth, lifespan and behaviors. Here, we report a novel role of the Ilps in sexual behavior in Drosophila virgin females. Compared with wild-type females, females with knockout mutations of Ilps showed a high mating success rate toward wild-type males, whereas wild-type males courted wild-type and Ilp-knockout females to the same extent. Wild-type receptive females retard their movement during male courtship and this reduced female mobility allows males to copulate. Thus, it was anticipated that knockout mutations of Ilps would reduce general locomotion. However, the locomotor activity in Ilp-knockout females was significantly higher than that in wild-type females. Thus, our findings indicate that the high mating success rate in Ilp-knockout females is caused by their enhanced sexual receptivity, but not by improvement of their sex appeal or by general sluggishness.

  7. Global Nav1.7 Knockout Mice Recapitulate the Phenotype of Human Congenital Indifference to Pain

    PubMed Central

    Gingras, Jacinthe; Smith, Sarah; Matson, David J.; Johnson, Danielle; Nye, Kim; Couture, Lauren; Feric, Elma; Yin, Ruoyuan; Moyer, Bryan D.; Peterson, Matthew L.; Rottman, James B.; Beiler, Rudolph J.; Malmberg, Annika B.; McDonough, Stefan I.

    2014-01-01

    Clinical genetic studies have shown that loss of Nav1.7 function leads to the complete loss of acute pain perception. The global deletion is reported lethal in mice, however, and studies of mice with promoter-specific deletions of Nav1.7 have suggested that the role of Nav1.7 in pain transduction depends on the precise form of pain. We developed genetic and animal husbandry strategies that overcame the neonatal-lethal phenotype and enabled construction of a global Nav1.7 knockout mouse. Knockouts were anatomically normal, reached adulthood, and had phenotype wholly analogous to human congenital indifference to pain (CIP): compared to littermates, knockouts showed no defects in mechanical sensitivity or overall movement yet were completely insensitive to painful tactile, thermal, and chemical stimuli and were anosmic. Knockouts also showed no painful behaviors resulting from peripheral injection of nonselective sodium channel activators, did not develop complete Freund’s adjuvant-induced thermal hyperalgesia, and were insensitive to intra-dermal histamine injection. Tetrodotoxin-sensitive sodium current recorded from cell bodies of isolated sensory neurons and the mechanically-evoked spiking of C-fibers in a skin-nerve preparation each were reduced but not eliminated in tissue from knockouts compared to littermates. Results support a role for Nav1.7 that is conserved between rodents and humans and suggest several possibly translatable biomarkers for the study of Nav1.7-targeted therapeutics. Results further suggest that Nav1.7 may retain its key role in persistent as well as acute forms of pain. PMID:25188265

  8. Fluid dynamics of double diffusive systems

    SciTech Connect

    Koseff, J.R.

    1989-04-07

    A study of mixing processes in doubly diffusive systems is being conducted. Continuous gradients of two diffusing components (heat and salinity in our case) are being used as initial conditions, and forcing is introduced by lateral heating and surface shear. The goals of the proposed work include: (1) quantification of the effects of finite amplitude disturbances on stable, double diffusive systems, particularly with respect to lateral heating, (2) development of an improved understanding of the physical phenomena present in wind-driven shear flows in double diffusive stratified environments, (3) increasing our knowledge-base on turbulent flow in stratified environments and how to represent it, and (4) formulation of a numerical code for such flows. The work is being carried out in an experimental facility which is located in the Stanford Environmental Fluid Mechanics Laboratory, and on laboratory minicomputers and CRAY computers. In particular we are focusing on the following key issues: (1) the formation and propagation of double diffusive intrusions away from a heated wall and the effects of lateral heating on the double diffusive system; (2) the interaction between the double diffusively influenced fluxes and the turbulence induced fluxes; (3) the measurement of heat and mass fluxes; and (4) the influence of double diffusive gradients on mixed layer deepening. 1 fig.

  9. A Comprehensive TALEN-Based Knockout Library for Generating Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Based Models for Cardiovascular Diseases.

    PubMed

    Karakikes, Ioannis; Termglinchan, Vittavat; Cepeda, Diana A; Lee, Jaecheol; Diecke, Sebastian; Hendel, Ayal; Itzhaki, Ilanit; Ameen, Mohamed; Shrestha, Rajani; Wu, Haodi; Ma, Ning; Shao, Ning-Yi; Seeger, Timon; Woo, Nicole A; Wilson, Kitchener D; Matsa, Elena; Porteus, Matthew H; Sebastiano, Vittorio; Wu, Joseph C

    2017-02-28

    Rationale: Targeted genetic engineering using programmable nucleases such as transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) is a valuable tool for precise, site-specific genetic modification in the human genome. Objective: The emergence of novel technologies such as human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and nuclease-mediated genome editing represent a unique opportunity for studying cardiovascular diseases in vitro. Methods and Results: By incorporating extensive literature and database searches, we designed a collection of TALEN constructs to knockout (KO) eighty-eight human genes that are associated with cardiomyopathies and congenital heart diseases. The TALEN pairs were designed to induce double-strand DNA break near the starting codon of each gene that either disrupted the start codon or introduced a frameshift mutation in the early coding region, ensuring faithful gene KO. We observed that all the constructs were active and disrupted the target locus at high frequencies. To illustrate the general utility of the TALEN-mediated KO technique, six individual genes (TNNT2, LMNA/C, TBX5, MYH7, ANKRD1, and NKX2.5) were knocked out with high efficiency and specificity in human iPSCs. By selectively targeting a dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM)-causing mutation (TNNT2 p.R173W) in patient-specific iPSC-derived cardiac myocytes (iPSC-CMs), we demonstrated that the KO strategy ameliorates the DCM phenotype in vitro. In addition, we modeled the Holt-Oram syndrome (HOS) in iPSC-CMs in vitro and uncovered novel pathways regulated by TBX5 in human cardiac myocyte development. Conclusions: Collectively, our study illustrates the powerful combination of iPSCs and genome editing technology for understanding the biological function of genes and the pathological significance of genetic variants in human cardiovascular diseases. The methods, strategies, constructs and iPSC lines developed in this study provide a validated, readily available resource for cardiovascular

  10. Histone Deacetylase Inhibition Rescues Gene Knockout Levels Achieved with Integrase-Defective Lentiviral Vectors Encoding Zinc-Finger Nucleases

    PubMed Central

    Pelascini, Laetitia P.L.; Maggio, Ignazio; Liu, Jin; Holkers, Maarten; Cathomen, Toni

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) work as dimers to induce double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs) at predefined chromosomal positions. In doing so, they constitute powerful triggers to edit and to interrogate the function of genomic sequences in higher eukaryotes. A preferred route to introduce ZFNs into somatic cells relies on their cotransduction with two integrase-defective lentiviral vectors (IDLVs) each encoding a monomer of a functional heterodimeric pair. The episomal nature of IDLVs diminishes the risk of genotoxicity and ensures the strict transient expression profile necessary to minimize deleterious effects associated with long-term ZFN activity. However, by deploying IDLVs and conventional lentiviral vectors encoding HPRT1- or eGFP-specific ZFNs, we report that DSB formation at target alleles is limited after IDLV-mediated ZFN transfer. This IDLV-specific underperformance stems, to a great extent, from the activity of chromatin-remodeling histone deacetylases (HDACs). Importantly, the prototypic and U.S. Food and Drug Administration–approved inhibitors of metal-dependent HDACs, trichostatin A and vorinostat, respectively, did not hinder illegitimate recombination-mediated repair of targeted chromosomal DSBs. This allowed rescuing IDLV-mediated site-directed mutagenesis to levels approaching those achieved by using their isogenic chromosomally integrating counterparts. Hence, HDAC inhibition constitutes an efficacious expedient to incorporate in genome-editing strategies based on transient IDLV-mediated ZFN expression. Finally, we compared two of the most commonly used readout systems to measure targeted gene knockout activities based on restriction and mismatch-sensitive endonucleases. These experiments indicate that these enzymatic assays display a similar performance. PMID:24059449

