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Sample records for conditioner interface characteristics

  1. Photovoltaic array: Power conditioner interface characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez, C. C.; Hill, G. M.; Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The electrical output (power, current, and voltage) of flat plate solar arrays changes constantly, due primarily to changes in cell temperature and irradiance level. As a result, array loads such as dc-to-ac power conditioners must be capable of accommodating widely varying input levels while maintaining operation at or near the maximum power point of the array. The array operating characteristics and extreme output limits necessary for the systematic design of array load interfaces under a wide variety of climatic conditions are studied. A number of interface parameters are examined, including optimum operating voltage, voltage energy, maximum power and current limits, and maximum open circuit voltage. The effect of array degradation and I-V curve fill factor or the array power conditioner interface is also discussed. Results are presented as normalized ratios of power conditioner parameters to array parameters, making the results universally applicable to a wide variety of system sizes, sites, and operating modes.

  2. Aeroacoustic Characteristics of Model Jet Test Facility Flow Conditioners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinzie, Kevin W.; Henderson, Brenda S.; Haskin, Harry H.

    2005-01-01

    An experimental investigation of flow conditioning devices used to suppress internal rig noise in high speed, high temperature experimental jet facilities is discussed. The aerodynamic and acoustic characteristics of a number of devices including pressure loss and extraneous noise generation are measured. Both aerodynamic and acoustic characteristics are strongly dependent on the porosity of the flow conditioner and the closure ratio of the duct system. For unchoked flow conditioners, the pressure loss follows conventional incompressible flow models. However, for choked flow conditioners, a compressible flow model where the duct and flow conditioner system is modeled as a convergent-divergent nozzle can be used to estimate pressure loss. Choked flow conditioners generate significantly more noise than unchoked conditioners. In addition, flow conditioners with small hole diameters or sintered metal felt material generate less self-noise noise compared to flow conditioners with larger holes.

  3. Impact of Natural Conditioners on Water Retention, Infiltration and Evaporation Characteristics of Sandy Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Nasser, G.; Al-Omran, A. M.; Falatah, A. M.; Sheta, A. S.; Al-Harbi, A. R.

    Soil conditioners i.e., natural deposits and organic fertilizer are used for alleviate some of poor physical properties of sandy soils such as low water retention and inefficient water use, especially in arid and semi-arid regions such as in Saudi Arabia conditions. The present study aims to investigate the impact of clay deposits and organic fertilizer on water characteristics, cumulative infiltration and intermittent evaporation of loamy sand soil. Soil sample was collected from surface layer (0-30 cm depth) of the Agricultural Experiment and Research Station at Dierab, 40 km south west of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Two samples of clay deposits (CD#22 and CD#23) collected from Khyleis area, Jeddah-Madina road in addition of commercial Organic Fertilizer (OF) were used in the present study. The experiments were done during August to December 2005 in soil physics laboratory, the soil was mixed with clay deposits and organic fertilizer at rates of 0, 1, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0% (w/w). The transparent PVC columns were packed with soil to depth of 30 cm every 5.0 cm intervals to insure a homogeneity of soil in columns. The clay deposits (CD#22 and CD#23) and Organic Fertilizer (OF) mixed with the soil were packed in the upper 0-5.0 cm of each soil column. The infiltration experiment was done using a flooding apparatus (Marriot device) with constant head of 3.0 cm over the soil surface. The cumulative infiltration and wetting front depth as a function of time were recorded. The evaporation experiment was conducted in 40 cm long transparent sectioned Lucite cylinders (5.0 cm ID). Fifty millimeters of tap water were applied weekly for three wetting/drying cycles. Cumulative evaporation against time was measured daily by weighing each soil column. The soil moisture distribution at the end of the experiment was determined gravimetrically for each 5.0 cm interval. The results indicated that the three conditioners significantly increased the water constants of mixed soil (i.e., SWC, FC

  4. Performance characteristics of a turbo expander substituted for expansion valve on air-conditioner

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Soo-Yong; Cho, Chong-Hyun; Kim, Chaesil

    2008-09-15

    An experimental study is conducted on a small turbo expander which could be applied to the expansion process in place of expansion valves in refrigerator or air-conditioner to improve the cycle efficiency by recovering energy from the throttling process. The operating gas is HFC134a and the maximum cooling capacity of experiment apparatus is 32.7 kW. Four different turbo expanders are tested to find the performance characteristics of the turbo expander when they operate at a low partial admission rate. The partial admission rate is 1.70% or 2.37, and expanders are operated in the supersonic flow. In the experiment, pressure and temperature are measured at 10 different locations in the experimental apparatus. In addition to these measurements, output power at the turbo expander is measured through a generator installed on a rotor shaft with the rotational speed. Performance data of the turbo expander are obtained at many part load operations by adjusting the output power of the generator. A maximum of 15.8% total-to-static efficiency is obtained when the pressure ratio and the partial admission ratio are 2.37 and 1.70%, respectively. Experimental results show that the optimal velocity ratio decreases when the pressure ratio is decreased, and peak efficiencies, which are obtained at locally maximized efficiency depending on the operating condition, vary linearly against the subcooling temperature or the pressure ratio. (author)

  5. Fuel conditioner

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, M.L.; Nelson, O.L. Jr.

    1988-06-28

    A fuel conditioner is described comprising 10 to 80% of a polar oxygenated hydrocarbon having an average molecular weight from about 250 to about 500, an acid acid number from about 25 to about 125, and a saponification number from about 30 to about 250; and 5 to 50% of an oxygenated compatibilizing agent having a solubility parameter of from about 8.8 to about 11.5 and moderate to strong hydrogen-bonding capacity.

  6. Interface characteristics of nanorope reinforced polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Khondaker S.; Keng, Ang K.

    2013-09-01

    A shear-lag model is proposed to obtain interface characteristics of nanorope reinforced polymer composites using representative volume element (RVE) concept. In the axisymmetric RVE, the nanorope is modelled as a closed-packed cylindrical lattice consisting seven single-walled carbon nanotubes. In the model, rope is considered to be perfectly bonded with the polymer resin where the nanotubes are assumed to be chemically non-bonded with each other in the rope system. Since, nanotubes are considered to be non-bonded in the nanorope there must exist a van der Waals interaction in terms of Lennard-Jones potential. A separate model is also proposed to determine the cohesive stress caused by this interaction. Closed form analytical solutions are derived for stress components of rope, resin and individual carbon nanotubes in the rope system. Parametric study has also been conducted to investigate the influences of key composite factors involved at both perfectly bonded and non-bonded interfaces.

  7. Air Conditioner/Dehumidifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    An ordinary air conditioner in a very humid environment must overcool the room air, then reheat it. Mr. Dinh, a former STAC associate, devised a heat pipe based humidifier under a NASA Contract. The system used heat pipes to precool the air; the air conditioner's cooling coil removes heat and humidity, then the heat pipes restore the overcooled air to a comfortable temperature. The heat pipes use no energy, and typical savings are from 15-20%. The Dinh Company also manufactures a "Z" coil, a retrofit cooling coil which may be installed on an existing heater/air conditioner. It will also provide free hot water. The company has also developed a photovoltaic air conditioner and solar powered water pump.

  8. Effect of metal conditioner on bonding of porcelain to cobalt-chromium alloy

    PubMed Central

    Kajihara, Yutaro; Takenouchi, Yoshihisa; Tanaka, Takuo; Suzuki, Shiro; Minami, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of two different metal conditioners for non-precious metal alloys for the bonding of porcelain to a cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) alloy. MATERIALS AND METHODS Disk-shaped specimens (2.5×10.0 mm) were cast with Co-Cr alloy and used as adherend materials. The bonding surfaces were polished with a 600-grid silicon carbide paper and airborne-particle abraded using 110 µm alumina particles. Bonding specimens were fabricated by applying and firing either of the metal conditioners on the airborne-particle abraded surface, followed by firing porcelain into 5 mm in diameter and 3 mm in height. Specimens without metal conditioner were also fabricated. Shear bond strength for each group (n=8) were measured and compared (α=.05). Sectional view of bonding interface was observed by SEM. EDS analysis was performed to determine the chemical elements of metal conditioners and to determine the failure modes after shear test. RESULTS There were significant differences among three groups, and two metal conditioner-applied groups showed significantly higher values compared to the non-metal conditioner group. The SEM observation of the sectional view at bonding interface revealed loose contact at porcelain-alloy surface for non-metal conditioner group, however, close contact at both alloy-metal conditioner and metal conditioner-porcelain interfaces for both metal conditioner-applied groups. All the specimens showed mixed failures. EDS analysis showed that one metal conditioner was Si-based material, and another was Ti-based material. Si-based metal conditioner showed higher bond strengths compared to the Ti-based metal conditioner, but exhibited more porous failure surface failure. CONCLUSION Based on the results of this study, it can be stated that the application of metal conditioner is recommended for the bonding of porcelain to cobalt-chromium alloys. PMID:26949481

  9. Cardio-Muscular Conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    In the mid-sixties, Gary Graham, a Boeing designer, developed a cardiovascular conditioner for a planned Air Force orbiting laboratory. After the project was cancelled, Graham participated in space station conditioning studies for the Skylab program. Twenty years later, he used this expertise to develop the Shuttle 2000-1, a physical therapy and athletic development conditioner, available through Contemporary Designs. The machine is used by football teams, sports clinics and medical rehabilitation centers. Cardiovascular fitness and muscular strength development are promoted through both kinetic and plyometric exercises.

  10. Ventilating Air-Conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dinh, Khanh

    1994-01-01

    Air-conditioner provides ventilation designed to be used alone or incorporated into cooling or heating system operates efficiently only by recirculating stale air within building. Energy needed to operate overall ventilating cooling or heating system slightly greater than operating nonventilating cooling or heating system. Helps to preserve energy efficiency while satisfying need for increased forced ventilation to prevent accumulation of undesired gases like radon and formaldehyde. Provides fresh treated air to variety of confined spaces: hospital surgeries, laboratories, clean rooms, and printing shops and other places where solvents used. In mobile homes and portable classrooms, eliminates irritant chemicals exuded by carpets, panels, and other materials, ensuring healthy indoor environment for occupants.

  11. Interfacing the expert: Characteristics and requirements for the user interface in expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, Andrew

    1987-01-01

    Because expert systems deal with new sets of problems presenting unique interface requirements, special issues requiring special attention are presented to user interface designers. External knowledge representation (how knowdedge is represented across the user interface), modes of user-system interdependence (advisory, cooperative, and autonomous), and management of uncertainty (deciding what actions to take or recommend based on incomplete evidence) are discussed.

  12. Interface characteristics in Co2MnSi/Ag/Co2MnSi trilayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yang; Chen, Hong; Wang, Guangzhao; Yuan, Hongkuan

    2016-05-01

    Interface characteristics of Co2MnSi/Ag/Co2MnSi trilayer have been investigated by means of first-principles. The most likely interface is formed by connecting MnSi-termination to the bridge site between two Ag atoms. As annealed at high temperature, the formation of interface DO3 disorder is most energetically favorable. The spin polarization is reduced by both the interface itself and interface disorder due to the interface state occurs in the minority-spin gap. As a result, the magneto-resistance ratio has a sharp drop based on the estimation of a simplified modeling.

  13. Development of a solar-powered residential air conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    An extensive review of the literature was conducted which was concerned with the characterization of systems and equipment that could be applicable to the development of solar-powered air conditioners based on the Rankine cycle approach, and the establishment of baseline data defining the performance, physical characteristics, and cost of systems using the LiBr/H2O absorption cycle.

  14. Thermionic reactor power conditioner design for nuclear electric propulsion.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobsen, A. S.; Tasca, D. M.

    1971-01-01

    Consideration of the effects of various thermionic reactor parameters and requirements upon spacecraft power conditioning design. A basic spacecraft is defined using nuclear electric propulsion, requiring approximately 120 kWe. The interrelationships of reactor operating characteristics and power conditioning requirements are discussed and evaluated, and the effects on power conditioner design and performance are presented.

  15. Hybrid respiration-signal conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinard, G. A.; Steffen, D. A.; Sturm, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    Hybrid impedance-pneumograph and respiration-rate signal conditioner element of hand-held vital signs monitor measures changes in impedance of chest during breathing cycle and generates analog respiration signal as output along with synchronous square wave that can be monitored by breath-rate processor.

  16. Shampoos, conditioners, and camouflage techniques.

    PubMed

    Draelos, Zoe Diana

    2013-01-01

    This article examines hair care in persons with hair loss. The use of shampoos, conditioners, and hair styling products to camouflage hair loss is discussed. Because hair is nonliving, medical treatments are limited to only inducing change in the follicles within the scalp skin and do not improve the hair loss actually witnessed by the patient. There is therefore a need to accompany medical treatment of hair loss with cosmetic hair treatment to optimize patient satisfaction.

  17. Titanium oral implants: surface characteristics, interface biology and clinical outcome

    PubMed Central

    Palmquist, Anders; Omar, Omar M.; Esposito, Marco; Lausmaa, Jukka; Thomsen, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Bone-anchored titanium implants have revolutionized oral healthcare. Surface properties of oral titanium implants play decisive roles for molecular interactions, cellular response and bone regeneration. Nevertheless, the role of specific surface properties, such as chemical and phase composition and nanoscale features, for the biological in vivo performance remains to be established. Partly, this is due to limited transfer of state-of-the-art preparation techniques to complex three-dimensional geometries, analytical tools and access to minute, intact interfacial layers. As judged by the available results of a few randomized clinical trials, there is no evidence that any particular type of oral implant has superior long-term success. Important insights into the recruitment of mesenchymal stem cells, cell–cell communication at the interface and high-resolution imaging of the interface between the surface oxide and the biological host are prerequisites for the understanding of the mechanisms of osseointegration. Strategies for development of the next generation of material surface modifications for compromised tissue are likely to include time and functionally programmed properties, pharmacological modulation and incorporation of cellular components. PMID:20591849

  18. Unipolar pulse and bipolar noise testing of wideband signal noise conditioner (MC476-0132-0034)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    Information is presented on performance characteristics of the shuttle orbiter wideband signal conditioner when subjected to special types of input signals. Design analysis of the signal flow path through the signal conditioning amplifier was performed followed by acutal testing of the amplifier with various signal inputs. Results indicate that the signal conditioner should perform acceptably if the shuttle orbiter flight vibration signal levels are in accord with preflight predictions.

  19. Structure and Mass Transport Characteristics at the Intrinsic Liquid-Vapor Interfaces of Alkanes.

    PubMed

    Chilukoti, Hari Krishna; Kikugawa, Gota; Ohara, Taku

    2016-07-28

    In this paper, an instantaneous interface definition has been used to study the intrinsic structure and self-diffusion coefficient in the vicinity of the liquid-vapor interfaces of decane and tetracosane at three different temperatures using molecular dynamics simulations, and the results have been compared with those obtained on the basis of the conventional Gibbs dividing surface (time- and space-averaged interface). The alkane molecules were modeled using the united atom NERD force field. Partial layered structures of alkane molecules at the liquid-vapor interface are observed as a pinned structure of alkane liquids based on the intrinsic interface. This kind of characteristic has not been observed in the density profiles obtained based on the Gibbs dividing surface. By examining the orientation order parameter and radius of gyration of the alkane molecules, it was observed that the alkane molecules were preferentially oriented to be more parallel to the intrinsic interface than to the Gibbs dividing surface, and the shape of the alkane molecules is slightly changed in the vicinity of the liquid-vapor interfaces. The self-diffusion coefficient parallel to the intrinsic interface was examined using the Green-Kubo relation, where the projection of the velocity in the parallel direction to the local intrinsic interface is used in the velocity correlation function. It was found that the self-diffusion coefficient in the direction parallel to the intrinsic interface changes as the position approaches the interface in a more obvious manner as compared with the self-diffusion coefficient obtained with respect to the Gibbs dividing surface. These results suggest that the use of an instantaneous interface definition allowed us to capture sharp variations in transport properties which are originating due to steeper structure at the liquid-vapor interfaces.

  20. Structure and Mass Transport Characteristics at the Intrinsic Liquid-Vapor Interfaces of Alkanes.

    PubMed

    Chilukoti, Hari Krishna; Kikugawa, Gota; Ohara, Taku

    2016-07-28

    In this paper, an instantaneous interface definition has been used to study the intrinsic structure and self-diffusion coefficient in the vicinity of the liquid-vapor interfaces of decane and tetracosane at three different temperatures using molecular dynamics simulations, and the results have been compared with those obtained on the basis of the conventional Gibbs dividing surface (time- and space-averaged interface). The alkane molecules were modeled using the united atom NERD force field. Partial layered structures of alkane molecules at the liquid-vapor interface are observed as a pinned structure of alkane liquids based on the intrinsic interface. This kind of characteristic has not been observed in the density profiles obtained based on the Gibbs dividing surface. By examining the orientation order parameter and radius of gyration of the alkane molecules, it was observed that the alkane molecules were preferentially oriented to be more parallel to the intrinsic interface than to the Gibbs dividing surface, and the shape of the alkane molecules is slightly changed in the vicinity of the liquid-vapor interfaces. The self-diffusion coefficient parallel to the intrinsic interface was examined using the Green-Kubo relation, where the projection of the velocity in the parallel direction to the local intrinsic interface is used in the velocity correlation function. It was found that the self-diffusion coefficient in the direction parallel to the intrinsic interface changes as the position approaches the interface in a more obvious manner as compared with the self-diffusion coefficient obtained with respect to the Gibbs dividing surface. These results suggest that the use of an instantaneous interface definition allowed us to capture sharp variations in transport properties which are originating due to steeper structure at the liquid-vapor interfaces. PMID:27387788

  1. Changes of LISM Characteristics in the Heliospheric Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ripken, H. W.; Fahr, H. J.

    1984-01-01

    The LISM properties can be deduced from observations of interstellar neutral gases in the inner solar system. Parameters accessible by this method are the interstellar wind vector and the densities and temperatures of hydrogen and helium, implying also the deduction of the relative abundance ratios and the degree of ionization in the LISM. Direct inference from observations, for example resonance luminescence measurements of Ly-alpha and He-58.4 nm radiation, yields values appropriate only for the inner solar system, i.e. for the regions within the heliopause dominated by the solar wind plasma. Particularly the subsonic LISM plasma interface ahead of the heliopause causes profound changes in the properties of the neutral LISM gas traversing this region. Mainly p-H charge exchange processes ive rise to the destruction of primary hydrogen and the production of secondary hydrogen atoms, the net effect being a depletion of the neutral hydrogen component of the LISM by about 50%. Details on the depletion mechanisms, the hydrogen and oxygen extinctions, and the consequences for the Ly-alpha resonance luminescence intensity interpretations are presented.

  2. 7 CFR 3201.92 - Fuel conditioners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fuel conditioners. 3201.92 Section 3201.92... Designated Items § 3201.92 Fuel conditioners. (a) Definition. Products formulated to improve the performance... fuel system. (b) Minimum biobased content. The Federal preferred procurement product must have...

  3. 7 CFR 3201.92 - Fuel conditioners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel conditioners. 3201.92 Section 3201.92... Designated Items § 3201.92 Fuel conditioners. (a) Definition. Products formulated to improve the performance... fuel system. (b) Minimum biobased content. The Federal preferred procurement product must have...

  4. Low-noise pulse conditioner

    DOEpatents

    Bird, David A.

    1983-01-01

    A low-noise pulse conditioner is provided for driving electronic digital processing circuitry directly from differentially induced input pulses. The circuit uses a unique differential-to-peak detector circuit to generate a dynamic reference signal proportional to the input peak voltage. The input pulses are compared with the reference signal in an input network which operates in full differential mode with only a passive input filter. This reduces the introduction of circuit-induced noise, or jitter, generated in ground referenced input elements normally used in pulse conditioning circuits, especially speed transducer processing circuits.

  5. Space shuttle aps propellant thermal conditioner study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulton, D. L.

    1973-01-01

    An analytical and experimental effort was completed to evaluate a baffle type thermal conditioner for superheating O2 and H2 at supercritical pressures. The thermal conditioner consisted of a heat exchanger and an integral reactor (gas generator) operating on O2/H2 propellants. Primary emphasis was placed on the hydrogen conditioner with some effort on the oxygen conditioner and a study completed of alternate concepts for use in conditioning oxygen. A hydrogen conditioner was hot fire tested under a range of conditions to establish ignition, heat exchange and response parameters. A parallel technology task was completed to further evaluate the integral reactor and heat exchanger with the side mounted electrical spark igniter.

  6. Conditioner for a helically transported electron beam

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Changbiao.

    1992-05-01

    The kinetic theory is developed to investigate a conditioner for a helically transported electron beam. Linear expressions for axial velocity spread are derived. Numerical simulation is used to check the theoretical results and examine nonlinear aspects of the conditioning process. The results show that in the linear regime the action of the beam conditioner on a pulsed beam mainly depends on the phase at which the beam enters the conditioner and depends only slightly on the operating wavelength. In the nonlinear regime, however, the action of the conditioner strongly depends on the operating wavelength and only slightly upon the entrance phase. For a properly chosen operating wavelength, a little less than the electron's relativistic cyclotron wavelength, the conditioner can decrease the axial velocity spread of a pulsed beam down to less than one-third of its initial value.

  7. Conditioner for a helically transported electron beam

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Changbiao

    1992-05-01

    The kinetic theory is developed to investigate a conditioner for a helically transported electron beam. Linear expressions for axial velocity spread are derived. Numerical simulation is used to check the theoretical results and examine nonlinear aspects of the conditioning process. The results show that in the linear regime the action of the beam conditioner on a pulsed beam mainly depends on the phase at which the beam enters the conditioner and depends only slightly on the operating wavelength. In the nonlinear regime, however, the action of the conditioner strongly depends on the operating wavelength and only slightly upon the entrance phase. For a properly chosen operating wavelength, a little less than the electron`s relativistic cyclotron wavelength, the conditioner can decrease the axial velocity spread of a pulsed beam down to less than one-third of its initial value.

  8. Conditioner for a helically transported electron beam

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.

    1992-05-01

    The kinetic theory is developed to investigate a conditioner for a helically imported electron beam. Linear expressions for axial velocity spread are derived. Numerical simulation is used to check the theoretical results and examine nonlinear aspects of the conditioning process. The results show that in the linear regime the action of the beam conditioner on a pulsed beam mainly depends on the phase at which the beam enters the conditioner and depends only slightly on the operating wavelength. In the nonlinear regime, however, the action of the conditioner strongly depends on the operating wavelength and only slightly upon the entrance phase. For a properly chosen operating wavelength, a little less than the electron's relativistic cyclotron wavelength, the conditioner can decrease the axial velocity spread of a pulsed beam down to less than one-third of its initial value.

  9. Conditioner for a helically transported electron beam

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.

    1992-05-01

    The kinetic theory is developed to investigate a conditioner for a helically imported electron beam. Linear expressions for axial velocity spread are derived. Numerical simulation is used to check the theoretical results and examine nonlinear aspects of the conditioning process. The results show that in the linear regime the action of the beam conditioner on a pulsed beam mainly depends on the phase at which the beam enters the conditioner and depends only slightly on the operating wavelength. In the nonlinear regime, however, the action of the conditioner strongly depends on the operating wavelength and only slightly upon the entrance phase. For a properly chosen operating wavelength, a little less than the electron`s relativistic cyclotron wavelength, the conditioner can decrease the axial velocity spread of a pulsed beam down to less than one-third of its initial value.

  10. Formulation of humic-based soil conditioners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amanova, M. A.; Mamytova, G. A.; Mamytova, B. A.; Kydralieva, K. A.; Jorobekova, Sh. J.

    2009-04-01

    The goal of the study is to prepare soil conditioners (SC) able to carry out the following functions: (i) the chemical conditioning of soil mainly comprising the adjustment of pH, (ii) the balancing of inorganic nutrients, (iii) the physical conditioning of soil mainly comprising the improvement of water permeability, air permeability and water retention properties, and (iv) improvement of the ecological system concerning of useful microorganisms activity in the soil. The SC was made of a mixture of inorganic ingredients, a chemical composition and physical and chemical properties of which promoted improvement of physical characteristic of soil and enrichment by its mineral nutritious elements. In addition to aforesaid ingredients, this soil conditioner contains agronomical-valued groups of microorganisms having the function promoting the growth of the crop. As organic component of SC humic acids (HA) was used. HA serve many major functions that result in better soil and plant health. In soil, HA can increase microbial and mycorrhizal activity while enhancing nutrient uptake by plant roots. HA work as a catalyst by stimulating root and plant growth, it may enhance enzymatic activity that in turn accelerates cell division which can lead to increased yields. HA can help to increase crop yields, seed germination, and much more. In short, humic acids helps keep healthy plants health. The first stage goal was to evaluate mineral and organic ingredients for formulation of SC. Soil conditioners assessed included ash and slag. The use of slags has been largelly used in agriculture as a source of lime and phosphoric acid. The silicic acid of slags reduces Al-acitivity thus, promoting a better assimilation of P-fertilizer by plants. Additionally, silicic acid is also known to improve soil moisture capacity, thus enhancing soil water availability to plants. Physico-chemical characteristics of ash and slag were determined, as a total - about 20 samples. Results include

  11. Identification of structural interface characteristics using component mode synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huckelbridge, A. A.; Lawrence, C.

    1987-01-01

    The inability to adequately model connections has limited the ability to predict overall system dynamic response. Connections between structural components are often mechanically complex and difficult to accurately model analytically. Improved analytical models for connections are needed to improve system dynamic predictions. This study explores combining Component Mode synthesis methods for coupling structural components with Parameter Identification procedures for improving the analytical modeling of the connections. Improvements in the connection properties are computed in terms of physical parameters so the physical characteristics of the connections can be better understood, in addition to providing improved input for the system model. Two sample problems, one utilizing simulated data, the other using experimental data from a rotor dynamic test rig are presented.

  12. Identification of structural interface characteristics using component mode synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huckelbridge, A. A.; Lawrence, C.

    1987-01-01

    The inability to adequately model connections has limited the ability to predict overall system dynamic response. Connections between structural components are often mechanically complex and difficult to accurately model analytically. Improved analytical models for connections are needed to improve system dynamic predictions. This study explores combining Component Mode synthesis methods for coupling structural components with Parameter Identification procedures for improving the analytical modeling of the connections. Improvements in the connection properties are computed in terms of physical parameters so the physical characteristics of the connections can be better understood, in addition to providing improved input for the system model. Two sample problems, one utilizing simulated data, the other using experimental data from a rotor dynamic test rig, are presented.

  13. Identification of structural interface characteristics using component mode synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huckelbridge, A. A.; Lawrence, C.

    1989-01-01

    The inability to adequately model connections has limited the ability to predict overall system dynamic response. Connections between structural components are often mechanically complex and difficult to accurately model analytically. Improved analytical models for connections are needed to improve system dynamic predictions. This study explores combining Component Mode synthesis methods for coupling structural components with Parameter Identification procedures for improving the analytical modeling of the connections. Improvements in the connection properties are computed in terms of physical parameters so the physical characteristics of the connections can be better understood, in addition to providing improved input for the system model. Two sample problems, one utilizing simulated data, the other using experimental data from a rotor dynamic test rig, are presented.

  14. Radiation characteristics of electromagnetic eigenmodes at the corrugated interface of a left-handed material.

    PubMed

    Cuevas, Mauro; Depine, Ricardo A

    2009-08-28

    We study the radiation characteristics of electromagnetic surface waves at a periodically corrugated interface between a conventional and a negatively refracting (or left-handed) material. In this case, and contrary to the surface plasmon polariton in a metallic grating, surface plasmon polaritons may radiate on both sides of the rough interface along which they propagate. We find novel radiation regimes which provide an indirect demonstration of other unusual phenomena characteristic of electromagnetic wave propagation in left-handed materials, such as negative refraction or backward wave propagation.

  15. Study on the Refrigeration Cycle of Automotive Air-Conditioner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hara, Junichiro; Honda, Itsuro; Kanazawa, Koji; Ohba, Hideki; Uemura, Masakazu

    The steady state characteristics of a refrigeration cycle for automotive air-conditioners using Freon 12 gas is studied numerically. The numerical method for the simulation of a refrigeration cycle executed on a personal computer is presented. The model for a refrigeration cycle consists of a compressor, condenser, expansion valve and evaporator. Non linear equations for pressure, temperature and refrigerant mass are calculated by the Newton-Raphson method. In particular, experimental date are employed for calculation of compressor condition and influence of refrigerator oil is considered. From the comparison with the experiment, it is made c1ear that this simulation is useful for the prediction of the performance of a refrigeration cycle. Therefore, the optimum design and the shortening of the design process for automotive air-conditioners are possible by this simulation.

  16. Characteristics of a volume-adjustable compression chamber for transradial prosthetic interface.

    PubMed

    Sang, Yuanjun; Li, Xiang; Luo, Yun

    2016-07-01

    In the transradial limb-socket contact interface, the physiological properties and prosthetic operating habits of the residual limb might affect the comfort and functionality of the prosthesis. To enhance the comfort and functionality of the interface, a frame-type socket with four volume-adjustable compression chambers was proposed for the transradial amputation level. The contact pressure of the limb-socket interface was adjusted by the volume changes in the chambers and controlled by a vacuum pump and the corresponding control system. The parameters of the chamber were designed in accordance with the biomechanics of the forearm soft tissue. The chamber with a negative stiffness characteristic was theoretically compared with the chamber with a positive stiffness characteristic. The results showed that the former had a superior performance to the latter in safety and pump performance requirements. A physical model of the transradial frame-type prosthetic interface was also manufactured with four negative stiffness chambers. The experimental results showed that this new prosthetic interface achieved more fitting time and better performance in comfort and functionality than the fixed frame-type socket. This new prosthetic interface with volume-adjustable compression chambers might be an alternative choice for transradial amputees.

  17. Linking interface quality to the current-voltage characteristic of a resonant tunneling diode

    SciTech Connect

    Hurley, J.S.

    1996-12-01

    The effect of interface quality on the current-voltage characteristic of an UBE-grown double barrier resonant tunneling (DBRT) diode is examined. The current density of a real diode is defined in terms of the current density of an ideal DBRT structure with planar interfaces and a normalized probability distribution which specifies the probability of finding at an arbitrary location on the front surface of the diode, a DBRT structure directly beneath the surface characterized by geometry, i. Differences between layer quality at inverted and normal heterointerfaces, neglected in a previous study, are now determined to significantly affect the form of the normalized distribution and ultimately the current-voltage characteristic of the real diode. Charge carriers injected into the DBRT structure are assumed to propagate coherently, and insensitive to irregularities in the structure`s interfaces.

  18. High efficiency laser spectrum conditioner

    DOEpatents

    Greiner, Norman R.

    1980-01-01

    A high efficiency laser spectrum conditioner for generating a collinear parallel output beam containing a predetermined set of frequencies from a multifrequency laser. A diffraction grating and spherical mirror are used in combination, to disperse the various frequencies of the input laser beam and direct these frequencies along various parallel lines spatially separated from one another to an apertured mask. Selection of the desired frequencies is accomplished by placement of apertures at locations on the mask where the desired frequencies intersect the mask. A recollimated parallel output beam with the desired set of frequencies is subsequently generated utilizing a mirror and grating matched and geometrically aligned in the same manner as the input grating and mirror.

  19. Low-noise pulse conditioner

    DOEpatents

    Bird, D.A.

    1981-06-16

    A low-noise pulse conditioner is provided for driving electronic digital processing circuitry directly from differentially induced input pulses. The circuit uses a unique differential-to-peak detector circuit to generate a dynamic reference signal proportional to the input peak voltage. The input pulses are compared with the reference signal in an input network which operates in full differential mode with only a passive input filter. This reduces the introduction of circuit-induced noise, or jitter, generated in ground referenced input elements normally used in pulse conditioning circuits, especially speed transducer processing circuits. This circuit may be used for conditioning the sensor signal from the Fidler coil in a gas centrifuge for separation of isotopic gaseous mixtures.

  20. Protein-Protein Interface Detection Using the Energy Centrality Relationship (ECR) Characteristic of Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Sudarshan, Sanjana; Kodathala, Sasi B.; Mahadik, Amruta C.; Mehta, Isha; Beck, Brian W.

    2014-01-01

    Specific protein interactions are responsible for most biological functions. Distinguishing Functionally Linked Interfaces of Proteins (FLIPs), from Functionally uncorrelated Contacts (FunCs), is therefore important to characterizing these interactions. To achieve this goal, we have created a database of protein structures called FLIPdb, containing proteins belonging to various functional sub-categories. Here, we use geometric features coupled with Kortemme and Baker's computational alanine scanning method to calculate the energetic sensitivity of each amino acid at the interface to substitution, identify hotspots, and identify other factors that may contribute towards an interface being FLIP or FunC. Using Principal Component Analysis and K-means clustering on a training set of 160 interfaces, we could distinguish FLIPs from FunCs with an accuracy of 76%. When these methods were applied to two test sets of 18 and 170 interfaces, we achieved similar accuracies of 78% and 80%. We have identified that FLIP interfaces have a stronger central organizing tendency than FunCs, due, we suggest, to greater specificity. We also observe that certain functional sub-categories, such as enzymes, antibody-heavy-light, antibody-antigen, and enzyme-inhibitors form distinct sub-clusters. The antibody-antigen and enzyme-inhibitors interfaces have patterns of physical characteristics similar to those of FunCs, which is in agreement with the fact that the selection pressures of these interfaces is differently evolutionarily driven. As such, our ECR model also successfully describes the impact of evolution and natural selection on protein-protein interfaces. Finally, we indicate how our ECR method may be of use in reducing the false positive rate of docking calculations. PMID:24830938

  1. Investigation on the Interface Characteristics of Al/Mg Bimetallic Castings Processed by Lost Foam Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Wenming; Li, Guangyu; Fan, Zitian; Wang, Long; Liu, Fuchu

    2016-05-01

    The lost foam casting (LFC) process was used to prepare the A356 aluminum and AZ91D magnesium bimetallic castings, and the interface characteristics of the reaction layer between aluminum and magnesium obtained by the LFC process were investigated in the present work. The results indicate that a uniform and compact interface between the aluminum and magnesium was formed. The reaction layer of the interface with an average thickness of approximately 1000 μm was mainly composed of Al3Mg2 and Al12Mg17 intermetallic compounds, including the Al3Mg2 layer adjacent to the aluminum insert, the Al12Mg17 middle layer, and the Al12Mg17 + δ eutectic layer adjacent to the magnesium base. Meanwhile, the Mg2Si intermetallic compound was also detected in the reaction layer. An oxide film mainly containing C, O, and Mg elements generated at the interface between the aluminum and magnesium, due to the decomposed residue of the foam pattern, the oxidations of magnesium and aluminum alloys as well as the reaction between the magnesium melt and the aluminum insert. The microhardness tests show that the microhardnesses at the interface were obviously higher than those of the magnesium and aluminum base metals, and the Al3Mg2 layer at the interface had a high microhardness compared with the Al12Mg17 and Al12Mg17 + δ eutectic layers, especially the eutectic layer.

  2. High Efficiency Room Air Conditioner

    SciTech Connect

    Bansal, Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    This project was undertaken as a CRADA project between UT-Battelle and Geberal Electric Company and was funded by Department of Energy to design and develop of a high efficiency room air conditioner. A number of novel elements were investigated to improve the energy efficiency of a state-of-the-art WAC with base capacity of 10,000 BTU/h. One of the major modifications was made by downgrading its capacity from 10,000 BTU/hr to 8,000 BTU/hr by replacing the original compressor with a lower capacity (8,000 BTU/hr) but high efficiency compressor having an EER of 9.7 as compared with 9.3 of the original compressor. However, all heat exchangers from the original unit were retained to provide higher EER. The other subsequent major modifications included- (i) the AC fan motor was replaced by a brushless high efficiency ECM motor along with its fan housing, (ii) the capillary tube was replaced with a needle valve to better control the refrigerant flow and refrigerant set points, and (iii) the unit was tested with a drop-in environmentally friendly binary mixture of R32 (90% molar concentration)/R125 (10% molar concentration). The WAC was tested in the environmental chambers at ORNL as per the design rating conditions of AHAM/ASHRAE (Outdoor- 95F and 40%RH, Indoor- 80F, 51.5%RH). All these modifications resulted in enhancing the EER of the WAC by up to 25%.

  3. Characteristics of turbulent/non-turbulent interfaces in wakes in stably-stratified fluidsO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Tomoaki; Riley, James; de Bruyn Kops, Stephen; Diamessis, Peter; Zhou, Qi

    2015-11-01

    The evolution of turbulent patches generated by the wake of a sphere in stably-stratified fluids is studied using direct numerical simulations. The DNS data analysis focuses on the investigation of the characteristics of turbulent/non-turbulence interfaces forming at the wake edge. Unlike the case for non-stratified fluids, because of the non-negligible enstrophy level in internal waves outside the stratified wake, enstrophy cannot be used as a marker for turbulent regions. We show that potential enstrophy is appropriate as a marker for turbulent regions in flows where both turbulence and internal waves exist. Therefore the interface is detected as an isosurface of constant potential enstrophy, and statistics can be calculated conditioned on the distance from the interface. Various quantities are examined from the wake interior to the region outside the wake, and show how the flow properties are adjusted between turbulent and non-turbulent regions near the interface. Based on the conditional analysis, we also report evidence for the strong influence of internal waves on turbulence inside the wake. ONR Grants N00014-13-1-0665 and N00014-12-1-0583; HPCMP Frontier Project FPCFD-FY14-007; JSPS KAKENHI No. 25002531.

  4. Stirling Air Conditioner for Compact Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-01

    BEETIT Project: Infinia is developing a compact air conditioner that uses an unconventional high efficient Stirling cycle system (vs. conventional vapor compression systems) to produce cool air that is energy efficient and does not rely on polluting refrigerants. The Stirling cycle system is a type of air conditioning system that uses a motor with a piston to remove heat to the outside atmosphere using a gas refrigerant. To date, Stirling systems have been expensive and have not had the right kind of heat exchanger to help cool air efficiently. Infinia is using chip cooling technology from the computer industry to make improvements to the heat exchanger and improve system performance. Infinia’s air conditioner uses helium gas as refrigerant, an environmentally benign gas that does not react with other chemicals and does not burn. Infinia’s improvements to the Stirling cycle system will enable the cost-effective mass production of high-efficiency air conditioners that use no polluting refrigerants.

  5. 46 CFR 56.15-5 - Fluid-conditioner fittings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fluid-conditioner fittings. 56.15-5 Section 56.15-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Fittings § 56.15-5 Fluid-conditioner fittings. (a) Fluid conditioner fittings certified in accordance with subpart 50.25 of...

  6. Measured Propagation Characteristics of Finite Ground Coplanar Waveguide on Silicon with a Thick Polyimide Interface Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponchak, George E.; Papapolymerou, John; Tentzeris, Emmanouil M.; Williams, W. O. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Measured propagation characteristics of Finite Ground Coplanar (FGC) waveguide on silicon substrates with resistivities spanning 3 orders of magnitude (0.1 to 15.5 Ohm cm) and a 20 micron thick polyimide interface layer is presented as a function of the FGC geometry. Results show that there is an optimum FGC geometry for minimum loss, and silicon with a resistivity of 0.1 Ohm cm has greater loss than substrates with higher and lower resistivity. Lastly, substrates with a resistivity of 10 Ohm cm or greater have acceptable loss.

  7. Flow conditioner location effects in orifice flowmeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, J. L.; Sindt, C. F.; Lewis, M. A.

    1993-01-01

    Tests sponsored by Gas Research Institute were conducted with orifice flowmeters of two nominal sizes: 104 mm and 52 mm. For the 104 mm orifice meter, the authors compared discharge coefficients measured in two common piping configurations used by laboratories to establish baseline flow conditions. The discharge coefficients are similar for beta ratios of 0.43, 0.55, and 0.67, but not for the 0.73 beta ratio plate. For other tests with the orifice meter, a 90 degree elbow or a reducer was located upstream of the orifice plate and flow conditioner. Two beta ratios (0.54, 0.67) were tested in the 52 mm orifice meter in baseline configuration and with an elbow at 17D and a flow conditioner at 12D. For many of the tests, differential pressures were measured at more than one flange tap location. Placing the flow conditioner too close to the orifice plate in either meter yields discharge coefficients below baseline values. The location of the flow conditioner with respect to the orifice plate appears to influence meter performance more significantly than the type or location of flow disturbance upstream of it.

  8. Velocity-force characteristics of an interface driven through a periodic potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ettouhami, A. M.; Radzihovsky, Leo

    2003-03-01

    We study creep dynamics of a two-dimensional interface driven through a periodic potential using dynamic renormalization-group methods. We find that the nature of weak-drive transport depends qualitatively on whether the temperature T is above or below the equilibrium roughening transition temperature Tc. Above Tc, the velocity-force characteristics are Ohmic, with linear mobility exhibiting a jump discontinuity across the transition. For T⩽Tc, the transport is highly nonlinear, exhibiting an interesting crossover in temperature and weak external force F. For intermediate drive, F>F*, we find near T-c a power-law velocity-force characteristics v(F)˜Fσ, with σ-1∝t˜, and well below Tc, v(F)˜e-(F*/F)2t˜, with t˜=(1-T/Tc). In the limit of vanishing drive (F≪F*), the velocity-force characteristics cross over to v(F)˜e-(F0/F), and are controlled by soliton nucleation.

  9. Electrochemical characteristics of ideal polarizable interfaces with limited number of charge carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Přibyl, Michal; Slouka, Zdeněk

    2015-11-01

    Recent progress in material chemistry and surface engineering has led to emergence of new electrode materials with unique physical and electrochemical properties. Here, we introduce a physical model describing charging of ideal polarizable electrode-electrolyte interface where the electrode is characterized by a limited capacity to store charge. The analytical model treats the electrode and electrolyte phases as independent nonlinear capacitors that are eventually coupled through the condition of equality of the total stored electrical charge opposite in sign. Gouy-Chapman and condensed layer theories applied to a general 1 :n valent electrolyte are used to predict dependencies of differential capacitance of the electrolyte phase and surface concentration of the electrical charge on the applied potential. The model of the nonlinear capacitor for the electrode phase is described by a theory of electron donors and acceptors present in conductive solids as a result of thermal fluctuations. Both the differential capacitance and the surface concentration of the electrical charge in the electrode are evaluated as functions of the applied potential and related to the capacity of the electrode phase to accumulate charge and its ability to form electron donors and acceptors. The knowledge of capacitive properties of both phases allows to predict electrochemical characteristics of ideal polarizable interfaces, e.g., current responses in linear sweep voltammetry. The coupled model also shows significant potential drops in the electrode comparable to those in the electrolyte phase for materials with low charge carrier concentrations.

  10. Perovskite LaFeO3/montmorillonite nanocomposites: synthesis, interface characteristics and enhanced photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Peng, Kang; Fu, Liangjie; Yang, Huaming; Ouyang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Perovskite LaFeO3/montmorillonite nanocomposites (LaFeO3/MMT) have been successfully prepared via assembling LaFeO3 nanoparticles on the surface of montmorillonite with citric acid assisted sol-gel method. The results indicated that the uniform LaFeO3 nanoparticles were densely deposited onto the surface of montmorillonite, mainly ranging in diameter from 10 nm to 15 nm. The photocatalytic activity of LaFeO3/MMT was evaluated by the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) under visible light irradiation, indicating that LaFeO3/MMT exhibited remarkable adsorption efficiency and excellent photocatalytic activity with the overall removal rate of RhB up to 99.34% after visible light irradiation lasting for 90 min. The interface characteristic and possible degradation mechanism were explored. The interface characterization of LaFeO3/MMT suggested that LaFeO3 nanoparticles could be immobilized on the surface of montmorillonite with the Si-O-Fe bonds. The abundant hydroxyl groups of montmorillonite, semiconductor photocatalysis of LaFeO3 and Fenton-like reaction could enhance the photocatalytic degradation through a synergistic effect. Therefore, the LaFeO3/MMT is a very promising photocatalyst in future industrial application to treat effectively wastewater of dyes. PMID:26778180

  11. Perovskite LaFeO3/montmorillonite nanocomposites: synthesis, interface characteristics and enhanced photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Kang; Fu, Liangjie; Yang, Huaming; Ouyang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Perovskite LaFeO3/montmorillonite nanocomposites (LaFeO3/MMT) have been successfully prepared via assembling LaFeO3 nanoparticles on the surface of montmorillonite with citric acid assisted sol-gel method. The results indicated that the uniform LaFeO3 nanoparticles were densely deposited onto the surface of montmorillonite, mainly ranging in diameter from 10 nm to 15 nm. The photocatalytic activity of LaFeO3/MMT was evaluated by the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) under visible light irradiation, indicating that LaFeO3/MMT exhibited remarkable adsorption efficiency and excellent photocatalytic activity with the overall removal rate of RhB up to 99.34% after visible light irradiation lasting for 90 min. The interface characteristic and possible degradation mechanism were explored. The interface characterization of LaFeO3/MMT suggested that LaFeO3 nanoparticles could be immobilized on the surface of montmorillonite with the Si-O-Fe bonds. The abundant hydroxyl groups of montmorillonite, semiconductor photocatalysis of LaFeO3 and Fenton-like reaction could enhance the photocatalytic degradation through a synergistic effect. Therefore, the LaFeO3/MMT is a very promising photocatalyst in future industrial application to treat effectively wastewater of dyes.

  12. Perovskite LaFeO3/montmorillonite nanocomposites: synthesis, interface characteristics and enhanced photocatalytic activity

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Kang; Fu, Liangjie; Yang, Huaming; Ouyang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Perovskite LaFeO3/montmorillonite nanocomposites (LaFeO3/MMT) have been successfully prepared via assembling LaFeO3 nanoparticles on the surface of montmorillonite with citric acid assisted sol-gel method. The results indicated that the uniform LaFeO3 nanoparticles were densely deposited onto the surface of montmorillonite, mainly ranging in diameter from 10 nm to 15 nm. The photocatalytic activity of LaFeO3/MMT was evaluated by the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) under visible light irradiation, indicating that LaFeO3/MMT exhibited remarkable adsorption efficiency and excellent photocatalytic activity with the overall removal rate of RhB up to 99.34% after visible light irradiation lasting for 90 min. The interface characteristic and possible degradation mechanism were explored. The interface characterization of LaFeO3/MMT suggested that LaFeO3 nanoparticles could be immobilized on the surface of montmorillonite with the Si-O-Fe bonds. The abundant hydroxyl groups of montmorillonite, semiconductor photocatalysis of LaFeO3 and Fenton-like reaction could enhance the photocatalytic degradation through a synergistic effect. Therefore, the LaFeO3/MMT is a very promising photocatalyst in future industrial application to treat effectively wastewater of dyes. PMID:26778180

  13. Perovskite LaFeO3/montmorillonite nanocomposites: synthesis, interface characteristics and enhanced photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Peng, Kang; Fu, Liangjie; Yang, Huaming; Ouyang, Jing

    2016-01-18

    Perovskite LaFeO3/montmorillonite nanocomposites (LaFeO3/MMT) have been successfully prepared via assembling LaFeO3 nanoparticles on the surface of montmorillonite with citric acid assisted sol-gel method. The results indicated that the uniform LaFeO3 nanoparticles were densely deposited onto the surface of montmorillonite, mainly ranging in diameter from 10 nm to 15 nm. The photocatalytic activity of LaFeO3/MMT was evaluated by the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) under visible light irradiation, indicating that LaFeO3/MMT exhibited remarkable adsorption efficiency and excellent photocatalytic activity with the overall removal rate of RhB up to 99.34% after visible light irradiation lasting for 90 min. The interface characteristic and possible degradation mechanism were explored. The interface characterization of LaFeO3/MMT suggested that LaFeO3 nanoparticles could be immobilized on the surface of montmorillonite with the Si-O-Fe bonds. The abundant hydroxyl groups of montmorillonite, semiconductor photocatalysis of LaFeO3 and Fenton-like reaction could enhance the photocatalytic degradation through a synergistic effect. Therefore, the LaFeO3/MMT is a very promising photocatalyst in future industrial application to treat effectively wastewater of dyes.

  14. Velocity-Force characteristics of a driven interface in a periodic potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ettouhami, A. M.; Radzihovsky, Leo

    2002-03-01

    We study the nonequilibrium creep dynamics of a two-dimensional interface driven through a periodic potential, using dynamical renormalization group methods. We find that the nature of transport depends qualitatively on whether the temperature, T, is above or below the equilibrium roughening transition temperature T_c. In the rough phase, the velocity-force characteristics is Ohmic, with linear mobility exhibiting a jump discontinuity across the transition. In contrast, in the smooth phase (T <= T_c), the transport is a strongly nonlinear function of the applied force, exhibiting a rich universal crossover in temperature and applied force, with an intermediate regime where v(f) ~ exp(-1/f^μ), with μ=2(1-T/T_c).

  15. Designing Novel Image Search Interfaces by Understanding Unique Characteristics and Usage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    André, Paul; Cutrell, Edward; Tan, Desney S.; Smith, Greg

    In most major search engines, the interface for image search is the same as traditional Web search: a keyword query followed by a paginated, ranked list of results. Although many image search innovations have appeared in both the literature and on the Web, few have seen widespread use in practice. In this work, we explore the differences between image and general Web search to better support users’ needs. First, we describe some unique characteristics of image search derived through informal interviews with researchers, designers, and managers responsible for building and deploying a major Web search engine. Then, we present results from a large scale analysis of image and Web search logs showing the differences in user behaviour. Grounded in these observations, we present design recommendations for an image search engine supportive of the unique experience of image search. We iterate on a number of designs, and describe a functional prototype that we built.

  16. Electrical characteristics and interface structure of magnetic tunnel junctions with hafnium oxyfluoride barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Y.Y.; Kim, D.S.; Char, K.

    2004-12-01

    We have studied the effects of fluorine inclusion on the electrical transport characteristics and interface structure of the hafnium oxide barrier in a magnetic tunnel junction. The tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) and resistance-area (RA) as a function of oxidation time show that the TMR ratio of the hafnium oxyfluoride barrier is higher (8.3%) than that of the hafnium oxide barrier (5.7%) at their optimum conditions, and the oxyfluoride barrier junctions maintain a high TMR ratio even when the RA product increases by three orders of magnitude. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis shows that the fluorine atoms in the oxyfluoride barrier play an important role in the formation of a barrier with uniform composition. We believe that the initial fluoride layer is causing the subsequent oxygen diffusion to slow down, resulting in the formation of a defect-free hafnium oxide layer. These results are consistent with what we have found for aluminum oxyfluoride barriers.

  17. Characteristics of laser ultrasound interaction with multi-layered dissimilar metals adhesive interface by numerical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kuanshuang; Zhou, Zhenggan; Zhou, Jianghua; Sun, Guangkai

    2015-10-01

    The characteristics of laser-generated ultrasonic wave interaction with multi-layered dissimilar metals adhesive interface are investigated by finite element method (FEM). The physical model of laser-generated ultrasonic wave in the multi-layered dissimilar metals adhesive structure is built. The surface temperature evolution with different laser power densities is analyzed to obtain the parameters of pulsed laser with thermoelastic regime. The differences of laser ultrasonic waves with different center frequencies measured at the center of laser irradiation would verify the interfacial features of adhesive structures. The optimum frequency range and probe point would be beneficial for the detection of the small void defect. The numerical results indicate that the different frequency range and probe points would evidently influence the identification and quantitative characterization of the small void defect. The research findings would lay a foundation for testing interfacial integrity.

  18. A first-principles study on interaction of Mg/Ni interface and its hydrogen absorption characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yuying; Dai, Jianhong; Xie, Ruiwen; Song, Yan

    2016-07-01

    We have investigated the interaction of Mg/Ni interface and its hydrogen adsorption characteristics using first-principles calculations to obtain a better understanding of the Mg/Ni interface as a hydrogen storage material. The smallest work of adhesion of Mg/Ni interface is 4.28 J/m2 with AB stacking sequence in the studied systems. Hydrogen adsorption energy and electronic structures were evaluated to study the interaction characteristics between hydrogen and Mg/Ni interface. The hydrogen adsorption is energetically favored on all considered sites. The hydrogen atom prefers to adsorb on the tetrahedral site of the Ni side of the interface owning the lowest adsorption energy. The plane-averaged charge density and the density of states analysis indicate that the absorption of hydrogen could stabilize the Mg/Ni interface owing to the strongly bonding interactions between hydrogen atom and the host Mg and Ni atoms. Therefore, Mg/Ni interface provides a promising medium for hydrogen storage.

  19. Investigation of Flow Conditioners for Compact Jet Engine Simulator Rig Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doty, Michael J.; Haskin, Henry H.

    2011-01-01

    The design requirements for two new Compact Jet Engine Simulator (CJES) units for upcoming wind tunnel testing lead to the distinct possibility of rig noise contamination. The acoustic and aerodynamic properties of several flow conditioner devices are investigated over a range of operating conditions relevant to the CJES units to mitigate the risk of rig noise. An impinging jet broadband noise source is placed in the upstream plenum of the test facility permitting measurements of not only flow conditioner self-noise, but also noise attenuation characteristics. Several perforated plate and honeycomb samples of high porosity show minimal self-noise but also minimal attenuation capability. Conversely, low porosity perforated plate and sintered wire mesh conditioners exhibit noticeable attenuation but also unacceptable self-noise. One fine wire mesh sample (DP450661) shows minimal selfnoise and reasonable attenuation, particularly when combined in series with a 15.6 percent open area (POA) perforated plate upstream. This configuration is the preferred flow conditioner system for the CJES, providing up to 20 dB of broadband attenuation capability with minimal self-noise.

  20. Field performance of the Gallagher flow conditioner

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, J.E.; LaNasa, P.J.

    1995-12-31

    This paper contains a summary of the current {open_quotes}state of the art{close_quotes} for flow conditioners, the basis for the Gallagher Flow Conditioner (GFC), and experimental results from several evaluations. Experimental results for the GFC indicate a maximum metering uncertainty of approximately plus or minus one-tenth of one percent ({+-} 0.10%) due to upstream flow disturbances for orifice meters and virtually zero for other inferential flowmeters. Experiments have been conducted at five commercial laboratories, seven field laboratories, line sizes form 25 to 460 mm (1 to 18 inch), over a Reynolds number range of 2,000 to 3,000,000, for three inferential flowmeters -orifice, turbine and vortex. The GFC has been tested in a multitude of fluid applications --- natural gas, dry air, nine different crude oils, polymer-grade ethylene, etcetera. In these applications the flowing stream has ranged from clean to very dirty. Based on independently conducted research results, it is the authors` opinions that the GFC {open_quotes}isolates{close_quotes} flowmeters from piping-induced disturbances and, thereby, allows more accurate metering of fluids flowing in pipelines. The device achieves the optimal flow conditioner objectives and maintains pseudofully developed flow in a pipe with respect to the axial position.

