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Sample records for conditions favoring polyborates

  1. Adaptation of Cupriavidus necator to conditions favoring polyhydroxyalkanoate production.

    PubMed

    Cavalheiro, João M B T; de Almeida, M Catarina M D; da Fonseca, M Manuela R; de Carvalho, Carla C C R

    2012-12-15

    The fatty acid (FA) composition of the bacterial membrane of Cupriavidus necator DSM 545 was assessed during the time course of two-stage fed-batch cultivations for the production of short-chain polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA). Changes in the relative proportion of straight, methyl and cyclopropyl saturated, unsaturated, hydroxy substituted and polyunsaturated FA were observed, depending on the C sources and cultivation conditions used to favor the synthesis of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (P(3HB)), poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) (P(3HB-co-4HB)) or poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-4-hydroxybutyrate-3-hydroxyvalerate) (P(3HB-4HB-3HV)), under N limiting conditions. The relative percentage of each FA class was studied using glucose or waste glycerol (GRP), as main C source for P(3HB) production. The FA profile was also assessed when GRP was used together with i) γ-butyrolactone (GBL) (precursor of 4HB monomers) for P(3HB-4HB) synthesis and ii) GBL and propionic acid (PA) (3HV precursor) to yield P(3HB-4HB-3HV). The effect of GBL and PA utilization as PHA monomer precursors on the FA profile of the cell membrane was studied under two different dissolved oxygen concentrations (DOC). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Conditions Favoring a Facilitation Effect in the Learned Helplessness Paradigm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuel, William; Nilsen, Paul

    Following a traditional learned helplessness paradigm, subjects initially tried to terminate random bursts of noise using a button-pressing manipulandum and next tried to solve 20 serially-presented anagrams. The noise was broadcast at either a loud or soft intensity, and the subject's button-pressing was either successful (Escape condition) or…

  3. Assessment of fungal growth on sodium polyborate-treated cellulose insulation.

    PubMed

    Herrera, José

    2005-12-01

    Cellulose insulation has rapidly gained a large market share among general contractors and homeowners. Recent interest regarding health effects of high concentrations of fungi within indoor environments (building-related illnesses or sick building syndrome) has promoted concern about susceptibility of building materials, including wood products (in general) and cellulose insulation (specifically), to fungal attack. This study reports an assessment of fungal growth on cellulose insulation made from recycled paper and treated with varying concentrations of sodium polyborate within half-scale wall units exposed to variable and high ambient temperatures and relative humidities throughout the summer. Boron-treated and untreated (control) cellulose insulation within the wall units were challenged with a suspension containing high concentrations of spores of five fungal species commonly found in indoor environments. Our results suggest that cellulose insulation treated with sodium polyborate (a) precludes the growth of the five common fungal species; (b) harbors fewer fungal species before and after being challenged with the fungal spore suspension; and (c) is likely having a cytotoxic or sporocidal effect on many, if not all, fungal species. These results suggest that cellulose insulation treated with sodium polyborate, when properly applied and installed, precludes fungal growth for at least 124 days at high temperatures and relative humidities.

  4. Molecular Crowding Favors Reactivity of a Human Ribozyme Under Physiological Ionic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Strulson, Christopher A.; Yennawar, Neela H.; Rambo, Robert P.; Bevilacqua, Philip C.

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to relate RNA folding to function under cellular-like conditions, we monitored the self-cleavage reaction of the human hepatitis delta virus (HDV)-like CPEB3 ribozyme in the background of physiological ionic concentrations and various crowding and cosolute agents. We found that under physiological free Mg2+ concentrations (~0.1 to 0.5 mM Mg2+), both crowders and cosolutes stimulate the rate of self-cleavage, up to ~6-fold, but that in 10 mM Mg2+—conditions widely used for in vitro ribozyme studies—these same additives have virtually no effect on self-cleavage rate. We further observe a dependence of self-cleavage rate on crowder size, wherein rate stimulation is diminished for crowders larger than the size of the unfolded RNA. Monitoring effects of crowding and cosolute agents on rates in biological amounts of urea revealed additive-promoted increases in both low and high Mg2+ concentrations, with a maximal stimulation of more than 10-fold and a rescue of the rate to its urea-free values. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) experiments reveal a structural basis for this stimulation in that higher molecular weight crowding agents favor a more compact form of the ribozyme in 0.5 mM Mg2+ that is essentially equivalent to the form under standard ribozyme conditions of 10 mM Mg2+ and no crowder. This finding suggests that at least a portion of the rate enhancement arises from favoring the native RNA tertiary structure. We conclude that cellular-like crowding supports ribozyme reactivity by favoring a compact form of the ribozyme, but only under physiological ionic and cosolute conditions. PMID:24187989

  5. Auditory-Visual Discourse Comprehension by Older and Young Adults in Favorable and Unfavorable Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Tye-Murray, Nancy; Sommers, Mitchell; Spehar, Brent; Myerson, Joel; Hale, Sandra; Rose, Nathan S.

    2010-01-01

    This investigation examined how age and test condition affect one’s ability to comprehend discourse passages and determined whether age and test condition affect discourse comprehension and closed-set sentence recognition in a similar way. Young and older adults were tested with closed-set sentences from the newly-created Build-a-Sentence Test (BAS) and a series of discourse passages in two audiovisual conditions: favorable, where the talker’s head was clearly visible and the signal-to-babble ratio (SBR) was more optimal and unfavorable, where the contrast sensitivity of the visual signal was reduced and the SBR was less optimal. The older participants recognized fewer words in the BAS than the young participants in both test conditions. Degrading the viewing and listening conditions led to a greater decline in their performance than in the young participants’ performance. The older participants also did not perform as well at comprehending spoken discourse in the two test conditions. However, unlike what occurred for the BAS, the age difference for discourse comprehension was not exacerbated by unfavorable conditions. When attempting to comprehend discourse, older adults may draw upon verbal and cognitive abilities that are relatively insensitive to age. PMID:19012110

  6. Resource allocation in offspring provisioning: An evaluation of the conditions favoring the evolution of matrotrophy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trexler, Joel C.; DeAngelis, Donald L.