  11. The phenotypes of ATG9, ATG16 and ATG9/16 knock-out mutants imply autophagy-dependent and -independent functions

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Qiuhong; Ünal, Can; Matthias, Jan; Steinert, Michael; Eichinger, Ludwig

    2015-01-01

    Macroautophagy is a highly conserved intracellular bulk degradation system of all eukaryotic cells. It is governed by a large number of autophagy proteins (ATGs) and is crucial for many cellular processes. Here, we describe the phenotypes of Dictyostelium discoideum ATG16− and ATG9−/16− cells and compare them to the previously reported ATG9− mutant. ATG16 deficiency caused an increase in the expression of several core autophagy genes, among them atg9 and the two atg8 paralogues. The single and double ATG9 and ATG16 knock-out mutants had complex phenotypes and displayed severe and comparable defects in pinocytosis and phagocytosis. Uptake of Legionella pneumophila was reduced. In addition, ATG9− and ATG16− cells had dramatic defects in autophagy, development and proteasomal activity which were much more severe in the ATG9−/16− double mutant. Mutant cells showed an increase in poly-ubiquitinated proteins and contained large ubiquitin-positive protein aggregates which partially co-localized with ATG16-GFP in ATG9−/16− cells. The more severe autophagic, developmental and proteasomal phenotypes of ATG9−/16− cells imply that ATG9 and ATG16 probably function in parallel in autophagy and have in addition autophagy-independent functions in further cellular processes. PMID:25878144

  12. Infrared properties of the Double Barrier Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, H. Y.; Sinkkonen, J.

    The infrared admittance of the Double Barrier Structure (DBS) is investigated by using a time-dependent quantum theory. The analysis is carried out under the small signal condition with no dc bias. The calculated results show conductance oscillations in the infrared frequency region. The oscillations are associated with the quantum well transit time resonances.

  13. Physical Properties of the Double Kerr Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herdeiro, Carlos A. R.; Rebelo, Carmen

    We consider two special cases, dubbed counter-rotating and co-rotating of the double-Kerr solution, in four spacetime dimensions. We discuss how various physical properties of the black holes vary as the distance between them varies, namely: the horizon angular velocity and extremality condition, the horizon and ergo-surface geometry.

  14. Characterisation of iunH gene knockout strain from Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Villela, Anne Drumond; Rodrigues, Valnês da Silva; Pinto, Antônio Frederico Michel; Wink, Priscila Lamb; Sánchez-Quitian, Zilpa Adriana; Petersen, Guilherme Oliveira; Campos, Maria Martha; Basso, Luiz Augusto; Santos, Diógenes Santiago

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused mainly by the bacillus Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The better understanding of important metabolic pathways from M. tuberculosis can contribute to the development of novel therapeutic and prophylactic strategies to combat TB. Nucleoside hydrolase (MtIAGU-NH), encoded by iunH gene (Rv3393), is an enzyme from purine salvage pathway in M. tuberculosis. MtIAGU-NH accepts inosine, adenosine, guanosine, and uridine as substrates, which may point to a pivotal metabolic role. OBJECTIVES Our aim was to construct a M. tuberculosis knockout strain for iunH gene, to evaluate in vitro growth and the effect of iunH deletion in M. tuberculosis in non-activated and activated macrophages models of infection. METHODS A M. tuberculosis knockout strain for iunH gene was obtained by allelic replacement, using pPR27xylE plasmid. The complemented strain was constructed by the transformation of the knockout strain with pNIP40::iunH. MtIAGU-NH expression was analysed by Western blot and LC-MS/MS. In vitro growth was evaluated in Sauton’s medium. Bacterial load of non-activated and interferon-γ activated RAW 264.7 cells infected with knockout strain was compared with wild-type and complemented strains. FINDINGS Western blot and LC-MS/MS validated iunH deletion at protein level. The iunH knockout led to a delay in M. tuberculosis growth kinetics in Sauton’s medium during log phase, but did not affect bases and nucleosides pool in vitro. No significant difference in bacterial load of knockout strain was observed when compared with both wild-type and complemented strains after infection of non-activated and interferon-γ activated RAW 264.7 cells. MAIN CONCLUSION The disruption of iunH gene does not influence M. tuberculosis growth in both non-activated and activated RAW 264.7 cells, which show that iunH gene is not important for macrophage invasion and virulence. Our results indicated that MtIAGU-NH is not a target for drug

  15. Charge-to-Mass Dispersion Methods in Knockout-Ablation Fragmentation Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townsend, Lawrence; Burton, Krista; de Wet, Wouter

    2014-09-01

    Breakup of high-energy heavy ions in nuclear collisions is an important process in space radiation transport, shielding and risk assessment since the secondary particles produced by these collisions have ranges greater than their parent nucleus, and are damaging to humans and spacecraft components. This work uses a quantum-mechanical optical potential knockout-ablation model to estimate these collision cross sections in order to investigate differences in isotope and element production cross sections as a result of utilizing two different models of charge-to mass ratios for the projectile prefragments produced by the abrasion/knockout process. One model commonly used, a hypergeometric model, assumes that the distribution of abraded nucleons is completely uncorrelated. However, it permits some unrealistic distributions, such as removing all neutrons in the knockout stage, while leaving all protons intact. Another model, developed for use with a classical geometric, clean-cut abrasion model, is based upon the zero point vibrations of the giant dipole resonance of the fragmenting nucleus. In this work we compare fragment production cross section predictions using the two charge dispersion models with published experimental data. Breakup of high-energy heavy ions in nuclear collisions is an important process in space radiation transport, shielding and risk assessment since the secondary particles produced by these collisions have ranges greater than their parent nucleus, and are damaging to humans and spacecraft components. This work uses a quantum-mechanical optical potential knockout-ablation model to estimate these collision cross sections in order to investigate differences in isotope and element production cross sections as a result of utilizing two different models of charge-to mass ratios for the projectile prefragments produced by the abrasion/knockout process. One model commonly used, a hypergeometric model, assumes that the distribution of abraded nucleons is

  16. Sustained delayed gastric emptying during repeated restraint stress in oxytocin knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Babygirija, R; Zheng, J; Bülbül, M; Cerjak, D; Ludwig, K; Takahashi, T

    2010-11-01

    We have recently shown that impaired gastric motility observed in acute restraint stress was restored following repeated restraint stress in mice. Repeated restraint stress up-regulates oxytocin mRNA expression and down-regulates corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) mRNA expression at the hypothalamus. Oxytocin knockout mice (OXT-KO) have been widely used to study the central oxytocin signalling pathways in response to various stressors. We studied the effects of acute and repeated restraint stress on solid gastric emptying and hypothalamic CRF mRNA expression in wild-type (WT) and OXT-KO mice. Heterozygous (HZ) parents (B6; 129S-Oxt(tm1Wsy)/J mice) were bred in our animal facility. Male OXT-KO, WT and HZ littermates were used for the study. Solid gastric emptying was measured following acute restraint stress (for 90 min) or repeated restraint stress (for five consecutive days). Expression of CRF mRNA in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) was measured by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. There were no significant differences of gastric emptying in WT (68.4 ± 4.1%, n = 6), HZ (71.8 ± 3.1%, n = 6) and OXT-KO (70.6 ± 3.1%, n = 6) mice in nonstressed conditions. Acute stress significantly delayed gastric emptying in OXT-KO mice (33.10 ± 2.5%, n = 6) WT (39.1 ± 1.1%, n = 6) and HZ mice (35.8 ± 1.2%, n = 6). Following repeated restraint stress loading, gastric emptying was significantly restored in WT (68.3 ± 4.5%, n = 6) and HZ mice (63.1 ± 2.6%, n = 6). By contrast, gastric emptying was still delayed in OXT-KO mice (34.7 ± 1.3%, n = 6) following repeated restraint stress. The increase in CRF mRNA expression at the PVN was much pronounced in OXT-KO mice compared to WT or HZ mice following repeated restraint stress. These findings suggest that central oxytocin plays a pivotal role in mediating the adaptation mechanism following repeated restraint stress in mice.