  1. Anomalous Inner-Gap Structure in Transport Characteristics of Superconducting Junctions with Degraded Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Zhitlukhina, E; Devyatov, I; Egorov, O; Belogolovskii, M; Seidel, P

    2016-12-01

    Quantitative description of charge transport across tunneling and break-junction devices with novel superconductors encounters some problems not present or not as severe for traditional superconducting materials. In this work, we explain unexpected features in related transport characteristics as an effect of a degraded nanoscaled sheath at the superconductor surface. A model capturing the main aspects of the ballistic charge transport across hybrid superconducting structures with normally conducting nanometer-thick interlayers is proposed. The calculations are based on a scattering formalism taking into account Andreev electron-into-hole (and inverse) reflections at normal metal-superconductor interfaces as well as transmission and backscattering events in insulating barriers between the electrodes. Current-voltage characteristics of such devices exhibit a rich diversity of anomalous (from the viewpoint of the standard theory) features, in particular shift of differential-conductance maxima at gap voltages to lower positions and appearance of well-defined dips instead expected coherence peaks. We compare our results with related experimental data. PMID:26842791

  2. Study of interface state trap density on characteristics of MOS-HEMT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Ming-Chun; Hung, Ming-Hsien; Wuu, Dong-Sing; Horng, Ray-Hua

    2015-03-01

    In this study, the effects of chemical treatment on the properties of MOS capacitors and metal-oxide-semiconductor high electron mobility transistor (MOS-HEMT) were studied. The structure consist of Al2O3/u-GaN/AlN buffer/ Si substrate and Al2O3 (10 nm)/u-AlGaN (25 nm)/u-GaN (2μm)/AlN buffer/Si substrate for MOS capacitor and MOS-HEMT device, respectively. There are four chemical treatment recipes, which consist of organic solvents, oxygen plasma, BCl3 plasma, dilute acidic solvent, hydrofluoric acid and RCA-like clean process to remove the metal ions, organic contamination and native oxide. Four different chemical treatment recipes treated the surface of u-GaN before Al2O3 was grown on the treated surface to reduce the interface state trap densities (Dit). The Dit value was calculated from measurement of C-V curve with 1M Hz frequency. The formation of interface state trap of u-GaN surface is modified by different chemical solution of varied chemical treatment recipe, which further influence the breakdown voltage (Vbk), on-resistance (Ron), threshold voltage (Vth) and drain current (Id) of MOS-HEMT. The Vth of MOS-HEMT with organic solvents clean treatment is -11.00V. The MOS-HEMT after BCl3 plasma and organic solvents clean treatment shows the lowest Vth of -9.55V. The electronic characteristics of MOS HEMT device with four different chemical treatment recipes were investigated in this article.

  3. Barrier height inhomogeneity in electrical transport characteristics of InGaN/GaN heterostructure interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Roul, Basanta; Mukundan, Shruti; Chandan, Greeshma; Mohan, Lokesh; Krupanidhi, S. B.

    2015-03-15

    We have grown InGaN/GaN heterostructures using plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy and studied the temperature dependent electrical transport characteristics. The barrier height (φ{sub b}) and the ideally factor (η) estimated using thermionic emission model were found to be temperature dependent. The conventional Richardson plot of ln(J{sub s}/T{sup 2}) versus 1/kT showed two temperature regions (region-I: 400–500 K and region-II: 200–350 K) and it provides Richardson constants (A{sup ∗}) which are much lower than the theoretical value of GaN. The observed variation in the barrier height and the presence of two temperature regions were attributed to spatial barrier inhomogeneities at the heterojunction interface and was explained by assuming a double Gaussian distribution of barrier heights with mean barrier height values 1.61 and 1.21 eV with standard deviation (σ{sub s}{sup 2}) of 0.044 and 0.022 V, respectively. The modified Richardson plot of ln(J{sub s}/T{sup 2}) − (q{sup 2}σ{sub s}{sup 2}/2k{sup 2}T{sup 2}) versus 1/kT for two temperature regions gave mean barrier height values as 1.61 eV and 1.22 eV with Richardson constants (A{sup ∗}) values 25.5 Acm{sup −2}K{sup −2} and 43.9 Acm{sup −2}K{sup −2}, respectively, which are very close to the theoretical value. The observed barrier height inhomogeneities were interpreted on the basis of the existence of a double Gaussian distribution of barrier heights at the interface.

  4. Design of rf conditioner cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Govil, R.; Rimmer, R.A.; Sessler, A.; Kirk, H.G.

    1992-06-01

    Theoretical studies are made of radio frequency structures which can be used to condition electron beams so as to greatly reduce the stringent emittance requirements for successful lasing in a free-electron laser. The basic strategy of conditioning calls for modulating an electron beam in the transverse dimension, by a periodic focusing channel, while it traverses a series of rf cavities, each operating in a TM{sub 210} mode. In this paper, we analyze the cavities both analytically and numerically (using MAFIA simulations). We find that when cylindrical symmetry is broken the coupling impedance can be greatly enhanced. We present results showing various performance characteristics as a function of cavity parameters, as well as possible designs for conditioning cavities.

  5. Cell module and fuel conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, D. Q., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Measurements of stack height changes with temperature and cell material characteristics were made. Stack 559 was assembled and components were fabricated for 560, 561, and 562. Stack 425 was transferred from the parallel DOE program and installed in the OS/IES simulation loop for mechanical and electrical testing. Construction and preliminary checkout of the 2 kW test facility was completed and design and procurement of the 8 kW test facility was initiated. The fuel conditioning subsystem design continued to evolve and the state points for the current design were calculated at full and part load conditions. Steam reforming catalyst activity tests were essentially completed and aging tests and CO shift converter tests were initiated.

  6. User-Interface Design Characteristics of Fortune 500 B2C E-Commerce Sites and Industry Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Jensen J.; Truell, Allen D.; Alexander, Melody W.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the user-interface design characteristics of 107 Fortune 500 B2C e-commerce Web sites and industry differences. Data were collected from corporate homepages, B2C product/service pages, B2C interactive shopping pages, as well as customer satisfaction of 321 online shoppers. The findings indicate that (a) to attract online…

  7. 21 CFR 870.2060 - Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner. 870.2060 Section 870.2060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner. (a) Identification. A transducer signal amplifier...

  8. 21 CFR 870.2050 - Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner. 870.2050 Section 870.2050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner. (a) Identification. A biopotential amplifier and...

  9. 21 CFR 870.2050 - Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner. 870.2050 Section 870.2050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner. (a) Identification. A biopotential amplifier and...

  10. 21 CFR 870.2060 - Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner. 870.2060 Section 870.2060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner. (a) Identification. A transducer signal amplifier...

  11. 21 CFR 870.2050 - Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner. 870.2050 Section 870.2050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner. (a) Identification. A biopotential amplifier and...

  12. 21 CFR 870.2060 - Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner. 870.2060 Section 870.2060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner. (a) Identification. A transducer signal amplifier...

  13. 21 CFR 870.2060 - Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner. 870.2060 Section 870.2060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner. (a) Identification. A transducer signal amplifier...

  14. 21 CFR 870.2050 - Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner. 870.2050 Section 870.2050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner. (a) Identification. A biopotential amplifier and...

  15. 21 CFR 870.2050 - Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner. 870.2050 Section 870.2050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... conditioner is a device used to amplify or condition an electrical signal of biologic origin....

  16. 16 CFR Appendix E to Part 305 - Room Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Room Air Conditioners E Appendix E to Part... PRODUCTS REQUIRED UNDER THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT (âAPPLIANCE LABELING RULEâ) Pt. 305, App. E Appendix E to Part 305—Room Air Conditioners Range Information Manufacturer's rated cooling capacity in...

  17. 10 CFR 429.15 - Room air conditioners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Room air conditioners. 429.15 Section 429.15 Energy... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.15 Room air conditioners. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing. (1) The requirements of § 429.11 are applicable to room air...

  18. 10 CFR 429.15 - Room air conditioners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Room air conditioners. 429.15 Section 429.15 Energy... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.15 Room air conditioners. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing. (1) The requirements of § 429.11 are applicable to room air...

  19. 10 CFR 429.15 - Room air conditioners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Room air conditioners. 429.15 Section 429.15 Energy... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.15 Room air conditioners. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing. (1) The requirements of § 429.11 are applicable to room air...

  20. Cell module and fuel conditioner development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, D. Q., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The test results of and post test analysis of Stack 559 are reported. The design features and construction status of Stacks 560, 561, 562 and 563 are described. The measurements of cell materials compressibility are rationalized and summarized and an explanation of their uses is given. Preliminary results of a manifold material/coating survey are given. The results of shift converter catalyst performance tests and reforming catalyst aging tests are reported. State points for full load and part load operation of the fuel conditioning subsystem tabulated. Work on the data base for the fuel conditioner ancillary subsystems is summarized.

  1. The application of the analog signal to discrete time interval converter to the signal conditioner power supplies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoenfeld, A. D.; Yu, Y.

    1973-01-01

    The Analog Signal to Discrete Time Interval Converter microminiaturized module was utilized to control the signal conditioner power supplies. The multi-loop control provides outstanding static and dynamic performance characteristics, exceeding those generally associated with single-loop regulators. Eight converter boards, each containing three independent dc to dc converter, were built, tested, and delivered.

  2. Propagation Characteristics of Finite Ground Coplanar Waveguide on Si Substrates With Porous Si and Polyimide Interface Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponchak, George E.; Itotia, Isaac K.; Drayton, Rhonda Franklin

    2003-01-01

    Measured and modeled propagation characteristics of Finite Ground Coplanar (FGC) waveguide fabricated on a 15 ohm-cm Si substrate with a 23 micron thick, 68% porous Si layer and a 20 micron thick polyimide interface layer are presented for the first time. Attenuation and effective permittivity as function of the FGC geometry and the bias between the center conductor and the ground planes are presented. It is shown that the porous Si reduces the attenuation by 1 dB/cm compared to FGC lines with only polyimide interface layers, and the polyimide on porous silicon demonstrates negligible bias dependence.

  3. An experimental investigation of compressor stall using an on-line distortion indicator and signal conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costakis, W. G.; Wenzel, L. M.

    1975-01-01

    The relation of the steady-state and dynamic distortions and the stall margin of a J85-13 turbojet engine was investigated. A distortion indicator capable of computing two distortion indices was used. A special purpose signal conditioner was also used as an interface between transducer signals and distortion indicator. A good correlation of steady-state distortion and stall margin was established. The prediction of stall by using the indices as instantaneous distortion indicators was not successful. A sensitivity factor that related the loss of stall margin to the turbulence level was found.

  4. A compact orifice meter/flow conditioner package

    SciTech Connect

    Karnik, U.

    1995-12-31

    Flow conditioners have been the center of attention within the natural gas industry for several years. Their importance stems from the fact that, in the presence of existing installations such as elbows, accurate orifice metering can be obtained, within a specified meter length, only if the flow non-uniformities are eliminated. The tube bundle has, thus far, proven to be ineffective in terms of repeatability and reliability. Thus, NOVA embarked on the mission to find a flow conditioner which would, within the shortest possible meter length, provide accurate and repeatable metering. Of the several flow conditioners discussed in the literature, the approach adopted by Laws, based on screen theory, is best suited to achieve the desired results. However, the Laws flow conditioner has some functional flaws, for example, the claim of a fully developed flow with no account for the effect of Reynolds number. Hence, NOVA has re-designed and modified the existing Laws flow conditioner has some functional flaws, for example, the claim of a fully developed flow with no account for the effect of Reynolds number. Hence, NOVA has re-designed and modified the existing Laws flow conditioner using screen theory. This program, initiated in 1991, has resulted in a perforated plate flow conditioner sandwiched in a meter run with an overall length of 13D.

  5. Energy savings potential in air conditioners and chiller systems

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kaya, Durmus; Alidrisi, Hisham

    2014-01-22

    In the current paper we quantified and evaluated the energy saving potential in air conditioners and chiller systems. Here, we also showed how to reduce the cost of air conditioners and chiller systems in existing facilities on the basis of payback periods. Among the measures investigated were: (1) installing higher efficiency air conditioners, (2) installing higher efficiency chillers, (3) duty cycling air conditioning units, and (4) utilizing existing economizers on air conditioning units. For each method, examples were provided from Arizona, USA. In these examples, the amount of saved energy, the financial evaluation of this energy, and the investment costmore » and pay back periods were calculated.« less

  6. Energy savings potential in air conditioners and chiller systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kaya, Durmus; Alidrisi, Hisham

    2014-01-22

    In the current paper we quantified and evaluated the energy saving potential in air conditioners and chiller systems. Here, we also showed how to reduce the cost of air conditioners and chiller systems in existing facilities on the basis of payback periods. Among the measures investigated were: (1) installing higher efficiency air conditioners, (2) installing higher efficiency chillers, (3) duty cycling air conditioning units, and (4) utilizing existing economizers on air conditioning units. For each method, examples were provided from Arizona, USA. In these examples, the amount of saved energy, the financial evaluation of this energy, and the investment cost and pay back periods were calculated.

  7. High efficiency novel window air conditioner

    SciTech Connect

    Bansal, Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the technical development of a high efficiency window air conditioner. In order to achieve higher energy efficiency ratio (EER), the original capacity of the R410A unit was downgraded by replacing the original compressor with a lower capacity but higher EER compressor, while all heat exchangers and the chassis from the original unit were retained. The other subsequent major modifications included – the AC fan motor being replaced with a brushless high efficiency electronically commuted motor (ECM) motor, the capillary tube being replaced with a needle valve to better control the refrigerant flow and refrigerant set points, and R410A being replaced with drop-in environmentally friendly binary mixture of R32 (85% molar concentration)/R125 (15% molar concentration). All these modifications resulted in significant EER enhancement of the modified unit.

  8. High efficiency novel window air conditioner

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bansal, Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the technical development of a high efficiency window air conditioner. In order to achieve higher energy efficiency ratio (EER), the original capacity of the R410A unit was downgraded by replacing the original compressor with a lower capacity but higher EER compressor, while all heat exchangers and the chassis from the original unit were retained. The other subsequent major modifications included – the AC fan motor being replaced with a brushless high efficiency electronically commuted motor (ECM) motor, the capillary tube being replaced with a needle valve to better control the refrigerant flow and refrigerant set points, andmore » R410A being replaced with drop-in environmentally friendly binary mixture of R32 (85% molar concentration)/R125 (15% molar concentration). All these modifications resulted in significant EER enhancement of the modified unit.« less

  9. Investigating Effect of Conditioner Aggressiveness on Removal Rate during Interlayer Dielectric Chemical Mechanical Planarization through Confocal Microscopy and Dual Emission Ultraviolet-Enhanced Fluorescence Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ting; Borucki, Len; Zhuang, Yun; Sampurno, Yasa; Sudargho, Fransisca; Wei, Xiaomin; Anjur, Sriram; Philipossian, Ara

    2010-02-01

    The effect of conditioner aggressiveness is investigated in interlayer dielectric polishing on three types of pad. A method using confocal microscopy is used to analyze the effect of conditioner aggressiveness on pad-wafer contact. Results show that a more aggressive conditioner produces a higher interlayer dielectric polishing rate while at the same time a pad surface with fewer contacting summits and less contact area. It is found that the ratio of the contacting summit density to the contact area fraction is more important than either parameter measured separately since the ratio determines the mean real contact pressure. Modeling results based on contact area measurements agree well with experimental results. Moreover, it is found that a more aggressive disc also generates a thicker slurry film at the pad-wafer interface. This is in agreement with our general findings regarding pad asperity height distribution obtained using confocal microscopy.

  10. Improving Air-Conditioner and Heat Pump Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Winkler, Jon

    2012-03-02

    This presentation describes a new approach to modeling residential air conditioners and heat pumps, which allows users to model systems by specifying only the more readily-available SEER/EER/HSPF-type metrics. Manufacturer data was used to generate full sets of model inputs for over 450 heat pumps and air conditioners. A sensitivity analysis identified which inputs can be safely defaulted “behind-the-scenes” without negatively impacting the reliability of energy simulations.

  11. Improving Air-Conditioner and Heat Pump Modeling (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Winkler, J.

    2012-03-01

    A new approach to modeling residential air conditioners and heat pumps allows users to model systems by specifying only the more readily-available SEER/EER/HSPF-type metrics. Manufacturer data was used to generate full sets of model inputs for over 450 heat pumps and air conditioners. A sensitivity analysis identified which inputs can be safely defaulted 'behind-the-scenes' without negatively impacting the reliability of energy simulations.

  12. Lemongrass-Incorporated Tissue Conditioner Against Candida albicans Culture

    PubMed Central

    Amornvit, Pokpong; Srithavaj, Theerathavaj

    2014-01-01

    Background: Tissue conditioner is applied popularly with dental prosthesis during wound healing process but it becomes a reservoir of oral microbiota, especially Candida species after long-term usage. Several antifungal drugs have been mixed with this material to control fungal level. In this study, lemongrass essential oil was added into COE-COMFORT tissue conditioner before being determined for anti-Candida efficacy. Materials and Methods: Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oil was primarily determined for antifungal activity against C. albicans American type culture collection (ATCC) 10231 and MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) value by agar disk diffusion and broth microdilution methods, respectively. COE-COMFORT tissue conditioner was prepared as recommended by the manufacturer after a fixed volume of the oil at its MIC or higher concentrations were mixed thoroughly in its liquid part. Antifungal efficacy of the tissue conditioner with/without herb was finally analyzed. Results: Lemongrass essential oil displayed potent antifungal activity against C. albicans ATCC 10231and its MIC value was 0.06% (v/v). Dissimilarly, the tissue conditioner containing the oil at MIC level did not cease the growth of the tested fungus. Both reference and clinical isolates of C. albicans were completely inhibited after exposed to the tissue conditioner containing at least 0.25% (v/v) of the oil (approximately 4-time MIC). The tissue conditioner without herb or with nystatin was employed as negative or positive control, respectively. Conclusion: COE-COMFORT tissue conditioner supplemented with lemongrass essential oil obviously demonstrated another desirable property as in vitro anti-Candida efficacy to minimize the risk of getting Candidal infection. PMID:25177638

  13. Characteristics of the turbulent/non-turbulent interface of a non-isothermal jet.

    PubMed

    Westerweel, Jerry; Petracci, Alberto; Delfos, René; Hunt, Julian C R

    2011-02-28

    The turbulent/non-turbulent interface of a jet is characterized by sharp jumps ('discontinuities') in the conditional flow statistics relative to the interface. Experiments were carried out to measure the conditional flow statistics for a non-isothermal jet, i.e. a cooled jet. These experiments are complementary to previous experiments on an isothermal Re=2000 jet, where, in the present experiments on a non-isothermal jet, the thermal diffusivity is intermediate to the diffusivity of momentum and the diffusivity of mass. The experimental method is a combined laser-induced fluorescence/particle image velocimetry method, where a temperature-sensitive fluorescent dye (rhodamine 6G) is used to measure the instantaneous temperature fluctuations. The results show that the cooled jet can be considered to behave like a self-similar jet without any significant buoyancy effects. The detection of the interface is based on the instantaneous temperature, and provides a reliable means to detect the interface. Conditional flow statistics reveal the superlayer jump in the conditional vorticity and in the temperature.

  14. An expert system shell for inferring vegetation characteristics: Interface for the addition of techniques (Task H)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, P. Ann

    1993-01-01

    All the NASA VEGetation Workbench (VEG) goals except the Learning System provide the scientist with several different techniques. When VEG is run, rules assist the scientist in selecting the best of the available techniques to apply to the sample of cover type data being studied. The techniques are stored in the VEG knowledge base. The design and implementation of an interface that allows the scientist to add new techniques to VEG without assistance from the developer were completed. A new interface that enables the scientist to add techniques to VEG without assistance from the developer was designed and implemented. This interface does not require the scientist to have a thorough knowledge of Knowledge Engineering Environment (KEE) by Intellicorp or a detailed knowledge of the structure of VEG. The interface prompts the scientist to enter the required information about the new technique. It prompts the scientist to enter the required Common Lisp functions for executing the technique and the left hand side of the rule that causes the technique to be selected. A template for each function and rule and detailed instructions about the arguments of the functions, the values they should return, and the format of the rule are displayed. Checks are made to ensure that the required data were entered, the functions compiled correctly, and the rule parsed correctly before the new technique is stored. The additional techniques are stored separately from the VEG knowledge base. When the VEG knowledge base is loaded, the additional techniques are not normally loaded. The interface allows the scientist the option of adding all the previously defined new techniques before running VEG. When the techniques are added, the required units to store the additional techniques are created automatically in the correct places in the VEG knowledge base. The methods file containing the functions required by the additional techniques is loaded. New rule units are created to store the new rules

  15. A brine interface in the Salton Sea Geothermal System, California: Fluid geochemical and isotopic characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, A.E.; McKibben, M.A. )

    1989-08-01

    Data from 71 geothermal production intervals in 48 wells from the Salton Sea Geothermal System (SSGS) indicate that fluids in that system cluster into two distinct populations in terms of their salinity and their stable isotopic compositions. The distinctive, hot, hypersaline brine (typically >20 wt% total dissolved solids) for which the SSGS is known is overlain by a cooler (<260{degree}C) fluid with distinctly lower salinity (typically <10 wt% total dissolved solids). Hypersaline brines have high and rather consistent {sup 18}O shifts produced by water-rock interaction and have a very narrow range in {delta}D values. Low TDS fluids, on the other hand, show a wide range in both {delta}D and {delta}{sup 18}O. production of both types of fluid from closely spaced geothermal wells in many regions of the SSGS indicates that a relatively sharp salinity interface exists over much of the field. The fluid interface typically cross-cuts sedimentary bedding but is consistently found where reservoir temperatures are approximately 260{degree}C. At these temperatures, hypersaline brines have densities of approximately 1.0 gm/cm{sup 3}, while the low TDS fluids have densities as low as 0.85 gm/cm{sup 3}. This stable, density-stratified interface acts as a barrier to convective heat and mass transfer in the SSGS, isolating the hypersaline reservoir from overlying dilute fluids. A lithologic cap implied by previous SSGS models is unnecessary in such a stratified system since heat and mass transfer across the interface must occur by slow conductive, diffusional and interface mixing processes regardless of local permeability.

  16. Embedding Quantum into Classical: Contextualization vs Conditionalization

    PubMed Central

    Dzhafarov, Ehtibar N.; Kujala, Janne V.

    2014-01-01

    We compare two approaches to embedding joint distributions of random variables recorded under different conditions (such as spins of entangled particles for different settings) into the framework of classical, Kolmogorovian probability theory. In the contextualization approach each random variable is “automatically” labeled by all conditions under which it is recorded, and the random variables across a set of mutually exclusive conditions are probabilistically coupled (imposed a joint distribution upon). Analysis of all possible probabilistic couplings for a given set of random variables allows one to characterize various relations between their separate distributions (such as Bell-type inequalities or quantum-mechanical constraints). In the conditionalization approach one considers the conditions under which the random variables are recorded as if they were values of another random variable, so that the observed distributions are interpreted as conditional ones. This approach is uninformative with respect to relations between the distributions observed under different conditions because any set of such distributions is compatible with any distribution assigned to the conditions. PMID:24681665

  17. B and F Signal Conditioner Checkout Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magleby, Alyssa; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    ATK Thiokol Propulsion, Test Services uses B&F Signal Conditioning units to provide excitation power and shunt calibration information to the data recording systems. Gage measurements such as force, temperature, pressure, strain, etc. are recorded using this equipment. Approximately 2500 reusable instrumentation B&F Signal Conditioning units were purchased over an interval from 1978 to 1988 at a cost of around $1000 each. Through use and over time, the relay contacts on the signal conditioning mode cards have become corroded, resulting in excessive contact resistance. This causes inaccurate and inconsistent calibration data and could jeopardize the test results. These signal conditioning cards are needed for product testing for an estimated five more years, therefore, it is necessary to develop a solution to isolate the malfunctioning units for repair. The current screening method requires Test Area technicians to check cards manually, however the connections and measurements required for this process are inefficient and time consuming. To resolve this problem, funding was approved to design and build two B&F Signal Conditioner Checkout Units. Each unit will allow technicians to test relay contact resistance on signal conditioning mode cards before they are installed for data collection procedures. This tool will allow Test Area to resolve calibration accuracy problems and extend the life of the data acquisition equipment, as well as save troubleshooting time for the technicians.

  18. The effects of the pedestal/floor interface on the dynamic characteristics of the storage ring girder support assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Jendrzejczyk, J.A.; Chen, S.S.; Zhu, S.; Mangra, D.; Smith, R.K.

    1993-05-01

    To avoid unacceptable vibration of the storage ring quadrupoles, and to ensure that the established vibration criteria are satisfied, the philosophy from inception of the APS has been (1) to locate and design the machine to minimize motion of the storage ring basemat and, (2) following construction, to monitor machine operation and user experiments to ensure that vibration sources are not introduced. This report addresses the design of the storage ring girder support assemblies, and, specifically, the effect of the pedestal/floor interface on the dynamic characteristics (i.e., resonant frequencies, damping, and mode shape).

  19. Interface interactions of osteoblasts with structured titanium and the correlation between physicochemical characteristics and cell biological parameters.

    PubMed

    Nebe, J G Barbara; Luethen, Frank; Lange, Regina; Beck, Ulrich

    2007-05-10

    Cellular behavior at the interface of an implant is influenced by the material's topography. However, little is known about the correlation between the biological parameters and the physicochemical characteristics of the biomaterial. We therefore modified pure titanium surfaces by polishing, machining, blasting with glass spheres, blasting with corundum particles, and vacuum plasma spraying to give progressively higher surface roughness. The material surface was characterized by SEM, surface profiling, and electrochemical methods. We revealed a correlation for integrin expression and formation, adhesion, spreading, proliferation, and bone sialo protein expression with the physicochemical parameters of the titanium surfaces. PMID:17457937

  20. The platinum microelectrode/Nafion interface - An electrochemical impedance spectroscopic analysis of oxygen reduction kinetics and Nafion characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parthasarathy, Arvind; Dave, Bhasker; Srinivasan, Supramaniam; Appleby, John A.; Martin, Charles R.

    1992-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to use electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) to study the oxygen-reduction reaction under lower humidification conditions than previously studied. The EIS technique permits the discrimination of electrode kinetics of oxygen reduction, mass transport of O2 in the membrane, and the electrical characteristics of the membrane. Electrode-kinetic parameters for the oxygen-reduction reaction, corrosion current densities for Pt, and double-layer capacitances were calculated. The production of water due to electrochemical reduction of oxygen greatly influenced the EIS response and the electrode kinetics at the Pt/Nafion interface. From the finite-length Warburg behavior, a measure of the diffusion coefficient of oxygen in Nafion and diffusion-layer thickness was obtained. An analysis of the EIS data in the high-frequency domain yielded membrane and interfacial characteristics such as ionic conductivity of the membrane, membrane grain-boundary capacitance and resistance, and uncompensated resistance.

  1. Characteristics of hybrid compact stars with a sharp hadron-quark interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alford, Mark G.; Han, Sophia

    2016-03-01

    We describe two aspects of the physics of hybrid stars that have a sharp interface between a core of quark matter and a mantle of nuclear matter. Firstly, we analyze the mass-radius relation. We describe a generic "Constant-Speed-of-Sound" (CSS) parameterization of the quark matter equation of state (EoS), in which the speed of sound is independent of density. In terms of the three parameters of the CSS EoS we obtain the phase diagram of possible forms of the hybrid star mass-radius relation, and we show how observational constraints on the maximum mass and typical radius of neutron stars can be expressed as constraints on the CSS parameters. Secondly, we propose a mechanism for the damping of density oscillations, including r-modes, in hybrid stars with a sharp interface. The dissipation arises from the periodic conversion between quark matter and nuclear matter induced by the pressure oscillations in the star. We find the damping grows nonlinearly with the amplitude of the oscillation and is powerful enough to saturate an r-mode at very low saturation amplitude, of order 10^{-10} , which is compatible with currently available observations of neutron star spin frequencies and temperatures.

  2. Characteristics of hybrid compact stars with a sharp hadron-quark interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Sophia; Alford, Mark

    2015-10-01

    We describe two aspects of the physics of hybrid stars that have a sharp interface between a core of quark matter and a mantle of nuclear matter. Firstly, we analyze the mass-radius relation. We describe a generic ``CSS'' parameterization of the quark matter equation of state (EoS), in which the speed of sound is independent of density. In terms of the three parameters of the CSS EoS we obtain the phase diagram of possible forms of the hybrid star mass-radius relation, and we show how observational constraints on the maximum mass and typical radius of neutron stars can be expressed as constraints on the CSS parameters. Secondly, we propose a mechanism for the damping of density oscillations, including r-modes, in hybrid stars with a sharp interface. The dissipation arises from the periodic conversion between quark matter and nuclear matter induced by the pressure oscillations in the star. We find the damping grows nonlinearly with the amplitude of the oscillation and is powerful enough to saturate an r-mode at very low saturation amplitude, of order 10-10, which is compatible with currntly-available observations of neutron star spin frequencies and temperatures.

  3. Spectra of conditionalization and typicality in the multiverse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azhar, Feraz

    2016-02-01

    An approach to testing theories describing a multiverse, that has gained interest of late, involves comparing theory-generated probability distributions over observables with their experimentally measured values. It is likely that such distributions, were we indeed able to calculate them unambiguously, will assign low probabilities to any such experimental measurements. An alternative to thereby rejecting these theories, is to conditionalize the distributions involved by restricting attention to domains of the multiverse in which we might arise. In order to elicit a crisp prediction, however, one needs to make a further assumption about how typical we are of the chosen domains. In this paper, we investigate interactions between the spectra of available assumptions regarding both conditionalization and typicality, and draw out the effects of these interactions in a concrete setting; namely, on predictions of the total number of species that contribute significantly to dark matter. In particular, for each conditionalization scheme studied, we analyze how correlations between densities of different dark matter species affect the prediction, and explicate the effects of assumptions regarding typicality. We find that the effects of correlations can depend on the conditionalization scheme, and that in each case atypicality can significantly change the prediction. In doing so, we demonstrate the existence of overlaps in the predictions of different "frameworks" consisting of conjunctions of theory, conditionalization scheme and typicality assumption. This conclusion highlights the acute challenges involved in using such tests to identify a preferred framework that aims to describe our observational situation in a multiverse.

  4. Air-conditioner filters enriching dust mites allergen

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Xiaodong; Li, Chaopin; Xu, Haifeng; Xu, Pengfei; Zhu, Haibin; Diao, Jidong; Li, Na; Zhao, Beibei

    2015-01-01

    We detected the concentration of dust mites allergen (Der f1 & Der p1) in the air of different places before and after the starting of air-conditioners in Wuhu City, Anhui, China, and to discuss the relation between the dust mites allergen in air-conditioner filters and the asthma attack. The dust samples were collected from the air-conditioner filters in dining rooms, shopping malls, hotels and households respectively. Concentrations of dust mites major group allergen 1 (Der f 1, Der p1) were detected with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the dust mite immune activities were determined by dot-ELISA. The concentration of Der f1 in dining rooms, shopping malls, hotels and households was 1.52 μg/g, 1.24 μg/g, 1.31 μg/g and 1.46 μg/g respectively, and the concentration of Der p1 in above-mentioned places was 1.23 μg/g, 1.12 μg/g, 1.16 μg/g and 1.18 μg/g respectively. The concentration of Der f1 & Der p1 in air was higher after the air-conditioners starting one hours later, and the difference was significant (P<0.05, respectively). Additionally, dot-ELISA findings revealed that the allergen extracted from the dust was capable of reacting with IgE from the sera of asthma mice allergic to dust mites. The study concludes that air-conditioner filters can enrich dust mites major group allergen, and the allergens can induce asthma. The air-conditioner filters shall be cleaned or replaced regularly to prevent or reduce accumulation of the dust mites and its allergens. PMID:26064381

  5. Air-conditioner filters enriching dust mites allergen.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Xiaodong; Li, Chaopin; Xu, Haifeng; Xu, Pengfei; Zhu, Haibin; Diao, Jidong; Li, Na; Zhao, Beibei

    2015-01-01

    We detected the concentration of dust mites allergen (Der f1 & Der p1) in the air of different places before and after the starting of air-conditioners in Wuhu City, Anhui, China, and to discuss the relation between the dust mites allergen in air-conditioner filters and the asthma attack. The dust samples were collected from the air-conditioner filters in dining rooms, shopping malls, hotels and households respectively. Concentrations of dust mites major group allergen 1 (Der f 1, Der p1) were detected with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the dust mite immune activities were determined by dot-ELISA. The concentration of Der f1 in dining rooms, shopping malls, hotels and households was 1.52 μg/g, 1.24 μg/g, 1.31 μg/g and 1.46 μg/g respectively, and the concentration of Der p1 in above-mentioned places was 1.23 μg/g, 1.12 μg/g, 1.16 μg/g and 1.18 μg/g respectively. The concentration of Der f1 & Der p1 in air was higher after the air-conditioners starting one hours later, and the difference was significant (P<0.05, respectively). Additionally, dot-ELISA findings revealed that the allergen extracted from the dust was capable of reacting with IgE from the sera of asthma mice allergic to dust mites. The study concludes that air-conditioner filters can enrich dust mites major group allergen, and the allergens can induce asthma. The air-conditioner filters shall be cleaned or replaced regularly to prevent or reduce accumulation of the dust mites and its allergens. PMID:26064381

  6. 48 CFR 52.223-12 - Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... and Air Conditioners. 52.223-12 Section 52.223-12 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Provisions and Clauses 52.223-12 Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners. As prescribed in 23.804(b), insert the following clause: Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners (MAY 1995) The Contractor...

  7. 48 CFR 52.223-12 - Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... and Air Conditioners. 52.223-12 Section 52.223-12 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Provisions and Clauses 52.223-12 Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners. As prescribed in 23.804(b), insert the following clause: Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners (MAY 1995) The Contractor...

  8. 48 CFR 52.223-12 - Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... and Air Conditioners. 52.223-12 Section 52.223-12 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Provisions and Clauses 52.223-12 Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners. As prescribed in 23.804(b), insert the following clause: Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners (MAY 1995) The Contractor...

  9. 48 CFR 52.223-12 - Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... and Air Conditioners. 52.223-12 Section 52.223-12 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Provisions and Clauses 52.223-12 Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners. As prescribed in 23.804(b), insert the following clause: Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners (MAY 1995) The Contractor...

  10. 48 CFR 52.223-12 - Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... and Air Conditioners. 52.223-12 Section 52.223-12 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Provisions and Clauses 52.223-12 Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners. As prescribed in 23.804(b), insert the following clause: Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners (MAY 1995) The Contractor...

  11. 21 CFR 872.3750 - Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner. 872... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3750 Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner. (a) Identification. A bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner is a...

  12. 16 CFR Appendix H to Part 305 - Cooling Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Conditioners (Cooling Only): All capacities 10.6 16.5 Heat Pumps (Cooling Function): All capacities 10.6 16.0 Split System Units Central Air Conditioners (Cooling Only): All capacities 10.9 23.0 Heat Pumps (Cooling... Conditioners H Appendix H to Part 305 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER...

  13. 16 CFR Appendix H to Part 305 - Cooling Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Conditioners (Cooling Only): All capacities 10.6 16.5 Heat Pumps (Cooling Function): All capacities 10.6 16.0 Split System Units Central Air Conditioners (Cooling Only): All capacities 10.9 23.0 Heat Pumps (Cooling... Conditioners H Appendix H to Part 305 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER...

  14. 21 CFR 872.3750 - Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner. 872... and tooth conditioner. (a) Identification. A bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner is a device... to a tooth surface. (b) Classification. Class II....

  15. 21 CFR 872.3750 - Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner. 872... and tooth conditioner. (a) Identification. A bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner is a device... to a tooth surface. (b) Classification. Class II....

  16. 21 CFR 872.3750 - Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner. 872... and tooth conditioner. (a) Identification. A bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner is a device... to a tooth surface. (b) Classification. Class II....

  17. Excellent resistive memory characteristics and switching mechanism using a Ti nanolayer at the Cu/TaOx interface

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Excellent resistive switching memory characteristics were demonstrated for an Al/Cu/Ti/TaOx/W structure with a Ti nanolayer at the Cu/TaOx interface under low voltage operation of ± 1.5 V and a range of current compliances (CCs) from 0.1 to 500 μA. Oxygen accumulation at the Ti nanolayer and formation of a defective high-κ TaOx film were confirmed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy. The resistive switching memory characteristics of the Al/Cu/Ti/TaOx/W structure, such as HRS/LRS (approximately 104), stable switching cycle stability (>106) and multi-level operation, were improved compared with those of Al/Cu/TaOx/W devices. These results were attributed to the control of Cu migration/dissolution by the insertion of a Ti nanolayer at the Cu/TaOx interface. In contrast, CuOx formation at the Cu/TaOx interface was observed in an Al/Cu/TaOx/W structure, which hindered dissolution of the Cu filament and resulted in a small resistance ratio of approximately 10 at a CC of 500 μA. A high charge-trapping density of 6.9 × 1016 /cm2 was observed in the Al/Cu/Ti/TaOx/W structure from capacitance-voltage hysteresis characteristics, indicating the migration of Cu ions through defect sites. The switching mechanism was successfully explained for structures with and without the Ti nanolayer. By using a new approach, the nanoscale diameter of Cu filament decreased from 10.4 to 0.17 nm as the CC decreased from 500 to 0.1 μA, resulting in a large memory size of 7.6 T to 28 Pbit/sq in. Extrapolated 10-year data retention of the Ti nanolayer device was also obtained. The findings of this study will not only improve resistive switching memory performance but also aid future design of nanoscale nonvolatile memory. PMID:22734564

  18. Structural and topographical characteristics of adsorbed WPI and monoglyceride mixed monolayers at the air-water interface.

    PubMed

    Patino, Juan M Rodríguez; Fernández, Marta Cejudo

    2004-05-25

    In this work we have analyzed the structural and topographical characteristics of mixed monolayers formed by an adsorbed whey protein isolate (WPI) and a spread monoglyceride monolayer (monopalmitin or monoolein) on the previously adsorbed protein film. Measurements of the surface pressure (pi)-area (A) isotherm were obtained at 20 degrees C and at pH 7 for protein-adsorbed films from water in a Wilhelmy-type film balance. Since the surface concentration (1/A) is actually unknown for the adsorbed monolayer, the values were derived by assuming that the A values for adsorbed and spread monolayers were equal at the collapse point of the mixed film. The pi-A isotherm deduced for adsorbed WPI monolayer in this work is practically the same as that obtained directly by spreading. For WPI-monoglyceride mixed films, the pi-A isotherms for adsorbed and spread monolayers at pi higher than the equilibrium surface pressure of WPI are practically coincident, a phenomenon which may be attributed to the protein displacement by the monoglyceride from the interface. At lower surface pressures, WPI and monoglyceride coexist at the interface and the adsorbed and spread pi-A isotherms (i.e., the monolayer structure of the mixed films) are different. Monopalmitin has a higher capacity than monoolein for the displacement of protein from the air-water interface. However, some degree of interactions exists between proteins and monoglycerides and these interactions are higher for adsorbed than for spread films. The topography of the monolayer corroborates these conclusions.

  19. On the Structural and Chemical Characteristics of Co/Al2O3/graphene Interfaces for Graphene Spintronic Devices

    PubMed Central

    Canto, Bárbara; Gouvea, Cristol P.; Archanjo, Bráulio S.; Schmidt, João E.; Baptista, Daniel L.

    2015-01-01

    We report a detailed investigation of the structural and chemical characteristics of thin evaporated Al2O3 tunnel barriers of variable thickness grown onto single-layer graphene sheets. Advanced electron microscopy and spectrum-imaging techniques were used to investigate the Co/Al2O3/graphene/SiO2 interfaces. Direct observation of pinhole contacts was achieved using FIB cross-sectional lamellas. Spatially resolved EDX spectrum profiles confirmed the presence of direct point contacts between the Co layer and the graphene. The high surface diffusion properties of graphene led to cluster-like Al2O3 film growth, limiting the minimal possible thickness for complete barrier coverage onto graphene surfaces using standard Al evaporation methods. The results indicate a minimum thickness of nominally 3 nm Al2O3, resulting in a 0.6 nm rms rough film with a maximum thickness reaching 5 nm. PMID:26395513

  20. On the Structural and Chemical Characteristics of Co/Al2O3/graphene Interfaces for Graphene Spintronic Devices.

    PubMed

    Canto, Bárbara; Gouvea, Cristol P; Archanjo, Bráulio S; Schmidt, João E; Baptista, Daniel L

    2015-01-01

    We report a detailed investigation of the structural and chemical characteristics of thin evaporated Al2O3 tunnel barriers of variable thickness grown onto single-layer graphene sheets. Advanced electron microscopy and spectrum-imaging techniques were used to investigate the Co/Al2O3/graphene/SiO2 interfaces. Direct observation of pinhole contacts was achieved using FIB cross-sectional lamellas. Spatially resolved EDX spectrum profiles confirmed the presence of direct point contacts between the Co layer and the graphene. The high surface diffusion properties of graphene led to cluster-like Al2O3 film growth, limiting the minimal possible thickness for complete barrier coverage onto graphene surfaces using standard Al evaporation methods. The results indicate a minimum thickness of nominally 3 nm Al2O3, resulting in a 0.6 nm rms rough film with a maximum thickness reaching 5 nm. PMID:26395513

  1. On the Structural and Chemical Characteristics of Co/Al2O3/graphene Interfaces for Graphene Spintronic Devices.

    PubMed

    Canto, Bárbara; Gouvea, Cristol P; Archanjo, Bráulio S; Schmidt, João E; Baptista, Daniel L

    2015-09-23

    We report a detailed investigation of the structural and chemical characteristics of thin evaporated Al2O3 tunnel barriers of variable thickness grown onto single-layer graphene sheets. Advanced electron microscopy and spectrum-imaging techniques were used to investigate the Co/Al2O3/graphene/SiO2 interfaces. Direct observation of pinhole contacts was achieved using FIB cross-sectional lamellas. Spatially resolved EDX spectrum profiles confirmed the presence of direct point contacts between the Co layer and the graphene. The high surface diffusion properties of graphene led to cluster-like Al2O3 film growth, limiting the minimal possible thickness for complete barrier coverage onto graphene surfaces using standard Al evaporation methods. The results indicate a minimum thickness of nominally 3 nm Al2O3, resulting in a 0.6 nm rms rough film with a maximum thickness reaching 5 nm.

  2. Energy Impacts of Oversized Residential Air Conditioners -- Simulation Study of Retrofit Sequence Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Booten, C.; Christensen, C.; Winkler, J.

    2014-11-01

    This research addresses the question of what are the energy consequences for oversizing of an air conditioner in a home. Conventional wisdom holds that oversizing the AC results in significant energy penalties. However, the reason for this was shown to be due to crankcase heaters and not due to cycling performance of the AC, and is only valid for a particular set of assumptions. Adding or removing individual characteristics, such as ducts or crankcase heaters, can have measurable impacts on energy use. However, with all other home characteristics held constant, oversizing the AC generally has a small effect on cooling energy use, even if the cycling performance of the unit is poor. The relevant aspects of air conditioner modeling are discussed to illustrate the effects of the cycling loss coefficient, Cd, capacity, climate, ducts and parasitic losses such as crankcase heaters. A case study of a typical 1960's vintage home demonstrates results in the context of whole building simulations using EnergyPlus.

  3. Tribological characteristics of few-layer graphene over Ni grain and interface boundaries.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Manoj; Awaja, Firas; Paolicelli, Guido; Bartali, Ruben; Iacob, Erica; Valeri, Sergio; Ryu, Seunghwa; Signetti, Stefano; Speranza, Giorgio; Pugno, Nicola Maria

    2016-03-28

    The tribological properties of metal-supported few-layered graphene depend strongly on the grain topology of the metal substrate. Inhomogeneous distribution of graphene layers at such regions led to variable landscapes with distinguishable roughness. This discrepancy in morphology significantly affects the frictional and wetting characteristics of the FLG system. We discretely measured friction characteristics of FLG covering grains and interfacial grain boundaries of polycrystalline Ni metal substrate via an atomic force microscopy (AFM) probe. The friction coefficient of FLG covered at interfacial grain boundaries is found to be lower than that on grains in vacuum (at 10(-5) Torr pressure) and similar results were obtained in air condition. Sliding history with AFM cantilever, static and dynamic pull-in and pull-off adhesion forces were addressed in the course of friction measurements to explain the role of the out-of-plane deformation of graphene layer(s). Finite element simulations showed good agreement with experiments and led to a rationalization of the observations. Thus, with interfacial grain boundaries the FLG tribology can be effectively tuned. PMID:26948836

  4. Monitoring and evaluation of replacing low-efficiency air conditioners with high-efficiency air conditioners in single-family detached houses in Austin, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, R.; Hough, R.E. and Associates, Inc., Syracuse, NY )

    1991-10-01

    The US DOE initiated this project to evaluate the performance of an air conditioner retrofit program in Austin, Texas. The City's Austin's Resource Management Department pursued this project to quantify the retrofit effect of replacing low-efficiency air conditioners with high-efficiency air conditioners in single-family detached homes. If successfully implemented, this retrofit program could help defer construction of a new power plant which is a major goal of this department. The project compares data collected from 12 houses during two cooling seasons under pre-retrofit and then post-retrofit air conditioner units. The existing low-efficiency air conditioners were monitored during the 1987 cooling season, replaced during the 1987--88 heating season with new, smaller sized, high-efficiency units, and then monitored again during the 1988 cooling season. Results indicated that the air conditioner retrofits reduce the annual air conditioner electric consumption and peak electric demand by an average of 38%. When normalized to the nominal capacity of the air conditioner, average demand savings were 1.12 W/ft{sup 2} and estimated annual energy savings were 1.419 kWh/ft{sup 2}. Individual air conditioner power requirements were found to be a well defined function of outdoor temperature as expected. In the absence of detailed data, estimates of the peak demand reductions of new air conditioners can be made from the manufacturer's specifications. Air conditioner energy consumption proved to be strongly linear as a function of the outdoor temperature as expected when taken as an aggregate. No noticeable differences in the diversity factor of the air conditioner usage were found. Analysis of the retrofit effect using PRISM yields estimates of the reduction in normalized annual consumption (NAC) and annual cooling consumption of 12% and 30%. 2 refs., 11 figs., 17 tabs.

  5. Tribological characteristics of few-layer graphene over Ni grain and interface boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, Manoj; Awaja, Firas; Paolicelli, Guido; Bartali, Ruben; Iacob, Erica; Valeri, Sergio; Ryu, Seunghwa; Signetti, Stefano; Speranza, Giorgio; Pugno, Nicola Maria

    2016-03-01

    The tribological properties of metal-supported few-layered graphene depend strongly on the grain topology of the metal substrate. Inhomogeneous distribution of graphene layers at such regions led to variable landscapes with distinguishable roughness. This discrepancy in morphology significantly affects the frictional and wetting characteristics of the FLG system. We discretely measured friction characteristics of FLG covering grains and interfacial grain boundaries of polycrystalline Ni metal substrate via an atomic force microscopy (AFM) probe. The friction coefficient of FLG covered at interfacial grain boundaries is found to be lower than that on grains in vacuum (at 10-5 Torr pressure) and similar results were obtained in air condition. Sliding history with AFM cantilever, static and dynamic pull-in and pull-off adhesion forces were addressed in the course of friction measurements to explain the role of the out-of-plane deformation of graphene layer(s). Finite element simulations showed good agreement with experiments and led to a rationalization of the observations. Thus, with interfacial grain boundaries the FLG tribology can be effectively tuned.The tribological properties of metal-supported few-layered graphene depend strongly on the grain topology of the metal substrate. Inhomogeneous distribution of graphene layers at such regions led to variable landscapes with distinguishable roughness. This discrepancy in morphology significantly affects the frictional and wetting characteristics of the FLG system. We discretely measured friction characteristics of FLG covering grains and interfacial grain boundaries of polycrystalline Ni metal substrate via an atomic force microscopy (AFM) probe. The friction coefficient of FLG covered at interfacial grain boundaries is found to be lower than that on grains in vacuum (at 10-5 Torr pressure) and similar results were obtained in air condition. Sliding history with AFM cantilever, static and dynamic pull-in and pull

  6. Development of vehicle magnetic air conditioner (VMAC) technology. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gschneidner, Karl A., Jr.; Pecharsky, V.K.; Jiles, David; Zimm, Carl B.

    2001-08-28

    The objective of Phase I was to explore the feasibility of the development of a new solid state refrigeration technology - magnetic refrigeration - in order to reduce power consumption of a vehicle air conditioner by 30%. The feasibility study was performed at Iowa State University (ISU) together with Astronautics Corporation of America Technology Center (ACATC), Madison, WI, through a subcontract with ISU.

  7. Domestic Refrigeration, Freezer, and Window Air Conditioner Service. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemons, Mark

    This curriculum guide contains six units of instruction for a course in domestic refrigerator, freezer, and window air conditioner service. The units cover the following topics: (1) service fundamentals; (2) mechanical components and functions; (3) electrical components and control devices; (4) refrigerator and freezer service; (5) domestic ice…

  8. Transforming PC Power Supplies into Smart Car Battery Conditioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez-Ascariz, J. M.; Boquete-Vazquez, L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a laboratory project consisting of a PC power supply modification into an intelligent car-battery conditioner with both wireless and wired networking capabilities. Adding a microcontroller to an average PC power supply transforms it into a flexible, intelligent device that can be configured and that is suitable to keep car…

  9. 21 CFR 882.1845 - Physiological signal conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Physiological signal conditioner. 882.1845 Section 882.1845 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... integrator or differentiator used to modify physiological signals for recording and processing....

  10. 21 CFR 882.1845 - Physiological signal conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Physiological signal conditioner. 882.1845 Section 882.1845 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... integrator or differentiator used to modify physiological signals for recording and processing....

  11. 21 CFR 882.1845 - Physiological signal conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Physiological signal conditioner. 882.1845 Section 882.1845 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... integrator or differentiator used to modify physiological signals for recording and processing....

  12. 21 CFR 870.2060 - Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner. 870.2060 Section 870.2060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices §...

  13. Contraction pre-conditioner in finite-difference electromagnetic modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yavich, Nikolay; Zhdanov, Michael S.

    2016-09-01

    This paper introduces a novel approach to constructing an effective pre-conditioner for finite-difference (FD) electromagnetic modelling in geophysical applications. This approach is based on introducing an FD contraction operator, similar to one developed for integral equation formulation of Maxwell's equation. The properties of the FD contraction operator were established using an FD analogue of the energy equality for the anomalous electromagnetic field. A new pre-conditioner uses a discrete Green's function of a 1-D layered background conductivity. We also developed the formulae for an estimation of the condition number of the system of FD equations pre-conditioned with the introduced FD contraction operator. Based on this estimation, we have established that the condition number is bounded by the maximum conductivity contrast between the background conductivity and actual conductivity. When there are both resistive and conductive anomalies relative to the background, the new pre-conditioner is advantageous over using the 1-D discrete Green's function directly. In our numerical experiments with both resistive and conductive anomalies, for a land geoelectrical model with 1:10 contrast, the method accelerates convergence of an iterative method (BiCGStab) by factors of 2-2.5, and in a marine example with 1:50 contrast, by a factor of 4.6, compared to direct use of the discrete 1-D Green's function as a pre-conditioner.

  14. Laboratory Performance Testing of Residential Window Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Winkler, J.; Booten, C.; Christensen, D.; Tomerlin, J.

    2013-03-01

    Window air conditioners are the dominant cooling product for residences, in terms of annual unit sales. They are inexpensive, portable and can be installed by the owner. For this reason, they are an attractive solution for supplemental cooling, for retrofitting air conditioning into a home which lacks ductwork, and for renters. Window air conditioners for sale in the United States are required to meet very modest minimum efficiency standards. Four window air conditioners' performance were tested in the Advanced HVAC Systems Laboratory on NREL's campus in Golden, CO. In order to separate and study the refrigerant system's performance, the unit's internal leakage pathways, the unit's fanforced ventilation, and the leakage around the unit resulting from installation in a window, a series of tests were devised that focused on each aspect of the unit's performance. These tests were designed to develop a detailed performance map to determine whole-house performance in different climates. Even though the test regimen deviated thoroughly from the industry-standard ratings test, the results permit simple calculation of an estimated rating for both capacity and efficiency that would result from a standard ratings test. Using this calculation method, it was found that the three new air conditioners' measured performance was consistent with their ratings. This method also permits calculation of equivalent SEER for the test articles. Performance datasets were developed across a broad range of indoor and outdoor operating conditions, and used them to generate performance maps.

  15. Flow conditioner location effects in orifice flowmeters. Technical note

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, J.L.; Sindt, C.F.; Lewis, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    Tests sponsored by Gas Research Institute were conducted with orifice flowmeters of two nominal sizes: 104 mm (4 in) and 52 mm (2 in). For the 104 mm orifice meter the authors compared discharge coefficients measured in two common piping configurations used by laboratories to establish baseline flow conditions. The discharge coefficients are similar for beta ratios of 0.43, 0.55, and 0.67, but not for the 0.73 beta ratio plate. For other tests with the orifice meter, a 90 degree elbow or a reducer was located upstream of the orifice plate and flow conditioner. Two beta ratios (0.54, 0.67) were tested in the 52 mm orifice meter in baseline configuration and with an elbow at 17D and a flow conditioner at 12D. For many of the tests, differential pressures were measured at more than one flange tap location. Placing the flow conditioner too close to the orifice plate in either meter yields discharge coefficients below baseline values. The location of the flow conditioner with respect to the orifice plate appears to influence meter performance more significantly than the type or location of flow disturbance upstream of it.

  16. Innovative use of adhesive interface characteristics to nondestructively quantify the strength of bonded joints.

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, Dennis Patrick; Duvall, Randy L.; Rackow, Kirk A.