    2003-01-01

    We used analytic and simulation models to determine the ecological conditions favoring evolution of a matrotrophic fish from a lecithotrophic ancestor given a complex set of trade‐offs. Matrotrophy is the nourishment of viviparous embryos by resources provided between fertilization and parturition, while lecithotrophy describes embryo nourishment provided before fertilization. In fishes and reptiles, embryo nourishment encompasses a continuum from solely lecithotrophic to primarily matrotrophic. Matrotrophy has evolved independently from lecithotrophic ancestors many times in many groups. We assumed matrotrophy increased the number of offspring a viviparous female could gestate and evaluated conditions of food availability favoring lecithotrophy or matrotrophy. The matrotrophic strategy was superior when food resources exceeded demand during gestation but at a risk of overproduction and reproductive failure if food intake was limited. Matrotrophic females were leaner during gestation than lecithotrophic females, yielding shorter life spans. Our models suggest that matrotrophic embryo nourishment evolved in environments with high food availability, consistently exceeding energy requirements for maintaining relatively large broods. Embryo abortion with some resorption of invested energy is a necessary preadaptation to the evolution of matrotrophy. Future work should explore trade‐offs of age‐specific mortality and reproductive output for females maintaining different levels of fat storage during gestation.

  7. Complexation of Nickel Ions by Boric Acid or (Poly)borates.

    PubMed

    Graff, Anais; Barrez, Etienne; Baranek, Philippe; Bachet, Martin; Bénézeth, Pascale

    2017-01-01

    An experiment based on electrochemical reactions and pH monitoring was performed in which nickel ions were gradually formed by oxidation of a nickel metal electrode in a solution of boric acid. Based on the experimental results and aqueous speciation modeling, the evolution of pH showed the existence of significant nickel-boron complexation. A triborate nickel complex was postulated at high boric acid concentrations when polyborates are present, and the equilibrium constants were determined at 25, 50 and 70 °C. The calculated enthalpy and entropy at 25 °C for the formation of the complex from boric acid and Ni(2+) ions are respectively equal to (65.6 ± 3.1) kJ·mol(-1) and (0.5 ± 11.1) J·K(-1)·mol(-1). The results of this study suggest that complexation of nickel ions by borates can significantly enhance the solubility of nickel metal and nickel oxide depending on the concentration of boric acid and pH. First principles calculations were investigated and tend to show that the complex is thermodynamically stable and the nickel cation in solution should interact more strongly with the [Formula: see text] than with boric acid.

  8. Thermodynamic Conditions Favorable to Superlative Thunderstorm Updraft, Mixed Phase Microphysics and Lightning Flash Rate. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, E.; Mushtak, V.; Rosenfeld, D.; Goodman, S.; Boccippio, D.

    2004-01-01

    Satellite observations of lightning flash rate have been merged with proximal surface station thermodynamic observations toward improving the understanding of the response of the updraft and lightning activity in the tropical atmosphere to temperature. The tropical results have led in turn to an examination of thermodynamic climatology over the continental United States in summertime and its comparison with exceptional electrical conditions documented in earlier studies. The tropical and mid-latitude results taken together support an important role for cloud base height in regulating the transfer of Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE) to updraft kinetic energy in thunderstorms. In the tropics, cloud base height is dominated by the dry bulb temperature over the wet bulb temperature as the lightning-regulating temperature in regions characterized by moist convection. In the extratropics, an elevated cloud base height may enable larger cloud water concentrations in the mixed phase region, a favorable condition for the positive charging of large ice particles that may result in thunderclouds with a reversed polarity of the main cloud dipole. The combined requirements of instability and cloud base height serve to confine the region of superlative electrification to the vicinity of the ridge in moist entropy in the western Great Plains.

  9. Thermodynamic Conditions Favorable to Superlative Thunderstorm Updraft, Mixed Phase Microphysics and Lightning Flash Rate. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, E.; Mushtak, V.; Rosenfeld, D.; Goodman, S.; Boccippio, D.

    2004-01-01

    Satellite observations of lightning flash rate have been merged with proximal surface station thermodynamic observations toward improving the understanding of the response of the updraft and lightning activity in the tropical atmosphere to temperature. The tropical results have led in turn to an examination of thermodynamic climatology over the continental United States in summertime and its comparison with exceptional electrical conditions documented in earlier studies. The tropical and mid-latitude results taken together support an important role for cloud base height in regulating the transfer of Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE) to updraft kinetic energy in thunderstorms. In the tropics, cloud base height is dominated by the dry bulb temperature over the wet bulb temperature as the lightning-regulating temperature in regions characterized by moist convection. In the extratropics, an elevated cloud base height may enable larger cloud water concentrations in the mixed phase region, a favorable condition for the positive charging of large ice particles that may result in thunderclouds with a reversed polarity of the main cloud dipole. The combined requirements of instability and cloud base height serve to confine the region of superlative electrification to the vicinity of the ridge in moist entropy in the western Great Plains.

  10. Using data from colloid transport experiments to parameterize filtration model parameters for favorable conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamai, Tamir; Nassar, Mohamed K.; Nelson, Kirk E.; Ginn, Timothy R.

