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Sample records for conditioned taste aversion

  1. Phenylthiocarbamide produces conditioned taste aversions in mice.

    PubMed

    St John, Steven J; Pour, Lindsay; Boughter, John D

    2005-06-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that SWR/J (SW) mice avoid phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) to a greater degree than C3HeB/FeJ mice in 48 h, two-bottle preference tests given in ascending series. The authors hypothesized, based also on previous work, that SW mice might form a conditioned taste aversion over time due to the toxic properties of PTC. We directly tested this hypothesis by attempting to condition a taste aversion to sucrose by injections of PTC. In experiment 1, PTC was nearly as effective as a strong dose of LiCl in reducing sucrose drinking. In experiment 2, the sucrose aversions were parametrically modified by both sucrose concentration and PTC dose, a hallmark of conditioned taste aversion. We conclude that PTC can cause a conditioned taste aversion and discuss the importance of considering toxic effects of aversive tastants when analyzing behavioral strain differences.

  2. Conditioned taste aversion as instrumental punishment.

    PubMed

    Li, Kuang-Chu; Hsiao, Sigmund; Li, Jay-Shake

    2013-07-01

    Conditioned taste aversion (CTA) is traditionally viewed as an instance of pavlovian conditioning. This interpretation rests on the lack of an instrumental contingency between the tastant and the gastric malaise in a standard procedure of CTA. To investigate a role for instrumental punishment in CTA, we present 2 tastants sequentially ("sucrose then NaCl" or "NaCl then sucrose") in a daily alternating and counterbalanced order to rats with an explicit positive contingency between the dosage of the lithium chloride (LiCl) administered and the amount of 1 tastant drunk on that trial. In the beginning of experiment, rats suppressed their intake of both tastants. With the increase of conditioning trials, rats gradually learned to resume the intake of noncontingent solution while selectively suppressing the intake of LiCl-contingent solution. This selective suppression in CTA is the first report indicating that rats are sensitive to the subtle cues related to the covariations between the magnitude of stimulus and the magnitude of responses in a punishment paradigm involving a long delay between the gustatory stimulus of tastant ingestion and the aversive effect of LiCl injection.

  3. Does Conspecific Fighting Yield Conditioned Taste Aversion in Rats?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakajima, Sadahiko; Kumazawa, Gaku; Ieki, Hayato; Hashimoto, Aya

    2012-01-01

    Running in an activity wheel yields conditioned aversion to a taste solution consumed before the running, but its underlying physiological mechanism is unknown. According to the claim that energy expenditure or general stress caused by physical exercise is a critical factor for this taste-aversion learning, not only running but also other…

  4. Does Conspecific Fighting Yield Conditioned Taste Aversion in Rats?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakajima, Sadahiko; Kumazawa, Gaku; Ieki, Hayato; Hashimoto, Aya

    2012-01-01

    Running in an activity wheel yields conditioned aversion to a taste solution consumed before the running, but its underlying physiological mechanism is unknown. According to the claim that energy expenditure or general stress caused by physical exercise is a critical factor for this taste-aversion learning, not only running but also other…

  5. Preexposure to Salty and Sour Taste Enhances Conditioned Taste Aversion to Novel Sucrose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Veronica L.; Moran, Anan; Bernstein, Max; Katz, Donald B.

    2016-01-01

    Conditioned taste aversion (CTA) is an intensively studied single-trial learning paradigm whereby animals are trained to avoid a taste that has been paired with malaise. Many factors influence the strength of aversion learning; prominently studied among these is taste novelty--the fact that preexposure to the taste conditioned stimulus (CS)…

  6. Preexposure to Salty and Sour Taste Enhances Conditioned Taste Aversion to Novel Sucrose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Veronica L.; Moran, Anan; Bernstein, Max; Katz, Donald B.

    2016-01-01

    Conditioned taste aversion (CTA) is an intensively studied single-trial learning paradigm whereby animals are trained to avoid a taste that has been paired with malaise. Many factors influence the strength of aversion learning; prominently studied among these is taste novelty--the fact that preexposure to the taste conditioned stimulus (CS)…

  7. Taste aversions conditioned with partial body radiation exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.C.; Hollander, G.R.; Spector, A.C. . Dept. of Psychology)

    1981-11-01

    Radiation-induced taste aversion was compared in rats which received partial body exposure to the head or abdomen with rats receiving whole body irradiation. Exposure levels ranged from 25 to 300 roentgens (R). In additional groups, saccharin aversion to partial body gamma ray exposures of the abdomen were conditioned in animals which had prior experience with the saccharin solution. Aversion was measured with a single-bottle short-term test, a 23-hour preference test and by the number of days taken to recover from the aversion. Whole-body exposure was most effective in conditioning the aversion, and exposure of the abdominal area was more effective than exposure to the head. Also, the higher the exposure, the stronger the aversion. Rats receiving prior experience with the saccharin did not condition as well as control rats with no prior saccharin experience. The possible role of radiation-induced taste aversion in human radiotherapy patients was discussed.

  8. Conditioned taste aversion, drugs of abuse and palatability.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jian-You; Arthurs, Joe; Reilly, Steve

    2014-09-01

    We consider conditioned taste aversion to involve a learned reduction in the palatability of a taste (and hence in amount consumed) based on the association that develops when a taste experience is followed by gastrointestinal malaise. The present article evaluates the well-established finding that drugs of abuse, at doses that are otherwise considered rewarding and self-administered, cause intake suppression. Our recent work using lick pattern analysis shows that drugs of abuse also cause a palatability downshift and, therefore, support conditioned taste aversion learning.

  9. Conditioned taste aversion, drugs of abuse and palatability

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jian-You; Arthurs, Joe; Reilly, Steve

    2014-01-01

    LIN, J.-Y., J. Arthurs and S. Reilly. Conditioned taste aversion: Palatability and drugs of abuse. NEUROSCI BIOBEHAV REV XX(x) XXX-XXX, 2014. – We consider conditioned taste aversion to involve a learned reduction in the palatability of a taste (and hence in amount consumed) based on the association that develops when a taste experience is followed by gastrointestinal malaise. The present article evaluates the well-established finding that drugs of abuse, at doses that are otherwise considered rewarding and self-administered, cause intake suppression. Our recent work using lick pattern analysis shows that drugs of abuse also cause a palatability downshift and, therefore, support conditioned taste aversion learning. PMID:24813806

  10. Morphine-induced conditioned taste aversions: assessment of sexual dimorphism.

    PubMed

    Randall-Thompson, Jovita F; Riley, Anthony L

    2003-09-01

    Although sex differences in taste aversions have been reported with emetics such as lithium chloride (LiCl), little is known whether such findings generalize to other aversion-inducing drugs, including recreational compounds. One particular class of recreational compounds that induces taste aversions but that has not been examined for sex differences in its aversive properties is the opioids. To assess sex differences in the aversive properties of the opioids, Experiment 1 examined the acquisition and extinction of morphine-induced taste aversions in male and female rats. To determine whether the specific parametric conditions used in Experiment 1 would support sex differences in general, Experiment 2 examined possible sex differences in the acquisition and extinction of LiCl-induced taste aversions, a compound for which sex differences have been previously reported. During acquisition, male and female rats were given 20-min access to a novel saccharin solution and injected with either morphine (0, 10, 18 and 32 mg/kg s.c.; Experiment 1) or LiCl (0, 0.3, 0.6 and 1.2 mEq s.c.; Experiment 2) every fourth day for a total of four conditioning trials. During extinction, subjects were allowed access to saccharin but were not injected (for a total of eight trials). There were no sex differences in acquisition with either morphine or LiCl. There were also no sex differences in extinction with morphine; however, sex differences were found with LiCl, an effect consistent with prior assessments with this drug. The basis for and implications of the differences in the effects of sex on morphine- and LiCl-induced taste aversions were discussed.

  11. Preexposure to salty and sour taste enhances conditioned taste aversion to novel sucrose.

    PubMed

    Flores, Veronica L; Moran, Anan; Bernstein, Max; Katz, Donald B

    2016-05-01

    Conditioned taste aversion (CTA) is an intensively studied single-trial learning paradigm whereby animals are trained to avoid a taste that has been paired with malaise. Many factors influence the strength of aversion learning; prominently studied among these is taste novelty-the fact that preexposure to the taste conditioned stimulus (CS) reduces its associability. The effect of exposure to tastes other than the CS has, in contrast, received little investigation. Here, we exposed rats to sodium chloride (N) and citric acid (C), either before or within a conditioning session involving novel sucrose (S). Presentation of this taste array within the conditioning session weakened the resultant S aversion, as expected. The opposite effect, however, was observed when exposure to the taste array was provided in sessions that preceded conditioning: such experience enhanced the eventual S aversion-a result that was robust to differences in CS delivery method and number of tastes presented in conditioning sessions. This "non-CS preexposure effect" scaled with the number of tastes in the exposure array (experience with more stimuli was more effective than experience with fewer) and with the amount of exposure sessions (three preexposure sessions were more effective than two). Together, our results provide evidence that exposure and experience with the realm of tastes changes an animal's future handling of even novel tastes.

  12. Failure of Serial Taste-Taste Compound Presentations to Produce Overshadowing of Extinction of Conditioned Taste Aversion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pineno, Oskar

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study overshadowing of extinction in a conditioned taste aversion preparation. In both experiments, aversive conditioning with sucrose was followed by extinction treatment with either sucrose alone or in compound with another taste, citric acid. Experiment 1 employed a simultaneous compound extinction treatment…

  13. Failure of Serial Taste-Taste Compound Presentations to Produce Overshadowing of Extinction of Conditioned Taste Aversion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pineno, Oskar

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study overshadowing of extinction in a conditioned taste aversion preparation. In both experiments, aversive conditioning with sucrose was followed by extinction treatment with either sucrose alone or in compound with another taste, citric acid. Experiment 1 employed a simultaneous compound extinction treatment…

  14. Further evidence for conditioned taste aversion induced by forced swimming.

    PubMed

    Masaki, Takahisa; Nakajima, Sadahiko

    2005-01-31

    A series of experiments with rats reported that aversion to a taste solution can be established by forced swimming in a water pool. Experiment 1 demonstrated that correlation of taste and swimming is a critical factor for this phenomenon, indicating associative (i.e., Pavlovian) nature of this learning. Experiment 2 showed that this learning obeys the Pavlovian law of strength, by displaying a positive relationship between the duration of water immersion in training and the taste aversion observed in subsequent testing. Experiment 3 revealed that swimming rather than being wet is the critical agent, because a water shower did not endow rats with taste aversion. Experiment 4 found that taste aversion was a positive function of water level of the pools in training (0, 12 or 32 cm). These results, taken together, suggest that energy expenditure caused by physical exercise might be involved in the development of taste aversion.

  15. Latent inhibition of a conditioned taste aversion in fetal rats.

    PubMed

    Mickley, G Andrew; Hoxha, Zana; DiSorbo, Anthony; Wilson, Gina N; Remus, Jennifer L; Biesan, Orion; Ketchesin, Kyle D; Ramos, Linnet; Luchsinger, Joseph R; Prodan, Suzanna; Rogers, Morgan; Wiles, Nathanael R; Hoxha, Nita

    2014-04-01

    The etiology of schizophrenia's cognitive symptoms may have its basis in prenatal alterations of glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor functioning. Therefore, the current study investigated the effects of ketamine (an NMDA receptor blocking drug) on both a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) and latent inhibition (LI; a model of attentional capacity) in rat fetuses. We first sought to determine if a CTA could be diminished by nonreinforced preexposure to a CS in fetal rats (i.e., LI). We injected E18 pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats with 100% allicin (garlic taste) or an equal volume of saline. Some of the pregnant dams also received ketamine (100 mg/kg, i.p.). One day later (E19), the dams received a second injection of the CS, followed by either lithium chloride (the US) or saline. Finally, on E21 pups received oral lavage with allicin and observations of ingestive orofacial motor responses were recorded. When allicin had been paired with LiCl in utero, E21 fetuses exhibited a conditioned suppression of orofacial movements, indicative of an aversion to this taste. Preexposure to the garlic taste on E18 produced a LI of this CTA. Ketamine significantly disrupted the formation of the CTA and had some impact on LI. However, the direct effect of ketamine on LI is less certain since the drug also blocked the original CTA.

  16. Integration of Neurobiological and Computational Analyses of the Neural Network Essentials for Conditioned Taste Aversion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-29

    factors that modulate the acquisition and extinction of conditioned taste aversions were identified. Variations in endogenous hormone levels...Gerontological Society of America, 1990, 1991. Experimental Series I- Hormonal Effects 2a Conditioned Taste Aversions Effects o2 perinatal testosterone on...Gonadal hormones alter the rates of extinction of conditioned food aversions in rats. Males have slower extinction rates than females. Gonadectomy increases

  17. Conditioned taste aversion and drugs of abuse: history and interpretation.

    PubMed

    Verendeev, Andrey; Riley, Anthony L

    2012-11-01

    Conditioned taste aversion (CTA) learning describes a phenomenon wherein an animal learns to avoid consumption of a particular taste or food following its pairing with an aversive stimulus. Although initially demonstrated with radiation and classical emetics, CTAs have also been shown with drugs of abuse. The ability of rewarding drugs to support CTA learning was described as paradoxical by many investigators, and a number of attempts have been made to resolve this paradox. The present review offers a historical perspective on the CTA literature with a particular focus on CTAs induced by self-administered drugs. Specifically, this review describes and summarizes several interpretations of CTA learning that offer possible mechanisms by which drugs of abuse support CTAs, including sickness, drug novelty, reward comparison and conditioned fear. It is concluded that the reported "paradox" is no paradox at all in that drugs of abuse are complex pharmacological compounds that produce multiple stimulus effects, not all of which are positive reinforcing. Finally, a possible role of drug aversion in drug self-administration is discussed.

  18. Investigating motion sickness using the conditioned taste aversion paradigm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Robert A.

    1990-01-01

    The use of conditioned taste aversion (CTA) to study motion sickness is reviewed. The use of CTA to measure motion sickness is supported by studies showing that an intact vestibular system is essential for the production of CTA when motion is the unconditioned stimulus. The magnitude of CTA is assessed at a time removed from exposure to motion, and therefore is not affected by residual effects of motion. Since the magnitude of CTA is assessed as volume or weight of flood or fluid, the degree of sickness is reflected in a continuous measure rather than in the discrete, all-or-none fashion characteristic of vomiting.

  19. Further Evidence for the Summation of Latent Inhibition and Overshadowing in Rats' Conditioned Taste Aversion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagaishi, Takatoshi; Nakajima, Sadahiko

    2008-01-01

    Repeated exposures to a target taste (X) attenuated subsequent development of rats' conditioned aversion to X (latent inhibition effect). Presentation of another taste (A) after X in conditioning (serial X-A compound conditioning) also attenuated conditioned X aversion compared with conditioning without A (overshadowing). Furthermore, the latent…

  20. Further Evidence for the Summation of Latent Inhibition and Overshadowing in Rats' Conditioned Taste Aversion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagaishi, Takatoshi; Nakajima, Sadahiko

    2008-01-01

    Repeated exposures to a target taste (X) attenuated subsequent development of rats' conditioned aversion to X (latent inhibition effect). Presentation of another taste (A) after X in conditioning (serial X-A compound conditioning) also attenuated conditioned X aversion compared with conditioning without A (overshadowing). Furthermore, the latent…

  1. Conditioned taste aversion and motion sickness in cats and squirrel monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Robert A.; Corcoran, Meryl Lee; Brizzee, Kenneth R.

    1991-01-01

    The relationship between vomiting and conditioned taste aversion was studied in intact cats and squirrel monkeys and in cats and squirrel monkeys in which the area postrema was ablated by thermal cautery. In cats conditioned 7-12 months after ablation of the area postrema, three successive treatments with xylazine failed to produce either vomiting or conditioned taste aversion to a novel fluid. Intact cats, however, vomited and formed a conditioned aversion. In squirrel monkeys conditioned 6 months after ablation of the area postrema, three treatments with lithium chloride failed to produce conditioned taste aversion. Intact monkeys did condition with these treatments. Neither intact nor ablated monkeys vomited or evidenced other signs of illness when injected with lithium chloride. When the same ablated cats and monkeys were exposed to a form of motion that produced vomiting prior to surgery, conditioned taste aversion can be produced after ablation of the area postrema. The utility of conditioned taste aversion as a measure of subemetic motion sickness is discussed by examining agreement and disagreement between identifications of motion sickness by conditioned taste aversion and vomiting. It is suggested that a convincing demonstration of the utility of conditioned taste aversion as a measure of nausea requires the identification of physiological correlates of nausea, and caution should be exercised when attempting to interpret conditioned taste aversion as a measure of nausea.

  2. Taste-aversion conditioning, but not immunosuppression conditioning, occurs under partial water deprivation.

    PubMed

    Vidal, José; Chamizo, Victoria D

    2009-01-01

    The authors investigated whether conditioned taste aversion and immunosuppression took place when water was available during conditioning and test protocols. The authors elicited taste-aversion conditioning and immunosuppression in outbred CD1-strain mice by pairing a conditioned stimulus (sucrose or saccharin solution) with an unconditioned stimulus (cyclophosphamide) that causes gastrointestinal upset and is immunosuppressive. The authors introduced a new conditioning protocol: 5 pairings of a saccharin solution with a low-dose injection of cyclophosphamide. Under these conditions, the authors generated conditioned aversion to saccharin but did not generate conditioned decrease of the antibody response. The authors conclude that taste-aversion conditioning, but not immunosuppression conditioning, occurred under partial water deprivation.

  3. Effects of Swim Stress on Neophobia and Reconditioning Using a Conditioned Taste Aversion Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Jennifer M.; Ramsey, Ashley K.; Fowler, Stephanie W.; Schachtman, Todd R.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has found that swim stress during a classical conditioning trial attenuates conditioned taste aversion (CTA). In the current study, rats were used to examine the effects of inescapable swim stress on the habituation of neophobia to a flavored solution and reacquisition of an extinguished conditioned taste aversion. In Experiment…

  4. Effects of Swim Stress on Neophobia and Reconditioning Using a Conditioned Taste Aversion Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Jennifer M.; Ramsey, Ashley K.; Fowler, Stephanie W.; Schachtman, Todd R.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has found that swim stress during a classical conditioning trial attenuates conditioned taste aversion (CTA). In the current study, rats were used to examine the effects of inescapable swim stress on the habituation of neophobia to a flavored solution and reacquisition of an extinguished conditioned taste aversion. In Experiment…

  5. Biochemical modulation of NMDA receptors: role in conditioned taste aversion.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Beatriz; Tapia, Ricardo

    2004-01-01

    Glutamate neurotransmission plays a crucial role in a variety of functions in the central nervous system, including learning and memory. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying this process in mammals because of the scarceness of experimental models that permit correlation of behavioral and biochemical changes occurring during the different stages of learning and the retrieval of the acquired information. One model that has been useful to study these mechanisms is conditioned taste aversion (CTA), a paradigm in which animals learn to avoid new tastes when they are associated with gastrointestinal malaise. Glutamate receptors of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) type appear to be necessary in this process, because blockade of this receptor prevents CTA. Phosphorylation of the main subunits of the NMDA receptor is a well-established biochemical mechanism for the modulation of the receptor response. Such modulation seems to be involved in CTA, because inhibitors of protein kinase C (PKC) block CTA acquisition and because the exposure to an unfamiliar taste results in an increased phosphorylation of tyrosine and serine residues of the NR2B subunit of the receptor in the insular cortex, the cerebral region where gustatory and visceral information converge. In this work we review these mechanisms of NMDA receptor modulation in CTA.

  6. Investigating motion sickness using the conditioned taste aversion paradigm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Robert A.

    1991-01-01

    The avoidance of foods which are associated with uncomfortable or aversive internal states has long been recognized. Many people are aware, either directly or via anecdotal reports, of individuals who avoid foods which were eaten just before the onset of sickness. Awareness of this phenomenon can be traced to the writings of John Locke. The disruption of diet during cancer therapy is sometimes ascribed to the attribution of an unpleasant quality to foods eaten preceding the sickness induced by therapy itself. In addition, it has long been recognized by the manufacturers of rodent poisons that animals avoid the injection of food treated with nonlethal doses of poison. An important part of the laboratory study of this phenomenon was directed toward studying the role learning plays in this type of avoidance behavior. Following the lead of Garcia and his associates, this avoidance has come to be interpreted as arising from a form of classical conditioning. In typical laboratory studies of this bahavior, a novel food is ingested just prior to exposure to some stimulus, commonly poisoning or irradiation, which produces illness. Following the terminology of classical conditioning, it is common to describe this procedure as one of 'pairing' a conditioned stimulus (CS), the novel food, with an unconditioned stimulus (US), the illness induced by toxicosis or irradiation. Avoidance of the food in succeeding feeding opportunities is viewed as a learned response or a conditioned taste aversion (CTA). Garcia et al. asserted that motion sickness could produce 'gustatory' aversions, but passive motion was first reported as an US to establish CTA by Green and Rachlin. The purpose is to review the manner in which CTA has been used to study motion sickness. Numerous reviews concentrating on other aspects of CTA are available in the existing literature. Readers are encouraged to consult the various papers and edited books for extensive information on other aspects of this literature.

  7. Interactions between radiation and amphetamine in taste-aversion learning and the role of the area postrema in amphetamine-induced conditioned taste aversions

    SciTech Connect

    Rabin, B.M.; Hunt, W.A.; Lee, J.

    1987-01-01

    Three experiments were run to assess the role of the area postrema in taste-aversion learning resulting from combined treatment with subthreshold unconditioned stimuli and in the acquisition of an amphetamine-induced taste aversion. In the first experiment, it was shown that combined treatment with subthreshold radiation (15 rad) and subthreshold amphetamine (0.5 mg/kg, IP) resulted in the acquisition of a taste aversion. The second experiment showed that lesions of the area postrema blocked taste aversion learning produced by two subthreshold doses of amphetamine. In the third experiment, which looked at the dose-response curve for amphetamine-induced taste aversion learning to intact rats and rats with area postrema lesions, it was shown that both groups of rats acquired taste aversions following injection of amphetamine, although the rats with lesions showed a less-severe aversion than the intact rats. The results are interpreted as indicating that amphetamine-induced taste-aversion learning may involve area post-remamediated mechanisms, particularly at the lower doses, but an intact area postrema is not a necessary condition of the acquisition of an amphetamine-induced taste aversion.

  8. Interactions between radiation and amphetamine in taste aversion learning and the role of the area postrema in amphetamine-induced conditioned taste aversions

    SciTech Connect

    Rabin, B.M.; Hunt, W.A.; Lee, J.

    1987-08-01

    Three experiments were run to assess the role of the area postrema in taste aversion learning resulting from combined treatment with subthreshold unconditioned stimuli and in the acquisition of an amphetamine-induced taste aversion. In the first experiment, it was shown that combined treatment with subthreshold radiation (15 rad) and subthreshold amphetamine (0.5 mg/kg, IP) resulted in the acquisition of a taste aversion. The second experiment showed that lesions of the area postrema blocked taste aversion learning produced by two subthreshold doses of amphetamine. In the third experiment, which looked at the dose-response curve for amphetamine-induced taste aversion learning in intact rats and rats with area postrema lesions, it was shown that both groups of rats acquired taste aversions following injection of amphetamine, although the rats with lesions showed a less severe aversion than the intact rats. The results are interpreted as indicating that amphetamine-induced taste aversion learning may involve area postrema-mediated mechanisms, particularly at the lower doses, but that an intact area postrema is not a necessary condition for the acquisition of an amphetamine-induced taste aversion.

  9. Reduced palatability in pain-induced conditioned taste aversions.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jian-You; Arthurs, Joe; Reilly, Steve

    2013-07-02

    The current study investigated whether internal pain-inducing agents can modulate palatability of a tastant in the same way as illness-inducing agents (e.g., lithium chloride). Similar to traditional conditioned taste aversion (CTA) experiments, during conditioning the rats were exposed to a saccharin solution followed by intraperitoneal injections of either gallamine (Experiment 1) or hypertonic sodium chloride (NaCl; Experiments 1 and 2). In addition to the total amount consumed, the time of each lick was recorded for lick pattern analysis. The results showed that both gallamine and hypertonic NaCl caused suppression in saccharin intake. Importantly, both lick cluster size and initial lick rate (the measures of taste palatability) were reduced as well. This pattern of results suggests that these pain-inducing agents reduce the hedonic value of the associated tastant and thus CTA is acquired. The current finding serves as evidence supporting the view that CTA is a broadly tuned mechanism that can be triggered by changes in internal body states following consummatory experience. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Conditioned taste aversion dependent regulation of amygdala gene expression.

    PubMed

    Panguluri, Siva K; Kuwabara, Nobuyuki; Kang, Yi; Cooper, Nigel; Lundy, Robert F

    2012-02-28

    The present experiments investigated gene expression in the amygdala following contingent taste/LiCl treatment that supports development of conditioned taste aversion (CTA). The use of whole genome chips and stringent data set filtering led to the identification of 168 genes regulated by CTA compared to non-contingent LiCl treatment that does not support CTA learning. Seventy-six of these genes were eligible for network analysis. Such analysis identified "behavior" as the top biological function, which was represented by 15 of the 76 genes. These genes included several neuropeptides, G protein-coupled receptors, ion channels, kinases, and phosphatases. Subsequent qRT-PCR analyses confirmed changes in mRNA expression for 5 of 7 selected genes. We were able to demonstrate directionally consistent changes in protein level for 3 of these genes; insulin 1, oxytocin, and major histocompatibility complex class I-C. Behavioral analyses demonstrated that blockade of central insulin receptors produced a weaker CTA that was less resistant to extinction. Together, these results support the notion that we have identified downstream genes in the amygdala that contribute to CTA learning.

  11. Effects of swim stress on latent inhibition using a conditioned taste aversion procedure.

    PubMed

    Smith, Shawn; Fieser, Sarah; Jones, Jennifer; Schachtman, Todd R

    2008-10-20

    Rats were used to examine the effects of inescapable swim stress on latent inhibition using a conditioned taste aversion procedure. Subjects were subjected to inescapable swim after each of three saccharin taste preexposures and saccharin was later paired with LiCl. The ability of swim to influence latent inhibition was assessed on subsequent saccharin test trials. Swim stress significantly attenuated latent inhibition. The implications of these results regarding the effects of swim stress on conditioned taste aversion are discussed.

  12. Failure to elicit conditioned taste aversion by severe poisoning.

    PubMed

    Ionescu, E; Buresová, O

    1977-03-01

    In an attempt to assess the universal validity of the conditioned taste aversion (CTA) paradigm, various types of poisoning (UC) were associated with the gustatory CS. Water deprived rats were habituated for two days to the drinking box, where water was available for 15 min. On Day 3, access to the CS (0.1% saccharin 15 min) was followed after 30 min by a sublethal dose of the poison (0.15 M LiCl, 4% body weight; 0.1 M sodium malonate, 1% body weight; pyrrolopyrimidine drug BW 58-271, 15 mg/kg; sodium cyanide 4 mg/kg; sodium iodoacetate 40 mg/kg; sodium fluoride 30 mg/kg; gallamine triethiodide 40 mg/kg). Rats injected with the last drug were maintained under artificial respiration until muscular paralysis disappeared. After 4 days of recovery, water deprivation schedule was resumed on Days 8 and 9. During the retention test on Day 10 saccharin consumption dropped by 60% in the LiCl poisoned rats, but not CTA developed in animals poisoned by pyrrolopyrimidine, gallamine, malonate and cyanide. CTA of intermediate intensity was evoked by iodoacetate and fluoride. The absence of CTA was not due to the amnesic effect of poisoning, since LiCl administration to NaCN poisoned rats produced CTA of usual intensity. It is concluded that CTA is not related to the overall severity of poisoning but rather to the effect of the poison on specific interoceptors.

  13. Conditioned and Latent Inhibition in Taste-Aversion Learning: Clarifying the Role of Learned Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Best, Michael R.

    1975-01-01

    The following experiments are an attempt to clarify the role of learned safety by investigating the applicability of the concept of conditioned inhibition to a taste-aversion procedure and by differentiating its effects fromthose of latent inhibition. (Author)

  14. Measurement of Behavioral Taste Responses in Mice: Two-Bottle Preference, Lickometer, and Conditioned Taste-Aversion Tests.

    PubMed

    Gaillard, Dany; Stratford, Jennifer M

    2016-12-01

    The natural like and dislike of foods based on taste is one of the most easily observed behaviors in animals. Animals eat palatable foods and reject aversive foods, which makes measurement of taste perception possible using various behavioral techniques. Three different methods to accurately measure taste behavior are described here. First, two-bottle preference tests evaluate whether a taste compound (tastant) is preferred over water. Second, lickometer tests quantify the like and dislike for multiple concentrations of the same tastant or multiple tastants at the same time. Finally, conditioned taste aversion tests accurately determine the perceived taste threshold for palatable tastants. Together, these diverse methods enable researchers to observe and measure behavioral taste responses in mice to any tastant. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  15. Conditioned taste aversion: modulation by 5-HT receptor activity and corticosterone.

    PubMed

    Gorzalka, Boris; Hanson, Laura; Harrington, Jennifer; Killam, Sisley; Campbell-Meiklejohn, Dan

    2003-06-20

    Two experiments were designed to elucidate the involvement of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) system in the acquisition of lithium chloride-conditioned taste aversion. In Experiment 1, rats were administered either vehicle or 50 mg/kg nefazodone daily for 4 weeks. Rats were treated with 22 mg/kg of lithium chloride in order to produce conditioned taste aversion to a sucrose solution. Three days later, nefazodone completely blocked the lithium chloride-conditioned taste aversion. In Experiment 2, the effects of chronic corticosterone administration on lithium chloride-conditioned taste aversion were investigated. Twenty male rats received either corticosterone at a dose of (50 mg/kg) or vehicle injections over a period of 14 consecutive days. Lithium chloride-conditioned taste aversion was potentiated in rats treated with corticosterone. Additionally, corticosterone-treated animals required more trials to reach extinction. These results suggest the involvement of both the 5-HT system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in lithium chloride-conditioned taste aversion.

  16. Latent inhibition and facilitation of conditioned taste aversion in preweanling rats.

    PubMed

    Gaztañaga, Mirari; Aranda-Fernández, P Ezequiel; Díaz-Cenzano, Elena; Chotro, M Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    Early in ontogeny, taste preexposure has been found to induce latent inhibition as well as produce a facilitation of conditioned taste aversion (CTA). In this study, the effect of taste preexposure on CTA was investigated in 13-14 day old rats as a function of taste preexposure (0, 1, or 3 trials) and unconditioned stimulus intensity (LiCl: 0, 0.15, or 0.30 M). After one conditioning trial, with the low intensity US, an aversion was only observed after taste preexposure (facilitation). When using the strong US, an aversion was found without preexposure while latent inhibition was observed with 3 preexposure trials. In conclusion, stimulus preexposure can either facilitate conditioning or produce latent inhibition in infant rats, depending on the amount of stimulus preexposure and the intensity of the US.

  17. Paradoxical Effects of Proximal Unconditioned Stimulus Preexposure: Interference with and Conditioning of a Taste Aversion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domjan, Michael; Best, Michael R.

    1977-01-01

    Analyzes the temporal features of the transient unconditioned stimulus preexposure effect observed by Cannon (EJ 123 672) and attempts to determine whether a preconditioned stimulus toxin presentation can both condition a backward taste aversion and interfere with the development of a forward aversion. (Author/RK)

  18. Genetic differences in ethanol-induced hyperglycemia and conditioned taste aversion

    SciTech Connect

    Risinger, F.O.; Cunningham, C.L. )

    1992-01-01

    Genetic differences in the hyperglycemic response to acute ethanol exposure and ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion were examined using inbred mice. Adult male C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice were injected with ethanol and blood glucose levels determined over 4 h. C57 mice demonstrated greater dose-dependent elevations in blood glucose compared to DBA mice. In a conditioned taste aversion procedure, water deprived mice received ethanol injections immediately after access to a NaCl flavored solution. DBA mice developed aversion to the ethanol-paired flavor at a lower dose than C57 mice. These results provide further support for a possible inverse genetic relationship between sensitivity to ethanol-induced hyperglycemia and sensitivity to conditioned taste aversion.

  19. Use of conditioned taste aversion as a conflict model: effects of anxiolytic drugs.

    PubMed

    Ervin, G N; Cooper, B R

    1988-04-01

    Moderate taste aversions were induced by pairing the initial consumption of 0.25% sodium saccharin (SACC) with either 25 mg/kg i.p. l-5-hydroxytryptophan or 30 mg/kg i.p. LiCl. The expression of these moderate conditioned SACC aversions was antagonized by pretreatments (i.p. or p.o.) with benzodiazepine and non-benzodiazepine anxiolytic drugs (lorazepam, diazepam, chlordiazepoxide, oxazepam, phenobarbital, meprobamate, and chlormezanone). Chlordiazepoxide produced less or no antagonism of the expression of stronger SACC aversions induced by 50 or 75 mg/kg l-5-hydroxytryptophan or by 60 or 90 mg/kg LiCl. Nonanxiolytic drugs, including dipsogenic compounds that increased the water intake of hydrated rats (2 M NaCl i.p.; isoproterenol HCl s.c.; and histamine diphosphate s.c.), and even additional 24 hr of fluid deprivation did not antagonize the expression of moderate conditioned taste aversions, indicating that anxiolytic drugs have a very selective effect and that they do not appear to act through homeostatic drinking mechanisms. An essential feature of the taste aversion conflict model is that thirsty rats encounter only SACC. When water was conspicuously available in addition to SACC in two-bottle tests, neither chlordiazepoxide nor phenobarbital antagonized the expression of conditioned taste aversion. Thus, anxiolytic drugs do not produce amnesia for the conditioned aversion, but attenuate the ability of conditioned SACC aversion to suppress SACC consumption in one-bottle tests. The antagonism of the expression of conditioned taste aversion measured with a one-bottle testing method offers a simple, sensitive, and selective screen for anxiolytic drugs. A possible mechanism by which anxiolytics increase both suppressed as well as unsuppressed fluid consumption is discussed.

  20. Nicotine-induced conditioned taste aversion in the rat: effects of ethanol.

    PubMed

    Korkosz, Agnieszka; Scinska, Anna; Taracha, Ewa; Plaznik, Adam; Kukwa, Andrzej; Kostowski, Wojciech; Bienkowski, Przemyslaw

    2006-05-10

    It has been shown that small doses of ethanol antagonise the discriminative stimulus properties of nicotine in the rat. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether ethanol could antagonise the aversive stimulus effects of nicotine. Wistar rats were trained to associate nicotine injections with a novel tasting fluid (0.1% saccharin) in the conditioned taste aversion procedure. Nicotine (0.3 mg/kg, s.c.) was injected 5 min after the end of a 20-min exposure to the saccharin solution. Ethanol (0.25-0.5 g/kg, i.p.) was administered 5 or 50 min before nicotine. In general, ethanol did not inhibit nicotine-induced conditioned taste aversion. Contrary to the findings in drug discrimination studies, a slight but significant enhancement of nicotine-induced taste aversion conditioning was observed after ethanol pre-treatment. Blood ethanol levels were measured in a separate group of rats. Maximal blood ethanol levels after i.p. administration of 0.25 or 0.5 g/kg ethanol exceeded 20 and 80 mg%, respectively. Concluding, the present results may indicate that ethanol does not attenuate nicotine-induced conditioned taste aversion in the rat.

  1. A Conditioned Aversion Study of Sucrose and SC45647 Taste in TRPM5 Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Eddy, Meghan C.; Eschle, Benjamin K.; Peterson, Darlene; Lauras, Nathan; Margolskee, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    Previously, published studies have reported mixed results regarding the role of the TRPM5 cation channel in signaling sweet taste by taste sensory cells. Some studies have reported a complete loss of sweet taste preference in TRPM5 knockout (KO) mice, whereas others have reported only a partial loss of sweet taste preference. This study reports the results of conditioned aversion studies designed to motivate wild-type (WT) and KO mice to respond to sweet substances. In conditioned taste aversion experiments, WT mice showed nearly complete LiCl-induced response suppression to sucrose and SC45647. In contrast, TRPM5 KO mice showed a much smaller conditioned aversion to either sweet substance, suggesting a compromised, but not absent, ability to detect sweet taste. A subsequent conditioned flavor aversion experiment was conducted to determine if TRPM5 KO mice were impaired in their ability to learn a conditioned aversion. In this experiment, KO and WT mice were conditioned to a mixture of SC45647 and amyl acetate (an odor cue). Although WT mice avoided both components of the stimulus mixture, they avoided SC45647 more than the odor cue. The KO mice also avoided both stimuli, but they avoided the odor component more than SC45647, suggesting that while the KO mice are capable of learning an aversion, to them the odor cue was more salient than the taste cue. Collectively, these findings suggest the TRPM5 KO mice have some residual ability to detect SC45647 and sucrose, and, like bitter, there may be a TRPM5-independent transduction pathway for detecting these substances. PMID:21987728

  2. Conditioned taste aversion induced by motion is prevented by selective vagotomy in the rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Robert A.; Mckenna, Susan

    1991-01-01

    The role of the vagus nerve in motion-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA) was studied in hooded rats. Animals with complete, selective gastric vagotomy failed to form conditioned taste aversion after multiple conditioning sessions in which the conditioned stimulus (a cider vinegar solution) was drunk immediately before a 30-min exposure to vertical axis rotation at 150 deg/s. Results are discussed with reference to the use of CTA as a measure of motion-induced 'sickness' or gastrointestinal disturbance, and because motion-induced CTA requires that both the vagus nerve and the vestibular apparatus be intact, in light of the possible convergence of vegal and vestibular functions.

  3. Midazolam impairs the retrieval of conditioned taste aversion via opioidergic transmission in mice.

    PubMed

    Yasoshima, Yasunobu; Shimura, Tsuyoshi

    2017-01-01

    Midazolam is a benzodiazepine agonist that affects the acquisition, retention, and retrieval of malaise-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA) in rats. Our previous study suggested that the palatability-enhancing rather than amnesic effects of midazolam were responsible for impaired retrieval of conditioned aversion to palatable conditioned stimuli (CSs). However, it remains unclear whether this effect is opioid-dependent. In the present study, we examined the involvement of opioid signaling with the ability of peripheral midazolam administration to transiently impair CTA retrieval in mice. CTA was established by pairing 5mM saccharin ingestion (conditioned stimulus, CS) with an intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 0.15M lithium chloride (LiCl, 2% body weight) (unconditioned stimulus) for two consecutive days. Conditioned mice that received midazolam (1.5mg/kg, i.p.) before the first retention test consumed significantly more saccharin (CS) than conditioned mice that received vehicle (phosphate-buffered physiological saline, PBS; i.p.). On the next day, both conditioned groups showed strong aversions to the CS. Next, naloxone, an opioid receptor antagonist, was peripherally administered prior to the midazolam injection before the retention test. Pre-administration of naloxone but not PBS attenuated midazolam-induced increases in CS intake. Finally, we examined aversive orofacial taste reactions (TRs) to an oral infusion of the CS with pre-administration of naloxone or PBS prior to midazolam using a taste reactivity test. Conditioned mice that received midazolam showed significantly longer latencies to express aversive orofacial TRs than those that received PBS. Pre-administration of naloxone eliminated the effect of midazolam on latency to express aversive TRs. Taken together, these data suggest that midazolam activates opioidergic transmission and opioid-dependent palatability enhancement of the CS to eliminate conditioned aversion to a sweet taste. Copyright

  4. Monosodium glutamate and sweet taste: generalization of conditioned taste aversion between glutamate and sweet stimuli in rats.

    PubMed

    Heyer, B R; Taylor-Burds, C C; Tran, L H; Delay, E R

    2003-09-01

    Even though monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a prototypical umami substance, previous studies reported that a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) to MSG, mixed with amiloride to block the taste of sodium, generalizes to sucrose. These findings suggest that the taste of glutamate mimics the taste of sucrose and raise the question of whether glutamate has a broadly tuned sweet taste component. To test this hypothesis, CTA experiments were conducted to test for generalization between MSG and several sweet stimuli: sucrose, glucose, maltose, saccharin and SC-45647. Strong bidirectional generalization was seen between MSG mixed with amiloride and sucrose, glucose, saccharin and SC-45647. Weak generalization was seen between MSG and maltose, and sucrose and maltose. None of the CTAs generalized to NMDA. These findings support the hypothesis that the taste of MSG has broadly tuned, sweet-like characteristics, possibly due to the convergence of afferent signals for MSG, natural sugars and artificial sweeteners.

  5. Conditioned Taste Aversion Is Enhanced When the Unconditioned Stimulus Is Presented in a Different Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishii, Kiyoshi; Iguchi, Yoshio; Fukumoto, Kazuya; Nakayasu, Tomohiro

    2008-01-01

    Using a conditioned taste aversion procedure with rats as the subjects, two experiments examined the effect of presenting a conditioned stimulus (CS saccharin solution) in one context followed by an unconditioned stimulus (US LiCl) in a different context. Experiment 1 showed that animals which received the above-mentioned procedure (Group D)…

  6. Conditioned Taste Aversion Is Enhanced When the Unconditioned Stimulus Is Presented in a Different Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishii, Kiyoshi; Iguchi, Yoshio; Fukumoto, Kazuya; Nakayasu, Tomohiro

    2008-01-01

    Using a conditioned taste aversion procedure with rats as the subjects, two experiments examined the effect of presenting a conditioned stimulus (CS saccharin solution) in one context followed by an unconditioned stimulus (US LiCl) in a different context. Experiment 1 showed that animals which received the above-mentioned procedure (Group D)…

  7. Ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion in BXD recombinant inbred mice.

    PubMed

    Risinger, F O; Cunningham, C L

    1998-09-01

    Genetic differences in sensitivity to ethanol's aversive effects may play an important role in the development of alcohol-seeking behavior and alcoholism. The present study examined the development of ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion in 20 BXD/Ty recombinant inbred strains of mice and their progenitor inbred strains, C57BL/6J (B6) and DBA/2J (D2). Adult male mice were given 1-hr access to a saccharin-flavored solution every 48 hr for 12 days. After all but the first and last saccharin access periods, they received ethanol injections (0, 2, or 4 g/kg, i.p.). Separate groups of unpaired control mice received 4 g/kg of ethanol 1 hr after water access. Saline control mice were also used for examining preference across a wide range of saccharin concentrations (0.019 to 4.864% w/v). As expected, saccharin consumption during taste conditioning declined over conditioning trials in a dose-dependent manner, indicating development of ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion. Correlational analyses using strain means from recently published papers indicated no significant genetic correlation between taste conditioning and two phenotypes thought to reflect ethanol reinforcement or reward (ethanol drinking, conditioned place preference). However, there were significant genetic correlations between taste conditioning at the high dose and sensitivity to ethanol-induced hypothermia, rotarod ataxia, and acute withdrawal. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses of strain means indicated that taste aversion was associated (p < 0.01) with genetic markers on nine chromosomes (1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 9, 11, and 17). These QTLs were located near several candidate genes, including genes encoding several different acetylcholine receptor subunits, the delta opioid receptor, and two serotonin receptors (1B and 1D). QTLs for saccharin preference were located on several of the same chromosomes (2, 3, 4, 6, and 11). Two of these saccharin QTLs overlap candidate genes influencing

  8. c-Fos induction in response to saccharin after taste aversion learning depends on conditioning method.

    PubMed

    Spray, K J; Halsell, C B; Bernstein, I L

    2000-01-03

    Increases in c-Fos-like immunoreactivity (FLI) in the intermediate nucleus of the solitary tract (iNTS) have been seen consistently as a correlate of the expression of a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) when conditioning occurs using taste delivery through intraoral (I/O) infusions. The present study examined whether a similar FLI response would occur when conditioning was accomplished by presenting the taste solution in a bottle. I/O and bottle methods generated aversions that were comparable, when judged by the behavioral response of solution rejection. However, elevations in FLI were seen only in animals conditioned with the I/O method. This finding adds to evidence that the neural pathways underlying CTA learning differ as a function of the type of conditioning method used.

  9. Attenuation of radiation- and drug-induced conditioned taste aversions following area postrema lesions in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Rabin, B.M.; Hunt, W.A.; Lee, J.

    1983-02-01

    The effects of lesions of the area postrema on the acquisition of radiation- and drug-induced (histamine and lithium chloride) conditioned taste aversions were investigated. The results indicated that area postrema lesions caused a significant attenuation of the aversion produced by pairing a novel sucrose solution with radiation (100 rad) or drug injection. Further, the area postrema lesions produced a similar level of attenuation of the taste aversion in all three treatment conditions. The results are discussed in terms of the implications of this finding for defining the mechanisms by which exposure to ionizing radiation can lead to the acquisition of a conditioned taste aversion.

  10. Conditioning Method Dramatically Alters the Role of Amygdala in Taste Aversion Learning

    PubMed Central

    Schafe, Glenn E.; Thiele, Todd E.; Bernstein, Ilene L.

    1998-01-01

    Although an important role for the amygdala in taste aversion learning has been suggested by work in a number of laboratories, results have been inconsistent and interpretations varied. The present series of studies reevaluated the role of the amygdala in taste aversion learning by examining the extent to which conditioning methods, testing methods and lesioning methods, influence whether amygdala lesions dramatically affect conditioned taste aversion (CTA) learning. Results indicated that when animals are conditioned with an intraoral (I/O) taste presentation, lesions of amygdala eliminate evidence of conditioning whether animals are tested intraorally or with a two-bottle solution presentation. Dramatic effects of amygdala lesions on CTA learning were seen whether lesions were made electrolytically or using an excitotoxin. In contrast, when animals were conditioned using bottle presentation of the taste, electrolytic lesions attenuated CTAs but did not eliminate them, and excitotoxic lesions had no effect. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that neural structures critical for CTA learning may differ depending on the extent to which the method of conditioned stimulus delivery incorporates a response component. PMID:10489263

  11. Conditioning method dramatically alters the role of amygdala in taste aversion learning.

    PubMed

    Schafe, G E; Thiele, T E; Bernstein, I L

    1998-01-01

    Although an important role for the amygdala in taste aversion learning has been suggested by work in a number of laboratories, results have been inconsistent and interpretations varied. The present series of studies reevaluated the role of the amygdala in taste aversion learning by examining the extent to which conditioning methods, testing methods and lesioning methods, influence whether amygdala lesions dramatically affect conditioned taste aversion (CTA) learning. Results indicated that when animals are conditioned with an intraoral (I/O) taste presentation, lesions of amygdala eliminate evidence of conditioning whether animals are tested intraorally or with a two-bottle solution presentation. Dramatic effects of amygdala lesions on CTA learning were seen whether lesions were made electrolytically or using an excitotoxin. In contrast, when animals were conditioned using bottle presentation of the taste, electrolytic lesions attenuated CTAs but did not eliminate them, and excitotoxic lesions had no effect. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that neural structures critical for CTA learning may differ depending on the extent to which the method of conditioned stimulus delivery incorporates a response component.

  12. Context Switch Effects and Context Experience in Rats' Conditioned Taste Aversion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leon, Samuel P.; Callejas-Aguilera, Jose E.; Rosas, Juan M.

    2012-01-01

    Context specificity of rats' conditioned taste aversion as a function of context experience was assessed in two experiments. Rats received a single pairing between a flavor X and a LiCl injection in a distinctive context (context A) being subsequently tested either in the same context or in a different but equally familiar context (context B).…

  13. Off-vertical rotation produces conditioned taste aversion and suppressed drinking in mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, R. A.; Lauber, A. H.; Daunton, N. G.; Phillips, M.; Diaz, L.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of off-vertical rotation upon the intake of tap water immediately after rotation and upon conditioned taste aversion were assessed in mice with the tilt of the rotation axis varying from 5 to 20 deg from the earth-vertical. Conditioned taste aversion occurred in all mice that were rotated, but the intake of tap water was suppressed only in mice that were rotated at 15 or 20 deg of tilt. The greater suppression of tap-water intake and the stronger conditioned aversion in the mouse as the angle of tilt was increased in this experiment are consistent with predictions from similar experiments with human subjects, where motion sickness develops more rapidly as the angle of tilt is increased. It was suggested that off-vertical rotation may be a useful procedure for insuring experimental control over vestibular stimulation in animal studies of motion sickness.

  14. Cycloheximide impairs reconsolidation of a contextually reactivated memory in a conditioned taste aversion paradigm.

    PubMed

    Flint, Robert W; Marino, Christina L

    2007-04-01

    Rats were used to examine the impact of systemic protein synthesis inhibition (PSI) on the reconsolidation of a contextually reactivated memory of conditioned taste aversion (CTA). Rats were administered intraperitoneal injections of saline or lithium chloride (LiCl; .15 M) following exposure to a novel sucrose solution in a unique context. Seven days later, rats were injected subcutaneously with saline or cycloheximide (CXM; 1 mg/kg) and returned to their home cage or placed into the CTA training context in the absence of the target conditioned stimulus to reactivate the training memory. At testing, LiCl-trained rats that had been given CXM at reactivation had significantly greater difference scores (sucrose-water) in comparison with LiCl/CXM rats that had not been given a reactivation treatment and LiCl/saline memory-reactivated rats. These results suggest that context re-exposure effectively reactivates memory of CTA training that may be weakened through PSI. Extinction tests revealed rapid attenuation of taste aversions in all of the LiCl-injected groups. The involvement of taste-potentiated aversions and the role of the context in taste aversion conditioning are discussed.

  15. Effects of antiemetics on the acquisition and recall of radiation- and lithium chloride-induced conditioned taste aversions

    SciTech Connect

    Rabin, B.M.; Hunt, W.A.

    1983-04-01

    A series of experiments were run to evaluate the effect of antiemetics on the acquisition and recall of a conditioned taste aversion induced by exposure to ionizing radiation or by injection of lithium chloride. Groups of male rats were exposed to 100 rad gamma radiation or 3 mEq/kg lithium chloride following consumption of a 10% sucrose solution. They were then injected with saline or with one of three antiemetics (prochlorperazine, trimethobenzamide, or cyclizine) at dose levels that have been reported to be effective in attenuating a previously acquired lithium chloride-induced taste aversion. The pretreatments with antiemetics had no effect on the acquisition or recall of either the lithium chloride- or radiation-induced taste aversion. The data suggest that antiemetics do not disrupt lithium chloride-induced taste aversions as previously reported, nor do they effect radiation-induced taste aversion learning.

  16. Conditioned taste aversion learning: implications for animal models of drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Davis, Catherine M; Riley, Anthony L

    2010-02-01

    Drugs of abuse are typically discussed in terms of their rewarding effects and how these effects mediate drug taking. However, these drugs produce aversive effects that could have an important role in the overall acceptability of a drug and its likelihood of being self-administered. Rewarding and aversive effects, then, could be interpreted as separate behavioral effects, with the balance of the two determining overall drug acceptability. Interestingly, the role of aversive effects on drug acceptability in the self-administration preparation has received limited attention in this context. This chapter examines the aversive effects of drugs and discusses their role in drug taking. If these aversive effects serve a protective function, manipulations that alter or decrease these effects could have implications for drug taking. Several factors have been reported to alter conditioned taste aversion (CTA) learning, a preparation used in the assessment of the aversive effects of drugs in general. Two of these factors, drug history and strain, are reviewed here. By reviewing these, we intend to demonstrate the protective nature of aversive effects in the initiation and escalation of drug taking and to provide evidence that reductions in aversive effects could produce changes in patterns of drug self-administration that could lead to an increased vulnerability to abuse drugs by altering the reward-aversion balance. The aim of this chapter is not to question the importance of rewarding effects in self-administration but rather to provide evidence that aversive effects are an important factor that needs to be considered in discussions of drug-taking behavior.

  17. Effects of subdiaphragmatic vagotomy on the acquisition of a radiation-induced conditioned taste aversion

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, W.A.; Rabin, B.M.; Lee, J.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of subdiaphragmatic vagotomy on the acquisition of a radiation-induced taste aversion was examined to assess the importance of the vagus nerve in transmitting information on the peripheral toxicity of radiation to the brain. Vagotomy had no effect on taste aversion learning, consistent with reports using other toxins. The data support the involvement of a blood-borne factor in the acquisition of taste aversion induced by ionizing radiation.

  18. Taste avoidance and taste aversion: evidence for two different processes.

    PubMed

    Parker, Linda A

    2003-05-01

    The terms conditioned taste avoidance and conditioned taste aversion are often used interchangeably in the literature; however, considerable evidence indicates that they may represent different processes. Conditioned taste avoidance is measured by the amount that a rat consumes in a consumption test that includes both appetitive phases and consummatory phases of responding. However, conditioned taste aversion is more directly assessed with the taste reactivity test, which includes only the consummatory phase of responding. Rats display a conditioned taste aversion as conditioned rejection reactions (gapes, chin rubs, and paw treads) during an intraoral infusion of a nausea-paired flavored solution. Treatments that produce nausea are not necessary for the establishment of taste avoidance, but they are necessary for the establishment of taste aversion. Furthermore, treatments that alleviate nausea modulate neither the establishment nor the expression of taste avoidance, but they interfere with both the establishment and the expression of taste aversion. Considerable evidence exists indicating that these two measures are independent of one another. Taste avoidance may be motivated by conditioned fear rather than conditioned nausea, but taste aversion (as reflected by rejection reactions) may be motivated by conditioned nausea.

  19. Dorsal medial prefrontal cortex contributes to conditioned taste aversion memory consolidation and retrieval.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Maria Carolina; Villar, Maria Eugenia; Igaz, Lionel M; Viola, Haydée; Medina, Jorge H

    2015-12-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is known for its role in decision making and memory processing, including the participation in the formation of extinction memories. However, little is known regarding its contribution to aversive memory consolidation. Here we demonstrate that neural activity and protein synthesis are required in the dorsal mPFC for memory formation of a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) task and that this region is involved in the retrieval of recent and remote long-term CTA memory. In addition, both NMDA receptor and CaMKII activity in dorsal mPFC are needed for CTA memory consolidation, highlighting the complexity of mPFC functions.

  20. NMDAR-dependent proteasome activity in the gustatory cortex is necessary for conditioned taste aversion.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Tali; Elkobi, Alina; Dieterich, Daniela C; Rosenblum, Kobi

    2016-04-01

    Taste information is processed in different brain structures in the mammalian brain, including the gustatory cortex (GC), which resides within the insular cortex. N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) activity in the GC is necessary for the acquisition of conditioned taste aversion (CTA) but not positive novel taste learning. Previous studies have shown that taste memory consolidation requires intact protein synthesis in the GC. In addition, the direct involvement of translation initiation and elongation factors was documented in the GC during taste learning. However, protein expression is defined by protein synthesis, degradation, and localization. Protein degradation is critical for the consolidation and reconsolidation of other forms of learning, such as fear learning and addiction behavior, but its role in cortical-dependent learning is not clear. Here, we show for the first time that proteasome activity is specifically increased in the GC 4h following experiencing of a novel taste. This increase in proteasome activity was abolished by local administration to the GC of the NMDA antagonist, APV, as well as a CaMKII inhibitor, at the time of acquisition. In addition, local application of lactacystin, a proteasome inhibitor, resulted in impaired CTA, but not novel taste learning. These results suggest that NMDAR-dependent proteasome activity in the GC participates in the association process between novel taste experience and negative visceral sensation.

  1. Excitation of lateral habenula neurons as a neural mechanism underlying ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion.

    PubMed

    Tandon, Shashank; Keefe, Kristen A; Taha, Sharif A

    2017-02-15

    The lateral habenula (LHb) has been implicated in regulation of drug-seeking behaviours through aversion-mediated learning. In this study, we recorded neuronal activity in the LHb of rats during an operant task before and after ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA) to saccharin. Ethanol-induced CTA caused significantly higher baseline firing rates in LHb neurons, as well as elevated firing rates in response to cue presentation, lever press and saccharin taste. In a separate cohort of rats, we found that bilateral LHb lesions blocked ethanol-induced CTA. Our results strongly suggest that excitation of LHb neurons is required for ethanol-induced CTA, and point towards a mechanism through which LHb firing may regulate voluntary ethanol consumption. Ethanol, like other drugs of abuse, has both rewarding and aversive properties. Previous work suggests that sensitivity to ethanol's aversive effects negatively modulates voluntary alcohol intake and thus may be important in vulnerability to developing alcohol use disorders. We previously found that rats with lesions of the lateral habenula (LHb), which is implicated in aversion-mediated learning, show accelerated escalation of voluntary ethanol consumption. To understand neural encoding in the LHb contributing to ethanol-induced aversion, we recorded neural firing in the LHb of freely behaving, water-deprived rats before and after an ethanol-induced (1.5 g kg(-1) 20% ethanol, i.p.) conditioned taste aversion (CTA) to saccharin taste. Ethanol-induced CTA strongly decreased motivation for saccharin in an operant task to obtain the tastant. Comparison of LHb neural firing before and after CTA induction revealed four main differences in firing properties. First, baseline firing after CTA induction was significantly higher. Second, firing evoked by cues signalling saccharin availability shifted from a pattern of primarily inhibition before CTA to primarily excitation after CTA induction. Third, CTA induction

  2. Attenuation of a radiation-induced conditioned taste aversion after the development of ethanol tolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, W.A.; Rabin, B.M.

    1988-01-01

    An attempt to reduce a radiation-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA) was undertaken by rendering animals tolerant to ethanol. Ethanol tolerance, developed over 5 days, was sufficient to block a radiation-induced taste aversion, as well as an ethanol-induced CTA. Several intermittent doses of ethanol, which did not induce tolerance but removed the novelty of the conditioning stimulus, blocked an ethanol-induced CTA but not the radiation-induced CTA. A CTA induced by doses of radiation up to 500 rads was attenuated. These data suggest that radioprotection developing in association with ethanol tolerance is a result of a physiological response to the chronic presence of ethanol not to the ethanol itself.

  3. Cisplatin-Induced Conditioned Taste Aversion: Attenuation by Dexamethasone but not Zacopride or GR38032F

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    1988, The potential anxiolytic activity of GR38032F, a 5 - HT3 - receptor antagonist . Br. J. Pharmacol. 93, 985. References Kilpatrick. G.J.. B.J. Jones...April IM92 accepted 5 May 1992 3 7 The 54HT, receptor antagonists zacotiride and GR38032F are highly effective inhibitors of emcsii induced by...to 5 -H1’, receptor blockade. 5 -HT., receptor antagonists ; Zacopridc: GR38032F; Desamethasone: Cisplatin: Taste aversion (conditioned) I. Introductlon

  4. Taste Aversions Conditioned by the Aversiveness of Insulin and Formalin: Role of CS Specificity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domjan, Michael; Levy, Carolyn J.

    1977-01-01

    Experimenters in the past have reported that when insulin is used as the unconditioned stimulus (US), rats will learn an aversion to a sodium chloride but not a sucrose solution, whereas with formalin as the US, they will learn an aversion to a sucrose but not a saline solution. The present experiments failed to confirm these findings. (Editor)

  5. Taste Aversions Conditioned by the Aversiveness of Insulin and Formalin: Role of CS Specificity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domjan, Michael; Levy, Carolyn J.

    1977-01-01

    Experimenters in the past have reported that when insulin is used as the unconditioned stimulus (US), rats will learn an aversion to a sodium chloride but not a sucrose solution, whereas with formalin as the US, they will learn an aversion to a sucrose but not a saline solution. The present experiments failed to confirm these findings. (Editor)

  6. Stimulus preexposure reduces generalization of conditioned taste aversions between alcohol and non-alcohol flavors in infant rats.

    PubMed

    Chotro, M Gabriela; Alonso, Gumersinda

    2003-02-01

    Results of 3 experiments showed that infant rats (age 13-17 days) generalize conditioned taste aversions between alcohol and non-alcohol tastes such as a mixture of sucrose and quinine, apple cider vinegar, or coffee. Nonreinforced preexposure to those tastes reduced generalized aversions between them. Generalization between alcohol and sucrose-quinine was reduced not only after preexposure to both tastes, but also when only the nonconditioned taste was preexposed, whereas with alcohol and vinegar, both tastes had to be preexposed to obtain that effect. In no case was generalization reduced when only the to-be-conditioned taste was preexposed. Previous experience with alcohol alone, as well as with similar gustatory stimuli, may enhance subjects' ability to differentiate them during infantile stages in rats.

  7. Time of day-dependent latent inhibition of conditioned taste aversions in rats.

    PubMed

    Manrique, Tatiana; Molero, Andrés; Ballesteros, M Angeles; Morón, Ignacio; Gallo, Milagros; Fenton, Andre A

    2004-09-01

    We have determined that the temporal context of drinking can modulate latent inhibition of learned saline aversions in Wistar rats by changing the time of day of drinking of the preexposure and conditioning phases. Latent inhibition was absent in the group preexposed and conditioned to saline at different times of the day, but not in the group that was preexposed and conditioned at the same time of day. The results confirm a previous report that the time of day can modulate taste aversion learning independently of other environmental cues. It is proposed that the features and duration of the habituation training to the temporal contexts used may be critical for time-dependent latent inhibition to appear.

  8. The effect of androgen on the retention of extinction memory after conditioned taste aversion in mice.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Ema; Eda-Fujiwara, Hiroko; Satoh, Ryohei; Saito, Rika; Miyamoto, Takenori

    2013-05-01

    Conditioned taste aversion (CTA) induced by the application of a novel taste such as sodium saccharin (Sac) as the conditioned stimulus (CS) and a malaise-inducing agent as the unconditioned stimulus (US), results in acquisition of CTA memory to Sac. In contrast, CTA is extinguished by repeated presentations of the CS without the US, resulting in acquisition of the extinction memory. We examined the effects of androgenic hormones on acquisition and retention of extinction memory in mice. We gonadectomized sexually immature mice and continuously administered androgens to these animals. After sexual maturation, the mice underwent a conditioning period followed by an extinction period. Retrieval tests revealed that the androgen-treated group showed significantly greater retention of extinction memory than the non-treated group 5 weeks later, whereas such significant difference was not observed in acquisition of extinction memory. These results demonstrate the enhancing effect of androgens on retention of extinction memory.

  9. Eliciting conditioned taste aversion in lizards: Live toxic prey are more effective than scent and taste cues alone.

    PubMed

    Ward-Fear, Georgia; Thomas, Jai; Webb, Jonathan K; Pearson, David J; Shine, Richard

    2017-03-01

    Conditioned taste aversion (CTA) is an adaptive learning mechanism whereby a consumer associates the taste of a certain food with symptoms caused by a toxic substance, and thereafter avoids eating that type of food. Recently, wildlife researchers have employed CTA to discourage native fauna from ingesting toxic cane toads (Rhinella marina), a species that is invading tropical Australia. In this paper, we compare the results of 2 sets of CTA trials on large varanid lizards ("goannas," Varanus panoptes). One set of trials (described in this paper) exposed recently-captured lizards to sausages made from cane toad flesh, laced with a nausea-inducing chemical (lithium chloride) to reinforce the aversion response. The other trials (in a recently-published paper, reviewed herein) exposed free-ranging lizards to live juvenile cane toads. The effectiveness of the training was judged by how long a lizard survived in the wild before it was killed (fatally poisoned) by a cane toad. Both stimuli elicited rapid aversion to live toads, but the CTA response did not enhance survival rates of the sausage-trained goannas after they were released into the wild. In contrast, the goannas exposed to live juvenile toads exhibited higher long-term survival rates than did untrained conspecifics. Our results suggest that although it is relatively easy to elicit short-term aversion to toad cues in goannas, a biologically realistic stimulus (live toads, encountered by free-ranging predators) is most effective at buffering these reptiles from the impact of invasive toxic prey. © 2016 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  10. Explicit Disassociation of a Conditioned Stimulus and Unconditioned Stimulus during Extinction Training Reduces Both Time to Asymptotic Extinction and Spontaneous Recovery of a Conditioned Taste Aversion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickley, G. Andrew; DiSorbo, Anthony; Wilson, Gina N.; Huffman, Jennifer; Bacik, Stephanie; Hoxha, Zana; Biada, Jaclyn M.; Kim, Ye-Hyun

    2009-01-01

    Conditioned taste aversions (CTAs) may be acquired when an animal consumes a novel taste (CS) and then experiences the symptoms of poisoning (US). This aversion may be extinguished by repeated exposure to the CS alone. However, following a latency period in which the CS is not presented, the CTA will spontaneously recover (SR). In the current…

  11. Explicit Disassociation of a Conditioned Stimulus and Unconditioned Stimulus during Extinction Training Reduces Both Time to Asymptotic Extinction and Spontaneous Recovery of a Conditioned Taste Aversion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickley, G. Andrew; DiSorbo, Anthony; Wilson, Gina N.; Huffman, Jennifer; Bacik, Stephanie; Hoxha, Zana; Biada, Jaclyn M.; Kim, Ye-Hyun

    2009-01-01

    Conditioned taste aversions (CTAs) may be acquired when an animal consumes a novel taste (CS) and then experiences the symptoms of poisoning (US). This aversion may be extinguished by repeated exposure to the CS alone. However, following a latency period in which the CS is not presented, the CTA will spontaneously recover (SR). In the current…

  12. The effects of area postrema lesions and selective vagotomy on motion-induced conditioned taste aversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Robert A.; Sutton, R. L.; Mckenna, Susan

    1991-01-01

    Conditioned taste aversion (CTA) is one of several behaviors which was suggested as a putative measure of motion sickness in rats. A review is made of studies which used surgical disruption of area postrema or the vagus nerve to investigate whether CTA and vomiting induced by motion may depend on common neural pathways or structures. When the chemoreceptive function of the area postrema (AP) is destroyed by complete ablation, rats develop CTA and cats and monkeys develop CTA and vomit. Thus the AP is not crucially involved in either CTA or vomiting induced by motion. However, after complete denervation of the stomach or after labyrinthectomy rats do not develop CTA when motion is used as the unconditioned stimulus. Studies of brainstem projections of the vagus nerve, the area postrema, the periaqueductal grey, and the vestibular system are used as the basis for speculation about regions which could mediate both motion-induced vomiting and behavioral food aversion.

  13. Conditioned taste aversions: From poisons to pain to drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jian-You; Arthurs, Joe; Reilly, Steve

    2017-04-01

    Learning what to eat and what not to eat is fundamental to our well-being, quality of life, and survival. In particular, the acquisition of conditioned taste aversions (CTAs) protects all animals (including humans) against ingesting foods that contain poisons or toxins. Counterintuitively, CTAs can also develop in situations in which we know with absolute certainty that the food did not cause the subsequent aversive systemic effect. Recent nonhuman animal research, analyzing palatability shifts, has indicated that a wider range of stimuli than has been traditionally acknowledged can induce CTAs. This article integrates these new findings with a reappraisal of some known characteristics of CTA and presents a novel conceptual analysis that is broader and more comprehensive than previous accounts of CTA learning.

  14. Alteration of conditioned emotional response and conditioned taste aversion after neonatal ventral hippocampus lesions in rats.

    PubMed

    Angst, Marie-Josée; Macedo, Carlos Eduardo; Guiberteau, Thierry; Sandner, Guy

    2007-04-27

    Sprague-Dawley rats were submitted to bilateral ventral hippocampus lesions 7 days after birth according to the Lipska and Weinberger's procedure for modeling schizophrenia. The aim of the present work was to better characterize their learning capacity. A double latent inhibition study was conducted using respectively conditioned taste aversion and conditioned emotional response. In the background of this evaluation, locomotion under apomorphine and startle reactions, inhibited or not by prepulses, was also evaluated. Our experimental methods were the same as those used in previous studies from the laboratory which were found to be sensitive to pharmacological manipulations and shown by others to be unaffected by lesions of the ventral hippocampus carried out in adult rats. In contrast, neonatally lesioned rats, once adults (over 60 days old), were hyper-responsive to noise--i.e., the startle response to a 105 db(A) noise pulse was enhanced--and hyperactive under apomorphine (0.7 mg/kg). The prepulse inhibition properties of the startle remained unchanged. Lesioned rats showed a deficit but not a suppression of conditioning, similar in both tests, but latent inhibition was preserved. Such observations complement the already known memory deficit produced in this neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia.