    2010-05-01

    critical characteristics of weak bonds such as nonlinear responses, poor transmission of shear waves, and changes in response to stiffness-based interrogations. This paper will present several ongoing efforts that have identified promising methods for quantifying bond strength and discuss some completed studies that provide a foundation for further evolution in weak bond assessments.

  17. Phase Characteristics of 1-Monopalmitoyl-rac-glycerol Monolayers at the Air/Water Interface.

    PubMed

    Vollhardt, D; Brezesinski, G

    2016-07-26

    1-Monopalmitoyl-rac-glycerol is omnipresent in numerous biological and applied systems. Systematic GIXD measurements of 1-monopalmitoyl-rac-glycerol monolayers are carried out over a large pressure interval at 5, 10, and 15 °C to construct the phase diagram on the basis of reliable 2D lattice structures. These studies are complemented by other monolayer characteristics, such as π-A isotherms and mesoscopic domain topographies. A phase transition is found between the two orthorhombic structures with NN and NNN tilted alkyl chains at low temperatures (5 and 10 °C). It increases linearly with increasing temperature. With a further increase in temperature to 15 °C, only NN-tilted orthorhombic lattices are observed in the whole pressure region. The cross-sectional area, A0, is less affected by surface pressure and temperature and amounts to values of between 19.7 and 19.8 Å(2), as expected for a rotator phase at the lower limit. The tilt angle t with respect to the surface normal decreases with increasing pressure and is only slightly influenced by the temperature. The transition pressure to untilted alkyl chains, as determined by the extrapolation of 1/cos(t) to zero tilt angle, is >50 mN/m for all temperatures. The results of lattice distortion d versus sin 2(t) suggest for 10 and 15 °C the tilt of the aliphatic chains as the reason for the monolayer lattice distortion whereas at 5 °C the nonzero-tilt-angle intercept d0 could be an indication of the prevention of hexagonal packing. The generic π-T phase diagram of racemic monoacylglycerol monolayers is constructed on the basis of the phase diagrams of 1-monopalmitoyl-rac-glycerol and 1-monostearoyl-rac-glycerol, which shows that for 1-monopalmitoyl-rac-glycerol monolayers the oblique phase can occur only close to and below 0 °C. The possible phase behavior of other racemic monoacylglycerol monolayers with alkyl chain lengths of C14 and C20 is discussed on the basis of the generic phase diagram. PMID:27351635

  18. Self-accommodation of B19' martensite in Ti-Ni shape memory alloys - Part II. Characteristic interface structures between habit plane variants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishida, M.; Okunishi, E.; Nishiura, T.; Kawano, H.; Inamura, T.; S., Ii; Hara, T.

    2012-06-01

    Four characteristic interface microstructures between habit plane variants (HPVs) in the self-accommodation morphologies of B19‧ martensite in Ti-Ni alloys have been investigated by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). The straight interface of a ? B19‧ type I twin is present at interface I. The relaxation of the transformation strain at interface II is achieved by a volume reduction of the minor correspondence variants (CVs) in the relevant habit plane variants (HPVs). The relaxation of the transformation strain at interface III is mainly due to the formation of a ? B19‧ type I twin between the two major CVs. Subsequently, local strain around the tips of the minor CVs perpendicular to the interface is released by the formation of micro-twins with the ⟨011⟩B19‧ type II and/or ? B19‧ type I relation. The major and minor CVs in each HPV are alternately connected through fine variants with the ? B19‧ type I twin relation parallel to interface IV. The results are compared with macroscopic observations and the predictions of PTMC analysis.

  19. Bacterial counts associated with sawdust and recycled manure bedding treated with commercial conditioners.

    PubMed

    Hogan, J S; Bogacz, V L; Thompson, L M; Romig, S; Schoenberger, P S; Weiss, W P; Smith, K L

    1999-08-01

    Bacteria counts associated with untreated organic bedding materials were compared with those of bedding treated with either an alkaline commercial bedding conditioner, acidic commercial bedding conditioner, or hydrated lime. Bedding materials were recycled manure and kiln-dried sawdust. The effects of bedding treatments on bacteria counts differed between bedding types. Each of the bedding treatments significantly reduced bacteria in recycled manure prior to use. The alkaline conditioner and hydrated lime effectively inhibited bacteria in recycled manure for 1 d. Bedding counts and teat swabs of cows housed on recycled manure treated with the alkaline conditioner were reduced on d 2. The use of the acid conditioner in recycled manure had little effect on bacteria in bedding. Sawdust differed from recycled manure in that bacteria in untreated sawdust prior to use were minimal, and populations increased rapidly during the first 2 d after use as bedding. The acid conditioner had a bacteriostatic effect in sawdust, evident by the reduction of bacteria on d 2. The alkaline conditioner and hydrated lime did not alter bacteria counts in sawdust compared with untreated sawdust. Antibacterial activity of each conditioner deteriorated between d 2 and d 6 in both beddings. The antibacterial activities of conditioners were related to the pH of bedding materials. The use of commercial bedding conditioners initially reduced bacterial counts; however, the antibacterial effects had diminished between d 2 and 6 after use in bedding. PMID:10480094

  20. On the propagation of concentration polarization from microchannel-nanochannel interfaces. Part I: Analytical model and characteristic analysis.

    PubMed

    Mani, Ali; Zangle, Thomas A; Santiago, Juan G

    2009-04-01

    We develop two models to describe ion transport in variable-height micro- and nanochannels. For the first model, we obtain a one-dimensional (unsteady) partial differential equation governing flow and charge transport through a shallow and wide electrokinetic channel. In this model, the effects of electric double layer (EDL) on axial transport are taken into account using exact solutions of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation. The second simpler model, which is approachable analytically, assumes that the EDLs are confined to near-wall regions. Using a characteristics analysis, we show that the latter model captures concentration polarization (CP) effects and provides useful insight into its dynamics. Two distinct CP regimes are identified: CP with propagation in which enrichment and depletion shocks propagate outward, and CP without propagation where polarization effects stay local to micro- nanochannel interfaces. The existence of each regime is found to depend on a nanochannel Dukhin number and mobility of the co-ion nondimensionalized by electroosmotic mobility. Interestingly, microchannel dimensions and axial diffusion are found to play an insignificant role in determining whether CP propagates. The steady state condition of propagating CP is shown to be controlled by channel heights, surface chemistry, and co-ion mobility instead of the reservoir condition. Both models are validated against experimental results in Part II of this two-paper series.

  1. Assessment of Environmentally Friendly Refrigerants for Window Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Bansal, Pradeep; Shen, Bo

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents technical assessment of environmentally friendly refrigerants for window air conditioners that currently use refrigerant R410A for residential and commercial applications. The alternative refrigerants that are studied for its replacement include R32, R600a, R290, R1234yf, R1234ze and a mixture of R32 (90% molar concentration) and R125 (10% molar concentration). Baseline experiments were performed on a window unit charged with R410A. The ORNL Heat Pump Design Model was calibrated with the baseline data and was used to assess the comparative performance of the WAC with alternative refrigerants. The paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of each refrigerants and their suitability for window air conditioners.

  2. Analysis of Environmentally Friendly Refrigerant Options for Window Air Conditioners

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bansal, Pradeep; Shen, Bo

    2015-03-12

    This paper presents a technical assessment of environmentally friendly refrigerants as alternatives to R410A for window air conditioners. The alternative refrigerants that are studied for its replacement include R32, a mixture of R32/R125 with 90%/10% molar concentration, R600a, R290, R1234yf, R1234ze and R134a. Baseline experiments were performed on a window unit charged with R410A. The heat pump design model (HPDM) was modified and calibrated with the baseline data and was used to evaluate the comparative performance of the WAC with alternative refrigerants. The paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of each refrigerants and their suitability for window air conditioners. Amongmore » all the refrigerants studied, R32 offers the best efficiency and the lowest Global Warming Potential (GWP), and hence its use will result in the overall environmental friendliness.« less

  3. Analysis of Environmentally Friendly Refrigerant Options for Window Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Bansal, Pradeep; Shen, Bo

    2015-03-12

    This paper presents a technical assessment of environmentally friendly refrigerants as alternatives to R410A for window air conditioners. The alternative refrigerants that are studied for its replacement include R32, a mixture of R32/R125 with 90%/10% molar concentration, R600a, R290, R1234yf, R1234ze and R134a. Baseline experiments were performed on a window unit charged with R410A. The heat pump design model (HPDM) was modified and calibrated with the baseline data and was used to evaluate the comparative performance of the WAC with alternative refrigerants. The paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of each refrigerants and their suitability for window air conditioners. Among all the refrigerants studied, R32 offers the best efficiency and the lowest Global Warming Potential (GWP), and hence its use will result in the overall environmental friendliness.

  4. Advanced Signal Conditioners for Data-Acquisition Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucena, Angel; Perotti, Jose; Eckhoff, Anthony; Medelius, Pedro

    2004-01-01

    Signal conditioners embodying advanced concepts in analog and digital electronic circuitry and software have been developed for use in data-acquisition systems that are required to be compact and lightweight, to utilize electric energy efficiently, and to operate with high reliability, high accuracy, and high power efficiency, without intervention by human technicians. These signal conditioners were originally intended for use aboard spacecraft. There are also numerous potential terrestrial uses - especially in the fields of aeronautics and medicine, wherein it is necessary to monitor critical functions. Going beyond the usual analog and digital signal-processing functions of prior signal conditioners, the new signal conditioner performs the following additional functions: It continuously diagnoses its own electronic circuitry, so that it can detect failures and repair itself (as described below) within seconds. It continuously calibrates itself on the basis of a highly accurate and stable voltage reference, so that it can continue to generate accurate measurement data, even under extreme environmental conditions. It repairs itself in the sense that it contains a micro-controller that reroutes signals among redundant components as needed to maintain the ability to perform accurate and stable measurements. It detects deterioration of components, predicts future failures, and/or detects imminent failures by means of a real-time analysis in which, among other things, data on its present state are continuously compared with locally stored historical data. It minimizes unnecessary consumption of electric energy. The design architecture divides the signal conditioner into three main sections: an analog signal section, a digital module, and a power-management section. The design of the analog signal section does not follow the traditional approach of ensuring reliability through total redundancy of hardware: Instead, following an approach called spare parts tool box, the

  5. Development and Analysis of Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioner Prototype

    SciTech Connect

    Kozubal, E.; Woods, J.; Judkoff, R.

    2012-04-01

    This report documents the design of a desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVAP AC) prototype and the testing to prove its performance. Previous numerical modeling and building energy simulations indicate a DEVAP AC can save significant energy compared to a conventional vapor compression AC (Kozubal et al. 2011). The purposes of this research were to build DEVAP prototypes, test them to validate the numerical model, and identify potential commercialization barriers.

  6. Development of a solar-powered residential air conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The initial objective of the program was the optimization (in terms of cost and performance) of a Rankine cycle mechanical refrigeration system which utilizes thermal energy from a flat solar collector for air conditioning residential buildings. However, feasibility investigations of the adsorption process revealed that a dessicant-type air conditioner offers many significant advantages. As a result, limited efforts were expended toward the optimization of such a system.

  7. Dimensional stability and weight changes of tissue conditioners.

    PubMed

    Murata, H; Kawamura, M; Hamada, T; Saleh, S; Kresnoadi, U; Toki, K

    2001-10-01

    The dimensional stability of tissue conditioners characterizes the ability of the materials to yield accurate functional impressions of oral mucosa. This study evaluated the linear dimensional changes with time of six tissue conditioners (COE Comfort, FITT, GC Soft-Liner, Hydro-Cast, SR-Ivoseal and Visco-Gel) using a travelling microscope, and relationship between these changes and weight changes. The absorption and solubility of these materials were also determined. The percentage changes in dimension and weight in water storage were measured at 2 (baseline), 8 and 24 h, and 2, 4, 7, 14 and 21 days after specimen preparation. All materials except SR-Ivoseal exhibited shrinkage and weight loss during water storage, whilst SR-Ivoseal exhibited expansion and an increase in weight. The percentage solubility for all materials except SR-Ivoseal was higher than the percentage absorption. A positive linear relationship was found between the percentage changes in linear dimension and those in weight (r=0.797 - 0.986, P < 0.05). Water absorption and solubility of the materials were found to be associated with dimensional changes. The results suggest that the period recommended for forming functional impressions would be 24 h after insertion in the mouth. In addition, it is important to select tissue conditioners suitable for functional impressions because of the wide ranges of dimensional stability among the materials. PMID:11737562

  8. Dimensional stability and weight changes of tissue conditioners.

    PubMed

    Murata, H; Kawamura, M; Hamada, T; Saleh, S; Kresnoadi, U; Toki, K

    2001-10-01

    The dimensional stability of tissue conditioners characterizes the ability of the materials to yield accurate functional impressions of oral mucosa. This study evaluated the linear dimensional changes with time of six tissue conditioners (COE Comfort, FITT, GC Soft-Liner, Hydro-Cast, SR-Ivoseal and Visco-Gel) using a travelling microscope, and relationship between these changes and weight changes. The absorption and solubility of these materials were also determined. The percentage changes in dimension and weight in water storage were measured at 2 (baseline), 8 and 24 h, and 2, 4, 7, 14 and 21 days after specimen preparation. All materials except SR-Ivoseal exhibited shrinkage and weight loss during water storage, whilst SR-Ivoseal exhibited expansion and an increase in weight. The percentage solubility for all materials except SR-Ivoseal was higher than the percentage absorption. A positive linear relationship was found between the percentage changes in linear dimension and those in weight (r=0.797 - 0.986, P < 0.05). Water absorption and solubility of the materials were found to be associated with dimensional changes. The results suggest that the period recommended for forming functional impressions would be 24 h after insertion in the mouth. In addition, it is important to select tissue conditioners suitable for functional impressions because of the wide ranges of dimensional stability among the materials.

  9. Determining benefits and costs of improved central air conditioner efficiencies

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenquist, G.; Levok, A.; Chan, P.; McMahon, J.

    2001-01-12

    Economic impacts on individual consumers from possible revisions to U.S. residential-type central air conditioner energy-efficiency standards are examined using a life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis. LCC is the consumer's cost of purchasing and installing a central air conditioner and operating it over its lifetime. This approach makes it possible to evaluate the economic impacts on individual consumers from the revised standards. The methodology allows an examination of groups of the population which benefit or lose from suggested efficiency standards. The results show that the economic benefits to consumers due to modest increases in efficiency are significant. For an efficiency increase of 20percent over the existing minimum standard (i.e., 12 SEER), 35percent of households with central air conditioners experience significant LCC savings, with an average savings of $453, while 25percent show significant LCC losses, with an average loss of $158 compared to apre-standard LCC average of $5,170. The remainder of the population (40percent) are largely unaffected.

  10. Bonding characteristics of the √3°√3 Ag/Si interface identified by the energy dependence of the photoionization cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, J.-J.; Bertness, K. A.; Cao, R.; Hwang, J.; Lindau, I.

    1987-02-01

    Synchrotron-radiation photoemission of the metal-semiconductor interface has a unique advantage in identifying the bonding characteristics of the rehybridized orbitals between the metal and the semiconductor. By varying the photon energy and measuring the magnitude of the photoionization cross section, the bonding peak at the metal-semiconductor interface can be identified as being formed with or without hybridization with the metal's d orbitals. The latter case is clearly illustrated by the annealed Ag/Si(111) interface. A sharp structure at 3.8 eV below the Fermi level grows as a result of annealing of the Ag/Si(111) interface. This structure is also accompanied by the formation of the √3 × √3 (R30°) low-energy electron diffraction pattern and the narrowing of the Ag 4d band signal. Since the so-called Cooper-minimum effect is not observed for this annealing-induced peak, it is concluded that the structure does not have 4d-orbital characteristics within the regime of the theory of linear combination of atomic orbitals. This is the direct evidence to show that the Ag 4d band does not hybridize with the substrate Si sp3 orbitals in forming Ag-Si bonds after high-temperature annealing. Judging from the photoionization cross-section variation, it can instead be inferred that the sharp structure has mostly Ag 5s or 5p and Si sp characteristics. The methodology shown here can be extended to other metal-semiconductor interfaces and can provide information on the bonding formation of the metal atoms and the semiconductor substrate. This is important in discussing metal-semiconductor interfaces but difficult to obtain unambiguously with other techniques and in theoretical predictions.

  11. Modeling of a second-generation solar-driven Rankine air conditioner. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Denius, M.W.; Batton, W.D.

    1984-07-01

    Ten configurations of a second-generation (2G), solar-powered, Rankine-driven air conditioner were simulated and the data presented for use in companion studies. The results of the analysis show that the boiling-in-collector (BIC) configuration generates more power per collector area than the other configurations. The models used to simulate the configuration are presented in this report. The generated data are also presented. Experimental work was done under this study to both improve a novel refrigerant and oil lubrication system for the centrifugal compressor and investigate the aerodynamic unloading characteristics of the centrifugal compressor. The information generated was used to define possible turbo-gearbox configurations for use in the second generation computer simulation.

  12. Bonding characteristics of the. sqrt. 3-script. sqrt. 3 Ag/Si interface identified by the energy dependence of the photoionization cross section

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, J.; Bertness, K.A.; Cao, R.; Hwang, J.; Lindau, I.

    1987-02-15

    Synchrotron-radiation photoemission of the metal-semiconductor interface has a unique advantage in identifying the bonding characteristics of the rehybridized orbitals between the metal and the semiconductor. By varying the photon energy and measuring the magnitude of the photoionization cross section, the bonding peak at the metal-semiconductor interface can be identified as being formed with or without hybridization with the metal's d orbitals. The latter case is clearly illustrated by the annealed Ag/Si(111) interface. A sharp structure at 3.8 eV below the Fermi level grows as a result of annealing of the Ag/Si(111) interface. This structure is also accompanied by the formation of the ..sqrt..3 x ..sqrt..3 (R30/sup 0/) low-energy electron diffraction pattern and the narrowing of the Ag 4d band signal. Since the so-called Cooper-minimum effect is not observed for this annealing-induced peak, it is concluded that the structure does not have 4d-orbital characteristics within the regime of the theory of linear combination of atomic orbitals. This is the direct evidence to show that the Ag 4d band does not hybridize with the substrate Si sp/sup 3/ orbitals in forming Ag: Si bonds after high-temperature annealing. Judging from the photoionization cross-section variation, it can instead be inferred that the sharp structure has mostly Ag 5s or 5p and Si sp characteristics. The methodology shown here can be extended to other metal-semiconductor interfaces and can provide information on the bonding formation of the metal atoms and the semiconductor substrate.

  13. Response to ``Comment on `Broadening of metal-oxide-semiconductor admittance characteristics: Measurement, sources, and its effects on interface state density analyses''' [J. Appl. Phys. 112, 076101 (2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paterson, G. W.; Long, A. R.

    2012-10-01

    In our opinion, there are a number of inconsistencies in the Comment by Basile and Mooney. These include the significance of the donor response in the formation of a dip in the low temperature C-V characteristics, the degree to which the donors respond to the ac signal at low temperature, and the explanation of the low temperature broadening as resulting from interface state response.

  14. Locally produced natural conditioners for dewatering of faecal sludge.

    PubMed

    Gold, Moritz; Dayer, Pauline; Faye, Marie Christine Amie Sene; Clair, Guillaume; Seck, Alsane; Niang, Seydou; Morgenroth, Eberhard; Strande, Linda

    2016-11-01

    In urban areas of low-income countries, treatment of faecal sludge (FS) is insufficient or non-existent. This results in large amounts of FS being dumped into the environment. Existing treatment technologies for FS, such as settling-thickening tanks and drying beds, are land intensive which is limiting in urban areas. Enhanced settling and dewatering by conditioning was evaluated in order to reduce the treatment footprint (or increase treatment capacity). Conventional wastewater conditioners, such as commercially available lime and polymers, are expensive, and commonly rely on complex supply chains for use in low-income countries. Therefore, the treatment performance of five conditioners which could be produced locally was evaluated: Moringa oleifera seeds and press cake, Jatropha curcas seeds, Jatropha Calotropis leaves and chitosan. M. oleifera seeds and press cake, and chitosan improved settling and dewatering and had a similar performance compared to lime and polymers. Optimal dosages were 400-500 kg M. oleifera/t TS, 300-800 kg lime/t TS and 25-50 kg polymer solution/t TS. In comparison, chitosan required 1.5-3.75 kg/t TS. These dosages are comparable to those recommended for wastewater (sludge). The results indicate that conditioning of FS can reduce total suspended solids (TSS) in the effluent of settling-thickening tanks by 22-81% and reduce dewatering time with drying beds by 59-97%. This means that the area of drying beds could be reduced by 59-97% with end-use as soil conditioner, or 9-26% as solid fuel. Least expensive options and availability will depend on the local context. In Dakar, Senegal, chitosan produced from shrimp waste appears to be most promising. PMID:26984372

  15. Locally produced natural conditioners for dewatering of faecal sludge

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Moritz; Dayer, Pauline; Faye, Marie Christine Amie Sene; Clair, Guillaume; Seck, Alsane; Niang, Seydou; Morgenroth, Eberhard; Strande, Linda

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In urban areas of low-income countries, treatment of faecal sludge (FS) is insufficient or non-existent. This results in large amounts of FS being dumped into the environment. Existing treatment technologies for FS, such as settling-thickening tanks and drying beds, are land intensive which is limiting in urban areas. Enhanced settling and dewatering by conditioning was evaluated in order to reduce the treatment footprint (or increase treatment capacity). Conventional wastewater conditioners, such as commercially available lime and polymers, are expensive, and commonly rely on complex supply chains for use in low-income countries. Therefore, the treatment performance of five conditioners which could be produced locally was evaluated: Moringa oleifera seeds and press cake, Jatropha curcas seeds, Jatropha Calotropis leaves and chitosan. M. oleifera seeds and press cake, and chitosan improved settling and dewatering and had a similar performance compared to lime and polymers. Optimal dosages were 400–500 kg M. oleifera/t TS, 300–800 kg lime/t TS and 25–50 kg polymer solution/t TS. In comparison, chitosan required 1.5–3.75 kg/t TS. These dosages are comparable to those recommended for wastewater (sludge). The results indicate that conditioning of FS can reduce total suspended solids (TSS) in the effluent of settling-thickening tanks by 22–81% and reduce dewatering time with drying beds by 59–97%. This means that the area of drying beds could be reduced by 59–97% with end-use as soil conditioner, or 9–26% as solid fuel. Least expensive options and availability will depend on the local context. In Dakar, Senegal, chitosan produced from shrimp waste appears to be most promising. PMID:26984372

  16. 10 CFR 431.92 - Definitions concerning commercial air conditioners and heat pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... heat pumps. 431.92 Section 431.92 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps § 431.92 Definitions concerning commercial air conditioners and heat pumps. The following definitions...

  17. 10 CFR 431.92 - Definitions concerning commercial air conditioners and heat pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... heat pumps. 431.92 Section 431.92 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps § 431.92 Definitions concerning commercial air conditioners and heat pumps. The following definitions...

  18. 16 CFR Appendix H to Part 305 - Cooling Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Manufacturer's rated cooling capacities (Btu's/hr.) Range of SEER's Low High Single Package Units Central Air Conditioners (Cooling Only): All capacities 10.6 16.5 Heat Pumps (Cooling Function): All capacities 10.6 16.0 Split System Units Central Air Conditioners (Cooling Only): All capacities 10.9 23.0 Heat Pumps...

  19. 16 CFR Appendix H to Part 305 - Cooling Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... for Central Air Conditioners Manufacturer's rated cooling capacities (Btu's/hr.) Range of SEER's Low High Single Package Units Central Air Conditioners (Cooling Only): All capacities 10.6 16.5 Heat Pumps...): All capacities 10.9 23.0 Heat Pumps (Cooling Function): All capacities 10.9 21.0...

  20. Polysaccharide (guar) as a soil conditioner. [Cyamopsis tetragonoloba

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, A.

    1986-05-01

    The author tested a polysaccharide (guar) derived from guar bean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L. Taub.) was tested in soil flocculation tests and found that use of acid solutions to fully dissolve the guar leads to more effective soil conditioning than otherwise would be possible, and that guar does not lead to strong water-stable aggregates. Larger quantities were needed to improve emergence and growth of plants in a glasshouse than for synthetic soil conditioners. The effects of soil conditioning with guar did not last long.

  1. 10 CFR 431.96 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial air conditioners and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps Test Procedures § 431.96 Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial air conditioners and heat pumps. (a) Scope. This section contains test... efficiency of commercial air conditioners and heat pumps. 431.96 Section 431.96 Energy DEPARTMENT OF...

  2. Huffing air conditioner fluid: a cool way to die?

    PubMed

    Phatak, Darshan R; Walterscheid, Jeffrey

    2012-03-01

    "Huffing," the form of substance abuse involving inhalants, is growing in popularity because of the ease and availability of chemical inhalants in many household products. The purpose in huffing is to achieve euphoria when the chemicals in question interact with the central nervous system in combination with oxygen displacement. The abuser is lulled into a false sense of safety despite the well-documented potential for lethal cardiac arrhythmia and the effects of chronic inhalant abuse, including multisystem organ failure, and brain damage. Huffing air conditioner fluid is a growing problem given the accessibility to outdoor units and their fluid components, such as difluorochloromethane(chlorodifluoromethane, Freon), and we have classified multiple cases of accidental death due to the toxicity of difluorochloromethane. Given the ubiquity of these devices and the vast lack of gating or security devices, they make an inviting target for inhalant abusers. Acute huffing fatalities have distinct findings that are present at the scene, given the position of the decedent and proximity to the air conditioner unit. The purpose of the autopsy in these cases is to exclude other potential causes of death and to procure specimens for toxicological analysis.

  3. Huffing air conditioner fluid: a cool way to die?

    PubMed

    Phatak, Darshan R; Walterscheid, Jeffrey

    2012-03-01

    "Huffing," the form of substance abuse involving inhalants, is growing in popularity because of the ease and availability of chemical inhalants in many household products. The purpose in huffing is to achieve euphoria when the chemicals in question interact with the central nervous system in combination with oxygen displacement. The abuser is lulled into a false sense of safety despite the well-documented potential for lethal cardiac arrhythmia and the effects of chronic inhalant abuse, including multisystem organ failure, and brain damage. Huffing air conditioner fluid is a growing problem given the accessibility to outdoor units and their fluid components, such as difluorochloromethane(chlorodifluoromethane, Freon), and we have classified multiple cases of accidental death due to the toxicity of difluorochloromethane. Given the ubiquity of these devices and the vast lack of gating or security devices, they make an inviting target for inhalant abusers. Acute huffing fatalities have distinct findings that are present at the scene, given the position of the decedent and proximity to the air conditioner unit. The purpose of the autopsy in these cases is to exclude other potential causes of death and to procure specimens for toxicological analysis. PMID:22442834

  4. Shampoo and Conditioners: What a Dermatologist Should Know?

    PubMed Central

    D'Souza, Paschal; Rathi, Sanjay K

    2015-01-01

    Dermatologists many a times encounter questions from patients and even colleagues asking about how to keep their hair looking clean, healthy and beautiful. Therefore, familiarity and a basic knowledge of the available hair care products will help them to guide their patients properly. A shampoo not only provides the cleaning of the scalp skin and hair as its primary function, but in addition also serves to condition and beautify hair and acts as an adjunct in the management of various scalp disorders. To achieve this, various ingredients in the correct proportion are mixed to provide a shampoo which is suitable for individuals having different hair types and hair need. Among the ingredients that go into the making of a shampoo are detergents, conditioners, thickeners, sequestering agents, pH adjusters, preservatives and specialty additives. Hair conditioners are designed to improve hair manageability, decrease hair static electricity and add luster. They are used in several ways depending upon the state of hair and requirement of the individual. This article attempts to put forward the basic and practical aspects regarding use of these products. PMID:26120149

  5. Shampoo and Conditioners: What a Dermatologist Should Know?

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Paschal; Rathi, Sanjay K

    2015-01-01

    Dermatologists many a times encounter questions from patients and even colleagues asking about how to keep their hair looking clean, healthy and beautiful. Therefore, familiarity and a basic knowledge of the available hair care products will help them to guide their patients properly. A shampoo not only provides the cleaning of the scalp skin and hair as its primary function, but in addition also serves to condition and beautify hair and acts as an adjunct in the management of various scalp disorders. To achieve this, various ingredients in the correct proportion are mixed to provide a shampoo which is suitable for individuals having different hair types and hair need. Among the ingredients that go into the making of a shampoo are detergents, conditioners, thickeners, sequestering agents, pH adjusters, preservatives and specialty additives. Hair conditioners are designed to improve hair manageability, decrease hair static electricity and add luster. They are used in several ways depending upon the state of hair and requirement of the individual. This article attempts to put forward the basic and practical aspects regarding use of these products.

  6. Effects of gamma-ray irradiation on interface states and series-resistance characteristics of BiFeO3 MOS capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaya, Senol; Aktag, Aliekber; Yilmaz, Ercan

    2014-01-01

    The effects of radiation on the electrical-interface-state density (Dit) and series resistance (Rs) characteristics of BiFeO3 MOS capacitors were studied in this work. To study the response of MOS devices to gamma irradiation over a range of doses, MOS samples were irradiated using a Co-60 gamma-ray source from 0.5 to 16 grays at a dose rate of 0.0030 Gy/s. C-V and G/ω-V measurements were recorded prior to and after irradiation at high (1 MHz) frequency. The effects of the radiation were determined from analysis of the C-V and G/ω-V curves. A slightly decrease in the Rs values with increasing irradiation dose was observed. The total interface-state density was found to decrease because of the reordering and restructuring of radiation-induced defects in the MOS capacitors. The experimental results indicate that the electrical Rs and Dit characteristics of BiFeO3 MOS capacitors depend on the gamma-irradiation dose, and the calculated densities of the interface states are on the order of 1011 eV-1 cm-2. However, the calculated Dit values are not high enough to pin the Fermi level of the Si substrate and thereby corrupt device operation over the given dose range.

  7. Fabrication of SiO{sub 2}/4H-SiC (0001) interface with nearly ideal capacitance-voltage characteristics by thermal oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Kikuchi, Richard Heihachiro; Kita, Koji

    2014-07-21

    We fabricated SiO{sub 2}/4H-SiC (0001) metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors with nearly ideal capacitance-voltage characteristics, simply by the control of thermal oxidation conditions which were selected based on thermodynamic and kinetic considerations of SiC oxidation. The interface with low interface defect state density <10{sup 11 }cm{sup −2} eV{sup −1} for the energy range of 0.1–0.4 eV below the conduction band of SiC was obtained by thermal oxidation at 1300 °C in a ramp-heating furnace with a short rise/fall time, followed by low temperature O{sub 2} anneal at 800 °C.

  8. A numerical study of failure mechanisms in the cemented resurfaced femur: effects of interface characteristics and bone remodelling.

    PubMed

    Pal, B; Gupta, S; New, A M

    2009-05-01

    Failure mechanisms of the resurfaced femoral head include femoral neck fracture in the short-term and stress shielding and implant loosening in the long-term. In this study, finite element simulations of the resurfaced femur considering a debonded implant-cement interface, variable stem-bone interface conditions, and bone remodelling were used to study load transfer within the resurfaced femur and to investigate its relationship with known failure mechanisms. Realistic three-dimensional finite element models of an intact and resurfaced femur were used. Various conditions at the interface between the stem of the prosthesis and the bone were considered. Loading conditions included normal walking and stair climbing. For all stem-bone contact conditions, the tensile stresses in the cement mantle varied between 1 MPa and 5.4 MPa, except near the distal rim of the resurfacing component where they reached 5.4-7MPa. In the case of full stem-bone contact, high von Mises stresses (114-121MPa) were generated in the implant at the stem-cup junction. These stresses were considerably reduced (maximum von Mises stress, 76 MPa) where a gap was present at the stem-bone interface. Resurfacing led to strain shielding of the bone of the femoral head (20-75 per cent strain reductions) and periprosthetic bone resorption (50-80 per cent bone density reductions) for all interface stem-bone contact conditions. In the lateral femoral head and the proximal femoral shaft around the trochantric region, bone density reductions varied between 10 per cent and 50 per cent. Bone apposition was observed in the inferior-medial part of the femoral head and proximal femoral neck region. For full stem-bone contact, more load was transferred through the stem to the surrounding bone, exacerbating strain shielding. Although femoral hip resurfacing conserves bone stock at the primary operation, strain shielding and periprosthetic bone resorption might lead to eventual loosening over time. Post

  9. Bond strength of resin-modified glass ionomer restorative materials using a no-rinse conditioner.

    PubMed

    Suihkonen, Rian W; Vandewalle, Kraig S; Dossett, Jon M

    2012-01-01

    A paste-paste resin-modified glass ionomer (RMGI) restorative material has been introduced recently with a new conditioner that requires no rinsing. The purpose of this study was to compare the shear bond strength of an encapsulated RMGI (Fuji II LC) and a new paste-paste RMGI (Fuji Filling LC) to dentin conditioned with 20% polyacrylic acid (Cavity Conditioner), a new no-rinse conditioner (Self Conditioner,), or no conditioner. Mounted human third molars were flattened and the dentin surface was conditioned. The RMGI restorative materials were mixed and incrementally inserted into a mold and photocured. The specimens were loaded until failure in a universal testing machine after 24 hours of storage in distilled water. Fuji II LC had significantly greater bond strength to dentin than Fuji Filling LC. The use of Cavity Conditioner or Self Conditioner resulted in bond strengths that were not significantly different from each other; however, both produced greater bond strengths than those in the non-conditioned groups. PMID:23220322

  10. Atomistic geometry and bonding characteristics at the Sr2FeTaO6/SrTiO3 interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Shuhui; Saito, Mitsuhiro; Wang, Zhongchang; Chakraverty, Suvankar; Kawasaki, Masashi; Ikuhara, Yuichi

    2013-06-01

    Oxide heterointerfaces with broken translational symmetry offer a fertile ground for exploring fascinating physical properties that are absent in bulk constituents. Here, we apply advanced transmission electron microscopy to the Sr2FeTaO6/SrTiO3 interface and elucidate that the deposited Sr2FeTaO6 thin film bonds directly to the SrTiO3 substrate in an epitaxial, coherent, and atomically abrupt way. Combined with density-functional-theory calculations, we determine the explicit interface atomistic structure, the exact valence state of transition metals, the covalent interfacial bonding nature, and identify the antiferromagnetic superexchange magnetic coupling path between Fe ions as Fe-O-Ta-O-Fe.

  11. Chlorhexidine-containing acid conditioner preserves the longevity of resin-dentin bonds.

    PubMed

    Stanislawczuk, R; Amaral, R C; Zander-Grande, C; Gagler, D; Reis, A; Loguercio, A D

    2009-01-01

    The current study evaluated the effect of 2% chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX) on the immediate and six-month resin-dentin bond strength (BS) and nanoleakage pattern (NL) of etch-and-rinse adhesives when applied in aqueous or associated to the phosphoric acid conditioner. The occlusal enamel of 42 caries-free extracted molars was removed in order to expose a flat dentin surface. In groups 1 and 2 (control-C), the surfaces were acid etched with conventional phosphoric acid, and the adhesives Prime&Bond NT (PB) and Adper Single Bond 2 (SB) were applied after rinsing, drying and rewetting with water. In groups 3 and 4 (Ac/CHX), the adhesives were applied in a similar manner, however, a 2% CHX-containing acid was previously applied. In groups 5 and 6 (CHX), the adhesives were applied according to the control group; however, the rewetting procedure was performed with an aqueous solution of 2% CHX for 60 seconds. Composite buildups (Opallis, FGM) were constructed incrementally, and the specimens were longitudinally sectioned in the "x" and "y" directions to obtain bonded sticks (0.8 mm2) to be tested in tension at 0.5 mm/minute immediately or after six months of water storage. For NL, two bonded sticks from each tooth were coated with nail varnish, placed in silver nitrate and polished down with SiC paper. Resin-dentin interfaces were analyzed by EDX-SEM. The BS and NL data from each adhesive was submitted to two-way repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey's test (alpha=0.05). After six months of water storage, significant reductions in BS were observed for both adhesives in the control group (p<0.05). When Ac/CHX or CHX was used, no significant reductions in BS were observed for both systems. Nanoleakage was more evident in the control group than in the experimental groups (p<0.05), even after six months. The use of CHX in an aqueous solution or associated with the acid conditioner was effective for reducing degradation of resin-dentin bonds after six months of water storage

  12. High-Efficiency Rooftop Air Conditioners: Innovative Procurement to Achieve Advances in Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Hollomon, Brad

    2003-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, Defense Logistics Agency, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory recently conducted a technology procurement to increase the availability of energy-efficient, packaged unitary ''rooftop'' air conditioners. The procurement encouraged air conditioner manufacturers to produce equipment that exceeded US energy efficiency standards by at least 25% at a lower life-cycle cost. An outgrowth of the project, a web-based cost estimator tool is now available to help consumers determine the cost-effectiveness of purchasing energy-efficient air conditioners based on climate conditions and other factors at their own locations.

  13. High-Efficiency Rooftop Air Conditioners: Small Commercial ACs Could Add Up to Big Energy Savings

    SciTech Connect

    Hollomon, J Bradford; Gilbride, Theresa L.

    2003-04-01

    This paper describes a technology procurement conducted by DOE, PNNL, and the Defense Logistics Agency to increase the availability of energy-efficient, packaged, unitary ''rooftop'' air conditioners. The procurement encourages air conditioner manufacturers to produce equipment that exceeds federal energy efficiency standards by at least 25 percent at a lower first cost. Program developers have also sought to aggregate market demand by organizing groups of large-volume buyers of air conditioning equipment. A Cost Estimator tool developed by PNNL to help consumers determine the cost effectiveness, based on local climate conditions, of purchasing energy efficient air conditioners for their own facilities is also described.

  14. Shortening the Defrost Time on a Heat Pump Air Conditioner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwahara, Eiji; Yamazaki, Masaya; Kawamura, Toshiaki

    Methods to shorten the defrost time have been studied on a heat pump air conditioner. The experiment has been carried out using a 0.75kW heat pump and the energy balance during defrosting has been analyzed. We have found that the following methods are effective to shorten the defrost time; (1) Increase in power inqut to the compressor during defrosting, (2) Utilization of the compressor for thermal energy storage, (3) Reduction of the water left on the outdoor heat exchanger fins. The heat pump with the new defrosting system has been made on an experimental basis. lts defrost time is 1 minute and 55 seconds under the defrost condition of the Japanese Industrial Standard. The defrost time of a conventional heat pump is about 4 or 5 minutes.

  15. Development of a solar powered residential air conditioner (General optimization)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowen, D. J.

    1976-01-01

    A commercially available 3-ton residential Lithium Bromide (LiBr) absorption air conditioner was modified for use with lower temperature solar heated water. The modification included removal of components such as the generator, concentration control chamber, liquid trap, and separator; and the addition of a Chrysler designed generator, an off-the-shelf LiBr-solution pump. The design goal of the modified unit was to operate with water as the heat-transfer fluid at a target temperature of 85 C (185 F), 29.4 C (85 F) cooling water inlet, producing 10.5 kW (3 tons) of cooling. Tests were performed on the system before and after modification to provide comparative data. At elevated temperatures (96 C, 205 F), the test results show that Lithium Bromide was carried into the condenser due to the extremely violent boiling and degraded the evaporator performance.

  16. Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} absorber thinning and the homo-interface model: Influence of Mo back contact and 3-stage process on device characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, E.; Arzel, L.; Tomassini, M.; Barreau, N.; Zabierowski, P.; Fuertes Marrón, D.

    2014-08-21

    Thinning the absorber layer is one of the possibilities envisaged to further decrease the production costs of Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGSe) thin films solar cell technology. In the present study, the electronic transport in submicron CIGSe-based devices has been investigated and compared to that of standard devices. It is observed that when the absorber is around 0.5 μm-thick, tunnelling enhanced interface recombination dominates, which harms cells energy conversion efficiency. It is also shown that by varying either the properties of the Mo back contact or the characteristics of 3-stage growth processing, one can shift the dominating recombination mechanism from interface to space charge region and thereby improve the cells efficiency. Discussions on these experimental facts led to the conclusions that 3-stage process implies the formation of a CIGSe/CIGSe homo-interface, whose location as well as properties rule the device operation; its influence is enhanced in submicron CIGSe based solar cells.

  17. Flow control of a centrifugal fan in a commercial air conditioner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jiyu; Bang, Kyeongtae; Choi, Haecheon; Seo, Eung Ryeol; Kang, Yonghun

    2015-11-01

    Air-conditioning fans require a low noise level to provide user comfort and quietness. The aerodynamic noise sources are generated by highly unsteady, turbulent structures near the fan blade. In this study, we investigate the flow characteristics of a centrifugal fan in an air-conditioner indoor unit and suggest control ideas to develop a low noise fan. The experiment is conducted at the operation condition where the Reynolds number is 163000 based on the blade tip velocity and chord length. Intermittent separation occurs at the blade leading edge and thus flow significantly fluctuates there, whereas vortex shedding occurs at the blade trailing edge. Furthermore, the discharge flow observed in the axial plane near the shroud shows low-frequency intermittent behaviors, resulting in high Reynolds stresses. To control these flow structures, we modify the shapes of the blade leading edge and shroud of the centrifugal fan and obtain noise reduction. The flow characteristics of the base and modified fans will be discussed. Supported by 0420-20130051.

  18. Investigation of the interface characteristics of Y2O3/GaAs under biaxial strain, triaxial strain, and non-strain conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Li-Bin; Liu, Xu-Yang; Dong, Hai-Kuan

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the interface behaviors of Y2O3/GaAs under biaxial strain, triaxial strain, and non-strain conditions. This study is performed by first principles calculations based on density functional theory (DFT). First of all, the biaxial strain is realized by changing the lattice constants in ab plane. Averaged electrostatic potential (AEP) is aligned by establishing Y2O3 and GaAs (110) surfaces. The band offsets of Y2O3/GaAs interface under biaxial strain are investigated by generalized gradient approximation and Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof (HSE) functionals. The interface under biaxial strain is suitable for the design of metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) devices because the valence band offsets (VBO) and conduction band offsets (CBO) are larger than 1 eV. Second, the triaxial strain is applied to Y2O3/GaAs interface by synchronously changing the lattice constants in a, b, and c axis. The band gaps of Y2O3 and GaAs under triaxial strain are investigated by HSE functional. We compare the VBO and CBO under triaxial strain with those under biaxial strain. Third, in the absence of lattice strain, the formation energies, charge state switching levels, and migration barriers of native defects in Y2O3 are assessed. We investigate how they will affect the MOS device performance. It is found that VO+2 and Oi-2 play a very dangerous role in MOS devices. Finally, a direct tunneling leakage current model is established. The model is used to analyze current and voltage characteristics of the metal/Y2O3/GaAs.

  19. Building America Top Innovations 2013 Profile – High-Efficiency Window Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-09-01

    This Top Innovation profile explains how comprehensive performance testing by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory led to simple, affordable methods that homeowners could employ for increasing the energy efficiency of window air conditioners.

  20. Improved Modeling of Residential Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps for Energy Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Cutler, D.; Winkler, J.; Kruis, N.; Christensen, C.; Brendemuehl, M.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents improved air conditioner and heat pump modeling methods in the context of whole-building simulation tools, with the goal of enabling more accurate evaluation of cost effective equipment upgrade opportunities and efficiency improvements in residential buildings.

  1. Understanding Energy Impacts of Oversized Air Conditioners; NREL Highlights, Research & Development, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-01

    This NREL highlight describes a simulation-based study that analyzes the energy impacts of oversized residential air conditioners. Researchers found that, if parasitic power losses are minimal, there is very little increase in energy use for oversizing an air conditioner. The research demonstrates that new residential air conditioners can be sized primarily based on comfort considerations, because capacity typically has minimal impact on energy efficiency. The results of this research can be useful for contractors and homeowners when choosing a new air conditioner or heat pump during retrofits of existing homes. If the selected unit has a crankcase heater, performing proper load calculations to be sure the new unit is not oversized will help avoid excessive energy use.

  2. Zero Carryover Liquid-Desiccant Air Conditioner for Solar Applications: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Lowenstein, A.; Slayzak, S.; Kozubal, E.

    2006-07-01

    A novel liquid-desiccant air conditioner that dries and cools building supply air will transform the use of direct-contact liquid-desiccant systems in HVAC applications, improving comfort, air quality, and providing energy-efficient humidity control.

  3. Development of a solar-powered residential air conditioner: System optimization preliminary specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rousseau, J.; Hwang, K. C.

    1975-01-01

    Investigations aimed at the optimization of a baseline Rankine cycle solar powered air conditioner and the development of a preliminary system specification were conducted. Efforts encompassed the following: (1) investigations of the use of recuperators/regenerators to enhance the performance of the baseline system, (2) development of an off-design computer program for system performance prediction, (3) optimization of the turbocompressor design to cover a broad range of conditions and permit operation at low heat source water temperatures, (4) generation of parametric data describing system performance (COP and capacity), (5) development and evaluation of candidate system augmentation concepts and selection of the optimum approach, (6) generation of auxiliary power requirement data, (7) development of a complete solar collector-thermal storage-air conditioner computer program, (8) evaluation of the baseline Rankine air conditioner over a five day period simulating the NASA solar house operation, and (9) evaluation of the air conditioner as a heat pump.

  4. Effects of flow conditioners and tap location on orifice flowmeter performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, J. L.; Sindt, C. F.; Lewis, M. A.; Brennan, J. A.

    1991-10-01

    Current research is being conducted to provide information which will be used to improve the existing industry standards for proper installation of orifice meters. The research includes experimental investigation of a Zanker, an etoile, and several tube bundle flow conditioners at various positions relative to the orifice plate. Also included are the effects of pressure tap location, both with and without flow conditioning, as reflected in determination of discharge coefficients. Of the flow conditioners tested at approximately 11 pipe diameters upstream of the orifice plate, the Zanker flow conditioner resulted in discharge coefficients most similar to baseline values. There was only a slight difference in orifice meter performance when a flanged or an in-line tube bundle flow conditioner was used at the tested location upstream of the orifice plate. The effect of pressure tap location was found to be significant with the 0.73 beta ratio plate. Recommendations for future research, as a result of these findings, are included.

  5. Effects of conditioners on surface hardness of hair fibers: an investigation using atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ruetsch, S B; Kamath, Y K; Kintrup, L; Schwark, H-J

    2003-01-01

    Conditioners are known to have a prophylactic effect on hair damage caused by cosmetic chemical treatments or mechanical grooming procedures. They are known to impart softness and smoothness to hair by moisturizing the fiber. Since the amount of conditioners deposited on the fiber is very small in quantity, it is conceivable that mainly the surface is moisturized. This is especially true of polymeric conditioners, which deposit preferentially on the surface of the fiber, rather than penetrate into the cortex. Therefore, this study strictly investigates whether cationic polymeric conditioners impart softness to the surface cuticle cell as a result of their hydrophilicity, with no regard to its applicability to cosmetic effects. Such softening can be detected by indentation of the surface and can be quantified by measuring the depth of the indent in real time. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), equipped with nano-indentation capability, is ideally suited for this purpose. In this work it was used to determine changes in the microhardness (micromechanical properties) of the hair fiber surface as a result of fiber/conditioner/moisture interactions. In a preliminary study, we observed that the scale faces of hair treated with Polyquaternium 10 (PQ-10) conditioner gave deeper indents, while scale edges yielded shallower ones in comparison to cuticle cells of untreated hair. This suggests that the conditioner softens the scale face and hardens the scale edges. However, because of significant amounts of conditioner residues left on the scale face, this conclusion was rather ambiguous. Therefore, the study was repeated in which multiple indentations were made on the surface cuticle cells of a larger number of the same hair fibers before and after multiple applications of the conditioner. This reduces errors due to fiber-to-fiber variation in pre-existing microhardness differences in surface cuticle cells. Also, the larger number of fibers investigated in the current work

  6. Effects of polyacrylamide soil conditioner on the iron status of soybean plants. [Glycine max

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, A.; Wallace, G.A.; Abouzamzam, A.M.; Char, J.W.

    1986-05-01

    An iron-inefficient cultivar of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. Bragg cv. PI-54619-5-1 was grown in two different calcareous soils, a Natrargid and a Torrifluvents, to determine if improvement of soil aeration with a synthetic polyacrylamide as a soil conditioner would decrease the tendency of the cultivar to lime-induced chlorosis. The results suggest that when soil is well aerated with good drainage from use of the soil conditioner, the iron status of plants is improved.

  7. Design and evaluation of an inlet conditioner to dry particles for real-time particle sizers.

    PubMed

    Peters, Thomas M; Riss, Adam L; Holm, Ricky L; Singh, Manisha; Vanderpool, Robert W

    2008-04-01

    Real-time particle sizers provide rapid information about atmospheric particles, particularly peak exposures, which may be important in the development of adverse health outcomes. However, these instruments are subject to erroneous readings in high-humidity environments when compared with measurements from filter-based, federal reference method (FRM) samplers. Laboratory tests were conducted to evaluate the ability of three inlet conditioners to dry aerosol prior to entering a real-time particle sizer for measuring coarse aerosols (Model 3321 Aerodynamic Particle Sizer, APS) under simulated highly humid conditions. Two 30 day field studies in Birmingham, AL, USA were conducted to compare the response of two APSs operated with and without an inlet conditioner to that measured with FRM samplers. In field studies, the correlation of PM(10-2.5) derived from the APS and that measured with the FRM was substantially stronger with an inlet conditioner applied (r2 ranged from 0.91 to 0.99) than with no conditioner (r2 = 0.61). Laboratory experiments confirmed the ability of the heater and desiccant conditioner to remove particle-borne moisture. In field tests, water was found associated with particles across the sizing range of the APS (0.5 microm to 20 microm) when relative humidity was high in Birmingham. Certain types of inlet conditioners may substantially improve the correlation between particulate mass concentration derived from real-time particle sizers and filter-based samplers in humid conditions. PMID:18385876

  8. Power-Generation Characteristics After Vibration and Thermal Stresses of Thermoelectric Unicouples with CoSb3/Ti/Mo(Cu) Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Kwang Ho; Choi, Soon-Mok; Kim, Kyung-Hun; Choi, Hyoung-Seuk; Seo, Won-Seon; Kim, Il-Ho; Lee, Soonil; Hwang, Hae Jin

    2015-06-01

    Reliability tests for thermoelectric unicouples were carried out to investigate the adhesion properties of CoSb3/Ti/Mo(Cu) interfaces. The n-type In0.25 Co3.95Ni0.05Sb12 and p-type In0.25Co3FeSb12 bulks were prepared for fabricating a thermoelectric unicouple (one p- n couple) by an induction melting and a spark plasma sintering process. Mo-Cu alloy was selected as an electrode for the unicouples due to its high melting temperature and proper work function value. Many thermoelectric unicouples with the CoSb3/Ti/Mo(Cu) interfaces were fabricated with the proper brazing materials by means of a repeated firing process. Reliability of the unicouples with the interfaces was evaluated by a vibration test and a thermal cycling test. After the thermal cycling and vibration tests, the power-generation characteristics of the unicouples were compared with the unicouples before the tests. Even after the vibration test, electrical power with a power density of 0.5 W/cm2 was generated. The Ti-interlayer is considered as a possible candidate for making a reliable unicouple with high adhesion strength. With the thermal cycling test, the resistance of the unicouple increased and the electrical power from the unicouple decreased. A failure mode by the thermal cycling test was ascribed to a complex effect of micro-cracks originated from the thermal stress and oxidation problem of the thermoelectric materials; that is, a thick oxide layer more than 300 μm was detected after a high-temperature durability test of n-type In0.25Co3.95Ni0.05Sb12 material at 773 K in air for 7 days.

  9. [Investigation of characteristic microstructures of adhesive interface in wood/bamboo composite material by synchrotron radiation X-ray phase contrast microscopy].

    PubMed

    Peng, Guan-Yun; Wang, Yu-Rong; Ren, Hai-Qing; Yang, Shu-Min; Ma, Hong-Xia; Xie, Hong-Lan; Deng, Biao; Du, Guo-Hao; Xiao, Ti-Qiao

    2013-03-01

    Third-generation synchrotron radiation X-ray phase-contrast microscopy(XPCM)can be used for obtaining image with edge enhancement, and achieve the high contrast imaging of low-Z materials with the spatial coherence peculiarity of X-rays. In the present paper, the characteristic microstructures of adhesive at the interface and their penetration in wood/bamboo composite material were investigated systematically by XPCM at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF). And the effect of several processing techniques was analyzed for the adhesive penetration in wood/bamboo materials. The results show that the synchrotron radiation XPCM is expected to be one of the important precision detection methods for wood-based panels.

  10. Dirty air conditioners: Energy implications of coil fouling

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, Jeffrey; Walker, Iain; Sherman, Max

    2002-03-01

    Residential air conditioning is responsible for a substantial amount of peak electrical demand and energy consumption throughout most of the United States. Coil fouling, the deposition of indoor dusts and other particulate matter on evaporator heat exchangers, increases system pressure drop and, correspondingly, decreases system air flow and air conditioner performance. In this paper, we apply experimental and simulation results describing particle deposition on evaporator coils as well as research about indoor particle and dust concentrations to determine coil fouling rates. The results suggest that typical coils foul enough to double evaporator pressure drop in about 7.5 years, much sooner than the expected 15-30 year life time for an evaporator coil. The most important parameters in determining coil fouling times are the efficiency of the filter and indoor particle concentrations, although filter bypass and duct and coil design are important as well. The reduced air flows that result from coil fouling cause typical efficiency and capacity degradations of less than 5%, however they can be much greater for marginal systems or extreme conditions. These energy issues, as well as possible indoor air quality issues resulting from fouling by biological aerosols, suggest that regular coil cleaning to ameliorate low flow and the elimination of filter bypass should be an important part of residential air conditioning commissioning and maintenance practices.

  11. Rooftop Unitary Air Conditioner with Integral Dedicated Outdoor Air System

    SciTech Connect

    Tiax Llc

    2006-02-28

    Energy use of rooftop and other unitary air-conditioners in commercial applications accounts for about 1 quad (10{sup 15} Btu) of primary energy use annually in the U.S. [Reference 7]. The realization that this cooling equipment accounts for the majority of commercial building cooled floorspace and the majority also of commercial building energy use has spurred development of improved-efficiency equipment as well as development of stricter standards addressing efficiency levels. Another key market driver affecting design of rooftop air-conditioning equipment has been concern regarding comfort and the control of humidity. Trends for increases in outdoor air ventilation rates in certain applications, and the increasing concern about indoor air quality problems associated with humidity levels and moisture in buildings points to a need for improved dehumidification capability in air-conditioning equipment of all types. In many cases addressing this issue exacerbates energy efficiency, and vice versa. The integrated dedicated outdoor air system configuration developed in this project addresses both energy and comfort/humidity issues.