    2017-04-01

    Colloid filtration in porous media spans across many disciplines and includes scenarios such as in-situ bioremediation, colloid-facilitated transport, water treatment of suspended particles and pathogenic bacteria, and transport of natural and engineered nanoparticles in the environment. Transport and deposition of colloid particles in porous media are determined by a combination of complex processes and forces. Given the convoluted physical, chemical, and biological processes involved, and the complexity of porous media in natural settings, it should not come as surprise that colloid filtration theory does not always sufficiently predict colloidal transport, and that there is still a pressing need for improved predictive capabilities. Here, instead of developing the macroscopic equation from pore-scale models, we parametrize the different terms in the macroscopic collection equation through fitting it to experimental data, by optimizing the parameters in the different terms of the equation. This way we combine a mechanistically-based filtration-equation with empirical evidence. The impact of different properties of colloids and porous media are studied by comparing experimental properties with different terms of the correlation equation. This comparison enables insight about different processes that occur during colloid transport and retention under in porous media under favorable conditions, and provides directions for future theoretical developments.

  11. The Ecological Conditions That Favor Tool Use and Innovation in Wild Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops sp.)

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Eric M.; Mann, Janet

    2011-01-01

    Dolphins are well known for their exquisite echolocation abilities, which enable them to detect and discriminate prey species and even locate buried prey. While these skills are widely used during foraging, some dolphins use tools to locate and extract prey. In the only known case of tool use in free-ranging cetaceans, a subset of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops sp.) in Shark Bay, Western Australia habitually employs marine basket sponge tools to locate and ferret prey from the seafloor. While it is clear that sponges protect dolphins' rostra while searching for prey, it is still not known why dolphins probe the substrate at all instead of merely echolocating for buried prey as documented at other sites. By ‘sponge foraging’ ourselves, we show that these dolphins target prey that both lack swimbladders and burrow in a rubble-littered substrate. Delphinid echolocation and vision are critical for hunting but less effective on such prey. Consequently, if dolphins are to access this burrowing, swimbladderless prey, they must probe the seafloor and in turn benefit from using protective sponges. We suggest that these tools have allowed sponge foraging dolphins to exploit an empty niche inaccessible to their non-tool-using counterparts. Our study identifies the underlying ecological basis of dolphin tool use and strengthens our understanding of the conditions that favor tool use and innovation in the wild. PMID:21799801

  12. The ecological conditions that favor tool use and innovation in wild bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops sp.).

    PubMed

    Patterson, Eric M; Mann, Janet

    2011-01-01

    Dolphins are well known for their exquisite echolocation abilities, which enable them to detect and discriminate prey species and even locate buried prey. While these skills are widely used during foraging, some dolphins use tools to locate and extract prey. In the only known case of tool use in free-ranging cetaceans, a subset of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops sp.) in Shark Bay, Western Australia habitually employs marine basket sponge tools to locate and ferret prey from the seafloor. While it is clear that sponges protect dolphins' rostra while searching for prey, it is still not known why dolphins probe the substrate at all instead of merely echolocating for buried prey as documented at other sites. By 'sponge foraging' ourselves, we show that these dolphins target prey that both lack swimbladders and burrow in a rubble-littered substrate. Delphinid echolocation and vision are critical for hunting but less effective on such prey. Consequently, if dolphins are to access this burrowing, swimbladderless prey, they must probe the seafloor and in turn benefit from using protective sponges. We suggest that these tools have allowed sponge foraging dolphins to exploit an empty niche inaccessible to their non-tool-using counterparts. Our study identifies the underlying ecological basis of dolphin tool use and strengthens our understanding of the conditions that favor tool use and innovation in the wild.

  13. A Combination of Extreme Environmental Conditions Favor the Prevalence of Endospore-Forming Firmicutes.

    PubMed

    Filippidou, Sevasti; Wunderlin, Tina; Junier, Thomas; Jeanneret, Nicole; Dorador, Cristina; Molina, Veronica; Johnson, David R; Junier, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Environmental conditions unsuitable for microbial growth are the rule rather than the exception in most habitats. In response to this, microorganisms have developed various strategies to withstand environmental conditions that limit active growth. Endospore-forming Firmicutes (EFF) deploy a myriad of survival strategies in order to resist adverse conditions. Like many bacterial groups, they can form biofilms and detect nutrient scarcity through chemotaxis. Moreover, within this paraphyletic group of Firmicutes, ecophysiological optima are diverse. Nonetheless, a response to adversity that delimits this group is the formation of wet-heat resistant spores. These strategies are energetically demanding and therefore might affect the biological success of EFF. Therefore, we hypothesize that abundance and diversity of EFF should be maximized in those environments in which the benefits of these survival strategies offsets the energetic cost. In order to address this hypothesis, geothermal and mineral springs and drillings were selected because in these environments of steep physicochemical gradients, diversified survival strategies may become a successful strategy.We collected 71 samples from geothermal and mineral environments characterized by none (null), single or multiple limiting environmental factors (temperature, pH, UV radiation, and specific mineral composition). To measure success, we quantified EFF gene copy numbers (GCN; spo0A gene) in relation to total bacterial GCN (16S rRNA gene), as well as the contribution of EFF to community composition. The quantification showed that relative GCN for EFF reached up to 20% at sites characterized by multiple limiting environmental factors, whereas it corresponded to less than 1% at sites with one or no limiting environmental factor. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene supports a higher contribution of EFF at sites with multiple limiting factors. Community composition suggested a combination of phylotypes for which active