  17. β-Adrenoceptor-mediated Relaxation of Urinary Bladder Muscle in β2-Adrenoceptor Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Propping, Stefan; Lorenz, Kristina; Michel, Martin C.; Wirth, Manfred P.; Ravens, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: In order to characterize the β-adrenoceptor (AR) subtypes involved in agonist-stimulated relaxation of murine urinary bladder we studied the effects of (-)-isoprenaline and CL 316,243 on tonic contraction and spontaneous contractions in detrusor strips of wild-type (WT) and β2-AR knockout (β2-AR KO) mice. Materials and Methods: Urinary bladders were isolated from male WT and β2-AR KO mice. β-AR subtype expression was determined with quantitative real-time PCR. Intact muscle strips pre-contracted with KCl (40 mM) were exposed to cumulatively increasing concentrations of (-)-isoprenaline or β3-AR agonist CL 316,243 in the presence and absence of the subtype-selective β-AR blockers CGP 20712A (β1-ARs), ICI 118,551 (β2-ARs), and L748,337 (β3-ARs). Results: Quantitative real-time PCR confirmed lack of β2-AR expression in bladder tissue from β2-AR KO mice. In isolated detrusor strips, pre-contraction with KCl increased basal tone and enhanced spontaneous activity significantly more in β2-AR KO than in WT. (-)-Isoprenaline relaxed tonic tension and attenuated spontaneous activity with similar potency, but the concentrations required were two orders of magnitude higher in β2-AR KO than WT. The concentration-response curves (CRCs) for relaxation were not affected by CGP 20712A (300 nM), but were shifted to the right by ICI 118,551 (50 nM) and L748,337 (10 μM). The -logEC50 values for (-)-isoprenaline in WT and β2-AR KO tissue were 7.98 and 6.00, respectively, suggesting a large receptor reserve of β2-AR. (-)-CL 316,243 relaxed detrusor and attenuated spontaneous contractions from WT and β2-AR KO mice with a potency corresponding to the drug’s affinity for β3-AR. L743,337 shifted the CRCs to the right. Conclusion: Our findings in β2-AR KO mice suggest that there is a large receptor reserve for β2-AR in WT mice so that this β-AR subtype will mediate relaxation of tone and attenuation of spontaneous activity under physiological

  18. Arginase inhibition in airways from normal and nitric oxide synthase 2-knockout mice exposed to ovalbumin

    SciTech Connect

    Bratt, Jennifer M.; Franzi, Lisa M.; Linderholm, Angela L.; O'Roark, Erin M.; Kenyon, Nicholas J.; Last, Jerold A.

    2010-01-01

    Arginase1 and nitric oxide synthase2 (NOS2) utilize L-arginine as a substrate, with both enzymes expressed at high levels in the asthmatic lung. Inhibition of arginase in ovalbumin-exposed C57BL/6 mice with the transition state inhibitor N{sup o}mega-hydroxy-nor-L-arginine (nor-NOHA) significantly increased total L-arginine content in the airway compartment. We hypothesized that such an increase in L-arginine content would increase the amount of nitric oxide (NO) being produced in the airways and thereby decrease airway hyperreactivity and eosinophilic influx. We further hypothesized that despite arginase inhibition, NOS2 knockout (NOS2-/-) mice would be unable to up-regulate NO production in response to allergen exposure and would demonstrate higher amounts of airway hyperreactivity and eosinophilia under conditions of arginase inhibition than C57BL/6 animals. We found that administration of nor-NOHA significantly decreased airway hyperreactivity and eosinophilic airway inflammation in ovalbumin-exposed C57BL/6 mice, but these parameters were unchanged in ovalbumin-exposed NOS2-/- mice. Arginase1 protein content was increased in mice exposed to ovalbumin, an effect that was reversed upon nor-NOHA treatment in C57BL/6 mice. Arginase1 protein content in the airway compartment directly correlated with the degree of airway hyperreactivity in all treatment groups. NOS2-/- mice had significantly greater arginase1 and arginase2 concentrations compared to their respective C57BL/6 groups, indicating that inhibition of arginase may be dependent upon NOS2 expression. Arginase1 and 2 content were not affected by nor-NOHA administration in the NOS2-/- mice. We conclude that L-arginine metabolism plays an important role in the development of airway hyperreactivity and eosinophilic airway inflammation. Inhibition of arginase early in the allergic inflammatory response decreases the severity of the chronic inflammatory phenotype. These effects appear to be attributable to NOS2

  19. Global Gene Expression Profiling in PAI-1 Knockout Murine Heart and Kidney: Molecular Basis of Cardiac-Selective Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Asish K.; Murphy, Sheila B.; Kishore, Raj; Vaughan, Douglas E.

    2013-01-01

    Fibrosis is defined as an abnormal matrix remodeling due to excessive synthesis and accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins in tissues during wound healing or in response to chemical, mechanical and immunological stresses. At present, there is no effective therapy for organ fibrosis. Previous studies demonstrated that aged plasminogen activator inhibitor-1(PAI-1) knockout mice develop spontaneously cardiac-selective fibrosis without affecting any other organs. We hypothesized that differential expressions of profibrotic and antifibrotic genes in PAI-1 knockout hearts and unaffected organs lead to cardiac selective fibrosis. In order to address this prediction, we have used a genome-wide gene expression profiling of transcripts derived from aged PAI-1 knockout hearts and kidneys. The variations of global gene expression profiling were compared within four groups: wildtype heart vs. knockout heart; wildtype kidney vs. knockout kidney; knockout heart vs. knockout kidney and wildtype heart vs. wildtype kidney. Analysis of illumina-based microarray data revealed that several genes involved in different biological processes such as immune system processing, response to stress, cytokine signaling, cell proliferation, adhesion, migration, matrix organization and transcriptional regulation were affected in hearts and kidneys by the absence of PAI-1, a potent inhibitor of urokinase and tissue-type plasminogen activator. Importantly, the expressions of a number of genes, involved in profibrotic pathways including Ankrd1, Pi16, Egr1, Scx, Timp1, Timp2, Klf6, Loxl1 and Klotho, were deregulated in PAI-1 knockout hearts compared to wildtype hearts and PAI-1 knockout kidneys. While the levels of Ankrd1, Pi16 and Timp1 proteins were elevated during EndMT, the level of Timp4 protein was decreased. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive report on the influence of PAI-1 on global gene expression profiling in the heart and kidney and its implication in fibrogenesis and

  20. Metabolic Alterations Due to Caloric Restriction and Every Other Day Feeding in Normal and Growth Hormone Receptor Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Mutations causing decreased somatotrophic signaling are known to increase insulin sensitivity and extend life span in mammals. Caloric restriction and every other day (EOD) dietary regimens are associated with similar improvements to insulin signaling and longevity in normal mice; however, these interventions fail to increase insulin sensitivity or life span in growth hormone receptor knockout (GHRKO) mice. To investigate the interactions of the GHRKO mutation with caloric restriction and EOD dietary interventions, we measured changes in the metabolic parameters oxygen consumption (VO2) and respiratory quotient produced by either long-term caloric restriction or EOD in male GHRKO and normal mice. GHRKO mice had increased VO2, which was unaltered by diet. In normal mice, EOD diet caused a significant reduction in VO2 compared with ad libitum (AL) mice during fed and fasted conditions. In normal mice, caloric restriction increased both the range of VO2 and the difference in minimum VO2 between fed and fasted states, whereas EOD diet caused a relatively static VO2 pattern under fed and fasted states. No diet significantly altered the range of VO2 of GHRKO mice under fed conditions. This provides further evidence that longevity-conferring diets cause major metabolic changes in normal mice, but not in GHRKO mice. PMID:23833202

  1. Caenorhabditis elegans ortholog of a diabetes susceptibility locus: oga-1 (O-GlcNAcase) knockout impacts O-GlcNAc cycling, metabolism, and dauer.