  12. Effect of air-conditioner on fungal contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamada, Nobuo; Fujita, Tadao

    Air-conditioners (AC) produce much dew and wet conditions inside their apparatus, when in operation. We studied the fungal contamination in AC and found that the average fungal contamination of AC filters was about 5-fold greater than that of a carpet, and Cladosporium and Penicillium were predominant in AC filters. The fungal contamination inside AC, which were used everyday, increased more markedly than those not used daily, e.g. a few days per week or rarely. Moreover, the airborne fungal contamination in rooms during air-conditioning was about 2-fold greater than one in rooms without AC, and was highest when air-conditioning started and decreased gradually with time. We recognized that the airborne fungal contamination was controlled by the environmental condition of the rooms, in which AC were used. It is suggested that AC might promote mold allergies in users via airborne fungal spores derived from the AC. On the other hand, AC was estimated to remove moisture in the room atmosphere and carpets, and reduce the relative humidity in rooms. It was found that the average fungal contamination in the house dust of carpets with AC was suppressed by two-third of that in rooms without AC. The use of AC for suppressing fungal hazards was discussed.

  13. Electronic Power Conditioner for Ku-band Travelling Wave Tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowstubha, Palle; Krishnaveni, K.; Ramesh Reddy, K.

    2016-07-01

    A highly sophisticated regulated power supply is known as electronic power conditioner (EPC) is required to energise travelling wave tubes (TWTs), which are used as RF signal amplifiers in satellite payloads. The assembly consisting of TWT and EPC together is known as travelling wave tube amplifier (TWTA). EPC is used to provide isolated and conditioned voltage rails with tight regulation to various electrodes of TWT and makes its RF performance independent of solar bus variations which are caused due to varying conditions of eclipse and sunlit. The payload mass and their power consumption is mainly due to the existence of TWTAs that represent about 35 % of total mass and about 70-90 % (based on the type of satellite application) of overall dc power consumption. This situation ensures a continuous improvement in the design of TWTAs and their associated EPCs to realize more efficient and light products. Critical technologies involved in EPCs are design and configuration, closed loop regulation, component and material selection, energy limiting of high voltage (HV) outputs and potting of HV card etc. This work addresses some of these critical technologies evolved in realizing and testing the state of art of EPC and it focuses on the design of HV supply with a HV and high power capability, up to 6 kV and 170 WRF, respectively required for a space TWTA. Finally, an experimental prototype of EPC with a dc power of 320 W provides different voltages required by Ku-band TWT in open loop configuration.

  14. In-silico experiments on characteristic time scale at a shear-free gas-liquid interface in fully developed turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaosa, Ryuichi; Handler, Robert A.

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to model scalar transfer mechanisms in a fully developed turbulence for accurate predictions of the turbulent scalar flux across a shear-free gas-liquid interface. The concept of the surface-renewal approximation (Dankwerts, 1951) is introduced in this study to establish the predictive models for the interfacial scalar flux. Turbulent flow realizations obtained by a direct numerical simulation technique are employed to prepare details of three-dimensional information on turbulence in the region very close to the interface. Two characteristic time scales at the interface have been examined for exact prediction of the scalar transfer flux. One is the time scale which is reciprocal of the root-mean-square surface divergence, Tγ = langleγγrangle-1/2, where γ is the surface divergence. The other time scale to be examined is TS = Λ/V, where Λ is the zero-correlation length of the surface divergence as the interfacial length scale, and V is the root-mean-square velocity fluctuation in the streamwise direction as the interfacial velocity scale. The results of this study suggests that Tγ is slightly unsatisfactory to correlate the turbulent scalar flux at the gas-liquid interface based on the surface-renewal approximation. It is also found that the proportionality constant appear to be 0.19, which is different with that observed in the laboratory experiments, 0.34 (Komori, Murakami, & Ueda, 1989). It is concluded that the time scale, Tγ, is considered a different kind of the time scale observed in the laboratory experiments. On the other hand, the present in-silico experiments indicate that Ts predicts the turbulent scalar flux based on the surface-renewal approximation in a satisfactory manner. It is also elucidated that the proportionality constant for Ts is approximately 0.36, which is very close to that found by the laboratory experiments. This fact shows that the time scale Ts appears to be essentially the same as the time scale the

  15. Easy-to-use interface

    SciTech Connect

    Blattner, M M; Blattner, D O; Tong, Y

    1999-04-01

    Easy-to-use interfaces are a class of interfaces that fall between public access interfaces and graphical user interfaces in usability and cognitive difficulty. We describe characteristics of easy-to-use interfaces by the properties of four dimensions: selection, navigation, direct manipulation, and contextual metaphors. Another constraint we introduced was to include as little text as possible, and what text we have will be in at least four languages. Formative evaluations were conducted to identify and isolate these characteristics. Our application is a visual interface for a home automation system intended for a diverse set of users. The design will be expanded to accommodate the visually disabled in the near future.

  16. Room-Temperature Electrical Characteristics of Pd/SiC Diodes with Embedded Au Nanoparticles at the Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruffino, F.; Crupi, I.; Irrera, A.; Grimaldi, M. G.

    2010-11-01

    We investigate the effects of localized controlled nanometric inhomogeneities, represented by Au nanoparticles, on the electrical properties of Pd/SiC Schottky diodes. In particular, we investigate the effects of the nanoparticle radius R on the current-voltage characteristics. The main result concerns the strong dependence of the effective Schottky barrier height of the Pd/SiC contact on R, giving a practical technique to tailor, in a wide range, such a barrier height by simply changing the process parameters during the diode preparation. Then, from a basic understanding point of view, such data allow us to test the Tung model describing the effects of inhomogeneities on the electrical properties of Schottky diodes. These nanostructured diodes are proposed as possible components of integrated complex nanoelectronic devices.

  17. Comparative Evaluation of Physical Properties of Four Tissue Conditioners Relined to Modeling Plastic Material

    PubMed Central

    Monzavi, Abbas; Siadat, Hakimeh; Atai, Mohammad; Alikhasi, Marzieh; Nazari, Vahideh; Sheikhzadeh, Sadigheh

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Little is known about the interaction of tissue conditioners and modeling plastics. This study evaluates the influence of a variety of commercial tissue conditioners on alteration of viscoelastic properties of modeling plastics. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, the dynamic viscoelastic properties of four commercially available tissue conditioners (TC), Visco-gel (VG), GC Soft-Liner (SL), FITT (FT), and Coe Comfort (CC), relined to modeling plastics with a thickness of 2mm were evaluated after 1 and 7 days of water immersion with the use of storage modulus, loss modulus, and tan delta parameters. Values for these three parameters for each tissue conditioner were statistically analyzed by Kruskal Wallis and Mann Whitney tests with P value sets at<0.05. Results: Complex modulus and loss tangent values of TC were not significantly different among specimens containing 0, 2, 5 and 10 wt.%-SZ, respectively. In FT and TC containing 2 wt.%-SZ, these values were not significantly different between 1 and 28 days in both water- and saliva immersions. Conclusion: The results suggest that relining with modeling plastics does affect TC’s inherent dynamic viscoelastic properties, while the other tissue conditioners investigated may be found to have changed viscoelastic properties as a consequence of vicinity to the modeling plastics. PMID:24910661

  18. Effect of sealant application and thermal cycling on bond strength of tissue conditioners to acrylic resin.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, Francisca Neta Cruz Soares; Pinto, José Renato Ribeiro; Turssi, Cecília Pedroso; Basting, Roberta Tarkany

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of sealer application and thermal cycling on the bond strength between tissue conditioners and acrylic resin, and to observe the type of bond failure. Two hundred eighty-eight specimens (10x16x3 mm) were made of an acrylic resin (Lucitone 500, Dentsply) using a metal muffle. Specimens were divided into four groups according to the tissue conditioner (Coe-Comfort, GC or Dentusoft, Densell) used and whether or not a sealer (Eversoft Soft Liner Sealer, Myerson) was applied. Each of the four groups was subdivided into other six subgroups (n=12) to undergo thermocycling for 45, 90, 135, 180 or 210 cycles with a dwell time of 60 s, or to be left non thermocycled (control). Tensile bond strength was measured in a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 5 mm/min. Sealant application had no effect on the tensile bond strength of the relined acrylic resin, regardless of the tissue conditioner used (Coe-Comfort: p=0.306 and Dentusoft: p=0.1501). The number of thermal cycles had a significant effect on the tensile bond strength of the relined acrylic resin (Coe-Comfort: p=0.002 and Dentusoft: p<0.001). Both tissue conditioners presented similar bond strength to acrylic resin. For both tissue conditioners, sealer coatings had no influence on bond strength, while different numbers of thermal cycles affected that mechanical property.

  19. The Surface Interface Characteristics of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube and Graphitic Carbon Fiber Arrays Grown by Thermal and Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delzeit, Lance; Nguyen, Cattien; Li, Jun; Han, Jie; Meyyappan, M.

    2002-01-01

    The development of nano-arrays for sensors and devices requires the growth of arrays with the proper characteristics. One such application is the growth of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphitic carbon fibers (GCFs) for the chemical attachment of probe molecules. The effectiveness of such an array is dependent not only upon the effectiveness of the probe and the interface between that probe and the array, but also the array and the underlaying substrate. If that array is a growth of vertically aligned CNTs or GCFs then the attachment of that array to the surface is of the utmost importance. This attachment provides the mechanical stability and durability of the array, as well as, the electrical properties of that array. If the detection is to be acquired through an electrical measurement, then the appropriate resistance between the array and the surface need to be fabricated into the device. I will present data on CNTs and GCFs grown from both thermal and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The focus will be on the characteristics of the metal film from which the CNTs and GCFs are grown and the changes that occur due to changes within the growth process.

  20. Surface characteristics of phosphatidylglycerol phosphate from the extreme halophile Halobacterium cutirubrum compared with those of its deoxy analogue, at the air/water interface.

    PubMed

    Quinn, P J; Kates, M; Tocanne, J F; Tomoaia-Cotişel, M

    1989-07-15

    The relationship between area per molecule and surface pressure of monolayers of phosphatidylglycerol phosphate from extreme halophile Halobacterium cutrirubrum and its deoxy analogue, deoxyphosphatidylglycerol phosphate, spread at an air/water interface was examined. The effect of ionization of the primary and secondary acidic functions of the phosphate groups of the two lipids on surface characteristics of compression isotherms was determined by spreading monolayers on subphases with pH values ranging from below the apparent pKa of the primary ionization (pH 0) to greater than that of secondary ionization (pH 10.9). The limiting molecular area increases with decreasing pH below 2. Ionization of the primary phosphate functions of both phospholipids (with bulk pK1 values close to 4) is associated with a marked expansion of the films, as judged by values of limiting molecular area. Ionization of the secondary phosphate functions causes further expansion of the films, with the apparent pK2 of deoxyphosphatidylglycerol phosphate slightly less than that indicated for phosphatidylglycerol phosphate. Values of surface-compressibility modulus calculated from the surface characteristics of the phosphatidylglcerol phosphate monolayers showed that films spread on subphases with a pH of about the apparent pK1 of the primary phosphate functions were the least compressible. Increasing or decreasing subphase pH caused an increase in compressibility; this effect on compressibility was much less with monolayers of deoxyphosphatidylglycerol phosphate at high pH. The effect of inorganic counter-ions on monolayer characteristics of phosphatidylglycerol phosphate was examined by using subphases of NaCl concentrations varying from 0.01 to 1 M. The limiting molecular area was found to increase exponentially with respect to the subphase NaCl concentration.

  1. The Atypical Response Regulator Protein ChxR Has Structural Characteristics and Dimer Interface Interactions That Are Unique within the OmpR/PhoB Subfamily

    SciTech Connect

    Hickey, John M.; Lovell, Scott; Battaile, Kevin P.; Hu, Lei; Middaugh, C. Russell; Hefty, P. Scott

    2013-05-29

    Typically as a result of phosphorylation, OmpR/PhoB response regulators form homodimers through a receiver domain as an integral step in transcriptional activation. Phosphorylation stabilizes the ionic and hydrophobic interactions between monomers. Recent studies have shown that some response regulators retain functional activity in the absence of phosphorylation and are termed atypical response regulators. The two currently available receiver domain structures of atypical response regulators are very similar to their phospho-accepting homologs, and their propensity to form homodimers is generally retained. An atypical response regulator, ChxR, from Chlamydia trachomatis, was previously reported to form homodimers; however, the residues critical to this interaction have not been elucidated. We hypothesize that the intra- and intermolecular interactions involved in forming a transcriptionally competent ChxR are distinct from the canonical phosphorylation (activation) paradigm in the OmpR/PhoB response regulator subfamily. To test this hypothesis, structural and functional studies were performed on the receiver domain of ChxR. Two crystal structures of the receiver domain were solved with the recently developed method using triiodo compound I3C. These structures revealed many characteristics unique to OmpR/PhoB subfamily members: typical or atypical. Included was the absence of two {alpha}-helices present in all other OmpR/PhoB response regulators. Functional studies on various dimer interface residues demonstrated that ChxR forms relatively stable homodimers through hydrophobic interactions, and disruption of these can be accomplished with the introduction of a charged residue within the dimer interface. A gel shift study with monomeric ChxR supports that dimerization through the receiver domain is critical for interaction with DNA.

  2. The Atypical Response Regulator Protein ChxR Has Structural Characteristics and Dimer Interface Interactions That Are Unique within the OmpR/PhoB Subfamily*

    PubMed Central

    Hickey, John M.; Lovell, Scott; Battaile, Kevin P.; Hu, Lei; Middaugh, C. Russell; Hefty, P. Scott

    2011-01-01

    Typically as a result of phosphorylation, OmpR/PhoB response regulators form homodimers through a receiver domain as an integral step in transcriptional activation. Phosphorylation stabilizes the ionic and hydrophobic interactions between monomers. Recent studies have shown that some response regulators retain functional activity in the absence of phosphorylation and are termed atypical response regulators. The two currently available receiver domain structures of atypical response regulators are very similar to their phospho-accepting homologs, and their propensity to form homodimers is generally retained. An atypical response regulator, ChxR, from Chlamydia trachomatis, was previously reported to form homodimers; however, the residues critical to this interaction have not been elucidated. We hypothesize that the intra- and intermolecular interactions involved in forming a transcriptionally competent ChxR are distinct from the canonical phosphorylation (activation) paradigm in the OmpR/PhoB response regulator subfamily. To test this hypothesis, structural and functional studies were performed on the receiver domain of ChxR. Two crystal structures of the receiver domain were solved with the recently developed method using triiodo compound I3C. These structures revealed many characteristics unique to OmpR/PhoB subfamily members: typical or atypical. Included was the absence of two α-helices present in all other OmpR/PhoB response regulators. Functional studies on various dimer interface residues demonstrated that ChxR forms relatively stable homodimers through hydrophobic interactions, and disruption of these can be accomplished with the introduction of a charged residue within the dimer interface. A gel shift study with monomeric ChxR supports that dimerization through the receiver domain is critical for interaction with DNA. PMID:21775428

  3. 10 CFR 431.96 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial air conditioners and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... certified ratings that is required to be maintained under 10 CFR 429.71. (f) Manufacturer involvement in... efficiency of commercial air conditioners and heat pumps. 431.96 Section 431.96 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY... Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps Test Procedures § 431.96 Uniform test method for the measurement...

  4. 10 CFR Appendix M to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps M Appendix M to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Consumption of Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps 1. DEFINITIONS 2. TESTING CONDITIONS 2.1Test room... conditioners and heat pumps, and systems composed of multiple mini-split units (outdoor units located...

  5. 10 CFR Appendix M to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps M Appendix M to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Consumption of Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps Note: The procedures and calculations that refer to off... determine compliance with energy conservation standards for central air conditioners and heat pumps at...

  6. 10 CFR Appendix M to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps M Appendix M to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Consumption of Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps Note: The procedures and calculations that refer to off... determine compliance with energy conservation standards for central air conditioners and heat pumps at...

  7. 10 CFR Appendix M to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps M Appendix M to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Consumption of Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps Note: The procedures and calculations that refer to off... determine compliance with energy conservation standards for central air conditioners and heat pumps at...

  8. Flow conditioner for fuel injector for combustor and method for low-NO.sub.x combustor

    DOEpatents

    Dutta, Partha; Smith, Kenneth O.; Ritz, Frank J.

    2013-09-10

    An injector for a gas turbine combustor including a catalyst coated surface forming a passage for feed gas flow and a channel for oxidant gas flow establishing an axial gas flow through a flow conditioner disposed at least partially within an inner wall of the injector. The flow conditioner includes a length with an interior passage opening into upstream and downstream ends for passage of the axial gas flow. An interior diameter of the interior passage smoothly reduces and then increases from upstream to downstream ends.

  9. Ocular prosthetics: use of a tissue conditioner material to modify a stock ocular prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Ow, R K; Amrith, S

    1997-08-01

    The custom-made ocular prosthesis contributes to enhanced tissue health of the anophthalmic socket. For this purpose, an acrylic resin ocular prosthesis may be modified, by using an appropriate dental impression material and being adapted closely to the anophthalmic socket. The modeling impression material is subsequently replaced by acrylic resin. This article describes the application of a viscoelastic tissue conditioner material, as an impression medium for prosthetic modification of an ocular prosthesis. The tissue conditioner material exhibits favorable tissue compatibility, adhesion to acrylic resin, and detailed surface registration. These advantages facilitate the clinical procedure and evaluation of modifications made to the ocular prosthesis.

  10. Using Field-Metered Data to Quantify Annual Energy Use of Portable Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, Thomas; Willem, Henry; Ni, Chun Chun; Stratton, Hannah; Chen, Yuting; Ganeshalingam, Mohan; Iyer, Maithili; Price, Sarah; Dunham, Camilla

    2014-12-12

    As many regions of the United States experience rising temperatures, consumers have come to rely increasingly on cooling appliances (including portable air conditioners) to provide a comfortable indoor temperature. Home occupants sometimes use a portable air conditioner (PAC) to maintain a desired indoor temperature in a single room or enclosed space. Although PACs in residential use are few compared to centrally installed and room air conditioning (AC) units, the past few years have witnessed an increase of PACs use throughout the United States. There is, however, little information and few research projects focused on the energy consumption and performance of PACs, particularly studies that collect information from field applications of PACs. The operation and energy consumption of PACs may differ among geographic locations and households, because of variations in cooling load, frequency, duration of use, and other user-selected settings. In addition, the performance of building envelope (thermal mass and air leakage) as well as inter-zonal mixing within the building would substantially influence the ability to control and maintain desirable indoor thermal conditions. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) conducted an initial field-metering study aimed at increasing the knowledge and data related to PAC operation and energy consumption in the United States. LBNL performed its field-metering study from mid-April to late October 2014. The study, which monitored 19 sites in the Northeastern United States (4 in upstate New York and 15 near Philadelphia), collected real-time data on PAC energy consumption along with information regarding housing characteristics, consumer behavior, and environmental conditions that were expected to affect PAC performance. Given the limited number of test sites, this study was not intended to be statistically representative of PAC users in the United States but rather to understand the system response to the cooling demand and to

  11. A hybrid air conditioner driven by a hybrid solar collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Alili, Ali

    The objective of this thesis is to search for an efficient way of utilizing solar energy in air conditioning applications. The current solar Air Conditioners (A/C)s suffer from low Coefficient of Performance (COP) and performance degradation in hot and humid climates. By investigating the possible ways of utilizing solar energy in air conditioning applications, the bottlenecks in these approaches were identified. That resulted in proposing a novel system whose subsystem synergy led to a COP higher than unity. The proposed system was found to maintain indoor comfort at a higher COP compared to the most common solar A/Cs, especially under very hot and humid climate conditions. The novelty of the proposed A/C is to use a concentrating photovoltaic/thermal collector, which outputs thermal and electrical energy simultaneously, to drive a hybrid A/C. The performance of the hybrid A/C, which consists of a desiccant wheel, an enthalpy wheel, and a vapor compression cycle (VCC), was investigated experimentally. This work also explored the use of a new type of desiccant material, which can be regenerated with a low temperature heat source. The experimental results showed that the hybrid A/C is more effective than the standalone VCC in maintaining the indoor conditions within the comfort zone. Using the experimental data, the COP of the hybrid A/C driven by a hybrid solar collector was found to be at least double that of the current solar A/Cs. The innovative integration of its subsystems allows each subsystem to do what it can do best. That leads to lower energy consumption which helps reduce the peak electrical loads on electric utilities and reduces the consumer operating cost since less energy is purchased during the on peak periods and less solar collector area is needed. In order for the proposed A/C to become a real alternative to conventional systems, its performance and total cost were optimized using the experimentally validated model. The results showed that for an

  12. Improved Modeling of Residential Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps for Energy Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Cutler, D.; Winkler, J.; Kruis, N.; Christensen, C.; Brandemuehl, M.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents improved air conditioner and heat pump modeling methods in the context of whole-building simulation tools, with the goal of enabling more accurate evaluation of cost-effective equipment upgrade opportunities and efficiency improvements in residential buildings.

  13. 10 CFR 429.16 - Central air conditioners and heat pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... more than one indoor unit, a “tested combination” as defined in 10 CFR 430.2 shall be used for tests... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Central air conditioners and heat pumps. 429.16 Section... and heat pumps. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing. (1) The general requirements...

  14. 10 CFR 431.92 - Definitions concerning commercial air conditioners and heat pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... applications; rated for sensible coefficient of performance (SCOP) and tested in accordance with 10 CFR 431.96... heat pumps. 431.92 Section 431.92 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps §...

  15. 10 CFR 429.16 - Central air conditioners and heat pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... more than one indoor unit, a “tested combination” as defined in 10 CFR 430.2 shall be used for tests... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Central air conditioners and heat pumps. 429.16 Section... and heat pumps. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing. (1) The general requirements...

  16. 10 CFR 429.16 - Central air conditioners and heat pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... more than one indoor unit, a “tested combination” as defined in 10 CFR 430.2 shall be used for tests... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Central air conditioners and heat pumps. 429.16 Section... and heat pumps. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing. (1) The general requirements...

  17. 16 CFR Appendix I to Part 305 - Heating Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Heating Performance and Cost for Central Air... CONSERVATION ACT (âENERGY LABELING RULEâ) Pt. 305, App. I Appendix I to Part 305—Heating Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners Manufacturer's rated heating capacity (Btu's/hr.) Range of HSPF's...

  18. 16 CFR Appendix I to Part 305 - Heating Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Heating Performance and Cost for Central Air... RULEâ) Pt. 305, App. I Appendix I to Part 305—Heating Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners Manufacturer's rated heating capacity (Btu's/hr.) Range of HSPF's Low High Single Package Units Heat...

  19. 16 CFR Appendix I to Part 305 - Heating Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Heating Performance and Cost for Central Air... RULEâ) Pt. 305, App. I Appendix I to Part 305—Heating Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners Manufacturer's rated heating capacity (Btu's/hr.) Range of HSPF's Low High Single Package Units Heat...

  20. 16 CFR Appendix I to Part 305 - Heating Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Heating Performance and Cost for Central Air... RULEâ) Pt. 305, App. I Appendix I to Part 305—Heating Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners Manufacturer's rated heating capacity (Btu's/hr.) Range of HSPF's Low High Single Package Units Heat...

  1. 16 CFR Appendix I to Part 305 - Heating Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Heating Performance and Cost for Central Air... RULEâ) Pt. 305, App. I Appendix I to Part 305—Heating Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners Manufacturer's rated heating capacity (Btu's/hr.) Range of HSPF's Low High Single Package Units Heat...

  2. A review of polymer-based water conditioners for reduction of handling-related injury

    SciTech Connect

    Harnish, Ryan A.; Colotelo, Alison HA; Brown, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    Fish are coated with an external layer of protective mucus. This layer serves as the primary barrier against infection or injury, reduces friction, and plays a role in ionic and osmotic regulation. However, the mucus layer is easily disturbed when fish are netted, handled, transported, stressed, or subjected to adverse water conditions. Water additives containing polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) or proprietary polymers have been used to prevent the deleterious effects of mucus layer disturbances in the commercial tropical fish industry, aquaculture, and for other fisheries management purposes. This paper reviews research on the effectiveness of water conditioners, and examines the contents and uses of a wide variety of commercially available water conditioners. Water conditioners containing polymers may reduce external damage to fish held in containers during scientific experimentation, including surgical implantation of electronic tags. However, there is a need to empirically test the effectiveness of water conditioners at preventing damage to and promoting healing of the mucus layer. A research agenda is provided to advance the science related to the use of water conditions to improve the condition of fish during handling and tagging.

  3. Heart Rate Conditioning in Newborn Infants: Relationships Among Conditionability, Heart Rate Variability, and Sex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamps, Leighton E.; Porges, Stephen W.

    1975-01-01

    Trace conditioning was evaluated in newborn infants by measurements of heart rate responses to a conditioned stimulus in anticipation of or in absence of the unconditioned stimulus. Data suggest females have higher levels of heart rate variability than males, which parallels their greater conditionability. (GO)

  4. Study on Actual Performance and Exhaust Heat of Air-conditioner Concerning Heat Island Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinomiya, Naruaki; Nishimura, Nobuya; Iyota, Hiroyuki; Kurata, Satoru

    A novel simple measuring method of actual performance of room air-conditioners by neural net work analysis (NNW) has been developed. The actual performance for a long term which is difficult to be measured by air enthalpy method is able to be measured easily by this method. In other words, actual performance of room air-conditioners can be measured by the proposed NNW method without measurement of air flow at indoor unit and outdoor unit which changes due to clogging of heat exchanger by dust. In order to gather data for training and testing the proposed NNW method, the room air-conditioner for experiment was set up. Inputs to NNW are outdoor temperature, indoor temperature, indoor wet-bulb temperature, inlet temperature of evaporator, outlet temperature of evaporator, condensation temperature and power consumption. The output from NNW is COP. The COP by NNW method has mean errors under 2.8% in quasi-steady operation condition and has mean errors under 4.6% in unsteady operation condition, compared to the COP of air enthalpy method. Results show that the COP of air conditioners can be measured easily for a long term using NNW within a high degree of accuracy.

  5. Product lifetime, energy efficiency and climate change: A case study of air conditioners in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nishijima, Daisuke

    2016-10-01

    This study proposed a modelling technique for estimating life-cycle CO2 emissions of durable goods by considering changes in product lifetime and energy efficiency. The stock and flow of durable goods was modelled by Weibull lifetime distributions and the trend in annual energy efficiency (i.e., annual electricity consumption) of an "average" durable good was formulated as a reverse logistic curve including a technologically critical value (i.e., limit energy efficiency) with respect to time. I found that when the average product lifetime is reduced, there is a trade-off between the reduction in emissions during product use (use phase), due to the additional purchases of new, more energy-efficient air conditioners, and the increase in emissions arising from the additional production of new air conditioners stimulated by the reduction of the average product lifetime. A scenario analysis focused on residential air conditioners in Japan during 1972-2013 showed that for a reduction of average lifetime of 1 year, if the air conditioner energy efficiency limit can be improved by 1.4% from the estimated current efficiency level, then CO2 emissions can be reduced by approximately the same amount as for an extension of average product lifetime of 1 year. PMID:27423771

  6. Technical and economic analysis of energy efficiency of Chinese room air conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Fridley, David G.; Rosenquist, Gregory; Jiang, Lin; Li, Aixian; Xin, Dingguo; Cheng, Jianhong

    2001-02-01

    China has experienced tremendous growth in the production and sales of room air conditioners over the last decade. Although minimum room air conditioner energy efficiency standards have been in effect since 1989, no efforts were made during most of the 1990's to update the standard to be more reflective of current market conditions. In 1999, China's State Bureau of Technical Supervision (SBTS) included in their annual plan the development and revision of the 1989 room air conditioner standard, and experts from SBTS worked together with LBNL to analyze the new standards. Based on the engineering and life cycle-cost analyses performed, the most predominant type of room air conditioner in the Chinese market (split-type with a cooling capacity between 2500 and 4500 W (8500 Btu/h and 15,300Btu/h)) can have its efficiency increased cost-effectively to an energy efficiency ratio (EER) of 2.92 W/W (9.9 Btu/hr/W). If an EER standard of 2.92 W/W became effective in 2001, Chinese consumers would be estimated to save over 3.5 billion Yuan (420 million U.S. dollars) over the period of 2001-2020. Carbon emissions over the same period would be reduced by approximately 12 million metric tonnes.

  7. 75 FR 14368 - Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps: Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ... and the national energy savings (NES) and net present value (NPV) at various standard levels. There is... the real consumer cost of capital and puts the LCC in present-value terms. The PBP represents the... conditioners and heat pumps. 66 FR 7170. The amended standards would have increased the minimum SEER to 13...

  8. Product lifetime, energy efficiency and climate change: A case study of air conditioners in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nishijima, Daisuke

    2016-10-01

    This study proposed a modelling technique for estimating life-cycle CO2 emissions of durable goods by considering changes in product lifetime and energy efficiency. The stock and flow of durable goods was modelled by Weibull lifetime distributions and the trend in annual energy efficiency (i.e., annual electricity consumption) of an "average" durable good was formulated as a reverse logistic curve including a technologically critical value (i.e., limit energy efficiency) with respect to time. I found that when the average product lifetime is reduced, there is a trade-off between the reduction in emissions during product use (use phase), due to the additional purchases of new, more energy-efficient air conditioners, and the increase in emissions arising from the additional production of new air conditioners stimulated by the reduction of the average product lifetime. A scenario analysis focused on residential air conditioners in Japan during 1972-2013 showed that for a reduction of average lifetime of 1 year, if the air conditioner energy efficiency limit can be improved by 1.4% from the estimated current efficiency level, then CO2 emissions can be reduced by approximately the same amount as for an extension of average product lifetime of 1 year.

  9. 21 CFR 872.3765 - Pit and fissure sealant and conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pit and fissure sealant and conditioner. 872.3765 Section 872.3765 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3765 Pit and fissure sealant...

  10. 21 CFR 872.3765 - Pit and fissure sealant and conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pit and fissure sealant and conditioner. 872.3765 Section 872.3765 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3765 Pit and fissure sealant...

  11. 21 CFR 872.3750 - Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner. 872.3750 Section 872.3750 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3750 Bracket adhesive...

  12. Influence of storage methods on the surface roughness of tissue conditioners.

    PubMed

    Hong, Guan; Li, YingAi; Maeda, Takeshi; Mizumachi, Wataru; Sadamori, Shinsuke; Hamada, Taizo; Murata, Hiroshi

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the influence of three kinds of storage methods on surface roughness of tissue conditioners. Four commercial tissue conditioners (GC Soft Liner, Softone, Fictioner, and Hydro-Cast) were used in this study. Five samples of each material were stored in distilled water, air, and a denture cleanser (Polident). Mean surface roughness (R(a)) values of dental stone casts made from the tissue conditioners were measured after 0, 1, 3, 7, and 14 days of immersion using a profilometer. Significant differences in the R(a) values of the specimens were found among the three storage methods. The values of R(a) significantly increased with increase in immersion time for each storage method, except for the materials stored in air. It was found that the materials stored in air showed the most stable and lowest values of R(a). Results obtained suggested that a tissue conditioner exhibited smooth and minimal change in surface roughness with time when stored in air than in distilled water and denture cleanser. PMID:18540387

  13. Simulation Models of Leaf Area Index and Yield for Cotton Grown with Different Soil Conditioners

    PubMed Central

    Su, Lijun; Wang, Quanjiu; Wang, Chunxia; Shan, Yuyang

    2015-01-01

    Simulation models of leaf area index (LAI) and yield for cotton can provide a theoretical foundation for predicting future variations in yield. This paper analyses the increase in LAI and the relationships between LAI, dry matter, and yield for cotton under three soil conditioners near Korla, Xinjiang, China. Dynamic changes in cotton LAI were evaluated using modified logistic, Gaussian, modified Gaussian, log normal, and cubic polynomial models. Universal models for simulating the relative leaf area index (RLAI) were established in which the application rate of soil conditioner was used to estimate the maximum LAI (LAIm). In addition, the relationships between LAIm and dry matter mass, yield, and the harvest index were investigated, and a simulation model for yield is proposed. A feasibility analysis of the models indicated that the cubic polynomial and Gaussian models were less accurate than the other three models for simulating increases in RLAI. Despite significant differences in LAIs under the type and amount of soil conditioner applied, LAIm could be described by aboveground dry matter using Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Moreover, the simulation model for cotton yield based on LAIm and the harvest index presented in this work provided important theoretical insights for improving water use efficiency in cotton cultivation and for identifying optimal application rates of soil conditioners. PMID:26536468

  14. 16 CFR 305.12 - Labeling for central air conditioners, heat pumps, and furnaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Department of Energy for those products in 10 CFR part 430, manufacturers shall affix labels to covered... 10 CFR part 430 for non-weatherized, and mobile home furnaces and content of labels for weatherized... conditioners issued by the Department of Energy in 10 CFR part 430. (1) Headlines and texts, as illustrated...

  15. 16 CFR Appendix H to Part 305 - Cooling Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooling Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners H Appendix H to Part 305 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC... RULEâ) Pt. 305, App. H Appendix H to Part 305—Cooling Performance and Cost for Central Air...

  16. 16 CFR 305.12 - Labeling for central air conditioners, heat pumps, and furnaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... (ii) Each heat pump label, except as noted in paragraph (g)(4)(iii) of this section, shall contain two... only heat pump label shall contain a range of comparability consisting of the lowest and highest... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Labeling for central air conditioners,...

  17. Double-blind, placebo-controlled study to evaluate two miconazole conditioners for the treatment of Malassezia dermatitis in dogs.

    PubMed

    Marsella, R; Nicklin, C E; Nerbonne, J

    2000-01-01

    Eighteen dogs with Malassezia dermatitis participated in a clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy of miconazole conditioners. Dogs were randomly assigned to receive vehicle only, miconazole 1%, or miconazole 2% conditioner. Conditioners were used three times weekly for 2 weeks and then twice weekly for 2 weeks. Investigators evaluated erythema, pruritus, and yeast counts weekly. Owners scored pruritus daily. Yeast number decreased in all treatment groups. Yeast number in the vehicle group was higher than in both the miconazole treatment groups but was not different between the two miconazole groups. Clinical scores decreased but no difference was detected among groups. PMID:19757576

  18. Influence of interface traps inside the conduction band on the capacitance–voltage characteristics of InGaAs metal–oxide–semiconductor capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taoka, Noriyuki; Yokoyama, Masafumi; Kim, Sang Hyeon; Suzuki, Rena; Iida, Ryo; Takenaka, Mitsuru; Takagi, Shinichi

    2016-11-01

    We investigated the influences of the AC response with interface/bulk-oxide traps near the conduction band (CB) and a low effective density of states (DOS) on the accumulation capacitance C acc of an n-type InGaAs metal–oxide–semiconductor (MOS) capacitor. We found that the capacitance associated with the interface traps inside the CB significantly increases C acc compared to the C acc value constrained by a low DOS. These results indicate that accurate characterization inside the CB and considering the capacitance due to the interface traps inside the CB in the MOS capacitance–voltage curves are indispensable for accurate characterization of InGaAs MOS interface properties.

  19. 10 CFR Appendix F to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Room Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... or without energizing active air-cleaning components or devices such as ultraviolet (UV) radiation... conditioners at 10 CFR 430.32(b). 1. Definitions. 1.1 “Active mode” means a mode in which the room...

  20. 10 CFR Appendix F to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Room Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... or without energizing active air-cleaning components or devices such as ultraviolet (UV) radiation... conditioners at 10 CFR 430.32(b). 1. Definitions. 1.1“Active mode” means a mode in which the room...

  1. 10 CFR Appendix F to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Room Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... or without energizing active air-cleaning components or devices such as ultraviolet (UV) radiation... conditioners at 10 CFR 430.32(b). 1. Definitions. 1.1“Active mode” means a mode in which the room...

  2. Productivity issues at organizational interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, A. W.

    1985-01-01

    The need for close interdependence between large numbers of diverse and specialized work groups makes the Space Program extremely vulnerable to loss of productivity at organizational interfaces. Trends within the program also suggest that the number and diversity of interfaces will grow in the near term. Continued maintenance of R&D excellence will require that interface performance issues be included in any future productivity improvement effort. The types and characteristics of organizational interfaces are briefly presented, followed by a review of factors which impact their productivity. Approaches to assessing and improving interface effectiveness are also discussed.

  3. [Comparison of event-related potentials components characteristics obtained during stimulation of symbolical and alphabetic matrixes used in brain-computer interface paradigm].

    PubMed

    Saltykov, K A; Bark, E D; Kulikov, M A

    2014-01-01

    In order to create a brain-computer interface (BCI) on the basis of paradigm P300 (the so-called Farwell-Donchin paradigm, FD) with a symbolical matrix used as stimuli, there were compared characteristics of event-related potentials (ERP) obtained from stimulation both by symbolical and alphabetical matrixes. The matrixes contained 6 x 6 signs (cyrillic letters or symbols-pictograms). Nine healthy adults were examined in 18 experiments during which 28 channel EEG were recorded while matrixes of two types (containing either cyrillic letters or symbols-pictograms) were used for stimulation. The obtained ERP data, i.e. amplitudes and peak latencies of the following components of ERP: N1, P3 with sub-components P3a and P3b, N4 were compared and analized for different types of the stimulation matrixes. Similar changes in amplitude or peak latency received from 7 or more out of 9 examinees were taken into consideration, matching the criteria of significance. It was discovered that for components P3a, P3b and N4 the amplitudes of ERP in response to a symbolic matrix were bigger than to a letter matrix, the opposite being true for component N1. Latent periods of ERP components were shorter for a symbolic matrix than for a letter matrix in case of components N1 and P3a, and longer in case of P3b and N4. In order to find out which zones of the brain react to stimulation the most, there was conducted a pair t-test (series of pair t-tests) to analize the topography of variety of ERP responses to different types of stimuli, and, through comparing the amplitudes of ERP components, a topographical map detailing the variety of responses to the different types of matrixes was obtained. The data about the differences were analized separately for each of 28 channels, then the (absolute magnitude t-test) were summed up algebraically for all the nine examinees. Thus, it was shown, for amplitudes of all the tested ERP components in the case of pair "significant-insignificant letters

  4. Techno-Economic Analysis of Indian Draft Standard Levels for RoomAir Conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    McNeil, Michael A.; Iyer, Maithili

    2007-03-01

    The Indian Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) finalized its first set of efficiency standards and labels for room air conditioners in July of 2006. These regulations followed soon after the publication of levels for frost-free refrigerators in the same year. As in the case of refrigerators, the air conditioner program introduces Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards (MEPS) and comparative labels simultaneously, with levels for one to five stars. Also like the refrigerator program, BEE defined several successive program phases of increasing stringency. In support of BEE's refrigerator program, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) produced an analysis of national impacts of standards in collaboration with the Collaborative Labeling and Standards Program (CLASP). That analysis drew on LBNL's experience with standards programs in the United States, as well as many other countries. Subsequently, as part of the process for setting optimal levels for air conditioner regulations, CLASP commissioned LBNL to provide support to BEE in the form of a techno-economic evaluation of air conditioner efficiency technologies. This report describes the methodology and results of this techno-economic evaluation. The analysis consists of three components: (1) Cost effectiveness to consumers of efficiency technologies relative to current baseline. (2) Impacts on the current market from efficiency regulations. (3) National energy and financial impacts. The analysis relied on detailed and up-to-date technical data made available by BEE and industry representatives. Technical parameters were used in conjunction with knowledge about air conditioner use patterns in the residential and commercial sectors, and prevailing marginal electricity prices, in order to give an estimate of per-unit financial impacts. In addition, the overall impact of the program was evaluated by combining unit savings with market forecasts in order to yield national impacts. LBNL presented preliminary results

  5. Low GWP Refrigerants Modelling Study for a Room Air Conditioner Having Microchannel Heat Exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Bo; Bhandari, Mahabir S

    2016-01-01

    Microchannel heat exchangers (MHX) have found great successes in residential and commercial air conditioning applications, being compact heat exchangers, to reduce refrigerant charge and material cost. This investigation aims to extend the application of MHXs in split, room air conditioners (RAC), per fundamental heat exchanger and system modelling. For this paper, microchannel condenser and evaporator models were developed, using a segment-to-segment modelling approach. The microchannel heat exchanger models were integrated to a system design model. The system model is able to predict the performance indices, such as cooling capacity, efficiency, sensible heat ratio, etc. Using the calibrated system and heat exchanger models, we evaluated numerous low GWP (global warming potential) refrigerants. The predicted system performance indices, e.g. cooling efficiency, compressor discharge temperature, and required compressor displacement volume etc., are compared. Suitable replacements for R22 and R-410A for the room air conditioner application are recommended.

  6. Method and apparatus for analog signal conditioner for high speed, digital x-ray spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Warburton, W.K.; Hubbard, B.

    1999-02-09

    A signal processing system which accepts input from an x-ray detector-preamplifier and produces a signal of reduced dynamic range for subsequent analog-to-digital conversion is disclosed. The system conditions the input signal to reduce the number of bits required in the analog-to-digital converter by removing that part of the input signal which varies only slowly in time and retaining the amplitude of the pulses which carry information about the x-rays absorbed by the detector. The parameters controlling the signal conditioner`s operation can be readily supplied in digital form, allowing it to be integrated into a feedback loop as part of a larger digital x-ray spectroscopy system. 13 figs.

  7. Dynamic modeling of brushless dc motor-power conditioner unit for electromechanical actuator application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demerdash, N. A.; Nehl, T. W.

    1979-01-01

    A comprehensive digital model for the analysis of the dynamic-instantaneous performance of a power conditioner fed samarium-cobalt permanent magnet brushless DC motor is presented. The particular power conditioner-machine system at hand, for which this model was developed, is a component of an actual prototype electromechanical actuator built for NASA-JSC as a possible alternative to hydraulic actuators as part of feasibility studies for the shuttle orbiter applications. Excellent correlation between digital simulated and experimentally obtained performance data was achieved for this specific prototype. This is reported on in this paper. Details of one component of the model, its applications and the corresponding results are given in this paper.

  8. Study on Variable Capacity Control Mechanism of Scroll Compressor for Automotive Air Conditioner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, Takahisa; Shigeoka, Tetsuo

    As for the automotive air conditioner, (1) to keep the automotive cabin temperature in a comfortable region, (2) to improve driving feeling, (3) to drive the air conditioning system economically through all seasons, are universally required. Recently, from these points, compressors with variable capacity control mechanism for automotive air conditioners have been remarkably requested. We have developed a scroll comoressor with variable capacity control mechanism. The capacity control mechanism, which changes the channel area of the bypass hole continuously, according to the suction gas pressure and the discharge gas pressure, has been developed. In this report, we describe the mechanism of variable capacity control and the performance simulation program that has been developed for the scroll compressor. Further, we describe the measuring results of cylinder pressure behavior, the results of energy loss analysis and the effect of comfort, drivability, power saving in the refrigerating cycle using the developed capacity control compressor.

  9. Scalable coherent interface

    SciTech Connect

    Alnaes, K.; Kristiansen, E.H. ); Gustavson, D.B. ); James, D.V. )

    1990-01-01

    The Scalable Coherent Interface (IEEE P1596) is establishing an interface standard for very high performance multiprocessors, supporting a cache-coherent-memory model scalable to systems with up to 64K nodes. This Scalable Coherent Interface (SCI) will supply a peak bandwidth per node of 1 GigaByte/second. The SCI standard should facilitate assembly of processor, memory, I/O and bus bridge cards from multiple vendors into massively parallel systems with throughput far above what is possible today. The SCI standard encompasses two levels of interface, a physical level and a logical level. The physical level specifies electrical, mechanical and thermal characteristics of connectors and cards that meet the standard. The logical level describes the address space, data transfer protocols, cache coherence mechanisms, synchronization primitives and error recovery. In this paper we address logical level issues such as packet formats, packet transmission, transaction handshake, flow control, and cache coherence. 11 refs., 10 figs.

  10. Biofunctional characteristics of lignite fly ash modified by humates: a new soil conditioner.

    PubMed

    Chassapis, Konstantinos; Roulia, Maria; Vrettou, Evangelia; Fili, Despina; Zervaki, Monica

    2010-01-01

    Fly ash superficially modified with humic substances from the Megalopolis lignitic power plant was prepared and evaluated for agricultural uses. UV-vis spectrophotometry and IR spectroscopy revealed that fly ash shows high sorption efficiency towards humic substances. Adsorption proceeds stepwise via strong Coulombic and hydrophophic forces of attraction between guest and host materials. Langmuir, Freundlich, BET, Harkins-Jura, and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm models were employed to evaluate the ongoing adsorption and shed light to the physicochemical properties of the sorbent-adsorbate system. Humic substances desorption and microbial cultivation experiments were also carried out to examine the regeneration of the humates under washing and explore the possibility of this material acclimatizing in real soil conditions, both useful for biofunctional agricultural applications.

  11. Biofunctional Characteristics of Lignite Fly Ash Modified by Humates: A New Soil Conditioner

    PubMed Central

    Chassapis, Konstantinos; Roulia, Maria; Vrettou, Evangelia; Fili, Despina; Zervaki, Monica

    2010-01-01

    Fly ash superficially modified with humic substances from the Megalopolis lignitic power plant was prepared and evaluated for agricultural uses. UV-vis spectrophotometry and IR spectroscopy revealed that fly ash shows high sorption efficiency towards humic substances. Adsorption proceeds stepwise via strong Coulombic and hydrophophic forces of attraction between guest and host materials. Langmuir, Freundlich, BET, Harkins-Jura, and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm models were employed to evaluate the ongoing adsorption and shed light to the physicochemical properties of the sorbent-adsorbate system. Humic substances desorption and microbial cultivation experiments were also carried out to examine the regeneration of the humates under washing and explore the possibility of this material acclimatizing in real soil conditions, both useful for biofunctional agricultural applications. PMID:20592758

  12. Exposure data for cosmetic products: facial cleanser, hair conditioner, and eye shadow.

    PubMed

    Loretz, L J; Api, A M; Babcock, L; Barraj, L M; Burdick, J; Cater, K C; Jarrett, G; Mann, S; Pan, Y H L; Re, T A; Renskers, K J; Scrafford, C G

    2008-05-01

    Reliable exposure information for cosmetic and other personal care products and ingredients is needed in order to conduct safety assessments. Essential information includes both the amount of product applied, and the frequency of use. To obtain current data, a study to assess consumer use practices was undertaken. Three widely used types of cosmetic products - facial cleanser, hair conditioner, and eye shadow - were included in the study. Three hundred and sixty women, ages 18-69 years, who regularly use the products of interest, were recruited nationwide within the US. Subjects were provided with a new container of the brand of product they normally use and kept diaries and recorded detailed daily usage information over a two week period. Products were weighed at the start and completion of the study in order to determine the total amount of product used. Statistical analyses of the data were conducted to derive summary distributions of use patterns. The mean and median usage per application, respectively, for the three product types were: facial cleanser, 2.57 g and 2.11 g; hair conditioner, 13.13 g and 10.21 g; and eye shadow, 0.03 g and 0.009 g. The mean and median usage per day for the three product types was: facial cleanser, 4.06 g and 3.25 g; hair conditioner, 13.77 g and 10.62 g; and eye shadow, 0.04 g and 0.010 g. The mean number of applications per day for facial cleanser, hair conditioner, and eye shadow was 1.6, 1.1, and 1.2, respectively. This study provides an estimate of current exposure information for commonly used products which will be useful for risk assessment purposes.

  13. Evaluation of a clay-based acidic bedding conditioner for dairy cattle bedding.

    PubMed

    Proietto, R L; Hinckley, L S; Fox, L K; Andrew, S M

    2013-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of a clay-based acidic bedding conditioner on sawdust bedding pH, dry matter (DM), environmental pathogen counts, and environmental bacterial counts on teat ends of lactating dairy cows. Sixteen lactating Holstein cows were paired based on parity, days in milk, milk yield, and milk somatic cell count, and were negative for the presence of an intramammary pathogen. Within each pair, cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments with 3-wk periods in a crossover design. Treatment groups consisted of 9 freestalls per group bedded with either untreated sawdust or sawdust with a clay-based acidic bedding conditioner, added at 3- to 4-d intervals over each 21-d period. Bedding and teat ends were aseptically sampled on d 0, 1, 2, 7, 14, and 21 for determination of environmental bacterial counts. At the same time points, bedding was sampled for DM and pH determination. The bacteria identified in the bedding material were total gram-negative bacteria, Streptococcus spp., and coliform bacteria. The bacteria identified on the teat ends were Streptococcus spp., coliform bacteria, and Klebsiella spp. Teat end score, milk somatic cell count, and intramammary pathogen presence were measured weekly. Bedding and teat cleanliness, environmental high and low temperatures, and dew point data were collected daily. The bedding conditioner reduced the pH, but not the DM, of the sawdust bedding compared with untreated sawdust. Overall environmental bacterial counts in bedding were lower for treated sawdust. Total bacterial counts in bedding and on teat ends increased with time over both periods. Compared with untreated sawdust, the treated bedding had lower counts of total gram-negative bacteria and streptococci, but not coliform counts. Teat end bacterial counts were lower for cows bedded on treated sawdust for streptococci, coliforms, and Klebsiella spp. compared with cows bedded on untreated sawdust. The clay-based acidic bedding conditioner

  14. Solar Power Conditioners Using Bidirectional Chopper Circuits Connected in Series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Hideaki; Mabuchi, Masao; Tsubota, Yasuhiro; Mizogami, Takao

    This paper proposes a new high-efficiency grid-connection inverter suitable for the interface with thin-film solar cells, which is composed of two bidirectional buck converters and an H-bridge PWM converter connected in series. The switching frequencies of the first bidirectional buck converters are equal to the grid frequency, while the second one is operated at the twice of the grid frequency. The combination of these two converter synthesizes an ac rectangular voltage pulse train from the dc input power. The H-bridge PWM converter is operated at 20kHz with a low dc capacitor voltage to compensate for the harmonic voltage included in the rectangular voltage pulse train. As a result, the proposed grid-connection inverter makes it possible to reduce both switching loss and common mode voltage. Experimental results obtained by a 1-kW single-phase inverter demonstrate a high efficiency of 98% without any common mode voltage.

  15. Air conditioner operation behaviour based on students' skin temperature in a classroom.

    PubMed

    Song, Gook-Sup; Lim, Jae-Han; Ahn, Tae-Kyung

    2012-01-01

    A total of 25 college students participated in a study to determine when they would use an air conditioner during a lecture in a university classroom. The ambient temperature and relative humidity were measured 75 cm above the floor every minute. Skin temperatures were measured every minute at seven points, according to the recommendation of Hardy and Dubois. The average clothing insulation value (CLO) of subjects was 0.53 ± 0.07 CLO. The mean air velocity in the classroom was 0.13 ± 0.028 m/s. When the subjects turned the air conditioner both on and off, the average ambient temperatures, relative humidity and mean skin temperatures were 27.4 and 23.7 °C (p = 0.000), 40.9 and 40.0% (p = 0.528) and 32.7 and 32.2 °C (p = 0.024), respectively. When the status of the air conditioner was changed, the differences of skin temperatures in core body parts (head, abdomen and thigh) were not statistically significant. However, in the extremities (mid-lower arm, hand, shin and instep), the differences were statistically significant. Subjects preferred a fluctuating environment to a constant temperature condition. We found that a changing environment does not affect classroom study. PMID:21665190

  16. Swozzle based burner tube premixer including inlet air conditioner for low emissions combustion

    DOEpatents

    Tuthill, Richard Sterling; Bechtel, II, William Theodore; Benoit, Jeffrey Arthur; Black, Stephen Hugh; Bland, Robert James; DeLeonardo, Guy Wayne; Meyer, Stefan Martin; Taura, Joseph Charles; Battaglioli, John Luigi

    2002-01-01

    A burner for use in a combustion system of a heavy-duty industrial gas turbine includes a fuel/air premixer having an air inlet, a fuel inlet, and an annular mixing passage. The fuel/air premixer mixes fuel and air into a uniform mixture for injection into a combustor reaction zone. The burner also includes an inlet flow conditioner disposed at the air inlet of the fuel/air premixer for controlling a radial and circumferential distribution of incoming air. The pattern of perforations in the inlet flow conditioner is designed such that a uniform air flow distribution is produced at the swirler inlet annulus in both the radial and circumference directions. The premixer includes a swozzle assembly having a series of preferably air foil shaped turning vanes that impart swirl to the airflow entering via the inlet flow conditioner. Each air foil contains internal fuel flow passages that introduce natural gas fuel into the air stream via fuel metering holes that pass through the walls of the air foil shaped turning vanes. By injecting fuel in this manner, an aerodynamically clean flow field is maintained throughout the premixer. By injecting fuel via two separate passages, the fuel/air mixture strength distribution can be controlled in the radial direction to obtain optimum radial concentration profiles for control of emissions, lean blow outs, and combustion driven dynamic pressure activity as machine and combustor load are varied.