  15. Latent inhibition in rats neonatally treated chronically with MK-801: differential effects on conditioned taste aversion and conditioned emotional response.

    PubMed

    Niikura, Ryo; Nozawa, Takashi; Yamada, Kazuo; Kato, Katsunori; Ichitani, Yukio

    2015-04-15

    Chronic neonatal blockade of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors produces various abnormal behaviors in adulthood animals. This study investigated the effects of neonatal treatment chronically with MK-801 in rats on the preexposure-induced retardation of CS-US association, i.e. latent inhibition (LI), of two aversive classical conditioning tasks in adulthood. In conditioned taste aversion (CTA) using sucrose taste and LiCl, neonatal chronic MK-801 (0.4 mg/kg twice/day) treatment attenuated the inhibitory effect of sucrose preexposure on the aversive conditioning, although the treatment did not affect CTA conditioning itself. On the other hand, in conditioned emotional response (CER) using tone and electrical foot shock, rats neonatally treated with MK-801 showed the same degree of inhibitory effect of tone preexposure on the aversive conditioning compared with neonatally vehicle-treated rats, and also showed the same level of CER conditioning itself. Thus, the effect of chronic neonatal blockade of NMDA receptors on the LI of classical conditioning in adulthood was differentiated by the task employed. Results suggest that LI of CTA paradigm compared with that of CER is more sensitive to abnormal development after chronic neonatal blockade of NMDA receptors as an index of cognitive/attentional deficits caused by the treatment.

  16. Zingiber officinale Rosc. modulates gamma radiation-induced conditioned taste aversion.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ashok; Haksar, Anupum; Chawla, Raman; Kumar, Raj; Arora, Rajesh; Singh, Surender; Prasad, Jagdish; Islam, F; Arora, M P; Kumar Sharma, Rakesh

    2005-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the neurobehavioral protective efficacy of a hydroalcoholic extract of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) in mitigating gamma radiation-induced conditioned taste aversion in Sprague-Dawley rats. Administration of Zingiber extract 1 h before 2-Gy gamma irradiation was effective in blocking the saccharin avoidance response for 5 post-treatment observational days, both in a dose- and time-dependent manner, with 200 mg/kg b.w. i.p. being the most effective dose. Highest saccharin intake in all the groups was observed on the fifth post-treatment day. The potential of ginger extract to inhibit lipid peroxidation induced by radiation (2 Gy) and ascorbate-ion stress in brain homogenate and its ability to scavenge highly reactive superoxide anions were evaluated. The 1000-microg/ml and 2000-microg/ml concentration of ginger extract showed the highest efficiency in scavenging free radicals and in inhibiting lipid peroxidation. The lipid peroxidation and superoxide-anion scavenging ability of the extract further supports its radioprotective properties. The results clearly establish the neurobehavioral efficacy of ginger extract and the antioxidant properties appear to be a contributing factor in its overall ability to modulate radiation-induced conditioned taste aversion. Ginger extract has tremendous potential for clinical applications in mitigation of radiation-induced emesis in humans.

  17. Discriminative stimulus properties of amphetamine in a conditioned taste aversion paradigm.

    PubMed

    Herrera, F M; Velazquez Martinez, D N

    1997-10-01

    It has been proposed that the conditioned taste aversion paradigm may be used to achieve rapid training of subjects in drug discrimination studies. We report here that amphetamine (1.0 mg/kg) may acquire discriminative control over the preference of rats for a distinctive flavour when its administration precedes access to a saccharin solution (0.15% w/v), versus the occasions when the injection of saline precedes no toxicosis after access to the same flavour. Other doses of amphetamine (0.18-1.0 mg/kg) or apomorphine (0.1-1.0 mg/kg) produced a dose-dependent generalization to the stimulus cue of amphetamine (1.0 mg/kg), and haloperidol (0.01-0.1 mg/kg) was able to prevent the stimulus control exerted by amphetamine. No stimulus control was seen in a control group where no distinctive outcomes followed the administration of either amphetamine or saline before the subjects had access to the saccharin-flavoured solution. In the experimental group only, changes in the preference for saccharin were observed, with no changes in the total amount of water and saccharin ingested. Taken together, the present results suggest the usefulness of the conditioned taste aversion procedure to train subjects in drug discrimination.

  18. Adrenergic drugs modify the level of noradrenaline in the insular cortex and alter extinction of conditioned taste aversion in rats.

    PubMed

    Fresquet, Nadine; Angst, Marie-Josée; Schleef, Carmen; Gobaille, Serge; Sandner, Guy

    2007-03-12

    We compared the effect of conditioned taste aversion in rats by measuring the amount of sucrose that they drunk after conditioning, which differed according to whether rats had drunk the sucrose freely (SD: self drinking) during the conditioning session, or had been forced to drink it (IO: intra-oral administration through a chronically implanted cannula). The SD procedure delayed the extinction of conditioned taste aversion. Enhanced arousal, alertness, awareness or attention in the SD condition may have strengthened the memory of the taste. Brain noradrenergic networks are involved in such processes. We administered two noradrenergic drugs that produce opposite effects on noradrenaline release in the brain, methoxy-idazoxan, RX821002 (1mg/kg, i.p.), and guanfacine (0.12mg/kg, i.p.). We evaluated their effect (i) on the level of noradrenaline in the gustatory cortex using microdialysis, (ii) on glycaemia that is an essential factor of taste learning and (iii) on the comparative SD versus IO conditioned taste aversion protocol mentioned above. Injecting RX821001 increased the level of noradrenaline in the gustatory cortex up to two-fold of the baseline. This effect lasted 1h. The same dose of RX821002 did not elicit any alteration of glycaemia. It enhanced extinction of conditioned taste aversion in the SD group of rats. Injecting 0.12mg/kg of guanfacine produced the opposite effect. The noradrenaline level of the gustatory cortex decreased, but only down to 20% of the baseline. This decrease lasted 2h. Guanfacine increased glycaemia. Extinction of conditioned taste aversion was only marginally decreased by guanfacine in the SD group of rats. These results fit with Aston-Jones' point of view that the role of the noradrenergic coeruleo-cortical system may be to enhance arousal, alertness, awareness or attention to an event by a transient increase of cortical noradrenaline.

  19. AAB and ABA Renewal as a Function of the Number of Extinction Trials in Conditioned Taste Aversion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosas, Juan M.; Garcia-Gutierrez, Ana; Callejas-Aguilera, Jose E.

    2007-01-01

    Three experiments explored renewal in conditioned taste aversion after different amounts of extinction. In Experiment 1, three groups of rats received a single conditioning trial where a saccharin solution was paired with LiCl, followed by 3 extinction trials, and a two-trial test. Groups differed in the context where they received each of the…

  20. Parabrachial nucleus lesions block taste and attenuate flavor preference and aversion conditioning in rats.

    PubMed

    Sclafani, A; Azzara, A V; Touzani, K; Grigson, P S; Norgren, R

    2001-08-01

    Rats with ibotenic acid lesions of the parabrachial nucleus (PBN) failed to learn a taste aversion induced by lithium chloride (LiCl) toxicosis. The same rats also did not learn to prefer a taste that was paired with intragastric (IG) carbohydrate infusions during 22 hr/day trials. The PBN-lesioned rats did learn to prefer a flavor (odor + taste) paired with the IG carbohydrate infusions over a different flavor paired with IG water. The PBN-lesioned rats also learned to avoid a flavor paired with IG LiCl infusions during 22 hr/day trials. The flavor preference and aversion, however, were less pronounced than those displayed by control rats. These data indicate that the PBN is essential for forming orosensory-viscerosensory associations when taste is the primary cue but is less critical when more complex flavor cues are available.

  1. Consequences of repeated ethanol exposure during early or late adolescence on conditioned taste aversions in rats.

    PubMed

    Saalfield, Jessica; Spear, Linda

    2015-12-01

    Alcohol use is prevalent during adolescence, yet little is known about possible long-lasting consequences. Recent evidence suggests that adolescents are less sensitive than adults to ethanol's aversive effects, an insensitivity that may be retained into adulthood after repeated adolescent ethanol exposure. This study assessed whether intermittent ethanol exposure during early or late adolescence (early-AIE or late-AIE, respectively) would affect ethanol conditioned taste aversions 2 days (CTA1) and >3 weeks (CTA2) post-exposure using supersaccharin and saline as conditioning stimuli (CS), respectively. Pair-housed male Sprague-Dawley rats received 4g/kg i.g. ethanol (25%) or water every 48 h from postnatal day (P) 25-45 (early AIE) or P45-65 (late AIE), or were left non-manipulated (NM). During conditioning, 30 min home cage access to the CS was followed by 0, 1, 1.5, 2 or 2.5g/kg ethanol i.p., with testing 2 days later. Attenuated CTA relative to controls was seen among early and late AIE animals at both CTA1 and CTA2, an effect particularly pronounced at CTA1 after late AIE. Thus, adolescent exposure to ethanol was found to induce an insensitivity to ethanol CTA seen soon after exposure and lasting into adulthood, and evident with ethanol exposures not only early but also later in adolescence.

  2. Dried bonito dashi: taste qualities evaluated using conditioned taste aversion methods in wild-type and T1R1 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Delay, Eugene R; Kondoh, Takashi

    2015-02-01

    The primary taste of dried bonito dashi is thought to be umami, elicited by inosine 5'-monphosphate (IMP) and L-amino acids. The present study compared the taste qualities of 25% dashi with 5 basic tastes and amino acids using conditioned taste aversion methods. Although wild-type C57BL/6J mice with compromised olfactory systems generalized an aversion of dashi to all 5 basic tastes, generalization was greater to sucrose (sweet), citric acid (sour), and quinine (bitter) than to NaCl (salty) or monosodium L-glutamate (umami) with amiloride. At neutral pH (6.5-6.9), the aversion generalized to l-histidine, L-alanine, L-proline, glycine, L-aspartic acid, L-serine, and monosodium L-glutamate, all mixed with IMP. Lowering pH of the test solutions to 5.7-5.8 (matching dashi) with HCl decreased generalization to some amino acids. However, adding lactic acid to test solutions with the same pH increased generalization to 5'-inosine monophosphate, L-leucine, L-phenylalanine, L-valine, L-arginine, and taurine but eliminated generalization to L-histidine. T1R1 knockout mice readily learned the aversion to dashi and generalized the aversion to sucrose, citric acid, and quinine but not to NaCl, glutamate, or any amino acid. These results suggest that dashi elicits a complex taste in mice that is more than umami, and deleting T1R1 receptor altered but did not eliminate their ability to taste dashi. In addition, lactic acid may alter or modulate taste transduction or cell-to-cell signaling. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. State-dependent interaction in the antihistamine-induced disruption of a radiation-induced conditioned taste aversion

    SciTech Connect

    Rabin, B.M.; Hunt, W.A.; Lee, J.

    1982-06-01

    Two experiments were run to evaluate the possibility that injection of antihistamine can produce a state-dependent acquisition of a radiation-induced conditioned taste aversion. In the first experiment, pretreating rats with the antihistamine chlorpheniramine maleate prior to their initial exposure to sucrose and to low-level irradiation on the conditioning day did not prevent the acquisition of a taste aversion to sucrose when the antihistamine was also administered prior to a subsequent preference test. In the second experiment, rats were both conditioned and tested for a radiation-induced aversion in a drug-free state. Under these condtions, the rats continued to show an aversion to sucrose despite pretreating them with chlorpheniramine prior to irradiation. Since rats conditioned under the antihistamine do not show the radiation-induced conditioned taste aversion when tested for sucrose preference in a nondrug state, it would seem that pretreating rats with an antihistamine prior to conditioning affects only the retrieval of the previously learned response and not its acquisition.

  4. Appetitive sensitization by amphetamine does not reduce its ability to produce conditioned taste aversion to saccharin.

    PubMed

    Scott-Railton, John; Arnold, Gretchen; Vezina, Paul

    2006-12-15

    Previous exposure to amphetamine attenuates its ability to induce conditioned taste aversion (CTA). Because amphetamine, unlike emetic agents like LiCl, possesses appetitive properties that sensitize when it is administered repeatedly, the present study assessed the contribution of sensitization to this US-pre-exposure effect (US-PEE). It was found that not all sensitizing regimens of systemic amphetamine injections produce a US-PEE. In addition, previous exposure to amphetamine in the VTA, where it acts to induce sensitization but not CTA, did not produce a US-PEE. It is concluded that amphetamine sensitization alone does not modulate this drug's ability to produce CTA. Implications of these findings for anatomically based associative and non-associative models of CTA and the US-PEE are discussed.

  5. Conditioned taste aversion learning in leptin-receptor-deficient db/db mice.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Rie; Shigemura, Noriatsu; Sasamoto, Kazushige; Koyano, Kiyoshi; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2003-09-01

    The db/db mouse has defective leptin receptors. The defects lead to impairments of leptin regulation of food intake and body weight, and result in the expression of diabetic symptoms such as hyperinsulinemia, hyperglicemia, and extreme obesity. Recent studies have proposed that leptin may also affect memory and learning processes. To examine this possibility, we compared the ability of leptin-receptor-deficient db/db mice and their normal lean litter mates to form and extinguish a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) for saccharin. We used a short-term (10 s) lick test and a long-term (48 h) two bottle preference test for measurement of consumption of test solutions. On the first day after conditioning to avoid saccharin, the db/db mice showed preference scores for saccharin as low, and aversion thresholds for sucrose lower than that of the lean mice. During the extinction test trials beginning from the second up to the 30th day after conditioning, numbers of licks and preference scores for aversive saccharin and sucrose appeared to be larger, and recovered faster to the control levels in db/db mice. These results indicate that db/db mice with leptin-receptor-deficiency may show equal capacity to form CTAs for saccharin, greater generalization from saccharin to sucrose, and a faster rate of extinction. This suggests that disruption of leptin signalling does not inhibit acquisition of CTA learning, but impairs its extinction. This differential contribution of the leptin system on CTA processes may be due to differential distribution of leptin receptors in the CTA-related brain areas.

  6. Excitotoxic lesions of the parabrachial nuclei prevent conditioned taste aversions and sodium appetite in rats.

    PubMed

    Scalera, G; Spector, A C; Norgren, R

    1995-10-01

    Electrolytic lesions of the parabrachial nuclei (PBN) disrupt conditioned taste aversion (CTA) in the rat, but it is not known whether this effect is due to damaging axons of passage or to destruction of intrinsic neurons. We tested 10 rats with electrophysiologically guided, ibotenic acid lesions of the PBN (PBNx) to determine whether they could acquire a LiCl-induced CTA to l-alanine (0.3 M) or demonstrate a sodium appetite following furosemide treatment and overnight access to sodium deficient chow. Vehicle-treated and nonsurgical controls were included in the design. PBNx rats failed to develop a CTA, even after 3 conditioning trials. Moreover, more than 8 months later, a subset of the PBNx rats were again unable to learn a CTA using NaCl as the conditional stimulus (CS). After the furosemide treatment, the control rats drank an average of 20.3 ml of strong salt in 24 hr. The PBNx rats drank virtually no NaCl during the first 2 hr and averaged only 4.0 ml in 24 hr. In the PBN, damage to neuronal somata is more critical than interrupting fibers of passage for producing deficits in taste-guided behaviors.

  7. Gustatory insular cortex, aversive taste memory and taste neophobia.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jian-You; Arthurs, Joe; Reilly, Steve

    2015-03-01

    Prior research indicates a role for the gustatory insular cortex (GC) in taste neophobia. Rats with lesions of the GC show much weaker avoidance to a novel and potentially dangerous taste than do neurologically intact animals. The current study used the retention of conditioned taste aversion (CTA) as a tool to determine whether the GC modulates neophobia by processing taste novelty or taste danger. The results show that GC lesions attenuate CTA retention (Experiment 1) and impair taste neophobia (Experiment 2). Given that normal CTA retention does not involve the processing of taste novelty, the pattern of results suggests that the GC is involved in taste neophobia via its function in processing the danger conveyed by a taste stimulus.

  8. Conditioned taste aversion and Ca/calmodulin-dependent kinase II in the parabrachial nucleus of rats.

    PubMed

    Krivanek, J

    2001-07-01

    Bielavska and colleagues (Bielavska, Sacchetti, Baldi, & Tassoni, 1999) have recently shown that KN-62, an inhibitor of calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaCMK), induces conditioned taste aversion (CTA) when introduced into the parabrachial nucleus (PBN) of rats. The aim of the present report was to assess whether activity of CaCMK in the PBN is changed during CTA. We induced CTA in one group of rats by pairing saccharin consumption with an ip injection of lithium chloride. Another group of rats received lithium alone (without being paired with saccharin consumption) to test whether lithium has an effect on CaCMK in the PBN, independent of those effects due to training. In animals receiving CTA training, CaCMK activity in extracts of PBN was reduced by approximately 30% at the postacquisition intervals of 12, 24, and 48 h, compared to control animals receiving saccharin with saline injection. By 120 h after CTA training, no effect on CaCMK was present. At those postacquisition intervals showing CaCMK activity effects due to CTA, there were no effects attributable to lithium alone. Lithium alone produced only a short-lasting reduction in CaCMK activity (at 20 min a 30% decrease, at 60 min a 23% decrease; and at 6, 12, and 24 h no decrease). The time course of lithium-induced effects differed markedly from that of CTA training. All changes were Ca2+/- -dependent; we did not observe any changes in Ca-independent activity. CTA effects on CaCMK were selective for PBN, insofar as we did not observe any CTA effects on CaCMK in the visual cortex, a brain region unrelated to taste pathways. Since CTA produces a relatively long-lasting reduction in CaCMK activity (lasting 2 days or more) specifically in the PBN, which is critical a relay for taste information, the reduction of CaCMK activity may enable the consolidation of taste memory in an aversive situation.

  9. Disentangling the Effects of Context Change and Context Familiarity on Latent Inhibition with a Conditioned Taste Aversion Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De la Casa, L. G.; Mena, A.; Orgaz, A.; Fernandez, A.

    2013-01-01

    Contextual specificity of Latent Inhibition (LI) has been demonstrated using an ample range of experimental procedures. Context dependence has not been consistently obtained, however, when LI has been induced using a Conditioned Taste Aversion (CTA) procedure. This paper presents two experiments designed to analyze whether the context plays the…

  10. Region-Specific Involvement of Actin Rearrangement-Related Synaptic Structure Alterations in Conditioned Taste Aversion Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bi, Ai-Ling; Wang, Yue; Li, Bo-Qin; Wang, Qian-Qian; Ma, Ling; Yu, Hui; Zhao, Ling; Chen, Zhe-Yu

    2010-01-01

    Actin rearrangement plays an essential role in learning and memory; however, the spatial and temporal regulation of actin dynamics in different phases of associative memory has not been fully understood. Here, using the conditioned taste aversion (CTA) paradigm, we investigated the region-specific involvement of actin rearrangement-related…

  11. Disentangling the Effects of Context Change and Context Familiarity on Latent Inhibition with a Conditioned Taste Aversion Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De la Casa, L. G.; Mena, A.; Orgaz, A.; Fernandez, A.

    2013-01-01

    Contextual specificity of Latent Inhibition (LI) has been demonstrated using an ample range of experimental procedures. Context dependence has not been consistently obtained, however, when LI has been induced using a Conditioned Taste Aversion (CTA) procedure. This paper presents two experiments designed to analyze whether the context plays the…

  12. Region-Specific Involvement of Actin Rearrangement-Related Synaptic Structure Alterations in Conditioned Taste Aversion Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bi, Ai-Ling; Wang, Yue; Li, Bo-Qin; Wang, Qian-Qian; Ma, Ling; Yu, Hui; Zhao, Ling; Chen, Zhe-Yu

    2010-01-01

    Actin rearrangement plays an essential role in learning and memory; however, the spatial and temporal regulation of actin dynamics in different phases of associative memory has not been fully understood. Here, using the conditioned taste aversion (CTA) paradigm, we investigated the region-specific involvement of actin rearrangement-related…

  13. Effects of context novelty vs. familiarity on latent inhibition with a conditioned taste aversion procedure.

    PubMed

    Quintero, E; Díaz, E; Vargas, J P; Schmajuk, N; López, J C; De la Casa, L G

    2011-02-01

    The latent inhibition phenomenon is observed when a conditioned stimulus is preexposed without any consequence before conditioning. The result of this manipulation is a reduction in conditioned response intensity to such a stimulus. In this study, we analyse the role of context novelty/familiarity on LI modulation by changing the context using a three-stage conditioned taste aversion procedure. Experiment 1 revealed that, similar to other learning procedures, a context change between preexposure and conditioning/testing (but not between preexposure/conditioning and testing) resulted in LI attenuation when the experimental contexts were novel. Experiment 2, using animals' home cages as one of the contexts, revealed a different pattern of results, with an unexpected increase in LI magnitude when the context change was introduced between conditioning and test stages. The Schmajuk et al. (1996) computational model explains these results in terms of the increased novelty of the conditioned stimulus during preexposure, conditioning, and testing. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Time-dependent retrograde amnesic effects of muscimol on conditioned taste aversion extinction

    PubMed Central

    DiSorbo, Anthony; Wilson, Gina N.; Bacik, Stephanie; Hoxha, Zana; Biada, Jaclyn M.; Mickley, G. Andrew

    2009-01-01

    We explored how stimulation of GABAA receptors at different times during conditioned taste aversion (CTA) acquisition or extinction influenced extinction. In Experiment 1, rats acquired a CTA to 0.3% saccharin-flavored water (SAC) when it followed an injection of lithium chloride (LiCl; 81.0 mg/kg, i.p.). Following conditioning, rats received extinction training in which the GABAA agonist muscimol (1.0 mg/kg, i.p.), or control (saline) injections, were administered either before or after each extinction trial. Muscimol hindered extinction when administered after extinction trials. Muscimol’s inhibitory effects may have impeded extinction learning by disrupting synaptic mechanisms required to consolidate information experienced during extinction training. In Experiment 2, we studied the effects of muscimol on CTA acquisition and subsequent extinction. Rats received muscimol (1.0 mg/kg, i.p.) either before or after CTA conditioning trials. Following CTA acquisition, all rats were given CTA extinction training without muscimol administration. All groups developed CTA, but the group that received muscimol before CTA conditioning trials extinguished rapidly in comparison to other treatment groups. Differences between muscimol’s effects on CTA conditioning and CTA extinction indicate that fear conditioning and extinction involve, to some degree, different neuronal mechanisms. PMID:19171164

  15. Latent inhibition disruption by MK-801 in a conditioned taste-aversion paradigm.

    PubMed

    Traverso, L M; Ruiz, G; De la Casa, L G

    2003-09-01

    N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors appear to be involved in CS processing and memory consolidation. The present paper analyzed the effect of the non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist Dizocilpine maleate (MK-801) on Latent Inhibition (LI)-retarded learning of a CS-US association after to-be-CS preexposures at time of testing, using Wistar rats as experimental subjects. If NMDA receptors are involved in CS processing, MK-801 administration should affect LI. In fact, previous experiments revealed that a 2.0mg/kg MK-801 dose, administered 20 h before preexposure and conditioning, abolished LI in a conditioned taste-aversion paradigm. In the present paper, MK-801 (0.2 mg/kg) was either injected after preexposure, after conditioning, or after both preexposure and conditioning stages. LI was abolished when MK-801 was injected after preexposure, but not when it was injected after conditioning. These results support the role of NMDA receptors in CS processing and memory consolidation.

  16. Stress and re-stress increases conditioned taste aversion learning in rats: possible frontal cortical and hippocampal muscarinic receptor involvement.

    PubMed

    Brand, Linda; Groenewald, Ilse; Stein, Dan J; Wegener, Gregers; Harvey, Brian H

    2008-05-31

    Symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder are often precipitated by sensory cues in the form of visual, auditory, olfactory and gustatory "flashbacks" resulting in enhanced fear-memory consolidation and the characteristic symptoms of re-experiencing, avoidance and hyper-arousal. Single prolonged stress with and without re-stress have been used to explore the neurobiology of this disorder, particularly with respect to contextual conditioning and spatial memory impairment. However, less work has been done regarding associative sensory-related memories linked to aversive events. Although growing evidence supports a role for cholinergic pathways in stress, this has not been studied in the above animal models. We studied the effects of single prolonged stress with and without re-stress on conditioned taste aversion learning in rats, together with differential analysis of frontal cortical and hippocampal [3H]-quinuclidinyl benzylate ([3H]-QNB) muscarinic receptor binding. Single prolonged stress with and without re-stress both enhanced associative sensory aversion learning 7 days after stressor-taste pairing, although re-stress did not strengthen this response. Increased cortical and hippocampal muscarinic receptor density (Bmax) was found 7 days after single prolonged stress with re-stress, although receptor affinity remained unaltered. Frontal cortical and hippocampal muscarinic receptor changes may thus underlie conditioned taste aversion learning in rats exposed to stress and re-stress. These data suggest that it may be useful to study the role of cholinergic pathways in mediating associative memory in psychiatric disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder.

  17. Circadian-temporal context and latent inhibition of conditioned taste aversion: Effect of restriction in the intake of the conditioned taste stimulus.

    PubMed

    Molero-Chamizo, Andrés

    2016-11-11

    Latent inhibition of conditioned taste aversion (CTA) is sensitive to changes in the temporal context. A change in the time of day of conditioning with respect to the time of day of the preexposure can disrupt the latent inhibition. This contextual change in the time of day may reveal a temporal specificity of latent inhibition. The optimum procedure to induce this temporal specificity is not well established. For example, it has been shown that a long period of habituation to temporal contexts is one factor that can determine the effect. However, the experimental conditions on the conditioning day that facilitate this phenomenon are unknown. The aim of this study is to elucidate whether a restriction in the intake of the conditioned taste stimulus affects the temporal specificity of latent inhibition. Two main groups of Wistar rats were tested in a latent inhibition of CTA paradigm, in which the temporal specificity of this phenomenon was analyzed by a change in the time of day of conditioning. The intake of the taste stimulus was restricted in the conditioning day in one of the groups, but this restriction was not applied in the other group. The results indicated temporal specificity of latent inhibition only in the group without restriction, but not in the group with limitation in the intake of the taste stimulus during conditioning. These findings can help to elucidate the characteristics of the procedure to induce temporal specificity of latent inhibition.

  18. Single-trial conditioning in a human taste-endotoxin paradigm induces conditioned odor aversion but not cytokine responses.

    PubMed

    Grigoleit, Jan-Sebastian; Kullmann, Jennifer S; Winkelhaus, Anne; Engler, Harald; Wegner, Alexander; Hammes, Florian; Oberbeck, Reiner; Schedlowski, Manfred

    2012-02-01

    Immunological responses to bacterial endotoxin can be behaviorally conditioned in rodents. However, it is unclear whether an acute systemic inflammatory response can be behaviorally conditioned in humans. Thus, in a double-blind placebo-controlled study, 20 healthy, male subjects received either a single injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or saline together with a novel tasting beverage (conditioned stimulus, CS). Five days later, all subjects received a saline injection and were re-exposed to the CS. Blood was drawn prior to as well as 0.5, 1.5, 3, 4, 6, and 24 h after LPS administration or CS re-exposure. Endotoxin administration led to transient increases in plasma concentrations of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and to a significant rise in body temperature. Sole presentation of the CS during evocation did induce neither alterations in body temperature nor changes in plasma cytokine levels. However, subjects in the experimental group rated the smell of the CS significantly more aversive compared to the control group. Employing endotoxin as a US in a single trial taste-immune conditioning paradigm in humans shows a behaviorally conditioned smell aversion but no learned alterations in cytokine levels. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Conditioned taste aversion to saccharin induced by 2, 4, 5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Sjödén, P O; Archer, T

    1977-07-01

    Four groups of Wistar rats were exposed either to saccharin + 2,4,5-T (taste-aversion group, T-A), saccharin + oil vehicle (taste-aversion control, T-A C), water + 2,4,5-T (enhanced neophobia, E-N), or water + oil (neophobia, N). Rats in the T-A group evidenced a marked aversion to saccharin in 3 consecutive preference tests, performed every third day, starting 3 days after exposure. The aversion was less pronounced, although statistically significant in 2 additional preference tests, performed respectively after a 9-day rest period of ad lib water drinking, and a 24 hr period of forced exposure to saccharin. An enhanced neophobia effect was found in the E-N group in the first preference test. Suggestions are made concerning the possible long-term effects on food preferences among wild-living animals as a result of large-scale application of 2,4,5-T-containing herbicides.

  20. Modulation of the magnitude of conditioned taste aversion in rats with excitotoxic lesions of the basolateral amygdala.

    PubMed

    Molero-Chamizo, Andrés

    2017-01-01

    The amygdala is one of the structures involved in the acquisition of conditioned taste aversion (CTA). Nevertheless, the specific roles that the nuclei of this structure play in CTA learning are controversial. Electrolytic lesions applied to the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala can eliminate or reduce the acquisition of this learning. This effect has been attributed to the involvement of fibers that pass through this nucleus and connect with other structures that are critical for CTA. Excitotoxic lesions may allow a clearer insight as to the potential involvement of this nucleus in the acquisition of CTA. The few studies to date that have used this paradigm have shown effects on taste aversion learning after applying extensive lesions to the amygdala. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the effect of selective excitotoxic lesions of the basolateral amygdala on the acquisition of CTA. The effects of these lesions on learning were compared with the effects observed in animals with sham lesions and animals with lesions of the hippocampus, which is a structure apparently not involved in CTA. The results revealed a decreased aversion in animals with basolateral lesions compared with both the sham and hippocampus-lesioned groups. Based on these findings, the role of this specific nucleus of the amygdala in the acquisition of taste aversion is briefly discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Studies on the role of central histamine in the acquisition of a radiation-induced conditioned taste aversion

    SciTech Connect

    Rabin, B.M.; Hunt, W.A.; Lee, J.

    1982-06-01

    The experiments described in this report were designed to test two hypotheses about how exposure to low-level radiation can affect the behavior of an organism: first, tht radiation effects on behavior are mediated by a radiation-induced release of histamine; and second, that this radiation-induced histamine release can exert relatively direct effects on the central nervous system. The results of the first experiment showed that microinjection of histamine directly into the fourth ventricle of rats produced a taste aversion to a novel sucrose solution. Pretreating rats with intraventricular H/sub 1/ or H/sub 2/ blockers was not effective in preventing the acquisition of the radiation-induced aversion, although the H/sub 1/ blocker did prevent the acquisition of a histamine-induced taste aversion. It also was not possible to establish a cross-tolerance between centrally administered histamine and radiation. The results are interpreted as not supporting the hypothesis that a radiation-induced release of central histamine mediates the acquisition of a conditioned taste aversion following exposure to low-level radiation.

  2. Parabrachial-hypothalamic interactions are required for normal conditioned taste aversions

    PubMed Central

    Dayawansa, Samantha; Ruch, Stacey

    2013-01-01

    Rats with bilateral excitotoxic lesions of the parabrachial nuclei (PBN) fail to acquire a conditioned taste aversion (CTA), yet they retain the ability to express a CTA learned prior to incurring the damage. Rats with bilateral electrolytic lesions of the lateral hypothalamus (LH) also have CTA learning deficits. The PBN have reciprocal neural connections with the LH. This suggests that these CTA deficits may be functionally related. Electrolytic lesions damage fibers of passage, as well as intrinsic neurons. Thus, these LH lesions might also interrupt reciprocal connections between the PBN and other ventral forebrain areas, such as the amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. To distinguish the source of the LH-lesion deficit, we tested for CTA first after bilateral excitotoxic lesions of LH and subsequently with a second set of animals that had asymmetric excitotoxic PBN and LH lesions. The rats with bilateral excitotoxic LH lesions showed deficits when acquiring a postlesion CTA. The asymmetrical PBN-LH lesions not only slowed acquisition of a CTA but also sped up extinction. This implies that interaction between the two structures, at minimum, facilitates CTA learning and may have a role in its consolidation. PMID:24259462

  3. Mint oil (Mentha spicata Linn.) offers behavioral radioprotection: a radiation-induced conditioned taste aversion study.

    PubMed

    Haksar, A; Sharma, A; Chawla, R; Kumar, Raj; Lahiri, S S; Islam, F; Arora, M P; Sharma, R K; Tripathi, R P; Arora, Rajesh

    2009-02-01

    Mentha spicata Linn. (mint), a herb well known for its gastroprotective properties in the traditional system of medicine has been shown to protect against radiation-induced lethality, and recently its constituents have been found to possess calcium channel antagonizing properties. The present study examined the behavioral radioprotective efficacy of mint oil (obtained from Mentha spicata), particularly in mitigating radiation-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA), which has been proposed as a behavioral endpoint that is mediated by the toxic effects of gamma radiation on peripheral systems, primarily the gastrointestinal system in the Sprague-Dawley rat model. Intraperitoneal administration of Mentha spicata oil 10% (v/v), 1 h before 2 Gy gamma radiation, was found to render significant radioprotection against CTA (p < 0.05), by blocking the saccharin avoidance response within 5 post-treatment observational days, with the highest saccharin intake being observed on day 5. This finding clearly demonstrates that gastroprotective and calcium channel antagonizing properties of Mentha spicata can be effectively utilized in preventing radiation-induced behavioral changes. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Estradiol enhances the acquisition of lithium chloride-induced conditioned taste aversion in castrated male rats.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shih-Fan; Tsai, Yuan-Feen; Tai, Mei-Yun; Yeh, Kuei-Ying

    2015-10-01

    The present study examined the effects of short-term treatment with ovarian hormones on the acquisition of conditioned taste aversion (CTA). Adult male rats were castrated and randomly divided into LiCl- and saline-treated groups. Nineteen days after castration, all of the animals were subjected to 23.5-h daily water deprivation for seven successive days (day 1 to day 7). On the conditioning day (day 8), the rats received either a 4 ml/kg of 0.15 M LiCl or the same dose of saline injection immediately after administration of a 2 % sucrose solution during the 30-min water session. Starting from day 6, rats in both groups received one of the following treatments: daily subcutaneous injection of (1) estradiol alone (30 μg/kg; estradiol benzoate (E) group), (2) estradiol plus progesterone (500 μg; E + progesterone (P) group), or (3) olive oil. From day 9 to day 11, all of the rats were given daily two-bottle preference tests during the 30-min fluid session. The estradiol and estradiol plus progesterone treatments in the LiCl groups resulted in significantly lower preference scores for the sucrose solution compared with the olive oil treatment groups, but no difference in preference score was seen between these two groups. These results indicate that both the estradiol and estradiol plus progesterone treatments in the LiCl groups enhanced the acquisition of CTA learning and suggest that estradiol affects the acquisition of CTA mediated by an activational effect in male rats, whereas progesterone treatment does not influence the effects of estradiol on the acquisition of CTA.

  5. Estradiol enhances the acquisition of lithium chloride-induced conditioned taste aversion in castrated male rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Shih-Fan; Tsai, Yuan-Feen; Tai, Mei-Yun; Yeh, Kuei-Ying

    2015-10-01

    The present study examined the effects of short-term treatment with ovarian hormones on the acquisition of conditioned taste aversion (CTA). Adult male rats were castrated and randomly divided into LiCl- and saline-treated groups. Nineteen days after castration, all of the animals were subjected to 23.5-h daily water deprivation for seven successive days (day 1 to day 7). On the conditioning day (day 8), the rats received either a 4 ml/kg of 0.15 M LiCl or the same dose of saline injection immediately after administration of a 2 % sucrose solution during the 30-min water session. Starting from day 6, rats in both groups received one of the following treatments: daily subcutaneous injection of (1) estradiol alone (30 μg/kg; estradiol benzoate (E) group), (2) estradiol plus progesterone (500 μg; E + progesterone (P) group), or (3) olive oil. From day 9 to day 11, all of the rats were given daily two-bottle preference tests during the 30-min fluid session. The estradiol and estradiol plus progesterone treatments in the LiCl groups resulted in significantly lower preference scores for the sucrose solution compared with the olive oil treatment groups, but no difference in preference score was seen between these two groups. These results indicate that both the estradiol and estradiol plus progesterone treatments in the LiCl groups enhanced the acquisition of CTA learning and suggest that estradiol affects the acquisition of CTA mediated by an activational effect in male rats, whereas progesterone treatment does not influence the effects of estradiol on the acquisition of CTA.

  6. Ghrelin modulates lateral amygdala neuronal firing and blocks acquisition for conditioned taste aversion.

    PubMed

    Song, Lige; Zhu, Qianqian; Liu, Tianwei; Yu, Ming; Xiao, Kewei; Kong, Qingnuan; Zhao, Renliang; Li, Guo-Dong; Zhou, Yu

    2013-01-01

    Ghrelin is an orexigenic brain-gut hormone promoting feeding and regulating energy metabolism in human and rodents. An increasing number of studies have reported that ghrelin and its identified receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHS-R1a), produces remarkably wide and complex functions and biological effects on specific populations of neurons in central nervous system. In this study, we sought to explore the in vivo effects of acute ghrelin exposure on lateral amygdala (LA) neurons at the physiological and behavioral levels. In vivo extracellular single-unit recordings showed that ghrelin with the concentration of several nanomolars (nM) stimulated spontaneous firing of the LA neurons, an effect that was dose-dependent and could be blocked by co-application of a GHS-R1a antagonist D-Lys3-GHRP-6. We also found that D-Lys3-GHRP-6 inhibited spontaneous firing of the LA neurons in a dose-dependent manner, revealing that tonic GHS-R1a activity contributes to orchestrate the basal activity of the LA neurons. Behaviorally, we found that microinfusion of ghrelin (12 ng) into LA before training interfered with the acquisition of conditioned taste aversion (CTA) as tested at 24 h after conditioning. Pre-treatment with either purified IgG against GHS-R1a or GHS-R1a antagonist blocked ghrelin's effect on CTA memory acquisition. Ghrelin (12 ng) had no effect on CTA memory consolidation or the expression of acquired CTA memory; neither did it affect the total liquid consumption of tested rats. Altogether, our data indicated that ghrelin locally infused into LA blocks acquisition of CTA and its modulation effects on neuronal firing may be involved in this process.

  7. Activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in lithium-induced conditioned taste aversion learning.

    PubMed

    Jahng, Jeong Won; Lee, Jong-Ho

    2015-12-05

    Intraperitoneal injections (ip) of lithium chloride at large doses induce c-Fos expression in the brain regions implicated in conditioned taste aversion (CTA) learning, and also activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and increase the plasma corticosterone levels in rats. A pharmacologic treatment blunting the lithium-induced c-Fos expression in the brain regions, but not the HPA axis activation, induced CTA formation. Synthetic glucocorticoids at conditioning, but not glucocorticoid antagonist, attenuated the lithium-induced CTA acquisition. The CTA acquisition by ip lithium was not affected by adrenalectomy regardless of basal corticosterone supplement, but the extinction was delayed in the absence of basal corticosterone. Glucocorticoids overloading delayed the extinction memory formation of lithium-induced CTA. ip lithium consistently induced the brain c-Fos expression, the HPA activation and CTA formation regardless of the circadian activation of the HPA axis. Intracerebroventricular (icv) injections of lithium at day time also increased the brain c-Fos expression, activated the HPA axis and induced CTA acquisition. However, icv lithium at night, when the HPA axis shows its circadian activation, did not induce CTA acquisition nor activate the HPA axis, although it increased the brain c-Fos expression. These results suggest that the circadian activation of the HPA axis may affect central, but not peripheral, effect of lithium in CTA learning in rats, and the HPA axis activation may be necessary for the central effect of lithium in CTA formation. Also, glucocorticoids may be required for a better extinction; however, increased glucocorticoids hinder both the acquisition and the extinction of lithium-induced CTA. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Ghrelin Modulates Lateral Amygdala Neuronal Firing and Blocks Acquisition for Conditioned Taste Aversion

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tianwei; Yu, Ming; Xiao, Kewei; Kong, Qingnuan; Zhao, Renliang; Li, Guo-Dong; Zhou, Yu

    2013-01-01

    Ghrelin is an orexigenic brain-gut hormone promoting feeding and regulating energy metabolism in human and rodents. An increasing number of studies have reported that ghrelin and its identified receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHS-R1a), produces remarkably wide and complex functions and biological effects on specific populations of neurons in central nervous system. In this study, we sought to explore the in vivo effects of acute ghrelin exposure on lateral amygdala (LA) neurons at the physiological and behavioral levels. In vivo extracellular single-unit recordings showed that ghrelin with the concentration of several nanomolars (nM) stimulated spontaneous firing of the LA neurons, an effect that was dose-dependent and could be blocked by co-application of a GHS-R1a antagonist D-Lys3-GHRP-6. We also found that D-Lys3-GHRP-6 inhibited spontaneous firing of the LA neurons in a dose-dependent manner, revealing that tonic GHS-R1a activity contributes to orchestrate the basal activity of the LA neurons. Behaviorally, we found that microinfusion of ghrelin (12 ng) into LA before training interfered with the acquisition of conditioned taste aversion (CTA) as tested at 24 h after conditioning. Pre-treatment with either purified IgG against GHS-R1a or GHS-R1a antagonist blocked ghrelin’s effect on CTA memory acquisition. Ghrelin (12 ng) had no effect on CTA memory consolidation or the expression of acquired CTA memory; neither did it affect the total liquid consumption of tested rats. Altogether, our data indicated that ghrelin locally infused into LA blocks acquisition of CTA and its modulation effects on neuronal firing may be involved in this process. PMID:23762368

  9. Inflammation-induced anorexia and fever are elicited by distinct prostaglandin dependent mechanisms, whereas conditioned taste aversion is prostaglandin independent.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Anna; Wilhelms, Daniel Björk; Mirrasekhian, Elahe; Jaarola, Maarit; Blomqvist, Anders; Engblom, David

    2017-03-01

    Systemic inflammation evokes an array of brain-mediated responses including fever, anorexia and taste aversion. Both fever and anorexia are prostaglandin dependent but it has been unclear if the cell-type that synthesizes the critical prostaglandins is the same. Here we show that pharmacological inhibition or genetic deletion of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, but not of COX-1, attenuates inflammation-induced anorexia. Mice with deletions of COX-2 selectively in brain endothelial cells displayed attenuated fever, as demonstrated previously, but intact anorexia in response to peripherally injected lipopolysaccharide (10μg/kg). Whereas intracerebroventricular injection of a cyclooxygenase inhibitor markedly reduced anorexia, deletion of COX-2 selectively in neural cells, in myeloid cells or in both brain endothelial and neural cells had no effect on LPS-induced anorexia. In addition, COX-2 in myeloid and neural cells was dispensable for the fever response. Inflammation-induced conditioned taste aversion did not involve prostaglandin signaling at all. These findings collectively show that anorexia, fever and taste aversion are triggered by distinct routes of immune-to-brain signaling.

  10. Reassessment of area postrema's role in motion sickness and conditioned taste aversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daunton, Nancy G.; Brizzee, Kenneth R.; Corcoran, Meryl Lee; Crampton, G. H.; Damelio, F.; Elfar, S.; Fox, Robert A.

    1991-01-01

    On the basis of classical studies on the role of the area psotrema (AP) in motion-induced emesis it was generally accepted that the AP is an essential structure for the production of vomiting in response to motion. However, in more recent studies it has been demonstrated that vomiting induced by motion can still occur in animals in which the AP has been destroyed bilaterally. It was inferred from some of these more recent studies that the AP plays no role in motion-induced emesis. From the standpoint of the current understanding of central nervous system (CNS) plasticity, redundancy, remodeling, unmasking, regeneration, and recovery of function, however, it is important to realize the limitations of using ablation procedures to determine the functional role of a given neural structure in a highly integrated, adaptable central nervous system (CNS). For example, the results of our recent investigations in cat and squirrel monkey on the role of the AP in emesis and conditioned taste aversion induced by motion indicate that while AP lesions do not prevent motion-induced emesis when animals are tested 30 days or more after surgery, the lesions do change the latency to emesis. Thus, contradictory findings from lesion studies must be evaluated not only in terms of species difference, differences in lesioning techniques and extent of lesions, and in stimulus parameters, but also in terms of duration of the recovery period, during which significant recovery of function may take place. In our judgment, inadequate consideration of the foregoing factors could lead to erroneous inferences about given structure's role in the behavior of the intact, nonablated animal.

  11. Reassessment of area postrema's role in motion sickness and conditioned taste aversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daunton, Nancy G.; Brizzee, Kenneth R.; Corcoran, Meryl Lee; Crampton, G. H.; Damelio, F.; Elfar, S.; Fox, Robert A.

    1991-01-01

    On the basis of classical studies on the role of the area psotrema (AP) in motion-induced emesis it was generally accepted that the AP is an essential structure for the production of vomiting in response to motion. However, in more recent studies it has been demonstrated that vomiting induced by motion can still occur in animals in which the AP has been destroyed bilaterally. It was inferred from some of these more recent studies that the AP plays no role in motion-induced emesis. From the standpoint of the current understanding of central nervous system (CNS) plasticity, redundancy, remodeling, unmasking, regeneration, and recovery of function, however, it is important to realize the limitations of using ablation procedures to determine the functional role of a given neural structure in a highly integrated, adaptable central nervous system (CNS). For example, the results of our recent investigations in cat and squirrel monkey on the role of the AP in emesis and conditioned taste aversion induced by motion indicate that while AP lesions do not prevent motion-induced emesis when animals are tested 30 days or more after surgery, the lesions do change the latency to emesis. Thus, contradictory findings from lesion studies must be evaluated not only in terms of species difference, differences in lesioning techniques and extent of lesions, and in stimulus parameters, but also in terms of duration of the recovery period, during which significant recovery of function may take place. In our judgment, inadequate consideration of the foregoing factors could lead to erroneous inferences about given structure's role in the behavior of the intact, nonablated animal.

  12. Dietary fibers reduce food intake by satiation without conditioned taste aversion in mice.

    PubMed

    Rasoamanana, Rojo; Even, Patrick C; Darcel, Nicolas; Tomé, Daniel; Fromentin, Gilles

    2013-02-17

    It is well known that intake of dietary fiber (DF) potently decreases food intake and feelings of hunger and/or promotes satiety ratings. However, the mechanisms explaining these effects are not well characterized. This work was performed to determine which of satiation and/or satiety mechanisms provoke the decrease of food intake induced by DF in mice. We tested in an intra-group protocol a low-viscosity (LV, fructo-oligosaccharide), a viscous (VP, guar gum) and a high-viscosity (HV, mixture of guar gum and fructo-oligosaccharide) preload. These were given to mice by intra-gastric gavage. It appeared that viscous preloads such as VP and HV reduced the daily energy intake by 14% and 21% respectively. The strong effect of HV was mainly due to a large decrease of meal size (by 57%) and meal duration (by 65%) with no effect on ingestion rate during the first 30 min after administration. Therefore, the DF-induced decrease of energy intake was due to a satiation mechanism. This is further supported by a 3-fold increased sensitization of neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract as observed by c-Fos protein immunolabelling. No compensation of food intake was observed during the rest of the day, a phenomenon that may be explained by the fact that metabolic rate remained high despite the lower food intake. We have also shown that the DF-induced inhibition of food intake was not paired with a conditioned taste aversion. To conclude, this work demonstrates that DF inhibits food intake by increasing satiation during ~1h after administration.

  13. The Influence of Prior Handling on the Effective CS-US Interval in Long-Trace Taste-Aversion Conditioning in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinderliter, Charles F.; Andrews, Amy; Misanin, James R.

    2012-01-01

    In conditioned taste aversion (CTA), a taste, the conditioned stimulus (CS), is paired with an illness-inducing stimulus, the unconditioned stimulus (US), to produce CS-US associations at very long (hours) intervals, a result that appears to violate the law of contiguity. The specific length of the maximum effective trace interval that has been…

  14. The Influence of Prior Handling on the Effective CS-US Interval in Long-Trace Taste-Aversion Conditioning in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinderliter, Charles F.; Andrews, Amy; Misanin, James R.

    2012-01-01

    In conditioned taste aversion (CTA), a taste, the conditioned stimulus (CS), is paired with an illness-inducing stimulus, the unconditioned stimulus (US), to produce CS-US associations at very long (hours) intervals, a result that appears to violate the law of contiguity. The specific length of the maximum effective trace interval that has been…

  15. Excitotoxic lesion of the posterior part of the dorsal striatum does not affect the typically dopaminergic phenomenon of latent inhibition in conditioned taste aversion.

    PubMed

    Molero-Chamizo, Andrés

    2015-02-01

    The stimulation or blockade of dopaminergic activity interrupts or increases, respectively, the phenomenon of latent inhibition in different paradigms. Furthermore, the involvement of the nucleus accumbens in latent inhibition has been demonstrated in several learning paradigms, including conditioned taste aversion. However, the role of the dorsal striatum in the pre-exposure effect on the acquisition of taste aversion remains unclear. In order to determine whether this region of the striatum is a structure necessary for latent inhibition of conditioned taste aversion, excitotoxic lesions were made in the posterior part of the dorsal striatum of Wistar rats. Subsequently, half of the animals was pre-exposed to the flavor, and the magnitude of the taste aversion was compared to that of sham animals pre-exposed and non-pre-exposed to the same flavor. The results showed that the excitotoxic lesion in this area of the dorsal striatum, compared to sham animals, left latent inhibition of the conditioned taste aversion intact. These data suggest that the posterior part of the dorsal striatum is not necessary for the acquisition of latent inhibition, at least in the conditioned taste aversion paradigm.

  16. Integration of Neurobiological and Computational Analyses of the Neural Network Essentials for Conditioned Taste Aversions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-30

    J., Hankins, W. G., Coil, S. D. Koalas , men and other conditional gastronomes. In Food Aversion Learning, ed. N. W. Milgram, L. Krames, T. Alloway...Learning with prolonged delay of reinforcement. Psychon. 5:121-122 Garcia, J., Hankins, W. G., Coil, S. D. 1977. Koalas , men and other conditional

  17. D-cycloserine into the BLA reverses the impairing effects of exposure to stress on the extinction of contextual fear, but not conditioned taste aversion.

    PubMed

    Akirav, Irit; Segev, Amir; Motanis, Helen; Maroun, Mouna

    2009-11-01

    We investigated whether the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor partial agonist D-cycloserine (DCS, 20 microg/side) microinfused into the basolateral amygdala (BLA) would reverse stress-induced impairment of extinction in two aversive learning paradigms: contextual fear conditioning and conditioned taste aversion (CTA). We found that DCS in the BLA show differential involvement in the extinction of these two paradigms and in its modulation of stress-induced impairment of extinction. This may suggest that the dysfunctional extinction of fear and taste aversion following exposure to a stressful experience may be modulated by different mechanisms.

  18. Role of catalase in ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion: a study with 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole.

    PubMed

    Quertemont, Etienne; Escarabajal, M Dolores; De Witte, Philippe

    2003-05-01

    Recent studies involved acetaldehyde, the first ethanol metabolite, in both the rewarding and aversive effects of ethanol consumption. Brain acetaldehyde is believed to originate mainly from local brain metabolism of ethanol by the enzyme catalase. Therefore, the inhibition of catalase by 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (aminotriazole) may help to clarify the involvement of acetaldehyde in ethanol's hedonic effects. In the present study, multiple doses of both ethanol and aminotriazole were used to investigate the effects of catalase inhibition on ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA). A separate microdialysis experiment investigated the effects of aminotriazole pretreatment on the time course of brain ethanol concentrations. Ethanol induced a dose-dependent CTA with a maximal effect after conditioning with 2.0 g/kg ethanol. Aminotriazole pretreatments dose-dependently potentiated the CTA induced by 1.0 g/kg ethanol. However, aminotriazole pretreatments did not alter the CTA induced by higher ethanol doses (1.5 and 2.0 g/kg) probably because a maximal aversion for saccharin was already obtained without aminotriazole. The results of the microdialysis experiment confirmed that the effects of aminotriazole cannot be attributed to local alterations of brain ethanol levels. The present study argues against a role for brain acetaldehyde in ethanol's aversive effects but in favor of its involvement in ethanol rewarding properties.

  19. Fear memory formation can affect a different memory: fear conditioning affects the extinction, but not retrieval, of conditioned taste aversion (CTA) memory

    PubMed Central

    Joels, Gil; Lamprecht, Raphael

    2014-01-01

    The formation of fear memory to a specific stimulus leads to subsequent fearful response to that stimulus. However, it is not apparent whether the formation of fear memory can affect other memories. We study whether specific fearful experience leading to fear memory affects different memories formation and extinction. We revealed that cued fear conditioning, but not unpaired or naïve training, inhibited the extinction of conditioned taste aversion (CTA) memory that was formed after fear conditioning training in rats. Fear conditioning had no effect on retrieval of CTA memory but specifically impaired its extinction. Extinguished fear memory, after fear extinction training, had no effect on future CTA memory extinction. Fear conditioning had no effect on CTA memory extinction if CTA memory was formed before fear conditioning. Conditioned taste aversion had no effect on fear conditioning memory extinction. We conclude that active cued fear conditioning memory can affect specifically the extinction, but not the formation, of future different memory. PMID:25324744

  20. Ventral Pallidal Coding of a Learned Taste Aversion

    PubMed Central

    Itoga, Christy A.; Berridge, Kent C.; Aldridge, J. Wayne

    2016-01-01

    The hedonic value of a sweet food reward, or how much a taste is ‘liked’, has been suggested to be encoded by neuronal firing in the posterior ventral pallidum (VP). Hedonic impact can be altered by psychological manipulations, such as taste aversion conditioning, which can make an initially pleasant sweet taste become perceived as disgusting. Pairing nausea-inducing LiCl injection as a Pavlovian unconditioned stimulus (UCS) with a novel taste that is normally palatable as the predictive conditioned stimulus (CS+) suffices to induce a learned taste aversion that changes orofacial ‘liking’ responses to that sweet taste (e.g., lateral tongue protrusions) to ‘disgust’ reactions (e.g., gapes) in rats. We used two different sweet tastes of similar initial palatability (a sucrose solution and a polycose/saccharin solution, CS± assignment was counterbalanced across groups) to produce a discriminative conditioned aversion. Only one of those tastes (arbitrarily assigned and designated as CS+) was associatively paired with LiCl injections as UCS to form a conditioned aversion. The other taste (CS−) was paired with mere vehicle injections to remain relatively palatable as a control sweet taste. We recorded the neural activity in VP in response to each taste, before and after aversion training. We found that the safe and positively hedonic taste always elicited excitatory increases in firing rate of VP neurons. By contrast, aversion learning reversed the VP response to the ‘disgusting’ CS+ taste from initial excitation into a conditioned decrease in neuronal firing rate after training. Such neuronal coding of hedonic impact by VP circuitry may contribute both to normal pleasure and disgust, and disruptions of VP coding could result in affective disorders, addictions and eating disorders. PMID:26615907

  1. Affective taste responses in the presence of reward- and aversion-conditioned stimuli and their relationship to psychomotor sensitization and place conditioning.

    PubMed

    Cagniard, Barbara; Murphy, Niall P

    2013-01-01

    Anecdotal experience and empirical evidence suggest animals approach or avoid conditioned stimuli based on the ability of those stimuli to elicit affective responses or interfere with affective assessments of ongoing stimuli. Thus, this study investigated the relationship between the ability of drug-conditioned environments to induce conditioned place preference or aversion and their ability to influence palatability responses to sucrose and quinine in those same environments. Mice were conditioned to methamphetamine (2mg/kg), morphine (10mg/kg) or naloxone (10mg/kg). Following testing for the expression of place conditioning, palatability responses to sucrose and quinine in the conditioned contexts were assessed. In general, virtually no effects of exposure to drug-conditioned contexts on overall positive or aversive palatability responses were observed. However, in naloxone-conditioned mice, the strength of conditioned place aversion to the naloxone-paired context correlated with aversive taste reactivity responses to quinine in that context. In morphine-conditioned mice, positive reactions to sucrose in the morphine-paired context negatively correlated with positive reactions to sucrose in the vehicle-paired context. Interestingly, the rate of methamphetamine-induced behavioral sensitization during conditioning and positive taste responses to sucrose in the methamphetamine-paired context positively correlated. These studies suggest that conditioned stimuli interact with or modulate the affective experience of ongoing unconditioned stimuli such as tastants, and these may reflect behavioral processes that guide behavior optimally. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Optogenetic Induction of Aversive Taste Memory

    PubMed Central

    C. Keene, Alex; Masek, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    The Drosophila melanogaster gustatory system consists of several neuronal pathways representing diverse taste modalities. The two predominant modalities are a sweet sensing pathway that mediates attraction, and a bitter sensing pathway that mediates avoidance. A central question is how flies integrate stimuli from these pathways and generate the appropriate behavioral response. We have developed a novel assay for induction of taste memories. We demonstrate that the gustatory response to fructose is suppressed when followed by the presence of bitter quinine. We employ optogenetic neural activation using infrared laser in combination with heat sensitive channel - TRPA1 to precisely activate gustatory neurons. This optogenetic system allows for spatially and temporally controlled activation of distinct neural classes in the gustatory circuit. We directly activated bitter-sensing neurons together with presentation of fructose for remote induction of aversive taste memories. Here we report that activation of bitter-sensing neurons in the proboscis suffices as a conditioning stimulus. Spatially restricted stimulation indicates that the conditioning stimulus is indeed a signal from the bitter neurons in the proboscis and it is independent of postingestive feedback. The coincidence of temporally specific activation of bitter-sensing neurons with fructose presentation is crucial for memory formation, establishing aversive taste learning in Drosophila as associative learning. Taken together, this optogenetic system provides a powerful new tool for interrogation of the central brain circuits that mediate memory formation. PMID:22820051

  3. Functional blockade of the parabrachial area by tetrodotoxin disrupts the acquisition of conditioned taste aversion induced by motion-sickness in rats.

    PubMed

    Gallo, M; Marquez, S L; Ballesteros, M A; Maldonado, A

    1999-04-09

    The role of the parabrachial area in conditioned taste aversion (CTA) induced by motion-sickness was studied in male Wistar rats. In the first experiment, one-trial conditioned taste aversion, to a 0.5% decaffeinated coffee solution, was induced by 30 min of vertical rotatory motion (80 rev./min) in intact rats. In the second experiment, reversible blockade of the neural activity in various brainstem sites was induced by bilateral intracerebral injections of tetrodotoxin (TTX) (10 ng/microl) after conditioning. Blockade of the parabrachial area, but neither A8 nor lateral vestibular nucleus, disrupted the acquisition of (CTA). The results are discussed in terms of an associative role of the parabrachial area in body rotation-induced taste aversion learning, as the area was intact during sensory processing and testing.

  4. Effect of Preconditioning Unconditioned Stimulus Experience on Learned Taste Aversions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon, Dale S.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Pairing a novel flavor with illness results in the conditioning of aversions to that flavor. This article reported a series of experiments examining the effect of several parameters of prior exposure to the illness on the acquisition of learned taste aversions. (Author/RK)

  5. Extinction of Conditioned Taste Aversion Depends on Functional Protein Synthesis but Not on NMDA Receptor Activation in the Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akirav, Irit; Khatsrinov, Vicktoria; Vouimba, Rose-Marie; Merhav, Maayan; Ferreira, Guillaume; Rosenblum, Kobi; Maroun, Mouna

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the role of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) in extinction of conditioned taste aversion (CTA) by microinfusing a protein synthesis inhibitor or N-methyl-d-asparate (NMDA) receptors antagonist into the vmPFC immediately following a non-reinforced extinction session. We found that the protein synthesis blocker anisomycin,…

  6. Intra-Amygdala ZIP Injections Impair the Memory of Learned Active Avoidance Responses and Attenuate Conditioned Taste-Aversion Acquisition in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamiz, Fernando; Gallo, Milagros

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated the effect of protein kinase Mzeta (PKM[zeta]) inhibition in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) upon the retention of a nonspatial learned active avoidance response and conditioned taste-aversion (CTA) acquisition in rats. ZIP (10 nmol/[mu]L) injected into the BLA 24 h after training impaired retention of a learned…

  7. Extinction of Conditioned Taste Aversion Depends on Functional Protein Synthesis but Not on NMDA Receptor Activation in the Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akirav, Irit; Khatsrinov, Vicktoria; Vouimba, Rose-Marie; Merhav, Maayan; Ferreira, Guillaume; Rosenblum, Kobi; Maroun, Mouna

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the role of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) in extinction of conditioned taste aversion (CTA) by microinfusing a protein synthesis inhibitor or N-methyl-d-asparate (NMDA) receptors antagonist into the vmPFC immediately following a non-reinforced extinction session. We found that the protein synthesis blocker anisomycin,…

  8. Intra-Amygdala ZIP Injections Impair the Memory of Learned Active Avoidance Responses and Attenuate Conditioned Taste-Aversion Acquisition in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamiz, Fernando; Gallo, Milagros

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated the effect of protein kinase Mzeta (PKM[zeta]) inhibition in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) upon the retention of a nonspatial learned active avoidance response and conditioned taste-aversion (CTA) acquisition in rats. ZIP (10 nmol/[mu]L) injected into the BLA 24 h after training impaired retention of a learned…

  9. The effects of the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist tropisetron on cocaine-induced conditioned taste aversions.

    PubMed

    Briscione, Maria A; Serafine, Katherine M; Merluzzi, Andrew P; Rice, Kenner C; Riley, Anthony L

    2013-04-01

    Although cocaine readily induces taste aversions, little is known about the mechanisms underlying this effect. Recent work has shown that cocaine's actions on serotonin (5-HT) may be involved. To address this possibility, the present experiments examined a role of the specific 5-HT receptor, 5-HT3, in this effect given that it is implicated in a variety of behavioral effects of cocaine. This series of investigations first assessed the aversive effects of the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist tropisetron alone (Experiment 1). Specifically, in Experiment 1 male Sprague-Dawley rats were given repeated pairings of a novel saccharin solution and tropisetron (0, 0.056, 0.18 and 0.56mg/kg). Following this, a non-aversion-inducing dose of tropisetron (0.18mg/kg) was assessed for its ability to block aversions induced by a range of doses of cocaine (Experiment 2). Specifically, in Experiment 2 animals were given access to a novel saccharin solution and then injected with tropisetron (0 or 0.18mg/kg) followed by an injection of various doses of cocaine (0, 10, 18 and 32mg/kg). Cocaine induced dose-dependent taste aversions that were not blocked by tropisetron, suggesting that cocaine's aversive effects are not mediated by 5-HT, at least at this specific receptor subtype. At the intermediate dose of cocaine, aversions appeared to be potentiated, suggesting 5-HT3 may play a limiting role in cocaine's aversive effects. These data are discussed in the context of previous examinations of the roles of serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine in cocaine-induced aversions.

  10. Chronic dietary magnesium-L-threonate speeds extinction and reduces spontaneous recovery of a conditioned taste aversion

    PubMed Central

    Mickley, G. Andrew; Hoxha, Nita; Luchsinger, Joseph L.; Rogers, Morgan M.; Wiles, Nathanael R.

    2013-01-01

    Elevation of brain magnesium enhances synaptic plasticity and extinction of conditioned fear memories. This experiment examined the generalizability of this phenomenon by studying the effects of a novel magnesium compound, magnesium-L-threonate (MgT), on conditioned taste aversion (CTA) extinction and spontaneous recovery (SR). Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained on a 23-hour water deprivation cycle and acquired a CTA following the taste of a CS [0.3% saccharin + 16mg/ml MgT (SAC+MgT)] paired with a US [81 mg/kg (i.p.) Lithium Chloride (LiCl)]. Following CTA acquisition, rats drank a water + MgT solution for up to 1 hour/day over the next 31 days. For 14 additional days, some animals continued water + MgT treatment, but others drank water only to allow MgT to be eliminated from the body. We then employed 2 different extinction paradigms: (1) CS-Only (CSO), in which SAC was presented, every-other day, or (2) Explicitly Unpaired (EU), in which both SAC and LiCl were presented, but on alternate days. EU extinction procedures have been shown to speed CTA extinction and reduce spontaneous recovery of the aversion. Throughout extinction, half of the rats in each group continued to drink MgT (now in SAC or supplemental water+MgT solution), whereas the other half drank SAC only/water only until SAC drinking reached ≥ 90% of baseline (asymptotic extinction). Rats receiving MgT just before/during extinction drank less SAC on the first day of extinction suggesting that they had retained a stronger CTA. MgT enhanced the rate of extinction. Furthermore, the MgT-treated rats showed a relatively modest SR of the CTA 30 days later – indicating that the extinction procedure was more effective for these animals. Our data suggest that long-term dietary MgT may enhance the consolidation/retention of a CTA, speed extinction, and inhibit SR of this learned aversion. PMID:23474371

  11. The effects of chronic water deprivation on metabolic rate and long-trace taste-aversion conditioning in rats.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Matthew J; Hinderliter, Charles F; Misanin, James R

    2006-05-01

    The effect of chronic water deprivation on metabolic rate and long-trace taste-aversion conditioning was examined in Wistar-derived rats. Subjects were either maintained on a water deprivation regimen or allowed free access to water for a seven-week period prior to conditioning. At conditioning, rats were presented a saccharin CS followed 0-, 45-, 90-, or 180-min later by an i.p. injection of LiCl. Additionally, pseudo-conditioned groups were presented the CS followed immediately by an injection of physiological saline. Heightened oxygen consumption in deprived subjects suggested that chronic water deprivation increased metabolic rate. While no differences in the amount of saccharin intake were observed at conditioning, percent preference for saccharin scores during a 24-h two-bottle water/saccharin test revealed that non-chronically deprived rats supported conditioning at longer CS-US intervals than did chronically water-deprived rats. Results are interpreted in terms of a time-contraction effect stemming from an alteration of an internal metabolic count-down timer.

  12. The Capability of Several Toxic Plants to Condition Taste Aversions in Sheep

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Grazing livestock frequently ingest toxic plants, occasionally with fatal results. Behavioral adjustments by livestock may reduce toxin intake; for example they can develop food aversions which may protect animals from over-ingestion of toxic plants. The purpose of this study was to evaluate three...

  13. Ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion in Warsaw Alcohol High-Preferring (WHP) and Warsaw Alcohol Low-Preferring (WLP) rats.

    PubMed

    Dyr, Wanda; Wyszogrodzka, Edyta; Paterak, Justyna; Siwińska-Ziółkowska, Agnieszka; Małkowska, Anna; Polak, Piotr

    2016-03-01

    The aversive action of the pharmacological properties of ethanol was studied in selectively bred Warsaw Alcohol High-Preferring (WHP) and Warsaw Alcohol Low-Preferring (WLP) rats. For this study, a conditioned-taste aversion test was used. Male WHP and WLP rats were submitted to daily 20-min sessions for 5 days, in which a saccharin solution (1.0 g/L) was available (pre-conditioning phase). Next, this drinking was paired with the injection of ethanol (0, 0.5, 1.0 g/kg), intraperitoneally [i.p.] immediately after removal of the saccharin bottle (conditioning phase). Afterward, the choice between the saccharin solution and water was extended for 18 subsequent days for 20-min daily sessions (post-conditioning phase). Both doses of ethanol did not produce an aversion to saccharin in WLP and WHP rats in the conditioning phase. However, injection of the 1.0 g/kg dose of ethanol produced an aversion in WLP rats that was detected by a decrease in saccharin intake at days 1, 3, 7, and 10 of the post-conditioning phase, with a decrease in saccharin preference for 16 days of the post-conditioning phase. Conditioned taste aversion, measured as a decrease in saccharin intake and saccharin preference, was only visible in WHP rats at day 1 and day 3 of the post-conditioning phase. This difference between WLP and WHP rats was apparent despite similar blood ethanol levels in both rat lines following injection of 0.5 and 1.0 g/kg of ethanol. These results may suggest differing levels of aversion to the post-ingestional effects of ethanol between WLP and WHP rats. These differing levels of aversion may contribute to the selected line difference in ethanol preference in WHP and WLP rats.

