Science.gov

Sample records for conditioning system annex

  1. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Clean Air Act notice of construction for spent nuclear fuel project - hot conditioning system annex, project W-484

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, S.K., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-12-10

    This notice of construction (NOC) provides information regarding the source and the estimated quantity of potential airborne radionuclide emissions resulting from the operation of the Hot Conditioning System (HCS) Annex. The construction of the HCS Annex is scheduled to conunence on or about December 1996, and will be completed when the process equipment begins operations. This document serves as a NOC pursuant to the requirements of 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61 for the HCS Annex. About 80 percent of the U.S. Department of Energy`s spent nuclear fuel (SNF) inventory is stored under water in the Hanford Site K Basins. Spent nuclear fuel in the K West Basin is contained in closed canisters, while the SNF in the K East Basin is contained in open canisters, which allows release of corrosion products to the K East Basin water. Storage of the current inventory in the K Basins was originally intended to be on an as-needed basis to sustain operation of the N Reactor while the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant was refurbished and restarted. The decision in December 1992 to deactivate the PUREX Plant left approximately 2, 1 00 MT (2,300 tons) of uranium, as part of 1133 N Reactor SNF in the K Basins with no means for near-term removal and processing. The HCS Annex will be constructed as an annex to the Canister Storage Building (CSB) and will contain the hot conditioning equipment. The hot conditioning system (HCS) will release chemically-bound water and will condition (process of using a controlled amount of oxygen to destroy uranium hydride) the exposed uranium surfaces associated with the SNF through oxidation. The HCS Annex will house seven hot conditioning process stations, six operational and one auxiliary, which could be used as a welding area for final closure of the vessel containing the SNF. The auxiliary pit is being evaluated at this time for its usefulness to support other operations that may be needed to ensure proper conditioning of the SNF

  2. State of Washington Department of Health radioactive air emission notice of construction phase 1 for spent nuclear fuel project - hot conditioning system annex, project W-484

    SciTech Connect

    Turnbaugh, J.E.

    1996-08-15

    This notice of construction (NOC) provides information regarding the source and the estimated annual possession quantity resulting from the operation of the Hot Conditioning System Annex (HCSA). This information will be discussed again in the Phase II NOC, providing additional details on emissions generated by the operation of the HCSA. This Phase I NOC is defined as construct in the substructure, including but limited to, pouring the concrete for the floor; construction of the process pits and exterior walls; making necessary interface connections to the Canister Storage Building (CSB) ventilation and utility systems for personnel comfort; and extending the multi-canister over-pack (MCO) handling machine rails into the HCSA. A Phase II NOC will be submitted for approval prior to installation and is defined as the completion of the HCSA, which will consist of installation of Hot Conditioning System Equipment (HCSA), air emissions control equipment, and emission monitoring equipment. About 80 percent of the U.S. Department of Energy`s spent nuclear fuel (SNF) inventory is stored under water in the Hanford Site K Basins. Spent nuclear fuel in the K West Basin is contained in closed canisters, while the SNF in the K East Basin is contained in open canisters, which allow free release of corrosion products to the K East Basin water. Storage in the K Basins was originally intended to be on an as-needed basis to sustain operation of the N Reactor while the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant was refurbished and restarted. The decision in December 1992 to deactivate the PUREX Plant left approximately 2,300 MT (2,530 tons) of N Reactor SNF in the K Basins with no means for near-term removal and processing. The HCSA will be constructed as an addition to the CSB and will contain the HCSA. The hot conditioning system (HCS) will remove chemically-bound water and will passivate the exposed uranium surfaces associated,with the SNF. The HCSA will house seven hot

  3. IEA Annex 26: Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration/Heat Recovery Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, VAN

    2003-05-19

    With increased concern about the impact of refrigerant leakage on global warming, a number of new supermarket refrigeration system configurations requiring significantly less refrigerant charge are being considered. In order to help promote the development of advanced systems and expand the knowledge base for energy-efficient supermarket technology, the International Energy Agency (IEA) established IEA Annex 26 (Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration/Heat Recovery Systems) under the ''IEA Implementing Agreement on Heat Pumping Technologies''. Annex 26 focuses on demonstrating and documenting the energy saving and environmental benefits of advanced systems design for food refrigeration and space heating and cooling for supermarkets. Advanced in this context means systems that use less energy, require less refrigerant and produce lower refrigerant emissions. Stated another way, the goal is to identify supermarket refrigeration and HVAC technology options that reduce the total equivalent warming impact (TEWI) of supermarkets by reducing both system energy use (increasing efficiency) and reducing total refrigerant charge. The Annex has five participating countries: Canada, Denmark, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The working program of the Annex has involved analytical and experimental investigation of several candidate system design approaches to determine their potential to reduce refrigerant usage and energy consumption. Advanced refrigeration system types investigated include the following: distributed compressor systems--small parallel compressor racks are located in close proximity to the food display cases they serve thus significantly shortening the connecting refrigerant line lengths; secondary loop systems--one or more central chillers are used to refrigerate a secondary coolant (e.g. brine, ice slurry, or CO2) that is pumped to the food display cases on the sales floor; self-contained display cases--each food display case has its own

  4. Proceedings of the IEA implementing agreement on photovoltaic power systems. Annex 4 workshop

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    The International Energy Agency (IEA) Implementing Agreement on Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS), established in 1993, is a collaborative effort of sponsoring countries to reduce costs of technology applications, increase awareness of potential value, and foster market deployment of PV. Task 4, the Modeling of Distributed Photovoltaic Power Generation in Support of the Electric Grid, is one of six project work areas established under the Implementing Agreement. The work under Task 4 has been assigned to Annex 4. Although Task 4 was framed in 1993, no progress had been made in implementation as of mid-1995. The Annex 4 Workshop, described herein, was a focused effort by the participants to redefine the issuer in light of today`s knowledge, and to gain interest among potential collaborators and participants. The purpose of the workshop was to determine the current status of methods for evaluating the benefits of and planning for grid-connected PV systems and to establish a plan for further action according to the needs and priorities of participants.

  5. Annex II technical documentation assessed.

    PubMed

    van Drongelen, A W; Roszek, B; van Tienhoven, E A E; Geertsma, R E; Boumans, R T; Kraus, J J A M

    2005-12-01

    Annex II of the Medical Device Directive (MDD) is used frequently by manufacturers to obtain CE-marking. This procedure relies on a full quality assurance system and does not require an assessment of the individual medical device by a Notified Body. An investigation into the availability and the quality of technical documentation for Annex II devices revealed severe shortcomings, which are reported here. PMID:16419921

  6. Heat pump concepts for nZEB Technology developments, design tools and testing of heat pump systems for nZEB in the USA: Country report IEA HPT Annex 40 Task 2, Task 3 and Task 4 of the USA

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, Van D.; Payne, W. Vance; Ling, Jiazhen; Radermacher, Reinhard

    2015-12-01

    The IEA HPT Annex 40 "Heat pump concepts for Nearly Zero Energy Buildings" deals with the application of heat pumps as a core component of the HVAC system for Nearly or Net Zero energy buildings (nZEB). This report covers Task 2 on the system comparison and optimisation and Task 3 dedicated to the development of adapted technologies for nZEB and field monitoring results of heat pump systems in nZEB. In the US team three institutions are involved and have worked on the following projects: The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) will summarize development activities through the field demonstration stage for several integrated heat pump (IHP) systems electric ground-source (GS-IHP) and air-source (AS-IHP) versions and an engine driven AS-IHP version. The first commercial GS-IHP product was just introduced to the market in December 2012. This work is a contribution to Task 3 of the Annex. The University of Maryland will contribute a software development project to Task 2 of the Annex. The software ThermCom evaluates occupied space thermal comfort conditions accounting for all radiative and convective heat transfer effects as well as local air properties. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is working on a field study effort on the NIST Net Zero Energy Residential Test Facility (NZERTF). This residential building was constructed on the NIST campus and officially opened in summer 2013. During the first year, between July 2013 and June 2014, baseline performance of the NZERTF was monitored under a simulated occupancy protocol. The house was equipped with an air-to-air heat pump which included a dedicated dehumidification operating mode. Outdoor conditions, internal loads and modes of heat pump operation were monitored. Field study results with respect to heat pump operation will be reported and recommendations on heat pump optimization for a net zero energy building will be provided. This work is a contribution to Task 3 of the Annex.

  7. The 30/20 GHz fixed communications systems service demand assessment. Volume 3: Annex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamble, R. B.; Seltzer, H. R.; Speter, K. M.; Westheimer, M.

    1979-01-01

    A review of studies forecasting the communication market in the United States is given. The applicability of these forecasts to assessment of demand for the 30/20 GHz fixed communications system is analyzed. Costs for the 30/20 satellite trunking systems are presented and compared with the cost of terrestrial communications.

  8. Mergers, Annexations, Dissolutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    Consolidations come in all shapes and sizes, including mergers, annexations and dissolutions. They do not all take place under state mandate, however. A handful of districts consolidate every year in some states like Illinois that have large numbers of small districts, many of them dual districts that serve K-8 or 9-12 in the same geographic area.…

  9. Land mobile satellite communication system. Volume 3: Annexes to volume 2: Particular aspects of market analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnebianca, C.; Pavesi, B.; Tuozzi, A.; Capone, R.

    1986-06-01

    The socioeconomic desirability in terms of market demand, technical economic feasibility, and price-performance for a Land Mobile Communication system ground based and/or satellite aided, able to satisfy the request of the traffic demand, foreseeable in the 1995 to 2005 time frame, for the Western European countries was assessed. The criterion of economic value of the mobile system is considered as the driving element. Data on traffic; socioeconomic factors; economic factors; and radiotelephony, paging, and dispatch subscription and value for money trends are presented.

  10. Hot conditioning equipment conceptual design report

    SciTech Connect

    Bradshaw, F.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-06

    This report documents the conceptual design of the Hot Conditioning System Equipment. The Hot conditioning System will consist of two separate designs: the Hot Conditioning System Equipment; and the Hot Conditioning System Annex. The Hot Conditioning System Equipment Design includes the equipment such as ovens, vacuum pumps, inert gas delivery systems, etc.necessary to condition spent nuclear fuel currently in storage in the K Basins of the Hanford Site. The Hot Conditioning System Annex consists of the facility of house the Hot Conditioning System. The Hot Conditioning System will be housed in an annex to the Canister Storage Building. The Hot Conditioning System will consist of pits in the floor which contain ovens in which the spent nuclear will be conditioned prior to interim storage.

  11. 1. Occident Terminal Elevator and annex, (l)1930/workhouse and annex 1925 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Occident Terminal Elevator and annex, (l)-1930/workhouse and annex 1925 with train shed Peavey Duluth Terminal Annex on left 1930-workhouse 1908 (white silos). - Occident Terminal Elevator & Storage Annex, South side of second slip, north from outer end of Rice's Point, east of Garfield Avenue, Duluth, St. Louis County, MN

  12. Tethys and Annex IV Progress Report for FY 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Hanna, Luke A.; Butner, R. Scott; Whiting, Jonathan M.; Copping, Andrea E.

    2013-09-01

    The marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) environmental Impacts Knowledge Management System, dubbed “Tethys” after the mythical Greek titaness of the seas, is being developed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to support the U.S. Department of Energy’s Wind and Water Power Program (WWPP). Functioning as a smart database, Tethys enables its users to identify key words or terms to help gather, organize and make available information and data pertaining to the environmental effects of MHK and offshore wind (OSW) energy development. By providing and categorizing relevant publications within a simple and searchable database, Tethys acts as a dissemination channel for information and data which can be utilized by regulators, project developers and researchers to minimize the environmental risks associated with offshore renewable energy developments and attempt to streamline the permitting process. Tethys also houses a separate content-related Annex IV data base with identical functionality to the Tethys knowledge base. Annex IV is a collaborative project among member nations of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Ocean Energy Systems – Implementing Agreement (OES-IA) that examines the environmental effects of ocean energy devices and projects. The U.S. Department of Energy leads the Annex IV working with federal partners such as the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), and the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). While the Annex IV database contains technical reports and journal articles, it is primarily focused on the collection of project site and research study metadata forms (completed by MHK researchers and developers around the world, and collected by PNNL) which provide information on environmental studies and the current progress of the various international MHK developments in the Annex IV member nations. The purpose of this report is to provide a summary of the content

  13. Unmanned Aviation Systems Models of the Radio Communications Links: Study Results - Appendices Annex 2. Volume 1 and Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birr, Richard B.; Spencer, Roy; Murray, Jennifer; Lash, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This report describes the analysis of communications between the Control Station and an Unmanned Aircraft (UA) flying in the National Airspace System (NAS). This work is based on the RTCA SC-203 Operational Services and Environment Description (OSED). The OSED document seeks to characterize the highly different attributes of all UAs navigating the airspace and define their relationship to airspace users, air traffic services, and operating environments of the NAS. One goal of this report is to lead to the development of Minimum Aviation System Performance Standards for Control and Communications. This report takes the nine scenarios found in the OSED and analyzes the communication links.

  14. A Description of Charles Dickens Annex, 1971-72.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Marilyn J.

    A primary annex, built to relieve overcrowding, is attended by children registered in kindergarten through grade 3. The building consists of an open area organized into a number of learning centers plus three closed classrooms. The school's program is based on two concepts adapted from the British Infant School system: (1) family or vertical…

  15. Signal conditioning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahzah, Mohamad (Inventor); Korkosz, Gregory J. (Inventor); Bohr, Gerald (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A current-driven signal conditioning system comprising a first terminal, a second terminal, a strain gauge, and an instrumentation amplifier is disclosed. The strain gauge is adapted to measure a deformation of a structure and to generate a resistance which corresponds to the measured deformation. The instrumentation amplifier is adapted to be connected between the first terminal and the second terminal. The instrumentation amplifier is further adapted to be connected to the strain gauge and to place an output current on the second terminal. The output current is proportional to the resistance generated by the strain gauge. An output resister is coupled between the strain gauge and the second terminal, and a capacitor is coupled between the resister and the first terminal. A zenor diode is coupled between the first terminal and the strain gauge, and a diode is also coupled between the first terminal and the strain gauge.

  16. Condition Assessment Information System

    2002-09-16

    CAIS2000 records, tracks and cost maintenance deficiencies associated with condition assessments of real property assets. Cost information is available for 39,000 items in the currenht RS Means, Facilities Construction Manual. These costs can, in turn, be rolled by by asset to produce the summary condition of an asset or site.

  17. A guidebook for insulated low-slope roof systems. IEA Annex 19, Low-slope roof systems: International Energy Agency Energy Conservation in Buildings and Community Systems Programme

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    Low-slope roof systems are common on commercial and industrial buildings and, to a lesser extent, on residential buildings. Although insulating materials have nearly always been a component of low-slope roofs, the amount of insulation used has increased in the past two decades because of escalation of heating and cooling costs and increased awareness of the need for energy conservation. As the amount of insulation has increased, the demand has intensified for design, installation, and maintenance information specifically for well-insulated roofs. Existing practices for design, installation, and maintenance of insulated roofs have evolved from experience. Typically, these practices feature compromises due to the different properties of materials making up a given roof system. Therefore, they should be examined from time to time to ensure that they are appropriate as new materials continue to enter the market and as the data base on existing systems expands. A primary purpose of this International Energy Agency (IEA) study is to assess current roofing insulation practices in the context of an accumulating data base on performance.

  18. Peavey Duluth Annex 1900 and 1901 taken from east side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Peavey Duluth Annex 1900 and 1901 taken from east side looking west - Peavey Duluth Terminal Elevator, 1901 Annex, South side of first slip, north from outer end of Rice's Point, east of Garfield Avenue, Duluth, St. Louis County, MN

  19. Municipal Underbounding: Annexation and Racial Exclusion in Small Southern Towns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichter, Daniel T.; Parisi, Domenico; Grice, Steven Michael; Taquino, Michael

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines patterns of annexation, including municipal "underbounding," in nonmetropolitan towns in the South; that is, whether blacks living adjacent to municipalities are systematically excluded from incorporation. Annexation--or the lack of annexation--can be a political tool used by municipal leaders to exclude disadvantaged or…

  20. 19 CFR Annex Vii to Part 351 - Antidumping Investigations Timeline

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Antidumping Investigations Timeline VII Annex VII to Part 351 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Pt. 351, Annex VII Annex VII to Part 351—Antidumping Investigations Timeline ER19MY97.001...

  1. 19 CFR Annex Vi to Part 351 - Countervailing Investigations Timeline

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Countervailing Investigations Timeline VI Annex VI to Part 351 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Pt. 351, Annex VI Annex VI to Part 351—Countervailing Investigations Timeline ER19MY97.000...

  2. 19 CFR Annex Vii to Part 351 - Antidumping Investigations Timeline

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Antidumping Investigations Timeline VII Annex VII to Part 351 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Pt. 351, Annex VII Annex VII to Part 351—Antidumping Investigations Timeline ER19MY97.001...

  3. 19 CFR Annex Vi to Part 351 - Countervailing Investigations Timeline

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Countervailing Investigations Timeline VI Annex VI to Part 351 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Pt. 351, Annex VI Annex VI to Part 351—Countervailing Investigations Timeline ER19MY97.000...

  4. Occident Terminal Workhouse, 1925; Peavey Duluth Annex, 1900 more likely ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Occident Terminal Workhouse, 1925; Peavey Duluth Annex, 1900 more likely 1900 section taken from workhouse annex (1930) - Peavey Duluth Terminal Elevator, 1901 Annex, South side of first slip, north from outer end of Rice's Point, east of Garfield Avenue, Duluth, St. Louis County, MN

  5. 2. Occident Terminal Elevator, annex on left built 1930, workhouse, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Occident Terminal Elevator, annex on left built 1930, workhouse, train shed and annex on right built 1925. Occident Elevator Co., Division of Russell-Miller Milling Co., N.D. - Occident Terminal Elevator & Storage Annex, South side of second slip, north from outer end of Rice's Point, east of Garfield Avenue, Duluth, St. Louis County, MN

  6. Peavey Duluth Terminal Elevator and annexes lr 1900 and 1901, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Peavey Duluth Terminal Elevator and annexes l-r 1900 and 1901, workhouse 1908, and annex to workhouse 1930 - Peavey Duluth Terminal Elevator, 1930 Annex, South of first slip, north from outer end of Rice's Point, east of Garfield Avenue, Duluth, St. Louis County, MN

  7. Rupture loop annex ion exchange RLAIX vault deactivation

    SciTech Connect

    Ham, J.E.; Harris, D.L., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-01

    This engineering report documents the deactivation, stabilization and final conditions of the Rupture Loop Annex Ion Exchange (RLAIX) Vault located northwest of the 309 Building`s Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR). Twelve ion exchange columns, piping debris, and column liquid were removed from the vault, packaged and shipped for disposal. The vault walls and floor were decontaminated, and portions of the vault were painted to fix loose contamination. Process piping and drains were plugged, and the cover blocks and rain cover were installed. Upon closure,the vault was empty, stabilized, isolated.

  8. 28 CFR 51.61 - Annexations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Annexations. 51.61 Section 51.61 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR THE ADMINISTRATION OF SECTION 5 OF THE VOTING... submission or, in view of the intended use, for the reasonably foreseeable future. (3) Whether the...

  9. 28 CFR 51.61 - Annexations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... that they alter or are calculated to alter the composition of a jurisdiction's electorate. See, e.g... Pleasant Grove v. United States, C.A. No. 80-2589 (D.D.C. Oct. 7, 1981). (c) Relevant factors. In making determinations with respect to annexations, the Attorney General, in addition to the factors described...

  10. CAIS. Condition Assessment Information System

    SciTech Connect

    Oak, J.C.

    1996-09-30

    CAIS is used by Architects and Engineers to gather facility condition assessment data. This data consist of architectural, civil, structural, electrical, and mechanical systems and components that are a part of the inspected facility. Data is collected using a hand-held, pen-based computer system which is preprogrammed for detailed inventories of individual components. The program is deficiency based for collecting data for repair and replacement observations. Observations are recorded on checklists preformatted to individual site needs, allowing for comments on unusual conditions to be documented on site. Data is transferred to a central database, where it can be reviewed, costed, and reported on using different scenarios. Information can be transferred to the DOE operations offices as well as to the DOE FIMS database for each site.

  11. Environmental Effects of Marine Energy Development Around the World. Annex IV Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Copping, Andrea; Hanna, L.; Whiting, J.; Geerlofs, S.; Grear, M.; Blake, K.; Coffey, A.; Massaua, M.; Brown-Saracino, J.; Battey, H.

    2013-01-01

    This Annex IV report contains three case studies of specific interactions of marine energy devices with the marine environment addressing the physical interactions between animals and tidal turbines, the acoustic impact of marine energy devices on marine animals, and the effects of energy removal on physical systems.

  12. 4. Photocopy of an original drawing of the Annex (from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photocopy of an original drawing of the Annex (from the U.S. Forest Service, Wenatchee National Forest) 5 August 1940 CONSTRUCTION DETAILS - U.S. Forest Service Chelan Ranger Station, Annex, 428 West Woodin Avenue, Chelan, Chelan County, WA

  13. 44. SECOND FLOOR 'ANNEX' INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTHWEST: Interior ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. SECOND FLOOR 'ANNEX' - INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTHWEST: Interior view towards southwest on second floor of the powerhouse 'annex.' Note the steel column and beam construction and the old shunt car formerly used to move cable cars around the yard. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  14. Peavey Duluth Terminal Elevator Annex Building; Top floor with supports ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Peavey Duluth Terminal Elevator Annex Building; Top floor with supports for conveyor belts looking due west - Peavey Duluth Terminal Elevator, 1930 Annex, South of first slip, north from outer end of Rice's Point, east of Garfield Avenue, Duluth, St. Louis County, MN

  15. Peavey Duluth Annex, thirty silos. Back three R rows originally ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Peavey Duluth Annex, thirty silos. Back three R rows originally built in 1900, front three built in 1901 - Peavey Duluth Terminal Elevator, 1901 Annex, South side of first slip, north from outer end of Rice's Point, east of Garfield Avenue, Duluth, St. Louis County, MN

  16. 2. Peavey Duluth Terminal Elevator Annex on left, 1930 (concrete) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Peavey Duluth Terminal Elevator Annex on left, 1930 (concrete) workhouse, 1908 (tile and brick) annex on right, 1900 and 1901 white silos. View looking approximately NW. - Peavey Duluth Terminal Elevator, South side of first slip, north from outer end of Rice's Point, east of Garfield Avenue, Duluth, St. Louis County, MN

  17. Alcoholism: A systemic proinflammatory condition

    PubMed Central

    González-Reimers, Emilio; Santolaria-Fernández, Francisco; Martín-González, María Candelaria; Fernández-Rodríguez, Camino María; Quintero-Platt, Geraldine

    2014-01-01

    Excessive ethanol consumption affects virtually any organ, both by indirect and direct mechanisms. Considerable research in the last two decades has widened the knowledge about the paramount importance of proinflammatory cytokines and oxidative damage in the pathogenesis of many of the systemic manifestations of alcoholism. These cytokines derive primarily from activated Kupffer cells exposed to Gram-negative intestinal bacteria, which reach the liver in supra-physiological amounts due to ethanol-mediated increased gut permeability. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) that enhance the inflammatory response are generated both by activation of Kupffer cells and by the direct metabolic effects of ethanol. The effects of this increased cytokine secretion and ROS generation lie far beyond liver damage. In addition to the classic consequences of endotoxemia associated with liver cirrhosis that were described several decades ago, important research in the last ten years has shown that cytokines may also induce damage in remote organs such as brain, bone, muscle, heart, lung, gonads, peripheral nerve, and pancreas. These effects are even seen in alcoholics without significant liver disease. Therefore, alcoholism can be viewed as an inflammatory condition, a concept which opens the possibility of using new therapeutic weapons to treat some of the complications of this devastating and frequent disease. In this review we examine some of the most outstanding consequences of the altered cytokine regulation that occurs in alcoholics in organs other than the liver. PMID:25356029

  18. Alcoholism: a systemic proinflammatory condition.

    PubMed

    González-Reimers, Emilio; Santolaria-Fernández, Francisco; Martín-González, María Candelaria; Fernández-Rodríguez, Camino María; Quintero-Platt, Geraldine

    2014-10-28

    Excessive ethanol consumption affects virtually any organ, both by indirect and direct mechanisms. Considerable research in the last two decades has widened the knowledge about the paramount importance of proinflammatory cytokines and oxidative damage in the pathogenesis of many of the systemic manifestations of alcoholism. These cytokines derive primarily from activated Kupffer cells exposed to Gram-negative intestinal bacteria, which reach the liver in supra-physiological amounts due to ethanol-mediated increased gut permeability. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) that enhance the inflammatory response are generated both by activation of Kupffer cells and by the direct metabolic effects of ethanol. The effects of this increased cytokine secretion and ROS generation lie far beyond liver damage. In addition to the classic consequences of endotoxemia associated with liver cirrhosis that were described several decades ago, important research in the last ten years has shown that cytokines may also induce damage in remote organs such as brain, bone, muscle, heart, lung, gonads, peripheral nerve, and pancreas. These effects are even seen in alcoholics without significant liver disease. Therefore, alcoholism can be viewed as an inflammatory condition, a concept which opens the possibility of using new therapeutic weapons to treat some of the complications of this devastating and frequent disease. In this review we examine some of the most outstanding consequences of the altered cytokine regulation that occurs in alcoholics in organs other than the liver.

  19. Environmental effects of marine energy development around the world. Annex IV Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Copping, Andrea; Hanna, Luke; Whiting, Johnathan; Geerlofs, Simon; Grear, Molly; Blake, Kara ); Coffey, Anna; Massaua, Meghan; Brown-Saracino, Jocelyn; Battey, Hoyt )

    2013-01-15

    Annex IV is an international collaborative project to examine the environmental effects of marine energy devices among countries through the International Energy Agency’s Ocean Energy Systems Initiative (OES). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) serves as the Operating Agent for the Annex, in partnership with the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM; formerly the Minerals Management Service), the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), and National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Numerous ocean energy technologies and devices are being developed around the world, and the few data that exist about the environmental effects of these technologies are dispersed among countries and developers. The purpose of Annex IV is to facilitate efficient government oversight of the development of ocean energy systems by compiling and disseminating information about the potential environmental effects of marine energy technologies and to identify methods of monitoring for these effects. Beginning in 2010, this three-year effort produced a publicly available searchable online database of environmental effects information (Tethys). It houses scientific literature pertaining to the environmental effects of marine energy systems, as well as metadata on international ocean energy projects and research studies. Two experts’ workshops were held in Dublin, Ireland (September 2010 and October 2012) to engage with international researchers, developers, and regulators on the scope and outcomes of the Annex IV project. Metadata and information stored in the Tethys database and feedback obtained from the two experts’ workshops were used as resources in the development of this report. This Annex IV final report contains three case studies of specific interactions of marine energy devices with the marine environment that survey, compile, and analyze the best available information in one coherent location. These case studies address 1) the physical interactions

  20. 2. View of south side (Art and Architecture Annex and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View of south side (Art and Architecture Annex and Communications Building visible to the left) - University of Idaho, YMCA Hut, Northeast corner of University Avenue & Line Street, Moscow, Latah County, ID

  1. Condition monitoring in hydraulic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dyer, C.

    1986-01-01

    The ''run it until it breaks'' approach to maintenance is becoming increasingly unacceptable. Implementation of just-in-time and the economic requirements for more efficient use of labor and machinery are some of the factors encouraging management to give more than lip-service to preventive maintenance. A test unit developed to speed diagnosis of problems in hydraulic systems has proved to be a useful tool for predicting many failures, enabling repairs to be scheduled.

  2. Multiple memory systems, development and conditioning.

    PubMed

    Stanton, M E

    2000-06-01

    A century of behavioral and neurobiological research suggests that Pavlovian conditioning involves three component memory systems: sensorimotor, affective and cognitive. In classical eyeblink conditioning, there is evidence that these three memory systems involve, respectively, the cerebellum, amygdala and hippocampus. This article reviews developmental research on eyeblink conditioning in rodents that is beginning to characterize ontogenetic dissociations and interactions among these memory systems. This research shows that the functional development of the affective system (conditioned fear response) precedes that of the sensorimotor system (conditioned eyeblink reflex). Modulation of these two systems by cognitive processes also seems to emerge at different points in ontogeny. Implications for cognitive development and research on multiple memory systems are discussed.

  3. Fuel-cell engine stream conditioning system

    DOEpatents

    DuBose, Ronald Arthur

    2002-01-01

    A stream conditioning system for a fuel cell gas management system or fuel cell engine. The stream conditioning system manages species potential in at least one fuel cell reactant stream. A species transfer device is located in the path of at least one reactant stream of a fuel cell's inlet or outlet, which transfer device conditions that stream to improve the efficiency of the fuel cell. The species transfer device incorporates an exchange media and a sorbent. The fuel cell gas management system can include a cathode loop with the stream conditioning system transferring latent and sensible heat from an exhaust stream to the cathode inlet stream of the fuel cell; an anode humidity retention system for maintaining the total enthalpy of the anode stream exiting the fuel cell related to the total enthalpy of the anode inlet stream; and a cooling water management system having segregated deionized water and cooling water loops interconnected by means of a brazed plate heat exchanger.

  4. Radiological assessment report for the University of Rochester Annex, 400 Elmwood Avenue, Rochester, New York, April-May 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Wynveen, R.A.; Smith, W.H.; Sholeen, C.M.; Flynn, K.F.

    1984-12-01

    In light of the results of the comprehensive radiological assessment of the annex and auxiliary facilities, the following conclusions can be made: There is no immediate hazard from the elevated levels of radioactivity detected; however, some of these levels are above criteria. The radon, thoron, actinon, long-lived particulates, and tritium in the air are all below criteria for unrestricted use. Some ductwork has been identified as being contaminated. All ductwork must, therefore, be considered potentially contaminated. Since several floor drains were found to exhibit elevated readings, and the samples had elevated concentrations of radionuclides, it must be concluded that the drain and sewer systems of the Annex are contaminated with radioactive material. Since the samples collected from the storm and sewer systems outside the building also had elevated concentrations of radionuclides, these systems are also considered contaminated with radioactive material. The grounds around the Annex have exhibited background concentrations of radionuclides. Two rooms, B-330 and B-332, were inaccessible for survey due to the presence of stored furniture and equipment. Therefore, no comment about their radiological status can be made. At the common baseboard for Room C-12 and C-16 and on the floor below the tile in Room C-40, contamination appeared to be masked by construction modifications. Other areas of the Annex must also be considered potentially contaminated where modifications may have masked the contamination.

  5. SCIENCE BRIEF: CONDITION ASSESSMENT OF COLLECTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    To assess the condition of a collection system, data and information are gathered through observation, direct inspection, investigation, and indirect monitoring and reporting. An analysis of the data and information helps determine the structural, operational, and performance sta...

  6. 19 CFR Annex V to Part 351 - Comparison of Prior and New Regulations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Comparison of Prior and New Regulations V Annex V to Part 351 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Pt. 351, Annex V Annex V to Part 351—Comparison of Prior and New Regulations Prior...

  7. 19 CFR Annex V to Part 351 - Comparison of Prior and New Regulations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Comparison of Prior and New Regulations V Annex V to Part 351 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Pt. 351, Annex V Annex V to Part 351—Comparison of Prior and New Regulations Prior...

  8. 19 CFR Annex V to Part 351 - Comparison of Prior and New Regulations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Comparison of Prior and New Regulations V Annex V to Part 351 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Pt. 351, Annex V Annex V to Part 351—Comparison of Prior and New Regulations Prior...

  9. 19 CFR Annex V to Part 351 - Comparison of Prior and New Regulations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Comparison of Prior and New Regulations V Annex V to Part 351 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Pt. 351, Annex V Annex V to Part 351—Comparison of Prior and New Regulations Prior...

  10. 19 CFR Annex Viii-A to Part 351 - Schedule for 90-Day Sunset Reviews

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Schedule for 90-Day Sunset Reviews VIII Annex VIII-A to Part 351 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Pt. 351, Annex VIII-A Annex VIII-A to Part 351—Schedule for 90-Day...

  11. 19 CFR Annex Viii-A to Part 351 - Schedule for 90-Day Sunset Reviews

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Schedule for 90-Day Sunset Reviews VIII Annex VIII-A to Part 351 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Pt. 351, Annex VIII-A Annex VIII-A to Part 351—Schedule for 90-Day...

  12. 19 CFR Annex Viii-A to Part 351 - Schedule for 90-Day Sunset Reviews

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Schedule for 90-Day Sunset Reviews VIII Annex VIII-A to Part 351 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Pt. 351, Annex VIII-A Annex VIII-A to Part 351—Schedule for 90-Day...

  13. 19 CFR Annex Viii-A to Part 351 - Schedule for 90-Day Sunset Reviews

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Schedule for 90-Day Sunset Reviews VIII Annex VIII-A to Part 351 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Pt. 351, Annex VIII-A Annex VIII-A to Part 351—Schedule for 90-Day...

  14. 19 CFR Annex Viii-A to Part 351 - Schedule for 90-Day Sunset Reviews

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Schedule for 90-Day Sunset Reviews VIII Annex VIII-A to Part 351 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Pt. 351, Annex VIII-A Annex VIII-A to Part 351—Schedule for 90-Day...

  15. 19 CFR Annex V to Part 351 - Comparison of Prior and New Regulations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Comparison of Prior and New Regulations V Annex V to Part 351 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Pt. 351, Annex V Annex V to Part 351—Comparison of Prior and New Regulations Prior...

  16. 19 CFR Annex III to Part 351 - Deadlines for Parties in Antidumping Investigations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Deadlines for Parties in Antidumping Investigations III Annex III to Part 351 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Pt. 351, Annex III Annex III to Part 351—Deadlines...

  17. 19 CFR Annex IV to Part 351 - Deadlines for Parties in Antidumping Administrative Reviews

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Deadlines for Parties in Antidumping Administrative Reviews IV Annex IV to Part 351 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Pt. 351, Annex IV Annex IV to Part 351—Deadlines for...

  18. 19 CFR Annex I to Part 351 - Deadlines for Parties in Countervailing Investigations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Deadlines for Parties in Countervailing Investigations I Annex I to Part 351 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Pt. 351, Annex I Annex I to Part 351—Deadlines for Parties...

  19. 19 CFR Annex II to Part 351 - Deadlines for Parties in Countervailing Administrative Reviews

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Deadlines for Parties in Countervailing Administrative Reviews II Annex II to Part 351 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Pt. 351, Annex II Annex II to Part 351—Deadlines for...

  20. Voice interactive systems in severe noise conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steeneken, J. H. M.; Langhout, G.

    1987-02-01

    In a comparison of word recognition performance between human listeners and automatic speech recognition systems (ASR), the human listeners performs much better, especially in severe noise conditions. An application engineer can try to optimize the performance of an ASR system by selecting the optimal noise cancelling microphone and vocabulary for voice input. Some results from a study on the effect of signal handling and vocabulary configuration on the performance of voice input and voice output systems are discussed.

  1. High efficiency air cycle air conditioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Rannenberg, G. C.

    1985-11-19

    An air cycle air conditioning system is provided with regenerative heat exchangers upstream and downstream of an expansion turbine. A closedloop liquid circulatory system serially connects the two regenerative heat exchangers for regeneration without the bulk associated with air-to-air heat exchange. The liquid circulatory system may also provide heat transport to a remote sink heat exchanger and from a remote load as well as heat exchange within the sink heat exchanger and load for enhanced compactness and efficiency.

  2. Conditional reversibility in nonequilibrium stochastic systems.

    PubMed

    Bonança, Marcus V S; Jarzynski, Christopher

    2016-02-01

    For discrete-state stochastic systems obeying Markovian dynamics, we establish the counterpart of the conditional reversibility theorem obtained by Gallavotti for deterministic systems [Ann. de l'Institut Henri Poincaré (A) 70, 429 (1999)]. Our result states that stochastic trajectories conditioned on opposite values of entropy production are related by time reversal, in the long-time limit. In other words, the probability of observing a particular sequence of events, given a long trajectory with a specified entropy production rate σ, is the same as the probability of observing the time-reversed sequence of events, given a trajectory conditioned on the opposite entropy production, -σ, where both trajectories are sampled from the same underlying Markov process. To obtain our result, we use an equivalence between conditioned ("microcanonical") and biased ("canonical") ensembles of nonequilibrium trajectories. We provide an example to illustrate our findings. PMID:26986282

  3. Conditional reversibility in nonequilibrium stochastic systems.

    PubMed

    Bonança, Marcus V S; Jarzynski, Christopher

    2016-02-01

    For discrete-state stochastic systems obeying Markovian dynamics, we establish the counterpart of the conditional reversibility theorem obtained by Gallavotti for deterministic systems [Ann. de l'Institut Henri Poincaré (A) 70, 429 (1999)]. Our result states that stochastic trajectories conditioned on opposite values of entropy production are related by time reversal, in the long-time limit. In other words, the probability of observing a particular sequence of events, given a long trajectory with a specified entropy production rate σ, is the same as the probability of observing the time-reversed sequence of events, given a trajectory conditioned on the opposite entropy production, -σ, where both trajectories are sampled from the same underlying Markov process. To obtain our result, we use an equivalence between conditioned ("microcanonical") and biased ("canonical") ensembles of nonequilibrium trajectories. We provide an example to illustrate our findings.

  4. Conditional reversibility in nonequilibrium stochastic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonança, Marcus V. S.; Jarzynski, Christopher

    2016-02-01

    For discrete-state stochastic systems obeying Markovian dynamics, we establish the counterpart of the conditional reversibility theorem obtained by Gallavotti for deterministic systems [Ann. de l'Institut Henri Poincaré (A) 70, 429 (1999)]. Our result states that stochastic trajectories conditioned on opposite values of entropy production are related by time reversal, in the long-time limit. In other words, the probability of observing a particular sequence of events, given a long trajectory with a specified entropy production rate σ , is the same as the probability of observing the time-reversed sequence of events, given a trajectory conditioned on the opposite entropy production, -σ , where both trajectories are sampled from the same underlying Markov process. To obtain our result, we use an equivalence between conditioned ("microcanonical") and biased ("canonical") ensembles of nonequilibrium trajectories. We provide an example to illustrate our findings.

  5. Designing conditional release systems for insanity acquittees.

    PubMed

    Griffin, P A; Steadman, H J; Heilbrun, K

    1991-01-01

    Monitored treatment in the community, also known as conditional release, has been described as the most important advance in the treatment of insanity acquittees in the last decade. Despite the importance of the development of conditional release, however, there has been relatively little written about relevant issues and planning principles important in designing and implementing conditional release systems. The present paper discusses important considerations relevant to conditional release that are associated with key decision points within systems for persons found not guilty by reason of insanity (NGRI). Four planning principles, generalizable to all NGRI systems, are then presented in a way that integrates the previous discussion. It is concluded that conditional release plays a crucial role in the treatment of insanity acquittees and that mental health administrators may either proactively modify their systems, in a way that balances public safety with individual rights and treatment needs, or wait for the modification mandate to be forced upon them in the wake of a highly publicized, heinous offense.

  6. International Development Programmes in Higher Education. Annex: Special Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commonwealth Secretariat, London (England).

    This volume of special papers constitutes the Annex to "International Development Programmes in Higher Education (A Report to the Commonwealth Standing Committee on Student Mobility and Higher Education Cooperation)." The papers presented have the following titles and authors: (1) "Training for Planning and Management: Improved Management Systems…

  7. 9. Photocopy of a photograph of the Warehouse and Annex ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photocopy of a photograph of the Warehouse and Annex (in the latter's original location prior to being moved) (from the U.S. Forest Service, Wenatchee National Forest) W.W. Gano, Photographer, September 1941 EAST ELEVATIONS, VIEW TO WEST - U. S. Forest Service Chelan Ranger Station, Warehouse, 428 West Woodin Avenue, Chelan, Chelan County, WA

  8. Rupture Loop Annex (RLA) ion exchange vault entry and characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Ham, J.E.

    1996-01-04

    This engineering report documents the entry and characterization of the Rupture Loop Annex Ion Exchange (RLAIX) Vault located near the 309 Building`s Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR). Twelve ion exchange columns were found in the vault. Some of which contained transuranics, Cs 137, and Co 60. The characterization information is necessary for future vault cleanout and column disposal.

  9. International Collaboration on Offshore Wind Energy Under IEA Annex XXIII

    SciTech Connect

    Musial, W.; Butterfield, S.; Lemming, J.

    2005-11-01

    This paper defines the purpose of IEA Annex XXIII, the International Collaboration on Offshore Wind Energy. This international collaboration through the International Energy Agency (IEA) is an efficient forum from which to advance the technical and environmental experiences collected from existing offshore wind energy projects, as well as the research necessary to advance future technology for deep-water wind energy technology.

  10. 4. Peavey Duluth Terminal Elevator and annexes lr 19001901, 1908, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Peavey Duluth Terminal Elevator and annexes l-r 1900-1901, 1908, and 1930; exterior view looking roughly due east. - Peavey Duluth Terminal Elevator, South side of first slip, north from outer end of Rice's Point, east of Garfield Avenue, Duluth, St. Louis County, MN

  11. 3. Peavey Duluth Terminal Elevator, workhouse (l) 1908 annex circa ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Peavey Duluth Terminal Elevator, workhouse (l) 1908 annex circa 1900 and 1901; ceramic tile and brick, concrete from SE corner of complex. - Peavey Duluth Terminal Elevator, South side of first slip, north from outer end of Rice's Point, east of Garfield Avenue, Duluth, St. Louis County, MN

  12. Signal conditioning circuitry design for instrumentation systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, Cory A.

    2012-01-01

    This report details the current progress in the design, implementation, and validation of the signal conditioning circuitry used in a measurement instrumentation system. The purpose of this text is to document the current progress of a particular design in signal conditioning circuitry in an instrumentation system. The input of the signal conditioning circuitry comes from a piezoresistive transducer and the output will be fed to a 250 ksps, 12-bit analog-to-digital converter (ADC) with an input range of 0-5 V. It is assumed that the maximum differential voltage amplitude input from the sensor is 20 mV with an unknown, but presumably high, sensor bandwidth. This text focuses on a specific design; however, the theory is presented in such a way that this text can be used as a basis for future designs.

  13. Conditional RNAi Using the Lentiviral GLTR System.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffenberger, Elisabeth; Sigl, Reinhard; Geley, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) has become an essential technology for functional gene analysis. Its success depends on the effective expression of target gene-specific RNAi-inducing small double-stranded interfering RNA molecules (siRNAs). Here, were describe the use of a recently developed lentiviral RNAi system that allows the rapid generation of stable cell lines with inducible RNAi based on conditional expression of double-stranded short hairpin RNA (shRNA). These lentiviral vectors can be generated rapidly using the GATEWAY recombination cloning technology. Conditional cell lines can be established by using either a two-vector system in which the regulator is encoded by a separate vector or by a one-vector system. The available different lentiviral vectors for conditional shRNA expression cassette delivery co-express additional genes that allow (1) the use of fluorescent proteins for color-coded combinatorial RNAi or monitoring RNAi induction (pGLTR-FP), (2) selection of transduced cells (pGLTR-S), and (3) the generation of conditional cell lines using a one-vector system (pGLTR-X). PMID:27317178

  14. Lecture 1: introduction to power conditioning systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sarjeant, W.J.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of the course is to present an overview of the power conditioning aspects of energy transfer systems. The objective, then, is to develop an understanding and appreciation of the physical processes that govern the performance of these systems, including the role of such elements as switches, capacitors, inductors, and resistors. Secondly, to discuss where are the sources of information once a problem area has been identified. All the information will be current and state-of-the-art, and directed toward these pulse components, with particular emphasis on the area of high-repetition-rate systems, as these are taking on ever increasing significance.

  15. A Resilient Condition Assessment Monitoring System

    SciTech Connect

    Humberto Garcia; Wen-Chiao Lin; Semyon M. Meerkov

    2012-08-01

    An architecture and supporting methods are presented for the implementation of a resilient condition assessment monitoring system that can adaptively accommodate both cyber and physical anomalies to a monitored system under observation. In particular, the architecture includes three layers: information, assessment, and sensor selection. The information layer estimates probability distributions of process variables based on sensor measurements and assessments of the quality of sensor data. Based on these estimates, the assessment layer then employs probabilistic reasoning methods to assess the plant health. The sensor selection layer selects sensors so that assessments of the plant condition can be made within desired time periods. Resilient features of the developed system are then illustrated by simulations of a simplified power plant model, where a large portion of the sensors are under attack.

  16. Zoned heating and air conditioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Beachboard, S.A.

    1987-06-16

    This patent describes a zoned heating and air conditioning system comprising: a central air handling system with an air heating means and an air cooling means and a blower connected to an air duct system; thermostats each have heating and cooling set points, respectively associated with and located in different zones of a building; dampers respectively associated with each building zone positioned in the air duct system. Each damper has an open position allowing air into the respective zone from the duct system and a closed position; relay means for connecting one thermostat to the air handling system upon a call for heating or cooling by one thermostat and disconnecting all other thermostats by connecting one thermostat's connections between the thermostat and air handling system. Only one thermostat is connected to the air handling system at a time and the relay means disconnects one thermostat from the air handling system after one thermostat is satisified; and damper actuating means for unlocking each damper in one building zone responsive actuated by a respective zone thermostat connected to the air handling system by the relay means. The damper actuates means including a damper solenoid for each damper located adjacent each damper and connected to a respective zone thermostat. It unlocks each damper in one building zone responsive to being actuated by the respective zone thermostat and unlocks the dampers in one building zone when one thermostat is actuated while preventing the dampers in another thermostat's building zone from unlocking.

  17. Power conditioning for space nuclear reactor systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berman, Baruch

    1987-01-01

    This paper addresses the power conditioning subsystem for both Stirling and Brayton conversion of space nuclear reactor systems. Included are the requirements summary, trade results related to subsystem implementation, subsystem description, voltage level versus weight, efficiency and operational integrity, components selection, and shielding considerations. The discussion is supported by pertinent circuit and block diagrams. Summary conclusions and recommendations derived from the above studies are included.

  18. Geohydrology and water quality of Marine Corps Logistics Base, Nebo and Yermo annexes, near Barstow, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Densmore, Jill N.; Cox, Brett F.; Crawford, Steven M.

    1997-01-01

    Because ground water is the only dependable source of water in the Barstow area, a thorough understanding of the relationship between the geology and hydrology of this area is needed to make informed ground-water management andremediation decisions. This report summarizes geologic and hydrologic studies done during 1992-95 at the Marine Corps Logistics Base, Nebo and Yermo Annexes, near Barstow, California. The geologic investigation dealt with the stratigraphy and geologic history of the area and determined the location of faults that cross the Marine Corps Logistics Base, Nebo Annex. Two of these faultscoincide with significant ground-water barriers. Geologic and hydrologic data collected for this study were used to define two main aquifer systems in this area. The Mojave River aquifer is contained within the sand and gravel of the Mojave River alluvium, and the regional aquifer lies in the bordering alluvial-fan deposits and older alluvium. Water-level data showed that recharge occurs exten sively in the Mojave River aquifer but occurs only in small areas of the regional aquifer. Dissolved- solids concentrations showed that ground-water degradation exists in the Mojave River aquifer near the Nebo Annex and extends at least 1 mile downgradient of the Nebo golf course in the younger Mojave River alluvium. Nitrogen concentrations show that more than one source is causing the observed degradation in the Mojave River aquifer. Oxygen-18, deuterium, tritium, andcarbon-14 data indicate that the Mojave River and regional aquifers have different sources of recharge and that recent recharge occurs in the Mojave River aquifer but is more limited in the regional aquifer.

  19. STATUS OF THE NIF POWER CONDITIONING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, P; Hulsey, S; Ullery, G; Petersen, D; Pendleton, D; Ollis, C; Newton, M

    2007-07-26

    The NIF Power Conditioning System provides the pulsed excitation required to drive flashlamps in the laser's optical amplifiers. Modular in design, each of the 192 Main Energy Storage Modules (MESMs) storage up to 2.2 MJ of electrical energy in its capacitor bank before delivering the energy to 20 pairs of flashlamps in a 400 {micro}s pulse (10% power points). The peak current of each MESM discharge is 0.5 MA. Production, installation, commissioning and operation of the NIF Power Conditioning continue to progress rapidly, with the goals of completing accelerated production in late 2007 and finishing commissioning by early 2008, all the while maintaining an aggressive operations schedule. To date, more than 80% of the required modules have been assembled, shipped and installed in the facility, representing more that 240 MJ of stored energy available for driving NIF flashlamps. The MESMs have displayed outstanding reliability during daily, multiple-shift operations.

  20. Requirements for a transformerless power conditioning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, J.; Koerner, T.; Rippel, W.; Kalbach, J.

    1984-01-01

    Requirements for development of a Transformerless Power Conditioning Subsystem (TPCS) that will meet utility, manufacturer, and customer needs are detailed. Issues analyzed include current utility guidelines, safety and grounding issues that appear as local codes, various kinds of TPCS connections that can be developed, dc injection, and a brief survey of TPCS circuit topologies that will meet requirements. The major result is that a finite time exists for control operation before dc injection into the distribution transformer causes customer outage (on the order of seconds). This time permits the control system to sense a dc injection condition and remove the TPCS from the utility system. Requirements for such a control system are specified. A three wire connection will ensure balanced operation for customer loads and two wire connections caused average value dc to be injected into single phase loads. This type of connection also allows for the lowest array voltage. The conclusion is that requirements for a TPCS can be determined and that there are not showstopping issues preventing implementation. The actual design and topology of the TPCS was left for further study.

  1. Condition monitoring system of wind turbine generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdusamad, Khaled B.

    The development and implementation of the condition monitoring systems (CMS) play a significant role in overcoming the number of failures in the wind turbine generators that result from the harsh operation conditions, such as over temperature, particularly when turbines are deployed offshore. In order to increase the reliability of the wind energy industry, monitoring the operation conditions of wind generators is essential to detect the immediate faults rapidly and perform appropriate preventative maintenance. CMS helps to avoid failures, decrease the potential shutdowns while running, reduce the maintenance and operation costs and maintain wind turbines protected. The knowledge of wind turbine generators' faults, such as stator and rotor inter-turn faults, is indispensable to perform the condition monitoring accurately, and assist with maintenance decision making. Many techniques are utilized to avoid the occurrence of failures in wind turbine generators. The majority of the previous techniques that are applied to monitor the wind generator conditions are based on electrical and mechanical concepts and theories. An advanced CMS can be implemented by using a variety of different techniques and methods to confirm the validity of the obtained electrical and mechanical condition monitoring algorithms. This thesis is focused on applying CMS on wind generators due to high temperature by contributing the statistical, thermal, mathematical, and reliability analyses, and mechanical concepts with the electrical methodology, instead of analyzing the electrical signal and frequencies trends only. The newly developed algorithms can be compared with previous condition monitoring methods, which use the electrical approach in order to establish their advantages and limitations. For example, the hazard reliability techniques of wind generators based on CMS are applied to develop a proper maintenance strategy, which aims to extend the system life-time and reduce the potential

  2. Thoron and decay products, beyond UNSCEAR 2006 Annex E.

    PubMed

    Chambers, D B

    2010-10-01

    Uranium and thorium series radionuclides are present in all soils and rocks. Thus, radon and thoron, the radioactive noble gases originating in the uranium ((238)U) and thorium ((232)Th) decay chains is ubiquitous and everyone is exposed to both radon and thoron gases and their particulate radioactive decay products. As described in UNSCEAR Annex E (2006), radon and its decay products have been recognised for many years as a hazard to underground miners. More recently, the risks from exposure to residential radon have been demonstrated through residential case-control epidemiological studies. However, as discussed by UNSCEAR, exposures to thoron and its decay products have often been relatively ignored. Moreover, unlike radon the effects of exposure to thoron and its decay products are not available from epidemiology and thus, a dosimetric approach is required to assess risks. UNSCEAR continues to recommend the use of a dose conversion factor for thoron decay products of 40 nSv (Bq h m(-3))(-1). UNSCEAR Annex E suggests there is an emerging problem, namely, that the contribution of (220)Rn (thoron) gas to the (222)Rn (radon) gas measurement signal is not well known. Until recently, this has largely been ignored. This is an important consideration as measurements at work and homes are the basis for investigating lung cancer exposure-response relationships. Based on UNSCEAR Annex E, this paper provides an overview of the sources and levels of thoron and its associated decay products at home and work. In addition, this paper provides an overview of the thoron dosimetry considered by UNSCEAR Annex E and some recent results.

  3. NIF Power Conditioning System Testing at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Fulkerson, E S; Newton, M; Hulsey, s; Hammon, J; Moore, W

    2001-06-05

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is now under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The Power Conditioning System (PCS) for NIF, when completed will consist of a 192 nearly identical 2 megajoule capacitor storage banks driving 7680 two meter long flashlamps. A fully integrated single-module test facility was completed in August of 2000 at LLNL. The purpose to the Test Facility is to conduct Reliability and Maintainability (RAM) testing of a true ''First Article'' system (built to the final drawing package as opposed to a prototype). The test facility can be fired once every ten minutes with a total peak output current of 580kA with a pulse width of 400us. To date over 4000 full power shots have been conducted at this facility.