  14. A Combination of Extreme Environmental Conditions Favor the Prevalence of Endospore-Forming Firmicutes

    PubMed Central

    Filippidou, Sevasti; Wunderlin, Tina; Junier, Thomas; Jeanneret, Nicole; Dorador, Cristina; Molina, Veronica; Johnson, David R.; Junier, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Environmental conditions unsuitable for microbial growth are the rule rather than the exception in most habitats. In response to this, microorganisms have developed various strategies to withstand environmental conditions that limit active growth. Endospore-forming Firmicutes (EFF) deploy a myriad of survival strategies in order to resist adverse conditions. Like many bacterial groups, they can form biofilms and detect nutrient scarcity through chemotaxis. Moreover, within this paraphyletic group of Firmicutes, ecophysiological optima are diverse. Nonetheless, a response to adversity that delimits this group is the formation of wet-heat resistant spores. These strategies are energetically demanding and therefore might affect the biological success of EFF. Therefore, we hypothesize that abundance and diversity of EFF should be maximized in those environments in which the benefits of these survival strategies offsets the energetic cost. In order to address this hypothesis, geothermal and mineral springs and drillings were selected because in these environments of steep physicochemical gradients, diversified survival strategies may become a successful strategy.We collected 71 samples from geothermal and mineral environments characterized by none (null), single or multiple limiting environmental factors (temperature, pH, UV radiation, and specific mineral composition). To measure success, we quantified EFF gene copy numbers (GCN; spo0A gene) in relation to total bacterial GCN (16S rRNA gene), as well as the contribution of EFF to community composition. The quantification showed that relative GCN for EFF reached up to 20% at sites characterized by multiple limiting environmental factors, whereas it corresponded to less than 1% at sites with one or no limiting environmental factor. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene supports a higher contribution of EFF at sites with multiple limiting factors. Community composition suggested a combination of phylotypes for which active

  15. Contribution of Nano- to Microscale Roughness to Heterogeneity: Closing the Gap between Unfavorable and Favorable Colloid Attachment Conditions.

    PubMed

    Rasmuson, Anna; Pazmino, Eddy; Assemi, Shoeleh; Johnson, William P

    2017-02-21

    Surface roughness has been reported to both increase as well as decrease colloid retention. In order to better understand the boundaries within which roughness operates, attachment of a range of colloid sizes to glass with three levels of roughness was examined under both favorable (energy barrier absent) and unfavorable (energy barrier present) conditions in an impinging jet system. Smooth glass was found to provide the upper and lower bounds for attachment under favorable and unfavorable conditions, respectively. Surface roughness decreased, or even eliminated, the gap between favorable and unfavorable attachment and did so by two mechanisms: (1) under favorable conditions attachment decreased via increased hydrodynamic slip length and reduced attraction and (2) under unfavorable conditions attachment increased via reduced colloid-collector repulsion (reduced radius of curvature) and increased attraction (multiple points of contact, and possibly increased surface charge heterogeneity). Absence of a gap where these forces most strongly operate for smaller (<200 nm) and larger (>2 μm) colloids was observed and discussed. These observations elucidate the role of roughness in colloid attachment under both favorable and unfavorable conditions.

  16. The atmospheric conditions over Europe and the Mediterranean, favoring snow events in Athens, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houssos, E. E.; Lolis, C. J.; Bartzokas, A.

    2007-09-01

    The 3-dimensional structure and the evolution of atmospheric circulation favoring snowfall in Athens are examined. The study refers to 61 snow events, which occurred during the period 1958-2001. For each one of the events, the patterns of MSL pressure, 850 hPa and 500 hPa air temperatures, 500 hPa geopotential height and 1000-500 hPa thickness are constructed for the European region, for the day before (D-1), the first day (D) and the day after the end of the event (END). A statistical methodology involving Factor Analysis and Cluster Analysis is applied to the above data sets and the 61 cases are finally classified into five clusters. These clusters are generally characterized by a north-easterly flow in the lower troposphere over the Athens area. This flow is associated with the presence of a low pressure system around Cyprus and an anticyclone over Europe. The position, the intensity and the trajectories of the surface and the upper air systems during D-1, D and END days are generally different among the five clusters.

  17. Favorable biodistribution, specific targeting and conditional endosomal escape of RNA nanoparticles in cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Congcong; Haque, Farzin; Jasinski, Daniel L; Binzel, Daniel W; Shu, Dan; Guo, Peixuan

    2017-10-05

    The past decades have witnessed the success transition of several nanotechnologies into the clinic. However, specific delivery of therapeutics to tumors is hindered by several barriers including cancer recognition and tissue penetration; particle heterogeneity and aggregation; unfavorable pharmacokinetic profiles such as fast clearance and organ accumulation. With the advent of RNA nanotechnology, a series of RNA nanoparticles have been successfully constructed to overcome many of the aforementioned challenges for in vivo cancer targeting with favorable biodistribution profiles. Compared to other nanodelivery platforms, the physiochemical properties of RNA nanoparticles can be tuned with relative ease for investigating the in vivo behavior of nanoparticles upon systemic injection. The size, shape, and surface chemistry, especially hydrophobic modifications, exert significant impacts on the in vivo fate of RNA nanoparticles. Rationally designed RNA nanoparticles with defined stoichiometry and high homogeneity have been demonstrated to specifically target tumor cells while avoiding accumulation in healthy vital organs after systemic injection. RNA nanoparticles can deliver therapeutics such as siRNA and anti-miRNA to block tumor growth in several animal models. Although the release of anti-miRNA from the RNA nanoparticles has achieved high efficiency of tumor regression in multiple animal models, the efficiency of endosomal escape for siRNA delivery needs further improvement. This review will focus on the advances and perspectives of this promising RNA nanotechnology platform for cancer targeting and therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. α-Amylase in Vaginal Fluid: Association With Conditions Favorable to Dominance of Lactobacillus.