    PubMed

    Forsythe, Michele E; Love, Dona C; Lazarus, Brooke D; Kim, Eun Ju; Prinz, William A; Ashwell, Gilbert; Krause, Michael W; Hanover, John A

    2006-08-08

    A dynamic cycle of O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) addition and removal acts on nuclear pore proteins, transcription factors, and kinases to modulate cellular signaling cascades. Two highly conserved enzymes (O-GlcNAc transferase and O-GlcNAcase) catalyze the final steps in this nutrient-driven "hexosamine-signaling pathway." A single nucleotide polymorphism in the human O-GlcNAcase gene is linked to type 2 diabetes. Here, we show that Caenorhabditis elegans oga-1 encodes an active O-GlcNAcase. We also describe a knockout allele, oga-1(ok1207), that is viable and fertile yet accumulates O-GlcNAc on nuclear pores and other cellular proteins. Interfering with O-GlcNAc cycling with either oga-1(ok1207) or the O-GlcNAc transferase-null ogt-1(ok430) altered Ser- and Thr-phosphoprotein profiles and increased glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK-3beta) levels. Both the oga-1(ok1207) and ogt-1(ok430) strains showed elevated stores of glycogen and trehalose, and decreased lipid storage. These striking metabolic changes prompted us to examine the insulin-like signaling pathway controlling nutrient storage, longevity, and dauer formation in the C. elegans O-GlcNAc cycling mutants. Indeed, we found that the oga-1(ok1207) knockout augmented dauer formation induced by a temperature sensitive insulin-like receptor (daf-2) mutant under conditions in which the ogt-1(ok430)-null diminished dauer formation. Our findings suggest that the enzymes of O-GlcNAc cycling "fine-tune" insulin-like signaling in response to nutrient flux. The knockout of O-GlcNAcase (oga-1) in C. elegans mimics many of the metabolic and signaling changes associated with human insulin resistance and provides a genetically amenable model of non-insulin-dependent diabetes.

  2. The Double Cone: A Mechanical Paradox or a Geometrical Constraint?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallitto, Aurelio Agliolo; Fiordilino, Emilio

    2011-01-01

    In the framework of the Italian National Plan "Lauree Scientifiche" (PLS) in collaboration with secondary schools, we have investigated the mechanical paradox of the double cone. We have calculated the geometric condition for obtaining an upward movement. Based on this result, we have built a mechanical model with a double cone made of aluminum…

  3. Double checking: a second look

    PubMed Central

    Chreim, Samia; Forster, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Rationale, aims and objectives Double checking is a standard practice in many areas of health care, notwithstanding the lack of evidence supporting its efficacy. We ask in this study: ‘How do front line practitioners conceptualize double checking? What are the weaknesses of double checking? What alternate views of double checking could render it a more robust process?’ Method This is part of a larger qualitative study based on 85 semi‐structured interviews of health care practitioners in general internal medicine and obstetrics and neonatology; thematic analysis of the transcribed interviews was undertaken. Inductive and deductive themes are reported. Results Weaknesses in the double checking process include inconsistent conceptualization of double checking, double (or more) checking as a costly and time‐consuming procedure, double checking trusted as an accepted and stand‐alone process, and double checking as preventing reporting of near misses. Alternate views of double checking that would render it a more robust process include recognizing that double checking requires training and a dedicated environment, Introducing automated double checking, and expanding double checking beyond error detection. These results are linked with the concepts of collective efficiency thoroughness trade off (ETTO), an in‐family approach, and resilience. Conclusion(s) Double checking deserves more questioning, as there are limitations to the process. Practitioners could view double checking through alternate lenses, and thus help strengthen this ubiquitous practice that is rarely challenged. PMID:26568537

  4. Double-helix stellarator

    SciTech Connect

    Moroz, P.E.

    1997-09-01

    A new stellarator configuration, the Double-Helix Stellarator (DHS), is introduced. This novel configuration features a double-helix center post as the only helical element of the stellarator coil system. The DHS configuration has many unique characteristics. One of them is the extreme low plasma aspect ratio, A {approx} 1--1.2. Other advantages include a high enclosed volume, appreciable rotational transform, and a possibility of extreme-high-{beta} MHD equilibria. Moreover, the DHS features improved transport characteristics caused by the absence of the magnetic field ripple on the outboard of the torus. Compactness, simplicity and modularity of the coil system add to the DHS advantages for fusion applications.

  5. Double arch mirror study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vukobratovich, D.; Hillman, D.

    1983-01-01

    The development of a method of mounting light weight glass mirrors for astronomical telescopes compatible with the goals of the Shuttle Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) was investigated. A 20 in. diameter double arch lightweight mirror previously fabricated was modified to use a new mount configuration. This mount concept was developed and fabricated. The mounting concept of the double mounting mirror is outlined. The modifications made to the mirror, fabrication of the mirror mount, and room temperature testing of the mirror and mount and the extension of the mirror and mount concept to a full size (40 in. diameter) primary mirror for SIRTF are discussed.

  6. Double Photoionization Near Threshold

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wehlitz, Ralf

    2007-01-01

    The threshold region of the double-photoionization cross section is of particular interest because both ejected electrons move slowly in the Coulomb field of the residual ion. Near threshold both electrons have time to interact with each other and with the residual ion. Also, different theoretical models compete to describe the double-photoionization cross section in the threshold region. We have investigated that cross section for lithium and beryllium and have analyzed our data with respect to the latest results in the Coulomb-dipole theory. We find that our data support the idea of a Coulomb-dipole interaction.

  7. Neutron knockout of {sup 12}Be populating neutron-unbound states in {sup 11}Be

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, W. A.; Baumann, T.; Lecouey, J.-L.; Schiller, A.; Yoneda, K.; Brown, B. A.; Frank, N.; Thoennessen, M.; Brown, J.; DeYoung, P. A.; Peaslee, G. F.; Finck, J. E.; Jones, K. L.; Luther, B.; Rogers, W. F.; Tostevin, J. A.

    2011-05-15

    Neutron-unbound resonant states of {sup 11}Be were populated in neutron knockout reactions from {sup 12}Be and identified by {sup 10}Be-n coincidence measurements. A resonance in the decay-energy spectrum at 80(2) keV was attributed to a highly excited unbound state in {sup 11}Be at 3.949(2) MeV decaying to the 2{sup +} excited state in {sup 10}Be. A knockout cross section of 15(3) mb was inferred for this 3.949(2) MeV state, suggesting a spectroscopic factor near unity for this 0p3/2{sup -} level, consistent with the detailed shell model calculations.

  8. Metabolic flux analysis of Escherichia coli knockouts: lessons from the Keio collection and future outlook.

    PubMed

    Long, Christopher P; Antoniewicz, Maciek R

    2014-08-01

    Cellular metabolic and regulatory systems are of fundamental interest to biologists and engineers. Incomplete understanding of these complex systems remains an obstacle to progress in biotechnology and metabolic engineering. An established method for obtaining new information on network structure, regulation and dynamics is to study the cellular system following a perturbation such as a genetic knockout. The Keio collection of all viable Escherichia coli single-gene knockouts is facilitating a systematic investigation of the regulation and metabolism of E. coli. Of all omics measurements available, the metabolic flux profile (the fluxome) provides the most direct and relevant representation of the cellular phenotype. Recent advances in (13)C-metabolic flux analysis are now permitting highly precise and accurate flux measurements for investigating cellular systems and guiding metabolic engineering efforts.