  4. Living systems in hypomagnetic conditions of Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trukhanov, Kirill; Gurieva, Tamara; Dadasheva, Olga; Spassky, Andrey; Lebedev, Viktor; Kruglov, Oleg

    Living Systems in Hypomagnetic Conditions of Space Trukhanov К. A.1, Guryeva T.S.1, Dadasheva О.А.1, Spassky А.V.2, Lebedev V.М.2, Kruglov О.S.1 1 SSC RF - Institute of bio-medical problems RAS, Moscow 2 Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow When working at a long-term lunar base, at stations in the near-moon space and during interplanetary missions cosmonauts will be continuously exposed to an entirely new environmental factor - hypomagnetic conditions (HMC). Interplanetary magnetic field and the field on the Lunar surface is three-five orders of magnitude below the usual geomagnetic field (GMF). It is well known that exposure to even a slightly decreased GMF adversely affect human and other living systems. Nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular systems and blood are considered to be the most sensitive to reduced GMF. There are some data in literature about the significant vulnerability of developing organism to the HMC. In this paper we present the results of further studies on the impact of the HMC on the embryogenesis of the Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica), including the works performed as the development of studies reported at the conferences COSPAR 37 and COSPAR 39. Duration of quail embryos exposure to different values of attenuation HMC (till thousandfold and more) came up to 18 days. It is shown that the prolonged exposure to the HMC heightens the adverse effects on embryogenesis. The background of alternating electromagnetic fields of the systems and equipment will exist at the habitable base or on the board of the spacecraft. The results of studies on the combined effects of HMC and weak alternating magnetic fields are also presented.

  5. 19 CFR Annex Viii-C to Part 351 - Schedule for Full Sunset Reviews

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Schedule for Full Sunset Reviews VIII Annex VIII-C... COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Pt. 351, Annex VIII-C Annex VIII-C to Part 351—Schedule for Full Sunset Reviews Day 1 Event... Preliminary results of full sunset review § 351.218(f)(1) (normally not later than 110 days after the date...

  6. 19 CFR Annex Viii-C to Part 351 - Schedule for Full Sunset Reviews

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Schedule for Full Sunset Reviews VIII Annex VIII-C... COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Pt. 351, Annex VIII-C Annex VIII-C to Part 351—Schedule for Full Sunset Reviews Day 1 Event... Preliminary results of full sunset review § 351.218(f)(1) (normally not later than 110 days after the date...

  7. 19 CFR Annex Viii-C to Part 351 - Schedule for Full Sunset Reviews

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Schedule for Full Sunset Reviews VIII Annex VIII-C... COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Pt. 351, Annex VIII-C Annex VIII-C to Part 351—Schedule for Full Sunset Reviews Day 1 Event... Preliminary results of full sunset review § 351.218(f)(1) (normally not later than 110 days after the date...

  8. 19 CFR Annex Viii-C to Part 351 - Schedule for Full Sunset Reviews

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Schedule for Full Sunset Reviews VIII Annex VIII-C... COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Pt. 351, Annex VIII-C Annex VIII-C to Part 351—Schedule for Full Sunset Reviews Day 1 Event... Preliminary results of full sunset review § 351.218(f)(1) (normally not later than 110 days after the date...

  9. 19 CFR Annex Viii-C to Part 351 - Schedule for Full Sunset Reviews

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Schedule for Full Sunset Reviews VIII Annex VIII-C... COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Pt. 351, Annex VIII-C Annex VIII-C to Part 351—Schedule for Full Sunset Reviews Day 1 Event... Preliminary results of full sunset review § 351.218(f)(1) (normally not later than 110 days after the date...

  10. In-duct flue gas conditioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, R.A.

    1993-08-31

    In a system for conditioning flue gas generated by a boiler furnace prior to its emission to the atmosphere, including conduit means for conducting a flow of flue gas from said boiler furnace to the atmosphere and an electrostatic precipitator located in said conduit means for electrostatically removing particulate matter entrained in the flue gas, the improvement is described comprising: an assembly arranged upstream of the electrostatic precipitator for converting a portion of sulfur dioxide contained in the flue gas flow to sulfur trioxide, said conversion assembly including catalytic conversion means having an operative position wherein a substantial portion of the flue gas flow passes through said catalytic converter for converting a portion of the sulfur dioxide contained in the flue gas flow to sulfur trioxide, and an inoperative position, wherein the flue gas flow does not pass through said catalytic conversion means said catalytic conversion means being movable and said assembly including means to move the catalytic conversion means between said operative and inoperative positions based upon the need for or lack of need for conditioning of the flue gas flow.

  11. Annex to 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source Conceptual Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-05-01

    The Annex to the 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source Conceptual Design Report updates the Conceptual Design Report of 1987 (CDR-87) to include the results of further optimization and changes of the design during the past year. The design changes can be summarized as affecting three areas: the accelerator system, conventional facilities, and experimental systems. Most of the changes in the accelerator system result from inclusion of a positron accumulator ring (PAR), which was added at the suggestion of the 1987 DOE Review Committee, to speed up the filling rate of the storage ring. The addition of the PAR necessitates many minor changes in the linac system, the injector synchrotron, and the low-energy beam transport lines. 63 figs., 18 tabs.

  12. LOX System Prestart Conditioning on X-34

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goode, Brian K.

    2001-01-01

    The X-34 is a reusable launch vehicle that will be carried underneath an airplane to altitude of 35000 feet where it will be launched. It utilizes a single Fastrac 60K rocket engine for propulsion. This engine burns RP-1 and Lox as propellants and has a single shaft Lox and RP-1 turbopump. With these features there are three important requirements that must be met during the prestart thermal conditioning of this engine and feed system. First, the Lox temperature prior to starting the engine must be cold enough to be in the predefined start box at that pressure. Second, the RP-1 in the single shaft turbopump in close proximity to the lox must not freeze significantly where it effects turbopump or engine operation. Third, the chill phase of the prestart countdown has been allocated 700lb of Lox which if exceeded starts to effect mission performance. Extensive testing and analysis has been performed to evaluate the chill characteristics of the Fastrac Engine as well as test facilities and X-34 Lox feed and bleed systems.

  13. Heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kyle, D.M.; Sullivan, R.A.

    1993-02-01

    A study is made of several outstanding issues concerning the commercial development of environmental control systems for electric vehicles (EVs). Engineering design constraints such as federal regulations and consumer requirements are first identified. Next, heating and cooling loads in a sample automobile are calculated using a computer model available from the literature. The heating and cooling loads are then used as a basis for estimating the electrical consumption that is to be expected for heat pumps installed in EVs. The heat pump performance is evaluated using an automobile heat pump computer model which has been developed recently at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The heat pump design used as input to the model consists of typical finned-tube heat exchangers and a hermetic compressor driven by a variable-speed brushless dc motor. The simulations suggest that to attain reasonable system efficiencies, the interior heat exchangers that are currently installed as automobile air conditioning will need to be enlarged. Regarding the thermal envelope of the automobile itself, calculations are made which show that considerable energy savings will result if steps are taken to reduce {open_quote}hot soak{close_quote} temperatures and if the outdoor air ventilation rate is well controlled. When these changes are made, heating and cooling should consume less than 10% of the total stored electrical energy for steady driving in most U.S. climates. However, this result depends strongly upon the type of driving: The fraction of total power for heating and cooling ({open_quote}range penalty{close_quote}) increases sharply for driving scenarios having low average propulsion power, such as stop-and-go driving.

  14. 77 FR 19537 - MARPOL Annex V Special Areas: Wider Caribbean Region

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... Homeland Security FR Federal Register IMO International Maritime Organization ISM International Safety... MARPOL Annex V Wider Caribbean Region Special Area'' in the Federal Register (74 FR 39334). This notice... Annex V Wider Caribbean Region Special Area'' in the Federal Register (76 FR 19380). That...

  15. A&M. Hot cell annex (TAN633) contextual view also showing east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A&M. Hot cell annex (TAN-633) contextual view also showing east facade. Camera facing west. Note corridor connecting annex to pool area of TAN-607. Pumice block walls. Date: March 2004. INEEL negative no. HD-39-2-2 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  16. The Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement with an emphasis on annex 4 nutrients -and Lake Erie

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presented will be an overview of the Great Lakes Water Quality Act of 2012 including a general description of the Annexes and the new Binational Governance. The talk will focus on the Annex 4 Nutrients Subcommittee and the Objectives and Targets Task Team efforts that have been ...

  17. Control system for flue gas conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Krigmont, H.V.; Coe, E.L. Jr.; Hebert, D.A.; Kozacka, W.R.

    1992-06-16

    This patent describes a method for controlling the flow rate of a conditioning agent in a flue gas conditioning operation to enhance the efficiency of an electrostatic precipitator. It comprises adding a quantity of conditioning agent to the flue gas stream, before it enters the electrostatic precipitator, at a mass flow rate F; measuring the electrostatic precipitator power consumptions P{sub 2} and P{sub 1} at respective flow rates F{sub 2} and F{sub 1}; detecting the actual slope of the power consumption curve relative to flow rate during relatively steady state conditions of power consumption relative to time.

  18. 33 CFR 334.270 - York River adjacent to Cheatham Annex Depot, Naval Supply Center, Williamsburg, Va.; restricted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Annex Depot, Naval Supply Center, Williamsburg, Va.; restricted area. 334.270 Section 334.270 Navigation... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.270 York River adjacent to Cheatham Annex Depot, Naval Supply Center... point on shore at Cheatham Annex Depot at latitude 37°17′14″ N., longitude 76°35′38″ W.; thence to...

  19. Condition Assessment of Wastewater Collection Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Municipal sanitary sewer collection systems play a critical role in protecting public health in our municipalities. They are designed to convey wastewater from their sources to a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Collection systems consist of house service laterals, sewers, pu...

  20. Power conditioning system for energy sources

    DOEpatents

    Mazumder, Sudip K.; Burra, Rajni K.; Acharya, Kaustuva

    2008-05-13

    Apparatus for conditioning power generated by an energy source includes an inverter for converting a DC input voltage from the energy source to a square wave AC output voltage, and a converter for converting the AC output voltage from the inverter to a sine wave AC output voltage.

  1. 42 CFR 493.1230 - Condition: General laboratory systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Condition: General laboratory systems. 493.1230... SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Quality System for Nonwaived Testing General Laboratory Systems § 493.1230 Condition: General laboratory systems. Each laboratory...

  2. 42 CFR 493.1230 - Condition: General laboratory systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Condition: General laboratory systems. 493.1230... SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Quality System for Nonwaived Testing General Laboratory Systems § 493.1230 Condition: General laboratory systems. Each laboratory...

  3. 42 CFR 493.1230 - Condition: General laboratory systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Condition: General laboratory systems. 493.1230... SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Quality System for Nonwaived Testing General Laboratory Systems § 493.1230 Condition: General laboratory systems. Each laboratory...

  4. 42 CFR 493.1230 - Condition: General laboratory systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: General laboratory systems. 493.1230... SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Quality System for Nonwaived Testing General Laboratory Systems § 493.1230 Condition: General laboratory systems. Each laboratory...

  5. 42 CFR 493.1230 - Condition: General laboratory systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Condition: General laboratory systems. 493.1230... SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Quality System for Nonwaived Testing General Laboratory Systems § 493.1230 Condition: General laboratory systems. Each laboratory...

  6. 42 CFR 493.1250 - Condition: Analytic systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Analytic systems. 493.1250 Section 493... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Quality System for Nonwaived Testing Analytic Systems § 493.1250 Condition: Analytic systems. Each laboratory that performs nonwaived testing must...

  7. Transfer system worked in rough conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-05-01

    A transfer system using a small waterplane area twin hull vessel (SWATH) and high-wire rigging has been developed by Rauma-Repola of Rauma, Finland as an alternative to helicopter movement of personnel and light cargo in the North Sea. The SWATH is used because it has better seakeeping characteristics than regular supply boats. With the large number of platform workers transported in such a vessel, the developers contend there are now sufficient platforms to make such transfer systems economic. The system, a modification of one used between ships at sea since 1969, is described.

  8. Screening systems adapt to changing conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2009-08-15

    Prep plants are installing larger screening systems and synthetic media is meeting those challenges. The largest manufacturer of synthetic screen media is Polydeck located in Spartanburg, South Carolina. The company's primary product lines include modular polyurethane and rubber screen panels and the frame systems to support the media. The modular approach overcomes a wear problem in one area of the deck common on Banana screens and facilitates maintenance. A rubber formation used in 1- x 2-pt screen panels called the Flexi design is softer and allows more vibration than standard urethane panels. The Maxi screen panel design combined with the PipeTop II frame makes the system highly versatile. 1 photo.

  9. Control system and method for a universal power conditioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, Jih-Sheng; Park, Sung Yeul; Chen, Chien-Liang

    2014-09-02

    A new current loop control system method is proposed for a single-phase grid-tie power conditioning system that can be used under a standalone or a grid-tie mode. This type of inverter utilizes an inductor-capacitor-inductor (LCL) filter as the interface in between inverter and the utility grid. The first set of inductor-capacitor (LC) can be used in the standalone mode, and the complete LCL can be used for the grid-tie mode. A new admittance compensation technique is proposed for the controller design to avoid low stability margin while maintaining sufficient gain at the fundamental frequency. The proposed current loop controller system and admittance compensation technique have been simulated and tested. Simulation results indicate that without the admittance path compensation, the current loop controller output duty cycle is largely offset by an undesired admittance path. At the initial simulation cycle, the power flow may be erratically fed back to the inverter causing catastrophic failure. With admittance path compensation, the output power shows a steady-state offset that matches the design value. Experimental results show that the inverter is capable of both a standalone and a grid-tie connection mode using the LCL filter configuration.

  10. Space-conditioning system selection guide. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Dorgan, C.E.; Truelove, E.T.

    1993-12-01

    This handbook represents a single-source guide to the selection of space-conditioning equipment for commercial facilities. Written for the utility marketing representative, it provides information on these topics: eating, cooling, ventilation, and dehumidification requirements of commercial buildings; customer needs when selecting a space-conditioning system; and, the options among energy-efficient electric space-conditioning systems for commercial buildings.

  11. Method and system for monitoring environmental conditions

    DOEpatents

    Kulesz, James J [Oak Ridge, TN; Lee, Ronald W [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-11-16

    A system for detecting the occurrence of anomalies includes a plurality of spaced apart nodes, with each node having adjacent nodes, each of the nodes having one or more sensors associated with the node and capable of detecting anomalies, and each of the nodes having a controller connected to the sensors associated with the node. The system also includes communication links between adjacent nodes, whereby the nodes form a network. At least one software agent is capable of changing the operation of at least one of the controllers in response to the detection of an anomaly by a sensor.

  12. Field Demonstration of Condition Assessment Technologies for Wastewater Collection Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reliable information on pipe condition is needed to accurately estimate the remaining service life of wastewater collection system assets. Although inspections with conventional closed-circuit television (CCTV) have been the mainstay of pipeline condition assessment for decades,...

  13. Ionospheric Current Systems Under Magnetic Cloud Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, X.; Rostoker, G.; Sun, W.; Du, A.; Lui, T.

    2005-12-01

    During magnetic clouds the solar wind has properties of low plasma beta, intense magnetic field, smooth north-south (or south-north) magnetic field polarity reversals, and a general absence of Alfven waves and discontinuities. The earth's magnetospheric and ionospheric convection velocities significantly increase during periods of southward IMF within magnetic clouds. At high latitudes, a two-cell convection pattern develops that can be quantitatively described by the DP2 equivalent current system. Under certain circumstances, "sawtooth" events occur featuring quasi-periodic substorm expansion phase activity in which westward electrojets (i.e., equivalent DP1 current) appear in the midnight sector in association with each substorm expansion phase. By studying the April 18, 2002 "sawtooth" event, we show how the DP2 and DP1 current systems develop during a smooth southward IMF interval within the magnetic cloud. With an absence of external triggering, the occurrence of quasi-periodic substorm expansion onsets suggests that this "sawtooth" event may be a result of magnetospheric self-regulation. We also discuss the corresponding energy transfer from the magnetotail where the tail magnetic field intensity is seen to vary quasi-periodically.

  14. OES-IA Annex IV: Environmental Effects of Marine and Hydrokinetic Devices - Report from the Experts’ Workshop September 27th – 28th 2010 Clontarf Castle, Dublin Ireland

    SciTech Connect

    Copping, Andrea E.; O'Toole, Michael J.

    2010-12-02

    An experts' workshop was convened in Dublin Ireland September 27th – 28th 2010 in support of IEA Ocean Energy Systems Implementing Agreement Annex IV. PNNL was responsible for organizing the content of the workshop, overseeing the contractors (Irish Marine Institute) hosting the event, presenting material on Annex IV and materials applicable to the workshop intent. PNNL is also overseeing a contractor (Wave Energy Center/University of Plymouth – WEC/UP) in the collection and analysis of the Annex IV data. Fifty-eight experts from 8 countries attended the workshop by invitation, spending two days discussing the needs of Annex IV. Presentations by DOE (background on Annex IV), PNNL (process for developing Annex IV; presentation of the draft database for PNNL project, plans for incorporating Annex IV data), WEC/UP on the environmental effect matrix, and four MHK developers (two from the UK, one from Ireland and one from Sweden; each discussing their own projects and lessons learned for measuring and mitigating environmental effects, as well as interactions with consenting [permitting] processes) helped provide background. The workshop participants worked part of the time in the large group and most of the time in four smaller breakout groups. Participants engaged in the process and provided a wealth of examples of MHK environmental work, particularly in the European nations. They provided practical and actionable advice on the following: • Developing the Annex IV database, with specific uses and audiences • Strong consensus that we should collect detailed metadata on available data sets, rather than attempting to draw in copious datasets. The participants felt there would then be an opportunity to then ask for specific set of data as needed, with specific uses and ownership of the data specified. This is particularly important as many data collected, particularly in Europe but also in Canada, are proprietary; developers were not comfortable with the idea of

  15. Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration within IEA Wind Annex XXIII: Phase II Results Regarding Monopile Foundation Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Jonkman, J.; Butterfield, S.; Passon, P.; Larsen, T.; Camp, T.; Nichols, J.; Azcona, J.; Martinez, A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an overview and describes the latest findings of the code-to-code verification activities of the Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration, which operates under Subtask 2 of the International Energy Agency Wind Annex XXIII.

  16. Condition responsive truck rollover warning systems: Alternative system designs

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, S.; Richards, S.H.

    1997-10-01

    Truck rollover is a serious highway safety problem, with consequences that make the occurrences important despite their relative infrequency. Truck accidents on urban freeways occur more frequently at interchange off-ramps that at any other location, accounting for about 5% of fatal truck accidents, according to accident statistics summarized in a study performed by Bellomo-McGee, Inc., for FHWA. Severe traffic disruption often results from truck rollover, and the severity of incidents can be sorely multiplied by the type of cargo the truck is hauling. Some hazardous cargos have the potential to cause true disaster is they are spilled as a result of truck rollover. Because of the severity of consequences of truck rollover accidents, it is important to seek ways to avoid such accidents. In the near-term future, the most likely means to prevent such rollover accidents is a condition responsive system that can warn truck drivers of impending rollover in time for them to take corrective actions.

  17. High average power solid state laser power conditioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Steinkraus, R.F.

    1987-03-03

    The power conditioning system for the High Average Power Laser program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is described. The system has been operational for two years. It is high voltage, high power, fault protected, and solid state. The power conditioning system drives flashlamps that pump solid state lasers. Flashlamps are driven by silicon control rectifier (SCR) switched, resonant charged, (LC) discharge pulse forming networks (PFNs). The system uses fiber optics for control and diagnostics. Energy and thermal diagnostics are monitored by computers.

  18. Thermal Environment for Classrooms. Central System Approach to Air Conditioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Triechler, Walter W.

    This speech compares the air conditioning requirements of high-rise office buildings with those of large centralized school complexes. A description of one particular air conditioning system provides information about the system's arrangement, functions, performance efficiency, and cost effectiveness. (MLF)

  19. Rotor equivalent wind speed for power curve measurement - comparative exercise for IEA Wind Annex 32

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, R.; Cañadillas, B.; Clifton, A.; Feeney, S.; Nygaard, N.; Poodt, M.; St. Martin, C.; Tüxen, E.; Wagenaar, J. W.

    2014-06-01

    A comparative exercise has been organised within the International Energy Agency (IEA) Wind Annex 32 in order to test the Rotor Equivalent Wind Speed (REWS) method under various conditions of wind shear and measurement techniques. Eight organisations from five countries participated in the exercise. Each member of the group has derived both the power curve based on the wind speed at hub height and the power curve based on the REWS. This yielded results for different wind turbines, located in diverse types of terrain and where the wind speed profile was measured with different instruments (mast or various lidars). The participants carried out two preliminary steps in order to reach consensus on how to implement the REWS method. First, they all derived the REWS for one 10 minute wind speed profile. Secondly, they all derived the power curves for one dataset. The main point requiring consensus was the definition of the segment area used as weighting for the wind speeds measured at the various heights in the calculation of the REWS. This comparative exercise showed that the REWS method results in a significant difference compared to the standard method using the wind speed at hub height in conditions with large shear and low turbulence intensity.

  20. Air conditioning system with supplemental ice storing and cooling capacity

    DOEpatents

    Weng, Kuo-Lianq; Weng, Kuo-Liang

    1998-01-01

    The present air conditioning system with ice storing and cooling capacity can generate and store ice in its pipe assembly or in an ice storage tank particularly equipped for the system, depending on the type of the air conditioning system. The system is characterized in particular in that ice can be produced and stored in the air conditioning system whereby the time of supplying cooled air can be effectively extended with the merit that the operation cycle of the on and off of the compressor can be prolonged, extending the operation lifespan of the compressor in one aspect. In another aspect, ice production and storage in great amount can be performed in an off-peak period of the electrical power consumption and the stored ice can be utilized in the peak period of the power consumption so as to provide supplemental cooling capacity for the compressor of the air conditioning system whereby the shift of peak and off-peak power consumption can be effected with ease. The present air conditioning system can lower the installation expense for an ice-storing air conditioning system and can also be applied to an old conventional air conditioning system.

  1. Technical Basis for Radiological Emergency Plan Annex for WTD Emergency Response Plan: West Point Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hickey, Eva E.; Strom, Daniel J.

    2005-08-01

    Staff of the King County Wastewater Treatment Division (WTD) have concern about the aftermath of a radiological dispersion event (RDE) leading to the introduction of significant quantities of radioactive material into the combined sanitary and storm sewer system in King County, Washington. Radioactive material could come from the use of a radiological dispersion device (RDD). RDDs include "dirty bombs" that are not nuclear detonations but are explosives designed to spread radioactive material (National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) 2001). Radioactive material also could come from deliberate introduction or dispersion of radioactive material into the environment, including waterways and water supply systems. This document, Volume 3 of PNNL-15163 is the technical basis for the Annex to the West Point Treatment Plant (WPTP) Emergency Response Plan related to responding to a radiological emergency at the WPTP. The plan primarily considers response to radioactive material that has been introduced in the other combined sanitary and storm sewer system from a radiological dispersion device, but is applicable to any accidental or deliberate introduction of materials into the system.

  2. System and method for statistically monitoring and analyzing sensed conditions

    DOEpatents

    Pebay, Philippe P.; Brandt, James M.; Gentile, Ann C.; Marzouk, Youssef M.; Hale, Darrian J.; Thompson, David C.

    2011-01-25

    A system and method of monitoring and analyzing a plurality of attributes for an alarm condition is disclosed. The attributes are processed and/or unprocessed values of sensed conditions of a collection of a statistically significant number of statistically similar components subjected to varying environmental conditions. The attribute values are used to compute the normal behaviors of some of the attributes and also used to infer parameters of a set of models. Relative probabilities of some attribute values are then computed and used along with the set of models to determine whether an alarm condition is met. The alarm conditions are used to prevent or reduce the impact of impending failure.

  3. System and method for statistically monitoring and analyzing sensed conditions

    DOEpatents

    Pebay, Philippe P.; Brandt, James M. , Gentile; Ann C. , Marzouk; Youssef M. , Hale; Darrian J. , Thompson; David C.

    2010-07-13

    A system and method of monitoring and analyzing a plurality of attributes for an alarm condition is disclosed. The attributes are processed and/or unprocessed values of sensed conditions of a collection of a statistically significant number of statistically similar components subjected to varying environmental conditions. The attribute values are used to compute the normal behaviors of some of the attributes and also used to infer parameters of a set of models. Relative probabilities of some attribute values are then computed and used along with the set of models to determine whether an alarm condition is met. The alarm conditions are used to prevent or reduce the impact of impending failure.

  4. System and method for statistically monitoring and analyzing sensed conditions

    DOEpatents

    Pebay, Philippe P.; Brandt, James M.; Gentile, Ann C.; Marzouk, Youssef M.; Hale, Darrian J.; Thompson, David C.

    2011-01-04

    A system and method of monitoring and analyzing a plurality of attributes for an alarm condition is disclosed. The attributes are processed and/or unprocessed values of sensed conditions of a collection of a statistically significant number of statistically similar components subjected to varying environmental conditions. The attribute values are used to compute the normal behaviors of some of the attributes and also used to infer parameters of a set of models. Relative probabilities of some attribute values are then computed and used along with the set of models to determine whether an alarm condition is met. The alarm conditions are used to prevent or reduce the impact of impending failure.

  5. Kinetic modeling of petroleum formation in the Maracaibo Basin: Final report, Annex 12

    SciTech Connect

    Burnham, A.K.; Braun, R.L.; Sweeney, J.J.; Reynolds, J.G.; Vallejos, C.; Talukdar, S.

    1992-07-01

    The purpose of this project is to develop and test improved kinetic models of petroleum generation and cracking, pore pressure buildup, and fluid expulsion. The work was performed jointly between Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Research Organization of the Venezuelan National Petroleum Company under Annex 12 of an agreement between DOE and the Venezuelan Ministry of Energy and Mines. Laboratory experiments were conducted at both LLNL and INTEVEP to obtain the reaction rate and product composition information needed to develop chemical kinetic models. Experiments at INTEVEP included hydrous pyrolysis and characterization of oils by gas and liquid chromatography. Experiments at LLNL included programmed pyrolysis in open and self-purging reactors, sometimes including on-line gas analysis by tandem mass spectrometry, and characterization of oils by gas chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance. The PMOD code was used to develop a detailed pyrolysis mechanism from the extensive laboratory data. This mechanism is able to predict yield of bitumen, oil, and gas as a function of time and temperature for such diverse laboratory conditions as hydrous pyrolysis and rapid, programmed, open pyrolysis. PMOD calculations were compared to geologic observations for 22 wells in the Maracaibo basin. When permeability parameters are chosen to match calculated pore pressures with measured present day values, the PMOD calculations indicate that organic maturation reactions contribute a significant fraction of the overpressure during oil generation and early oil cracking. Calculations agreed with observed geochemical maturity parameters of the source rock. 37 refs., 64 figs., 20 tabs.

  6. A power conditioning system for radioisotope thermoelectric generator energy sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillis, J. A., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The use of radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG) as the primary source of energy in unmanned spacecraft is discussed. RTG output control, power conditioning system requirements, the electrical design, and circuit performance are also discussed.

  7. Report on Condition Assessment Technology of Wastewater Collection Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    The wastewater collection system infrastructure in the United States is recognized as being in poor condition and in urgent need of condition assessment and rehabilitation. As part of an effort to address aging infrastructure needs, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEP...

  8. New stability conditions for nonlinear time varying delay systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmadssia, S.; Saadaoui, K.; Benrejeb, M.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, new practical stability conditions for a class of nonlinear time varying delay systems are proposed. The study is based on the use of a specific state space description, known as the Benrejeb characteristic arrow form matrix, and aggregation techniques to obtain delay-dependent stability conditions. Application of this method to delayed Lurie-Postnikov nonlinear systems is given. Illustrative examples are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  9. Advanced power conditioning for maglev systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nerem, A.; Bowles, E.E.; Chapelle, S.; Callanan, R.J.

    1992-08-01

    The final report contains parametric scaling data and computer models of power conditioning equipment applicable to the design of an advanced maglev system. The power conditioning topologies were selected based on data from a literature search, on characteristics of present power semiconductor technology devices, and on actual performance characterization of designs using a circuit analysis program. The analyses show that GTOs are the best switches for traction drives, input power conditioning equipment, and the braking chopper. At lower power levels, as required for auxiliary power and superconducting coil power conditioning, the IGBT appeared to be the best switch.

  10. The CMS Beam Conditions and Radiation Monitoring System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, E.; Bacchetta, N.; Bell, A. J.; Dabrowski, A.; Guthoff, M.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Hempel, M.; Henschel, H.; Lange, W.; Lohmann, W.; Müller, S.; Novgorodova, O.; Pfeiffer, D.; Ryjov, V.; Stickland, D.; Schimdt, R.; Walsh, R.

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is one of the two large, general purpose experiments situated at the LHC at CERN. As with all high energy physics experiments, knowledge of the beam conditions and luminosity is of vital importance. The Beam Conditions and Radiation Monitoring System (BRM) is installed in CMS to protect the detector and to provide feedback to LHC on beam conditions. It is composed of several sub-systems that measure the radiation level close to or inside all sub-detectors, monitor the beam halo conditions with different time resolution, support beam tuning and protect CMS in case of adverse beam conditions by firing a beam abort signal. This paper presents three of the BRM subsystems: the Fast Beam Conditions Monitor (BCM1F), which is designed for fast flux monitoring, measuring with nanosecond time resolution, both the beam halo and collision products; the Beam Scintillator Counters (BSC), that provide hit rates and time information of beam halo and collision products; and the Beam Conditions Monitors (BCM) used as a protection system that can trigger a beam dump when beam losses occur in order to prevent damage to the pixel and tracker detectors. A description of the systems and a characterization on the basis of data collected during LHC operation is presented.

  11. Boundary conditions for hyperbolic systems of partial differentials equations

    PubMed Central

    Guaily, Amr G.; Epstein, Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    An easy-to-apply algorithm is proposed to determine the correct set(s) of boundary conditions for hyperbolic systems of partial differential equations. The proposed approach is based on the idea of the incoming/outgoing characteristics and is validated by considering two problems. The first one is the well-known Euler system of equations in gas dynamics and it proved to yield set(s) of boundary conditions consistent with the literature. The second test case corresponds to the system of equations governing the flow of viscoelastic liquids. PMID:25685437

  12. 75 FR 20364 - Public Buildings Service; Key Largo Beacon Annex Site; Key Largo, FL; Transfer of Property

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION Public Buildings Service; Key Largo Beacon Annex Site; Key Largo, FL; Transfer of Property..., identified as Key Largo Beacon Annex Site, Key Largo, FL to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Department...

  13. Controlled cooling of an electronic system based on projected conditions

    SciTech Connect

    David, Milnes P.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Schmidt, Roger R.

    2015-08-18

    Energy efficient control of a cooling system cooling an electronic system is provided based, in part, on projected conditions. The control includes automatically determining an adjusted control setting(s) for an adjustable cooling component(s) of the cooling system. The automatically determining is based, at least in part, on projected power consumed by the electronic system at a future time and projected temperature at the future time of a heat sink to which heat extracted is rejected. The automatically determining operates to reduce power consumption of the cooling system and/or the electronic system while ensuring that at least one targeted temperature associated with the cooling system or the electronic system is within a desired range. The automatically determining may be based, at least in part, on an experimentally obtained model(s) relating the targeted temperature and power consumption of the adjustable cooling component(s) of the cooling system.

  14. Controlled cooling of an electronic system based on projected conditions

    DOEpatents

    David, Milnes P.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Schmidt, Roger R.

    2016-05-17

    Energy efficient control of a cooling system cooling an electronic system is provided based, in part, on projected conditions. The control includes automatically determining an adjusted control setting(s) for an adjustable cooling component(s) of the cooling system. The automatically determining is based, at least in part, on projected power consumed by the electronic system at a future time and projected temperature at the future time of a heat sink to which heat extracted is rejected. The automatically determining operates to reduce power consumption of the cooling system and/or the electronic system while ensuring that at least one targeted temperature associated with the cooling system or the electronic system is within a desired range. The automatically determining may be based, at least in part, on an experimentally obtained model(s) relating the targeted temperature and power consumption of the adjustable cooling component(s) of the cooling system.

  15. Application of solar energy to air conditioning systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nash, J. M.; Harstad, A. J.

    1976-01-01

    The results of a survey of solar energy system applications of air conditioning are summarized. Techniques discussed are both solar powered (absorption cycle and the heat engine/Rankine cycle) and solar related (heat pump). Brief descriptions of the physical implications of various air conditioning techniques, discussions of status, proposed technological improvements, methods of utilization and simulation models are presented, along with an extensive bibliography of related literature.

  16. An IPTG Inducible Conditional Expression System for Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Ravishankar, Sudha; Ambady, Anisha; Ramu, Haripriya; Mudugal, Naina Vinay; Tunduguru, Ragadeepthi; Anbarasu, Anand; Sharma, Umender K.; Sambandamurthy, Vasan K.; Ramaiah, Sudha

    2015-01-01

    Conditional expression strains serve as a valuable tool to study the essentiality and to establish the vulnerability of a target under investigation in a drug discovery program. While essentiality implies an absolute requirement of a target function, vulnerability provides valuable information on the extent to which a target function needs to be depleted to achieve bacterial growth inhibition followed by cell death. The critical feature of an ideal conditional expression system is its ability to tightly regulate gene expression to achieve the full spectrum spanning from a high level of expression in order to support growth and near zero level of expression to mimic conditions of gene knockout. A number of bacterial conditional expression systems have been reported for use in mycobacteria. The utility of an isopropylthiogalactoside (IPTG) inducible system in mycobacteria has been reported for protein overexpression and anti-sense gene expression from a replicating multi-copy plasmid. Herein, we report the development of a versatile set of non-replicating IPTG inducible vectors for mycobacteria which can be used for generation of conditional expression strains through homologous recombination. The role of a single lac operator versus a double lac operator to regulate gene expression was evaluated by monitoring the expression levels of β-galactosidase in Mycobacterium smegmatis. These studies indicated a significant level of leaky expression from the vector with a single lac operator but none from the vector with double lac operator. The significance of the double lac operator vector for target validation was established by monitoring the growth kinetics of an inhA, a rpoB and a ftsZ conditional expression strain grown in the presence of different concentrations of IPTG. The utility of this inducible system in identifying target specific inhibitors was established by screening a focussed library of small molecules using an inhA and a rpoB conditional expression

  17. Boundary conditions on faster-than-light transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Gary L.; Knowles, H. B.

    1993-01-01

    In order to be consistent with current physical theories, any proposal of a faster-than light (FTL) transportation system must satisfy several critical conditions. It must predict the mass, space, and time dimensional changes predicted by relativity physics when velocity falls below the speed of light. It must also not violate causality, and remain consistent with quantum physics in the limit of microscopic systems. It is also essential that the proposal conserve energy.

  18. Universal conditions for exact path integration in neural systems.

    PubMed

    Issa, John B; Zhang, Kechen

    2012-04-24

    Animals are capable of navigation even in the absence of prominent landmark cues. This behavioral demonstration of path integration is supported by the discovery of place cells and other neurons that show path-invariant response properties even in the dark. That is, under suitable conditions, the activity of these neurons depends primarily on the spatial location of the animal regardless of which trajectory it followed to reach that position. Although many models of path integration have been proposed, no known single theoretical framework can formally accommodate their diverse computational mechanisms. Here we derive a set of necessary and sufficient conditions for a general class of systems that performs exact path integration. These conditions include multiplicative modulation by velocity inputs and a path-invariance condition that limits the structure of connections in the underlying neural network. In particular, for a linear system to satisfy the path-invariance condition, the effective synaptic weight matrices under different velocities must commute. Our theory subsumes several existing exact path integration models as special cases. We use entorhinal grid cells as an example to demonstrate that our framework can provide useful guidance for finding unexpected solutions to the path integration problem. This framework may help constrain future experimental and modeling studies pertaining to a broad class of neural integration systems.

  19. Glow discharge techniques for conditioning high vacuum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dylla, H.F.

    1988-03-01

    A review is given of glow discharge techniques which are useful for conditioning vacuum vessels for high vacuum applications. Substantial development of glow discharge techniques has been done for the purpose of in-situ conditioning of the large ultrahigh vacuum systems for particle accelerators and magnetic fusion devices. In these applications the glow discharge treatments remove impurities from vessel surfaces in order to minimize particle-induced desorption coefficients. Cleaning mechanisms involve a mixture of sputtering and ion- (or neutral) induced desorption effects depending on the gas mixture (ArO/sub 2/ vs. H/sub 2/) and excitation method (DC, RF, and ECR). The author will review the methodology of glow discharge conditioning, diagnostic measurements provided by residual gas and surface composition analysis, and applications to vessel conditioning and materials processing. 76 refs., 16 figs.

  20. New boundary conditions for the c=-2 ghost system

    SciTech Connect

    Creutzig, Thomas; Quella, Thomas; Schomerus, Volker

    2008-01-15

    We investigate a novel boundary condition for the bc system with central charge c=-2. Its boundary state is constructed and tested in detail. It appears to give rise to the first example of a local logarithmic boundary sector within a bulk theory whose Virasoro zero modes are diagonalizable.

  1. Cometabolism of Monochloramine by Nitrosomonas europaea under Distribution System Conditions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Batch kinetic experiments were carried out with a pure culture of N. europaea to characterize the kinetics of NH2Cl cometabolism. Nitrite, nitrate, NH2Cl, ammonia and pH were measured. The experiments were performed at a variety of conditions relevant to distribution system nitri...

  2. A modern diagnostic approach for automobile systems condition monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selig, M.; Shi, Z.; Ball, A.; Schmidt, K.

    2012-05-01

    An important topic in automotive research and development is the area of active and passive safety systems. In general, it is grouped in active safety systems to prevent accidents and passive systems to reduce the impact of a crash. An example for an active system is ABS while a seat belt tensioner represents the group of passive systems. Current developments in the automotive industry try to link active with passive system components to enable a complete event sequence, beginning with the warning of the driver about a critical situation till the automatic emergency call after an accident. The cross-linking has an impact on the current diagnostic approach, which is described in this paper. Therefore, this contribution introduces a new diagnostic approach for automotive mechatronic systems. The concept is based on monitoring the messages which are exchanged via the automotive communication systems, e.g. the CAN bus. According to the authors' assumption, the messages on the bus are changing between faultless and faulty vehicle condition. The transmitted messages of the sensors and control units are different depending on the condition of the car. First experiments are carried and in addition, the hardware design of a suitable diagnostic interface is presented. Finally, first results will be presented and discussed.

  3. 19 CFR Annex Viii-B to Part 351 - Schedule for Expedited Sunset Reviews

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Schedule for Expedited Sunset Reviews VIII Annex... Sunset Reviews Day 1 Event Regulation 0 Initiation § 351.218(c) 15 Filing of Notice of Intent to... sunset review § 351.309(e)(ii) (not later than 70 days after the date of publication of the Notice...

  4. 19 CFR Annex Viii-B to Part 351 - Schedule for Expedited Sunset Reviews

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Schedule for Expedited Sunset Reviews VIII Annex... Sunset Reviews Day 1 Event Regulation 0 Initiation § 351.218(c) 15 Filing of Notice of Intent to... sunset review § 351.309(e)(ii) (not later than 70 days after the date of publication of the Notice...

  5. 19 CFR Annex Viii-B to Part 351 - Schedule for Expedited Sunset Reviews

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Schedule for Expedited Sunset Reviews VIII Annex... Sunset Reviews Day 1 Event Regulation 0 Initiation § 351.218(c) 15 Filing of Notice of Intent to... sunset review § 351.309(e)(ii) (not later than 70 days after the date of publication of the Notice...

  6. 19 CFR Annex Viii-B to Part 351 - Schedule for Expedited Sunset Reviews

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Schedule for Expedited Sunset Reviews VIII Annex... Sunset Reviews Day 1 Event Regulation 0 Initiation § 351.218(c) 15 Filing of Notice of Intent to... sunset review § 351.309(e)(ii) (not later than 70 days after the date of publication of the Notice...

  7. 19 CFR Annex Viii-B to Part 351 - Schedule for Expedited Sunset Reviews

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Schedule for Expedited Sunset Reviews VIII Annex... Sunset Reviews Day 1 Event Regulation 0 Initiation § 351.218(c) 15 Filing of Notice of Intent to... sunset review § 351.309(e)(ii) (not later than 70 days after the date of publication of the Notice...

  8. A&M. Hot cell annex (TAN633). Camera facing east. Construction view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A&M. Hot cell annex (TAN-633). Camera facing east. Construction view of north and west walls. Photographer: Jack L. Anderson. Date: October 23, 1957. INEEL negative no. 57-5336 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  9. A&M. Hot cell annex (TAN633) interior under construction. Hot cells ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A&M. Hot cell annex (TAN-633) interior under construction. Hot cells and their doors are along concrete wall. Note side wall of pumice block. Photographer: Jack L. Anderson. Date: October 28, 1957. INEEL negative no. 57-5335 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  10. Teaching American Diplomacy Using Primary Sources. The Annexation of the Philippines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zola, Jaye; Johnson, Jacquelyn S.

    In this high school U.S. government and U.S. history curriculum unit, students examine in depth the annexation of the Philippines. Detailed activities are provided to teach students about U.S. foreign policy, the growth of the United States as a world power, and expansion and colonization in the Pacific Ocean. The materials include informational…

  11. TEWI Evaluation for Household Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobue, Atsushi; Watanabe, Koichi

    In the present study, we have quantitatively evaluated the global warming impact by household refrigerator and air-conditioning systems on the basis of reliable TEWI information. In TEWI evaluation of household refrigerators, the percentage of the impact by refrigerant released to the atmosphere (direct effect) is less than 18.6% in TEWI. In case of room air-conditioners, however, the percentage of direct effect is less than 5.4% in TEWI. Therefore, it was confirmed that impact by CO2 released as a result of the energy consumed to drive the refrigeration or air-conditioning systems throughout their lifetime (indirect effect) is far larger than direct effect by the entire system. A reduction of indirect effect by energy saving is the most effective measure in reducing the global warming impact by refrigeration and air-conditioning systems, For a realization of the energy saving, not only the advanced improvement in energy efficiency by household appliance manufacturers but also the improvement of consumer's mind in selecting the systems and a way of using are concluded important.

  12. A Classification System for Peri-implant Diseases and Conditions.

    PubMed

    Sarmiento, Hector L; Norton, Michael R; Fiorellini, Joseph P

    2016-01-01

    Peri-implant bone levels are influenced by pathologic and nonpathologic conditions. The understanding of peri-implant disease has evolved over the past several decades, and the classification of peri-implantitis has been limited to descriptions of disease progression or those involving soft and/or hard tissues (peri-implant mucositis or peri-implantitis). However, no classification system has been established based on etiology. The objective of this study was to identify various etiologies for peri-implantitis and to establish a classification system based on the pathogenesis. The results indicate that the majority of bone loss was related to biofilm, followed by iatrogenic factors, exogenous irritants, absence of keratinized tissue, and extrinsic pathology. The proposed classification system will allow the clinician to properly diagnose peri-implant diseases in relation to etiology. These conditions may respond differently to applied therapies. PMID:27560674

  13. RIXS in correlated electron systems under extreme conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balédent, V.; Rueff, J.-P.

    2016-07-01

    We report here on the application of Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS) in correlated electrons systems under pressure. Thanks to its bulk sensitivity and superior resolving power, RIXS appears as a powerful spectroscopic technique to unravel the local electronic and magnetic properties of materials at extreme conditions. The method is illustrated in vanadium-oxides- and Fe-based superconductors at high pressure.

  14. Beam-path conditioning for high-power laser systems

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, T.; Johnson, D.; Languirand, M.

    1990-01-01

    Heating of mirrors and windows by high-power radiation from a laser transmitter produces turbulent density gradients in the gas near the optical surfaces. If the gradients are left uncontrolled, the resulting phase errors reduce the intensity on the target and degrade the signal returned to a receiver. Beam path conditioning maximizes the efficiency of the optical system by alleviating thermal turbulence within the beam path. Keywords: High power radiation, Beam path, Optical surface, Laser beams, Reprints. (JHD)

  15. Investigation of air cleaning system response to accident conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Andrae, R.W.; Bolstad, J.W.; Foster, R.D.; Gregory, W.S.; Horak, H.L.; Idar, E.S.; Martin, R.A.; Ricketts, C.I.; Smith, P.R.; Tang, P.K.

    1980-01-01

    Air cleaning system response to the stress of accident conditions are being investigated. A program overview and hghlight recent results of our investigation are presented. The program includes both analytical and experimental investigations. Computer codes for predicting effects of tornados, explosions, fires, and material transport are described. The test facilities used to obtain supportive experimental data to define structural integrity and confinement effectiveness of ventilation system components are described. Examples of experimental results for code verification, blower response to tornado transients, and filter response to tornado and explosion transients are reported.

  16. Development of a locomotive engine condition monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Broughton, C.; Holloway, R.; Webster, G.

    1997-12-31

    Outlines test procedures and results of a study of the application of the instantaneous crankshaft angular velocity (ICAV) engine condition monitoring system applied to three freight locomotives. The study involved the assessment of a prototype repair-shop diagnostic tool, based on prior experimental programs and the ICAV technology. Engine testing was carried out at four-month intervals for three separate trials on the locomotives. Experimental data obtained included power output, fuel consumption, cylinder firing pressure waveforms, and the ICAV waveforms. The performance of the ICAV system was judged on its ability to accurately predict the change in indicated mean effective pressure of each cylinder from one test to the next.

  17. Liquid over-feeding air conditioning system and method

    DOEpatents

    Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C.

    1993-09-21

    A refrigeration air conditioning system utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation is described. A liquid refrigerant accumulator-heat exchanger is placed in the system to provide a heat exchange relationship between hot liquid refrigerant discharged from condenser and a relatively cool mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant discharged from the evaporator. This heat exchange relationship substantially sub-cools the hot liquid refrigerant which undergoes little or no evaporation across the expansion device and provides a liquid over-feeding operation through the evaporator for effectively using 100 percent of evaporator for cooling purposes and for providing the aforementioned mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant. 1 figure.

  18. Liquid over-feeding air conditioning system and method

    DOEpatents

    Mei, Viung C.; Chen, Fang C.

    1993-01-01

    A refrigeration air conditioning system utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation is described. A liquid refrigerant accumulator-heat exchanger is placed in the system to provide a heat exchange relationship between hot liquid refrigerant discharged from condenser and a relatively cool mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant discharged from the evaporator. This heat exchange relationship substantially sub-cools the hot liquid refrigerant which undergoes little or no evaporation across the expansion device and provides a liquid over-feeding operation through the evaporator for effectively using 100 percent of evaporator for cooling purposes and for providing the aforementioned mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant.

  19. A knowledge based expert system for condition monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Selkirk, C.G.; Roberge, P.R.; Fisher, G.F.; Yeung, K.K.

    1994-12-31

    Condition monitoring (CM) is the focus of many maintenance philosophies around the world today. In the Canadian Forces (CF), CM has played an important role in the maintenance of aircraft systems since the introduction of spectrometric oil analysis (SOAP) over twenty years ago. Other techniques in use in the CF today include vibration analysis (VA), ferrography, and filter debris analysis (FDA). To improve the usefulness and utility gained from these CM techniques, work is currently underway to incorporate expert systems into them. An expert system for FDA is being developed which will aid filter debris analysts in identifying wear debris and wear level trends, and which will provide the analyst with reference examples in an attempt to standardize results. Once completed, this knowledge based expert system will provide a blueprint from which other CM expert systems can be created. Amalgamating these specific systems into a broad based global system will provide the CM analyst with a tool that will be able to correlate data and results from each of the techniques, thereby increasing the utility of each individual method of analysis. This paper will introduce FDA and then outline the development of the FDA expert system and future applications.

  20. Response of Simple, Model Systems to Extreme Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, Rodney C.; Lang, Maik

    2015-07-30

    The focus of the research was on the application of high-pressure/high-temperature techniques, together with intense energetic ion beams, to the study of the behavior of simple oxide systems (e.g., SiO2, GeO2, CeO2, TiO2, HfO2, SnO2, ZnO and ZrO2) under extreme conditions. These simple stoichiometries provide unique model systems for the analysis of structural responses to pressure up to and above 1 Mbar, temperatures of up to several thousands of kelvin, and the extreme energy density generated by energetic heavy ions (tens of keV/atom). The investigations included systematic studies of radiation- and pressure-induced amorphization of high P-T polymorphs. By studying the response of simple stoichiometries that have multiple structural “outcomes”, we have established the basic knowledge required for the prediction of the response of more complex structures to extreme conditions. We especially focused on the amorphous state and characterized the different non-crystalline structure-types that result from the interplay of radiation and pressure. For such experiments, we made use of recent technological developments, such as the perforated diamond-anvil cell and in situ investigation using synchrotron x-ray sources. We have been particularly interested in using extreme pressures to alter the electronic structure of a solid prior to irradiation. We expected that the effects of modified band structure would be evident in the track structure and morphology, information which is much needed to describe theoretically the fundamental physics of track-formation. Finally, we investigated the behavior of different simple-oxide, composite nanomaterials (e.g., uncoated nanoparticles vs. core/shell systems) under coupled, extreme conditions. This provided insight into surface and boundary effects on phase stability under extreme conditions.

  1. Electrostatics of solvated systems in periodic boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreussi, Oliviero; Marzari, Nicola

    2014-12-01

    Continuum solvation methods can provide an accurate and inexpensive embedding of quantum simulations in liquid or complex dielectric environments. Notwithstanding a long history and manifold applications to isolated systems in open boundary conditions, their extension to materials simulations, typically entailing periodic boundary conditions, is very recent, and special care is needed to address correctly the electrostatic terms. We discuss here how periodic boundary corrections developed for systems in vacuum should be modified to take into account solvent effects, using as a general framework the self-consistent continuum solvation model developed within plane-wave density-functional theory [O. Andreussi et al., J. Chem. Phys. 136, 064102 (2012), 10.1063/1.3676407]. A comprehensive discussion of real- and reciprocal-space corrective approaches is presented, together with an assessment of their ability to remove electrostatic interactions between periodic replicas. Numerical results for zero- and two-dimensional charged systems highlight the effectiveness of the different suggestions, and underline the importance of a proper treatment of electrostatic interactions in first-principles studies of charged systems in solution.

  2. High Technology Centrifugal Compressor for Commercial Air Conditioning Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ruckes, John

    2006-04-15

    R&D Dynamics, Bloomfield, CT in partnership with the State of Connecticut has been developing a high technology, oil-free, energy-efficient centrifugal compressor called CENVA for commercial air conditioning systems under a program funded by the US Department of Energy. The CENVA compressor applies the foil bearing technology used in all modern aircraft, civil and military, air conditioning systems. The CENVA compressor will enhance the efficiency of water and air cooled chillers, packaged roof top units, and other air conditioning systems by providing an 18% reduction in energy consumption in the unit capacity range of 25 to 350 tons of refrigeration The technical approach for CENVA involved the design and development of a high-speed, oil-free foil gas bearing-supported two-stage centrifugal compressor, CENVA encompassed the following high technologies, which are not currently utilized in commercial air conditioning systems: Foil gas bearings operating in HFC-134a; Efficient centrifugal impellers and diffusers; High speed motors and drives; and System integration of above technologies. Extensive design, development and testing efforts were carried out. Significant accomplishments achieved under this program are: (1) A total of 26 builds and over 200 tests were successfully completed with successively improved designs; (2) Use of foil gas bearings in refrigerant R134a was successfully proven; (3) A high speed, high power permanent magnet motor was developed; (4) An encoder was used for signal feedback between motor and controller. Due to temperature limitations of the encoder, the compressor could not operate at higher speed and in turn at higher pressure. In order to alleviate this problem a unique sensorless controller was developed; (5) This controller has successfully been tested as stand alone; however, it has not yet been integrated and tested as a system; (6) The compressor successfully operated at water cooled condensing temperatures Due to temperature

  3. Analysis of resonance mechanism and conditions of train bridge system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, H.; Zhang, N.; Guo, W. W.

    2006-11-01

    In this paper, the resonance mechanism and conditions of train-bridge system are investigated through theoretical derivations, numerical simulations and experimental data analyses. The resonant responses of the bridge induced by moving trains are classified into three types according to different resonance mechanisms: the first is related to the periodical actions of moving load series of the vertical weights, lateral centrifugal and wind forces of vehicles; the second is induced by the loading rate of moving load series of vehicles; the third is owing to the periodically loading of the swing forces of the train vehicles excited by track irregularities and wheel hunting movements. The vehicle resonance is induced by the periodical action of regular arrangement of bridge spans and their deflections. The resonant conditions are proposed and the corresponding resonant train speeds are determined. The application scopes of resonance conditions are discussed. The resonance of the train-bridge system is affected by the span, total length, lateral and vertical stiffness of the bridge, the compositions of the train, and the axle arrangements and natural frequencies of the vehicles. The resonant train speeds for some bridges are estimated and are compared with the critical train speeds obtained from the dynamic simulation of train-bridge interaction model or from the field measurements.