    PubMed

    Nasioudis, Dimitrios; Beghini, Joziani; Bongiovanni, Ann Marie; Giraldo, Paulo C; Linhares, Iara M; Witkin, Steven S

    2015-11-01

    Vaginal glycogen is degraded by host α-amylase and then converted to lactic acid by Lactobacilli. This maintains the vaginal pH at ≤4.5 and prevents growth of other bacteria. Therefore, host α-amylase activity may promote dominance of Lactobacilli. We evaluated whether the α-amylase level in vaginal fluid is altered in women with bacterial vaginosis (BV) and vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and whether its concentration was associated with levels of lactic acid isomers and host mediators. Vaginal fluid was obtained from 43 women with BV, 50 women with VVC, and 62 women with no vulvovaginal disorders. Vaginal fluid concentrations of α-amylase, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), hyaluronan, hyaluronidase-1, β-defensin, and elafin were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Vaginal concentrations of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 8, and d- and l-lactic acid levels in these patients were previously reported. The median vaginal fluid α-amylase level was 1.83 mU/mL in control women, 1.45 mU/mL in women with VVC, and 1.07 mU/mL in women with BV. Vaginal levels of α-amylase were correlated with d-lactic acid (P = .003) but not with l-lactic acid (P > .05) and with SLPI (P < .001), hyaluronidase-1 (P < .001), NGAL (P = .001), and MMP-8 (P = .005). The exfoliation of glycogen-rich epithelial cells into the vaginal lumen by hyaluronidase-1 and MMP-8 may increase glycogen availability and promote α-amylase activity. The subsequent enhanced availability of glycogen breakdown products would favor proliferation of Lactobacilli, the primary producers of d-lactic acid in the vagina. Concomitant production of NGAL and SLPI would retard growth of BV-related bacteria. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Greenland englacial drainage: conditions favoring water transport through a fractured aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creyts, T. T.; Fountain, A. G.

    2015-12-01

    Recently, the subglacial hydrology of glaciers and ice sheets has garnered intense interest because of its effects on ice sliding and potential ice sheet responses leading to sea level rise. Less attention has focused on the englacial water system that connects surface meltwater sources to the basal drainage system. Observations of englacial drainage have revealed diametrically opposed behaviors, so that understanding the role of the englacial system is critical to developing knowledge of ice sheet responses. The englacial connections either enhance or limit subglacial processes, including sliding. Some observations show cases where water drainage is mainly through an englacial system of fractures so that water flow at the bed is stunted. Other observations show static englacial water systems that play little role in drainage with primary drainage routes being along the bed. Here, we use a thermomechanical model of englacial water flow to understand the interaction between ice and water along these connections. We assume that water flow is through a series of connected fractures analogous to crevassed Greenland outlet glaciers. The fractures are modified by ice flow, and freezing and melting of the water system. Simple mathematical analyses show trade offs between closure rates and melting rates that determine the englacial flowpaths. From numerical experiments, we show that the dominance of englacial flow follows the locations of both bed overdeepenings and areas where the basal water system is compressed dynamically. The preponderance of overdeependenings in Greenland suggests that englacial systems may be favored in critical areas of ice sheet flow. We conclude by relating the insights from the analytic and numerical results to the broad scale patterns of change of the Greenland Ice Sheet.

  20. Predicting favorable conditions for early leaf spot of peanut using output from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model.

    PubMed

    Olatinwo, Rabiu O; Prabha, Thara V; Paz, Joel O; Hoogenboom, Gerrit

    2012-03-01

    Early leaf spot of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), a disease caused by Cercospora arachidicola S. Hori, is responsible for an annual crop loss of several million dollars in the southeastern United States alone. The development of early leaf spot on peanut and subsequent spread of the spores of C. arachidicola relies on favorable weather conditions. Accurate spatio-temporal weather information is crucial for monitoring the progression of favorable conditions and determining the potential threat of the disease. Therefore, the development of a prediction model for mitigating the risk of early leaf spot in peanut production is important. The specific objective of this study was to demonstrate the application of the high-resolution Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model for management of early leaf spot in peanut. We coupled high-resolution weather output of the WRF, i.e. relative humidity and temperature, with the Oklahoma peanut leaf spot advisory model in predicting favorable conditions for early leaf spot infection over Georgia in 2007. Results showed a more favorable infection condition in the southeastern coastline of Georgia where the infection threshold were met sooner compared to the southwestern and central part of Georgia where the disease risk was lower. A newly introduced infection threat index indicates that the leaf spot threat threshold was met sooner at Alma, GA, compared to Tifton and Cordele, GA. The short-term prediction of weather parameters and their use in the management of peanut diseases is a viable and promising technique, which could help growers make accurate management decisions, and lower disease impact through optimum timing of fungicide applications.

  1. Predicting favorable conditions for early leaf spot of peanut using output from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olatinwo, Rabiu O.; Prabha, Thara V.; Paz, Joel O.; Hoogenboom, Gerrit

    2012-03-01

    Early leaf spot of peanut ( Arachis hypogaea L.), a disease caused by Cercospora arachidicola S. Hori, is responsible for an annual crop loss of several million dollars in the southeastern United States alone. The development of early leaf spot on peanut and subsequent spread of the spores of C. arachidicola relies on favorable weather conditions. Accurate spatio-temporal weather information is crucial for monitoring the progression of favorable conditions and determining the potential threat of the disease. Therefore, the development of a prediction model for mitigating the risk of early leaf spot in peanut production is important. The specific objective of this study was to demonstrate the application of the high-resolution Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model for management of early leaf spot in peanut. We coupled high-resolution weather output of the WRF, i.e. relative humidity and temperature, with the Oklahoma peanut leaf spot advisory model in predicting favorable conditions for early leaf spot infection over Georgia in 2007. Results showed a more favorable infection condition in the southeastern coastline of Georgia where the infection threshold were met sooner compared to the southwestern and central part of Georgia where the disease risk was lower. A newly introduced infection threat index indicates that the leaf spot threat threshold was met sooner at Alma, GA, compared to Tifton and Cordele, GA. The short-term prediction of weather parameters and their use in the management of peanut diseases is a viable and promising technique, which could help growers make accurate management decisions, and lower disease impact through optimum timing of fungicide applications.