  9. A norm knockout method on indirect reciprocity to reveal indispensable norms

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Hitoshi; Okada, Isamu; Uchida, Satoshi; Sasaki, Tatsuya

    2017-01-01

    Although various norms for reciprocity-based cooperation have been suggested that are evolutionarily stable against invasion from free riders, the process of alternation of norms and the role of diversified norms remain unclear in the evolution of cooperation. We clarify the co-evolutionary dynamics of norms and cooperation in indirect reciprocity and also identify the indispensable norms for the evolution of cooperation. Inspired by the gene knockout method, a genetic engineering technique, we developed the norm knockout method and clarified the norms necessary for the establishment of cooperation. The results of numerical investigations revealed that the majority of norms gradually transitioned to tolerant norms after defectors are eliminated by strict norms. Furthermore, no cooperation emerges when specific norms that are intolerant to defectors are knocked out. PMID:28276485

  10. Reveromycin A Administration Prevents Alveolar Bone Loss in Osteoprotegerin Knockout Mice with Periodontal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mizuno, Manami; Miyazawa, Ken; Tabuchi, Masako; Tanaka, Miyuki; Yoshizako, Mamoru; Minamoto, Chisato; Torii, Yasuyoshi; Tamaoka, Yusuke; Kawatani, Makoto; Osada, Hiroyuki; Maeda, Hatsuhiko; Goto, Shigemi

    2015-01-01

    Chronic periodontal disease is characterized by alveolar bone loss and inflammatory changes. Reveromycin A (RMA) was recently developed and is a unique agent for inhibiting osteoclast activity. This study analysed the effects of RMA in an experimental mouse model of periodontitis involving osteoprotegerin (OPG)-knockout mice, specifically, whether it could control osteoclasts and reduce inflammation in periodontal tissue. We examined wild-type (WT) and OPG knockout mice (OPG KO) ligated with wire around contact points on the left first and second molars. RMA was administered twice a day to half of the mice. Using micro-computed tomography, we measured the volume of alveolar bone loss between the first and second molars, and also performed histological analysis. The OPG KO RMA+ group had significantly decreased osteoclast counts, alveolar bone loss, attachment loss, and inflammatory cytokine expression 8 weeks after ligation. Thus, RMA may reduce alveolar bone loss and inflamed periodontal tissues in patients with periodontitis. PMID:26561427

  11. Rapid phenotyping of knockout mice to identify genetic determinants of bone strength

    PubMed Central

    Freudenthal, Bernard; Logan, John; Croucher, Peter I

    2016-01-01

    The genetic determinants of osteoporosis remain poorly understood, and there is a large unmet need for new treatments in our ageing society. Thus, new approaches for gene discovery in skeletal disease are required to complement the current genome-wide association studies in human populations. The International Knockout Mouse Consortium (IKMC) and the International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium (IMPC) provide such an opportunity. The IKMC generates knockout mice representing each of the known protein-coding genes in C57BL/6 mice and, as part of the IMPC initiative, the Origins of Bone and Cartilage Disease project identifies mutants with significant outlier skeletal phenotypes. This initiative will add value to data from large human cohorts and provide a new understanding of bone and cartilage pathophysiology, ultimately leading to the identification of novel drug targets for the treatment of skeletal disease. PMID:27535945

  12. Reveromycin A Administration Prevents Alveolar Bone Loss in Osteoprotegerin Knockout Mice with Periodontal Disease.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Manami; Miyazawa, Ken; Tabuchi, Masako; Tanaka, Miyuki; Yoshizako, Mamoru; Minamoto, Chisato; Torii, Yasuyoshi; Tamaoka, Yusuke; Kawatani, Makoto; Osada, Hiroyuki; Maeda, Hatsuhiko; Goto, Shigemi

    2015-11-12

    Chronic periodontal disease is characterized by alveolar bone loss and inflammatory changes. Reveromycin A (RMA) was recently developed and is a unique agent for inhibiting osteoclast activity. This study analysed the effects of RMA in an experimental mouse model of periodontitis involving osteoprotegerin (OPG)-knockout mice, specifically, whether it could control osteoclasts and reduce inflammation in periodontal tissue. We examined wild-type (WT) and OPG knockout mice (OPG KO) ligated with wire around contact points on the left first and second molars. RMA was administered twice a day to half of the mice. Using micro-computed tomography, we measured the volume of alveolar bone loss between the first and second molars, and also performed histological analysis. The OPG KO RMA+ group had significantly decreased osteoclast counts, alveolar bone loss, attachment loss, and inflammatory cytokine expression 8 weeks after ligation. Thus, RMA may reduce alveolar bone loss and inflamed periodontal tissues in patients with periodontitis.

  13. Cnga2 Knockout Mice Display Alzheimer's-Like Behavior Abnormities and Pathological Changes.

    PubMed

    Xie, Ao-Ji; Liu, En-Jie; Huang, He-Zhou; Hu, Yu; Li, Ke; Lu, Youming; Wang, Jian-Zhi; Zhu, Ling-Qiang

    2016-09-01

    Olfactory dysfunction is recognized as a potential risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). We have reported previously that olfactory deprivation by olfactory bulbectomy (OBX) induced Alzheimer's-like pathological changes and behavioral abnormalities. However, the acute OBX model undergoes surgical-induced brain parenchyma loss and unexpected massive hemorrhage so that it cannot fully mimic the progressive olfactory loss and neurodegeneration in AD. Here, we employed the mice loss of cyclic nucleotide-gated channel alpha 2 (Cnga2) which is critical for olfactory sensory transduction, to investigate the role of olfactory dysfunction in AD pathological process. We found that impaired learning and memory abilities, loss of dendrite spines, as well as decrement of synaptic proteins were displayed in Cnga2 knockout mice. Moreover, Aβ overproduction, tau hyperphosphorylation, and somatodendritic translocation were also found in Cnga2 knockout mice. Our findings suggest that progressive olfactory loss leads to Alzheimer's-like behavior abnormities and pathological changes.

  14. Validation of microinjection methods for generating knockout mice by CRISPR/Cas-mediated genome engineering

    PubMed Central

    Horii, Takuro; Arai, Yuji; Yamazaki, Miho; Morita, Sumiyo; Kimura, Mika; Itoh, Masahiro; Abe, Yumiko; Hatada, Izuho

    2014-01-01

    The CRISPR/Cas system, in which the Cas9 endonuclease and a guide RNA complementary to the target are sufficient for RNA-guided cleavage of the target DNA, is a powerful new approach recently developed for targeted gene disruption in various animal models. However, there is little verification of microinjection methods for generating knockout mice using this approach. Here, we report the verification of microinjection methods of the CRISPR/Cas system. We compared three methods for injection: (1) injection of DNA into the pronucleus, (2) injection of RNA into the pronucleus, and (3) injection of RNA into the cytoplasm. We found that injection of RNA into the cytoplasm was the most efficient method in terms of the numbers of viable blastocyst stage embryos and full-term pups generated. This method also showed the best overall knockout efficiency. PMID:24675426

  15. A norm knockout method on indirect reciprocity to reveal indispensable norms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Hitoshi; Okada, Isamu; Uchida, Satoshi; Sasaki, Tatsuya

    2017-03-01

    Although various norms for reciprocity-based cooperation have been suggested that are evolutionarily stable against invasion from free riders, the process of alternation of norms and the role of diversified norms remain unclear in the evolution of cooperation. We clarify the co-evolutionary dynamics of norms and cooperation in indirect reciprocity and also identify the indispensable norms for the evolution of cooperation. Inspired by the gene knockout method, a genetic engineering technique, we developed the norm knockout method and clarified the norms necessary for the establishment of cooperation. The results of numerical investigations revealed that the majority of norms gradually transitioned to tolerant norms after defectors are eliminated by strict norms. Furthermore, no cooperation emerges when specific norms that are intolerant to defectors are knocked out.

  16. Validation of microinjection methods for generating knockout mice by CRISPR/Cas-mediated genome engineering.

    PubMed

    Horii, Takuro; Arai, Yuji; Yamazaki, Miho; Morita, Sumiyo; Kimura, Mika; Itoh, Masahiro; Abe, Yumiko; Hatada, Izuho

    2014-03-28

    The CRISPR/Cas system, in which the Cas9 endonuclease and a guide RNA complementary to the target are sufficient for RNA-guided cleavage of the target DNA, is a powerful new approach recently developed for targeted gene disruption in various animal models. However, there is little verification of microinjection methods for generating knockout mice using this approach. Here, we report the verification of microinjection methods of the CRISPR/Cas system. We compared three methods for injection: (1) injection of DNA into the pronucleus, (2) injection of RNA into the pronucleus, and (3) injection of RNA into the cytoplasm. We found that injection of RNA into the cytoplasm was the most efficient method in terms of the numbers of viable blastocyst stage embryos and full-term pups generated. This method also showed the best overall knockout efficiency.