  4. Conditional random matrix ensembles and the stability of dynamical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirk, Paul; Rolando, Delphine M. Y.; MacLean, Adam L.; Stumpf, Michael P. H.

    2015-08-01

    Random matrix theory (RMT) has found applications throughout physics and applied mathematics, in subject areas as diverse as communications networks, population dynamics, neuroscience, and models of the banking system. Many of these analyses exploit elegant analytical results, particularly the circular law and its extensions. In order to apply these results, assumptions must be made about the distribution of matrix elements. Here we demonstrate that the choice of matrix distribution is crucial. In particular, adopting an unrealistic matrix distribution for the sake of analytical tractability is liable to lead to misleading conclusions. We focus on the application of RMT to the long-standing, and at times fractious, ‘diversity-stability debate’, which is concerned with establishing whether large complex systems are likely to be stable. Early work (and subsequent elaborations) brought RMT to bear on the debate by modelling the entries of a system’s Jacobian matrix as independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) random variables. These analyses were successful in yielding general results that were not tied to any specific system, but relied upon a restrictive i.i.d. assumption. Other studies took an opposing approach, seeking to elucidate general principles of stability through the analysis of specific systems. Here we develop a statistical framework that reconciles these two contrasting approaches. We use a range of illustrative dynamical systems examples to demonstrate that: (i) stability probability cannot be summarily deduced from any single property of the system (e.g. its diversity); and (ii) our assessment of stability depends on adequately capturing the details of the systems analysed. Failing to condition on the structure of dynamical systems will skew our analysis and can, even for very small systems, result in an unnecessarily pessimistic diagnosis of their stability.

  5. Importance of Hydrogeological Conditions on Open-loop Geothermal System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, D.; Bae, G.; Kim, S.; Lee, K.

    2013-12-01

    The open-loop geothermal system has been known as an eco-friendly, energy-saving, and cost-efficient alternative for the cooling and heating of buildings with directly using the relatively stable temperature of groundwater. Thus, hydrogeological properties of aquifer, such as hydraulic conductivity and storage, must be important in the system application. The study site is located near Han-river, Korea, and because of the well-developed alluvium it might be a typical site appropriate to this system requiring an amount of groundwater. In this study, the first objective of numerical experiments was to find the best distributions of pumping and injection wells suitable to the hydrogeological conditions of the site for the efficient and sustainable system operation. The aquifer has a gravel layer at 15m depth below the ground surface and the river and the agricultural field, which may be a potential contaminant source, are located at the west and east sides, respectively. Under the general conditions that the regional groundwater flows from the east to the river, the locally reversed well distribution, locating the pumping well at upgradient and the injection well at downgradient of the regional flow, was most sustainable. The gravel layer with high hydraulic conductivity caused a little drawdown despite of an amount of pumping and allowed to stably reinject the used groundwater in all the cases, but it provided a passage transferring the injected heat to the pumping well quickly, particularly in the cases locating the injection well at the upgradient. This thermal interference was more severe in the cases of the short distance between the wells. The high conductive layer is also a reason that the seasonal role conversion of wells for the aquifer thermal energy storage was ineffective in this site. Furthermore, the well distribution vertical to the regional groundwater flow was stable, but not best, and, thus, it may be a good choice in the conditions that the regional

  6. Absorption and adsorption chillers applied to air conditioning systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuczyńska, Agnieszka; Szaflik, Władysław

    2010-07-01

    This work presents an application possibility of sorption refrigerators driven by low temperature fluid for air conditioning of buildings. Thermodynamic models were formulated and absorption LiBr-water chiller with 10 kW cooling power as well as adsorption chiller with silica gel bed were investigated. Both of them are using water for desorption process with temperature Tdes = 80 °C. Coefficient of performance (COP) for both cooling cycles was analyzed in the same conditions of the driving heat source, cooling water Tc = 25 °C and temperature in evaporator Tevap = 5 °C. In this study, the computer software EES was used to investigate the performance of absorption heat pump system and its behaviour in configuration with geothermal heat source.

  7. Digitally Programmable Analogue Circuits for Sensor Conditioning Systems

    PubMed Central

    Zatorre, Guillermo; Medrano, Nicolás; Sanz, María Teresa; Aldea, Concepción; Calvo, Belén; Celma, Santiago

    2009-01-01

    This work presents two current-mode integrated circuits designed for sensor signal preprocessing in embedded systems. The proposed circuits have been designed to provide good signal transfer and fulfill their function, while minimizing the load effects due to building complex conditioning architectures. The processing architecture based on the proposed building blocks can be reconfigured through digital programmability. Thus, sensor useful range can be expanded, changes in the sensor operation can be compensated for and furthermore, undesirable effects such as device mismatching and undesired physical magnitudes sensor sensibilities are reduced. The circuits were integrated using a 0.35 μm standard CMOS process. Experimental measurements, load effects and a study of two different tuning strategies are presented. From these results, system performance is tested in an application which entails extending the linear range of a magneto-resistive sensor. Circuit area, average power consumption and programmability features allow these circuits to be included in embedded sensing systems as a part of the analogue conditioning components. PMID:22412331

  8. Pulsed power conditioning system for the Magajoule laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mexmain, Jean-Marc; Rubin de Cervens, D.; Marret, Jean-Pierre; Roos, V.; Cassany, B.; Eyl, P.; Pere, P.; Havre, Sierra S.; Fauvel, J.; Mathieu, P.; Benin, P.; Callu, G.; Vincent, C.; Michalczyk, Pierre

    2003-07-01

    The CEA is responsible for the Megajoule Laser (LMJ) facility. This facility is a large Flashlamp pump laser (1.8 MJ optical output). CEA entered into a contract with THALES to carry out the pulsed power conditioning system for the Megajoule Laser. The pulsed power conditioning system has a modular design which makes the facility more flexible and safer. This complete primary storage is a 450 MJ energy capacitor bank composed of 270 modules of 1.6 MJ energy. Each module is a stand-alone capacitor bank equipped with twelve 100 kJ capacitors and its embedded control/monitor and diagnostic system which is connected by an optical Ethernet link to the Command Control Supervisor of the facility. In the first step of the LMJ program, called "Line Integration Laser" (LIL), one laser chain will be built. The capacitor bank used to drive the LIL is comprised of 10 modules. This paper describes the design of the modules and the results of testing. The overall electrical performance meets the requirements.

  9. Ground-Based Icing Condition Remote Sensing System Definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reehorst, Andrew L.; Koenig, George G.

    2001-01-01

    This report documents the NASA Glenn Research Center activities to assess and down select remote sensing technologies for the purpose of developing a system capable of measuring icing condition hazards aloft. The information generated by such a remote sensing system is intended for use by the entire aviation community, including flight crews. air traffic controllers. airline dispatchers, and aviation weather forecasters. The remote sensing system must be capable of remotely measuring temperature and liquid water content (LWC), and indicating the presence of super-cooled large droplets (SLD). Technologies examined include Profiling Microwave Radiometer, Dual-Band Radar, Multi-Band Radar, Ka-Band Radar. Polarized Ka-Band Radar, and Multiple Field of View (MFOV) Lidar. The assessment of these systems took place primarily during the Mt. Washington Icing Sensors Project (MWISP) in April 1999 and the Alliance Icing Research Study (AIRS) from November 1999 to February 2000. A discussion of the various sensing technologies is included. The result of the assessment is that no one sensing technology can satisfy all of the stated project goals. Therefore a proposed system includes radiometry and Ka-band radar. A multilevel approach is proposed to allow the future selection of the fielded system based upon required capability and available funding. The most basic level system would be the least capable and least expensive. The next level would increase capability and cost, and the highest level would be the most capable and most expensive to field. The Level 1 system would consist of a Profiling Microwave Radiometer. The Level 2 system would add a Ka-Band Radar. The Level 3 system would add polarization to the Ka-Band Radar. All levels of the system would utilize hardware that is already under development by the U.S. Government. However, to meet the needs of the aviation community, all levels of the system will require further development. In addition to the proposed system

  10. Involvement of the cholinergic system in conditioning and perceptual memory.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Lianne; Platt, Bettina; Riedel, Gernot

    2011-08-10

    The cholinergic systems play a pivotal role in learning and memory, and have been the centre of attention when it comes to diseases containing cognitive deficits. It is therefore not surprising, that the cholinergic transmitter system has experienced detailed examination of its role in numerous behavioural situations not least with the perspective that cognition may be rescued with appropriate cholinergic 'boosters'. Here we reviewed the literature on (i) cholinergic lesions, (ii) pharmacological intervention of muscarinic or nicotinic system, or (iii) genetic deletion of selective receptor subtypes with respect to sensory discrimination and conditioning procedures. We consider visual, auditory, olfactory and somatosensory processing first before discussing more complex tasks such as startle responses, latent inhibition, negative patterning, eye blink and fear conditioning, and passive avoidance paradigms. An overarching reoccurring theme is that lesions of the cholinergic projection neurones of the basal forebrain impact negatively on acquisition learning in these paradigms and blockade of muscarinic (and to a lesser extent nicotinic) receptors in the target structures produce similar behavioural deficits. While these pertain mainly to impairments in acquisition learning, some rare cases extend to memory consolidation. Such single case observations warranted replication and more in-depth studies. Intriguingly, receptor blockade or receptor gene knockout repeatedly produced contradictory results (for example in fear conditioning) and combined studies, in which genetically altered mice are pharmacological manipulated, are so far missing. However, they are desperately needed to clarify underlying reasons for these contradictions. Consistently, stimulation of either muscarinic (mainly M(1)) or nicotinic (predominantly α7) receptors was beneficial for learning and memory formation across all paradigms supporting the notion that research into the development and

  11. Wireless pilot monitoring system for extreme race conditions.

    PubMed

    Pino, Esteban J; Arias, Diego E; Aqueveque, Pablo; Melin, Pedro; Curtis, Dorothy W

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of an assistive device to monitor car drivers under extreme conditions. In particular, this system is designed in preparation for the 2012 Atacama Solar Challenge to be held in the Chilean desert. Actual preliminary results show the feasibility of such a project including physiological and ambient sensors, real-time processing algorithms, wireless data transmission and a remote monitoring station. Implementation details and field results are shown along with a discussion of the main problems found in real-life telemetry monitoring.

  12. [Air quality control systems: heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC)].

    PubMed

    Bellucci Sessa, R; Riccio, G

    2004-01-01

    After a brief illustration of the principal layout schemes of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC), the first part of this paper summarizes the standards, both voluntary and compulsory, regulating HVAC facilities design and installation with regard to the question of Indoor Air Quality (IAQ). The paper then examines the problem of ventilation systems maintenance and the essential hygienistic requirements in whose absence HVAC facilities may become a risk factor for people working or living in the building. Lastly, the paper deals with HVAC design strategies and methods, which aim not only to satisfy comfort and air quality requirements, but also to ensure easy and effective maintenance procedures.

  13. Applying twisted boundary conditions for few-body nuclear systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Körber, Christopher; Luu, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    We describe and implement twisted boundary conditions for the deuteron and triton systems within finite volumes using the nuclear lattice EFT formalism. We investigate the finite-volume dependence of these systems with different twist angles. We demonstrate how various finite-volume information can be used to improve calculations of binding energies in such a framework. Our results suggests that with appropriate twisting of boundaries, infinite-volume binding energies can be reliably extracted from calculations using modest volume sizes with cubic length L ≈8 -14 fm. Of particular importance is our derivation and numerical verification of three-body analogs of "i-periodic" twist angles that eliminate the leading-order finite-volume effects to the three-body binding energy.

  14. A classification system for conditions causing condylar hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Wolford, Larry M; Movahed, Reza; Perez, Daniel E

    2014-03-01

    A classification system was developed to place patients with condylar hyperplasia (CH) into categories based on histology, clinical and imaging characteristics, effects on the jaws and facial structures, and rate of occurrence. Four major categories were defined. CH type 1 is an accelerated and prolonged growth aberration of the "normal" mandibular condylar growth mechanism, causing a predominantly horizontal growth vector, resulting in prognathism that can occur bilaterally (CH type 1A) or unilaterally (CH type 1B). CH type 2 refers to enlargement of the mandibular condyle caused by an osteochondroma, resulting in predominantly unilateral vertical overgrowth and elongation of the mandible and face. One of the forms has predominantly a vertical growth vector and condylar enlargement, but without exophytic tumor extensions (type 2A), whereas the other primary form grows vertically but develops horizontal exophytic tumor growth off of the condyle (CH type 2B). CH type 3 includes other rare, benign tumors and CH type 4 includes malignant conditions that originate in the mandibular condyle causing enlargement. The order of classification is based on occurrence rates and type of pathology, where CH type 1A is the most commonly occurring form and CH type 4 is the rarest. This classification system for CH pathology should help the clinician understand the nature of the pathology, progression if untreated, recommended ages for surgical intervention to minimize adverse effects on subsequent facial growth and development in younger patients, and the surgical protocols to comprehensively and predictably treat these conditions. PMID:24388179

  15. Contact zones and hydrothermal systems as analogues to repository conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Wollenberg, H.A.; Flexser, S.

    1984-10-01

    Radioactive waste isolation efforts in the US are currently focused on examining basalt, tuff, salt, and crystalline rock as candidate rock types to encompass waste repositories. As analogues to near-field conditions, the distributions of radio- and trace-elements have been examined across contacts between these rocks and dikes and stocks that have intruded them. The intensive study of the Stripa quartz monzonite has also offered the opportunity to observe the distribution of uranium and its daughters in groundwater and its relationship to U associated with fracture-filling and alteration minerals. Investigations of intrusive contact zones to date have included (1) a tertiary stock into Precambrian gneiss, (2) a stock into ash flow tuff, (3) a rhyodacite dike into Columbia River basalt, and (4) a kimberlite dike into salt. With respect to temperature and pressure, these contact zones may be considered "worst-case scenario" analogues. Results indicate that there has been no appreciable migration of radioelements from the more radioactive intrusives into the less radioactive country rocks, either in response to the intrusions or in the fracture-controlled hydrological systems that developed following emplacement. In many cases, the radioelements are locked up in accessory minerals, suggesting that artificial analogues to these would make ideal waste forms. Emphasis should now shift to examination of active hydrothermal systems, studying the distribution of key elements in water, fractures, and alteration minerals under pressure and temperature conditions most similar to those expected in the near-field environment of a repository. 14 refs.

  16. Proposed annex to the ASTM Standard Guide E1676-95, bioaccumulation testing utilizing Eisenia foetida

    SciTech Connect

    Roper, J.; Simmers, J.; Lee, C.; Tatem, H.

    1995-12-31

    A detailed description of the method developed at the Waterways Experiment Station (WES) to determine sediment toxicity utilizing the earthworm, Eisenia foetida. This method has been used successfully in evaluating the target contaminants; metals, PAHs, and PCBs. This procedure is currently a proposed annex to the ASTM Standard Guide E1676-95: Conducting a Laboratory Soil Toxicity Test With The Lumbricid Earthworm, Eisenia foetida.

  17. Summary Article: IEA HPP Annex 36: Quality Installation / Quality Maintenance Sensitivity Studies

    DOE PAGES

    Hourahan, Glenn; Domanski, Piotr; Baxter, Van D.

    2015-01-01

    The outcome from this Annex activity clearly identifies that poorly designed, installed, and/or maintained heat pumps operate inefficiently and waste considerable energy compared to their as-designed potential. Additionally, it is clear that small faults for a given field-observed practice are significant, that some attribute deviations (in various equipment applications and geographical locations) have a larger impact than others, and that multiple faults or deviations have a cumulative impact on heat pump performance.

  18. Medical Signal-Conditioning and Data-Interface System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, Jeffrey; Jacobus, charles; Booth, Scott; Suarez, Michael; Smith, Derek; Hartnagle, Jeffrey; LePrell, Glenn

    2006-01-01

    A general-purpose portable, wearable electronic signal-conditioning and data-interface system is being developed for medical applications. The system can acquire multiple physiological signals (e.g., electrocardiographic, electroencephalographic, and electromyographic signals) from sensors on the wearer s body, digitize those signals that are received in analog form, preprocess the resulting data, and transmit the data to one or more remote location(s) via a radiocommunication link and/or the Internet. The system includes a computer running data-object-oriented software that can be programmed to configure the system to accept almost any analog or digital input signals from medical devices. The computing hardware and software implement a general-purpose data-routing-and-encapsulation architecture that supports tagging of input data and routing the data in a standardized way through the Internet and other modern packet-switching networks to one or more computer(s) for review by physicians. The architecture supports multiple-site buffering of data for redundancy and reliability, and supports both real-time and slower-than-real-time collection, routing, and viewing of signal data. Routing and viewing stations support insertion of automated analysis routines to aid in encoding, analysis, viewing, and diagnosis.

  19. System-state and operating condition sensitive control method and apparatus for electric power delivery systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, III, William Wesley (Inventor); Wilson, Thomas George (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    This invention provides a method and apparatus for determining a precise switching sequence for the power switching elements of electric power delivery systems of the on-off switching type and which enables extremely fast transient response, precise regulation and highly stable operation. The control utilizes the values of the power delivery system power handling network components, a desired output characteristic, a system timing parameter, and the externally imposed operating conditions to determine where steady state operations should be in order to yield desired output characteristics for the given system specifications. The actual state of the power delivery system is continuously monitored and compared to a state-space boundary which is derived from the desired equilibrium condition, and from the information obtained from this comparison, the system is moved to the desired equilibrium condition in one cycle of switching control. Since the controller continuously monitors the power delivery system's externally imposed operating conditions, a change in the conditions is immediately sensed and a new equilibrium condition is determined and achieved, again in a single cycle of switching control.

  20. Conditional-suicide containment system for bacteria which mineralize aromatics

    SciTech Connect

    Contreras, A.; Ramos, J.L. ); Molin, S. )

    1991-05-01

    A model conditional-suicide system to control genetically engineered microorganisms able to degrade substituted benzoates is reported. The system is based on two elements. One element consists of a fusion between the promoter of the Pseudomonas putide TOL plasmid-encoded meta-cleavage pathway operon (P{sub m}) and the lacI gene encoding Lac repressor plus sylS, coding for the positive regulator of P{sub m}. The other element carries a fusion between the P{sub tac} promoter and the gef gene, which encodes a killing function. In the absence of effectors, expression of the P{sub tac}::gef cassette is no longer prevented and a high rate of cell killing is observed. The substitution of XylS for XylSthr45, a mutant regulator with altered effector specificity and increased affinity for benzoates, allows the control of populations able to degrade a wider range of benzoates at micromolar substrate concentrations. Given the wide effector specificity of the key regulators, the wild-type and mutant ZylS proteins, the system should allow the control of populations able to metabolize benzoate; methyl-, dimethyl-, chloro-, dichloro-, ethyl-, and methoxybenzoates; salicylate; and methyl- and chlorosalicylates. A small population of genetically engineered microorganisms became Gef resistant; however, the mechanism of such survival remains unknown.

  1. Structural condition assessment and upgrades of FGD systems

    SciTech Connect

    Alsamsam, I.M.; Ridge, J.L.

    1995-09-01

    Since 1990, the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) has mandated emissions control of fossil-fired power plants. Upgrading an existing flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system has proven to be an effective means of reducing emissions to meet the CAAA requirements. It can also be a cost-effective means to reduce emissions beyond the established SO{sub 2} limits. Utilities will be able to capitalize on these situations and possibly generate revenue by trading SO{sub 2} credits. In addition to regulatory requirements, structural upgrades of an FGD system can lower operation and maintenance costs and reduce the risk of unit derates and unplanned outages. In today`s competitive power market, keeping a unit`s FGD system available and online is crucial as the earliest FGD installations approach their twentieth year of service. A structural condition assessment and upgrades program for an FGD island plays a leading role in meeting and exceeding regulatory requirements while achieving other utility goals. This paper draws from the authors` recent experiences to explore such a program and reveals the challenges it presents.

  2. Enhanced PCE dechlorination by biobarrier systems under different redox conditions.

    PubMed

    Kao, C M; Chen, Y L; Chen, S C; Yeh, T Y; Wu, W S

    2003-12-01

    The industrial solvent tetrachloroethylene (PCE) is among the most ubiquitous chlorinated compounds found in groundwater contamination. The objective of this study was to evaluate the (1) feasibility of enhancing PCE biodegradation using cane molasses and sludge cakes as the primary substrates under methanogenic and iron reducing conditions, and (2) potential of installation a sludge cake/cane molasses biobarrier to clean up PCE-contaminated aquifers. The biodegradability of sludge cake (from secondary wastewater treatment system) and cane molasses was tested using bioavailability experiments. Results show that biodegradable materials were released from sludge cake/cane molasses and utilized by microbial consortia. Based on the chemical oxygen demand (COD) tests, approximately 28 and 248 mg of biodegradable COD can be released from 1g of sludge cake and 1g of cane molasses under anaerobic conditions, which have the potential to convert 70 and 620 mg of PCE to ethylene (ETH), respectively. Reductive dechlorination was evaluated using microcosms containing primary substrates (sludge cake/cane molasses) and inocula (aquifer sediments). Results indicate that sludge cake and cane molasses can serve as the diffusion sources of primary substrates, and enhance the reductive dechlorination of PCE under methanogenic processes. However, results from this study were not sufficient enough to show that reductive dechlorination of PCE would occur under iron-reducing conditions. This indicates that more studies need to be performed to further evaluate the role of iron reduction on the PCE dechlorination. Results reveal that it is feasible and applicable to install a sludge cake or cane molasses biobarrier to clean up PCE contaminated aquifers. From an engineering point of view, the sludge cake/cane molasses biobarrier has the potential to become an environmentally and economically acceptable technology for PCE bioremediation.

  3. System and method for conditioning a hardwood pulp liquid hydrolysate

    SciTech Connect

    Waite, Darrell M; Arnold, Richard; St. Pierre, James; Pendse, Hemant P; Ceckler, William H

    2013-12-17

    A system and method for hardwood pulp liquid hydrolysate conditioning includes a first evaporator receives a hardwood mix extract and outputting a quantity of vapor and extract. A hydrolysis unit receives the extract, hyrolyzes and outputs to a lignin separation device, which separates and recovers a quantity of lignin. A neutralization device receives extract from the lignin separation device and a neutralizing agent, producing a mixture of solid precipitate and a fifth extract. The solid precipitate is removed from the fifth extract. A second evaporator removes a quantity of acid from the fifth extract in a vapor form. This vapor may be recycled to improve total acid recovery or discarded. A desalination device receives the diluted extract, separates out some of the acid and salt and outputs a desalinated solution.

  4. System and method for conditioning a hardwood pulp liquid hydrolysate

    DOEpatents

    Waite, Darrell; Arnold, Richard; St. Pierre, James; Pendse, Hemant P.; Ceckler, William H.

    2015-06-30

    A system and method for hardwood pulp liquid hydrolysate conditioning includes a first evaporator receives a hardwood mix extract and outputting a quantity of vapor and extract. A hydrolysis unit receives the extract, hydrolyzes and outputs to a lignin separation device, which separates and recovers a quantity of lignin. A neutralization device receives extract from the lignin separation device and a neutralizing agent, producing a mixture of solid precipitate and a fifth extract. The solid precipitate is removed from the fifth extract. A second evaporator removes a quantity of acid from the fifth extract in a vapor form. This vapor may be recycled to improve total acid recovery or discarded. A desalination device receives the diluted extract, separates out some of the acid and salt and outputs a desalinated solution.

  5. Real-time condition assessment of RAPTOR telescope systems

    SciTech Connect

    Stull, Chris; Taylor, Stuart; Wren, James; Farrar, Charles; Park, Gyuhae

    2010-11-30

    The RAPid Telescopes for Optical Response (RAPTOR) observatory network consists of several robotic astronomical telescopes primarily designed to search for astrophysical transients called a gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Although intrinsically bright, GRBs are difficult to detect because of their short duration. Typically, they are first observed by satellites that then relay the coordinates of the GRB to a ground station which, in turn, distributes the coordinates over the internet so that ground based observers can perform follow-up observations. Typically the ground based observations begin after the GRB has ended and only residual emiSSion (the 'afterglow') is left. However, if the satellite relays the GRB coordinates quickly enough, a 'fast' robotic telescope on the ground may be able to catch the GRB in progress. The RAPTOR telescope system is one of only a few in the world to have accomplished this feat. In order to achieve these results, the RAPTOR telescopes must operate autonomously at a high duty-cycle and in peak operating condition. Currently the telescopes are maintained in an ad hoc manner, often in a run-to-failure mode. The RAPTOR project could benefit greatly from a structural health monitoring (SHM) system, especially as more complex units are added to the suite of telescopes. This paper will summarize preliminary results from an SHM study performed on one of the RAPTOR telescopes. Damage scenarios that are of concern and that have been previously observed are first summarized. Then a specific study of damage to the telescope drive mechanism is presented where the data acquisition system is first described. Next, damage detection algorithms are developed with LANL's new publically available software SHMTools and the results of this process are discussed in detail. The paper will conclude with a summary of future planned refinemenls of the RAPTOR SHM system.

  6. Systemic conditions for performance of pharmacoepidemiologic studies in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Primozic, S; Kos, M; Mrhar, A; Ravnik, I

    2001-12-01

    In Slovenia, the national health insurance system covers almost the whole population. The average patient receives six to seven prescriptions per year with an average value of 15 USD per prescription. This paper presents the systemic conditions necessary for the performance of pharmacoepidemiologic studies. A recent study addressing the use of antiepileptic drugs is an example. The current law on Personal Data Protection, which is compliant with EU Directive 95/46/EC, prevents infringement of personal integrity resulting from inappropriate use of personal data or inappropriate management and use of databases containing personal data. Since July 2000, the Law on Health Care Related Databases has defined the databases and the ways data can be acquired, processed, transferred, and exchanged among persons authorized to perform health care services. When gathering additional data not currently contained in the health care-related databases defined by the law, written consent from participants is required, and study documentation must be submitted for approval to the national Medical Ethics Committee. The main legislation covering clinical and pharmacoepidemiologic research is the Medicinal Products and Medical Devices Act of 1999, together with its by-laws, which is also in accordance with EU Directives.

  7. Experimental investigation of static ice refrigeration air conditioning system driven by distributed photovoltaic energy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Y. F.; Li, M.; Luo, X.; Wang, Y. F.; Yu, Q. F.; Hassanien, R. H. E.

    2016-08-01

    The static ice refrigeration air conditioning system (SIRACS) driven by distributed photovoltaic energy system (DPES) was proposed and the test experiment have been investigated in this paper. Results revealed that system energy utilization efficiency is low because energy losses were high in ice making process of ice slide maker. So the immersed evaporator and co-integrated exchanger were suggested in system structure optimization analysis and the system COP was improved nearly 40%. At the same time, we have researched that ice thickness and ice super-cooled temperature changed along with time and the relationship between system COP and ice thickness was obtained.

  8. Data Management for Effective Condition Assessment of Collection Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Condition assessment provides critical information for assessment of an asset’s physical condition, remaining useful service life, and long-term performance. This paper will describe data management issues integral to a successful condition assessment program. Key points will b...

  9. A remote condition monitoring system for wind-turbine based DG systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, X.; Wang, G.; Cross, P.; Zhang, X.

    2012-05-01

    In this paper, a remote condition monitoring system is proposed, which fundamentally consists of real-time monitoring modules on the plant side, a remote support centre and the communications between them. The paper addresses some of the key issues related on the monitoring system, including i) the implementation and configuration of a VPN connection, ii) an effective database system to be able to handle huge amount of monitoring data, and iii) efficient data mining techniques to convert raw data into useful information for plant assessment. The preliminary results have demonstrated that the proposed system is practically feasible and can be deployed to monitor the emerging new energy generation systems.

  10. Microbial enhanced oil recovery research. Annex 5, Summary annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, M.M.; Georgiou, G.

    1990-12-31

    The objective of this work is to develop an engineering framework for the exploitation of microorganisms to enhance oil recovery. Specific goals include: (1) investigation of the mechanisms of microbially induced oil mobilization; (2) the production, isolation, chemical characterization and study of the physical properties of microbially produced surfactants; (3) model studies in sandstone cores for the characterization of the interactions between growing microbially cultures and oil reservoirs; (4) development of simulators for MEOR; and (5) design of operational strategies for the sequential injection of microorganisms and nutrient in reservoirs are: (1) systematic discussion of the mechanisms important in MEOR processes; (2) Measurement of the growth characteristics of Bacillus Licheniformis under various conditions of pH, temperature and salt concentration for both aerobic and anaerobic growth.; (3) measurement of interfacial tension reducing ability of the biosurfactant under different conditions of pH and salt concentration; (4) development of some preliminary methods to concentrate and characterize the biosurfactant; (5) development of a compositional numerical simulator for MEOR processes; and (6) Measurement of the lowest interfacial tension (IFT) value reported for biosurfactants to date. Demonstration of the fact that the low IFT values required for oil recovery can be attained with biosurfactants.

  11. Hollow Fiber Membrane Dehumidification Device for Air Conditioning System.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Baiwang; Peng, Na; Liang, Canzeng; Yong, Wai Fen; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2015-01-01

    In order to provide a comfortable living and working environment indoors in tropical countries, the outdoor air often needs to be cooled and dehumidified before it enters the rooms. Membrane separation is an emerging technology for air dehumidification and it is based on the solution diffusion mechanism. Water molecules are preferentially permeating through the membranes due to its smaller kinetic diameter and higher condensability than the other gases. Compared to other dehumidification technologies such as direct cooling or desiccation, there is no phase transition involved in membrane dehumidification, neither the contact between the fresh air stream and the desiccants. Hence, membrane dehumidification would not only require less energy consumption but also avoid cross-contamination problems. A pilot scale air dehumidification system is built in this study which comprises nine pieces of one-inch PAN/PDMS hollow fiber membrane modules. A 150 h long-term test shows that the membrane modules has good water vapor transport properties by using a low vacuum force of only 0.78 bar absolute pressure at the lumen side. The water vapor concentration of the feed humid air decreases dramatically from a range of 18-22 g/m³ to a range of 13.5-18.3 g/m³. Most importantly, the total energy saving is up to 26.2% compared with the conventional air conditioning process. PMID:26580660

  12. Hollow Fiber Membrane Dehumidification Device for Air Conditioning System.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Baiwang; Peng, Na; Liang, Canzeng; Yong, Wai Fen; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2015-11-16

    In order to provide a comfortable living and working environment indoors in tropical countries, the outdoor air often needs to be cooled and dehumidified before it enters the rooms. Membrane separation is an emerging technology for air dehumidification and it is based on the solution diffusion mechanism. Water molecules are preferentially permeating through the membranes due to its smaller kinetic diameter and higher condensability than the other gases. Compared to other dehumidification technologies such as direct cooling or desiccation, there is no phase transition involved in membrane dehumidification, neither the contact between the fresh air stream and the desiccants. Hence, membrane dehumidification would not only require less energy consumption but also avoid cross-contamination problems. A pilot scale air dehumidification system is built in this study which comprises nine pieces of one-inch PAN/PDMS hollow fiber membrane modules. A 150 h long-term test shows that the membrane modules has good water vapor transport properties by using a low vacuum force of only 0.78 bar absolute pressure at the lumen side. The water vapor concentration of the feed humid air decreases dramatically from a range of 18-22 g/m³ to a range of 13.5-18.3 g/m³. Most importantly, the total energy saving is up to 26.2% compared with the conventional air conditioning process.

  13. Hollow Fiber Membrane Dehumidification Device for Air Conditioning System

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Baiwang; Peng, Na; Liang, Canzeng; Yong, Wai Fen; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2015-01-01

    In order to provide a comfortable living and working environment indoors in tropical countries, the outdoor air often needs to be cooled and dehumidified before it enters the rooms. Membrane separation is an emerging technology for air dehumidification and it is based on the solution diffusion mechanism. Water molecules are preferentially permeating through the membranes due to its smaller kinetic diameter and higher condensability than the other gases. Compared to other dehumidification technologies such as direct cooling or desiccation, there is no phase transition involved in membrane dehumidification, neither the contact between the fresh air stream and the desiccants. Hence, membrane dehumidification would not only require less energy consumption but also avoid cross-contamination problems. A pilot scale air dehumidification system is built in this study which comprises nine pieces of one-inch PAN/PDMS hollow fiber membrane modules. A 150 h long-term test shows that the membrane modules has good water vapor transport properties by using a low vacuum force of only 0.78 bar absolute pressure at the lumen side. The water vapor concentration of the feed humid air decreases dramatically from a range of 18–22 g/m3 to a range of 13.5–18.3 g/m3. Most importantly, the total energy saving is up to 26.2% compared with the conventional air conditioning process. PMID:26580660

  14. Silicate-H2O Systems at High Pressure Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tailby, N.; Mavrogenes, J. A.; Hermann, J.; O'Neill, H. S.

    2008-12-01

    Since the discovery of the second critical endpoint (CP2) in the albite-water system, numerous attempts have been made to determine the pressure and temperature of this CP2 and the mutual solubilities within more complex systems. The P-T position of the CP2 has been estimated for many systems: SiO2 (<10 kb/900 °C, Newton and Manning, 2008); NaAlSi3O8 (15 kb/800 °C, Burnham and Davis, 1974; Shen and Keppler, 1997); Pelite (50 kb/1,000 °C, Schmidt et al., 2004), basalt (50 kb/ 1000 °C, Kessel et al., 2004), Peridotite (38 kb/1000 °C, Mibe et al., 2007). A number of experimental techniques have been used to determine phase relations and H2O solubility in experiments. These include in-situ experimental techniques (e.g., HYDAC; Shen and Keppler, 1997), fluid trap techniques (e.g., diamond traps; Stalder et al., 2000), and single crystal weight-loss techniques (e.g., SiO2-H2O techniques employed by Newton and Manning, 2008). None of these techniques is without difficulties, as H2O rich experiments need to overcome huge retrograde fluid solubilities upon quench in order to determine mutual solubilities at experimental conditions. We have developed a new technique to determine "rock"-H2O relationships at high-P conditions, with particular focus on the shape and locus of solvi in pressure temperature space. In this series of experiments, an oxygen fugacity buffer (Re-ReO2) and a sliding H-fugacity sensor (NiO-Ni-Pd mixture) are combined to monitor H2O activity over the entire range of pressure and temperature. Unlike other techniques, the use of sensor capsules does not require textural interpretation of experiments. H2O activity is related to oxygen and hydrogen fugacity by the reaction: H2O = H2 + ½O2 NiO-Ni-Pd mixtures were placed within a ZrO2 jacket and sealed within a welded 2.3 mm Pt capsule. This 2.3 mm Pt sensor capsule was then encased within a larger, thick walled 6 mm diameter Ag capsule. Pelite-H2O mixtures and oxygen buffers were held within this larger

  15. On necessary optimality conditions in discrete control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mardanov, M. J.; Melikov, T. K.; Mahmudov, N. I.

    2015-10-01

    The paper deals with a nonlinear discrete-time optimal control problem with a cost functional of terminal type. Using a new variation of the control and new properties of optimal controls, we prove the linearised optimality conditions extending such classical optimality conditions. Along with this, various optimality conditions of quasi-singular controls are obtained. Finally, the examples illustrating the rich content of the obtained results are illustrated.

  16. IEA Implementing Agreements and Annexes: A Guide for Building Technologies Program Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Meredydd; Meier, Alan; Runci, Paul J.

    2008-08-05

    This guide presents insights and guidance from DOE’s gathered through longstanding and extensive participation in IEA implementing agreements (IAs) and annexes. Even though DOE has been a key participant in international research activities through the IEA since the 1970s, the experience, knowledge, and institutional memory associated with these activities can be lost or forgotten easily as key DOE managers retire or leave the department. The guide seeks to assemble in a single reference some of the learning that has occurred through participation in IEA IAs as a guide for BTP managers currently responsible for IAs and for those who might consider entering into new IEA activities in the future.

  17. Francisella guangzhouensis sp. nov., isolated from air-conditioning systems.

    PubMed

    Qu, Ping-Hua; Chen, Shou-Yi; Scholz, Holger C; Busse, Hans-Jürgen; Gu, Quan; Kämpfer, Peter; Foster, Jeffrey T; Glaeser, Stefanie P; Chen, Cha; Yang, Zhi-Chong

    2013-10-01

    Four strains (08HL01032(T), 09HG994, 10HP82-6 and 10HL1960) were isolated from water of air-conditioning systems of various cooling towers in Guangzhou city, China. Cells were Gram-stain-negative coccobacilli without flagella, catalase-positive and oxidase-negative, showing no reduction of nitrate, no hydrolysis of urea and no production of H2S. Growth was characteristically enhanced in the presence of l-cysteine, which was consistent with the properties of members of the genus Francisella. The quinone system was composed of ubiquinone Q-8 with minor amounts of Q-9. The polar lipid profile consisted of the predominant lipids phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, two unidentified phospholipids (PL2, PL3), an unidentified aminophospholipid and an unidentified glycolipid (GL2). The polyamine pattern consisted of the major compounds spermidine, cadaverine and spermine. The major cellular fatty acids were C10 : 0, C14 : 0, C16 : 0, C18 : 1ω9c and C18 : 1 3-OH. A draft whole-genome sequence of the proposed type strain 08HL01032(T) was generated. Comparative sequence analysis of the complete 16S and 23S rRNA genes confirmed affiliation to the genus Francisella, with 95 % sequence identity to the closest relatives in the database, the type strains of Francisella philomiragia and Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis. Full-length deduced amino acid sequences of various housekeeping genes, recA, gyrB, groEL, dnaK, rpoA, rpoB, rpoD, rpoH, fopA and sdhA, exhibited similarities of 67-92 % to strains of other species of the genus Francisella. Strains 08HL01032(T), 09HG994, 10HP82-6 and 10HL1960 exhibited highly similar pan-genome PCR profiles. Both the phenotypic and molecular data support the conclusion that the four strains belong to the genus Francisella but exhibit considerable divergence from all recognized Francisella species. Therefore, we propose the name Francisella guangzhouensis sp

  18. 76 FR 58288 - International Maritime Organization Guidelines for Exhaust Gas Cleaning Systems for Marine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-20

    ... 4 of the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution by Ships, 1973 as modified by the... effective in reducing sulfur oxide emissions as the requirements of MARPOL Annex VI regulation 14. DATES... systems for marine engines to remove sulfur oxide emissions. Annex VI regulation 4 of the...

  19. Microbial enhanced oil recovery research. Final report, Annex 5

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, M.M.; Gerogiou, G.

    1993-07-01

    The objective of this project was to develop an engineering framework for the exploitation of microorganisms to enhance oil recovery. An order of magnitude analysis indicated that selective plugging and the production of biosurfactants are the two most likely mechanisms for the mobilization of oil in microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). The latter, biosurfactant production, is easier to control within a reservoir environment and was investigated in some detail. An extensive literature survey indicated that the bacterium Bacillus licheniformis JF-2 produces a very effective surface active agent capable of increasing the capillary number to values sufficiently low for oil mobilization. In addition, earlier studies had shown that growth of this bacterium and biosurfactant production occur under conditions that are typically encountered in MEOR, namely temperatures up to 55{degrees}C, lack of oxygen and salinities of up to 10% w/v. The chemical structure of the surfactant, its interfacial properties and its production by fermentation were characterized in some detail. In parallel, a set of experiments as conducted to measure the transport of Bacillus licheniformis JF-2 in sandpacks. It was shown that the determining parameters for cell transport in porous media are: cell size and degree of coagulation, presence of dispersants, injection velocity and cell concentration. The mechanisms of bacteria retention within the pores of the reservoir were analyzed based on heuristic arguments. A mathematical simulator of MEOR was developed using conservation equations in which the mechanisms of bacteria retention and the growth kinetics of the cells were incorporated. The predictions of the model agreed reasonably well with experimental results.

  20. 76 FR 8316 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Interaction of Systems and Structures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-14

    ... stability of the airplane. These systems include the GVI's flight control systems, autopilots, stability... special condition for airplanes equipped with flight control systems, autopilots, stability augmentation... before flight. Certain elements of the control system, such as mechanical and hydraulic components,...

  1. Adapting to health impacts of climate change: a study of UNFCCC Annex I parties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesnikowski, A. C.; Ford, J. D.; Berrang-Ford, L.; Paterson, J. A.; Barrera, M.; Heymann, S. J.

    2011-10-01

    Adapting to the health effects of climate change is one of the key challenges facing public health this century. Our knowledge of progress on adaptation, however, remains in its infancy. Using the Fifth National Communications of Annex I parties to the UNFCCC, 1912 initiatives are systematically identified and analyzed. 80% of the actions identified consist of groundwork (i.e. preparatory) action, with only 20% constituting tangible adaptations. No health vulnerability was recognized by all 38 Annex I countries. Furthermore, while all initiatives affect at least one health vulnerability, only 15% had an explicit human health component. Consideration for the special needs of vulnerable groups is uneven and underdeveloped. Climate change is directly motivating 71% of groundwork actions, and 61% of adaptation initiatives are being mainstreamed into existing institutions or programs. We conclude that the adaptation responses to the health risks of climate change remain piecemeal. Policymakers in the health sector must engage with stakeholders to implement adaptation that considers how climate change will impact the health of each segment of the population, particularly within those groups already considered most vulnerable to poor health outcomes.

  2. Second amendment and extension to Annex IV enhanced oil recovery thermal processes

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, G.; Munoz, J.D.

    1986-03-01

    This report contains the result of efforts under the several tasks of the Second Amendment and Extension of Annex IV, Enhanced Oil Recovery Thermal Processes of the Venezuela/USA Energy Agreement. The report is presented in sections (for each of the 12 tasks) and each section contains one or more reports prepared by various individuals or groups describing the results of efforts under each of the tasks. A statement of each task, taken from the agreement, is presented on the first page of each section. The tasks are numbered 11 and 14 through 24. The first and second reports on Annex IV, Venezuela-MEM/USA-DOE Fossil Energy Report IV-1 and Report IV-2 (DOE/BETS/SP-83/15 and DOE/BC-84/6/SP), contain the results from the first 14 tasks, with the exception of an INTEVEP Survey for Task II which is included here. Those reports are dated April 1983 and August 1984 and are both entitled, ''EOR Thermal Processes''. Selected papers have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  3. Performance of a photovoltaically powered air-conditioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Kern, Jr, E. C.; Millner, A. R.

    1980-01-01

    A vapor-compression air conditioner coupled directly to a photovoltaic array is discussed. Previous analyses of such a system are reviewed, and a development system designed to test the concept is described. Preliminary experiments indicate that the performance of this initial system falls considerably short of analytic expectations.

  4. Retrofitting Air Conditioning and Duct Systems in Hot, Dry Climates

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, C.; Aldrich, R.; Arena, L.

    2012-07-01

    This technical report describes CARB's work with Clark County Community Resources Division in Las Vegas, Nevada, to optimize procedures for upgrading cooling systems on existing homes in the area to implement health, safety, and energy improvements. Detailed monitoring of five AC systems showed that three of the five systems met or exceeded air flow rate goals.

  5. System and method of vehicle operating condition management

    SciTech Connect

    Sujan, Vivek A.; Vajapeyazula, Phani; Follen, Kenneth; Wu, An; Moffett, Barty L.

    2015-10-20

    A vehicle operating condition profile can be determined over a given route while also considering imposed constraints such as deviation from time targets, deviation from maximum governed speed limits, etc. Given current vehicle speed, engine state and transmission state, the present disclosure optimally manages the engine map and transmission to provide a recommended vehicle operating condition that optimizes fuel consumption in transitioning from one vehicle state to a target state. Exemplary embodiments provide for offline and online optimizations relative to fuel consumption. The benefit is increased freight efficiency in transporting cargo from source to destination by minimizing fuel consumption and maintaining drivability.

  6. Instrumental conditioning of the rat cardiac control systems.

    PubMed

    Fields, C

    1970-02-01

    The PR, PP, and RR intervals of the rat EKG were instrumentally conditioned using a variety of reinforcement schedules under computer control. The PR and PP intervals could be conditioned independently. Individual rats demonstrated either a steady shift of their response distribution or an abrupt change of an all-or-none variety. Some response distributions shifted continuously; others, through the growth of new response patterns in a manner reminiscent of hypothesis-testing behavior of human subjects. A study of the effects of single reinforcements showed that each reinforcement contributed to the learning behavior of the subject, in a well-defined but nonlinear fashion.

  7. Conditions of Flexibility: Securing a More Responsive Higher Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    This report is the culmination of the "Flexible Pedagogies: Preparing for the Future" series of reports which have considered flexible learning from a range of perspectives. The report proposes fifteen conditions of flexibility to inject new thinking and new practices into an emerging new age. Flexible provision has the potential to…

  8. Condition Assessment of Drinking Water Transmission and Distribution Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Condition assessment of water transmission and distribution mains is the collection of data and information through direct and/or indirect methods, followed by analysis of the data and information, to make a determination of the current and/or future structural, water quality, an...

  9. Condition Assessment Modeling for Distribution Systems Using Shared Frailty Analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Condition Assessment (CA) modeling is drawing increasing interest as a methodology for managing drinking water infrastructure. This paper develops a Cox Proportional Hazard (PH)/shared frailty model and applies it to the problem of investment in the repair and replacement of dri...

  10. Condition Assessment Technologies for Water Transmission and Distribution Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) Aging Water Infrastructure Research Program, this research was conducted to identify and characterize the state of the technology for structural condition assessment of drinking water transmission and distribution syst...

  11. Expert system for predicting reaction conditions: the Michael reaction case.

    PubMed

    Marcou, G; Aires de Sousa, J; Latino, D A R S; de Luca, A; Horvath, D; Rietsch, V; Varnek, A

    2015-02-23

    A generic chemical transformation may often be achieved under various synthetic conditions. However, for any specific reagents, only one or a few among the reported synthetic protocols may be successful. For example, Michael β-addition reactions may proceed under different choices of solvent (e.g., hydrophobic, aprotic polar, protic) and catalyst (e.g., Brønsted acid, Lewis acid, Lewis base, etc.). Chemoinformatics methods could be efficiently used to establish a relationship between the reagent structures and the required reaction conditions, which would allow synthetic chemists to waste less time and resources in trying out various protocols in search for the appropriate one. In order to address this problem, a number of 2-classes classification models have been built on a set of 198 Michael reactions retrieved from literature. Trained models discriminate between processes that are compatible and respectively processes not feasible under a specific reaction condition option (feasible or not with a Lewis acid catalyst, feasible or not in hydrophobic solvent, etc.). Eight distinct models were built to decide the compatibility of a Michael addition process with each considered reaction condition option, while a ninth model was aimed to predict whether the assumed Michael addition is feasible at all. Different machine-learning methods (Support Vector Machine, Naive Bayes, and Random Forest) in combination with different types of descriptors (ISIDA fragments issued from Condensed Graphs of Reactions, MOLMAP, Electronic Effect Descriptors, and Chemistry Development Kit computed descriptors) have been used. Models have good predictive performance in 3-fold cross-validation done three times: balanced accuracy varies from 0.7 to 1. Developed models are available for the users at http://infochim.u-strasbg.fr/webserv/VSEngine.html . Eventually, these were challenged to predict feasibility conditions for ∼50 novel Michael reactions from the eNovalys database (originally

  12. Expert system for predicting reaction conditions: the Michael reaction case.

    PubMed

    Marcou, G; Aires de Sousa, J; Latino, D A R S; de Luca, A; Horvath, D; Rietsch, V; Varnek, A

    2015-02-23

    A generic chemical transformation may often be achieved under various synthetic conditions. However, for any specific reagents, only one or a few among the reported synthetic protocols may be successful. For example, Michael β-addition reactions may proceed under different choices of solvent (e.g., hydrophobic, aprotic polar, protic) and catalyst (e.g., Brønsted acid, Lewis acid, Lewis base, etc.). Chemoinformatics methods could be efficiently used to establish a relationship between the reagent structures and the required reaction conditions, which would allow synthetic chemists to waste less time and resources in trying out various protocols in search for the appropriate one. In order to address this problem, a number of 2-classes classification models have been built on a set of 198 Michael reactions retrieved from literature. Trained models discriminate between processes that are compatible and respectively processes not feasible under a specific reaction condition option (feasible or not with a Lewis acid catalyst, feasible or not in hydrophobic solvent, etc.). Eight distinct models were built to decide the compatibility of a Michael addition process with each considered reaction condition option, while a ninth model was aimed to predict whether the assumed Michael addition is feasible at all. Different machine-learning methods (Support Vector Machine, Naive Bayes, and Random Forest) in combination with different types of descriptors (ISIDA fragments issued from Condensed Graphs of Reactions, MOLMAP, Electronic Effect Descriptors, and Chemistry Development Kit computed descriptors) have been used. Models have good predictive performance in 3-fold cross-validation done three times: balanced accuracy varies from 0.7 to 1. Developed models are available for the users at http://infochim.u-strasbg.fr/webserv/VSEngine.html . Eventually, these were challenged to predict feasibility conditions for ∼50 novel Michael reactions from the eNovalys database (originally

  13. Dynamic measurement of physical conditions in daily life by body area network sensing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takayama, S.; Tanaka, T.; Takahashi, N.; Matsuda, Y.; Kariya, K.

    2010-07-01

    This paper shows the measurement system to monitor physical conditions dynamically in dairy life. The measurement system for physical conditions in motion must be wearable and wireless connected. Body area network sensing system (BANSS) is a kind of the system to realize the conditions. BANSS is the system constructed with host system and plural sensing nodes. Sensing node is constructed with sensors, analogue/digital convertor(ADC), peripheral interface component(PIC), memory and near field communication device(NFCD). The NFCD in this system is Zigbee. Zigbee is the most suitable to construct wireless network system easily. BANSS is not only the system to measure physical parameters. BANSS informs current physical conditions and advises to keep suitable physical strength. As an application of BANSS, the system managing heart rate in walking is shown. By using this system, users can exercise in condition of a constant physical strength.

  14. Development of high gradient magnetic separation system under dry condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakai, Y.; Mishima, F.; Akiyama, Y.; Nishijima, S.

    2010-11-01

    The interfusion of impurities such as metallic wear debris has been a problem in the manufacturing process of foods, medicines, and industrial products. Gravity separation system and membrane separation system has been used widely for powder separation, however magnetic separation system is much efficient to separate magnetic particles. Magnetic separation system under wet process is used conventionally, however, it has some demerit such as necessity of drying treatment after separation and difficulty of running the system in the cold region and so on. Thus, magnetic separation under dry process is prospective as alternative method. In this paper, we developed high gradient magnetic separation system (HGMS) under dry process. In dry HGMS system, powder coagulation caused by particle interaction is considerable. Powder coagulation causes a blockage of magnetic filters and results in decrease of separation performance of dry HGMS system. In order to investigate the effect of powder coagulation on separation performance, we conducted experiments with two kinds of powdered materials whose cohesive properties are different.

  15. Modeling acclimatization by hybrid systems: condition changes alter biological system behavior models.

    PubMed

    Assar, Rodrigo; Montecino, Martín A; Maass, Alejandro; Sherman, David J

    2014-07-01

    In order to describe the dynamic behavior of a complex biological system, it is useful to combine models integrating processes at different levels and with temporal dependencies. Such combinations are necessary for modeling acclimatization, a phenomenon where changes in environmental conditions can induce drastic changes in the behavior of a biological system. In this article we formalize the use of hybrid systems as a tool to model this kind of biological behavior. A modeling scheme called strong switches is proposed. It allows one to take into account both minor adjustments to the coefficients of a continuous model, and, more interestingly, large-scale changes to the structure of the model. We illustrate the proposed methodology with two applications: acclimatization in wine fermentation kinetics, and acclimatization of osteo-adipo differentiation system linking stimulus signals to bone mass.

  16. Environmental performance of wastewater reuse systems: impact of system boundaries and external conditions.

    PubMed

    Baresel, Christian; Dalgren, Lena; Almemark, Mats; Lazic, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    Wastewater reclamation will be a significant part of future water management and the environmental assessment of various treatment systems to reuse wastewater has become an important research field. The secondary treatment process and sludge handling on-site are, especially, electricity demanding processes due to aeration, pumping, mixing, dewatering, etc. used for operation and are being identified as the main contributor for many environmental impacts. This study discusses how the environmental performance of reuse treatment systems may be influenced by surrounding conditions. This article illustrates and discusses the importance of factors commonly treated as externalities and as such not being included in optimization strategies of reuse systems, but that are necessary to environmentally assess wastewater reclamation systems. This is illustrated by two up-stream and downstream processes; electricity supply and the use of sludge as fertilizer commonly practiced in regions considered for wastewater reclamation. The study shows that external conditions can have a larger impact on the overall environmental performance of reuse treatment systems than internal optimizations could compensate for. These results imply that a more holistic environmental assessment of reuse schemes could provide less environmental impacts as externalities could be included in measures to reduce the overall impacts. PMID:27003080

  17. Balanced Flow Metering and Conditioning: Technology for Fluid Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, Anthony R.