  17. Effects of a non-rinse conditioner on the enamel of primary teeth.

    PubMed

    Fava, Marcelo; Myaki, Silvio Issáo; Arana-Chavez, Victor Elias; Fava-de-Moraes, Flavio

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate by scanning electron microscopy the morphological aspects of the enamel of primary teeth after etching with 36% phosphoric acid or a non-rinse conditioner. Ten naturally exfoliated anterior primary teeth were selected. The samples were subjected to prophylaxis with pumice paste and water using a low-speed hand piece. Etching was done on the buccal surface. Specimens were divided into 2 groups: G1 (n=10): etching with 36% phosphoric acid gel - Conditioner 36 (Dentsply) for 20 s, followed by water rinse for 15 s; G2 (n=10): etching with NRC - Non Rinse Conditioner (Dentsply) for 20 s, followed by air drying for 15 s. The samples were dehydrated, mounted on metal stubs, coated with gold and observed with Jeol JSM-6100 scanning electron microscope. Electron-micrographic analysis showed that both etching agents were effective for etching the enamel of primary teeth causing the formation of microporosities on the enamel surface, although the etching pattern was more effective with the use of 36% phosphoric acid gel. PMID:15057391

  18. Interfaces: nanometric dielectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, T. J.

    2005-01-01

    The incorporation of nanometric size particles in a matrix to form dielectric composites shows promise of materials (nanodielectrics) with new and improved properties. It is argued that the properties of the interfaces between the particles and the matrix, which will themselves be of nanometric dimensions, will have an increasingly dominant role in determining dielectric performance as the particle size decreases. The forces that determine the electrical and dielectric properties of interfaces are considered, with emphasis on the way in which they might influence composite behaviour. A number of examples are given in which interfaces at the nanometric level exercise both passive and active control over dielectric, optical and conductive properties. Electromechanical properties are also considered, and it is shown that interfaces have important electrostrictive and piezoelectric characteristics. It is demonstrated that the process of poling, namely subjecting macroscopic composite materials to electrical stress and raised temperatures to create piezoelectric materials, can be explained in terms of optimizing the collective response of the nanometric interfaces involved. If the electrical and electromechanical features are coupled to the long-established electrochemical properties, interfaces represent highly versatile active elements with considerable potential in nanotechnology.

  19. VIRTUAL FRAME BUFFER INTERFACE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, T. L.

    1994-01-01

    Large image processing systems use multiple frame buffers with differing architectures and vendor supplied user interfaces. This variety of architectures and interfaces creates software development, maintenance, and portability problems for application programs. The Virtual Frame Buffer Interface program makes all frame buffers appear as a generic frame buffer with a specified set of characteristics, allowing programmers to write code which will run unmodified on all supported hardware. The Virtual Frame Buffer Interface converts generic commands to actual device commands. The virtual frame buffer consists of a definition of capabilities and FORTRAN subroutines that are called by application programs. The virtual frame buffer routines may be treated as subroutines, logical functions, or integer functions by the application program. Routines are included that allocate and manage hardware resources such as frame buffers, monitors, video switches, trackballs, tablets and joysticks; access image memory planes; and perform alphanumeric font or text generation. The subroutines for the various "real" frame buffers are in separate VAX/VMS shared libraries allowing modification, correction or enhancement of the virtual interface without affecting application programs. The Virtual Frame Buffer Interface program was developed in FORTRAN 77 for a DEC VAX 11/780 or a DEC VAX 11/750 under VMS 4.X. It supports ADAGE IK3000, DEANZA IP8500, Low Resolution RAMTEK 9460, and High Resolution RAMTEK 9460 Frame Buffers. It has a central memory requirement of approximately 150K. This program was developed in 1985.

  20. Safety use of sewage sludge as soil conditioner.

    PubMed

    El-Naim, M A; El-Housseini, M; Naeem, M H

    2004-01-01

    A series of field and laboratory experiments were conducted during 1994-996 to study the seasonal changes in sewage sludge characteristics and to evaluate the effect of sludge treatment processes and their application to sandy soil on soil-plant heavy metal contents and the numbers of some pathogenic microorganisms in both treated sludge and sludge provided soils. Results of seasonal production of sludge showed wide variation in their chemical and microbiological characteristics. Lime application resulted in an increase in the pH values and temperature degrees. The maximal values of temperature and pH were obtained when sludge treated with 20% lime. No big difference was observed between the sludge treatments received lime at rates of 10, 15, and 20% lime. The 10% limed-sludge treatment was the best for reducing concentrations of heavy metals and numbers of bacterial pathogens in sludge. Stoping addition of sludge to soil for one cropping season after continuous sludge addition for four seasons sharply decreased the soil heavy metal contents and subsequently decreased their accumulation in the edible parts of plants.

  1. Nanosecond pulsed laser damage characteristics of HfO2/SiO2 high reflection coatings irradiated from crystal-film interface.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xinbin; Jiao, Hongfei; Lu, Jiangtao; Ma, Bin; Wang, Zhanshan

    2013-06-17

    The nano-precursors in the subsurface of Nd:YLF crystal were limiting factor that decreased the laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) of HfO(2)/SiO(2) high reflection (HR) coatings irradiated from crystal-film interface. To investigate the contribution of electric-field (E-field) to laser damage originating from nano-precursors and then to probe the distribution of vulnerable nano-precursors in the direction of subsurface depth, two 1064 nm HfO(2)/SiO(2) HR coatings having different standing-wave (SW) E-field distributions in subsurface of Nd:YLF c5424181043036123rystal were designed and prepared. Artificial gold nano-particles were implanted into the crystal-film interface prior to deposition of HR coatings to study the damage behaviors in a more reliable way. The damage test results revealed that the SW E-field rather than the travelling-wave (TW) E-field contributed to laser damage. By comparing the SW E-field distributions and LIDTs of two HR coating designs, the most vulnerable nano-precursors were determined to be concentrated in a thin redeposition layer that is within 100 nm from the crystal-film interface.

  2. The Effect of Water or Wax-based Binders on the Chemical and Morphological Characteristics of the Margin Ceramic-Framework Interface.

    PubMed

    Güler, Umut; de Queiroz, José Renato Cavalcanti; de Oliveira, Luiz Fernando Cappa; Canay, Senay; Ozcan, Mutlu

    2015-09-01

    This study evaluated the effect of binder choice in mixing ceramic powder on the chemical and morphological features between the margin ceramic-framework interfaces. Titanium and zirconia frameworks (15 x 5 x 0.5 mm3) were veneered with margin ceramics prepared with two different binders, namely a) water/conventional or b) wax-based. For each zirconia framework material, four different margin ceramics were used: a- Creation Zi (Creation Willi Geller International); b- GC Initial Zr (GC America); Triceram (Dentaurum); and d- IPS emax (voclar Vivadent). For the titanium framework, three different margin ceramics were used: a- Creation Ti (Creation Willi Geller International); b- Triceram (Dentaurum); and c- VITA Titaniumkeramik (Vita Zahnfabrik). The chemical composition of the framework-margin ceramic interface was analyzed using Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) and porosity level was quantified within the margin ceramic using an image program (ImageJ) from four random areas (100 x 100 pixels) on each SEM image. EDS analysis showed the presence of Carbon at the margin ceramic-framework interface in the groups where wax-based binder technique was used with the concentration being the highest for the IPS emax ZirCAD group. While IPS system (IPS ZirCAD and IPS Emax) presented higher porosity concentration using wax binder, in the other groups wax-based binder reduced the porosity of margin ceramic, except for Titanium - Triceram combination. PMID:26591248

  3. Mechanics of load transfer at the fiber/matrix interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.

    1972-01-01

    Methods for measuring and predicting interface bond stresses and interface bond strength are described. Geometric and material variables which influence interface stress and interface bond strength are identified. The dependence of composite fracture surface characteristics on bond strength is illustrated. Parameters for selecting constituents to yield specified interface bond strength are recommended.

  4. Hyperbolic interfaces.

    PubMed

    Giomi, Luca

    2012-09-28

    Fluid interfaces, such as soap films, liquid droplets, or lipid membranes, are known to give rise to several special geometries, whose complexity and beauty continue to fascinate us, as observers of the natural world, and challenge us as scientists. Here I show that a special class of surfaces of constant negative Gaussian curvature can be obtained in fluid interfaces equipped with an orientational ordered phase. These arise in various soft and biological materials, such as nematic liquid crystals, cytoskeletal assemblies, or hexatic colloidal suspensions. The purely hyperbolic morphology originates from the competition between surface tension, that reduces the area of the interface at the expense of increasing its Gaussian curvature, and the orientational elasticity of the ordered phase, that in turn suffers for the distortion induced by the underlying curvature. PMID:23030106

  5. Hyperbolic Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giomi, Luca

    2012-09-01

    Fluid interfaces, such as soap films, liquid droplets, or lipid membranes, are known to give rise to several special geometries, whose complexity and beauty continue to fascinate us, as observers of the natural world, and challenge us as scientists. Here I show that a special class of surfaces of constant negative Gaussian curvature can be obtained in fluid interfaces equipped with an orientational ordered phase. These arise in various soft and biological materials, such as nematic liquid crystals, cytoskeletal assemblies, or hexatic colloidal suspensions. The purely hyperbolic morphology originates from the competition between surface tension, that reduces the area of the interface at the expense of increasing its Gaussian curvature, and the orientational elasticity of the ordered phase, that in turn suffers for the distortion induced by the underlying curvature.

  6. Relationship between Fear Conditionability and Aversive Memories: Evidence from a Novel Conditioned-Intrusion Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Wegerer, Melanie; Blechert, Jens; Kerschbaum, Hubert; Wilhelm, Frank H.

    2013-01-01

    Intrusive memories – a hallmark symptom of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) – are often triggered by stimuli possessing similarity with cues that predicted or accompanied the traumatic event. According to learning theories, intrusive memories can be seen as a conditioned response to trauma reminders. However, direct laboratory evidence for the link between fear conditionability and intrusive memories is missing. Furthermore, fear conditioning studies have predominantly relied on standardized aversive stimuli (e.g. electric stimulation) that bear little resemblance to typical traumatic events. To investigate the general relationship between fear conditionability and aversive memories, we tested 66 mentally healthy females in a novel conditioned-intrusion paradigm designed to model real-life traumatic experiences. The paradigm included a differential fear conditioning procedure with neutral sounds as conditioned stimuli and short violent film clips as unconditioned stimuli. Subsequent aversive memories were assessed through a memory triggering task (within 30 minutes, in the laboratory) and ambulatory assessment (involuntary aversive memories in the 2 days following the experiment). Skin conductance responses and subjective ratings demonstrated successful differential conditioning indicating that naturalistic aversive film stimuli can be used in a fear conditioning experiment. Furthermore, aversive memories were elicited in response to the conditioned stimuli during the memory triggering task and also occurred in the 2 days following the experiment. Importantly, participants who displayed higher conditionability showed more aversive memories during the memory triggering task and during ambulatory assessment. This suggests that fear conditioning constitutes an important source of persistent aversive memories. Implications for PTSD and its treatment are discussed. PMID:24244407

  7. Effects of soil conditioners on emergence and growth of tomato-cotton, and lettuce seedlings. [Lycopersicon esculentum; Gossypium hirsutum; Lactuea sativa

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, A.; Wallace, G.A.

    1986-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the extent to which seedling emergence and plant growth can be improved with use of new soil conditioners. The early findings regarding polymeric soil conditioners are still valid today, with the exception that much lower application rates are needed today, and different application methodology is available.

  8. The Performance of a Desiccant-Based air Conditioner on a Florida School

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.

    2001-08-22

    Indoor air quality has become a major public health issue in recent years. ASHRAE standard 62-1989-which is an attempt to improve indoor air quality by increasing building ventilation rates-greatly increases the latent loads on many buildings. In more humid climates, the Sensible Heat Ratio (SHR) of a building's air conditioner (which is the fraction of total delivered cooling that is sensible) is too high to meet the existing latent loads. The implementation of ASHRAE 62-1989 will only exacerbate this problem.

  9. Optimum dry-cooling sub-systems for a solar air conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, J. L. S.; Namkoong, D.

    1978-01-01

    Dry-cooling sub-systems for residential solar powered Rankine compression air conditioners were economically optimized and compared with the cost of a wet cooling tower. Results in terms of yearly incremental busbar cost due to the use of dry-cooling were presented for Philadelphia and Miami. With input data corresponding to local weather, energy rate and capital costs, condenser surface designs and performance, the computerized optimization program yields design specifications of the sub-system which has the lowest annual incremental cost.

  10. Investigation into the common mode rejection ratio of the physiological signal conditioner circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, Edward M.

    1992-01-01

    The common mode rejection ratio (CMRR) of the single operational amplifier (op amp) differential amplifier and of the three operational amplifier differential amplifier was investigated. The three op amp differential amplifier circuit is used in the signal conditioner circuit which amplifies signals such as the electromyograph or electrocardiogram. The investigation confirmed via SPICE modeling what has been observed by others in the recent literature that the CMRR for the circuit can be maximized without precision resistor values or precisely matched op amps. This can be done if one resistor in the final stage can be adjusted either by a potentiometer or by laser trimming in the case of hybrid circuit fabrication.

  11. Diamond Conditioner Microwear Effect on Pad Surface Height Distribution in Tungsten Chemical Mechanical Polishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Yohei; Kawakubo, Masanori; Kadomura, Kazunori

    2011-05-01

    In this study, the surface topographies of chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) pad samples for varying levels of diamond microwear of a conditioner have been measured using a confocal microscope and an X-ray computer tomography (CT) scanner. The experimental results showed that the increase in the pad debris on the pad surface reduced the pad height ratio of the asperity called the “top surface area (TSA) ratio”. In addition, the overall removal rate in tungsten CMP was more dependent on the TSA ratio after polishing than on that after conditioning because the pad surface condition became worse with deformed asperities and micropores due to the insufficient conditioning.

  12. Morphological and structural characteristics of diazo dyes at the air-water interface: in situ Brewster angle microscopy and polarized UV/vis analysis.

    PubMed

    Yamaki, Sahori B; Andrade, Acácio A; Mendonça, Cléber R; Oliveira, Osvaldo N; Atvars, Teresa D Z

    2005-03-15

    A morphological analysis is presented for Langmuir films of the diazo dyes Sudan 4 (S4), Sudan 3 (S3), and Sudan red (SR), using Brewster angle microscopy. Stable nonmonomolecular structures are formed at the air-water interface denoted as a plateau in the pressure-area isotherms. Monolayer domains are evident by the contrastless image even before the pressure onset, which grow in size until it reached a condensed monolayer. This behavior resembles that of Langmuir films from simple aromatic fatty acids. Films from all the azo dyes display similar features, according to the surface potential isotherms and in situ polarized UV/vis spectroscopy except for the larger area per molecule occupied by S4 and SR. This is attributed to the presence of CH(3) groups that cause steric hindrance modifying the organization of diazo dye molecules at the air-water interface. UV/vis polarized absorption spectroscopy showed preferential orientation of S4 and S3 on the water surface, while SR molecules lie isotropically. For these three diazo dyes, film absorption was negligible at very large areas per molecule, becoming nonzero only at a critical area coinciding with the onset of surface potential. The critical area is ascribed to the formation of a H-bonded network between water molecules and diazo dye headgroups. PMID:15721920

  13. Development of 100-W High-Efficiency MPPT Power Conditioner and Evaluation of TEG System with Battery Load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagayoshi, Hiroshi; Nakabayashi, Tatsuya; Maiwa, Hiroshi; Kajikawa, Takenobu

    2011-05-01

    This paper describes a practical high-efficiency thermoelectric (TE) power conditioner with maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control for thermoelectric generators and the operation results for a battery load system. This power conditioner comprises a high-frequency step-up/step-down switching converter and a microcontroller; a synchronized switching circuit is introduced to achieve high conversion efficiency. Furthermore, it is equipped with a battery charge control program and has a maximum conversion efficiency of 96.7%. An impedance matching method developed for MPPT control showed excellent response against a change in the TEG output, making it suitable for solar TEGs as well as general applications.

  14. Atomistic modeling of dislocation-interface interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jian; Valone, Steven M; Beyerlein, Irene J; Misra, Amit; Germann, T. C.

    2011-01-31

    Using atomic scale models and interface defect theory, we first classify interface structures into a few types with respect to geometrical factors, then study the interfacial shear response and further simulate the dislocation-interface interactions using molecular dynamics. The results show that the atomic scale structural characteristics of both heterophases and homophases interfaces play a crucial role in (i) their mechanical responses and (ii) the ability of incoming lattice dislocations to transmit across them.

  15. Characteristics of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Viral Strains Circulating at the Wildlife/livestock Interface of the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Conservation Area.

    PubMed

    Jori, F; Caron, A; Thompson, P N; Dwarka, R; Foggin, C; de Garine-Wichatitsky, M; Hofmeyr, M; Van Heerden, J; Heath, L

    2016-02-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) inflicts severe economic losses within infected countries and is arguably the most important trade-restricting livestock disease in the world. In southern Africa, infected African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) are the major reservoir of the South African Territories (SAT) types of the virus. With the progressive expansion of transfrontier conservation areas (TFCAs), the risk of FMD outbreaks is expected to increase due to a higher probability of buffalo/livestock contacts. To investigate the dynamics of FMD within and around the Great Limpopo TFCA (GLTFCA), 5 herds of buffaloes were sampled in June 2010 to characterize circulating viruses in South Africa and Zimbabwe. Three SAT-2 and three SAT-3 viral strains were isolated in both countries, including one that was genetically linked with a recent SAT-2 outbreak in Mozambique in 2011. In addition, two groups of unvaccinated cattle (n = 192) were serologically monitored for 1 year at the wildlife/livestock interface of Gonarezhou National Park (GNP) in Zimbabwe between April 2009 and January 2010, using the liquid-phase blocking ELISA (LPBE) and a test for antibodies directed against non-structural proteins (NSP). Neither clinical signs nor vaccination of cattle were reported during the study, yet a high proportion of the monitored cattle showed antibody responses against SAT-3 and SAT-1. Antibodies against NSP were also detected in 10% of the monitored cattle. The results of this study suggest that cattle grazing in areas adjacent to the GLTFCA can be infected by buffalo or other infected livestock and that cattle trade movements can act as efficient disseminators of FMD viruses to areas several hundred kilometres from the virus source. Current methods of surveillance of FMD at the GLTFCA interface seem insufficient to control for FMD emergence and dissemination and require urgent reassessment and regional coordination.

  16. Effects of Air Conditioner Use on Real-World Fuel Economy

    SciTech Connect

    Huff, Shean P; West, Brian H; Thomas, John F

    2013-01-01

    Vehicle data were acquired on-road and on a chassis dynamometer to assess fuel consumption under several steady cruise conditions and at idle. Data were gathered for various air conditioner (A/C) settings and with the A/C off and the windows open. Two vehicles were used in the comparisonstudy: a 2009 Ford Explorer and a 2009 Toyota Corolla. At steady speeds between 64.4 and 112.7 kph (40 and 70 mph), both vehicles consumed more fuel with the A/C on at maximum cooling load (compressor at 100% duty cycle) than when driving with the windows down. The Explorer maintained this trend beyond 112.7 kph (70 mph), while the Corolla fuel consumption with the windows down matched that of running the A/C at 120.7 kph (75 mph), and exceeded it at 128.7 kph (80 mph). The largest incremental fuel consumption rate penalty due to air conditioner use occurred was nearly constant with a weakslight trend of increasing consumption with increasing compressor (and vehicle) speed. Lower consumption is seenobserved at idle for both vehicles, likely due to the low compressor speed at this operating point

  17. A Proposal for the Time Domain Modeling of Split Air Conditioners for Consumer Reimbursement Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezende, Paulo Henrique Oliveira; Almeida Junior, Afonso Bernardino; Gondim, Isaque Nogueira; Oliveira, José Carlos

    2015-04-01

    This paper deals with computer application procedures for the evaluation of the causal consistency between anomalous phenomena manifested in electrical networks, along with the physical damage associated with electrical equipment and possible reimbursement requests. The focus is on the development of an air conditioner appliance model of the type known as split founded upon a representation, in the time domain, in accordance with the Alternative Transients Program (ATP) simulator requirements. This approach permits investigations concerning the performance of the product when submitted to ideal and non-ideal supply conditions. Once the equipment model is implemented in the program, a set of investigative studies are carried out to show the device performance under specific energy quality disturbance conditions. In addition, there are still the results for the validation of the process established through the correlation between computational performance of the air conditioner with corresponding studies carried out experimentally, which are presented herein. Moreover, once the effectiveness of the developed model is verified, it is implemented into the Requests for Reimbursement Software. Investigations related to the correlation between disturbances and the levels of thermal and dielectric tolerance are then performed aiming at illustrating the use of the research results for the reimbursement analyzes purposes.

  18. Using Field-Metered Data to Quantify Annual Energy Use of Portable Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, Thomas; Willem, Henry; Ni, Chun Chun; Stratton, Hannah; Chen, Yuting; Ganeshalingam, Mohan; Iyer, Maithili; Price, Sarah; Dunham, Camilla

    2014-12-01

    As many regions of the United States experience rising temperatures, consumers have come to rely increasingly on cooling appliances (including portable air conditioners) to provide a comfortable indoor temperature. Home occupants sometimes use a portable air conditioner (PAC) to maintain a desired indoor temperature in a single room or enclosed space. Although PACs in residential use are few compared to centrally installed and room air conditioning (AC) units, the past few years have witnessed an increase of PACs use throughout the United States. There is, however, little information and few research projects focused on the energy consumption and performance of PACs, particularly studies that collect information from field applications of PACs. The operation and energy consumption of PACs may differ among geographic locations and households, because of variations in cooling load, frequency, duration of use, and other user-selected settings. In addition, the performance of building envelope (thermal mass and air leakage) as well as inter-zonal mixing within the building would substantially influence the ability to control and maintain desirable indoor thermal conditions. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) conducted an initial field-metering study aimed at increasing the knowledge and data related to PAC operation and energy consumption in the United States.

  19. Design of Interline Unified Power Quality Conditioner for Power Quality Disturbances using Simulink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumaraswamy, G.; Reddy, Y. Rajasekhar; Harikrishna, Ch.

    2012-10-01

    Proliferation of electronic equipment in commercial and industrial processes has resulted in increasingly sensitive electrical loads to be fed from power distribution system which introduce contamination to voltage and current waveforms at the point of common coupling of industrial loads. The unified power quality conditioner (UPQC) is connected between two different feeders (lines), hence this method of connection of the UPQC is called as Interline UPQC (IUPQC).This paper proposes a new connection for a UPQC to improve the power quality of two feeders in a distribution system. Interline Unified Power Quality Conditioner (IUPQC), specifically aims at the integration of series VSC and Shunt VSC to provide high quality power supply by means of voltage sag/swell compensation, harmonic elimination and power factor correction in a power distribution network, so that improved power quality can be made available at the point of common coupling. The structure, control and capability of the IUPQC are discussed in this paper. The efficiency of the proposed configuration has been verified through simulation using MATLAB/ SIMULINK.

  20. Soft Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilles de Gennes, Pierre; Edwards, Introduction By Sam

    1997-04-01

    Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, one of the greatest physicists of the twentieth century, died in 1984. Dirac's college, St. John's of Cambridge, generously endowed annual lectures to be held at Cambridge University in his memory. This volume contains a much expanded version of the 1994 Dirac Lecture by Nobel Laureate Pierre Gilles de Gennes. The book presents an impressionistic tour of the physics of soft interfaces. Full of insight and interesting asides, it not only provides an accessible introduction to this topic, but also lays down many markers and signposts that will be of interest to researchers in physics or chemistry. Features discussions of wetting and dewetting, the dynamics of different types of interface and adhesion and polymer/polymer welding.

  1. Air Sample Conditioner Helps the Waste Treatment Plant Meet Emissions Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Glissmeyer, John A.; Flaherty, Julia E.; Pekour, Mikhail S.

    2014-12-02

    The air in three of the Hanford Site Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) melter off-gas discharge stacks will be hot and humid after passing through the train of emission abatement equipment. The off-gas temperature and humidity levels will be incompatible with the airborne emissions monitoring equipment required for this type of stack. To facilitate sampling from these facilities, an air sample conditioner system will be installed to introduce cool, dry air into the sample stream to reduce the temperature and dew point. This will avoid thermal damage to the instrumentation and problematic condensation. The complete sample transport system must also deliver at least 50% of the particles in the sample airstream to the sample collection and on-line analysis equipment. The primary components of the sample conditioning system were tested in a laboratory setting. The sample conditioner itself is based on a commercially-available porous tube filter design. It consists of a porous sintered metal tube inside a coaxial metal jacket. The hot gas sample stream passes axially through the porous tube, and the dry, cool air is injected into the jacket and through the porous wall of the inner tube, creating an effective sample diluter. The dilution and sample air mix along the entire length of the porous tube, thereby simultaneously reducing the dew point and temperature of the mixed sample stream. Furthermore, because the dilution air enters through the porous tube wall, the sample stream does not come in contact with the porous wall and particle deposition is reduced in this part of the sampling system. Tests were performed with an environmental chamber to supply air with the temperature and humidity needed to simulate the off-gas conditions. Air from the chamber was passed through the conditioning system to test its ability to reduce the temperature and dew point of the sample stream. To measure particle deposition, oil droplets in the range of 9 to 11 micrometer

  2. [A patient with acute hypersensitivity pneumonitis with a diagnosis of air-conditioner lung, who responded to therapy].

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Rie; Kamiya, Hiroyuki; Ikushima, Souichiro; Oristu, Masaru; Takemura, Tamiko

    2010-02-01

    The patient was a 48-year-old woman and current smoker. In May 2007, she moved to a new residence. In the middle of the following month, she developed acute respiratory distress and a fever (38 degrees C) after running her air conditioner continuously throughout the night. The chest X-ray film showed diffuse infiltrative shadows in the middle and lower lung fields. After hospital admission, her oxygenation improved without treatment and the infiltrates improved over the clinical course. As a consequence, we suspected hypersensitivity pneumonitis. The bronchoalveolar lavage showed predominant lymphocytes of 72.6%, with a low CD 4/8 ratio of 0.2. Transbronchial lung biopsy findings corresponded to acute hypersensitivity pneumonitis. The results of the environmental challenge test were positive only when her air conditioner was on, resulting, in a diagnosis of air-conditioner lung. Several microorganisms were detected in an environmental sample, but 20 kinds of serum precipitating antibodies were negative on a thorough screening, so no responsible antigen could be identified. The patient's symptoms did not recur after her air conditioner was replaced. PMID:20184245

  3. 10 CFR Appendix F to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Room Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Room Air Conditioners F Appendix F to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY... Appendix F to Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Room...

  4. 10 CFR Appendix F to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Room Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of Room Air Conditioners F Appendix F to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App. F Appendix F to Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Room...

  5. Physical characteristics and discharges of suspended particulate matter at the continent-ocean interface in an estuary located in a semiarid region in northeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, Francisco Jose da Silva; Castro, Belmiro Mendes; Lacerda, Luiz Drude; Miranda, Luiz Brunner; Marins, Rozane Valente

    2016-10-01

    This study reports the hydrodynamics of the transport of suspended particulate matter (SPM) in the Jaguaribe River estuary, which receives the runoff from the largest drainage basin in the state of Ceará, Brazil. The estuary is located in the semiarid region of Brazil, where rainfall occurs primarily between January and May and results in water flow rates exceeding 3000 m3s-1. The drainage basin contains more than 4000 dams, which, during the dry season, block most of the flow of freshwater and sediment. The net balance and transport of sediments were calculated for the wet and dry seasons considering a tidal cycle of 13 h at the interfaces between the upper and middle estuary and between the middle and lower estuary. The Jaguaribe River estuary is classified as partially mixed with weak vertical stratification and a tendency toward being well mixed. The SPM transported during the rainy season originates in the drainage basin due to high river inflow, whereas during the dry season, resuspension and hydraulic fills generated by tides causes the accumulation of SPM in the middle estuary, forming a zone of maximum turbidity. The transport of salt in the estuary was predominantly caused by gravity flow and tidal propagation.

  6. Turfgrass Conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Using technology developed under contract to NASA for the Space Agricultural Program, a scientist at the Plant-Wise Biostimulant Company invented a product for turfgrass called the 3-D Concentrated Plant Growth Supplement. The supplement is a blend of fortified seaweed extracts, humic acid and plant nutrients that supplies grass with extra insurance to handle adverse conditions. The "3-D" refers to its three dimensions: foliar enhancement, physiological integrity, and foundation fortification. The stimulant is used on lawns and on golf courses.

  7. Water Conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A home use water treatment incorporates technology developed to purify water aboard Space Shuttle Orbiters. The General Ionics Model IQ Bacteriostatic Water Softener softens water and inhibits bacteria growth in the filtering unit. Ionics used NASA silver ion technology as a basis for development of a silver carbon dense enough to remain on top of the water softening resin bed.

  8. Water Conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Aqualizer is designed to cleanse water with minimal use of chemicals by stabilizing the ions in the water. Its applications are both recreational and industrial. A non-electrical passive device, the Aqualizer operates on the principle of catalytic water conditioning. It consists of a stainless steel pipe length with a helical core and is offered in a variety of sizes depending on the quantity of water to be treated. The device is based on NASA silver ionization technology used to purify drinking water aboard the Apollo spacecraft.

  9. A study on the oil flow characteristics in the inverter rotary compressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H. J.; Kim, Y. J.

    2013-12-01

    In order to secure the reliability of the oil in the inverter rotary compressor used in the system multi-air conditioners in heating and cooling modes, it is necessary to study the oil flow characteristics which affect to the compressor efficiency. In this study, sight glasses were installed at the compressor and accumulator for oil flow measurements, and various experiments were performed to measure the amount of discharged oil for different refrigerant pipe lengths. On the basis of the experimental measurements, we compared the OCR (Oil Circulation Rate) results of the system multi-air conditioner for various operating conditions. The results are graphically depicted.

  10. Magnetoelectric Coupling Characteristics of the La0.67Sr0.33MnO3/PbZr0.2Ti0.8O3(001) Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammouri, Mahmoud; Karpov, Dmitry; Fohtung, Edwin; Vasiliev, Igor

    Multiferroic heterostructures composed of thin layers of ferromagnetic and ferroelectric perovskites have attracted considerable attention in recent years. We apply ab initio computational methods based on density functional theory to study the characteristics of the magnetoelectric coupling at the (001) interface between La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 (LSMO) and PbZr0.2Ti0.8O3(PZT). The calculations are carried out using the Quantum ESPRESSO electronic structure code combined with Vanderbilt ultrasoft pseudopotentials. Our study shows that the interfacial interaction between LSMO and PZT and the polarization of PZT have a strong influence on the distribution of magnetization within the LSMO layer. A significant change in the magnetization of the LSMO layer adjacent to PZT is observed after reversal of the direction of polarization of PZT. Supported by NMSU GREG award. EF is funded by the DoD-AFOSR under Award No FA9550-14-1-0363.

  11. Characterization of cesium uptake mediated by a potassium transport system of bacteria in a soil conditioner.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pengyao; Idota, Yoko; Yano, Kentaro; Negishi, Masayuki; Kawabata, Hideaki; Arakawa, Hiroshi; Morimoto, Kaori; Tsuji, Akira; Ogihara, Takuo

    2014-01-01

    We found that bacteria in a commercial soil conditioner sold in Ishinomaki, Miyagi, exhibited concentrative and saturable cesium ion (Cs(+)) uptake in the natural range of pH and temperature. The concentration of intracellular Cs(+) could be condensed at least a few times higher compared with the outside medium of the cells. This uptake appeared to be mediated by a K(+) transport system, since Cs(+) uptake was dose-dependently inhibited by potassium ion (K(+)). Eadie-Hofstee plot analysis indicated that the Cs(+) uptake involved a single saturable process. The maximum uptake amount (Jmax) was the same in the presence and absence of K(+), suggesting that Cs(+) and K(+) uptakes were competitive with respect to each other. These bacteria might be useful for bioremediation of cesium-contaminated soil.

  12. Method and apparatus for analog signal conditioner for high speed, digital x-ray spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Warburton, William K.; Hubbard, Bradley

    1999-01-01

    A signal processing system which accepts input from an x-ray detector-preamplifier and produces a signal of reduced dynamic range for subsequent analog-to-digital conversion. The system conditions the input signal to reduce the number of bits required in the analog-to-digital converter by removing that part of the input signal which varies only slowly in time and retaining the amplitude of the pulses which carry information about the x-rays absorbed by the detector. The parameters controlling the signal conditioner's operation can be readily supplied in digital form, allowing it to be integrated into a feedback loop as part of a larger digital x-ray spectroscopy system.

  13. Life-cycle cost and payback period analysis for commercial unitary air conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenquist, Greg; Coughlin, Katie; Dale, Larry; McMahon, James; Meyers, Steve

    2004-03-31

    This report describes an analysis of the economic impacts of possible energy efficiency standards for commercial unitary air conditioners and heat pumps on individual customers in terms of two metrics: life-cycle cost (LCC) and payback period (PBP). For each of the two equipment classes considered, the 11.5 EER provides the largest mean LCC savings. The results show how the savings vary among customers facing different electricity prices and other conditions. At 11.5 EER, at least 80% of the users achieve a positive LCC savings. At 12.0 EER, the maximum efficiency analyzed, mean LCC savings are lower but still positive. For the {ge} $65,000 Btu/h to <135,000 Btu/h equipment class, 59% of users achieve a positive LCC savings. For the $135,000 Btu/h to <240,000 Btu/h equipment class, 91% of users achieve a positive LCC savings.

  14. Development of a solar-powered residential air conditioner: Economic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The results of investigations aimed at the development of cost models to be used in the economic assessment of Rankine-powered air conditioning systems for residential application are summarized. The rationale used in the development of the cost model was to: (1) collect cost data on complete systems and on the major equipment used in these systems; (2) reduce these data and establish relationships between cost and other engineering parameters such as weight, size, power level, etc; and (3) derive simple correlations from which cost-to-the-user can be calculated from performance requirements. The equipment considered in the survey included heat exchangers, fans, motors, and turbocompressors. This kind of hardware represents more than 2/3 of the total cost of conventional air conditioners.

  15. Phosphate adsorption characteristics at the sediment-water interface and phosphorus fractions in Nansi Lake, China, and its main inflow rivers.

    PubMed

    An, W C; Li, X M

    2009-01-01

    Phosphorus fractions and phosphate adsorption characteristics of 16 sediments from a shallow freshwater lake (Nansi Lake, China) and its inflow estuaries were investigated. In the present study, the sediment phosphorus is fractionated into exchangeable P (exch-P), Al-P, Fe-P, Ca-P, organic P (OP), inorganic P (IP) and total P (TP). The results show that the total phosphorus (TP) content in the sediments ranges from 571.67 to 1,113.55 mg kg(-1), and calcium bound phosphorus (Ca-P) is the main fraction of IP. The biologically available phosphorus (BAP) ranges from 32.02 to 229.67 mg kg(-1) in the Nansi Lake sediments. Phosphate adsorption on the sediments mainly occurs within 10 h and is completed within 48 h. The content of native adsorbed phosphorus (omega(NAP)) varies greatly from 6.05 to 194.37 mg kg(-1), showing a significant correlation with the total maximal amount of phosphorus adsorbed (TQ(max)). Adsorption efficiency (m) ranges from 574.79 to 3,220.68 l kg(-1) and zero equilibrium phosphorus concentration (C(EPC)) ranges from 0.010 to 0.157 mg l(-1). After the South-to-North Water Diversion Project, the inherent phosphorus present in sediments will be a major threat to the diverted water quality and be a predominant factor determining the trophic status of the lake even if the external load is reduced.

  16. Consumer life-cycle cost impacts of energy-efficiency standards for residential-type central air conditioners and heat pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenquist, Gregory; Chan, Peter; Lekov, Alex; McMahon, James; Van Buskirk, Robert

    2001-10-10

    In support of the federal government's efforts to raise the minimum energy-efficiency standards for residential-type central air conditioners and heat pumps, a consumer life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis was conducted to demonstrate the economic impacts on individual consumers from revisions to the standards. LCC is the consumer's cost of purchasing and installing an air conditioner or heat pump and operating the unit over its lifetime. The LCC analysis is conducted on a nationally representative sample of air conditioner and heat pump consumers resulting in a distribution of LCC impacts showing the percentage of consumers that are either benefiting or being burdened by increased standards. Relative to the existing minimum efficiency standard of 10 SEER, the results show that a majority of split system air conditioner and heat pump consumers will either benefit or be insignificantly impacted by increased efficiency standards of up to 13 SEER.

  17. Electrolytes near structured dielectric interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Huanxin; Jing, Yufei; Solis, Francisco; Olvera de La Cruz, Monica; Luijten, Erik

    2015-03-01

    The ion distribution in an electrolyte near a dielectric interface has important consequences for numerous applications. To date, most studies have focused on planar interfaces, where, e.g., simulations can take advantage of the image-charge method. However, for surfaces that display structure on the nanoscale, dielectric effects may be significantly different. Here, we investigate such interfaces via a combination of computer simulations and Poisson-Boltzmann theory. We demonstrate how, even for systems with piecewise uniform dielectric constant, surface structure affects the induced polarization charge as well as the ion distribution near the interface, in particular for asymmetric salts. We explore the role of ion concentration, dielectric mismatch and characteristic length scale of the surface structure.

  18. Porphyrins at interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auwärter, Willi; Écija, David; Klappenberger, Florian; Barth, Johannes V.

    2015-02-01

    Porphyrins and other tetrapyrrole macrocycles possess an impressive variety of functional properties that have been exploited in natural and artificial systems. Different metal centres incorporated within the tetradentate ligand are key for achieving and regulating vital processes, including reversible axial ligation of adducts, electron transfer, light-harvesting and catalytic transformations. Tailored substituents optimize their performance, dictating their arrangement in specific environments and mediating the assembly of molecular nanoarchitectures. Here we review the current understanding of these species at well-defined interfaces, disclosing exquisite insights into their structural and chemical properties, and also discussing methods by which to manipulate their intramolecular and organizational features. The distinct characteristics arising from the interfacial confinement offer intriguing prospects for molecular science and advanced materials. We assess the role of surface interactions with respect to electronic and physicochemical characteristics, and describe in situ metallation pathways, molecular magnetism, rotation and switching. The engineering of nanostructures, organized layers, interfacial hybrid and bio-inspired systems is also addressed.

  19. Progress towards Managing Residential Electricity Demand: Impacts of Standards and Labeling for Refrigerators and Air Conditioners in India

    SciTech Connect

    McNeil, Michael A.; Iyer, Maithili

    2009-05-30

    The development of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling (EES&L) began in earnest in India in 2001 with the Energy Conservation Act and the establishment of the Indian Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE). The first main residential appliance to be targeted was refrigerators, soon to be followed by room air conditioners. Both of these appliances are of critical importance to India's residential electricity demand. About 15percent of Indian households own a refrigerator, and sales total about 4 million per year, but are growing. At the same time, the Indian refrigerator market has seen a strong trend towards larger and more consumptive frost-free units. Room air conditioners in India have traditionally been sold to commercial sector customers, but an increasing number are going to the residential sector. Room air conditioner sales growth in India peaked in the last few years at 20percent per year. In this paper, we perform an engineering-based analysis using data specific to Indian appliances. We evaluate costs and benefits to residential and commercial sector consumers from increased equipment costs and utility bill savings. The analysis finds that, while the BEE scheme presents net benefits to consumers, there remain opportunities for efficiency improvement that would optimize consumer benefits, according to Life Cycle Cost analysis. Due to the large and growing market for refrigerators and air conditioners in India, we forecast large impacts from the standards and labeling program as scheduled. By 2030, this program, if fully implemented would reduce Indian residential electricity consumption by 55 TWh. Overall savings through 2030 totals 385 TWh. Finally, while efficiency levels have been set for several years for refrigerators, labels and MEPS for these products remain voluntary. We therefore consider the negative impact of this delay of implementation to energy and financial savings achievable by 2030.

  20. Effect of central ventilation and air conditioner system on the concentration and health risk from airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Lv, Jinze; Zhu, Lizhong

    2013-03-01

    Central ventilation and air conditioner systems are widely utilized nowadays in public places for air exchange and temperature control, which significantly influences the transfer of pollutants between indoors and outdoors. To study the effect of central ventilation and air conditioner systems on the concentration and health risk from airborne pollutants, a spatial and temporal survey was carried out using polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as agent pollutants. During the period when the central ventilation system operated without air conditioning (AC-off period), concentrations of 2-4 ring PAHs in the model supermarket were dominated by outdoor levels, due to the good linearity between indoor air and outdoor air (r(p) > 0.769, p < 0.05), and the slopes (1.2-4.54) indicated that ventilating like the model supermarket increased the potential health risks from low molecular weight PAHs. During the period when the central ventilation and air conditioner systems were working simultaneously (AC-on period), although the total levels of PAHs were increased, the concentrations and percentage of the particulate PAHs indoors declined significantly. The BaP equivalency (BaPeq) concentration indicated that utilization of air conditioning reduced the health risks from PAHs in the model supermarket. PMID:23923426

  1. Structural modifications due to interface chemistry at metal-nitride interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, S. K.; Shao, S.; Wang, J.; Liu, X.-Y.

    2015-01-01

    Based on accurate first principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations, an unusual phenomenon of interfacial structural modifications, due to the interface chemistry influence is identified at two metal-nitride interfaces with strong metal-nitrogen affinity, Al/TiN {111} and Al/VN {111} interfaces. It is shown that at such interfaces, a faulted stacking structure is energetically preferred on the Al side of the interface. And both intrinsic and extrinsic stacking fault energies in the vicinity Al layers are negligibly small. However, such phenomenon does not occur in Pt/TiN and Pt/VN interfaces because of the weak Pt-N affinity. Corresponding to structural energies of metal-nitride interfaces, the linear elasticity analysis predicts characteristics of interfacial misfit dislocations at metal-nitride interfaces. PMID:26611639

  2. Structural modifications due to interface chemistry at metal-nitride interfaces

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yadav, S. K.; Shao, S.; Wang, J.; Liu, X. -Y.

    2015-11-27

    Based on accurate first principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations, an unusual phenomenon of interfacial structural modifications, due to the interface chemistry influence is identified at two metal-nitride interfaces with strong metal-nitrogen affinity, Al/TiN {111} and Al/VN {111} interfaces. It is shown that at such interfaces, a faulted stacking structure is energetically preferred on the Al side of the interface. And both intrinsic and extrinsic stacking fault energies in the vicinity Al layers are negligibly small. However, such phenomenon does not occur in Pt/TiN and Pt/VN interfaces because of the weak Pt-N affinity. As a result, corresponding to structural energiesmore » of metal-nitride interfaces, the linear elasticity analysis predicts characteristics of interfacial misfit dislocations at metal-nitride interfaces.« less

  3. Structural modifications due to interface chemistry at metal-nitride interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Yadav, S. K.; Shao, S.; Wang, J.; Liu, X. -Y.

    2015-11-27

    Based on accurate first principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations, an unusual phenomenon of interfacial structural modifications, due to the interface chemistry influence is identified at two metal-nitride interfaces with strong metal-nitrogen affinity, Al/TiN {111} and Al/VN {111} interfaces. It is shown that at such interfaces, a faulted stacking structure is energetically preferred on the Al side of the interface. And both intrinsic and extrinsic stacking fault energies in the vicinity Al layers are negligibly small. However, such phenomenon does not occur in Pt/TiN and Pt/VN interfaces because of the weak Pt-N affinity. As a result, corresponding to structural energies of metal-nitride interfaces, the linear elasticity analysis predicts characteristics of interfacial misfit dislocations at metal-nitride interfaces.

  4. Analysing organic transistors based on interface approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Akiyama, Yuto; Mori, Takehiko

    2014-01-15

    Temperature-dependent characteristics of organic transistors are analysed thoroughly using interface approximation. In contrast to amorphous silicon transistors, it is characteristic of organic transistors that the accumulation layer is concentrated on the first monolayer, and it is appropriate to consider interface charge rather than band bending. On the basis of this model, observed characteristics of hexamethylenetetrathiafulvalene (HMTTF) and dibenzotetrathiafulvalene (DBTTF) transistors with various surface treatments are analysed, and the trap distribution is extracted. In turn, starting from a simple exponential distribution, we can reproduce the temperature-dependent transistor characteristics as well as the gate voltage dependence of the activation energy, so we can investigate various aspects of organic transistors self-consistently under the interface approximation. Small deviation from such an ideal transistor operation is discussed assuming the presence of an energetically discrete trap level, which leads to a hump in the transfer characteristics. The contact resistance is estimated by measuring the transfer characteristics up to the linear region.

  5. Effect of shampoo, conditioner and permanent waving on the molecular structure of human hair

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuchen; Alsop, Richard J.; Soomro, Asfia; Yang, Fei-Chi

    2015-01-01

    The hair is a filamentous biomaterial consisting of the cuticle, the cortex and the medulla, all held together by the cell membrane complex. The cortex mostly consists of helical keratin proteins that spiral together to form coiled-coil dimers, intermediate filaments, micro-fibrils and macro-fibrils. We used X-ray diffraction to study hair structure on the molecular level, at length scales between ∼3–90 Å, in hopes of developing a diagnostic method for diseases affecting hair structure allowing for fast and noninvasive screening. However, such an approach can only be successful if common hair treatments do not affect molecular hair structure. We found that a single use of shampoo and conditioner has no effect on packing of keratin molecules, structure of the intermediate filaments or internal lipid composition of the membrane complex. Permanent waving treatments are known to break and reform disulfide linkages in the hair. Single application of a perming product was found to deeply penetrate the hair and reduce the number of keratin coiled-coils and change the structure of the intermediate filaments. Signals related to the coiled-coil structure of the α-keratin molecules at 5 and 9.5 Å were found to be decreased while a signal associated with the organization of the intermediate filaments at 47 Å was significantly elevated in permed hair. Both these observations are related to breaking of the bonds between two coiled-coil keratin dimers. PMID:26557428

  6. Particulate matter concentrations in residences: an intervention study evaluating stand-alone filters and air conditioners

    PubMed Central

    Batterman, S.; Du, L.; Mentz, G.; Mukherjee, B.; Parker, E.; Godwin, C.; Chin, J.-Y.; O'Toole, A.; Robins, T.; Rowe, Z.; Lewis, T.

    2014-01-01

    This study, a randomized controlled trial, evaluated the effectiveness of free-standing air filters and window air conditioners (ACs) in 126 low-income households of children with asthma. Households were randomized into a control group, a group receiving a free-standing HEPA filter placed in the child's sleeping area, and a group receiving the filter and a window-mounted AC. Indoor air quality (IAQ) was monitored for week-long periods over three to four seasons. High concentrations of particulate matter (PM) and carbon dioxide were frequently seen. When IAQ was monitored, filters reduced PM levels in the child's bedroom by an average of 50%. Filter use varied greatly among households and declined over time, for example, during weeks when pollutants were monitored, filter use was initially high, averaging 84 ± 27%, but dropped to 63 ± 33% in subsequent seasons. In months when households were not visited, use averaged only 34 ± 30%. Filter effectiveness did not vary in homes with central or room ACs. The study shows that measurements over multiple seasons are needed to characterize air quality and filter performance. The effectiveness of interventions using free-standing air filters depends on occupant behavior, and strategies to ensure filter use should be an integral part of interventions. PMID:22145709

  7. Power quality enhancement at distribution level utilizing the unified power quality conditioner (UPQC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khadkikar, Vinod

    The present doctoral work is based on the philosophy of optimal utilization of the available resources in a most effective and efficient way to improve the product efficiency and to reduce the overall cost. This work proposes a novel control philosophy termed as power angle control (PAC), in which both the series and shunt inverters share the load reactive power in co-ordination with each other without affecting the basic UPQC compensation capabilities. This eventually results in a better utilization of the series inverter, reduction in the shunt inverter rating to some extent and ultimately in the reduction of the overall cost of UPQC. Moreover, in this thesis work several other control approaches are also proposed, such as, unit vector template generation, quadrature voltage injection, generalized single-phase p-q theory and novel current unbalance compensation approach. All the developed concepts are successfully validated through digital simulation as well as extensive experimental investigations. Keywords. power quality, active power filter, unified power quality conditioner, reactive power compensation, harmonics compensation.

  8. The System Impact of Air-Conditioner Under-voltage Protection Schemes

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Ning; Yang, Bo; Huang, Zhenyu; Bravo, Richard

    2009-03-31

    This paper presents simulation results of evaluating an under-voltage protection scheme designed to take stalled air-conditioner (a/c) units offline such that the slow voltage recovery phenomena can be solved on areas heavily loaded with a/c motors during summer peak periods. A three feeder test-bed has been first used to quantify the effectiveness of the protection scheme and the sensitivity of the under-voltage relay settings. Then two real system events of the Western US power grid have been studied to evaluate the area impact of the protection scheme proposed by Southern California Edison. The study demonstrates that by taking all or most of the stalled a/c unit offline, the feeder voltage will recover in a few seconds, much quicker than the tens of seconds that the standard thermal relays imbedded in the motors need to trip the units. The drawback of the control scheme is that after the voltage recover, it settled at a higher voltage than before the faults because a large chuck of load has been shed.

  9. Greenhouse gas emissions for refrigerant choices in room air conditioner units.

    PubMed

    Galka, Michael D; Lownsbury, James M; Blowers, Paul

    2012-12-01

    In this work, potential replacement refrigerants for window-mounted room air conditioners (RACs) in the U.S. have been evaluated using a greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions analysis. CO(2)-equivalent emissions for several hydrofluoroethers (HFEs) and other potential replacements were compared to the most widely used refrigerants today. Included in this comparison are pure refrigerants that make up a number of hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) mixtures, pure hydrocarbons, and historically used refrigerants such as propane and ammonia. GHG emissions from direct and indirect sources were considered in this thermodynamic analysis. Propylene, dimethyl ether, ammonia, R-152a, propane, and HFE-152a all performed effectively in a 1 ton window unit and produced slightly lower emissions than the currently used R-22 and R-134a. The results suggest that regulation of HFCs in this application would have some effect on reducing emissions since end-of-life emissions remain at 55% of total refrigerant charge despite EPA regulations that mandate 80% recovery. Even so, offsite emissions due to energy generation dominate over direct GHG emissions and all the refrigerants perform similarly in totals of indirect GHG emissions. PMID:23136858

  10. Incidence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in central air conditioner filter dust from a new office building.

    PubMed

    Ni, Hong-Gang; Cao, Shan-Ping; Chang, Wen-Jing; Zeng, Hui

    2011-07-01

    This study examined polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in central air conditioner filter (CACF) dust from a new office building in Shenzhen, China. Human exposure to PBDE via dust inhalation and ingestion were also estimated. PBDEs level in CACF dust was lower than those in the other countries and regions. Approximately 0.671 pg/kg bw/day PM(2.5) (Particulate Matter up to 2.5 μm in size) bounded Σ(15)PBDEs can be inhaled deep into the lungs and 4.123 pg/kg bw/day PM(10) (Particulate Matter up to 10 μm in size) bounded Σ(15)PBDEs tend to be deposited in the upper parts of the respiratory system. The average total intake of Σ(15)PBDEs via dust inhalation and ingestion for adults reached ∼ 141 pg/kg bw/day in this building. This value was far below the reference dose (RfD) recommended by United States Environmental Protection Agency. Human exposure to PBDEs via dust inhalation and ingestion in the new building is less than the old ones. PMID:21497428

  11. Effect of shampoo, conditioner and permanent waving on the molecular structure of human hair.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuchen; Alsop, Richard J; Soomro, Asfia; Yang, Fei-Chi; Rheinstädter, Maikel C

    2015-01-01

    The hair is a filamentous biomaterial consisting of the cuticle, the cortex and the medulla, all held together by the cell membrane complex. The cortex mostly consists of helical keratin proteins that spiral together to form coiled-coil dimers, intermediate filaments, micro-fibrils and macro-fibrils. We used X-ray diffraction to study hair structure on the molecular level, at length scales between ∼3-90 Å, in hopes of developing a diagnostic method for diseases affecting hair structure allowing for fast and noninvasive screening. However, such an approach can only be successful if common hair treatments do not affect molecular hair structure. We found that a single use of shampoo and conditioner has no effect on packing of keratin molecules, structure of the intermediate filaments or internal lipid composition of the membrane complex. Permanent waving treatments are known to break and reform disulfide linkages in the hair. Single application of a perming product was found to deeply penetrate the hair and reduce the number of keratin coiled-coils and change the structure of the intermediate filaments. Signals related to the coiled-coil structure of the α-keratin molecules at 5 and 9.5 Å were found to be decreased while a signal associated with the organization of the intermediate filaments at 47 Å was significantly elevated in permed hair. Both these observations are related to breaking of the bonds between two coiled-coil keratin dimers. PMID:26557428

  12. Development of a solar-powered residential air conditioner: Screening analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Screening analysis aimed at the definition of an optimum configuration of a Rankine cycle solar-powered air conditioner designed for residential application were conducted. Initial studies revealed that system performance and cost were extremely sensitive to condensing temperature and to the type of condenser used in the system. Consequently, the screening analyses were concerned with the generation of parametric design data for different condenser approaches; i. e., (1) an ambient air condenser, (2) a humidified ambient air condenser (3) an evaporative condenser, and (4) a water condenser (with a cooling tower). All systems feature a high performance turbocompressor and a single refrigerant (R-11) for the power and refrigeration loops. Data were obtained by computerized methods developed to permit system characterization over a broad range of operating and design conditions. The criteria used for comparison of the candidate system approaches were (1) overall system COP (refrigeration effect/solar heat input), (2) auxiliary electric power for fans and pumps, and (3) system installed cost or cost to the user.

  13. Research: Testing of a Novel Portable Body Temperature Conditioner Using a Thermal Manikin.

    PubMed

    Heller, Daniel; Heller, Alex; Moujaes, Samir; Williams, Shelley J; Hoffmann, Ryan; Sarkisian, Paul; Khalili, Kaveh; Rockenfeller, Uwe; Browder, Timothy D; Kuhls, Deborah A; Fildes, John J

    2016-01-01

    A battery-operated active cooling/heating device was developed to maintain thermoregulation of trauma victims in austere environments while awaiting evacuation to a hospital for further treatment. The use of a thermal manikin was adopted for this study in order to simulate load testing and evaluate the performance of this novel portable active cooling/heating device for both continuous (external power source) and battery power. The performance of the portable body temperature conditioner (PBTC) was evaluated through cooling/heating fraction tests to analyze the heat transfer between a thermal manikin and circulating water blanket to show consistent performance while operating under battery power. For the cooling/heating fraction tests, the ambient temperature was set to 15°C ± 1°C (heating) and 30°C ± 1°C (cooling). The PBTC water temperature was set to 37°C for the heating mode tests and 15°C for the cooling mode tests. The results showed consistent performance of the PBTC in terms of cooling/heating capacity while operating under both continuous and battery power. The PBTC functioned as intended and shows promise as a portable warming/cooling device for operation in the field. PMID:27632039

  14. Effect of shampoo, conditioner and permanent waving on the molecular structure of human hair.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuchen; Alsop, Richard J; Soomro, Asfia; Yang, Fei-Chi; Rheinstädter, Maikel C

    2015-01-01

    The hair is a filamentous biomaterial consisting of the cuticle, the cortex and the medulla, all held together by the cell membrane complex. The cortex mostly consists of helical keratin proteins that spiral together to form coiled-coil dimers, intermediate filaments, micro-fibrils and macro-fibrils. We used X-ray diffraction to study hair structure on the molecular level, at length scales between ∼3-90 Å, in hopes of developing a diagnostic method for diseases affecting hair structure allowing for fast and noninvasive screening. However, such an approach can only be successful if common hair treatments do not affect molecular hair structure. We found that a single use of shampoo and conditioner has no effect on packing of keratin molecules, structure of the intermediate filaments or internal lipid composition of the membrane complex. Permanent waving treatments are known to break and reform disulfide linkages in the hair. Single application of a perming product was found to deeply penetrate the hair and reduce the number of keratin coiled-coils and change the structure of the intermediate filaments. Signals related to the coiled-coil structure of the α-keratin molecules at 5 and 9.5 Å were found to be decreased while a signal associated with the organization of the intermediate filaments at 47 Å was significantly elevated in permed hair. Both these observations are related to breaking of the bonds between two coiled-coil keratin dimers.