  17. New insight on double-double radio galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandi, Sumana

    2016-07-01

    Striking examples of episodic jet activity in active galactic nuclei (AGN) are the double-double radio galaxies (DDRGs) with two pairs of lobes emerging from the same central engine. The number of DDRGs reported so far is very limited, and it is important to identify more of these to provide a significant statistical overview of the conditions to trigger the jets and the role of jets in terms of feedback mechanisms that affect the host galaxies. Although most DDRGs were believed initially to be giant radio sources with sizes more than a Mpc, a significant number of smaller sized candidate DDRGs have also been identified in our recent study. We started GMRT observation of this sample to confirm that the sources are related to distinct epochs of nuclear activity. In addition to this radio observation we have also investigated the properties of the host galaxies and their environments to understand the triggering mechanisms for recurrent jet emission. Here, I will highlight the main results from these observations and discuss on the possible scenarios responsible for the episodic activity in different types of DDRGs .

  18. Kv4.2 Knockout Mice Have Hippocampal-Dependent Learning and Memory Deficits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lugo, Joaquin N.; Brewster, Amy L.; Spencer, Corinne M.; Anderson, Anne E.

    2012-01-01

    Kv4.2 channels contribute to the transient, outward K[superscript +] current (A-type current) in hippocampal dendrites, and modulation of this current substantially alters dendritic excitability. Using Kv4.2 knockout (KO) mice, we examined the role of Kv4.2 in hippocampal-dependent learning and memory. We found that Kv4.2 KO mice showed a deficit…

  19. CARD9 knockout ameliorates myocardial dysfunction associated with high fat diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Cao, Li; Qin, Xing; Peterson, Matthew R; Haller, Samantha E; Wilson, Kayla A; Hu, Nan; Lin, Xin; Nair, Sreejayan; Ren, Jun; He, Guanglong

    2016-03-01

    Obesity is associated with chronic inflammation which plays a critical role in the development of cardiovascular dysfunction. Because the adaptor protein caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 9 (CARD9) in macrophages regulates innate immune responses via activation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, we hypothesize that CARD9 mediates the pro-inflammatory signaling associated with obesity en route to myocardial dysfunction. C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) and CARD9(-/-) mice were fed normal diet (ND, 12% fat) or a high fat diet (HFD, 45% fat) for 5months. At the end of 5-month HFD feeding, cardiac function was evaluated using echocardiography. Cardiomyocytes were isolated and contractile properties were measured. Immunofluorescence was performed to detect macrophage infiltration in the heart. Heart tissue homogenates, plasma, and supernatants from isolated macrophages were collected to measure the concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines using ELISA kits. Western immunoblotting analyses were performed on heart tissue homogenates and isolated macrophages to explore the underlying signaling mechanism(s). CARD9 knockout alleviated HFD-induced insulin resistance and glucose intolerance, prevented myocardial dysfunction with preserved cardiac fractional shortening and cardiomyocyte contractile properties. CARD9 knockout also significantly decreased the number of infiltrated macrophages in the heart with reduced myocardium-, plasma-, and macrophage-derived cytokines including IL-6, IL-1β and TNFα. Finally, CARD9 knockout abrogated the increase of p38 MAPK phosphorylation, the decrease of LC3BII/LC3BI ratio and the up-regulation of p62 expression in the heart induced by HFD feeding and restored cardiac autophagy signaling. In conclusion, CARD9 knockout ameliorates myocardial dysfunction associated with HFD-induced obesity, potentially through reduction of macrophage infiltration, suppression of p38 MAPK phosphorylation, and preservation of autophagy in the heart.

  20. Transgenic knockout mice with exclusively human sickle hemoglobinand sickle cell disease

    SciTech Connect

    Paszty, C.; Brion, C.; Manci, E.; Witkowska, E.; Stevens, M.; Narla, M.; Rubin, E.

    1997-06-13

    To create mice expressing exclusively human sicklehemoglobin (HbS), transgenic mice expressing human alpha-, gamma-, andbeta[S]-globin were generated and bred with knockout mice that haddeletions of the murine alpha- and beta-globin genes. These sickle cellmice have the major features (irreversibly sickled red cells, anemia,multiorgan pathology) found in humans with sickle cell disease and, assuch, represent a useful in vivo system to accelerate the development ofimproved therapies for this common genetic disease.

  1. Uterine-Specific Knockout of Tsc-2: A Mouse Model for Lymphangioleiomyomatosis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    wild-type) were used as controls. In the mouse uterus, low-level PR pro- moter activity occurs in luminal and glandular epithe- lium (reflecting less...and irregular luminal epithelium in uteri of uterine-specific Tsc2 knockout mice (Figure 2C). In addition, histological analysis and measurement of...absence of Tsc2 expression. Finally, treatment of OVX wild-type mice with estradiol plus progesterone decreased proliferation of epithelial and glandular

  2. Changes in signaling pathways regulating neuroplasticity induced by neurokinin 1 receptor knockout.

    PubMed

    Musazzi, Laura; Perez, Jorge; Hunt, Stephen P; Racagni, Giorgio; Popoli, Maurizio

    2005-03-01

    Neurokinin 1 (NK-1) receptor knockout mice showed behavioral responses similar to animals chronically treated with antidepressants. The aim of this study was to analyse, in NK-1 receptor knockout, the molecular modifications of signaling pathways involved in the pathophysiology of depression and antidepressant mechanism. We found, in total cell cytosol from the prefrontal/frontal cortex, hippocampus and striatum, a marked up-regulation of Ca(2+)-independent enzymatic activity and Thr(286) autophosphorylation of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK) II. Similar changes in CaMKII regulation were previously observed in rats chronically treated with antidepressants. In striatum, up-regulation of the activity and phosphorylation of CaMKII was also found in the homogenate and synaptosomes. No major changes were observed in the Ca(2+)-dependent kinase activity, with the exception of homogenate from the prefrontal/frontal cortex. We also analysed the expression and phosphorylation of presynaptic proteins, which modulate synaptic vesicle trafficking and exocytosis, and found a marked decrease in synapsin I total expression and basal phosphorylation of Ser(603) (the phosphorylation site for CaMKII) in the prefrontal/frontal cortex. Accordingly, the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent posthoc endogenous phosphorylation of synapsin I in the same area was increased. The knockout of NK-1 receptor had no consequences on the expression or phosphorylation levels of the transcription factor cAMP-responsive element-binding protein and its regulating kinase CaMKIV. However, phosphorylation of ERK1/2-mitogen-activated protein kinases was reduced in the hippocampus and striatum, again resembling an effect previously observed in antidepressant-treated rats. These results show similarities between NK-1 knockouts and animals chronically treated with antidepressants and support the putative antidepressant activity of NK-1 receptor antagonists.

  3. Social status and day-to-day behaviour of male serotonin transporter knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Lewejohann, Lars; Kloke, Vanessa; Heiming, Rebecca S; Jansen, Friederike; Kaiser, Sylvia; Schmitt, Angelika; Lesch, Klaus Peter; Sachser, Norbert

    2010-08-25

    Humans differing in the amount of serotonin transporter (5-HTT) are known to be differentially prone to neuropsychiatric disorders. Genetically modified mice eliciting abrogated transporter function display a number of corresponding phenotypic changes in behavioural tests. However, a characterisation of the effects of serotonergic malfunction on the day-to-day life is still missing. Yet, this is precisely what an animal model is needed for in order to be meaningful for translation into human anxiety disorders. Homozygous 5-HTT knockout mice, heterozygous 5-HTT mice, and wild-type controls were housed in groups of males of the same genotype in spacious and richly structured cages. This enriched environment allowed the animals to show a wide variety of spontaneous behavioural patterns quantified by a trained experimenter. Additionally the mice could emigrate from the cages through a tunnel and a water basin. The results revealed unaltered daily behaviour in heterozygous mice. In knockouts, however, reduced locomotion, increased socio-positive behaviour, and reduced aggressive behaviour were observed. Nevertheless, all groups showed a significant amount of aggressive behaviour and there were no differences regarding the establishment of dominance relationships, emigration, and the number of animals remaining in their groups. In a second step, pairs of heterozygous and wild-type males and pairs of knockout and wild-type males were brought together in order to assess their ability to obtain a dominant social position in a direct encounter. Heterozygous mice did not differ from wild-type mice but knockout mice were significantly inferior in obtaining the dominant position. In addition to confirming multiple effects of abolished 5-HTT function in a real life situation, this study supports the central role of the 5-HTT in the control of social interactions.