    2006-01-01

    Revolutionary new technology that creates balanced conditions across the face of a multi-hole orifice plate has been developed, patented and exclusively licensed for commercialization. This balanced flow technology simultaneously measures mass flow rate, volumetric flow rate, and fluid density with little or no straight pipe run requirements. Initially, the balanced plate was a drop in replacement for a traditional orifice plate, but testing revealed substantially better performance as compared to the orifice plate such as, 10 times better accuracy, 2 times faster (shorter distance) pressure recovery, 15 times less acoustic noise energy generation, and 2.5 times less permanent pressure loss. During 2004 testing at MSFC, testing revealed several configurations of the balanced flow meter that match the accuracy of Venturi meters while having only slightly more permanent pressure loss. However, the balanced meter only requires a 0.25 inch plate and has no upstream or downstream straight pipe requirements. As a fluid conditioning device, the fluid usually reaches fully developed flow within 1 pipe diameter of the balanced conditioning plate. This paper will describe the basic balanced flow metering technology, provide performance details generated by testing to date and provide implementation details along with calculations required for differing degrees of flow metering accuracy.

  18. 33 CFR 334.270 - York River adjacent to Cheatham Annex Depot, Naval Supply Center, Williamsburg, Va.; restricted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false York River adjacent to Cheatham Annex Depot, Naval Supply Center, Williamsburg, Va.; restricted area. 334.270 Section 334.270 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE...

  19. 33 CFR 334.285 - York River and the Naval Weapons Station Yorktown-Cheatham Annex, Yorktown, Virginia; danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false York River and the Naval Weapons... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.285 York River and the Naval Weapons Station Yorktown-Cheatham Annex... less than the maximum range of the weapons being used at the facility or while a vessel is within...

  20. 78 FR 27982 - U.S. Flag Compliance With MARPOL Annex VI International Energy Efficiency (IEE) Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-13

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard U.S. Flag Compliance With MARPOL Annex VI International Energy Efficiency (IEE... issuance of an International Energy Efficiency Certificate and the preparation of a Ship Energy Efficiency... Energy Efficiency Design Index. These requirements apply to all U.S. flag ships 400 gross tonnage...

  1. 76 FR 19380 - Notice of Entry Into Effect of MARPOL Annex V Wider Caribbean Region Special Area

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    ... SA, including the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea, in July 1991. The SA entered into force in... SECURITY Coast Guard Notice of Entry Into Effect of MARPOL Annex V Wider Caribbean Region Special Area... effect of discharge requirements from ships in the Wider Caribbean Region (WCR) special area (SA)...

  2. Local Ordering in Disordered Systems under Extreme Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Di Cicco, Andrea; Principi, Emiliano; Minicucci, Marco; De Panfilis, Simone; Trapananti, Angela; Filipponi, Adriano

    2007-02-02

    Recent advances in data-analysis and instrumentation allowed us to perform x-ray absorption (XAS) studies of liquids, undercooled liquids and glasses under high-temperature and/or high-pressure conditions. The experimental set-up used for combined XAS and x-ray diffraction with synchrotron radiation at the ESRF is briefly shown. Advances in XAS data-analysis allowing detailed structural insight about pair and higher-order distributions are also mentioned. Applications to liquid and undercooled liquid metals like Cu, and Sn under pressure are briefly discussed.

  3. Compressor-fan unitary structure for air conditioning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreiman, N.

    2015-08-01

    An extremely compact, therefore space saving unitary structure of short axial length is produced by radial integration of a revolving piston rotary compressor and an impeller of a centrifugal fan. The unitary structure employs single motor to run as the compressor so the airflow fan and eliminates duality of motors, related power supply and control elements. Novel revolving piston rotary compressor which provides possibility for such integration comprises the following: a suction gas delivery system which provides cooling of the motor and supplies refrigerant into the suction chamber under higher pressure (supercharged); a modified discharge system and lubricating oil supply system. Axial passages formed in the stationary crankshaft are used to supply discharge gas to a condenser, to return vaporized cooling agent from the evaporator to the suction cavity of the compressor, to pass a lubricant and to accommodate wiring supplying power to the unitary structure driver -external rotor electric motor.

  4. Development of a distributed vision system for industrial conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Michael; Schiller, Arnulf; O'Leary, Paul; Fauster, Ewald; Schalk, Peter

    2003-04-01

    This paper presents a prototype system to monitor a hot glowing wire during the rolling process in quality relevant aspects. Therefore a measurement system based on image vision and a communication framework integrating distributed measurement nodes is introduced. As a technologically approach, machine vision is used to evaluate the wire quality parameters. Therefore an image processing algorithm, based on dual Grassmannian coordinates fitting parallel lines by singular value decomposition, is formulated. Furthermore a communication framework which implements anonymous tuplespace communication, a private network based on TCP/IP and a consequent Java implementation of all used components is presented. Additionally, industrial requirements such as realtime communication to IEC-61131 conform digital IO"s (Modbus TCP/IP protocol), the implementation of a watchdog pattern and the integration of multiple operating systems (LINUX, QNX and WINDOWS) are lined out. The deployment of such a framework to the real world problem statement of the wire rolling mill is presented.

  5. Combination of process and vibration data for improved condition monitoring of industrial systems working under variable operating conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Cárcel, C.; Jaramillo, V. H.; Mba, D.; Ottewill, J. R.; Cao, Y.

    2016-01-01

    The detection and diagnosis of faults in industrial processes is a very active field of research due to the reduction in maintenance costs achieved by the implementation of process monitoring algorithms such as Principal Component Analysis, Partial Least Squares or more recently Canonical Variate Analysis (CVA). Typically the condition of rotating machinery is monitored separately using vibration analysis or other specific techniques. Conventional vibration-based condition monitoring techniques are based on the tracking of key features observed in the measured signal. Typically steady-state loading conditions are required to ensure consistency between measurements. In this paper, a technique based on merging process and vibration data is proposed with the objective of improving the detection of mechanical faults in industrial systems working under variable operating conditions. The capabilities of CVA for detection and diagnosis of faults were tested using experimental data acquired from a compressor test rig where different process faults were introduced. Results suggest that the combination of process and vibration data can effectively improve the detectability of mechanical faults in systems working under variable operating conditions.

  6. Temperature and Humidity Independent Control Research on Ground Source Heat Pump Air Conditioning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, G.; Wang, L. L.

    Taking green demonstration center building air conditioning system as an example, this paper presents the temperature and humidity independent control system combined with ground source heat pump system, emphasis on the design of dry terminal device system, fresh air system and ground source heat pump system.

  7. Conditions for monogamy of quantum correlations in multipartite systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Asutosh

    2016-09-01

    Monogamy of quantum correlations is a vibrant area of research because of its potential applications in several areas in quantum information ranging from quantum cryptography to co-operative phenomena in many-body physics. In this paper, we investigate conditions under which monogamy is preserved for functions of quantum correlation measures. We prove that a monogamous measure remains monogamous on raising its power, and a non-monogamous measure remains non-monogamous on lowering its power. We also prove that monogamy of a convex quantum correlation measure for arbitrary multipartite pure quantum state leads to its monogamy for mixed states in the same Hilbert space. Monogamy of squared negativity for mixed states and that of entanglement of formation follow as corollaries of our results.

  8. The Cerebral Surfactant System and Its Alteration in Hydrocephalic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Friedrich, Benjamin; Bernhard, Matthias K.; Gebauer, Corinna; Dieckow, Julia; Gawlitza, Matthias; Pirlich, Mandy; Saur, Dorothee; Bräuer, Lars; Bechmann, Ingo; Hoffmann, Karl-Titus; Mahr, Cynthia V.; Nestler, Ulf; Preuß, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Pulmonary Surfactant reduces surface tension in the terminal airways thus facilitating breathing and contributes to host’s innate immunity. Surfactant Proteins (SP) A, B, C and D were recently identified as inherent proteins of the CNS. Aim of the study was to investigate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) SP levels in hydrocephalus patients compared to normal subjects. Patients and Methods CSF SP A-D levels were quantified using commercially available ELISA kits in 126 patients (0–84 years, mean 39 years). 60 patients without CNS pathologies served as a control group. Hydrocephalus patients were separated in aqueductal stenosis (AQS, n = 24), acute hydrocephalus without aqueductal stenosis (acute HC w/o AQS, n = 16) and idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH, n = 20). Furthermore, six patients with pseudotumor cerebri were investigated. Results SP A—D are present under physiological conditions in human CSF. SP-A is elevated in diseases accompanied by ventricular enlargement (AQS, acute HC w/o AQS) in a significant manner (0.67, 1.21 vs 0.38 ng/ml in control, p<0.001). SP-C is also elevated in hydrocephalic conditions (AQS, acute HC w/o AQS; 0.87, 1.71 vs. 0.48 ng/ml in controls, p<0.001) and in Pseudotumor cerebri (1.26 vs. 0.48 ng/ml in controls, p<0.01). SP-B and SP-D did not show significant alterations. Conclusion The present study confirms the presence of SPs in human CSF. There are significant changes of SP-A and SP-C levels in diseases affecting brain water circulation and elevation of intracranial pressure. Cause of the alterations, underlying regulatory mechanisms, as well as diagnostic and therapeutic consequences of cerebral SP’s requires further thorough investigations. PMID:27656877

  9. Demonstration and Evaluation of State-of-the-Art Wastewater Collection Systems Condition Assessment Technologies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reliable information on pipe condition is needed to accurately estimate the remaining service life of wastewater collection system assets. Although inspections with conventional closed-circuit television (CCTV) have been the mainstay of pipeline condition assessment for decades,...

  10. Managing hazardous material conditions in wastewater collections systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, C.

    1994-12-31

    As modern industrial processes make greater and greater use of an ever increasing array of chemical substances the risk of these materials entering public sewer systems increases commensurately. Compounding this problem is the additional issue of a large population of single walled underground storage tanks now reaching the end of their safe-use lifespan while continuing in service. Tanks first put into underground service twenty to thirty years ago are now beginning to fail in ever increasing numbers releasing hazardous substances into the Vadose zone and ultimately into waste-water collection infrastructures. This paper, through the examination of a case study involving diesel fuel in a large, municipal waste-water collection system, offers a prototypical methodology for the management of such incidents.

  11. Microfluidic cell culture system with on-chip hypoxic conditioning.

    PubMed

    Takano, Atsushi; Tanaka, Masato; Futai, Nobuyuki

    2013-01-01

    We have demonstrated a portable microfluidic cell culture system with multi-gas (CO2 and O2) incubation which we can cultivate under hypoxia without bulky peripheral apparatus such as gas tanks, regulators, and flow controllers. The system contains a chip of 26 mm × 48 mm which is capable to diffuse CO2 and absorb O2 through a gas-permeable wall of nested media reservoir. The media was water-jacketed with aqueous solution containing 0.8 M sodium bicarbonate as CO2 supply and 1 M sodium ascorbate as oxygen scavenger. The partial CO2 pressure (pCO2) in media reservoir stabilized at least 10.2% ± 0.11% for at least 72 hours. The partial O2 pressure (pO2) in the media reservoir decreased to 4.2%. Portable on-chip hypoxic culture of SV40-T2 cells for 72 h was also demonstrated. PMID:24110727

  12. Electric Fuel Pump Condition Monitor System Using Electricalsignature Analysis

    DOEpatents

    Haynes, Howard D [Knoxville, TN; Cox, Daryl F [Knoxville, TN; Welch, Donald E [Oak Ridge, TN

    2005-09-13

    A pump diagnostic system and method comprising current sensing probes clamped on electrical motor leads of a pump for sensing only current signals on incoming motor power, a signal processor having a means for buffering and anti-aliasing current signals into a pump motor current signal, and a computer having a means for analyzing, displaying, and reporting motor current signatures from the motor current signal to determine pump health using integrated motor and pump diagnostic parameters.

  13. 30 CFR 260.111 - What conditions apply to the bidding systems that MMS uses?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What conditions apply to the bidding systems that MMS uses? 260.111 Section 260.111 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... What conditions apply to the bidding systems that MMS uses? (a) For each of the bidding systems...

  14. 30 CFR 260.111 - What conditions apply to the bidding systems that MMS uses?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What conditions apply to the bidding systems that MMS uses? 260.111 Section 260.111 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION... Bidding Systems General Provisions § 260.111 What conditions apply to the bidding systems that MMS...

  15. Water-saving liquid-gas conditioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Christopher; Zhuang, Ye

    2014-01-14

    A method for treating a process gas with a liquid comprises contacting a process gas with a hygroscopic working fluid in order to remove a constituent from the process gas. A system for treating a process gas with a liquid comprises a hygroscopic working fluid comprising a component adapted to absorb or react with a constituent of a process gas, and a liquid-gas contactor for contacting the working fluid and the process gas, wherein the constituent is removed from the process gas within the liquid-gas contactor.

  16. Conditional Gene Expression in Chlamydia trachomatis Using the Tet System

    PubMed Central

    Wickstrum, Jason; Sammons, Lindsay R.; Restivo, Keasha N.; Hefty, P. Scott

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is maintained through a complex bi-phasic developmental cycle that incorporates numerous processes that are poorly understood. This is reflective of the previous paucity of genetic tools available. The recent advent of a method for transforming Chlamydia has enabled the development of essential molecular tools to better study these medically important bacteria. Critical for the study of Chlamydia biology and pathogenesis, is a system for tightly controlled inducible gene expression. To accomplish this, a new shuttle vector was generated with gene expression controlled by the Tetracycline repressor and anhydryotetracycline. Evaluation of GFP expression by this system demonstrated tightly controlled gene regulation with rapid protein expression upon induction and restoration of transcription repression following inducer removal. Additionally, induction of expression could be detected relatively early during the developmental cycle and concomitant with conversion into the metabolically active form of Chlamydia. Uniform and strong GFP induction was observed during middle stages of the developmental cycle. Interestingly, variable induced GFP expression by individual organisms within shared inclusions during later stages of development suggesting metabolic diversity is affecting induction and/or expression. These observations support the strong potential of this molecular tool to enable numerous experimental analyses for a better understanding of the biology and pathogenesis of Chlamydia. PMID:24116144

  17. Power Conditioning System Modelling for Nuclear Electric Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metcalf, Kenneth J.

    1993-01-01

    NASA LeRC is currently developing a Fortran based model of a complete nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) vehicle that would be used for piloted and cargo missions to the Moon or Mars. The proposed vehicle design will use either a Brayton or K-Rankine power conversion cycle to drive a turbine coupled with a rotary alternator. Two thruster types are also being studied, ion and magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD). In support of this NEP model, Rocketdyne developed a power management and distribution (PMAD) subroutine that provides parametric outputs for selected alternator operating voltages and frequencies, thruster types, system power levels, and electronics coldplate temperatures. The end-to-end PMAD model described is based on the direct use of the alternator voltage and frequency for transmitting power to either ion or MPD thrusters. This low frequency transmission approach was compared with dc and high frequency ac designs, and determined to have the lowest mass, highest efficiency, highest reliability and lowest development costs. While its power quality is not as good as that provided by a high frequency system, it was considered adequate for both ion and MPD engine applications. The low frequency architecture will be used as the reference in future NEP PMAD studies.

  18. Power conditioning system modelling for nuclear electric propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metcalf, Kenneth J.

    1993-11-01

    NASA LeRC is currently developing a Fortran based model of a complete nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) vehicle that would be used for piloted and cargo missions to the Moon or Mars. The proposed vehicle design will use either a Brayton or K-Rankine power conversion cycle to drive a turbine coupled with a rotary alternator. Two thruster types are also being studied, ion and magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD). In support of this NEP model, Rocketdyne developed a power management and distribution (PMAD) subroutine that provides parametric outputs for selected alternator operating voltages and frequencies, thruster types, system power levels, and electronics coldplate temperatures. The end-to-end PMAD model described is based on the direct use of the alternator voltage and frequency for transmitting power to either ion or MPD thrusters. This low frequency transmission approach was compared with dc and high frequency ac designs, and determined to have the lowest mass, highest efficiency, highest reliability and lowest development costs. While its power quality is not as good as that provided by a high frequency system, it was considered adequate for both ion and MPD engine applications. The low frequency architecture will be used as the reference in future NEP PMAD studies.

  19. New Phases of Hydrogen-Bonded Systems at Extreme Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Manaa, M R; Goldman, N; Fried, L E

    2006-10-23

    We study the behavior of hydrogen-bonded systems under high-pressure and temperature. First principle calculations of formic acid under isotropic pressure up to 70 GPa reveal the existence of a polymerization phase at around 20 GPa, in support of recent IR, Raman, and XRD experiments. In this phase, covalent bonding develops between molecules of the same chain through symmetrization of hydrogen bonds. We also performed molecular dynamics simulations of water at pressures up to 115 GPa and 2000 K. Along this isotherm, we are able to define three different phases. We observe a molecular fluid phase with superionic diffusion of the hydrogens for pressure 34 GPa to 58 GPa. We report a transformation to a phase dominated by transient networks of symmetric O-H hydrogen bonds at 95-115 GPa. As in formic acid, the network can be attributed to the symmetrization of the hydrogen bond, similar to the ice VII to ice X transition.

  20. Systems, Methods and Apparatus for Position Sensor Digital Conditioning Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, David E. (Inventor); Alhorn, Dean C. (Inventor); Smith, Dennis A. (Inventor); Dutton, Kenneth R. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Systems, methods and apparatus are provided through which in some implementations determine the amplitude of an amplitude modulated signal, modulated by the position of an object being sensed. In some aspects, the apparatus accepts an excitation signal and the amplitude modulated signal and divides the amplitude modulated by the excitation signal to produce an output signal that is proportional to the position of the object being sensed. In other aspects, the division is performed only when the excitation signal is non-zero, such as close to the peaks in the excitation signal. In other aspects, the excitation signal and amplitude modulated signal are degraded due to an air gap and the degraded signals are used to correct for amplitude fluctuations due to the air gap, and produce an output signal, tolerant of the air gaps, that is proportional to the position of the object being sensed.

  1. Impact of air conditioning system operation on increasing gases emissions from automobile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burciu, S. M.; Coman, G.

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents a study concerning the influence of air conditioning system operation on the increase of gases emissions from cars. The study focuses on urban operating regimes of the automobile, regimes when the engines have low loads or are operating at idling. Are presented graphically the variations of pollution emissions (CO, CO2, HC) depending of engine speed and the load on air conditioning system. Additionally are presented, injection duration, throttle position, the mechanical power required by the compressor of air conditioning system and the refrigerant pressure variation on the discharge path, according to the stage of charging of the air conditioning system.

  2. Experimental results for improving the matrix condition using a hybrid optical system.

    PubMed

    Klapp, Iftach; Mendlovic, David

    2012-03-01

    We present preliminary experimental results for implementing the "blurred trajectories" method on three parallel optics (PO) systems. The "main" system and "auxiliary" optics were simple laboratory graded lenses attached to an iris diaphragm. When applying the blurred trajectories method we first show an improvement in the matrix condition, as the matrix condition number decreased in a range of factors of 3 to 418 relative to the main system. Following that, image restoration by weak regularization was performed so that the system matrix condition dominated the restoration process. It was shown that the restoration results of the PO are better than those of the main system and the auxiliary optics separately. In addition, the quality of the restoration follows the system's matrix condition. The improvement in the matrix condition achieved by the PO system improved the immunity to detection noise. Finally, a comparison to Wiener filtering restoration shows that it is also generally inferior to the proposed method.

  3. New Stability Conditions of Takagi-Sugeno Fuzzy Systems via LMI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourahala, F.; Khaber, F.

    2008-06-01

    This paper presents new stability conditions for the continuous Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy systems by using the Linear Matrix Inequality (LMI) approach. These new conditions are applied to design problems of fuzzy regulator. First, Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy models and some stability results are recalled. To design fuzzy control systems, nonlinear systems are represented by Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy models. The concept of parallel distributed compensation (PDC) is employed to design fuzzy controllers from the Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy models. New stability conditions are obtained by relaxing the classical stability conditions. The stability conditions (classic and relaxed) of the closed-loop system are expressed in terms of LMI. Design examples for nonlinear systems demonstrate the utility of the relaxed stability conditions and the LMI procedures.

  4. Open System Tribology and Influence of Weather Condition.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Yezhe; Bergseth, Ellen; Olofsson, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    The tribology of an open system at temperatures ranging between 3 °C and -35 °C, with and without snow, was investigated using a pin-on-disc tribometer mounted in a temperature-controlled environmental chamber. The relationship between the microstructure and ductility of the materials and the tribology at the contacting surfaces was investigated. The study shows that during continuous sliding, pressure causes snow particles to melt into a liquid-like layer, encouraging the generation of oxide flakes on the contact path. The friction coefficient and wear rate are dramatically reduced through an oxidative friction and wear mechanism. In the absence of snow, the tribological process is controlled by the low temperature brittleness of steel in the temperature range from 3 °C to -15 °C. At these temperatures, cracks are prone to form and extend on the worn surfaces, resulting in the spalling of bulk scraps, which are crushed into debris that increases the friction coefficient and wear rate due to strong abrasion. When the temperature falls to -25 °C, an ice layer condenses on the metal surfaces and relaxes the tribological process in the same way as the added snow particles, which significantly decreases the friction and wear. PMID:27573973

  5. Indexes system of technological condition assessment of economic branches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuvashova, M. N.; Avramchikova, N. T.; Antamoshkin, A. N.

    2015-10-01

    The increased level of innovative production process, connected with the current trends, points out the necessity of economic diversification of the whole national economy as well as regional economies in order to increase competitiveness and stable development. Russian regional economies are characterized with local directive of development and innovative processes have evident local vector. Intensive development of Siberian regional economies, which depends on oil and mining industries, considerably falls behind the world indicators according to the GRP output per head. To improve the quality of economic space the authors have suggested a new scientific approach, which allows qualitative assessment inside the economic space of resource-based regions, based on principles of high technological modes development inside economic branches taking into account density, regular enterprise distribution and connectivity of commercial organizations as well as secures innovative development of regional economy and its competitiveness. In this context it is necessary to develop a modern system of indexes, characterizing the structure of economic branches in accordance with present technological modes and at the same time the dynamics of appropriate structural shifts in regional economies of this type.

  6. Open System Tribology and Influence of Weather Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyu, Yezhe; Bergseth, Ellen; Olofsson, Ulf

    2016-08-01

    The tribology of an open system at temperatures ranging between 3 °C and ‑35 °C, with and without snow, was investigated using a pin-on-disc tribometer mounted in a temperature-controlled environmental chamber. The relationship between the microstructure and ductility of the materials and the tribology at the contacting surfaces was investigated. The study shows that during continuous sliding, pressure causes snow particles to melt into a liquid-like layer, encouraging the generation of oxide flakes on the contact path. The friction coefficient and wear rate are dramatically reduced through an oxidative friction and wear mechanism. In the absence of snow, the tribological process is controlled by the low temperature brittleness of steel in the temperature range from 3 °C to ‑15 °C. At these temperatures, cracks are prone to form and extend on the worn surfaces, resulting in the spalling of bulk scraps, which are crushed into debris that increases the friction coefficient and wear rate due to strong abrasion. When the temperature falls to ‑25 °C, an ice layer condenses on the metal surfaces and relaxes the tribological process in the same way as the added snow particles, which significantly decreases the friction and wear.

  7. Open System Tribology and Influence of Weather Condition

    PubMed Central

    Lyu, Yezhe; Bergseth, Ellen; Olofsson, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    The tribology of an open system at temperatures ranging between 3 °C and −35 °C, with and without snow, was investigated using a pin-on-disc tribometer mounted in a temperature-controlled environmental chamber. The relationship between the microstructure and ductility of the materials and the tribology at the contacting surfaces was investigated. The study shows that during continuous sliding, pressure causes snow particles to melt into a liquid-like layer, encouraging the generation of oxide flakes on the contact path. The friction coefficient and wear rate are dramatically reduced through an oxidative friction and wear mechanism. In the absence of snow, the tribological process is controlled by the low temperature brittleness of steel in the temperature range from 3 °C to −15 °C. At these temperatures, cracks are prone to form and extend on the worn surfaces, resulting in the spalling of bulk scraps, which are crushed into debris that increases the friction coefficient and wear rate due to strong abrasion. When the temperature falls to −25 °C, an ice layer condenses on the metal surfaces and relaxes the tribological process in the same way as the added snow particles, which significantly decreases the friction and wear. PMID:27573973

  8. Open System Tribology and Influence of Weather Condition.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Yezhe; Bergseth, Ellen; Olofsson, Ulf

    2016-08-30

    The tribology of an open system at temperatures ranging between 3 °C and -35 °C, with and without snow, was investigated using a pin-on-disc tribometer mounted in a temperature-controlled environmental chamber. The relationship between the microstructure and ductility of the materials and the tribology at the contacting surfaces was investigated. The study shows that during continuous sliding, pressure causes snow particles to melt into a liquid-like layer, encouraging the generation of oxide flakes on the contact path. The friction coefficient and wear rate are dramatically reduced through an oxidative friction and wear mechanism. In the absence of snow, the tribological process is controlled by the low temperature brittleness of steel in the temperature range from 3 °C to -15 °C. At these temperatures, cracks are prone to form and extend on the worn surfaces, resulting in the spalling of bulk scraps, which are crushed into debris that increases the friction coefficient and wear rate due to strong abrasion. When the temperature falls to -25 °C, an ice layer condenses on the metal surfaces and relaxes the tribological process in the same way as the added snow particles, which significantly decreases the friction and wear.

  9. A digital computer simulation and study of a direct-energy-transfer power-conditioning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, W. W., III; Owen, H. A., Jr.; Wilson, T. G.; Rodriguez, G. E.; Paulkovich, J.

    1974-01-01

    A digital computer simulation technique, which can be used to study such composite power-conditioning systems, was applied to a spacecraft direct-energy-transfer power-processing system. The results obtained duplicate actual system performance with considerable accuracy. The validity of the approach and its usefulness in studying various aspects of system performance such as steady-state characteristics and transient responses to severely varying operating conditions are demonstrated experimentally.

  10. Novel electrical energy storage system based on reversible solid oxide cells: System design and operating conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendel, C. H.; Kazempoor, P.; Braun, R. J.

    2015-02-01

    Electrical energy storage (EES) is an important component of the future electric grid. Given that no other widely available technology meets all the EES requirements, reversible (or regenerative) solid oxide cells (ReSOCs) working in both fuel cell (power producing) and electrolysis (fuel producing) modes are envisioned as a technology capable of providing highly efficient and cost-effective EES. However, there are still many challenges and questions from cell materials development to system level operation of ReSOCs that should be addressed before widespread application. This paper presents a novel system based on ReSOCs that employ a thermal management strategy of promoting exothermic methanation within the ReSOC cell-stack to provide thermal energy for the endothermic steam/CO2 electrolysis reactions during charging mode (fuel producing). This approach also serves to enhance the energy density of the stored gases. Modeling and parametric analysis of an energy storage concept is performed using a physically based ReSOC stack model coupled with thermodynamic system component models. Results indicate that roundtrip efficiencies greater than 70% can be achieved at intermediate stack temperature (680 °C) and elevated stack pressure (20 bar). The optimal operating condition arises from a tradeoff between stack efficiency and auxiliary power requirements from balance of plant hardware.

  11. Random countable alphabet conformal iterated function systems satisfying the transversality condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbański, Mariusz

    2016-03-01

    Dealing with with countable (finite and infinite alike) alphabet random conformal iterated function systems with overlaps, we formulate appropriate transversality conditions and then prove the relevant, in such a context, the Moran-Bowen formula which determines the Hausdorff dimension of random limit sets in dynamical terms. We also provide large classes of examples of such random systems satisfying the transversality condition.

  12. A condition on the spatial resolution of IR collimators for testing of thermal imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrzanowski, Krzysztof; Lee, Hee Chul; Wrona, Wieslaw

    2000-05-01

    A precise condition on the spatial resolution of the IR collimator for testing thermal imaging systems is presented. The condition can be used even if only the spatial resolution of the IR collimator and that of the system under test, measured using popular definitions, are known. It is shown that when the condition is fulfilled, the thermal image degradation caused by the IR collimator is negligible.

  13. Determination of the observation conditions of celestial bodies with the aid of the DISPO system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazakov, R. K.; Krivov, A. V.

    1984-01-01

    The interactive system for determining the observation conditions of celestial bodies is described. A system of programs was created containing a part of the DISPO Display Interative System of Orbit Planning. The system was used for calculating the observatiion characteristics of Halley's comet during its approach to Earth in 1985-86.

  14. Onboard power line conditioning system for an electric or hybrid vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Kajouke, Lateef A.; Perisic, Milun

    2016-06-14

    A power line quality conditioning system for a vehicle includes an onboard rechargeable direct current (DC) energy storage system and an onboard electrical system coupled to the energy storage system. The energy storage system provides DC energy to drive an electric traction motor of the vehicle. The electrical system operates in a charging mode such that alternating current (AC) energy from a power grid external to the vehicle is converted to DC energy to charge the DC energy storage system. The electrical system also operates in a vehicle-to-grid power conditioning mode such that DC energy from the DC energy storage system is converted to AC energy to condition an AC voltage of the power grid.

  15. Influence of changes in initial conditions for the simulation of dynamic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kotyrba, Martin

    2015-03-10

    Chaos theory is a field of study in mathematics, with applications in several disciplines including meteorology, sociology, physics, engineering, economics, biology, and philosophy. Chaos theory studies the behavior of dynamical systems that are highly sensitive to initial conditions—a paradigm popularly referred to as the butterfly effect. Small differences in initial conditions field widely diverging outcomes for such dynamical systems, rendering long-term prediction impossible in general. This happens even though these systems are deterministic, meaning that their future behavior is fully determined by their initial conditions, with no random elements involved. In this paperinfluence of changes in initial conditions will be presented for the simulation of Lorenz system.

  16. 33 CFR 334.270 - York River adjacent to Cheatham Annex Depot, Naval Supply Center, Williamsburg, Va.; restricted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... point on shore at Cheatham Annex Depot at latitude 37°17′14″ N., longitude 76°35′38″ W.; thence to a point offshore at latitude 37°17′52″ N., longitude 76°35′20″ W.; thence approximately parallel to the shore to a point at latitude 37°17′23″ N., longitude 76°34′39″ W.; thence to the shore at latitude...

  17. Parametric conditions for stability of reduced-order linear time-varying control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, C. C. H.; Vidyasagar, M.

    1987-01-01

    Using a single framework, parametric conditions are derived which encompass those for both local and global BIBO stability of a linear multivariable discrete-time reduced-order time-varying control system. These conditions indicate that the system will be BIBO stable if the norm of the system-parameter error matrix is bounded by an l exp 1 function superimposed on an l exp infinity function.

  18. 47 CFR 76.1504 - Rates, terms and conditions for carriage on open video systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... open video systems. 76.1504 Section 76.1504 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Open Video Systems § 76.1504 Rates, terms and conditions for carriage on open video systems. (a) Reasonable rate principle....

  19. 47 CFR 76.1504 - Rates, terms and conditions for carriage on open video systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... open video systems. 76.1504 Section 76.1504 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Open Video Systems § 76.1504 Rates, terms and conditions for carriage on open video systems. (a) Reasonable rate principle....

  20. 47 CFR 76.1504 - Rates, terms and conditions for carriage on open video systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... open video systems. 76.1504 Section 76.1504 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Open Video Systems § 76.1504 Rates, terms and conditions for carriage on open video systems. (a) Reasonable rate principle....

  1. 47 CFR 76.1504 - Rates, terms and conditions for carriage on open video systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... open video systems. 76.1504 Section 76.1504 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Open Video Systems § 76.1504 Rates, terms and conditions for carriage on open video systems. (a) Reasonable rate principle....

  2. 47 CFR 76.1504 - Rates, terms and conditions for carriage on open video systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... open video systems. 76.1504 Section 76.1504 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Open Video Systems § 76.1504 Rates, terms and conditions for carriage on open video systems. (a) Reasonable rate principle....

  3. 76 FR 39763 - Special Conditions: Boeing Model 787-8 Airplane; Interaction of Systems and Structures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... condition is needed for the pitch axis because the applicant's proposed method for the pitch maneuver takes... with flight control systems, autopilots, stability augmentation systems, load alleviation systems... deceleration due to a malfunction which could result in a temporary loss of power or thrust. (2) The...

  4. Further results on iterative learning control with convergence conditions for linear time-variant discrete systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao-Dong; Ho, John K. L.

    2011-06-01

    This article is concerned with some further results on iterative learning control (ILC) algorithms with convergence conditions for linear time-variant discrete systems. By converting two-Dimensional (2-D) ILC process of the linear time-variant discrete systems into 1-D linear time-invariant discrete systems, this article presents convergent ILC algorithms with necessary and sufficient conditions for two classes of linear time-variant discrete systems. Main results in (Li, X.-D., Ho, J.K.L., and Chow, T.W.S. (2005), 'Iterative Learning Control for Linear Time-variant Discrete Systems Based on 2-D System Theory', IEE Proceedings, Control Theory and Applications, 152, 13-18 and Huang, S.N., Tan, K.K., and Lee, T.H. (2002), 'Necessary and Sufficient Condition for Convergence of Iterative Learning Algorithm', Automatica 38, 1257-1260) are extended and generalised.

  5. Modeling validation and control analysis for controlled temperature and humidity of air conditioning system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jing-Nang; Lin, Tsung-Min; Chen, Chien-Chih

    2014-01-01

    This study constructs an energy based model of thermal system for controlled temperature and humidity air conditioning system, and introduces the influence of the mass flow rate, heater and humidifier for proposed control criteria to achieve the controlled temperature and humidity of air conditioning system. Then, the reliability of proposed thermal system model is established by both MATLAB dynamic simulation and the literature validation. Finally, the PID control strategy is applied for controlling the air mass flow rate, humidifying capacity, and heating, capacity. The simulation results show that the temperature and humidity are stable at 541 sec, the disturbance of temperature is only 0.14 °C, 0006 kg(w)/kg(da) in steady-state error of humidity ratio, and the error rate is only 7.5%. The results prove that the proposed system is an effective controlled temperature and humidity of an air conditioning system.

  6. Modeling Validation and Control Analysis for Controlled Temperature and Humidity of Air Conditioning System

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jing-Nang; Lin, Tsung-Min

    2014-01-01

    This study constructs an energy based model of thermal system for controlled temperature and humidity air conditioning system, and introduces the influence of the mass flow rate, heater and humidifier for proposed control criteria to achieve the controlled temperature and humidity of air conditioning system. Then, the reliability of proposed thermal system model is established by both MATLAB dynamic simulation and the literature validation. Finally, the PID control strategy is applied for controlling the air mass flow rate, humidifying capacity, and heating, capacity. The simulation results show that the temperature and humidity are stable at 541 sec, the disturbance of temperature is only 0.14°C, 0006 kgw/kgda in steady-state error of humidity ratio, and the error rate is only 7.5%. The results prove that the proposed system is an effective controlled temperature and humidity of an air conditioning system. PMID:25250390

  7. Contraindications to Athletic Participation. Cardiac, Respiratory, and Central Nervous System Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moeller, James L.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses contraindications to athletic participation, examining the cardiac, respiratory, and central nervous system conditions that warrant activity disqualification. Provides guidelines about when it is safe for individuals to participate, and discusses the physician's responsibility. (SM)

  8. 76 FR 10529 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Electronic Systems Security Protection From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-25

    ... associated with the architecture and connectivity capabilities of the airplane's computer systems and... architecture composed of several connected networks. The proposed architecture and network configuration may be... Conditions The proposed Model GVI architecture and network configuration may allow increased connectivity...

  9. Multisensor System for Isotemporal Measurements to Assess Indoor Climatic Conditions in Poultry Farms

    PubMed Central

    Bustamante, Eliseo; Guijarro, Enrique; García-Diego, Fernando-Juan; Balasch, Sebastián; Hospitaler, Antonio; Torres, Antonio G.

    2012-01-01

    The rearing of poultry for meat production (broilers) is an agricultural food industry with high relevance to the economy and development of some countries. Periodic episodes of extreme climatic conditions during the summer season can cause high mortality among birds, resulting in economic losses. In this context, ventilation systems within poultry houses play a critical role to ensure appropriate indoor climatic conditions. The objective of this study was to develop a multisensor system to evaluate the design of the ventilation system in broiler houses. A measurement system equipped with three types of sensors: air velocity, temperature and differential pressure was designed and built. The system consisted in a laptop, a data acquisition card, a multiplexor module and a set of 24 air temperature, 24 air velocity and two differential pressure sensors. The system was able to acquire up to a maximum of 128 signals simultaneously at 5 second intervals. The multisensor system was calibrated under laboratory conditions and it was then tested in field tests. Field tests were conducted in a commercial broiler farm under four different pressure and ventilation scenarios in two sections within the building. The calibration curves obtained under laboratory conditions showed similar regression coefficients among temperature, air velocity and pressure sensors and a high goodness fit (R2 = 0.99) with the reference. Under field test conditions, the multisensor system showed a high number of input signals from different locations with minimum internal delay in acquiring signals. The variation among air velocity sensors was not significant. The developed multisensor system was able to integrate calibrated sensors of temperature, air velocity and differential pressure and operated succesfully under different conditions in a mechanically-ventilated broiler farm. This system can be used to obtain quasi-instantaneous fields of the air velocity and temperature, as well as differential

  10. The Response of Local School Systems in Georgia to Fiscal and Economic Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alm, James; Sjoquist, David L.

    2009-01-01

    The 2001 recession had a major effect on Georgia's fiscal condition. We explore how economic conditions affected state and local financing of K-12 education in Georgia. We find that the magnitude of postrecession cuts in state real revenue per student varied widely across the local school systems in Georgia. We then examine whether and how cuts in…

  11. Feeding Behavior of Aplysia: A Model System for Comparing Cellular Mechanisms of Classical and Operant Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baxter, Douglas A.; Byrne, John H.

    2006-01-01

    Feeding behavior of Aplysia provides an excellent model system for analyzing and comparing mechanisms underlying appetitive classical conditioning and reward operant conditioning. Behavioral protocols have been developed for both forms of associative learning, both of which increase the occurrence of biting following training. Because the neural…

  12. 75 FR 27926 - Special Conditions: Dassault Aviation Falcon Model 2000EX; Autobraking System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-19

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 25 Special Conditions: Dassault Aviation Falcon Model 2000EX.... SUMMARY: These special conditions are issued for the Dassault Aviation Falcon Model 2000EX airplane. This... Certificate (TC) No. A50NM to install an automatic braking system on the Falcon Model 2000EX airplane. This...

  13. 76 FR 36861 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Electronic Systems Security Isolation or...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-23

    ... conditions are issued for the Gulfstream GVI airplane. This airplane will have novel or unusual design... systems and data networks. The applicable airworthiness regulations do not contain adequate or appropriate safety standards for these design features. These special conditions contain the additional...

  14. Flexible DCP interface. [signal conditioning system for use with Kansas environmental sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanemasu, E. T. (Principal Investigator); Schimmelpfenning, H.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A user of an ERTS data collection system must supply the sensors and signal conditioning interface. The electronic interface must be compatible with the NASA-furnished data collection platform (DCP). A universal signal conditioning system for use with a wide range of environmental sensors is described. The interface is environmentally and electronically compatible with the DCP and has operated satisfactorily for a complete winter wheat growing season in Kansas.

  15. Energy Performance Comparison of Heating and Air Conditioning Systems for Multi-Family Residential Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Weimin; Zhang, Jian; Jiang, Wei; Liu, Bing

    2011-07-31

    The type of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system has a large impact on the heating and cooling energy consumption in multifamily residential buildings. This paper compares the energy performance of three HVAC systems: a direct expansion (DX) split system, a split air source heat pump (ASHP) system, and a closed-loop water source heat pump (WSHP) system with a boiler and an evaporative fluid cooler as the central heating and cooling source. All three systems use gas furnace for heating or heating backup. The comparison is made in a number of scenarios including different climate conditions, system operation schemes and applicable building codes. It is found that with the minimum code-compliant equipment efficiency, ASHP performs the best among all scenarios except in extremely code climates. WSHP tends to perform better than the split DX system in cold climates but worse in hot climates.

  16. Experimental investigation on performance of ice storage air-conditioning system with separate heat pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Guiyin; Liu, Xu; Wu, Shuangmao

    2009-11-15

    An experimental study on operation performance of ice storage air-conditioning system with separate helical heat pipe is conducted in this paper. The experimental system of ice storage air-conditioning system with separate heat pipe is set up. The performance parameters such as the evaporation pressure and the condensation pressure of refrigeration system, the refrigeration capacity and the COP (coefficient of performance) of the system, the IPF (ice packing factor) and the cool storage capacity in the cool storage tank during charging period, and the cool discharge rate and the cool discharge capacity in the cool storage tank, the outlet water temperature in the cool storage tank and the outlet air temperature in room unit during discharging period are investigated. The experimental results show that the ice storage air-conditioning system with separate helical heat pipe can stably work during charging and discharging period. This indicates that the ice storage air-conditioning system with separate helical heat pipe is well adapted to cool storage air-conditioning systems in building. (author)

  17. A hybrid fiber-optic sensor system for condition monitoring of large scale wind turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dae-gil; Kim, Hyunjin; Sampath, Umesh; Song, Minho

    2015-07-01

    A hybrid fiber-optic sensor system which combines fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors and a Michelson interferometer is suggested for condition monitoring uses of large scale wind turbine blades. The system uses single broadband light source to address both sensors, which simplifies the optical setup and enhances the cost-effectiveness of condition monitoring system. An athermal-packaged FBG is used to supply quasi-coherent light for the Michelson interferometer demodulation. For the feasibility test, different profiles of test strain, temperature and vibration have been applied to test structures, and successfully reconstructed with the proposed sensor system.

  18. Adaptation and Diversification of an RNA Replication System under Initiation- or Termination-Impaired Translational Conditions.

    PubMed

    Mizuuchi, Ryo; Ichihashi, Norikazu; Yomo, Tetsuya

    2016-07-01

    Adaptation to various environments is a remarkable characteristic of life. Is this limited to extant complex living organisms, or is it also possible for a simpler self-replication system to adapt? In this study, we addressed this question by using a translation-coupled RNA replication system that comprised a reconstituted translation system and an RNA "genome" that encoded a replicase gene. We performed RNA replication reactions under four conditions, under which different components of translation were partly inhibited. We found that replication efficiency increased with the number of rounds of replication under all the tested conditions. The types of dominant mutations differed depending on the condition, thus indicating that this simple system adapted to different environments in different ways. This suggests that even a primitive self-replication system composed of a small number of genes on the early earth could have had the ability to adapt to various environments.

  19. A computerized system for the simultaneous monitoring of place conditioning and locomotor activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Brockwell, N T; Ferguson, D S; Beninger, R J

    1996-02-01

    Place conditioning is one of the most popular behavioral methods for assessing the rewarding properties of various substances. Many substances that are rewarding also influence motor activity. This report describes a computerized system designed to simultaneously monitor both place conditioning and locomotor activity. The system consists of 4 independent conditioning boxes, each equipped with 6 pairs of photosensors connected to an Experiment Controller, an electronic board containing a microprocessor, a programable timer, and 16 K of RAM used to store both instructions and data. The effects of the stimulant (+)-amphetamine were assessed using this system and found to produce a place preference comparable to that obtained from a previously utilized mechanical timer system. The computerized system also demonstrated that amphetamine increased unconditioned activity. There are a number of advantages and broader applications of the new methodology.

  20. An Expert Fault Diagnosis System for Vehicle Air Conditioning Product Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, C. F.; Tee, B. T.; Khalil, S. N.; Chen, W.; Rauterberg, G. W. M.

    2015-09-01

    The paper describes the development of the vehicle air-conditioning fault diagnosis system in automotive industries with expert system shell. The main aim of the research is to diagnose the problem of new vehicle air-conditioning system development process and select the most suitable solution to the problems. In the vehicle air-conditioning manufacturing industry, process can be very costly where an expert and experience personnel needed in certain circumstances. The expert of in the industry will retire or resign from time to time. When the expert is absent, their experience and knowledge is difficult to retrieve or lost forever. Expert system is a convenient method to replace expert. By replacing the expert with expert system, the accuracy of the processes will be increased compared to the conventional way. Therefore, the quality of product services that are produced will be finer and better. The inputs for the fault diagnosis are based on design data and experience of the engineer.

  1. Wettability from Capillarity of CO2-Brine-Rock Systems at Reservoir Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Menhali, Ali; Niu, Ben; Krevor, Samuel

    2015-04-01

    The wettability of CO2-brine-rock systems will have a major impact on the management of carbon sequestration in subsurface geological formations. Recent contact angle measurement studies have reported sensitivity in wetting behaviour of this system to pressure, temperature and brine salinity. We report results of an investigation into the impact of reservoir conditions on wetting through direct observations of their impact on the capillary strength of the system. Eight capillary pressure characteristic curves were measured using CO2 and brine in a single fired Berea sandstone at pressures (5 to 20 MPa), temperatures (25 to 50 °C) and ionic strengths (0 to 5 M kg-1 NaCl) representative of subsurface reservoirs. A ninth measurement using an N2-water system provided a benchmark for capillarity with a strongly water wet system. The semi-dynamic capillary pressure core flooding technique was used with in situ saturation monitoring. In all cases, the capillarity of the system, scaled by the interfacial tension, were equivalent to the N2-water system within measurement uncertainty. Thus reservoir conditions did not have a significant impact on the capillary strength of the CO2-brine system through a variation in wetting. Two steady-state relative permeability measurements with CO2 and brine and one with N2 and brine similarly show little variation between conditions, consistent with the observation that the CO2-brine-sandstone system is strongly water wetting and invariant across a wide range of reservoir conditions.

  2. An overview of crop growing condition monitoring in China agriculture remote sensing monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Qing; Zhou, Qing-bo; Zhang, Li

    2009-07-01

    China is a large agricultural country. To understand the agricultural production condition timely and accurately is related to government decision-making, agricultural production management and the general public concern. China Agriculture Remote Sensing Monitoring System (CHARMS) can monitor crop acreage changes, crop growing condition, agriculture disaster (drought, floods, frost damage, pest etc.) and predict crop yield etc. quickly and timely. The basic principles, methods and regular operation of crop growing condition monitoring in CHARMS are introduced in detail in the paper. CHARMS can monitor crop growing condition of wheat, corn, cotton, soybean and paddy rice with MODIS data. An improved NDVI difference model was used in crop growing condition monitoring in CHARMS. Firstly, MODIS data of every day were received and processed, and the max NDVI values of every fifteen days of main crop were generated, then, in order to assessment a certain crop growing condition in certain period (every fifteen days, mostly), the system compare the remote sensing index data (NDVI) of a certain period with the data of the period in the history (last five year, mostly), the difference between NDVI can indicate the spatial difference of crop growing condition at a certain period. Moreover, Meteorological data of temperature, precipitation and sunshine etc. as well as the field investigation data of 200 network counties were used to modify the models parameters. Last, crop growing condition was assessment at four different scales of counties, provinces, main producing areas and nation and spatial distribution maps of crop growing condition were also created.

  3. Invariance of decay rate with respect to boundary conditions in thermoelastic Timoshenko systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, M. S.; Jorge Silva, M. A.; Ma, T. F.; Muñoz Rivera, J. E.

    2016-06-01

    This paper is mainly concerned with the polynomial stability of a thermoelastic Timoshenko system recently introduced by Almeida Júnior et al. (Z Angew Math Phys 65(6):1233-1249, 2014) that proved, in the general case when equal wave speeds are not assumed, different polynomial decay rates depending on the boundary conditions, namely, optimal rate {t^{-1/2}} for mixed Dirichlet-Neumann boundary condition and rate {t^{-1/4}} for full Dirichlet boundary condition. Here, our main achievement is to prove the same polynomial decay rate {t^{-1/2}} (corresponding to the optimal one) independently of the boundary conditions, which improves the existing literature on the subject. As a complementary result, we also prove that the system is exponentially stable under equal wave speeds assumption. The technique employed here can probably be applied to other kind of thermoelastic systems.

  4. Prevalence of chronic medical conditions among inmates in the Texas prison system.

    PubMed

    Harzke, Amy J; Baillargeon, Jacques G; Pruitt, Sandi L; Pulvino, John S; Paar, David P; Kelley, Michael F

    2010-05-01

    Given the rapid growth and aging of the US prison population in recent years, the disease profile and health care needs of inmates portend to have far-reaching public health implications. Although numerous studies have examined infectious disease prevalence and treatment in incarcerated populations, little is known about the prevalence of non-infectious chronic medical conditions in US prison populations. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of selected non-infectious chronic medical conditions among inmates in the Texas prison system. The study population consisted of the total census of inmates who were incarcerated in the Texas Department of Criminal Justice for any duration from September 1, 2006 through August 31, 2007 (N=234,031). Information on medical diagnoses was obtained from a system-wide electronic medical record system. Overall crude prevalence estimates for the selected conditions were as follows: hypertension, 18.8%; asthma, 5.4%; diabetes, 4.2%; ischemic heart disease, 1.7%; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 0.96%; and cerebrovascular disease, 0.23%. Nearly one quarter (24.5%) of the study population had at least one of the selected conditions. Except for asthma, crude prevalence estimates of the selected conditions increased monotonically with age. Nearly two thirds (64.6%) of inmates who were >or=55 years of age had at least one of the selected conditions. Except for diabetes, crude prevalence estimates for the selected conditions were lower among Hispanic inmates than among non-Hispanic White inmates and African American inmates. Although age-standardized prevalence estimates for the selected conditions did not appear to exceed age-standardized estimates from the US general population, a large number of inmates were affected by one or more of these conditions. As the prison population continues to grow and to age, the burden of these conditions on correctional and community health care systems can be expected to increase

  5. Aircraft Abnormal Conditions Detection, Identification, and Evaluation Using Innate and Adaptive Immune Systems Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Azzawi, Dia

    Abnormal flight conditions play a major role in aircraft accidents frequently causing loss of control. To ensure aircraft operation safety in all situations, intelligent system monitoring and adaptation must rely on accurately detecting the presence of abnormal conditions as soon as they take place, identifying their root cause(s), estimating their nature and severity, and predicting their impact on the flight envelope. Due to the complexity and multidimensionality of the aircraft system under abnormal conditions, these requirements are extremely difficult to satisfy using existing analytical and/or statistical approaches. Moreover, current methodologies have addressed only isolated classes of abnormal conditions and a reduced number of aircraft dynamic parameters within a limited region of the flight envelope. This research effort aims at developing an integrated and comprehensive framework for the aircraft abnormal conditions detection, identification, and evaluation based on the artificial immune systems paradigm, which has the capability to address the complexity and multidimensionality issues related to aircraft systems. Within the proposed framework, a novel algorithm was developed for the abnormal conditions detection problem and extended to the abnormal conditions identification and evaluation. The algorithm and its extensions were inspired from the functionality of the biological dendritic cells (an important part of the innate immune system) and their interaction with the different components of the adaptive immune system. Immunity-based methodologies for re-assessing the flight envelope at post-failure and predicting the impact of the abnormal conditions on the performance and handling qualities are also proposed and investigated in this study. The generality of the approach makes it applicable to any system. Data for artificial immune system development were collected from flight tests of a supersonic research aircraft within a motion-based flight

  6. Performance evaluation of automated fingerprint identification systems for specific conditions observed in casework using simulated fingermarks.

    PubMed

    de Jongh, Arent; Rodriguez, Crystal M

    2012-07-01

    Few studies have been reported on the performance evaluation of automated fingerprint identification systems (AFIS) for fingermark-to-fingerprint comparisons. This paper aims to illustrate to fingerprint examiners the relevance of evaluating the AFIS performance under specific conditions by carrying out five types of performance tests. The conditions addressed are the number of minutiae assigned to a fingermark, manual and automatic assignment of the minutiae, the finger region from which the fingermark originates, the degree of distortion in the fingermark, and the difference in orientation between fingermarks and fingerprints. In these tests, the magnitude of the influence for each condition was quantified. The comparisons were performed using a research AFIS technology with simulated fingermarks. Simulated fingermarks provide a practical way to create fingermarks for specific conditions in large quantities. The results showed that each condition influences the performance significantly, emphasizing the relevance of developing, and applying performance tests for specific conditions.

  7. Performance evaluation of automated fingerprint identification systems for specific conditions observed in casework using simulated fingermarks.

    PubMed

    de Jongh, Arent; Rodriguez, Crystal M

    2012-07-01

    Few studies have been reported on the performance evaluation of automated fingerprint identification systems (AFIS) for fingermark-to-fingerprint comparisons. This paper aims to illustrate to fingerprint examiners the relevance of evaluating the AFIS performance under specific conditions by carrying out five types of performance tests. The conditions addressed are the number of minutiae assigned to a fingermark, manual and automatic assignment of the minutiae, the finger region from which the fingermark originates, the degree of distortion in the fingermark, and the difference in orientation between fingermarks and fingerprints. In these tests, the magnitude of the influence for each condition was quantified. The comparisons were performed using a research AFIS technology with simulated fingermarks. Simulated fingermarks provide a practical way to create fingermarks for specific conditions in large quantities. The results showed that each condition influences the performance significantly, emphasizing the relevance of developing, and applying performance tests for specific conditions. PMID:22458701

  8. Design of a test facility for gas-fired desiccant-based air conditioning systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jalalzadeh-Azar, A.A.; Steele, W.G.; Hodge, B.K.