  15. Field evaluation of advanced controls for the retrofit of packaged air conditioners and heat pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas; Ngo, Hung; Underhill, Ronald M.; Taasevigen, Danny J.; Lutes, Robert G.

    2015-09-01

    This paper documents the magnitude of energy savings achievable in the field by retrofitting existing packaged rooftop units (RTUs) with advanced control strategies not ordinarily used for RTUs. A total of 66 RTUs on 8 different buildings were retrofitted with a commercially available advanced controller for improving RTU operational efficiency. The controller features enhanced air-side economizer control, multi-speed fan control, and demand controlled ventilation. Of the 66 RTUs, 18 are packaged heat pumps and the rest are packaged air conditioners with gas heat. The eight buildings cover four building types and four climate conditions. Based on the data collected for about a whole year, the advanced controller reduced the normalized annual RTU energy consumption between 22% and 90%, with an average of 57% for all RTUs. The average fractional savings uncertainty was 12% at 95% confidence level. Normalized annual electricity savings were in the range between 0.47 kWh/h (kWh per hour of RTU operation) and 7.21 kWh/h, with an average of 2.39 kWh/h. RTUs greater than 53 kW and runtime greater than 14 hours per day had payback periods less than 3 years even at $0.05/kWh.

  16. Morphological Stability of Faceted Interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbaschian, Reza; Golyshev, V. D.; Gonik, M.; Tsvetivsky, V.; deVahlDavis, G.; Leonardi, E.

    2001-01-01

    The major focus of this investigation is to study the fundamentals of layer spreading mechanisms during growth of doped Ge (a facet forming material), and to determine the conditions for morphological instability of vicinal solid-liquid interfaces. The investigation will also lead to the determination of the effect of dopants on the layer growth kinetics, step free energy, and dopant capture by the advancing ledges. The theoretical treatment of growth of faceted interfaces indicates that the kinetics of a step on a growing vicinal interface considerably depends on its angle of inclination, the melt concentration, and characteristics of flow currents in the melt. The morphological stability of the interface also depends on these parameters, as well as on the density and spreading velocity of the steps. However, the treatment of the instability of the interface by the layer growth mechanism is rather difficult because it requires exact knowledge of the thermal and solutal fields, hydrodynamics of the melt, and supercooling at the interface. The results of recent space experiments of the principal investigator involving directional solidification of faceted Bi-Sn alloys have shown that the morphological stability of various crystallographic orientations is significantly affected by the anistropy in interfacial properties of the faceted alloy in general, and the interface kinetics in particular. These findings have also raised many important and fundamental questions, particularly with respect to the behavior of interfacial steps, which need to be addressed via additional groundbased and microgravity experiments. For the present investigation we will use a novel crystal growth technique which provides axial heat flux close to the solid-liquid boundary. The Axial Heat Processing (AHP) technique allows for precise control and determination of the heat and mass transfer close to the crystallization front, and the establishment of a planar interface over the entire cross

  17. On the launch vehicle payload interface response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, J. C.; Wada, B. K.; Garba, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    A method has been developed by which an estimate of the launch vehicle/payload interface response is derived from the interface responses obtained from missions with the identical launch vehicle but different payloads. This method requires knowledge of the launch vehicle eigenvalues, interface modal displacements, and the dynamic characteristics of the payloads. No other launch vehicle information is required. The organization responsible for the payload is able to perform loads and responses analysis resulting from a payload change without interfacing with the launch vehicle organization.

  18. Engineering graded tissue interfaces.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Jennifer E; Burns, Kellie L; Le Doux, Joseph M; Guldberg, Robert E; García, Andrés J

    2008-08-26

    Interfacial zones between tissues provide specialized, transitional junctions central to normal tissue function. Regenerative medicine strategies focused on multiple cell types and/or bi/tri-layered scaffolds do not provide continuously graded interfaces, severely limiting the integration and biological performance of engineered tissue substitutes. Inspired by the bone-soft tissue interface, we describe a biomaterial-mediated gene transfer strategy for spatially regulated genetic modification and differentiation of primary dermal fibroblasts within tissue-engineered constructs. We demonstrate that zonal organization of osteoblastic and fibroblastic cellular phenotypes can be engineered by a simple, one-step seeding of fibroblasts onto scaffolds containing a spatial distribution of retrovirus encoding the osteogenic transcription factor Runx2/Cbfa1. Gradients of immobilized retrovirus, achieved via deposition of controlled poly(L-lysine) densities, resulted in spatial patterns of transcription factor expression, osteoblastic differentiation, and mineralized matrix deposition. Notably, this graded distribution of mineral deposition and mechanical properties was maintained when implanted in vivo in an ectopic site. Development of this facile and robust strategy is significant toward the regeneration of continuous interfacial zones that mimic the cellular and microstructural characteristics of native tissue.

  19. Media independent interface. Interface control document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    A Media Independent Interface (MII) is specified, using current standards in the industry. The MII is described in hierarchical fashion. At the base are IEEE/International Standards Organization (ISO) documents (standards) which describe the functionality of the software modules or layers and their interconnection. These documents describe primitives which are to transcent the MII. The intent of the MII is to provide a universal interface to one or more Media Access Contols (MACs) for the Logical Link Controller and Station Manager. This interface includes both a standardized electrical and mechanical interface and a standardized functional specification which defines the services expected from the MAC.

  20. China Energy Efficiency Round Robin Testing Results for Room Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina; Pierrot, Andre

    2010-06-07

    of all countries energy strategies. As we all know, a very large amount of total energy consumption is due to energy consuming products and equipment, which account for about 50% of China's total energy consumption. However, the current average energy utilization efficiency of this sector is only about 60%, 10 percent lower than the international advanced level. Therefore, China's energy consuming products and equipment sector holds great energy-saving potential. On the other hand, the energy supplied to these products is mainly from fossil fuel combustion, a major source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Therefore, improving the energy efficiency and augmenting the market share of market-dominant energy consuming products is of significant importance to achieving China's energy saving and emission reduction target and is an effective means to deal with energy and environmental constraints and climate change issues. Main energy consuming products generally include widely-used home appliances, industrial equipment, office equipment, transportation vehicles, etc. China is one of the major manufacturers and exporters of energy end-using products such as air-conditioners, refrigerators, televisions, etc. Their overall energy efficiency is comparatively low and the products are poorly designed, leading to great energy-saving potential. For example, electricity consumption of air conditioners accounts for about 20% of China's total electricity consumption and 40% of the summer electricity peak load in large and medium cities. However, less than 5% of units sold in the domestic market in 2009 reached the standard's highly efficient level of grade 2 above. The electricity consumption of electric motors and their related drive systems accounts for about 60% of China's total electricity consumption; however, less than 2% of the domestic market share consists of energy-efficient electric motor products. Promoting the energy efficiency and market shares of main energy

  1. Virtual Frame Buffer Interface Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, Thomas L.

    1990-01-01

    Virtual Frame Buffer Interface program makes all frame buffers appear as generic frame buffer with specified set of characteristics, allowing programmers to write codes that run unmodified on all supported hardware. Converts generic commands to actual device commands. Consists of definition of capabilities and FORTRAN subroutines called by application programs. Developed in FORTRAN 77 for DEC VAX 11/780 or DEC VAX 11/750 computer under VMS 4.X.

  2. Adhesive bonding of resin composite to various titanium surfaces using different metal conditioners and a surface modification system

    PubMed Central

    ALMILHATTI, Hercules Jorge; NEPPELENBROEK, Karin Hermana; VERGANI, Carlos Eduardo; MACHADO, Ana Lúcia; PAVARINA, Ana Cláudia; GIAMPAOLO, Eunice Teresinha

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated the effect of three metal conditioners on the shear bond strength (SBS) of a prosthetic composite material to cpTi grade I having three surface treatments. Material and Methods One hundred sixty eight rivet-shaped specimens (8.0x2.0 mm) were cast and subjected to polishing (P) or sandblasting with either 50 mm (50SB) or 250 mm (250SB) Al2O3. The metal conditioners Metal Photo Primer (MPP), Cesead II Opaque Primer (OP), Targis Link (TL), and one surface modification system Siloc (S), were applied to the specimen surfaces, which were covered with four 1-mm thick layers of resin composite. The resin layers were exposed to curing light for 90 s separately. Seven specimens from each experimental group were stored in water at 37ºC for 24 h while the other 7 specimens were subjected to 5,000 thermal cycles consisting of water baths at 4ºC and 60ºC (n=7). All specimens were subjected to SBS test (0.5 mm/min) until failure occurred, and further 28 specimens were analyzed using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Data were analyzed by 3-way ANOVA followed by post-hoc Tukey's test (α=0.05). Results On 50SB surfaces, OP groups showed higher SBS means than MPP (P<0.05), while no significant difference was found among OP, S, and TL groups. On 250SB surfaces, OP and TL groups exhibited higher SBS than MPP and S (P<0.05). No significant difference in SBS was found between OP and TL groups nor between MPP and S groups. The use of conditioners on 250SB surfaces resulted in higher SBS means than the use of the same products on 50SB surfaces (P<0.05). Conclusion Sandblasting associated with the use of metal conditioners improves SBS of resin composites to cpTi. PMID:24473727

  3. Immersed interface methods for moving interface problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhilin

    1997-05-01

    A second order difference method is developed for the nonlinear moving interface problem of the form u_t + λ uu_x = ( {β u_x } )_x - f( {x,t} ),x in [ {0,α } ) \\cup ( {α ,1} ]} }. {d}{α}/{dt} = w( {t,α ;u,u_x } ), , where α (t) is the moving interface. The coefficient β(x,t) and the source term f(x,t) can be discontinuous across α (t) and moreover, f(x,t) may have a delta or/and delta-prime function singularity there. As a result, although the equation is parabolic, the solution u and its derivatives may be discontinuous across α (t). Two typical interface conditions are considered. One condition occurs in Stefan-like problems in which the solution is known on the interface. A new stable interpolation strategy is proposed. The other type occurs in a one-dimensional model of Peskin's immersed boundary method in which only jump conditions are given across the interface. The Crank-Nicolson difference scheme with modifications near the interface is used to solve for the solution u(x,t) and the interface α (t) simultaneously. Several numerical examples, including models of ice-melting and glaciation, are presented. Second order accuracy on uniform grids is confirmed both for the solution and the position of the interface.

  4. Media independent interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The work done on the Media Independent Interface (MII) Interface Control Document (ICD) program is described and recommendations based on it were made. Explanations and rationale for the content of the ICD itself are presented.

  5. APST interfaces in LINCS

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, J.G.

    1995-07-01

    APST is an acronym for the four highest of the seven layers of the LINCS hierarchy of communication protocols: (from high to low) Application, Presentation, Session, and Transport. Routines in each but the lowest of these APST layers can utilize the facilities of any lower APST layer (normally, but not necessarily, the immediately next lower layer) by invoking various primitives (macros that in most cases are subroutine calls) defining the upper interface of the lower layer. So there are three APST interfaces: Presentation layer, used by the Application layer; Session layer, normally used by the Presentation layer; and Transport layer, normally used by the Session layer. Logically, each end of a stream (unidirectional sequence of transmitted information) is handled by three modules, one module each for the Presentation, Session, and Transport layers, and each of these modules deals with only that one end of that one stream. The internal workings of the layers, particularly the Transport layer, do not necessarily exhibit this same modularization; for example, the two oppositely directed streams between the same two ends (constituting an association) may interact within a layer. However, such interaction is an implementational detail of no direct interest to those utilizing the layer. The present document does not describe implementation, nor does it discuss in any detail how the modules employ packet headings and data formats to communicate with their partner modules at the other end of a stream. There being one logical module per end of stream is a characteristic only of the Presentation, Session, and Transport layers. An Application layer module usually manages several streams, orchestrating them to achieve some desired purpose. The modules of the layers (Network, Link, and Physical) below the APST layers each handle many streams, multiplexing them through the nodes and channels of the network to transmit them from their origins to their destinations.

  6. Future emissions and atmospheric fate of HFC-1234yf from mobile air conditioners in Europe.

    PubMed

    Henne, Stephan; Shallcross, Dudley E; Reimann, Stefan; Xiao, Ping; Brunner, Dominik; O'Doherty, Simon; Buchmann, Brigitte

    2012-02-01

    HFC-1234yf (2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene) is under discussion for replacing HFC-134a (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane) as a cooling agent in mobile air conditioners (MACs) in the European vehicle fleet. Some HFC-1234yf will be released into the atmosphere, where it is almost completely transformed to the persistent trifluoroacetic acid (TFA). Future emissions of HFC-1234yf after a complete conversion of the European vehicle fleet were assessed. Taking current day leakage rates and predicted vehicle numbers for the year 2020 into account, European total HFC-1234yf emissions from MACs were predicted to range between 11.0 and 19.2 Gg yr(-1). Resulting TFA deposition rates and rainwater concentrations over Europe were assessed with two Lagrangian chemistry transport models. Mean European summer-time TFA mixing ratios of about 0.15 ppt (high emission scenario) will surpass previously measured levels in background air in Germany and Switzerland by more than a factor of 10. Mean deposition rates (wet + dry) of TFA were estimated to be 0.65-0.76 kg km(-2) yr(-1), with a maxium of ∼2.0 kg km(-2) yr(-1) occurring in Northern Italy. About 30-40% of the European HFC-1234yf emissions were deposited as TFA within Europe, while the remaining fraction was exported toward the Atlantic Ocean, Central Asia, Northern, and Tropical Africa. Largest annual mean TFA concentrations in rainwater were simulated over the Mediterranean and Northern Africa, reaching up to 2500 ng L(-1), while maxima over the continent of about 2000 ng L(-1) occurred in the Czech Republic and Southern Germany. These highest annual mean concentrations are at least 60 times lower than previously determined to be a safe level for the most sensitive aquatic life-forms. Rainwater concentrations during individual rain events would still be 1 order of magnitude lower than the no effect level. To verify these results future occasional sampling of TFA in the atmospheric environment should be considered. If future HFC-1234yf

  7. Water at Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Björneholm, Olle; Hansen, Martin H; Hodgson, Andrew; Liu, Li-Min; Limmer, David T; Michaelides, Angelos; Pedevilla, Philipp; Rossmeisl, Jan; Shen, Huaze; Tocci, Gabriele; Tyrode, Eric; Walz, Marie-Madeleine; Werner, Josephina; Bluhm, Hendrik

    2016-07-13

    The interfaces of neat water and aqueous solutions play a prominent role in many technological processes and in the environment. Examples of aqueous interfaces are ultrathin water films that cover most hydrophilic surfaces under ambient relative humidities, the liquid/solid interface which drives many electrochemical reactions, and the liquid/vapor interface, which governs the uptake and release of trace gases by the oceans and cloud droplets. In this article we review some of the recent experimental and theoretical advances in our knowledge of the properties of aqueous interfaces and discuss open questions and gaps in our understanding. PMID:27232062

  8. Micro bubbles at interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keshavarzi, Gholamreza; Wang, Anna; Barber, Tracie; Manoharan, Vinothan

    2014-03-01

    The behaviour of a small micron sized bubbles close to an interface is vital to various interface interaction applications in several industries. Previous studies have focused on understanding the behaviour of large millimetric bubbles reaching an interface. Some of these millimetric bubbles are shown to bounce back, while others penetrate and burst on the interface resulting in possible small micron sized bubbles. However, small micron sized bubble may act different. It has been observed that small microbubbles can act as if they are stabilized at the interface without merging to the fluid over the interface. The dynamics of the microbubble adsorption close to an interface has yet to be well understood.In this study we used digital holography microscopy to explore detailed information on the behaviour of the air microbubble at the interface. This study investigates the position and shape of a microbubble with respect to the interface. The dynamic behavior close to the interface along with where the small microbubble is positioned near an interface will help us in understanding the probability of penetration and merging back to the fluid on top.

  9. Microconical interface fitting and interface grasping tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernhardt, Michael L. (Inventor); Wightman, William D. (Inventor); Johnston, Alistair P. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A small and light weight microconical interface fitting may be attached to the surface of a space vehicle or equipment to provide an attachment device for an astronaut or robot to capture the space vehicle or equipment. The microconical interface fitting of the present invention has an axisymmetrical conical body having a base portion with a torque reaction surface for preventing rotation of the interface grasping tool; a cavitated, sunken or hollowed out intermediate locking portion which has a cavity shaped for receiving the latches of the grasping tool and an upper guiding portion for guiding the grasping tool into axial alignment with the microconical interface fitting. The capture is accomplished with an interface grasping tool. The grasping tool comprises an outer sleeve with a handle attached, an inner sleeve which may be raised and lowered within the outer sleeve with a plurality of latches supported at the lower end and a cam to raise and lower the inner sleeve. When the inner sleeve is at its lowest position, the latches form the largest diameter opening for surrounding the microconical fitting and the latches form the smallest diameter or a locking, grasping position when raised to the highest position within the outer sleeve. The inner sleeve may be at an intermediate, capture position which permits the latches to be biased outwardly when contacting the microconical fitting under very low forces to grasp the fitting and permits capture (soft docking) without exact alignment of the fitting and the tool.

  10. Popeye Project: ROV interface

    SciTech Connect

    Scates, C.R.; Hernandez, D.A.; Hickok, D.D.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses the Remote Operated Vehicle (ROV) interface with the Popeye Project Subsea System. It describes the ROV-related plans, design philosophies, intervention tasks, tooling/equipment requirements, testing activities, and offshore installation experiences. Early identification and continuous consideration of the ROV interfaces significantly improved the overall efficiency of equipment designs and offshore operations. The Popeye Project helped advance the technology and standardization of ROV interfaces for deep water subsea production systems.

  11. Turbomachine Interface Sealing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Chupp, Raymond E.; Lattime, Scott B.; Steinetz, Bruce M.

    2005-01-01

    Sealing interfaces and coatings, like lubricants, are sacrificial, giving up their integrity for the benefit of the component. Clearance control is a major issue in power systems turbomachine design and operational life. Sealing becomes the most cost-effective way to enhance system performance. Coatings, films, and combined use of both metals and ceramics play a major role in maintaining interface clearances in turbomachine sealing and component life. This paper focuses on conventional and innovative materials and design practices for sealing interfaces.

  12. Multimodal neuroelectric interface development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trejo, Leonard J.; Wheeler, Kevin R.; Jorgensen, Charles C.; Rosipal, Roman; Clanton, Sam T.; Matthews, Bryan; Hibbs, Andrew D.; Matthews, Robert; Krupka, Michael

    2003-01-01

    We are developing electromyographic and electroencephalographic methods, which draw control signals for human-computer interfaces from the human nervous system. We have made progress in four areas: 1) real-time pattern recognition algorithms for decoding sequences of forearm muscle activity associated with control gestures; 2) signal-processing strategies for computer interfaces using electroencephalogram (EEG) signals; 3) a flexible computation framework for neuroelectric interface research; and d) noncontact sensors, which measure electromyogram or EEG signals without resistive contact to the body.

  13. Validation of a protocol to evaluate maximal expiratory pressure using a pressure transducer and a signal conditioner.

    PubMed

    Soares, Viviane; Rodrigues, Fábio B; Vieira, Marcus F; Silva, Maria Sebastiana

    2011-09-01

    The respiratory muscles can present fatigue and even chronic inability to generate force. So, reliable devices are necessary to their evaluation. The aim of this study is to evaluate the MEP (Maximal Expiratory Pressure) values of individuals between 20 and 25 years old and to validate a protocol using a pressure transducer and a signal conditioner comparing it with the digital manometer. We evaluated the MEP of 10 participants. They remained seated and made six respiratory maneuvers from Total Lung Capacity (TLC) to Residual Volume (RV). The results in the study showed no statistically significant differences when compared to values reported in the literature, and that the pressure transducer provides reliable values for MEP. PMID:21969962

  14. 120 MB/S and 240 MB/S bit synchronizer-signal conditioners for NASA high data rate applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, J. S.

    1976-01-01

    Two bit synchronizer-signal conditioners (BSSC) developed for NASA high data rate applications such as earth resources monitoring are described. One BSSC is centered at 120 MB/s and the other at 240 Mb/s. These subsystems are featured out of the total hardware developed because the BSSC is such a key subsystem in determining overall system statistical performance. These units represent an evolution of high data rate BSSC's available at low data rates. Numerous inputs/outputs, control functions, indicators, plus the ability to minimize the effects of various signal perturbations are provided. Examples of allowed perturbations are input level variations, bit rate variance static and dynamic, baseline, transition density, bandlimiting, etc., as well as noise. Emphasis in the past has been primarily concerned only with noise.

  15. Liquid Desiccant in Air Conditioners: Nano-Engineered Porous Hollow Fiber Membrane-Based Air Conditioning System

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-02

    BEETIT Project: UTRC is developing an air conditioning system that is optimized for use in warm and humid climates. UTRC’s air conditioning system integrates a liquid drying agent or desiccant and a traditional vapor compression system found in 90% of air conditioners. The drying agent reduces the humidity in the air before it is cooled, using less energy. The technology uses a membrane as a barrier between the air and the liquid salt stream allowing only water vapor to pass through and not the salt molecules. This solves an inherent problem with traditional liquid desiccant systems—carryover of the liquid drying agent into the conditioned air stream—which eliminates corrosion and health issues

  16. Power quality improvement by unified power quality conditioner based on CSC topology using synchronous reference frame theory.

    PubMed

    Dharmalingam, Rajasekaran; Dash, Subhransu Sekhar; Senthilnathan, Karthikrajan; Mayilvaganan, Arun Bhaskar; Chinnamuthu, Subramani

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the performance of unified power quality conditioner (UPQC) based on current source converter (CSC) topology. UPQC is used to mitigate the power quality problems like harmonics and sag. The shunt and series active filter performs the simultaneous elimination of current and voltage problems. The power fed is linked through common DC link and maintains constant real power exchange. The DC link is connected through the reactor. The real power supply is given by the photovoltaic system for the compensation of power quality problems. The reference current and voltage generation for shunt and series converter is based on phase locked loop and synchronous reference frame theory. The proposed UPQC-CSC design has superior performance for mitigating the power quality problems.

  17. Development of a double-effect air conditioner-heater (deach) phase 2. Final report, January 1989-December 1989

    SciTech Connect

    De Vuono, A.C.; Landstrom, D.K.; Osborne, R.L.; Christensen, R.N.; Flanigan, L.

    1992-12-01

    The report describes the results of Phase II of a multi-phase project to develop a high-efficiency, gas-fired, residential size air-conditioner/heater based on a double-effect, absorption cycle using LiBr and water as working fluids. The results discussed include experimental and analytical analysis of various options for key components and subsystems including absorber, direct expansion evaporator, solution heat exchangers and burner/generator subsystem. The thermodynamic model used to evaluate various system design tradeoffs is also discussed. The results of the Phase II effort provided the basis for full-scale, integrated breadboard testing to be conducted in Phase III of the project.

  18. Influence of surrounding structures upon the aerodynamic and acoustic performance of the outdoor unit of a split air-conditioner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chengjun; Liu, Jiang; Pan, Jie

    2014-07-01

    DC-inverter split air-conditioner is widely used in Chinese homes as a result of its high-efficiency and energy-saving. Recently, the researches on its outdoor unit have focused on the influence of surrounding structures upon the aerodynamic and acoustic performance, however they are only limited to the influence of a few parameters on the performance, and practical design of the unit requires more detailed parametric analysis. Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics(CFD) and computational aerodynamic acoustics(CAA) simulation based on FLUENT solver is used to study the influence of surrounding structures upon the aforementioned properties of the unit. The flow rate and sound pressure level are predicted for different rotating speed, and agree well with the experimental results. The parametric influence of three main surrounding structures(i.e. the heat sink, the bell-mouth type shroud and the outlet grille) upon the aerodynamic performance of the unit is analyzed thoroughly. The results demonstrate that the tip vortex plays a major role in the flow fields near the blade tip and has a great effect on the flow field of the unit. The inlet ring's size and throat's depth of the bell-mouth type shroud, and the through-flow area and configuration of upwind and downwind sections of the outlet grille are the most important factors that affect the aerodynamic performance of the unit. Furthermore, two improved schemes against the existing prototype of the unit are developed, which both can significantly increase the flow rate more than 6 %(i.e. 100 m3·h-1) at given rotating speeds. The inevitable increase of flow noise level when flow rate is increased and the advantage of keeping a lower rotating speed are also discussed. The presented work could be a useful guideline in designing the aerodynamic and acoustic performance of the split air-conditioner in engineering practice.

  19. Charge trapping at the MoS2-SiO2 interface and its effects on the characteristics of MoS2 metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yao; Wei, Xianlong; Shu, Jiapei; Liu, Bo; Yin, Jianbo; Guan, Changrong; Han, Yuxiang; Gao, Song; Chen, Qing

    2015-03-01

    The field effect transistors (FETs) based on thin layer MoS2 often have large hysteresis and unstable threshold voltage in their transfer curves, mainly due to the charge trapping at the oxide-semiconductor interface. In this paper, the charge trapping and de-trapping processes at the SiO2-MoS2 interface are studied. The trapping charge density and time constant at different temperatures are extracted. Making use of the trapped charges, the threshold voltage of the MoS2 based metal-oxide-semiconductor FETs is adjusted from 4 V to -45 V. Furthermore, the impact of the trapped charges on the carrier transport is evaluated. The trapped charges are suggested to give rise to the unscreened Coulomb scattering and/or the variable range hopping in the carrier transport of the MoS2 sheet.

  20. Polymer enrichment decelerates surfactant membranes near interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipfert, F.; Frielinghaus, H.; Holderer, O.; Mattauch, S.; Monkenbusch, M.; Arend, N.; Richter, D.

    2014-04-01

    Close to a planar surface, lamellar structures are imposed upon otherwise bulk bicontinuous microemulsions. Thermally induced membrane undulations are modified by the presence of the rigid interface. While it has been shown that a pure membrane's dynamics are accelerated close to the interface, we observed nearly unchanged relaxation rates for membranes spiked with large amphiphilic diblock copolymers. An increase of the polymer concentration by a factor of 2-3 for the first and second surfactant membrane layers was observed. We interpret the reduced relaxation times as the result of an interplay between the bending rigidity and the characteristic distance of the first surfactant membrane to the rigid interface, which causes the hydrodynamic and steric interface effects described in Seifert's theory. The influence of these effects on decorated membranes yields a reduction of the frequencies and an amplification of the amplitudes of long-wavelength undulations, which are in accordance to our experimental findings.

  1. Designing the Instructional Interface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohr, L. L.

    2000-01-01

    Designing the instructional interface is a challenging endeavor requiring knowledge and skills in instructional and visual design, psychology, human-factors, ergonomic research, computer science, and editorial design. This paper describes the instructional interface, the challenges of its development, and an instructional systems approach to its…

  2. Thread Pool Interface (TPI)

    2008-04-01

    Thread Pool Interface (TpI) provides a simple interface for running functions written in C or C++ in a thread-parallel mode. Application or library codes may need to perform operations thread-parallel on machines with multicore processors. the TPI library provides a simple mechanism for managing thread activation, deactivation, and thread-parallel execution of application-provided subprograms.

  3. The User Interface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindeman, Martha J.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The first of three articles on the design of user interfaces for information retrieval systems discusses the need to examine types of display, prompting, and input as separate entities. The second examines the use of artificial intelligence in creating natural language interfaces, and the third outlines standards for case studies in human computer…

  4. Communication Interface for SAMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koffman, M.; Hartley, F.

    1995-01-01

    An interface is described that supplies communications between the flight instruments and the analog input of an existing conventional recording unit for the Shuttle Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS), a data acquisition unit. The architecture and current implementation of an STD bus/LonTalk communication interface are described.

  5. Interface colloidal robotic manipulator

    DOEpatents

    Aronson, Igor; Snezhko, Oleksiy

    2015-08-04

    A magnetic colloidal system confined at the interface between two immiscible liquids and energized by an alternating magnetic field dynamically self-assembles into localized asters and arrays of asters. The colloidal system exhibits locomotion and shape change. By controlling a small external magnetic field applied parallel to the interface, structures can capture, transport, and position target particles.

  6. Atomic arrangement at the AlN/SiC interface

    SciTech Connect

    Ponce, F.A.; Van de Walle, C.G.; Northrup, J.E.

    1996-03-01

    The lattice structure of the AlN/SiC interface has been studied in cross section by high-resolution transmission-electron microscopy. Lattice images show planar and crystallographically abrupt interfaces. The atomic arrangement at the plane of the interface is analyzed based on the image characteristics. Possible bonding configurations are discussed. Variations in local image contrast and interplanar separations are used to identify atomic bonding configurations consistent with the lattice images. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  7. Polymer-solid interfaces: Structure and strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Liezhong

    1999-12-01

    This thesis explored the influence of sticker group concentration (φ), interaction parameter between sticker groups and the solid substrate (chi), and bonding time on the structure and strength of polymer-solid interfaces. Carboxylated polybutadienes (cPBD's) with different COOH concentrations (φ) were synthesized through hydrocarboxylation of high molecular weight polybutadienes. The COOH groups were randomly distributed along the polymer chains and selectively introduced to the pendant double bonds. The influence of φ and chi on the peel strength (GIC) of two interfaces, cPBD-Al and cPBD-AlS (amine terminated silane modified Al), was investigated using the T-peel test. Counter-intuitively, with increasing φ, GIC of both interfaces increased first and then decreased after passing through a maximum strength. At a constant φ, GIC increased with chi. Additionally, the bonding dynamics was strongly dependent on φ and chi and the time scale was several orders of Magnitude longer than the characteristic relaxation time of polybutadiene. The adhesion dynamics was controlled by the slow frustrated surface reorganization process. Most of the experimental observations could be attributed to the variation in chain physical connectivity within the interfaces, which was explored by a self-consistent field lattice model (SCFLM). Sticker groups were found to segregate to the solid surface and chain physical connectivity was modified at the polymer-solid interface. We demonstrated that the segregation of sticker groups and the variation in chain physical connectivity led to the formation of a weak boundary interphase. It is this weak interphase that controls the strength and bonding dynamics of the interface. The presence of this weak interphase was experimentally verified through angle resolved XPS analysis. Finally, an entanglement percolation model was developed to correlate the interface strength with the chain connectivity. The results obtained in this study contribute

  8. Deformation of a free interface pierced by a tilted cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raufaste, C.; Kirstetter, G.; Celestini, F.; Cox, S. J.

    2012-07-01

    We investigate the interaction between an infinite cylinder and a free fluid-fluid interface governed only by its surface tension. We study the deformation of an initially flat interface when it is deformed by the presence of a cylindrical object, tilted at an arbitrary angle, that the interface “totally wets”. Our simulations predict all significant quantities such as the interface shape, the position of the contact line, and the force exerted by the interface on the cylinder. These results are compared with an experimental study of the penetration of a soap film by a cylindrical liquid jet. This dynamic situation exhibits all the characteristics of a totally wetting interface. We show that whatever the inclination, the force is always perpendicular to the plane of the interface, and its amplitude diverges as the inclination angle increases. Such results should bring new insights in both fluid and solid mechanics, from animal locomotion to surface micro-processing.

  9. SPUR coprocessor interface description

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, P.M.; Kong, S.I.

    1987-01-01

    This report describes the SPUR coprocessor interface. The interface provides enhanced performance potential by allowing parallel operations between the SPUR processor and SPUR coprocessors. A decoupled control and execution architecture allow data transfers to proceed while coprocessor functions are performed. Implicit and explicit synchronization mechanisms provide the programmer with complete control and flexibility. On-chip coprocessor register files and a wide data path between the memory and coprocessor minimize data transfer overhead. An intelligent interface control unit provides parallel decoding of instructions for maximum performance.

  10. Operator interface for vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Bissontz, Jay E

    2015-03-10

    A control interface for drivetrain braking provided by a regenerative brake and a non-regenerative brake is implemented using a combination of switches and graphic interface elements. The control interface comprises a control system for allocating drivetrain braking effort between the regenerative brake and the non-regenerative brake, a first operator actuated control for enabling operation of the drivetrain braking, and a second operator actuated control for selecting a target braking effort for drivetrain braking. A graphic display displays to an operator the selected target braking effort and can be used to further display actual braking effort achieved by drivetrain braking.

  11. Phase transformations at steel/IN626 clad interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayer, Raghavan; Mueller, R. R.; Leta, D. P.; Sisak, W. J.

    1989-04-01

    The microstructures of 4130 and 2.25Cr-1Mo steels clad to nickel base IN625 by welding and HIPing were examined by Analytical Electron Microscopy (AEM) and Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS) to determine the interfacial microstructural characteristics which could affect their mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. The interface microstructures of the clads produced by the two methods were considerably different. The clad produced by welding was characterized by a low density of carbide precipitates confined to a very narrow region (˜1 μm) at the interface of ferrite and austenite. In addition, a thin region of untempered martensite was present at the interface which could affect its resistance to hydrogen embrittlement as well as other mechanical properties. The interface of the HIP clad composite contained several regions of distinct microstructural characteristics with widely varying densities of carbide precipitates. Relative to the clad produced by welding, extensive precipitation was observed both in the steel and in the IN625 at the interface, separated by a region free from precipitation. The extent of precipitation at the interface regions appears to be controlled essentially by the extent of carbon transport across the interface. The article describes the detailed analysis of the interface characteristics, and models are proposed to explain the microstructural evolution at the interface of the HIP and weld clad composites.

  12. Improving Best Air Conditioner Efficiency by 20-30% through a High Efficiency Fan and Diffuser Stage Coupled with an Evaporative Condenser Pre-Cooler

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, Danny S; Sherwin, John R; Raustad, Richard

    2014-04-10

    The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) conducted a research project to improve the best residential air conditioner condenser technology currently available on the market by retrofitting a commercially-available unit with both a high efficiency fan system and an evaporative pre-cooler. The objective was to integrate these two concepts to achieve an ultra-efficient residential air conditioner design. The project produced a working prototype that was 30% more efficient compared to the best currently-available technologies; the peak the energy efficiency ratio (EER) was improved by 41%. Efficiency at the Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute (ARI) standard B-condition which is used to estimate seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER), was raised from a nominal 21 Btu/Wh to 32 Btu/Wh.

  13. TSF Interface Package

    2004-03-01

    A collection of packages of classes for interfacing to sparse and dense matrices, vectors and graphs, and to linear operators. TSF (via TSFCore, TSFCoreUtils and TSFExtended) provides the application programmer interface to any number of solvers, linear algebra libraries and preconditioner packages, providing also a sophisticated technique for combining multiple packages to solve a single problem. TSF provides a collection of abstract base classes that define the interfaces to abstract vector, matrix and linear soeratormore » objects. By using abstract interfaces, users of TSF are not limiting themselves to any one concrete library and can in fact easily combine multiple libraries to solve a single problem.« less

  14. Crewstation display interface standardization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, Gregory J.

    1999-08-01

    Military sensors and crewstation displays are all moving to digital-based technologies, an epochal shift from the previous world of analog interfaces throughout the video chain. It is no longer possible to specify a sensor and display to the same interface specification such as the venerable RS-170 and RS- 343 standards without paying an unacceptable resolution penalty. Consequently a new standard is required to allow sensor and display manufacturers to easily design system interfaces without relying on cumbersome, costly and unique interface control documents. This paper presents one possible hardware and protocol standard based on FibreChannel technology, and solicits inputs into the standards setting process which is now in progress.

  15. Software interface verifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soderstrom, Tomas J.; Krall, Laura A.; Hope, Sharon A.; Zupke, Brian S.

    1994-01-01

    A Telos study of 40 recent subsystem deliveries into the DSN at JPL found software interface testing to be the single most expensive and error-prone activity, and the study team suggested creating an automated software interface test tool. The resulting Software Interface Verifier (SIV), which was funded by NASA/JPL and created by Telos, employed 92 percent software reuse to quickly create an initial version which incorporated early user feedback. SIV is now successfully used by developers for interface prototyping and unit testing, by test engineers for formal testing, and by end users for non-intrusive data flow tests in the operational environment. Metrics, including cost, are included. Lessons learned include the need for early user training. SIV is ported to many platforms and can be successfully used or tailored by other NASA groups.

  16. Alternative Refrigerant Evaluation for High-Ambient Temperature Environments: R-22 and R-410A Alternatives for Mini-Split Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Abdelaziz, Omar; Munk, Jeffrey D.; Shrestha, Som S.; Linkous, Randall Lee; Goetzler, William; Guernsey, Matt; Kassuga, Theo

    2015-08-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High-Ambient Temperature Testing Program for Low-GWP Refrigerants aims to develop an understanding of the performance of low-Global Warming Potential (low-GWP) alternatives to Hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) and Hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants in mini-split air conditioners under high ambient temperature conditions. This interim working paper describes the parties involved, the alternative refrigerants selection process, the test procedures, and the preliminary results.

  17. Alternative Refrigerant Evaluation for High-Ambient-Temperature Environments: R-22 and R-410A Alternatives for Mini-Split Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Abdelaziz, Omar; Shrestha, Som S.; Munk, Jeffrey D.; Linkous, Randall Lee; Goetzler, William; Guernsey, Matt; Kassuga, Theo

    2015-10-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High-Ambient-Temperature Evaluation Program for low– global warming potential (Low-GWP) Refrigerants aims to develop an understanding of the performance of low-GWP alternative refrigerants to hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) and hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants in mini-split air conditioners under high-ambient-temperature conditions. This final report describes the parties involved, the alternative refrigerant selection process, the test procedures, and the final results.

  18. The use of heteroduplex analysis of polymerase chain reaction products to support the possible transmission of Legionella pneumophila from a malfunctioning automobile air conditioner.

    PubMed

    Pinar, Ahmet; Ramirez, Julio A; Schindler, Laura L; Miller, Richard D; Summersgill, James T

    2002-03-01

    Air conditioner condensates have not been previously associated with cases of Legionnaires' disease. We report the possible transmission of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 from a malfunctioning automobile air conditioning system's leaking water onto the floorboard of a car driven for a long distance by the patient. Heteroduplex analysis of polymerase chain reaction products was used to help establish an epidemiologic link between the water specimen and the patient. PMID:11918120

  19. Performance Application Programming Interface

    2005-10-31

    PAPI is a programming interface designed to provide the tool designer and application engineer with a consistent interface and methodology for use of the performance counter hardware found in most major microprocessors. PAPI enables software engineers to see, in near real time, the relation between software performance and processor events. This release covers the hardware dependent implementation of PAPI version 3 for the IBM BlueGene/L (BG/L) system.

  20. Engineering Orthopedic Tissue Interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    While a wide variety of approaches to engineering orthopedic tissues have been proposed, less attention has been paid to the interfaces, the specialized areas that connect two tissues of different biochemical and mechanical properties. The interface tissue plays an important role in transitioning mechanical load between disparate tissues. Thus, the relatively new field of interfacial tissue engineering presents new challenges—to not only consider the regeneration of individual orthopedic tissues, but also to design the biochemical and cellular composition of the linking tissue. Approaches to interfacial tissue engineering may be distinguished based on if the goal is to recreate the interface itself, or generate an entire integrated tissue unit (such as an osteochondral plug). As background for future efforts in engineering orthopedic interfaces, a brief review of the biology and mechanics of each interface (cartilage–bone, ligament–bone, meniscus–bone, and muscle–tendon) is presented, followed by an overview of the state-of-the-art in engineering each tissue, including advances and challenges specific to regenerating the interfaces. PMID:19231983

  1. Serial interface controller

    SciTech Connect

    Kandasamy, A.

    1995-04-14

    The idea of building a Serial Interface Controller (SIC) proposed by Paul O`Connor, Instrumentation Division, BNL is to determine the feasibility of incorporating a Serial Interface Controlled CMOS IC`s for charge amplification, shaping, analog storage and multiplexing used in particle detectors for high energy physics experiments. The serial data pumped into the CMOS ICs will be used to control many circuit parameters like digitally controlled gain, shaping time, precision preamplifier calibration circuits and many other parameters like timing discriminators mode of operation. The SIC board built will be tested on a Serial Interface Controlled Digital - to - Analog Convertor, which follows either Motorola`s SPI/QSPI or National Semiconductors Microwire interface technique. The DAC chosen for this was MAXIM`s MAX537, a Quad, 12-bit DAC. The function of this controller can be achieved by using some on-shelf micro-controllers like the Motorola`s MC68HC11, which offers dedicated SPI ports. The drawback encountered in using this controller is the overhead involved in putting together an user interface where the user can dynamically change its settings and load the SIC device. This is very critical in testing fewer number of CMOS IC`s having SIC. The SIC board described here takes care of this dynamic user interface issue.

  2. MER SPICE Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sayfi, Elias

    2004-01-01

    MER SPICE Interface is a software module for use in conjunction with the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission and the SPICE software system of the Navigation and Ancillary Information Facility (NAIF) at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. (SPICE is used to acquire, record, and disseminate engineering, navigational, and other ancillary data describing circumstances under which data were acquired by spaceborne scientific instruments.) Given a Spacecraft Clock value, MER SPICE Interface extracts MER-specific data from SPICE kernels (essentially, raw data files) and calculates values for Planet Day Number, Local Solar Longitude, Local Solar Elevation, Local Solar Azimuth, and Local Solar Time (UTC). MER SPICE Interface was adapted from a subroutine, denoted m98SpiceIF written by Payam Zamani, that was intended to calculate SPICE values for the Mars Polar Lander. The main difference between MER SPICE Interface and m98SpiceIf is that MER SPICE Interface does not explicitly call CHRONOS, a time-conversion program that is part of a library of utility subprograms within SPICE. Instead, MER SPICE Interface mimics some portions of the CHRONOS code, the advantage being that it executes much faster and can efficiently be called from a pipeline of events in a parallel processing environment.

  3. Determination of alkyltrimethylammonium surfactants in hair conditioners and fabric softeners by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with electron-impact and chemical ionization.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Pei-Chuan; Ding, Wang-Hsien

    2004-02-20

    The commercial hair conditioners and fabric softeners were analyzed for the content of alkyltrimethylammonium compounds (ATMACs) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with electron impact (EI) and low-pressure positive-ion chemical ionization (PICI) modes. The method involves mixed diluted samples (adjust pH to 10.0) with potassium iodide to enhance the extraction of iodide-ATMA+ ion pairs by direct liquid-liquid extraction. The iodide-ATMA+ pairs were then demethylated to their corresponding nonionic alkyldimethylamines (ADMAs) by thermal decomposition in a GC injection-port. A high abundance of ADMAs was detected at the temperature above 300 degrees C in the GC injection-port. The enhanced selectivity of quasi-molecular ion chromatograms of C12-C18-ADMA, obtained using methanol PICI-MS enables ADMAs to be identified. The accuracy and precision of the method was validated and was successfully applied to determine contents of ATMAC in commercial hair conditioners and fabric softeners. The contents of total measured ATMAC ranged from 0.4 to 6.9% for hair conditioners, and from 3.3 to 4.6% for fabric softeners. PMID:14971489

  4. Increased prevalence of IgG-induced sensitization and hypersensitivity pneumonitis (humidifier lung) in nonsmokers exposed to aerosols of a contaminated air conditioner.

    PubMed

    Baur, X; Richter, G; Pethran, A; Czuppon, A B; Schwaiblmair, M

    1992-01-01

    Specific IgG antibodies against antigens of a contaminated air conditioner were estimated in serum of 134 workers of a printing company. Altogether 64% of the workers investigated revealed significantly elevated levels (> 3 U/ml) of IgG antibodies specific to these antigens as compared to a nonexposed control group. The occurrence of IgG antibodies for microbial extracts were 25% for Fusarium, 23% for Penicillium notatum, 13% for Alternaria tenuis, 12% for Aureobasidium pullulans, 9% for Sphaeropsidales species, 3% for Micropolyspora faeni, 2% for Aspergillus fumigatus and 2% for Thermoactionomyces vulgaris. Out of the 86 workers with elevated IgG antibodies for air conditioner antigens, 59 were nonsmokers. Considering a cut-off level of 10 U/ml IgG for high values, the proportion of smokers to nonsmokers becomes even more pronounced (6 to 36 respectively, binominal test p < 0.001). This is despite the fact that the distribution of smokers and nonsmokers among the 134 workers is approximately equal (60 to 74). All 3 workers with clinical diagnosis of humidifier lung or humidifier fever belonged to the nonsmoker group. Our findings indicate that crude water extracts of contaminated air conditioners are the best choice as antigen source for the diagnosis of humidifier lung in exposed workers. Nonsmokers are shown to have a high risk for immunological sensitization. PMID:1485005

  5. Measurement of Fine Particles From Mobile and Stationary Sources, and Reducing the Air Conditioner Power Consumption in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, Eli Henry

    We study the PM2.5and ultrafine exhaust emissions from a new natural gas-fired turbine power facility to better understand air pollution in California. To characterize the emissions from new natural gas turbines, a series of tests were performed on a GE LMS100 gas turbine. These tests included PM2.5 and wet chemical tests for SO2/SO 3 and NH3, as well as ultrafine (less than 100 nm in diameter) particulate matter measurements. The turbine exhaust had an average particle number concentration that was 2.3x103 times higher than ambient air. The majority of these particles were nanoparticles; at the 100 nm size, stack particle concentrations were about 20 times higher than ambient, and increased to 3.9x104 times higher on average in the 2.5 - 3 nm particle size range. This study also found that ammonia emissions were higher than expected, but in compliance with permit conditions. This was possibly due to an ammonia imbalance entering the catalyst, some flue gas bypassing the catalyst, or not enough catalyst volume. SO3 accounted for an average of 23% of the total sulfur oxides emissions measured. Some of the SO3 is formed in the combustion process, it is likely that the majority formed as the SO2 in the combustion products passed across the oxidizing CO catalyst and SCR catalyst. The 100 MW turbine sampled in this study emitted particle loadings similar to those previously measured from turbines in the SCAQMD area, however, the turbine exhaust contained far more particles than ambient air. The power consumed by an air conditioner accounts for a significant fraction of the total power used by hybrid and electric vehicles especially during summer. This study examined the effect of recirculation of cabin air on power consumption of mobile air conditioners both in-lab and on-road. Real time power consumption and vehicle mileage were recorded by an On Board Diagnostic monitor and carbon balance method. Vehicle mileage improved with increased cabin air recirculation. The

  6. 10 CFR 431.92 - Definitions concerning commercial air conditioners and heat pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... include electrical resistance, steam, hot water, or gas, but may not include reverse cycle refrigeration..., and functional (or hydraulic) characteristics that affect energy consumption, energy efficiency, water consumption, or water efficiency. Coefficient of Performance, or COP means the ratio of the produced...

  7. Interface design in the process industries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaverstock, M. C.; Stassen, H. G.; Williamson, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    Every operator runs his plant in accord with his own mental model of the process. In this sense, one characteristic of an ideal man-machine interface is that it be in harmony with that model. With this theme in mind, the paper first reviews the functions of the process operator and compares them with human operators involved in control situations previously studied outside the industrial environment (pilots, air traffic controllers, helmsmen, etc.). A brief history of the operator interface in the process industry and the traditional methodology employed in its design is then presented. Finally, a much more fundamental approach utilizing a model definition of the human operator's behavior is presented.

  8. Nanostructured Interfaces for Thermoelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Y.; Marconnet, A. M.; Panzer, M. A.; Leblanc, S.; Dogbe, S.; Ezzahri, Y.; Shakouri, A.; Goodson, K. E.

    2010-09-01

    Temperature drops at the interfaces between thermoelectric materials and the heat source and sink reduce the overall efficiency of thermoelectric systems. Nanostructured interfaces based on vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) promise the combination of mechanical compliance and high thermal conductance required for thermoelectric modules, which are subjected to severe thermomechanical stresses. This work discusses the property require- ments for thermoelectric interface materials, reviews relevant data available in the literature for CNT films, and characterizes the thermal properties of vertically aligned multiwalled CNTs grown on a candidate thermoelectric material. Nanosecond thermoreflectance thermometry provides thermal property data for 1.5- μm-thick CNT films on SiGe. The thermal interface resistances between the CNT film and surrounding materials are the dominant barriers to thermal transport, ranging from 1.4 m2 K MW-1 to 4.3 m2 K MW-1. The volumetric heat capacity of the CNT film is estimated to be 87 kJ m-3 K-1, which corresponds to a volumetric fill fraction of 9%. The effect of 100 thermal cycles from 30°C to 200°C is also studied. These data provide the groundwork for future studies of thermoelectric materials in contact with CNT films serving as both a thermal and electrical interface.

  9. Environmental materials and interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    A workshop that explored materials and interfaces research needs relevant to national environmental concerns was conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The purposes of the workshop were to refine the scientific research directions being planned for the Materials and Interface Program in the Molecular Science Research Center (MSRC) and further define the research and user equipment to the included as part of the proposed Environmental and Molecular Science Laboratory (EMSL). Three plenary information sessions served to outline the background, objectives, and status of the MSRC and EMSL initiatives; selected specific areas with environmentally related materials; and the status of capabilities and facilities planned for the EMSL. Attention was directed to four areas where materials and interface science can have a significant impact on prevention and remediation of environmental problems: in situ detection and characterization of hazardous wastes (sensors), minimization of hazardous waste (separation membranes, ion exchange materials, catalysts), waste containment (encapsulation and barrier materials), and fundamental understanding of contaminant transport mechanisms. During all other sessions, the participants were divided into three working groups for detailed discussion and the preparation of a written report. The working groups focused on the areas of interface structure and chemistry, materials and interface stability, and materials synthesis. These recommendations and suggestions for needed research will be useful for other researchers in proposing projects and for suggesting collaborative work with MSRC researchers. 1 fig.

  10. The Multimission Image Processing Laboratory's virtual frame buffer interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, T.

    1984-01-01

    Large image processing systems use multiple frame buffers with differing architectures and vendor supplied interfaces. This variety of architectures and interfaces creates software development, maintenance and portability problems for application programs. Several machine-dependent graphics standards such as ANSI Core and GKS are available, but none of them are adequate for image processing. Therefore, the Multimission Image Processing laboratory project has implemented a programmer level virtual frame buffer interface. This interface makes all frame buffers appear as a generic frame buffer with a specified set of characteristics. This document defines the virtual frame uffer interface and provides information such as FORTRAN subroutine definitions, frame buffer characteristics, sample programs, etc. It is intended to be used by application programmers and system programmers who are adding new frame buffers to a system.

  11. Auto-ignition of lubricating oil working at high pressures in a compressor for an air conditioner.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chul Jin; Choi, Hyo Hyun; Sohn, Chae Hoon

    2011-01-15

    Auto-ignition of lubricating oil working in a compressor for an air conditioner is studied experimentally. The adopted lubricating oil is an unknown mixture with multi-components and known to have flash point temperature of 170 °C. First, its auto-ignition temperature is measured 365 °C at atmospheric pressure. The lubricating oil works under high-pressure condition up to 30 atm and it is heated and cooled down repeatedly. Accordingly, auto-ignition temperatures or flammable limits of lubricating oil are required at high pressures with respect to fire safety. Because there is not a standard test method for the purpose, a new ignition-test method is proposed in this study and thereby, auto-ignition temperatures are measured over the pressure range below 30 atm. The measured temperatures range from 215 °C to 255 °C and they strongly depend on pressure of gas mixture consisting of oil vapor, nitrogen, and oxygen. They are close to flash point temperature and the lubricating oil can be hazardous when it works for high-pressure operating condition and abundant air flows into a compressor. PMID:20934810

  12. Factors influencing on the bioaccessibility of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in size-specific dust from air conditioner filters.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yingxin; Yang, Dan; Wang, Xinxin; Huang, Ningbao; Zhang, Xinyu; Zhang, Dongping; Fu, Jiamo

    2013-11-01

    Size-specific concentrations and bioaccessibility of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in dust from air conditioner filters were measured, and the factors influencing the PBDE bioaccessibility were determined. Generally, the PBDE concentrations increased with decreasing dust particle size, and BDE209 (deca-BDE) was generally the predominant congener. The bioaccessibility ranged from 20.3% to 50.8% for tri- to hepta-BDEs, and from 5.1% to 13.9% for BDE209 in dust fractions of varied particle size. The bioaccessibility of most PBDE congeners decreased with increasing dust particle size. The way of being of PBDE (adsorbed to dust surface or incorporated into polymers) in dust significantly influenced the bioaccessibility. There was a significant negative correlation between the tri- to hepta-BDE bioaccessibility and organic matter (OM) contents in dust. Furthermore, tri- to hepta-BDE bioaccessibility increased with increasing polarity of OMs, while with decreasing aromaticity of OMs. The tri- to hepta-BDE bioaccessibility significantly positively correlated with the surface areas and pore volumes of dust. Using multiple linear regression analysis, it was found that the OM contents and pore volumes of dust were the most important factors to influence the tri- to hepta-BDE bioaccessibility and they could be used to estimate the bioaccessibility of tri- to hepta-BDEs according to the following equation: bioaccessibility (%)=45.05-0.49 × OM%+1.79 × pore volume. However, BDE209 bioaccessibility did not correlate to any of these factors. PMID:24144462

  13. Nanopore-CMOS Interfaces for DNA Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Magierowski, Sebastian; Huang, Yiyun; Wang, Chengjie; Ghafar-Zadeh, Ebrahim

    2016-01-01

    DNA sequencers based on nanopore sensors present an opportunity for a significant break from the template-based incumbents of the last forty years. Key advantages ushered by nanopore technology include a simplified chemistry and the ability to interface to CMOS technology. The latter opportunity offers substantial promise for improvement in sequencing speed, size and cost. This paper reviews existing and emerging means of interfacing nanopores to CMOS technology with an emphasis on massively-arrayed structures. It presents this in the context of incumbent DNA sequencing techniques, reviews and quantifies nanopore characteristics and models and presents CMOS circuit methods for the amplification of low-current nanopore signals in such interfaces. PMID:27509529

  14. Nanopore-CMOS Interfaces for DNA Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Magierowski, Sebastian; Huang, Yiyun; Wang, Chengjie; Ghafar-Zadeh, Ebrahim

    2016-01-01

    DNA sequencers based on nanopore sensors present an opportunity for a significant break from the template-based incumbents of the last forty years. Key advantages ushered by nanopore technology include a simplified chemistry and the ability to interface to CMOS technology. The latter opportunity offers substantial promise for improvement in sequencing speed, size and cost. This paper reviews existing and emerging means of interfacing nanopores to CMOS technology with an emphasis on massively-arrayed structures. It presents this in the context of incumbent DNA sequencing techniques, reviews and quantifies nanopore characteristics and models and presents CMOS circuit methods for the amplification of low-current nanopore signals in such interfaces. PMID:27509529

  15. High temperature interface superconductivity

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gozar, A.; Bozovic, I.