  14. The effects of aminotriazole and acetaldehyde on an ethanol drug discrimination with a conditioned taste aversion procedure.

    PubMed

    Redila, V A; Smith, B R; Amit, Z

    2000-07-01

    The present study was designed to investigate whether acetaldehyde shares stimulus properties with ethanol using the conditioned taste aversion (CTA) baseline of drug discrimination learning. Animals were trained to discriminate ethanol (0.8 g/kg, i.p.) from saline using 11 consecutive cycles consisting of a pairing day and three nonpairing days. On pairing days, all animals were injected with ethanol 30 min prior to a 20-min limited access to a saccharin solution (0.1% w/v) and then immediately injected with either LiCl (0.15 M, 1.8 meq) or distilled water. On the three following nonpairing days, animals were injected with saline and 30 min later presented with the same saccharin solution for 20 min. No injections followed on these nonpairing days. Results showed that animals acquired discriminative stimulus control for ethanol after seven pairings. Pretreatment with the catalase inhibitor did not alter the discriminative control for ethanol. Generalization tests revealed that acetaldehyde substituted for ethanol at a dose of 0.3 g/kg. The results of the present study suggest that catalase inhibition did not reverse or alter the discriminative stimulus effects of ethanol. However, generalization tests showed that acetaldehyde (0.3 g/kg) will substitute for ethanol suggesting that these two drugs share some similar properties.

  15. Differential Involvement of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor in Reconsolidation and Consolidation of Conditioned Taste Aversion Memory

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yue; Zhang, Tian-Yi; Xin, Jian; Li, Ting; Yu, Hui; Li, Na; Chen, Zhe-Yu

    2012-01-01

    Consolidated memory can re-enter states of transient instability following reactivation, which is referred to as reconsolidation, and the exact molecular mechanisms underlying this process remain unexplored. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a critical role in synaptic plasticity and memory processes. We have recently observed that BDNF signaling in the central nuclei of the amygdala (CeA) and insular cortex (IC) was involved in the consolidation of conditioned taste aversion (CTA) memory. However, whether BDNF in the CeA or IC is required for memory reconsolidation is still unclear. In the present study, using a CTA memory paradigm, we observed increased BDNF expression in the IC but not in the CeA during CTA reconsolidation. We further determined that BDNF synthesis and signaling in the IC but not in the CeA was required for memory reconsolidation. The differential, spatial-specific roles of BDNF in memory consolidation and reconsolidation suggest that dissociative molecular mechanisms underlie reconsolidation and consolidation, which might provide novel targets for manipulating newly encoded and reactivated memories without causing universal amnesia. PMID:23185492

  16. ABA, AAB and ABC Renewal in Taste Aversion Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernal-Gamboa, Rodolfo; Juarez, Yectivani; Gonzalez-Martin, Gabriela; Carranza, Rodrigo; Sanchez-Carrasco, Livia; Nieto, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Context renewal is identified when the conditioned response (CR) elicited by an extinguished conditioned stimulus (CS) reappears as a result of changing the contextual cues during the test. Two experiments were designed for testing contextual renewal in a conditioned taste aversion preparation. Experiment 1 assessed ABA and AAB context renewal,…

  17. ASIC1a regulates insular long-term depression and is required for the extinction of conditioned taste aversion

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei-Guang; Liu, Ming-Gang; Deng, Shining; Liu, Yan-Mei; Shang, Lin; Ding, Jing; Hsu, Tsan-Ting; Jiang, Qin; Li, Ying; Li, Fei; Zhu, Michael Xi; Xu, Tian-Le

    2016-01-01

    Acid-sensing ion channel 1a (ASIC1a) has been shown to play important roles in synaptic plasticity, learning and memory. Here we identify a crucial role for ASIC1a in long-term depression (LTD) at mouse insular synapses. Genetic ablation and pharmacological inhibition of ASIC1a reduced the induction probability of LTD without affecting that of long-term potentiation in the insular cortex. The disruption of ASIC1a also attenuated the extinction of established taste aversion memory without altering the initial associative taste learning or its long-term retention. Extinction of taste aversive memory led to the reduced insular synaptic efficacy, which precluded further LTD induction. The impaired LTD and extinction learning in ASIC1a null mice were restored by virus-mediated expression of wild-type ASIC1a, but not its ion-impermeable mutant, in the insular cortices. Our data demonstrate the involvement of an ASIC1a-mediated insular synaptic depression mechanism in extinction learning, which raises the possibility of targeting ASIC1a to manage adaptive behaviours. PMID:27924869

  18. Investigation of anabolic steroids in two taste aversion paradigms.

    PubMed

    Ganesan, R; Rosellini, R A; Svare, B

    1993-02-01

    The aversive effects of estradiol have been studied in two different taste aversion paradigms. A similar investigation was undertaken for the anabolic-androgenic steroids, nandralone and testosterone cypionate, using Rockland-Swiss mice. Experiments 1 and 2 used the brief exposure of a novel saccharin solution as the conditioned stimulus for taste aversion learning, and showed that anabolic steroids (1 mg) do not induce taste aversions. Instead, these hormones induced a small non-contingent increase in saccharin preference. Experiment 3 showed that daily nandralone administration (1 mg/day) had a greater anabolic effect than the same dose of testosterone cypionate. Experiment 4 paired the continuous exposure to a novel diet with daily nandralone injections, and showed that steroid treatment increased intake of the novel diet. When the novel diet was subsequently presented with the familiar diet in a two-choice preference test, there was no indication that an aversion was conditioned to the novel target diet. On the contrary, nandralone treatment significantly increased the preference for the novel diet. These experiments show that anabolic-androgenic steroids do not have aversive effects in mice, and that they may have positive consequences.

  19. Increase of glucocorticoids is not required for the acquisition, but hinders the extinction, of lithium-induced conditioned taste aversion.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyu-Nam; Kim, Bom-Taeck; Kim, Young-Sang; Lee, Jong-Ho; Jahng, Jeong Won

    2014-05-05

    Lithium chloride at doses sufficient to induce conditioned taste aversion (CTA) causes c-Fos expression in the paraventricular nucleus and increases the plasma level of corticosterone with activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. This study was conducted to define the role of glucocorticoid in the acquisition and extinction of lithium-induced CTA. In experiment 1, Sprague-Dawley rats received dexamethasone (2mg/kg) or RU486 (20mg/kg) immediately after 5% sucrose access, and then an intraperitoneal injection of isotonic lithium chloride (12ml/kg) was followed with 30min interval. Rats had either 1 or 7 days of recovery period before the daily sucrose drinking tests. In experiment 2, rats were conditioned with the sucrose-lithium pairing, and then received dexamethasone or vehicle at 30min before each drinking test. In experiment 3, adrenalectomized (ADX or ADX+B) rats were subjected to sucrose drinking tests after the sucrose-lithium pairing. Dexamethasone, but not RU486, pretreatment blunted the formation of lithium-induced CTA memory. Dexamethasone prior to each drinking test suppressed sucrose consumption and prolonged the extinction of lithium-induced CTA. Sucrose consumption was significantly suppressed not only in ADX+B rats but also in ADX rats during the first drinking session; however, a significant decrease was found only in ADX rats on the fourth drinking session. These results reveal that glucocorticoid is not a necessary component in the acquisition, but an important player in the extinction, of lithium-induced CTA, and suggest that a pulse increase of glucocorticoid may hinder the extinction memory formation of lithium-induced CTA.

  20. Sex differences in the effects of ethanol pre-exposure during adolescence on ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Sherrill, Luke K; Berthold, Claire; Koss, Wendy A; Juraska, Janice M; Gulley, Joshua M

    2011-11-20

    Alcohol use, which typically begins during adolescence and differs between males and females, is influenced by both the rewarding and aversive properties of the drug. One way adolescent alcohol use may modulate later consumption is by reducing alcohol's aversive properties. Here, we used a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) paradigm to determine if pre-exposure to alcohol (ethanol) during adolescence would attenuate ethanol-induced CTA assessed in adulthood in a sex-dependent manner. Male and female Long-Evans rats were given intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of saline or 3.0g/kg ethanol in a binge-like pattern during postnatal days (PD) 35-45. In adulthood (>PD 100), rats were given access to 0.1% saccharin, followed by saline or ethanol (1.0 or 1.5g/kg, i.p.), over four conditioning sessions. We found sex differences in ethanol-induced CTA, with males developing a more robust aversion earlier in conditioning. Sex differences in the effects of pre-exposure were also evident: males, but not females, showed an attenuated CTA in adulthood following ethanol pre-exposure, which occurred approximately nine weeks earlier. Taken together, these findings indicate that males are more sensitive to the aversive properties of ethanol than females. In addition, the ability of pre-exposure to the ethanol US to attenuate CTA is enhanced in males compared to females. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Radiation-induced taste aversion: effects of radiation exposure level and the exposure-taste interval

    SciTech Connect

    Spector, A.C.; Smith, J.C.; Hollander, G.R.

    1986-05-01

    Radiation-induced taste aversion has been suggested to possibly play a role in the dietary difficulties observed in some radiotherapy patients. In rats, these aversions can still be formed even when the radiation exposure precedes the taste experience by several hours. This study was conducted to examine whether increasing the radiation exposure level could extend the range of the exposure-taste interval that would still support the formation of a taste aversion. Separate groups of rats received either a 100 or 300 R gamma-ray exposure followed 1, 3, 6, or 24 h later by a 10-min saccharin (0.1% w/v) presentation. A control group received a sham exposure followed 1 h later by a 10-min saccharin presentation. Twenty-four hours following the saccharin presentation all rats received a series of twelve 23-h two-bottle preference tests between saccharin and water. The results indicated that the duration of the exposure-taste interval plays an increasingly more important role in determining the initial extent of the aversion as the dose decreases. The course of recovery from taste aversion seems more affected by dose than by the temporal parameters of the conditioning trial.

  2. Kinetics of lithium as a lithium chloride dose suitable for conditioned taste aversion in lactating goats and dry sheep.

    PubMed

    Manuelian, C L; Albanell, E; Rovai, M; Caja, G; Guitart, R

    2015-02-01

    Lithium chloride (LiCl) is widely used for inducing conditioned taste aversion (CTA) so that livestock will reduce or avoid ingestion of toxic plants and graze groundcover mingled with valuable crops. However, pharmacokinetic studies of LiCl at effective CTA doses are lacking. With this aim, 6 Murciano-Grandina dairy does during late lactation and 6 dry Manchega dairy ewes were orally dosed with 200 and 225 mg LiCl/kg BW, respectively. Does were placed in metabolism cages whereas ewes were group fed in pens. Lithium was measured over 168 (does) and 192 h (ewes) at predefined intervals in plasma, urine, feces, and milk using flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. Plasma Li concentrations reached a maximum at 4 h in does (13.4 ± 1.35 mg Li/L) and 12 h in ewes (17.7 ± 0.8 mg Li/L). The calculated plasma half-lives were 40.3 ± 3.8 and 30.9 ± 2.1 h for does and ewes, respectively. In goats, all Li administered was recovered at 96 h (92 ± 4% in urine, 6.5 ± 1.3% in feces, and 2.8 ± 0.4% in milk); however, the estimated clearance time in feces was 11 and 9 d for does and ewes, respectively. Additionally, maximum Li excretion in doe milk was 15.6 ± 0.5 mg/L, which was approximately half of the calculated effective dose for a 5-kg BW sucking kid. In conclusion, Li kinetics in goats and sheep were similar to cattle and elimination took longer than in monogastric species. The low concentration of Li in feces, urine, and milk, as well as the complete elimination of Li from the body after 1.5 wk allows us to conclude that LiCl is safe and suitable for inducing CTA in ruminants.

  3. Involvement of BDNF signaling transmission from basolateral amygdala to infralimbic prefrontal cortex in conditioned taste aversion extinction.

    PubMed

    Xin, Jian; Ma, Ling; Zhang, Tian-Yi; Yu, Hui; Wang, Yue; Kong, Liang; Chen, Zhe-Yu

    2014-05-21

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor, tropomyosin-related kinase receptor B (TrkB), play a critical role in memory extinction. However, the detailed role of BDNF in memory extinction on the basis of neural circuit has not been fully understood. Here, we aim to investigate the role of BDNF signaling circuit in mediating conditioned taste aversion (CTA) memory extinction of the rats. We found region-specific changes in BDNF gene expression during CTA extinction. CTA extinction led to increased BDNF gene expression in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and infralimbic prefrontal cortex (IL) but not in the central amygdaloid nucleus (CeA) and hippocampus (HIP). Moreover, blocking BDNF signaling or exogenous microinjection of BDNF into the BLA or IL could disrupt or enhance CTA extinction, which suggested that BDNF signaling in the BLA and IL is necessary and sufficient for CTA extinction. Interestingly, we found that microinjection of BDNF-neutralizing antibody into the BLA could abolish the extinction training-induced BDNF mRNA level increase in the IL, but not vice versa, demonstrating that BDNF signaling is transmitted from the BLA to IL during extinction. Finally, the accelerated extinction learning by infusion of exogenous BDNF in the BLA could also be blocked by IL infusion of BDNF-neutralizing antibody rather than vice versa, indicating that the IL, but not BLA, is the primary action site of BDNF in CTA extinction. Together, these data suggest that BLA-IL circuit regulates CTA memory extinction by identifying BDNF as a key regulator.

  4. Long-Term Alcohol Drinking Reduces the Efficacy of Forced Abstinence and Conditioned Taste Aversion in Crossed High-Alcohol Preferring Mice

    PubMed Central

    O’Tousa, David Scott; Grahame, Nicholas Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Background Negative outcomes of alcoholism are progressively more severe as the duration of problem alcohol use increases. Additionally, alcoholics demonstrate tendencies to neglect negative consequences associated with drinking and/or to choose to drink in the immediate presence of warning factors against drinking. The recently derived crossed High-Alcohol Preferring (cHAP) mice, which volitionally drink to heavier intoxication (as assessed by BEC) than other alcohol-preferring populations, as well as spontaneously escalating their intake, may be a candidate to explore mechanisms underlying long-term excessive drinking. Here we hypothesized that an extended drinking history would reduce the ability of two manipulations (forced abstinence and conditioned taste aversion) to attenuate drinking. Methods Experiment 1 examined differences between groups drinking for either 14 or 35 days, half of each subjected to 7 days of forced abstinence and half not, to characterize potential changes in post-abstinence drinking resulting from an extended drinking history. Experiment 2 used a conditioned taste aversion procedure to assess stimulus specificity of the ability of an aversive flavorant to decrease alcohol consumption. Experiment 3 used this taste aversion procedure to assess differences among groups drinking for 1, 14, or 35 days in their propensity to overcome this aversion when the flavorant was mixed with either ethanol or water. Results Experiment 1 demonstrated that although forced abstinence decreased alcohol consumption in mice with a 14-day drinking history, it failed to do so in mice drinking alcohol for 35 days. Experiment 2 showed that the addition of a flavorant only suppressed alcohol drinking if an aversion to the flavorant was previously established. Experiment 3 demonstrated that an extended drinking history expedited extinction of suppressed alcohol intake caused by a conditioned aversive flavor. Conclusions These data show that a history of long

  5. ETHANOL-INDUCED LOCOMOTOR ACTIVITY IN ADOLESCENT RATS AND THE RELATIONSHIP WITH ETHANOL-INDUCED CONDITIONED PLACE PREFERENCE AND CONDITIONED TASTE AVERSION

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo, María Belén; Nizhnikov, Michael E.; Spear, Norman E.; Molina, Juan C.; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent rats exhibit ethanol-induced locomotor activity (LMA), which is considered an index of ethanol’s motivational properties likely to predict ethanol self-administration, but few studies have reported or correlated ethanol-induced LMA with conditioned place preference by ethanol at this age. The present study assessed age-related differences in ethanol’s motor stimulating effects and analysed the association between ethanol-induced LMA and conventional measures of ethanol-induced reinforcement. Experiment 1 compared ethanol-induced LMA in adolescent and adult rats. Subsequent experiments analyzed ethanol-induced conditioned place preference and conditioned taste aversion in adolescent rats evaluated for ethanol-induced LMA. Adolescent rats exhibit a robust LMA after high-dose ethanol. Ethanol-induced LMA was fairly similar across adolescents and adults. As expected, adolescents were sensitive to ethanol’s aversive reinforcement, but they also exhibited conditioned place preference. These measures of ethanol reinforcement, however, were not related to ethanol-induced LMA. Spontaneous LMA in an open field was, however, negatively associated with ethanol-induced CTA. PMID:22592597

  6. Periaqueductal gray c-Fos expression varies relative to the method of conditioned taste aversion extinction employed.

    PubMed

    Mickley, G Andrew; Wilson, Gina N; Remus, Jennifer L; Ramos, Linnet; Ketchesin, Kyle D; Biesan, Orion R; Luchsinger, Joseph R; Prodan, Suzanna

    2011-11-14

    A conditioned taste aversion (CTA) is acquired when an animal consumes a novel taste (CS) and then experiences the symptoms of poisoning (US). Following CTA training, animals will avoid the taste that was previously associated with malaise. This defensive reaction to a learned fear can be extinguished by repeated exposure to the CS alone (CS-only; CSO-EXT). However, following a latency period in which the CS is not presented, the CTA will spontaneously recover (SR). Through the use of an explicitly unpaired extinction procedure (EU-EXT) we have shown that we can speed up extinction and attenuate SR of the CTA. Here we compared and contrasted the ability of CSO and EU extinction procedures to affect c-Fos expression in the periaqueductal gray (PAG). Fluid-deprived Sprague-Dawley rats acquired a strong CTA [via 3 pairings of 0.3% oral saccharin (SAC; the CS) and 81mg/kg i.p. lithium chloride (LiCl; the US)] followed by extinction trials consisting of multiple exposures to either, (a) the CS every-other day (CSO-EXT), or (b) CS and US on alternate days (EU-EXT). A different group of rats did not receive multiple CS exposures and served as a "no extinction" (NE) control. Both extinction procedures resulted in ≥90% reacceptance of SAC (achieving asymptotic extinction). Some of the animals were sacrificed for c-Fos immunohistochemical analysis following asymptotic extinction. Other rats entered a 30-day latency period where they drank water only. These remaining animals were then tested for SR with a final exposure to SAC before being sacrificed for c-Fos immunohistochemistry. As reported previously, rats in the CS-only group exhibited a significant SR of the CTA. However, animals in the EU extinction group reached asymptotic extinction more rapidly than did CSO rats and they did not show SR of the CTA. As compared to rats that retained their CTA, both groups of extinguished rats showed suppression in the number of c-Fos-labeled neurons in all 4 longitudinal columns of

  7. Taste-potentiated odor aversion learning in rats with lesions of the insular cortex.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jian-You; Roman, Christopher; Reilly, Steve

    2009-11-10

    The current study assessed the influence of excitotoxic lesions of the insular cortex (IC) on taste-potentiated odor aversion (TPOA) learning. Water-deprived rats initially received a single odor-toxicosis or odor/taste-toxicosis pairing and were subsequently tested, in separate trials, with the odor and the taste stimulus. Indicating TPOA, neurologically intact rats conditioned with the odor/taste compound stimulus acquired significantly stronger odor aversions than normal rats conditioned with the odor stimulus. IC lesions disrupted TPOA, conditioned taste aversion and taste neophobia. The finding that taste did not potentiate odor aversion learning in the IC-lesioned rats provides support for the "within-compound association" analysis but is inconsistent with the "sensory-and-gate" account of TPOA learning.

  8. Concurrent conditioned taste aversion: a learning mechanism based on rapid neural versus flexible humoral processing of visceral noxious substances.

    PubMed

    Mediavilla, Cristina; Molina, Filomena; Puerto, Amadeo

    2005-01-01

    Taste aversion learning (TAL) consists of the avoidance of a taste previously associated with a noxious visceral stimulus. Clinical and experimental studies suggest that this adaptive process can be established by different procedures that imply distinct forms of learning and memory, although the final result is analogous, i.e. avoidance of the gustatory stimulus associated with gastrointestinal discomfort. In fact, a double neurobiological system has been anatomically dissociated and, functionally, may be implicated in nausea and emesis, in food selection, and in neuroimmune interactions. Actually, a dual, parallel, and non-redundant gut-brain system has been proposed that sustain two different TAL modalities, concurrent and sequential. Concurrent TAL requires several trials and is inflexible, requiring simultaneity of the stimuli and the participation of the vagus nerve. In contrast, sequential TAL can be acquired in one trial and is flexible, permits long inter-stimulus delays, and is independent of vagal pathways. These two TAL modalities are analyzed in the light of the recent proposal that different acquisition processes are sustained by distinct cerebral systems.

  9. Activation of nucleus accumbens NMDA receptors differentially affects appetitive or aversive taste learning and memory

    PubMed Central

    Núñez-Jaramillo, Luis; Rangel-Hernández, José A.; Burgueño-Zúñiga, Belén; Miranda, María I.

    2012-01-01

    Taste memory depends on motivational and post-ingestional consequences; thus, it can be aversive (e.g., conditioned taste aversion, CTA) if a novel, palatable taste is paired with visceral malaise, or it can be appetitive if no intoxication appears after novel taste consumption, and a taste preference is developed.The nucleus accumbens (NAc) plays a role in hedonic reactivity to taste stimuli, and recent findings suggest that reward and aversion are differentially encoded by the activity of NAc neurons. The present study examined whether the requirement for N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the NAc core during rewarding appetitive taste learning differs from that during aversive taste conditioning, as well as during retrieval of appetitive vs. aversive taste memory, using the taste preference or CTA model, respectively. Bilateral infusions of NMDA (1 μg/μl, 0.5 μl) into the NAc core were performed before acquisition or before retrieval of taste preference or CTA. Activation of NMDA receptors before taste preference training or CTA acquisition did not alter memory formation. Furthermore, NMDA injections before aversive taste retrieval had no effect on taste memory; however, 24 h later, CTA extinction was significantly delayed. Also, NMDA injections, made before familiar appetitive memory retrieval, interrupted the development of taste preference and produced a preference delay 24 h later. These results suggest that memory formation for a novel taste produces neurochemical changes in the NAc core that have differential requirements for NMDA receptors during retrieval of appetitive or aversive memory. PMID:22529783

  10. Taste-aversion learning produced by combined treatment with subthreshold radiation and lithium chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Rabin, B.M.; Hunt, W.A.; Lee, J.

    1987-01-01

    These experiments were designed to determine whether treatment with two subthreshold doses of radiation or lithium chloride, either alone or in combination, could lead to taste-aversion learning. The first experiment determined the threshold for a radiation-induced taste aversion at 15-20 rad and for lithium chloride at 0.30-0.45 mEq/kg. In the second experiment it was shown that exposing rats to two doses of 15 rad separated by up to 3 hr produced a taste aversion. Treatment with two injections of lithium chloride did produce a taste aversion when the two treatments were administered within 1 hr or each other. The results are discussed in terms of the implications of these findings for understanding the nature of the unconditional stimuli leading to the acquisition of a conditioned taste aversion.

  11. Taste aversion learning produced by combined treatment with subthreshold radiation and lithium chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Rabin, B.M.; Hunt, W.A.; Lee, J.

    1987-08-01

    These experiments were designed to determine whether treatment with two subthreshold doses of radiation or lithium chloride, either alone or in combination, could lead to taste aversion learning. The first experiment determined the thresholds for a radiation-induced taste aversion at 15-20 rad and for lithium chloride at 0.30-0.45 mEq/kg. In the second experiment it was shown that exposing rats to two doses of 15 rad separated by up to 3 hr produced a taste aversion. Treatment with two injections of lithium chloride (0.30 mEq/kg) did not produce a significant reduction in preference. Combined treatment with radiation and lithium chloride did produce a taste aversion when the two treatments were administered within 1 hr of each other. The results are discussed in terms of the implications of these findings for understanding the nature of the unconditioned stimuli leading to the acquisition of a conditioned taste aversion.

  12. Acute, but not chronic, exposure to d-cycloserine facilitates extinction and modulates spontaneous recovery of a conditioned taste aversion.

    PubMed

    Mickley, G Andrew; Remus, Jennifer L; Ramos, Linnet; Wilson, Gina N; Biesan, Orion R; Ketchesin, Kyle D

    2012-01-18

    D-cycloserine, the glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor partial agonist, has been reported to facilitate the extinction of learned fears acquired in both naturalistic and laboratory settings. The current study extended this literature by evaluating the ability of either chronic or acute administrations of DCS to modulate the extinction and spontaneous recovery of a conditioned taste aversion (CTA). Twenty-three hour fluid-deprived Sprague-Dawley rats acquired a strong CTA following 3 pairings of a conditioned stimulus (CS; 0.3% oral saccharin)+unconditioned stimulus [US; 81 mg/kg (i.p.) lithium chloride (LiCl)]. In separate groups of rats, we then employed 2 different extinction paradigms: (1) CS-only (CSO-EXT) in which saccharin was presented every-other day, or (2) Explicitly Unpaired (EU-EXT) in which both saccharin and LiCl were presented but on alternate days. Previous studies have indicated that the EU-EXT procedure speeds up the extinction process. Further, spontaneous recovery of a CTA emerges following CSO-EXT but the EU-EXT paradigm causes a suppression of spontaneous recovery. DCS (15 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered immediately after daily liquid presentations (saccharin or water, alternate days) during the extinction period. In an acute drug manipulation, DCS (15 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline control injections were administered for 4 days only. This was done during one of 3 different phases of extinction [i.e., static (2-5%), early dynamic (8-16%), or middle dynamic (20-40%) saccharin reacceptance]. Other animals assigned to the chronic DCS condition received daily DCS (15 mg/kg, i.p.) throughout extinction. Changes in saccharin drinking in these animals were compared to the data from rats that received no drug (saline controls). Once rats met our criterion for asymptotic extinction (90% reacceptance of the CS) they entered a 30-day latency period during which they received water for 1 h/day. The day after the completion of the latency period, a final

  13. Differences in sensitivity to ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversions emerge after pre- or post-pubertal gonadectomy in male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Morales, Melissa; Spear, Linda P

    2013-03-01

    We have previously demonstrated that gonadectomy either prior to (early) or after (late) puberty elevated ethanol consumption in males to levels similar to intact adult females-effects that were attenuated by testosterone replacement. To assess whether alterations in the aversive effects of ethanol might contribute to gonadectomy-associated increases in ethanol intake in males, the present study examined the impact of gonadectomy on conditioned taste aversions (CTA) to ethanol in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. Animals were gonadectomized, received sham surgery (SH) or non-manipulated (NM) on postnatal (P) day 23 (early) or 67 (late) and tested for CTA to ethanol in adulthood. Water-deprived rats were given 1 hr access every-other-day to 10% sucrose followed by an injection of ethanol (0, 1g/kg) for 5 test sessions. Test data were analyzed to determine the first day significant aversions emerged in each ethanol group (i.e., sucrose intakes significantly less than their saline-injected counterparts). Early gonadectomized males acquired the CTA more rapidly than did early SH and NM males (day 1 vs 3 and 4 respectively), whereas a gonadectomy-associated enhancement in ethanol CTA was not evident in late males. Among females, gonadectomy had little impact on ethanol-induced CTA, with females in all groups showing an aversion by the first or second day, regardless of surgery age. These data suggest that previously observed elevations in ethanol intake induced by either pre- or post-pubertal gonadectomy in males are not related simply to gonadectomy-induced alterations in the aversive effects of ethanol indexed via CTA.

  14. Temporal and qualitative dynamics of conditioned taste aversions in C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice self-administering LiCl.

    PubMed

    Rebecca Glatt, A; St John, Steven J; Lu, Lianyi; Boughter, John D

    2016-01-01

    Self-administration of LiCl solution has been shown to result in the formation of a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) that generalizes to NaCl in rats. This paradigm may have considerable ecological validity as it models CTA learning in natural settings, and also allows for the investigation of drinking microstructure as an assay of potential shifts in stimulus palatability. We used this paradigm to examine possible mouse strain differences in CTA acquisition, generalization, and extinction. In the first experiment, C57BL/6J (B6) and DBA/2J (D2) mice self-administered LiCl (or control NaCl) over a 20-minute free access acquisition period and were tested on the following day with a panel of taste solutions available in brief (5-s) trials delivered in random order. In the second experiment, mice again self-administered LiCl or NaCl (at low, 0.12 M, or high, 0.24 M concentrations) in a 20-minute session, and on the following day received a 20-minute free access period to equimolar NaCl. Strain differences were found for aspects of ingestive behavior, with B6 mice showing greater consumption of all stimuli, including water, while D2 mice lick faster, in less frequent but longer bursts. We did not, however, find evidence of a robust strain difference in taste aversion learning. Both strains demonstrated profound alterations in licking microstructure in the generalization session relative to controls. We suggest that a decrease in "lick efficiency" (the percentage of inter-lick intervals within a burst of short duration vs. longer duration) reflects avoidance behavior, and signals a shift in palatability of a stimulus following CTA.

  15. Learning context modulates aversive taste strength in honey bees.

    PubMed

    de Brito Sanchez, Maria Gabriela; Serre, Marion; Avarguès-Weber, Aurore; Dyer, Adrian G; Giurfa, Martin

    2015-03-01

    The capacity of honey bees (Apis mellifera) to detect bitter substances is controversial because they ingest without reluctance different kinds of bitter solutions in the laboratory, whereas free-flying bees avoid them in visual discrimination tasks. Here, we asked whether the gustatory perception of bees changes with the behavioral context so that tastes that are less effective as negative reinforcements in a given context become more effective in a different context. We trained bees to discriminate an odorant paired with 1 mol l(-1) sucrose solution from another odorant paired with either distilled water, 3 mol l(-1) NaCl or 60 mmol l(-1) quinine. Training was either Pavlovian [olfactory conditioning of the proboscis extension reflex (PER) in harnessed bees], or mainly operant (olfactory conditioning of free-walking bees in a Y-maze). PER-trained and maze-trained bees were subsequently tested both in their original context and in the alternative context. Whereas PER-trained bees transferred their choice to the Y-maze situation, Y-maze-trained bees did not respond with a PER to odors when subsequently harnessed. In both conditioning protocols, NaCl and distilled water were the strongest and the weakest aversive reinforcement, respectively. A significant variation was found for quinine, which had an intermediate aversive effect in PER conditioning but a more powerful effect in the Y-maze, similar to that of NaCl. These results thus show that the aversive strength of quinine varies with the learning context, and reveal the plasticity of the bee's gustatory system. We discuss the experimental constraints of both learning contexts and focus on stress as a key modulator of taste in the honey bee. Further explorations of bee taste are proposed to understand the physiology of taste modulation in bees.

  16. Centrifugal inputs modulate taste aversion learning associated parabrachial neuronal activities.

    PubMed

    Tokita, Ken'ichi; Karádi, Zoltán; Shimura, Tsuyoshi; Yamamoto, Takashi

    2004-07-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that gustatory neurons in the parabrachial nucleus (PBN) show altered responses after the acquisition of conditioned taste aversion (CTA) to NaCl. The present study was conducted 1) to examine centrifugal influences on the altered gustatory activity of CTA-trained rats, and 2) to evaluate the role of amiloride-sensitive (ASN) and -insensitive NaCl (AIN) best units in coding the taste of NaCl. Animals were separated into 2 groups: a CTA group that had acquired taste aversion to 0.1 M NaCl and a control group that underwent pseudoconditioning before the recording experiment. Single-neuron activity, in 2 separate series of experiments, was extracellularly recorded in anesthetized rats. In the stimulation studies, the effects of electrical stimulation of the gustatory cortex (GC) or the central nucleus of amygdala (CeA) were examined on firing of PBN taste units. CeA stimulation produced excitatory effect in significantly more neurons in the CTA group (n = 8) than in the control group (n = 1). Furthermore, ASN-best units in the CTA group showed larger responses to NaCl than similar units in the control group. In the decerebration experiment, there was no statistical difference among the taste responses between the 2 groups in any best-stimulus category. These results suggest that CTA conditioning uses an effective central amygdaloid input to modulate activity of gustatory neurons in the PBN. Data also substantiate that amiloride-sensitive components of NaCl-best neurons play a critical role in the recognition of distinctive taste of NaCl.

  17. Comparison of dependent measures used to quantify radiation-induced taste aversion

    SciTech Connect

    Spector, A.C.; Smith, J.C.; Hollander, G.R. . Dept. of Psychology)

    1981-11-01

    Several commonly used measures of conditioned taste aversion were compared under a variety of experimental conditions. In the first experiment an aversion to a saccharin solution (0.1%) was conditioned by pairing this taste substance with a single 100 R exposure to Cobalt-60. Comparisons were performed between the following measures: a short-term single-bottle test, a 22-hour two-bottle preference test, a measure quantifying recovery from the aversion along with other measures derived from these tests. Appropriate control groups received saccharin and sham exposure, water and sham exposure, and water and radiation exposure in order to measure both neophobia and enhanced neophobia. In Experiment 2 the total whole body radiation exposure used to condition the taste aversion was varied in different groups from 50 to 300 R exposures and the effect on conditioning was measured using the dependent variables described in Experiment 1. In Experiment 3 radiation-induced taste aversion was studied in rats which had prior exposures to the saccharin solution. In all three studies it was shown that different interpretations result from measuring the conditioned aversion with the different dependent variables commonly used, and several measures are needed to give a fair and accurate description of learned taste aversion.

  18. Rats and Seabirds: Effects of Egg Size on Predation Risk and the Potential of Conditioned Taste Aversion as a Mitigation Method

    PubMed Central

    Latorre, Lucía; Larrinaga, Asier R.; Santamaría, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Seabirds nesting on islands are threatened by invasive rodents, such as mice and rats, which may attack eggs, chicks and even adults. The low feasibility of rat eradications on many islands makes the development of alternate control plans necessary. We used a combination of field experiments on a Mediterranean island invaded by black rats (Rattusrattus) to evaluate (1) the predation risk posed to different-sized seabird eggs and (2), the potential of two deterrent methods (electronic and chemical) to reduce its impact. Rats were able to consume eggs of all sizes (12 to 68 g), but survival increased 13 times from the smallest to the largest eggs (which also had more resistant eggshells). Extrapolation to seabird eggs suggests that the smallest species (Hydrobatespelagicus) suffer the most severe predation risk, but even the largest (Larusmichahellis) could suffer >60% mortality. Nest attack was not reduced by the deterrents. However, chemical deterrence (conditioned taste aversion by lithium chloride) slowed the increase in predation rate over time, which resulted in a three-fold increase in egg survival to predation as compared to both control and electronic deterrence. At the end of the experimental period, this effect was confirmed by a treatment swap, which showed that conferred protection remains at least 15 days after cessation of the treatment. Results indicate that small seabird species are likely to suffer severe rates of nest predation by rats and that conditioned taste aversion, but not electronic repellents, may represent a suitable method to protect colonies when eradication or control is not feasible or cost-effective. PMID:24058712

  19. Acquisition of lithium chloride- and radiation-induced taste aversions in hypophysectomized rats

    SciTech Connect

    Rabin, B.M.; Hunt, W.A.; Lee, J.

    1983-03-01

    The effects of hypophysectomy on the acquisition of conditioned taste aversions following injection of lithium chloride and following exposure to ionizing radiation were studied using a two-bottle preference test. Hypophysectomy did not disrupt the acquisition of a taste aversion following either treatment. The results are interpreted as: (a) suggesting that pituitary/adrenal hormones do not mediate the acquisition of a conditioned taste aversion following injections of lithium chloride or following exposure to ionizing radiation in a two-bottle preference test, and (b) consistent with other research suggesting that the involvement of pituitary/adrenal hormones in taste aversion learning may be related to the conflict induced by using a one-bottle test and not to the learning itself.

  20. Gamma radiation-induced conditioned taste aversions in rats: A comparison of the protective effects of area postrema lesions with differing doses of radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ossenkopp, K.P.; Giugno, L. )

    1989-10-01

    Lesions which destroy the area postrema (AP) and damage the adjacent nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) attenuate or abolish conditioned taste aversions (CTA) induced by a variety of pharmacological agents as well as exposure to radiation. In the present experiment, 4 groups of male rats received lesions of AP and 4 groups were given sham lesions. One sham-lesioned and one AP-lesioned group were given a single pairing of 1-hr access to a novel 0.10% sodium saccharin solution followed immediately with exposure to 0, 100, 200, or 400 rad of gamma radiation, respectively. Four days later all groups were given daily two-bottle preference tests (saccharin vs. water) on 4 consecutive days. The sham-lesioned groups exposed to the radiation (100, 200, or 400 rad) developed profound aversions to the saccharin on all test days (p less than 0.001). In contrast, all of the AP-lesioned groups as well as the sham-irradiated (0 rad) sham-lesioned group exhibited strong, comparable (p greater than 0.30) preferences for saccharin. Thus, lesion of AP abolished the radiation-induced CTA at all dose levels of radiation. These results raise the possibility of pharmacological intervention at the level of AP to prevent radiation-induced CTA in cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy.

  1. Altering expectancy dampens neural response to aversive taste in primary taste cortex.

    PubMed

    Nitschke, Jack B; Dixon, Gregory E; Sarinopoulos, Issidoros; Short, Sarah J; Cohen, Jonathan D; Smith, Edward E; Kosslyn, Stephen M; Rose, Robert M; Davidson, Richard J

    2006-03-01

    The primary taste cortex consists of the insula and operculum. Previous work has indicated that neurons in the primary taste cortex respond solely to sensory input from taste receptors and lingual somatosensory receptors. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we show here that expectancy modulates these neural responses in humans. When subjects were led to believe that a highly aversive bitter taste would be less distasteful than it actually was, they reported it to be less aversive than when they had accurate information about the taste and, moreover, the primary taste cortex was less strongly activated. In addition, the activation of the right insula and operculum tracked online ratings of the aversiveness for each taste. Such expectancy-driven modulation of primary sensory cortex may affect perceptions of external events.

  2. Acquisition and expression of conditioned taste aversion differentially affects extracellular signal regulated kinase and glutamate receptor phosphorylation in rat prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    Marotta, Roberto; Fenu, Sandro; Scheggi, Simona; Vinci, Stefania; Rosas, Michela; Falqui, Andrea; Gambarana, Carla; De Montis, M Graziella; Acquas, Elio

    2014-01-01

    Conditioned taste aversion (CTA) can be applied to study associative learning and its relevant underpinning molecular mechanisms in discrete brain regions. The present study examined, by immunohistochemistry and immunocytochemistry, the effects of acquisition and expression of lithium-induced CTA on activated Extracellular signal Regulated Kinase (p-ERK) in the prefrontal cortex (PFCx) and nucleus accumbens (Acb) of male Sprague-Dawley rats. The study also examined, by immunoblotting, whether acquisition and expression of lithium-induced CTA resulted in modified levels of phosphorylation of glutamate receptor subunits (NR1 and GluR1) and Thr(34)- and Thr(75-Dopamine-and-cAMP-Regulated) PhosphoProtein (DARPP-32). CTA acquisition was associated with an increase of p-ERK-positive neurons and phosphorylated NR1 receptor subunit (p-NR1) in the PFCx, whereas p-GluR1, p-Thr(34)- and p-Thr(75)-DARPP-32 levels were not changed in this brain region. CTA expression increased the number of p-ERK-positive neurons in the shell (AcbSh) and core (AcbC) but left unmodified p-NR1, p-GluR1, p-Thr(34)- and p-Thr(75-DARPP-32) levels. Furthermore, post-embedding immunogold quantitative analysis in AcbSh revealed that CTA expression significantly increased nuclear p-ERK immunostaining as well as p-ERK-labeled axo-spinous contacts. Overall, these results indicate that ERK and NR1, but not GluR1 and DARPP-32, are differentially phosphorylated as a consequence of acquisition and expression of aversive associative learning. Moreover, these results confirm that CTA represents an useful approach to study the molecular basis of associative learning in rats and suggest the involvement of ERK cascade in learning-associated synaptic plasticity.

  3. Acquisition and expression of conditioned taste aversion differentially affects extracellular signal regulated kinase and glutamate receptor phosphorylation in rat prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens

    PubMed Central

    Marotta, Roberto; Fenu, Sandro; Scheggi, Simona; Vinci, Stefania; Rosas, Michela; Falqui, Andrea; Gambarana, Carla; De Montis, M. Graziella; Acquas, Elio

    2014-01-01

    Conditioned taste aversion (CTA) can be applied to study associative learning and its relevant underpinning molecular mechanisms in discrete brain regions. The present study examined, by immunohistochemistry and immunocytochemistry, the effects of acquisition and expression of lithium-induced CTA on activated Extracellular signal Regulated Kinase (p-ERK) in the prefrontal cortex (PFCx) and nucleus accumbens (Acb) of male Sprague-Dawley rats. The study also examined, by immunoblotting, whether acquisition and expression of lithium-induced CTA resulted in modified levels of phosphorylation of glutamate receptor subunits (NR1 and GluR1) and Thr34- and Thr75-Dopamine-and-cAMP-Regulated PhosphoProtein (DARPP-32). CTA acquisition was associated with an increase of p-ERK-positive neurons and phosphorylated NR1 receptor subunit (p-NR1) in the PFCx, whereas p-GluR1, p-Thr34- and p-Thr75-DARPP-32 levels were not changed in this brain region. CTA expression increased the number of p-ERK-positive neurons in the shell (AcbSh) and core (AcbC) but left unmodified p-NR1, p-GluR1, p-Thr34- and p-Thr75-DARPP-32 levels. Furthermore, post-embedding immunogold quantitative analysis in AcbSh revealed that CTA expression significantly increased nuclear p-ERK immunostaining as well as p-ERK-labeled axo-spinous contacts. Overall, these results indicate that ERK and NR1, but not GluR1 and DARPP-32, are differentially phosphorylated as a consequence of acquisition and expression of aversive associative learning. Moreover, these results confirm that CTA represents an useful approach to study the molecular basis of associative learning in rats and suggest the involvement of ERK cascade in learning-associated synaptic plasticity. PMID:24847227

  4. AGE-DEPENDENT MDPV-INDUCED TASTE AVERSIONS AND THERMOREGULATION IN ADOLESCENT AND ADULT RATS

    PubMed Central

    Merluzzi, Andrew P.; Hurwitz, Zachary E.; Briscione, Maria A.; Cobuzzi, Jennifer L.; Wetzell, Bradley; Rice, Kenner C.; Riley, Anthony L.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescent rats are more sensitive to the rewarding and less sensitive to the aversive properties of various drugs of abuse than their adult counterparts. Given a nationwide increase in use of “bath salts,” the present experiment employed the conditioned taste aversion procedure to assess the aversive effects of 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV; 0, 1.0, 1.8 or 3.2 mg/kg), a common constituent in “bath salts,” in adult and adolescent rats. As similar drugs induce thermoregulatory changes in rats, temperature was recorded following MDPV administration to assess if thermoregulatory changes were related to taste aversion conditioning. Both age groups acquired taste aversions, although these aversions were weaker and developed at a slower rate in the adolescent subjects. Adolescents increased and adults decreased body temperature following MDPV administration with no correlation to aversions. The relative insensitivity of adolescents to the aversive effects of MDPV suggests that MDPV may confer an increased risk in this population. PMID:24122728

  5. Age-dependent MDPV-induced taste aversions and thermoregulation in adolescent and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Merluzzi, Andrew P; Hurwitz, Zachary E; Briscione, Maria A; Cobuzzi, Jennifer L; Wetzell, Bradley; Rice, Kenner C; Riley, Anthony L

    2014-07-01

    Adolescent rats are more sensitive to the rewarding and less sensitive to the aversive properties of various drugs of abuse than their adult counterparts. Given a nationwide increase in use of "bath salts," the present experiment employed the conditioned taste aversion procedure to assess the aversive effects of 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV; 0, 1.0, 1.8, or 3.2 mg/kg), a common constituent in "bath salts," in adult and adolescent rats. As similar drugs induce thermoregulatory changes in rats, temperature was recorded following MDPV administration to assess if thermoregulatory changes were related to taste aversion conditioning. Both age groups acquired taste aversions, although these aversions were weaker and developed at a slower rate in the adolescent subjects. Adolescents increased and adults decreased body temperature following MDPV administration with no correlation to aversions. The relative insensitivity of adolescents to the aversive effects of MDPV suggests that MDPV may confer an increased risk in this population. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. 5-HT1A receptor antagonists reduce food intake and body weight by reducing total meals with no conditioned taste aversion.

    PubMed

    Dill, M Joelle; Shaw, Janice; Cramer, Jeff; Sindelar, Dana K

    2013-11-01

    Serotonin acts through receptors controlling several physiological functions, including energy homeostasis regulation and food intake. Recent experiments demonstrated that 5-HT1A receptor antagonists reduce food intake. We sought to examine the microstructure of feeding with 5-HT1A receptor antagonists using a food intake monitoring system. We also examined the relationship between food intake, inhibition of binding and pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles of the antagonists. Ex vivo binding revealed that, at doses used in this study to reduce food intake, inhibition of binding of a 5-HT1A agonist by ~40% was reached in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice with a trend for higher binding in DIO vs. lean animals. Additionally, PK analysis detected levels from 2 to 24h post-compound administration. Male DIO mice were administered 5-HT1A receptor antagonists LY439934 (10 or 30 mg/kg, p.o.), WAY100635 (3 or 10mg/kg, s.c.), SRA-333 (10 or 30 mg/kg, p.o.), or NAD-299 (3 or 10mg/kg, s.c.) for 3 days and meal patterns were measured. Analyses revealed that for each antagonist, 24-h food intake was reduced through a specific decrease in the total number of meals. Compared to controls, meal number was decreased 14-35% in the high dose. Average meal size was not changed by any of the compounds. The reduction in food intake reduced body weight 1-4% compared to Vehicle controls. Subsequently, a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) assay was used to determine whether the feeding decrease might be an indicator of aversion, nausea, or visceral illness caused by the antagonists. Using a two bottle preference test, it was found that none of the compounds produced a CTA. The decrease in food intake does not appear to be a response to nausea or malaise. These results indicate that 5-HT1A receptor antagonist suppresses feeding, specifically by decreasing the number of meals, and induce weight loss without an aversive side effect.

  7. The GABA-B antagonist 2-hydroxysaclofen reverses the effects of baclofen on the discriminative stimulus effects of D-amphetamine in the conditioned taste aversion procedure.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Florencio; Jiménez, Juan C; Cedillo, Laura N; Sandoval-Sánchez, Alma; Millán-Mejía, Patricia; Sánchez-Castillo, Hugo; Velázquez-Martínez, David N

    2009-07-01

    Some of the behavioral effects of d-amphetamine (d-AMPH) are mediated by an increase in dopamine neurotransmission in the nucleus accumbens. However, there is evidence that gamma-amino-butyric-acid-B (GABA-B) receptors are involved in some behavioral effects of D-AMPH and cocaine. Here, we examined the effects of baclofen on the discriminative stimulus properties of D-AMPH, using conditioned taste aversion (CTA) as the drug discrimination procedure. Male Wistar rats were deprived of water and trained in the CTA procedure. They received D-AMPH (1 mg/kg, i.p.) before gaining access to saccharin, which was followed by an injection of LiCl. On alternate days, the subjects received saline before and after the access to saccharin. After the rats learned the D-AMPH-saline discrimination, the standard dose of D-AMPH was replaced by different doses of D-AMPH, baclofen (a GABA-B receptor agonist), 2-hydroxysaclofen (a GABA-B receptor antagonist), a combination of baclofen+D-AMPH, or a combination of 2-hydroxysaclofen+baclofen+D-AMPH. Baclofen did not substitute for D-AMPH, but, when combined with D-AMPH, it produced a small but significant decrease in the discriminative stimulus effects of D-AMPH. This effect was reversed by administration of 2-hydroxysaclofen. These data suggest that GABA-B receptors play a regulatory role in the discriminative stimulus effects of D-AMPH.

  8. Loss of Ethanol Conditioned Taste Aversion and Motor Stimulation in Knockin Mice with Ethanol-Insensitive α2-Containing GABAA Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Borghese, C. M.; McCracken, M. L.; Benavidez, J. M.; Geil, C. R.; Osterndorff-Kahanek, E.; Werner, D. F.; Iyer, S.; Swihart, A.; Harrison, N. L.; Homanics, G. E.; Harris, R. A.

    2011-01-01

    GABA type A receptors (GABAA-Rs) are potential targets of ethanol. However, there are multiple subtypes of this receptor, and, thus far, individual subunits have not been definitively linked with specific ethanol behavioral actions. Interestingly, though, a chromosomal cluster of four GABAA-R subunit genes, including α2 (Gabra2), was associated with human alcoholism (Am J Hum Genet 74:705–714, 2004; Pharmacol Biochem Behav 90:95–104, 2008; J Psychiatr Res 42:184–191, 2008). The goal of our study was to determine the role of receptors containing this subunit in alcohol action. We designed an α2 subunit with serine 270 to histidine and leucine 277 to alanine mutations that was insensitive to potentiation by ethanol yet retained normal GABA sensitivity in a recombinant expression system. Knockin mice containing this mutant subunit were tested in a range of ethanol behavioral tests. These mutant mice did not develop the typical conditioned taste aversion in response to ethanol and showed complete loss of the motor stimulant effects of ethanol. Conversely, they also demonstrated changes in ethanol intake and preference in multiple tests. The knockin mice showed increased ethanol-induced hypnosis but no difference in anxiolytic effects or recovery from acute ethanol-induced motor incoordination. Overall, these studies demonstrate that the effects of ethanol at GABAergic synapses containing the α2 subunit are important for specific behavioral effects of ethanol that may be relevant to the genetic linkage of this subunit with human alcoholism. PMID:20876231

  9. Estrogen-induced suppression of intake is not mediated by taste aversion in female rats.

    PubMed

    Flanagan-Cato, L M; Grigson, P S; King, J L

    2001-03-01

    Estrogen treatment can suppress the intake of a previously presented gustatory conditioned stimulus (CS). This finding has been interpreted as an estrogen-induced conditioned taste aversion. However, a distinction must be made between taste aversion and taste avoidance. In particular, tastes are only considered aversive if they elicit a stereotypic behavioral response, otherwise the reduction in intake is classified as an avoidance. Although aversive orofacial responses have been reported in male rats after taste-estrogen pairings, they have not been examined in ovariectomized female rats. The goal of the present investigation, then, was to use similar procedures to determine whether conditioned aversion also mediates the estrogen-induced reduction of intake in female rats. Animals were introduced to a novel 0.1% saccharin solution and immediately thereafter were given a subcutaneous injection of vehicle or estradiol benzoate (10 microg). Responses were assessed using a two-bottle preference test, a one-bottle acceptance test, and a taste reactivity (TR) test. The results confirmed previous reports of a reduced preference for saccharin after saccharin-estradiol pairing using the two-bottle test. The reduction in intake during the one-bottle test, however, was not accompanied by stereotypic aversive responses, such as gaping. Surprisingly, a similar reduction in intake also occurred when using a backward conditioning procedure in which estrogen was injected before, rather than after, CS access. Thus, the present results show that the suppressive effects of estrogen reflect an avoidance, rather than aversion and, moreover, that the reduced intake may be due to an unconditioned, rather than a conditioned, response.

  10. Critical role of insular cortex in taste but not odour aversion memory.

    PubMed

    Desgranges, Bertrand; Bertrand, Desgranges; Sevelinges, Yannick; Yannick, Sevelinges; Bonnefond, Mathilde; Mathilde, Bonnefond; Lévy, Frédéric; Frédéric, Lévy; Ravel, Nadine; Nadine, Ravel; Ferreira, Guillaume; Guillaume, Ferreira

    2009-04-01

    Conditioned odour aversion (COA) and conditioned taste aversion (CTA) result from the association of a novel odour or a novel taste with delayed visceral illness. The insular cortex (IC) is crucial for CTA memory, and the present experiments sought to determine whether the IC is required for the formation and the retrieval of COA memory as it is for CTA. We first demonstrated that ingested odour is as effective as taste for single-trial aversion learning in rats conditioned in their home cage. COA, like CTA, tolerates long intervals between the ingested stimuli and the illness and is long-lasting. Transient inactivation of the IC during acquisition spared COA whereas it greatly impaired CTA. Similarly, blockade of protein synthesis in IC did not affect COA but prevented CTA consolidation. Moreover, IC inactivation before retrieval tests did not interfere with COA memory expression when performed either 2 days (recent memory) or 36 days after acquisition (remote memory). Similar IC inactivation impaired the retrieval of either recent or remote CTA memory. Altogether these findings indicate that the IC is not necessary for aversive odour memory whereas it is essential for acquisition, consolidation and retrieval of aversive taste memory. We propose that the chemosensory stimulations modulate IC recruitment during the formation and the retrieval of food aversive memory.

  11. [The neural bases of taste aversion learning: the formation of acquired hedonic taste representations].

    PubMed

    de la Torre-Vacas, L; Agüero-Zapata, A

    Taste aversion conditioning is a form of associative learning in which certain qualities of a food (mainly its taste) are associated to specific negative visceral consequences that derive from eating it. Establishing this learning depends on gustatory-visceral integration processes carried out in the central nervous system. In this manuscript our aim is to offer a global view of the centres and connections that play the most significant roles in the formation of taste aversion learning (TAL). Many researchers consider that the initial level of integration is situated within the parabrachial nuclei. A priori and given the basic vital nature of TAL, its formation and completion could be thought to take place at this brain stem level, without requiring the intervention of the higher processing structures. Nevertheless, in the literature on TAL there is a large body of both neuroanatomical and neurobehavioural evidence that seems to indicate that the formation of TAL requires complex interactions between the parabrachial nuclei and certain prosencephalic structures, such as the insular cortex or the amygdala, among others.

  12. Control of appetitive and aversive taste-reactivity responses by an auditory conditioned stimulus in a devaluation task: a FOS and behavioral analysis.

    PubMed

    Kerfoot, Erin C; Agarwal, Isha; Lee, Hongjoo J; Holland, Peter C

    2007-09-01

    Through associative learning, cues for biologically significant reinforcers such as food may gain access to mental representations of those reinforcers. Here, we used devaluation procedures, behavioral assessment of hedonic taste-reactivity responses, and measurement of immediate-early gene (IEG) expression to show that a cue for food engages behavior and brain activity related to sensory and hedonic processing of that food. Rats first received a tone paired with intraoral infusion of sucrose. Then, in the absence of the tone, the value of sucrose was reduced (Devalue group) by pairing sucrose with lithium chloride (LiCl), or maintained (Maintain group) by presenting sucrose and LiCl unpaired. Finally, taste-reactivity responses to the tone were assessed in the absence of sucrose. Devalue rats showed high levels of aversive responses and minimal appetitive responses, whereas Maintain rats exhibited substantial appetitive responding but little aversive responding. Control rats that had not received tone-sucrose pairings did not display either class of behaviors. Devalue rats showed greater FOS expression than Maintain rats in several brain regions implicated in devaluation task performance and the display of aversive responses, including the basolateral amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, gustatory cortex (GC), and the posterior accumbens shell (ACBs), whereas the opposite pattern was found in the anterior ACBs. Both Devalue and Maintain rats showed greater FOS expression than control rats in amygdala central nucleus, GC, and both subregions of ACBs. Thus, through associative learning, auditory cues for food gained access to neural processing in several brain regions importantly involved in the processing of taste memory information.

  13. Role of the area postrema in radiation-induced taste aversion learning and emesis in cats

    SciTech Connect

    Rabin, B.M.; Hunt, W.A.; Chedester, A.L.; Lee, J.

    1986-01-01

    The role of the area postrema in radiation-induced emesis and taste aversion learning and the relationship between these behaviors were studied in cats. The potential involvement of neural factors which might be independent of the area postrema was minimized by using low levels of ionizing radiation (100 rads at a dose rate of 40 rads/min) to elicit a taste aversion, and by using body-only exposures (4500 and 6000 rads at 450 rads/min) to produce emesis. Lesions of the area postrema disrupted both taste aversion learning and emesis following irradiation. These results, which indicate that the area postrema is involved in the mediation of both radiation-induced emesis and taste aversion learning in cats under these experimental conditions, are interpreted as being consistent with the hypotheses that similar mechanisms mediate both responses to exposure to ionizing radiation, and that the taste aversion learning paradigm can therefore serve as a model system for studying radiation-induced emesis.

  14. Conditioned aversion of aluminum sulfate in black ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sparling, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to determine if reduced consumption of foods with elevated Al levels by black ducks (Anas rubripes) was due to taste aversion, conditioned taste aversion or malaise. Black ducks preferred a diet with 1,000 ppm Al over a control diet but ate less of a diet with 5,000 ppm Al. Prior experience with the high Al diet enhanced preference for the control diet. Changes in body weight and food consumption through time suggested that aversion to the high Al diet was a conditioned response to mild malaise.

  15. A Classroom Demonstration of Taste-Aversion Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Best, Michael R.; Batsell, Jr., W. Robert

    1998-01-01

    Describes a demonstration that recreates the central features of taste aversion (learning to avoid distinctively flavored food or drink paired with gastrointestinal illness) research. Rats are allowed to drink a saccharine flavored solution and then are given an injection of sodium chloride. They associate the unpleasant effects with the solution.…

  16. A Classroom Demonstration of Taste-Aversion Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Best, Michael R.; Batsell, Jr., W. Robert

    1998-01-01

    Describes a demonstration that recreates the central features of taste aversion (learning to avoid distinctively flavored food or drink paired with gastrointestinal illness) research. Rats are allowed to drink a saccharine flavored solution and then are given an injection of sodium chloride. They associate the unpleasant effects with the solution.…

  17. Attenuation and cross-attenuation in taste aversion learning in the rat: Studies with ionizing radiation, lithium chloride and ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Rabin, B.M.; Hunt, W.A.; Lee, J.

    1988-12-01

    The preexposure paradigm was utilized to evaluate the similarity of ionizing radiation, lithium chloride and ethanol as unconditioned stimuli for the acquisition of a conditioned taste aversion. Three unpaired preexposures to lithium chloride (3.0 mEq/kg, IP) blocked the acquisition of a taste aversion when a novel sucrose solution was paired with either the injection of the same dose of lithium chloride or exposure to ionizing radiation (100 rad). Similar pretreatment with radiation blocked the acquisition of a radiation-induced aversion, but had no effect on taste aversions produced by lithium chloride (3.0 or 1.5 mEq/kg). Preexposure to ethanol (4 g/kg, PO) disrupted the acquisition of an ethanol-induced taste aversion, but not radiation- or lithium chloride-induced aversions. In contrast, preexposure to either radiation or lithium chloride attenuated an ethanol-induced taste aversion in intact rats, but not in rats with lesions of the area postrema. The results are discussed in terms of relationships between these three unconditioned stimuli and in terms of implications of these results for understanding the nature of the proximal unconditioned stimulus in taste aversion learning.

  18. Differential involvement of cortical muscarinic and NMDA receptors in short- and long-term taste aversion memory.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, G; Gutiérrez, R; De La Cruz, V; Bermúdez-Rattoni, F

    2002-09-01

    In conditioned taste aversion, an animal avoids a taste previously associated with toxic effects, and this aversive memory formation requires an intact insular cortex. In this paper, we investigated the possible differential involvement of cholinergic and glutamatergic receptors in the insular cortex in short-term memory (STM) and long-term memory (LTM) of taste aversion in rats. Taste aversion was induced by intraperitoneal administration of lithium chloride (a malaise-inducing drug) 15 min after experience with an unfamiliar taste. In order to test STM and LTM of taste aversion, taste stimulus was again presented 4 h and 72 h after lithium injection, respectively. During the acquisition, microinjection of the muscarinic antagonist, scopolamine, in the insular cortex before, but not after, the presentation of the new taste, abolished STM as well as LTM. Blockade of the NMDA receptor, in the insular cortex, by AP5 before, but not after, the presentation of the taste stimulus, impaired LTM but left STM intact. Moreover, when injected 1 h after malaise induction (i.e., during taste-illness association), AP5 disrupted both STM and LTM. These results suggest that activation of muscarinic receptors in the insular cortex is involved in the acquisition of taste memory, whereas NMDA receptors participate in taste memory consolidation. These data demonstrate that different neurochemical mechanisms subserve different memory phases. NMDA receptors are also probably involved in processing the visceral input, thus allowing subsequent taste-illness association. This indicates that in the same cortical area the same neurotransmitter system can be involved in distinct processes: taste memory consolidation vs. taste-illness association.

  19. Conditioned context aversion learning in the laboratory mouse.

    PubMed

    Kislal, Sezen; Blizard, David A

    2016-12-01

    It is well known that pairing of large contextual changes with illness can cause conditioned context aversion in laboratory rats. The aim of present study was to develop a paradigm to study this phenomenon in laboratory mice, a species widely employed in neurobehavioral studies. Genetically heterogeneous mice, drinking from plastic bottles in the colony room, learned to avoid glass bottles after a single conditioning trial when drinking from these was paired with injections of lithium chloride. The aversion was independent of any difference in the taste of water in plastic vs. glass bottles. When the variation in the visual stimulus was less distinct, development of a strong aversion required two conditioning trials and was not retained as well. The results also showed that conditioned context aversion, just like conditioned taste aversion, could also be developed across a 30-minute CS-UCS delay. The fact that taste was not a factor in distinguishing drinking from glass and plastic water bottles raises the possibility that, contextual stimuli, not taste, may have been the CS when rats (in Garcia's original experiments) avoided drinking from plastic bottles that had been paired with radiation. The development of contextual aversion conditioning protocols for mice will enable the molecular resources available for this species to be exploited. Furthermore, representation of the CS by discrete rather than the multimodal CSs typically used in most studies on contextual conditioning offers more focus when considering its neuroanatomical basis.

  20. Glucocorticoids Enhance Taste Aversion Memory via Actions in the Insular Cortex and Basolateral Amygdala

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Maria Isabel; Quirarte, Gina L.; Rodriguez-Garcia, Gabriela; McGaugh, James L.; Roozendaal, Benno

    2008-01-01

    It is well established that glucocorticoid hormones strengthen the consolidation of hippocampus-dependent spatial and contextual memory. The present experiments investigated glucocorticoid effects on the long-term formation of conditioned taste aversion (CTA), an associative learning task that does not depend critically on hippocampal function.…

  1. Glucocorticoids Enhance Taste Aversion Memory via Actions in the Insular Cortex and Basolateral Amygdala

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Maria Isabel; Quirarte, Gina L.; Rodriguez-Garcia, Gabriela; McGaugh, James L.; Roozendaal, Benno

    2008-01-01

    It is well established that glucocorticoid hormones strengthen the consolidation of hippocampus-dependent spatial and contextual memory. The present experiments investigated glucocorticoid effects on the long-term formation of conditioned taste aversion (CTA), an associative learning task that does not depend critically on hippocampal function.…

  2. Effects of dose and of partial body ionizing radiation on taste aversion learning in rats with lesions of the area postrema

    SciTech Connect

    Rabin, B.M.; Hunt, W.A.; Lee, J. )

    1984-01-01

    The effect of area postrema lesions on the acquisition of a conditioned taste aversion following partial body exposure to ionizing radiation was investigated in rats exposed to head-only irradiation at 100, 200 and 300 rad or to body-only irradiation at 100 and 200 rad. Following head-only irradiation area postrema lesions produced a significant attenuation of the radiation-induced taste aversion at all dose levels, although the rats still showed a significant reduction in sucrose preference. Following body-only exposure, area postrema lesions completely disrupted the acquisition of the conditioned taste aversion. The results are interpreted as indicating that: (a) the acquisition of a conditioned taste aversion following body-only exposure is mediated by the area postrema; and (b) taste aversion learning following radiation exposure to the head-only is mediated by both the area postrema and a mechanism which is independent of the area postrema.

  3. Fos and Egr1 Expression in the Rat Brain in Response to Olfactory Cue after Taste-Potentiated Odor Aversion Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cattarelli, Martine; Dardou, David; Datiche, Frederique

    2006-01-01

    When an odor is paired with a delayed illness, rats acquire a relatively weak odor aversion. In contrast, rats develop a strong aversion to an olfactory cue paired with delayed illness if it is presented simultaneously with a gustatory cue. Such a conditioning effect has been referred to as taste-potentiated odor aversion learning (TPOA). TPOA is…

  4. Fos and Egr1 Expression in the Rat Brain in Response to Olfactory Cue after Taste-Potentiated Odor Aversion Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cattarelli, Martine; Dardou, David; Datiche, Frederique

    2006-01-01

    When an odor is paired with a delayed illness, rats acquire a relatively weak odor aversion. In contrast, rats develop a strong aversion to an olfactory cue paired with delayed illness if it is presented simultaneously with a gustatory cue. Such a conditioning effect has been referred to as taste-potentiated odor aversion learning (TPOA). TPOA is…

  5. Excitotoxic lesion of the hippocampus of Wistar rats disrupts the circadian control of the latent inhibition of taste aversion learning.

    PubMed

    Molero-Chamizo, Andrés

    2013-10-02

    Previous experiments have shown that changes in the time of day between taste pre-exposure and conditioning prevent the latent inhibition of conditioning taste aversion. The effect of these changes in circadian context between pre-exposure and conditioning on the magnitude of the learned aversion appears to be similar to the effect of changes in spatial context on this type of learning. To elucidate the brain areas involved in this circadian dependence of latent inhibition of conditioning taste aversion, the effect of excitotoxic lesions of the hippocampus, a region related to spatial-contextual modulation in this learning process, was analyzed. The latent inhibition of conditioning taste aversion in animals with hippocampal lesions, that were pre-exposed and conditioned to the same or different time of day, was compared with the response of animals exposed to either conditions ("same" or "different") but had undergone amygdala lesions or sham lesions. The results showed that selective dorsal hippocampus lesion eliminated the circadian dependence of latent inhibition of taste aversion. A change in the time of day between pre-exposure and conditioning did not prevent latent inhibition in animals with hippocampal lesions. In contrast, this change prevented latent inhibition in the amygdala-lesioned and sham groups. These findings suggest that the hippocampus contains a selective mechanism that modulates the contextual dependency of the latent inhibition of conditioning taste aversion without interfering with the effect of taste pre-exposure itself. This study may help to understand the possible common involvement of the hippocampus in different types of contextual control of associative learning. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Conditioned suppression, punishment, and aversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orme-Johnson, D. W.; Yarczower, M.

    1974-01-01

    The aversive action of visual stimuli was studied in two groups of pigeons which received response-contingent or noncontingent electric shocks in cages with translucent response keys. Presentation of grain for 3 sec, contingent on key pecking, was the visual stimulus associated with conditioned punishment or suppression. The responses of the pigeons in three different experiments are compared.

  7. Impact of brief or extended extinction of a taste aversion on inhibitory associations: evidence from summation, retardation, and preference tests.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Douglas C; Bowker, Jonna L; Anderson, Jenise E; Palmatier, Matthew I

    2003-02-01

    In five conditioned taste aversion experiments with rats, summation, retardation, and preference tests were used to assess the effects of extinguishing a conditioned saccharin aversion for three or nine trials. In Experiment 1, a summation test showed that saccharin aversion extinguished over nine trials reduced the aversion to a merely conditioned flavor (vinegar), whereas three saccharin extinction trials did not subsequently influence the vinegar aversion. Experiment 2 clarified that result, with unpaired controls equated on flavor exposure prior to testing; the results with those controls suggested that the flavor extinguished for nine trials produced generalization decrement during testing. In Experiment 3, the saccharin aversion reconditioned slowly after nine extinction trials, but not after three. Those results suggested the development of latent inhibition after more than three extinction trials. Preference tests comparing saccharin consumption with a concurrently available fluid (water in Experiment 4, saline in Experiment 5) showed that the preference for saccharin was greater after nine extinction trials than after three. However, saccharin preference after nine extinction trials was not greater, as compared with that for either latent inhibition controls (Experiments 4 and 5) or a control given equated exposures to saccharin and trained to drink saline at a high rate prior to testing (Experiment 5). Concerns about whether conditioned inhibition has been demonstrated in any flavor aversion procedure are discussed. Our findings help explain both successes and failures in demonstrating post-extinction conditioned response recovery effects reported in the conditioned taste aversion literature, and they can be explained using a memory interference account.