    1996-12-31

    The design of a facility for testing desiccant-based air conditioning systems is presented. The determination of the performance parameters of desiccant systems is discussed including moisture removal capacity, latent and total cooling capacities, and efficiency indexes. The appropriate procedures and key measurements for determining these parameters are identified using uncertainty analysis.

  9. Operation of a phase locked loop system under distorted utility conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Kaura, V.; Blasko, V.

    1997-01-01

    Operation of a phase locked loop (PLL) system under distorted utility conditions is presented. A control model of the PLL system is developed and recommendations are made on tuning of this model specially for operation under common utility distortions as line notching, voltage unbalance/loss, frequency variations. The PLL is completely implemented in software without any filters. All analytical results are experimentally verified.

  10. An ECG Lab Project for Teaching Signal Conditioning Systems in a Master's Degree in Mechatronic Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martín, Francisco Javier Ferrero; Martínez, Alberto López; Llopis, Marta Valledor; Rodriguez, Juan Carlos Campo; Viejo, Cecilio Blanco; Vershinin, Yuri A.

    2015-01-01

    Ongoing technological progress in measurement systems triggered the development of an in­novative, hands-on teaching program to help students toward a fuller understanding of recent changes in the field. This paper presents a lab project that links theoretical principles with the practical issues of signal conditioning systems. This is…

  11. Improving Students' Chinese Writing Abilities in Taiwan with the "Conditioned Writing System"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yuan-Chen; Lee, Wan-Chun; Huang, Tzu-Hua; Hsieh, Hsiao-Mei

    2012-01-01

    This research investigates students' performance while writing Chinese essays using an interactive online writing system. Participants include students from two seventh-grade classes of a junior high school in Taoyuan County, Taiwan. The experimental group uses the conditioned writing interactive online system, while the control group receives…

  12. Application of the comparison principle to analysis of nonlinear systems. [using Lipschitz condition and differential equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunderson, R. W.

    1975-01-01

    A comparison principle based on a Kamke theorem and Lipschitz conditions is presented along with its possible applications and modifications. It is shown that the comparison lemma can be used in the study of such areas as classical stability theory, higher order trajectory derivatives, Liapunov functions, boundary value problems, approximate dynamic systems, linear and nonlinear systems, and bifurcation analysis.

  13. 76 FR 8278 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Enhanced Flight Vision System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-14

    ... Flight Vision System AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final special conditions..., Airplane and Flight Crew Interface Branch, ANM-111, Transport Standards Staff, Transport Airplane... Design Features The enhanced flight vision system (EFVS) is a novel or unusual design feature because...

  14. 76 FR 14795 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Electronic Flight Control System Mode...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... December 13, 2010 (75 FR 77569). Only one comment was received. Clarification of Conditions That Should Be...; Electronic Flight Control System Mode Annunciation. AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... electronic flight control system. The applicable airworthiness regulations do not contain adequate...

  15. 75 FR 38391 - Special Conditions: Boeing 757-200 With Enhanced Flight Vision System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... Administration 14 CFR Part 25 Special Conditions: Boeing 757-200 With Enhanced Flight Vision System AGENCY... airplanes, as modified by the Federal Express Corporation, will have an advanced, enhanced-flight-visibility... symbolic flight information. However, the term has also been commonly used in reference to systems...

  16. NASA-Langley Research Center's Aircraft Condition Analysis and Management System Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frye, Mark W.; Bailey, Roger M.; Jessup, Artie D.

    2004-01-01

    This document describes the hardware implementation design and architecture of Aeronautical Radio Incorporated (ARINC)'s Aircraft Condition Analysis and Management System (ACAMS), which was developed at NASA-Langley Research Center (LaRC) for use in its Airborne Research Integrated Experiments System (ARIES) Laboratory. This activity is part of NASA's Aviation Safety Program (AvSP), the Single Aircraft Accident Prevention (SAAP) project to develop safety-enabling technologies for aircraft and airborne systems. The fundamental intent of these technologies is to allow timely intervention or remediation to improve unsafe conditions before they become life threatening.

  17. Towards energy efficient operation of Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning systems via advanced supervisory control design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oswiecinska, A.; Hibbs, J.; Zajic, I.; Burnham, K. J.

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents conceptual control solution for reliable and energy efficient operation of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems used in large volume building applications, e.g. warehouse facilities or exhibition centres. Advanced two-level scalable control solution, designed to extend capabilities of the existing low-level control strategies via remote internet connection, is presented. The high-level, supervisory controller is based on Model Predictive Control (MPC) architecture, which is the state-of-the-art for indoor climate control systems. The innovative approach benefits from using passive heating and cooling control strategies for reducing the HVAC system operational costs, while ensuring that required environmental conditions are met.

  18. Custom uniform source system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balcom, John L.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose and scope of this final report is to provide information on the Custom Uniform Source System (CSTM-USS-4000). The report includes documentation and summaries of the results for the work performed under the contract. The Annex contain laboratory test findings, photographs, and drawings of the sphere system.

  19. Structural Conditions for Collaboration and Learning in Innovation Networks: Using an Innovation System Performance Lens to Analyse Agricultural Knowledge Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermans, Frans; Klerkx, Laurens; Roep, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: We investigate how the structural conditions of eight different European agricultural innovation systems can facilitate or hinder collaboration and social learning in multidisciplinary innovation networks. Methodology: We have adapted the Innovation System Failure Matrix to investigate the main barriers and enablers eight countries…

  20. Influence of Ventilation Ratio on Desiccant Air Conditioning System's Efficiency Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Thien Nha; Akisawa, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Takao; Hamamoto, Yoshinori

    Ventilation air is a concern for engineers since ventilated air controls indoor air contamination; additional ventilation, however, increases the energy consumption of buildings. The study investigates the energy efficiency performance of the desiccant dehumidification air conditioning system in the context of ventilation for a hot-humid climate such as summer in Japan. The investigation focuses on the variable ratio of ventilation air as required by the application of air conditioning system. The COP of the desiccant air conditioning system is determined. The evaluation is subsequently performed by comparing the desiccant based system with the conventional absorption cooling system and the vapor compression cooling system. Based on 12 desiccant rotor simulations, it is found that the desiccant regeneration temperature required varies between 47°C to 85°C as ventilation ratio increases from 0. 0 to 100%, and up to 52. 5°C as the ventilation ratio achieves 14%. The heat required for regenerating desiccant accounts for 55% and higher of the system's total heat consumption; the system is expected to be energy efficient by using wasted heat from the absorption chiller for desiccant regeneration; and its energy efficiency expands as the ratio of ventilation air rises above 15% compared with the conventional absorption cooling system. The energy efficiency also benefits as the ratio rises beyond 70% against the conventional vapor compression cooling system.

  1. Energy studies on central and variable refrigerant flow air-conditioning systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, H.; Nitamakwuavan, S.; Jalaludin, A. F.

    2012-06-01

    Air-conditioning is a major contributor to energy end-use in commercial buildings. Different types of airconditioning systems are installed in commercial buildings including packaged systems, split units and central systems. With the advancement in control technology and the demand for energy efficient systems, variable refrigerant flow (VRF) air-conditioning system is seen to be a solution to the load-matching problem for airconditioning systems. In a VRF system, the volume or flow rate of the refrigerant is accurately matched to the required cooling load thereby saving energy and providing more accurate control. This study aims to determine the performance of the VRF system used in an actual building by calculating the Coefficient of Performance (COP) of the system. The COP is then compared to the COP of a centralized chilled water system used in the same building. The results showed that the COPs determined for the VRF and central systems are 3.3 and 2.0 respectively. The results also indicated that replacing older central system with a VRF system could lead to an energy savings of up to 39.5%.

  2. Total environmental warming impact (TEWI) calculations for alternative automative air-conditioning systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sand, J.R.; Fischer, S.K.

    1997-01-01

    The Montreal Protocol phase-out of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) has required manufacturers to develop refrigeration and air-conditioning systems that use refrigerants that can not damage stratospheric ozone. Most refrigeration industries have adapted their designs to use hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) or hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants; new automobile air- conditioning systems use HFC-134a. These industries are now being affected by scientific investigations of greenhouse warming and questions about the effects of refrigerants on global warming. Automobile air-conditioning has three separate impacts on global warming; (1) the effects of refrigerant inadvertently released to the atmosphere from accidents, servicing, and leakage; (2) the efficiency of the cooling equipment (due to the emission of C0{sub 2} from burning fuel to power the system); and (3) the emission of C0{sub 2} from burning fuel to transport the system. The Total Equivalent Warming Impact (TEWI) is an index that should be used to compare the global warming effects of alternative air-conditioning systems because it includes these contributions from the refrigerant, cooling efficiency, and weight. This paper compares the TEWI of current air-conditioning systems using HFC-134a with that of transcritical vapor compression system using carbon dioxide and systems using flammable refrigerants with secondary heat transfer loops. Results are found to depend on both climate and projected efficiency of C0{sub 2}systems. Performance data on manufacturing prototype systems are needed to verify the potential reductions in TEWI. Extensive field testing is also required to determine the performance, reliability, and ``serviceability`` of each alternative to HFC-134a to establish whether the potential reduction of TEWI can be achieved in a viable consumer product.

  3. Consensus tracking of linear multi-agent systems under networked observability conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diao, Miao; Duan, Zhisheng; Wen, Guanghui

    2014-08-01

    This paper addresses the consensus tracking problem for both continuous- and discrete-time linear multi-agent systems with a dynamic leader under networked observability conditions. Among followers, the communication topology is assumed to be undirected and connected. Two networked observability conditions are introduced and discussed. The first one extends the traditional detectability condition for a single system, while the second one is a full rank condition, which is stronger than the first one. In the continuous-time case, two distributed observer-based protocols are designed under corresponding networked observability conditions, respectively. Specifically, the second protocol is an adaptive one, which has a better robustness performance than the first one. In the discrete-time case, a distributed observer-based protocol is presented under the full rank networked observability condition. It is found that under the networked observability conditions, consensus tracking can still be achieved even if there exists no follower being able to track the leader independently. Based on algebraic graph theory and Lyapunov stability theory, some sufficient conditions are derived for reaching consensus tracking. Finally, simulation examples are presented to verify the effectiveness of theoretical results.

  4. Potential emission savings from refrigeration and air conditioning systems by using low GWP refrigerants

    DOE PAGES

    Beshr, Mohamed; Aute, Vikrant; Abdelaziz, Omar; Fricke, Brian; Radermacher, Reinhard

    2016-08-24

    Refrigeration and air conditioning systems have high, negative environmental impacts due to refrigerant charge leaks from the system and their corresponding high global warming potential. Thus, many efforts are in progress to obtain suitable low GWP alternative refrigerants and more environmentally friendly systems for the future. In addition, the system’s life cycle climate performance (LCCP) is a widespread metric proposed for the evaluation of the system’s environmental impact.

  5. On local convergence analysis of inexact Newton method for singular systems of equations under majorant condition.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Fangqin

    2014-01-01

    We present a local convergence analysis of inexact Newton method for solving singular systems of equations. Under the hypothesis that the derivative of the function associated with the singular systems satisfies a majorant condition, we obtain that the method is well defined and converges. Our analysis provides a clear relationship between the majorant function and the function associated with the singular systems. It also allows us to obtain an estimate of convergence ball for inexact Newton method and some important special cases.

  6. Robust Road Condition Detection System Using In-Vehicle Standard Sensors.

    PubMed

    Castillo Aguilar, Juan Jesús; Cabrera Carrillo, Juan Antonio; Guerra Fernández, Antonio Jesús; Carabias Acosta, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    The appearance of active safety systems, such as Anti-lock Braking System, Traction Control System, Stability Control System, etc., represents a major evolution in road safety. In the automotive sector, the term vehicle active safety systems refers to those whose goal is to help avoid a crash or to reduce the risk of having an accident. These systems safeguard us, being in continuous evolution and incorporating new capabilities continuously. In order for these systems and vehicles to work adequately, they need to know some fundamental information: the road condition on which the vehicle is circulating. This early road detection is intended to allow vehicle control systems to act faster and more suitably, thus obtaining a substantial advantage. In this work, we try to detect the road condition the vehicle is being driven on, using the standard sensors installed in commercial vehicles. Vehicle models were programmed in on-board systems to perform real-time estimations of the forces of contact between the wheel and road and the speed of the vehicle. Subsequently, a fuzzy logic block is used to obtain an index representing the road condition. Finally, an artificial neural network was used to provide the optimal slip for each surface. Simulations and experiments verified the proposed method. PMID:26703605

  7. Robust Road Condition Detection System Using In-Vehicle Standard Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Castillo Aguilar, Juan Jesús; Cabrera Carrillo, Juan Antonio; Guerra Fernández, Antonio Jesús; Carabias Acosta, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    The appearance of active safety systems, such as Anti-lock Braking System, Traction Control System, Stability Control System, etc., represents a major evolution in road safety. In the automotive sector, the term vehicle active safety systems refers to those whose goal is to help avoid a crash or to reduce the risk of having an accident. These systems safeguard us, being in continuous evolution and incorporating new capabilities continuously. In order for these systems and vehicles to work adequately, they need to know some fundamental information: the road condition on which the vehicle is circulating. This early road detection is intended to allow vehicle control systems to act faster and more suitably, thus obtaining a substantial advantage. In this work, we try to detect the road condition the vehicle is being driven on, using the standard sensors installed in commercial vehicles. Vehicle models were programmed in on-board systems to perform real-time estimations of the forces of contact between the wheel and road and the speed of the vehicle. Subsequently, a fuzzy logic block is used to obtain an index representing the road condition. Finally, an artificial neural network was used to provide the optimal slip for each surface. Simulations and experiments verified the proposed method. PMID:26703605

  8. Robust Road Condition Detection System Using In-Vehicle Standard Sensors.

    PubMed

    Castillo Aguilar, Juan Jesús; Cabrera Carrillo, Juan Antonio; Guerra Fernández, Antonio Jesús; Carabias Acosta, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    The appearance of active safety systems, such as Anti-lock Braking System, Traction Control System, Stability Control System, etc., represents a major evolution in road safety. In the automotive sector, the term vehicle active safety systems refers to those whose goal is to help avoid a crash or to reduce the risk of having an accident. These systems safeguard us, being in continuous evolution and incorporating new capabilities continuously. In order for these systems and vehicles to work adequately, they need to know some fundamental information: the road condition on which the vehicle is circulating. This early road detection is intended to allow vehicle control systems to act faster and more suitably, thus obtaining a substantial advantage. In this work, we try to detect the road condition the vehicle is being driven on, using the standard sensors installed in commercial vehicles. Vehicle models were programmed in on-board systems to perform real-time estimations of the forces of contact between the wheel and road and the speed of the vehicle. Subsequently, a fuzzy logic block is used to obtain an index representing the road condition. Finally, an artificial neural network was used to provide the optimal slip for each surface. Simulations and experiments verified the proposed method.

  9. Application of the FLP/FRT system for conditional gene deletion in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Park, Yang-Nim; Masison, Daniel; Eisenberg, Evan; Greene, Lois E

    2011-09-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has proved to be an excellent model organism to study the function of proteins. One of the many advantages of yeast is the many genetic tools available to manipulate gene expression, but there are still limitations. To complement the many methods used to control gene expression in yeast, we have established a conditional gene deletion system by using the FLP/FRT system on yeast vectors to conditionally delete specific yeast genes. Expression of Flp recombinase, which is under the control of the GAL1 promoter, was induced by galactose, which in turn excised FRT sites flanked genes. The efficacy of this system was examined using the FRT site-flanked genes HSP104, URA3 and GFP. The pre-excision frequency of this system, which might be caused by the basal activity of the GAL1 promoter or by spontaneous recombination between FRT sites, was detected ca. 2% under the non-selecting condition. After inducing expression of Flp recombinase, the deletion efficiency achieved ca. 96% of cells in a population within 9 h. After conditional deletion of the specific gene, protein degradation and cell division then diluted out protein that was expressed from this gene prior to its excision. Most importantly, the specific protein to be deleted could be expressed under its own promoter, so that endogenous levels of protein expression were maintained prior to excision by the Flp recombinase. Therefore, this system provides a useful tool for the conditional deletion of genes in yeast.

  10. Conditional statistical properties of the complex systems having long-duration memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhifu; Ou, Congjie; Lin, Bihong; Su, Guozhen; Chen, Jincan

    2014-09-01

    A new concept of the available force is proposed to investigate the performance of the complex systems having long-duration memory. Since the covariance of average velocity in double time interval and available force equals zero, it is possible to calculate the conditional probability distribution function (CPDF) within the systems. It is found that the asymmetric CPDF of the velocity between two adjacent time intervals can be derived from the symmetrical CPDF between the available force and the double time interval velocity. Two typical currency exchange databases, i.e., EUR/USD and GBP/USD, which collect the minutely opening exchange prices from 1 January 1999 to 31 December 2011, are adopted as examples. It is found that the analytical CPDF needs only six parameters for an arbitrary system. By calculating the CPDF in the currency exchange databases, it is shown that the results are well fitted by our analytical expression. The analytical CPDF can also be used to calculate the conditional expectation and the conditional variance of velocity. Interestingly, the two databases show that the conditional expectation of the velocity between two adjacent time intervals is not monotonic, while the conditional variance tends to monotonic. All of these results are well described by our theory. It is worthwhile to note that the analytical CPDF is a general expression. It is valid not only for current exchange systems but also for any complex systems having long-duration memory.

  11. Series-connected shaded modules to address partial shading conditions in SPV systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pareek, Smita; Dahiya, Ratna

    2016-03-01

    With the progress of technology and reduced cost of PV cells, the PV systems are being installed in many countries, including India. Even though this method of power generation has sufficient potential but its effective utilization is still lacking. This is because the output power of PV cells depends on many factors like insolation, temperature, climate conditions prevailing nearby, aging, using modules from different technologies/manufacturers or partial shading conditions. Among these factors, partial shading causes major reduction in output power despite the size of PV systems. As a result, the produced power is lower than the expected value. The connection of modules to each other has great impact on output power if they are prone to partial shading conditions. In this paper, PV arrays are investigated under partial shading conditions. The results show that partial shading losses can be minimized by connecting shaded modules in series rather than in parallel.

  12. Improved Delay-Dependent Stability Conditions for MIMO Networked Control Systems with Nonlinear Perturbations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides improved time delay-dependent stability criteria for multi-input and multi-output (MIMO) network control systems (NCSs) with nonlinear perturbations. Without the stability assumption on the neutral operator after the descriptor approach, the new proposed stability theory is less conservative than the existing stability condition. Theoretical proof is given in this paper to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed stability condition. PMID:24744679

  13. Improved delay-dependent stability conditions for MIMO networked control systems with nonlinear perturbations.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jiuwen

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides improved time delay-dependent stability criteria for multi-input and multi-output (MIMO) network control systems (NCSs) with nonlinear perturbations. Without the stability assumption on the neutral operator after the descriptor approach, the new proposed stability theory is less conservative than the existing stability condition. Theoretical proof is given in this paper to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed stability condition.

  14. Design and demonstration of a storage-assisted air conditioning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzuto, J. E.

    1981-03-01

    The system is a peak-shaving system designed to provide a levelized air conditioning load. The system also requires minimum air conditioner and thermal storage capacity. The storage-assisted air conditioning system uses a Glauber's salt-based phase change material in sausage like containers called CHUBS. The CHUBS are two (2) inches in diameter and 20 inches long. They are stacked in modules of 64 CHUBS which are appropriately spaced and oriented in the storage system so that air may pass perpendicular to the long axis of the CHUBS. The phase change material, has a thermal storage capacity in the range of 45 to 50 Btu/lb and a transition temperature of approximately 55 F.

  15. Precise Astronomical Azimuth Determination By Qdaedalus System to the Sun, Moon, and Planets in Daytime Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Völgyesi, L.; Tóth, G.; Bürki, B.; Guillaume, S.

    2014-12-01

    The traditional method of astronomical azimuth determination involves measurements at night to stars (Polaris). QDAEDALUS, developed by the team of the Geodesy and Geodynamics Lab (GGL, led by Prof. M. Rothacher) of ETH Zürich is a unique system combining Total Stations and modern CCD technique. It provides precise astronomical azimuths within 15 minutes of observation time at night. Furthermore, observations in daytime conditions are a challenging requirement in practice of Astro-geodetic azimuth determination. In order to perform daylight measurements, the QDAEDALUS system has been improved by allowing precise azimuth measurements to Sun, Moon, and Planets in daylight conditions by expanding the processing software with precise solar, lunar, and planetary ephemerides. With such functionality the system has a unique capability to measure astronomical azimuths with an accuracy of 0.3-0.5 arcsecs in normal daylight conditions within 20 to 25 minutes of measurement time.

  16. Global stability and tumor clearance conditions for a cancer chemotherapy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valle, Paul A.; Starkov, Konstantin E.; Coria, Luis N.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper we study the global dynamics of a cancer chemotherapy system presented by de Pillis et al. (2007). This mathematical model describes the interaction between tumor cells, effector-immune cells, circulating lymphocytes and chemotherapy treatment. By applying the localization method of compact invariant sets, we find lower and upper bounds for these three cells populations. Further, we define a bounded domain in R+,04 where all compact invariant sets of the system are located and provide conditions under which this domain is positively invariant. We apply LaSalle's invariance principle and one result concerning two-dimensional competitive systems in order to derive sufficient conditions for tumor clearance and global asymptotic stability of the tumor-free equilibrium point. These conditions are computed by using bounds of the localization domain and they are given in terms of the chemotherapy treatment. Finally, we perform numerical simulations in order to illustrate our results.

  17. Method and system for controlling a permanent magnet machine during fault conditions

    DOEpatents

    Krefta, Ronald John; Walters, James E.; Gunawan, Fani S.

    2004-05-25

    Method and system for controlling a permanent magnet machine driven by an inverter is provided. The method allows for monitoring a signal indicative of a fault condition. The method further allows for generating during the fault condition a respective signal configured to maintain a field weakening current even though electrical power from an energy source is absent during said fault condition. The level of the maintained field-weakening current enables the machine to operate in a safe mode so that the inverter is protected from excess voltage.

  18. Decoupling the Stationary Navier-Stokes-Darcy System with the Beavers-Joseph-Saffman Interface Condition

    DOE PAGES

    Cao, Yong; Chu, Yuchuan; He, Xiaoming; Wei, Mingzhen

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a domain decomposition method for the coupled stationary Navier-Stokes and Darcy equations with the Beavers-Joseph-Saffman interface condition in order to improve the efficiency of the finite element method. The physical interface conditions are directly utilized to construct the boundary conditions on the interface and then decouple the Navier-Stokes and Darcy equations. Newton iteration will be used to deal with the nonlinear systems. Numerical results are presented to illustrate the features of the proposed method.

  19. Pavement-management system for concrete roadways in Virginia. Phase 1. Condition ratings. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Long, R.R.

    1988-04-01

    The report traces the development of a rating system for evaluating the service condition of Virginia's portland-cement concrete pavements. The service condition is assessed in terms of distress roughness, i.e., that portion of a pavement's poor-ride characteristics directly attributable to the occurrence of certain key distress types. Field surveys of the occurrence of these distresses provide the necessary data for estimating distress roughness through the use of prediction equations that have been established from the standard statistical analysis of pavement-section distress data and roughness measurements. Distress measurements and their corresponding ratings and a condition survey rating procedure are appended.

  20. Social competence among children with central nervous system-related chronic health conditions: a review.

    PubMed

    Nassau, J H; Drotar, D

    1997-12-01

    Reviewed empirical studies of social competence among children with central nervous system (CNS)-related chronic health conditions published since 1975. The overwhelming majority of studies evaluated social competence at the level of social adjustment; the domains of children's social performance and social skills were relatively neglected (Cavell, 1990). Findings are critiqued with respect to conceptualization of social competence among children with CNS conditions and methodological considerations. Directions for future research include expanding the conceptualization of social competence in this population to include social demands and competencies specific to children with CNS conditions and utilizing explicit theoretical frameworks that allow for competing hypotheses to be tested. PMID:9494317

  1. Progress toward an advanced condition monitoring system for reusable rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maram, J.; Barkhoudarian, S.

    1987-01-01

    A new generation of advanced sensor technologies will allow the direct measurement of critical/degradable rocket engine components' health and the detection of degraded conditions before component deterioration affects engine performance, leading to substantial improvements in reusable engines' operation and maintenance. When combined with a computer-based engine condition-monitoring system, these sensors can furnish a continuously updated data base for the prediction of engine availability and advanced warning of emergent maintenance requirements. Attention is given to the case of a practical turbopump and combustion device diagnostic/prognostic health-monitoring system.

  2. 78 FR 76980 - Special Conditions: Airbus, A350-900 Series Airplane; Interaction of Systems and Structures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ... stability of the airplane. Such systems include flight control systems, autopilots, stability augmentation... these special conditions for airplanes equipped with flight control systems, autopilots, stability... before flight. Certain elements of the control system, such as mechanical and hydraulic components,...

  3. Ground performance of air conditioning and water recycle system for a space plant box

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tani, A.; Okuma, T.; Goto, E.; Kitaya, Y.; Saito, T.; Takahashi, H.

    Researchers from 5 Japanese universities have developed a plant growth facility (Space Plant Box) for seed to seed experiments under microgravity. The breadboard model of the Space Plant Box was fabricated by assembling subsystems developed for microgravity. The subsystems include air conditioning and water recycle system, air circulation system, water and nutrient delivery system, lighting system and plant monitoring system. The air conditioning and water recycle system is simply composed of a single heat exchanger, two fans and hydrophilic fibrous strings. The strings allow water movement from the cooler fin in the Cooling Box to root supporting materials in the Plant Growth Chamber driven by water potential deficit. Relative humidity in the Plant Growth Chamber can be changed over a wide range by controlling the ratio of latent heat exchange to sensible heat exchange on the cooling fin of the heat exchanger. The transpiration rate was successfully measured by circulating air inside the Plant Growth Chamber only. Most water was recycled and a small amount of water needed to be added from the outside. The simple, air conditioning and water recycle system for the Space Plant Box showed good performance through a barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) growth experiment.

  4. Ground performance of air conditioning and water recycle system for a Space Plant Box.

    PubMed

    Tani, A; Okuma, T; Goto, E; Kitaya, Y; Saito, T; Takahashi, H

    2001-01-01

    Researchers from 5 Japanese universities have developed a plant growth facility (Space Plant Box) for seed to seed experiments under microgravity. The breadboard model of the Space Plant Box was fabricated by assembling subsystems developed for microgravity. The subsystems include air conditioning and water recycle system, air circulation system, water and nutrient delivery system, lighting system and plant monitoring system. The air conditioning and water recycle system is simply composed of a single heat exchanger, two fans and hydrophilic fibrous strings. The strings allow water movement from the cooler fin in the Cooling Box to root supporting materials in the Plant Growth Chamber driven by water potential deficit. Relative humidity in the Plant Growth Chamber can be changed over a wide range by controlling the ratio of latent heat exchange to sensible heat exchange on the cooling fin of the heat exchanger. The transpiration rate was successfully measured by circulating air inside the Plant Growth Chamber only. Most water was recycled and a small amount of water needed to be added from the outside. The simple, air conditioning and water recycle system for the Space Plant Box showed good performance through a barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) growth experiment.

  5. Iterative Design and Usability Testing of the Imhere System for Managing Chronic Conditions and Disability.

    PubMed

    Fairman, Andrea D; Yih, Erika T; McCoy, Daniel F; Lopresti, Edmund F; McCue, Michael P; Parmanto, Bambang; Dicianno, Brad E

    2016-01-01

    A novel mobile health platform, Interactive Mobile Health and Rehabilitation (iMHere), is being developed to support wellness and self-management among people with chronic disabilities. The iMHere system currently includes a smartphone app with six modules for use by persons with disabilities and a web portal for use by medical and rehabilitation professionals or other support personnel. Our initial clinical research applying use of this system provides insight into the feasibility of employing iMHere in the development of self-management skills in young adults (ages 18-40 years) with spina bifida (SB) (Dicianno, Fairman, et al., 2015). This article describes the iterative design of the iMHere system including usability testing of both the app modules and clinician portal. Our pilot population of persons with SB fostered the creation of a system appropriate for people with a wide variety of functional abilities and needs. As a result, the system is appropriate for use by persons with various disabilities and chronic conditions, not only SB. In addition, the diversity of professionals and support personnel involved in the care of persons with SB also enabled the design and implementation of the iMHere system to meet the needs of an interdisciplinary team of providers who treat various conditions. The iMHere system has the potential to foster communication and collaboration among members of an interdisciplinary healthcare team, including individuals with chronic conditions and disabilities, for a client-centered approach to support self-management skills.

  6. Soil conditions and cereal root system architecture: review and considerations for linking Darwin and Weaver.

    PubMed

    Rich, Sarah M; Watt, Michelle

    2013-03-01

    Charles Darwin founded root system architecture research in 1880 when he described a root bending with gravity. Curving, elongating, and branching are the three cellular processes in roots that underlie root architecture. Together they determine the distribution of roots through soil and time, and hence the plants' access to water and nutrients, and anchorage. Most knowledge of these cellular processes comes from seedlings of the model dicotyledon, Arabidopsis, grown in soil-less conditions with single treatments. Root systems in the field, however, face multiple stimuli that interact with the plant genetics to result in the root system architecture. Here we review how soil conditions influence root system architecture; focusing on cereals. Cereals provide half of human calories, and their root systems differ from those of dicotyledons. We find that few controlled-environment studies combine more than one soil stimulus and, those that do, highlight the complexity of responses. Most studies are conducted on seedling roots; those on adult roots generally show low correlations to seedling studies. Few field studies report root and soil conditions. Until technologies are available to track root architecture in the field, soil analyses combined with knowledge of the effects of factors on elongation and gravitropism could be ranked to better predict the interaction between genetics and environment (G×E) for a given crop. Understanding how soil conditions regulate root architecture can be effectively used to design soil management and plant genetics that best exploit synergies from G×E of roots.

  7. Hypersaline Microbial Systems of Sabkhas: Examples of Life's Survival in "Extreme" Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krumbein, Wolfgang Elisabeth; Gorbushina, Anna A.; Holtkamp-Tacken, Elisabeth

    2004-12-01

    Life and living systems need several important factors to establish themselves and to have a continued tradition. In this article the nature of the borderline situation for microbial life under heavy salt stress is analyzed and discussed using the example of biofilms and microbial mats of sabkha systems of the Red Sea. Important factors ruling such environments are described, and include the following: (1) Microbial life is better suited for survival in extremely changing and only sporadically water-supplied environments than are larger organisms (including humans). (2) Microbial life shows extremely poikilophilic adaptation patterns to conditions that deviate significantly from conditions normal for life processes on Earth today. (3) Microbial life adapts itself to such extremely changing and only ephemerally supportive conditions by the capacity of extreme changes (a) in morphology (pleomorphy), (b) in metabolic patterns (poikilotrophy), (c) in survival strategies (poikilophily), and (d) by trapping and enclosing all necessary sources of energy matter in an inwardly oriented diffusive cycle. All this is achieved without any serious attempt at escaping from the extreme and extremely changing conditions. Furthermore, these salt swamp systems are geophysiological generators of energy and material reservoirs recycled over a geological time scale. Neither energy nor material is wasted for propagation by spore formation. This capacity is summarized as poikilophilic and poikilotroph behavior of biofilm or microbial mat communities in salt and irradiationstressed environmental conditions of the sabkha or salt desert type. We use mainly cyanobacteria as an example, although other bacteria and even eukaryotic fungi may exhibit the same potential of living and surviving under conditions usually not suitable for life on Earth. It may, however, be postulated that such poikilophilic organisms are the true candidates for life support and survival under conditions never recorded

  8. System design and analysis of the trans-critical carbon-dioxide automotive air-conditioning system.

    PubMed

    Mu, Jing-Yang; Chen, Jiang-Ping; Chen, Zhi-Jiu

    2003-01-01

    As an environmentally harmless and feasible alternate refrigerant, CO2 has attracted worldwide attention, especially in the area of automobile air-conditioning (AAC). The thermal property of CO2 and its trans-critical refrigeration cycle is very different from that of the traditional CFC or HCFC system. The detailed process of CO2 system thermal cycle design and optimization is described in this paper. System prototype and performance test bench were developed to analyze the performance of the CO2 AAC system.

  9. Methods for locating ground faults and insulation degradation condition in energy conversion systems

    DOEpatents

    Agamy, Mohamed; Elasser, Ahmed; Galbraith, Anthony William; Harfman Todorovic, Maja

    2015-08-11

    Methods for determining a ground fault or insulation degradation condition within energy conversion systems are described. A method for determining a ground fault within an energy conversion system may include, in part, a comparison of baseline waveform of differential current to a waveform of differential current during operation for a plurality of DC current carrying conductors in an energy conversion system. A method for determining insulation degradation within an energy conversion system may include, in part, a comparison of baseline frequency spectra of differential current to a frequency spectra of differential current transient at start-up for a plurality of DC current carrying conductors in an energy conversion system. In one embodiment, the energy conversion system may be a photovoltaic system.

  10. Condition Assessment and End-of-Life Prediction System for Electric Machines and Their Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parlos, Alexander G.; Toliyat, Hamid A.

    2005-01-01

    An end-of-life prediction system developed for electric machines and their loads could be used in integrated vehicle health monitoring at NASA and in other government agencies. This system will provide on-line, real-time condition assessment and end-of-life prediction of electric machines (e.g., motors, generators) and/or their loads of mechanically coupled machinery (e.g., pumps, fans, compressors, turbines, conveyor belts, magnetic levitation trains, and others). In long-duration space flight, the ability to predict the lifetime of machinery could spell the difference between mission success or failure. Therefore, the system described here may be of inestimable value to the U.S. space program. The system will provide continuous monitoring for on-line condition assessment and end-of-life prediction as opposed to the current off-line diagnoses.

  11. Fiber Bragg grating microphone system for condition-based maintenance of industrial facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosi, D.; Olivero, M.; Perrone, G.; Vallan, A.

    2011-05-01

    This paper presents a multipoint fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensing system operating as a precision microphone. This instrument aims to become the best performing technology for condition-based maintenance (CBM) of critical elements, like ball bearings and cogwheels, embedded in industrial manufacturing machineries. The system architecture is based on the simple matched-laser principle, leading to a low-cost and high-sensitivity system, operating in time and wavelength multiplexing mode. Then, heavy signal processing is applied, providing an outstanding performance improvement of 59 dB in terms of signal-to-noise ratio. A demonstration of condition-based maintenance operation has been performed using standard models of ball bearing sound spectra. Compared to traditional microphones applied to CBM, the signal processing-powered FBG system provides remarkable advantages in terms of sensitivity and rejection of environment noise, providing an improvement of cost-effectiveness of CBM.

  12. Output feedback stabilization for time-delay nonholonomic systems with polynomial conditions.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yu-Qiang; Liu, Zhen-Guo

    2015-09-01

    This paper addresses the problem of output feedback stabilization for a class of time-delay nonholonomic systems. One distinct characteristic or difficulty of this paper is that time-delay exists in polynomial nonlinear growing conditions. Based on input-state-scaling technique, homogeneous domination approach and Lyapunov-Krasovskii theorem, a new output feedback control law which guarantees all the system states converge to the origin is designed. Examples are provided to demonstrate the validness of the proposed approach.

  13. Investigation on the choice of boundary conditions and shape functions for flexible multi-body system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Ke-Qi; Liu, Jin-Yang

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this investigation is to examine the correctness and efficiency of the choice of boundary conditions when using assumed mode approach to simulate flexible multi-body systems. The displacement field due to deformation is approximated by the Rayleigh-Ritz assumed modes in floating frame of reference (FFR) formulation. The deformations obtained by the absolute nodal coordinate (ANC) formulation which are transformed by two sets of reference coordinates are introduced as a criterion to verify the accuracy of the simulation results by using the FFR formulation. The relationship between the deformations obtained from different boundary conditions is revealed. Numerical simulation examples demonstrate that the assumed modes with cantilevered-free, simply-supported and free-free boundary conditions without inclusion of rigid body modes are suitable for simulation of flexible multi-body system with large over all motion, and the same physical deformation can be obtained using those mode functions, differ only by a coordinate transformation. It is also shown that when using mode shapes with statically indeterminate boundary conditions, significant error may occur. Furthermore, the slider crank mechanism with rigid crank is accurate enough for investigating boundary condition problem of flexible multi-body system, which cost significant less simulating time. The project was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (10872126) and the Research Fund of the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (20100073110007).

  14. Contextual and cued fear conditioning test using a video analyzing system in mice.

    PubMed

    Shoji, Hirotaka; Takao, Keizo; Hattori, Satoko; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi

    2014-03-01

    The contextual and cued fear conditioning test is one of the behavioral tests that assesses the ability of mice to learn and remember an association between environmental cues and aversive experiences. In this test, mice are placed into a conditioning chamber and are given parings of a conditioned stimulus (an auditory cue) and an aversive unconditioned stimulus (an electric footshock). After a delay time, the mice are exposed to the same conditioning chamber and a differently shaped chamber with presentation of the auditory cue. Freezing behavior during the test is measured as an index of fear memory. To analyze the behavior automatically, we have developed a video analyzing system using the ImageFZ application software program, which is available as a free download at http://www.mouse-phenotype.org/. Here, to show the details of our protocol, we demonstrate our procedure for the contextual and cued fear conditioning test in C57BL/6J mice using the ImageFZ system. In addition, we validated our protocol and the video analyzing system performance by comparing freezing time measured by the ImageFZ system or a photobeam-based computer measurement system with that scored by a human observer. As shown in our representative results, the data obtained by ImageFZ were similar to those analyzed by a human observer, indicating that the behavioral analysis using the ImageFZ system is highly reliable. The present movie article provides detailed information regarding the test procedures and will promote understanding of the experimental situation.

  15. The microbiological quality of air improves when using air conditioning systems in cars

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Because of better comfort, air conditioning systems are a common feature in automobiles these days. However, its impact on the number of particles and microorganisms inside the vehicle - and by this its impact on the risk of an allergic reaction - is yet unknown. Methods Over a time period of 30 months, the quality of air was investigated in three different types of cars (VW Passat, VW Polo FSI, Seat Alhambra) that were all equipped with a automatic air conditioning system. Operation modes using fresh air from outside the car as well as circulating air from inside the car were examined. The total number of microorganisms and the number of mold spores were measured by impaction in a high flow air sampler. Particles of 0.5 to 5.0 μm diameter were counted by a laser particle counter device. Results Overall 32 occasions of sampling were performed. The concentration of microorganisms outside the cars was always higher than it was inside the cars. Few minutes after starting the air conditioning system the total number of microorganisms was reduced by 81.7%, the number of mold spores was reduced by 83.3%, and the number of particles was reduced by 87.8%. There were no significant differences neither between the types of cars nor between the types of operation mode of the air conditioning system (fresh air vs. circulating air). All parameters that were looked for in this study improved during utilization of the car's air conditioning system. Conclusions We believe that the risk of an allergic reaction will be reduced during use also. Nevertheless, we recommend regular maintenance of the system and replacement of older filters after defined changing intervals. PMID:20515449

  16. Contextual and Cued Fear Conditioning Test Using a Video Analyzing System in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Shoji, Hirotaka; Takao, Keizo; Hattori, Satoko; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    The contextual and cued fear conditioning test is one of the behavioral tests that assesses the ability of mice to learn and remember an association between environmental cues and aversive experiences. In this test, mice are placed into a conditioning chamber and are given parings of a conditioned stimulus (an auditory cue) and an aversive unconditioned stimulus (an electric footshock). After a delay time, the mice are exposed to the same conditioning chamber and a differently shaped chamber with presentation of the auditory cue. Freezing behavior during the test is measured as an index of fear memory. To analyze the behavior automatically, we have developed a video analyzing system using the ImageFZ application software program, which is available as a free download at http://www.mouse-phenotype.org/. Here, to show the details of our protocol, we demonstrate our procedure for the contextual and cued fear conditioning test in C57BL/6J mice using the ImageFZ system. In addition, we validated our protocol and the video analyzing system performance by comparing freezing time measured by the ImageFZ system or a photobeam-based computer measurement system with that scored by a human observer. As shown in our representative results, the data obtained by ImageFZ were similar to those analyzed by a human observer, indicating that the behavioral analysis using the ImageFZ system is highly reliable. The present movie article provides detailed information regarding the test procedures and will promote understanding of the experimental situation. PMID:24637495

  17. Solar Absorption Refrigeration System for Air-Conditioning of a Classroom Building in Northern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Tanmay; Varun; Kumar, Anoop

    2015-10-01

    Air-conditioning is a basic tool to provide human thermal comfort in a building space. The primary aim of the present work is to design an air-conditioning system based on vapour absorption cycle that utilizes a renewable energy source for its operation. The building under consideration is a classroom of dimensions 18.5 m × 13 m × 4.5 m located in Hamirpur district of Himachal Pradesh in India. For this purpose, cooling load of the building was calculated first by using cooling load temperature difference method to estimate cooling capacity of the air-conditioning system. Coefficient of performance of the refrigeration system was computed for various values of strong and weak solution concentration. In this work, a solar collector is also designed to provide required amount of heat energy by the absorption system. This heat energy is taken from solar energy which makes this system eco-friendly and sustainable. A computer program was written in MATLAB to calculate the design parameters. Results were obtained for various values of solution concentrations throughout the year. Cost analysis has also been carried out to compare absorption refrigeration system with conventional vapour compression cycle based air-conditioners.

  18. Safety Grounding Approach for the National Ignition Facility Power Conditioning System

    SciTech Connect

    Hammon, J; Fulkerson S E; Gagnon, B; Anderson, R

    2001-06-14

    This paper describes a set of analyses and tests performed to evaluate approaches to provide a safe and robust grounding approach for the main Power Conditioning System (PCS) in the National Ignition Facility (NIF) facility presently under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The Power Conditioning System consists of up to 192 capacitor bank modules, each storing 2.2 MJ and capable of producing a peak current over 500 kA. The grounding system must minimize touch potentials associated with operation of the Power Conditioning System. In the event of severe faults, the system must assure that the energy delivered to a person through contact with ''grounded'' structures is very low. Based on computer modeling and low-voltage, low-current tests, we have concluded that the most effective approach is a set of metal enclosures around the output cables (effectively heavy-wall closed cable trays) extending from the capacitor bank modules to their flashlamp loads. This paper will discuss the safety standards identified for this application, the approach to meeting the standards, and the predicted performance of the safety system.

  19. Systems-level characterization and engineering of oxidative stress tolerance in Escherichia coli under anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Kang, Aram; Tan, Mui Hua; Ling, Hua; Chang, Matthew Wook

    2013-02-01

    Despite many prior studies on microbial response to oxidative stress, our understanding of microbial tolerance against oxidative stress is currently limited to aerobic conditions, and few engineering strategies have been devised to resolve toxicity issues of oxidative stress under anaerobic conditions. Since biological processes, such as anaerobic fermentation, are frequently hampered by toxicity arising from oxidative stress, increased microbial tolerance against oxidative stress improves the overall productivity and yield of biological processes. Here, we show a systems-level analysis of oxidative stress response of Escherichia coli under anaerobic conditions, and present an engineering strategy to improve oxidative stress tolerance. First, we identified essential cellular mechanisms and regulatory factors underlying oxidative stress response under anaerobic conditions using a transcriptome analysis. In particular, we showed that nitrogen metabolisms and respiratory pathways were differentially regulated in response to oxidative stress under anaerobic and aerobic conditions. Further, we demonstrated that among transcription factors with oxidative stress-derived perturbed activity, the deletion of arcA and arcB significantly improved oxidative stress tolerance under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, respectively, whereas fnr was identified as an essential transcription factor for oxidative stress tolerance under anaerobic conditions. Moreover, we showed that oxidative stress increased the intracellular NADH : NAD(+) ratio under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, which indicates a regulatory role of NADH in oxidative stress tolerance. Based on this finding, we demonstrated that increased NADH availability through fdh1 overexpression significantly improved oxidative stress tolerance under aerobic conditions. Our results here provide novel insight into better understanding of cellular mechanisms underlying oxidative stress tolerance under anaerobic conditions, and

  20. Impact of the electric compressor for automotive air conditioning system on fuel consumption and performance analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulkifli, A. A.; Dahlan, A. A.; Zulkifli, A. H.; Nasution, H.; Aziz, A. A.; Perang, M. R. M.; Jamil, H. M.; Misseri, M. N.

    2015-12-01

    Air conditioning system is the biggest auxiliary load in a vehicle where the compressor consumed the largest. Problem with conventional compressor is the cooling capacity cannot be control directly to fulfill the demand of thermal load inside vehicle cabin. This study is conducted experimentally to analyze the difference of fuel usage and air conditioning performance between conventional compressor and electric compressor of the air conditioning system in automobile. The electric compressor is powered by the car battery in non-electric vehicle which the alternator will recharge the battery. The car is setup on a roller dynamometer and the vehicle speed is varied at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 110 km/h at cabin temperature of 25°C and internal heat load of 100 and 400 Watt. The results shows electric compressor has better fuel consumption and coefficient of performance compared to the conventional compressor.

  1. On the asymptotic behaviour for an electromagnetic system with a dissipative boundary condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amendola, Giovambattista

    2005-04-01

    In this work we study some properties of solutions for the system describing a three-dimensional non-homogeneous non-conducting dielectric with a general boundary condition with memory. We first show the existence of the inverse of this boundary condition, which allows us to introduce a boundary free energy, similar to the one considered by Fabrizio & Morro (1996, Arch. Rat. Mech. Anal., 136, 359-381). Then, we prove existence and uniqueness theorems for weak and strong solutions of the evolutive problem in a finite time interval. Moreover, following Rivera & Olivera (1997, Boll. U.M.I., 11-A, 115-127), we examine some dissipative properties of the boundary condition and of its inverse and we give a useful energy estimate. Finally, when there is no memory in the boundary condition the exponential decay of the solution is proved.

  2. Magnetic Resonance Cardiorhythmography as a Method of Study of Human's Cardiovascular System Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Protasov, E. A.; Ryzhkova, A. V.

    In this article a highly sensitive method for graphic recording of cardiogram by detecting the signal of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) of human finger has been developed and signals directly related to movement of blood ejected by the heart into the vessels have been studied. Changes in the behavior of signals depending on the condition of the cardiovascular system of person have been discovered.

  3. Groundwater infiltration, surface water inflow and sewerage exfiltration considering hydrodynamic conditions in sewer systems.

    PubMed

    Karpf, Christian; Hoeft, Stefan; Scheffer, Claudia; Fuchs, Lothar; Krebs, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Sewer systems are closely interlinked with groundwater and surface water. Due to leaks and regular openings in the sewer system (e.g. combined sewer overflow structures with sometimes reverse pressure conditions), groundwater infiltration and surface water inflow as well as exfiltration of sewage take place and cannot be avoided. In the paper a new hydrodynamic sewer network modelling approach will be presented, which includes--besides precipitation--hydrographs of groundwater and surface water as essential boundary conditions. The concept of the modelling approach and the models to describe the infiltration, inflow and exfiltration fluxes are described. The model application to the sewerage system of the City of Dresden during a flood event with complex conditions shows that the processes of infiltration, exfiltration and surface water inflows can be described with a higher reliability and accuracy, showing that surface water inflow causes a pronounced system reaction. Further, according to the simulation results, a high sensitivity of exfiltration rates on the in-sewer water levels and a relatively low influence of the dynamic conditions on the infiltration rates were found.

  4. Thermal hydraulic feasibility assessment of the hot conditioning system and process

    SciTech Connect

    Heard, F.J.

    1996-10-10

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel Project was established to develop engineered solutions for the expedited removal, stabilization, and storage of spent nuclear fuel from the K Basins at the U.S. Department of Energy`s Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. A series of analyses have been completed investigating the thermal-hydraulic performance and feasibility of the proposed Hot Conditioning System and process for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project. The analyses were performed using a series of thermal-hydraulic models that could respond to all process and safety-related issues that may arise pertaining to the Hot Conditioning System. The subject efforts focus on independently investigating, quantifying, and establishing the governing heat production and removal mechanisms, flow distributions within the multi-canister overpack, and performing process simulations for various purge gases under consideration for the Hot Conditioning System, as well as obtaining preliminary results for comparison with and verification of other analyses, and providing technology- based recommendations for consideration and incorporation into the Hot Conditioning System design bases.

  5. Monopole modes in a finite Fermi system with diffuse reflection boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolomietz, V. M.; Magner, A. G.; Strutinsky, V. M.; Vydrug-Vlasenko, S. M.

    1994-04-01

    At semi-classical response function for a finite system of Fermi particles on which acts a spherical external perturbation is obtained assuming a boundary condition with diffuse reflection which takes into account particle correlation interaction within the nuclear surface region.

  6. Computer-Based Simulation Systems and Role-Playing: An Effective Combination for Fostering Conditional Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shlechter, Theodore M.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examines the effectiveness of SIMNET (Simulation Networking), a virtual reality training simulation system, combined with a program of role-playing activities for helping Army classes to master the conditional knowledge needed for successful field performance. The value of active forms of learning for promoting higher order cognitive thinking is…

  7. Condition Assessment of Ferrous Water Transmission and Distribution Systems State of Technology Review Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    This White Paper was developed to serve as the basis for discussion at a Technology Forum on Condition Assessment of Water Transmission and Distribution Systems that was held on September 9 and 10, 2008, at Edison, NJ. It was distributed to the Forum participants for review in a...

  8. Pre-Conditions, Benefits and Costs of Privatized Public Services: Lessons from the Dutch Educational System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Estelle

    The system in the Netherlands of "privatization," a government policy of financially supporting private schools and encouraging people to use them, depends on conditions in Dutch society that are conducive to a large nongovernment, nonprofit sector. These include cultural heterogeneity, coupled with the lack of a single dominant culture and class…

  9. The Evaluation of Unitary & Central Type Air-Conditioning Systems in Selected Florida Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, William B.

    The study reported here was conducted in an effort to obtain data for comparing the combined owning and operating costs of two different types of air-conditioning systems in two elementary schools. Both schools were built during 1969-70 in the same geographical area along the southeast coast of Florida and are also served by the same electric…

  10. Environmental Control System Installer/Servicer (Residential Air Conditioning Mechanic). V-TECS Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Calvin F.; Benson, Robert T.

    This guide provides job relevant tasks, performance objectives, performance guides, resources, learning activitites, evaluation standards, and achievement testing in the occupation of environmental control system installer/servicer (residential air conditioning mechanic). It is designed to be used with any chosen teaching method. The course…

  11. 77 FR 21861 - Special Conditions: Boeing, Model 777F; Enhanced Flight Vision System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-12

    ... April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478), as well as at http://DocketsInfo.dot.gov/ . Docket: Background... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 25 Special Conditions: Boeing, Model 777F; Enhanced Flight... feature associated with an advanced, enhanced flight vision system (EFVS). The EFVS consists of a...

  12. Colonization by Cladosporium spp. of painted metal surfaces associated with heating and air conditioning systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahearn, D. G.; Simmons, R. B.; Switzer, K. F.; Ajello, L.; Pierson, D. L.

    1991-01-01

    Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. hebarum colonized painted metal surfaces of covering panels and register vents of heating, air conditioning and ventilation systems. Hyphae penetrated the paint film and developed characteristic conidiophores and conidia. The colonies were tightly appressed to the metal surface and conidia were not readily detectable via standard air sampling procedures.

  13. Smart aircraft fastener evaluation (SAFE) system: a condition-based corrosion detection system for aging aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoess, Jeffrey N.; Seifert, Greg; Paul, Clare A.

    1996-05-01

    The smart aircraft fastener evaluation (SAFE) system is an advanced structural health monitoring effort to detect and characterize corrosion in hidden and inaccessible locations of aircraft structures. Hidden corrosion is the number one logistics problem for the U.S. Air Force, with an estimated maintenance cost of $700M per year in 1990 dollars. The SAFE system incorporates a solid-state electrochemical microsensor and smart sensor electronics in the body of a Hi-Lok aircraft fastener to process and autonomously report corrosion status to aircraft maintenance personnel. The long-term payoff for using SAFE technology will be in predictive maintenance for aging aircraft and rotorcraft systems, fugitive emissions applications such as control valves, chemical pipeline vessels, and industrial boilers. Predictive maintenance capability, service, and repair will replace the current practice of scheduled maintenance to substantially reduce operational costs. A summary of the SAFE concept, laboratory test results, and future field test plans is presented.

  14. Experimental performance study of a proposed desiccant based air conditioning system.

    PubMed

    Bassuoni, M M

    2014-01-01

    An experimental investigation on the performance of a proposed hybrid desiccant based air conditioning system referred as HDBAC is introduced in this paper. HDBAC is mainly consisted of a liquid desiccant dehumidification unit integrated with a vapor compression system (VCS). The VCS unit has a cooling capacity of 5.27 kW and uses 134a as refrigerant. Calcium chloride (CaCl2) solution is used as the working desiccant material. HDBAC system is used to serve low sensible heat factor applications. The effect of different parameters such as, process air flow rate, desiccant solution flow rate, evaporator box and condenser box solution temperatures, strong solution concentration and regeneration temperature on the performance of the system is studied. The performance of the system is evaluated using some parameters such as: the coefficient of performance (COPa), specific moisture removal and energy saving percentage. A remarkable increase of about 54% in the coefficient of performance of the proposed system over VCS with reheat is achieved. A maximum overall energy saving of about 46% is observed which emphasizes the use of the proposed system as an energy efficient air conditioning system. PMID:25685475

  15. Low-thrust chemical propulsion system propellant expulsion and thermal conditioning study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merino, F.; Wakabayashi, I.; Pleasant, R. L.; Hill, M.