  2. Optimization of fermentation condition favoring butanol production from glycerol by Clostridium pasteurianum DSM 525.

    PubMed

    Sarchami, Tahereh; Johnson, Erin; Rehmann, Lars

    2016-05-01

    Butanol is a promising biofuel and valuable platform chemical that can be produced through fermentative conversion of glycerol. The initial fermentation conditions for butanol production from pure glycerol by Clostridium pasteurianum DSM 525 were optimized via a central composite design. The effect of inoculum age, initial cell density, initial pH of medium and temperature were quantified and a quadratic model was able to predict butanol yield as a function of all four investigated factors. The model was confirmed through additional experiments and via analysis of variance (ANOVA). Subsequently, numerical optimization was used to maximize the butanol yield within the experimental range. Based on these results, batch fermentations in a 7 L bioreactor were performed using pure and crude (residue from biodiesel production) glycerol as substrates at optimized conditions. A butanol yield of 0.34 mole(butanol) mole(-1)(glycerol) was obtained indicating the suitability of this feedstock for fermentative butanol production.

  3. Asymmetric ecological conditions favor Red-Queen type of continued evolution over stasis.

    PubMed

    Nordbotten, Jan Martin; Stenseth, Nils C

    2016-02-16

    Four decades ago, Leigh Van Valen presented the Red Queen's hypothesis to account for evolution of species within a multispecies ecological community [Van Valen L (1973) Evol Theory 1(1):1-30]. The overall conclusion of Van Valen's analysis was that evolution would continue even in the absence of abiotic perturbations. Stenseth and Maynard Smith presented in 1984 [Stenseth NC, Maynard Smith J (1984) Evolution 38(4):870-880] a model for the Red Queen's hypothesis showing that both Red-Queen type of continuous evolution and stasis could result from a model with biotically driven evolution. However, although that contribution demonstrated that both evolutionary outcomes were possible, it did not identify which ecological conditions would lead to each of these evolutionary outcomes. Here, we provide, using a simple, yet general population-biologically founded eco-evolutionary model, such analytically derived conditions: Stasis will predominantly emerge whenever the ecological system contains only symmetric ecological interactions, whereas both Red-Queen and stasis type of evolution may result if the ecological interactions are asymmetrical, and more likely so with increasing degree of asymmetry in the ecological system (i.e., the more trophic interactions, host-pathogen interactions, and the like there are [i.e., +/- type of ecological interactions as well as asymmetric competitive (-/-) and mutualistic (+/+) ecological interactions]). In the special case of no between-generational genetic variance, our results also predict dynamics within these types of purely ecological systems.

  4. Asymmetric ecological conditions favor Red-Queen type of continued evolution over stasis

    PubMed Central

    Nordbotten, Jan Martin; Stenseth, Nils C.

    2016-01-01

    Four decades ago, Leigh Van Valen presented the Red Queen’s hypothesis to account for evolution of species within a multispecies ecological community [Van Valen L (1973) Evol Theory 1(1):1–30]. The overall conclusion of Van Valen’s analysis was that evolution would continue even in the absence of abiotic perturbations. Stenseth and Maynard Smith presented in 1984 [Stenseth NC, Maynard Smith J (1984) Evolution 38(4):870–880] a model for the Red Queen’s hypothesis showing that both Red-Queen type of continuous evolution and stasis could result from a model with biotically driven evolution. However, although that contribution demonstrated that both evolutionary outcomes were possible, it did not identify which ecological conditions would lead to each of these evolutionary outcomes. Here, we provide, using a simple, yet general population-biologically founded eco-evolutionary model, such analytically derived conditions: Stasis will predominantly emerge whenever the ecological system contains only symmetric ecological interactions, whereas both Red-Queen and stasis type of evolution may result if the ecological interactions are asymmetrical, and more likely so with increasing degree of asymmetry in the ecological system (i.e., the more trophic interactions, host–pathogen interactions, and the like there are [i.e., +/− type of ecological interactions as well as asymmetric competitive (−/−) and mutualistic (+/+) ecological interactions]). In the special case of no between-generational genetic variance, our results also predict dynamics within these types of purely ecological systems. PMID:26831108

  5. The Role of Imported Cases and Favorable Meteorological Conditions in the Onset of Dengue Epidemics

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Chuin-Shee; Wen, Tzai-Hung; Tsai, Kun-Hsien

    2010-01-01

    Background Travelers who acquire dengue infection are often routes for virus transmission to other regions. Nevertheless, the interplay between infected travelers, climate, vectors, and indigenous dengue incidence remains unclear. The role of foreign-origin cases on local dengue epidemics thus has been largely neglected by research. This study investigated the effect of both imported dengue and local meteorological factors on the occurrence of indigenous dengue in Taiwan. Methods and Principal Findings Using logistic and Poisson regression models, we analyzed bi-weekly, laboratory-confirmed dengue cases at their onset dates of illness from 1998 to 2007 to identify correlations between indigenous dengue and imported dengue cases (in the context of local meteorological factors) across different time lags. Our results revealed that the occurrence of indigenous dengue was significantly correlated with temporally-lagged cases of imported dengue (2–14 weeks), higher temperatures (6–14 weeks), and lower relative humidity (6–20 weeks). In addition, imported and indigenous dengue cases had a significant quantitative relationship in the onset of local epidemics. However, this relationship became less significant once indigenous epidemics progressed past the initial stage. Conclusions These findings imply that imported dengue cases are able to initiate indigenous epidemics when appropriate weather conditions are present. Early detection and case management of imported cases through rapid diagnosis may avert large-scale epidemics of dengue/dengue hemorrhagic fever. The deployment of an early-warning surveillance system, with the capacity to integrate meteorological data, will be an invaluable tool for successful prevention and control of dengue, particularly in non-endemic countries. PMID:20689820