  8. A dopamine-modulated neural circuit regulating aversive taste memory in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Masek, Pavel; Worden, Kurtresha; Aso, Yoshinori; Rubin, Gerald M; Keene, Alex C

    2015-06-01

    Taste memories allow animals to modulate feeding behavior in accordance with past experience and avoid the consumption of potentially harmful food [1]. We have developed a single-fly taste memory assay to functionally interrogate the neural circuitry encoding taste memories [2]. Here, we screen a collection of Split-GAL4 lines that label small populations of neurons associated with the fly memory center-the mushroom bodies (MBs) [3]. Genetic silencing of PPL1 dopamine neurons disrupts conditioned, but not naive, feeding behavior, suggesting these neurons are selectively involved in the conditioned taste response. We identify two PPL1 subpopulations that innervate the MB α lobe and are essential for aversive taste memory. Thermogenetic activation of these dopamine neurons during training induces memory, indicating these neurons are sufficient for the reinforcing properties of bitter tastant to the MBs. Silencing of either the intrinsic MB neurons or the output neurons from the α lobe disrupts taste conditioning. Thermogenetic manipulation of these output neurons alters naive feeding response, suggesting that dopamine neurons modulate the threshold of response to appetitive tastants. Taken together, these findings detail a neural mechanism underlying the formation of taste memory and provide a functional model for dopamine-dependent plasticity in Drosophila. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Hedonic and Nucleus Accumbens Neural Responses to a Natural Reward Are Regulated by Aversive Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roitman, Mitchell F.; Wheeler, Robert A.; Tiesinga, Paul H. E.; Roitman, Jamie D.; Carelli, Regina M.

    2010-01-01

    The nucleus accumbens (NAc) plays a role in hedonic reactivity to taste stimuli. Learning can alter the hedonic valence of a given stimulus, and it remains unclear how the NAc encodes this shift. The present study examined whether the population response of NAc neurons to a taste stimulus is plastic using a conditioned taste aversion (CTA)…

  10. Hedonic and Nucleus Accumbens Neural Responses to a Natural Reward Are Regulated by Aversive Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roitman, Mitchell F.; Wheeler, Robert A.; Tiesinga, Paul H. E.; Roitman, Jamie D.; Carelli, Regina M.

    2010-01-01

    The nucleus accumbens (NAc) plays a role in hedonic reactivity to taste stimuli. Learning can alter the hedonic valence of a given stimulus, and it remains unclear how the NAc encodes this shift. The present study examined whether the population response of NAc neurons to a taste stimulus is plastic using a conditioned taste aversion (CTA)…

  11. Effects of pramipexole on the processing of rewarding and aversive taste stimuli.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Ciara; Harwood, James; Brouwer, Sietske; Harmer, Catherine J; Cowen, Philip J

    2013-07-01

    Pramipexole, a D2/D3 dopamine receptor agonist, has been implicated in the development of impulse control disorders in patients with Parkinson's disease. Investigation of single doses of pramipexole in healthy participants in reward-based learning tasks has shown inhibition of the neural processing of reward, presumptively through stimulation of dopamine autoreceptors. This study aims to examine the effects of pramipexole on the neural response to the passive receipt of rewarding and aversive sight and taste stimuli. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the neural responses to the sight and taste of pleasant (chocolate) and aversive (mouldy strawberry) stimuli in 16 healthy volunteers who received a single dose of pramipexole (0.25 mg) and placebo in a double-blind, within-subject, design. Relative to placebo, pramipexole treatment reduced blood oxygen level-dependent activation to the chocolate stimuli in the areas known to play a key role in reward, including the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, the orbitofrontal cortex, striatum, thalamus and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex. Pramipexole also reduced activation to the aversive condition in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex. There were no effects of pramipexole on the subjective ratings of the stimuli. Our results are consistent with an ability of acute, low-dose pramipexole to diminish dopamine-mediated responses to both rewarding and aversive taste stimuli, perhaps through an inhibitory action of D2/3 autoreceptors on phasic burst activity of midbrain dopamine neurones. The ability of pramipexole to inhibit aversive processing might potentiate its adverse behavioural effects and could also play a role in its proposed efficacy in treatment-resistant depression.

  12. SB-334867-A, a selective orexin-1 receptor antagonist, enhances taste aversion learning and blocks taste preference learning in rats.

    PubMed

    Mediavilla, Cristina; Cabello, Victoria; Risco, Severiano

    2011-05-01

    Lateral hypothalamus (LH) has been proposed as a possible center for the anatomical convergence of gustatory and postingestive information relevant to taste aversion learning (TAL) and conditioned flavor preference (CFP). Orexin, a neuropeptide that mainly originates in neurons in lateral hypothalamic areas, was recently related to learning and memory processes. The present study was designed to analyze a possible relationship between the orexinergic system and taste learning. We studied the effect of intracerebroventricular administration of three doses (3, 6, and 12 μg/1 μl) of the selective orexin-1 receptor antagonist SB-334867-A on the acquisition of TAL induced by a single administration of LiCl. Infusion of SB-334867-A did not block this learning and appeared to enhance TAL in a two-bottle test. However, SB-334867-A (6 μg/1 μl) blocked taste preference learning when a flavor associated with saccharin (CS+) was offered on alternate days against a different flavor without saccharin (CS-), during three acquisition sessions. These results offer evidence of a relationship between the orexinergic system and taste learning; they tentatively suggest the possibility that endogenous orexin and gustatory and postingestive (visceral and oral) signals converge in brain areas relevant to the acquisition of taste learning. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Extensive Lesions in the Gustatory Cortex in the Rat Do Not Disrupt the Retention of a Presurgically Conditioned Taste Aversion and Do Not Impair Unconditioned Concentration-Dependent Licking of Sucrose and Quinine

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Although damage to gustatory cortex (GC) in the rat has been reported to severely impair, if not eliminate, retention of a presurgically conditioned taste aversion (CTA), it has equivocal effects on taste preference as measured by intake tests. Because intake tests can be influenced by nongustatory (e.g., postingestive) factors, we employed the brief-access taste test to assess the effects of ibotenic acid–induced lesions targeting the GC on unconditioned licking to a sucrose and then a quinine concentration series in a specialized lickometer. As a functional lesion assessment, a presurgical CTA to 0.1M NaCl was established in thirsty rats by following 15-min intake with intraperitoneal administration of either LiCl (or NaCl for control) on 2 occasions. Both conditioned sham-operated (SHAM) rats and rats with histologically confirmed extensive damage to the GC (GCX) avoided a NaCl concentration series relative to unconditioned controls in a postsurgical brief-access CTA test, with no difference between the surgical groups in their responses to NaCl or similar concentrations of KCl. GCX rats also did not differ from SHAM rats in the EC50 of concentration–response functions for sucrose or quinine. Clearly, the critical cortical area required for the retention of a presurgical CTA falls outside of the extensive area of damage, which was well centered within the conventionally defined gustatory zone of the insular cortex. The absence of an effect on unconditioned responsiveness to sucrose and quinine suggests that the damaged region is also unnecessary for the normal expression of affective licking responses to tastants. PMID:24226296

  14. Post-Acquisition Release of Glutamate and Norepinephrine in the Amygdala Is Involved in Taste-Aversion Memory Consolidation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzman-Ramos, Kioko; Osorio-Gomez, Daniel; Moreno-Castilla, Perla; Bermudez-Rattoni, Federico

    2012-01-01

    Amygdala activity mediates the acquisition and consolidation of emotional experiences; we have recently shown that post-acquisition reactivation of this structure is necessary for the long-term storage of conditioned taste aversion (CTA). However, the specific neurotransmitters involved in such reactivation are not known. The aim of the present…

  15. Post-Acquisition Release of Glutamate and Norepinephrine in the Amygdala Is Involved in Taste-Aversion Memory Consolidation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzman-Ramos, Kioko; Osorio-Gomez, Daniel; Moreno-Castilla, Perla; Bermudez-Rattoni, Federico

    2012-01-01

    Amygdala activity mediates the acquisition and consolidation of emotional experiences; we have recently shown that post-acquisition reactivation of this structure is necessary for the long-term storage of conditioned taste aversion (CTA). However, the specific neurotransmitters involved in such reactivation are not known. The aim of the present…

  16. Attenuation and cross-attenuation in taste-aversion learning in the rat: Studies with ionizing radiation, lithium chloride, and ethanol. Scientific report

    SciTech Connect

    Rabin, B.M.; Hunt, W.A.; Lee, J.

    1989-01-01

    The pre-exposure paradigm was utilized to evaluate the similarity of ionizing radiation, lithium chloride, and ethanol as unconditioned stimuli for the acquisition of a conditioned taste aversion. Three unpaired pre-exposures to lithium chloride blocked the acquisition of a taste aversion when a novel sucrose solution was paired with either the injection of the same dose of lithium chloride or exposure to ionizing radiation (100 rad). Similar pretreatment with radiation blocked the acquisition of a radiation-induced aversion, but had no effect on taste aversions produced by lithium aversion, but not radiation- or lithium chloride-induced aversions. In contrast, preexposure to either radiation or lithium chloride attenuated an ethanol-induced taste aversion in intact rats, but not in rats with lesions of the area postrema. The results are discussed in terms of relationships between these three unconditioned stimuli and in terms of implications of these results for understanding the nature of the proximal unconditioned stimulus in taste aversion learning.

  17. Differential involvement of medial prefrontal cortex and basolateral amygdala extracellular signal-regulated kinase in extinction of conditioned taste aversion is dependent on different intervals of extinction following conditioning.

    PubMed

    Lin, P-Y; Wang, S-P; Tai, M-Y; Tsai, Y-F

    2010-11-24

    Extinction reflects a decrease in the conditioned response (CR) following non-reinforcement of a conditioned stimulus. Behavioral evidence indicates that extinction involves an inhibitory learning mechanism in which the extinguished CR reappears with presentation of an unconditioned stimulus. However, recent studies on fear conditioning suggest that extinction erases the original conditioning if the time interval between fear acquisition and extinction is short. The present study examined the effects of different intervals between acquisition and extinction of the original memory in conditioned taste aversion (CTA). Male Long-Evans rats acquired CTA by associating a 0.2% sucrose solution with malaise induced by i.p. injection of 4 ml/kg 0.15 M LiCl. Two different time intervals, 5 and 24 h, between CTA acquisition and extinction were used. Five or 24 h after CTA acquisition, extinction trials were performed, in which a bottle containing 20 ml of a 0.2% sucrose solution was provided for 10 min without subsequent LiCl injection. If sucrose consumption during the extinction trials was greater than the average water consumption, then rats were considered to have reached CTA extinction. Rats subjected to extinction trials lasting 24 h, but not 5 h, after acquisition re-exhibited the extinguished CR following injection of 0.15 M LiCl alone 7 days after acquisition. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA) was examined by Western blot after the first extinction trial. ERK activation in the mPFC was induced after the extinction trial beginning 5 h after acquisition, whereas the extinction trial performed 24 h after acquisition induced ERK activation in the BLA. These data suggest that the original conditioning can be inhibited or retained by CTA extinction depending on the time interval between acquisition and extinction and that the ERK transduction pathway in the mPFC and BLA is

  18. Enhancement of Inhibitory Avoidance and Conditioned Taste Aversion Memory with Insular Cortex Infusions of 8-Br-cAMP: Involvement of the Basolateral Amygdala

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Maria I.; McGaugh, James L.

    2004-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that in rats, the insular cortex (IC) and amygdala are involved in the learning and memory of aversively motivated tasks. The present experiments examined the effects of 8-Br-cAMP, an analog of cAMP, and oxotremorine, a muscarinic agonist, infused into the IC after inhibitory avoidance (IA) training and during the…

  19. Enhancement of Inhibitory Avoidance and Conditioned Taste Aversion Memory with Insular Cortex Infusions of 8-Br-cAMP: Involvement of the Basolateral Amygdala

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Maria I.; McGaugh, James L.

    2004-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that in rats, the insular cortex (IC) and amygdala are involved in the learning and memory of aversively motivated tasks. The present experiments examined the effects of 8-Br-cAMP, an analog of cAMP, and oxotremorine, a muscarinic agonist, infused into the IC after inhibitory avoidance (IA) training and during the…

  20. Boosting Cholinergic Activity in Gustatory Cortex Enhances the Salience of a Familiar CS in Taste Aversion Learning

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Emily Wilkins; Bernstein, Ilene L.

    2009-01-01

    The cholinergic system is important for learning, memory and responses to novel stimuli. Exposure to novel, but not familiar, tastes increases extracellular acetylcholine (ACh) levels in insular cortex (IC). To further examine whether cholinergic activation is a critical signal of taste novelty the present studies infused carbachol, a direct cholinergic agonist, into IC prior to conditioned taste aversion (CTA) training with a familiar taste. By mimicking the cholinergic activation generated by novel taste exposure, it was hypothesized that a familiar taste would be treated as “novel”, and therefore a salient target for aversion learning. As predicted, rats infused with the agonist were able to acquire CTAs to familiar saccharin. Effects of carbachol infusion on patterns of neuronal activation during CS-US pairing were assessed using Fos-like immunoreactivity (FLI). Familiar taste-illness pairing following carbachol, but not vehicle, induced significant elevations of FLI in amygdala, a region with reciprocal connections to IC that is also important for CTA learning. These results support the view that IC ACh activity provides a critical signal of taste novelty which facilitates CTA acquisition. PMID:19634934

  1. Peculiar modulation of taste aversion learning by the time of day in developing rats.

    PubMed

    Manrique, Tatiana; Gámiz, Fernando; Morón, Ignacio; Ballesteros, M Angeles; Gallo, Milagros

    2009-03-01

    The ontogeny of the temporal context modulation of conditioned taste aversion was studied in male Wistar rats using a palatable 1% NaCl solution. A procedure that included two saline preexposures, a single pairing saline-lithium chloride (0.15 M; 1% b.w.) either at the same or a different time of day of preexposures and a one-bottle test at the same time than preexposure was applied. Four age groups (PN32, PN48, PN64, and PN100) covering the complete range from adolescence to the adult period were tested. The results showed no effect of a temporal context shift in PN32. A peculiar enhancement of temporal context-specific saline aversions was exhibited by PN48 and PN64 rats, while the adult typical temporal context specificity of latent inhibition was only evident in PN100 rats. The results are discussed in terms of the peculiar brain functional organization during a protracted adolescence period.

  2. Brain mechanisms of expectation associated with insula and amygdala response to aversive taste: implications for placebo.

    PubMed

    Sarinopoulos, Issidoros; Dixon, Gregory E; Short, Sarah J; Davidson, Richard J; Nitschke, Jack B

    2006-03-01

    The experience of aversion is shaped by multiple physiological and psychological factors including one's expectations. Recent work has shown that expectancy manipulation can alter perceptions of aversive events and concomitant brain activation. Accruing evidence indicates a primary role of altered expectancies in the placebo effect. Here, we probed the mechanism by which expectation attenuates sensory taste transmission by examining how brain areas activated by misleading information during an expectancy period modulate insula and amygdala activation to a highly aversive bitter taste. In a rapid event-related fMRI design, we showed that activations in the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC), orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex to a misleading cue that the taste would be mildly aversive predicted decreases in insula and amygdala activation to the highly aversive taste. OFC and rACC activation to the misleading cue were also associated with less aversive ratings of that taste. Additional analyses revealed consistent results demonstrating functional connectivity among the OFC, rACC, and insula. Altering expectancies of upcoming aversive events are shown here to depend on robust functional associations among brain regions implicated in prior work on the placebo effect.

  3. Control of Appetitive and Aversive Taste-Reactivity Responses by an Auditory Conditioned Stimulus in a Devaluation Task: A FOS and Behavioral Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerfoot, Erin C.; Agarwal, Isha; Lee, Hongjoo J.; Holland, Peter C.

    2007-01-01

    Through associative learning, cues for biologically significant reinforcers such as food may gain access to mental representations of those reinforcers. Here, we used devaluation procedures, behavioral assessment of hedonic taste-reactivity responses, and measurement of immediate-early gene (IEG) expression to show that a cue for food engages…

  4. Control of Appetitive and Aversive Taste-Reactivity Responses by an Auditory Conditioned Stimulus in a Devaluation Task: A FOS and Behavioral Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerfoot, Erin C.; Agarwal, Isha; Lee, Hongjoo J.; Holland, Peter C.

    2007-01-01

    Through associative learning, cues for biologically significant reinforcers such as food may gain access to mental representations of those reinforcers. Here, we used devaluation procedures, behavioral assessment of hedonic taste-reactivity responses, and measurement of immediate-early gene (IEG) expression to show that a cue for food engages…

  5. The Effect of Swimming Experience on Acquisition and Retention of Swimming-Based Taste Aversion Learning in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masaki, Takahisa; Nakajima, Sadahiko

    2010-01-01

    Swimming endows rats with an aversion to a taste solution consumed before swimming. The present study explored whether the experience of swimming before or after the taste-swimming trials interferes with swimming-based taste aversion learning. Experiment 1 demonstrated that a single preexposure to 20 min of swimming was as effective as four or…

  6. The Effect of Swimming Experience on Acquisition and Retention of Swimming-Based Taste Aversion Learning in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masaki, Takahisa; Nakajima, Sadahiko

    2010-01-01

    Swimming endows rats with an aversion to a taste solution consumed before swimming. The present study explored whether the experience of swimming before or after the taste-swimming trials interferes with swimming-based taste aversion learning. Experiment 1 demonstrated that a single preexposure to 20 min of swimming was as effective as four or…

  7. Swimming-Induced Taste Aversion and Its Prevention by a Prior History of Swimming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masaki, Takahisa; Nakajima, Sadahiko

    2004-01-01

    In two experiments, the evidence showed that 20 min of forced swimming by rats caused aversion to a taste solution consumed before swimming. When one of two taste solutions (sodium saccharin or sodium chloride, counterbalanced across rats) was paired with swimming and the other was not, the rats' intakes of these two solutions showed less…

  8. Swimming-Induced Taste Aversion and Its Prevention by a Prior History of Swimming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masaki, Takahisa; Nakajima, Sadahiko

    2004-01-01

    In two experiments, the evidence showed that 20 min of forced swimming by rats caused aversion to a taste solution consumed before swimming. When one of two taste solutions (sodium saccharin or sodium chloride, counterbalanced across rats) was paired with swimming and the other was not, the rats' intakes of these two solutions showed less…

  9. Ethanol-Induced Taste Aversions: Lack of Involvement of Acetaldehyde and the Area Postrema

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    Bonison. H. L. Area postrema: Chemoreceptive trigger zone for 55-65. 1986. 1 vomiting-is that all. /J6h’ Stii 14: 1807-1917. 1974. 1S. Rabin. B. M...area postrema in radiation-induced taste aversion learning 7. Deutsch. J. A.. F. Molina and A. Puerto. Conditione. taste and emesis in cats . Pi’hvi

  10. Parallel reinforcement pathways for conditioned food aversions in the honeybee.

    PubMed

    Wright, Geraldine A; Mustard, Julie A; Simcock, Nicola K; Ross-Taylor, Alexandra A R; McNicholas, Lewis D; Popescu, Alexandra; Marion-Poll, Frédéric

    2010-12-21

    Avoiding toxins in food is as important as obtaining nutrition. Conditioned food aversions have been studied in animals as diverse as nematodes and humans [1, 2], but the neural signaling mechanisms underlying this form of learning have been difficult to pinpoint. Honeybees quickly learn to associate floral cues with food [3], a trait that makes them an excellent model organism for studying the neural mechanisms of learning and memory. Here we show that honeybees not only detect toxins but can also learn to associate odors with both the taste of toxins and the postingestive consequences of consuming them. We found that two distinct monoaminergic pathways mediate learned food aversions in the honeybee. As for other insect species conditioned with salt or electric shock reinforcers [4-7], learned avoidances of odors paired with bad-tasting toxins are mediated by dopamine. Our experiments are the first to identify a second, postingestive pathway for learned olfactory aversions that involves serotonin. This second pathway may represent an ancient mechanism for food aversion learning conserved across animal lineages.

  11. Parallel Reinforcement Pathways for Conditioned Food Aversions in the Honeybee

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Geraldine A.; Mustard, Julie A.; Simcock, Nicola K.; Ross-Taylor, Alexandra A.R.; McNicholas, Lewis D.; Popescu, Alexandra; Marion-Poll, Frédéric

    2010-01-01

    Summary Avoiding toxins in food is as important as obtaining nutrition. Conditioned food aversions have been studied in animals as diverse as nematodes and humans [1, 2], but the neural signaling mechanisms underlying this form of learning have been difficult to pinpoint. Honeybees quickly learn to associate floral cues with food [3], a trait that makes them an excellent model organism for studying the neural mechanisms of learning and memory. Here we show that honeybees not only detect toxins but can also learn to associate odors with both the taste of toxins and the postingestive consequences of consuming them. We found that two distinct monoaminergic pathways mediate learned food aversions in the honeybee. As for other insect species conditioned with salt or electric shock reinforcers [4–7], learned avoidances of odors paired with bad-tasting toxins are mediated by dopamine. Our experiments are the first to identify a second, postingestive pathway for learned olfactory aversions that involves serotonin. This second pathway may represent an ancient mechanism for food aversion learning conserved across animal lineages. PMID:21129969

  12. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor into adult neocortex strengthens a taste aversion memory.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Moreno, Araceli; Rodríguez-Durán, Luis F; Escobar, Martha L

    2016-01-15

    Nowadays, it is known that brain derived neurotrophic-factor (BDNF) is a protein critically involved in regulating long-term memory related mechanisms. Previous studies from our group in the insular cortex (IC), a brain structure of the temporal lobe implicated in acquisition, consolidation and retention of conditioned taste aversion (CTA), demonstrated that BDNF is essential for CTA consolidation. Recent studies show that BDNF-TrkB signaling is able to mediate the enhancement of memory. However, whether BDNF into neocortex is able to enhance aversive memories remains unexplored. In the present work, we administrated BDNF in a concentration capable of inducing in vivo neocortical LTP, into the IC immediately after CTA acquisition in two different conditions: a "strong-CTA" induced by 0.2M lithium chloride i.p. as unconditioned stimulus, and a "weak-CTA" induced by 0.1M lithium chloride i.p. Our results show that infusion of BDNF into the IC converts a weak CTA into a strong one, in a TrkB receptor-dependent manner. The present data suggest that BDNF into the adult insular cortex is sufficient to increase an aversive memory-trace. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Dexamethasone: a potent blocker for radiation-induced taste aversion in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Cairnie, A.B.; Leach, K.E.

    1982-08-01

    Rats, trained to drink water during a single 30-min period each day, were then given 0.1% saccharin twice a week and water on other days for 30 min. If 20 rad of radiation (0.2 Gy) were given each time 30 to 40 min after the saccharin the rats developed a profound aversion to saccharin during the course of three weeks, whereas control groups failed to do so. This paradigm was then used to test the ability of drugs, given twice weekly immediately after the saccharin, to prevent the development during three weeks of an aversion when 20 rad was given, 30 to 40 min later. Insulin, domperidone, haloperidol, acetylsalicylic acid, naloxone, chlorpheniramine, cimetidine, and dimethyl sulphoxide were tested without notable success. However dexamethasone, at doses ranging from 0.013 mg/kg to 1.3 mg/kg, significantly attenuated the conditioned taste aversion by up to 60 percent. The results are discussed in terms of a search for an antinauseant and antiemetic drug effective against radiation in man.

  14. Intracellular calcium chelation and pharmacological SERCA inhibition of Ca2+ pump in the insular cortex differentially affect taste aversive memory formation and retrieval.

    PubMed

    Miranda, María Isabel; González-Cedillo, Francisco J; Díaz-Muñoz, Mauricio

    2011-09-01

    Variation in intracellular calcium concentration regulates the induction of long-term synaptic plasticity and is associated with a variety of memory/retrieval and learning paradigms. Accordingly, impaired calcium mobilization from internal deposits affects synaptic plasticity and cognition in the aged brain. During taste memory formation several proteins are modulated directly or indirectly by calcium, and recent evidence suggests the importance of calcium buffering and the role of intracellular calcium deposits during cognitive processes. Thus, the main goal of this research was to study the consequence of hampering changes in cytoplasmic calcium and inhibiting SERCA activity by BAPTA-AM and thapsigargin treatments, respectively, in the insular cortex during different stages of taste memory formation. Using conditioned taste aversion (CTA), we found differential effects of BAPTA-AM and thapsigargin infusions before and after gustatory stimulation, as well as during taste aversive memory consolidation; BAPTA-AM, but not thapsigargin, attenuates acquisition and/or consolidation of CTA, but neither compound affects taste aversive memory retrieval. These results point to the importance of intracellular calcium dynamics in the insular cortex during different stages of taste aversive memory formation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Glucocorticoids enhance taste aversion memory via actions in the insular cortex and basolateral amygdala.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Maria Isabel; Quirarte, Gina L; Rodriguez-Garcia, Gabriela; McGaugh, James L; Roozendaal, Benno

    2008-07-01

    It is well established that glucocorticoid hormones strengthen the consolidation of hippocampus-dependent spatial and contextual memory. The present experiments investigated glucocorticoid effects on the long-term formation of conditioned taste aversion (CTA), an associative learning task that does not depend critically on hippocampal function. Corticosterone (1.0 or 3.0 mg/kg) administered subcutaneously to male Sprague-Dawley rats immediately after the pairing of saccharin consumption with the visceral malaise-inducing agent lithium chloride (LiCl) dose-dependently increased aversion to the saccharin taste on a 96-h retention test trial. In a second experiment, rats received corticosterone either immediately after saccharin consumption or after the LiCl injection, when both stimuli were separated by a 3-h time interval, to investigate whether corticosterone enhances memory of the gustatory or visceral stimulus presentation. Consistent with the finding that the LiCl injection, but not saccharin consumption, increases endogenous corticosterone levels, corticosterone selectively enhanced CTA memory when administered after the LiCl injection. Suppression of this training-induced release of corticosterone with the synthesis-inhibitor metyrapone (35 mg/kg) impaired CTA memory, and was dose-dependently reversed by post-training supplementation of corticosterone. Moreover, direct post-training infusions of corticosterone into the insular cortex or basolateral complex of the amygdala, two brain regions that are critically involved in the acquisition and consolidation of CTA, also enhanced CTA retention, whereas post-training infusions into the dorsal hippocampus were ineffective. These findings provide evidence that glucocorticoid effects on memory consolidation are not limited to hippocampus-dependent spatial/contextual information, but that these hormones also modulate memory consolidation of discrete-cue associative learning via actions in other brain regions.

  16. Food aversion: a critical balance between allergen-specific IgE levels and taste preference.

    PubMed

    Mirotti, Luciana; Mucida, Daniel; de Sá-Rocha, Luis Carlos; Costa-Pinto, Frederico Azevedo; Russo, Momtchilo

    2010-03-01

    Animals sensitized to allergens change their feeding behavior and avoid drinking the otherwise preferred sweetened solutions containing the allergens. This phenomenon, known as food aversion, appears to be mediated by allergen-specific IgE antibodies. Here we investigated food aversion in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice, which differ in their allergic responses to the allergen ovalbumin as well as in their preference for sweet taste. BALB/c mice present higher levels of IgE and a natural lower preference for sweet flavors when compared to C57BL/6 mice. Specifically, we studied a conflicting situation in which animals simultaneously experienced the aversive contact with the allergen and the attractive sweet taste of increasing concentrations of sucrose. We found that BALB/c mice were more prone to develop food aversion than C57BL/6 mice and that this aversive behavior could be abolished in both strains by increasing the palatability of the solution containing the allergen. In both strains food aversion was positively correlated with the levels of allergen-specific IgE antibodies and inversely correlated with their preference for sucrose sweetened solutions. 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Appetitive vs. Aversive conditioning in humans

    PubMed Central

    Andreatta, Marta; Pauli, Paul

    2015-01-01

    In classical conditioning, an initially neutral stimulus (conditioned stimulus, CS) becomes associated with a biologically salient event (unconditioned stimulus, US), which might be pain (aversive conditioning) or food (appetitive conditioning). After a few associations, the CS is able to initiate either defensive or consummatory responses, respectively. Contrary to aversive conditioning, appetitive conditioning is rarely investigated in humans, although its importance for normal and pathological behaviors (e.g., obesity, addiction) is undeniable. The present study intents to translate animal findings on appetitive conditioning to humans using food as an US. Thirty-three participants were investigated between 8 and 10 am without breakfast in order to assure that they felt hungry. During two acquisition phases, one geometrical shape (avCS+) predicted an aversive US (painful electric shock), another shape (appCS+) predicted an appetitive US (chocolate or salty pretzel according to the participants' preference), and a third shape (CS–) predicted neither US. In a extinction phase, these three shapes plus a novel shape (NEW) were presented again without US delivery. Valence and arousal ratings as well as startle and skin conductance (SCR) responses were collected as learning indices. We found successful aversive and appetitive conditioning. On the one hand, the avCS+ was rated as more negative and more arousing than the CS– and induced startle potentiation and enhanced SCR. On the other hand, the appCS+ was rated more positive than the CS– and induced startle attenuation and larger SCR. In summary, we successfully confirmed animal findings in (hungry) humans by demonstrating appetitive learning and normal aversive learning. PMID:26042011

  18. Appetitive vs. Aversive conditioning in humans.

    PubMed

    Andreatta, Marta; Pauli, Paul

    2015-01-01

    In classical conditioning, an initially neutral stimulus (conditioned stimulus, CS) becomes associated with a biologically salient event (unconditioned stimulus, US), which might be pain (aversive conditioning) or food (appetitive conditioning). After a few associations, the CS is able to initiate either defensive or consummatory responses, respectively. Contrary to aversive conditioning, appetitive conditioning is rarely investigated in humans, although its importance for normal and pathological behaviors (e.g., obesity, addiction) is undeniable. The present study intents to translate animal findings on appetitive conditioning to humans using food as an US. Thirty-three participants were investigated between 8 and 10 am without breakfast in order to assure that they felt hungry. During two acquisition phases, one geometrical shape (avCS+) predicted an aversive US (painful electric shock), another shape (appCS+) predicted an appetitive US (chocolate or salty pretzel according to the participants' preference), and a third shape (CS-) predicted neither US. In a extinction phase, these three shapes plus a novel shape (NEW) were presented again without US delivery. Valence and arousal ratings as well as startle and skin conductance (SCR) responses were collected as learning indices. We found successful aversive and appetitive conditioning. On the one hand, the avCS+ was rated as more negative and more arousing than the CS- and induced startle potentiation and enhanced SCR. On the other hand, the appCS+ was rated more positive than the CS- and induced startle attenuation and larger SCR. In summary, we successfully confirmed animal findings in (hungry) humans by demonstrating appetitive learning and normal aversive learning.

  19. Differential involvement of glutamatergic and catecholaminergic activity within the amygdala during taste aversion retrieval on memory expression and updating.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Osorio-Gómez; Kioko, Guzmán-Ramos; Federico, Bermúdez-Rattoni

    2016-07-01

    During memory retrieval, consolidated memories are expressed and destabilized in order to maintain or update information through a memory reconsolidation process. Despite the key role of the amygdala during memory acquistion and consolidation, the participation of neurotransmitter signals in memory retrieval is poorly understood. Hence, we used conditioned taste aversion and in vivo microdialysis to evaluate changes in glutamate, norepinephrine and dopamine concentrations within the amygdala during memory retrieval. We observed that exposure to an aversive-conditioned stimulus induced an augmentation in glutamate, norepinephrine and dopamine levels within the amygdala, while exposure to a familiar and safe stimulus did not induce changes in these neurotransmitters levels. Also, we evaluated the amygdalar blockade of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA), N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA), β-adrenergic and dopamine D1 receptors in memory retrieval and updating. Results showed that during retrieval, behavioural expression was impaired by intra-amygdalar blockade of AMPA and β-adrenergic receptors, whereas NMDA, D1 and β-adrenergic receptors blockade hindered memory updating. In summary, during conditioned taste aversion retrieval there was an increase in the extracellular levels of glutamate, norepinephrine and dopamine within the amygdala, and their receptors activity were differentially involved in the behavioural expression and memory updating during retrieval.

  20. Once is too much: Conditioned aversion develops immediately and predicts future cocaine self-administration behavior in rats

    PubMed Central

    Colechio, Elizabeth M.; Imperio, Caesar G.; Grigson, Patricia S.

    2014-01-01

    Rats emit aversive taste reactivity (TR) behavior (i.e., gapes) following intraoral delivery of a cocaine-paired taste cue and greater conditioned aversive TR at the end of training predicts greater drug-seeking and taking. Here, we examined the development of this conditioned aversive TR behavior on a trial by trial basis in an effort to determine when the change in behavior occurs and whether early changes in this behavior can be used to predict later drug-taking. The results show that conditioned aversive TR to a cocaine-paired cue occurs very early in training (i.e., following as few as 1 – 2 taste-drug pairings) and, importantly, that it can be used to predict later drug-seeking and drug-taking in rats. PMID:24773440

  1. Once is too much: conditioned aversion develops immediately and predicts future cocaine self-administration behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Colechio, Elizabeth M; Imperio, Caesar G; Grigson, Patricia S

    2014-04-01

    Rats emit aversive taste reactivity (TR) behavior (i.e., gapes) following intraoral delivery of a cocaine-paired taste cue and greater conditioned aversive TR at the end of training predicts greater drug-seeking and taking. Here, we examined the development of this conditioned aversive TR behavior on a trial-by-trial basis in an effort to determine when the change in behavior occurs and whether early changes in this behavior can be used to predict later drug taking. The results show that conditioned aversive TR to a cocaine-paired cue occurs very early in training (i.e., following as few as 1-2 taste-drug pairings) and, importantly, that it can be used to predict later drug seeking and drug taking in rats.

  2. Histaminergic modulation of cholinergic release from the nucleus basalis magnocellularis into insular cortex during taste aversive memory formation.

    PubMed

    Purón-Sierra, Liliana; Miranda, María Isabel

    2014-01-01

    The ability of acetylcholine (ACh) to alter specific functional properties of the cortex endows the cholinergic system with an important modulatory role in memory formation. For example, an increase in ACh release occurs during novel stimulus processing, indicating that ACh activity is critical during early stages of memory processing. During novel taste presentation, there is an increase in ACh release in the insular cortex (IC), a major structure for taste memory recognition. There is extensive evidence implicating the cholinergic efferents of the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM) in cortical activity changes during learning processes, and new evidence suggests that the histaminergic system may interact with the cholinergic system in important ways. However, there is little information as to whether changes in cholinergic activity in the IC are modulated during taste memory formation. Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated the influence of two histamine receptor subtypes, H1 in the NBM and H3 in the IC, on ACh release in the IC during conditioned taste aversion (CTA). Injection of the H3 receptor agonist R-α-methylhistamine (RAMH) into the IC or of the H1 receptor antagonist pyrilamine into the NBM during CTA training impaired subsequent CTA memory, and simultaneously resulted in a reduction of ACh release in the IC. This study demonstrated that basal and cortical cholinergic pathways are finely tuned by histaminergic activity during CTA, since dual actions of histamine receptor subtypes on ACh modulation release each have a significant impact during taste memory formation.

  3. Histaminergic Modulation of Cholinergic Release from the Nucleus Basalis Magnocellularis into Insular Cortex during Taste Aversive Memory Formation

    PubMed Central

    Purón-Sierra, Liliana; Miranda, María Isabel

    2014-01-01

    The ability of acetylcholine (ACh) to alter specific functional properties of the cortex endows the cholinergic system with an important modulatory role in memory formation. For example, an increase in ACh release occurs during novel stimulus processing, indicating that ACh activity is critical during early stages of memory processing. During novel taste presentation, there is an increase in ACh release in the insular cortex (IC), a major structure for taste memory recognition. There is extensive evidence implicating the cholinergic efferents of the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM) in cortical activity changes during learning processes, and new evidence suggests that the histaminergic system may interact with the cholinergic system in important ways. However, there is little information as to whether changes in cholinergic activity in the IC are modulated during taste memory formation. Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated the influence of two histamine receptor subtypes, H1 in the NBM and H3 in the IC, on ACh release in the IC during conditioned taste aversion (CTA). Injection of the H3 receptor agonist R-α-methylhistamine (RAMH) into the IC or of the H1 receptor antagonist pyrilamine into the NBM during CTA training impaired subsequent CTA memory, and simultaneously resulted in a reduction of ACh release in the IC. This study demonstrated that basal and cortical cholinergic pathways are finely tuned by histaminergic activity during CTA, since dual actions of histamine receptor subtypes on ACh modulation release each have a significant impact during taste memory formation. PMID:24625748

  4. Attempts to produce taste-aversion learning in rats exposed to 60-Hz electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Creim, J.A.; Lovely, R.H.; Kaune, W.T.; Phillips, R.D.

    1984-01-01

    A measure of taste-aversion (TA) learning was used in three experiments to 1) determine whether exposure to intense 60-Hz electric fields can produce TA learning in male Sprague-Dawley rats, and (2) establish a dose-response function for the behavior in question. In Experiment 1, four groups of eight rats each were distributed into one of two exposures (69 +/- 5 kV/m or 133 +/- 10 kV/m) or into one of two sham-exposure groups. Conditioning trials paired 0.1% sodium saccharin in water with 3 h of exposure to a 60-Hz electric field. Following five conditioning trials, a 20-min, two-bottle preference test between water and saccharin-flavored water failed to reveal TA conditioning in exposed groups. In Experiment 2, four groups of eight rats each (34 +/- 2 kV/m or 133 +/- 10 kV/m and two sham-exposed groups) were treated as before. Electric-field exposure had no effect on TA learning. Experiment 3 tested for a possible synergy between a minimal dose (for TA learning) of cyclophosphamide (6 mg/kg) and 5 h of exposure to 133 +/- 10 kV/m electric fields in a dark environment under conditions otherwise similar to those of Experiments 1 and 2. The results indicated no TA learning as reflected in the relative consumption of saccharin. 16 references, 6 figures, 1 table.

  5. 21 CFR 882.5235 - Aversive conditioning device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aversive conditioning device. 882.5235 Section 882...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5235 Aversive conditioning device. (a) Identification. An aversive conditioning device is an instrument used to administer...

  6. 21 CFR 882.5235 - Aversive conditioning device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aversive conditioning device. 882.5235 Section 882...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5235 Aversive conditioning device. (a) Identification. An aversive conditioning device is an instrument used to administer...

  7. Construction of a taste-blind medaka fish and quantitative assay of its preference-aversion behavior.

    PubMed

    Aihara, Y; Yasuoka, A; Iwamoto, S; Yoshida, Y; Misaka, T; Abe, K

    2008-11-01

    In vertebrates, the taste system provides information used in the regulation of food ingestion. In mammals, each cell group within the taste buds expresses either the T1R or the T2R taste receptor for preference-aversion discrimination. However, no such information is available regarding fish. We developed a novel system for quantitatively assaying taste preference-aversion in medaka fish. In this study, we prepared fluorescently labeled foods with fine cavities designed to retain tastants until they were bitten by the fish. The subjects were fed food containing a mixture of amino acids and inosine monophosphate (AN food), denatonium benzoate (DN food) or no tastant (NT food), and the amounts of ingested food were measured by fluorescence microscopy. Statistical analysis of the fluorescence intensities yielded quantitative measurements of AN food preference and DN food aversion. We then generated a transgenic fish expressing dominant-negative Galpha(i2) both in T1R-expressing and in T2R-expressing cells. The feeding assay revealed that the transgenic fish was unable to show a preference for AN food and an aversion to DN food. The assay system was useful for evaluating taste-blind behaviors, and the results indicate that the two taste signaling pathways conveying preferable and aversive taste information are conserved in fish as well as in mammals.

  8. Bidirectional modulation of taste aversion extinction by insular cortex LTP and LTD.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Durán, Luis F; Martínez-Moreno, Araceli; Escobar, Martha L

    2017-07-01

    The history of activity of a given neuron has been proposed to bidirectionally influence its future response to synaptic inputs. In particular, induction of synaptic plasticity expressions such as long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) modifies the performance of several behavioral tasks. Our previous studies in the insular cortex (IC), a neocortical region that has been related to acquisition and retention of conditioned taste aversion (CTA), have demonstrated that induction of LTP in the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus (Bla)-IC pathway before CTA training enhances the retention of this task. In addition, we reported that CTA training triggers a persistent impairment in the ability to induce in vivo LTP in the IC. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether LTD can be induced in the Bla-IC projection in vivo, as well as, whether the extinction of CTA is bidirectionally modified by previous synaptic plasticity induction in this pathway. Thus, rats received 900 train pulses (five 250μs pulses at 250Hz) delivered at 1Hz in the Bla-IC projection in order to induce LTD or 10 trains of 100Hz/1s with an intertrain interval of 20s in order to induce LTP. Seven days after surgery, rats were trained in the CTA task including the extinction trials. Our results show that the Bla-IC pathway is able to express in vivo LTD in an N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-dependent manner. Induction of LTD in the Bla-IC projection previous to CTA training facilitates the extinction of this task. Conversely, LTP induction enhances CTA retention. The present results show the bidirectional modulation of CTA extinction in response to IC-LTP and LTD, providing evidence of the homeostatic adaptation of taste learning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Role of glutamate receptors of central and basolateral amygdala nuclei on retrieval and reconsolidation of taste aversive memory.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Delatorre, Paola; Pérez-Sánchez, Consuelo; Guzmán-Ramos, Kioko; Bermúdez-Rattoni, Federico

    2014-05-01

    There are a number of experiments showing an important involvement of amygdala N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptors on consolidation of conditioned taste aversion (CTA) memory. Interestingly, recent evidence has shown that α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) glutamate receptors are particularly involved in CTA retrieval. Memory reconsolidation has been proposed as a destabilization and re-stabilization process induced by memory reactivation. We have recently suggested that reconsolidation could be enabled in the absence of retrieval. Hence, we decided to analyze the participation of AMPA and NMDA receptors of the central (CeA) and basolateral amygdala (BLA) in CTA memory retrieval and reconsolidation. To do so, we tested whether administrations of an AMPA receptor blocker (NBQX) or an NMDA receptor blocker (APV) 15 min before a second acquisition trial could have effects on taste aversion. We found that administration of NBQX in the BLA blocked retrieval, whereas APV blocked reconsolidation in the BLA, and consolidation in the CeA. When we administered both NBQX and APV into the BLA before the second acquisition trial, results showed impairment of both retrieval and reconsolidation. These results further support the idea that reconsolidation is independent of retrieval, since retrieval blockade in the BLA did not impair memory reconsolidation. These results suggest that glutamate receptors have different participation on retrieval and reconsolidation of CTA and further support the hypothesis that these two processes could be independent. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Impaired Reality Testing in Mice Lacking Phospholipase Cβ1: Observed by Persistent Representation-Mediated Taste Aversion.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hea-Jin; Koh, Hae-Young

    2016-01-01

    Hallucinations and delusions are the most prominent symptoms of schizophrenia and characterized by impaired reality testing. Representation-mediated taste aversion (RMTA) has been proposed as a potential behavioral assessment of reality testing and has been applied to a neurodevelopmental rat model of schizophrenia. However, the theory underlying this approach has not been generalized yet with any demonstration of impaired reality testing in other animal models of schizophrenia, such as genetically-modified mice. We devised a RMTA procedure for mice that combines a Pavlovian association protocol pairing odor conditioned stimulus (CS) with sugar reward unconditioned stimulus (US), and a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) method. In this RMTA paradigm, we compared performances of wild-type (PLCβ1+/+) mice and phospholipase C β1 knock-out (PLCβ1-/-) mice which are known as one of the genetic models for schizophrenia. With a minimal amount of initial odor-sugar associative training, both PLCβ1+/+ and PLCβ1-/- mice were able to form an aversion to the sugar reward when the odor CS predicting sugar was paired with nausea. With an extended initial training, however, only PLCβ1-/- mice could form a RMTA. This persistent RMTA displayed by PLCβ1-/- mice shows their inability to distinguish real sugar from the CS-evoked representation of sugar at a stage in associative learning where wild-type mice normally could differentiate the two. These results demonstrate an impaired reality testing first observed in a genetic mouse model of schizophrenia, and suggest that RMTA paradigm may, with general applicability, allow diverse biological approaches to impaired reality testing.

  11. Impaired Reality Testing in Mice Lacking Phospholipase Cβ1: Observed by Persistent Representation-Mediated Taste Aversion

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hea-jin; Koh, Hae-Young

    2016-01-01

    Hallucinations and delusions are the most prominent symptoms of schizophrenia and characterized by impaired reality testing. Representation-mediated taste aversion (RMTA) has been proposed as a potential behavioral assessment of reality testing and has been applied to a neurodevelopmental rat model of schizophrenia. However, the theory underlying this approach has not been generalized yet with any demonstration of impaired reality testing in other animal models of schizophrenia, such as genetically-modified mice. We devised a RMTA procedure for mice that combines a Pavlovian association protocol pairing odor conditioned stimulus (CS) with sugar reward unconditioned stimulus (US), and a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) method. In this RMTA paradigm, we compared performances of wild-type (PLCβ1+/+) mice and phospholipase C β1 knock-out (PLCβ1-/-) mice which are known as one of the genetic models for schizophrenia. With a minimal amount of initial odor-sugar associative training, both PLCβ1+/+ and PLCβ1-/- mice were able to form an aversion to the sugar reward when the odor CS predicting sugar was paired with nausea. With an extended initial training, however, only PLCβ1-/- mice could form a RMTA. This persistent RMTA displayed by PLCβ1-/- mice shows their inability to distinguish real sugar from the CS-evoked representation of sugar at a stage in associative learning where wild-type mice normally could differentiate the two. These results demonstrate an impaired reality testing first observed in a genetic mouse model of schizophrenia, and suggest that RMTA paradigm may, with general applicability, allow diverse biological approaches to impaired reality testing. PMID:26731530

  12. Effects of area postrema lesions on taste aversions produced by treatment with WR-2721 in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Rabin, B.M.; Hunt, W.A.; Lee, J.

    1986-01-01

    The conditioned taste aversion procedure was used to further assess some behavioral effects of treatment with the putative radioprotectant WR-2721 and the role of the area postrema in mediating the behavioral effects of treatment. Treatment with 40, 150 or 300 mg/kg WR-2721 produced dose-dependent changes in sucrose intake in both control rats and rats with area postrema lesions. The effectiveness of the lesion in disrupting the acquisition of an aversion varied as a function of the dose administered, with the lesions producing the greatest disruption of aversion learning at the lowest dose and little disruption at the highest dose tested. At all dose levels, sucrose intake was greater for the rats with area postrema lesions than for the sham-operated control rats. Treatment with WR-2721 also produced significant decreases in total fluid intake, particularly at the higher dose levels. The results are discussed as indicating that treatment with WR-2721 produces highly toxic effects on behavior and that the use of the compound as a radioprotectant for radiotherapy requires additional assessment of its effects on brain function and behavior.

  13. Oxytocin receptor blockade reduces acquisition but not retrieval of taste aversion and blunts responsiveness of amygdala neurons to an aversive stimulus.

    PubMed

    Olszewski, Pawel K; Waas, Joseph R; Brooks, Lydia L; Herisson, Florence; Levine, Allen S

    2013-12-01

    When gastrointestinal sickness induced by toxin injection is associated with exposure to novel food, the animal acquires a conditioned taste aversion (CTA). Malaise is accompanied by a surge in oxytocin release and in oxytocin neuronal activity; however, it is unclear whether oxytocin is a key facilitator of aversion or merely its marker. Herein we investigated whether blockade of the oxytocin receptor with the blood-brain barrier penetrant oxytocin receptor antagonist L-368,899 is detrimental for the acquisition and/or retrieval of lithium chloride (LiCl)-dependent CTA to a saccharin solution in mice. We also examined whether L-368,899 given prior to LiCl affects neuronal activity defined through c-Fos immunohistochemistry in select brain sites facilitating CTA acquisition. L-368,899 given prior to LiCl caused a 30% increase in saccharin solution intake in a two-bottle test, but when the antagonist was administered before the two-bottle test, it failed to diminish the retrieval of an existing CTA. LiCl administration increased c-Fos expression in the hypothalamic paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei, area postrema, nucleus of the solitary tract and basolateral and central (CNA) nuclei of the amygdala. L-368,899 injected before LiCl reduced the number of c-Fos positive CNA neurons and brought it down to levels similar to those observed in mice treated only with L-368,899. We conclude that oxytocin is one of the key components in acquisition of LiCl-induced CTA and the aversive response can be alleviated by the oxytocin receptor blockade. Oxytocin receptor antagonism blunts responsiveness of CNA to peripherally injected LiCl. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Modulation of human cortical swallowing motor pathways after pleasant and aversive taste stimuli.

    PubMed

    Mistry, Satish; Rothwell, John C; Thompson, David G; Hamdy, Shaheen

    2006-10-01

    Human swallowing involves the integration of sensorimotor information with complexities such as taste; however, the interaction between the taste of food and its effects on swallowing control remains unknown. We assessed the effects of pleasant (sweet) and aversive (bitter) tastes on human cortical swallowing motor pathway excitability. Healthy adult male volunteers underwent a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) mapping study (n = 9, mean age: 34 yr) to assess corticobulbar excitability before and up to 60 min after 10-min liquid infusions either 1) as swallowing tasks or 2) delivered directly into the stomach. Infusions were composed of sterile water (neutral), 10% glucose (sweet), and 0.5 mM quinine hydrochloride (bitter). The order of delivery was randomized, and each infusion was given on separate days. Pharyngeal motor-evoked potentials (PMEPs) were recorded from an intraluminal catheter as a measure of corticobulbar excitability and compared using repeated-measures and one-way ANOVA. After the swallowing task (water, glucose, or quinine), repeated-measures ANOVA revealed a significant time interaction across tastants (P taste showed changes in PMEP amplitudes for both quinine (P tasting stimuli. Changes likely reflect a close interaction between taste and swallowing activity mediated in the central nervous system.

  15. Itch induces conditioned place aversion in mice.

    PubMed

    Mu, Di; Sun, Yan-Gang

    2017-08-24

    Itch sensation consists of both sensory and emotional components. The molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the transduction and transmission of itch sensation have been studied extensively in rodents. However, whether itch induces emotional responses in mice still remains unknown. We found that pruritogens induced conditioned place aversion (CPA) in mice, and that the CPA lasted for at least two weeks. Disruption of itch signal transmission by depletion of peripheral sensory fibers expressing TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily, member 1) attenuated chloroquine-induced CPA. Consistently, ablation of itch-specific neurons that express gastrin-releasing peptide receptor in the spinal cord also abolished itch-induced CPA, confirming that itch-induced CPA is dependent on the spinal itch circuit. Thus, these results demonstrate that itch can induce CPA in mice, which requires peripheral itch signal inputs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Multiparticulate system combining taste masking and immediate release properties for the aversive compound praziquantel.

    PubMed

    Münster, Magdalena; Schoch, Corinna; Schmidt, Carsten; Breitkreutz, Jörg

    2017-09-05

    The taste of pharmaceuticals is of particular importance as it highly affects the compliance of patients, especially for patient groups like children. In view of oral solid dosage forms, various taste masking techniques can be applied encapsulating the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) to prevent the interaction with the taste buds. Despite a delayed drug release in saliva, an immediate drug release in gastrointestinal media is desirable for efficient drug absorption. This combinatory approach is of particular interest for poorly soluble drugs still demonstrating an aversive, bitter taste, e.g. praziquantel (PZQ). It is an anthelmintic drug of current importance for adults and children as it is the recommended therapy against schistosomiasis. First, a small scale screen was conducted to identify the most suitable polymer for a combinatorial approach of taste masking and immediate release for PZQ. Among various PZQ-polymer combinations Eudragit® E PO was chosen. Second, multiparticulate systems utilizing extrusion and spray-drying were generated comprising PZQ, Eudragit® E PO and a lipid as an additional taste masking agent. Spray-dried powders and ground extrudates showed as expected strong differences in terms of particle size distribution and morphological characteristics of the encapsulated PZQ. DSC and XRPD studies revealed the formation of an amorphous solid dispersion of PZQ after spray-drying in contrast to ground extrudates. This could be correlated to drug release studies. All formulations were subjected to non-sink dissolution studies in simulated salivary (SSF), gastric (spSGF) and intestinal (FaSSIF) media. Ground extrudates provided an efficient delayed release in SSF and immediate release and supersaturation in spSGF and FaSSIF for PZQ. Spray-dried powders revealed fast solubility kinetics and up to 5-fold supersaturation in biorelevant media, contrary to a taste masking effect. Moreover, XRPD-patterns of spray-dried powders after storage

  17. Pharmacological aversion treatment of alcohol dependence. I. Production and prediction of conditioned alcohol aversion.

    PubMed

    Howard, M O

    2001-08-01

    Eighty-two hospitalized alcoholics receiving pharmacological aversion therapy (PAT) over a 10-day treatment interval completed cognitive, behavioral, and psychophysiological measures evaluating conditioned aversion to alcohol. Pre-post assessments provided convergent support for the efficacy of PAT vis-à-vis production of conditioned aversion to alcohol. Positive alcohol-related outcome expectancies were significantly reduced, whereas confidence that drinking could be avoided in various high-risk situations for consumption was increased following PAT. Behavioral and cardiac rate assessments revealed significant changes following PAT that were specific to alcoholic beverages and potentially reflective of conditioned alcohol aversion. Patients with more extensive pretreatment experiences with alcohol-associated nausea and greater involvement in antisocial conduct appeared to be less susceptible to the PAT conditioning protocol.

  18. 21 CFR 882.5235 - Aversive conditioning device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aversive conditioning device. 882.5235 Section 882.5235 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5235 Aversive...

  19. 21 CFR 882.5235 - Aversive conditioning device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aversive conditioning device. 882.5235 Section 882.5235 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5235 Aversive...

  20. 21 CFR 882.5235 - Aversive conditioning device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aversive conditioning device. 882.5235 Section 882.5235 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5235 Aversive...

  1. Ethanol induces second-order aversive conditioning in adolescent and adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos; Myers, Mallory; Spear, Linda Patia; Molina, Juan Carlos; Spear, Norman E.

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol abuse and dependence is considered a developmental disorder with etiological onset during late childhood and adolescence, and understanding age-related differences in ethanol sensitivity is important. Low to moderate ethanol doses (0.5 and 2.0 g/kg, i.g.) induce single-trial, appetitive second-order place conditioning (SOC) in adolescent, but not adult, rats. Recent studies have demonstrated that adolescents may be less sensitive than adults to the aversive properties of ethanol, reflected by conditioned taste aversion. The present study assessed the aversive motivational effects of high-dose ethanol (3.0 and 3.25 g/kg, i.g., for adolescent and adults, respectively) using SOC. These doses were derived from Experiment 1, which found similar blood and brain ethanol levels in adolescent and adult rats given 3.0 and 3.25 g/kg ethanol, respectively. In Experiment 2, animals received ethanol or vehicle paired with intraoral pulses of sucrose (conditioned stimulus 1 [CS1]). After one, two, or three conditioning trials, rats were presented with the CS1 while in a distinctive chamber (CS2). When tested for CS2 preference, ethanol-treated animals exhibited reduced preference for the CS2 compared with controls. This result, indicative of ethanol-mediated aversive place conditioning, was similar for adolescents and adults, for females and males, and after one, two, or three training trials. One finding, however, suggested that adolescents were less sensitive than adults to ethanol’s aversive effects at the intermediate level of training. In conjunction with previous results, the present study showed that in adolescent rats subjected to SOC, ethanol’s hedonic effects vary from appetitive to aversive as the ethanol dose increases. Adolescent and adult animals appear to perceive the post-ingestive effects of high-dose ethanol as similarly aversive when assessed by SOC. PMID:21187242

  2. Salivary Peptide Tyrosine–Tyrosine 3–36 Modulates Ingestive Behavior without Inducing Taste Aversion

    PubMed Central

    Hurtado, Maria D.; Sergeyev, Valeriy G.; Acosta, Andres; Spegele, Michael; La Sala, Michael; Waler, Nickolas J.; Chiriboga-Hurtado, Juan; Currlin, Seth W.; Herzog, Herbert; Dotson, Cedrick D.; Gorbatyuk, Oleg S.

    2013-01-01

    Hormone peptide tyrosine–tyrosine (PYY) is secreted into circulation from the gut L-endocrine cells in response to food intake, thus inducing satiation during interaction with its preferred receptor, Y2R. Clinical applications of systemically administered PYY for the purpose of reducing body weight were compromised as a result of the common side effect of visceral sickness. We describe here a novel approach of elevating PYY in saliva in mice, which, although reliably inducing strong anorexic responses, does not cause aversive reactions. The augmentation of salivary PYY activated forebrain areas known to mediate feeding, hunger, and satiation while minimally affecting brainstem chemoreceptor zones triggering nausea. By comparing neuronal pathways activated by systemic versus salivary PYY, we identified a metabolic circuit associated with Y2R-positive cells in the oral cavity and extending through brainstem nuclei into hypothalamic satiety centers. The discovery of this alternative circuit that regulates ingestive behavior without inducing taste aversion may open the possibility of a therapeutic application of PYY for the treatment of obesity via direct oral application. PMID:24259562

  3. The role of the lateral parabrachial nuclei in concurrent and sequential taste aversion learning in rats.

    PubMed

    Mediavilla, C; Molina, F; Puerto, A

    2000-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role of the external lateral parabrachial subnucleus (PBNLe) in two different taste aversion learning (TAL) procedures. For the first, short-term (concurrent) TAL, two different-flavored stimuli were presented at the same time, one associated with simultaneous intragastric administration of an aversive product, hypertonic NaCl, and the other with saline. In the second, long-term (sequential/delayed) TAL, each gustatory stimulus was presented every other day and the intragastric products LiCl and saline were administered after a 15-min delay. Electrolytic lesions in the PBNLe blocked acquisition of concurrent TAL, in which the vagal visceral information is critical. But the same lesions failed to interrupt sequential TAL. This result was independent of the order in which the two tasks (concurrent and sequential) were presented. However, as found by other authors, the latter type of learning was impaired in the presence of larger lesions in this same area. This supports the existence of sensory information needed to establish sequential TAL in other subnuclei of the parabrachial complex. The results of these experiments suggest that the different modalities of TAL are anatomically specific.

  4. The role of dopamine D2 receptors in the nucleus accumbens during taste-aversive learning and memory extinction after long-term sugar consumption.

    PubMed

    Miranda, María Isabel; Rangel-Hernández, José Alejandro; Vera-Rivera, Gabriela; García-Medina, Nadia Edith; Soto-Alonso, Gerardo; Rodríguez-García, Gabriela; Núñez-Jaramillo, Luis

    2017-09-17

    The nucleus accumbens (NAcc) is a forebrain region that may significantly contribute to the integration of taste and visceral signals during food consumption. Changes in dopamine release in the NAcc have been observed during consumption of a sweet taste and during compulsive consumption of dietary sugars, suggesting that NAcc dopaminergic transmission is strongly correlated with taste familiarity and the hedonic value content. NAcc core and shell nuclei are differentially involved during and after sugar exposure and, particularly, previous evidence suggests that dopamine D2 receptors could be related with the strength of the latent inhibition (LI) of conditioned taste aversion (CTA), which depends on the length of the taste stimulus pre-exposure. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate, after long-term exposure to sugar, the function of dopaminergic D2 receptors in the NAcc core during taste memory retrieval preference test, and during CTA. Adult rats were exposed during 14days to 10% sugar solution as a single liquid ad libitum. NAcc core bilateral injections of D2 dopamine receptor antagonist, haloperidol (1μg/μL), were made before third preference test and CTA acquisition. We found that sugar was similarly preferred after 3 acute presentations or 14days of continued sugar consumption and that haloperidol did not disrupt this appetitive memory retrieval. Nevertheless, D2 receptors antagonism differentially affects aversive memory formation after acute or long-term sugar consumption. These results demonstrate that NAcc dopamine D2 receptors have a differential function during CTA depending on the degree of sugar familiarity. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Taste aversion in rats induced by forced swimming, voluntary running, forced running, and lithium chloride injection treatments.

    PubMed

    Masaki, Takahisa; Nakajima, Sadahiko

    2006-07-30

    The present experiment compared the strengths of taste aversion learning in rats induced by forced swimming in a water pool (5, 15, 30, or 60 min), voluntary running in an activity wheel (15, 30, 60, or 120 min), forced running in a motorized wheel (60 min at the speed of 8 m/min), optional running in the apparatus consisting of an activity wheel and a side room (120 min), and a lithium chloride (LiCl, 0.15 M LiCl at 2% of body weight) injection. The rats were given an access to saccharin solution immediately followed by one of the above treatments or simply returned back to the home cages for the control group. On the next 2 days, aversion to the saccharin solution was assessed by two-bottle choice testing between it and tap water. The following results were obtained. (1) The saccharin aversion was a positive function of exercise durations in the forced swimming and voluntary running rats, and the exercise of more than 30 min induced statistically significant saccharin aversion, compared with the control rats. (2) The forced running caused relatively strong saccharin aversion. The group of forced running rats acquired the numerically strongest saccharin aversion on average among all exercised rats. (3) The optional running treatment had little effect. (4) The LiCl injection resulted in the strongest aversion among the all treatments explored here.

  6. Aversive Tickling: A Simple Conditioning Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Robert J.; Hoats, David L.

    1971-01-01

    Aversive tickling was successfully used with two blind, retarded, adolescent girls as a punishment procedure to reduce frequency of self-destructive head banging in one case and a variety of attention-getting behaviors in the other. (Author/KW)

  7. Ethanol induces second-order aversive conditioning in adolescent and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos; Myers, Mallory; Spear, Linda Patia; Molina, Juan Carlos; Spear, Norman E

    2011-02-01

    Alcohol abuse and dependence are considered public health problems, with an etiological onset often occurring during late childhood and adolescence, and understanding age-related differences in ethanol sensitivity is important. Low to moderate ethanol doses (0.5 and 2.0 g/kg, intragastrically [i.g.]) induce single-trial, appetitive second-order place conditioning (SOC) in adolescent, but not adult, rats. Recent studies have demonstrated that adolescents may be less sensitive than adults to the aversive properties of ethanol, reflected by conditioned taste aversion. The present study assessed the aversive motivational effects of high-dose ethanol (3.0 and 3.25 g/kg, i.g., for adolescents and adults, respectively) using SOC. Experiment 1 revealed similar blood and brain ethanol levels in adolescent and adult rats given 3.0 and 3.25 g/kg ethanol, respectively. In Experiment 2, animals received ethanol or vehicle paired with intraoral pulses of sucrose (conditioned stimulus 1 [CS1]). After one, two, or three conditioning trials, the rats were presented with the CS1 while in a distinctive chamber (CS2). When tested for CS2 preference, ethanol-treated animals exhibited reduced preference for the CS2 compared with controls. This result, indicative of ethanol-mediated aversive place conditioning, was similar for adolescents and adults; for females and males; and after one, two, or three training trials. In conjunction with previous results, the present study showed that, in adolescent rats subjected to SOC, ethanol's hedonic effects vary from appetitive to aversive as the ethanol dose increases. Adolescent and adult animals appear to perceive the postingestive effects of high-dose ethanol as similarly aversive when assessed by SOC.

  8. GABA neurons of the VTA drive conditioned place aversion.

    PubMed

    Tan, Kelly R; Yvon, Cédric; Turiault, Marc; Mirzabekov, Julie J; Doehner, Jana; Labouèbe, Gwenaël; Deisseroth, Karl; Tye, Kay M; Lüscher, Christian

    2012-03-22

    Salient but aversive stimuli inhibit the majority of dopamine (DA) neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and cause conditioned place aversion (CPA). The cellular mechanism underlying DA neuron inhibition has not been investigated and the causal link to behavior remains elusive. Here, we show that GABA neurons of the VTA inhibit DA neurons through neurotransmission at GABA(A) receptors. We also observe that GABA neurons increase their firing in response to a footshock and provide evidence that driving GABA neurons with optogenetic effectors is sufficient to affect behavior. Taken together, our data demonstrate that synaptic inhibition of DA neurons drives place aversion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Taste Identification in Adults with Autism Spectrum Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tavassoli, T.; Baron-Cohen, S.

    2012-01-01

    Sensory issues are widely reported in Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC). Since taste perception is one of the least studied senses in ASC we explored taste identification in adults with ASC (12 males, 11 females) compared to control participants (14 males, 12 females). "Taste strips" were used to measure taste identification overall, as well as…

  10. Taste Identification in Adults with Autism Spectrum Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tavassoli, T.; Baron-Cohen, S.

    2012-01-01

    Sensory issues are widely reported in Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC). Since taste perception is one of the least studied senses in ASC we explored taste identification in adults with ASC (12 males, 11 females) compared to control participants (14 males, 12 females). "Taste strips" were used to measure taste identification overall, as well as…

  11. A Drosophila gustatory receptor essential for aversive taste and inhibiting male-to-male courtship.

    PubMed

    Moon, Seok Jun; Lee, Youngseok; Jiao, Yuchen; Montell, Craig

    2009-10-13

    Contact chemosensation is required for several behaviors that promote insect survival. These include evasive behaviors such as suppression of feeding on repellent compounds, known as antifeedants, and inhibition of male-to-male courtship. However, the gustatory receptors (GRs) required for responding to nonvolatile avoidance chemicals are largely unknown. Exceptions include Drosophila GR66a and GR93a, which are required to prevent ingestion of caffeine, and GR32a, which is necessary for inhibiting male-to-male courtship. However, GR32a is dispensable for normal taste. Thus, distinct GRs may function in sensing avoidance pheromones and antifeedants. Here, we describe the requirements for GR33a, which is expressed widely in gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs) that respond to aversive chemicals. Gr33a mutant flies were impaired in avoiding all nonvolatile repellents tested, ranging from quinine to denatonium, lobeline, and caffeine. Gr33a mutant males also displayed increased male-to-male courtship, implying that it functioned in the detection of a repulsive male pheromone. In contrast to the broadly required olfactory receptor (OR) OR83b, which is essential for trafficking other ORs, GR66a and GR93a are localized normally in Gr33a mutant GRNs. Thus, rather than regulating GR trafficking, GR33a may be a coreceptor required for sensing all nonvolatile repulsive chemicals, including tastants and pheromones.

  12. Appetitive-aversive interactions in Pavlovian fear conditioning.

    PubMed

    Nasser, Helen M; McNally, Gavan P

    2012-06-01

    The existence of value coding and salience coding neurons in the mammalian brain, including in habenula and ventral tegmental area, has sparked considerable interest in the interactions that occur between Pavlovian appetitive and aversive conditioning. Here we studied these appetitive-aversive interactions at the behavioral level by assessing the learning that occurs when a Pavlovian appetitive conditioned stimulus (conditional stimulus, CS) serves as a CS for shock in Pavlovian fear conditioning. A Pavlovian appetitive CS was retarded in the rate at which it could be transformed into a fear CS (counterconditioning), but the presence of the appetitive CS augmented fear learning to a concurrently presented neutral CS (superconditioning). Retardation of fear learning was not alleviated by manipulations designed to restore the associability of the appetitive CS before fear conditioning but was alleviated by manipulations designed to increase the aversive quality of the shock unconditioned stimulus (US). These findings are consistent with opponent interactions between the appetitive and aversive motivational systems and provide a behavioral approach for assessing the neural correlates of these appetitive-aversive interactions.