    1982-01-01

    Thermal conditioning systems for satisfying engine net positive suction pressure (NPSP) requirements, and propellant expulsion systems for achieving propellant dump during a return-to-launch site (RTLS) abort were studied for LH2/LO2 and LCH4/LO2 upper stage propellant combinations. A state-of-the-art thermal conditioning system employing helium injection beneath the liquid surface shows the lowest weight penalty for LO2 and LCH4. A technology system incorporating a thermal subcooler (heat exchanger) for engine NPSP results in the lowest weight penalty for the LH2 tank. A preliminary design of two state-of-the-art and two new technology systems indicates a weight penalty difference too small to warrant development of a LH2 thermal subcooler. Analysis results showed that the LH2/LO2 propellant expulsion system is optimized for maximum dump line diameters, whereas the LCH4/LO2 system is optimized for minimum dump line diameter (LCH4) and maximum dump line diameter (LO2). The primary uncertainty is the accurate determination of two-phase flow rates through the dump system; experimentation is not recommended because this uncertainty is not considered significant.

  16. Experimental performance study of a proposed desiccant based air conditioning system.

    PubMed

    Bassuoni, M M

    2014-01-01

    An experimental investigation on the performance of a proposed hybrid desiccant based air conditioning system referred as HDBAC is introduced in this paper. HDBAC is mainly consisted of a liquid desiccant dehumidification unit integrated with a vapor compression system (VCS). The VCS unit has a cooling capacity of 5.27 kW and uses 134a as refrigerant. Calcium chloride (CaCl2) solution is used as the working desiccant material. HDBAC system is used to serve low sensible heat factor applications. The effect of different parameters such as, process air flow rate, desiccant solution flow rate, evaporator box and condenser box solution temperatures, strong solution concentration and regeneration temperature on the performance of the system is studied. The performance of the system is evaluated using some parameters such as: the coefficient of performance (COPa), specific moisture removal and energy saving percentage. A remarkable increase of about 54% in the coefficient of performance of the proposed system over VCS with reheat is achieved. A maximum overall energy saving of about 46% is observed which emphasizes the use of the proposed system as an energy efficient air conditioning system.

  17. Experimental performance study of a proposed desiccant based air conditioning system

    PubMed Central

    Bassuoni, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    An experimental investigation on the performance of a proposed hybrid desiccant based air conditioning system referred as HDBAC is introduced in this paper. HDBAC is mainly consisted of a liquid desiccant dehumidification unit integrated with a vapor compression system (VCS). The VCS unit has a cooling capacity of 5.27 kW and uses 134a as refrigerant. Calcium chloride (CaCl2) solution is used as the working desiccant material. HDBAC system is used to serve low sensible heat factor applications. The effect of different parameters such as, process air flow rate, desiccant solution flow rate, evaporator box and condenser box solution temperatures, strong solution concentration and regeneration temperature on the performance of the system is studied. The performance of the system is evaluated using some parameters such as: the coefficient of performance (COPa), specific moisture removal and energy saving percentage. A remarkable increase of about 54% in the coefficient of performance of the proposed system over VCS with reheat is achieved. A maximum overall energy saving of about 46% is observed which emphasizes the use of the proposed system as an energy efficient air conditioning system. PMID:25685475

  18. System and method of providing quick thermal comfort with reduced energy by using directed spot conditioning

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Mingyu; Kadle, Prasad S.; Ghosh, Debashis; Zima, Mark J.; Wolfe, IV, Edward; Craig, Timothy D

    2016-10-04

    A heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system and a method of controlling a HVAC system that is configured to provide a perceived comfortable ambient environment to an occupant seated in a vehicle cabin. The system includes a nozzle configured to direct an air stream from the HVAC system to the location of a thermally sensitive portion of the body of the occupant. The system also includes a controller configured to determine an air stream temperature and an air stream flow rate necessary to establish the desired heat supply rate for the sensitive portion and provide a comfortable thermal environment by thermally isolating the occupant from the ambient vehicle cabin temperature. The system may include a sensor to determine the location of the sensitive portion. The nozzle may include a thermoelectric device to heat or cool the air stream.

  19. New Automotive Air Conditioning System Simulation Tool Developed in MATLAB/Simulink

    SciTech Connect

    Kiss, T.; Chaney, L.; Meyer, J.

    2013-07-01

    Further improvements in vehicle fuel efficiency require accurate evaluation of the vehicle's transient total power requirement. When operated, the air conditioning (A/C) system is the largest auxiliary load on a vehicle; therefore, accurate evaluation of the load it places on the vehicle's engine and/or energy storage system is especially important. Vehicle simulation software, such as 'Autonomie,' has been used by OEMs to evaluate vehicles' energy performance. A transient A/C simulation tool incorporated into vehicle simulation models would also provide a tool for developing more efficient A/C systems through a thorough consideration of the transient A/C system performance. The dynamic system simulation software Matlab/Simulink was used to develop new and more efficient vehicle energy system controls. The various modeling methods used for the new simulation tool are described in detail. Comparison with measured data is provided to demonstrate the validity of the model.

  20. Legionella species colonization of water distribution systems, pools and air conditioning systems in cruise ships and ferries

    PubMed Central

    Goutziana, Georgia; Mouchtouri, Varvara A; Karanika, Maria; Kavagias, Antonios; Stathakis, Nikolaos E; Gourgoulianis, Kostantinos; Kremastinou, Jenny; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2008-01-01

    Background Legionnaires' disease continues to be a public health concern in passenger ships. This study was scheduled in order to investigate Legionella spp. colonization of water distribution systems (WDS), recreational pools, and air-conditioning systems on board ferries and cruise ships in an attempt to identify risk factors for Legionella spp. colonization associated with ship water systems and water characteristics. Methods Water systems of 21 ferries and 10 cruise ships including WDS, air conditioning systems and pools were investigated for the presence of Legionella spp. Results The 133 samples collected from the 10 cruise ships WDS, air conditioning systems and pools were negative for Legionella spp. Of the 21 ferries WDS examined, 14 (66.7%) were legionellae-positive. A total of 276 samples were collected from WDS and air conditioning systems. Legionella spp. was isolated from 37.8% of the hot water samples and 17.5% of the cold water samples. Of the total 96 positive isolates, 87 (90.6%) were L. pneumophila. Legionella spp. colonization was positively associated with ship age. The temperature of the hot water samples was negatively associated with colonization of L. pneumophila serogroup (sg) 1 and that of L. pneumophila sg 2 to 14. Increases in pH ≥7.8 and total plate count ≥400 CFU/L, correlated positively with the counts of L. pneumophila sg 2 to 14 and Legionella spp. respectively. Free chlorine of ≥0.2 mg/L inhibited colonization of Legionella spp. Conclusion WDS of ferries can be heavily colonized by Legionella spp. and may present a risk of Legionnaires' disease for passengers and crew members. Guidelines and advising of Legionnaires' disease prevention regarding ferries are needed, in particular for operators and crew members. PMID:19025638

  1. General Conditions for Proximity-Induced Odd-Frequency Superconductivity in Two-Dimensional Electronic Systems.

    PubMed

    Triola, Christopher; Badiane, Driss M; Balatsky, Alexander V; Rossi, E

    2016-06-24

    We obtain the general conditions for the emergence of odd-frequency superconducting pairing in a two-dimensional (2D) electronic system proximity coupled to a superconductor, making minimal assumptions about both the 2D system and the superconductor. Using our general results we show that a simple heterostructure formed by a monolayer of a group VI transition metal dichalcogenide, such as molybdenum disulfide, and an s-wave superconductor with Rashba spin-orbit coupling exhibits odd-frequency superconducting pairing. Our results allow the identification of a new class of systems among van der Waals heterostructures in which odd-frequency superconductivity should be present. PMID:27391743

  2. Driver Drowsiness Warning System Using Visual Information for Both Diurnal and Nocturnal Illumination Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, MarcoJavier; Armingol, JoséMaría; de la Escalera, Arturo

    2010-12-01

    Every year, traffic accidents due to human errors cause increasing amounts of deaths and injuries globally. To help reduce the amount of fatalities, in the paper presented here, a new module for Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS) which deals with automatic driver drowsiness detection based on visual information and Artificial Intelligence is presented. The aim of this system is to locate, track, and analyze both the drivers face and eyes to compute a drowsiness index, where this real-time system works under varying light conditions (diurnal and nocturnal driving). Examples of different images of drivers taken in a real vehicle are shown to validate the algorithms used.

  3. Fuzzy Based Decision Support System for Condition Assessment and Rating of Bridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivas, Voggu; Sasmal, Saptarshi; Karusala, Ramanjaneyulu

    2016-09-01

    In this work, a knowledge based decision support system has been developed to efficiently handle the issues such as distress diagnosis, assessment of damages and condition rating of existing bridges towards developing an exclusive and robust Bridge Management System (BMS) for sustainable bridges. The Knowledge Based Expert System (KBES) diagnoses the distresses and finds the cause of distress in the bridge by processing the data which are heuristic and combined with site inspection results, laboratory test results etc. The coupling of symbolic and numeric type of data has been successfully implemented in the expert system to strengthen its decision making process. Finally, the condition rating of the bridge is carried out using the assessment results obtained from the KBES and the information received from the bridge inspector. A systematic procedure has been developed using fuzzy mathematics for condition rating of bridges by combining the fuzzy weighted average and resolution identity technique. The proposed methodologies and the decision support system will facilitate in developing a robust and exclusive BMS for a network of bridges across the country and allow the bridge engineers and decision makers to carry out maintenance of bridges in a rational and systematic way.

  4. Fuzzy Based Decision Support System for Condition Assessment and Rating of Bridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivas, Voggu; Sasmal, Saptarshi; Karusala, Ramanjaneyulu

    2016-06-01

    In this work, a knowledge based decision support system has been developed to efficiently handle the issues such as distress diagnosis, assessment of damages and condition rating of existing bridges towards developing an exclusive and robust Bridge Management System (BMS) for sustainable bridges. The Knowledge Based Expert System (KBES) diagnoses the distresses and finds the cause of distress in the bridge by processing the data which are heuristic and combined with site inspection results, laboratory test results etc. The coupling of symbolic and numeric type of data has been successfully implemented in the expert system to strengthen its decision making process. Finally, the condition rating of the bridge is carried out using the assessment results obtained from the KBES and the information received from the bridge inspector. A systematic procedure has been developed using fuzzy mathematics for condition rating of bridges by combining the fuzzy weighted average and resolution identity technique. The proposed methodologies and the decision support system will facilitate in developing a robust and exclusive BMS for a network of bridges across the country and allow the bridge engineers and decision makers to carry out maintenance of bridges in a rational and systematic way.

  5. Revisiting Consistency Conditions for Quantum States of Systems on Closed Timelike Curves: An Epistemic Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallman, Joel J.; Bartlett, Stephen D.

    2012-05-01

    There has been considerable recent interest in the consequences of closed timelike curves (CTCs) for the dynamics of quantum mechanical systems. A vast majority of research into this area makes use of the dynamical equations developed by Deutsch, which were developed from a consistency condition that assumes that mixed quantum states uniquely describe the physical state of a system. We criticize this choice of consistency condition from an epistemic perspective, i.e., a perspective in which the quantum state represents a state of knowledge about a system. We demonstrate that directly applying Deutsch's condition when mixed states are treated as representing an observer's knowledge of a system can conceal time travel paradoxes from the observer, rather than resolving them. To shed further light on the appropriate dynamics for quantum systems traversing CTCs, we make use of a toy epistemic theory with a strictly classical ontology due to Spekkens and show that, in contrast to the results of Deutsch, many of the traditional paradoxical effects of time travel are present.

  6. Uncertainty Relation and Quantitative Condition of Inversion Symmetry of Time in Many-particle System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, You-Gang Feng

    2005-03-01

    We proved that the uncertainty relation fits in with many-particle system and the equality of the relation corresponds to the thermodynamic equilibrium state, the inequality of the relation corresponds to the thermodynamic nonequilibrium state for any quantum system. The microscopic origin of the second law of thermodynamics is certainly resulted in the wave-particle duality of matter. A quantitative condition of inversion symmetry of time is obtained, which indicates the fluctuation of the system's energy Δ E controls the period of the inversion symmetry of time Δ t. Understanding and grasping of this quantitative condition will help us for genetic engineering projects, medical treatment, life science, food industry, archaeology and preserving of cultural objects and historical monuments, etc.

  7. Is there a place for cardiovascular magnetic resonance conditional devices in systemic inflammatory diseases?

    PubMed

    Mavrogeni, Sophie I; Poulos, George; Sfikakis, Petros P; Kitas, George D; Kolovou, Genovefa; Theodorakis, George

    2016-06-01

    Rhythm disturbances and sudden cardiac death (SCD) are important manifestations of cardiac involvement in systemic inflammatory diseases (SID). The commonest events demanding the implantation of a device include ventricular tachycardia and atrioventricular block, mainly diagnosed in sarcoidosis, systemic lupus erythematosus and scleroderma. In SCD, cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) identified areas of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) in 71% and provided an arrhythmic substrate in 76%, while during the follow-up, the extent of LGE identified a subgroup at increased risk for future adverse events. CMR has been successfully used for detection of cardiac disease in SID, including myocarditis, coronary, microvascular and valvular disease. Additionally, SIDs have a higher probability to need MRI scanning of other organs, due to their systemic disease. These reasons support the necessity of an MRI conditional device in SIDs. A broad selection of devices, approved for the MRI environment under defined conditions allows the safe and accurate scanning of SID patients. PMID:26878099

  8. Multiplex conditional mutagenesis in zebrafish using the CRISPR/Cas system.

    PubMed

    Yin, L; Maddison, L A; Chen, W

    2016-01-01

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein (Cas) system is a powerful tool for genome editing in numerous organisms. However, the system is typically used for gene editing throughout the entire organism. Tissue and temporal specific mutagenesis is often desirable to determine gene function in a specific stage or tissue and to bypass undesired consequences of global mutations. We have developed the CRISPR/Cas system for conditional mutagenesis in transgenic zebrafish using tissue-specific and/or inducible expression of Cas9 and U6-driven expression of sgRNA. To allow mutagenesis of multiple targets, we have isolated four distinct U6 promoters and designed Golden Gate vectors to easily assemble transgenes with multiple sgRNAs. We provide experimental details on the reagents and applications for multiplex conditional mutagenesis in zebrafish. PMID:27443918

  9. Social defeat stress switches the neural system mediating benzodiazepine conditioned motivation.

    PubMed

    Riad-Allen, Lilian; van der Kooy, Derek

    2013-08-01

    Benzodiazepines have been demonstrated to have a high abuse liability in persons suffering from anxiety but have demonstrated mixed abuse liability findings in preclinical models. We hypothesized that by modeling anxiety in a male C57BL/6 mouse model it would be possible to reveal a preference for benzodiazepines within this subpopulation through negative reinforcement. Using the Tube Test of Social Dominance and the Resident/Intruder Paradigm we investigated whether animals identified as dominant or submissive/defeated would differentially display a preference for midazolam (a short acting benzodiazepine) in a conditioned place preference paradigm. Consistent with our hypotheses, benzodiazepine conditioned motivation was mediated by negative reinforcement as submissive but not dominant mice displayed a preference for midazolam. Furthermore, different neural systems mediated midazolam conditioned motivation depending on the stress status of the animal (single vs. repeated stress-as induced by the Resident/Intruder Paradigm). Singly stressed animals showed midazolam place preferences through a dopamine-independent pathway, whereas the place preferences of repeatedly stressed animals were mediated through a dopamine-dependent pathway. This demonstrates that stress is sufficient for switching the neural system mediating midazolam conditioned motivation. Finally, midazolam reinforcement in the conditioned place preference paradigm was shown to be predictive for dominance/submission status.

  10. Time dependent inflow-outflow boundary conditions for 2D acoustic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Willie R.; Myers, Michael K.

    1989-01-01

    An analysis of the number and form of the required inflow-outflow boundary conditions for the full two-dimensional time-dependent nonlinear acoustic system in subsonic mean flow is performed. The explicit predictor-corrector method of MacCormack (1969) is used. The methodology is tested on both uniform and sheared mean flows with plane and nonplanar sources. Results show that the acoustic system requires three physical boundary conditions on the inflow and one on the outflow boundary. The most natural choice for the inflow boundary conditions is judged to be a specification of the vorticity, the normal acoustic impedance, and a pressure gradient-density gradient relationship normal to the boundary. Specification of the acoustic pressure at the outflow boundary along with these inflow boundary conditions is found to give consistent reliable results. A set of boundary conditions developed earlier, which were intended to be nonreflecting is tested using the current method and is shown to yield unstable results for nonplanar acoustic waves.

  11. Conditions for testing the corrosion rates of ceramics in coal gasification systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hurley, J.P.; Nowok, J.W.

    1996-08-01

    Coal gasifier operating conditions and gas and ash compositions affect the corrosion rates of ceramics used for construction in three ways: (1) through direct corrosion of the materials, (2) by affecting the concentration and chemical form of the primary corrodents, and (3) by affecting the mass transport rate of the primary corrodents. To perform an accurate corrosion test on a system material, the researcher must include all relevant corrodents and simulate conditions in the gasifier as closely as possible. In this paper, the authors present suggestions for conditions to be used in such corrosion tests. Two main types of corrosion conditions are discussed: those existing in hot-gas cleanup systems where vapor and dry ash may contribute to corrosion and those experienced by high-temperature heat exchangers and refractories where the main corrodent will be coal ash slag. Only the fluidized-bed gasification systems such as the Sierra Pacific Power Company Pinon Pine Power Project system are proposing the use of ceramic filters for particulate cleanup. The gasifier is an air-blown 102-MWe unit employing a Westinghouse{trademark} ceramic particle filter system operating at as high as 1100{degrees}F at 300 psia. Expected gas compositions in the filter will be approximately 25% CO, 15% H{sub 2}, 5% CO{sub 2}, 5% H{sub 2}O, and 50% N{sub 2}. Vapor-phase sodium chloride concentrations are expected to be 10 to 100 times the levels in combustion systems at similar temperatures, but in general the concentrations of the minor primary and secondary corrodents are not well understood. Slag corrosiveness will depend on its composition as well as viscosity. For a laboratory test, the slag must be in a thermodynamically stable form before the beginning of the corrosion test to assure that no inappropriate reactions are allowed to occur. Ideally, the slag would be flowing, and the appropriate atmosphere must be used to assure realistic slag viscosity.

  12. Structure light telecentric stereoscopic vision 3D measurement system based on Scheimpflug condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Qing; Gao, Jian; Lin, Hui; Chen, Yun; Yunbo, He; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Guanjin; Chen, Xin

    2016-11-01

    We designed a new three-dimensional (3D) measurement system for micro components: a structure light telecentric stereoscopic vision 3D measurement system based on the Scheimpflug condition. This system creatively combines the telecentric imaging model and the Scheimpflug condition on the basis of structure light stereoscopic vision, having benefits of a wide measurement range, high accuracy, fast speed, and low price. The system measurement range is 20 mm×13 mm×6 mm, the lateral resolution is 20 μm, and the practical vertical resolution reaches 2.6 μm, which is close to the theoretical value of 2 μm and well satisfies the 3D measurement needs of micro components such as semiconductor devices, photoelectron elements, and micro-electromechanical systems. In this paper, we first introduce the principle and structure of the system and then present the system calibration and 3D reconstruction. We then present an experiment that was performed for the 3D reconstruction of the surface topography of a wafer, followed by a discussion. Finally, the conclusions are presented.

  13. Measured daylighting potential of a static optical louver system under real sun and sky conditions

    DOE PAGES

    Konis, Kyle; Lee, Eleanor S.

    2015-05-04

    Side-by-side comparisons were made over solstice-to-solstice changes in sun and sky conditions between an optical louver system (OLS) and a conventional Venetian blind set at a horizontal slat angle and located inboard of a south-facing, small-area, clerestory window in a full-scale office testbed. Daylight autonomy (DA), window luminance, and ceiling luminance uniformity were used to assess performance. The performance of both systems was found to have significant seasonal variation, where performance under clear sky conditions improved as maximum solar altitude angles transitioned from solstice to equinox. Although the OLS produced fewer hours per day of DA on average than themore » Venetian blind, the OLS never exceeded the designated 2000 cd/m2 threshold for window glare. In contrast, the Venetian blind was found to exceed the visual discomfort threshold over a large fraction of the day during equinox conditions. Notably, these peak periods of visual discomfort occurred during the best periods of daylighting performance. Luminance uniformity was analyzed using calibrated high dynamic range luminance images. Under clear sky conditions, the OLS was found to increase the luminance of the ceiling as well as produce a more uniform distribution. Furthermore, compared to conventional venetian blinds, the static optical sunlight redirecting system studied has the potential to significantly reduce the annual electrical lighting energy demand of a daylit space and improve the quality from the perspective of building occupants by consistently transmitting useful daylight while eliminating window glare.« less

  14. Measured daylighting potential of a static optical louver system under real sun and sky conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Konis, Kyle; Lee, Eleanor S.

    2015-05-04

    Side-by-side comparisons were made over solstice-to-solstice changes in sun and sky conditions between an optical louver system (OLS) and a conventional Venetian blind set at a horizontal slat angle and located inboard of a south-facing, small-area, clerestory window in a full-scale office testbed. Daylight autonomy (DA), window luminance, and ceiling luminance uniformity were used to assess performance. The performance of both systems was found to have significant seasonal variation, where performance under clear sky conditions improved as maximum solar altitude angles transitioned from solstice to equinox. Although the OLS produced fewer hours per day of DA on average than the Venetian blind, the OLS never exceeded the designated 2000 cd/m2 threshold for window glare. In contrast, the Venetian blind was found to exceed the visual discomfort threshold over a large fraction of the day during equinox conditions. Notably, these peak periods of visual discomfort occurred during the best periods of daylighting performance. Luminance uniformity was analyzed using calibrated high dynamic range luminance images. Under clear sky conditions, the OLS was found to increase the luminance of the ceiling as well as produce a more uniform distribution. Furthermore, compared to conventional venetian blinds, the static optical sunlight redirecting system studied has the potential to significantly reduce the annual electrical lighting energy demand of a daylit space and improve the quality from the perspective of building occupants by consistently transmitting useful daylight while eliminating window glare.

  15. Transient spatio-temporal dynamics of a diffusive plant-herbivore system with Neumann boundary conditions.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fang; Wang, Lin; Watmough, James

    2016-12-01

    In many existing predator-prey or plant-herbivore models, the numerical response is assumed to be proportional to the functional response. In this paper, without such an assumption, we consider a diffusive plant-herbivore system with Neumann boundary conditions. Besides stability of spatially homogeneous steady states, we also derive conditions for the occurrence of Hopf bifurcation and steady-state bifurcation and provide geometrical methods to locate the bifurcation values. We numerically explore the complex transient spatio-temporal behaviours induced by these bifurcations. A large variety of different types of transient behaviours including oscillations in one or both of space and time are observed. PMID:27572052

  16. ALmost EXact boundary conditions for transient Schrödinger-Poisson system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Lei; Pang, Gang; Tang, Shaoqiang; Arnold, Anton

    2016-05-01

    For the Schrödinger-Poisson system, we propose an ALmost EXact (ALEX) boundary condition to treat accurately the numerical boundaries. Being local in both space and time, the ALEX boundary conditions are demonstrated to be effective in suppressing spurious numerical reflections. Together with the Crank-Nicolson scheme, we simulate a resonant tunneling diode. The algorithm produces numerical results in excellent agreement with those in Mennemann et al. [1], yet at a much reduced complexity. Primary peaks in wave function profile appear as a consequence of quantum resonance, and should be considered in selecting the cut-off wave number for numerical simulations.

  17. Variance reduction through robust design of boundary conditions for stochastic hyperbolic systems of equations

    SciTech Connect

    Nordström, Jan Wahlsten, Markus

    2015-02-01

    We consider a hyperbolic system with uncertainty in the boundary and initial data. Our aim is to show that different boundary conditions give different convergence rates of the variance of the solution. This means that we can with the same knowledge of data get a more or less accurate description of the uncertainty in the solution. A variety of boundary conditions are compared and both analytical and numerical estimates of the variance of the solution are presented. As an application, we study the effect of this technique on Maxwell's equations as well as on a subsonic outflow boundary for the Euler equations.

  18. Procedural Memory System Supports Single Cue Trace Eyeblink Conditioning in Medial Temporal Lobe Amnesia

    PubMed Central

    McGlinchey, Regina E.; Fortier, Catherine Brawn; Capozzi, Stephen M.; Disterhoft, John F.

    2008-01-01

    A number of studies investigating trace eyeblink conditioning have found impaired, but not eliminated, acquisition of conditioned responses (CRs) in both animals and humans with hippocampal removal or damage. The underlying mechanism of this residual learning is unclear. The present study investigated whether the impaired level of learning is the product of residual hippocampal function or whether it is mediated by another memory system that has been shown to function normally in delay eyeblink conditioning. Performance of bilateral medial temporal lobe amnesic patients who had a prior history of participating in eyeblink conditioning studies was compared to a control group with a similar training history and to an untrained control group in a series of single cue trace conditioning tasks with 500 ms, 250 ms, and 0 ms trace intervals. Overall, patients acquired CRs to a level similar to the untrained controls, but were significantly impaired compared to the trained controls. The pattern of acquisition suggests that amnesic patients may be relying on the expression of previously acquired, likely cerebellar based, procedural memory representations in trace conditioning. PMID:18331171

  19. Modeling of the Human - Operator in a Complex System Functioning Under Extreme Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Getzov, Peter; Hubenova, Zoia; Yordanov, Dimitar; Popov, Wiliam

    2013-12-01

    Problems, related to the explication of sophisticated control systems of objects, operating under extreme conditions, have been examined and the impact of the effectiveness of the operator's activity on the systems as a whole. The necessity of creation of complex simulation models, reflecting operator's activity, is discussed. Organizational and technical system of an unmanned aviation complex is described as a sophisticated ergatic system. Computer realization of main subsystems of algorithmic system of the man as a controlling system is implemented and specialized software for data processing and analysis is developed. An original computer model of a Man as a tracking system has been implemented. Model of unmanned complex for operators training and formation of a mental model in emergency situation, implemented in "matlab-simulink" environment, has been synthesized. As a unit of the control loop, the pilot (operator) is simplified viewed as an autocontrol system consisting of three main interconnected subsystems: sensitive organs (perception sensors); central nervous system; executive organs (muscles of the arms, legs, back). Theoretical-data model of prediction the level of operator's information load in ergatic systems is proposed. It allows the assessment and prediction of the effectiveness of a real working operator. Simulation model of operator's activity in takeoff based on the Petri nets has been synthesized.

  20. Autonomous sensor-transponder RFID with supply energy conditioning for object navigation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skoczylas, M.; Kamuda, K.; Jankowski-Mihułowicz, P.; Kalita, W.; Weglarski, Mariusz

    2014-08-01

    The properties of energy conditioning electrical circuits that are developed for powering additional functional blocks of autonomous RFID transponders working in the HF band have been analyzed and presented in the paper. The concept of autonomy is realized by implementing extra functions in the typical transponder. First of all, the autonomous system should harvest energy, e.g. from the electromagnetic field of read/write devices but also the possibility of gathering information about environment should be available, e.g. by measuring different kind of physical quantities. In such an electrical device, the crucial problem consists in energy conditioning because the output voltage-current characteristic of an front-end (antenna with matching and harvesting circuit) as well as the total and instantaneous power load generated by internal circuits are strongly dependent on a realized function but also on energy and communication conditions in the RFID interface. The properly designed solution should improve harvesting efficiency, current leakage of supply storage, matching between antenna and input circuits, in order to save energy and increase operating time in such a battery-free system. The authors present methods how to increase the autonomous operation time even at advanced measuring algorithms. The measuring system with wide spectrum of sensors dedicated for different quantities (physical, chemical, etc.) has also been presented. The results of model calculations and experimental verifications have been also discussed on the basis of investigations conducted in the unique laboratory stand of object navigation systems.

  1. Prevention of secondary conditions in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: identification of systems-level barriers.

    PubMed

    Petrenko, Christie L M; Tahir, Naira; Mahoney, Erin C; Chin, Nancy P

    2014-08-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) impact 2-5% of the US population and are associated with life-long cognitive and behavioral impairments. Individuals with FASD have high rates of secondary conditions, including mental health problems, school disruptions, and trouble with the law. This study focuses on systems-level barriers that contribute to secondary conditions and interfere with prevention and treatment. Using a phenomenological methodology, semi-structured interviews and focus groups were conducted with parents of children with FASD and service providers. Data were analyzed using a framework approach. Participants emphasized the pervasive lack of knowledge of FASD throughout multiple systems. This lack of knowledge contributes to multi-system barriers including delayed diagnosis, unavailability of services, and difficulty qualifying for, implementing, and maintaining services. FASD is a major public health problem. Broad system changes using a public health approach are needed to increase awareness and understanding of FASD, improve access to diagnostic and therapeutic services, and create responsive institutional policies to prevent secondary conditions. These changes are essential to improve outcomes for individuals with FASD and their families and facilitate dissemination of empirically supported interventions.

  2. Induction kinetics of a conditional pH stress response system in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Georg; Koller, Christiane; Burdack, Korinna; Tetsch, Larissa; Haneburger, Ina; Jung, Kirsten; Gerland, Ulrich

    2009-10-23

    The analysis of stress response systems in microorganisms can reveal molecular strategies for regulatory control and adaptation. In this study, we focused on the Cad module, a subsystem of Escherichia coli's response to acidic stress that is conditionally activated at low pH only when lysine is available. When expressed, the Cad system counteracts the elevated H(+) concentration by converting lysine to cadaverine under the consumption of H(+) and exporting cadaverine in exchange for external lysine. Surprisingly, the cad operon displays a transient response, even when the conditions for its induction persist. To quantitatively characterize the regulation of the Cad module, we experimentally recorded and theoretically modeled the dynamics of important system variables. We established a quantitative model that adequately describes and predicts the transient expression behavior for various initial conditions. Our quantitative analysis of the Cad system supports negative feedback by external cadaverine as the origin of the transient response. Furthermore, the analysis puts causal constraints on the precise mechanism of signal transduction via the regulatory protein CadC. PMID:19703467

  3. Definition of boundary and initial conditions in the analysis of saturated ground-water flow systems - An introduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franke, O. Lehn; Reilly, Thomas E.; Bennett, Gordon D.

    1987-01-01

    Accurate definition of boundary and initial conditions is an essential part of conceptualizing and modeling ground-water flow systems. This report describes the properties of the seven most common boundary conditions encountered in ground-water systems and discusses major aspects of their application. It also discusses the significance and specification of initial conditions and evaluates some common errors in applying this concept to ground-water-system models. An appendix is included that discusses what the solution of a differential equation represents and how the solution relates to the boundary conditions defining the specific problem. This report considers only boundary conditions that apply to saturated ground-water systems.

  4. Iterative Design and Usability Testing of the Imhere System for Managing Chronic Conditions and Disability

    PubMed Central

    FAIRMAN, ANDREA D.; YIH, ERIKA T.; MCCOY, DANIEL F.; LOPRESTI, EDMUND F.; MCCUE, MICHAEL P.; PARMANTO, BAMBANG; DICIANNO, BRAD E.

    2016-01-01

    A novel mobile health platform, Interactive Mobile Health and Rehabilitation (iMHere), is being developed to support wellness and self-management among people with chronic disabilities. The iMHere system currently includes a smartphone app with six modules for use by persons with disabilities and a web portal for use by medical and rehabilitation professionals or other support personnel. Our initial clinical research applying use of this system provides insight into the feasibility of employing iMHere in the development of self-management skills in young adults (ages 18–40 years) with spina bifida (SB) (Dicianno, Fairman, et al., 2015). This article describes the iterative design of the iMHere system including usability testing of both the app modules and clinician portal. Our pilot population of persons with SB fostered the creation of a system appropriate for people with a wide variety of functional abilities and needs. As a result, the system is appropriate for use by persons with various disabilities and chronic conditions, not only SB. In addition, the diversity of professionals and support personnel involved in the care of persons with SB also enabled the design and implementation of the iMHere system to meet the needs of an interdisciplinary team of providers who treat various conditions. The iMHere system has the potential to foster communication and collaboration among members of an interdisciplinary healthcare team, including individuals with chronic conditions and disabilities, for a client-centered approach to support self-management skills. PMID:27563387

  5. Iterative Design and Usability Testing of the Imhere System for Managing Chronic Conditions and Disability.

    PubMed

    Fairman, Andrea D; Yih, Erika T; McCoy, Daniel F; Lopresti, Edmund F; McCue, Michael P; Parmanto, Bambang; Dicianno, Brad E

    2016-01-01

    A novel mobile health platform, Interactive Mobile Health and Rehabilitation (iMHere), is being developed to support wellness and self-management among people with chronic disabilities. The iMHere system currently includes a smartphone app with six modules for use by persons with disabilities and a web portal for use by medical and rehabilitation professionals or other support personnel. Our initial clinical research applying use of this system provides insight into the feasibility of employing iMHere in the development of self-management skills in young adults (ages 18-40 years) with spina bifida (SB) (Dicianno, Fairman, et al., 2015). This article describes the iterative design of the iMHere system including usability testing of both the app modules and clinician portal. Our pilot population of persons with SB fostered the creation of a system appropriate for people with a wide variety of functional abilities and needs. As a result, the system is appropriate for use by persons with various disabilities and chronic conditions, not only SB. In addition, the diversity of professionals and support personnel involved in the care of persons with SB also enabled the design and implementation of the iMHere system to meet the needs of an interdisciplinary team of providers who treat various conditions. The iMHere system has the potential to foster communication and collaboration among members of an interdisciplinary healthcare team, including individuals with chronic conditions and disabilities, for a client-centered approach to support self-management skills. PMID:27563387

  6. System for measuring oxygen consumption rates of mammalian cells in static culture under hypoxic conditions.

    PubMed

    Kagawa, Yuki; Miyahara, Hirotaka; Ota, Yuri; Tsuneda, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Estimating the oxygen consumption rates (OCRs) of mammalian cells in hypoxic environments is essential for designing and developing a three-dimensional (3-D) cell culture system. However, OCR measurements under hypoxic conditions are infrequently reported in the literature. Here, we developed a system for measuring OCRs at low oxygen levels. The system injects nitrogen gas into the environment and measures the oxygen concentration by an optical oxygen microsensor that consumes no oxygen. The developed system was applied to HepG2 cells in static culture. Specifically, we measured the spatial profiles of the local dissolved oxygen concentration in the medium, then estimated the OCRs of the cells. The OCRs, and also the pericellular oxygen concentrations, decreased nonlinearly as the oxygen partial pressure in the environment decreased from 19% to 1%. The OCRs also depended on the culture period and the matrix used for coating the dish surface. Using this system, we can precisely estimate the OCRs of various cell types under environments that mimic 3-D culture conditions, contributing crucial data for an efficient 3-D culture system design. PMID:26558344

  7. Design and Realization of Rotating Machinery Conditions Monitoring System Based on Labview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Qiyuan

    Nonlinear dynamic analysis of rotating machinery system has always been the hot spot of the rotational dynamics research. This article sets up a rotating machinery condition monitoring system to realize the measurement of system dynamic characteristic parameters based on NI(National Instruments) virtual instruments technology. The measurement of vibration signal of rotating machinery system is achieved by using NI company general data acquisition module of NI company. Meanwhile, by analyzing and processing the acquired data using Labview 2012, the dynamic characteristics, such as .the speed of the rotating machinery system, the axis trajectory, spectrum parameters, are attained. The measurement results show that the rotating machinery condition monitoring system based on Labview is easy to operate, easy to realize the function extension and maintenance, and that it can be used in the industrial engineering projects with rotation characteristics. Labview as the development tools used by virtual instrument function, is very powerful data acquisition software products support is one of the features of it, so using Labview programming and data acquisition is simple and convenient [1].

  8. Defining biophysical reference conditions for dynamics river systems: an Alaskan example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pess, G. R.

    2008-12-01

    Defining reference conditions for dynamic river ecosystems is difficult for two reasons. First long-term, persistent anthropogenic influences such as land development, harvest of biological resources, and invasive species have resulted in degraded, reduced, and simplified ecological communities and associated habitats. Second, river systems that have not been altered through human disturbance rarely have a long-term dataset on ecological conditions. However there are exceptions which can help us define the dynamic nature of river ecosystems. One large-scale exception is the Wood River system in Bristol Bay, Alaska, where habitat and salmon populations have not been altered by anthropogenic influences such as land development, hatchery production, and invasive species. In addition, the one major anthropogenic disturbance, salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) harvest, has been quantified and regulated since its inception. First, we examined the variation in watershed and stream habitat characteristics across the Wood River system. We then compared these stream habitat characteristics with data that was collected in the 1950s. Lastly, we examined the correlation between pink (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha), chum (O. keta), and Chinook (O. tshawytscha), and sockeye salmon (O. nerka), and habitat characteristics in the Wood River system using four decades of data on salmon. We found that specific habitat attributes such as stream channel wetted width, depth, cover type, and the proportion of spawnable area were similar to data collected in the 1950s. Greater stream habitat variation occurred among streams than over time. Salmon occurrence and abundance, however was more temporal and spatially variable. The occurrence of pink and chum salmon increased from the 1970's to the present in the Wood River system, while sockeye abundance has fluctuated with changes in ocean conditions. Pink, Chinook and chum salmon ranged from non-existent to episodic to abundantly perennial, while sockeye

  9. Effect of Redox Conditions on MTBE Biodegradation in Surface-Water Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, P. M.; Chapelle, F. H.; Landmeyer, J. E.

    2002-12-01

    Microbial degradation of methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE) was observed in surface-water-sediment microcosms under anaerobic conditions. However, the efficiency and products of anaerobic MTBE biodegradation were strongly dependent on the predominant redox conditions. In the presence of substantial methanogenic activity, MTBE biodegradation was nominal and involved reduction of MTBE to the toxic product, t-butanol (TBA). In the absence of significant methanogenic activity, accumulation of 14C-TBA generally decreased and mineralization of [U-14C] MTBE to 14CO2 generally increased as the oxidative potential of the predominant terminal electron acceptor increased. The results of this study indicate that microorganisms inhabiting the bed sediments of streams and lakes can degrade MTBE effectively under a range of anaerobic terminal electron accepting conditions. Thus, anaerobic bed sediment microbial processes may provide a significant environmental sink for MTBE in surface water systems throughout the United States.

  10. Validity conditions for stochastic chemical kinetics in diffusion-limited systems

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Daniel T.; Petzold, Linda R.; Seitaridou, Effrosyni

    2014-01-01

    The chemical master equation (CME) and the mathematically equivalent stochastic simulation algorithm (SSA) assume that the reactant molecules in a chemically reacting system are “dilute” and “well-mixed” throughout the containing volume. Here we clarify what those two conditions mean, and we show why their satisfaction is necessary in order for bimolecular reactions to physically occur in the manner assumed by the CME and the SSA. We prove that these conditions are closely connected, in that a system will stay well-mixed if and only if it is dilute. We explore the implications of these validity conditions for the reaction-diffusion (or spatially inhomogeneous) extensions of the CME and the SSA to systems whose containing volumes are not necessarily well-mixed, but can be partitioned into cubical subvolumes (voxels) that are. We show that the validity conditions, together with an additional condition that is needed to ensure the physical validity of the diffusion-induced jump probability rates of molecules between voxels, require the voxel edge length to have a strictly positive lower bound. We prove that if the voxel edge length is steadily decreased in a way that respects that lower bound, the average rate at which bimolecular reactions occur in the reaction-diffusion CME and SSA will remain constant, while the average rate of diffusive transfer reactions will increase as the inverse square of the voxel edge length. We conclude that even though the reaction-diffusion CME and SSA are inherently approximate, and cannot be made exact by shrinking the voxel size to zero, they should nevertheless be useful in many practical situations. PMID:24511926

  11. Validity conditions for stochastic chemical kinetics in diffusion-limited systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillespie, Daniel T.; Petzold, Linda R.; Seitaridou, Effrosyni

    2014-02-01

    The chemical master equation (CME) and the mathematically equivalent stochastic simulation algorithm (SSA) assume that the reactant molecules in a chemically reacting system are "dilute" and "well-mixed" throughout the containing volume. Here we clarify what those two conditions mean, and we show why their satisfaction is necessary in order for bimolecular reactions to physically occur in the manner assumed by the CME and the SSA. We prove that these conditions are closely connected, in that a system will stay well-mixed if and only if it is dilute. We explore the implications of these validity conditions for the reaction-diffusion (or spatially inhomogeneous) extensions of the CME and the SSA to systems whose containing volumes are not necessarily well-mixed, but can be partitioned into cubical subvolumes (voxels) that are. We show that the validity conditions, together with an additional condition that is needed to ensure the physical validity of the diffusion-induced jump probability rates of molecules between voxels, require the voxel edge length to have a strictly positive lower bound. We prove that if the voxel edge length is steadily decreased in a way that respects that lower bound, the average rate at which bimolecular reactions occur in the reaction-diffusion CME and SSA will remain constant, while the average rate of diffusive transfer reactions will increase as the inverse square of the voxel edge length. We conclude that even though the reaction-diffusion CME and SSA are inherently approximate, and cannot be made exact by shrinking the voxel size to zero, they should nevertheless be useful in many practical situations.

  12. Characterization of Francisella species isolated from the cooling water of an air conditioning system.

    PubMed

    Gu, Quan; Li, Xunde; Qu, Pinghua; Hou, Shuiping; Li, Juntao; Atwill, Edward R; Chen, Shouyi

    2015-01-01

    Strains of Francisella spp. were isolated from cooling water from an air conditioning system in Guangzhou, China. These strains are Gram negative, coccobacilli, non-motile, oxidase negative, catalase negative, esterase and lipid esterase positive. In addition, these bacteria grow on cysteine-supplemented media at 20 °C to 40 °C with an optimal growth temperature of 30 °C. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that these strains belong to the genus Francisella. Biochemical tests and phylogenetic and BLAST analyses of 16S rRNA, rpoB and sdhA genes indicated that one strain was very similar to Francisella philomiragia and that the other strains were identical or highly similar to the Francisella guangzhouensis sp. nov. strain 08HL01032 we previously described. Biochemical and molecular characteristics of these strains demonstrated that multiple Francisella species exist in air conditioning systems. PMID:26413079

  13. A Recursive Multiscale Correlation-Averaging Algorithm for an Automated Distributed Road Condition Monitoring System

    SciTech Connect

    Ndoye, Mandoye; Barker, Alan M; Krogmeier, James; Bullock, Darcy

    2011-01-01

    A signal processing approach is proposed to jointly filter and fuse spatially indexed measurements captured from many vehicles. It is assumed that these measurements are influenced by both sensor noise and measurement indexing uncertainties. Measurements from low-cost vehicle-mounted sensors (e.g., accelerometers and Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers) are properly combined to produce higher quality road roughness data for cost-effective road surface condition monitoring. The proposed algorithms are recursively implemented and thus require only moderate computational power and memory space. These algorithms are important for future road management systems, which will use on-road vehicles as a distributed network of sensing probes gathering spatially indexed measurements for condition monitoring, in addition to other applications, such as environmental sensing and/or traffic monitoring. Our method and the related signal processing algorithms have been successfully tested using field data.

  14. Linear stable unity-feedback system - Necessary and sufficient conditions for stability under nonlinear plant perturbations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desoer, C. A.; Kabuli, M. G.

    1989-01-01

    The authors consider a linear (not necessarily time-invariant) stable unity-feedback system, where the plant and the compensator have normalized right-coprime factorizations. They study two cases of nonlinear plant perturbations (additive and feedback), with four subcases resulting from: (1) allowing exogenous input to Delta P or not; 2) allowing the observation of the output of Delta P or not. The plant perturbation Delta P is not required to be stable. Using the factorization approach, the authors obtain necessary and sufficient conditions for all cases in terms of two pairs of nonlinear pseudostate maps. Simple physical considerations explain the form of these necessary and sufficient conditions. Finally, the authors obtain the characterization of all perturbations Delta P for which the perturbed system remains stable.

  15. Characterization of Francisella species isolated from the cooling water of an air conditioning system.

    PubMed

    Gu, Quan; Li, Xunde; Qu, Pinghua; Hou, Shuiping; Li, Juntao; Atwill, Edward R; Chen, Shouyi

    2015-01-01

    Strains of Francisella spp. were isolated from cooling water from an air conditioning system in Guangzhou, China. These strains are Gram negative, coccobacilli, non-motile, oxidase negative, catalase negative, esterase and lipid esterase positive. In addition, these bacteria grow on cysteine-supplemented media at 20 °C to 40 °C with an optimal growth temperature of 30 °C. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that these strains belong to the genus Francisella. Biochemical tests and phylogenetic and BLAST analyses of 16S rRNA, rpoB and sdhA genes indicated that one strain was very similar to Francisella philomiragia and that the other strains were identical or highly similar to the Francisella guangzhouensis sp. nov. strain 08HL01032 we previously described. Biochemical and molecular characteristics of these strains demonstrated that multiple Francisella species exist in air conditioning systems.

  16. Use of absorption refrigerating machines in mine air-conditioning systems

    SciTech Connect

    Duganov, G.V.; Rozhko, V.F.; Shtompel, A.I.; Timofeevskii, L.S.

    1984-07-01

    This article describes lithium bromide absorption refrigerating machines (LBARMs) designed for use in mine air-conditioning systems (MACS). The application of LBARMs in MACS is difficult due to the elevation of temperature of the cold carrier when supplied to the mine air refrigerants. A thermodynamic and thermoeconomic analysis was conducted to determine the principal lines of LBARM design for creating a suitable microclimate in underground mines. The MACS will maintain the temperature in the mines at a horizon of 913 m at 24-26/sup 0/C. A scheme is proposed for stage-by-stage cooling by connecting two machines in succession. It is concluded that the use of absorption refrigerating machines in coal mine air-conditioning systems facilitates the integrated and economic use of heat energy as well as of secondary heat resources for cold generation.

  17. Evaluation of need for ontologies to manage domain content for the Reportable Conditions Knowledge Management System.

    PubMed

    Eilbeck, Karen L; Lipstein, Julie; McGarvey, Sunanda; Staes, Catherine J

    2014-01-01

    The Reportable Condition Knowledge Management System (RCKMS) is envisioned to be a single, comprehensive, authoritative, real-time portal to author, view and access computable information about reportable conditions. The system is designed for use by hospitals, laboratories, health information exchanges, and providers to meet public health reporting requirements. The RCKMS Knowledge Representation Workgroup was tasked to explore the need for ontologies to support RCKMS functionality. The workgroup reviewed relevant projects and defined criteria to evaluate candidate knowledge domain areas for ontology development. The use of ontologies is justified for this project to unify the semantics used to describe similar reportable events and concepts between different jurisdictions and over time, to aid data integration, and to manage large, unwieldy datasets that evolve, and are sometimes externally managed. PMID:25954354

  18. Novel approach to characterize and compare the performance of night vision systems in representative illumination conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Nathalie; Vallières, Alexandre; St-Germain, Daniel; Potvin, Simon; Dupuis, Michel; Bouchard, Jean-Claude; Villemaire, André; Bérubé, Martin; Breton, Mélanie; Gagné, Guillaume

    2016-05-01

    A novel approach is used to characterize and compare the performance of night vision systems in conditions more representative of night operation in terms of spectral content. Its main advantage compared to standard testing methodologies is that it provides a fast and efficient way for untrained observers to compare night vision system performances with realistic illumination spectra. The testing methodology relies on a custom tumbling-E target and on a new LED-based illumination source that better emulates night sky spectral irradiances from deep overcast starlight to quarter-moon conditions. In this paper, we describe the setup and we demonstrate that the novel approach can be an efficient method to characterize among others night vision goggles (NVG) performances with a small error on the photogenerated electrons compared to the STANAG 4351 procedure.

  19. An efficient new automobile air-conditioning system based on CO{sub 2} vapor compression

    SciTech Connect

    Pettersen, J.

    1994-12-31

    A new, efficient, and environmentally safe automobile air-conditioning system based on carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) vapor compression has been developed. Although working pressures and component design are different, the basic principles are similar to those of current chlorofluorocarbon/hydrofluorocarbon (CFC/HFC) units. With the construction and testing of a laboratory prototype, it has been documented that the new system is highly competitive with current CFC-12 and HFC-134a units in terms of efficiency, capacity, cost, weight, and dimensions. The CO{sub 2} concept thus offers a solution to the environmental problem associated with automobile air conditioning and eliminates all uncertainties with respect to possible unforeseen effects from new refrigerant compounds. Further advantages of the natural fluid CO{sub 2} as a refrigerant are: no need for recycling or recovery, low cost of fluid, excellent availability, well-known properties, and more compact machinery and components.

  20. Evaluation of need for ontologies to manage domain content for the Reportable Conditions Knowledge Management System.

    PubMed

    Eilbeck, Karen L; Lipstein, Julie; McGarvey, Sunanda; Staes, Catherine J

    2014-01-01

    The Reportable Condition Knowledge Management System (RCKMS) is envisioned to be a single, comprehensive, authoritative, real-time portal to author, view and access computable information about reportable conditions. The system is designed for use by hospitals, laboratories, health information exchanges, and providers to meet public health reporting requirements. The RCKMS Knowledge Representation Workgroup was tasked to explore the need for ontologies to support RCKMS functionality. The workgroup reviewed relevant projects and defined criteria to evaluate candidate knowledge domain areas for ontology development. The use of ontologies is justified for this project to unify the semantics used to describe similar reportable events and concepts between different jurisdictions and over time, to aid data integration, and to manage large, unwieldy datasets that evolve, and are sometimes externally managed.

  1. Evaluation of need for ontologies to manage domain content for the Reportable Conditions Knowledge Management System

    PubMed Central

    Eilbeck, Karen L.; Lipstein, Julie; McGarvey, Sunanda; Staes, Catherine J.

    2014-01-01

    The Reportable Condition Knowledge Management System (RCKMS) is envisioned to be a single, comprehensive, authoritative, real-time portal to author, view and access computable information about reportable conditions. The system is designed for use by hospitals, laboratories, health information exchanges, and providers to meet public health reporting requirements. The RCKMS Knowledge Representation Workgroup was tasked to explore the need for ontologies to support RCKMS functionality. The workgroup reviewed relevant projects and defined criteria to evaluate candidate knowledge domain areas for ontology development. The use of ontologies is justified for this project to unify the semantics used to describe similar reportable events and concepts between different jurisdictions and over time, to aid data integration, and to manage large, unwieldy datasets that evolve, and are sometimes externally managed. PMID:25954354

  2. Development of an RF Conditioning System for Charged-Particle Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Yoon W; Howlader, Mostofa; Shajedul Hasan, Dr. S. M.

    2008-01-01

    Charged-particle accelerators use various vacuum windows on their accelerating radio-frequency (RF) cavities to throughput very high RF power. Before being placed on the cavities, the windows should be cleaned, baked, and fully RF conditioned to prevent a poor vacuum from outgassing, as well as other forms of contamination. An example is the coaxial fundamental power coupler (FPC) with an annular alumina ceramic window for each of the 81 superconducting RF cavities in the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) linear accelerator. The FPCs needed to be tested up to 650-kW peak in a traveling wave and 2.6 MW with standing wave peaks in 1.3 and 60 pulses/s at 805 MHz. In this paper, an Experimental-Physics-and-Industrial-Control-System-based RF conditioning system for the SNS RF test facility is presented. This paper summarizes the hardware and software design strategies, provides the results obtained, and describes the future research scope.

  3. Characterization of Francisella species isolated from the cooling water of an air conditioning system

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Quan; Li, Xunde; Qu, Pinghua; Hou, Shuiping; Li, Juntao; Atwill, Edward R.; Chen, Shouyi

    2015-01-01

    Strains of Francisella spp. were isolated from cooling water from an air conditioning system in Guangzhou, China. These strains are Gram negative, coccobacilli, non-motile, oxidase negative, catalase negative, esterase and lipid esterase positive. In addition, these bacteria grow on cysteine-supplemented media at 20 °C to 40 °C with an optimal growth temperature of 30 °C. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that these strains belong to the genus Francisella. Biochemical tests and phylogenetic and BLAST analyses of 16S rRNA, rpoB and sdhA genes indicated that one strain was very similar to Francisella philomiragia and that the other strains were identical or highly similar to the Francisella guangzhouensis sp. nov. strain 08HL01032 we previously described. Biochemical and molecular characteristics of these strains demonstrated that multiple Francisella species exist in air conditioning systems. PMID:26413079

  4. Application information on typical hygrometers used in heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, J.Y.; Snyder, W.J.