  4. Superballistic wavepacket spreading in double kicked rotors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Ping; Wang, Jiao

    2016-08-01

    We investigate possible ways in which a quantum wavepacket spreads. We show that in a general class of double kicked rotor system, a wavepacket may undergo superballistic spreading; i.e., its variance increases as the cubic of time. The conditions for the observed superballistic spreading and two related characteristic time scales are studied. Our results suggest that the symmetry of the studied model and whether it is a Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser system are crucial to its wavepacket spreading behavior. Our study also sheds new light on the exponential wavepacket spreading phenomenon previously observed in the double kicked rotor system.

  5. Positron emission tomography and functional characterization of a complete PBR/TSPO knockout

    PubMed Central

    Banati, Richard B.; Middleton, Ryan J.; Chan, Ronald; Hatty, Claire R.; Wai-Ying Kam, Winnie; Quin, Candice; Graeber, Manuel B.; Parmar, Arvind; Zahra, David; Callaghan, Paul; Fok, Sandra; Howell, Nicholas R.; Gregoire, Marie; Szabo, Alexander; Pham, Tien; Davis, Emma; Liu, Guo-Jun

    2014-01-01

    The evolutionarily conserved peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR), or 18-kDa translocator protein (TSPO), is thought to be essential for cholesterol transport and steroidogenesis, and thus life. TSPO has been proposed as a biomarker of neuroinflammation and a new drug target in neurological diseases ranging from Alzheimer’s disease to anxiety. Here we show that global C57BL/6-Tspotm1GuWu(GuwiyangWurra)-knockout mice are viable with normal growth, lifespan, cholesterol transport, blood pregnenolone concentration, protoporphyrin IX metabolism, fertility and behaviour. However, while the activation of microglia after neuronal injury appears to be unimpaired, microglia from GuwiyangWurraTSPO knockouts produce significantly less ATP, suggesting reduced metabolic activity. Using the isoquinoline PK11195, the ligand originally used for the pharmacological and structural characterization of the PBR/TSPO, and the imidazopyridines CLINDE and PBR111, we demonstrate the utility of GuwiyangWurraTSPO knockouts to provide robust data on drug specificity and selectivity, both in vitro and in vivo, as well as the mechanism of action of putative TSPO-targeting drugs. PMID:25406832

  6. The effect of PDIA3 gene knockout on the mucosal immune function in IBS rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Zhao-Meng; Wang, Xiao-Teng; Zhang, Lu; Tao, Li-Yuan; Lv, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To observe the changes of intestinal inflammation on PDIA3 gene knockout IBS rats and its effect on immune function. Methods: 36 SD rats were randomly divided into four groups: the control group (n = 8); IBS- empty virus group (IBS-GFP, which); IBS-PDIA3 knockout group (n = 12); IBS- the control group (n = 12). After modeling, colon and ileocecal tissue pathology in each group were observed separately. Changes of immune and inflammatory markers were measured. At the same time, ultrastructural changes in each group were observed by electron microscopy. Results: Compared with the IBS control group, inflammation was reduced significantly in IBS-PDIA3 knockout group. IgE, IL-4 and IL-9 and the level of intestinal trypsin type were decreased significantly. Furthermore, mast cell degranulation and PAR 2 receptor reduced significantly. Conclusion: PDIA3 may play an important role in the development of IBS by mediating through immune responses of mucosal abnormalities. However, the mechanism needs to be confirmed in further study. PMID:26221224

  7. Identification of Novel Knockout Targets for Improving Terpenoids Biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Wang, Jianfeng; Li, Qian; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Yansheng

    2014-01-01

    Many terpenoids have important pharmacological activity and commercial value; however, application of these terpenoids is often limited by problems associated with the production of sufficient amounts of these molecules. The use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) for the production of heterologous terpenoids has achieved some success. The objective of this study was to identify S. cerevisiae knockout targets for improving the synthesis of heterologous terpeniods. On the basis of computational analysis of the S. cerevisiae metabolic network, we identified the knockout sites with the potential to promote terpenoid production and the corresponding single mutant was constructed by molecular manipulations. The growth rates of these strains were measured and the results indicated that the gene deletion had no adverse effects. Using the expression of amorphadiene biosynthesis as a testing model, the gene deletion was assessed for its effect on the production of exogenous terpenoids. The results showed that the dysfunction of most genes led to increased production of amorphadiene. The yield of amorphadiene produced by most single mutants was 8–10-fold greater compared to the wild type, indicating that the knockout sites can be engineered to promote the synthesis of exogenous terpenoids. PMID:25386654

  8. Myo5b knockout mice as a model of microvillus inclusion disease.

    PubMed

    Cartón-García, Fernando; Overeem, Arend W; Nieto, Rocio; Bazzocco, Sarah; Dopeso, Higinio; Macaya, Irati; Bilic, Josipa; Landolfi, Stefania; Hernandez-Losa, Javier; Schwartz, Simo; Ramon y Cajal, Santiago; van Ijzendoorn, Sven C D; Arango, Diego

    2015-07-23

    Inherited MYO5B mutations have recently been associated with microvillus inclusion disease (MVID), an autosomal recessive syndrome characterized by intractable, life-threatening, watery diarrhea appearing shortly after birth. Characterization of the molecular mechanisms underlying this disease and development of novel therapeutic approaches is hampered by the lack of animal models. In this study we describe the phenotype of a novel mouse model with targeted inactivation of Myo5b. Myo5b knockout mice show perinatal mortality, diarrhea and the characteristic mislocalization of apical and basolateral plasma membrane markers in enterocytes. Moreover, in transmission electron preparations, we observed microvillus atrophy and the presence of microvillus inclusion bodies. Importantly, Myo5b knockout embryos at day 20 of gestation already display all these structural defects, indicating that they are tissue autonomous rather than secondary to environmental cues, such as the long-term absence of nutrients in the intestine. Myo5b knockout mice closely resemble the phenotype of MVID patients and constitute a useful model to further investigate the underlying molecular mechanism of this disease and to preclinically assess the efficacy of novel therapeutic approaches.

  9. Development and Characterization of Uterine Glandular Epithelium Specific Androgen Receptor Knockout Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jaesung Peter; Zheng, Yu; Skulte, Katherine A; Handelsman, David J; Simanainen, Ulla

    2015-11-01

    While estrogen action is the major driver of uterine development, androgens acting via the androgen receptor (AR) may also promote uterine growth as suggested by uterine phenotypes in global AR knockout (ARKO) female mice. Because AR is expressed in uterine endometrial glands, we generated (Cre/loxP) uterine gland epithelium-specific ARKO (ugeARKO) to determine the role of endometrial gland-specific androgen actions. However, AR in uterine gland epithelium may not be required for normal uterine development and function because ugeARKO females had normal uterine development and fertility. To determine if exogenous androgens acting via AR can fully support uterine growth in the absence of estrogens, the ARKO and ugeARKO females were ovariectomized and treated with supraphysiological doses of testosterone or dihydrotestosterone (nonaromatizable androgen). Both dihydrotestosterone and testosterone supported full uterine regrowth in wild-type females while ARKO females had no regrowth (comparable to ovariectomized only). These findings suggest that androgens acting via AR can promote full uterine regrowth in the absence of estrogens. The ugeARKO had 50% regrowth when compared to intact uterine glands, and histomorphologically, both the endometrial and myometrial areas were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced, suggesting glandular epithelial AR located in the endometrium may indirectly modify myometrial development. Additionally, to confirm Cre function in endometrial glands, we generated uge-specific PTEN knockout mouse model. The ugePTEN knockout females developed severe endometrial hyperplasia and therefore present a novel model for future research.