    2016-01-20

    High-Tc superconductivity at interfaces has a history of more than a couple of decades. In this review we focus our attention on copper-oxide based heterostructures and multi-layers. We first discuss the technique, atomic layer-by-layer molecular beam epitaxy (ALL-MBE) engineering, that enabled High-Tc Interface Superconductivity (HT-IS), and the challenges associated with the realization of high quality interfaces. Then we turn our attention to the experiments which shed light on the structure and properties of interfacial layers, allowing comparison to those of single-phase films and bulk crystals. Both ‘passive’ hetero-structures as well as surface-induced effects by external gating are discussed. Here, wemore » conclude by comparing HT-IS in cuprates and in other classes of materials, especially Fe-based superconductors, and by examining the grand challenges currently laying ahead for the field.« less

  16. High temperature interface superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gozar, A.; Bozovic, I.

    2016-02-01

    High-Tc superconductivity at interfaces has a history of more than a couple of decades. In this review we focus our attention on copper-oxide based heterostructures and multi-layers. We first discuss the technique, atomic layer-by-layer molecular beam epitaxy (ALL-MBE) engineering, that enabled High-Tc Interface Superconductivity (HT-IS), and the challenges associated with the realization of high quality interfaces. Then we turn our attention to the experiments which shed light on the structure and properties of interfacial layers, allowing comparison to those of single-phase films and bulk crystals. Both 'passive' hetero-structures as well as surface-induced effects by external gating are discussed. We conclude by comparing HT-IS in cuprates and in other classes of materials, especially Fe-based superconductors, and by examining the grand challenges currently laying ahead for the field.

  17. An Abstract Data Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allan, D. J.

    The Abstract Data Interface (ADI) is a system within which both abstract data models and their mappings on to file formats can be defined. The data model system is object-oriented and closely follows the Common Lisp Object System (CLOS) object model. Programming interfaces in both C and \\fortran are supplied, and are designed to be simple enough for use by users with limited software skills. The prototype system supports access to those FITS formats most commonly used in the X-ray community, as well as the Starlink NDF data format. New interfaces can be rapidly added to the system---these may communicate directly with the file system, other ADI objects or elsewhere (e.g., a network connection).

  18. Acoustic emission assessment of interface cracking in thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Li; Zhong, Zhi-Chun; Zhou, Yi-Chun; Zhu, Wang; Zhang, Zhi-Biao; Cai, Can-Ying; Lu, Chun-Sheng

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, acoustic emission (AE) and digital image correlation methods were applied to monitor interface cracking in thermal barrier coatings under compression. The interface failure process can be identified via its AE features, including buckling, delamination incubation and spallation. According to the Fourier transformation of AE signals, there are four different failure modes: surface vertical cracks, opening and sliding interface cracks, and substrate deformation. The characteristic frequency of AE signals from surface vertical cracks is 0.21 MHz, whilst that of the two types of interface cracks are 0.43 and 0.29 MHz, respectively. The energy released of the two types of interface cracks are 0.43 and 0.29 MHz, respectively. Based on the energy released from cracking and the AE signals, a relationship is established between the interface crack length and AE parameters, which is in good agreement with experimental results.

  19. Urban water interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gessner, M. O.; Hinkelmann, R.; Nützmann, G.; Jekel, M.; Singer, G.; Lewandowski, J.; Nehls, T.; Barjenbruch, M.

    2014-06-01

    Urban water systems consist of large-scale technical systems and both natural and man-made water bodies. The technical systems are essential components of urban infrastructure for water collection, treatment, storage and distribution, as well as for wastewater and runoff collection and subsequent treatment. Urban aquatic ecosystems are typically subject to strong human influences, which impair the quality of surface and ground waters, often with far-reaching impacts on downstream aquatic ecosystems and water users. The various surface and subsurface water bodies in urban environments can be viewed as interconnected compartments that are also extensively intertwined with a range of technical compartments of the urban water system. As a result, urban water systems are characterized by fluxes of water, solutes, gases and energy between contrasting compartments of a technical, natural or hybrid nature. Referred to as urban water interfaces, boundaries between and within these compartments are often specific to urban water systems. Urban water interfaces are generally characterized by steep physical and biogeochemical gradients, which promote high reaction rates. We hypothesize that they act as key sites of processes and fluxes with notable effects on overall system behaviour. By their very nature, urban water interfaces are heterogeneous and dynamic. Therefore, they increase spatial heterogeneity in urban areas and are also expected to contribute notably to the temporal dynamics of urban water systems, which often involve non-linear interactions and feedback mechanisms. Processes at and fluxes across urban water interfaces are complex and less well understood than within well-defined, homogeneous compartments, requiring both empirical investigations and new modelling approaches at both the process and system level. We advocate an integrative conceptual framework of the urban water system that considers interfaces as a key component to improve our fundamental

  20. Modal Interfaces in Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, E. Alvey

    1974-01-01

    Hawaii, an archipelago where transportation distances are short but the interfaces are many, seeks elimination of modal changes by totally-submerged hydrofoil craft operating at the water surface directly between tourist resort destinations, by dual mode rapid transit vehicles operating directly between the deplaning bridges at Honolulu International Airport and hotel porte-cochere at Waikiki, by demand responsive vehicles for collection and distribution operating on fixed guideways for line haul, and by roll-on/roll-off inter-island ferries for all models of manually operated ground vehicles. The paper also describes facilitation of unavoidable interfaces by innovative sub-systems.

  1. Profile Interface Generator

    2013-11-09

    The Profile Interface Generator (PIG) is a tool for loosely coupling applications and performance tools. It enables applications to write code that looks like standard C and Fortran functions calls, without requiring that applications link to specific implementations of those function calls. Performance tools can register with PIG in order to listen to only the calls that give information they care about. This interface reduces the build and configuration burden on application developers and allowsmore » semantic instrumentation to live in production codes without interfering with production runs.« less

  2. Nonlinear optics at interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.K.

    1980-12-01

    Two aspects of surface nonlinear optics are explored in this thesis. The first part is a theoretical and experimental study of nonlinear intraction of surface plasmons and bulk photons at metal-dielectric interfaces. The second part is a demonstration and study of surface enhanced second harmonic generation at rough metal surfaces. A general formulation for nonlinear interaction of surface plasmons at metal-dielectric interfaces is presented and applied to both second and third order nonlinear processes. Experimental results for coherent second and third harmonic generation by surface plasmons and surface coherent antiStokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) are shown to be in good agreement with the theory.

  3. Optical encryption interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Deborah J. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    An analog optical encryption system based on phase scrambling of two-dimensional optical images and holographic transformation for achieving large encryption keys and high encryption speed. An enciphering interface uses a spatial light modulator for converting a digital data stream into a two dimensional optical image. The optical image is further transformed into a hologram with a random phase distribution. The hologram is converted into digital form for transmission over a shared information channel. A respective deciphering interface at a receiver reverses the encrypting process by using a phase conjugate reconstruction of the phase scrambled hologram.

  4. Interfacing to accelerator instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Shea, T.J.

    1995-12-31

    As the sensory system for an accelerator, the beam instrumentation provides a tremendous amount of diagnostic information. Access to this information can vary from periodic spot checks by operators to high bandwidth data acquisition during studies. In this paper, example applications will illustrate the requirements on interfaces between the control system and the instrumentation hardware. A survey of the major accelerator facilities will identify the most popular interface standards. The impact of developments such as isochronous protocols and embedded digital signal processing will also be discussed.

  5. Profile Interface Generator

    SciTech Connect

    2013-11-09

    The Profile Interface Generator (PIG) is a tool for loosely coupling applications and performance tools. It enables applications to write code that looks like standard C and Fortran functions calls, without requiring that applications link to specific implementations of those function calls. Performance tools can register with PIG in order to listen to only the calls that give information they care about. This interface reduces the build and configuration burden on application developers and allows semantic instrumentation to live in production codes without interfering with production runs.

  6. Characteristics of filiform, fungiform and vallate papillae and surface of interface epithelium-connective tissue of the maned sloth tongue mucosa (Bradypus torquatus, Iliger, 1811): Light and Scanning Electron Microscopy Study.

    PubMed

    Benetti, E J; Pícoli, L C; Guimarães, J P; Motoyama, A A; Miglino, M A; Watanabe, L-S

    2009-02-01

    The study of lingual surfaces and the surface of interface epithelium-connective tissue of the tongue of Bradypus torquatus was performed by employing the light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The results revealed that the rostral part of the tongue presents a round apex and covered by filiform and fungiform lingual papillae and a ventral smooth surface. It was observed that the epithelial layer of the dorsal surface possesses the basal, spinosum, granular and cornified epithelial cells. The lamina propria is characterized by a dense connective tissue forming the long, short and round papillae. Numerous typical filiform papillae are located especially in the rostral part intermingled for few fungiform papillae, which were revealed in three-dimensional SEM images. Usually, the fungiform papillae are located in the border of rostral apex of the tongue exhibiting the rounded form. They are covered by keratinized epithelial cells. In the fungiform papillae, several taste pores were observed on the surface. The vallate papillae presented numerous taste buds in the wall of epithelial cells, being that the major number of taste buds is located on the superior half of vallate papilla. The taste pores are surrounded by several laminae of keratinized epithelial cells. The samples treated with NaOH solution and examined by SEM revealed, after removal of the epithelial layer, the dense connective core in original disposition, presenting different sizes and shapes. The specimens stained with Picrosirius and examined by polarized light microscopy revealed the connective tissue, indicating the collagen fibres type I and type III.

  7. Virtually-augmented interfaces for tactical aircraft.

    PubMed

    Haas, M W

    1995-05-01

    The term Fusion Interface is defined as a class of interface which integrally incorporates both virtual and non-virtual concepts and devices across the visual, auditory and haptic sensory modalities. A fusion interface is a multi-sensory virtually-augmented synthetic environment. A new facility has been developed within the Human Engineering Division of the Armstrong Laboratory dedicated to exploratory development of fusion-interface concepts. One of the virtual concepts to be investigated in the Fusion Interfaces for Tactical Environments facility (FITE) is the application of EEG and other physiological measures for virtual control of functions within the flight environment. FITE is a specialized flight simulator which allows efficient concept development through the use of rapid prototyping followed by direct experience of new fusion concepts. The FITE facility also supports evaluation of fusion concepts by operational fighter pilots in a high fidelity simulated air combat environment. The facility was utilized by a multi-disciplinary team composed of operational pilots, human-factors engineers, electronics engineers, computer scientists, and experimental psychologists to prototype and evaluate the first multi-sensory, virtually-augmented cockpit. The cockpit employed LCD-based head-down displays, a helmet-mounted display, three-dimensionally localized audio displays, and a haptic display. This paper will endeavor to describe the FITE facility architecture, some of the characteristics of the FITE virtual display and control devices, and the potential application of EEG and other physiological measures within the FITE facility.

  8. Photochemistry at Interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenthal, Kenneth B

    2015-02-24

    We have advanced our capabilities to investigate ultrafast excited state dynamics at a liquid interface using a pump to excite molecules to higher electronic states and then probe the subsequent time evolution of the interfacial molecules with femtosecond time delayed vibrational SFG.

  9. Interfacing with a DMM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beatty, Jim

    1985-01-01

    Suggests purchasing a digital multimer (DMM) with an IEEE-488 option to interface an instrument to a microcomputer, indicating that a DMM is well protected from overloads and is easy to connect. An example of its use in an experiment involving hydrolysis of tertiary butyl alcohol (with program listing) is given. (JN)

  10. Interface It Yourself.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westling, Bruce D.; Bahe, Margaret E.

    1986-01-01

    Describes several ways to build data collection devices for microcomputers. The interface devices connect with either the computer's game port or an analog-to-digital converter. Discusses how teachers have designed the equipment and appropriate software to use with the computer in biology teaching. (TW)

  11. A Thermistor Interface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamin, Gary D.; Dowden, Edward

    1987-01-01

    Describes the use of a precalibrated stainless steel thermistor, interfaced with an Apple computer, in chemistry experiments. Discusses the advantages of "instant" temperature readings in experiments requiring that readings be taken at certain intervals. Outlines such an experiment which investigates freezing point depressions. (TW)

  12. the EXFOR interface

    2011-03-10

    The x4i package is an interface to the EXFOR nuclear data library. It simplifies retrieval of EXFOR entries and can automatically parse them, allowing one to extract cross-section (and other) data in a simple, plot-able format. x4i also understands and can parse the entire reaction string, allowing one to build a strategy for processing the data

  13. Videodisc-Computer Interfaces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zollman, Dean

    1984-01-01

    Lists microcomputer-videodisc interfaces currently available from 26 sources, including home use systems connected through remote control jack and industrial/educational systems utilizing computer ports and new laser reflective and stylus technology. Information provided includes computer and videodisc type, language, authoring system, educational…

  14. Probing interfaces involving liquids.

    PubMed

    Robinson, A L

    1987-04-10

    Last month in Washington, D.C., the National Academy of Sciences held the first of what it hopes will be a series of seminars in forefront fields of science, technology, and medicine. The idea is to bring the academy closer to the frontlines of research and to help spread the word to federal science policy-makers. The subject of the 23 and 24 March seminar was interfaces and thin films, and the talks, though tutorial in nature, contained a pleasantly large number of still unpublished results. Interfaces, such as the surface of a solid exposed to a liquid or gas, and thin films, whose properties are heavily influenced by interfaces, have long been of considerable technological importance and have always been so in biological processes, but researchers are now getting access to the experimental and theoretical tools needed to explore these complex physical systems that are neither ideally two-dimensional nor fully three-dimensional. The briefings that follow give a peek at three ways to probe interfaces involving liquids.

  15. Characteristics of filiform, fungiform and vallate papillae and surface of interface epithelium-connective tissue of the maned sloth tongue mucosa (Bradypus torquatus, Iliger, 1811): Light and Scanning Electron Microscopy Study.

    PubMed

    Benetti, E J; Pícoli, L C; Guimarães, J P; Motoyama, A A; Miglino, M A; Watanabe, L-S

    2009-02-01

    The study of lingual surfaces and the surface of interface epithelium-connective tissue of the tongue of Bradypus torquatus was performed by employing the light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The results revealed that the rostral part of the tongue presents a round apex and covered by filiform and fungiform lingual papillae and a ventral smooth surface. It was observed that the epithelial layer of the dorsal surface possesses the basal, spinosum, granular and cornified epithelial cells. The lamina propria is characterized by a dense connective tissue forming the long, short and round papillae. Numerous typical filiform papillae are located especially in the rostral part intermingled for few fungiform papillae, which were revealed in three-dimensional SEM images. Usually, the fungiform papillae are located in the border of rostral apex of the tongue exhibiting the rounded form. They are covered by keratinized epithelial cells. In the fungiform papillae, several taste pores were observed on the surface. The vallate papillae presented numerous taste buds in the wall of epithelial cells, being that the major number of taste buds is located on the superior half of vallate papilla. The taste pores are surrounded by several laminae of keratinized epithelial cells. The samples treated with NaOH solution and examined by SEM revealed, after removal of the epithelial layer, the dense connective core in original disposition, presenting different sizes and shapes. The specimens stained with Picrosirius and examined by polarized light microscopy revealed the connective tissue, indicating the collagen fibres type I and type III. PMID:19143682

  16. PREFACE: Water at interfaces Water at interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallo, P.; Rovere, M.

    2010-07-01

    This special issue is devoted to illustrating important aspects and significant results in the field of modeling and simulation of water at interfaces with solutes or with confining substrates, focusing on a range of temperatures from ambient to supercooled. Understanding the behavior of water, in contact with different substrates and/or in solutions, is of pivotal importance for a wide range of applications in physics, chemistry and biochemistry. Simulations of confined and/or interfacial water are also relevant for testing how different its behavior is with respect to bulk water. Simulations and modeling in this field are of particular importance when studying supercooled regions where water shows anomalous properties. These considerations motivated the organization of a workshop at CECAM in the summer of 2009 which aimed to bring together scientists working with computer simulations on the properties of water in various environments with different methodologies. In this special issue, we collected a variety of interesting contributions from some of the speakers of the workshop. We have roughly classified the contributions into four groups. The papers of the first group address the properties of interfacial and confined water upon supercooling in an effort to understand the relation with anomalous behavior of supercooled bulk water. The second group deals with the specific problem of solvation. The next group deals with water in different environments by considering problems of great importance in technological and biological applications. Finally, the last group deals with quantum mechanical calculations related to the role of water in chemical processes. The first group of papers is introduced by the general paper of Stanley et al. The authors discuss recent progress in understanding the anomalies of water in bulk, nanoconfined, and biological environments. They present evidence that liquid water may display 'polymorphism', a property that can be present in

  17. Interface Configuration Experiment: Preliminary results

    SciTech Connect

    Concus, P.; Finn, R.; Weislogel, M.

    1993-09-01

    The Interface Configuration Experiment (ICE) was carried out on USML-1 to investigate liquid-gas interfaces in certain rotationally-symmetric containers having prescribed, mathematically derived shapes. These containers have the property that they admit an entire continuum of distinct equilibrium rotationally-symmetric interfaces for a given liquid volume and contact angle. Furthermore, it can be shown that none of these interfaces can be stable. It was found, after the containers were filled in orbit, that an initial equilibrium interface from the symmetric continuum reoriented, when perturbed, to a stable interface that was not rotationally symmetric, in accordance with the mathematical theory.

  18. Interface Configuration Experiment: Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Concus, Paul; Finn, Robert; Weislogel, Mark

    1994-01-01

    The Interface Configuration Experiment (ICE) was carried out on USML-1 to investigate liquid-gas interfaces in certain rotationally-symmetric containers having prescribed, mathematically derived shapes. These containers have the property that they admit an entire continuum of distinct equilibrium rotationally-symmetric interfaces for a given liquid volume and contact angle. Furthermore, it can be shown that none of these interfaces can be stable. It was found, after the containers were filled in orbit, that an initial equilibrium interface from the symmetric continuum re-oriented, when perturbed, to a stable interface that was not rotationally symmetric, in accordance with the mathematical theory.

  19. The Oklahoma Field Test: Air-Conditioning Electricity Savings from Standard Energy Conservation Measures, Radiant Barriers, and High-Efficiency Window Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Ternes, M.P.

    1992-01-01

    A field test involving 104 houses was performed in Tulsa, Oklahoma, to measure the air-conditioning electricity consumption of low-income houses equipped with window air conditioners, the reduction in this electricity consumption attributed to the installation of energy conservation measures (ECMs) as typically installed under the Oklahoma Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP), and the reduction achieved by the replacement of low-efficiency window air conditioners with high-efficiency units and the installation of attic radiant barriers. Air-conditioning electricity consumption and indoor temperature were monitored weekly during the pre-weatherization period (June to September 1988) and post-weatherization period (May to September 1989). House energy consumption models and regression analyses were used to normalize the air-conditioning electricity savings to average outdoor temperature conditions and the pre-weatherization indoor temperature of each house. The average measured pre-weatherization air-conditioning electricity consumption was 1664 kWh/year ($119/year). Ten percent of the houses used less than 250 kWh/year, while another 10% used more than 3000 kWh/year. An average reduction in air-conditioning electricity consumption of 535 kWh/year ($38/year and 28% of pre-weatherization consumption) was obtained from replacement of one low-efficiency window air conditioner (EER less than 7.0) per house with a high-efficiency unit (EER greater than 9.0). For approximately the same cost, savings tripled to 1503 kWh/year ($107/year and 41% of pre-weatherization consumption) in those houses with initial air-conditioning electricity consumption greater than 2750 kWh/year. For these houses, replacement of a low-efficiency air conditioner with a high-efficiency unit was cost effective using the incremental cost of installing a new unit now rather than later; the average installation cost for these houses under a weatherization program was estimated to be $786. The

  20. COP improvement of refrigerator/freezers, air-conditioners, and heat pumps using nonazeotropic refrigerant mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westra, Douglas G.

    1993-01-01

    With the February, 1992 announcement by President Bush to move the deadline for outlawing CFC (chloro-fluoro-carbon) refrigerants from the year 2000 to the year 1996, the refrigeration and air-conditioning industries have been accelerating their efforts to find alternative refrigerants. Many of the alternative refrigerants being evaluated require synthetic lubricants, are less efficient, and have toxicity problems. One option to developing new, alternative refrigerants is to combine existing non-CFC refrigerants to form a nonazeotropic mixture, with the concentration optimized for the given application so that system COP (Coefficient Of Performance) may be maintained or even improved. This paper will discuss the dilemma that industry is facing regarding CFC phase-out and the problems associated with CFC alternatives presently under development. A definition of nonazeotropic mixtures will be provided, and the characteristics and COP benefits of nonazeotropic refrigerant mixtures will be explained using thermodynamic principles. Limitations and disadvantages of nonazeotropic mixtures will be discussed, and example systems using such mixtures will be reviewed.

  1. The Oklahoma Field Test: Air-conditioning electricity savings from standard energy conservation measures, radiant barriers, and high-efficiency window air conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Ternes, M.P.; Levins, W.P.

    1992-08-01

    A field test Involving 104 houses was performed in Tulsa, Oklahoma, to measure the air-conditioning electricity consumption of low-income houses equipped with window air conditioners, the reduction in this electricity consumption attributed to the installation of energy conservation measures (ECMS) as typically installed under the Oklahoma Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP), and the reduction achieved by the replacement of low-efficiency window air conditioners with high-efficiency units and the installation of attic radiant barriers. Air-conditioning electricity consumption and indoor temperature were monitored weekly during the pre-weatherization period (June to September 1988) and post-weatherization period (May to September 1989). House energy consumption models and regression analyses were used to normalize the air-conditioning electricity savings to average outdoor temperature conditions and the pre-weatherization indoor temperature of each house. The following conclusions were drawn from the study: (1) programs directed at reducing air-conditioning electricity consumption should be targeted at clients with high consumption to improve cost effectiveness; (2) replacing low-efficiency air conditioners with high-efficiency units should be considered an option in a weatherization program directed at reducing air-conditioning electricity consumption; (3) ECMs currently being installed under the Oklahoma WAP (chosen based on effectiveness at reducing space-heating energy consumption) should continue to be justified based on their space-heating energy savings potential only; and (4) attic radiant barriers should not be included in the Oklahoma WAP if alternatives with verified savings are available or until further testing demonstrates energy savings or other benefits in this typo of housing.

  2. Popeye Project: ROV interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Scates, C.R.; Hickok, D.D.; Hernandez, D.A.

    1997-04-01

    The Popeye Project in the Gulf of Mexico helped advance the technology and standardization of ROV interfaces for deepwater subsea production systems. Some of the many successful ROV operations during installation and completion were {open_quotes}first-of-it`s-kind{close_quotes} activities-enabled by many technical advances. The use and reliance upon ROV systems for support of deepwater drilling and installation operations significantly increased in the past 10 years. Shell Offshore Inc.`s (SOI) confidence in this increased capability was an important factor in many of the design decisions which characterized the innovative system. Technology advancements, which depended on effective ROV intervention, were implemented with no significant difficulties. These advancements, in particular the flying leads and seabed position methods, are available to the industry for other deepwater subsea systems. In addition, several Popeye ROV interfaces have helped advance the subsea standardization initiative; e.g., hot stabs, torque-tool end effectors, and paint color.

  3. Interface localization near criticality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delfino, Gesualdo

    2016-05-01

    The theory of interface localization in near-critical planar systems at phase coexistence is formulated from first principles. We show that mutual delocalization of two interfaces, amounting to interfacial wetting, occurs when the bulk correlation length critical exponent ν is larger than or equal to 1. Interaction with a boundary or defect line involves an additional scale and a dependence of the localization strength on the distance from criticality. The implications are particularly rich in the boundary case, where delocalization proceeds through different renormalization patterns sharing the feature that the boundary field becomes irrelevant in the delocalized regime. The boundary delocalization (wetting) transition is shown to be continuous, with surface specific heat and layer thickness exponents which can take values that we determine.

  4. Thyra Abstract Interface Package

    2005-09-01

    Thrya primarily defines a set of abstract C++ class interfaces needed for the development of abstract numerical atgorithms (ANAs) such as iterative linear solvers, transient solvers all the way up to optimization. At the foundation of these interfaces are abstract C++ classes for vectors, vector spaces, linear operators and multi-vectors. Also included in the Thyra package is C++ code for creating concrete vector, vector space, linear operator, and multi-vector subclasses as well as other utilitiesmore » to aid in the development of ANAs. Currently, very general and efficient concrete subclass implementations exist for serial and SPMD in-core vectors and multi-vectors. Code also currently exists for testing objects and providing composite objects such as product vectors.« less

  5. Standard interface file handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, A.; Huria, H.C. )

    1992-10-01

    This handbook documents many of the standard interface file formats that have been adopted by the US Department of Energy to facilitate communications between and portability of, various large reactor physics and radiation transport software packages. The emphasis is on those files needed for use of the VENTURE/PC diffusion-depletion code system. File structures, contents and some practical advice on use of the various files are provided.

  6. Virtual button interface

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Jake S.

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus and method of issuing commands to a computer by a user interfacing with a virtual reality environment. To issue a command, the user directs gaze at a virtual button within the virtual reality environment, causing a perceptible change in the virtual button, which then sends a command corresponding to the virtual button to the computer, optionally after a confirming action is performed by the user, such as depressing a thumb switch.

  7. SNE Industrial Fieldbus Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucena, Angel; Raines, Matthew; Oostdyk, Rebecca; Mata, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Programmable logic controllers (PLCs) have very limited diagnostic and no prognostic capabilities, while current smart sensor designs do not have the capability to communicate over Fieldbus networks. The aim is to interface smart sensors with PLCs so that health and status information, such as failure mode identification and measurement tolerance, can be communicated via an industrial Fieldbus such as ControlNet. The SNE Industrial Fieldbus Interface (SIFI) is an embedded device that acts as a communication module in a networked smart sensor. The purpose is to enable a smart sensor to communicate health and status information to other devices, such as PLCs, via an industrial Fieldbus networking protocol. The SNE (Smart Network Element) is attached to a commercial off-the-shelf Any bus-S interface module through the SIFI. Numerous Anybus-S modules are available, each one designed to interface with a specific Fieldbus. Development of the SIFI focused on communications using the ControlNet protocol, but any of the Anybus-S modules can be used. The SIFI communicates with the Any-bus module via a data buffer and mailbox system on the Anybus module, and supplies power to the module. The Anybus module transmits and receives data on the Fieldbus using the proper protocol. The SIFI is intended to be connected to other existing SNE modules in order to monitor the health and status of a transducer. The SIFI can also monitor aspects of its own health using an onboard watchdog timer and voltage monitors. The SIFI also has the hardware to drive a touchscreen LCD (liquid crystal display) unit for manual configuration and status monitoring.

  8. Systems interface biology

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Francis J; Stelling, Jörg

    2006-01-01

    The field of systems biology has attracted the attention of biologists, engineers, mathematicians, physicists, chemists and others in an endeavour to create systems-level understanding of complex biological networks. In particular, systems engineering methods are finding unique opportunities in characterizing the rich behaviour exhibited by biological systems. In the same manner, these new classes of biological problems are motivating novel developments in theoretical systems approaches. Hence, the interface between systems and biology is of mutual benefit to both disciplines. PMID:16971329

  9. Virtual button interface

    DOEpatents

    Jones, J.S.

    1999-01-12

    An apparatus and method of issuing commands to a computer by a user interfacing with a virtual reality environment are disclosed. To issue a command, the user directs gaze at a virtual button within the virtual reality environment, causing a perceptible change in the virtual button, which then sends a command corresponding to the virtual button to the computer, optionally after a confirming action is performed by the user, such as depressing a thumb switch. 4 figs.

  10. Properties and Cycle Performance of Refrigerant Blends Operating Near and Above the Refrigerant Critical Point, Task 2: Air Conditioner System Study

    SciTech Connect

    Piotr A. Domanski; W. Vance Payne

    2002-10-31

    The main goal of this project was to investigate and compare the performance of an R410A air conditioner to that of an R22 air conditioner, with specific interest in performance at high ambient temperatures at which the condenser of the R410A system may be operating above the refrigerant's critical point. Part 1 of this project consisted of conducting comprehensive measurements of thermophysical for refrigerant R125 and refrigerant blends R410A and R507A and developing new equation of state formulations and mixture models for predicting thermophysical properties of HFC refrigerant blends. Part 2 of this project conducted performance measurements of split-system, 3-ton R22 and R410A residential air conditioners in the 80 to 135 F (27.8 to 57.2 C) outdoor temperature range and development of a system performance model. The performance data was used in preparing a beta version of EVAP-COND, a windows-based simulation package for predicting performance of finned-tube evaporators and condensers. The modeling portion of this project also included the formulation of a model for an air-conditioner equipped with a thermal expansion valve (TXV). Capacity and energy efficiency ratio (EER) were measured and compared. The R22 system's performance was measured over the outdoor ambient temperature range of 80 to 135 F (27.8 to 57.2 C). The same test range was planned for the R410A system. However, the compressor's safety system cut off the compressor at the 135.0 F (57.2 C) test temperature. The highest measurement on this system was at 130.0 F (54.4 C). Subsequently, a custom-manufactured R410A compressor with a disabled safety system and a more powerful motor was installed and performance was measured at outdoor temperatures up to 155.0 F (68.3 C). Both systems had similar capacity and EER performance at 82.0 F (27.8 C). The capacity and EER degradation of both systems were nearly linearly dependent with rising ambient outdoor ambient test temperatures. The performance

  11. Interface scattering in polycrystalline thermoelectrics

    SciTech Connect

    Popescu, Adrian; Haney, Paul M.

    2014-03-28

    We study the effect of electron and phonon interface scattering on the thermoelectric properties of disordered, polycrystalline materials (with grain sizes larger than electron and phonons' mean free path). Interface scattering of electrons is treated with a Landauer approach, while that of phonons is treated with the diffuse mismatch model. The interface scattering is embedded within a diffusive model of bulk transport, and we show that, for randomly arranged interfaces, the overall system is well described by effective medium theory. Using bulk parameters similar to those of PbTe and a square barrier potential for the interface electron scattering, we identify the interface scattering parameters for which the figure of merit ZT is increased. We find the electronic scattering is generally detrimental due to a reduction in electrical conductivity; however, for sufficiently weak electronic interface scattering, ZT is enhanced due to phonon interface scattering.

  12. The THOSE remote interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klawon, Kevin; Gold, Josh; Bachman, Kristen

    2013-05-01

    The DIA, in conjunction with the Army Research Lab (ARL), wants to create an Unmanned Ground Sensor (UGS) controller that is (a) interoperable across all controller platforms, (b) capable of easily adding new sensors, radios, and processes and (c) backward compatible with existing UGS systems. To achieve this, a Terra Harvest controller was created that used Java JRE 1.6 and an Open Services Gateway initiative (OSGi) platform, named Terra Harvest Open Software Environment (THOSE). OSGi is an extensible framework that provides a modularized environment for deploying functionality in "bundles". These bundles can publish, discover, and share services available from other external bundles or bundles provided by the controller core. With the addition of a web GUI used for interacting with THOSE, a natural step was then to create a common remote interface that allows 3rd party real-time interaction with the controller. This paper provides an overview of the THOSE system and its components as well as a description of the architectural structure of the remote interface, highlighting the interactions occurring between the controller and the remote interface and its role in providing a positive user experience for managing UGSS functions.

  13. Eye-voice-controlled interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glenn, Floyd A., III; Iavecchia, Helene P.; Ross, Lorna V.; Stokes, James M.; Weiland, William J.

    1986-01-01

    The Ocular Attention-Sensing Interface System (OASIS) is an innovative human-computer interface which utilizes eye movement and voice commands to communicate messages between the operator and the system. This report initially describes some technical issues relevant to the development of such an interface. The results of preliminary experiments which evaluate alternative eye processing algorithms and feedback techniques are presented. Candidate interface applications are also discussed.

  14. Why Mineral Interfaces Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putnis, Andrew; Putnis, Christine V.

    2015-04-01

    While it is obvious that reactions between a mineral and an aqueous solution take place at the mineral-fluid interface it is only relatively recently that high spatial resolution studies have demonstrated how the local structure of the mineral surface and the chemical composition of the fluid at the interface control both the short-range and the long-range consequences of mineral-fluid interaction. Long-range consequences of fluid-mineral interaction control element cycles in the earth, the formation of ore-deposits, the chemical composition of the oceans through weathering of rocks and hence climate changes. Although weathering is clearly related to mineral dissolution, to what extent do experimentally measured dissolution rates of minerals help to understand weathering, especially weathering mechanisms? This question is related to the short-range, local reactions that take place when a mineral, that is not stable in the fluid, begins to dissolve. In this case the fluid composition at the interface will become supersaturated with respect to a different phase or phases. This may be a different composition of the same mineral e.g. a Ca-rich feldspar dissolving in a Na-rich solution results in a fluid at the interface which may be supersaturated with respect to an Na-rich feldspar. Alternatively, the interfacial fluid could be supersaturated with respect to a different mineral e.g. an Na-rich zeolite, depending on the temperature. Numerous experiments have shown that the precipitation of a more stable phase at the mineral-fluid interface results in a coupling between the dissolution and the precipitation, and the replacement of one mineral by another. This process separates the short-range mechanisms which depend only on the composition of the interfacial solution, and the long-range consequences that depend on the composition of the residual fluid released from the reacting parent mineral. Typically such residual fluids may carry metal ions tens to hundreds of

  15. Programable Interface Handles Many Peripherals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jasinski, M.

    1982-01-01

    Microprocessor-based interface simplifies interconnection of peripheral device with common memory of network of minicomputers. Interface consists of microprocessor, bidirectional port that connects to common memory, bidirectional port that connects to user-selected peripheral, and asynchronous serial communications port. Programable interface is based around 6800 microprocessor. It is assembled from 90 integrated circuits.

  16. Thesaurus-Enhanced Search Interfaces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiri, Ali Asghar; Revie, Crawford; Chowdhury, Gobinda

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of user interfaces to information retrieval systems focuses on interfaces that incorporate thesauri as part of their searching and browsing facilities. Discusses research literature related to information searching behavior, information retrieval interface evaluation, search term selection, and query expansion; and compares thesaurus…

  17. Graphic Interfaces and Online Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Percival, J. Mark

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the growing importance of the use of Graphic User Interfaces (GUIs) with microcomputers and online services. Highlights include the development of graphics interfacing with microcomputers; CD-ROM databases; an evaluation of HyperCard as a potential interface to electronic mail and online commercial databases; and future possibilities.…

  18. Schottky barriers and interface structure at silicide-silicon interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthai, C. C.; Rees, N. V.; Shen, T. H.

    Schottky barriers at metal-semiconductor interfaces have attracted much interest in recent years. One of the principal interests has centred on the mechanism for Fermi level pinning. The sililcide-silicon interface has been proposed as a system which is described by the metal induced gap states model. We have performed calculations on the NiSi 2/Si(111) type A and type B interfaces as well as the NiSi 2/Si(100) interface. In addition we have also studied the CoSi 2/Si interface. For the NiSi 2/Si(111) interface, we have further investigated the influence of point defects and hydrostatic pressure on the Schottky barrier height. Based on the results of our calculations we conclude that these interfaces do indeed subscribe to the MIGS model. We also present the results of some total energy calculations and discuss these with experimental observations.

  19. Ground Systems Development Environment (GSDE) interface requirements analysis: Operations scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Church, Victor E.; Phillips, John

    1991-01-01

    This report is a preliminary assessment of the functional and data interface requirements to the link between the GSDE GS/SPF (Amdahl) and the Space Station Control Center (SSCC) and Space Station Training Facility (SSTF) Integration, Verification, and Test Environments (IVTE's). These interfaces will be involved in ground software development of both the control center and the simulation and training systems. Our understanding of the configuration management (CM) interface and the expected functional characteristics of the Amdahl-IVTE interface is described. A set of assumptions and questions that need to be considered and resolved in order to complete the interface functional and data requirements definitions are presented. A listing of information items defined to describe software configuration items in the GSDE CM system is included. It also includes listings of standard reports of CM information and of CM-related tools in the GSDE.

  20. Kinetics of aqueous lubrication in the hydrophilic hydrogel Gemini interface.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Alison C; Pitenis, Angela A; Urueña, Juan M; Schulze, Kyle D; Angelini, Thomas E; Sawyer, W Gregory

    2015-12-01

    The exquisite sliding interfaces in the human body share the common feature of hydrated dilute polymer mesh networks. These networks, especially when they constitute a sliding interface such as the pre-corneal tear film on the ocular interface, are described by the molecular weight of the polymer chains and a characteristic size of a minimum structural unit, the mesh size, ξ. In a Gemini interface where hydrophilic hydrogels are slid against each other, the aqueous lubrication behavior has been shown to be a function of sliding velocity, introducing a sliding timescale competing against the time scales of polymer fluctuation and relaxation at the surface. In this work, we examine two recent studies and postulate that when the Gemini interface slips faster than the single-chain relaxation time, chains must relax, suppressing the amplitude of the polymer chain thermal fluctuations.

  1. Kinetics of aqueous lubrication in the hydrophilic hydrogel Gemini interface.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Alison C; Pitenis, Angela A; Urueña, Juan M; Schulze, Kyle D; Angelini, Thomas E; Sawyer, W Gregory

    2015-12-01

    The exquisite sliding interfaces in the human body share the common feature of hydrated dilute polymer mesh networks. These networks, especially when they constitute a sliding interface such as the pre-corneal tear film on the ocular interface, are described by the molecular weight of the polymer chains and a characteristic size of a minimum structural unit, the mesh size, ξ. In a Gemini interface where hydrophilic hydrogels are slid against each other, the aqueous lubrication behavior has been shown to be a function of sliding velocity, introducing a sliding timescale competing against the time scales of polymer fluctuation and relaxation at the surface. In this work, we examine two recent studies and postulate that when the Gemini interface slips faster than the single-chain relaxation time, chains must relax, suppressing the amplitude of the polymer chain thermal fluctuations. PMID:26614802

  2. Tunneling of charge carriers across a gold-squaraine interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govor, L. V.; Reiter, G.; Parisi, J.

    2016-04-01

    We describe the transfer of holes across a gold-squaraine-gold structure via two distinct processes describing tunneling of holes through the injecting and extracting interfaces, respectively. Such separation in two steps was achieved through the evaluation of the contact resistances, derived from a decomposition of the measured total current-voltage characteristic into the corresponding components. Using the Simmons approximation, we determined the height Φ and the width d of the tunneling barrier existing at gold-squaraine interface. Interestingly, for a given gold-squaraine interface, the values of Φ and d differed for injection and extraction of holes across this interface. We attribute this difference to the action of permanent dipoles present at this interface.

  3. Structure and mechanics of interfaces in biological materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthelat, Francois; Yin, Zhen; Buehler, Markus J.

    2016-04-01

    Hard biological materials — for example, seashells, bone or wood — fulfil critical structural functions and display unique and attractive combinations of stiffness, strength and toughness, owing to their intricate architectures, which are organized over several length scales. The size, shape and arrangement of the ‘building blocks’ of which these materials are made are essential for defining their properties and their exceptional performance, but there is growing evidence that their deformation and toughness are also largely governed by the interfaces that join these building blocks. These interfaces channel nonlinear deformations and deflect cracks into configurations in which propagation is more difficult. In this Review, we discuss comparatively the composition, structure and mechanics of a set of representative biological interfaces in nacre, bone and wood, and show that these interfaces possess unusual mechanical characteristics, which can encourage the development of advanced bioinspired composites. Finally, we highlight recent examples of synthetic materials inspired from the mechanics and architecture of natural interfaces.

  4. Gas Gun Studies of Interface Wear Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Tyler; Kennedy, Greg; Thadhani, Naresh

    2011-06-01

    The characteristics of interface wear were studied by performing gas gun experiments at velocities up to 1 km/s. The approach involved developing coefficients of constitutive strength models for Al 6061 and OFHC-Cu, then using those to design die geometry for interface wear gas gun experiments. Taylor rod-on-anvil impact experiments were performed to obtain coefficients of the Johnson-Cook constitutive strength model by correlating experimentally obtained deformed states of impacted samples with those predicted using ANSYS AUTODYN hydrocode. Simulations were used with validated strength models to design geometry involving acceleration of Al rods through a copper concentric cylindrical angular extrusion die. Experiments were conducted using 7.62 mm and 80 mm diameter gas guns. Differences in the microstructure of the interface layer and microhardness values illustrate that stress-strain conditions produced during acceleration of Al through the hollow concentric copper die, at velocities less than 800 m/s, result in formation of a layer via solid state alloying due to severe plastic deformation, while higher velocities produce an interface layer consisting of melted and re-solidified aluminum.

  5. Insect-machine interface based neurocybernetics.

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, Alper; Gilmour, Robert F; Sinha, Ayesa; Stern, David; Lal, Amit

    2009-06-01

    We present details of a novel bioelectric interface formed by placing microfabricated probes into insect during metamorphic growth cycles. The inserted microprobes emerge with the insect where the development of tissue around the electronics during the pupal development allows mechanically stable and electrically reliable structures coupled to the insect. Remarkably, the insects do not react adversely or otherwise to the inserted electronics in the pupae stage, as is true when the electrodes are inserted in adult stages. We report on the electrical and mechanical characteristics of this novel bioelectronic interface, which we believe would be adopted by many investigators trying to investigate biological behavior in insects with negligible or minimal traumatic effect encountered when probes are inserted in adult stages. This novel insect-machine interface also allows for hybrid insect-machine platforms for further studies. As an application, we demonstrate our first results toward navigation of flight in moths. When instrumented with equipment to gather information for environmental sensing, such insects potentially can assist man to monitor the ecosystems that we share with them for sustainability. The simplicity of the optimized surgical procedure we invented allows for batch insertions to the insect for automatic and mass production of such hybrid insect-machine platforms. Therefore, our bioelectronic interface and hybrid insect-machine platform enables multidisciplinary scientific and engineering studies not only to investigate the details of insect behavioral physiology but also to control it.

  6. Development of a modularized seating system to actively manage interface pressure.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chung-Huang; Chou, Tung-Yu; Chen, Cheng-Huan; Chen, Poyin; Wang, Fu-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Pressure ulcers can be a fatal complication. Many immobile wheelchair users face this threat. Current passive and active cushions do reduce the incidence of pressure ulcers and they have different merits. We proposed an active approach to combine their advantages which is based on the concept that the interface pressure can be changed with different supporting shapes. The purpose of this paper is to verify the proposed approach. With practical applications in mind, we have developed a modular system whose support surface is composed by height-adjustable support elements. Each four-element module was self-contained and composed of force sensors, position sensors, linear actuators, signal conditioners, driving circuits, and signal processors. The modules could be chained and assembled together easily to form different-sized support surfaces. Each support element took up a 3 cm × 3 cm supporting area. The displacement resolution was less than 0.1 mm and the force sensor error was less than 1% in the 2000 g range. Each support element of the system could provide 49 N pushing force (408 mmHg over the 3 cm × 3 cm area) at a speed of 2.36 mm/s. Several verification tests were performed to assess the whole system's feasibility. Further improvements and clinical applications were discussed. In conclusion, this modularized system is capable of actively managing interface pressure in real time. PMID:25098206

  7. Conceptual Framework for Aquatic Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewandowski, J.; Krause, S.

    2015-12-01

    Aquatic interfaces are generally characterized by steep gradients of physical, chemical and biological properties due to the contrast between the two adjacent environments. Innovative measurement techniques are required to study the spatially heterogeneous and temporally variable processes. Especially the different spatial and temporal scales are a large challenge. Due to the steep biogeochemical gradients and the intensive structural and compositional heterogeneity, enhanced biogeochemical processing rates are inherent to aquatic interfaces. Nevertheless, the effective turnover depends strongly on the residence time distribution along the flow paths and in sections with particular biogeochemical milieus and reaction kinetics. Thus, identification and characterization of the highly complex flow patterns in and across aquatic interfaces are crucial to understand biogeochemical processing along exchange flow paths and to quantify transport across aquatic interfaces. Hydrodynamic and biogeochemical processes are closely coupled at aquatic interfaces. However, interface processing rates are not only enhanced compared to the adjacent compartments that they connect; also completely different reactions might occur if certain thresholds are exceeded or the biogeochemical milieu differs significantly from the adjacent environments. Single events, temporal variability and spatial heterogeneity might increase overall processing rates of aquatic interfaces and thus, should not be neglected when studying aquatic interfaces. Aquatic interfaces are key zones relevant for the ecological state of the entire ecosystem and thus, understanding interface functioning and controls is paramount for ecosystem management. The overall aim of this contribution is a general conceptual framework for aquatic interfaces that is applicable to a wide range of systems, scales and processes.

  8. NESSUS/NASTRAN Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millwater, Harry; Riha, David

    1996-01-01

    The NESSUS probabilistic analysis computer program has been developed with a built-in finite element analysis program NESSUS/FEM. However, the NESSUS/FEM program is specialized for engine structures and may not contain sufficient features for other applications. In addition, users often become well acquainted with a particular finite element code and want to use that code for probabilistic structural analysis. For these reasons, this work was undertaken to develop an interface between NESSUS and NASTRAN such that NASTRAN can be used for the finite element analysis and NESSUS can be used for the probabilistic analysis. In addition, NESSUS was restructured such that other finite element codes could be more easily coupled with NESSUS. NESSUS has been enhanced such that NESSUS will modify the NASTRAN input deck for a given set of random variables, run NASTRAN and read the NASTRAN result. The coordination between the two codes is handled automatically. The work described here was implemented within NESSUS 6.2 which was delivered to NASA in September 1995. The code runs on Unix machines: Cray, HP, Sun, SGI and IBM. The new capabilities have been implemented such that a user familiar with NESSUS using NESSUS/FEM and NASTRAN can immediately use NESSUS with NASTRAN. In other words, the interface with NASTRAN has been implemented in an analogous manner to the interface with NESSUS/FEM. Only finite element specific input has been changed. This manual is written as an addendum to the existing NESSUS 6.2 manuals. We assume users have access to NESSUS manuals and are familiar with the operation of NESSUS including probabilistic finite element analysis. Update pages to the NESSUS PFEM manual are contained in Appendix E. The finite element features of the code and the probalistic analysis capabilities are summarized.

  9. Neural interfaces at the nanoscale

    PubMed Central

    Pancrazio, Joseph J

    2008-01-01

    Bioelectrical neural interfaces provide a means of recording the activity from the nervous system and delivering therapeutic stimulation to restore neurological function lost during disease or injury. Although neural interfaces have reached clinical utility, reducing the size of the bioelectrical interface to minimize damage to neural tissue and maximize selectivity has proven problematic. Nanotechnology may offer a means of interfacing with the nervous system with unprecedented specificity. Emergent applications of nanotechnology to neuroscience include molecular imaging, drug delivery across the BBB, scaffolds for neural regeneration and bioelectrical interfaces. In particular, carbon nanotubes offer the promises of material stability and low electrical impedance at physical dimensions that could have a significant impact on the future on neural interfaces. The purpose of this review is to present recent advances in carbon nanotube-based bioelectrical interfaces for the nervous system and discuss research challenges and opportunities. PMID:19025456

  10. Adhesion at metal interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banerjea, Amitava; Ferrante, John; Smith, John R.

    1991-01-01

    A basic adhesion process is defined, the theory of the properties influencing metallic adhesion is outlined, and theoretical approaches to the interface problem are presented, with emphasis on first-principle calculations as well as jellium-model calculations. The computation of the energies of adhesion as a function of the interfacial separation is performed; fully three-dimensional calculations are presented, and universality in the shapes of the binding energy curves is considered. An embedded-atom method and equivalent-crystal theory are covered in the framework of issues involved in practical adhesion.

  11. Access Interface Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Fager, Susan; Beukelman, David R.; Fried-Oken, Melanie; Jakobs, Tom; Baker, John

    2013-01-01

    Individuals who rely on augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) devices to support their communication often have physical movement challenges that require alternative methods of access. Technology that supports access, particularly for those with the most severe movement deficits, have expanded substantially over the years. The purposes of this article are to review the state of the science of access technologies that interface with augmentative and alternative communication devices and to propose a future research and development agenda that will enhance access options for people with limited movement capability due to developmental and acquired conditions. PMID:22590797

  12. NESSUS/NASTRAN Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millwater, Harry; Riha, David

    1996-01-01

    The NESSUS and NASTRAN computer codes were successfully integrated. The enhanced NESSUS code will use NASTRAN for the structural Analysis and NESSUS for the probabilistic analysis. Any quantities in the NASTRAN bulk data input can be random variables. Any NASTRAN result that is written to the output2 file can be returned to NESSUS as the finite element result. The interfacing between NESSUS and NASTRAN is handled automatically by NESSUS. NESSUS and NASTRAN can be run on different machines using the remote host option.

  13. Effect of experimental acid/base conditioner on microtensile bond strength of 4-META/MMA-TBB resin to dentin after long-term water immersion.

    PubMed

    Soeno, Kohyoh; Taira, Yohsuke; Ito, Shuichi

    2012-01-01

    An experimental conditioner (Exp), which was an aqueous solution of 10% ascorbic acid and 5% ferric chloride, was prepared in this study. This study evaluated the effect of Exp on the microtensile bond strength between a self-curing resin and dentin after long-term water immersion. Flat human dentin surfaces were sequentially pretreated with 40% phosphoric acid, 10% sodium hypochlorite, and Exp. Surface pretreatment with an aqueous solution of 10% citric and 3% ferric chloride (10-3) was used as a control. Composite resin rods were bonded to pretreated dentin surfaces using 4-META/MMA-TBB resin. Microtensile bond strengths were evaluated after water immersion at 24 h, 12 months, 24 months, and 36 months. At each immersion period, the bond strength of Exp was significantly higher than that of 10-3. After 36 months, Exp showed no significant decrease in microtensile bond strength, but 10-3 showed significant reductions. Pretreatment with experimental acid/base conditioner markedly improved the bonding durability of 4-META/MMA-TBB resin to human dentin when compared against the conventional 10-3 treatment.

  14. A Novel, Low-Cost, Reduced-Sensor Approach for Providing Smart Renote Monitoring and Diagnostics for Packaged Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Brambley, Michael R.

    2009-09-01

    This report describes conceptually an approach to providing automated remote performance and conditioning monitoring and fault detection for air conditioners and heat pumps that shows great promise to reduce the capital and installation costs of such systems from over $1000 per unit to $200 to $400 per unit. The approach relies on non-intrusive electric load monitoring (NIELM) to enable separation of the power use signals of compressors and fans in the air conditioner or heat pump. Then combining information on the power uses and one or two air temperature measurements, changes in energy efficiency and occurrence of major faults would be detected. By decreasing the number of sensors used from between ten and twenty in current diagnostic monitoring systems to three for the envisaged system, the capital cost of the monitoring system hardware and the cost of labor for installation would be decreased significantly. After describing the problem being addressed and the concept for performance monitoring and fault detection in more detail, the report identifies specific conditions and faults that the proposed method would detect, discusses specific needs for successful use of the NIELM approach, and identifies the major elements in the path from concept to a commercialized monitoring and diagnostic system.

  15. Comparison of acidic and neutral PH root conditioners prior to a coronally positioned flap to treat gingival recession

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Roya Shariatmadar; Awwadi, Mohammd Reza; Moatazed, Shilan; Rezaei, Fatemeh; Hajisadeghi, Samira

    2014-01-01

    Background: Localized gingival recession can be treated successfully via coronally positioned flap (CPF) and additional use of root surface demineralization agents. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of additional use of ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) and citric acid as a root conditioner in association with CPF to cover localized buccal gingival recessions. Materials and Methods: Twenty-seven patients with 66 Miller class I buccal gingival recession ≥ 2 mm on single-rooted teeth were studied. Patients were randomly assigned: CPF with EDTA gel (test 1) and CPF with saturated citric acid (test 2) or CPF alone (control). Clinical parameters were measured at baseline and 1, 2, 3 and 6 months after surgery; assessment included recession depth (RD), clinical attachment level (CAL), probing depth (PD) and height of keratinized gingiva (HKG). SPSS version-20 was used to perform all statistical analyses. Data was reported as Mean ± SD. Age, RD, CAL, PD, and HKG before treatment and after 6 months among study groups were compared by one-way ANOVA followed by the Tukey test. The level of significance was considered to be less than 0.05. Results: At 6 months, all treatment modalities showed significant root coverage and gain in CAL. RD was reduced from 2.86 ± 0.76 mm to 0.55±0.53 mm in the EDTA group and from 2.37±0.57 mm to 1.03±0.43 mm in the acid group and from 2.37±0.54 mm to 0.85±0.49 mm in the control group. The average percentage of root coverage for the EDTA, acid, and control groups were 80.73%, 52.16%, and 64.50%, respectively. At 6 months, there was a significant difference (P < 0.05) in all parameters for the EDTA group (except HKG that did not vary among the groups). Conclusion: Root preparation with EDTA was an effective procedure to cover localized gingival recessions and significantly improved the amount of root coverage obtained. PMID:25097639

  16. Matched Interface and Boundary Method for Elasticity Interface Problems

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bao; Xia, Kelin; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Elasticity theory is an important component of continuum mechanics and has had widely spread applications in science and engineering. Material interfaces are ubiquity in nature and man-made devices, and often give rise to discontinuous coefficients in the governing elasticity equations. In this work, the matched interface and boundary (MIB) method is developed to address elasticity interface problems. Linear elasticity theory for both isotropic homogeneous and inhomogeneous media is employed. In our approach, Lamé’s parameters can have jumps across the interface and are allowed to be position dependent in modeling isotropic inhomogeneous material. Both strong discontinuity, i.e., discontinuous solution, and weak discontinuity, namely, discontinuous derivatives of the solution, are considered in the present study. In the proposed method, fictitious values are utilized so that the standard central finite different schemes can be employed regardless of the interface. Interface jump conditions are enforced on the interface, which in turn, accurately determines fictitious values. We design new MIB schemes to account for complex interface geometries. In particular, the cross derivatives in the elasticity equations are difficult to handle for complex interface geometries. We propose secondary fictitious values and construct geometry based interpolation schemes to overcome this difficulty. Numerous analytical examples are used to validate the accuracy, convergence and robustness of the present MIB method for elasticity interface problems with both small and large curvatures, strong and weak discontinuities, and constant and variable coefficients. Numerical tests indicate second order accuracy in both L∞ and L2 norms. PMID:25914439

  17. EMC Characteristics of the Refrigerant Pipe -Based Transmission System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higuma, Toshiyasu; Watanabe, Yousuke; Tokuda, Masamitsu

    We have proposed the pipe-based transmission system, which uses refrigerant pipe of the multi air-conditioner, and can expand the wireless communication system confined within a room space into the communication system applicable to the whole building. In this paper, EMC characteristics of the Refrigerant pipe-based transmission line, such as LCL (Longitudinal Conversion Loss) and leaked electric field, are calculated by using the method of moment, and it is clear that the calculation values of the EMC characteristics almost agreed with measurement values. Furthermore, it is suggested by computer simulation of the real scale model that the pipe based transmission system has possibility to comply with the EMI regulation specified by the electrical appliance and material safety law in Japan.