  13. High-resolution genetic mapping of the sucrose octaacetate taste aversion (Soa) locus on mouse Chromosome 6.

    PubMed

    Bachmanov, A A; Li, X; Li, S; Neira, M; Beauchamp, G K; Azen, E A

    2001-09-01

    An acetylated sugar, sucrose octaacetate (SOA), tastes bitter to humans and has an aversive taste to at least some mice and other animals. In mice, taste aversion to SOA depends on allelic variation of a single locus, Soa. Three Soa alleles determine 'taster' (Soa(a)), 'nontaster' (Soa(b)), and 'demitaster' (Soa(c)) phenotypes of taste sensitivity to SOA. Although Soa has been mapped to distal Chromosome (Chr) 6, the limits of the Soa region have not been defined. In this study, mice from congenic strains SW.B6-Soa(b), B6.SW-Soa(a), and C3.SW-Soa(a/c) and from an outbred CFW strain were genotyped with polymorphic markers on Chr 6. In the congenic strains, the limits of introgressed donor fragments were determined. In the outbred mice, linkage disequilibrium and haplotype analyses were conducted. Positions of the markers were further resolved by using radiation hybrid mapping. The results show that the Soa locus is contained in an approximately 1-cM (3.3-4.9 Mb) region including the Prp locus.

  14. Conditioned food aversion to Ipomoea carnea var. fistulosa induced by Baccharis coridifolia in goats

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Baccharis coridifolia is a plant that induces strong conditioned food aversion in ruminants. This research aimed to induce a conditioned food aversion to Ipomoea carnea var. fistulosa in goats, using B. coridifolia as an aversive agent, and to compare the aversion induced by this plant with the aver...

  15. Altered processing of rewarding and aversive basic taste stimuli in symptomatic women with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa: An fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Monteleone, Alessio Maria; Monteleone, Palmiero; Esposito, Fabrizio; Prinster, Anna; Volpe, Umberto; Cantone, Elena; Pellegrino, Francesca; Canna, Antonietta; Milano, Walter; Aiello, Marco; Di Salle, Francesco; Maj, Mario

    2017-02-21

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have displayed a dysregulation in the way in which the brain processes pleasant taste stimuli in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN). However, exactly how the brain processes disgusting basic taste stimuli has never been investigated, even though disgust plays a role in food intake modulation and AN and BN patients exhibit high disgust sensitivity. Therefore, we investigated the activation of brain areas following the administration of pleasant and aversive basic taste stimuli in symptomatic AN and BN patients compared to healthy subjects. Twenty underweight AN women, 20 symptomatic BN women and 20 healthy women underwent fMRI while tasting 0.292 M sucrose solution (sweet taste), 0.5 mM quinine hydrochloride solution (bitter taste) and water as a reference taste. In symptomatic AN and BN patients the pleasant sweet stimulus induced a higher activation in several brain areas than that induced by the aversive bitter taste. The opposite occurred in healthy controls. Moreover, compared to healthy controls, AN patients showed a decreased response to the bitter stimulus in the right amygdala and left anterior cingulate cortex, while BN patients showed a decreased response to the bitter stimulus in the right amygdala and left insula. These results show an altered processing of rewarding and aversive taste stimuli in ED patients, which may be relevant for understanding the pathophysiology of AN and BN.

  16. Failure to produce taste-aversion learning in rats exposed to static electric fields and air ions

    SciTech Connect

    Creim, J.A.; Lovely, R.H.; Weigel, R.J.; Forsythe, W.C.; Anderson, L.E.

    1995-12-01

    Taste-aversion (TA) learning was measured to determine whether exposure to high-voltage direct current (HVdc) static electric fields can produce TA learning in male Long Evans rats. Fifty-six rats were randomly distributed into four groups of 14 rats each. All rats were placed on a 20 min/day drinking schedule for 12 consecutive days prior to receiving five conditioning trials. During the conditioning trials, access to 0.1% sodium saccharin-flavored water was given for 20 min, followed 30 min later by one of four treatments. Two groups of 14 rats each were individually exposed to static electric fields and air ions, one group to +75 kV/m (+2 {times} 10{sup 5} air ions/cm{sup 3}) and the other group to {minus}75 kV/m ({minus}2 {times} 10{sup 5} air ions/cm{sup 3}). Two other groups of 14 rats each served as sham-exposed controls, with the following variation in one of the sham-exposed groups: this group was subdivided into two subsets of seven rats each, so that a positive control group could be included to validate the experimental design. The positive control group (n = 7) was injected with cyclophosphamide 25 mg/kg, i.p., 30 min after access to saccharin-flavored water on conditioning days, whereas the other subset of seven rats was similarly injected with an equivalent volume of saline. Access to saccharin-flavored water on conditioning days was followed by the treatments described above and was alternated daily with water recovery sessions in which the rats received access to water for 20 min in the home cage without further treatment. Following the last water-recovery session, a 20 min, two-bottle preference test (between water and saccharin-flavored water) was administered to each group. The positive control group did show TA learning, thus validating the experimental protocol.

  17. Conditioning food aversions to Ipomoea carnea var. Fistulosa in sheep

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ipomoea carnea is a toxic plant in Brazil that often poisons sheep. Conditioned food aversion may be a tool to reduce intoxication problems in grazing sheep. Fifteen sheep were adapted to consume I. carnea for 36 days. Subsequently sheep were randomly divided into three groups of five sheep each. ...

  18. Attraction under Aversive Conditions: Misattributions or Fear-Reduction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Rowland S.

    Interpersonal attraction appears to increase under aversive conditions. Two distinct theories suggest that attraction results from either misattribution or fear reduction. To investigate the effects of misattribution and fear reduction on attraction, 36 male college students were ostensibly exposed to an electromagnetic field while an attractive…

  19. Attraction under Aversive Conditions: Misattributions or Fear-Reduction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Rowland S.

    Interpersonal attraction appears to increase under aversive conditions. Two distinct theories suggest that attraction results from either misattribution or fear reduction. To investigate the effects of misattribution and fear reduction on attraction, 36 male college students were ostensibly exposed to an electromagnetic field while an attractive…

  20. Retention of concurrent taste aversion learning after electrolytic lesioning of the interpositus-dentate region of the cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Mediavilla, C; Molina, F; Puerto, A

    2000-06-23

    Lesions in the interpositus-dentate region of the cerebellum impair short-term, or concurrent, TAL. In this type of learning, animals must discriminate between two flavor stimuli presented at the same time, one of which is associated with an aversive product. The task is learned by the control animals, and within this group the animals that acquire it adequately enough (15/22, 70% criterion) retain the learned taste discrimination when they are subjected to it again after being lesioned in the interpositus-dentate region. These results suggest that the deep nuclei are essential in the concurrent TAL acquisition process, but not in its retention.

  1. The unconditioned stimulus pre-exposure effect in preweanling rats in taste aversion learning: role of the training context and injection cues.

    PubMed

    Revillo, D A; Arias, C; Spear, N E

    2013-03-01

    The unconditioned stimulus pre-exposure effect (US-PE) refers to the interference paradigm in which acquisition of the conditioned response is retarded due to prior experience with the US. Most studies analyzing the psychological mechanisms underlying this effect have been conducted with adult rats. The most widely accepted hypothesis explains this effect as a contextual blocking effect. Contextual cues associated with the US block the conditioned stimulus (CS)-US association during conditioning. The modulatory role of a context devoid of distinctive olfactory attributes is not observable until approximately PD23 in rats, including modulation of interference paradigms such as latent inhibition or extinction. In this study, we analyzed US-PE in preweanling rats along with the role of the training context in this effect in terms of conditioned taste aversion preparation. Pre-exposure to LiCl before conditioning retarded the acquisition of taste aversion. The US-PE was observed in preweanling rats when, during pre-exposure, subjects were exposed to the conditioning context, and this effect was not attenuated either by the administration of the US in a familiar environment (Experiment 1a), or by the presence of an alternative, more salient context during pre-exposure (Experiment 1b). Additionally, the US-PE was still observed when the route by which the US was administered was changed between the pre-exposure and conditioning phases (Experiment 2a) as well as when the injection cues were removed during conditioning (Experiment 2b). These experiments show a strong US-PE in preweanling rats and fail to support the contextual blocking hypothesis, at least in this stage of ontogeny. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. A comparison between taste avoidance and conditioned disgust reactions induced by ethanol and lithium chloride in preweanling rats

    PubMed Central

    Arias, Carlos; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos; Molina, Juan Carlos; Spear, Norman E.

    2011-01-01

    Adult rats display taste avoidance and disgust reactions when stimulated with gustatory stimuli previously paired with aversive agents such as lithium chloride (LiCl). By the second postnatal week of life, preweanling rats also display specific behaviors in response to a tastant conditioned stimulus (CS) that predicts LiCl-induced malaise. The present study compared conditioned disgust reactions induced by LiCl or ethanol (EtOH) in preweanling rats. In Experiment 1 we determined doses of ethanol and LiCl that exert similar levels of conditioned taste avoidance. After having equated drug dosage in terms of conditioned taste avoidance, 13-Day old rats were given a single pairing of a novel taste (saccharin) and either LiCl or ethanol (2.5 g/kg; Experiment 2). Saccharin intake and emission of disgust reactions were assessed 24 and 48 hours after training. Pups given paired presentations of saccharin and the aversive agents (ethanol or LiCl) consumed less saccharin during the first testing Day than controls. These pups also showed more aversive behavioral reactions to the gustatory CS than controls. Specifically, increased amounts of grooming, general activity, head shaking and wall climbing as well as reduced mouthing were observed in response to the CS. Conditioned aversive reactions but not taste avoidance were still evident on the second testing Day. In conclusion, a taste CS paired with post-absorptive effects of EtOH and LiCl elicited a similar pattern of conditioned rejection reactions in preweanling rats. These results suggest that similar mechanisms may be underlying CTAs induced by LiCl and a relatively high EtOH dose. PMID:20806327

  3. Enhanced Latent Inhibition in Context Aversion Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Geoffrey; Symonds, Michelle; Rodriguez, Marcial

    2009-01-01

    In four experiments, we investigated the effect of giving rats exposure to a distinctive environmental context before a phase of training in which an injection of LiCl was paired with that context. The results of Experiments 1 and 2 were consistent with the possibility that such preexposure served to retard subsequent conditioning to the context…

  4. Mechanisms of Radiation-Induced Conditioned Taste Aversion Learning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    nearly total avoidance of the CS (e.g.. 145. 124. 1261). area postrema. the chemoreceptive trigger zone for emesis Similar results are obtained with...acquisition of a CTA following exposure to CTA learning. The area postrema is the chemoreceptive trig- either 200 rad whole-body or body-only...the cat [8]. However, more recent work indicates that area which provides the most extensive afferent source, serves as postrema lesions are

  5. Lobeline produces conditioned taste avoidance in rats.

    PubMed

    Harrod, S B; Dwoskin, L P; Bardo, M T

    2004-05-01

    Previous results indicate that pretreatment with lobeline attenuates methamphetamine (METH) self-administration in rats, but not by acting as a substitute reinforcer. Given these findings, it has been suggested that lobeline may serve as a useful pharmacotherapy for psychostimulant abuse. However, because lobeline produces emesis and nausea in humans, the present study examined whether lobeline has direct effects on taste avoidance behavior in rats within the same dose range shown previously to decrease METH self-administration. Two experiments utilized a Pavlovian conditioning procedure to determine if lobeline produces conditioned taste avoidance (CTA) in rats. In Experiments 1 and 2, rats consumed either novel milk or salt solutions, respectively, and within 10 min, were injected with lobeline (0.3-3.0 mg/kg) or METH (0.3-3.0 mg/kg). A single-bottle test conducted 48 h after flavor-drug pairings indicated that the dose of lobeline that reduced METH self-administration in a previous study (i.e., 3.0 mg/kg) also produced reliable CTA for milk and salt solution. These findings suggest a need to develop lobeline analogs that reduce METH self-administration, but do not produce CTA following the consumption of a novel solution.

  6. The Addition of Saccharin to Taste Cues Affects Taste Preference Conditioning in Thirsty Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forestell, Catherine A.; LoLordo, Vincent M.

    2004-01-01

    Previous failures to condition preferences for the unacceptable taste cues sucrose octaacetate (SOA) and citric acid (CA) using a reverse-order, differential conditioning procedure (Forestell & LoLordo, 2000) may have been the result of low consumption of the taste cues in training or of their relatively low acceptability to rats that are thirsty…

  7. The Addition of Saccharin to Taste Cues Affects Taste Preference Conditioning in Thirsty Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forestell, Catherine A.; LoLordo, Vincent M.

    2004-01-01

    Previous failures to condition preferences for the unacceptable taste cues sucrose octaacetate (SOA) and citric acid (CA) using a reverse-order, differential conditioning procedure (Forestell & LoLordo, 2000) may have been the result of low consumption of the taste cues in training or of their relatively low acceptability to rats that are thirsty…

  8. Adolescent C57BL/6J mice show elevated alcohol intake, but reduced taste aversion, as compared to adult mice: a potential behavioral mechanism for binge drinking

    PubMed Central

    Holstein, Sarah E.; Spanos, Marina; Hodge, Clyde W.

    2011-01-01

    Background Binge alcohol drinking during adolescence is a serious health problem which may increase future risk of an alcohol use disorder. Although there are several different procedures by which to preclinically model binge-like alcohol intake, limited-access procedures offer the advantage of achieving high voluntary alcohol intake and pharmacologically relevant blood alcohol concentrations (BACs). Therefore, in the current study, developmental differences in binge-like alcohol drinking using a limited-access cycling procedure were examined. In addition, as alcohol drinking has been negatively correlated with sensitivity to the aversive properties of alcohol, we examined developmental differences in sensitivity to an alcohol-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA). Methods Binge-like alcohol consumption was investigated in adolescent (4 wk) and adult (10 wk) male C57BL/6J mice for 2-4 h/day for 16 d. Developmental differences in sensitivity to an alcohol-induced CTA were examined in adolescent and adult mice, with saline or alcohol (3 or 4 g/kg) repeatedly paired with intake of a novel tastant (NaCl). Results Adolescent mice showed a significant increase in alcohol intake as compared to adults, with adolescents achieving higher BACs and increasing alcohol consumption over successive cycles of the binge procedure. Conversely, adolescent mice exhibited a dose-dependent reduction in sensitivity to the aversive properties of alcohol, as compared to adult mice, with adolescent mice failing to develop a CTA to 3 g/kg alcohol. Finally, extinction of an alcohol CTA was observed following conditioning with a higher dose of alcohol in adolescent, versus adult, mice. Conclusions These results indicate that adolescent mice consume more alcohol, per kg body weight, than adults in a binge-like model of alcohol drinking, and demonstrate a blunted sensitivity to the conditioned aversive effects of alcohol. Overall, this supports a behavioral framework by which heightened binge

  9. Failure to produce taste-aversion learning in rats exposed to static electric fields and air ions.

    PubMed

    Creim, J A; Lovely, R H; Weigel, R J; Forsythe, W C; Anderson, L E

    1995-01-01

    Taste-aversion (TA) learning was measured to determine whether exposure to high-voltage direct current (HVdc) static electric fields can produce TA learning in male Long Evans rats. Fifty-six rats were randomly distributed into four groups of 14 rats each. All rats were placed on a 20 min/day drinking schedule for 12 consecutive days prior to receiving five conditioning trials. During the conditioning trials, access to 0.1% sodium saccharin-flavored water was given for 20 min, followed 30 min later by one of four treatments. Two groups of 14 rats each were individually exposed to static electric fields and air ions, one group to +75 kV/m (+2 x 10(5) air ions/cm3) and the other group to -75 kV/m (-2 x 10(5) air ions/cm3). Two other groups of 14 rats each served as sham-exposed controls, with the following variation in one of the sham-exposed groups: This group was subdivided into two subsets of seven rats each, so that a positive control group could be included to validate the experimental design. The positive control group (n = 7) was injected with cyclophosphamide 25 mg/kg, i.p., 30 min after access to saccharin-flavored water on conditioning days, whereas the other subset of seven rats was similarly injected with an equivalent volume of saline. Access to saccharin-flavored water on conditioning days was followed by the treatments described above and was alternated daily with water "recovery" sessions in which the rats received access to water for 20 min in the home cage without further treatment. Following the last water-recovery session, a 20 min, two-bottle preference test (between water and saccharin-flavored water) was administered to each group. The positive control group did show TA learning, thus validating the experimental protocol. No saccharin-flavored water was consumed in the two-bottle preference test by the cyclophosphamide-injected, sham-exposed group compared to 74% consumed by the saline-injected sham-exposed controls (P < .0001). Saccharin

  10. Reduced amygdala activity during aversive conditioning in human narcolepsy.

    PubMed

    Ponz, Aurélie; Khatami, Ramin; Poryazova, Rositsa; Werth, Esther; Boesiger, Peter; Schwartz, Sophie; Bassetti, Claudio L

    2010-03-01

    Narcolepsy with cataplexy is a sleep-wake disorder caused by a loss of hypothalamic hypocretins. Here we assessed the time course of amygdala activation during aversive conditioning in unmedicated patients with narcolepsy. Unlike healthy matched control subjects, narcolepsy patients had no enhancement of amygdala response to conditioned stimuli and no increase in functional coupling between the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex. These findings suggest that human narcolepsy is accompanied by abnormal emotional learning, and that, in line with animal data, the hypocretin system and the amygdala are involved in this process.

  11. NMDA and Muscarinic Receptors of the Nucleus Accumbens Have Differential Effects on Taste Memory Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bermudez-Rattoni, Federico; Ramirez-Lugo, Leticia; Zavala-Vega, Sergio

    2006-01-01

    Animals recognize a taste cue as aversive when it has been associated with post-ingestive malaise; this associative learning is known as conditioned taste aversion (CTA). When an animal consumes a new taste and no negative consequences follow, it becomes recognized as a safe signal, leading to an increase in its consumption in subsequent…

  12. NMDA and Muscarinic Receptors of the Nucleus Accumbens Have Differential Effects on Taste Memory Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bermudez-Rattoni, Federico; Ramirez-Lugo, Leticia; Zavala-Vega, Sergio

    2006-01-01

    Animals recognize a taste cue as aversive when it has been associated with post-ingestive malaise; this associative learning is known as conditioned taste aversion (CTA). When an animal consumes a new taste and no negative consequences follow, it becomes recognized as a safe signal, leading to an increase in its consumption in subsequent…

  13. 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV)-induced conditioned taste avoidance in the F344/N and LEW rat strains

    PubMed Central

    King, Heather E.; Wetzell, Bradley; Rice, Kenner C.; Riley, Anthony L.

    2017-01-01

    The inbred Fischer (F344) and Lewis (LEW) rats, while originally developed as animal models for cancer and tissue transplantation research, have since been used to study genetic differences in a variety of physiological and behavioral endpoints. In this context, LEW rats show greater sensitivity to the aversive effects of cocaine as compared to F344 rats in a conditioned taste avoidance procedure. Like cocaine, 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV; “Bath Salts”) acts as a dopamine transport blocker and possesses aversive properties, making it a good candidate for assessing whether the aforementioned strain differences with cocaine would generalize to drugs with similar biochemical action. Accordingly, male F344 and LEW rats were exposed to a novel saccharin solution followed by injections of one of four doses of MDPV in a taste avoidance procedure. Over the four saccharin/MDPV pairings during conditioning, core body temperatures were also assessed. Similar to previous research, MDPV induced robust dose-dependent taste avoidance, although no effect of strain was observed. MDPV also produced hyperthermia that was independent of strain and unrelated to the conditioned taste avoidance. These findings argue for a complex influence of multiple (and likely interacting) monoaminergic systems mediating MDPV-induced taste avoidance in the two strains and suggest different mechanisms of avoidance learning for cocaine and MDPV. PMID:25284129

  14. 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV)-induced conditioned taste avoidance in the F344/N and LEW rat strains.

    PubMed

    King, Heather E; Wetzell, Bradley; Rice, Kenner C; Riley, Anthony L

    2014-11-01

    The inbred Fischer (F344) and Lewis (LEW) rats, while originally developed as animal models for cancer and tissue transplantation research, have since been used to study genetic differences in a variety of physiological and behavioral endpoints. In this context, LEW rats show greater sensitivity to the aversive effects of cocaine as compared to F344 rats in a conditioned taste avoidance procedure. Like cocaine, 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV; "bath salts") acts as a dopamine transport blocker and possesses aversive properties, making it a good candidate for assessing whether the aforementioned strain differences with cocaine would generalize to drugs with similar biochemical action. Accordingly, male F344 and LEW rats were exposed to a novel saccharin solution followed by injections of one of four doses of MDPV in a taste avoidance procedure. Over the four saccharin/MDPV pairings during conditioning, core body temperatures were also assessed. Similar to previous research, MDPV induced robust dose-dependent taste avoidance, although no effect of strain was observed. MDPV also produced hyperthermia that was independent of strain and unrelated to the conditioned taste avoidance. These findings argue for a complex influence of multiple (and likely interacting) monoaminergic systems mediating MDPV-induced taste avoidance in the two strains and suggest different mechanisms of avoidance learning for cocaine and MDPV. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Hippocampal Inactivation Enhances Taste Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Martha E.; Grimes, Brandon S.; Katz, Donald B.

    2005-01-01

    Learning tasks are typically thought to be either hippocampal-dependent (impaired by hippocampal lesions) or hippocampal-independent (indifferent to hippocampal lesions). Here, we show that conditioned taste aversion (CTA) learning fits into neither of these categories. Rats were trained to avoid two taste stimuli, one novel and one familiar.…

  16. Appetitive but Not Aversive Olfactory Conditioning Modifies Antennal Movements in Honeybees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cholé, Hanna; Junca, Pierre; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe

    2015-01-01

    In honeybees, two olfactory conditioning protocols allow the study of appetitive and aversive Pavlovian associations. Appetitive conditioning of the proboscis extension response (PER) involves associating an odor, the conditioned stimulus (CS) with a sucrose solution, the unconditioned stimulus (US). Conversely, aversive conditioning of the sting…

  17. Appetitive but Not Aversive Olfactory Conditioning Modifies Antennal Movements in Honeybees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cholé, Hanna; Junca, Pierre; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe

    2015-01-01

    In honeybees, two olfactory conditioning protocols allow the study of appetitive and aversive Pavlovian associations. Appetitive conditioning of the proboscis extension response (PER) involves associating an odor, the conditioned stimulus (CS) with a sucrose solution, the unconditioned stimulus (US). Conversely, aversive conditioning of the sting…

  18. Leucokinin mimetic elicits aversive behavior in mosquito Aedes aegypti (L.) and inhibits the sugar taste neuron.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hyeogsun; Ali Agha, Moutaz; Smith, Ryan C; Nachman, Ronald J; Marion-Poll, Frédéric; Pietrantonio, Patricia V

    2016-06-21

    Insect kinins (leucokinins) are multifunctional peptides acting as neurohormones and neurotransmitters. In females of the mosquito vector Aedes aegypti (L.), aedeskinins are known to stimulate fluid secretion from the renal organs (Malpighian tubules) and hindgut contractions by activating a G protein-coupled kinin receptor designated "Aedae-KR." We used protease-resistant kinin analogs 1728, 1729, and 1460 to evaluate their effects on sucrose perception and feeding behavior. In no-choice feeding bioassays (capillary feeder and plate assays), the analog 1728, which contains α-amino isobutyric acid, inhibited females from feeding on sucrose. It further induced quick fly-away or walk-away behavior following contact with the tarsi and the mouthparts. Electrophysiological recordings from single long labellar sensilla of the proboscis demonstrated that mixing the analog 1728 at 1 mM with sucrose almost completely inhibited the detection of sucrose. Aedae-KR was immunolocalized in contact chemosensory neurons in prothoracic tarsi and in sensory neurons and accessory cells of long labellar sensilla in the distal labellum. Silencing Aedae-KR by RNAi significantly reduced gene expression and eliminated the feeding-aversion behavior resulting from contact with the analog 1728, thus directly implicating the Aedae-KR in the aversion response. To our knowledge, this is the first report that kinin analogs modulate sucrose perception in any insect. The aversion to feeding elicited by analog 1728 suggests that synthetic molecules targeting the mosquito Aedae-KR in the labellum and tarsi should be investigated for the potential to discover novel feeding deterrents of mosquito vectors.

  19. Leucokinin mimetic elicits aversive behavior in mosquito Aedes aegypti (L.) and inhibits the sugar taste neuron

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Hyeogsun; Ali Agha, Moutaz; Smith, Ryan C.; Nachman, Ronald J.; Marion-Poll, Frédéric; Pietrantonio, Patricia V.

    2016-01-01

    Insect kinins (leucokinins) are multifunctional peptides acting as neurohormones and neurotransmitters. In females of the mosquito vector Aedes aegypti (L.), aedeskinins are known to stimulate fluid secretion from the renal organs (Malpighian tubules) and hindgut contractions by activating a G protein-coupled kinin receptor designated “Aedae-KR.” We used protease-resistant kinin analogs 1728, 1729, and 1460 to evaluate their effects on sucrose perception and feeding behavior. In no-choice feeding bioassays (capillary feeder and plate assays), the analog 1728, which contains α-amino isobutyric acid, inhibited females from feeding on sucrose. It further induced quick fly-away or walk-away behavior following contact with the tarsi and the mouthparts. Electrophysiological recordings from single long labellar sensilla of the proboscis demonstrated that mixing the analog 1728 at 1 mM with sucrose almost completely inhibited the detection of sucrose. Aedae-KR was immunolocalized in contact chemosensory neurons in prothoracic tarsi and in sensory neurons and accessory cells of long labellar sensilla in the distal labellum. Silencing Aedae-KR by RNAi significantly reduced gene expression and eliminated the feeding-aversion behavior resulting from contact with the analog 1728, thus directly implicating the Aedae-KR in the aversion response. To our knowledge, this is the first report that kinin analogs modulate sucrose perception in any insect. The aversion to feeding elicited by analog 1728 suggests that synthetic molecules targeting the mosquito Aedae-KR in the labellum and tarsi should be investigated for the potential to discover novel feeding deterrents of mosquito vectors. PMID:27274056

  20. Adolescent delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) exposure fails to affect THC-induced place and taste conditioning in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Wakeford, Alison G P; Flax, Shaun M; Pomfrey, Rebecca L; Riley, Anthony L

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent initiation of drug use has been linked to problematic drug taking later in life and may represent an important variable that changes the balance of the rewarding and/or aversive effects of abused drugs which may contribute to abuse vulnerability. The current study examined the effects of adolescent THC exposure on THC-induced place preference (rewarding effects) and taste avoidance (aversive effects) conditioning in adulthood. Forty-six male Sprague-Dawley adolescent rats received eight injections of an intermediate dose of THC (3.2mg/kg) or vehicle. After these injections, animals were allowed to mature and then trained in a combined CTA/CPP procedure in adulthood (PND ~90). Animals were given four trials of conditioning with intervening water-recovery days, a final CPP test and then a one-bottle taste avoidance test. THC induced dose-dependent taste avoidance but did not produce place conditioning. None of these effects was impacted by adolescent THC exposure. Adolescent exposure to THC had no effect on THC taste and place conditioning in adulthood. The failure to see an effect of adolescent exposure was addressed in the context of other research that has assessed exposure of drugs of abuse during adolescence on drug reactivity in adulthood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Tasting

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... buds. The taste buds are linked to the brain by nerve fibers. Food particles are detected by ... taste buds, which send nerve signals to the brain. Certain areas of the tongue are more sensitive ...

  2. New generalized poisson mixture model for bimodal count data with drug effect: An application to rodent brief‐access taste aversion experiments

    PubMed Central

    Soto, J; Orlu Gul, M; Cortina‐Borja, M; Tuleu, C; Standing, JF

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacodynamic (PD) count data can exhibit bimodality and nonequidispersion complicating the inclusion of drug effect. The purpose of this study was to explore four different mixture distribution models for bimodal count data by including both drug effect and distribution truncation. An example dataset, which exhibited bimodal pattern, was from rodent brief‐access taste aversion (BATA) experiments to assess the bitterness of ascending concentrations of an aversive tasting drug. The two generalized Poisson mixture models performed the best and was flexible to explain both under and overdispersion. A sigmoid maximum effect (Emax) model with logistic transformation was introduced to link the drug effect to the data partition within each distribution. Predicted density‐histogram plot is suggested as a model evaluation tool due to its capability to directly compare the model predicted density with the histogram from raw data. The modeling approach presented here could form a useful strategy for modeling similar count data types. PMID:27472892

  3. Conditioned taste avoidance induced by Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol in the Fischer (F344) and Lewis (LEW) rat strains.

    PubMed

    Wakeford, Alison G P; Riley, Anthony L

    2014-01-01

    Although Fischer (F344) and Lewis (LEW) rats differ in their sensitivity to the rewarding effects of ∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), no data have been reported on differences in their sensitivity to the drug's aversive effects, a limiting factor in drug use and abuse. Examining the degree of differences (if any) in such effects in these strains may help further characterize possible genetic factors important to abuse vulnerability. Accordingly, the aversive effects of THC (1-5.6 mg/kg; intraperitoneal) were examined in 32F344 and 32 LEW subjects using the conditioned taste avoidance (CTA) procedure. Thermoregulation was assessed following an acute injection of THC (same as CTA groups) after a week washout period following the last trial. Subjects in both strains displayed dose-dependent THC-induced taste avoidance, with no significant strain difference. THC induced dose-dependent decreases in core body temperature in both strains. LEW subjects displayed lower core body temperatures than F344 rats, although this effect was independent of THC and was likely stress related. These results were discussed in terms of the nature of THC-induced taste avoidance and the basis of strain differences in the aversive effects of drugs of abuse.

  4. Conditioned food aversion for control of poisoning by Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Conditioned food aversion is a technique that can be used to train livestock to avoid ingestion of poisonous plants. This study tested the efficacy and durability of conditioned food aversion to eliminate goat’s consumption of Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa. We used 14 young Moxotó goats, which wer...

  5. [Neurochemical mechanisms of food aversion conditioning consolidation in snail helix lucorum].

    PubMed

    Solntseva, S V; Nikitin, V P

    2008-08-01

    Effects of cycloheximide, protein synthesis inhibitor as well as serotonin receptor antagonist and NMDA receptor antagonist, on food aversion conditioning consolidation were studied in snail Helix lucorum. Food aversion conditioning was absent in snails after application of cycloheximide. Repeated training produced no food aversion conditioning for the same type of food in these snails without cycloheximide application. Food aversion conditioning was absent in snails after metiotepin, nonselective serotonin receptors antagonist, or after MK-801, NMDA glutamate receptors antagonist, applications. At the same time, repeated training produced facilitated food aversion conditioning for the same type of food in these snails. Our experiments were the first which showed that effect on different molecular mechanisms evoked reversible or irreversible disruption of long-term memory consolidation during the same learning. It was suggested that suppression of retrieval produced reversible effect whereas disruption of memory storage initiated irreversible effect on long-term memory consolidation.

  6. [Neurochemical mechanisms of food aversion conditioning consolidation in snail Helix lucorum].

    PubMed

    Solntseva, S V; Nikitin, v P

    2008-11-01

    Effects of cycloheximide, protein synthesis inhibitors, as well as serotonin receptor antagonist and NMDA receptor antagonist on food aversion conditioning consolidation were studied in snail Helix lucorum. Food aversion conditioning was absent in snails after application of cycloheximide. Repeated produced no food aversion conditioning for the same type of food in these snails without cycloheximide application. Food aversion conditioning was absent in snails after applications of metiotepin, nonselective serotonin receptors antagonist, or after MK-801, NMDA glutamate receptors antagonist. At the same time, repeated training produced facilitated food aversion conditioning for the same type of food in these snails. Our experiments were the first which showed that effect on different molecular mechanisms evoked reversible or irreversible disruption of long-term memory consolidation during the same learning. It was suggested that suppression of retrieval produced reversible effect, whereas disruption of memory storage initiated irreversible effect on long-term memory consolidation.

  7. Activation of dopamine neurons is critical for aversive conditioning and prevention of generalized anxiety.

    PubMed

    Zweifel, Larry S; Fadok, Jonathan P; Argilli, Emmanuela; Garelick, Michael G; Jones, Graham L; Dickerson, Tavis M K; Allen, James M; Mizumori, Sheri J Y; Bonci, Antonello; Palmiter, Richard D

    2011-05-01

    Generalized anxiety is thought to result, in part, from impairments in contingency awareness during conditioning to cues that predict aversive or fearful outcomes. Dopamine neurons of the ventral midbrain exhibit heterogeneous responses to aversive stimuli that are thought to provide a critical modulatory signal to facilitate orientation to environmental changes and assignment of motivational value to unexpected events. Here we describe a mouse model in which activation of dopamine neurons in response to an aversive stimulus is attenuated by conditional genetic inactivation of functional NMDA receptors on dopamine neurons. We discovered that altering the magnitude of excitatory responses by dopamine neurons in response to an aversive stimulus was associated with impaired conditioning to a cue that predicts an aversive outcome. Impaired conditioning by these mice was associated with the development of a persistent, generalized anxiety-like phenotype. These data are consistent with a role for dopamine in facilitating contingency awareness that is critical for the prevention of generalized anxiety.

  8. Systemic treatment with the enteric bacterial fermentation product, propionic acid, produces both conditioned taste avoidance and conditioned place avoidance in rats.

    PubMed

    Ossenkopp, Klaus-Peter; Foley, Kelly A; Gibson, James; Fudge, Melissa A; Kavaliers, Martin; Cain, Donald P; Macfabe, Derrick F

    2012-02-01

    Propionic acid, an enteric bacterial fermentation product, has received recent attention in regards to satiety and obesity in humans. The possibility that propionic acid might produce internal aversive cues was investigated in two experiments using conditioned taste avoidance and place avoidance procedures to index the potential aversive nature of systemic treatment with propionic acid in male rats. Experiment 1 examined the effect of systemic treatment with propionic acid (500 mg/kg), LiCl (95 mg/kg) or vehicle (all corrected to pH 7.5) on the formation of conditioned taste avoidance using a lickometer procedure. On 3 acquisition days three groups of rats were injected with propionic acid, LiCl or vehicle, following 30 min access to 0.3M sucrose solution. Both the Propionic acid group and the LiCl group evidenced a conditioned taste avoidance by the end of the acquisition period. During a drug free extinction phase the Propionic acid group showed extinction of the taste avoidance whereas the LiCl group did not. Experiment 2 involved place preference conditioning with propionic acid treatment associated with one novel context and vehicle with a different novel context on 6 conditioning trials for each type of injection. Place avoidance was assessed on two drug free extinction trials. Multi-variable assessment of the unconditioned (Acquisition Trials) and conditioned effects (Extinction Trials) of propionic acid on locomotor activity was quantified as was chamber choice time on the extinction trials. Propionic acid induced a significant place avoidance and significantly reduced locomotor activity on some acquisition trials. During the extinction trials rats exhibited enhanced locomotor activity levels in the propionic acid associated chamber, likely due to the conditioned aversive nature of this chamber.

  9. Taste aversion learning induced c-fos expression in the nucleus of the solitary tract after spontaneous flavor intake: role of the inter-stimulus interval.

    PubMed

    Mediavilla, Cristina; Bernal, Antonio; Puerto, Amadeo

    2007-09-01

    Taste aversion learning (TAL) can be induced by associating a flavor intake with the immediate or delayed (30 min) intragastric administration of a noxious substance, e.g., hypertonic NaCl. The objective of this study was to analyze the induction of c-Fos immunoreactivity in the intermediate nucleus of the solitary nucleus (iNST) after acquisition of a contiguous or delayed TAL, offering the flavor for voluntary consumption in both cases. The behavioral results obtained indicate that, although the learning was established under both experimental conditions, an increase in c-Fos induction was only produced in the group that learned by means of a non-delayed TAL. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed the participation of different brain structures in these two TAL modalities. Thus, the nucleus of the solitary tract may be involved in the TAL procedure in which voluntary flavor intake and intragastric administration of the noxious visceral stimulus are contiguous but not in delayed TAL, which would depend on other anatomical circuits that do not include the iNST.

  10. The relationship between aversive conditioning and risk-avoidance in gambling.

    PubMed

    Brunborg, Geir Scott; Johnsen, Bjørn Helge; Pallesen, Ståle; Molde, Helge; Mentzoni, Rune Aune; Myrseth, Helga

    2010-12-01

    This study investigated the relationship between aversive conditioning, heart rate variability suppression, behavioral activation system/behavioral inhibition system and risk-avoidance on the Iowa gambling task (IGT) in a nonclinical sample (29 male, 29 female, mean age = 20.7). A laboratory based Pavlovian aversive conditioning paradigm was used where a 1500 Hz tone (CS+) was followed by a burst of loud white noise (US), and a 850 Hz (CS-) tone was never followed by the US. In a subsequent extinction phase where the CS+ and CS- were presented without the US, conditioned skin conductance responses to the CS+ indicated aversive conditioning. The results showed that the participants who did not show aversive conditioning (N = 26) exhibited significantly less risk-avoidance compared to participants who did show aversive conditioning (N = 32). Regression analysis showed that among the study variables, only aversive conditioning contributed significantly to explaining variance in risk-avoidance. These results may have implications for understanding risk-taking in gambling in general, and may be a starting point understanding the role of aversive conditioning in the development and maintenance of gambling problems.

  11. THE ONTOGENY OF ETHANOL AVERSION

    PubMed Central

    Saalfield, Jessica; Spear, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Recent work has suggested separate developmental periods within the broader framework of adolescence, with data suggesting distinct alterations and vulnerabilities within these intervals. While previous research has suggested reduced sensitivity to the aversive effects of alcohol in adolescence relative to adults, a more detailed ontogeny of this effect has yet to be conducted. The adolescent brain undergoes significant transitions throughout adolescence, including in regions linked with drug reward and aversion. The current study aimed to determine the ontogeny of ethanol aversion by utilizing a conditioned taste aversion procedure at six different ages to test the hypothesis that the transitions into, through, and out of adolescence are associated with ontogenetic alterations in sensitivity to the aversive properties of ethanol. Non-deprived animals given Boost® as the conditioned stimulus (CS) were used in Experiment 1, whereas Experiment 2 used water-restricted animals provided with a saccharin/sucrose solution as the CS. In both experiments, an attenuated sensitivity to the aversive properties of ethanol was evident in adolescents compared to adults, although more age differences were apparent in water deprived animals than when a highly palatable CS was given to ad libitum animals. Overall, the data suggest an attenuated sensitivity to the aversive properties of ethanol that is most pronounced during pre- and early adolescence, declining thereafter to reach the enhanced aversive sensitivity of adults. PMID:26774181

  12. Learning through the taste system

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    Taste is the final arbiter of which chemicals from the environment will be admitted to the body. The action of swallowing a substance leads to a physiological consequence of which the taste system should be informed. Accordingly, taste neurons in the central nervous system are closely allied with those that receive input from the viscera so as to monitor the impact of a recently ingested substance. There is behavioral, anatomical, electrophysiological, gene expression, and neurochemical evidence that the consequences of ingestion influence subsequent food selection through development of either a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) (if illness ensues) or a conditioned taste preference (CTP) (if nutrition). This ongoing communication between taste and the viscera permits the animal to tailor its taste system to its individual needs over a lifetime. PMID:22131967

  13. Context Dependency of Conditioned Aversions to Familiar and Novel Fluids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishii, Kiyoshi; Iguchi, Yoshio; Sawa, Kosuke

    2006-01-01

    Using a context discrimination procedure and rats as the subjects, the formation of context-dependent aversions to novel and familiar fluids was investigated. Experiment 1 revealed that context dependency could be established to a novel fluid (saccharin) after three cycles of context discrimination training and that the acquired context dependency…

  14. Context Dependency of Conditioned Aversions to Familiar and Novel Fluids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishii, Kiyoshi; Iguchi, Yoshio; Sawa, Kosuke

    2006-01-01

    Using a context discrimination procedure and rats as the subjects, the formation of context-dependent aversions to novel and familiar fluids was investigated. Experiment 1 revealed that context dependency could be established to a novel fluid (saccharin) after three cycles of context discrimination training and that the acquired context dependency…

  15. Common Microbehavioral "Footprint" of Two Distinct Classes of Conditioned Aversion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paisios, Emmanouil; Rjosk, Annabell; Pamir, Evren; Schleyer, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Avoiding unfavorable situations is a vital skill and a constant task for any animal. Situations can be unfavorable because they feature something that the animal wants to escape from, or because they do not feature something that it seeks to obtain. We investigate whether the microbehavioral mechanisms by which these two classes of aversion come…

  16. Relationship between Fear Conditionability and Aversive Memories: Evidence from a Novel Conditioned-Intrusion Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Wegerer, Melanie; Blechert, Jens; Kerschbaum, Hubert; Wilhelm, Frank H.

    2013-01-01

    Intrusive memories – a hallmark symptom of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) – are often triggered by stimuli possessing similarity with cues that predicted or accompanied the traumatic event. According to learning theories, intrusive memories can be seen as a conditioned response to trauma reminders. However, direct laboratory evidence for the link between fear conditionability and intrusive memories is missing. Furthermore, fear conditioning studies have predominantly relied on standardized aversive stimuli (e.g. electric stimulation) that bear little resemblance to typical traumatic events. To investigate the general relationship between fear conditionability and aversive memories, we tested 66 mentally healthy females in a novel conditioned-intrusion paradigm designed to model real-life traumatic experiences. The paradigm included a differential fear conditioning procedure with neutral sounds as conditioned stimuli and short violent film clips as unconditioned stimuli. Subsequent aversive memories were assessed through a memory triggering task (within 30 minutes, in the laboratory) and ambulatory assessment (involuntary aversive memories in the 2 days following the experiment). Skin conductance responses and subjective ratings demonstrated successful differential conditioning indicating that naturalistic aversive film stimuli can be used in a fear conditioning experiment. Furthermore, aversive memories were elicited in response to the conditioned stimuli during the memory triggering task and also occurred in the 2 days following the experiment. Importantly, participants who displayed higher conditionability showed more aversive memories during the memory triggering task and during ambulatory assessment. This suggests that fear conditioning constitutes an important source of persistent aversive memories. Implications for PTSD and its treatment are discussed. PMID:24244407

  17. Place-aversion conditioned by phencyclidine in rats: development of tolerance and pharmacologic antagonism.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, E T

    The pharmacologic properties of phencyclidine were assessed in adult, male rats using a three-chambered, place-conditioning apparatus. Phencyclidine hydrochloride (PCP), at doses of 0.5 to 4 mg/kg, produced a dose-related place-aversion after three drug/environment pairings. During the place-conditioning procedure, 4 mg/kg of PCP significantly increased spontaneous locomotor activity compared to saline-control. Tolerance to PCP-induced place-aversion developed after four daily administrations of 4 mg/kg of PCP. d-Butaclamol, 0.4 mg/kg, given 1 min before each of the three conditioning-doses of PCP decreased the development of the place-aversion induced by PCP. 1-Butaclamol was without significant effect. Spiroperidol, 0.06 mg/kg, completely blocked the development of PCP place-aversion. Spiroperidol and the stereoisomers of butaclamol did not have significant place-conditioning activity when administered alone in the place-conditioning paradigm. The data suggest that PCP induces place-aversion in rats in the place-conditioning model, and that tolerance to this effect develops within 4 days. Furthermore, since d-butaclamol or spiroperidol, but not 1-butaclamol, antagonized this effect of PCP, PCP-induced place-aversion may be mediated in part by a dopaminergic mechanism.

  18. Naloxone fails to produce conditioned place aversion in mu-opioid receptor knock-out mice.

    PubMed

    Skoubis, P D; Matthes, H W; Walwyn, W M; Kieffer, B L; Maidment, N T

    2001-01-01

    There is growing evidence that tonic activity of the opioid system may be important in the modulation of affective state. Naloxone produces a conditioned place aversion in rodents, an effect that is centrally mediated. Previous pharmacological data using antagonists with preferential actions at mu-, delta-, and kappa-opioid receptors indicate the importance of the mu-opioid receptor in mediating this effect. We sought to test the mu-opioid receptor selectivity of naloxone aversion using mu-opioid receptor knock-out mice. mu-Opioid receptor knock-out and wild-type mice were tested for naloxone (10 mg/kg, s.c.) aversion using a place conditioning paradigm. As a positive control for associative learning, knock-out mice were tested for conditioned place aversion to a kappa agonist, U50,488H (2 mg/kg, s.c.). Naloxone produced a significant place aversion in wild-type mice, but failed to have any effect in mu-opioid receptor knock-out mice. On the other hand, both knock-out and wild-type mice treated with U50,488H spent significantly less time in the drug-paired chamber compared to their respective vehicle controls. We conclude that the mu-opioid receptor is crucial for the acquisition of naloxone-induced conditioned place aversion. Furthermore, in a separate experiment using C57BL/6 mice, the delta-selective antagonist naltrindole (10 or 30 mg/kg, s.c.) failed to produce conditioned place aversion.Taken together, these data further support the notion that naloxone produces aversion by antagonizing tonic opioid activity at the mu-opioid receptor.

  19. Facilitation of Taste Memory Acquisition by Experiencing Previous Novel Taste Is Protein-Synthesis Dependent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merhav, Maayan; Rosenblum, Kobi

    2008-01-01

    Very little is known about the biological and molecular mechanisms that determine the effect of previous experience on implicit learning tasks. In the present study, we first defined weak and strong taste inputs according to measurements in the behavioral paradigm known as latent inhibition of conditioned taste aversion. We then demonstrated that…

  20. Facilitation of Taste Memory Acquisition by Experiencing Previous Novel Taste Is Protein-Synthesis Dependent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merhav, Maayan; Rosenblum, Kobi

    2008-01-01

    Very little is known about the biological and molecular mechanisms that determine the effect of previous experience on implicit learning tasks. In the present study, we first defined weak and strong taste inputs according to measurements in the behavioral paradigm known as latent inhibition of conditioned taste aversion. We then demonstrated that…

  1. Developmental differences in aversive conditioning, extinction, and reinstatement: A study with children, adolescents, and adults.

    PubMed

    Waters, Allison M; Theresiana, Cindy; Neumann, David L; Craske, Michelle G

    2017-07-01

    This study investigated developmental differences in aversive conditioning, extinction, and reinstatement (i.e., the recovery of conditioned aversive associations following reexposure to the unconditioned stimulus [US] post-extinction). This study examined these mechanisms in children (Mage=8.8years), adolescents (Mage=16.1years), and adults (Mage=32.3years) using differential aversive conditioning with a geometric shape conditional stimulus (CS+) paired with an aversive sound US and another shape (CS-) presented alone. Following an extinction phase in which both CSs were presented alone, half of the participants in each age group received three US exposures (reinstatement condition) and the other half did not (control condition), followed by all participants completing an extinction retest phase on the same day. Findings indicated (a) significant differences in generalizing aversive expectancies to safe stimuli during conditioning and extinction that persisted during retest in children relative to adults and adolescents, (b) significantly less positive CS reevaluations during extinction that persisted during retest in adolescents relative to adults and children, and (c) reinstatement of US expectancies to the CS+ relative to the CS- in all age groups. Results suggest important differences in stimulus safety learning in children and stimulus valence reevaluation in adolescents relative to adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Converging circuits mediate temperature and shock aversive olfactory conditioning in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Galili, Dana Shani; Dylla, Kristina V; Lüdke, Alja; Friedrich, Anja B; Yamagata, Nobuhiro; Wong, Jin Yan Hilary; Ho, Chien Hsien; Szyszka, Paul; Tanimoto, Hiromu

    2014-08-04

    Drosophila learn to avoid odors that are paired with aversive stimuli. Electric shock is a potent aversive stimulus that acts via dopamine neurons to elicit avoidance of the associated odor. While dopamine signaling has been demonstrated to mediate olfactory electric shock conditioning, it remains unclear how this pathway is involved in other types of behavioral reinforcement, such as in learned avoidance of odors paired with increased temperature. To better understand the neural mechanisms of distinct aversive reinforcement signals, we here established an olfactory temperature conditioning assay comparable to olfactory electric shock conditioning. We show that the AC neurons, which are internal thermal receptors expressing dTrpA1, are selectively required for odor-temperature but not for odor-shock memory. Furthermore, these separate sensory pathways for increased temperature and shock converge onto overlapping populations of dopamine neurons that signal aversive reinforcement. Temperature conditioning appears to require a subset of the dopamine neurons required for electric shock conditioning. We conclude that dopamine neurons integrate different noxious signals into a general aversive reinforcement pathway. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Genotypic influence on aversive conditioning in honeybees, using a novel thermal reinforcement procedure.

    PubMed

    Junca, Pierre; Carcaud, Julie; Moulin, Sibyle; Garnery, Lionel; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe

    2014-01-01

    In Pavlovian conditioning, animals learn to associate initially neutral stimuli with positive or negative outcomes, leading to appetitive and aversive learning respectively. The honeybee (Apis mellifera) is a prominent invertebrate model for studying both versions of olfactory learning and for unraveling the influence of genotype. As a queen bee mates with about 15 males, her worker offspring belong to as many, genetically-different patrilines. While the genetic dependency of appetitive learning is well established in bees, it is not the case for aversive learning, as a robust protocol was only developed recently. In the original conditioning of the sting extension response (SER), bees learn to associate an odor (conditioned stimulus - CS) with an electric shock (unconditioned stimulus - US). This US is however not a natural stimulus for bees, which may represent a potential caveat for dissecting the genetics underlying aversive learning. We thus first tested heat as a potential new US for SER conditioning. We show that thermal stimulation of several sensory structures on the bee's body triggers the SER, in a temperature-dependent manner. Moreover, heat applied to the antennae, mouthparts or legs is an efficient US for SER conditioning. Then, using microsatellite analysis, we analyzed heat sensitivity and aversive learning performances in ten worker patrilines issued from a naturally inseminated queen. We demonstrate a strong influence of genotype on aversive learning, possibly indicating the existence of a genetic determinism of this capacity. Such determinism could be instrumental for efficient task partitioning within the hive.

  4. Genotypic Influence on Aversive Conditioning in Honeybees, Using a Novel Thermal Reinforcement Procedure

    PubMed Central

    Junca, Pierre; Carcaud, Julie; Moulin, Sibyle; Garnery, Lionel; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe

    2014-01-01

    In Pavlovian conditioning, animals learn to associate initially neutral stimuli with positive or negative outcomes, leading to appetitive and aversive learning respectively. The honeybee (Apis mellifera) is a prominent invertebrate model for studying both versions of olfactory learning and for unraveling the influence of genotype. As a queen bee mates with about 15 males, her worker offspring belong to as many, genetically-different patrilines. While the genetic dependency of appetitive learning is well established in bees, it is not the case for aversive learning, as a robust protocol was only developed recently. In the original conditioning of the sting extension response (SER), bees learn to associate an odor (conditioned stimulus - CS) with an electric shock (unconditioned stimulus - US). This US is however not a natural stimulus for bees, which may represent a potential caveat for dissecting the genetics underlying aversive learning. We thus first tested heat as a potential new US for SER conditioning. We show that thermal stimulation of several sensory structures on the bee’s body triggers the SER, in a temperature-dependent manner. Moreover, heat applied to the antennae, mouthparts or legs is an efficient US for SER conditioning. Then, using microsatellite analysis, we analyzed heat sensitivity and aversive learning performances in ten worker patrilines issued from a naturally inseminated queen. We demonstrate a strong influence of genotype on aversive learning, possibly indicating the existence of a genetic determinism of this capacity. Such determinism could be instrumental for efficient task partitioning within the hive. PMID:24828422

  5. Saccharin Taste Conditions Flavor Preference in Weanling Rats.

    PubMed

    Ueji, Kayoko; Minematsu, Yuji; Takeshita, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Takashi

    2016-02-01

    Innate and learned taste/flavor preferences to chemical stimuli in weanling rats are not fully understood. Our previous study showed that weanling rats could establish conditioned flavor preferences when low, but not high, concentrations of sucrose solutions were used as associative rewarding stimuli. Here, we examined whether 3-week-old rats could acquire flavor learning when the rewarding stimulus was saccharin, a non-nutritive artificial sweetener. In the acquisition session, they consumed water with a flavor (cherry or grape) and 0.1% sodium saccharin with another flavor (grape or cherry) for 15 min daily on alternative days over 6 consecutive days. The subsequent test session revealed significant preferences for the flavor previously associated with saccharin. However, they failed to retain the preference when retested in adulthood at the age of 20 weeks. These behavioral results were similar to those previously demonstrated when 2% sucrose was used as an associative sweetener. Although these 2 solutions were equally preferred, the taste quality may not be the same because the weanling rats showed neophobia to 0.1% saccharin and a larger chorda tympani response than 2% sucrose. The present study showed that a conditioned flavor preference was established to saccharin in weanling rats on the basis of flavor-taste association. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Long-range projection neurons in the taste circuit of Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Kim, Heesoo; Kirkhart, Colleen; Scott, Kristin

    2017-02-06

    Taste compounds elicit innate feeding behaviors and act as rewards or punishments to entrain other cues. The neural pathways by which taste compounds influence innate and learned behaviors have not been resolved. Here, we identify three classes of taste projection neurons (TPNs) in Drosophila melanogaster distinguished by their morphology and taste selectivity. TPNs receive input from gustatory receptor neurons and respond selectively to sweet or bitter stimuli, demonstrating segregated processing of different taste modalities. Activation of TPNs influences innate feeding behavior, whereas inhibition has little effect, suggesting parallel pathways. Moreover, two TPN classes are absolutely required for conditioned taste aversion, a learned behavior. The TPNs essential for conditioned aversion project to the superior lateral protocerebrum (SLP) and convey taste information to mushroom body learning centers. These studies identify taste pathways from sensory detection to higher brain that influence innate behavior and are essential for learned responses to taste compounds.

  7. Psychophysiological and subjective indicators of aversive pavlovian conditioning in generalized social phobia.

    PubMed

    Hermann, Christiane; Ziegler, Silvio; Birbaumer, Niels; Flor, Herta

    2002-08-15

    Aversive conditioning has been proposed as an important etiologic mechanism in social phobia; however, empirical evidence is scarce and has not relied on a detailed analysis of the acquisition and extinction of the conditioned emotional response. Fourteen men sustaining generalized social phobia and 19 healthy control subjects participated in differential aversive conditioning with two neutral faces as conditioned stimuli and an aversive odor as unconditioned stimulus. Subjective and peripheral physiological responses were obtained. Both groups were successfully conditioned as reflected by differential subjective (valence, arousal, subjective unconditioned stimulus expectancy) and peripheral physiological responses (skin conductance, startle response). There was no evidence for an enhanced conditionability in the social phobics; however, they showed an enhanced unconditioned stimulus expectancy, especially for the nonreinforced conditioned stimuli during acquisition, and a delayed extinction of the conditioned skin conductance response as well as a certain dissociation between subjective and physiological responses.The enhanced unconditioned stimulus expectancy during acquisition and the overall elevated subjective arousal suggest that, under threat, subjects with generalized social phobia may be more prone to associate neutral social cues and an aversive outcome. Furthermore, delayed extinction of the conditioned response seems to contribute to the etiology and maintenance of generalized social phobia.

  8. Conditioning and aversion to toxic Solanum bonariense (naranjillo) leaves in calves

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Solanum bonariense is a perennial poisonous shrub that induces cerebellar cortical degeneration when eaten by cattle. The aim of this research was to outline a protocol to induce a conditioned aversion to this plant. During the pre-conditioning period ten calves (126±12kg BW) were maintained at half...

  9. Aversive Learning in Honeybees Revealed by the Olfactory Conditioning of the Sting Extension Reflex

    PubMed Central

    Vergoz, Vanina; Roussel, Edith; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe; Giurfa, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Invertebrates have contributed greatly to our understanding of associative learning because they allow learning protocols to be combined with experimental access to the nervous system. The honeybee Apis mellifera constitutes a standard model for the study of appetitive learning and memory since it was shown, almost a century ago, that bees learn to associate different sensory cues with a reward of sugar solution. However, up to now, no study has explored aversive learning in bees in such a way that simultaneous access to its neural bases is granted. Using odorants paired with electric shocks, we conditioned the sting extension reflex, which is exhibited by harnessed bees when subjected to a noxious stimulation. We show that this response can be conditioned so that bees learn to extend their sting in response to the odorant previously punished. Bees also learn to extend the proboscis to one odorant paired with sugar solution and the sting to a different odorant paired with electric shock, thus showing that they can master both appetitive and aversive associations simultaneously. Responding to the appropriate odorant with the appropriate response is possible because two different biogenic amines, octopamine and dopamine subserve appetitive and aversive reinforcement, respectively. While octopamine has been previously shown to substitute for appetitive reinforcement, we demonstrate that blocking of dopaminergic, but not octopaminergic, receptors suppresses aversive learning. Therefore, aversive learning in honeybees can now be accessed both at the behavioral and neural levels, thus opening new research avenues for understanding basic mechanisms of learning and memory. PMID:17372627

  10. Aversive learning in honeybees revealed by the olfactory conditioning of the sting extension reflex.

    PubMed

    Vergoz, Vanina; Roussel, Edith; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe; Giurfa, Martin

    2007-03-14

    Invertebrates have contributed greatly to our understanding of associative learning because they allow learning protocols to be combined with experimental access to the nervous system. The honeybee Apis mellifera constitutes a standard model for the study of appetitive learning and memory since it was shown, almost a century ago, that bees learn to associate different sensory cues with a reward of sugar solution. However, up to now, no study has explored aversive learning in bees in such a way that simultaneous access to its neural bases is granted. Using odorants paired with electric shocks, we conditioned the sting extension reflex, which is exhibited by harnessed bees when subjected to a noxious stimulation. We show that this response can be conditioned so that bees learn to extend their sting in response to the odorant previously punished. Bees also learn to extend the proboscis to one odorant paired with sugar solution and the sting to a different odorant paired with electric shock, thus showing that they can master both appetitive and aversive associations simultaneously. Responding to the appropriate odorant with the appropriate response is possible because two different biogenic amines, octopamine and dopamine subserve appetitive and aversive reinforcement, respectively. While octopamine has been previously shown to substitute for appetitive reinforcement, we demonstrate that blocking of dopaminergic, but not octopaminergic, receptors suppresses aversive learning. Therefore, aversive learning in honeybees can now be accessed both at the behavioral and neural levels, thus opening new research avenues for understanding basic mechanisms of learning and memory.

  11. Conditioned flavor aversions: a toxicity test of the anticholinesterase agent, physostigmine.

    PubMed

    Parker, L A; Hutchison, S; Riley, A L

    1982-01-01

    The viability of the conditioned flavor aversion test as a behavioral index of the toxicity of physostigmine, an anticholinesterase agent, was evaluated in a series of three experiments. Experiments 1 and 2 used the flavor aversion paradigm and Experiment 3 used a more traditional behavioral testing paradigm in which the effect of physostigmine on a specified set of behaviors was measured. In the flavor aversion paradigm, the rats were allowed to consume 0.5% saccharin solution before being injected with one of various doses of physostigmine (0.025--0.50 mg/kg) or saline. They were subsequently tested for a learned flavor aversion by means of a one-bottle test in Experiment 1 and a two-bottle test in Experiment 2. In the behavioral testing paradigm used in Experiment 3, each rat was injected with one of various doses of physostigmine within the range of those used in the prior experiments, and thirty minutes later was placed in a chamber for observation for 15 minutes. The procedures of Experiment 3 were much more time consuming than those of Experiments 1 and 2. By the two-bottle aversion test of Experiment 2, a dose as low as 0.05 mg/kg of physostigmine produced a reliable flavor aversion which persisted for three extinction test trials. On the other hand, robust and reliable behavioral differences of decreased rearing and consumption of water in Experiment 3 were only evident in rats given 0.25 mg/kg of physostigmine. We conclude that the flavor aversion test is a simple and sensitive behavioral measure of toxicity.

  12. The entorhinal cortex is involved in conditioned odor and context aversions

    PubMed Central

    Ferry, Barbara; Herbeaux, Karine; Javelot, Hervé; Majchrzak, Monique

    2015-01-01

    In a natural environment, avoidance of a particular food source is mostly determined by a previous intake experience during which sensory stimuli such as food odor, become aversive through a simple associative conditioned learning. Conditioned odor aversion learning (COA) is a food conditioning paradigm that results from the association between a tasteless scented solution (conditioned stimulus, CS) and a gastric malaise (unconditioned stimulus, US) that followed its ingestion. In the present experimental conditions, acquisition of COA also led to acquisition of aversion toward the context in which the CS was presented (conditioned context aversion, CCA). Previous data have shown that the entorhinal cortex (EC) is involved in the memory processes underlying COA acquisition and context fear conditioning, but whether EC lesion modulates CCA acquisition has never be investigated. To this aim, male Long-Evans rats with bilateral EC lesion received CS-US pairings in a particular context with different interstimulus intervals (ISI). The results showed that the establishment of COA with long ISI obtained in EC-lesioned rats is associated with altered CCA learning. Since ISI has been suggested to be the determining factor in the odor- and context-US association, our results show that the EC is involved in the processes that control both associations relative to ISI duration. PMID:26483624

  13. Differential role of insular cortex muscarinic and NMDA receptors in one-trial appetitive taste learning.

    PubMed

    Parkes, Shauna L; De la Cruz, Vanesa; Bermúdez-Rattoni, Federico; Coutureau, Etienne; Ferreira, Guillaume

    2014-12-01

    Our current understanding of the neurobiology of taste learning and memory has been greatly facilitated by the use of a reliable behavioural model, conditioned taste aversion (CTA). This model has revealed that the insular cortex (IC), specifically muscarinic and N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activation in the IC, is critical for the formation of aversive taste memories. In contrast, current models of appetitive taste learning are less adequate, relying on the use of neophobic tastes (attenuation of neophobia) or on the integration of appetitive and aversive taste memories (latent inhibition of CTA). While these models have implicated IC muscarinic receptors, the involvement of NMDA receptors in the IC remains unclear. Here, we examined the role of both muscarinic and NMDA receptors in appetitive taste learning using a simple paradigm that is independent of neophobic and aversive components. First, we demonstrated that a single exposure to a novel taste, saccharin 0.1%, is sufficient to promote an appetitive taste memory as revealed by an increase in saccharin consumption during the second presentation. This increase was blocked by bilateral infusion in the IC of the muscarinic receptor antagonist, scopolamine. In contrast, infusion of the NMDA receptor antagonist, AP5, did not block appetitive taste learning but did abolish CTA. Therefore, common and distinct molecular substrates within the IC mediate appetitive versus aversive learning about the same taste.

  14. Burying by rats in response to aversive and nonaversive stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Poling, Alan; Cleary, James; Monaghan, Michael

    1981-01-01

    Previous investigations have shown that rats bury a variety of conditioned and unconditioned aversive stimuli. Such burying has been considered as a species-typical defensive reaction. In the present studies, rats buried spouts filled with Tabasco sauce, or condensed milk to which a taste aversion was conditioned, but did not bury water-filled spouts or spouts filled with a palatable novel food (apple juice) to which a taste aversion was not conditioned. However, in other experiments rats consistently and repeatedly buried Purina Rat Chow, Purina Rat Chow coated with quinine, and glass marbles. This indicates that a variety of stimuli, not all aversive or novel, evoke burying by rats. Whereas the behavior may reasonably be considered as a species-typical defensive behavior in some situations, the wide range of conditions that occasion burying suggests that the behavior has no single biological function. PMID:16812198

  15. Burying by rats in response to aversive and nonaversive stimuli.

    PubMed

    Poling, A; Cleary, J; Monaghan, M

    1981-01-01

    Previous investigations have shown that rats bury a variety of conditioned and unconditioned aversive stimuli. Such burying has been considered as a species-typical defensive reaction. In the present studies, rats buried spouts filled with Tabasco sauce, or condensed milk to which a taste aversion was conditioned, but did not bury water-filled spouts or spouts filled with a palatable novel food (apple juice) to which a taste aversion was not conditioned. However, in other experiments rats consistently and repeatedly buried Purina Rat Chow, Purina Rat Chow coated with quinine, and glass marbles. This indicates that a variety of stimuli, not all aversive or novel, evoke burying by rats. Whereas the behavior may reasonably be considered as a species-typical defensive behavior in some situations, the wide range of conditions that occasion burying suggests that the behavior has no single biological function.

  16. Lesions of the Medial Prefrontal Cortex Abolish Conditioned Aversion Associated with Sexual Behavior in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Jon F.; Loos, Maarten; Di Sebastiano, Andrea R.; Brown, Jennifer L.; Lehman, Michael N.; Coolen, Lique M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND An inability to inhibit behaviors once they become maladaptive is a component of several psychiatric illnesses and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) was identified as a potential mediator of behavioral inhibition. The current study tested if the mPFC is involved in inhibition of sexual behavior when associated with aversive outcomes. METHODS Using male rats, effects of lesions of the infralimbic (IL) and prelimbic (PL) areas of the mPFC on expression of sexual behavior and ability to inhibit mating were tested using a paradigm of copulation-contingent aversion. RESULTS mPFC lesions did not alter expression of sexual behavior. In contrast, mPFC lesions completely blocked the acquisition of sex-aversion conditioning and lesioned animals continued to mate, in contrast to the robust behavioral inhibition towards copulation in mPFC intact males, resulting in only 22% of intact males continuing to mate. However, rats with mPFC lesions were capable of forming a conditioned place preference to sexual reward and conditioned place aversion for lithium chloride, suggesting that these lesions did not alter associative learning or sensitivity for lithium chloride. DISCUSSION The current study indicates that animals with mPFC lesions are likely capable of forming the associations with aversive outcomes of their behavior, but lack the ability to suppress seeking of sexual reward in the face of aversive consequences. These data may contribute to a better understanding of a common pathology underlying impulse control disorders as compulsive sexual behavior has a high prevalence of comorbidity with psychiatric disorders and Parkinson’s Disease. PMID:20346444

  17. Genetic background influences nicotine-induced conditioned place preference and place aversion in mice.

    PubMed

    Ise, Yuya; Mori, Tomohisa; Katayama, Shirou; Suzuki, Tsutomu; Wang, Tzu-Chueh

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to determine whether genetic differences influence the rewarding effects of nicotine in 4 inbred strains of mice (DBA/2, BALB/c, C3H, and C57BL/6). Nicotine (subcutaneous) induced a place preference in DBA/2 and BALB/c mice but a place aversion in C57BL/6 mice. A low dose of nicotine produced a significant place preference, whereas a high dose of nicotine produced place aversion in C3H mice. These effects were completely reversed by the nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine. These results strongly suggest that a conditioned state, such as rewarding effects or aversive effects, can be influenced by genetic background.

  18. Conditioned food aversion to control outbreaks of intoxication by Ipomoea carnea and Turbina cordata in goats

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Conditioned food aversion is used to train livestock to avoid the ingestion of toxic plants. This technique was used to control Turbina cordata poisoning in goats in one farm, and to control Ipomoea carnea subsp. istulosa poisoning in another farm. The goats were penned at night and the next mornin...

  19. Neural Correlates of Appetitive-Aversive Interactions in Pavlovian Fear Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasser, Helen M.; McNally, Gavan P.

    2013-01-01

    We used Pavlovian counterconditioning in rats to identify the neural mechanisms for appetitive-aversive motivational interactions. In Stage I, rats were trained on conditioned stimulus (CS)-food (unconditioned stimulus [US]) pairings. In Stage II, this appetitive CS was transformed into a fear CS via pairings with footshock. The development of…

  20. Neural Correlates of Appetitive-Aversive Interactions in Pavlovian Fear Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasser, Helen M.; McNally, Gavan P.

    2013-01-01

    We used Pavlovian counterconditioning in rats to identify the neural mechanisms for appetitive-aversive motivational interactions. In Stage I, rats were trained on conditioned stimulus (CS)-food (unconditioned stimulus [US]) pairings. In Stage II, this appetitive CS was transformed into a fear CS via pairings with footshock. The development of…

  1. Changes of sleep patterns in rats with chronic constriction injury under aversive conditions.

    PubMed

    Tokunaga, Shin; Takeda, Yasuhiro; Shinomiya, Kazuaki; Yamamoto, Wataru; Utsu, Yoshiaki; Toide, Katsuo; Kamei, Chiaki

    2007-11-01

    In the present study, we investigated the changes of sleep parameters in rats with chronic constriction injury (CCI) under aversive conditions. The electroencephalogram (EEG) in the frontal cortex of CCI rats and electromyogram (EMG) were measured over 6 h by placing rats on sandpaper as an aversive condition, to compare with rats placed on sawdust. Six days after CCI surgery, the rats exhibited significant mechanical allodynia, and also had neuropathic pain. When rats were placed on sawdust, no significant difference was observed between the CCI group and sham-operated control group in sleep latency, total waking time, total non-REM sleep time and total REM sleep time. On the other hand, when CCI rats were placed on sandpaper, a significant increase was observed in sleep latency and total waking time compared with the sham group; however, no significant difference was observed in the total non-REM sleep time and total REM sleep time between these two groups. These results indicate that an important factor of sleep disturbance in CCI rats is not only damage to the nerves but also being under aversive conditions. In addition, it was found that CCI rats placed on sandpaper as an aversive condition can serve as a new sleep disturbance model.