  10. Generation of RUNX3 knockout pigs using CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene targeting.

    PubMed

    Kang, J-T; Ryu, J; Cho, B; Lee, E-J; Yun, Y-J; Ahn, S; Lee, J; Ji, D-Y; Lee, K; Park, K-W

    2016-12-01

    Pigs are an attractive animal model to study the progression of cancer because of their anatomical and physiological similarities to human. However, the use of pig models for cancer research has been limited by availability of genetically engineered pigs which can recapitulate human cancer progression. Utilizing genome editing technologies such as CRISPR/Cas9 system allows us to generate genetically engineered pigs at a higher efficiency. In this study, specific CRISPR/Cas9 systems were used to target RUNX3, a known tumour suppressor gene, to generate a pig model that can induce gastric cancer in human. First, RUNX3 knockout cell lines carrying genetic modification (monoallelic or biallelic) of RUNX3 were generated by introducing engineered CRISPR/Cas9 system specific to RUNX3 into foetal fibroblast cells. Then, the genetically modified foetal fibroblast cells were used as donor cells for somatic cell nuclear transfer, followed by embryo transfer. We successfully obtained four live RUNX3 knockout piglets from two surrogates. The piglets showed the lack of RUNX3 protein in their internal organ system. Our results demonstrate that the CRISPR/Cas9 system is effective in inducing mutations on a specific locus of genome and the RUNX3 knockout pigs can be useful resources for human cancer research and to develop novel cancer therapies.

  11. Myo5b knockout mice as a model of microvillus inclusion disease

    PubMed Central

    Cartón-García, Fernando; Overeem, Arend W.; Nieto, Rocio; Bazzocco, Sarah; Dopeso, Higinio; Macaya, Irati; Bilic, Josipa; Landolfi, Stefania; Hernandez-Losa, Javier; Schwartz, Simo; Ramon y Cajal, Santiago; van Ijzendoorn, Sven C. D.; Arango, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Inherited MYO5B mutations have recently been associated with microvillus inclusion disease (MVID), an autosomal recessive syndrome characterized by intractable, life-threatening, watery diarrhea appearing shortly after birth. Characterization of the molecular mechanisms underlying this disease and development of novel therapeutic approaches is hampered by the lack of animal models. In this study we describe the phenotype of a novel mouse model with targeted inactivation of Myo5b. Myo5b knockout mice show perinatal mortality, diarrhea and the characteristic mislocalization of apical and basolateral plasma membrane markers in enterocytes. Moreover, in transmission electron preparations, we observed microvillus atrophy and the presence of microvillus inclusion bodies. Importantly, Myo5b knockout embryos at day 20 of gestation already display all these structural defects, indicating that they are tissue autonomous rather than secondary to environmental cues, such as the long-term absence of nutrients in the intestine. Myo5b knockout mice closely resemble the phenotype of MVID patients and constitute a useful model to further investigate the underlying molecular mechanism of this disease and to preclinically assess the efficacy of novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:26201991

  12. Identification of novel knockout targets for improving terpenoids biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhiqiang; Meng, Hailin; Li, Jing; Wang, Jianfeng; Li, Qian; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Yansheng

    2014-01-01

    Many terpenoids have important pharmacological activity and commercial value; however, application of these terpenoids is often limited by problems associated with the production of sufficient amounts of these molecules. The use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) for the production of heterologous terpenoids has achieved some success. The objective of this study was to identify S. cerevisiae knockout targets for improving the synthesis of heterologous terpeniods. On the basis of computational analysis of the S. cerevisiae metabolic network, we identified the knockout sites with the potential to promote terpenoid production and the corresponding single mutant was constructed by molecular manipulations. The growth rates of these strains were measured and the results indicated that the gene deletion had no adverse effects. Using the expression of amorphadiene biosynthesis as a testing model, the gene deletion was assessed for its effect on the production of exogenous terpenoids. The results showed that the dysfunction of most genes led to increased production of amorphadiene. The yield of amorphadiene produced by most single mutants was 8-10-fold greater compared to the wild type, indicating that the knockout sites can be engineered to promote the synthesis of exogenous terpenoids.

  13. Rapid construction of a whole-genome transposon insertion collection for Shewanella oneidensis by Knockout Sudoku

    PubMed Central

    Baym, Michael; Shaket, Lev; Anzai, Isao A.; Adesina, Oluwakemi; Barstow, Buz

    2016-01-01

    Whole-genome knockout collections are invaluable for connecting gene sequence to function, yet traditionally, their construction has required an extraordinary technical effort. Here we report a method for the construction and purification of a curated whole-genome collection of single-gene transposon disruption mutants termed Knockout Sudoku. Using simple combinatorial pooling, a highly oversampled collection of mutants is condensed into a next-generation sequencing library in a single day, a 30- to 100-fold improvement over prior methods. The identities of the mutants in the collection are then solved by a probabilistic algorithm that uses internal self-consistency within the sequencing data set, followed by rapid algorithmically guided condensation to a minimal representative set of mutants, validation, and curation. Starting from a progenitor collection of 39,918 mutants, we compile a quality-controlled knockout collection of the electroactive microbe Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 containing representatives for 3,667 genes that is functionally validated by high-throughput kinetic measurements of quinone reduction. PMID:27830751

  14. Generation of Recombinant Capripoxvirus Vectors for Vaccines and Gene Knockout Function Studies.

    PubMed

    Boshra, Hani; Cao, Jingxin; Babiuk, Shawn

    2016-01-01

    The ability to manipulate capripoxvirus through gene knockouts and gene insertions has become an increasingly valuable research tool in elucidating the function of individual genes of capripoxvirus, as well as in the development of capripoxvirus-based recombinant vaccines. The homologous recombination technique is used to generate capripoxvirus knockout viruses (KO), and is based on the targeting a particular viral gene of interest. This technique can also be used to insert a gene of interest. A protocol for the generation of a viral gene knockout is described. This technique involves the use of a plasmid which encodes the flanking sequences of the regions where the homologous recombination will occur, and will result in the insertion of an EGFP reporter gene for visualization of recombinant virus, as well as the E. coli gpt gene as a positive selection marker. If an additional gene is to be incorporated, this can be achieved by inserting a gene of interest for expression under a poxvirus promoter into the plasmid between the flanking regions for insertion. This chapter describes a protocol for generating such recombinant capripoxviruses.

  15. Less is More: unveiling the functional core of hematopoietic stem cells through knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Lara; Lin, Kuanyin K.; Boles, Nathan C.; Yang, Liubin; King, Katherine Y.; Jeong, Mira; Mayle, Allison; Goodell, Margaret A.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) represent one of the first recognized somatic stem cells. As such, nearly 200 genes have been examined for roles in HSC function in knockout mice. In this review, we compile the majority of these reports to provide a broad overview of the functional modules revealed by these genetic analyses and highlight some key regulatory pathways involved, including cell cycle control, TGF-β signaling, Pten/AKT signaling, Wnt signaling, and cytokine signaling. Finally, we propose recommendations for characterization of HSC function in knockout mice to facilitate cross-study comparisons that would generate a more cohesive picture of HSC biology. In the field of design, the minimalist movement stripped down buildings and objects to their most basic features, a sentiment that architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe summarized in his motto “less is more”. By depleting HSCs of specific genes, knockout studies transpose the minimalist approach into research biology, providing insights into the essential core of genetic features that is indispensable for a well-functioning hematopoietic system. PMID:22958929

  16. Locomotor activity, ultrasonic vocalization and oxytocin levels in infant CD38 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-Xiang; Lopatina, Olga; Higashida, Chiharu; Tsuji, Takahiro; Kato, Ichiro; Takasawa, Shin; Okamoto, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Shigeru; Higashida, Haruhiro

    2008-12-19

    Oxytocin (OT), a neurohormone involved in reproduction, plays a critical role in social behavior in a wide range of mammalian species from rodents to humans. The role of CD38 in regulating OT secretion for social behavior has been demonstrated in adult mice, but has not been examined in pups or during development. Separation from the dam induces stress in 7-day-old mouse pups. During such isolation, locomotor activity was higher in CD38 knockout (CD38(-/-)) pups than in wild-type (CD38(+/+)) or heterozygous (CD38(+/-)) controls. The number of ultrasonic vocalizations was lower in CD38(-/-) pups than in CD38(+/+) pups. However, the difference between the two genotypes was less severe than that in OT knockout or OT receptor knockout mice. To explain this, we measured plasma OT levels. The level was not lower in CD38(-/-) pups during the period 1-3 weeks after birth, but was significantly reduced after weaning (>3 weeks). ADP-ribosyl cyclase activities in the hypothalamus and pituitary