    1982-01-01

    Hygrometer selection information is provided for application in heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. A general review of hygrometer literature has been provided and the most commonly used ones for HVAC are discussed. Typical hygrometer parameters are listed to indicate the type of performance that can be expected. Laboratory test results of self-regulating, salt-phase transition hygrometers are presented and discussed in detail.

  5. Modulation of cannabinoid signaling by amygdala α2-adrenergic system in fear conditioning.

    PubMed

    Nasehi, Mohammad; Zamanparvar, Majid; Ebrahimi-Ghiri, Mohaddeseh; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2016-03-01

    The noradrenergic system plays a critical role in the modulation of emotional state, primarily related to anxiety, arousal, and stress. Growing evidence suggests that the endocannabinoid system mediates stress responses and emotional homeostasis, in part, by targeting noradrenergic circuits. In addition, there is an interaction between the cannabinoid and noradrenergic system that has significant functional and behavioral implications. Considering the importance of these systems in forming memories for fearful events, we have investigated the involvement of basolateral amygdala (BLA) α2-adrenoceptors on ACPA (as selective cannabinoid CB1 agonist)-induced inhibition of the acquisition of contextual and auditory conditioned fear. A contextual and auditory fear conditioning apparatus for assess fear memory in adult male NMRI mice was used. Pre-training, intraperitoneal administration of ACPA decreased the percentage freezing time in contextual (at doses of 0.05 and 0.1mg/kg) and auditory (at dose of 0.1 mg/kg) in the fear conditioning task, indicating memory acquisition deficit. The same result was observed with intra-BLA microinjection of clonidine (0.001-0.5 μg/mouse, for both memories), as α2-adrenoceptor agonist and yohimbine (at doses of 0.005 and 0.05 for contextual and at dose of 0.05 μg/mouse for auditory fear memory), as α2-adrenoceptor antagonist. In addition, intra-BLA microinjection of clonidine (0.0005 μg/mouse) did not alter ACPA response in both conditions, while the same dose of yohimbine potentiated ACPA response at the lower dose on contextual fear memory. It is concluded that BLA α2-adrenergic receptors may be involved in context- but not tone-dependent fear memory impairment induced by activation of CB1 receptors.

  6. Spent nuclear fuel project cold vacuum drying facility process water conditioning system design description

    SciTech Connect

    IRWIN, J.J.

    1998-11-30

    This document provides the System Design Description (SDD) for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) Process Water Conditioning (PWC) System. The SDD was developed in conjunction with HNF-SD-SNF-SAR-002, Safety Analysis Report for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility, Phase 2, Supporting Installation of Processing Systems (Garvin 1998), the HNF-SD-SNF-DRD-O02, 1998, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Design Requirements, and the CVDF Design Summary Report. The SDD contains general descriptions of the PWC equipment, the system functions, requirements and interfaces. The SDD provides references for design and fabrication details, operation sequences and maintenance. This SDD has been developed for the SNFP Operations Organization and shall be updated, expanded, and revised in accordance with future design, construction and startup phases of the CVDF until the CVDF final ORR is approved.

  7. Improved stability conditions for uncertain neutral-type systems with time-varying delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Yu; Feng, Zhiguang; Sun, Guanghui

    2016-06-01

    This paper investigates the robust stability problem for a class of uncertain neutral-type delayed systems. The systems under consideration contain parameter uncertainties and time-varying delays. We aim at designing less conservative robust stability criteria for such systems. A new second-order reciprocally convex inequality is first proposed in order to deal with double integral terms. Then, by constructing a new Lyapunov- Krasovskii functional and employing the improved Wirtinger-based integral inequality and the reciprocally convex combination approaches, novel stability criteria are obtained. Moreover, the stability conditions for standard time-delay system are obtained as by-product results. Comparisons in three numerical examples illustrate the effectiveness of our results.

  8. General conditions for proximity induced odd-frequency superconductivity in two-dimensional electronic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Enrico; Triola, Christopher; Badiane, Driss; Balatsky, Alexander V.

    We obtain the general conditions for the emergence of odd-frequency superconducting pairing in a two-dimensional (2D) electronic system proximity-coupled to a superconductor, making minimal assumptions about both the 2D system and the superconductor. Using our general results we show that a simple heterostructure formed by a monolayer of a group VI transition metal dichalcogenide, such as molybdenum disulfide, and an s-wave superconductor with Rashba spin-orbit coupling will exhibit odd-frequency superconducting pairing. Work supported by US DOE BES E304, KAW, ACS-PRF-53581-DNI5, and NSF-DMR-1455233.

  9. Influence of hydrodynamic conditions on quantitative cellular assays in microfluidic systems.

    PubMed

    Yin, Huabing; Zhang, Xunli; Pattrick, Nicola; Klauke, Norbert; Cordingley, Hayley C; Haswell, Stephen J; Cooper, Jonathan M

    2007-09-15

    This study demonstrates the importance of the hydrodynamic environment in microfluidic systems in quantitative cellular assays using live cells. Commonly applied flow conditions used in microfluidics were evaluated using the quantitative intracellular Ca2+ analysis of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells as a model system. Above certain thresholds of shear stress, hydrodynamically induced intracellular Ca2+ fluxes were observed which mimic the responses induced by chemical stimuli, such as the agonist uridine 5'-triphosphate tris salt (UTP). This effect is of significance given the increasing application of microfluidic devices in high-throughput cellular analysis for biophysical applications and pharmacological screening.

  10. Casimir and hydrodynamic force influence on microelectromechanical system actuation in ambient conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedighi, Mehdi; Palasantzas, George

    2014-02-01

    Casimir and hydrodynamic dissipation forces can strongly influence the actuation of microelectromechanical systems in ambient conditions. The dissipative and stiction dynamics of an actuating system is shown to depend on surface physical processes related to fluid slip and the size of the actuating components. Using phase change materials the Casimir force magnitude can be modulated via amorphous-crystalline phase transitions. The dissipative motion between amorphous coated phase change material components can be changed towards stiction upon crystallization and suitable choice of restoring spring constants. By contrast, amorphization can augment switching from stiction to dissipative dynamics.

  11. The Fuel Accident Condition Simulator (FACS) furnace system for high temperature performance testing of VHTR fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Paul A. Demkowicz; David V. Laug; Dawn M. Scates; Edward L. Reber; Lyle G. Roybal; John B. Walter; Jason M. Harp; Robert N. Morris

    2012-10-01

    The AGR-1 irradiation of TRISO-coated particle fuel specimens was recently completed and represents the most successful such irradiation in US history, reaching peak burnups of greater than 19% FIMA with zero failures out of 300,000 particles. An extensive post-irradiation examination (PIE) campaign will be conducted on the AGR-1 fuel in order to characterize the irradiated fuel properties, assess the in-pile fuel performance in terms of coating integrity and fission metals release, and determine the fission product retention behavior during high temperature safety testing. A new furnace system has been designed, built, and tested to perform high temperature accident tests. The Fuel Accident Condition Simulator furnace system is designed to heat fuel specimens at temperatures up to 2000 degrees C in helium while monitoring the release of volatile fission metals (e.g. Cs, Ag, Sr, and Eu), iodine, and fission gases (Kr, Xe). Fission gases released from the fuel to the sweep gas are monitored in real time using dual cryogenic traps fitted with high purity germanium detectors. Condensable fission products are collected on a plate attached to a water-cooled cold finger that can be exchanged periodically without interrupting the test. Analysis of fission products on the condensation plates involves dry gamma counting followed by chemical analysis of selected isotopes. This paper will describe design and operational details of the Fuel Accident Condition Simulator furnace system and the associated fission gas monitoring system, as well as preliminary system calibration results.

  12. Multiple electron transfer systems in oxygen reducing biocathodes revealed by different conditions of aeration/agitation.

    PubMed

    Rimboud, Mickaël; Bergel, Alain; Erable, Benjamin

    2016-08-01

    Oxygen reducing biocathodes were formed at -0.2V/SCE (+0.04V/SHE) from compost leachate. Depending on whether aeration was implemented or not, two different redox systems responsible for the electrocatalysis of oxygen reduction were evidenced. System I was observed at low potential (-0.03V/SHE) on cyclic voltammetries (CVs). It appeared during the early formation of the biocathode (few hours) and resisted the hydrodynamic conditions induced by the aeration. System II was observed at higher potential on CV (+0.46V/SHE); it required a longer lag time (up to 10days) and quiescent conditions to produce an electrochemical signal. The hydrodynamic effects produced by the forced aeration led to its extinction. From their different behaviors and examples in the literature, system I was identified as being a membrane-bound cytochrome-related molecule, while system II was identified as a soluble redox mediator excreted by the biofilm. This study highlighted the importance of controlling the local hydrodynamics to design efficient oxygen reducing biocathodes able to operate at high potential.

  13. Liquid Methane/Liquid Oxygen Propellant Conditioning Feed System (PCFS) Test Rigs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skaff, A.; Grasl, S.; Nguyen, C.; Hockenberry S.; Schubert, J.; Arrington, L.; Vasek, T.

    2008-01-01

    As part of their Propulsion and Cryogenic Advanced Development (PCAD) program, NASA has embarked upon an effort to develop chemical rocket engines which utilize non-toxic, cryogenic propellants such as liquid oxygen (LO2) and liquid methane (LCH4). This effort includes the development and testing of a 100 lbf Reaction Control Engine (RCE) that will be used to evaluate the performance of a LO2/LCH4 rocket engine over a broad range of propellant temperatures and pressures. This testing will take place at NASA-Glenn Research Center's (GRC) Research Combustion Laboratory (RCL) test facility in Cleveland, OH, and is currently scheduled to begin in late 2008. While the initial tests will be performed at sea level, follow-on testing will be performed at NASA-GRC's Altitude Combustion Stand (ACS) for altitude testing. In support of these tests, Sierra Lobo, Inc. (SLI) has designed, developed, and fabricated two separate portable propellant feed systems under the Propellant Conditioning and Feed System (PCFS) task: one system for LCH4, and one for LO2. These systems will be capable of supplying propellants over a large range of conditions from highly densified to several hundred pounds per square inch (psi) saturated. This paper presents the details of the PCFS design and explores the full capability of these propellant feed systems.

  14. Gas Engine-Driven Heat Pump Chiller for Air-Conditioning and Hot Water Supply Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Toshihiko; Mita, Nobuhiro; Moriyama, Tadashi; Hoshino, Norimasa; Kimura, Yoshihisa

    In Part 1 of this study, the performance characteristics of a 457kW gas engine-driven heat pump (GHP) chiller have been obtained from a simulation model analysis for both cooling and heating modes and it has been found that the part-load characteristics of the GHP chiller are fairly well. On the back of Part 1, a computer simulation program has been developed for the evaluation of GHP chiller systems to compare with the other types of heat source systems for air-conditioning and hot water supply applications. The simulation program can be used to estimate annual energy consumption, annual CO2 emission, etc. of the systems with the data of monthly and hourly thermal loads on various buildings, outdoor air conditions, and characteristics of various components comprising the systems. By applying this to some cases of medium-scale hotel, office, shop, and hospital buildings, it has been found that the GHP chiller systems have advantages particularly in the cases of hotels and hospitals where a lot of hot water demand exists. It has also been found that the combination of a GHP chiller and a direct-fired absorption water chiller boiler (hot and chilled water generator) appears promising.

  15. Feeding behavior of Aplysia: a model system for comparing cellular mechanisms of classical and operant conditioning.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Douglas A; Byrne, John H

    2006-01-01

    Feeding behavior of Aplysia provides an excellent model system for analyzing and comparing mechanisms underlying appetitive classical conditioning and reward operant conditioning. Behavioral protocols have been developed for both forms of associative learning, both of which increase the occurrence of biting following training. Because the neural circuitry that mediates the behavior is well characterized and amenable to detailed cellular analyses, substantial progress has been made toward a comparative analysis of the cellular mechanisms underlying these two forms of associative learning. Both forms of associative learning use the same reinforcement pathway (the esophageal nerve, En) and the same reinforcement transmitter (dopamine, DA). In addition, at least one cellular locus of plasticity (cell B51) is modified by both forms of associative learning. However, the two forms of associative learning have opposite effects on B51. Classical conditioning decreases the excitability of B51, whereas operant conditioning increases the excitability of B51. Thus, the approach of using two forms of associative learning to modify a single behavior, which is mediated by an analytically tractable neural circuit, is revealing similarities and differences in the mechanisms that underlie classical and operant conditioning.

  16. Measurement of thermal regain in duct systems located in partially conditioned buffer spaces. Informal report

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, J.W.

    1994-07-01

    Thermal losses from duct systems have been shown to be a significant fraction of the heat or cooling energy delivered by the space-conditioning equipment. However, when the ducts are located in a partially conditioned buffer space such as a basement, a portion of these losses are effectively regained through system interactions with the building. This paper presents two methods of measuring this regain effect. One is based on the relative thermal resistances between the conditioned space and the buffer space, on the one hand, and between the buffer space and the outside, on the other. The second method is based on a measured drop in the buffer-space temperature when steps are taken to reduce the duct losses. The second method is compared with results of an extensive research project that are published in a major professional society handbook. The thermal regain fraction using the drop in basement temperature was found to be 0.68, while that obtained from an analysis of the system performance data, without using the basement temperature, was 0.59.

  17. Systemic psychotherapy with families where someone has an autism spectrum condition

    PubMed Central

    Helps, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Families play an important role in facilitating the development and well-being of children with autism spectrum conditions. OBJECTIVES: After setting the scene with a clinical example, and providing a brief discussion of the current thinking about the aetiology of Autism spectrum conditions, this paper provides a review of the literature regarding the practice of systemic psychotherapy with families in which a child has an autism spectrum condition (ASC). METHODS: A search of databases and journals revealed a large number of opinion papers regarding how family therapists might work with families of children with ASCs and a smaller number of papers that describe or explore actual clinical practice. RESULTS: Pilot studies using qualitative methods and practice-based evidence in the form of descriptions of clinical work offer a solid footing on which to develop systemic practice to help families where a person has an ASC. CONCLUSION: Given the multifactorial nature of the aetiology of ASCs it is suggested that systemic interventions have the potential to influence changes at multiple levels of functioning for the child and the family. PMID:27030899

  18. Sufficient and necessary conditions for discrete-time nonlinear switched systems with uniform local exponential stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Junjie; She, Zhikun

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we investigate sufficient and necessary conditions of uniform local exponential stability (ULES) for the discrete-time nonlinear switched system (DTNSS). We start with the definition of T-step common Lyapunov functions (CLFs), which is a relaxation of traditional CLFs. Then, for a time-varying DTNSS, by constructing such a T-step CLF, a necessary and sufficient condition for its ULES is provided. Afterwards, we strengthen it based on a T-step Lipschitz continuous CLF. Especially, when the system is time-invariant, by the smooth approximation theorem, the Lipschitz continuity condition of T-step CLFs can further be replaced by continuous differentiability; and when the system is time-invariant and homogeneous, due to the extension of Weierstrass approximation theorem, T-step continuously differentiable CLFs can even be strengthened to be T-step polynomial CLFs. Furthermore, three illustrative examples are additionally used to explain our main contribution. In the end, an equivalence between time-varying DTNSSs and their corresponding linearisations is discussed.

  19. An efficient recursive least square-based condition monitoring approach for a rail vehicle suspension system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X. Y.; Alfi, S.; Bruni, S.

    2016-06-01

    A model-based condition monitoring strategy for the railway vehicle suspension is proposed in this paper. This approach is based on recursive least square (RLS) algorithm focusing on the deterministic 'input-output' model. RLS has Kalman filtering feature and is able to identify the unknown parameters from a noisy dynamic system by memorising the correlation properties of variables. The identification of suspension parameter is achieved by machine learning of the relationship between excitation and response in a vehicle dynamic system. A fault detection method for the vertical primary suspension is illustrated as an instance of this condition monitoring scheme. Simulation results from the rail vehicle dynamics software 'ADTreS' are utilised as 'virtual measurements' considering a trailer car of Italian ETR500 high-speed train. The field test data from an E464 locomotive are also employed to validate the feasibility of this strategy for the real application. Results of the parameter identification performed indicate that estimated suspension parameters are consistent or approximate with the reference values. These results provide the supporting evidence that this fault diagnosis technique is capable of paving the way for the future vehicle condition monitoring system.

  20. Development of a Multipurpose GATEWAY-Based Lentiviral Tetracycline-Regulated Conditional RNAi System (GLTR)

    PubMed Central

    Shivalingaiah, Giridhar; Kofler, Reinhard; Geley, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) has become an essential technology for functional gene analysis. Its success, however, depends on the effective expression of RNAi-inducing small double-stranded interfering RNA molecules (siRNAs) in target cells. In many cell types, RNAi can be achieved by transfection of chemically synthesised siRNAs, which results in transient knockdown of protein expression. Expression of double-stranded short hairpin RNA (shRNA) provides another means to induce RNAi in cells that are hard to transfect. To facilitate the generation of stable, conditional RNAi cell lines, we have developed novel one- and two-component vector GATEWAY-compatible lentiviral tetracycline-regulated RNAi (GLTR) systems. The combination of a modified RNA-polymerase-III-dependent H1 RNA promoter (designated ‘THT’) for conditional shRNA expression with different lentiviral delivery vectors allows (1) the use of fluorescent proteins for colour-coded combinatorial RNAi or for monitoring RNAi induction (pGLTR-FP), (2) selection of transduced cells (pGLTR-S), and (3) the generation of conditional cell lines using a one vector system (pGLTR-X). All three systems were found to be suitable for the analysis of essential genes, such as CDC27, a component of the mitotic ubiquitin ligase APC/C, in cell lines and primary human cells. PMID:24841113

  1. Thermodynamic model of a thermal storage air conditioning system with dynamic behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, E; Wen, SY; Shi, L; da Silva, AK

    2013-12-01

    A thermodynamic model was developed to predict transient behavior of a thermal storage system, using phase change materials (PCMs), for a novel electric vehicle climate conditioning application. The main objectives of the paper are to consider the system's dynamic behavior, such as a dynamic air flow rate into the vehicle's cabin, and to characterize the transient heat transfer process between the thermal storage unit and the vehicle's cabin, while still maintaining accurate solution to the complex phase change heat transfer. The system studied consists of a heat transfer fluid circulating between either of the on-board hot and cold thermal storage units, which we refer to as thermal batteries, and a liquid-air heat exchanger that provides heat exchange with the incoming air to the vehicle cabin. Each thermal battery is a shell-and-tube configuration where a heat transfer fluid flows through parallel tubes, which are surrounded by PCM within a larger shell. The system model incorporates computationally inexpensive semianalytic solution to the conjugated laminar forced convection and phase change problem within the battery and accounts for airside heat exchange using the Number of Transfer Units (NTUs) method for the liquid-air heat exchanger. Using this approach, we are able to obtain an accurate solution to the complex heat transfer problem within the battery while also incorporating the impact of the airside heat transfer on the overall system performance. The implemented model was benchmarked against a numerical study for a melting process and against full system experimental data for solidification using paraffin wax as the PCM. Through modeling, we demonstrate the importance of capturing the airside heat exchange impact on system performance, and we investigate system response to dynamic operating conditions, e.g., air recirculation. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Supporting technology for enhanced oil recovery: Sixth amendment and extension to Annex IV enhanced oil recovery thermal processes

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, T.B. ); Rivas, O. )

    1991-10-01

    This report contains the results of efforts under the six tasks of the Sixth Amendment and Extension of Annex 4, Enhanced Oil Recovery Thermal Processes of the Venezuela/USA Agreement. The report is presented in sections (for each of the 6 tasks) and each section contains one or more reports prepared by various individuals or groups describing the results of efforts under each of the tasks. A statement of each task, taken from the agreement, is presented on the first page of each section. The tasks are numbered 44 through 49. Tasks are: DOE-SUPRI-laboratory research on steam foam, CAT-SCAN, and in-situ combustion; INTEVEP-laboratory research and field projects on steam foam; DOE-NIPER-laboratory research and field projects light oil steam flooding; INTEVEP-laboratory research and field studies on wellbore heat losses; DOE-LLNL-laboratory research and field projects on electromagnetic induction tomography; INTEVEP-laoboratory research on mechanistic studies.

  3. Condition Management of Marine Lube Oil and the Role of Intelligent Sensor Systems in Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knowles, M.; Baglee, D.

    2012-05-01

    Failures in marine diesel engines can be costly and can cause extreme inconvenience when they result in ships becoming stranded. Lubricating oil is a crucial component in maintaining engine reliability and so monitoring its condition is essential. Furthermore the lubricating oil offers early indication of various other engine faults. Current approaches to oil-based condition monitoring involve samples being sent for land based testing which involves considerable delay during which the situation could deteriorate further. Furthermore there is a substantial risk of contamination. The POSSEIDON project aimed to address this by developing a system involving real-time condition monitoring sensors observing the properties of the lubricating oil. Novel sensors were developed which address the specific issues associated with the marine environment. Furthermore, to complement the sensor system outputs, specific monitoring and diagnosis software has been developed to support the operation of onboard personnel with specific advice. On-line management of engine and lubricant condition aboard the ship may thus be achieved. In this paper we will describe the progress achieved in this area by the recently completed POSSEIDON project, outline the opportunities for ongoing development in this area and describe the roadmap for future development. The Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) paradigm will be applied to identify critical aspects of oil condition and prioritize parameters for measurement. The critical issues for development of the prototype unit into a viable commercial unit will be discussed including hardware design constraints, sensor miniaturization and display optimization. Issues such onboard connectivity, ship to shore communications will also be addressed.

  4. Development of a measurement system for the online inspection of microstructured surfaces in harsh industrial conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Thomas; Langmann, Benjamin; Reithmeier, Eduard

    2014-05-01

    Microscopic imaging techniques are usually applied for the inspection of microstructured surfaces. These techniques require clean measurement conditions. Soilings, e.g. dust or splashing liquids, can disturb the measurement process or even damage instruments. Since these soilings occur in the majority of manufacturing processes, microscopic inspection usually must be carried out in a separate laboratory. We present a measurement system which allows for a microscopic inspection and a 3D reconstruction of microstructured surfaces in harsh industrial conditions. The measurement system also enables precise positioning, e.g. of a grinding wheel, with an accuracy of 5 μm. The main component of the measurement system is a CCD camera with a high-magnification telecentric lens. By means of this camera it is even possible to measure structures with dimensions in the range of 30 to 50 μm. The camera and the lens are integrated into a waterproof and dustproof enclosure. The inspection window of the enclosure has an air curtain which serves as a splash guard. The workpiece illumination is crucial in order to obtain good measurement results. The measuring system includes high-power LEDs which are integrated in a waterproof enclosure. The measurement system also includes a laser with a specially designed lens system to form an extremely narrow light section on the workpiece surface. It is possible to obtain a line width of 25 μm. This line and the camera with the high-magnification telecentric lens are used to perform a laser triangulation of the microstructured surface. This paper describes the system as well as the development and evaluation of the software for the automatic positioning of the workpiece and the automatic three-dimensional surface analysis.

  5. Study on an Efficient Dehumidifying Air-conditioning System utilizing Phase Change of Intermediate Pressure Refrigerant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Kensaku; Inaba, Hideo

    The present study has proven a new dehumidifying system that aimed to reduce the sensible heat factor(SHF) of cooling process without using additional heat to relieve the internationally indicated conflict between energy saving and dehumidification necessary for keeping adequate indoor air quality (IAQ). In this system, we used intermediate pressure refrigerant in a vapor compression refrigerating cycle as heat transfer medium of a characteristic heat exchanger to precool the process air entering into an evaporator as well as to reheat the process air leaving from the evaporator. By this system, the present results achieved higher moisture removal and consequently higher efficiency of dehumidifying process. In addition to this fact, since this system has capability of integration into air-conditioning apparatus(HVAC system), it will be able to work for wide range of cooling load by variable SHF function. In the present paper, technical information, experimental results, and simulation results which assumed to apply this system into HVAC system are reported.

  6. Development of a wireless bridge monitoring system for condition assessment using hybrid techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whelan, Matthew J.; Fuchs, Michael P.; Gangone, Michael V.; Janoyan, Kerop D.

    2007-04-01

    The introduction and development of wireless sensor network technology has resulted in rapid growth within the field of structural health monitoring (SHM), as the dramatic cable costs associated with instrumentation of large civil structures is potentially alleviated. Traditionally, condition assessment of bridge structures is accomplished through the use of either vibration measurements or strain sensing. One approach is through quantifying dynamic characteristics and mode shapes developed through the use of relatively dense arrays of accelerometers. Another widely utilized method of condition assessment is bridge load rating, which is enabled through the use of strain sensors. The Wireless Sensor Solution (WSS) developed specifically for diagnostic bridge monitoring provides a hybrid system that interfaces with both accelerometers and strain sensors to facilitate vibration-based bridge evaluation as well as load rating and static analysis on a universal platform. This paper presents the development and testing of a wireless bridge monitoring system designed within the Laboratory for Intelligent Infrastructure and Transportation Technologies (LIITT) at Clarkson University. The system interfaces with low-cost MEMS accelerometers using custom signal conditioning for amplification and filtering tailored to the spectrum of typical bridge vibrations, specifically from ambient excitation. Additionally, a signal conditioning and high resolution ADC interface is provided for strain gauge sensors. To permit compensation for the influence of temperature, thermistor-based temperature sensing is also enabled. In addition to the hardware description, this paper presents features of the software applications and host interface developed for flexible, user-friendly in-network control of and acquisition from the sensor nodes. The architecture of the software radio protocol is also discussed along with results of field deployments including relatively large-scale networks and

  7. Dynamic Performance of Maximum Power Point Trackers in TEG Systems Under Rapidly Changing Temperature Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Man, E. A.; Sera, D.; Mathe, L.; Schaltz, E.; Rosendahl, L.

    2016-03-01

    Characterization of thermoelectric generators (TEG) is widely discussed and equipment has been built that can perform such analysis. One method is often used to perform such characterization: constant temperature with variable thermal power input. Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) methods for TEG systems are mostly tested under steady-state conditions for different constant input temperatures. However, for most TEG applications, the input temperature gradient changes, exposing the MPPT to variable tracking conditions. An example is the exhaust pipe on hybrid vehicles, for which, because of the intermittent operation of the internal combustion engine, the TEG and its MPPT controller are exposed to a cyclic temperature profile. Furthermore, there are no guidelines on how fast the MPPT must be under such dynamic conditions. In the work discussed in this paper, temperature gradients for TEG integrated in several applications were evaluated; the results showed temperature variation up to 5°C/s for TEG systems. Electrical characterization of a calcium-manganese oxide TEG was performed at steady-state for different input temperatures and a maximum temperature of 401°C. By using electrical data from characterization of the oxide module, a solar array simulator was emulated to perform as a TEG. A trapezoidal temperature profile with different gradients was used on the TEG simulator to evaluate the dynamic MPPT efficiency. It is known that the perturb and observe (P&O) algorithm may have difficulty accurately tracking under rapidly changing conditions. To solve this problem, a compromise must be found between the magnitude of the increment and the sampling frequency of the control algorithm. The standard P&O performance was evaluated experimentally by using different temperature gradients for different MPPT sampling frequencies, and efficiency values are provided for all cases. The results showed that a tracking speed of 2.5 Hz can be successfully implemented on a TEG

  8. Modelica Library for Building Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wetter, Michael

    2009-06-17

    This paper presents a freely available Modelica library for building heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems. The library is based on the Modelica.Fluid library. It has been developed to support research and development of integrated building energy and control systems. The primary applications are controls design, energy analysis and model-based operation. The library contains dynamic and steady-state component models that are applicable for analyzing fast transients when designing control algorithms and for conducting annual simulations when assessing energy performance. For most models, dimensional analysis is used to compute the performance for operating points that differ from nominal conditions. This allows parameterizing models in the absence of detailed geometrical information which is often impractical to obtain during the conceptual design phase of building systems. In the first part of this paper, the library architecture and the main classes are described. In the second part, an example is presented in which we implemented a model of a hydronic heating system with thermostatic radiator valves and thermal energy storage.

  9. In Search of Concomitant Alterations of Dopaminergic and Neurotensinergic Systems in Stress Conditions.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez de Lores Arnaiz, Georgina; Antonelli, Marta C

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present article is to review experimental evidence which suggest joint involvement of both the dopaminergic and neurotensinergic systems in stress conditions. At present, the concept of stress refers to an environmental demand exceeding the normal regulatory ability of an organism, particularly during unpredictable and uncontrollable situations. Chronic stress yields devastating effects including cognitive and working memory dysfunctions, for which neurotransmission mediated by the catecholamines dopamine and noradrenaline is crucial. Catecholamine synthesis depends on the rate-limiting enzyme, tyrosine hydroxylase, whose expression is associated with working memory and the response to chronic stress. Neurotensin is a tridecapeptide widely distributed in the nervous system, at both central and peripheral levels, which behaves as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator. It mediates diverse biological actions including reward, locomotion, pain modulation and stress. Neurotensin and its high affinity NTS1 receptor are densely localized in areas that process emotion (amygdala nucleus), cognition (such as hippocampal nuclei and cortical areas) and the response to stress (hypothalamic nucleus). Experimental evidence indicates a crosstalk between the dopaminergic and the neurotensinergic systems either from an anatomical or a biochemical point of view. It is suggested that a concomitant alteration of dopaminergic and neurotensinergic systems takes place in diverse stress conditions.

  10. The auxin-inducible degradation (AID) system enables versatile conditional protein depletion in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liangyu; Ward, Jordan D.; Cheng, Ze; Dernburg, Abby F.

    2015-01-01

    Experimental manipulation of protein abundance in living cells or organisms is an essential strategy for investigation of biological regulatory mechanisms. Whereas powerful techniques for protein expression have been developed in Caenorhabditis elegans, existing tools for conditional disruption of protein function are far more limited. To address this, we have adapted the auxin-inducible degradation (AID) system discovered in plants to enable conditional protein depletion in C. elegans. We report that expression of a modified Arabidopsis TIR1 F-box protein mediates robust auxin-dependent depletion of degron-tagged targets. We document the effectiveness of this system for depletion of nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins in diverse somatic and germline tissues throughout development. Target proteins were depleted in as little as 20-30 min, and their expression could be re-established upon auxin removal. We have engineered strains expressing TIR1 under the control of various promoter and 3′ UTR sequences to drive tissue-specific or temporally regulated expression. The degron tag can be efficiently introduced by CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing. We have harnessed this system to explore the roles of dynamically expressed nuclear hormone receptors in molting, and to analyze meiosis-specific roles for proteins required for germ line proliferation. Together, our results demonstrate that the AID system provides a powerful new tool for spatiotemporal regulation and analysis of protein function in a metazoan model organism. PMID:26552885

  11. Evaluation of solid-state camera systems in varying illumination conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laitinen, Jyrki; Saviaro, Jani; Ailisto, Heikki J.

    2001-06-01

    We propose a practical method for the expeditious determination of the performance of imaging CCD and CMOS camera systems. Special attention is paid to the operation of these devices in varying illumination conditions, which is typical to many surveillance and consumer electronics applications. One emerging application utilizing imaging sensors in variable illumination conditions is the third generation mobile phone, which will deliver wirelessly pictures, graphics, and video. In our method, determination of the system performance is based on the imaging of a calibrated gray scale test chart as a function of illuminance. At each level of illumination the system response is characterized by a signal to random noise figure. The signal is calculated as the difference of the system response to the lightest and darkest areas of the gray scale. The random noise is measured as the standard deviation of the gray values in a difference of two successive images of the test pattern. The proposed method is applied in three exemplary cases: (1) comparison of inexpensive CCD and CMOS cameras, (2) analysis of the effect of wireless image transmission, and (3) comparison of the effects of automatic and manual gain controls.

  12. The auxin-inducible degradation (AID) system enables versatile conditional protein depletion in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liangyu; Ward, Jordan D; Cheng, Ze; Dernburg, Abby F

    2015-12-15

    Experimental manipulation of protein abundance in living cells or organisms is an essential strategy for investigation of biological regulatory mechanisms. Whereas powerful techniques for protein expression have been developed in Caenorhabditis elegans, existing tools for conditional disruption of protein function are far more limited. To address this, we have adapted the auxin-inducible degradation (AID) system discovered in plants to enable conditional protein depletion in C. elegans. We report that expression of a modified Arabidopsis TIR1 F-box protein mediates robust auxin-dependent depletion of degron-tagged targets. We document the effectiveness of this system for depletion of nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins in diverse somatic and germline tissues throughout development. Target proteins were depleted in as little as 20-30 min, and their expression could be re-established upon auxin removal. We have engineered strains expressing TIR1 under the control of various promoter and 3' UTR sequences to drive tissue-specific or temporally regulated expression. The degron tag can be efficiently introduced by CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing. We have harnessed this system to explore the roles of dynamically expressed nuclear hormone receptors in molting, and to analyze meiosis-specific roles for proteins required for germ line proliferation. Together, our results demonstrate that the AID system provides a powerful new tool for spatiotemporal regulation and analysis of protein function in a metazoan model organism.

  13. Some effects of adverse weather conditions on performance of airplane antiskid braking systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horne, W. B.; Mccarty, J. L.; Tanner, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    The performance of current antiskid braking systems operating under adverse weather conditions was analyzed in an effort to both identify the causes of locked-wheel skids which sometimes occur when the runway is slippery and to find possible solutions to this operational problem. This analysis was made possible by the quantitative test data provided by recently completed landing research programs using fully instrumented flight test airplanes and was further supported by tests performed at the Langley aircraft landing loads and traction facility. The antiskid system logic for brake control and for both touchdown and locked-wheel protection is described and its response behavior in adverse weather is discussed in detail with the aid of available data. The analysis indicates that the operational performance of the antiskid logic circuits is highly dependent upon wheel spin-up acceleration and can be adversely affected by certain pilot braking inputs when accelerations are low. Normal antiskid performance is assured if the tire-to-runway traction is sufficient to provide high wheel spin-up accelerations or if the system is provided a continuous, accurate ground speed reference. The design of antiskid systems is complicated by the necessity for tradeoffs between tire braking and cornering capabilities, both of which are necessary to provide safe operations in the presence of cross winds, particularly under slippery runway conditions.

  14. A new system to reduce formaldehyde levels improves safety conditions during gross veterinary anatomy learning.

    PubMed

    Nacher, Víctor; Llombart, Cristina; Carretero, Ana; Navarro, Marc; Ysern, Pere; Calero, Sebastián; Fígols, Enric; Ruberte, Jesús

    2007-01-01

    Dissection is a very useful method of learning veterinary anatomy. However, formaldehyde, which is widely used to preserve cadavers, is an irritant, and it has recently been classified as a carcinogen. In 1997, the Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo [National Institute of Workplace Security and Hygiene] found that the levels of formaldehyde in our dissection room were above the threshold limit values. Unfortunately, no optimal substitute for formaldehyde is currently available. Therefore, we designed a new ventilation system that combines slow propulsion of fresh air from above the dissection table and rapid aspiration of polluted air from the perimeter. Formaldehyde measurements performed in 2004, after the introduction of this new system into our dissection laboratory, showed a dramatic reduction (about tenfold, or 0.03 ppm). A suitable propelling/aspirating air system successfully reduces the concentration of formaldehyde in the dissection room, significantly improving safety conditions for students, instructors, and technical staff during gross anatomy learning.

  15. Condition-based diagnosis of mechatronic systems using a fractional calculus approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez-Carvajal, Ricardo Enrique; Flávio de Melo, Leonimer; Maurício Rosário, João; Tenreiro Machado, J. A.

    2016-07-01

    While fractional calculus (FC) is as old as integer calculus, its application has been mainly restricted to mathematics. However, many real systems are better described using FC equations than with integer models. FC is a suitable tool for describing systems characterised by their fractal nature, long-term memory and chaotic behaviour. It is a promising methodology for failure analysis and modelling, since the behaviour of a failing system depends on factors that increase the model's complexity. This paper explores the proficiency of FC in modelling complex behaviour by tuning only a few parameters. This work proposes a novel two-step strategy for diagnosis, first modelling common failure conditions and, second, by comparing these models with real machine signals and using the difference to feed a computational classifier. Our proposal is validated using an electrical motor coupled with a mechanical gear reducer.

  16. Multi-component Cahn-Hilliard system with different boundary conditions in complex domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yibao; Choi, Jung-Il; Kim, Junseok

    2016-10-01

    We propose an efficient phase-field model for multi-component Cahn-Hilliard (CH) systems in complex domains. The original multi-component Cahn-Hilliard system with a fixed phase is modified in order to make it suitable for complex domains in the Cartesian grid, along with contact angle or no mass flow boundary conditions on the complex boundaries. The proposed method uses a practically unconditionally gradient stable nonlinear splitting numerical scheme. Further, a nonlinear full approximation storage multigrid algorithm is used for solving semi-implicit formulations of the multi-component CH system, incorporated with an adaptive mesh refinement technique. The robustness of the proposed method is validated through various numerical simulations including multi-phase separations via spinodal decomposition, equilibrium contact angle problems, and multi-phase flows with a background velocity field in complex domains.

  17. High throughput screening of particle conditioning operations: I. System design and method development.

    PubMed

    Noyes, Aaron; Huffman, Ben; Godavarti, Ranga; Titchener-Hooker, Nigel; Coffman, Jonathan; Sunasara, Khurram; Mukhopadhyay, Tarit

    2015-08-01

    The biotech industry is under increasing pressure to decrease both time to market and development costs. Simultaneously, regulators are expecting increased process understanding. High throughput process development (HTPD) employs small volumes, parallel processing, and high throughput analytics to reduce development costs and speed the development of novel therapeutics. As such, HTPD is increasingly viewed as integral to improving developmental productivity and deepening process understanding. Particle conditioning steps such as precipitation and flocculation may be used to aid the recovery and purification of biological products. In this first part of two articles, we describe an ultra scale-down system (USD) for high throughput particle conditioning (HTPC) composed of off-the-shelf components. The apparatus is comprised of a temperature-controlled microplate with magnetically driven stirrers and integrated with a Tecan liquid handling robot. With this system, 96 individual reaction conditions can be evaluated in parallel, including downstream centrifugal clarification. A comprehensive suite of high throughput analytics enables measurement of product titer, product quality, impurity clearance, clarification efficiency, and particle characterization. HTPC at the 1 mL scale was evaluated with fermentation broth containing a vaccine polysaccharide. The response profile was compared with the Pilot-scale performance of a non-geometrically similar, 3 L reactor. An engineering characterization of the reactors and scale-up context examines theoretical considerations for comparing this USD system with larger scale stirred reactors. In the second paper, we will explore application of this system to industrially relevant vaccines and test different scale-up heuristics.

  18. Evaluation of Ligand-Inducible Expression Systems for Conditional Neuronal Manipulations of Sleep in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiuling; Stavropoulos, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster is a powerful model organism for dissecting the molecular mechanisms that regulate sleep, and numerous studies in the fly have identified genes that impact sleep–wake cycles. Conditional genetic analysis is essential to distinguish the mechanisms by which these genes impact sleep: some genes might exert their effects developmentally, for instance by directing the assembly of neuronal circuits that regulate sleep; other genes may regulate sleep in adulthood; and yet other genes might influence sleep by both developmental and adult mechanisms. Here we have assessed two ligand-inducible expression systems, Geneswitch and the Q-system, for conditional and neuronally restricted manipulations of sleep in Drosophila. While adult-specific induction of a neuronally expressed Geneswitch transgene (elav-GS) is compatible with studies of sleep as shown previously, developmental induction of elav-GS strongly and nonspecifically perturbs sleep in adults. The alterations of sleep in elav-GS animals occur at low doses of Geneswitch agonist and in the presence of transgenes unrelated to sleep, such as UAS-CD8-GFP. Furthermore, developmental elav-GS induction is toxic and reduces brood size, indicating multiple adverse effects of neuronal Geneswitch activation. In contrast, the transgenes and ligand of the Q-system do not significantly impact sleep–wake cycles when used for constitutive, developmental, or adult-specific neuronal induction. The nonspecific effects of developmental elav-GS activation on sleep indicate that such manipulations require cautious interpretation, and suggest that the Q-system or other strategies may be more suitable for conditional genetic analysis of sleep and other behaviors in Drosophila. PMID:27558667

  19. Specific characteristics of the aviary housing system affect plumage condition, mortality and production in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Heerkens, Jasper L T; Delezie, Evelyne; Kempen, Ine; Zoons, Johan; Ampe, Bart; Rodenburg, T Bas; Tuyttens, Frank A M

    2015-09-01

    Feather pecking and high mortality levels are significant welfare problems in non-cage housing systems for laying hens. The aim of this study was to identify husbandry-related risk factors for feather damage, mortality, and egg laying performance in laying hens housed in the multi-tier non-cage housing systems known as aviaries. Factors tested included type of system flooring, degree of red mite infestation, and access to free-range areas. Information on housing characteristics, management, and performance in Belgian aviaries (N=47 flocks) were obtained from a questionnaire, farm records, and farm visits. Plumage condition and pecking wounds were scored in 50 randomly selected 60-week-old hens per flock. Associations between plumage condition, wounds, performance, mortality, and possible risk factors were investigated using a linear model with a stepwise model selection procedure. Many flocks exhibited a poor plumage condition and a high prevalence of wounds, with considerable variation between flocks. Better plumage condition was found in wire mesh aviaries (P<0.001), in aviaries with no red mite infestation (P=0.004), and in free-range systems (P=0.011) compared to plastic slatted aviaries, in houses with red mite infestations, and those without a free-range area. Furthermore, hens in aviaries with wire mesh flooring had fewer wounds on the back (P=0.006) and vent (P=0.009), reduced mortality (P=0.003), and a better laying performance (P=0.013) as compared to hens in aviaries with plastic slatted flooring. Flocks with better feather cover had lower levels of mortality (P<0.001). Red mite infestations were more common in plastic slatted aviaries (P=0.043). Other risk factors associated with plumage condition were genotype, number of diet changes, and the presence of nest perches. Wire mesh flooring in particular seems to have several health, welfare, and performance benefits in comparison to plastic slats, possibly related to decreased feather pecking, better

  20. Municipal sludge characteristic changes under different aerating condition in a deep-shaft aeration system.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Jiaqing; Wang, Xiaochang C; Shu, Wei; He, Teng; Liu, Yanzheng

    2016-01-01

    A pilot-scale municipal sewage sludge deep-shaft aeration system was implemented in Lanzhou, Gansu Province of China. The reactor depth was 60 m with a diameter of 1.0 m and the sludge to be treated came from a wastewater plant in Lanzhou. In order to obtain the optimum operation conditions, analysis was conducted on the transformations of the volatile suspended solids (VSS), temperature, pH, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) and pathogens in the deep-shaft reactor under different aeration conditions. Attention was paid to how operating conditions affected the removal efficiency of the VSS and the reaction temperature. As a result, higher volatile solids removal was gained at higher temperature, and the temperature could reach 50.8°C for a complete inactivation of bacteria in the first reaction zone when the deep-shaft aeration system was run for about 18 days. The sludge aeration rate was observed as 1.5 to 1.8 L/(h·L sludge) which enabled the volatile solids removal rate to reach 40.1%. The degradation of VSS occurred under a micro-oxygen environment, and the lowest ORP was found to be -256 mV in the digestive process. Not only aerobic bacteria but also anaerobic and facultative bacteria performed their functions in the reactor.

  1. Validity analysis of the Biodex System 3 dynamometer under static and isokinetic conditions.

    PubMed

    Zawadzki, Jerzy; Bober, Tadeusz; Siemieński, Adam

    2010-01-01

    Isokinetic dynamometers are frequently used as training devices. They are also regularly employed to measure the characteristics of skeletal muscles under dynamic conditions. The combination of published data of such measurements and the authors' own experience led to the present investigation of the validity of measurements performed using the Biodex System 3 dynamometer. Two individual dynamometers of the same type were used. A calibration technique was used to test the validity of measured torque and the angular coordinate of the position of the lever arm of the dynamometer under static conditions. The results of measurements performed under dynamic (isokinetic) conditions were verified by comparing numerical values of tests provided in the Biodex report and raw data collected directly from the measuring computer of the same isokinetic machine. The shapes of experimentally determined characteristics of torque Mmax(ω) and power P(ω) were also analysed, taking into consideration their conformity with the laws of thermodynamics and known properties of skeletal muscles. The static tests showed that the indications of the Biodex System 3 dynamometer lay within the error range specified by the manufacturer. Therefore, the results of static measurements can be considered accurate. According to the isokinetic tests, the values of angular velocity were also accurate. However, indications of torque and power were much less accurate, justifying the uncertainty over whether they can be considered true results of measurement.

  2. Municipal sludge characteristic changes under different aerating condition in a deep-shaft aeration system.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Jiaqing; Wang, Xiaochang C; Shu, Wei; He, Teng; Liu, Yanzheng

    2016-01-01

    A pilot-scale municipal sewage sludge deep-shaft aeration system was implemented in Lanzhou, Gansu Province of China. The reactor depth was 60 m with a diameter of 1.0 m and the sludge to be treated came from a wastewater plant in Lanzhou. In order to obtain the optimum operation conditions, analysis was conducted on the transformations of the volatile suspended solids (VSS), temperature, pH, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) and pathogens in the deep-shaft reactor under different aeration conditions. Attention was paid to how operating conditions affected the removal efficiency of the VSS and the reaction temperature. As a result, higher volatile solids removal was gained at higher temperature, and the temperature could reach 50.8°C for a complete inactivation of bacteria in the first reaction zone when the deep-shaft aeration system was run for about 18 days. The sludge aeration rate was observed as 1.5 to 1.8 L/(h·L sludge) which enabled the volatile solids removal rate to reach 40.1%. The degradation of VSS occurred under a micro-oxygen environment, and the lowest ORP was found to be -256 mV in the digestive process. Not only aerobic bacteria but also anaerobic and facultative bacteria performed their functions in the reactor. PMID:27054720

  3. Vibro-acoustic characterization of flexible hose in CO2 car air conditioning systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelini, F.; Bergami, A.; Martarelli, M.; Tomasini, E. P.

    2008-06-01

    Following the EU directive 2006/40/EC proscribing from 2011 that refrigerant fluids must have a global warming potential not higher than 150, it will not be allowed anymore to employ the current R134a on car air conditioning systems. Maflow s.p.a (automotive hose maker) is developing products for each possible new refrigerant. This paper is focused on hoses for CO2 refrigerants operating in the worst conditions because of the high pressures and temperatures at which they are working (with R134a the high pressure is 18 bar and low pressure is 3 bar; with CO2 the high pressure is 100 bar and low pressure is 35 bar). Therefore the noise emission control of the CO2 air conditioning systems is very important. The aim of this study is to develop a standard measurement method for the vibro - acoustic characterization of High Pressure (HP - Shark F4) and Low Pressure (LP - ULEV) hoses to reduce noise emission and raise car passenger comfort; in particular deep research on high pressure hose. The method is based on the measurement of the vibration level of the hoses in a standard test bench by means of a Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV) and its acoustic emission by a sound intensity probe.

  4. Using epilithic diatom communities to assess ecological condition of Xiangxi river system.

    PubMed

    Tang, Tao; Cai, Qinghua; Liu, Jiankang

    2006-01-01

    Assessment method for ecological condition of Xiangxi River system was studied by using 13 candidate metrics of epilithic diatom which can reflect conditions in pH, salinity, nitrogen uptake metabolism, oxygen requirements, saprobity, trophic state, morphological character and pollution tolerant capability etc. By one-way ANOVA, the metrics of relative abundance of acido-bionotic algae (ACID), freshwater algae (FRESH), high oxygen requirement (HIGH-O), eutraphentic state (EUTRA) and mobile taxa (MOBILE) were suitable for distinguishing sites in different conditions. Then, the river diatom index (RDI) composed of these five metrics was used to evaluate ecological condition of the river. The results showed that the healthiest sites were in the Guanmenshan Natural Reserve (with the mean RDI of 79.73). The sites located in tributary of Jiuchong River also owned excellent state (mean RDI of 78.25). Mean RDI of another tributary - Gufu River and the main river were 70.85 and 68.45 respectively, and the unhealthiest tributary was Gaolan River (with mean RDI of 65.64). The mean RDI for all the 51 sites was 71.40. The competence of RDI was discussed with comparison of evaluation results of DAIpo and TDI, it can be concluded that multimetrics is more competent in assessment task.

  5. Adaptive Tracker Design with Identifier for Pendulum System by Conditional LMI Method and IROA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Jiing-Dong; Tsai, Zhi-Ren

    This paper proposes a robust adaptive fuzzy PID control scheme augmented with a supervisory controller for unknown systems. In this scheme, a generalized fuzzy model is used to describe a class of unknown systems. The control strategy allows each part of the control law, i.e., a supervisory controller, a compensator, and an adaptive fuzzy PID controller, to be designed incrementally according to different guidelines. The supervisory controller in the outer loop aims at enhancing system robustness in the face of extra disturbances, variation in system parameters, and parameter drift in the adaptation law. Furthermore, an H∞ control design method using the fuzzy Lyapunov function is presented for the design of the initial control gains that guarantees transient performance at the start of closed-loop control, which is generally overlooked in many adaptive control systems. This design of the initial control gains is a compound search strategy called conditional linear matrix inequality (CLMI) approach with IROA (Improved random optimal algorithm), it leads to less complex designs than a standard LMI method by fuzzy Lyapunov function. Numerical studies of the tracking control of an uncertain inverted pendulum system demonstrate the effectiveness of the control strategy. From results of this simulation, the generalized fuzzy model reduces the rule number of T-S fuzzy model indeed.

  6. A visual system for scoring body condition of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Wijeyamohan, Shanmugasundaram; Treiber, Kibby; Schmitt, Dennis; Santiapillai, Charles

    2015-01-01

    A body condition score (BCS) may provide information on the health or production potential of an animal; it may also reflect the suitability of the environment to maintain an animal population. Thus assessing the BCS of Asian elephants is important for their management. There is a need for a robust BCS applicable to both wild and captive elephants of all age categories based on the minimum and maximum possible subcutaneous body fat and muscle deposits. The visually based system for scoring the body condition of elephants presented here satisfies these criteria and is quick, inexpensive, non-invasive and user-friendly in the field. The BCS scale correlates (P < 0.05) with morphometric indices such as weight, girth, and skin fold measures.

  7. Air conditioning system and component therefore distributing air flow from opposite directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obler, H. D.; Bauer, H. B. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    The air conditioning system comprises a plurality of separate air conditioning units coupled to a common supply duct such that air may be introduced into the supply duct in two opposite flow directions. A plurality of outlets such as registers or auxiliary or branch ducts communicate with the supply duct and valve means are disposed in the supply duct at at least some of the outlets for automatically channelling a controllable amount of air from the supply duct to the associated outlet regardless of the direction of air flow within the supply duct. The valve means comprises an automatic air volume control apparatus for distribution within the air supply duct into which air may be introduced from two opposite directions. The apparatus incorporates a freely swinging movable vane in the supply duct to automatically channel into the associated outlet only the deflected air flow which has the higher relative pressure.

  8. AN UPDATE ON THE STATUS OF THE NIF POWER CONDITIONING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, P A; Hulsey, S; Ullery, G T; Petersen, D E; Pendleton, D L; Ollis, C W; Newton, M A; Harwell, T; Cordoza, D; Hadovski, L

    2007-09-06

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) Power Conditioning System provides the pulsed excitation required to drive flashlamps in the laser's optical amplifiers. Modular in design, each of the 192 Main Energy Storage Modules (MESMs) stores up to 2.2 MJ of electrical energy in its capacitor bank before delivering the energy to 20 pairs of flashlamps in a 400 {micro}s pulse (10% power points). The peak current of each MESM discharge is 0.5 MA. Production, installation, commissioning and operation of the NIF Power Conditioning continue to progress rapidly, with the goals of completing accelerated production and commissioning by early 2008, while maintaining an aggressive operation schedule. To date, more than 97% of the required modules have been assembled, shipped and installed in the facility, representing more that 380 MJ of stored energy available for driving NIF flashlamps. The MESMs have displayed outstanding reliability during daily, multiple-shift operations.

  9. A visual system for scoring body condition of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Wijeyamohan, Shanmugasundaram; Treiber, Kibby; Schmitt, Dennis; Santiapillai, Charles

    2015-01-01

    A body condition score (BCS) may provide information on the health or production potential of an animal; it may also reflect the suitability of the environment to maintain an animal population. Thus assessing the BCS of Asian elephants is important for their management. There is a need for a robust BCS applicable to both wild and captive elephants of all age categories based on the minimum and maximum possible subcutaneous body fat and muscle deposits. The visually based system for scoring the body condition of elephants presented here satisfies these criteria and is quick, inexpensive, non-invasive and user-friendly in the field. The BCS scale correlates (P < 0.05) with morphometric indices such as weight, girth, and skin fold measures. PMID:25323789

  10. Operational Condition and Superfinishing Effect on High-Speed Helical Gearing System Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handschuh, R.; Kilmain, C.; Ehinger, R.