  6. Energy Taxis Drives Campylobacter jejuni toward the Most Favorable Conditions for Growth ▿

    PubMed Central

    Vegge, Christina S.; Brøndsted, Lone; Li, Yi-Ping; Bang, Dang D.; Ingmer, Hanne

    2009-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a serious food-borne bacterial pathogen in the developed world. Poultry is a major reservoir, and C. jejuni appears highly adapted to the gastrointestinal tract of birds. Several factors are important for chicken colonization and virulence, including a taxis mechanism for environmental navigation. To explore the mechanism of chemotaxis in C. jejuni, we constructed mutants with deletions of five putative mcp (methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein) genes (tlp1, tlp2, tlp3, docB, and docC). Surprisingly, the deletions did not affect the chemotactic behavior of the mutants compared to that of the parental strain. However, the tlp1, tlp3, docB, and docC mutant strains displayed a 10-fold decrease in the ability to invade human epithelial and chicken embryo cells, hence demonstrating that the corresponding proteins affect the host interaction. l-Asparagine, formate, d-lactate, and chicken mucus were identified as new attractants of C. jejuni, and we observed that chemical substances promoting tactic attraction are all known to support the growth of this organism. The attractants could be categorized as carbon sources and electron donors and acceptors, and we furthermore observed a correlation between an attractant's potency and its efficiency as an energy source. The tactic attraction was inhibited by the respiratory inhibitors HQNO (2-n-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline N-oxide) and sodium azide, which significantly reduce energy production by oxidative phosphorylation. These findings strongly indicate that energy taxis is the primary force in environmental navigation by C. jejuni and that this mechanism drives the organism toward the optimal chemical conditions for energy generation and colonization. PMID:19542337

  7. Energy taxis drives Campylobacter jejuni toward the most favorable conditions for growth.

    PubMed

    Vegge, Christina S; Brøndsted, Lone; Li, Yi-Ping; Bang, Dang D; Ingmer, Hanne

    2009-08-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a serious food-borne bacterial pathogen in the developed world. Poultry is a major reservoir, and C. jejuni appears highly adapted to the gastrointestinal tract of birds. Several factors are important for chicken colonization and virulence, including a taxis mechanism for environmental navigation. To explore the mechanism of chemotaxis in C. jejuni, we constructed mutants with deletions of five putative mcp (methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein) genes (tlp1, tlp2, tlp3, docB, and docC). Surprisingly, the deletions did not affect the chemotactic behavior of the mutants compared to that of the parental strain. However, the tlp1, tlp3, docB, and docC mutant strains displayed a 10-fold decrease in the ability to invade human epithelial and chicken embryo cells, hence demonstrating that the corresponding proteins affect the host interaction. l-Asparagine, formate, d-lactate, and chicken mucus were identified as new attractants of C. jejuni, and we observed that chemical substances promoting tactic attraction are all known to support the growth of this organism. The attractants could be categorized as carbon sources and electron donors and acceptors, and we furthermore observed a correlation between an attractant's potency and its efficiency as an energy source. The tactic attraction was inhibited by the respiratory inhibitors HQNO (2-n-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline N-oxide) and sodium azide, which significantly reduce energy production by oxidative phosphorylation. These findings strongly indicate that energy taxis is the primary force in environmental navigation by C. jejuni and that this mechanism drives the organism toward the optimal chemical conditions for energy generation and colonization.

  8. Climatic and environmental conditions favoring the crossing of the Carpathians by early Neolithic populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perşoiu, Ioana; Perşoiu, Aurel

    2015-04-01

    The study of the origin and spread of Neolithic has been the subject of heated debate since the early studies of Childe (1942). To what extent the dispersal process was influenced by environmental factors is still debated, one of the issues being whether climatic conditions influencing agricultural practices, could have influenced the dispersal route, "blocking" some of the Neolithic societies in front of ecological barriers. Data from Neolithic sites in SE Europe shows that a continuous stream of people and cultures flowed through the Danube's Iron Gates towards Central Europe, while in the eastern part of Europe this process was delayed, people and cultures "moving" around the Carpathians and crossing them with a delay of ca. 1000 years. One of the possible avenues for this crossing is the floodplain of Someşu Mic River (Transylvanian depression), home to the oldest (~8500 cal. BP) Neolithic settlement in Romania. In this paper, we review the climatic and environmental changes that affected the region at the time of Neolithic dispersal. Pollen and stable isotopes in cave ice indicate an early Holocene rapid warming during summer months, peaking around 7 ka cal. BP; and a delayed warming for autumn and winter months, peaking at 5 ka cal. BP, both followed by a continuous cooling trend towards the present. Someşu Mic River developed and maintained a narrow sinuous channel during the Holocene, with local development of meanders and anabranches, in response to both climatic and geologic controlling factors. Archaeological finds in the floodplain and the lower terraces suggest that human societies in the region responded in sensitive manner to these climatic and environmental changes. During warm and dry periods, with low fluvial activity, the number of settlements increased in the floodplain's perimeter, while during the short cold and humid periods, the number of settlements rapidly increased on the lower terraces and on the valley slopes, disappearing from the

  9. Identification of Geomorphic Conditions Favoring Preservation of Multiple Individual Displacements Across Transform Faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, P. L.; Phillips, D. A.; Bowles-Martinez, E.; Masana, E.; Stepancikova, P.