  2. Conditioned food aversion to control poisoning by Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa in goats

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ipomoea carnea is a toxic plant often ingested by livestock in Brazil. Three experiments were conducted to determine if conditioned food aversion was effective in reducing goats’ consumption of I. carnea. In the fi rst experiment, 10 mildly intoxicated goats that had been eating I. carnea were avert...

  3. Conditioned flavor aversion and location avoidance in hamsters from toxic extract of tall larkspur (Delphinium barbeyi)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Studies were conducted to address conditioned flavour aversion (CFA) and place avoidance learning in hamsters given injections of alkaloid extracts from tall larkspur (Delphinium barbeyi), to determine if larkspur had reinforcing or negative properties sufficient to cause place avoidance or preferen...

  4. Pentylenetetrazol produces a state-dependent conditioned place aversion to alcohol withdrawal in mice.

    PubMed

    Chester, Julia A; Coon, Laran E

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if aversive effects of alcohol withdrawal could be detected in mice using the place conditioning procedure and whether the GABA(A) receptor antagonist, pentylenetetrazol (PTZ), would increase the aversive effects of alcohol withdrawal and increase the probability of detecting conditioned place aversion. Subjects were alcohol-naïve mice from a specific line selectively bred for low alcohol preference (LAP1; n=91) and were assigned to three groups: alcohol withdrawal, PTZ alone, and PTZ+alcohol withdrawal. On four trials, mice received either a 4.0 g/kg intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of alcohol (alcohol withdrawal, PTZ+alcohol withdrawal groups) or saline (PTZ group) 8 h prior to being placed on a distinctive floor texture for a 30-min conditioning session. Five minutes before these sessions, mice in the PTZ and PTZ+alcohol withdrawal groups received PTZ (5.0 mg/kg; i.p.) and the alcohol withdrawal group received saline. On intervening days mice received two saline injections at the same time points prior to being placed on a different floor texture. Post-conditioning floor preference was assessed in two 60-min tests; the first test was drug-free and the second test was state-dependent. Neither alcohol withdrawal nor PTZ produced significant place conditioning. The PTZ+alcohol withdrawal group showed a significant place aversion during the state-dependent test. These data suggest that the combined stimulus properties of PTZ and alcohol withdrawal facilitated the expression of conditioned place aversion to alcohol withdrawal. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Attenuation in weight gain with high calcium- and dairy-enriched diets is not associated with taste aversion in rats: a comparison with casein, whey, and soy.

    PubMed

    Eller, Lindsay K; Reimer, Raylene A

    2010-10-01

    A systematic evaluation of the effects of calcium (Ca) and protein source on food intake and taste aversion (TA) in rats is lacking. The purpose of this research was twofold: (1) to determine if Sprague-Dawley rats display TA to standard rat chow supplemented with 2.4% Ca and (2) to determine if short (24-hour) and long-term (weekly) food intake and weight gain are altered when rats are given access to diets containing various protein sources (casein, whey, dairy, or soy). Rats were assigned to one of two diet groups to examine high (2.4%) versus low (0.67%) Ca or to one of four groups to examine taste preference of diets where the sole protein was one of casein, soy, whey, or complete dairy. A crossover design was used to ensure rats consumed all test diets. Food intake and behavioral sequence of satiety were measured. There was no TA to the 2.4% Ca diet or to any protein source. Food intake did not differ between the two Ca diets or between the four protein diets. The dairy diet attenuated weekly weight gain compared to all other diets except whey. Overall, this study suggests that the levels of Ca and types of protein used in previous work addressing changes in body weight in rats do not influence food intake or trigger TA.

  6. The Role of Muscarinic and Nicotinic Cholinergic Neurotransmission in Aversive Conditioning: Comparing Pavlovian Fear Conditioning and Inhibitory Avoidance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinsley, Matthew R.; Quinn, Jennifer J.; Fanselow, Michael S.

    2004-01-01

    Aversive conditioning is an ideal model for studying cholinergic effects on the processes of learning and memory for several reasons. First, deficits produced by selective lesions of the anatomical structures shown to be critical for Pavlovian fear conditioning and inhibitory avoidance (such as the amygdala and hippocampus) resemble those deficits…

  7. The Role of Muscarinic and Nicotinic Cholinergic Neurotransmission in Aversive Conditioning: Comparing Pavlovian Fear Conditioning and Inhibitory Avoidance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinsley, Matthew R.; Quinn, Jennifer J.; Fanselow, Michael S.

    2004-01-01

    Aversive conditioning is an ideal model for studying cholinergic effects on the processes of learning and memory for several reasons. First, deficits produced by selective lesions of the anatomical structures shown to be critical for Pavlovian fear conditioning and inhibitory avoidance (such as the amygdala and hippocampus) resemble those deficits…

  8. Odour aversion after olfactory conditioning of the sting extension reflex in honeybees.

    PubMed

    Carcaud, Julie; Roussel, Edith; Giurfa, Martin; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe

    2009-03-01

    In Pavlovian conditioning, an originally neutral stimulus (conditioned stimulus or CS) gains control over an animal's reflex after its association with a biologically relevant stimulus (unconditioned stimulus or US). As a consequence, a conditioned response is emitted by the animal upon further CS presentations. In such a situation, the subject exhibits a reflex response, so that whether the CS thereby acquires a positive or a negative value for the animal is difficult to assess. In honeybees, Apis mellifera, an odour (CS) can be associated either with sucrose solution (US) in the appetitive conditioning of the proboscis extension reflex (PER), or with an electric shock (US) in the aversive conditioning of the sting extension reflex (SER). The term ;aversive' may not apply to the latter as bees do not suppress SER as a consequence of learning but, on the contrary, start emitting SER to the CS. To determine whether the CS acquires a positive or a negative value in these conditioning forms, we compared the orientation behaviour of freely walking honeybees in an olfactory-cued Y-maze after training them with an odour-sucrose association (PER conditioning) or an odour-shock association (SER conditioning). We show that the same odours can acquire either a positive value when associated to sucrose, or a negative value when associated to an electric shock, as bees respectively approach or avoid the CS in the Y-maze. Importantly, these results clearly establish the aversive nature of SER conditioning in honeybees.

  9. Mechanisms of attention for appetitive and aversive outcomes in Pavlovian conditioning.

    PubMed

    Austin, A J; Duka, T

    2010-11-12

    Different mechanisms of attention controlling learning have been proposed in appetitive and aversive conditioning. The aim of the present study was to compare attention and learning in a Pavlovian conditioning paradigm using visual stimuli of varying predictive value of either monetary reward (appetitive conditioning; 10p or 50p) or blast of white noise (aversive conditioning; 97 dB or 102 dB). Outcome values were matched across the two conditions with regard to their emotional significance. Sixty-four participants were allocated to one of the four conditions matched for age and gender. All participants underwent a discriminative learning task using pairs of visual stimuli that signalled a 100%, 50%, or 0% probability of receiving an outcome. Learning was measured using a 9-point Likert scale of expectancy of the outcome, while attention using an eyetracker device. Arousal and emotional conditioning were also evaluated. Dwell time was greatest for the full predictor in the noise groups, while in the money groups attention was greatest for the partial predictor over the other two predictors. The progression of learning was the same for both groups. These findings suggest that in aversive conditioning attention is driven by the predictive salience of the stimulus while in appetitive conditioning attention is error-driven, when emotional value of the outcome is comparable.

  10. Recognition by Rats of Binary Taste Solutions and Their Components.

    PubMed

    Katagawa, Yoshihisa; Yasuo, Toshiaki; Suwabe, Takeshi; Yamamura, Tomoki; Gen, Keika; Sako, Noritaka

    2016-09-13

    This behavioral study investigated how rats conditioned to binary mixtures of preferred and aversive taste stimuli, respectively, responded to the individual components in a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) paradigm. The preference of stimuli was determined based on the initial results of 2 bottle preference test. The preferred stimuli included 5mM sodium saccharin (Sacc), 0.03M NaCl (Na), 0.1M Na, 5mM Sacc + 0.03M Na, and 5mM Sacc + 0.2mM quinine hydrochloride (Q), whereas the aversive stimuli tested were 1.0M Na, 0.2mM Q, 0.3mM Q, 5mM Sacc + 1.0M Na, and 5mM Sacc + 0.3mM Q. In CTA tests where LiCl was the unconditioned stimulus, the number of licks to the preferred binary mixtures and to all tested preferred components were significantly less than in control rats. No significant difference resulted between the number of licks to the aversive binary mixtures or to all tested aversive components. However, when rats pre-exposed to the aversive components contained of the aversive binary mixtures were conditioned to these mixtures, the number of licks to all the tested stimuli was significantly less than in controls. Rats conditioned to components of the aversive binary mixtures generalized to the binary mixtures containing those components. These results suggest that rats recognize and remember preferred and aversive taste mixtures as well as the preferred and aversive components of the binary mixtures, and that pre-exposure before CTA is an available method to study the recognition of aversive taste stimuli. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Comparing the executive attention of adult females with ADHD to that of females with sensory modulation disorder (SMD) under aversive and non-aversive auditory conditions.

    PubMed

    Mazor-Karsenty, Tal; Parush, Shula; Bonneh, Yoram; Shalev, Lilach

    2015-02-01

    Certain behavioral expressions of sensory modulation disorder (SMD) such as distractibility, hyperactivity, and impulsivity are often similar to those of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in pediatric and adult populations. There is also a high comorbidity rate between these two diagnoses and absence of research regarding the objective neuropsychological differentiation between them. In the present study we employed a factorial design which enabled us to: (a) systematically examine the effects of SMD and ADHD on executive attention in a sample of adult females using a Stroop-like task, and (b) measure the effect of aversive conditions (sounds) on executive attention. The experimental measures used were the Stroop-like Location-Direction Task (SLDT) to assess executive attention and the battery of aversiveness to sounds (BAS), a standardized measure of aversive sounds that was developed for this study and enabled individual customization of aversive auditory sounds. Results revealed, as expected, a specific core deficit in executive attention for the ADHD factor. In addition to that, the present study provides an important, pioneering finding of SMD impairment in a unique combination of a cognitively demanding task with aversive sounds, providing preliminary objective evidence differentiating SMD from ADHD.

  12. Appetitive but not aversive olfactory conditioning modifies antennal movements in honeybees

    PubMed Central

    Cholé, Hanna; Junca, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    In honeybees, two olfactory conditioning protocols allow the study of appetitive and aversive Pavlovian associations. Appetitive conditioning of the proboscis extension response (PER) involves associating an odor, the conditioned stimulus (CS) with a sucrose solution, the unconditioned stimulus (US). Conversely, aversive conditioning of the sting extension response (SER) involves associating the odor CS with an electric or thermal shock US. Each protocol is based on the measure of a different behavioral response (proboscis versus sting) and both only provide binary responses (extension or not of the proboscis or sting). These limitations render the measure of the acquired valence of an odor CS difficult without testing the animals in a freely moving situation. Here, we studied the effects of both olfactory conditioning protocols on the movements of the antennae, which are crucial sensory organs for bees. As bees’ antennae are highly mobile, we asked whether their movements in response to an odorant change following appetitive or aversive conditioning and if so, do odor-evoked antennal movements contain information about the acquired valence of the CS? We implemented a tracking system for harnessed bees’ antennal movements based on a motion capture principle at a high frequency rate. We observed that differential appetitive conditioning had a strong effect on antennal movements. Bees responded to the reinforced odorant with a marked forward motion of the antennae and a strong velocity increase. Conversely, differential aversive conditioning had no associative effect on antennal movements. Rather than revealing the acquired valence of an odorant, antennal movements may represent a novel conditioned response taking place during appetitive conditioning and may provide a possible advantage to bees when foraging in natural situations. PMID:26572651

  13. Appetitive but not aversive olfactory conditioning modifies antennal movements in honeybees.

    PubMed

    Cholé, Hanna; Junca, Pierre; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe

    2015-12-01

    In honeybees, two olfactory conditioning protocols allow the study of appetitive and aversive Pavlovian associations. Appetitive conditioning of the proboscis extension response (PER) involves associating an odor, the conditioned stimulus (CS) with a sucrose solution, the unconditioned stimulus (US). Conversely, aversive conditioning of the sting extension response (SER) involves associating the odor CS with an electric or thermal shock US. Each protocol is based on the measure of a different behavioral response (proboscis versus sting) and both only provide binary responses (extension or not of the proboscis or sting). These limitations render the measure of the acquired valence of an odor CS difficult without testing the animals in a freely moving situation. Here, we studied the effects of both olfactory conditioning protocols on the movements of the antennae, which are crucial sensory organs for bees. As bees' antennae are highly mobile, we asked whether their movements in response to an odorant change following appetitive or aversive conditioning and if so, do odor-evoked antennal movements contain information about the acquired valence of the CS? We implemented a tracking system for harnessed bees' antennal movements based on a motion capture principle at a high frequency rate. We observed that differential appetitive conditioning had a strong effect on antennal movements. Bees responded to the reinforced odorant with a marked forward motion of the antennae and a strong velocity increase. Conversely, differential aversive conditioning had no associative effect on antennal movements. Rather than revealing the acquired valence of an odorant, antennal movements may represent a novel conditioned response taking place during appetitive conditioning and may provide a possible advantage to bees when foraging in natural situations.

  14. Cocaine Drives Aversive Conditioning via Delayed Activation of Dopamine-Responsive Habenular and Midbrain Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Good, Cameron H.; Rowley, Courtney S.; Xu, Sheng-ping; Wang, Huikun; Burnham, Nathan W.; Hoffman, Alexander F.; Lupica, Carl R.; Ikemoto, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    Many strong rewards, including abused drugs, also produce aversive effects that are poorly understood. For example, cocaine can produce aversive conditioning after its rewarding effects have dissipated, consistent with opponent process theory, but the neural mechanisms involved are not well known. Using electrophysiological recordings in awake rats, we found that some neurons in the lateral habenula (LHb), where activation produces aversive conditioning, exhibited biphasic responses to single doses of intravenous cocaine, with an initial inhibition followed by delayed excitation paralleling cocaine's shift from rewarding to aversive. Recordings in LHb slice preparations revealed similar cocaine-induced biphasic responses and further demonstrated that biphasic responses were mimicked by dopamine, that the inhibitory phase depended on dopamine D2-like receptors, and that the delayed excitation persisted after drug washout for prolonged durations consistent with findings in vivo. c-Fos experiments further showed that cocaine-activated LHb neurons preferentially projected to and activated neurons in the rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg), a recently identified target of LHb axons that is activated by negative motivational stimuli and inhibits dopamine neurons. Finally, pharmacological excitation of the RMTg produced conditioned place aversion, whereas cocaine-induced avoidance behaviors in a runway operant paradigm were abolished by lesions of LHb efferents, lesions of the RMTg, or by optogenetic inactivation of the RMTg selectively during the period when LHb neurons are activated by cocaine. Together, these results indicate that LHb/RMTg pathways contribute critically to cocaine-induced avoidance behaviors, while also participating in reciprocally inhibitory interactions with dopamine neurons. PMID:23616555

  15. Effect of atropine on intracortical evoked potentials during classical aversive conditioning in cats.

    PubMed

    Molnár, M; Karmos, G; Csépe, V

    1988-12-01

    In this article, intracortical evoked potentials (EPs) were recorded simultaneously from six different depths of the auditory cortex of freely moving cats. The effect of (a) different states of vigilance and that of atropine, (b) classical aversive conditioning, and (c) the effect of atropine during conditioning was studied on the intracortical EP profiles. Atropine induced EP changes that were similar to those seen in slow wave sleep. During classical aversive conditioning signal stimuli elicited a middle-latency negative EP component which was localized to the superficial cortical layers. Atropine (2 mg/kg body weight) did not abolish the appearance of this component but only increased its latency. It is proposed that the cholinergic part of the ascending activating system did not play an essential role in its generation.

  16. Social anxiety and cognitive expectancy of aversive outcome in avoidance conditioning.

    PubMed

    Ly, Verena; Roelofs, Karin

    2009-10-01

    Fear conditioning studies have shown that social anxiety is associated with enhanced expectancy of aversive outcome. However, the relation between cognitive expectancy and social anxiety has never been tested in avoidance conditioning paradigms. We compared 48 low (LSA) and high socially anxious individuals (HSA) on subjective expectancy of aversive outcome during an avoidance conditioning task. Displays of neutral faces were coupled with an aversive outcome (US): a shout and a shock. Participants could avoid the US by pressing a correct button from a button box. First, HSA showed higher US expectancy than LSA during the initial phase of avoidance conditioning, supporting the view that socially anxious individuals have an expectancy bias when social situations are ambiguous. Second, when the avoidance response became unavailable, LSA showed lower US expectancy than HSA, suggesting that low socially anxious individuals are prone to a positive bias when perceived threat is high. A lack of such positive bias in socially anxious individuals may lead to higher susceptibility to safety behavior interpretations. Together, these findings support the role of cognitive processes in avoidance conditioning and underscore the relevance to encounter avoidance learning when studying social anxiety.

  17. Effects of kappa opioid receptors on conditioned place aversion and social interaction in males and females

    PubMed Central

    Robles, Cindee F.; McMackin, Marissa Z.; Campi, Katharine L.; Doig, Ian E.; Takahashi, Elizabeth Y.; Pride, Michael; Trainor, Brian C.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of kappa opioid receptors (KOR) on motivated behavior are well established based on studies in male rodents, but relatively little is known about the effects of KOR in females. We examined the effects of KOR activation on conditioned place aversion and social interaction in the California mouse (Peromyscus californicus). Important differences were observed in long-term (place aversion) and short-term (social interaction) effects. Females but not males treated with a 2.5mg/kg dose of U50,488 formed a place aversion, whereas males but not females formed a place aversion at the 10 mg/kg dose. In contrast the short term effects of different doses of U50,488 on social interaction behavior were similar in males and females. Acute injection with 10 mg/kg of U50,488 (but not lower doses) reduced social interaction behavior in both males and females. The effects of U50,488 on phosphorylated extracellular signal regulated kinase (pERK) and p38 MAP kinase were cell type and region specific. Higher doses of U50,488 increased the number of pERK neurons in the ventrolateral bed nucleus of the stria terminals in males but not females, a nucleus implicated in male aggressive behavior. In contrast, both males and females treated with U50,488 had more activated p38 cells in the nucleus accumbens shell. Unexpectedly, cells expressing activated p38 co-expressed Iba-1, a widely used microglia marker. In summary we found strong sex differences in the effects of U50,488 on place aversion whereas the acute effects on U50,488 induced similar behavioral effects in males and females. PMID:24445073

  18. The role of dopamine and serotonin in conditioned food aversion learning in the honeybee.

    PubMed

    Wright, Geraldine A

    2011-05-01

    For most animals, eating entails the risk of being poisoned. Learning how to identify foods with toxins is an important mechanism that reduces the risk of poisoning. While conditioned food aversions have been studied in vertebrates for over 50 years, the neural circuits underlying this form of learning have been difficult to elucidate because of their complexity. Insects, such as fruit flies and honeybees, are important models for the study of the neural mechanisms of learning and memory, but conditioned food aversions have not yet been reported from either species. My collaborators and I recently established that the honeybee has the ability to learn to avoid odors associated with toxins in food using two independent neural pathways. In these experiments, we found that honeybees can learn to associate scents with toxins that they can pre-ingestively detect using their proboscis. This form of learning is primarily mediated by the neurotransmitter, dopamine. We also found a second mechanism: bees can learn to avoid odors associated with the malaise caused by ingesting toxins. This form of learning is mediated by serotonin. Our data are the first to show that two different mechanisms account for conditioned food aversions in insects.

  19. The role of dopamine and serotonin in conditioned food aversion learning in the honeybee

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    For most animals, eating entails the risk of being poisoned. Learning how to identify foods with toxins is an important mechanism that reduces the risk of poisoning. While conditioned food aversions have been studied in vertebrates for over 50 years, the neural circuits underlying this form of learning have been difficult to elucidate because of their complexity. Insects, such as fruit flies and honeybees, are important models for the study of the neural mechanisms of learning and memory, but conditioned food aversions have not yet been reported from either species. My collaborators and I recently established that the honeybee has the ability to learn to avoid odors associated with toxins in food using two independent neural pathways. In these experiments, we found that honeybees can learn to associate scents with toxins that they can pre-ingestively detect using their proboscis. This form of learning is primarily mediated by the neurotransmitter, dopamine. We also found a second mechanism: bees can learn to avoid odors associated with the malaise caused by ingesting toxins. This form of learning is mediated by serotonin. Our data are the first to show that two different mechanisms account for conditioned food aversions in insects. PMID:21980568

  20. Long-term changes in amphetamine-induced reinforcement and aversion in rats following exposure to 56Fe particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabin, B. M.; Joseph, J. A.; Shukitt-Hale, B.

    Exposing rats to heavy particles produces alterations in the functioning of dopaminergic neurons and in the behaviors that depend upon the integrity of the dopaminergic system. Two of these dopamine-dependent behaviors include amphetamine-induced reinforcement, measure using the conditioned place preference procedure, and amphetamine-induced reinforcement, measured using the conditioned place preference procedure, and amphetamine-induced aversion, measured using the conditioned taste aversion. Previous research has shown that exposing rats to 1.0 Gy of 1GeV/n 56Fe particles produced a disruption of an amphetamine-induced taste aversion 3 days following exposure, but produced an apparent enhancement of the aversion 112 days following exposure. The present experiments were designed to provide a further evaluation of these results by examining taste aversion learning 154 days following exposure to 1.0Gy 56Fe particles and to establish the convergent validity of the taste aversion results by looking at the effects of exposure on the establishment of an amphetamine-induced conditioned place preference 3, 7, and 16 weeks following irradiation. The taste aversion results failed to confirm the apparent enhancement of the amphetamine-induced CTA observed in the prior experiment. However, exposure to 56Fe particles prevented the acquisition of amphetamine-induced place preference at all three-time intervals. The results are interpreted as indicating that exposure to heavy particles can produce long-term changes in behavioral functioning.

  1. Long-term changes in amphetamine-induced reinforcement and aversion in rats following exposure to 56Fe particle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabin, B. M.; Joseph, J. A.; Shukitt-Hale, B.

    2003-01-01

    Exposing rats to heavy particles produces alterations in the functioning of dopaminergic neurons and in the behaviors that depend upon the integrity of the dopaminergic system. Two of these dopamine-dependent behaviors include amphetamine-induced reinforcement, measure using the conditioned place preference procedure, and amphetamine-induced reinforcement, measured using the conditioned place preference procedure, and amphetamine-induced aversion, measured using the conditioned taste aversion. Previous research has shown that exposing rats to 1.0 Gy of 1GeV/n 56Fe particles produced a disruption of an amphetamine-induced taste aversion 3 days following exposure, but produced an apparent enhancement of the aversion 112 days following exposure. The present experiments were designed to provide a further evaluation of these results by examining taste aversion learning 154 days following exposure to 1.0 Gy 56Fe particles and to establish the convergent validity of the taste aversion results by looking at the effects of exposure on the establishment of an amphetamine-induced conditioned place preference 3, 7, and 16 weeks following irradiation. The taste aversion results failed to confirm the apparent enhancement of the amphetamine-induced CTA observed in the prior experiment. However, exposure to 56Fe particles prevented the acquisition of amphetamine-induced place preference at all three-time intervals. The results are interpreted as indicating that exposure to heavy particles can produce long-term changes in behavioral functioning. c2002 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Long-term changes in amphetamine-induced reinforcement and aversion in rats following exposure to 56Fe particle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabin, B. M.; Joseph, J. A.; Shukitt-Hale, B.

    2003-01-01

    Exposing rats to heavy particles produces alterations in the functioning of dopaminergic neurons and in the behaviors that depend upon the integrity of the dopaminergic system. Two of these dopamine-dependent behaviors include amphetamine-induced reinforcement, measure using the conditioned place preference procedure, and amphetamine-induced reinforcement, measured using the conditioned place preference procedure, and amphetamine-induced aversion, measured using the conditioned taste aversion. Previous research has shown that exposing rats to 1.0 Gy of 1GeV/n 56Fe particles produced a disruption of an amphetamine-induced taste aversion 3 days following exposure, but produced an apparent enhancement of the aversion 112 days following exposure. The present experiments were designed to provide a further evaluation of these results by examining taste aversion learning 154 days following exposure to 1.0 Gy 56Fe particles and to establish the convergent validity of the taste aversion results by looking at the effects of exposure on the establishment of an amphetamine-induced conditioned place preference 3, 7, and 16 weeks following irradiation. The taste aversion results failed to confirm the apparent enhancement of the amphetamine-induced CTA observed in the prior experiment. However, exposure to 56Fe particles prevented the acquisition of amphetamine-induced place preference at all three-time intervals. The results are interpreted as indicating that exposure to heavy particles can produce long-term changes in behavioral functioning. c2002 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Oxytocin and Social Support as Synergistic Inhibitors of Aversive Fear Conditioning and Fear-Potentiated Startle in Male Rats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    startle amplitude. They then received Pavlovian fear conditioning of five pairings of a 3 s light co-terminating with a 500 ms, 0.6mA footshock. Four...Synergistic Inhibitors of Aversive Fear Conditioning and Fear-Potentiated Startle in Male Rats PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jeffrey B. Rosen, Ph.D...NUMBER Oxytocin and Social Support as Synergistic Inhibitors of Aversive Fear Conditioning and Fear-Potentiated Startle in Male Rats 5b. GRANT

  4. Fructose-conditioned flavor preferences in male and female rats: effects of sweet taste and sugar concentration.

    PubMed

    Ackroff, Karen; Sclafani, Anthony

    2004-06-01

    Previous studies indicate that fructose postingestive reward for flavor preference learning is weaker than that of glucose. The present experiments explored the effects of several variables that modulate the response to fructose. In Experiment 1, ad libitum fed male rats were trained in 22 h sessions with one flavor (the CS+) paired with intragastric infusions of 7.18% fructose and another flavor (the CS-) paired with intragastric water infusion. Subsequent preference for the CS+ relative to the CS- was 90% with saccharin-sweetened flavors and only 67% with nonsweet flavors. Experiments 2 (males) and 3 (females) examined the effects of taste quality on conditioning with 16% fructose infusions. Males and females both preferred the sweet CS+ flavor (71-72%). In contrast, males avoided the nonsweet CS+ flavor (31%) and females were indifferent (47%). The different preference patterns were accompanied by differences in sweet and nonsweet training intakes and bout patterns, suggesting stimulation of intake with sweet flavor and 7.18% fructose, and satiating effects of 16% fructose. The sex difference in response to nonsweet flavors may reflect a greater sensitivity of male rats to fructose's postingestive satiating or aversive effects. Possible mechanisms for the sweet-taste enhancement of conditioning include increasing CS intakes in training, facilitating fructose metabolism and increasing flavor salience.

  5. Induction of latent memory for conditioned food aversion and its transformation into "active" state depend on translation and transcription processes.

    PubMed

    Solntseva, S V; Nikitin, V P

    2014-05-01

    Mechanisms of induction and retrieval of latent (hidden) memory for conditioned food aversion were investigated in snails. After initial training (single combination of a food stimulus with electric shock), aversive reactions to presentation of the conditioned food stimulus were not revealed. Repeated presentation of the stimuli in 12 days after the first combination was followed by the appearance of aversive food reactions that persisted for at least 14 days. Injections of inhibitors of protein (cycloheximide) or RNA (α-amanitin) synthesis immediately after the first or second combined presentation of the stimuli disturbed skill performance. We hypothesized that single combination of food and reinforcing stimuli led to translation- and transcription-dependent induction of latent conditioned food aversion memory. Transformation of this memory into an active state after repeated presentation of the stimulus combination also depends on the synthesis of new proteins and RNA.

  6. Differential effects of amphetamines-induced neurotoxicity on appetitive and aversive Pavlovian conditioning in mice.

    PubMed

    Achat-Mendes, Cindy; Ali, Syed F; Itzhak, Yossef

    2005-06-01

    The abuse of substituted amphetamines such as methamphetamine (METH) and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA/Ecstasy) can result in neurotoxicity, manifested as the depletion of dopamine (DA) and 5-hydroxytriptamine (5-HT; serotonin) axon terminal markers in humans and animal models. Human METH and MDMA users exhibit impairments in memory and executive functions, which may be a direct consequence of the neurotoxic potential of amphetamines. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of amphetamines-induced neurotoxicity on Pavlovian learning. Using mouse models of selective DA neurotoxicity (METH; 5 mg/kg x 3), selective 5-HT neurotoxicity (fenfluramine /FEN; 25 mg/kg x 4) and dual DA and 5-HT neurotoxicity (MDMA; 15 mg/kg x 4), appetitive and aversive conditioning were investigated. Dopaminergic neurotoxicity significantly impaired METH and cocaine conditioned place preference (CPP), but had no effect on LiCl-induced conditioned place aversion (CPA). In contrast, serotonergic neurotoxicity significantly enhanced CPP, and had no effect on CPA. Dual dopaminergic/serotonergic neurotoxicity had no apparent effect on CPP; however, CPA was significantly attenuated. Postmortem analysis revealed that significantly diminished levels of DA and 5-HT markers persisted in the striatum, frontal cortex, hippocampus, and amygdala. These findings suggest that amphetamines-induced dopaminergic and serotonergic neurotoxicity exert opposing influences on the affective state produced by subsequent drug reward, while dual dopaminergic/serotonergic neurotoxicity impairs associative learning of aversive conditioning. Furthermore, results revealed that amphetamines-induced DA and 5-HT neurotoxicity modulates appetitive Pavlovian conditioning similar to other DA and 5-HT neurotoxins. Modulation of Pavlovian conditioning by amphetamines-induced neurotoxicity may be relevant to compulsive drug-seeking behavior in METH and MDMA abusers.

  7. Comparison of buspirone with diazepam and fluvoxamine on aversive classical conditioning in humans.

    PubMed

    Hellewell, J S; Guimaraes, F S; Wang, M; Deakin, J F

    1999-01-01

    The effects of buspirone, fluvoxamine and diazepam were investigated, using healthy volunteers, in an aversive conditioning paradigm, a putative model for conditioned anxiety. The main prediction was that buspirone, an anxiolytic agent which reduces activity in serotonin (5-hydroxytryptophan, 5-HT) neurones, would attenuate aversively conditioned skin conductance responses. Skin conductance responses were recorded to 10 neutral tones (habituation phase). Tone 11 was immediately followed by a 1-s 90-dB aversive white noise (unconditioned stimulus). The conditioning trial reinstated responding to a second presentation of the tones (extinction phase). Skin conductance response amplitude, inter-response level and spontaneous fluctuations were recorded. There were five treatment groups comprising five men and five women. One control group took placebo, another control group received nothing; there was no effect of placebo on any measure. Diazepam (2 mg, p.o.), a positive comparator, markedly reduced the amplitude of skin conductance responses at all phases of the experiment, but only in women. Buspirone (5 mg, p.o.) had the predicted effect of accelerating extinction but also of unexpectedly accelerated habituation of skin conductance responses. There was a trend to reduce spontaneous fluctuations and no effect on skin conductance level. The effects of buspirone were thus specific to responses to stimuli. Fluvoxamine (25 mg, p.o.) had similar effects to buspirone and diazepam in women. An action common to buspirone, fluvoxamine and diazepam, which may account for their shared effect on conditioned autonomic responses, is the suppression of neural activity in the dorsal raphe nucleus. It is argued that enhanced habituation must involve a different mechanism, such as enhanced 5-HT1A function in the terminal fields of the median raphe nucleus.

  8. Partial lesion of dopamine neurons of rat substantia nigra impairs conditioned place aversion but spares conditioned place preference.

    PubMed

    Lima, Bernardo F C; Ramos, Daniele C; Barbiero, Janaína K; Pulido, Laura; Redgrave, Peter; Robinson, Donita L; Gómez-A, Alexander; Da Cunha, Claudio

    2017-05-04

    Midbrain dopamine neurons play critical roles in reward- and aversion-driven associative learning. However, it is not clear whether they do this by a common mechanism or by separate mechanisms that can be dissociated. In the present study we addressed this question by testing whether a partial lesion of the dopamine neurons of the rat SNc has comparable effects on conditioned place preference (CPP) learning and conditioned place aversion (CPA) learning. Partial lesions of dopamine neurons in the rat substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) induced by bilateral intranigral infusion of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA, 3μg/side) or 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP, 200μg/side) impaired learning of conditioned place aversion (CPA) without affecting conditioned place preference (CPP) learning. Control experiments demonstrated that these lesions did not impair motor performance and did not alter the hedonic value of the sucrose and quinine. The number of dopamine neurons in the caudal part of the SNc positively correlated with the CPP scores of the 6-OHDA rats and negatively correlated with CPA scores of the SHAM rats. In addition, the CPA scores of the 6-OHDA rats positively correlated with the tissue content of striatal dopamine. Insomuch as reward-driven learning depends on an increase in dopamine release by nigral neurons, these findings show that this mechanism is functional even in rats with a partial lesion of the SNc. On the other hand, if aversion-driven learning depends on a reduction of extracellular dopamine in the striatum, the present study suggests that this mechanism is no longer functional after the partial SNc lesion.

  9. Investigating the Predictive Value of Functional MRI to Appetitive and Aversive Stimuli: A Pattern Classification Approach

    PubMed Central

    McCabe, Ciara; Rocha-Rego, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    Background Dysfunctional neural responses to appetitive and aversive stimuli have been investigated as possible biomarkers for psychiatric disorders. However it is not clear to what degree these are separate processes across the brain or in fact overlapping systems. To help clarify this issue we used Gaussian process classifier (GPC) analysis to examine appetitive and aversive processing in the brain. Method 25 healthy controls underwent functional MRI whilst seeing pictures and receiving tastes of pleasant and unpleasant food. We applied GPCs to discriminate between the appetitive and aversive sights and tastes using functional activity patterns. Results The diagnostic accuracy of the GPC for the accuracy to discriminate appetitive taste from neutral condition was 86.5% (specificity = 81%, sensitivity = 92%, p = 0.001). If a participant experienced neutral taste stimuli the probability of correct classification was 92. The accuracy to discriminate aversive from neutral taste stimuli was 82.5% (specificity = 73%, sensitivity = 92%, p = 0.001) and appetitive from aversive taste stimuli was 73% (specificity = 77%, sensitivity = 69%, p = 0.001). In the sight modality, the accuracy to discriminate appetitive from neutral condition was 88.5% (specificity = 85%, sensitivity = 92%, p = 0.001), to discriminate aversive from neutral sight stimuli was 92% (specificity = 92%, sensitivity = 92%, p = 0.001), and to discriminate aversive from appetitive sight stimuli was 63.5% (specificity = 73%, sensitivity = 54%, p = 0.009). Conclusions Our results demonstrate the predictive value of neurofunctional data in discriminating emotional and neutral networks of activity in the healthy human brain. It would be of interest to use pattern recognition techniques and fMRI to examine network dysfunction in the processing of appetitive, aversive and neutral stimuli in psychiatric disorders. Especially where problems with reward and punishment processing have been implicated in the

  10. Brain response to visceral aversive conditioning: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Yágüez, Lidia; Coen, Steven; Gregory, Lloyd J; Amaro, Edson; Altman, Christian; Brammer, Michael J; Bullmore, Edward T; Williams, Steven C R; Aziz, Qasim

    2005-06-01

    Brain-imaging studies to date have confounded visceral pain perception with anticipation. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging of the human brain to study the neuroanatomic network involved in aversive conditioning of visceral pain and, thus, anticipation. Eight healthy volunteers (5 male) participated in the study. We used a classic conditioning paradigm in which 3 neutral stimuli (differently colored circles) that acted as conditioned stimuli were paired with painful esophageal distention, air puff to the wrist, or nothing, which acted as unconditioned stimuli. Neural activity was measured during learning, anticipation (pairing only 50% of conditioned stimuli with their unconditioned stimuli), and extinction (unpaired conditioned stimuli) phases. For magnetic resonance imaging, axial slices depicting blood oxygen level-dependent contrast were acquired with a 1.5-T system. Neural responses during the learning phase included areas commonly associated with visceral pain (anterior cingulate cortex, insula, and primary and secondary somatosensory cortices) and innocuous somatosensory perception (primary and secondary somatosensory cortices and insula). During the anticipation and extinction phases of aversive stimulation, brain activity resembled that seen during actual painful esophageal stimulation. In contrast, anticipation and extinction of the innocuous somatic stimulus failed to show that effect. We have shown that actual and anticipated visceral pain elicit similar cortical responses. These results have implications for the design and interpretation of brain-imaging studies of visceral pain. They not only contribute to our understanding of the processing of visceral pain, but also have clinical implications for the management of chronic pain states.

  11. Learning and memory in Rhodnius prolixus: habituation and aversive operant conditioning of the proboscis extension response.

    PubMed

    Vinauger, Clément; Lallement, Hélène; Lazzari, Claudio R

    2013-03-01

    It has been largely accepted that the cognitive abilities of disease vector insects may have drastic consequences on parasite transmission. However, despite the research effort that has been invested in the study of learning and memory in haematophagous insects, hitherto few conclusive results have been obtained. Adapting procedures largely validated in Drosophila, honeybees and butterflies, we demonstrate here that the proboscis extension response (PER) of the haematophagous insect Rhodnius prolixus can be modulated by non-associative (habituation) and associative (aversive conditioning) learning forms. Thermal stimuli were used as both unconditional stimulus (appetitive temperatures) and negative reinforcement (thermal shock). In the first part of this work, the PER was habituated and dishabituated to thermal stimuli, demonstrating the true central processing of information and discarding motor fatigue or sensory adaptation. Habituation was revealed to be modulated by the spatial context. In the second part, bugs that were submitted to aversive operant conditioning stopped responding with PER to thermal stimulation more quickly than by habituation. They were able to use their training experience when tested up to 72 h later. Our work constitutes the first demonstration of PER habituation and conditioning in a blood-sucking insect and provides reproducible experimental tools for the study of the mechanisms underlying learning and memory in disease vectors.

  12. [Neuronal mechanisms of associative food aversion conditioning reconsolidation in snail Helix lucorum].

    PubMed

    Kozyrev, S A; Nikitin, V P

    2009-06-01

    We have previously showed that reactivation of long-term memory during protin synthesis inhibitor application initiated disruption of memory recalling in snails Helix lucorum with food aversion conditioning reflex. In present work cellular mechanisms of memory reactivation were studied in snail LP11 and RP11 command neurons of defense behavior. In first trial experiments mechanisms of amnesia induction were investigated in semiintact preparations 24 hours after aversion conditioning with single type of food. It was found that application of conditioned food stimulus on snail lip during CNS perfusion with cycloheximide (protein synthesis inhibitor) initiated depression of synaptic response evoked by conditioned stimulus 2.5 hours after reminding. In second tria experiments neuronal mechanisms of amnesia development were studied. Snails were conditioned with two types of food. Cycloheximide was injected into mantle cavity and conditioned stimulus of one type of food was presented 24 hours after snail learning. Semiintact preparations were prepared 1,3, 7 and 15 days after cycloheximide injection + reminding procedure. It was found that neural responses evoked by conditioned food stimulus which was used as reminding stimulus gradually decreased during 1, 3 and 7 days. Neural responses evoked by the conditioned stimulus at 7 and 15 days were not significantly differed from control differentiated food stimulus and were significantly weaker then neural responses evoked by second conditioned food stimulus which was not used as a reminding stimulus. It was suggested that specific and protein synthesis-dependent changes in synaptic connections effectiveness in LP11 and RP11 neurons is one of the cellular mechanisms of amnesia obtained after disruption of long-term memory reconsolidation in snail.

  13. Integration of Neurobiological and Computational Analyses of the Neural Network Essentials for Conditioned Taste Aversions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-30

    dependent on concurrent levels of testosterone . When testosterone is administered to gonadectomized males and females, extinction is prolonged...However, females are less sensitive to testosterone than males . We have found that it is the presence of testosterone during the perinatal period that...perinatal period ( males and androgenized females) showed a slow extinction rate when given the same low dose. Thus, although the presence of testosterone

  14. Attenuation of a Radiation-Induced Conditioned Taste Aversion after the Development of Ethanol Tolerance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-01

    1981). 20. S.B. KANDASAMY , W.A. HUNT, and G.A. MICKLEY, Radiat. Res. in picLs. 21. G. FREUND, Life Sci. 13 345-349 (1973). 22. W.A. HUNT, T.K. DALTON...1074 (1983). 27. M.J. MULLIN and W.A. HUNT, Life Sci. 34 287-292 (1984). 28. S.B. KANDASAMY and W.A. HUNT, in preparation. 29. S.W. LESLIE, E. BARR, J

  15. Integration of Neurobiological and Computational Analyses of the Neural Network Essentials for Conditioned Taste Aversions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-30

    termination of EP injections. Legan, Coon and Karsch (1975) have found that when E is administered by implanting silastic capsules filled with E, serum E...Coon, and F. J. Karsch . Role of estrogen as initiator of daily LH surges in the ovariectomized rat. Endocrinoloav 90:50-56, 1975. Miele, J., R. A...on at 0230). Implants T-filled implants were made by a method derived from Legan, Coon, and Karsch (1975). Silastic tubing (0.062 in. ID, 0.125 in. OD

  16. [Inhibitor influence on conditional food aversion long-term memory retention and reconsolidation in snail].

    PubMed

    Nikitin, V P; Solntseva, S V; Kozyrev, S A

    2014-08-01

    In snails trained for conditional food aversion, the effect of ZIP-protein kinase Mzeta (PKMzeta) inhibitor on mechanisms of memory retention and reconsolidation was studied. It was shown that two days after ZIP injections the dose of 1.25 mg/kg, which were not combined with a reminding procedure, there was no effects, but in dose of 2.5 mg/kg a transient memory impairment after 1 day after the injection with its spontaneous recovery on day 10 was disclosed. ZIP injection in a dose of 5 mg/kg without reminding procedure caused memory impairment and the development of persistent amnesia. During animal repeating training after 11 days after amnesia induction caused by ZIP in dose 5 mg/kg, the number of combined food and reinforcing stimulus needed for memory formation was similar to that seen in the initial training. ZIP in doses of 5 or 10 mg/kg combined with a reminding procedure caused the development of amnesia, however, repeating training after 11 days resulted in a dose-dependent and more rapid formation of memory than in the initial training. It was proposed that in snails trained to conditional food aversion without reminding procedure, inhibition of PKMzeta-like enzyme might cause "erase the memory trace" and in repeating training a new memory was formed. PKMzeta apparently not directly involved in the processes of memory reconsolidation, however, a reminding decreased amnesic effect of ZIP.

  17. Dissociation between the Espinet and perceptual learning effects in flavour aversion conditioning.

    PubMed

    Prados, José; Hall, Geoffrey; Leonard, Sarah

    2004-03-31

    In three experiments rats were given pre-exposure to two compound flavours, AX and BX, the two compounds being presented for some subjects on alternate trials (the intermixed schedule) and, for others, in separate blocks of trials (the blocked schedule). After aversion conditioning with A (in Experiments 1 and 2), the inhibitory properties of B were tested using both retardation (Experiment 1) and summation tests (Experiment 2). The results failed to support the proposal [Anim. Learn. Behav. 23 (1995) 361] that B should acquire inhibitory properties in the intermixed condition (the "Espinet effect"). Experiment 3 demonstrated that generalisation to BX after conditioning with AX was attenuated by intermixed pre-exposure (a perceptual learning effect). This pattern of results challenges the hypothesis that inhibitory learning during intermixed pre-exposure to AX and BX can account for both the Espinet and the perceptual learning effects.

  18. Influence of brewing conditions on taste components in Fuding white tea infusions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haihua; Li, Yulin; Lv, Yangjun; Jiang, Yulan; Pan, Junxian; Duan, Yuwei; Zhu, Yuejin; Zhang, Shikang

    2017-07-01

    White tea has received increasing attention of late as a result of its sweet taste and health benefits. During the brewing of white tea, many factors may affect the nutritional and sensory quality of the resulting infusions. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of various infusion conditions on the taste components of Fuding white tea, including infusion time, ratio of tea and water, number of brewing steps, and temperature. Brewing conditions had a strong effect on the taste compound profile and sensory characteristics. The catechin, caffeine, theanine and free amino acid contents generally increased with increasing infusion time and temperature. Conditions comprising an infusion time of 7 min, a brewing temperature of 100 °C, a tea and water ratio of 1:30 or 1:40, and a second brewing step, respectively, were shown to obtain the highest contents of most compounds. Regarding tea sensory evaluation, conditions comprising an infusion time of 3 min, a brewing temperature of 100 °C, a tea and water ratio of 1:50, and a first brewing step, resulted in the highest sensory score for comprehensive behavior of color, aroma and taste. The results of the present study reveal differences in the contents of various taste compounds, including catechins, caffeine, theanine and free amino acids, with respect to different brewing conditions, and sensory scores also varied with brewing conditions. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Effects of extended context discrimination training and context extinction on transfer of context dependency of conditioned flavor aversion.

    PubMed

    Iguchi, Yoshio; Fukumoto, Kazuya; Sawa, Kosuke; Ishii, Kiyoshi

    2014-03-01

    We trained rats in a context discrimination paradigm by pairing a sucrose solution with lithium chloride in one context (conditioning context) and simple exposure to the same fluid in a second (neutral) context to establish a context-dependent aversion to the conditioned fluid. We then investigated whether transfer of the context dependency to a test fluid (a sodium chloride solution) was affected by two post-discrimination training treatments, an extended context discrimination training, and non-reinforced exposure to the conditioning context (context extinction). We found that the context-dependent flavor aversion that had been specific to sucrose transferred to the test fluid after the extensive training (Experiment 1). Context extinction eliminated the transfer effect that had been observed immediately after the context discrimination training (Experiment 2). In addition, an aversion acquired by sucrose through a simple conditioning of sucrose-LiCl pairings did not generalize to the test fluid (Experiment 3). These results emphasize the importance of a Pavlovian excitatory association between the conditioning context and nausea as a primary source of transfer of the context dependency, rather than a generalization of aversion acquired by the conditioned fluid to the test fluid.

  20. Toxic but Drank: Gustatory Aversive Compounds Induce Post-ingestional Malaise in Harnessed Honeybees

    PubMed Central

    Ayestaran, Ainara

    2010-01-01

    Background Deterrent substances produced by plants are relevant due to their potential toxicity. The fact that most of these substances have an unpalatable taste for humans and other mammals contrasts with the fact that honeybees do not reject them in the range of concentrations in which these compounds are present in flower nectars. Here we asked whether honeybees detect and ingest deterrent substances and whether these substances are really toxic to them. Results We show that pairing aversive substances with an odor retards learning of this odor when it is subsequently paired with sucrose. Harnessed honeybees in the laboratory ingest without reluctance a considerable volume (20 µl) of various aversive substances, even if some of them induce significant post-ingestional mortality. These substances do not seem, therefore, to be unpalatable to harnessed bees but induce a malaise-like state that in some cases results in death. Consistently with this finding, bees learning that one odor is associated with sugar, and experiencing in a subsequent phase that the sugar was paired with 20 µl of an aversive substance (devaluation phase), respond less than control bees to the odor and the sugar. Such stimulus devaluation can be accounted for by the malaise-like state induced by the aversive substances. Conclusion Our results indicate that substances that taste bitter to humans as well as concentrated saline solutions base their aversive effect on the physiological consequences that their ingestion generates in harnessed bees rather than on an unpalatable taste. This conclusion is only valid for harnessed bees in the laboratory as freely-moving bees might react differently to aversive compounds could actively reject aversive substances. Our results open a new possibility to study conditioned taste aversion based on post-ingestional malaise and thus broaden the spectrum of aversive learning protocols available in honeybees. PMID:21060877

  1. Aversive Pavlovian conditioning in childhood anxiety disorders: impaired response inhibition and resistance to extinction.

    PubMed

    Waters, Allison M; Henry, Julie; Neumann, David L

    2009-05-01

    Learning-based models of anxiety disorders emphasize the role of aversive conditioning and retarded extinction in the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders. Yet few studies have examined these underlying processes in children, despite that some anxiety disorders typically onset during childhood. The authors examined the acquisition and extinction of conditioned responses in 17 anxious children and 18 nonanxious control children between 8 and 12 years old using a discriminative Pavlovian conditioning procedure. One geometric shape conditional stimulus was paired with an unpleasant loud tone unconditional stimulus (CS+) whereas another geometric shape was presented alone (CS-). In the context of similar levels of discriminative conditioning in both groups, anxious children showed larger skin conductance responses to the CS+ and the CS- during acquisition and evaluated the CS+ as more arousing than the CS- compared with control children. They also showed greater resistance to extinction in skin conductance responses but not in arousal ratings to the CS+ vs. the CS- relative to control children. Results suggest that deficits in response inhibition to safety cues and retarded extinction may underlie learning processes involved in the pathogenesis of childhood anxiety disorders.

  2. Transient neural activation in human amygdala involved in aversive conditioning of face and voice.

    PubMed

    Iidaka, Tetsuya; Saito, Daisuke N; Komeda, Hidetsugu; Mano, Yoko; Kanayama, Noriaki; Osumi, Takahiro; Ozaki, Norio; Sadato, Norihiro

    2010-09-01

    Elucidating the neural mechanisms involved in aversive conditioning helps find effective treatments for psychiatric disorders such as anxiety disorder and phobia. Previous studies using fMRI and human subjects have reported that the amygdala plays a role in this phenomenon. However, the noxious stimuli that were used as unconditioned stimuli in previous studies (e.g., electric shock) might have been ecologically invalid because we seldom encounter such stimuli in daily life. Therefore, we investigated whether a face stimulus could be conditioned by using a voice that had negative emotional valence and was collected from a real-life environment. A skin conductance response showed that healthy subjects were conditioned by using these stimuli. In an fMRI study, there was greater amygdala activation in response to the faces that had been paired with the voice than to those that had not. The right amygdala showed transient activity in the early stage of acquisition. A psychophysiological interaction analysis indicated that the subcortical pathway from the medial geniculate body to the amygdala played a role in conditioning. Modulation of the subcortical pathway by voice stimuli preceded the transient activity in the amygdala. The finding that an ecologically valid stimulus elicited the conditioning and amygdala response suggests that our brain is automatically processing unpleasant stimuli in daily life.

  3. Effects of Aversive Classical Conditioning on Sexual Response in Women With Dyspareunia and Sexually Functional Controls.

    PubMed

    Both, Stephanie; Brauer, Marieke; Weijenborg, Philomeen; Laan, Ellen

    2017-05-01

    In dyspareunia-a somatically unexplained vulvovaginal pain associated with sexual intercourse-learned pain-related fear and inhibited sexual arousal are supposed to play a pivotal role. Based on research findings indicating that enhanced pain conditioning is involved in the etiology and maintenance of chronic pain, in the present study it was hypothesized that enhanced pain conditioning also might be involved in dyspareunia. To test whether learned associations between pain and sex negatively affect sexual response; whether women with dyspareunia show stronger aversive learning; and whether psychological distress, pain-related anxiety, vigilance, catastrophizing, and sexual excitation and inhibition were associated with conditioning effects. Women with dyspareunia (n = 36) and healthy controls (n = 35) completed a differential conditioning experiment, with one erotic picture (the CS(+)) paired with a painful unconditional stimulus and one erotic picture never paired with pain (the CS(-)). Genital sexual response was measured by vaginal photoplethysmography, and ratings of affective value and sexual arousal in response to the CS(+) and CS(-) were obtained. Psychological distress, pain cognitions, and sexual excitation and inhibition were assessed by validated questionnaires. The two groups showed stronger negative affect and weaker subjective sexual arousal to the CS(+) during the extinction phase, but, contrary to expectations, women with dyspareunia showed weaker differential responding. Controls showed more prominent lower genital response to the CS(+) during acquisition than women with dyspareunia. In addition, women with dyspareunia showed stronger expectancy for the unconditional stimulus in response to the safe CS(-). Higher levels of pain-related fear, pain catastrophizing, and sexual inhibition were associated with weaker differential conditioning effects. Pairing of sex with pain negatively affects sexual response. The results indicate that a learned

  4. Systemic 5-Bromo-2-Deoxyuridine Induces Conditioned Flavor Aversion and C-Fos in the Visceral Neuraxis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimbrough, Adam; Kwon, Bumsup; Eckel, Lisa A.; Houpt, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) is often used in studies of adult neurogenesis and olfactory learning, but it can also have toxic effects on highly proliferative tissue. We found that pairing Kool-Aid flavors with acute systemic injections of BrdU induced strong conditioned flavor aversions. Intermittent injections during Kool-Aid-glucose…

  5. Systemic 5-Bromo-2-Deoxyuridine Induces Conditioned Flavor Aversion and C-Fos in the Visceral Neuraxis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimbrough, Adam; Kwon, Bumsup; Eckel, Lisa A.; Houpt, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) is often used in studies of adult neurogenesis and olfactory learning, but it can also have toxic effects on highly proliferative tissue. We found that pairing Kool-Aid flavors with acute systemic injections of BrdU induced strong conditioned flavor aversions. Intermittent injections during Kool-Aid-glucose…

  6. Conditioned Place Preference and Aversion for Music in a Virtual Reality Environment

    PubMed Central

    Molet, Mikaël; Billiet, Gauthier; Bardo, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    The use of a virtual reality environment (VRE) enables behavioral scientists to create different spatial contexts in which human participants behave freely, while still confined to the laboratory. In this article, VRE was used to study conditioned place preference (CPP) and aversion (CPA). In Experiment 1, half of the participants were asked to visit a house for two min with consonant music and then they were asked to visit an alternate house with static noise for two min, whereas the remaining participants did the visits in reverse order. In Experiment 2, we used the same design as Experiment 1, except for replacing consonant music with dissonant music. After conditioning in both experiments, the participants were given a choice between spending time in the two houses. In Experiment 1, participants spent more time in the house associated with the consonant music, thus showing a CPP toward that house. In Experiment 2, participants spent less time in the house associated with the dissonant music, thus showing a CPA for that house. These results support VRE as a tool to extend research on CPP/CPA in humans. PMID:23089383

  7. Conditioned place preference and aversion for music in a virtual reality environment.

    PubMed

    Molet, Mikaël; Billiet, Gauthier; Bardo, Michael T

    2013-01-01

    The use of a virtual reality environment (VRE) enables behavioral scientists to create different spatial contexts in which human participants behave freely, while still confined to the laboratory. In this article, VRE was used to study conditioned place preference (CPP) and aversion (CPA). In Experiment 1, half of the participants were asked to visit a house for 2 min with consonant music and then they were asked to visit an alternate house with static noise for 2 min, whereas the remaining participants did the visits in reverse order. In Experiment 2, we used the same design as Experiment 1, except for replacing consonant music with dissonant music. After conditioning in both experiments, the participants were given a choice between spending time in the two houses. In Experiment 1, participants spent more time in the house associated with the consonant music, thus showing a CPP toward that house. In Experiment 2, participants spent less time in the house associated with the dissonant music, thus showing a CPA for that house. These results support VRE as a tool to extend research on CPP/CPA in humans.

  8. Rewarding or aversive effects of buprenorphine/naloxone combination (Suboxone) depend on conditioning trial duration.

    PubMed

    Canestrelli, Corinne; Marie, Nicolas; Noble, Florence

    2014-09-01

    Buprenorphine is used as a sublingual medication in the treatment of opioid dependence. However, its misuse by i.v. injection may limit its acceptability and dissemination. A buprenorphine/naloxone (ratio 4:1) combination has been developed to reduce diversion and abuse. So far, the relevance of this combination has not been investigated in the animal models traditionally used to study the reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse. The aim of this study was to compare the rewarding effects, assessed by conditioned place preference (CPP), of buprenorphine and buprenorphine/naloxone combination following i.v. administration in mice. Animals were treated with different doses of buprenorphine or buprenorphine/naloxone combination (ratio 4:1), and CPP conditioning trial duration was 5 or 30 min. At the longest trial duration, a bell-shaped dose-response curve was obtained with buprenorphine, which was shifted significantly to the right with naloxone combination. At the shortest trial duration, an aversive effect was observed with the buprenorphine/naloxone combination in animals, involving opioid receptor-like 1 (ORL1). These findings may explain the discrepancies reported in the literature as some authors have shown a reduced buprenorphine/naloxone misuse compared to buprenorphine in opioid abusers, while others have not.

  9. Effects of calcium channel antagonists on the motivational effects of nicotine and morphine in conditioned place aversion paradigm.

    PubMed

    Budzynska, Barbara; Polak, Piotr; Biala, Grazyna

    2012-03-01

    The motivational component of drug withdrawal may contribute to drug seeking and relapse through the negative reinforcement-related process; thus, it is important to understand the mechanisms that mediate affective withdrawal behaviors. The present study was undertaken to examine the calcium-dependent mechanism of negative motivational symptoms of nicotine and morphine withdrawal using the conditioned place aversion (CPA) paradigm. Rats were chronically treated with nicotine (1.168 mg/kg, free base, s.c., 11 days, three times daily) or morphine (10 mg/kg,s.c., 11 days, twice daily). Then, during conditioning, rats pre-treated with nicotine or morphine received a nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine (3.5 mg/kg) or an opioid receptor antagonist naloxone (1 mg/kg) to precipitate withdrawal in their initially preferred compartment, or saline in their non-preferred compartment. Our results demonstrated that after three conditioning sessions, mecamylamine induced a clear place aversion in rats that had previously received nicotine injections, and naloxone induced a significant place aversion in rats that had previously received morphine injections. Further, the major findings showed that calcium channel antagonists, i.e., nimodipine, verapamil and flunarizine (5 and 10 mg/kg, i.p.), injected before the administration of mecamylamine or naloxone, attenuated nicotine or morphine place aversion. As an outcome, these findings support the hypothesis that similar calcium-dependent mechanisms are involved in aversive motivational component associated with nicotine a morphine withdrawal. We can suggest that calcium channel blockers have potential for alleviating nicotine and morphine addiction by selectively decreasing the incentive motivational properties of both drugs, and may be beneficial as smoking cessation or opioid dependence pharmacotherapies.

  10. Smell-taste dysfunctions in extreme weight/eating conditions: analysis of hormonal and psychological interactions.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Agüera, Zaida; Fernández-García, Jose C; Garrido-Sanchez, Lourdes; Alcaide-Torres, Juan; Tinahones, Francisco J; Giner-Bartolomé, Cristina; Baños, Rosa M; Botella, Cristina; Cebolla, Ausias; de la Torre, Rafael; Fernández-Real, Jose M; Ortega, Francisco J; Frühbeck, Gema; Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Granero, Roser; Islam, Mohamed A; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Tárrega, Salomé; Menchón, José M; Fagundo, Ana B; Sancho, Carolina; Estivill, Xavier; Treasure, Janet; Casanueva, Felipe F

    2016-02-01

    (1) The objective of this study is to analyze differences in smell-taste capacity between females in extreme weight/eating conditions (EWC) and (2) to explore the interaction between smell/taste capacity, gastric hormones, eating behavior and body mass index (BMI). The sample comprised 239 females in EWC [64 Anorexia nervosa (AN) and 80 age-matched healthy-weight controls, and 59 obese and 36 age-matched healthy-weight controls]. Smell and taste assessments were performed through "Sniffin' Sticks" and "Taste Strips," respectively. The assessment measures included the eating disorders inventory-2, the symptom check list 90-revised, and The Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire, as well as peptides from the gastrointestinal tract [Ghrelin, peptide YY, cholecystokinin]. Smell capacity was differentially associated across EWC groups. Smell was clearly impaired in obese participants and increased in AN (hyposmia in Obesity was 54.3 and 6.4 % in AN), but taste capacity did not vary across EWC. Ghrelin levels were significantly decreased in obese subjects and were related to smell impairment. EWC individuals showed a distinct smell profile and circulating ghrelin levels compared to controls. Smell capacity and ghrelin may act as moderators of emotional eating and BMI.

  11. Flavour exposures after conditioned aversion or preference trigger different brain processes in anaesthetised pigs.

    PubMed

    Gaultier, A; Meunier-Salaün, M C; Malbert, C H; Val-Laillet, D

    2011-11-01

    We describe the behavioural consequences of conditioned flavour aversion and preference in pigs and have investigated the brain circuits involved in the representation of flavours with different hedonic values. The study was performed on eight 30-kg pigs. (i) Animals were negatively conditioned to an F- flavour added to a meal followed by LiCl intraduodenal (i.d.) injection, and positively conditioned to an F+ flavour added to a meal followed by NaCl i.d. injection. F+ and F- were thyme or cinnamon flavours. After each conditioning, the behavioural activities were recorded; (ii) One and 5 weeks later, animals were subjected to three two-choice food tests to investigate their preferences between F+, F- and a novel flavour (O); and (iii) Anaesthetised animals were subjected to three SPECT brain imaging sessions: control situation (no flavour) and exposure to F+ and to F-. The negative reinforcement induced a physical malaise and visceral illness. After a positive reinforcement, animals showed playing or feeding motivation and quietness. F+ was significantly preferred over O and F-, and O was significantly preferred over F-. Both F- and F+ induced some metabolic differences in neural circuits involved in sensory associative processes, learning and memory, emotions, reward and feeding motivation. Exposure to F+ induced a higher activity in corticolimbic and reward-related areas, while F- induced a deactivation of the basal nuclei and limbic thalamic nuclei. This study reveals the unconscious cognitive dimension evoked by food flavours according to the individual experience, and highlights the importance of the food sensory image on hedonism and anticipatory eating behaviour.

  12. Appetitive long-term taste conditioning enhances human visually evoked EEG responses.

    PubMed

    Viemose, Ida; Møller, Per; Laugesen, Jakob L; Schachtman, Todd R; Manoharan, Thukirtha; Christoffersen, Gert R J

    2013-09-15

    Long-term effects of learned associations between an image and a taste have not been studied with electromagnetic brain scanning techniques. The possibility that taste conditioning may change sensory image processing was investigated in young adult subjects. EEG-responses evoked by images were recorded before and after a training session using an image as conditioned stimulus and a pleasant taste as unconditioned stimulus. The results showed that in posterior electrodes placed over visual cortex areas, the following changes occurred after conditioning: (1) the amplitude and duration of the N2-P3 waves in the visual evoked potentials were enhanced; (2) the N2 and P3 peak delays were shortened; (3) power induced by image presentation was enhanced in the delta and theta frequency bands; (4) cross-hemispheric delta and theta coherences among the posterior electrodes were enhanced; (5) calculations of the underlying whole brain distribution of currents using swLORETA showed elevated current densities in posterior voxels. None of the above changes occurred in a sham-trained control group. In electrodes placed over the prefrontal cortex, delta and theta power also rose significantly. It is suggested that the appetitive taste conditioning potentiated synaptic activity in visual cortex networks and that this led to an increased speed of image processing.

  13. Predicting aversive events and terminating fear in the mouse anterior cingulate cortex during trace fear conditioning.

    PubMed

    Steenland, Hendrik W; Li, Xiang-Yao; Zhuo, Min

    2012-01-18

    A variety of studies have implicated the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in fear, including permanent storage of fear memory. Recent pharmacological and genetic studies indicate that early synaptic plasticity in the ACC may also contribute to certain forms of fear memory at early time points. However, no study has directly examined the possible changes in neuronal activity of ACC neurons in freely behaving mice during early learning. In the present study, we examined the neural responses of the ACC during trace fear conditioning. We found that ACC putative pyramidal and nonpyramidal neurons were involved in the termination of fear behavior ("un-freezing"), and the spike activity of these neurons was reduced during freezing. Some of the neurons were also found to acquire un-freezing locked activity and change their tuning. The results implicate the ACC neurons in fear learning and controlling the abolition of fear behavior. We also show that the ACC is important for making cue-related fear memory associations in the trace fear paradigm as measured with tone-evoked potentials and single-unit activity. Collectively, our findings indicate that the ACC is involved in predicting future aversive events and terminating fear during trace fear.

  14. Triggering Avoidance: Dissociable Influences of Aversive Pavlovian Conditioned Stimuli on Human Instrumental Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Garofalo, Sara; Robbins, Trevor W.

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigates human aversive Pavlovian-to-Instrumental Transfer (PIT) and possible influences of outcome devaluation and instrumental overtraining on this effect. PIT measures the extent to which a Pavlovian conditioned stimulus (CS) can increase instrumental responses independently paired with the same (outcome-specific transfer) or a different (general transfer) reinforcer. Two measures of PIT were obtained: the percentage of instrumental responses and the vigor of such responses. Thirty-eight volunteers performed a standard PIT task sequence. Results showed a double dissociation between outcome-specific and general transfer: the first selectively expressed in the amount of responses, the second in the vigor measure solely. Furthermore, outcome-specific transfer was enhanced by overtraining, but not affected by devaluation. General transfer, on the other hand, was affected by neither overtraining, nor devaluation. A positive correlation between general transfer and sensitivity to punishments was found. Findings are discussed in terms of hypothetically different underlying neurobehavioral mechanisms and their relations to habits and goal-directed behavior. PMID:28446868

  15. Neurobiology of Aversive States

    PubMed Central

    Umberg, Erin N.; Pothos, Emmanuel N.

    2011-01-01

    Hoebel and colleagues are often known as students of reward and how it is coded in the CNS. This article, however, attempts to focus on the significant advances by Hoebel and others in dissecting out behavioral components of distinct aversive states and in understanding the neurobiology of aversion and the link between aversive states and addictive behaviors. Reward and aversion are not necessarily dichotomous and may reflect an affective continuum contingent upon environmental conditions. Descriptive and mechanistic studies pioneered by Bart Hoebel have demonstrated that the shift in the reward-aversion spectrum may be, in part, a result of changes in central dopamine/ACh ratio, particularly in the NAc. The path to aversion appears to include a specific neurochemical signature: reduced dopamine activity and increased ACh activity in “reward centers” of the brain. Opioid receptors may have a neuromodulatory role on both of these neurotransmitters. PMID:21549137

  16. Neurobiology of aversive states.

    PubMed

    Umberg, Erin N; Pothos, Emmanuel N

    2011-07-25

    Hoebel and colleagues are often known as students of reward and how it is coded in the CNS. This article, however, attempts to focus on the significant advances by Hoebel and others in dissecting out behavioral components of distinct aversive states and in understanding the neurobiology of aversion and the link between aversive states and addictive behaviors. Reward and aversion are not necessarily dichotomous and may reflect an affective continuum contingent upon environmental conditions. Descriptive and mechanistic studies pioneered by Bart Hoebel have demonstrated that the shift in the reward-aversion spectrum may be, in part, a result of changes in central dopamine/acetylcholine ratio, particularly in the nucleus accumbens. The path to aversion appears to include a specific neurochemical signature: reduced dopamine release and increased acetylcholine release in "reward centers" of the brain. Opioid receptors may have a neuromodulatory role on both of these neurotransmitters. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Learning to (dis)like: The effect of evaluative conditioning with tastes and faces on odor valence assessed by implicit and explicit measurements.