  18. Orbiter multiplexer-demultiplexer (MDM)/Space Lab Bus Interface Unit (SL/BIU) serial data interface evaluation, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobey, G. L.

    1978-01-01

    Tests were performed to evaluate the operating characteristics of the interface between the Space Lab Bus Interface Unit (SL/BIU) and the Orbiter Multiplexer-Demultiplexer (MDM) serial data input-output (SIO) module. This volume contains the test equipment preparation procedures and a detailed description of the Nova/Input Output Processor Simulator (IOPS) software used during the data transfer tests to determine word error rates (WER).

  19. Chemical structure of interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunthaner, F. J.

    1985-01-01

    The interfacial structure of silicon/dielectric and silicon/metal systems is particularly amenable to analysis using a combination of surface spectroscopies together with a variety of chemical structures of Si/SiO2, Si/SiO2Si3N4, Si/Si2N2O, Si/SiO2/Al, and Si/Native Oxide interfaces using high resolution (0.350 eV FWHM) X ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The general structure of these dielectric interfaces entails a monolayer chemical transition layer at the Si/dielectric boundary. Amorphous Si substrates show a wide variety of hydrogenated Si and Si(OH) sub x states that are not observed in thermal oxidation of single crystal material. Extended SiO2 layers greater than 8 A in thickness are shown to be stoichiometric SiO2, but to exhibit a wide variety of local network structures. In the nitrogen containing systems, an approach to stoichiometric oxynitride compounds with interesting impurity and electron trapping properties are seen. In native oxides, substantial topographical nonuniformity in oxide thickness and composition are found. Analysis of metal/oxide interfacial layers is accomplished by analytical removal of the Si substrate by UHV XeF2 dry etching methods.

  20. Surface inspection operator interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creek, Russell C.

    1992-03-01

    Surface inspection systems are widely used in many industries including steel, tin, aluminum, and paper. These systems generally use machine vision technology to detect defective surface regions and can generate very high data output rates which can be difficult for line operators to absorb and use. A graphical, windowing interface is described which provides the operators with an overview of the surface quality of the inspected web while still allowing them to select individual defective regions for display. A touch screen is used as the only operator input. This required alterations to some screen widgets due to subtle ergonomic differences of touch screen input over mouse input. The interface, although developed for inspecting coated steel, has been designed to be adaptable to other surface inspection applications. Facility is provided to allow the detection, classification, and display functions of the inspection system to be readily changed. Modifications can be implemented on two main levels; changes that reflect the configuration of the hardware system and control the detection and classification components of the surface inspection system are accessible only to authorized staff while those affecting the display and alarm settings of defect types may be changed by operators and this can generally be done dynamically.

  1. Mercury Shopping Cart Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfister, Robin; McMahon, Joe

    2006-01-01

    Mercury Shopping Cart Interface (MSCI) is a reusable component of the Power User Interface 5.0 (PUI) program described in another article. MSCI is a means of encapsulating the logic and information needed to describe an orderable item consistent with Mercury Shopping Cart service protocol. Designed to be used with Web-browser software, MSCI generates Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) pages on which ordering information can be entered. MSCI comprises two types of Practical Extraction and Report Language (PERL) modules: template modules and shopping-cart logic modules. Template modules generate HTML pages for entering the required ordering details and enable submission of the order via a Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) post. Shopping cart modules encapsulate the logic and data needed to describe an individual orderable item to the Mercury Shopping Cart service. These modules evaluate information entered by the user to determine whether it is sufficient for the Shopping Cart service to process the order. Once an order has been passed from MSCI to a deployed Mercury Shopping Cart server, there is no further interaction with the user.

  2. Mysteries at Ice Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fain, Samuel C., Jr.

    1996-03-01

    Michael Faraday noted that ``two pieces of thawing ice, if put together, adhere and become one...the effect will take place in air, or in water, or in vacuo." Why? He proposed that ``a particle of water, which could retain the liquid state whilst touching ice only on one side, could not retain the liquid state if it were touched by ice on both sides."footnote M. Faraday, Proc. Roy. Soc. London 10, 440 (1860) The existence of special properties at interfaces of ice is generally agreed and has important environmental consequences.(J. G. Dash, H. Fu, and J. S. Wettlaufer, Rep. Prog. Phys. 58), 115 (1995) Why do different experiments infer different properties for this layer? Impurities and electric fields at the interfaces may be responsible for some of the variations in experimental results.footnote V. F. Petrenko, U. S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory Report 94-22 (1994) Some background on the physical properties of ice will be discussed, including recent force microscopy measurements done at the University of Washington.footnote C.R. Slaughterbeck, E.W. Kukes, B. Pittenger, D.J. Cook, P.C. Williams, V.L. Eden, S.C. Fain, Jr., J. Vac. Sci. Technol. (in press) Supported by NSF Grant DMR-91-19701.

  3. Laparoscopic simulation interface

    DOEpatents

    Rosenberg, Louis B.

    2006-04-04

    A method and apparatus for providing high bandwidth and low noise mechanical input and output for computer systems. A gimbal mechanism provides two revolute degrees of freedom to an object about two axes of rotation. A linear axis member is coupled to the gimbal mechanism at the intersection of the two axes of rotation. The linear axis member is capable of being translated along a third axis to provide a third degree of freedom. The user object is coupled to the linear axis member and is thus translatable along the third axis so that the object can be moved along all three degrees of freedom. Transducers associated with the provided degrees of freedom include sensors and actuators and provide an electromechanical interface between the object and a digital processing system. Capstan drive mechanisms transmit forces between the transducers and the object. The linear axis member can also be rotated about its lengthwise axis to provide a fourth degree of freedom, and, optionally, a floating gimbal mechanism is coupled to the linear axis member to provide fifth and sixth degrees of freedom to an object. Transducer sensors are associated with the fourth, fifth, and sixth degrees of freedom. The interface is well suited for simulations of medical procedures and simulations in which an object such as a stylus or a joystick is moved and manipulated by the user.

  4. Multiple network interface core apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Underwood, Keith D.; Hemmert, Karl Scott

    2011-04-26

    A network interface controller and network interface control method comprising providing a single integrated circuit as a network interface controller and employing a plurality of network interface cores on the single integrated circuit.

  5. Surface Tension and Fingering of Miscible Interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abib, Mohammed; Liu, Jian-Bang; Ronney, Paul D.

    1999-01-01

    Experiments on miscible, buoyantly unstable reaction-diffusion fronts and non-reacting displacement fronts in Hele-Shaw cells show a fingering-type instability whose wavelengths (lambda*) are consistent with an interfacial tension (sigma) at the front caused by the change in chemical composition, even though the solutions are miscible in all proportions. In conjunction with the Saffman-Taylor model, the relation sigma = K/tau, where tau is the interface thickness and K approximately equal 4 +/- 2 x 10(exp -6) dyne, enables prediction of our measured values of lambda* as well as results from prior experiments on miscible interfaces. These results indicate that even for miscible fluids, surface tension is generally a more significant factor than diffusion in interfacial stability and flow characteristics.

  6. Flexible DCP interface. [environmental sensor and signal conditioning interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanemasu, E. T.; Schimmelpfenning, H.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A user of an ERTS data collection system (DCS) must supply the sensors and signal-conditioning interface. The electronic interface must be compatible with the NASA-furnished data collection platform. A universal signal-conditioning system for use with a wide range of environmental sensors is described. The interface is environmentally and electronically compatible with the DCP and has operated satisfactorily for a complete winter wheat growing season in Kansas.

  7. Thermal interface conductance across metal alloy-dielectric interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freedman, Justin P.; Yu, Xiaoxiao; Davis, Robert F.; Gellman, Andrew J.; Malen, Jonathan A.

    2016-01-01

    We present measurements of thermal interface conductance as a function of metal alloy composition. Composition spread alloy films of A uxC u1 -x and A uxP d1 -x solid solutions were deposited on single crystal sapphire substrates via dual electron-beam evaporation. High throughput measurements of thermal interface conductance across the (metal alloy)-sapphire interfaces were made by positional scanning of frequency domain thermoreflectance measurements to sample a continuum of Au atomic fractions (x ˜0 →1 ) . At a temperature of 300 K, the thermal interface conductance at the A uxC u1 -x -sapphire interfaces monotonically decreased from 197 ±39 MW m-2K-1 to 74 ±11 MW m-2K-1 for x =0 →0.95 ±0.02 and at the A uxP d1 -x -sapphire interfaces from 167 ±35 MW m-2K-1 to 60 ±10 MW m-2K-1 for x =0.03 →0.97 ±0.02 . To shed light on the phonon physics at the interface, a Diffuse Mismatch Model for thermal interface conductance with alloys is presented and agrees reasonably with the thermal interface conductance data.

  8. XPI: The Xanadu Parameter Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, N.; Barrett, P.; Oneel, B.; Jacobs, P.

    1992-01-01

    XPI is a table driven parameter interface which greatly simplifies both command driven programs such as BROWSE and XIMAGE as well as stand alone single-task programs. It moves all of the syntax and semantic parsing of commands and parameters out of the users code into common code and externally defined tables. This allows the programmer to concentrate on writing the code unique to the application rather than reinventing the user interface and for external graphical interfaces to interface with no changes to the command driven program. XPI also includes a compatibility library which allows programs written using the IRAF host interface (Mandel and Roll) to use XPI in place of the IRAF host interface.

  9. Computer interface system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, T. O. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    An interface logic circuit permitting the transfer of information between two computers having asynchronous clocks is disclosed. The information transfer involves utilization of control signals (including request, return-response, ready) to generate properly timed data strobe signals. Noise problems are avoided because each control signal, upon receipt, is verified by at least two clock pulses at the receiving computer. If control signals are verified, a data strobe pulse is generated to accomplish a data transfer. Once initiated, the data strobe signal is properly completed independently of signal disturbances in the control signal initiating the data strobe signal. Completion of the data strobe signal is announced by automatic turn-off of a return-response control signal.

  10. Nuclear data interface retrospective

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, Mark G

    2008-01-01

    The Nuclear Data Interface (NDI) code library and data formats are the standards for multigroup nuclear data at Los Alamos National Laboratory. NDI's analysis, design, implementation, testing, integration, and maintenance required a ten person-year and ongoing effort by the Nuclear Data Team. Their efforts provide a unique, contemporary experience in producing a standard component library. In reflection upon that experience at NDI's decennial, we have identified several factors critical to NDI's success: it addressed real problems with appropriate simplicity, it fully supported all users, it added extra value through the code to the raw nuclear data, and its team went the distance from analysis through maintenance. In this report we review these critical success factors and discuss their implications for future standardization projects.

  11. Human-computer interface

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Thomas G.

    2004-12-21

    The present invention provides a method of human-computer interfacing. Force feedback allows intuitive navigation and control near a boundary between regions in a computer-represented space. For example, the method allows a user to interact with a virtual craft, then push through the windshield of the craft to interact with the virtual world surrounding the craft. As another example, the method allows a user to feel transitions between different control domains of a computer representation of a space. The method can provide for force feedback that increases as a user's locus of interaction moves near a boundary, then perceptibly changes (e.g., abruptly drops or changes direction) when the boundary is traversed.

  12. Brain-computer interfaces.

    PubMed

    Wolpaw, Jonathan R

    2013-01-01

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are systems that give their users communication and control capabilities that do not depend on muscles. The user's intentions are determined from activity recorded by electrodes on the scalp, on the cortical surface, or within the brain. BCIs can enable people who are paralyzed by amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), brainstem stroke, or other disorders to convey their needs and wishes to others, to operate word-processing programs or other software, or possibly to control a wheelchair or a neuroprosthesis. BCI technology might also augment rehabilitation protocols aimed at restoring useful motor function. With continued development and clinical implementation, BCIs could substantially improve the lives of those with severe disabilities.

  13. Mephisto - Research equipment for the study of solid/liquid interface destabilization in metal alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favier, J. J.; Malmejac, Y.; Praizey, J. P.; Cambon, G.; Barillot, R.; Changeart, F. J.

    1982-09-01

    Preliminary results of a feasiblity study of space apparatus intended for solid/liquid destabilization in metal alloys, the Mephisto project, are presented. The phenomena that Mephisto will observe, the parameters it will measure, and the scientific studies that it will perform are stated. A general description is given of the instrument, its experimental tubes, and the experiment process. The environmental and thermal constraints, electrical characteristics, and the characteristics of the different signals are outlined. Finally, the requirements of the payload interfaces on which the equipment will be mounted are set forth, including mechanical/geometrical interfaces, thermal interfaces, and electrical interfaces.

  14. WWW to DICOM interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grevera, George J.; Feingold, Eric R.; Horii, Steven C.

    1996-05-01

    In this paper we discuss the implementation and use of a WWW interface to a DICOM PACS that allows users to select, move, and display images that are currently available in the PACS and to view their corresponding radiology reports. This system allows our users to query the archive from any workstation (such as Unix, DOS, and Mac) that supports a WWW browser. To use this system, the user first runs a WWW browser such as Mosaic, Netscape, or Lynx and specifies a URL on one of our Unix workstations. This URL refers to an HTML file that contains a query form. This query form contains a number of fields such as patient name and medical record number. The user may specify any or all fields as well as wildcards in fields such as the name field. Once the form is completed, the user presses a button to submit the request. The HTML form submits the query to a C program that executes on the Unix server. This program accepts as input the form field values that the user specified. This program then communicates with the archive via DICOM requests to determine those patients that match the search criteria. The user may then choose a patient which in turn causes the studies for this patient to be displayed. Finally, the user may select a study which causes those images to be retrieved from the archive and displayed via the Web browser. The result of this system is an easy to use interface to a DICOM PACS with the option to query and move images from the PACS. In summary, a system that integrates the ease of use of WWW browsers with a DICOM PACS is discussed. We are currently incorporating information from our RIS as well. This allows us to obtain extensive patient demographics, exam information, and textual radiological reports and associate this information with information from the PACS.

  15. Endow My Air Conditioner!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Charles E. P.

    1982-01-01

    Administrators need to plan and set priorities in various energy/maintenance areas, and trustees and legislators, faculty and students have to be educated regarding maintenance and conservation. Cost of energy consumption by area and department must be worked out. (MLW)

  16. Hybrid ECG signal conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinard, G. A.; Steffen, D. A.; Sturm, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    Circuit with high common-mode rejection has ability to filter and amplify accepted analog electrocardiogram (ECG) signals of varying amplitude, shape, and polarity. In addition, low power circuit develops standardized pulses that can be counted and averaged by heart/breath rate processor.

  17. Time delay spectrum conditioner

    DOEpatents

    Greiner, Norman R.

    1980-01-01

    A device for delaying specified frequencies of a multiple frequency laser beam. The device separates the multiple frequency beam into a series of spatially separated single frequency beams. The propagation distance of the single frequency beam is subsequently altered to provide the desired delay for each specific frequency. Focusing reflectors can be utilized to provide a simple but nonadjustable system or, flat reflectors with collimating and focusing optics can be utilized to provide an adjustable system.

  18. Signal conditioner test set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houck, W. H.; Stigberg, J. D. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A system was developed for testing components contained in a signal conditioning module with a transistor and capacitor included in a circuit. The system includes a housing with a socket into which the module to be tested is plugged. A test switch is provided for selectively connecting a variable load to either a transistor or capacitor in the circuit for testing the operation. A signal generating circuit is provided for generating signals for use in testing the components of the module.

  19. Intelligent interface design and evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greitzer, Frank L.

    1988-01-01

    Intelligent interface concepts and systematic approaches to assessing their functionality are discussed. Four general features of intelligent interfaces are described: interaction efficiency, subtask automation, context sensitivity, and use of an appropriate design metaphor. Three evaluation methods are discussed: Functional Analysis, Part-Task Evaluation, and Operational Testing. Design and evaluation concepts are illustrated with examples from a prototype expert system interface for environmental control and life support systems for manned space platforms.

  20. The Common Communication Interface (CCI)

    SciTech Connect

    Shipman, Galen M; Atchley, Scott; Dillow, David A; Geoffray, Patrick; Bosilca, George; Squyres, Jeffrey M; Minnich, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    There are many APIs for connecting and exchanging data between network peers. Each interface varies wildly based on metrics including performance, portability, and complexity. Specifically, many interfaces make design or implementation choices emphasizing some of the more desirable metrics (e.g., performance) while sacrificing others (e.g., portability). As a direct result, software developers building large, network-based applications are forced to choose a specific network API based on a complex, multi-dimensional set of criteria. Such trade-offs inevitably result in an interface that fails to deliver some desirable features. In this paper, we introduce a novel interface that both supports many features that have become standard (or otherwise generally expected) in other communication interfaces, and strives to export a small, yet powerful, interface. This new interface draws upon years of experience from network-oriented software development best practices to systems-level implementations. The goal is to create a relatively simple, high-level communication interface with low barriers to adoption while still providing important features such as scalability, resiliency, and performance. The result is the Common Communications Interface (CCI): an intuitive API that is portable, efficient, scalable, and robust to meet the needs of network-intensive applications common in HPC and cloud computing.

  1. The Evolution of Neuroprosthetic Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Adewole, Dayo O; Serruya, Mijail D; Harris, James P; Burrell, Justin C; Petrov, Dmitriy; Chen, H Isaac; Wolf, John A; Cullen, D Kacy

    2016-01-01

    The ideal neuroprosthetic interface permits high-quality neural recording and stimulation of the nervous system while reliably providing clinical benefits over chronic periods. Although current technologies have made notable strides in this direction, significant improvements must be made to better achieve these design goals and satisfy clinical needs. This article provides an overview of the state of neuroprosthetic interfaces, starting with the design and placement of these interfaces before exploring the stimulation and recording platforms yielded from contemporary research. Finally, we outline emerging research trends in an effort to explore the potential next generation of neuroprosthetic interfaces. PMID:27652455

  2. mREST Interface Specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCartney, Patrick; MacLean, John

    2012-01-01

    mREST is an implementation of the REST architecture specific to the management and sharing of data in a system of logical elements. The purpose of this document is to clearly define the mREST interface protocol. The interface protocol covers all of the interaction between mREST clients and mREST servers. System-level requirements are not specifically addressed. In an mREST system, there are typically some backend interfaces between a Logical System Element (LSE) and the associated hardware/software system. For example, a network camera LSE would have a backend interface to the camera itself. These interfaces are specific to each type of LSE and are not covered in this document. There are also frontend interfaces that may exist in certain mREST manager applications. For example, an electronic procedure execution application may have a specialized interface for configuring the procedures. This interface would be application specific and outside of this document scope. mREST is intended to be a generic protocol which can be used in a wide variety of applications. A few scenarios are discussed to provide additional clarity but, in general, application-specific implementations of mREST are not specifically addressed. In short, this document is intended to provide all of the information necessary for an application developer to create mREST interface agents. This includes both mREST clients (mREST manager applications) and mREST servers (logical system elements, or LSEs).

  3. Interface-assisted molecular spintronics

    SciTech Connect

    Raman, Karthik V.

    2014-09-15

    Molecular spintronics, a field that utilizes the spin state of organic molecules to develop magneto-electronic devices, has shown an enormous scientific activity for more than a decade. But, in the last couple of years, new insights in understanding the fundamental phenomena of molecular interaction on magnetic surfaces, forming a hybrid interface, are presenting a new pathway for developing the subfield of interface-assisted molecular spintronics. The recent exploration of such hybrid interfaces involving carbon based aromatic molecules shows a significant excitement and promise over the previously studied single molecular magnets. In the above new scenario, hybridization of the molecular orbitals with the spin-polarized bands of the surface creates new interface states with unique electronic and magnetic character. This study opens up a molecular-genome initiative in designing new handles to functionalize the spin dependent electronic properties of the hybrid interface to construct spin-functional tailor-made devices. Through this article, we review this subject by presenting a fundamental understanding of the interface spin-chemistry and spin-physics by taking support of advanced computational and spectroscopy tools to investigate molecular spin responses with demonstration of new interface phenomena. Spin-polarized scanning tunneling spectroscopy is favorably considered to be an important tool to investigate these hybrid interfaces with intra-molecular spatial resolution. Finally, by addressing some of the recent findings, we propose novel device schemes towards building interface tailored molecular spintronic devices for applications in sensor, memory, and quantum computing.

  4. Interface effects on nanoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, Brad Richard

    2009-12-01

    Nanoelectronics consist of devices with active electronic components on the nanometer length scale. At such dimensions most, if not all, atoms or molecules composing the active device region must be on or near a surface. Also, materials effectively confined to two dimensions, or when subject to abrupt boundary conditions, generally do not behave the same as materials inside three dimensional, continuous structures. This dissertation is a quantitative determination of how surfaces and interfaces in organic nanoelectronic devices affect properties such as charge transport, electronic structure, and material fluctuations. Si/SiO2 is a model gate/gate dielectric for organic thin film transistors, therefore proper characterization and measurement of the effects of the SiO2/organic interface on device structures is extremely important. I fabricated pentacene thin film transistors on Si/SiO2 and varied the conduction channel thickness from effectively bulk (˜40nm) to 2 continuous conducting layers to examine the effect of substrate on noise generation. The electronic spectral noise was measured and the generator of the noise was determined to be due to the random spatial dependence of grain boundaries, independent of proximity to the gate oxide. This result led me to investigate the mechanisms of pentacene grain formation, including the role of small quantities of impurities, on silicon dioxide substrates. Through a series of nucleation, growth and morphology studies, I determined that impurities assist in nucleation on SiO2, decreasing the stable nucleus size by a third and increasing the overall number of grains. The pentacene growth and morphology studies prompted further exploration of pentacene crystal growth on SiO2. I developed a method of making atomically clean ultra-thin oxide films, with surface chemistry and growth properties similar to the standard thick oxides. These ultra-thin oxides were measured to be as smooth as cleaned silicon and then used as

  5. Impingement of buoyancy-driven flows at a stratified interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotel, Aline J.; Kudo, Yuriko

    2008-07-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and particle-image velocimetry (PIV) are used to study both thermals and plumes impinging on a stratified interface. Data are obtained for a central slice of the flow near the stratified interface. Both the thermal and plume are generated by releasing fresh water at the bottom of a tank filled with two layers of salt water of different densities. Thermals and plumes are studied at Reynolds numbers ranging from 3,000 to 8,000, above the value for the mixing transition, a Schmidt number of about 600, and Richardson numbers from 1 to 22. The Richardson and Reynolds numbers are based on the thermal or plume characteristics (size and vertical velocity) before impingement and the initial density difference across the interface. Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) is used to determine the maximum penetration height, rebound distance and lateral spreading velocity. The vorticity results obtained from the PIV data reveal the vortical structure near impingement. When the thermal impinges upon the stratified interface, a baroclinic eddy generated at the interface appears to merge with eddies comprising the thermal itself to form a vortex ring. This ring remains near the interface, moving mainly along the lateral or horizontal direction away from the region of impingement. These results suggest that lateral transport is significant for thermals impinging on stratified interfaces, and that ignoring such transport may greatly underestimate overall transport and mixing in such flows.

  6. Climate Users Interface Platform: some preliminary ideas from EUPORIAS experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buontempo, Carlo; Dell'Aquila, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    One of the most important and yet least developed component of the GFCS is probably the Climate Users Interface Platform (CUIP). At front of its centrality in the framework, the development of this component has suffered from the existence of a series of pre-conceived ideas of what a users interface should look like. The FP7 project EUPORIAS promised in its description of work to develop and deliver an online users interface platform. This paper summarises the process EUPORIAS has been through to define and deliver the CUIP. The paper also highlighted what are the characteristics that a CUIP must have to ensure its ability to engage the users. Finally the paper identifies a number of errors that are often committed when thinking about user interface and try to identifies a set of key principles that should be considered when developing the CUIP.

  7. Self-assembly of nanomaterials at fluid interfaces.

    PubMed

    Toor, Anju; Feng, Tao; Russell, Thomas P

    2016-05-01

    Recent developments in the field of the self-assembly of nanoscale materials such as nanoparticles, nanorods and nanosheets at liquid/liquid interfaces are reviewed. Self-assembly behavior of both biological and synthetic particles is discussed. For biological nanoparticles, the nanoparticle assembly at fluid interfaces provides a simple route for directing nanoparticles into 2D or 3D constructs with hierarchical ordering. The interfacial assembly of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) at liquid interfaces would play a key role in applications such as nanotube fractionation, flexible electronic thin-film fabrication and synthesis of porous SWCNT/polymer composites foams. Liquids can be structured by the jamming of nanoparticle surfactants at fluid interfaces. By controlling the interfacial packing of nanoparticle surfactants using external triggers, a new class of materials can be generated that combines the desirable characteristics of fluids such as rapid transport of energy carriers with the structural stability of a solid. PMID:27233643

  8. Intelligent Support for Interface Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teskey, F. N.

    This paper describes how a language for building information systems that is being developed by the Office for Research at OCLC can be linked to an artificial intelligence environment, Poplog. The demonstration system--ISIS (Intelligent Support for Interface systems)--shows how Poplog could provide some intelligent support for a D interface,…

  9. XTOD - XES Interface Control Document

    SciTech Connect

    Trent, J

    2005-09-07

    This document describes the interface between the LCLS XTOD System (WBS No.1.5) and the LCLS XES (WBS No.1.6). The interface locations ranging from the beam dump to the far experimental hall are identified. Subsystems that connect at or cross the boundary are identified.

  10. Haptic interfaces: Hardware, software and human performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, Mandayam A.

    1995-01-01

    Virtual environments are computer-generated synthetic environments with which a human user can interact to perform a wide variety of perceptual and motor tasks. At present, most of the virtual environment systems engage only the visual and auditory senses, and not the haptic sensorimotor system that conveys the sense of touch and feel of objects in the environment. Computer keyboards, mice, and trackballs constitute relatively simple haptic interfaces. Gloves and exoskeletons that track hand postures have more interaction capabilities and are available in the market. Although desktop and wearable force-reflecting devices have been built and implemented in research laboratories, the current capabilities of such devices are quite limited. To realize the full promise of virtual environments and teleoperation of remote systems, further developments of haptic interfaces are critical. In this paper, the status and research needs in human haptics, technology development and interactions between the two are described. In particular, the excellent performance characteristics of Phantom, a haptic interface recently developed at MIT, are highlighted. Realistic sensations of single point of contact interactions with objects of variable geometry (e.g., smooth, textured, polyhedral) and material properties (e.g., friction, impedance) in the context of a variety of tasks (e.g., needle biopsy, switch panels) achieved through this device are described and the associated issues in haptic rendering are discussed.

  11. Development of a Double-Effect Air-Conditioner Heater (DEACH). Phase 3 and final report, January 1990-December 1991. Phase 3, September 1987-December 1991. Overall project

    SciTech Connect

    De Vuono, A.C.; Hanna, W.T.; Osborne, R.L.; Ball, D.A.

    1992-04-01

    The report describes development efforts on a Double-Effect Air-Conditioner Heater (DEACH). Based on a double-effect LiBr/H2O absorption cycle, the DEACH was focused on residential applications with the primary objective being a low first-cost efficient gas-fired cooling system. The concept included compact integrated heat exchangers, direct heat rejection to outdoor air (no cooling tower), and ability to self-decrystallize. The performance goals of the system were essentially demonstrated in a full-scale (3 refrigeration ton), fully integrated breadboard. However, the projected manufacturing cost was somewhat above the original target and even further above that deemed competitive at the end of the project. Therefore, technical development was stopped in late 1991.

  12. Power User Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfister, Robin; McMahon, Joe

    2006-01-01

    Power User Interface 5.0 (PUI) is a system of middleware, written for expert users in the Earth-science community, PUI enables expedited ordering of data granules on the basis of specific granule-identifying information that the users already know or can assemble. PUI also enables expert users to perform quick searches for orderablegranule information for use in preparing orders. PUI 5.0 is available in two versions (note: PUI 6.0 has command-line mode only): a Web-based application program and a UNIX command-line- mode client program. Both versions include modules that perform data-granule-ordering functions in conjunction with external systems. The Web-based version works with Earth Observing System Clearing House (ECHO) metadata catalog and order-entry services and with an open-source order-service broker server component, called the Mercury Shopping Cart, that is provided separately by Oak Ridge National Laboratory through the Department of Energy. The command-line version works with the ECHO metadata and order-entry process service. Both versions of PUI ultimately use ECHO to process an order to be sent to a data provider. Ordered data are provided through means outside the PUI software system.

  13. Next Generation Search Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roby, W.; Wu, X.; Ly, L.; Goldina, T.

    2015-09-01

    Astronomers are constantly looking for easier ways to access multiple data sets. While much effort is spent on VO, little thought is given to the types of User Interfaces we need to effectively search this sort of data. For instance, an astronomer might need to search Spitzer, WISE, and 2MASS catalogs and images then see the results presented together in one UI. Moving seamlessly between data sets is key to presenting integrated results. Results need to be viewed using first class, web based, integrated FITS viewers, XY Plots, and advanced table display tools. These components should be able to handle very large datasets. To make a powerful Web based UI that can manage and present multiple searches to the user requires taking advantage of many HTML5 features. AJAX is used to start searches and present results. Push notifications (Server Sent Events) monitor background jobs. Canvas is required for advanced result displays. Lesser known CSS3 technologies makes it all flow seamlessly together. At IPAC, we have been developing our Firefly toolkit for several years. We are now using it to solve this multiple data set, multiple queries, and integrated presentation problem to create a powerful research experience. Firefly was created in IRSA, the NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive (http://irsa.ipac.caltech.edu). Firefly is the core for applications serving many project archives, including Spitzer, Planck, WISE, PTF, LSST and others. It is also used in IRSA's new Finder Chart and catalog and image displays.

  14. User interface enhancement report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badler, N. I.; Gangel, J.; Shields, G.; Fala, G.

    1985-01-01

    The existing user interfaces to TEMPUS, Plaid, and other systems in the OSDS are fundamentally based on only two modes of communication: alphanumeric commands or data input and grapical interaction. The latter are especially suited to the types of interaction necessary for creating workstation objects with BUILD and with performing body positioning in TEMPUS. Looking toward the future application of TEMPUS, however, the long-term goals of OSDS will include the analysis of extensive tasks in space involving one or more individuals working in concert over a period of time. In this context, the TEMPUS body positioning capability, though extremely useful in creating and validating a small number of particular body positions, will become somewhat tedious to use. The macro facility helps somewhat, since frequently used positions may be easily applied by executing a stored macro. The difference between body positioning and task execution, though subtle, is important. In the case of task execution, the important information at the user's level is what actions are to be performed rather than how the actions are performed. Viewed slightly differently, the what is constant over a set of individuals though the how may vary.

  15. Online Remote Sensing Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawhead, Joel

    2007-01-01

    BasinTools Module 1 processes remotely sensed raster data, including multi- and hyper-spectral data products, via a Web site with no downloads and no plug-ins required. The interface provides standardized algorithms designed so that a user with little or no remote-sensing experience can use the site. This Web-based approach reduces the amount of software, hardware, and computing power necessary to perform the specified analyses. Access to imagery and derived products is enterprise-level and controlled. Because the user never takes possession of the imagery, the licensing of the data is greatly simplified. BasinTools takes the "just-in-time" inventory control model from commercial manufacturing and applies it to remotely-sensed data. Products are created and delivered on-the-fly with no human intervention, even for casual users. Well-defined procedures can be combined in different ways to extend verified and validated methods in order to derive new remote-sensing products, which improves efficiency in any well-defined geospatial domain. Remote-sensing products produced in BasinTools are self-documenting, allowing procedures to be independently verified or peer-reviewed. The software can be used enterprise-wide to conduct low-level remote sensing, viewing, sharing, and manipulating of image data without the need for desktop applications.

  16. Aquatic Acoustic Metrics Interface

    SciTech Connect

    2012-12-18

    Fishes and marine mammals may suffer a range of potential effects from exposure to intense underwater sound generated by anthropogenic activities such as pile driving, shipping, sonars, and underwater blasting. Several underwater sound recording (USR) devices have been built to acquire samples of the underwater sound generated by anthropogenic activities. Software becomes indispensable for processing and analyzing the audio files recorded by these USRs. The new Aquatic Acoustic Metrics Interface Utility Software (AAMI) is specifically designed for analysis of underwater sound recordings to provide data in metrics that facilitate evaluation of the potential impacts of the sound on aquatic animals. In addition to the basic functions, such as loading and editing audio files recorded by USRs and batch processing of sound files, the software utilizes recording system calibration data to compute important parameters in physical units. The software also facilitates comparison of the noise sound sample metrics with biological measures such as audiograms of the sensitivity of aquatic animals to the sound, integrating various components into a single analytical frame.

  17. Aquatic Acoustic Metrics Interface

    2012-12-18

    Fishes and marine mammals may suffer a range of potential effects from exposure to intense underwater sound generated by anthropogenic activities such as pile driving, shipping, sonars, and underwater blasting. Several underwater sound recording (USR) devices have been built to acquire samples of the underwater sound generated by anthropogenic activities. Software becomes indispensable for processing and analyzing the audio files recorded by these USRs. The new Aquatic Acoustic Metrics Interface Utility Software (AAMI) is specificallymore » designed for analysis of underwater sound recordings to provide data in metrics that facilitate evaluation of the potential impacts of the sound on aquatic animals. In addition to the basic functions, such as loading and editing audio files recorded by USRs and batch processing of sound files, the software utilizes recording system calibration data to compute important parameters in physical units. The software also facilitates comparison of the noise sound sample metrics with biological measures such as audiograms of the sensitivity of aquatic animals to the sound, integrating various components into a single analytical frame.« less

  18. A user-system interface agent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wakim, Nagi T.; Srivastava, Sadanand; Bousaidi, Mehdi; Goh, Gin-Hua

    1995-01-01

    Agent-based technologies answer to several challenges posed by additional information processing requirements in today's computing environments. In particular, (1) users desire interaction with computing devices in a mode which is similar to that used between people, (2) the efficiency and successful completion of information processing tasks often require a high-level of expertise in complex and multiple domains, (3) information processing tasks often require handling of large volumes of data and, therefore, continuous and endless processing activities. The concept of an agent is an attempt to address these new challenges by introducing information processing environments in which (1) users can communicate with a system in a natural way, (2) an agent is a specialist and a self-learner and, therefore, it qualifies to be trusted to perform tasks independent of the human user, and (3) an agent is an entity that is continuously active performing tasks that are either delegated to it or self-imposed. The work described in this paper focuses on the development of an interface agent for users of a complex information processing environment (IPE). This activity is part of an on-going effort to build a model for developing agent-based information systems. Such systems will be highly applicable to environments which require a high degree of automation, such as, flight control operations and/or processing of large volumes of data in complex domains, such as the EOSDIS environment and other multidisciplinary, scientific data systems. The concept of an agent as an information processing entity is fully described with emphasis on characteristics of special interest to the User-System Interface Agent (USIA). Issues such as agent 'existence' and 'qualification' are discussed in this paper. Based on a definition of an agent and its main characteristics, we propose an architecture for the development of interface agents for users of an IPE that is agent-oriented and whose resources

  19. Computerized Investigations of Battery Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinrichsen, P. F.

    2001-01-01

    Uses a computer interface to measure terminal voltage versus current characteristic of a variety of batteries, their series and parallel combinations, and the variation with discharge. The concept of an internal resistance demonstrates that current flows through the battery determine the efficiency and serve to introduce Thevenin's theorem.…

  20. Polymer Chain Dynamics at Interfaces: Role of Boundary Conditions at Solid Interface

    SciTech Connect

    Tapan G. Desai; Pawel Keblinski; Sanat K. Kumar

    2008-01-01

    Using classical molecular dynamics simulations, we study dynamical properties of a single polymer chain dissolved in an explicit solvent and strongly adsorbed at solid-liquid interface. To circumvent a serious challenge posed by finite size effects due to long-range hydrodynamic effects, we developed a correction procedure that substantially limits the finite size effects. Concurrently, we provide an analysis of distinctly different size effects in the directions, transverse and normal to the interface. We find that on analytically smooth interfaces, corresponding to the slip boundary condition, the motions of the polymer chain and the surrounding solvent are hydrodynamically coupled. This leads to the chain diffusion coefficient, D, scaling with the chain degree of polymerization, N, as D ~ N–3/4, consistent with the Zimm dynamics for strongly adsorbed chains. Introduction of transverse forces at the interface results in loss of correlation between the motion of the polymer chain and the solvent. Consequently, D ~ N–1, which is a characteristic of the Rouse dynamics.

  1. A Python interface with Narcisse graphics

    SciTech Connect

    Motteler, Z.C.

    1996-04-15

    Narcisse is a graphics package developed by our French colleagues at Centre d`Etudes de Limeil Valenton of the Commissariat d`Energie Atomique. Narcisse is quite comprehensive; it can do two-, three-, and four-dimensional plots (the latter meaning that the surface is colored according to the values of an arbitrary function). One can open and send plots to a Narcisse window on a distant machine. Narcisse has a user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI) which, once a graph has appeared, allows the user to change its characteristics interactively. This enables one to find the best appearance for a particular plot without having to graph it repeatedly from the user program. Previously created files in various formats can also be imported directly into the Narcisse GUI and manipulated from there. Narcisse runs independently, as a graphics server. The user program communicates with Narcisse via Unix sockets. This communication is quite low level and very complex. The appearance of a plot is controlled by nearly 150 parameters for determining such things as the color palette, type of shading, axis scales, curve and surface labels, titles, angle and distance of view (for three- and four-dimensional graphs), hidden line removal, etc. Most end users do not wish to spend time learning the tedious details of such interfaces; they would just like to specify data and ask to have it plotted. This paper describes a high level, easy to use graphics interface which hides (as much as possible) the low level details of whatever graphics system is actually being used, so that the low level can be essentially ``plug-and-play.`` Then, whenever a better system becomes available, it should only be necessary to change low level interface routines not normally accessed by ordinary users. Python, with its easy extendability, was ideally suited for this job.

  2. Laboratory Connections: Review of Two Commercial Interfacing Packages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Michael H.

    1989-01-01

    Evaluates two Apple II interfacing packages designed to measure pH: (1) "Experiments in Chemistry" by HRM Software and (2) "Voltage Plotter III" by Vernier Software. Provides characteristics and screen dumps of each package. Reports both systems are suitable for high school or beginning college laboratories. (MVL)

  3. Multimodal Neuroelectric Interface Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trejo, Leonard J.; Wheeler, Kevin R.; Jorgensen, Charles C.; Totah, Joseph (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This project aims to improve performance of NASA missions by developing multimodal neuroelectric technologies for augmented human-system interaction. Neuroelectric technologies will add completely new modes of interaction that operate in parallel with keyboards, speech, or other manual controls, thereby increasing the bandwidth of human-system interaction. We recently demonstrated the feasibility of real-time electromyographic (EMG) pattern recognition for a direct neuroelectric human-computer interface. We recorded EMG signals from an elastic sleeve with dry electrodes, while a human subject performed a range of discrete gestures. A machine-teaming algorithm was trained to recognize the EMG patterns associated with the gestures and map them to control signals. Successful applications now include piloting two Class 4 aircraft simulations (F-15 and 757) and entering data with a "virtual" numeric keyboard. Current research focuses on on-line adaptation of EMG sensing and processing and recognition of continuous gestures. We are also extending this on-line pattern recognition methodology to electroencephalographic (EEG) signals. This will allow us to bypass muscle activity and draw control signals directly from the human brain. Our system can reliably detect P-rhythm (a periodic EEG signal from motor cortex in the 10 Hz range) with a lightweight headset containing saline-soaked sponge electrodes. The data show that EEG p-rhythm can be modulated by real and imaginary motions. Current research focuses on using biofeedback to train of human subjects to modulate EEG rhythms on demand, and to examine interactions of EEG-based control with EMG-based and manual control. Viewgraphs on these neuroelectric technologies are also included.

  4. Interface cracks in piezoelectric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govorukha, V.; Kamlah, M.; Loboda, V.; Lapusta, Y.

    2016-02-01

    Due to their intrinsic electromechanical coupling behavior, piezoelectric materials are widely used in sensors, actuators and other modern technologies. It is well known that piezoelectric ceramics are very brittle and susceptible to fracture. In many cases, fracture occurs at interfaces as debonding and cracks. This leads to an undesired degradation of electrical and mechanical performance. Because of the practical and fundamental importance of the problem, interface cracks in piezoelectric materials have been actively studied in the last few decades. This review provides a comprehensive survey of recent works on cracks situated at the interface of two materials, at least one of which has piezoelectric or piezoelectromagnetic properties. Different electric boundary conditions along the crack faces are discussed. The oscillating and contact zone models for in-plane straight interface cracks between two dissimilar piezoelectric materials or between piezoelectric and non-piezoelectric ones are reviewed. Different peculiarities related to the investigation of interface cracks in piezoelectric materials for the anti-plane case, for functionally graded and thermopiezoelectric materials are presented. Papers related to magnetoelectroelastic bimaterials, to steady state motion of interface cracks in piezoelectric bimaterials and to circular arc-cracks at the interface of piezoelectric materials are reviewed, and various methods used to address these problems are discussed. The review concludes with an outlook on future research directions.

  5. Nanoparticle Assemblies at Fluid Interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, Thomas P.

    2015-03-10

    A systematic study of the structure and dynamics of nanoparticles (NP) and NP-surfactants was performed. The ligands attached to both the NPs and NP-surfactants dictate the manner in which the nanoscopic materials assemble at fluid interfaces. Studies have shown that a single layer of the nanoscpic materials form at the interface to reduce the interactions between the two immiscible fluids. The shape of the NP is, also, important, where for spherical particles, a disordered, liquid-like monolayer forms, and, for nanorods, ordered domains at the interface is found and, if the monolayers are compressed, the orientation of the nanorods with respect to the interface can change. By associating end-functionalized polymers to the NPs assembled at the interface, NP-surfactants are formed that increase the energetic gain in segregating each NP at the interface which allows the NP-surfactants to jam at the interface when compressed. This has opened the possibility of structuring the two liquids by freezing in shape changes of the liquids.

  6. Polymers at Surfaces and Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsige, Mesfin

    2015-03-01

    Interfaces between solids, liquids, and gases play an important role in a wide range of practical applications and have been a subject of scientific interest since Poisson showed in 1831 that the order parameter of liquids near interfaces must deviate considerably from its bulk value. In particular, polymers at surfaces and interfaces have been a subject of extensive theoretical, experimental and computational studies for a long time due to their use in many diverse applications ranging from antifouling coatings to flexible electronic devices. Understanding the structure and thermodynamic properties of polymers at surfaces and interfaces is thus an area of fundamental and current technological interest. Although encouraging experimental progress has been made over the years in understanding the molecular structure of polymers in contact with various environments, selectively probing their structure and dynamics at surfaces and interfaces has been extremely difficult. Computer simulations, especially molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, have proven over the years to be an invaluable tool in providing molecular details at interfaces that are usually lacking in the experimental data. In this talk, I'll give an overview of some previous simulation efforts to understand the structure and dynamics of polymers at surfaces and buried interfaces. I will conclude by presenting our current and ongoing work on combining ab initio calculations and MD simulations with Sum Frequency Generation (SFG) Spectroscopy to study polymer surfaces. This approach demonstrates the future role of MD in surface science. Work supported by NSF (DMR0847580 and DMR1410290) and Petroleum Research Fund of the American Chemical Society.

  7. Intelligent virtual interfaces for telerobotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinstein, Georges G.; Maybury, Mark T.; Mitchell, Richard B.

    1992-11-01

    One promise of telerobotics is the ability to interact in environments that are distant (e.g., deep sea or deep space), dangerous (e.g., nuclear, chemical, or biological environments), or inaccessible by humans for political or legal reasons. A key component to such interactions are sophisticated human-computer interfaces that can replicate sufficient information about a local environment to permit remote navigation and manipulation. This environment replication can, in part, be provided by technologies such as virtual reality. In addition, however, telerobotic interfaces may need to enhance human-machine interaction to assist users in task performance, for example, governing motion or manipulation controls to avoid obstacles or to restrict interaction with certain objects (e.g., avoiding contact with a live mine or a deep sea treasure). Thus, effective interactions within remote environments require intelligent virtual interfaces to telerobotic devices. In part to address this problem, MITRE is investigating virtual reality architectures that will enable enhanced interaction within virtual environments. Key components to intelligent virtual interfaces include spoken language processing, gesture recognition algorithms, and more generally, task recognition. In addition, these interfaces will eventually have to take into account properties of the user, the task, and discourse context to be more adaptive to the current situation at hand. While our work has not yet investigated the connection of virtual interfaces to external robotic devices, we have begun developing the key components for intelligent virtual interfaces for information and training systems.

  8. Dynamics of interfaces in superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Dorsey, A.T. )

    1994-08-01

    The dynamics of an interface between the normal and superconducting phases under nonstationary external conditions is studied within the framework of the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equations of superconductivity, modified to include thermal fluctuations. An equation of motion for the interface is derived in two steps. First, the method of matched asymptotic expansions is used to derive a diffusion equation for the magnetic field in the normal phase, with nonlinear boundary conditions at the interface. These boundary conditions are a continuity equation which relates the gradient of the field at the interface to the normal velocity of the interface and a modified Gibbs-Thomson boundary condition for the field at the interface. Second, the boundary integral method is used to integrate out the magnetic field in favor of an equation of motion for the interface. This equation of motion, which is highly nonlinear and nonlocal, exhibits a diffusive instability (the Mullins-Sekerka instability) when the superconducting phase expands into the normal phase (i.e., when the external field is reduced below the critical field). In the limit of infinite diffusion constant the equation of motion becomes local in time and can be derived variationally from a static energy functional which includes the bulk-free energy difference between the two phases, the interfacial energy, and a long range self-interaction of the interface of the Biot-Savart form. In this limit the dynamics is identical to the interfacial dynamics of ferrofluid domains recently proposed by S.A. Langer et al. As shown by these authors, the Biot-Savart interaction leads to mechanical instabilities of the interface, resulting in highly branched labyrinthine patterns. The application of these ideas to the study of labyrinthine patterns in the intermediate state of type-I superconductors is briefly discussed. 29 refs.

  9. Automated Fluid Interface System (AFIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Automated remote fluid servicing will be necessary for future space missions, as future satellites will be designed for on-orbit consumable replenishment. In order to develop an on-orbit remote servicing capability, a standard interface between a tanker and the receiving satellite is needed. The objective of the Automated Fluid Interface System (AFIS) program is to design, fabricate, and functionally demonstrate compliance with all design requirements for an automated fluid interface system. A description and documentation of the Fairchild AFIS design is provided.

  10. Nano-size Effect of Interface Energy and Its Effect on Interface Fracture

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, L. H.; You, X. M.; Ma, H. S.; Wei, Y. G.

    2010-05-21

    An analytical model about size-dependent interface energy of metal/ceramic interfaces in nanoscale is developed by introducing both the chemical energy and the structure stain energy contributions. The dependence of interface energy on the interface thickness is determined by the melting enthalpy, the molar volume, and the shear modulus of two materials composing the interfaces, etc. The analytic prediction of the interface energy and the atomic scale simulation of the interface fracture strength are compared with each other for Ag/MgO and Ni/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interfaces, the fracture strength of the interface with the lower chemical interface energy is found to be larger. The potential of Ag/MgO interface related to the interface energy is calculated, and the interface stress and the interface fracture strength are estimated further. The effect of the interface energy on the interface strength and the behind mechanism are discussed.

  11. The evaluation and extension of TAE in the development of a user interface management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkhart, Brenda; Sugar, Ross

    1986-01-01

    The development of a user interface management system (UIMS) for an information gathering and display system is discussed. The system interface requirements are outlined along with the UIMS functional characteristics. Those systems requirements which are supported by the current Transportable Applications Executive (TAE) are listed and necessary modifications to the TAE are described.

  12. SKITTER/implement mechanical interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cash, John Wilson, III; Cone, Alan E.; Garolera, Frank J.; German, David; Lindabury, David Peter; Luckado, Marshall Cleveland; Murphey, Craig; Rowell, John Bryan; Wilkinson, Brad

    1988-01-01

    SKITTER (Spacial Kinematic Inertial Translatory Tripod Extremity Robot) is a three-legged transport vehicle designed to perform under the unique environment of the moon. The objective of this project was to design a mechanical interface for SKITTER. This mechanical latching interface will allow SKITTER to use a series of implements such as drills, cranes, etc., and perform different tasks on the moon. The design emphasized versatility and detachability; that is, the interface design is the same for all implements, and connection and detachment is simple. After consideration of many alternatives, a system of three identical latches at each of the three interface points was chosen. The latching mechanism satisfies the design constraints because it facilitates connection and detachment. Also, the moving parts are protected from the dusty environment by housing plates.

  13. Colloids at NAPL-Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, Thomas; Metz, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Non-aqueous phase liquids in subsurface are relevant in the scope of contaminated sites as well as for enhanced oil recovery. In both cases colloids and engineered nanoparticles are applied to increase the efficiency of NAPL removal. Particle tracking experiments using fluoresecent latex beads and opaque particles have been run in micromodels mimicking the pore structure of subsurface media. The results show that the interface between NAPL and water is highly dynamic, especially in its early stage. There is a distinct circular flow pattern at the interface, effectively increasing the interfacial area. Concentration gradients measured with Raman Microspectrometry at low Peclet numbers suggest that the mass transfer of dissolved contaminants from the NAPL into the water is highly affected by the interface dynamics. On the other hand the interfaces themselves are less accessible, which has implications for the remediation of contaminated sites.

  14. Brain-Computer Interface Workshop

    NASA Video Gallery

    At a g.tec-sponsored Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) workshop at the National Institute of Aerospace in Hampton, Va., volunteers were able to spell out words on a computer screen using using a g.tec...

  15. COSMIC/NASTRAN-PATRAN Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Libby, D. H.

    1985-01-01

    A three dimensional solid modeling and finite element pre and postprocessing program, PATRAN, uses the latest interactive computer graphics technology, provides a visual means to define a finite element model and its environment, and reviews its resultant model behavior. The capabilities provided by the PATRAN-COSMIC/NASTRAN interface are discussed. While the translator capabilities give some indication of the interface quality between the two programs, there are other attributes to be considered. The ideal interface would be a user transparent union of the two programs so that the engineer could move from one program to the other fluently and naturally. Hence, a valid assessment of the interface completeness must consider how close the current capabilities are to the idealized case. An example problem is presented to demonstrate how COSMIC/NASTRAN and PATRAN can be used together to meet the requirements of an actual engineering application.

  16. Interfacing Microcomputers with Laboratory Instruments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Joseph W.

    1983-01-01

    Describes development of microcomputer-controlled gamma scintillation spectrometer and chromatographic data analyzer, including design and construction of interface electronics and production of software. Includes diagrams of electric circuits and project evaluation indicating that both instruments functioned as intended. (JN)

  17. Getting a Grip on Interfacing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assetto, Antonio R.; Dowden, Edward

    1988-01-01

    Introduces the unique interfacing equipment for measuring muscle strength over time. Explains the materials, setup method, operation, and typical display. Suggests other activities with which to utilize this device. (YP)

  18. Sandia ATM SONET Interface Logic

    1994-07-21

    SASIL is used to program the EPLD's (Erasable Programmable Logic Devices) and PAL's (Programmable Array Logic) that make up a large percentage of the Sandia ATM SONET Interface (OC3 version) for the INTEL Paragon.

  19. Human perceptual deficits as factors in computer interface test and evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Bowser, S.E.

    1992-06-01

    Issues related to testing and evaluating human computer interfaces are usually based on the machine rather than on the human portion of the computer interface. Perceptual characteristics of the expected user are rarely investigated, and interface designers ignore known population perceptual limitations. For these reasons, environmental impacts on the equipment will more likely be defined than will user perceptual characteristics. The investigation of user population characteristics is most often directed toward intellectual abilities and anthropometry. This problem is compounded by the fact that some deficits capabilities tend to be found in higher-than-overall population distribution in some user groups. The test and evaluation community can address the issue from two primary aspects. First, assessing user characteristics should be extended to include tests of perceptual capability. Secondly, interface designs should use multimode information coding.

  20. Interfacing with an EVA Suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Amy

    2011-01-01

    A NASA spacesuit under the EVA Technology Domain consists of a suit system; a PLSS; and a Power, Avionics, and Software (PAS) system. Ross described the basic functions, components, and interfaces of the PLSS, which consists of oxygen, ventilation, and thermal control subsystems; electronics; and interfaces. Design challenges were reviewed from a packaging perspective. Ross also discussed the development of the PLSS over the last two decades.