    2007-01-01

    An experimental effort has been conducted on an aerospace-quality helical gear train to investigate the thermal behavior of the gear system. Oil inlet temperature was varied from 160 to 250 F. Also, the test gears were run in both an as-ground condition and after isotropic superfinishing (ISF) condition. In-depth temperature measurements were made across the face width and at the axial end of the gear mesh. Supply power measurements were made at varying speeds and loads up to 5000 hp and 15000 rpm (pitch line velocity to 24000 feet per minute). Test results from the parametric studies and the superfinishing process are presented. The tests indicated that superfinishing offered no improvement in performance due to the high lubricant film thickness generated by the extremely high pitch line velocity that the majority of the tests were conducted. Increasing lubricant inlet temperature had the most dramatic effect on performance improvement.

  11. Integration of Thermal Indoor Conditions into Operational Heat Health Warning Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koppe, C.; Becker, P.; Pfafferott, J.

    2009-09-01

    The 2003 heat wave in Western Europe with altogether 35,000 to 50,000 deaths in Europe, several thousands of which occurred in Germany, has clearly pointed out the danger arising from long periods with high heat load. As a consequence, Germany, as many other European countries, has started to implement a Heat Health Warning System (HHWS). The German HHWS is based on the ‘Perceived Temperature'. The 'Perceived Temperature' is determined through a heat budget model of the human organism which includes the main thermophysiologically relevant mechanisms of heat exchange with the atmosphere. The most important meteorological ambience parameters included in the model are air temperature, humidity, wind speed and radiation fluxes in the short-wave and long-wave ranges. In addition to using a heat budget model for the assessment of the thermal load, the German HHWS also takes into account that the human body reacts in different ways to its thermal environment due to physiological adaptation (short-term acclimatisation) and short-term behavioural adaptation. The restriction of such an approach, like the majority of approaches used to issue heat warnings, is that the threshold for a warning is generally derived from meteorological observations and that warnings are issued on the basis of weather forecasts. Both, the observed data and the weather forecasts are only available for outside conditions. The group of people who are most at risk of suffering from a heat wave, however, are the elderly and frail who mainly stay inside. The indoor situation, which varies largely from the conditions outside, is not taken into account by most of the warning systems. To overcome this limitation the DWD, in co-operation with the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems, has developed a model which simulates the thermal conditions in the indoor environment. As air-conditioning in private housing in Germany is not very common, the thermal indoor conditions depend on the outside

  12. Validation and Verification of Future Integrated Safety-Critical Systems Operating under Off-Nominal Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcastro, Christine M.

    2010-01-01

    Loss of control remains one of the largest contributors to aircraft fatal accidents worldwide. Aircraft loss-of-control accidents are highly complex in that they can result from numerous causal and contributing factors acting alone or (more often) in combination. Hence, there is no single intervention strategy to prevent these accidents and reducing them will require a holistic integrated intervention capability. Future onboard integrated system technologies developed for preventing loss of vehicle control accidents must be able to assure safe operation under the associated off-nominal conditions. The transition of these technologies into the commercial fleet will require their extensive validation and verification (V and V) and ultimate certification. The V and V of complex integrated systems poses major nontrivial technical challenges particularly for safety-critical operation under highly off-nominal conditions associated with aircraft loss-of-control events. This paper summarizes the V and V problem and presents a proposed process that could be applied to complex integrated safety-critical systems developed for preventing aircraft loss-of-control accidents. A summary of recent research accomplishments in this effort is also provided.

  13. Analytical study of a gas-fired adsorptive air-conditioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Poyelle, F.; Guilleminot, J.J.; Meunier, F.

    1996-11-01

    Adsorptive air conditioning represents a potential alternative to chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) systems. But to compete with other systems, adsorption systems must exhibit sufficient figures of merit and energetic densities. An analytical study to predict the overall heat transfer coefficient in an adsorber has been conducted and is presented here. This study, based on a method-of-moment analysis, shows the influence of three parameters limiting the heat transfer in adsorbent beds. Heat transfer in adsorbent beds has been intensified. Using new consolidated materials, the machine utilizes two uniform temperature adsorbent beds in a cycle that incorporates both heat and mass recovery. It uses a zeolite-water pair. It is designed to produce 3 kW of cooling. Expected cooling performances are 300 W/kg of adsorbent with a coefficient of performance (COP) close to 0.8 and a cycle time of 20 minutes. The thermal conditions used to test the cycle are: the heater, 220 C; the cooler, 40 C; and the evaporation temperature, 3 C.

  14. Dynamic analysis of hydrodynamic behavior of a flatfish cage system under wave conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Yong; Guan, Chang-tao; Wan, Rong; Huang, Bin; Li, Jiao

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents a simulation model based on the finite element method. The method is used to analyze the motion response and mooring line tension of the flatfish cage system in waves. The cage system consists of top frames, netting, mooring lines, bottom frames, and floats. A series of scaled physical model tests in regular waves are conducted to verify the numerical model. The comparison results show that the simulated and the experimental results agree well under the wave conditions, and the maximum pitch of the bottom frame with two orientations is about 12°. The motion process of the whole cage system in the wave can be described with the computer visualized technology. Then, the mooring line tensions and the motion of the bottom frame with three kinds of weight are calculated under different wave conditions. According to the numerical results, the differences in mooring line tensions of flatfish cages with three weight modes are indistinct. The maximum pitch of the bottom frame decreases with the increase of the bottom weight.

  15. Analysis of application of Langmuir isotherm to heterogeneous systems: high-pressure conditions.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Cristian Nunes; da Rocha, Milton Silva; Faleiros, Antônio C; Iha, Koshun

    2005-06-15

    In this paper, an adsorption model that is based on the statistical mechanics approach was applied to study the saturation phenomena in adsorption to calculate the minimum pressure needed to attain the complete surface coverage on a physical adsorption. The fundamental integral equation, Theta(T)(Q)=integral N(Q)Theta(Q)dQ, for the calculation of the coverage degree of the surface was developed for an exponential distribution function, N(Q)=(m/RT)exp(-mQ/RT), and the representation of local adsorption sites is given by the Langmuir expression, Theta(Q)=b(0)C exp(Q/RT)/(1+b(0)C exp(Q/RT)). At high values of the pressure C, a solution of the fundamental integral equation was obtained by imposing the condition b(0)C>1. The expression for the saturation condition, b(0)C>m/(m+1), was obtained; that is, the saturation phenomenon is dependent on two parameters, correlated with the energetic heterogeneity and adsorption energy of the system. The pressure in the analysis of the cited expression shows that, for low m values (more heterogeneous systems), saturation is attained for b(0)C>m, while for m congruent with 1 (more homogeneous systems), the saturation is attained for b(0)C>0.5.

  16. 45 CFR 310.25 - What conditions apply to acquisitions of Computerized Tribal IV-D Systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPUTERIZED TRIBAL IV-D SYSTEMS AND OFFICE AUTOMATION Funding for Computerized Tribal IV-D Systems and Office Automation § 310.25 What conditions apply...

  17. 45 CFR 310.25 - What conditions apply to acquisitions of Computerized Tribal IV-D Systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPUTERIZED TRIBAL IV-D SYSTEMS AND OFFICE AUTOMATION Funding for Computerized Tribal IV-D Systems and Office Automation § 310.25 What conditions apply...

  18. 45 CFR 310.25 - What conditions apply to acquisitions of Computerized Tribal IV-D Systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPUTERIZED TRIBAL IV-D SYSTEMS AND OFFICE AUTOMATION Funding for Computerized Tribal IV-D Systems and Office Automation § 310.25 What conditions apply...

  19. 45 CFR 310.25 - What conditions apply to acquisitions of Computerized Tribal IV-D Systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPUTERIZED TRIBAL IV-D SYSTEMS AND OFFICE AUTOMATION Funding for Computerized Tribal IV-D Systems and Office Automation § 310.25 What conditions apply...

  20. Hydraulic Implications to Upper Basin Stream Systems From Changing Climatic Conditions in the Sierra Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornwell, K.; Burns, R. G.

    2005-12-01

    Projected climate changes in the Sierra Nevada of northern California may result in more variability in winter storm patterns and an increase in the frequency and magnitude of extreme precipitation events. Changing rain and snow patterns will alter the timing and amount of runoff in the streams that drain the west slope of the Sierra Nevada and will have bearing on water resource management strategies that rely on that runoff. These runoff changes will in turn challenge existing threshold conditions for channel stability, bank erosion, and hill slope stability. Increased sediment loads will impact existing water-routing infrastructure. Hydraulic conditions from several streams that drain the west slope of the Sierra Nevada in the American River drainage basin were measured to assess threshold changes in response to variable discharges. We reconstructed flow conditions from 1997 (early 1997 storms brought widespread flooding to the central and northern Sierra Nevada and peak flows at many gage sites in the region were the largest recorded during historical time) and 2005 in these channels (representing extreme and typical flow conditions) and then looked at changes to cross-sectional areas, flow velocities, channel shear stresses and sediment sizes since 1998 (earliest available sediment data). Initial insights suggest increases to runoff/discharge will likely produce pulses of mobilized coarser materials (resulting from greater channel shear stresses) that may take several years to transport through stream systems, and channel areas that are geologically weak (unconsolidated or weathered surface materials) may be susceptible to substantial erosion. These conditions will likely impact water-routing infrastructure in the upper basins (pipelines, pumps, and turbines) that manage water flow in the Sierra Nevada for much of northern California.

  1. Research on long-range laser active imaging system applied in adverse weather conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gai, Zhi-gang; Liu, Meng-de; Yang, Li; Kabanov, V. V.; Shi, Lei; Zhao, Jie; Chu, Shi-bo; Yang, Jun-xian; Zhou, Yang

    2013-09-01

    A low-light level night vision device or thermal infrared imager belonging to passive imaging system is generally used in daily target detection and identification. But in adverse weather conditions of dark of night, poor atmospheric transmission characteristics or strong backscattering (fog, dust, rain, snow, etc.), even the most sensitive low-light level night vision could not provide enough image resolution for detecting and identifying targets, and the thermal infrared imager is also limited by low temperature contrast. A long-range laser active imaging system, in combination with high-power semiconductor pulsed lasers with collimation technology, receiving objective lens of large diameter, long focal length and narrow viewing angle, high-gain image intensifier CCD (ICCD) camera and range-gated synchronization control technology, is developed for long distance target detection and high resolution imaging in adverse weather conditions. The system composition and operating principle are introduced. The extremely powerful and efficient illuminators with collimation technology are able to deliver uniform beams, which are essential for illuminating targets at a distance and generating high-quality images. The particular receiving objective lens, ICCD camera and range-gated synchronization control technology could reduce strong backscattering signal and improve imaging signal-to-noise ratio. The laboratory and outfield experiments have been done to validate imaging effect and imaging quality. The results show that the minimum resolution is about 3-5cm, 10cm, and greater than 20 cm for target far from 1100m, 4700m, and 6700m respectively in dark of night. Furthermore, the minimum resolution could reach to 10cm and 20cm for target far from 2500m and 4800m respectively and the image is too blurred to accurately identify the target when observing the target far from 7200m in rainy condition.

  2. Lichens as a Model-System for Symbiotic Organisms under Simulated Extreme Space Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vera, J.; Horneck, G.; Rettberg, P.; Ott, S.

    As a consequence of the symbiotic state of lichens both the bionts are able to colonize habitats where the separate bionts would not be able to survive. The symbiosis of lichens reflects a high degree of complexity and plasticity. The combination of the different bionts enables these organisms to colonize most extreme habitats worldwide from the Arctic and Alpine zones to the Antarctic. Besides the already well investigated microorganisms lichens are good model -systems to examine adaptation strategies to most extreme environments. Because of the symbiotic nature of the lichens a 3-component -system can be used for investigations: the mycobiont (fungi), the photobiont (algae) and the lichen itself. Our investigations are based on such a system related to simulated extreme conditions. The influence of different doses of UV A, B, C (>200nm) on the vitality of fungal (mycobiont) fruiting bodys and their spores and the germination process has been investigated. The spores are cultivated on a variety of different substrates, especially on a Martian Regolith Simulant JSC - 1-A g a r- Extract for testing the influence of the UV radiation related to the dependency of different soil-substrate-extracts. The influence of vacuum conditions has been investigated. The aim of this research is to test the reaction of a symbiotic organism complex and its respective bionts to highly extreme space conditions looking forward to a possibly survival strategy of lichenized associations in space; probably supporting the theory of Panspermia. For the interpretation of results especially refering to the vitality potential of the photobionts in damaged and healthy lichens the method of modern confocal lasermicroscopy (CLSM) - a novel method in lichenology is presented.

  3. Hydrogen-control systems for severe LWR accident conditions - a state-of-technology report

    SciTech Connect

    Hilliard, R K; Postma, A K; Jeppson, D W

    1983-03-01

    This report reviews the current state of technology regarding hydrogen safety issues in light water reactor plants. Topics considered in this report relate to control systems and include combustion prevention, controlled combustion, minimization of combustion effects, combination of control concepts, and post-accident disposal. A companion report addresses hydrogen generation, distribution, and combustion. The objectives of the study were to identify the key safety issues related to hydrogen produced under severe accident conditions, to describe the state of technology for each issue, and to point out ongoing programs aimed at resolving the open issues.

  4. Talaromyces rubrifaciens, a new species discovered from heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems in China.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yi; Lu, Xiaohong; Bi, Wu; Liu, Fan; Gao, Weiwei

    2016-01-01

    A new Talaromyces species, T. rubrifaciens, was isolated from supply air outlets of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in three kinds of public building in Beijing and Nanjing, China. Morphologically it exhibits many characters of section Trachyspermi but is distinguished from other species of this section by restricted growth and broad and strictly biverticillate conidiophores. Phylogenetic analyses based on the internal transcribed spacer rDNA (ITS), β-tubulin (BenA), calmodulin (CaM) and RNA polymerase second largest subunit (RPB2) genes reveal that T. rubrifaciens is a distinct species in section Trachyspermi. PMID:27055570

  5. Coupled-rearrangement-channels calculation of the three-body system under the absorbing boundary condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasaki, M.; Otani, R.; Ito, M.; Kamimura, M.

    2016-05-01

    We formulate the method of the absorbing boundary condition (ABC) in the coupled-rearrangement-channels variational method (CRCMV) for the three-body problem. In the present study, we handle the simple three-boson system, and the absorbing potential is introduced in the Jacobi coordinate in the individual rearrangement channels. The resonance parameters and the strength of the monopole breakup are compared with the complex scaling method (CSM). We have found that the CRCVM + ABC method nicely works in the threebody problem with the rearrangement channels.

  6. [Working conditions of female workers in the system of "Soiuzgostsirk" (the Soviet State Circus)].

    PubMed

    Mekhova, M M; Krasnikov, D G

    1989-01-01

    Labour activity of those engaged in the system of Soyuzgostsirk was analyzed. It was established that unsatisfactory sanitary and hygienic situation for members of the orchestra, workers taking care of animals and others, physical and neuroemotional load of gymnasts, acrobats and their assistants, induced uncomfortable work posture of conjurers and gymnasts were in some cases regarded as the main unfavourable occupational factors. The health state of the above professional groups was assessed. Preventive measures aimed at sanitation of labour conditions and decrease of disease rates were developed.

  7. Description of atmospheric conditions at the Pierre Auger Observatory using the Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierre Auger Collaboration; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Antiči'C, T.; Aramo, C.; Arganda, E.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Bäcker, T.; Badescu, A. M.; Balzer, M.; Barber, K. B.; Barbosa, A. F.; Bardenet, R.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Baughman, B.; Bäuml, J.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Bellétoile, A.; Bellido, J. A.; Benzvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Bruijn, R.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Cheng, S. H.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chirinos Diaz, J.; Chudoba, J.; Clay, R. W.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cook, H.; Cooper, M. J.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; de Domenico, M.; de Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; de La Vega, G.; de Mello Junior, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; de Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K. D.; Del Peral, L.; Del Río, M.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; di Giulio, C.; Díaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; Dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Fajardo Tapia, I.; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fliescher, S.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Fratu, O.; Fröhlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Gaior, R.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; García, B.; Garcia Roca, S. T.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Gascon, A.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giller, M.; Glass, H.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Vitale, P. F.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gookin, B.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Grashorn, E.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grigat, M.; Grillo, A. F.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Guzman, A.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Herve, A. E.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Jarne, C.; Jiraskova, S.; Josebachuili, M.; Kadija, K.; Kampert, K. H.; Karhan, P.; Kasper, P.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D.-H.; Kotera, K.; Krohm, N.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuehn, F.; Kuempel, D.; Kulbartz, J. K.; Kunka, N.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lahurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leão, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; López, R.; Lopez Agüera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, J.; Marin, V.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martinez, H.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Mertsch, P.; Meurer, C.; Mi'Canovi'C, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, E.; Moreno, J. C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, G.; Münchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Nhung, P. T.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nožka, L.; Oehlschläger, J.; Olinto, A.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parra, A.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pȩkala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Pfendner, C.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Ponce, V. H.; Pontz, M.; Porcelli, A.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rivera, H.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, J.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez, G.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodriguez-Cabo, I.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Rouillé-D'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Rühle, C.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovancova, J.; Schovánek, P.; Schröder, F.; Schulte, S.; Schuster, D.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Silva Lopez, H. H.; Sima, O.; 'Smiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanic, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Šuša, T.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Tapia, A.; Tartare, M.; Taşcău, O.; Tavera Ruiz, C. G.; Tcaciuc, R.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Travnicek, P.; Tridapalli, D. B.; Tristram, G.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van den Berg, A. M.; Varela, E.; Vargascárdenas, B.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Widom, A.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Wommer, M.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Zhu, Y.; Zimbres Silva, M.; Ziolkowski, M.

    2012-04-01

    Atmospheric conditions at the site of a cosmic ray observatory must be known for reconstructing observed extensive air showers. The Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS) is a global atmospheric model predicated on meteorological measurements and numerical weather predictions. GDAS provides altitude-dependent profiles of the main state variables of the atmosphere like temperature, pressure, and humidity. The original data and their application to the air shower reconstruction of the Pierre Auger Observatory are described. By comparisons with radiosonde and weather station measurements obtained on-site in Malargüe and averaged monthly models, the utility of the GDAS data is shown.

  8. Talaromyces rubrifaciens, a new species discovered from heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems in China.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yi; Lu, Xiaohong; Bi, Wu; Liu, Fan; Gao, Weiwei

    2016-01-01

    A new Talaromyces species, T. rubrifaciens, was isolated from supply air outlets of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in three kinds of public building in Beijing and Nanjing, China. Morphologically it exhibits many characters of section Trachyspermi but is distinguished from other species of this section by restricted growth and broad and strictly biverticillate conidiophores. Phylogenetic analyses based on the internal transcribed spacer rDNA (ITS), β-tubulin (BenA), calmodulin (CaM) and RNA polymerase second largest subunit (RPB2) genes reveal that T. rubrifaciens is a distinct species in section Trachyspermi.

  9. Condition concern: an innovative response system for enhancing hospitalized patient care and safety.

    PubMed

    Baird, Sylvia K; Turbin, Lynn Bobel

    2011-01-01

    Patient safety is rapidly becoming everyone's responsibility. Bedside clinicians, physicians, and ancillary and administrative staff are well aware of their roles in patient safety, but patients and their families are becoming increasingly knowledgeable about potential safety issues related to hospitalization. This article describes how a Midwestern regional health care system enhances safety for its hospitalized patients through a program called "Condition Concern," designed to provide patients and their families/friends with a quick, convenient method for reporting unattended care concerns. The program's structure is described along with postimplementation findings to date. PMID:21233769

  10. Numerical Simulation of HIWC Conditions with the Terminal Area Simulation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, Fred H.; Switzer, George F.

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional, numerical simulation of a mesoconvective system is conducted in order to better understand conditions associated with High Ice Water Content (HIWC) and its threat to aviation safety. Although peak local values of ice water content may occur early in the storm lifetime, large areas of high concentrations expand with time and persist even when the storm tops begin to warm. The storm canopy which contains HIWC, has low radar reflectivity factor and is fed by an ensemble of regenerating thermal pulses.

  11. Description of Atmospheric Conditions at the Pierre Auger Observatory using the Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS)

    SciTech Connect

    Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E.J.; Albuquerque, I.F.M.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; /Mexico U., ICN /Santiago de Compostela U.

    2012-01-01

    Atmospheric conditions at the site of a cosmic ray observatory must be known for reconstructing observed extensive air showers. The Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS) is a global atmospheric model predicated on meteorological measurements and numerical weather predictions. GDAS provides altitude-dependent profiles of the main state variables of the atmosphere like temperature, pressure, and humidity. The original data and their application to the air shower reconstruction of the Pierre Auger Observatory are described. By comparisons with radiosonde and weather station measurements obtained on-site in Malargue and averaged monthly models, the utility of the GDAS data is shown.

  12. Effective Wettability Measurements of CO2-Brine-Sandstone System at Different Reservoir Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Menhali, Ali; Krevor, Samuel

    2014-05-01

    The wetting properties of CO2-brine-rock systems will have a major impact on the management of CO2 injection processes. The wettability of a system controls the flow and trapping efficiency during the storage of CO2 in geological formations as well as the efficiency of enhanced oil recovery operations. Despite its utility in EOR and the continued development of CCS, little is currently known about the wetting properties of the CO2-brine system on reservoir rocks, and no investigations have been performed assessing the impact of these properties on CO2 flooding for CO2 storage or EOR. The wetting properties of multiphase fluid systems in porous media have major impacts on the multiphase flow properties such as the capillary pressure and relative permeability. While recent studies have shown CO2 to generally act as a non-wetting phase in siliciclastic rocks, some observations report that the contact angle varies with pressure, temperature and water salinity. Additionally, there is a wide range of reported contact angles for this system, from strongly to weakly water-wet. In the case of some minerals, intermediate wet contact angles have been observed. Uncertainty with regard to the wetting properties of CO2-brine systems is currently one of the remaining major unresolved issues with regards to reservoir management of CO2 storage. In this study, we make semi-dynamic capillary pressure measurements of supercritical CO2 and brine at reservoir conditions to observe shifts in the wetting properties. We utilize a novel core analysis technique recently developed by Pini et al in 2012 to evaluate a core-scale effective contact angle. Carbon dioxide is injected at constant flow rate into a core that is initially fully saturated with water, while maintaining a constant outlet pressure. In this scenario, the pressure drop across the core corresponds to the capillary pressure at the inlet face of the core. When compared with mercury intrusion capillary pressure measurements

  13. Using Acid Number as a Leading Indicator of Refrigeration and Air Conditioning System Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis Cartlidge; Hans Schellhase

    2003-07-31

    number (TAN), which includes both mineral acids and organic acids, is therefore a useful indicator which can be used to monitor the condition of the system in order to perform remedial maintenance, when required, to prevent system failure. The critical TAN value is the acid level at which remedial action should be taken to prevent the onset of rapid acid formation which can result in system failure. The level of 0.05 mg KOH/g of oil was established for CFC/mineral oil systems based on analysis of 700 used lubricants from operating systems and failed units. There is no consensus within the refrigeration industry as to the critical TAN value for HFC/POE systems, however, the value will be higher than the CFC/mineral oil systems critical TAN value because of the much weaker organic acids produced from POE. A similar study of used POE lubricants should be performed to establish a critical TAN limit for POE systems. Titrimetric analysis per ASTM procedures is the most commonly used method to determine TAN values in lubricants in the refrigeration industry and other industries dealing with lubricating oils. For field measurements, acid test kits are often used since they provide rapid, semi-quantitative TAN results.

  14. The McCollough Facial Rejuvenation System: expanding the scope of a condition-specific algorithm.

    PubMed

    McCollough, E Gaylon; Ha, Chi D

    2012-02-01

    The ideal facial rejuvenation algorithm is comprised of an appropriate combination of procedures, thoughtfully chosen from an assortment of reliable alternatives, that when skillfully performed provide both short- and long-term enhancement to the undesirable conditions of aging that exists at the time of treatment. In 2010, the senior author published the first scientific article in which a condition-specific classification system and a treatment plan algorithm were applied to the discipline of facial rejuvenation. In the landmark article, the senior author reviewed his surgical experience of more than 5000 face-lifts and grouped patients into five major categories (or stages), based upon the extent of aging identified in various regions of the face and neck and the procedures performed to correct them. The criteria (that have now been suggested on a facial aging worksheet) were recorded in a data blank comprised of a first-generation worksheet. Once the data were collected--and using algorithmic charts for each region and/or facial feature--the most appropriate plan of action for a given patient was created. The sole objective in sharing the senior author's methodology was to launch a scholarly discussion among physicians and surgeons involved in the various disciplines that provide rejuvenation procedures on the face, head, and neck. From such a debate would, hopefully, emerge a definitive algorithmic system--one based squarely on the venerable ethics of medicine, coupled with the appropriate application of and skillful performance of the fundamental principles of surgery. A single, science-based system would restore order to a noble discipline, currently being challenged by narcissism, gimmickry, and commercialization. The implementation of a system rooted in universal truths would require its advocates to agree upon a common "language," the implementation of which allows aesthetically focused surgeons to share both new ideas and time-tested experiences. More

  15. Use Conditions and Efficiency Measurements of DC Power Optimizers for Photovoltaic Systems: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Deline, C.; MacAlpine, S.

    2013-10-01

    No consensus standard exists for estimating annual conversion efficiency of DC-DC converters or power optimizers in photovoltaic (PV) applications. The performance benefits of PV power electronics including per-panel DC-DC converters depend in large part on the operating conditions of the PV system, along with the performance characteristics of the power optimizer itself. This work presents acase study of three system configurations that take advantage of the capabilities of DC power optimizers. Measured conversion efficiencies of DC-DC converters are applied to these scenarios to determine the annual weighted operating efficiency. A simplified general method of reporting weighted efficiency is given, based on the California Energy Commission's CEC efficiency rating and severalinput / output voltage ratios. Efficiency measurements of commercial power optimizer products are presented using the new performance metric, along with a description of the limitations of the approach.

  16. Novel Indications for Benzodiazepine Antagonist Flumazenil in GABA Mediated Pathological Conditions of the Central Nervous System.

    PubMed

    Hulse, Gary; Kelty, Erin; Hood, Sean; Norman, Amanda; Basso, Maria Rita; Reece, Albert Stuart

    2015-01-01

    This review paper discusses the central role of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in diverse physiological systems and functions and the therapeutic potential of the benzodiazepine antagonist flumazenil (Ro 15- 1788) for a wide range of disorders of the central nervous system (CNS). Our group and others have studied the potential of flumazenil as a treatment for benzodiazepine dependence. A small but growing body of research has indicated that flumazenil may also have clinical application in CNS disorders such as Parkinson's disease, idiopathic hypersomnia and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Despite this body of research the therapeutic potential of flumazenil remains poorly understood and largely unrealized. The purpose of this paper is not to provide an exhaustive review of all possible therapeutic applications for flumazenil but rather to stimulate research interest, and discussion of the exciting therapeutic potential of this drug for a range of chronic debilitating conditions.

  17. Control of root system architecture by DEEPER ROOTING 1 increases rice yield under drought conditions.

    PubMed

    Uga, Yusaku; Sugimoto, Kazuhiko; Ogawa, Satoshi; Rane, Jagadish; Ishitani, Manabu; Hara, Naho; Kitomi, Yuka; Inukai, Yoshiaki; Ono, Kazuko; Kanno, Noriko; Inoue, Haruhiko; Takehisa, Hinako; Motoyama, Ritsuko; Nagamura, Yoshiaki; Wu, Jianzhong; Matsumoto, Takashi; Takai, Toshiyuki; Okuno, Kazutoshi; Yano, Masahiro

    2013-09-01

    The genetic improvement of drought resistance is essential for stable and adequate crop production in drought-prone areas. Here we demonstrate that alteration of root system architecture improves drought avoidance through the cloning and characterization of DEEPER ROOTING 1 (DRO1), a rice quantitative trait locus controlling root growth angle. DRO1 is negatively regulated by auxin and is involved in cell elongation in the root tip that causes asymmetric root growth and downward bending of the root in response to gravity. Higher expression of DRO1 increases the root growth angle, whereby roots grow in a more downward direction. Introducing DRO1 into a shallow-rooting rice cultivar by backcrossing enabled the resulting line to avoid drought by increasing deep rooting, which maintained high yield performance under drought conditions relative to the recipient cultivar. Our experiments suggest that control of root system architecture will contribute to drought avoidance in crops.

  18. Study on application of capillary plane radiation air conditioning system based on the slope roof

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y. G.; Wang, T. T.; Liu, X. L.; Dong, X. Z.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, based on the principle of the capillary plane radiation air conditioning system, taking the slope roof as an example, the application of the capillary plane radiation airconditioning system is studied and analysed. Then the numerical solution of differential equations is obtained by the technology of CFD. Finally, we analyze the distribution of indoor temperature of the slope roof and the predicted mean votes (PMV) using Airpak simulation software by establishing a physical model. The results show that the PMV of different sections ranges from 0 to 2.5, which meets the requirement of the comfort. These provide a theoretical basis for application and promotion of capillary plane in the slope roof.

  19. Biocorrosion and biofilm formation in a nutrient limited heating system subjected to alternating microaerophilic conditions.

    PubMed

    Kjellerup, B V; Kjeldsen, K U; Lopes, F; Abildgaard, L; Ingvorsen, K; Frølund, B; Sowers, K R; Nielsen, P H

    2009-11-01

    Severe biofilm formation and biocorrosion have been observed in heating systems even when the water quality complied with existing standards. The coupling between water chemistry, biofilm formation, species composition, and biocorrosion in a heating system was investigated by adding low concentrations of nutrients and oxygen under continuous and alternating dosing regimes. Molecular analysis of 16S rRNA gene fragments demonstrated that the amendments did not cause changes in the overall bacterial community composition. The combined alternating dosing of nutrients and oxygen caused increased rates of pitting (bio-) corrosion. Detection of bacteria involved in sulfide production and oxidation by retrieval of the functional dsrAB and apsA genes revealed the presence of Gram-positive sulfate- and sulfite-reducers and an unknown sulfur-oxidizer. Therefore, to control biocorrosion, sources of oxygen and nutrients must be limited, since the effect of the alternating operational conditions apparently is more important than the presence of potentially corrosive biofilm bacteria.

  20. LiCl Dehumidifier LiBr absorption chiller hybrid air conditioning system with energy recovery

    DOEpatents

    Ko, Suk M.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to a hybrid air conditioning system that combines a solar powered LiCl dehumidifier with a LiBr absorption chiller. The desiccant dehumidifier removes the latent load by absorbing moisture from the air, and the sensible load is removed by the absorption chiller. The desiccant dehumidifier is coupled to a regenerator and the desiccant in the regenerator is heated by solar heated hot water to drive the moisture therefrom before being fed back to the dehumidifier. The heat of vaporization expended in the desiccant regenerator is recovered and used to partially preheat the driving fluid of the absorption chiller, thus substantially improving the overall COP of the hybrid system.

  1. Experimental study of an acoustic communication system in shallow-water conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobrovskii, I. V.; Yagotinets, V. P.

    2013-11-01

    The paper presents the results of experimental studies of an acoustic communication system containing parallel transmission digital information channels, which came about from applying the principles of orthogonal frequency division of individual information channels, resulting in an increased information rate. Received signals were processed by two separate receivers differing in the method by which the pulse response parameters of the medium were estimated during signal propagation. It is shown that to increase the reliability of received digital information for coherent separated reception of a multipath signal, it is necessary to estimate the parameters of this signal's components in frequency bands corresponding to individual information channels. When such estimates were taken into account, the acoustic communication system provided error-less reception of digital information in all experiments conducted under conditions of the shallow Volgograd Reservoir and Lake Ladoga.

  2. Cascade Reverse Osmosis Air Conditioning System: Cascade Reverse Osmosis and the Absorption Osmosis Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-01

    BEETIT Project: Battelle is developing a new air conditioning system that uses a cascade reverse osmosis (RO)-based absorption cycle. Analyses show that this new cycle can be as much as 60% more efficient than vapor compression, which is used in 90% of air conditioners. Traditional vapor-compression systems use polluting liquids for a cooling effect. Absorption cycles use benign refrigerants such as water, which is absorbed in a salt solution and pumped as liquid—replacing compression of vapor. The refrigerant is subsequently separated from absorbing salt using heat for re-use in the cooling cycle. Battelle is replacing thermal separation of refrigerant with a more efficient reverse osmosis process. Research has shown that the cycle is possible, but further investment will be needed to reduce the number of cascade reverse osmosis stages and therefore cost.

  3. System and method for conditioning intake air to an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Sellnau, Mark C.

    2015-08-04

    A system for conditioning the intake air to an internal combustion engine includes a means to boost the pressure of the intake air to the engine and a liquid cooled charge air cooler disposed between the output of the boost means and the charge air intake of the engine. Valves in the coolant system can be actuated so as to define a first configuration in which engine cooling is performed by coolant circulating in a first coolant loop at one temperature, and charge air cooling is performed by coolant flowing in a second coolant loop at a lower temperature. The valves can be actuated so as to define a second configuration in which coolant that has flowed through the engine can be routed through the charge air cooler. The temperature of intake air to the engine can be controlled over a wide range of engine operation.

  4. Study and Development of an Air Conditioning System Operating on a Magnetic Heat Pump Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Pao-Lien

    1991-01-01

    This report describes the design of a laboratory scale demonstration prototype of an air conditioning system operating on a magnetic heat pump cycle. Design parameters were selected through studies performed by a Kennedy Space Center (KSC) System Simulation Computer Model. The heat pump consists of a rotor turning through four magnetic fields that are created by permanent magnets. Gadolinium was selected as the working material for this demonstration prototype. The rotor was designed to be constructed of flat parallel disks of gadolinium with very little space in between. The rotor rotates in an aluminum housing. The laboratory scale demonstration prototype is designed to provide a theoretical Carnot Cycle efficiency of 62 percent and a Coefficient of Performance of 16.55.

  5. An Investigation to Resolve the Interaction Between Fuel Cell, Power Conditioning System and Application Loads

    SciTech Connect

    Sudip K. Mazumder

    2005-12-31

    Development of high-performance and durable solidoxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and a SOFC power-generating system requires knowledge of the feedback effects from the power-conditioning electronics and from application-electrical-power circuits that may pass through or excite the power-electronics subsystem (PES). Therefore, it is important to develop analytical models and methodologies, which can be used to investigate and mitigate the effects of the electrical feedbacks from the PES and the application loads (ALs) on the reliability and performance of SOFC systems for stationary and non-stationary applications. However, any such attempt to resolve the electrical impacts of the PES on the SOFC would be incomplete unless one utilizes a comprehensive analysis, which takes into account the interactions of SOFC, PES, balance-of-plant system (BOPS), and ALs as a whole. SOFCs respond quickly to changes in load and exhibit high part- and full-load efficiencies due to its rapid electrochemistry, which is not true for the thermal and mechanical time constants of the BOPS, where load-following time constants are, typically, several orders of magnitude higher. This dichotomy can affect the lifetime and durability of the SOFCSs and limit the applicability of SOFC systems for load-varying stationary and transportation applications. Furthermore, without validated analytical models and investigative design and optimization methodologies, realizations of cost-effective, reliable, and optimal PESs (and power-management controls), in particular, and SOFC systems, in general, are difficult. On the whole, the research effort can lead to (a) cost-constrained optimal PES design for high-performance SOFCS and high energy efficiency and power density, (b) effective SOFC power-system design, analyses, and optimization, and (c) controllers and modulation schemes for mitigation of electrical impacts and wider-stability margin and enhanced system efficiency.

  6. Development of High Speed Inverter Rotary Compressor for the Air-conditioning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Seoung-Min; Yang, Eun-soo; Shin, Jin-Ung; Park, Joon-Hong; Lee, Se-Dong; Ha, Jong-Hun; Son, Young-Boo; Lee, Byeong-Chul

    2015-08-01

    In order to meet the various operating loads of an air-conditioning system, an inverter compressor with a wide operational range is necessary. One of the ways to achieve a wide operation range is to drive a small capacity compressor at high speed. Moreover, it is possible to maximize the efficiency in part-load operation condition close to actual operating conditions and to reduce the cost by compact design of a small capacity compressor. In addition, the shortage of maximum capacity, due to the small rated capacity, is covered through high speed operation. However, in general, if the compressor operates at high speed, problems occurs such as reduced efficiency due to friction, increased noise, increased amount of oil discharge and decreased durability of the main components. In order to solve these problems the following have been investigated: optimized dimension parameters of the compression chamber, enhanced shaft design and the structure for the reduction of oil discharge and noise at high speed operation. Finally the high speed inverter rotary compressor with high efficiency and more compact size has been developed as compared with the conventional rotary compressor.

  7. Condition assessment survey of onsite sewage disposal systems (OSDSs) in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Babcock, Roger W; Lamichhane, Krishna M; Cummings, Michael J; Cheong, Gloria H

    2014-01-01

    Onsite sewage disposal systems (OSDSs) are the third leading cause of groundwater contamination in the USA. The existing condition of OSDSs in the State of Hawaii was investigated to determine whether a mandatory management program should be implemented. Based on observed conditions, OSDSs were differentiated into four categories: 'pass', 'sludge scum', 'potential failure' and 'fail'. Of all OSDSs inspected, approximately 68% appear to be in good working condition while the remaining 32% are failing or are in danger of failing. Homeowner interviews found that 80% of OSDSs were not being serviced in any way. About 70% of effluent samples had values of total-N and total-P greater than typical values and 40% had total suspended solids (TSS) and 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) greater than typical values. The performance of aerobic treatment units (ATUs) was no better than septic tanks and cesspools indicating that the State's approach of requiring but not enforcing maintenance contracts for ATUs is not working. In addition, effluent samples from OSDSs located in drinking water wells estimated 2-year capture zones had higher average concentrations of TSS, BOD5, and total-P than units outside of these zones, indicating the potential for contamination. These findings suggest the need to introduce a proactive, life-cycle OSDS management program in the State of Hawaii.

  8. A fail-safe system for the ribosome under zinc-limiting conditions in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Natori, Yousuke; Nanamiya, Hideaki; Akanuma, Genki; Kosono, Saori; Kudo, Toshiaki; Ochi, Kozo; Kawamura, Fujio

    2007-01-01

    As zinc is an essential trace metal ion for all living cells, cells elaborate a variety of strategies to cope with zinc starvation. In Bacillus subtilis, genes encoding ribosomal proteins L31 and S14 are duplicated into two types: one type contains a zinc-binding motif (RpmE or RpsN), whereas the other does not (YtiA or YhzA). We have previously shown that displacement of RpmE (L31) by YtiA from already assembled ribosomes is controlled by zinc, and this replacement could contribute to zinc mobilization under zinc-limiting conditions. We propose here that the switch between the two types of S14 has a different significance. rpsN is indispensable for growth and depletion of RpsN results in defective 30S subunits. YhzA can functionally replace RpsN to allow continued ribosome assembly under zinc-limiting conditions. Unlike YtiA, YhzA appeared in the ribosome at a slower rate consistent with incorporation into newly synthesized, rather than pre-existing ribosomes. These results raise the possibility that YhzA is involved in a fail-safe system for the de novo synthesis of ribosomes under zinc-limiting conditions.

  9. Partition behaviour of alkylphenols in crude oil/brine systems under subsurface conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, B.; Larter, S. R.

    1997-10-01

    Partition of organic solutes between oils and water in the subsurface is an important geochemical process occurring during petroleum migration and reservoiring, during water washing, and during petroleum production. Currently no data exists on the quantitative aspects of the partition process at subsurface conditions for solutes such as phenols and aromatic hydrocarbons which are major components of both oils and waters. We have constructed an equilibration device for oils and waters based on flow injection analysis principles to measure partition coefficients of alkylphenols in crude oil/brine systems under reservoir conditions. Concentrations of C 0C 2 alkylphenols in waters and solid phase extracts of crude oils produced in the device were determined by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (RP-HPLC-ED), partition coefficients being measured as a function of pressure (25-340 bar), temperature (25-150°C), and water salinity (0-100,000 mg/L sodium chloride) for a variety of oils. Partition coefficients for all compounds decreased with increasing temperature, increased with water salinity and crude oil bulk NSO content, and showed little change with varying pressure. These laboratory measurements, determined under conditions close to those typically encountered in petroleum reservoirs, suggest temperature, water salinity, and crude oil bulk NSO content will have important influence on oil-water partition processes in the subsurface during migration and water washing.

  10. 75 FR 2433 - Special Conditions: Boeing Model 747-8/-8F Airplanes, Systems and Data Networks Security...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-15

    ... systems and networks, which may allow access to external computer systems and networks. Connectivity to... Administration 14 CFR Part 25 Special Conditions: Boeing Model 747-8/-8F Airplanes, Systems and Data Networks Security--Protection of Airplane Systems and Data Networks From Unauthorized External Access...

  11. 77 FR 6945 - Special Conditions: Learjet Inc., Learjet Model LJ-200-1A10; Interaction of Systems and Structures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-10

    ... systems may also affect the aeroelastic stability of the airplane. Such systems include flight control... showing compliance with these special conditions for airplanes equipped with flight control systems... (rate of displacement of control surface, thresholds, or any other system nonlinearities) must...

  12. Molecular sieve generation of aviator's oxygen: Performance of a prototype system under simulated flight conditions.

    PubMed

    Miller, R L; Ikels, K G; Lamb, M J; Boscola, E J; Ferguson, R H

    1980-07-01

    The molecular sieve method of generating an enriched-oxygen breathing gas is one of several candidate onboard oxygen generation (OBOG) systems under joint Army-Navy-Air Force development for application in tactical aircraft. The performance of a nominal two-man-capacity molecular sieve oxygen generation system was characterized under simulated flight conditions. Data are given on the composition of the molecular sieve-generated breathing gas (oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and argon) as a function of inlet air pressure, altitude, breathing gas flow rate, and ambient temperature. The maximum oxygen concentration observed was 95%, with the balance argon. At low demand flow rates and certain conditions of pressure and altitude, the argon enrichment factor exceeded that of oxygen giving a maximum argon concentration of 6.6% with the balance oxygen. The structural integrity of the unit was verified by vibration and centrifuge testing. The performance of the molecular sieve unit is discussed in the context of aircraft operating envelopes using both diluter-demand and 100% delivery subsystems. PMID:6774707

  13. Proposal of a Simple Plant Growth System under Microgravity Conditions in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirai, Hiroaki; Kitaya, Yoshiaki; Hirai, Takehiro; Tsukamoto, Koya; Yamashita, Youichirou

    2012-07-01

    Plant culture in space has multiple functions for human life support such as providing food and purifying air and water. It is also suggested that crew can relieve their stress by watching growing plants and by enjoying fresh vegetable food during staying for several months in the International Space Station. Under such circumstances, it is an utmost importance to develop plant culture equipment that can be handled more easily by crew. This study aims to develop an easy-to-use plant growth system with modification of commercial household plant culture equipment. The item is equipped with a peltier device for cooling air and collecting water vapor in the growth room. The study was conducted to examine the performance of the equipment under microgravity conditions that were created by the parabolic airplane flights. As a result, the temperature of the peltier device was affected under the microgravity conditions due to the absence of heat convection. When an air flow was made with an air circulation fan, the temperature of the peltier device was stable to gravity changes. The water recycling method for an automatic nutrient solution supply system in the closed plant culture equipment under microgravity is proposed. In addition, a high output white LEDs showing a good performance for growing leafy vegetables will be introduced.

  14. Emissions of halocarbons from mobile vehicle air conditioning system in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Yan, H H; Guo, H; Ou, J M

    2014-08-15

    During the implementation of Montreal Protocol, emission inventories of halocarbons in different sectors at regional scale are fundamental to the formulation of relevant management strategy and inspection of the implementation efficiency. This study investigated the emission profile of halocarbons used in the mobile vehicle air conditioning system, the leading sector of refrigeration industry in terms of the refrigerant bank, market and emission, in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, using a bottom-up approach developed by 2006 IPCC Good Practice Guidance. The results showed that emissions of CFC-12 peaked at 53 tons ODP (Ozone Depletion Potential) in 1992 and then gradually diminished, whereas HFC-134a presented an increasing emission trend since 1990s and the emissions of HFC-134a reached 65,000 tons CO2-equivelant (CO2-eq) by the end of 2011. Uncertainty analysis revealed relatively high levels of uncertainties for special-purpose vehicles and government vehicles. Moreover, greenhouse gas (GHG) abatements under different scenarios indicated that potential emission reduction of HFC-134a ranged from 4.1 to 8.4 × 10(5)tons CO2-eq. The findings in this study advance our knowledge of halocarbon emissions from mobile vehicle air conditioning system in Hong Kong.

  15. Emissions of halocarbons from mobile vehicle air conditioning system in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Yan, H H; Guo, H; Ou, J M

    2014-08-15

    During the implementation of Montreal Protocol, emission inventories of halocarbons in different sectors at regional scale are fundamental to the formulation of relevant management strategy and inspection of the implementation efficiency. This study investigated the emission profile of halocarbons used in the mobile vehicle air conditioning system, the leading sector of refrigeration industry in terms of the refrigerant bank, market and emission, in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, using a bottom-up approach developed by 2006 IPCC Good Practice Guidance. The results showed that emissions of CFC-12 peaked at 53 tons ODP (Ozone Depletion Potential) in 1992 and then gradually diminished, whereas HFC-134a presented an increasing emission trend since 1990s and the emissions of HFC-134a reached 65,000 tons CO2-equivelant (CO2-eq) by the end of 2011. Uncertainty analysis revealed relatively high levels of uncertainties for special-purpose vehicles and government vehicles. Moreover, greenhouse gas (GHG) abatements under different scenarios indicated that potential emission reduction of HFC-134a ranged from 4.1 to 8.4 × 10(5)tons CO2-eq. The findings in this study advance our knowledge of halocarbon emissions from mobile vehicle air conditioning system in Hong Kong. PMID:24997256

  16. Molecular sieve generation of aviator's oxygen: Performance of a prototype system under simulated flight conditions.

    PubMed

    Miller, R L; Ikels, K G; Lamb, M J; Boscola, E J; Ferguson, R H

    1980-07-01

    The molecular sieve method of generating an enriched-oxygen breathing gas is one of several candidate onboard oxygen generation (OBOG) systems under joint Army-Navy-Air Force development for application in tactical aircraft. The performance of a nominal two-man-capacity molecular sieve oxygen generation system was characterized under simulated flight conditions. Data are given on the composition of the molecular sieve-generated breathing gas (oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and argon) as a function of inlet air pressure, altitude, breathing gas flow rate, and ambient temperature. The maximum oxygen concentration observed was 95%, with the balance argon. At low demand flow rates and certain conditions of pressure and altitude, the argon enrichment factor exceeded that of oxygen giving a maximum argon concentration of 6.6% with the balance oxygen. The structural integrity of the unit was verified by vibration and centrifuge testing. The performance of the molecular sieve unit is discussed in the context of aircraft operating envelopes using both diluter-demand and 100% delivery subsystems.

  17. AN INVESTIGATION TO RESOLVE THE INTERACTION BETWEEN FUEL CELL, POWER CONDITIONING SYSTEM AND APPLICATION LOADS

    SciTech Connect

    Sudip K. Mazumder; Chuck McKintyre; Dan Herbison; Doug Nelson; Comas Haynes; Michael von Spakovsky; Joseph Hartvigsen; S. Elangovan

    2003-11-03

    Solid-Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) stacks respond quickly to changes in load and exhibit high part- and full-load efficiencies due to its rapid electrochemistry. However, this is not true for the thermal, mechanical, and chemical balance-of-plant subsystem (BOPS), where load-following time constants are, typically, several orders of magnitude higher. This dichotomy diminishes the reliability and performance of the electrode with increasing demand of load. Because these unwanted phenomena are not well understood, the manufacturers of SOFC use conservative schemes (such as, delayed load-following to compensate for slow BOPS response or expensive inductor filtering) to control stack responses to load variations. This limits the applicability of SOFC systems for load-varying stationary and transportation applications from a cost standpoint. Thus, a need exists for the synthesis of component- and system-level models of SOFC power-conditioning systems and the development of methodologies for investigating the system-interaction issues (which reduce the lifetime and efficiency of a SOFC) and optimizing the responses of each subsystem, leading to optimal designs of power-conditioning electronics and optimal control strategies, which mitigate the electrical-feedback effects. Equally important are ''multiresolution'' finite-element modeling and simulation studies, which can predict the impact of changes in system-level variables (e.g., current ripple and load-transients) on the local current densities, voltages, and temperature (these parameters are very difficult or cumbersome, if not impossible to obtain) within a SOFC cell. Towards that end, for phase I of this project, sponsored by the U.S. DOE (NETL), we investigate the interactions among fuel cell, power-conditioning system, and application loads and their effects on SOFC reliability (durability) and performance. A number of methodologies have been used in Phase I to develop the steady-state and transient nonlinear models of

  18. HCN1 Channels Enhance Rod System Responsivity in the Retina under Conditions of Light Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Sothilingam, Vithiyanjali; Michalakis, Stylianos; Garcia Garrido, Marina; Biel, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Vision originates in rods and cones at the outer retina. Already at these early stages, diverse processing schemes shape and enhance image information to permit perception over a wide range of lighting conditions. In this work, we address the role of hyperpolarization-activated and cyclic nucleotide-gated channels 1 (HCN1) in rod photoreceptors for the enhancement of rod system responsivity under conditions of light exposure. Methods To isolate HCN1 channel actions in rod system responses, we generated double mutant mice by crossbreeding Hcn1-/- mice with Cnga3-/- mice in which cones are non-functional. Retinal function in the resulting Hcn1-/- Cnga3-/- animals was followed by means of electroretinography (ERG) up to the age of four month. Retinal imaging via scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) was also performed to exclude potential morphological alterations. Results This study on Hcn1-/- Cnga3-/- mutant mice complements our previous work on HCN1 channel function in the retina. We show here in a functional rod-only setting that rod responses following bright light exposure terminate without the counteraction of HCN channels much later than normal. The resulting sustained signal elevation does saturate the retinal network due to an intensity-dependent reduction in the dynamic range. In addition, the lack of rapid adaptational feedback modulation of rod photoreceptor output via HCN1 in this double mutant limits the ability to follow repetitive (flicker) stimuli, particularly under mesopic conditions. Conclusions This work corroborates the hypothesis that, in the absence of HCN1-mediated feedback, the amplitude of rod signals remains at high levels for a prolonged period of time, leading to saturation of the retinal pathways. Our results demonstrate the importance of HCN1 channels for regular vision. PMID:26807953

  19. Competitive or weak cooperative stochastic Lotka-Volterra systems conditioned on non-extinction.

    PubMed

    Cattiaux, Patrick; Méléard, Sylvie

    2010-06-01

    We are interested in the long time behavior of a two-type density-dependent biological population conditioned on non-extinction, in both cases of competition or weak cooperation between the two species. This population is described by a stochastic Lotka-Volterra system, obtained as limit of renormalized interacting birth and death processes. The weak cooperation assumption allows the system not to blow up. We study the existence and uniqueness of a quasi-stationary distribution, that is convergence to equilibrium conditioned on non-extinction. To this aim we generalize in two-dimensions spectral tools developed for one-dimensional generalized Feller diffusion processes. The existence proof of a quasi-stationary distribution is reduced to the one for a d-dimensional Kolmogorov diffusion process under a symmetry assumption. The symmetry we need is satisfied under a local balance condition relying the ecological rates. A novelty is the outlined relation between the uniqueness of the quasi-stationary distribution and the ultracontractivity of the killed semi-group. By a comparison between the killing rates for the populations of each type and the one of the global population, we show that the quasi-stationary distribution can be either supported by individuals of one (the strongest one) type or supported by individuals of the two types. We thus highlight two different long time behaviors depending on the parameters of the model: either the model exhibits an intermediary time scale for which only one type (the dominant trait) is surviving, or there is a positive probability to have coexistence of the two species.

  20. Decision support system for integrating remote sensing in bridge condition assessment and preservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endsley, Arthur; Brooks, Colin; Harris, Devin; Ahlborn, Tess; Vaghefi, Khatereh

    2012-04-01

    Since the National Bridge Inventory (NBI) was first conducted, structural health monitoring (SHM) of U.S. bridge infrastructure has consisted largely of time and labor-intensive surveys with subjective results. In-situ and embedded sensors, while more reliable and accurate, can be costly and in many cases infeasible for SHM because they require installation in hard-to-reach places or during construction. Remote sensing (RS) technologies such as radar, electrooptical imaging and laser scanning may offer an innovative, cost-effective method of monitoring the dynamic conditions of U.S. bridges in real-time. While some RS techniques may be costly for state agencies to deploy on their own, RS imagery is available through government agencies or commercial vendors for moderate or no cost. How can disparate RS datasets be integrated with one another and with inventory data in a way that is meaningful to bridge asset management decision makers? This paper discusses the development and functionality of the Bridge Condition Decision Support System (DSS), a web-based asset management tool for bridge managers and inspectors. The DSS seamlessly merges bridge metrics from RS data with NBI inventory data allowing decision makers to compare up-to-date bridge condition metrics from multiple inputs as a time series. It enables analysis of RS and inventory data available through user-friendly web services which can also expose virtually unlimited server-side data processing. Using open-source software, the authors developed a scalable, spatially-aware bridge condition database with a fast and flexible server application programming interface (API) and a cross-browser compatible web mapping application written in Javascript.