    PubMed

    van den Bosch, I; van Delft, J M; de Wijk, R A; de Graaf, C; Boesveldt, S

    2015-11-01

    Evaluative conditioning may be an important mechanism for learning food preferences and aversions; however, in both real life and experimental settings it has not been consistently successful. The current study aimed to gain more insight into which underlying factors may contribute to a successful outcome of olfactory evaluative conditioning. Two groups of 18 participants came in on three consecutive days, and were repeatedly exposed to four novel, neutral odors (CS) coupled to varying disliked, neutral, liked, or no stimuli (taste and/or pictures, US), following a 50% reinforcement schedule, leading to 40 odor presentations per session. Liking ratings, as well as changes in the autonomic nervous system were assessed before, during and after conditioning. We were able to induce negative, but not positive, affective changes by pairing neutral odors with tastes and pictures differing in valence. Negative as well as multimodal stimuli appear to be more potent US, since they may be considered more salient. Lastly, results of the current study imply that heart rate is responsive to changes in valence of olfactory stimuli, and perhaps even more sensitive than explicit ratings of liking.

  18. Juvenile stress potentiates aversive 22-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations and freezing during auditory fear conditioning in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Yee, Nicole; Schwarting, Rainer K W; Fuchs, Eberhard; Wöhr, Markus

    2012-09-01

    Traumatic experiences that occur during adolescence can render individuals vulnerable to mood and anxiety disorders. A model in juvenile rats (age: 27-29 days) was developed previously to study the long-term effects of adolescent stress exposure on behaviour and physiology. This paradigm, termed juvenile stress, involves subjecting juvenile rats to different stressors on consecutive days over a 3-day period. Here, we investigated the effects of the juvenile stress paradigm on freezing behaviour and aversive 22-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) during auditory fear conditioning in adult male rats (age: 68-90 days). We found that rats previously subjected to juvenile stress increased aversive 22-kHz USVs (total calls and time spent calling) compared with controls during fear-conditioning training. The acoustic USV parameters between control and juvenile stress rats were largely equivalent, including duration, peak frequency and amplitude. While rats did not differ in freezing behaviour during fear conditioning, juvenile stress rats exhibited greater cue-conditioned freezing upon testing 24 h later. Our results show that juvenile stress elicited different long-term changes in freezing and aversive USVs during fear conditioning. Furthermore, they highlight the importance of assessing USVs to detect experience-dependent differences between control and stress-exposed animals which are not detectable by measuring visible behaviour.

  19. Rules and mechanisms of punishment learning in honey bees: the aversive conditioning of the sting extension response.

    PubMed

    Tedjakumala, Stevanus Rio; Giurfa, Martin

    2013-08-15

    Honeybees constitute established model organisms for the study of appetitive learning and memory. In recent years, the establishment of the technique of olfactory conditioning of the sting extension response (SER) has yielded new insights into the rules and mechanisms of aversive learning in insects. In olfactory SER conditioning, a harnessed bee learns to associate an olfactory stimulus as the conditioned stimulus with the noxious stimulation of an electric shock as the unconditioned stimulus. Here, we review the multiple aspects of honeybee aversive learning that have been uncovered using Pavlovian conditioning of the SER. From its behavioral principles and sensory variants to its cellular bases and implications for understanding social organization, we present the latest advancements in the study of punishment learning in bees and discuss its perspectives in order to define future research avenues and necessary improvements. The studies presented here underline the importance of studying honeybee learning not only from an appetitive but also from an aversive perspective, in order to uncover behavioral and cellular mechanisms of individual and social plasticity.

  20. Drosophila Bitter Taste(s)

    PubMed Central

    French, Alice; Ali Agha, Moutaz; Mitra, Aniruddha; Yanagawa, Aya; Sellier, Marie-Jeanne; Marion-Poll, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Most animals possess taste receptors neurons detecting potentially noxious compounds. In humans, the ligands which activate these neurons define a sensory space called “bitter”. By extension, this term has been used in animals and insects to define molecules which induce aversive responses. In this review, based on our observations carried out in Drosophila, we examine how bitter compounds are detected and if bitter-sensitive neurons respond only to molecules bitter to humans. Like most animals, flies detect bitter chemicals through a specific population of taste neurons, distinct from those responding to sugars or to other modalities. Activating bitter-sensitive taste neurons induces aversive reactions and inhibits feeding. Bitter molecules also contribute to the suppression of sugar-neuron responses and can lead to a complete inhibition of the responses to sugar at the periphery. Since some bitter molecules activate bitter-sensitive neurons and some inhibit sugar detection, bitter molecules are represented by two sensory spaces which are only partially congruent. In addition to molecules which impact feeding, we recently discovered that the activation of bitter-sensitive neurons also induces grooming. Bitter-sensitive neurons of the wings and of the legs can sense chemicals from the gram negative bacteria, Escherichia coli, thus adding another biological function to these receptors. Bitter-sensitive neurons of the proboscis also respond to the inhibitory pheromone, 7-tricosene. Activating these neurons by bitter molecules in the context of sexual encounter inhibits courting and sexual reproduction, while activating these neurons with 7-tricosene in a feeding context will inhibit feeding. The picture that emerges from these observations is that the taste system is composed of detectors which monitor different “categories” of ligands, which facilitate or inhibit behaviors depending on the context (feeding, sexual reproduction, hygienic behavior), thus

  1. Oxytocin and Social Support as Synergistic Inhibitors of Aversive Fear Conditioning and Fear-Potentiated Startle in Male Rats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    disorder. Psychoneuroendocrinology 34: 917-923. Heinrichs M, Baumgartner T, Kirschbaum C, Ehlert U (2003). Social support and oxytocin interact to...TITLE: Oxytocin and Social Support as Synergistic Inhibitors of Aversive Fear Conditioning and Fear-Potentiated Startle in Male Rats PRINCIPAL...Annual 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Oxytocin and Social Support as Synergistic Inhibitors of 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER

  2. Effects of Exogenous Cholecystokinin Octapeptide on Acquisition of Naloxone Precipitated Withdrawal Induced Conditioned Place Aversion in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Chunling; Meng, Yanxin; Li, Shujin; Ni, Zhiyu; Cong, Bin

    2012-01-01

    Cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8), a gut-brain peptide, regulates a variety of physiological behavioral processes. Previously, we reported that exogenous CCK-8 attenuated morphine-induced conditioned place preference, but the possible effects of CCK-8 on aversively motivated drug seeking remained unclear. To investigate the effects of endogenous and exogenous CCK on negative components of morphine withdrawal, we evaluated the effects of CCK receptor antagonists and CCK-8 on the naloxone-precipitated withdrawal-induced conditioned place aversion (CPA). The results showed that CCK2 receptor antagonist (LY-288,513, 10 µg, i.c.v.), but not CCK1 receptor antagonist (L-364,718, 10 µg, i.c.v.), inhibited the acquisition of CPA when given prior to naloxone (0.3 mg/kg) administration in morphine-dependent rats. Similarly, CCK-8 (0.1–1 µg, i.c.v.) significantly attenuated naloxone-precipitated withdrawal-induced CPA, and this inhibitory function was blocked by co-injection with L-364,718. Microinjection of L-364,718, LY-288,513 or CCK-8 to saline pretreated rats produced neither a conditioned preference nor aversion, and the induction of CPA by CCK-8 itself after morphine pretreatments was not significant. Our study identifies a different role of CCK1 and CCK2 receptors in negative affective components of morphine abstinence and an inhibitory effect of exogenous CCK-8 on naloxone-precipitated withdrawal-induced CPA via CCK1 receptor. PMID:22848639

  3. Second-Order Conditioning during a Compound Extinction Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pineno, Oskar; Zilski, Jessica M.; Schachtman, Todd R.

    2007-01-01

    Two conditioned taste aversion experiments with rats were conducted to establish if a target taste that had received a prior pairing with illness could be subject to second-order conditioning during extinction treatment in compound with a flavor that also received prior conditioning. In these experiments, the occurrence of second-order…

  4. Long-range projection neurons in the taste circuit of Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Heesoo; Kirkhart, Colleen; Scott, Kristin

    2017-01-01

    Taste compounds elicit innate feeding behaviors and act as rewards or punishments to entrain other cues. The neural pathways by which taste compounds influence innate and learned behaviors have not been resolved. Here, we identify three classes of taste projection neurons (TPNs) in Drosophila melanogaster distinguished by their morphology and taste selectivity. TPNs receive input from gustatory receptor neurons and respond selectively to sweet or bitter stimuli, demonstrating segregated processing of different taste modalities. Activation of TPNs influences innate feeding behavior, whereas inhibition has little effect, suggesting parallel pathways. Moreover, two TPN classes are absolutely required for conditioned taste aversion, a learned behavior. The TPNs essential for conditioned aversion project to the superior lateral protocerebrum (SLP) and convey taste information to mushroom body learning centers. These studies identify taste pathways from sensory detection to higher brain that influence innate behavior and are essential for learned responses to taste compounds. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.23386.001 PMID:28164781

  5. Increased neural processing of rewarding and aversive food stimuli in recovered anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Cowdrey, Felicity A; Park, Rebecca J; Harmer, Catherine J; McCabe, Ciara

    2011-10-15

    Recent evidence has shown that individuals with acute anorexia nervosa and those recovered have aberrant physiological responses to rewarding stimuli. We hypothesized that women recovered from anorexia nervosa would show aberrant neural responses to both rewarding and aversive disorder-relevant stimuli. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the neural response to the sight and flavor of chocolate, and their combination, in 15 women recovered from restricting-type anorexia nervosa and 16 healthy control subjects matched for age and body mass index was investigated. The neural response to a control aversive condition, consisting of the sight of moldy strawberries and a corresponding unpleasant taste, was also measured. Participants simultaneously recorded subjective ratings of "pleasantness," "intensity," and "wanting." Despite no differences between the groups in subjective ratings, individuals recovered from anorexia nervosa showed increased neural response to the pleasant chocolate taste in the ventral striatum and pleasant chocolate sight in the occipital cortex. The recovered participants also showed increased neural response to the aversive strawberry taste in the insula and putamen and to the aversive strawberry sight in the anterior cingulate cortex and caudate. Individuals recovered from anorexia nervosa have increased neural responses to both rewarding and aversive food stimuli. These findings suggest that even after recovery, women with anorexia nervosa have increased salience attribution to food stimuli. These results aid our neurobiological understanding and support the view that the neural response to reward may constitute a neural biomarker for anorexia nervosa. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Lesions of the periaqueductal gray and rostral ventromedial medulla disrupt antinociceptive but not cardiovascular aversive conditional responses.

    PubMed

    Helmstetter, F J; Tershner, S A

    1994-11-01

    The presentation of an auditory stimulus that signals a noxious event such as foot shock results in the simultaneous expression of multiple aversive conditional responses (CRs), which include a transient elevation of arterial blood pressure (ABP) and an opioid-mediated form of hypoalgesia. Recent evidence suggests that the neural circuits responsible for the expression of these two aversive responses may overlap. In the present study, rats were trained using a Pavlovian fear conditioning paradigm in which white noise was repeatedly paired with shock. After training, groups of animals received electrolytic lesions centered in the dorsal or ventral periaqueductal gray (PAG) or in the medial or lateral rostral medulla. In sham-lesioned animals that were given paired presentations of noise and shock, subsequent presentation of the auditory stimulus caused a significant transient elevation of ABP and time-dependent inhibition of the tail flick reflex evoked by radiant heat. Lesions of either the dorsal or the ventral PAG blocked the antinociceptive CR but did not significantly affect ABP responses. Lesions of the ventromedial, but not the lateral, rostral medulla blocked hypoalgesia. Rostral medullary lesions did not reliably affect stimulus-evoked cardiovascular responses or baseline ABP. These results indicate that antinociceptive and cardiovascular conditional responses are anatomically dissociable and support our proposal that conditional hypoalgesia is mediated by a serial neural circuit that includes the amygdala, PAG, and rostral ventromedial medulla.

  7. Rewarding and aversive effects of ethanol in High Drinking in the Dark selectively bred mice

    PubMed Central

    Barkley-Levenson, Amanda M.; Cunningham, Christopher L.; Smitasin, Phoebe J.; Crabbe, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Both rewarding and aversive effects contribute to alcohol consumption. Animals genetically predisposed to be high drinkers show reduced sensitivity to the aversive effects of alcohol, and in some instances, increased sensitivity to alcohol’s rewarding effects. The present studies tested the High Drinking in the Dark (HDID) selected lines, a genetic model of drinking to intoxication, to determine whether intake in these mice was genetically related to sensitivity to alcohol aversion or reward. Male HDID mice from the first and second replicate lines (HDID-1 and HDID-2, respectively) and mice from the heterogeneous progenitor control population (HS/Npt, or HS) were conditioned for a taste aversion to a salt solution using 2 doses of alcohol, and lithium chloride (LiCl) and saline controls. In separate experiments, male and female HDID-1, HDID-2, and HS mice were conditioned for place preference using alcohol. HDID mice were found to have an attenuated sensitivity to alcohol at a moderate (2 g/kg) dose compared to HS mice, but did not differ on conditioned taste aversion to a high (4 g/kg) dose or LiCl or saline injections. HDID and HS mice showed comparable development of alcohol-induced conditioned place preference. These results indicate that high blood alcohol levels after drinking in the HDID mice is genetically related to attenuated aversion to alcohol, while sensitivity to alcohol reward is not altered in these mice. Thus, HDID mice may find a moderate dose of alcohol to be less aversive than control mice and consequently may drink more because of this reduced aversive sensitivity. PMID:23910826

  8. Cracking Taste Codes by Tapping into Sensory Neuron Impulse Traffic

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Marion E.; Lundy, Robert F.; Contreras, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    Insights into the biological basis for mammalian taste quality coding began with electrophysiological recordings from “taste” nerves and this technique continues to produce essential information today. Chorda tympani (geniculate ganglion) neurons, which are particularly involved in taste quality discrimination, are specialists or generalists. Specialists respond to stimuli characterized by a single taste quality as defined by behavioral cross-generalization in conditioned taste tests. Generalists respond to electrolytes that elicit multiple aversive qualities. Na+-salt (N) specialists in rodents and sweet-stimulus (S) specialists in multiple orders of mammals are well-characterized. Specialists are associated with species’ nutritional needs and their activation is known to be malleable by internal physiological conditions and contaminated external caloric sources. S specialists, associated with the heterodimeric G-protein coupled receptor: T1R, and N specialists, associated with the epithelial sodium channel: ENaC, are consistent with labeled line coding from taste bud to afferent neuron. Yet, S-specialist neurons and behavior are less specific thanT1R2-3 in encompassing glutamate and E generalist neurons are much less specific than a candidate, PDK TRP channel, sour receptor in encompassing salts and bitter stimuli. Specialist labeled lines for nutrients and generalist patterns for aversive electrolytes may be transmitting taste information to the brain side by side. However, specific roles of generalists in taste quality coding may be resolved by selecting stimuli and stimulus levels found in natural situations. T2Rs, participating in reflexes via the glossopharynygeal nerve, became highly diversified in mammalian phylogenesis as they evolved to deal with dangerous substances within specific environmental niches. Establishing the information afferent neurons traffic to the brain about natural taste stimuli imbedded in dynamic complex mixtures will

  9. Critical Period of Memory Enhancement during Taste Avoidance Conditioning in Lymnaea stagnalis

    PubMed Central

    Sunada, Hiroshi; Lukowiak, Ken; Sakakibara, Manabu

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the optimal training procedure leading to long-lasting taste avoidance behavior in Lymnaea. A training procedure comprising 5 repeated pairings of a conditional stimulus (CS, sucrose), with an unconditional stimulus (US, a tactile stimulation to the animal’s head), over a 4-day period resulted in an enhanced memory formation than 10 CS-US repeated pairings over a 2-day period or 20 CS-US repeated pairings on a single day. Backward conditioning (US-CS) pairings did not result in conditioning. Thus, this taste avoidance conditioning was CS-US pairing specific. Food avoidance behavior was not observed following training, however, if snails were immediately subjected to a cold-block (4°C for 10 min). It was critical that the cold-block be applied within 10 min to block long-term memory (LTM) formation. Further, exposure to the cold-block 180 min after training also blocked both STM and LTM formation. The effects of the cold-block on subsequent learning and memory formation were also examined. We found no long lasting effects of the cold-block on subsequent memory formation. If protein kinase C was activated before the conditioning paradigm, snails could still acquire STM despite exposure to the cold-block. PMID:24098373

  10. Medial prefrontal cortex dopamine controls the persistent storage of aversive memories

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, María C.; Kramar, Cecilia P.; Tomaiuolo, Micol; Katche, Cynthia; Weisstaub, Noelia; Cammarota, Martín; Medina, Jorge H.

    2014-01-01

    Medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is essential for initial memory processing and expression but its involvement in persistent memory storage has seldom been studied. Using the hippocampus dependent inhibitory avoidance learning task and the hippocampus-independent conditioned taste aversion paradigm together with specific dopamine receptor agonists and antagonists we found that persistence but not formation of long-term aversive memories requires dopamine D1/D5 receptors activation in mPFC immediately after training and, depending on the task, between 6 and 12 h later. Our results indicate that besides its well-known participation in retrieval and early consolidation, mPFC also modulates the endurance of long-lasting aversive memories regardless of whether formation of the aversive mnemonic trace requires the participation of the hippocampus. PMID:25506318

  11. Conditioned ethanol aversion in rats induced by voluntary wheel running, forced swimming, and electric shock: an implication for aversion therapy of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Sadahiko

    2004-01-01

    This study was planned to demonstrate rats' acquisition of aversion to ethanol solution consumed before voluntary running, forced swimming, or electric shock delivery. Wistar rats under water deprivation were allotted to four groups of eight rats each, and all rats were allowed to drink 5% ethanol solution for 15 min. Immediately after the ethanol drinking, rats of Group Run were put into the individual running wheels for 15 min, those of Group Swim were put into the individual swimming pools for 15 min, those of Group Shock received electric shocks for 15 min (15 0.45-mA shocks of 0.7s with the intershock interval of 1 min) in the individual small chambers, and those of Group Control were directly returned back to the home cages. This procedure was repeated for six days, followed by a two-day choice test of ethanol aversion where a bottle containing 5% ethanol solution and a bottle of tap water were simultaneously presented for 15 min. In the test, Groups Run, Swim, and Shock drank ethanol solution significantly less than tapwater, while Group Control drank both fluids equally. The effects of running, swimming, and shock were equivalent. The successful demonstration of acquired ethanol aversion induced by exercise (running and swimming) or shock in rats suggests an avenue for clinical application of exercise and shock treatments for human alcoholics, though there are many issues to be resolved before the practical use.

  12. Unique genetic factors influence sensitivity to the rewarding and aversive effects of methamphetamine versus cocaine

    PubMed Central

    Gubner, Noah R.; Reed, Cheryl; McKinnon, Carrie S.; Phillips, Tamara J.

    2013-01-01

    Genetic factors significantly influence addiction-related phenotypes. This is supported by the successful bidirectional selective breeding of two replicate sets of mouse lines for amount of methamphetamine consumed. Some of the same genetic factors that influence methamphetamine consumption have been previously found also to influence sensitivity to the conditioned rewarding and aversive effects of methamphetamine. The goal of the current studies was to determine if some of the same genetic factors influence sensitivity to the conditioned rewarding and aversive effects of cocaine. Cocaine conditioned reward was examined in methamphetamine high drinking and low drinking line mice using a conditioned place preference procedure and cocaine conditioned aversion was measured using a conditioned taste aversion procedure. In addition, a general sensitivity measure, locomotor stimulant response to cocaine, was assessed in these lines; previous data indicated no difference between the selected lines in sensitivity to methamphetamine-induced stimulation. In contrast to robust differences for methamphetamine, the methamphetamine high and low drinking lines did not differ in sensitivity to either the rewarding or aversive effects of cocaine. They also exhibited comparable sensitivity to cocaine-induced locomotor stimulation. These data suggest that the genetic factors that influence sensitivity to the conditioned rewarding and aversive effects of methamphetamine in these lines of mice do not influence sensitivity to these effects of cocaine. Thus, different genetic factors may influence risk for methamphetamine versus cocaine use. PMID:23994231

  13. Processes of DNA methylation are involved in the mechanisms of amnesia induction and conditioned food aversion memory reconsolidation.

    PubMed

    Solntseva, S V; Filatova, T S; Nikitin, P V; Bredov, D V; Kozyrev, S A; Nikitin, V P

    2014-02-01

    We studied the role of DNA methylation in the mechanisms of amnesia in edible snails, which was induced by impairment of conditioned food aversion memory reconsolidation with NMDA glutamate receptor antagonist. The effects of DNA methyltransferase inhibitors were shown to depend on the stage of amnesia. At the early stage of amnesia (day 3 after induction), injections of methyltransferase inhibitors in combination with conditioned food stimulus (reminder) were followed by memory recovery. Application of inhibitors in the absence of the reminder was ineffective. Methyltransferase inhibitors were ineffective at the late stage of amnesia (day 10). Our results suggest that the presentation of reminding conditioned stimuli is followed by reactivation of amnesia. Methylation or demethylation of DNA in nerve cells serves as one of the key mechanisms for amnesia.

  14. Optimum spray congealing conditions for masking the bitter taste of clarithromycin in wax matrix.

    PubMed

    Yajima, T; Umeki, N; Itai, S

    1999-02-01

    The effects of operating conditions in the spray-congealing process on the release and the micromeritic properties of clarithromycin (CAM) wax matrix were evaluated. CAM wax matrix with 30% CAM, 60% glyceryl monostearate (GM) and 10% aminoalkyl methacrylate copolymer E (AMCE) was manufactured at various atomizer wheel speeds and liquid feed rates with a spray dryer. Release of CAM from the matrix exhibited a two-phase pattern, probably due to the dissolution of the fine portions broken on the surface of the matrix. The slope and the extrapolated y-intercept of the subsequent release pattern were defined as the release rate and the initial amount of release of CAM from the matrix, respectively. These release parameters, as well as the volume median diameter and the specific surface area of matrix, were selected as response variables, and multiple regression analysis was performed. For specific surface area and initial amount of release, a minimum point was observed on the contour curve when the atomizer wheel speed was constant and the liquid feed rate was varied. For the release rate, a maximum point was observed on the contour curve under the same conditions. These points were considered preferable for masking the bitter taste of CAM preparation. Microscopic observation revealed that a small spherical matrix with a smooth surface could be obtained with a high atomizer wheel speed and optimum liquid feed rate. This matrix also possessed excellent properties for taste masking, with small initial amount of release and subsequent high rate of release. In conclusion, the congealing speed of melt droplets was the dominant factor in masking the bitter taste of CAM.

  15. Diverse tastes: Genetics of sweet and bitter perception

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Danielle R.; Tanaka, Toshiko; McDaniel, Amanda H.

    2006-01-01

    Humans will eat almost anything, from caribou livers to rutabagas, but there are some types of foods, and their associated taste qualities, that are preferred by large groups of people regardless of culture or experience. When many choices are available, humans chose foods that taste good, that is, create pleasing sensations in the mouth. The concept of good taste for most people encompasses both flavor and texture of food, and these sensations merge with taste proper to form the concept of goodness. Although we acknowledge the universality of the goodness (sweet) or badness (bitter) of basic taste qualities, we also find that people differ, sometimes extremely so, in their ability to perceive and enjoy these qualities and, by extension, food and drink. The reasons for these differences among people are not clear but are probably due to a combination of experience beginning at an early age, perhaps in utero; learning, for example, as with conditioned taste aversions; sex and maturity; and perceptual differences that arise from genetic variation. In this review, we focus on individual variations that arise from genetic differences and review two domains of science: recent developments in the molecular biology of taste transduction, with a focus on the genes involved and second, studies that examine biological relatives to determine the heritability of taste perception. Because the receptors for sweet, savory (umami), and bitter have recently been discovered, we summarize what is known about their function by reviewing the effect of naturally occurring and man-made alleles of these receptors, their shape and function based on receptor modeling techniques, and how they differ across animal species that vary in their ability to taste certain qualities. We discuss this literature in the context of how taste genes may differ among people and give rise to individuated taste experience, and what is currently known about the genetic effects on taste perception in humans

  16. Diet-Induced Obesity Reduces the Responsiveness of the Peripheral Taste Receptor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Maliphol, Amanda B.; Garth, Deborah J.; Medler, Kathryn F.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Obesity is a growing epidemic that causes many serious health related complications. While the causes of obesity are complex, there is conclusive evidence that overconsumption coupled with a sedentary lifestyle is the primary cause of this medical condition. Dietary consumption is controlled by appetite which is in turn regulated by multiple neuronal systems, including the taste system. However, the relationship between taste and obesity has not been well defined. Growing evidence suggests that taste perception in the brain is altered in obese animals and humans, however no studies have determined if there are altered taste responses in the peripheral taste receptor cells, which is the initiation site for the detection and perception of taste stimuli. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we used C57Bl/6 mice which readily become obese when placed on a high fat diet. After ten weeks on the high fat diet, we used calcium imaging to measure how taste-evoked calcium signals were affected in the obese mice. We found that significantly fewer taste receptor cells were responsive to some appetitive taste stimuli while the numbers of taste cells that were sensitive to aversive taste stimuli did not change. Properties of the taste-evoked calcium signals were also significantly altered in the obese mice. Behavioral analyses found that mice on the high fat diet had reduced ability to detect some taste stimuli compared to their littermate controls. Conclusions/Significance Our findings demonstrate that diet-induced obesity significantly influences peripheral taste receptor cell signals which likely leads to changes in the central taste system and may cause altered taste perception. PMID:24236129

  17. Polycose taste pre-exposure fails to influence behavioral and neural indices of taste novelty.

    PubMed

    Barot, Sabiha K; Bernstein, Ilene L

    2005-12-01

    Taste novelty can strongly modulate the speed and efficacy of taste aversion learning. Novel sweet tastes enhance c-Fos-like immunoreactivity (FLI) in the central amygdala and insular cortex. The present studies examined whether this neural correlate of novelty extends to different taste types by measuring FLI signals after exposure to novel and familiar polysaccharide (Polycose) and salt (NaCl) tastes. Novel Polycose not only failed to elevate FLI expression in central amygdala and insular cortex, but also failed to induce stronger taste aversion learning than familiar Polycose. Novel NaCl, on the other hand, showed patterns of FLI activation and aversion learning similar to that of novel sweet tastes. Possible reasons for the resistance of Polycose to typical pre-exposure effects are discussed. Copyright (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Can overeating induce conditioned taste avoidance in previously food restricted rats?

    PubMed

    Hertel, Amanda; Eikelboom, Roelof

    2010-03-30

    While feeding is rewarding, the feeling of satiation has been theorized to have a mixed affect. Using a food restriction model of overeating we examined whether bingeing was capable of supporting conditioned taste avoidance (CTA). Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained on either an ad lib (n=8) or restricted (50% of regular consumption; n=24) food access for 20 days. On Days 9, 14, and 19 all rats were given access to a novel saccharin solution in place of water, and two groups of food restricted rats were given access to either 100% of regular food consumption or ad lib food. Ad lib access in the restricted rats induced significant overeating on all three exposures. After all rats were returned to ad lib feeding, a 24h two-bottle saccharin/water choice test displayed significantly reduced saccharin consumption in the overeating rats, compared to those in the other 3 groups. To determine whether this avoidance was due to a learned association, a second experiment used a latent inhibition paradigm, familiarizing half the rats with the saccharin for 8 days prior to pairing it with overeating. Using the design of Experiment 1, with only the continuously ad lib and the restricted to ad lib feeding groups, it was found that the overeating-induced saccharin avoidance was attenuated by the pre-exposure. These results suggest that self-induced overeating is capable of supporting a learned avoidance of a novel solution suggestive of a conditioned satiety or taste avoidance.

  19. Encoding of aversion by dopamine and the nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    McCutcheon, James E; Ebner, Stephanie R; Loriaux, Amy L; Roitman, Mitchell F

    2012-01-01

    Adaptive motivated behavior requires rapid discrimination between beneficial and harmful stimuli. Such discrimination leads to the generation of either an approach or rejection response, as appropriate, and enables organisms to maximize reward and minimize punishment. Classically, the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and the dopamine projection to it are considered an integral part of the brain's reward circuit, i.e., they direct approach and consumption behaviors and underlie positive reinforcement. This reward-centered framing ignores important evidence about the role of this system in encoding aversive events. One reason for bias toward reward is the difficulty in designing experiments in which animals repeatedly experience punishments; another is the challenge in dissociating the response to an aversive stimulus itself from the reward/relief experienced when an aversive stimulus is terminated. Here, we review studies that employ techniques with sufficient time resolution to measure responses in ventral tegmental area and NAc to aversive stimuli as they are delivered. We also present novel findings showing that the same stimulus - intra-oral infusion of sucrose - has differing effects on NAc shell dopamine release depending on the prior experience. Here, for some rats, sucrose was rendered aversive by explicitly pairing it with malaise in a conditioned taste aversion paradigm. Thereafter, sucrose infusions led to a suppression of dopamine with a similar magnitude and time course to intra-oral infusions of a bitter quinine solution. The results are discussed in the context of regional differences in dopamine signaling and the implications of a pause in phasic dopamine release within the NAc shell. Together with our data, the emerging literature suggests an important role for differential phasic dopamine signaling in aversion vs. reward.

  20. Enhanced Extinction of Aversive Memories by High-Frequency Stimulation of the Rat Infralimbic Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Maroun, Mouna; Kavushansky, Alexandra; Holmes, Andrew; Wellman, Cara; Motanis, Helen

    2012-01-01

    Electrical stimulation of the rodent medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), including the infralimbic cortex (IL), immediately prior to or during fear extinction training facilitates extinction memory. Here we examined the effects of high-frequency stimulation (HFS) of the rat IL either prior to conditioning or following retrieval of the conditioned memory, on extinction of Pavlovian fear and conditioned taste aversion (CTA). IL-HFS applied immediately after fear memory retrieval, but not three hours after retrieval or prior to conditioning, subsequently reduced freezing during fear extinction. Similarly, IL-HFS given immediately, but not three hours after, retrieval of a CTA memory reduced aversion during extinction. These data indicate that HFS of the IL may be an effective method for reducing both learned fear and learned aversion. PMID:22586453

  1. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation in amygdala mediates κ opioid receptor agonist U50,488H-induced conditioned place aversion.

    PubMed

    Zan, G-Y; Wang, Q; Wang, Y-J; Chen, J-C; Wu, X; Yang, C-H; Chai, J-R; Li, M; Liu, Y; Hu, X-W; Shu, X-H; Liu, J-G

    2016-04-21

    κ opioid receptor agonists produce aversive effects in rodents, however the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) has been discovered to play a critical role in the modulation of affective behaviors. The present study was undertaken to detect the possible involvement of p38 MAPK in the aversive effects induced by κ opioid receptor activation. We found that the κ opioid receptor agonist trans-(±)-3,4-Dichloro-N-methyl-N-[2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-cyclohexyl]benzenacetamide methanesulfonate salt (U50,488H) produced significant place aversion in mice as measured by the conditioned place preference procedure, accompanied with significant p38 MAPK activation in the amygdala, but not in the nucleus accumbens and hippocampus. Stereotaxic microinjection of the p38 MAPK inhibitor 4-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-(4-methylsulfonylphenyl)-5-(4-pyridy-l)-1H-imidazole (SB203580) into amygdala significantly inhibited p38 MAPK activation and completely blocked the conditioned place aversion in mice. Thus, these results suggested that activation of p38 MAPK in the amygdala was required to mediate κ opioid receptor-induced aversive behavior. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Carbon dioxide and ethanol release from champagne glasses, under standard tasting conditions.

    PubMed

    Liger-Belair, Gérard; Beaumont, Fabien; Bourget, Marielle; Pron, Hervé; Parvitte, Bertrand; Zéninari, Virginie; Polidori, Guillaume; Cilindre, Clara

    2012-01-01

    A simple glass of champagne or sparkling wine may seem like the acme of frivolity to most people, but in fact, it may rather be considered as a fantastic playground for any fluid physicist or physicochemist. In this chapter, results obtained concerning various steps where the CO₂ molecule plays a role (from its ingestion in the liquid phase during the fermentation process to its progressive release in the headspace above the tasting glass) are gathered and synthesized to propose a self-consistent and global overview of how gaseous and dissolved CO₂ impact champagne and sparkling wine science. Some recent investigations, conducted through laser tomography techniques, on ascending bubbles and ascending-bubble-driven flow patterns found in champagne glasses are reported, which illustrate the fine interplay between ascending bubbles and the fluid around under standard tasting conditions. The simultaneous monitoring of gaseous CO₂ and ethanol in the headspace of both a flute and a coupe filled with champagne was reported, depending on whether or not the glass shows effervescence. Both gaseous CO₂ and ethanol were found to be enhanced by the presence of ascending bubbles, thus confirming the close link between ascending bubbles, ascending-bubble-driven flow patterns, and the release of gaseous CO₂ and volatile organic compounds. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Aversive conditioning in honey bees (Apis mellifera anatolica): a comparison of drones and workers.

    PubMed

    Dinges, Christopher W; Avalos, Arian; Abramson, Charles I; Craig, David Philip Arthur; Austin, Zoe M; Varnon, Christopher A; Dal, Fatima Nur; Giray, Tugrul; Wells, Harrington

    2013-11-01

    Honey bees provide a model system to elucidate the relationship between sociality and complex behaviors within the same species, as females (workers) are highly social and males (drones) are more solitary. We report on aversive learning studies in drone and worker honey bees (Apis mellifera anatolica) in escape, punishment and discriminative punishment situations. In all three experiments, a newly developed electric shock avoidance assay was used. The comparisons of expected and observed responses were performed with conventional statistical methods and a systematic randomization modeling approach called object oriented modeling. The escape experiment consisted of two measurements recorded in a master-yoked paradigm: frequency of response and latency to respond following administration of shock. Master individuals could terminate an unavoidable shock triggered by a decrementing 30 s timer by crossing the shuttlebox centerline following shock activation. Across all groups, there was large individual response variation. When assessing group response frequency and latency, master subjects performed better than yoked subjects for both workers and drones. In the punishment experiment, individuals were shocked upon entering the shock portion of a bilaterally wired shuttlebox. The shock portion was spatially static and unsignalled. Only workers effectively avoided the shock. The discriminative punishment experiment repeated the punishment experiment but included a counterbalanced blue and yellow background signal and the side of shock was manipulated. Drones correctly responded less than workers when shock was paired with blue. However, when shock was paired with yellow there was no observable difference between drones and workers.

  4. The feedback-related negativity reflects “more or less” prediction error in appetitive and aversive conditions

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yi; Yu, Rongjun

    2014-01-01

    Humans make predictions and use feedback to update their subsequent predictions. The feedback-related negativity (FRN) has been found to be sensitive to negative feedback as well as negative prediction error, such that the FRN is larger for outcomes that are worse than expected. The present study examined prediction errors in both appetitive and aversive conditions. We found that the FRN was more negative for reward omission vs. wins and for loss omission vs. losses, suggesting that the FRN might classify outcomes in a “more-or-less than expected” fashion rather than in the “better-or-worse than expected” dimension. Our findings challenge the previous notion that the FRN only encodes negative feedback and “worse than expected” negative prediction error. PMID:24904254

  5. Conditioned odor aversion induces social anxiety towards females in wild-type and TrpC2 knockout male mice.

    PubMed

    Beny, Y; Kimchi, T

    2016-11-01

    Female-emitted pheromonal inputs possess an intrinsic rewarding value for conspecific males, promoting approach and investigation of the potential mating partner. In mice these inputs are detected mainly by the vomeronasal organ (VNO) and the main olfactory epithelium (MOE). We investigated the role of VNO-mediated inputs in experience-dependent plasticity of reproductive responses. We applied a sex-specific conditioned odor aversion (COA) paradigm on adult, wild-type (WT) male mice and on male mice impaired in VNO-mediated signal transduction (TrpC2(-/-) ). We found that WT males, which underwent COA to female-soiled bedding, lost their innate preference to female odors and presented lower motivation to approach a sexually receptive female. COA also abolished the testosterone surge normally seen following exposure to female odors. Moreover, the conditioned males displayed impairments in copulatory behaviors, which lasted for several weeks. Surprisingly, these males also exhibited phobic behaviors towards receptive females, including freezing and fleeing responses. In contrast, WT males which underwent COA specifically to male pheromones showed no change in olfactory preference and only a marginally significant elevation in intermale aggression. Finally, we show that TrpC2(-/-) males were able to acquire aversion to female-soiled bedding and presented similar behavioral alterations following COA in their responses to female cues. Our results demonstrate that the intrinsic rewarding value of female pheromones can be overridden through associative olfactory learning, which occurs independently of VNO inputs, probably through MOE signaling. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  6. Adolescent rats are resistant to the development of ethanol-induced chronic tolerance and ethanol-induced conditioned aversion.

    PubMed

    Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos; Godoy, Juan Carlos; Molina, Juan Carlos

    2015-11-01

    The analysis of chronic tolerance to ethanol in adult and adolescent rats has yielded mixed results. Tolerance to some effects of ethanol has been reported in adolescents, yet other studies found adults to exhibit greater tolerance than adolescents or comparable expression of the phenomena at both ages. Another unanswered question is how chronic ethanol exposure affects subsequent ethanol-mediated motivational learning at these ages. The present study examined the development of chronic tolerance to ethanol's hypothermic and motor stimulating effects, and subsequent acquisition of ethanol-mediated odor conditioning, in adolescent and adult male Wistar rats given every-other-day intragastric administrations of ethanol. Adolescent and adult rats exhibited lack of tolerance to the hypothermic effects of ethanol during an induction phase; whereas adults, but not adolescents, exhibited a trend towards a reduction in hypothermia at a challenge phase (Experiment 1). Adolescents, unlike adults, exhibited ethanol-induced motor activation after the first ethanol administration. Adults, but not adolescents, exhibited conditioned odor aversion by ethanol. Subsequent experiments conducted only in adolescents (Experiment 2, Experiment 3 and Experiment 4) manipulated the context, length and predictability of ethanol administration. These manipulations did not promote the expression of ethanol-induced tolerance. This study indicated that, when moderate ethanol doses are given every-other day for a relatively short period, adolescents are less likely than adults to develop chronic tolerance to ethanol-induced hypothermia. This resistance to tolerance development could limit long-term maintenance of ethanol intake. Adolescents, however, exhibited greater sensitivity than adults to the acute motor stimulating effects of ethanol and a blunted response to the aversive effects of ethanol. This pattern of response may put adolescents at risk for early initiation of ethanol intake.

  7. Pavlovian conditioning and multiple chemical sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Siegel, S; Kreutzer, R

    1997-03-01

    Pavlovian conditioning processes may contribute to some symptoms of multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS). This review summarizes the potential relevance of the literature on conditional taste and olfactory aversions, conditional sensitization, and conditional immunomodulation to understanding MCS. A conditioning-based perspective on MCS suggests novel research and treatment strategies.

  8. Adolescent rats fail to demonstrate a LiCl-induced pre-exposure effect: Implications for the balance of drug reward and aversion in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Clasen, Matthew M; Wetzell, Bradley B; Riley, Anthony L

    2016-12-01

    Adolescents display weaker taste avoidance induced by both abused and non-abused drugs than adults. Drug history attenuates avoidance learning in adults (the drug pre-exposure effect), but little is known about this phenomenon in adolescents. Given that the weaker taste avoidance in adolescence is thought to be a function of their relative insensitivity to the drug's aversive effects, it might be expected that the drug pre-exposure effect would be weaker in adolescents given that for some drugs this effect is mediated by associative blocking that depends on the association of environmental cues with the drug's aversive effects. To address this, in the present studies male adolescent (Experiment 1) and adult (Experiment 2) rats were given five spaced injections of LiCl prior to subsequent taste avoidance conditioning with LiCl. Consistent with past reports, adolescents displayed weaker taste avoidance than adults. While adults displayed attenuated LiCl-induced taste avoidance following LiCl pre-exposure, adolescents showed no evidence of this pre-exposure. This work is consistent with the view that adolescents are relatively insensitive to the aversive effects of drugs, an insensitivity potentially important in subsequent intake of drugs of abuse given that such intake is a function of the balance of their rewarding and aversive effects.

  9. Optimization of fermentation conditions for the expression of sweet-tasting protein brazzein in Lactococcus lactis.

    PubMed

    Berlec, A; Tompa, G; Slapar, N; Fonović, U P; Rogelj, I; Strukelj, B

    2008-02-01

    To improve the production of sweet-tasting protein brazzein in Lactococcus lactis using controlled fermentation conditions. The nisin-controlled expression system was used for brazzein expression. The concentration of nisin for induction and the optical density (OD) at induction were therefore optimized, together with growth conditions (medium composition, pH, aerobic growth in the presence of hemin). Brazzein was assayed with ELISA on Ni-NTA plates and Western blot. Use of the M-17 medium, containing 2.5% glucose, anaerobic growth at pH 5.9 and induction with 40 ng ml(-1) nisin at OD 3.0 led to an approx. 17-fold increase in brazzein per cell production compared to non-optimized starting conditions. Aerobic growth in the presence of hemin did not increase the production. Considerable increase in brazzein per cell production was obtained at optimized fermentation conditions. Optimized growth conditions could be used in application of brazzein expression in L. lactis. The importance of pH and OD at induction contributes to the body of knowledge of optimal recombinant protein expression in L. lactis. The new assay for brazzein quantification was introduced.

  10. Simultaneous but Not Independent Anisomycin Infusions in Insular Cortex and Amygdala Hinder Stabilization of Taste Memory when Updated

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-DeLaTorre, Paola; Rodriguez-Ortiz, Carlos J.; Arreguin-Martinez, Jose L.; Cruz-Castaneda, Paulina; Bermudez-Rattoni, Federico

    2009-01-01

    Reconsolidation has been described as a process where a consolidated memory returns to a labile state when retrieved. Growing evidence suggests that reconsolidation is, in fact, a destabilization/stabilization process that incorporates updated information to a previously consolidated memory. We used the conditioned taste aversion (CTA) task in…

  11. Simultaneous but Not Independent Anisomycin Infusions in Insular Cortex and Amygdala Hinder Stabilization of Taste Memory when Updated

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-DeLaTorre, Paola; Rodriguez-Ortiz, Carlos J.; Arreguin-Martinez, Jose L.; Cruz-Castaneda, Paulina; Bermudez-Rattoni, Federico

    2009-01-01

    Reconsolidation has been described as a process where a consolidated memory returns to a labile state when retrieved. Growing evidence suggests that reconsolidation is, in fact, a destabilization/stabilization process that incorporates updated information to a previously consolidated memory. We used the conditioned taste aversion (CTA) task in…

  12. The use of an unpleasant sound as the unconditional stimulus in aversive Pavlovian conditioning experiments that involve children and adolescent participants.

    PubMed

    Neumann, David L; Waters, Allison M; Westbury, H Rae

    2008-05-01

    Ethical considerations can prohibit the use of traditional unconditional stimuli (USs), such as electric shocks or loud tones, when children or adolescents participate in aversive Pavlovian conditioning experiments. The present study evaluated whether an unpleasant sound provides a viable alternative. Fifteen boys and girls aged 13 to 17 years completed a differential Pavlovian conditioning procedure in which a conditional stimulus (CS) was followed by the sound of metal scraping on slate. Acquisition of conditioned responses was found in startle blink magnitude, expectancy judgments of the sound, and skin conductance responses. Extinction of conditioned responses was found in all measures when the CS was no longer followed by the unpleasant sound. Subjective ratings and skin conductance responses indicated that the sound was unpleasant because of its qualitative features, rather than its intensity. The results support the use of an unpleasant sound as a low-risk alternative to traditional USs in aversive Pavlovian conditioning experiments with children and adolescents.

  13. The long-term effects of stress and kappa opioid receptor activation on conditioned place aversion in male and female California mice.

    PubMed

    Laman-Maharg, Abigail R; Copeland, Tiffany; Sanchez, Evelyn Ordoñes; Campi, Katharine L; Trainor, Brian C

    2017-08-14

    Psychosocial stress leads to the activation of kappa opioid receptors (KORs), which induce dysphoria and facilitate depression-like behaviors. However, less is known about the long-term effects of stress and KORs in females. We examined the long-term effects of social defeat stress on the aversive properties of KOR activation in male and female California mice (Peromyscus californicus) using a conditioned place aversion paradigm. Female California mice naïve to social defeat, formed a place aversion following treatment with 2.5mg/kg of the KOR agonist U50,488, but females exposed to defeat did not form a place aversion to this dose. This supports the finding by others that social defeat weakens the aversive properties of KOR agonists. In contrast, both control and stressed males formed an aversion to 10mg/kg of U50,488. We also examined EGR1 immunoreactivity, an indirect marker of neuronal activity, in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and found that stress and treatment with 10mg/kg of U50,488 increased EGR1 immunoreactivity in the NAc core in females but reduced activation in males. The effects of stress and U50,488 on EGR1 were specific to the NAc, as we found no differences in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. In summary, our data indicate important sex differences in the long-term effects of stress and indicate the need for further study of the molecular mechanisms mediating the behavioral effects of KOR in both males and females. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Cannabinoid CB1 receptor deficiency increases contextual fear memory under highly aversive conditions and long-term potentiation in vivo.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Wolfgang; Marsch, Rudolph; Marsicano, Giovanni; Lutz, Beat; Wotjak, Carsten T

    2012-07-01

    The cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) is abundantly expressed in the central nervous system where it negatively controls the release of several neurotransmitters. CB1 activity plays a crucial role in learning and memory and in synaptic plasticity. In the present study, the role of CB1 was investigated in three different hippocampus-dependent memory tasks and in in vivo hippocampal synaptic plasticity in knockout (CB1-ko) and wildtype mice. There was no difference in short-term and long-term social and object recognition memory between CB1-ko and wildtype mice. In contrast, in background contextual fear conditioning CB1-ko mice showed enhanced freezing levels in the conditioning context and increased generalised contextual fear after a high-intensity conditioning foot shock of 1.5 mA, but not after 0.7 mA. In in vivo field potential recordings in the dentate gyrus, CB1-ko mice displayed a decreased paired-pulse facilitation of the populations spikes, suggesting an altered inhibitory synaptic drive onto hippocampal granule cells. Furthermore, CB1-ko mice displayed significantly higher levels of in vivo long-term potentiation (LTP) in the dentate gyrus. In conclusion, CB1 deficiency leads to enhanced contextual fear memory and altered synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus, supporting the key role of endocannabinoid signalling in learning and memory, in particular following highly aversive encounters.

  15. Electrophysiological characteristics of feeding-related neurons after taste avoidance Pavlovian conditioning in Lymnaea stagnalis.

    PubMed

    Sunada, Hiroshi; Takigami, Satoshi; Lukowiak, Ken; Sakakibara, Manabu

    2014-01-01

    Taste avoidance conditioning (TAC) was carried out on the pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis. The conditional stimulus (CS) was sucrose which elicits feeding behavior; while the unconditional stimulus (US) was a tactile stimulus to the head which causes feeding to be suppressed. The neuronal circuit that drives feeding behavior in Lymnaea is well worked out. We therefore compared the physiological characteristics on 3 classes of neurons involved with feeding behavior especially in response to the CS in conditioned vs. control snails. The cerebral giant cell (CGC) modulates feeding behavior, N1 medial neuron (N1M) is one of the central pattern generator neurons that organizes feeding behavior, while B3 is a motor neuron active during the rasp phase of feeding. We found the resting membrane potential in CGC was hyperpolarized significantly in conditioned snails but impulse activity remained the same between conditioned vs. control snails. There was, however, a significant increase in spontaneous activity and a significant depolarization of N1M's resting membrane potential in conditioned snails. These changes in N1M activity as a result of training are thought to be due to withdrawal interneuron RPeD11 altering the activity of the CGCs. Finally, in B3 there was: 1) a significant decrease in the amplitude and the frequency of the post-synaptic potentials; 2) a significant hyperpolarization of resting membrane potential in conditioned snails; and 3) a disappearance of bursting activity typically initiated by the CS. These neuronal modifications are consistent with the behavioral phenotype elicited by the CS following conditioning.

  16. Behavioral modulation induced by food odor aversive conditioning and its influence on the olfactory responses of an oscillatory brain network in the slug Limax marginatus.

    PubMed

    Kimura, T; Toda, S; Sekiguchi, T; Kirino, Y

    1998-01-01

    We compared behaviorally and physiologically the olfactory responses of slugs (Limax marginatus) that had been subjected to aversive, appetitive, or unpaired training with food odors (carrot or cucumber). In the aversive training, the slugs were exposed to the food odor as a conditioned stimulus (CS), and then quinidine sulfate solution as an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) was immediately applied to the lip of the slugs. This training caused a decrease in preference level for the CS. The unpaired training, in which the CS and the UCS were presented to the slugs with a 5-min interval, induced no change in the preference level for the CS. In the appetitive training, the slugs were allowed to eat the CS odor source without UCS application. When we used nonstarved slugs, it was found that the preference level for the CS increased upon the appetitive training. These results indicate that each training changed the preference for the odors in a characteristic manner. In the physiological experiments, we used brain-inferior tentacular nose preparations isolated from slugs and investigated the olfactory responses of the oscillations in the local field potential (LFP) of the procerebral (PC) lobe. We found that odor presentation induced various types of changes in the LFP oscillation frequency, although the rate of occurrence of the frequency modulation differed between odors used in the aversive and the unpaired training (aversive-conditioned and unpaired odors). The aversive-conditioned odors induced a decrease in the oscillatory frequency. Unpaired odors did not change it. Moreover, odors used in the appetitive training (appetitive-conditioned odors) induced an increase in the frequency. Thus, it was considered that those modulations of PC lobe oscillatory activity were independent of odor and reflected learned preference for odors.

  17. Protein kinase C mediates memory consolidation of taste avoidance conditioning in Lymnaea stagnalis.

    PubMed

    Takigami, Satoshi; Sunada, Hiroshi; Lukowiak, Ken; Kuzirian, Alan M; Alkon, Daniel L; Sakakibara, Manabu

    2014-05-01

    In Lymnaea stagnalis, in order to obtain a 10 min short-term memory (STM) of taste avoidance conditioning (TAC) at least 10 paired presentations of a conditioned stimulus (CS), sucrose, and an unconditioned stimulus (US), tactile stimulation to the animal's head, are required. Pre-exposure of snails to the protein kinase C (PKC) α and ε activator bryostatin (Bryo) facilitated STM formation in that only 5 paired CS-US trials were required. Typically 20 paired presentations of the CS-US are required for formation of STM and LTM. However, 20 paired presentations do not result in STM or LTM if snails are pre-incubated with a PKC inhibitor, Ro-32-0432. We also found that LTM lasting longer than 48 h was acquired with Bryo incubation for 45 min even after termination of the conditioning paradigm. These data suggest that activation of the α and ε isozymes of PKC is crucially involved in the formation of LTM and provide further support for a mechanism that has been conserved across the evolution of species ranging from invertebrate molluscs to higher mammals.

  18. Neuropeptide FF attenuates the acquisition and the expression of conditioned place aversion to endomorphin-2 in mice.

    PubMed

    Han, Zheng-lan; Wang, Zi-long; Tang, Hong-zhu; Li, Ning; Fang, Quan; Li, Xu-hui; Yang, Xiong-li; Zhang, Xiao-yu; Wang, Rui

    2013-07-01

    It has been demonstrated that the endogenous mu opioid (MOP) agonist endomorphin-2 (EM-2) produces conditioned place aversion (CPA) and in contrast, morphine exerts opposite action. Neuropeptide FF (NPFF) was reported to act as a functional antagonist of mu opioid receptor and to exert opioid-modulating activities. The present study examined the influence of NPFF on the rewarding action of EM-2, using the unbiased conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. For testing the effect of NPFF on the acquisition of EM-2-induced CPA, NPFF and EM-2 were co-injected on the conditioning days without drug treatment on the followed test day. To explore the effect of NPFF on the expression of EM-2-induced CPA, EM-2 was administered alone on the conditioning days, and NPFF was given 5 min before placement in the CPP apparatus on the test day. The results showed that NPFF (2.5, 5 and 10 nmol, i.c.v.) alone caused little place preference change. However, NPFF dose-dependently reversed the acquisition of CPA induced by 30 nmol EM-2 (i.c.v.). Similarly, the expression of EM-2-induced CPA was also reduced by NPFF. Moreover, the effects of NPFF on the acquisition and the expression of EM-2-induced CPA were completely blocked by the NPFF receptors antagonist RF9 (10 nmol, i.c.v.). However, central injection of NPFF neither changed the locomotor activity nor modified the locomotor action of EM-2. These data provide the first evidence for a functional interaction of the endogenous ligands for NPFF and MOP receptors, and further support an anti-opioid character of NPFF system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Profound reduction in sensitivity to the aversive effects of methamphetamine in mice bred for high methamphetamine intake

    PubMed Central

    Shabani, Shkelzen; McKinnon, Carrie S.; Cunningham, Christopher L.; Phillips, Tamara J.

    2011-01-01

    Reduced sensitivity to aversive effects of methamphetamine (MA) may increase risk for MA abuse. Studies in two replicate sets of mouse lines that were selectively bred for high and low levels of MA intake support this view. Current studies examined the extent of insensitivity to aversive MA effects of mice bred for high levels of MA drinking. Conditioning procedures in which drugs are delivered shortly after cue exposure have been used to detect aversive drug effects and, in some cases, are more sensitive to such effects. Aversive effects induced by MA injected immediately after exposure to cues from two different sensory modalities were examined. In addition, effects of higher MA doses than those used previously were examined. MA-associated place conditioning utilized tactile cues, whereas MA-induced taste conditioning utilized a novel tastant. Second replicate, MA high drinking (MAHDR-2) and low drinking (MALDR-2) mice were treated with doses of MA up to 4 mg/kg. MAHDR-2 mice were insensitive to aversive effects of MA, except after place conditioning with the 4 mg/kg dose; MALDR-2 mice exhibited sensitivity to aversive effects of MA at doses as low as 1 mg/kg. These studies show that the expression of aversion is dependent upon procedure and MA dose, and that MAHDR-2 mice have markedly reduced sensitivity to the aversive effects of MA. The current and previous results support a strong genetic relationship between level of MA intake and level of sensitivity to aversive effects of MA, a factor that could impact risk for MA use in humans. PMID:22118879

  20. Leptin receptor of the hind brain nuclei is involved in the conditioned taste preference of rats.

    PubMed

    Lin, Cai-xia; Zhang, Shao-yun; Chen, Ke; Luo, Xiao; Sun, Bo; Kang, Yu-ming; Yan, Jian-qun

    2015-11-01

    Conditioned taste preference (CTP) is a taste learning reflex by which an animal learns to prefer a substance which tastes not well and has been studied with much interest in recent years. However, the neural substrates of CTP are less known. This study aimed to determine the possible neural path- ways of CTP and whether serum leptin level and the leptin receptor (OB-Rb) in the hind brain are involved following CTP formation. We established CTP of quinine in rats with a 2-bottle preference test. The serum leptin concentrations were detected, the expression of c-fos in the rat brain was tested to determine the nuclei in relation with establishment of CTR Finally, the OB-Rb mRNA expression was examined by RT-qPCR assay in parabrachial nucleus (PBN) and the nucleus of the solitary tract (NST) of the hind brain. Compared with control group, the level of serum leptin was higher in the CTP group (4.58 ± 0.52 vs 1.67 ± 0.25 µg/L, P < 0.01); increased c-fos positive cells were found in the anterior hypothalamus (AH, 221.75 ± 4.96 vs. 178.50 ± 6.63 cells/mm², P < 0.05), the basal lateral amygdala (BLA, 70.75 ± 6.17 vs 56.50 ± 3.62 cells/ mm², P < 0.05) and the nucleus of the solitary tract (NST, 41.25 ± 1.32 vs 32.50 ± 1.02 cells/mm², P < 0.05). But in ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH, 20.75 ± 2.73 vs 38.5 ± 1.54 per 1 mm², P < 005), PBN (21.50 ± 2.24 vs 36.25 ± 1.49 cells/mm², P < 0.05) and the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA, 22.25 ± 1.53 vs 35.50 ± 2.11 cells/mm², P < 0.05), the number of c-fos positive cells was decreased in the CTP group. In addition, we found OB-Rb mRNA expression in PBN of CTP group rats was higher than that of control group (0.95 ± 0.055 vs 0.57 ± 0.034, P < 0.05), while there was no significant difference of OB-Rb mRNA expression in NST between the two groups. Nuclei AH, BLA, NST, VMH, PBN and CeA participate in the formation of CTP. Leptin and its receptor in PBN may be involved in the formation and

  1. Influence of stress on fear memory processes in an aversive differential conditioning paradigm in humans.

    PubMed

    Bentz, Dorothée; Michael, Tanja; Wilhelm, Frank H; Hartmann, Francina R; Kunz, Sabrina; von Rohr, Isabelle R Rudolf; de Quervain, Dominique J-F

    2013-07-01

    It is widely assumed that learning and memory processes play an important role in the pathogenesis, expression, maintenance and therapy of anxiety disorders, such as phobias or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Memory retrieval is involved in symptom expression and maintenance of these disorders, while memory extinction is believed to be the underlying mechanism of behavioral exposure therapy of anxiety disorders. There is abundant evidence that stress and stress hormones can reduce memory retrieval of emotional information, whereas they enhance memory consolidation of extinction training. In this study we aimed at investigating if stress affects these memory processes in a fear conditioning paradigm in healthy human subjects. On day 1, fear memory was acquired through a standard differential fear conditioning procedure. On day 2 (24h after fear acquisition), participants either underwent a stressful cold pressor test (CPT) or a control condition, 20 min before memory retrieval testing and extinction training. Possible prolonged effects of the stress manipulation were investigated on day 3 (48 h after fear acquisition), when memory retrieval and extinction were tested again. On day 2, men in the stress group showed a robust cortisol response to stress and showed lower unconditioned stimulus (US) expectancy ratings than men in the control group. This reduction in fear memory retrieval was maintained on day 3. In women, who showed a significantly smaller cortisol response to stress than men, no stress effects on fear memory retrieval were observed. No group differences were observed with respect to extinction. In conclusion, the present study provides evidence that stress can reduce memory retrieval of conditioned fear in men. Our findings may contribute to the understanding of the effects of stress and glucocorticoids on fear symptoms in anxiety disorders and suggest that such effects may be sex-specific.

  2. Perirhinal Cortex Muscarinic Receptor Blockade Impairs Taste Recognition Memory Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Ranier; De la Cruz, Vanesa; Rodriguez-Ortiz, Carlos J.; Bermudez-Rattoni, Federico

    2004-01-01

    The relevance of perirhinal cortical cholinergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission for taste recognition memory and learned taste aversion was assessed by microinfusions of muscarinic (scopolamine), NMDA (AP-5), and AMPA (NBQX) receptor antagonists. Infusions of scopolamine, but not AP5 or NBQX, prevented the consolidation of taste recognition…

  3. Kinetics of CO(2) fluxes outgassing from champagne glasses in tasting conditions: the role of temperature.

    PubMed

    Liger-Belair, Gérard; Villaume, Sandra; Cilindre, Clara; Jeandet, Philippe

    2009-03-11

    Measurements of CO(2) fluxes outgassing from a flute poured with a standard Champagne wine initially holding about 11 g L(-1) of dissolved CO(2) were presented, in tasting conditions, all along the first 10 min following the pouring process. Experiments were performed at three sets of temperature, namely, 4 degrees C, 12 degrees C, and 20 degrees C, respectively. It was demonstrated that the lower the champagne temperature, the lower CO(2) volume fluxes outgassing from the flute. Therefore, the lower the champagne temperature, the lower its progressive loss of dissolved CO(2) concentration with time, which constitutes the first analytical proof that low champagne temperatures prolong the drink's chill and helps retains its effervescence. A correlation was also proposed between CO(2) volume fluxes outgassing from the flute poured with champagne and its continuously decreasing dissolved CO(2) concentration. Finally, the contribution of effervescence to the global kinetics of CO(2) release was discussed and modeled by the use of results developed over recent years. The temperature dependence of the champagne viscosity was found to play a major role in the kinetics of CO(2) outgassing from a flute. On the basis of this bubbling model, the theoretical influence of champagne temperature on CO(2) volume fluxes outgassing from a flute was discussed and found to be in quite good accordance with our experimental results.

  4. Types of food aversions: animal, vegetable, and texture.

    PubMed

    Scott, Christina L; Downey, Ronald G

    2007-03-01

    Despite a growing body of research investigating the origins and effects of food aversions, few research instruments have been developed to measure aversions to specific types or categories of food. Undergraduates (N = 209) responded to a series of food aversion questionnaires. The results suggest that people tend to be averse to 2 types of foods (vegetables and meats or fats) and to the texture and taste of certain foods (e.g., oysters). Aversions were slightly more prevalent among women than among men and were correlated with lower educational levels. The authors provide a means of advancing future research on this problem by reliably identifying 3 categories of food aversions. Future researchers should evaluate additional food categories and expand the focus on food aversions beyond the current concern with learned avoidance of specific food items.

  5. An implicit measure of olfactory performance for non-human primates reveals aversive and pleasant odor conditioning.

    PubMed

    Livneh, Uri; Paz, Rony

    2010-09-30

    We have little understanding of how odorants are processed in neural networks of the primate brain. Because chemo-stimuli are harder to control than physical stimuli (e.g. vision, audition), such research was limited by the temporal resolution, accuracy, and reliability of olfactometers (odor producing machines). Recent advances were able to create olfactometers that overcome these limitations, allowing their use together with neuroimaging techniques in humans. From the behavioral point of view, olfaction research requires a behavioral measure that can be used to quantify olfactory performance. This becomes a real problem when working with animals, where, unlike humans, explicit measures are harder to obtain. Furthermore, because odorants are powerful primitive reinforcers, such implicit measures can be beneficial to use in learning paradigms. Here we describe an olfactometer suitable for use in non-human primates, and an end-port design that allows the accurate measure of real-time respiratory modulations that are elicited in response to odor presentation. We demonstrate that this implicit measure is differentially modulated when experiencing pleasant or aversive odors. We then present an experimental paradigm in which monkeys learn to associate tones with odors, and show that the time delay from the conditioned stimuli to the next breath can be used to measure learning and memory expression in this paradigm. Using this construct, we reveal olfactory performance during acquisition and extinction of odor conditioning. These techniques can be used in electrophysiological recordings from relevant brain areas to shed light on neural networks involved in odor processing and reinforcement-learning.

  6. Adolescent exposure to nicotine alters the aversive effects of cocaine in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Hutchison, Mary Anne; Riley, Anthony L

    2008-01-01

    Nicotine is one of the most commonly used drugs in adolescence and has been shown to alter the rewarding effects of cocaine when administered in adulthood. Although the abuse potential of a drug has been suggested to be a balance between its rewarding and aversive effects, the long-term effects of nicotine on the aversive properties of other drugs had not been studied. To that end, in the present study rats exposed to nicotine (0.4 mg/kg) during adolescence (postnatal days 35-44) were tested for the acquisition and extinction of a cocaine-induced conditioned taste aversion (10, 18 or 32 mg/kg) in adulthood. Conditioning consisted of four saccharin-drug pairings followed by six extinction trials. Although cocaine-induced aversions at all doses, no effect of nicotine preexposure was seen during acquisition. During extinction, the nicotine-preexposed groups conditioned with 10 and 18 mg/kg cocaine displayed a decreased rate of extinction compared to their respective controls. These results suggest that while adolescent nicotine exposure does not appear to directly alter the aversive properties of cocaine it may affect other processes related to the response to drugs given in adulthood.

  7. Central Fos expression and conditioned flavor avoidance in rats following intragastric administration of bitter taste receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Hao, Shuzhen; Dulake, Michelle; Espero, Elvis; Sternini, Catia; Raybould, Helen E; Rinaman, Linda

    2009-03-01

    G protein-coupled receptors that signal bitter taste (T2Rs) are expressed in the mucosal lining of the oral cavity and gastrointestinal (GI) tract. In mice, intragastric infusion of T2R ligands activates Fos expression within the caudal viscerosensory portion of the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) through a vagal pathway (Hao S, Sternini C, Raybould HE. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 294: R33-R38, 2008). The present study was performed in rats to further characterize the distribution and chemical phenotypes of brain stem and forebrain neurons activated to express Fos after intragastric gavage of T2R ligands, and to determine a potential behavioral correlate of this central neural activation. Compared with relatively low brain stem and forebrain Fos expression in control rats gavaged intragastrically with water, rats gavaged intragastrically with T2R ligands displayed significantly increased activation of neurons within the caudal medial (visceral) NTS and caudal ventrolateral medulla, including noradrenergic neurons, and within the lateral parabrachial nucleus, central nucleus of the amygdala, and paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. A behavioral correlate of this Fos activation was evidenced when rats avoided consuming flavors that previously were paired with intragastric gavage of T2R ligands. While unconditioned aversive responses to bitter tastants in the oral cavity are often sufficient to inhibit further consumption, a second line of defense may be provided postingestively by ligand-induced signaling at GI T2Rs that signal the brain via vagal sensory inputs to the caudal medulla.

  8. Amphetamine increases aversive conditioning to diffuse contextual stimuli and to a discrete trace stimulus when conditioned at higher footshock intensity.

    PubMed

    Norman, C; Cassaday, H J

    2003-03-01

    Amphetamine can increase conditioning to poor predictors of reinforcement in selective learning tasks (e.g. latent inhibition, LI). In the present study, a noise stimulus was contiguous with footshock or presented at a trace interval. A flashing light background stimulus was used to measure contextual conditioning. Experiment 1 used 1.5 mg/kg and 6 mg/kg dl-amphetamine. Experiments 2 and 3 used 0.5 mg/kg and 1.5 mg/kg d-amphetamine. Unconditioned stimuli parameters (intensity, number, duration) were also manipulated from one experiment to the next. Amphetamine consistently increased conditioning to the background stimulus, and increased conditioning to the trace stimulus at higher footshock intensity (Experiment 3). Thus, amphetamine increased conditioning only to relatively uninformative predictors. The effect on conditioning to trace conditioned stimuli depended on the level of reinforcer but increased conditioning to background did not. Throughout, there was no effect of amphetamine on conditioning of the contiguous stimulus. Thus, the results did not simply arise because amphetamine increased conditioning under any condition in which conditioning without amphetamine was poor. The results are discussed in terms of amphetamine effects on breadth of attention and LI to context.

  9. Taste - impaired

    MedlinePlus

    ... longer. Causes of impaired taste include: Bell's palsy Common cold Flu and other viral infections Nasal infection, nasal ... your diet. For taste problems due to the common cold or flu, normal taste should return when the ...

  10. Taste Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... combine with a food’s aroma to produce a perception of flavor. It is flavor that lets you ... The most common taste disorder is phantom taste perception : a lingering, often unpleasant taste even though there ...

  11. Stress, kappa manipulations, and aversive effects of ethanol in adolescent and adult male rats

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Rachel I.; Agoglia, Abigail E.; Morales, Melissa; Varlinskaya, Elena I.; Spear, Linda P.

    2013-01-01

    Elevated ethanol use during adolescence, a potentially stressful developmental period, is accompanied by insensitivity to many aversive effects of ethanol relative to adults. Given evidence that supports a role for stress and the kappa opioid receptor (KOR) system in mediating aversive properties of ethanol and other drugs, the present study assessed the role of KOR antagonism by norbinaltorphimine (nor-BNI) on ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA) in stressed (exposed to repeated restraint) and non-stressed male rats (Experiment 1), with half of the rats pretreated with nor-BNI before stressor exposure. In Experiment 2, CTA induced by the kappa agonist U62,066 was also compared in stressed and non-stressed adolescents and adults. A highly palatable solution (chocolate Boost) was used as the conditioned stimulus (CS), thereby avoiding the need for water deprivation to motivate consumption of the CS during conditioning. No effects of stress on ethanol-induced CTA were found, with all doses eliciting aversions in adolescents and adults in both stress conditions. However, among stressed subjects, adults given nor-BNI before the repeated stressor displayed blunted ethanol aversion relative to adults given saline at that time. This effect of nor-BNI was not seen in adolescents, findings that support a differential role for the KOR involvement in ethanol CTA in stressed adolescents and adults. Results from Experiment 2 revealed that all doses of U62,066 elicited aversions in non-stressed animals of both ages that were attenuated in stressed animals, findings that support a modulatory role for stress in aversive effects of KOR activation. Collectively, these results suggest that although KOR sensitivity appears to be reduced in stressed subjects, this receptor system does not appear to contribute to age differences in ethanol-induced CTA under the present test circumstances. PMID:23276674

  12. Formation of aversive memories associated with conditioned drug withdrawal requires BDNF expression in the amygdala in acute morphine-dependent rats

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Yun-yue; Long, Jian-dong; Liu, Yao; Liu, Jing-gen

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in learning and memory in multiple brain areas. In the present study, we investigated the roles of BDNF in aversive memories associated with conditioned drug withdrawal in acute morphine-dependent rats. Methods: Conditioned place aversion (CPA) was induced in male SD rats exposed to a single dose of morphine (10 mg/kg, sc) followed by naloxone (0.3 mg/kg, sc). In some rats, BDNF receptor antagonist K252a (8.5 ng per side) or BDNF scavenger TrkB-FC (0.65 μg per side) was bilaterally microinjected into amygdala before naloxone injection. BDNF mRNA and protein expression levels in amygdala were detected after the behavior testing. Results: CPA behavior was induced in rats by the naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal, which was accompanied by significantly increased levels of BDNF mRNA and protein in the amygdala. Bilateral microinjection of TrkB-FC or K252a into the amygdala completely blocked CPA behavior in the rats. Conclusion: Formation of aversive memories associated with conditioned drug withdrawal in acute morphine-dependent rats requires BDNF expression in the amygdala. PMID:26567727

  13. Taste reactivity in the hamster.

    PubMed

    Brining, S K; Belecky, T L; Smith, D V

    1991-06-01

    Taste reactivity, which was first described in the rat, consists of ingestive and aversive response components, the latter seen mostly to bitter-tasting stimuli. The present experiment characterized the hamster's taste reactivity to an array of stimuli (sugars: 1 M sucrose, d-fructose and d-glucose; sodium salts: 1 M NaCl, Na2SO4 and NaNO3; acids: 30 mM HCl, tartaric acid and citric acid; bitter-tasting stimuli: 100 mM quinine hydrochloride and nicotine sulfate and 10 mM denatonium benzoate). These 12 stimuli were chosen to represent 3 examples each of stimuli that taste sweet, salty, sour, or bitter to humans; they were presented in random order via an intraoral fistula, one stimulus each day per animal (n = 10). Infusions of 0.6 ml were delivered over a 1-min period from a syringe pump. Orofacial and somatic motor responses were recorded on videotape for later analysis and were also coded online into a computer. Ingestive responses included forward and lateral tongue protrusions and aversive responses included gaping, chin rubbing, forelimb flailing, fluid rejection, increased locomotion, and aversive posturing. Each stimulus group produced a characteristic pattern of these behaviors, with sugars eliciting only ingestive behaviors and the bitter stimuli evoking predominantly aversive responses. Both sodium salts and acids produced ingestive responses, as seen previously in the rat, although these stimuli also elicited aversive behaviors in the hamster, including apes. The patterns of responses were characterized using multivariate procedures; the stimuli fell into distinct groups that were separated primarily along an hedonic dimension.

  14. Rewarding effects of electrical stimulation of the insular cortex: decayed effectiveness after repeated tests and subsequent increase in vertical behavioral activity and conditioned place aversion after naloxone administration.

    PubMed

    García, Raquel; Zafra, Maria A; Puerto, Amadeo

    2015-02-01

    The insular cortex has been associated with various aversive and rewarding sensory, regulatory, and learning processes. The objective of this study was to examine the characteristics of the reinforcement induced by electrical stimulation of this brain area in rats. Results obtained confirm that electrical stimulation of the insular cortex may induce conditioned place and flavor preferences but the learning acquired is not transferred in a reversal test. Unexpectedly, they also demonstrate that this rewarding effect diminishes after repeated tests. In follow-up experiments, locomotor activity tests revealed an increased number of rearings (a sensitization index) in stimulated animals. Furthermore, in these same animals, administration of low doses of naloxone, an opiate antagonist, developed place aversion toward the maze compartment for which the animals had previously shown preference. These results are interpreted in relation to the effects induced by the repeated administration of natural and artificial rewarding stimuli.

  15. CO2 volume fluxes outgassing from champagne glasses in tasting conditions: flute versus coupe.

    PubMed

    Liger-Belair, Gérard; Villaume, Sandra; Cilindre, Clara; Polidori, Guillaume; Jeandet, Philippe

    2009-06-10

    Measurements of CO(2) fluxes outgassing from glasses containing a standard Champagne wine initially holding about 11.5 g L(-1) of dissolved CO(2) were presented, in tasting conditions, during the first 10 min following the pouring process. Experiments were performed at room temperature, with a flute and a coupe, respectively. The progressive loss of dissolved CO(2) concentration with time was found to be significantly higher in the coupe than in the flute, which finally constitutes the first analytical proof that the flute prolongs the drink's chill and helps it to retain its effervescence in contrast with the coupe. Moreover, CO(2) volume fluxes outgassing from the coupe were found to be much higher in the coupe than in the flute in the early moments following pouring, whereas this tendency reverses from about 3 min after pouring. Correlations were proposed between CO(2) volume fluxes outgassing from the flute and the coupe and their continuously decreasing dissolved CO(2) concentration. The contribution of effervescence to the global kinetics of CO(2) release was discussed and modeled by use of results developed over recent years. Due to a much shallower liquid level in the coupe, bubbles collapsing at the free surface of the coupe were found to be significantly smaller than those collapsing at the free surface of the flute, and CO(2) volume fluxes released by collapsing bubbles only were found to be approximately 60% smaller in the coupe than in the flute. Finally, the contributions of gas discharge by invisible diffusion through the free surface areas of the flute and coupe were also approached and compared for each type of drinking vessel.

  16. Spontaneous and experimental poisoning of cattle by Palicourea aeneofusca in the region of Pernambuco and introduction of conditioned food aversion

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiological, clinical, and pathological aspects of Palicourea aeneofusca poisoning in cattle in the region of Pernambuco, Brazil and to determine if it is possible to induce food aversion by P. aeneofusca poisoning in cattle raised under extensive ...

  17. Economic Constraints on Taste Formation and the True Cost of Healthy Eating

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Caitlin

    2015-01-01

    This paper shows how an interaction between economic constraints and children’s taste preferences shapes low-income families’ food decisions. According to studies of eating behavior, children often refuse unfamiliar foods 8 to 15 times before accepting them. Using 80 interviews and 41 grocery-shopping observations with 73 primary caregivers in the Boston area in 2013–2015, I find that many low-income respondents minimize the risk of food waste by purchasing what their children like—often calorie-dense, nutrient-poor foods. High-income study participants, who have greater resources to withstand the cost of uneaten food, are more likely to repeatedly introduce foods that their children initially refuse. Several conditions moderate the relationship between children’s taste aversion and respondents’ risk aversion, including household-level food preferences, respondents’ conceptions of adult authority, and children’s experiences outside of the home. Low-income participants’ risk aversion may affect children’s taste acquisition and eating habits, with implications for socioeconomic disparities in diet quality. This paper proposes that the cost of providing children a healthy diet may include the possible cost of foods that children waste as they acquire new tastes. PMID:26650928

  18. Effect of Norbinaltorphimine on Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-Induced Taste Avoidance in Adolescent and Adult Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Flax, Shaun M.; Wakeford, Alison G.P.; Cheng, Kejun; Rice, Kenner C.; Riley, Anthony L.

    2017-01-01

    Rationale The aversive effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) are mediated by activity at the kappa opioid receptor (KOR) as assessed in adult animals; however, no studies have assessed KOR involvement in the aversive effects of THC in adolescents. Given that adolescents have been reported to be insensitive to the aversive effects induced by KOR agonists, a different mechanism might mediate the aversive effects of THC in this age group. Objectives The present study was designed to assess the impact of KOR antagonism on the aversive effects of THC in adolescent and adult rats using the conditioned taste avoidance (CTA) procedure. Methods Following a single pretreatment injection of norbinaltorphimine (norBNI; 15 mg/kg), CTAs induced by THC (0, 0.56, 1.0, 1.8 and 3.2 mg/kg) were assessed in adolescent (n = 84) and adult (n = 83) Sprague Dawley rats. Results The KOR antagonist, norBNI, had weak and inconsistent effects on THC-induced taste avoidance in adolescent rats in that norBNI both attenuated and strengthened taste avoidance dependent on dose and trial. norBNI had limited impact on the final one-bottle avoidance and no effects on the two-bottle preference test. Interestingly, norBNI had no effect on THC-induced taste avoidance in adult rats as well. Conclusions That norBNI had no significant effect on THC-induced avoidance in adults and a minor and inconsistent effect in adolescents demonstrates that the aversive effects of THC are not mediated by KOR activity as assessed by the CTA design in Sprague Dawley rats. PMID:26025420

  19. Making Time Count: Functional Evidence for Temporal Coding of Taste Sensation

    PubMed Central

    Di Lorenzo, Patricia M.; Leshchinskiy, Sergey; Moroney, Dana N.; Ozdoba, Jasen M.

    2013-01-01

    Although the temporal characteristics of neural responses have been proposed as a mechanism for sensory neural coding, there has been little evidence thus far that this type of information is actually used by the nervous system. Here the authors show that patterned electrical pulses trains that mimic the response to the taste of quinine can produce a bitterlike sensation when delivered to the nucleus tractus solitarius of behaving rats. Following conditioned aversion training using either “quinine simulation” patterns of electrical stimulation or natural quinine (0.1 mM) as a conditioned stimulus, rats specifically generalized the aversion to 2 bitter tastants: quinine and urea. Randomization of the quinine simulation patterns resulted in generalization patterns that resembled those to a perithreshold concentration (0.01 mM) of quinine. These data provide strong evidence that the temporal pattern of brainstem activity may convey information about taste quality and underscore the functional significance of temporal coding. PMID:19170426

  20. Making time count: functional evidence for temporal coding of taste sensation.

    PubMed

    Di Lorenzo, Patricia M; Leshchinskiy, Sergey; Moroney, Dana N; Ozdoba, Jasen M

    2009-02-01

    Although the temporal characteristics of neural responses have been proposed as a mechanism for sensory neural coding, there has been little evidence thus far that this type of information is actually used by the nervous system. Here the authors show that patterned electrical pulses trains that mimic the response to the taste of quinine can produce a bitterlike sensation when delivered to the nucleus tractus solitarius of behaving rats. Following conditioned aversion training using either "quinine simulation" patterns of electrical stimulation or natural quinine (0.1 mM) as a conditioned stimulus, rats specifically generalized the aversion to 2 bitter tastants: quinine and urea. Randomization of the quinine simulation patterns resulted in generalization patterns that resembled those to a perithreshold concentration (0.01 mM) of quinine. These data provide strong evidence that the temporal pattern of brainstem activity may convey information about taste quality and underscore the functional significance of temporal coding.

  1. Assessing appetitive, aversive, and negative ethanol-mediated reinforcement through an immature rat model.

    PubMed

    Pautassi, Ricardo M; Nizhnikov, Michael E; Spear, Norman E

    2009-06-01

    The motivational effects of drugs play a key role during the transition from casual use to abuse and dependence. Ethanol reinforcement has been successfully studied through Pavlovian and operant conditioning in adult rats and mice genetically selected for their ready acceptance of ethanol. Another model for studying ethanol reinforcement is the immature (preweanling) rat, which consumes ethanol and exhibits the capacity to process tactile, odor and taste cues and transfer information between different sensorial modalities. This review describes the motivational effects of ethanol in preweanling, heterogeneous non-selected rats. Preweanlings exhibit ethanol-mediated conditioned taste avoidance and conditioned place aversion. Ethanol's appetitive effects, however, are evident when using first- and second-order conditioning and operant procedures. Ethanol also devalues the motivational representation of aversive stimuli, suggesting early negative reinforcement. It seems that preweanlings are highly sensitive not only to the aversive motivational effects of ethanol but also to its positive and negative (anti-anxiety) reinforcement potential. The review underscores the advantages of using a developing rat to evaluate alcohol's motivational effects.

  2. FAAH inhibitor, URB-597, promotes extinction and CB(1) antagonist, SR141716, inhibits extinction of conditioned aversion produced by naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal, but not extinction of conditioned preference produced by morphine in rats.

    PubMed

    Manwell, Laurie A; Satvat, Elham; Lang, Stefan T; Allen, Craig P; Leri, Francesco; Parker, Linda A

    2009-11-01

    Converging evidence suggests that the endogenous cannabinoid (eCB) system is involved in extinction of learned behaviours. Using operant and classical conditioning procedures, the potential of the fatty acid amide (FAAH) inhibitor, URB-597, and the CB(1) antagonist/inverse agonist, SR141716, to promote and inhibit (respectively) extinction of learned responses previously motivated by either rewarding or aversive stimuli was investigated. In the operant conditioning procedure (Expt. 1), rats previously trained to lever press for sucrose reward were administered URB-597 (0.3 mg/kg) or the CB(1) antagonist/inverse agonist SR141716 (2.5 mg/kg) prior to each of three extinction trials. In the conditioned floor preference procedure (Expts 2a-d), rats trained to associate morphine with one of two distinctive floors were administered one of several doses of the CB(1) antagonist/inverse agonist, AM-251 (Expt 2a) or URB-597 (Expt 2b and 2d) prior to each extinction/test trial wherein a choice of both floors was presented and prior to forced exposure to each floor (Expt 2c). In the conditioned floor aversion procedure (Expt. 3), rats trained to associate a naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal with a floor cue were administered URB-597 or SR141716 prior to each of 24 extinction/testing trials. URB-597 did not promote and SR141716 did not reduce extinction rates for sucrose reward-induced operant responding (Expt. 1) or morphine-induced conditioned floor preference (Expts. 2a-d). In contrast, URB-597 facilitated, whereas SR141716 impaired, extinction of the conditioned floor aversion (Expt. 3). These data support previous reports that the eCB system selectively facilitates extinction of aversive memories. URB-597 may prove useful in targeting extinction of aversively motivated behaviours.

  3. Peer effects in risk aversion.

    PubMed

    Balsa, Ana I; Gandelman, Néstor; González, Nicolás

    2015-01-01

    We estimate peer effects in risk attitudes in a sample of high school students. Relative risk aversion is elicited from surveys administered at school. Identification of peer effects is based on parents not being able to choose the class within the school of their choice, and on the use of instrumental variables conditional on school-grade fixed effects. We find a significant and quantitatively large impact of peers' risk attitudes on a male individual's coefficient of risk aversion. Specifically, a one standard deviation increase in the group's coefficient of risk aversion increases an individual's risk aversion by 43%. Our findings shed light on the origin and stability of risk attitudes and, more generally, on the determinants of economic preferences. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.

  4. Taste responses in mice lacking taste receptor subunit T1R1

    PubMed Central

    Kusuhara, Yoko; Yoshida, Ryusuke; Ohkuri, Tadahiro; Yasumatsu, Keiko; Voigt, Anja; Hübner, Sandra; Maeda, Katsumasa; Boehm, Ulrich; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2013-01-01

    The T1R1 receptor subunit acts as an umami taste receptor in combination with its partner, T1R3. In addition, metabotropic glutamate receptors (brain and taste variants of mGluR1 and mGluR4) are thought to function as umami taste receptors. To elucidate the function of T1R1 and the contribution of mGluRs to umami taste detection in vivo, we used newly developed knock-out (T1R1−/−) mice, which lack the entire coding region of the Tas1r1 gene and express mCherry in T1R1-expressing cells. Gustatory nerve recordings demonstrated that T1R1−/− mice exhibited a serious deficit in inosine monophosphate-elicited synergy but substantial residual responses to glutamate alone in both chorda tympani and glossopharyngeal nerves. Interestingly, chorda tympani nerve responses to sweeteners were smaller in T1R1−/− mice. Taste cell recordings demonstrated that many mCherry-expressing taste cells in T1R1+/− mice responded to sweet and umami compounds, whereas those in T1R1−/− mice responded to sweet stimuli. The proportion of sweet-responsive cells was smaller in T1R1−/− than in T1R1+/− mice. Single-cell RT-PCR demonstrated that some single mCherry-expressing cells expressed all three T1R subunits. Chorda tympani and glossopharyngeal nerve responses to glutamate were significantly inhibited by addition of mGluR antagonists in both T1R1−/− and T1R1+/− mice. Conditioned taste aversion tests demonstrated that both T1R1−/− and T1R1+/− mice were equally capable of discriminating glutamate from other basic taste stimuli. Avoidance conditioned to glutamate was significantly reduced by addition of mGluR antagonists. These results suggest that T1R1-expressing cells mainly contribute to umami taste synergism and partly to sweet sensitivity and that mGluRs are involved in the detection of umami compounds. PMID:23339178

  5. A high-throughput method to measure NaCl and acid taste thresholds in mice.

    PubMed

    Ishiwatari, Yutaka; Bachmanov, Alexander A

    2009-05-01

    To develop a technique suitable for measuring NaCl taste thresholds in genetic studies, we conducted a series of experiments with outbred CD-1 mice using conditioned taste aversion (CTA) and two-bottle preference tests. In Experiment 1, we compared conditioning procedures involving either oral self-administration of LiCl or pairing NaCl intake with LiCl injections and found that thresholds were the lowest after LiCl self-administration. In Experiment 2, we compared different procedures (30-min and 48-h tests) for testing conditioned mice and found that the 48-h test is more sensitive. In Experiment 3, we examined the effects of varying strength of conditioned (NaCl or LiCl taste intensity) and unconditioned (LiCl toxicity) stimuli and concluded that 75-150 mM LiCl or its mixtures with NaCl are the optimal stimuli for conditioning by oral self-administration. In Experiment 4, we examined whether this technique is applicable for measuring taste thresholds for other taste stimuli. Results of these experiments show that conditioning by oral self-administration of LiCl solutions or its mixtures with other taste stimuli followed by 48-h two-bottle tests of concentration series of a conditioned stimulus is an efficient and sensitive method to measure taste thresholds. Thresholds measured with this technique were 2 mM for NaCl and 1 mM for citric acid. This approach is suitable for simultaneous testing of large numbers of animals, which is required for genetic studies. These data demonstrate that mice, like several other species, generalize CTA from LiCl to NaCl, suggesting that they perceive taste of NaCl and LiCl as qualitatively similar, and they also can generalize CTA of a binary mixture of taste stimuli to mixture components.

  6. The small GTPase RhoA, but not Rac1, is essential for conditioned aversive memory formation through regulation of actin rearrangements in rat dorsal hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Wang, Yu-hua; Hou, Yuan-yuan; Xi, Tao; Liu, Yao; Liu, Jing-gen

    2013-06-01

    Actin rearrangements are induced in the dorsal hippocampus after conditioned morphine withdrawal, and involved in the formation of conditioned place aversion. In the present study, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the actin rearrangements in rat dorsal hippocampus induced by conditioned morphine withdrawal. The RhoA-ROCK pathway inhibitor Y27632 (8.56 μg/1 μL per side) or the Rac1 inhibitor NSC23766 (25 μg/1 μL per side) was microinjected into the dorsal hippocampus of rats. Conditioned place aversion (CPA) induced by naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal was assessed. Crude synaptosomal fraction of hippocampus was prepared, and the amount of F-actin and G-actin was measured with an Actin Polymerization Assay Kit. Conditioned morphine withdrawal significantly increased actin polymerization in the dorsal hippocampus at 1 h following the naloxone injection. Preconditioning with microinjection of Y27632, but not NSC23766, attenuated CPA, and blocked the increase in actin polymerization in the dorsal hippocampus. Our results suggest that the small GTPase RhoA, but not Rac1, in the dorsal hippocampus is responsible for CPA formation, mainly through its regulation of actin rearrangements.

  7. Mice Perceive Synergistic Umami Mixtures as Tasting Sweet

    PubMed Central

    Goldsmith, Zachary; Densky, Jaron; Guedes, Vivian A.; Boughter, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Previous electrophysiological investigation shows that combinations of compounds classified by humans as umami-tasting, such as glutamate salts and 5′-ribonucleotides, elicit synergistic responses in neurons throughout the rodent taste system and produce a pattern that resembles responses to sweet compounds. The current study tested the hypothesis that a synergistic mixture of monopotassium glutamate (MPG) and inositol monophosphate (IMP) possesses perceptual similarity to sucrose in mice. We estimated behavioral similarity among these tastants and the individual umami compounds using a series of conditioned taste aversion (CTA) tests, a procedure that measures whether a CTA formed to one stimulus generalizes to another. Our primary finding was that a CTA to a synergistic mixture of MPG + IMP generalizes to sucrose, and vice-versa. This indicates umami synergistic mixtures are perceived as having a sweet, or at least sucrose-like, taste to mice. Considering other recent studies, our data argue strongly in favor of multiple receptor mechanisms for umami detection, and complexity in taste perception models for rodents. PMID:25820205

  8. Taste information derived from T1R-expressing taste cells in mice.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Ryusuke; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2016-03-01

    The taste system of animals is used to detect valuable nutrients and harmful compounds in foods. In humans and mice, sweet, bitter, salty, sour and umami tastes are considered the five basic taste qualities. Sweet and umami tastes are mediated by G-protein-coupled receptors, belonging to the T1R (taste receptor type 1) family. This family consists of three members (T1R1, T1R2 and T1R3). They function as sweet or umami taste receptors by forming heterodimeric complexes, T1R1+T1R3 (umami) or T1R2+T1R3 (sweet). Receptors for each of the basic tastes are thought to be expressed exclusively in taste bud cells. Sweet (T1R2+T1R3-expressing) taste cells were thought to be segregated from umami (T1R1+T1R3-expressing) taste cells in taste buds. However, recent studies have revealed that a significant portion of taste cells in mice expressed all T1R subunits and responded to both sweet and umami compounds. This suggests that sweet and umami taste cells may not be segregated. Mice are able to discriminate between sweet and umami tastes, and both tastes contribute to behavioural preferences for sweet or umami compounds. There is growing evidence that T1R3 is also involved in behavioural avoidance of calcium tastes in mice, which implies that there may be a further population of T1R-expressing taste cells that mediate aversion to calcium taste. Therefore the simple view of detection and segregation of sweet and umami tastes by T1R-expressing taste cells, in mice, is now open to re-examination. © 2016 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  9. Simultaneous conditioning of "gaping" responses and taste avoidance in rats injected with LiCl and saccharin: examining the role of context and taste cues in the rodent model of anticipatory nausea.

    PubMed

    Cloutier, Caylen J; Cross-Mellor, Shelley K; Kavaliers, Martin; Ossenkopp, Klaus-Peter

    2011-09-15

    This study examined whether rats can simultaneously learn to associate lithium chloride (LiCl)-induced nausea with both contextual and intravascular taste cues. During the conditioning phase (4 days, 72h apart), 32 male Long Evans rats were injected intraperitoneally with either isotonic saline (NaCl), lithium chloride (LiCl, 127mg/kg), saline plus 2% saccharin (NaCl+Saccharin), or lithium chloride plus 2% saccharin (LiCl+Saccharin) immediately prior to a 30min exposure to a novel context. 72h following the final conditioning day, each animal was re-exposed to the context on a drug-free test day. The next day, animals received a 24h 2-bottle preference test with a choice between water and a palatable saccharin solution. Results showed that animals treated with LiCl during conditioning, with or without saccharin, displayed significantly higher levels of conditioned gaping responses, indicative of nausea, upon re-exposure to the context, relative to NaCl and NaCl+Saccharin controls. Animals administered LiCl+Saccharin during conditioning also displayed significant conditioned taste avoidance to the saccharin solution during the two bottle choice test. These results indicate that systemic administration (intraperitoneal) of a LiCl+Saccharin solution is effective in simultaneously conditioning toxin elicited nausea to both internal (taste) and external (context) cues. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Taste rejection of nonnutritive sweeteners in cats.

    PubMed

    Bartoshuk, L M; Jacobs, H L; Nichols, T L; Hoff, L A; Ryckman, J J

    1975-10-01

    Cats reject saccharin and cyclamate and are indifferent to dulcin, although they, like other mammals, prefer sucrose. The rejection threshold for saccharin found in this experiments, .0001 M, is about 2 log steps lower than a previously reported rejection threshold for sodium saccharin. Water produces a taste in cats adapted to their own saliva. The high sodium saccharin threshold may have resulted because the taste of the sodium saccharin was masked by the taste of the water solvent; however, saccharin may also be somewhat more aversive to the cat than sodium saccharin. Saccharin may produce an aversive taste because it stimulates receptor sites sensitive to substances bitter to man as well as those sensitive to sugars. In addition, saccharin may not be an effective stimulus for all sugar-sensitive sites.

  11. Roles of octopamine and dopamine in appetitive and aversive memory acquisition studied in olfactory conditioning of maxillary palpi extension response in crickets

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Yukihisa; Matsumoto, Chihiro-Sato; Wakuda, Ryo; Ichihara, Saori; Mizunami, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Elucidation of reinforcing mechanisms for associative learning is an important subject in neuroscience. Based on results of our previous pharmacological studies in crickets, we suggested that octopamine and dopamine mediate reward and punishment signals, respectively, in associative learning. In fruit-flies, however, it was concluded that dopamine mediates both appetitive and aversive reinforcement, which differs from our suggestion in crickets. In our previous studies, the effect of conditioning was tested at 30 min after training or later, due to limitations of our experimental procedures, and thus the possibility that octopamine and dopamine were not needed for initial acquisition of learning was not ruled out. In this study we first established a conditioning procedure to enable us to evaluate acquisition performance in crickets. Crickets extended their maxillary palpi and vigorously swung them when they perceived some odors, and we found that crickets that received pairing of an odor with water reward or sodium chloride punishment exhibited an increase or decrease in percentages of maxillary palpi extension responses to the odor. Using this procedure, we found that octopamine and dopamine receptor antagonists impair acquisition of appetitive and aversive learning, respectively. This finding suggests that neurotransmitters mediating appetitive reinforcement differ in crickets and fruit-flies. PMID:26388749

  12. Deletion of α5 nicotine receptor subunits abolishes nicotinic aversive motivational effects in a manner that phenocopies dopamine receptor antagonism.

    PubMed

    Grieder, Taryn E; George, Olivier; Yee, Mandy; Bergamini, Michael A; Chwalek, Michal; Maal-Bared, Geith; Vargas-Perez, Hector; van der Kooy, Derek

    2017-07-01

    Nicotine addiction is a worldwide epidemic that claims millions of lives each year. Genetic deletion of α5 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits has been associated with increased nicotine intake, however, it remains unclear whether acute nicotine is less aversive or more rewarding, and whether mice lacking the α5 nAChR subunit can experience withdrawal from chronic nicotine. We used place conditioning and conditioned taste avoidance paradigms to examine the effect of α5 subunit-containing nAChR deletion (α5 -/-) on conditioned approach and avoidance behaviour in nondependent and nicotine-dependent and -withdrawn mice, and compared these motivational effects with those elicited after dopamine receptor antagonism. We show that nondependent α5 -/- mice find low, non-motivational doses of nicotine rewarding, and do not show an aversive conditioned response or taste avoidance to higher aversive doses of nicotine. Furthermore, nicotine-dependent α5 -/- mice do not show a conditioned aversive motivational response to withdrawal from chronic nicotine, although they continue to exhibit a somatic withdrawal syndrome. These effects phenocopy those observed after dopamine receptor antagonism, but are not additive, suggesting that α5 nAChR subunits act in the same pathway as dopamine and are critical for the experience of nicotine's aversive, but not rewarding motivational effects in both a nondependent and nicotine-dependent and -withdrawn motivational state. Genetic deletion of α5 nAChR subunits leads to a behavioural phenotype that exactly matches that observed after antagonizing dopamine receptors, thus we suggest that modulation of nicotinic receptors containing α5 subunits may modify dopaminergic signalling, suggesting novel therapeutic treatments for smoking cessation. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Sensitivity to Rewarding or Aversive Effects of Methamphetamine Determines Methamphetamine Intake

    PubMed Central

    Shabani, Shkelzen; McKinnon, Carrie S.; Reed, Cheryl; Cunningham, Christopher L.; Phillips, Tamara J.

    2012-01-01

    Amphetamines have rewarding and aversive effects. Relative sensitivity to these effects may be a better predictor of vulnerability to addiction than sensitivity to one of these effects alone. We tested this hypothesis in a dose-response study in a second replicate set of mouse lines selectively bred for high vs low methamphetamine (MA) drinking (MADR). Replicate 2 high (MAHDR-2) and low (MALDR-2) MA drinking mice were bred based on MA consumption in a two-bottle choice procedure, and examined for novel tastant drinking. Sensitivities to the rewarding and aversive effects of several doses of MA (0.5, 2, and 4 mg/kg) were measured using a place conditioning procedure. After conditioning, mice were tested in a drug-free and then drug-present state for time spent in the saline- and MA-paired contexts. Similar to the first set of MADR lines, by the end of selection, MAHDR-2 mice consumed about 6 mg MA/kg/18 h, compared to nearly no MA in MALDR-2 mice, but had similar taste preference ratios. MAHDR-2 mice exhibited place preference in both the drug-free and drug-present tests, and no significant place aversion. In contrast, MALDR-2 mice exhibited no place preference or aversion during the drug-free test, but robust place aversion in the drug-present test. These data extend our preliminary findings from the first set of MADR lines, and support the hypothesis that the combination of greater sensitivity to the rewarding effects of MA and insensitivity to the aversive effects of MA is genetically associated with heightened risk for MA consumption. PMID:21554535

  14. Sex Differences between CRF1 Receptor Deficient Mice following Naloxone-Precipitated Morphine Withdrawal in a Conditioned Place Aversion Paradigm: Implication of HPA Axis

    PubMed Central

    García-Carmona, Juan-Antonio; Baroja-Mazo, Alberto; Milanés, María-Victoria; Laorden, María Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Background Extinction period of positive affective memory of drug taking and negative affective memory of drug withdrawal, as well as the different response of men and women might be important for the clinical treatment of drug addiction. We investigate the role of corticotropin releasing factor receptor type one (CRF1R) and the different response of male and female mice in the expression and extinction of the aversive memory. Methodology/Principal Finding We used genetically engineered male and female mice lacking functional CRF1R. The animals were rendered dependent on morphine by intraperitoneally injection of increasing doses of morphine (10–60 mg/kg). Negative state associated with naloxone (1 mg/kg s.c.)-precipitated morphine withdrawal was examined by using conditioned place aversion (CPA) paradigm. No sex differences for CPA expression were found in wild-type (n = 29) or CRF1R knockout (KO) mice (n = 29). However, CRF1R KO mice presented less aversion score than wild-type mice, suggesting that CRF1R KO mice were less responsive than wild-type to continuous associations between drug administration and environmental stimuli. In addition, CPA extinction was delayed in wild-type and CRF1R KO male mice compared with females of both genotypes. The genetic disruption of the CRF1R pathway decreased the period of extinction in males and females suggesting that CRF/CRF1R is implicated in the duration of aversive memory. Our results also showed that the increase in adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels observed in wild-type (n = 11) mice after CPA expression, were attenuated in CRF1R KO mice (n = 10). In addition, ACTH returned to the baseline levels in males and females once CPA extinction was finished. Conclusion/Significance These results suggest that, at least, CPA expression is partially due to an increase in plasma ACTH levels, through activation of CRF1R, which can return when CPA extinction is finished. PMID:25830629

  15. Dietary customs and food availability shape the preferences for basic tastes: A cross-cultural study among Polish, Tsimane' and Hadza societies.

    PubMed

    Sorokowska, Agnieszka; Pellegrino, Robert; Butovskaya, Marina; Marczak, Michalina; Niemczyk, Agnieszka; Huanca, Tomas; Sorokowski, Piotr

    2017-09-01

    Biological significance of food components suggests that preferences for basic tastes should be similar across cultures. On the other hand, cultural factors play an important role in diet and can consequently influence individual preference for food. To date, very few studies have compared basic tastes preferences among populations of very diverse environmental and cultural conditions, and research rather did not involve traditional populations for whom the biological significance of different food components might be the most pronounced. Hence, our study focused on basic taste preferences in three populations, covering a broad difference in diet due to environmental and cultural conditions, market availability, dietary habits and food acquirement: 1) a modern society (Poles, n = 200), 2) forager-horticulturalists from Amazon/Bolivia (Tsimane', n = 138), and 3) hunter-gatherers from Tanzania (Hadza, n = 85). The preferences for basic tastes were measured with sprays containing supra-threshold levels of sweet, sour, bitter, salty, and umami taste solutions. We observed several interesting differences between participating societies. We found that Tsimane' and Polish participants liked the sweet taste more than other tastes, while Hadza participants liked salty and sour tastes more than the remaining tastes. Further, Polish people found bitter taste particularly aversive, which was not observed in the traditional societies. Interestingly, no cross-cultural differences were observed for relative liking of umami taste - it was rated closely to neutral by members of all participating societies. Additionally, Hadza showed a pattern to like basic tastes that are more common to their current diet than societies with access to different food sources. These findings demonstrate the impact of diet and market availability on preference for basic tastes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. E-cigarettes emit very high formaldehyde levels only in conditions that are aversive to users: A replication study under verified realistic use conditions.

    PubMed

    Farsalinos, Konstantinos E; Voudris, Vassilis; Spyrou, Alketa; Poulas, Konstantinos

    2017-08-31

    In 2015, a study identified 5-15-fold higher levels of formaldehyde emissions from an old-generation e-cigarette tested at 5.0 V compared to tobacco cigarettes. We set to replicate this study using the same e-cigarette equipment and e-liquid, while checking for the generation of dry puffs. Experienced e-cigarette users (n = 26) took 4 s puffs at different voltage settings and were asked to report the generation of dry puffs. Formaldehyde emissions were measured at both realistic and dry puff conditions. Dry puffs were detected at ≤4.2 V by 88% of participants; thus, 4.0 V was defined as the upper limit of realistic use. Levels ranged from 3.4 (SE = 2.2) μg/10 puffs at 3.3 V to 718.2 (SE = 58.2) μg/10 puffs at 5.0 V. The levels detected at 4.0 V were 19.8 (SE = 5.6) μg/10 puffs. At 4.0 V, the daily exposure to formaldehyde from consuming 3 g of liquid with the device tested would be 32% lower compared to smoking 20 tobacco cigarettes. The high levels of formaldehyde emissions that were reported in a previous study were caused by unrealistic use conditions that create the unpleasant taste of dry puffs to e-cigarette users and are thus avoided. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Behavioral comparison of sucrose and l-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate (L-AP4) tastes in rats: does L-AP4 have a sweet taste?

    PubMed

    Eschle, B K; Eddy, M C; Spang, C H; Delay, E R

    2008-08-13

    Even though it is generally thought that umami stimuli such as monosodium glutamate (MSG) and sweet stimuli such as sucrose are detected by different taste receptors, these stimuli appear to share taste qualities when amiloride (a sodium channel blocker) is present to reduce the sodium taste. Single fiber recording studies of the facial and glossopharyngeal nerves have shown that encoding of L-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate (L-AP4), a potent mGluR4 agonist that elicits a taste quite similar to MSG, may occur in the same fibers that also encode sweet stimuli. This suggests that L-AP4 and sweet substances may activate common receptors or afferent signaling mechanisms. We report results of behavioral experiments that test this hypothesis. In the first study, rats conditioned to avoid sucrose or L-AP4 generalized the aversion to the opposite substance, indicating that both substances elicited similar tastes. However, two taste discrimination experiments showed that rats easily discriminated between sucrose and L-AP4 over a wide range of concentrations, even when the cue function of sodium associated with L-AP4 was reduced by amiloride and neutralized by adding equimolar concentrations of NaCl to sucrose. These data suggest that even though L-AP4 and sucrose elicit similar taste qualities, one or both substances also elicit other taste qualities not shared by the opposite substance. They also suggest that the taste-mGluR4 receptor and the signal pathway activated by L-AP4 are not the same as those activated by sucrose. These data, when combined with fiber recording data, suggest that there is convergence of L-AP4 and sucrose signals at some point early in the gustatory pathway.

  18. Interpersonal touch suppresses visual processing of aversive stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Kawamichi, Hiroaki; Kitada, Ryo; Yoshihara, Kazufumi; Takahashi, Haruka K.; Sadato, Norihiro

    2015-01-01

    Social contact is essential for survival in human society. A previous study demonstrated that interpersonal contact alleviates pain-related distress by suppressing the activity of its underlying neural network. One explanation for this is that attention is shifted from the cause of distress to interpersonal contact. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a functional MRI (fMRI) study wherein eight pairs of close female friends rated the aversiveness of aversive and non-aversive visual stimuli under two conditions: joining hands either with a rubber model (rubber-hand condition) or with a close friend (human-hand condition). Subsequently, participants rated the overall comfortableness of each condition. The rating result after fMRI indicated that participants experienced greater comfortableness during the human-hand compared to the rubber-hand condition, whereas aversiveness ratings during fMRI were comparable across conditions. The fMRI results showed that the two conditions commonly produced aversive-related activation in both sides of the visual cortex (including V1, V2, and V5). An interaction between aversiveness and hand type showed rubber-hand-specific activation for (aversive > non-aversive) in other visual areas (including V1, V2, V3, and V4v). The effect of interpersonal contact on the processing of aversive stimuli was negatively correlated with the increment of attentional focus to aversiveness measured by a pain-catastrophizing scale. These results suggest that interpersonal touch suppresses the processing of aversive visual stimuli in the occipital cortex. This effect covaried with aversiveness-insensitivity, such that aversive-insensitive individuals might require a lesser degree of attentional capture to aversive-stimulus processing. As joining hands did not influence the subjective ratings of aversiveness, interpersonal touch may operate by redirecting excessive attention away from aversive characteristics of the stimuli. PMID:25904856

  19. A non-rewarding, non-aversive buprenorphine/naltrexone combination attenuates drug-primed reinstatement to cocaine and morphine in rats in a conditioned place preference paradigm.

    PubMed

    Cordery, Sarah F; Taverner, Alistair; Ridzwan, Irna E; Guy, Richard H; Delgado-Charro, M Begoña; Husbands, Stephen M; Bailey, Christopher P

    2014-07-01

    Concurrent use of cocaine and heroin is a major public health issue with no effective relapse prevention treatment currently available. To this purpose, a combination of buprenorphine and naltrexone, a mixed very-low efficacy mu-opioid receptor agonist/kappa-opioid receptor antagonist/nociceptin receptor agonist, was investigated. The tail-withdrawal and the conditioned place preference (CPP) assays in adult Sprague Dawley rats were used to show that naltrexone dose-dependently blocked the mu-opioid receptor agonism of buprenorphine. Furthermore, in the CPP assay, a combination of 0.3 mg/kg buprenorphine and 3.0 mg/kg naltrexone was aversive. A combination of 0.3 mg/kg buprenorphine and 1.0 mg/kg naltrexone was neither rewarding nor aversive, but still possessed mu-opioid receptor antagonist properties. In the CPP extinction and reinstatement method, a combination of 0.3 mg/kg buprenorphine and 1.0 mg/kg naltrexone completely blocked drug-primed reinstatement in cocaine-conditioned rats (conditioned with 3 mg/kg cocaine, drug prime was 3 mg/kg cocaine) and attenuated drug-primed reinstatement in morphine-conditioned rats (conditioned with 5 mg/kg morphine, drug prime was 1.25 mg/kg morphine). These data add to the growing evidence that a buprenorphine/naltrexone combination may be protective against relapse in a polydrug abuse situation. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction Biology © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  20. Distinct effects of haloperidol in the mediation of conditioned fear in the mesolimbic system and processing of unconditioned aversive information in the inferior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Muthuraju, S; Nobre, M J; Saito, V M N; Brandao, M L

    2014-03-07

    Chemical and electrical stimulation of the inferior colliculus (IC) causes defensive behavior. Electrical stimulation of the IC at the escape threshold enhances dopamine (DA) release in the prefrontal cortex. Intra-ventral tegmental area injections of quinpirole at doses that act presynaptically reduce the release of DA in the terminal fields of the mesolimbic system and clearly reduce conditioned fear in several animal models of anxiety. However, little is known about the involvement of DA in the mediation of unconditioned fear, such as the reactivity to acute stressors. The present study investigated the neural substrates mediated by DA transmission associated with emotional changes triggered by the activation or inhibition of D2 receptors during conditioned and unconditioned fear. We examined the effects of systemic or local injections of the DA-receptor antagonist and agonist haloperidol and quinpirole, respectively, into the IC in rats subjected to fear-potentiated startle, a Pavlovian paradigm that uses loud sounds as the unconditioned stimulus and light previously paired with footshock as the conditioned stimulus. We also assessed auditory-evoked potentials (AEPs) recorded from electrodes implanted in the IC. Intraperitoneal haloperidol administration dose-dependently enhanced AEPs induced by loud tones and inhibited fear-potentiated startle. Intra-IC injections of quinpirole left AEPs unchanged, suggesting that an optimal level of postsynaptic D2 receptors in the IC may regulate the transmission of aversive information through the midbrain tectum. These findings provide evidence of opposing DA-mediated mechanisms in fear/anxiety processes that depend on the area under study. The activity of the neural substrates of conditioned fear was attenuated by haloperidol, whereas midbrain neural substrates of unconditioned fear were enhanced. Thus, DA appears to regulate unconditioned fear at the midbrain level, likely by reducing the sensory gating of aversive

  1. Learning the way to blood: first evidence of dual olfactory conditioning in a blood-sucking insect, Rhodnius prolixus. II. Aversive learning.

    PubMed

    Vinauger, Clément; Buratti, Laura; Lazzari, Claudio R

    2011-09-15

    After having demonstrated that blood-sucking bugs are able to associate a behaviourally neutral odour (L-lactic acid) with positive reinforcement (i.e. appetitive conditioning) in the first part of this study, we tested whether these insects were also able to associate the same odour with a negative reinforcement (i.e. aversive conditioning). Learned aversion to host odours has been repeatedly suggested as a determinant for the distribution of disease vectors among host populations. Nevertheless, no experimental evidence has been obtained so far. Adapting a classical conditioning approach to our haematophagous model, we trained larvae of Rhodnius prolixus to associate L-lactic acid, an odour perceived by bugs but behaviourally neutral when presented alone, with a mechanical perturbation (i.e. negative reinforcement). Naive bugs and bugs exposed to CS, punishment, or CS and punishment without contingency remained indifferent to the presence of an air stream loaded with L-lactic acid (random orientation on a locomotion compensator), whereas the groups previously exposed to the contingency CS-punishment were significantly repelled by L-lactic acid. In a companion paper, the opposite, i.e. attraction, was induced in bugs exposed to the contingency of the same odour with a positive reinforcement. These constitute the first pieces of evidence of olfactory conditioning in triatomine bugs and the first demonstration that the same host odour can be used by insects that are disease vectors to learn to recognize either a host to feed on or a potentially defensive one. The orientation mechanism during repulsion is also discussed in light of our results.

  2. Dissociation between the aversive and pharmacokinetic effects of ethanol in female Fischer and Lewis rats.

    PubMed

    Roma, Peter G; Chen, Scott A; Barr, Christina S; Riley, Anthony L

    2007-08-22

    In humans and laboratory animal models, vulnerability to alcohol abuse is influenced by endogenous factors such as genotype. Using the inbred Fischer and Lewis rat strains, we previously reported stronger conditioned taste aversions (CTA) in male Fischer rats that could not be predicted by genotypic differences in alcohol absorption [Roma PG, Flint WW, Higley JD, Riley AL. Assessment of the aversive and rewarding effects of alcohol in Fischer and Lewis rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2006;189:187-99]. The present study made similar assessments in Fischer and Lewis females via four-trial CTA induced by 1 or 1.5 g/kg intraperitoneal (IP) ethanol (n=10-12/strain/dose) as well as measures of blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) at 15, 60 and 180 min post-injection with 1.5 g/kg IP ethanol or saline (n=7-8/strain/dose). Dose-dependent CTAs were produced, but the strains did not differ from each other in these measures; however, BACs in the Lewis females were significantly higher than Fischer at all three time points. As with males of the Fischer and Lewis genotypes, a dissociation between BACs and the aversive effects of alcohol was observed. These data are the first assessments of these particular phenotypes in Fischer and Lewis females, and when considered with the historical data, suggest a Genotype x Sex interaction in the centrally mediated sensitivity to alcohol's aversive effects.

  3. The Procerebrum Is Necessary for Odor-Aversion Learning in the Terrestrial Slug "Limax Valentianus"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasai, Yoko; Watanabe, Satoshi; Kirino, Yutaka; Matsuo, Ryota

    2006-01-01

    The terrestrial slug "Limax" has a highly developed ability to associate the odor of some foods (e.g., carrot juice) with aversive stimuli such as the bitter taste of quinidine solution. The procerebrum (PC) is a part of the slug's brain thought to be involved in odor-aversion learning, but direct evidence is still lacking. Here, the authors…

  4. The Procerebrum Is Necessary for Odor-Aversion Learning in the Terrestrial Slug "Limax Valentianus"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasai, Yoko; Watanabe, Satoshi; Kirino, Yutaka; Matsuo, Ryota

    2006-01-01

    The terrestrial slug "Limax" has a highly developed ability to associate the odor of some foods (e.g., carrot juice) with aversive stimuli such as the bitter taste of quinidine solution. The procerebrum (PC) is a part of the slug's brain thought to be involved in odor-aversion learning, but direct evidence is still lacking. Here, the authors…

  5. Dyadic social interaction of C57BL/6 mice versus interaction with a toy mouse: conditioned place preference/aversion, substrain differences, and no development of a hierarchy.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Barbara S; Seidl, Simon S; Habazettl, Eva; Gruber, Bernadette E; Bregolin, Tanja; Zernig, Gerald

    2016-04-01

    Impaired social interaction is a hallmark symptom of many psychiatric diseases, including dependence syndromes (substance use disorders). Helping the addict reorient her/his behavior away from the drug of abuse toward social interaction would be of considerable therapeutic benefit. To study the neural basis of such a reorientation, we have developed several animal models in which the attractiveness of a dyadic (i.e. one-to-one) social interaction (DSI) can be compared directly with that of cocaine as a prototypical drug of abuse. Our models are based on the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. In an ongoing effort to validate our experimental paradigms in C57BL/6 mice to make use of the plethora of transgenic models available in this genus, we found the following: (a) DSI with a live mouse produced CPP, whereas an interaction with an inanimate mouse-like object (i.e. a 'toy mouse'; toy mouse interaction) led to conditioned place aversion - but only in the Jackson substrain (C57BL/6J). (b) In the NIH substrain (C57BL/6N), both DSI and toy mouse interaction produced individual aversion in more than 50% of the tested mice. (c) Four 15 min DSI episodes did not result in the development of an observable hierarchy, that is, dominance/subordination behavior in the overwhelming majority (i.e. 30 of 32) of the tested Jackson mouse pairs. Therefore, dominance/subordination does not seem to be a confounding variable in our paradigm, at least not in C57BL/6J mice. Respective data for NIH mice were too limited to allow any conclusion. The present findings indicate that (a) DSI with a live mouse produces CPP to a greater degree than an interaction with an inanimate object resembling a mouse and that (b) certain substrain differences with respect to CPP/aversion to DSI do exist between the Jax and NIH substrain of C57BL/6 mice. These differences have to be considered when choosing a proper mouse substrain model for investigating the neural basis of DSI reward versus

  6. Understanding the impact of taste changes in oncology care.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Joel B; Smutzer, Gregory; Doty, Richard L

    2016-04-01

    Taste perception is frequently altered in cancer patients. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on advances in understanding of the basic biology and physiology of taste and how taste and flavor may be impacted in cancer and its treatment. A succinct review of the literature on the biology and neurology of taste, taste evaluation, and the impact in oncology is provided. Advances have occurred in the study of the gustatory system. Taste and smell are commonly affected during cancer care, and specific chemosensory complaints may persist in large numbers of cancer survivors. Limited study in oncology patients is available despite the significant impact that taste and smell have on oral intake and general physical and social well-being. Taste and flavor has had limited study in cancer therapy. Impact on taste and flavor can result in changes ranging from elimination of taste to taste distortions that may be associated with taste aversions, nausea, and dietary compromise. New therapeutics and new approaches in oncology may have additional impact upon taste that requires further study. This paper reviews the current understanding of taste function, taste testing, and its potential impact on cancer care, to serve as a guide for directing further research.

  7. Effects of 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) pre-exposure on the aversive effects of MDPV, cocaine and lithium chloride: Implications for abuse vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Woloshchuk, Claudia J; Nelson, Katharine H; Rice, Kenner C; Riley, Anthony L

    2016-10-01

    Drug use is thought to be a balance of the rewarding and aversive effects of drugs. Understanding how various factors impact these properties and their relative balance may provide insight into their abuse potential. In this context, the present study attempted to evaluate the effects of drug history on the aversive effects of 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), one of a variety of synthetic cathinones (collectively known as "bath salts"). Different groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to either vehicle or MDPV (1.8mg/kg) once every fourth day for five total injections prior to taste avoidance conditioning in which a novel saccharin solution was repeatedly paired with either vehicle, MDPV (1.8mg/kg), the related psychostimulant cocaine (18mg/kg) or the emetic lithium chloride (LiCl) (13.65mg/kg). In animals pre-exposed to vehicle, all three drugs induced significant and comparable taste avoidance relative to animals injected with vehicle during conditioning. MDPV pre-exposure attenuated the avoidance induced by both MDPV and cocaine (greater attenuation for MDPV than cocaine), but had no effect on that induced by LiCl. These findings suggest that a history of MDPV use may reduce or attenuate MDPV and cocaine's (but not LiCl's) aversive effects. The implications for such changes in MDPV's aversive effects to its potential use and abuse were discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) Pre-exposure on the Aversive Effects of MDPV, Cocaine and Lithium Chloride: Implications for Abuse Vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    Woloshchuk, Claudia J.; Nelson, Katharine H.; Rice, Kenner C.; Riley, Anthony L.

    2017-01-01

    Background Drug use is thought to be a balance of the rewarding and aversive effects of drugs. Understanding how various factors impact these properties and their relative balance may provide insight into their abuse potential. In this context, the present study attempted to evaluate the effects of drug history on the aversive effects of 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), one of a variety of synthetic cathinones (collectively known as “bath salts”). Methods Different groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to either vehicle or MDPV (1.8 mg/kg) once every fourth day for five total injections prior to taste avoidance conditioning in which a novel saccharin solution was repeatedly paired with either vehicle, MDPV (1.8 mg/kg), the related psychostimulant cocaine (18 mg/kg) or the emetic lithium chloride (LiCl) (13.65 mg/kg). Results In animals pre-exposed to vehicle, all three drugs induced significant and comparable taste avoidance relative to animals injected with vehicle during conditioning. MDPV pre-exposure attenuated the avoidance induced by both MDPV and cocaine (greater attenuation for MDPV than cocaine), but had no effect on that induced by LiCl. Conclusions These findings suggest that a history of MDPV use may reduce or attenuate MDPV and cocaine’s (but not LiCl’s) aversive effects. The implications for such changes in MDPV’s aversive effects to its potential use and abuse were discussed. PMID:27520883

  9. Gut T1R3 sweet taste receptors do not mediate sucrose-conditioned flavor preferences in mice.

    PubMed

    Sclafani, Anthony; Glass, Damien S; Margolskee, Robert F; Glendinning, John I

    2010-12-01

    Most mammals prefer the sweet taste of sugars, which is mediated by the heterodimeric T1R2+T1R3 taste receptor. Sugar appetite is also enhanced by the post-oral reinforcing actions of the nutrient in the gut. Here, we examined the contribution of gut T1R3 (either alone or as part of the T1R3+T1R3 receptor) to post-oral sugar reinforcement using a flavor-conditioning paradigm. We trained mice to associate consumption of a flavored solution (CS+) with intragastric (IG) infusions of a sweetener, and a different flavored solution (CS-) with IG infusions of water (23 h/day); then, we measured preference in a CS+ vs. CS- choice test. In experiment 1, we predicted that if activation of gut T1R3 mediates sugar reinforcement, then IG infusions of a nutritive (sucrose) or nonnutritive (sucralose) ligand for this receptor should condition a preference for the CS+ in B6 wild-type (WT) mice. While the mice that received IG sucrose infusions developed a strong preference for the CS+, those that received IG sucralose infusions developed a weak avoidance of the CS+. In experiment 2, we used T1R3 knockout (KO) mice to examine the necessity of gut T1R2+T1R3 receptors for conditioned flavor preferences. If intact gut T1R3 (or T1R2+T1R3) receptors are necessary for flavor-sugar conditioning, then T1R3 KO mice should not develop a sugar-conditioned flavor preference. We found that T1R3 KO mice, like WT mice, acquired a strong preference for the CS+ paired with IG sucrose infusions. The KO mice were also like WT mice in avoiding a CS+ flavor paired with IG sucralose infusions These findings provide clear evidence that gut T1R3 receptors are not necessary for sugar-conditioned flavor preferences or sucralose-induced flavor avoidance in mice.

  10. Gut T1R3 sweet taste receptors do not mediate sucrose-conditioned flavor preferences in mice

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Damien S.; Margolskee, Robert F.; Glendinning, John I.

    2010-01-01

    Most mammals prefer the sweet taste of sugars, which is mediated by the heterodimeric T1R2+T1R3 taste receptor. Sugar appetite is also enhanced by the post-oral reinforcing actions of the nutrient in the gut. Here, we examined the contribution of gut T1R3 (either alone or as part of the T1R3+T1R3 receptor) to post-oral sugar reinforcement using a flavor-conditioning paradigm. We trained mice to associate consumption of a flavored solution (CS+) with intragastric (IG) infusions of a sweetener, and a different flavored solution (CS-) with IG infusions of water (23 h/day); then, we measured preference in a CS+ vs. CS- choice test. In experiment 1, we predicted that if activation of gut T1R3 mediates sugar reinforcement, then IG infusions of a nutritive (sucrose) or nonnutritive (sucralose) ligand for this receptor should condition a preference for the CS+ in B6 wild-type (WT) mice. While the mice that received IG sucrose infusions developed a strong preference for the CS+, those that received IG sucralose infusions developed a weak avoidance of the CS+. In experiment 2, we used T1R3 knockout (KO) mice to examine the necessity of gut T1R2+T1R3 receptors for conditioned flavor preferences. If intact gut T1R3 (or T1R2+T1R3) receptors are necessary for flavor-sugar conditioning, then T1R3 KO mice should not develop a sugar-conditioned flavor preference. We found that T1R3 KO mice, like WT mice, acquired a strong preference for the CS+ paired with IG sucrose infusions. The KO mice were also like WT mice in avoiding a CS+ flavor paired with IG sucralose infusions These findings provide clear evidence that gut T1R3 receptors are not necessary for sugar-conditioned flavor preferences or sucralose-induced flavor avoidance in mice. PMID:20926763

  11. Beneficial Betrayal Aversion

    PubMed Central

    Aimone, Jason A.; Houser, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Many studies demonstrate the social benefits of cooperation. Likewise, recent studies convincingly demonstrate that betrayal aversion hinders trust and discourages cooperation. In this respect, betrayal aversion is unlike socially “beneficial” preferences including altruism, fairness and inequity aversion, all of which encourage cooperation and exchange. To our knowledge, other than the suggestion that it acts as a barrier to rash trust decisions, the benefits of betrayal aversion remain largely unexplored. Here we use laboratory experiments with human participants to show that groups including betrayal-averse agents achieve higher levels of reciprocity and more profitable social exchange than groups lacking betrayal aversion. These results are the first rigorous evidence on the benefits of betrayal aversion, and may help future research investigating cultural differences in betrayal aversion as well as future research on the evolutionary roots of betrayal aversion. Further, our results extend the understanding of how intentions affect social interactions and exchange and provide an effective platform for further research on betrayal aversion and its effects on human behavior. PMID:21423732

  12. Kea show no evidence of inequity aversion

    PubMed Central

    Heaney, Megan; Gray, Russell D.

    2017-01-01

    It has been suggested that inequity aversion is a mechanism that evolved in humans to maximize the pay-offs from engaging in cooperative tasks and to foster long-term cooperative relationships between unrelated individuals. In support of this, evidence of inequity aversion in nonhuman animals has typically been found in species that, like humans, live in complex social groups and demonstrate cooperative behaviours. We examined inequity aversion in the kea (Nestor notabilis), which lives in social groups but does not appear to demonstrate wild cooperative behaviours, using a classic token exchange paradigm. We compared the number of successful exchanges and the number of abandoned trials in each condition and found no evidence of an aversion to inequitable outcomes when there was a difference between reward quality or working effort required between actor and partner. We also found no evidence of inequity aversion when the subject received no reward while their partner received a low-value reward. PMID:28405351

  13. Role for the rostromedial tegmental nucleus in signaling the aversive properties of alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Glover, Elizabeth J.; McDougle, Molly J.; Siegel, Griffin S.; Jhou, Thomas C.; Chandler, L. Judson

    2016-01-01

    Background While the rewarding effects of alcohol contribute significantly to its addictive potential, it is becoming increasingly appreciated that alcohol’s aversive properties also play an important role in the propensity to drink. Despite this, the neurobiological mechanism for alcohol’s aversive actions is not well understood. The rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg) was recently characterized for its involvement in aversive signaling and has been shown to encode the aversive properties of cocaine, yet its involvement in alcohol’s aversive actions have not been elucidated. Methods Adult male and female Long-Evans rats underwent conditioned taste aversion (CTA) procedures where exposure to a novel saccharin solution was paired with i.p. administration of saline, lithium chloride (LiCl), or ethanol (EtOH). Control rats underwent the same paradigm except that drug and saccharin exposure were explicitly unpaired. Saccharin consumption was measured on test day in the absence of drug administration and rats were sacrificed 90–105 min following access to saccharin. Brains were subsequently harvested and processed for cFos immunohistochemistry. The number of cFos labeled neurons was counted in the RMTg and the lateral habenula (LHb) – a region that sends prominent glutamatergic input to the RMTg. Results In rats that received paired drug and saccharin exposure, EtOH and LiCl induced significant CTA compared to saline to a similar degree in males and females. Both EtOH- and LiCl-induced CTA significantly enhanced cFos expression in the RMTg and LHb but not the hippocampus. Similar to behavioral measures, no significant effect of sex on CTA-induced cFos expression was observed. cFos expression in both the RMTg and LHb was significantly correlated to CTA magnitude with greater cFos being associated with more pronounced CTA. In addition, cFos expression in the RMTg was positively correlated with LHb cFos. Conclusions These data suggest that the RMTg and LHb are

  14. Dorsal hippocampal NMDA receptor blockade impairs extinction of naloxone-precipitated conditioned place aversion in acute morphine-treated rats by suppressing ERK and CREB phosphorylation in the basolateral amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei-Sheng; Chen, Zhong-Guo; Liu, Wen-Tao; Chi, Zhi-Qiang; He, Ling; Liu, Jing-Gen

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Substantial evidence shows that negative reinforcement resulting from the aversive affective consequences of opiate withdrawal may play a crucial role in drug relapse. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the loss (extinction) of conditioned aversion of drug withdrawal could facilitate the treatment of drug addiction. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Naloxone-induced conditioned place aversion (CPA) of Sprague-Dawley rats was used to measure conditioned aversion. An NMDA receptor antagonist and MAPK kinase inhibitor were applied through intracranial injections. The phosphorylation of ERK and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) was detected using Western blot. KEY RESULTS The extinction of CPA behaviour increased the phosphorylation of ERK and CREB in the dorsal hippocampus (DH) and basolateral amygdala (BLA), but not in the central amygdala (CeA). Intra-DH injection of AP5 or intra-BLA injection of AP-5 or U0126 before extinction training significantly attenuated ERK and CREB phosphorylation in the BLA and impaired the extinction of CPA behaviour. Although intra-DH injections of AP-5 attenuated extinction training-induced activation of the ERK-CREB pathway in the BLA, intra-BLA injection of AP5 had no effect on extinction training-induced activation of the ERK-CREB pathway in the DH. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS These results suggest that activation of ERK and CREB in the BLA and DH is involved in the extinction of CPA behaviour and that the DH, via a direct or indirect pathway, modulates the activity of ERK and CREB in the BLA through activation of NMDA receptors after extinction training. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the extinction of conditioned aversion could facilitate the treatment of drug addiction. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on Opioids: New Pathways to Functional Selectivity. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2015.172.issue-2 PMID:24597568

  15. Exposure to nicotine during periadolescence or early adulthood alters aversive and physiological effects induced by ethanol.

    PubMed

    Rinker, Jennifer A; Hutchison, Mary Anne; Chen, Scott A; Thorsell, Annika; Heilig, Markus; Riley, Anthony L

    2011-07-01

    The majority of smokers begin their habit during adolescence, which often precedes experimentation with alcohol. Interestingly, very little preclinical work has been done examining how exposure to nicotine during periadolescence impacts the affective properties of alcohol in adulthood. Understanding how periadolescent nicotine exposure influences the aversive effects of alcohol might help to explain why it becomes more acceptable to this preexposed population. Thus, Experiment 1 exposed male Sprague Dawley rats to either saline or nicotine (0.4mg/kg, IP) from postnatal days 34 to 43 (periadolescence) and then examined changes in the aversive effects of alcohol (0, 0.56, 1.0 and 1.8g/kg, IP) in adulthood using the conditioned taste aversion (CTA) design. Changes in blood alcohol concentration (BAC) as well as alcohol-induced hypothermia and locomotor suppression were also assessed. To determine if changes seen were specific to nicotine exposure during periadolescence, the procedures were replicated in adults (Experiment 2). Preexposure to nicotine during periadolescence attenuated the acquisition of the alcohol-induced CTAs (at 1.0g/kg) and the hypothermic effects of alcohol (1.0g/kg). Adult nicotine preexposure produced similar attenuation in alcohol's aversive (at 1.8g/kg) and hypothermic (1.8g/kg) effects. Neither adolescent nor adult nicotine preexposure altered BACs or alcohol-induced locomotor suppression. These results suggest that nicotine may alter the aversive and physiological effects of alcohol, regardless of the age at which exposure occurs, possibly increasing its overall reinforcing value and making it more likely to be consumed.

  16. Exposure to Nicotine During Periadolescence or Early Adulthood Alters Aversive and Physiological Effects Induced by Ethanol

    PubMed Central

    Rinker, Jennifer A.; Hutchison, Mary Anne; Chen, Scott A.; Thorsell, Annika; Heilig, Markus; Riley, Anthony L.

    2011-01-01

    The majority of smokers begin their habit during adolescence, which often precedes experimentation with alcohol. Interestingly, very little preclinical work has been done examining how exposure to nicotine during periadolescence impacts the affective properties of alcohol in adulthood. Understanding how periadolescent nicotine exposure influences the aversive effects of alcohol might help to explain why it becomes more acceptable to this preexposed population. Thus, Experiment 1 exposed male Sprague Dawley rats to either saline or nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, IP) from postnatal day 34 to 43 (periadolescence) and then examined changes in the aversive effects of alcohol (0, 0.56, 1.0 and 1.8 g/kg, IP) in adulthood using the conditioned taste aversion (CTA) design. Changes in blood alcohol concentration (BAC) as well as alcohol-induced hypothermia and locomotor suppression were also assessed. To determine if changes seen were specific to nicotine exposure during periadolescence, the procedures were replicated in adults (Experiment 2). Preexposure to nicotine during periadolescence attenuated the acquisition of the alcohol-induced CTAs (at 1.0 g/kg) and the hypothermic effects of alcohol (1.0 g/kg). Adult nicotine preexposure produced similar attenuation in alcohol's aversive (at 1.8 g/kg) and hypothermic (1.8 g/kg) effects. Neither adolescent nor adult nicotine preexposure altered BACs or alcohol-induced locomotor suppression. These results suggest that nicotine can alter the aversive and physiological effects of alcohol, regardless of the age at which exposure occurs, possibly increasing its overall reinforcing value and making it more likely to be consumed. PMID:21420998

  17. ATRAZINE DOES NOT INDUCE GASTROINTESTINAL DISCOMFORT (PICA) IN RATS AT DOSES THAT INCREASE HPA-AXIS ACTIVATION AND CAUSE CONDITIONED TASTE AVERSION.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous work has shown that a single oral administration of atrazine (ATR), a chlorotriazine herbicide, induces dose-dependent increases in plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and serum corticosterone (CORT), with a NOEL equal to 5mg/kg. The mechanism for these effects ...

  18. ATRAZINE DOES NOT INDUCE GASTROINTESTINAL DISCOMFORT (PICA) IN RATS AT DOSES THAT INCREASE ACTH ANDCORTICOSTERONE RELEASE AND CAUSE CONDITIONED TASTE AVERSION.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous work has shown that a single oral administration of atrazine (ATR), a chlorotriazine herbicide, induces dose-dependent increases in plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and serum corticosterone (CORT), with a LOEL of 12.5mg/kg. The mechanism for these effects is unk...

  19. ATRAZINE DOES NOT INDUCE GASTROINTESTINAL DISCOMFORT (PICA) IN RATS AT DOSES THAT INCREASE ACTH ANDCORTICOSTERONE RELEASE AND CAUSE CONDITIONED TASTE AVERSION.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous work has shown that a single oral administration of atrazine (ATR), a chlorotriazine herbicide, induces dose-dependent increases in plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and serum corticosterone (CORT), with a LOEL of 12.5mg/kg. The mechanism for these effects is unk...

  20. ATRAZINE DOES NOT INDUCE GASTROINTESTINAL DISCOMFORT (PICA) IN RATS AT DOSES THAT INCREASE HPA-AXIS ACTIVATION AND CAUSE CONDITIONED TASTE AVERSION.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous work has shown that a single oral administration of atrazine (ATR), a chlorotriazine herbicide, induces dose-dependent increases in plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and serum corticosterone (CORT), with a NOEL equal to 5mg/kg. The mechanism for these effects ...

  1. Super-Latent Inhibition of Conditioned Taste Preference with a Long Retention Interval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De la Casa, L. G.; Marquez, R.; Lubow, R. E.

    2009-01-01

    A long delay inserted between conditioning and test phases of a 3-stage Latent Inhibition (LI) procedure produces differential effects on LI depending on the delay context. Thus, enhanced LI has been obtained when the delay is spent in a context that is different from the remaining experimental contexts, but not when it is the same. The present…

  2. Super-Latent Inhibition of Conditioned Taste Preference with a Long Retention Interval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De la Casa, L. G.; Marquez, R.; Lubow, R. E.

    2009-01-01

    A long delay inserted between conditioning and test phases of a 3-stage Latent Inhibition (LI) procedure produces differential effects on LI depending on the delay context. Thus, enhanced LI has been obtained when the delay is spent in a context that is different from the remaining experimental contexts, but not when it is the same. The present…

  3. Boundary Conditions for the Maintenance of Memory by PKM[zeta] in Neocortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shema, Reul; Hazvi, Shoshi; Sacktor, Todd C.; Dudai, Yadin

    2009-01-01

    We report here that ZIP, a selective inhibitor of the atypical protein kinase C isoform PKM[zeta], abolishes very long-term conditioned taste aversion (CTA) associations in the insular cortex of the behaving rat, at least 3 mo after encoding. The effect of ZIP is not replicated by a general serine/threonine protein kinase inhibitor that is…

  4. Boundary Conditions for the Maintenance of Memory by PKM[zeta] in Neocortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shema, Reul; Hazvi, Shoshi; Sacktor, Todd C.; Dudai, Yadin

    2009-01-01

    We report here that ZIP, a selective inhibitor of the atypical protein kinase C isoform PKM[zeta], abolishes very long-term conditioned taste aversion (CTA) associations in the insular cortex of the behaving rat, at least 3 mo after encoding. The effect of ZIP is not replicated by a general serine/threonine protein kinase inhibitor that is…

  5. Representations of taste modality in the Drosophila brain

    PubMed Central

    Harris, David T.; Kallman, Benjamin R.; Mullaney, Brendan C.; Scott, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Summary Gustatory receptors and pe