    2010-12-01

    Terrestrial and airborne LiDAR data, and low altitude aerial photography have been utilized in conjunction with field work to identify and map single and multiple-event stream-offsets along all strands of the San Andreas fault in the Coachella Valley. Goals of the work are characterizing the range of displacements associated with the fault’s prehistoric surface ruptures, evaluating patterns of along-fault displacement, and disclosing processes associated with the prominent Banning-Mission Creek fault junction. Preservation offsets is associated with landscape conditions including: (1) well-confined and widely spaced source streams up-slope of the fault; (2) persistent geomorphic surfaces below the fault; (3) slope directions oriented approximately perpendicular to the fault. Notably, a pair of multiple-event offset sites have been recognized in coarse fan deposits below the Mission Creek fault near 1000 Palms oasis. Each of these sites is associated with a single source drainage oriented approximately perpendicular to the fault, and preserves a record of individual fault displacements affecting the southern portion of the Mission Creek branch of the San Andreas fault. The two sites individually record long (>10 event) slip-per-event histories. Documentation of the sites indicates a prevalence of moderate displacements and a small number of large offsets. This is consistent with evidence developed in systematic mapping of individual and multiple event stream offsets in the area extending 70 km south to Durmid Hill. Challenges to site interpretation include the presence of closely spaced en echelon fault branches and indications of stream avulsion in the area of the modern fault crossing. Conversely, strong bar and swale topography produce high quality offset indicators that can be identified across en echelon branches in most cases. To accomplish the detailed mapping needed to fully recover the complex yet well-preserved geomorphic features under investigation, a

  10. Use of RegCM gridded dataset for thunderstorm favorable conditions analysis over Poland—climatological approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walawender, Ewelina; Kielar, Rafał; Ustrnul, Zbigniew

    2017-01-01

    The paper analyzes equivalent data for a low density meteorological station network (spatially discontinuous data) and poor temporal homogeneity of thunderstorm observational data. Due to that, a Regional Climate Model (RegCM) dataset was tested. The Most Unstable Convective Available Potential Energy index value (MUCAPE) above the 200 J kg-1 threshold was selected as a predictor describing favorable conditions for the occurrence of thunderstorms. The quality of the dataset was examined through a comparison between model results and soundings from several aerological stations in Central Europe. Good, statistically significant (0.05 significance level) results were obtained through correlation analysis; the value of Pearson's correlation coefficient was above 0.8 in every single case. Then, using methods associated with gridded climatology, data series for 44 weather stations were derived and an analysis of correlation between RegCM modeled data and in situ thunderstorm observations was conducted with coefficients in the range of 0.75-0.90. The possibility of employing the dataset in thunderstorm climatology analysis was checked via a few examples by mapping monthly, seasonal, and annual means. Moreover, long-term variability and trend analysis along with modeled MUCAPE data were tested. As a result, the RegCM modeled MUCAPE gridded dataset was proposed as an easily available, suitable, and valuable predictor for thunderstorm climatology analysis and mapping. Finally, some limitations are discussed and recommendations for further improvements are given.

  11. Timing of favorable conditions, competition and fertility interact to govern recruitment of invasive Chinese tallow tree in stressful environments.

    PubMed

    Gabler, Christopher A; Siemann, Evan

    2013-01-01

    The rate of new exotic recruitment following removal of adult invaders (reinvasion pressure) influences restoration outcomes and costs but is highly variable and poorly understood. We hypothesize that broad variation in average reinvasion pressure of Triadica sebifera (Chinese tallow tree, a major invader) arises from differences among habitats in spatiotemporal availability of realized recruitment windows. These windows are periods of variable duration long enough to permit establishment given local environmental conditions. We tested this hypothesis via a greenhouse mesocosm experiment that quantified how the duration of favorable moisture conditions prior to flood or drought stress (window duration), competition and nutrient availability influenced Triadica success in high stress environments. Window duration influenced pre-stress seedling abundance and size, growth during stress and final abundance; it interacted with other factors to affect final biomass and germination during stress. Stress type and competition impacted final size and biomass, plus germination, mortality and changes in size during stress. Final abundance also depended on competition and the interaction of window duration, stress type and competition. Fertilization interacted with competition and stress to influence biomass and changes in height, respectively, but did not affect Triadica abundance. Overall, longer window durations promoted Triadica establishment, competition and drought (relative to flood) suppressed establishment, and fertilization had weak effects. Interactions among factors frequently produced different effects in specific contexts. Results support our 'outgrow the stress' hypothesis and show that temporal availability of abiotic windows and factors that influence growth rates govern Triadica recruitment in stressful environments. These findings suggest that native seed addition can effectively suppress superior competitors in stressful environments. We also describe

  12. Short-term favorable weather conditions are an important control of interannual variability in carbon and water fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zscheischler, Jakob; Fatichi, Simone; Wolf, Sebastian; Blanken, Peter D.; Bohrer, Gil; Clark, Kenneth; Desai, Ankur R.; Hollinger, David; Keenan, Trevor; Novick, Kimberly A.; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2016-08-01

    Ecosystem models often perform poorly in reproducing interannual variability in carbon and water fluxes, resulting in considerable uncertainty when estimating the land-carbon sink. While many aggregated variables (growing season length, seasonal precipitation, or temperature) have been suggested as predictors for interannual variability in carbon fluxes, their explanatory power is limited and uncertainties remain as to their relative contributions. Recent results show that the annual count of hours where evapotranspiration (ET) is larger than its 95th percentile is strongly correlated with the annual variability of ET and gross primary production (GPP) in an ecosystem model. This suggests that the occurrence of favorable conditions has a strong influence on the annual carbon budget. Here we analyzed data from eight forest sites of the AmeriFlux network with at least 7 years of continuous measurements. We show that for ET and the carbon fluxes GPP, ecosystem respiration (RE), and net ecosystem production, counting the "most active hours/days" (i.e., hours/days when the flux exceeds a high percentile) correlates well with the respective annual sums, with correlation coefficients generally larger than 0.8. Phenological transitions have much weaker explanatory power. By exploiting the relationship between most active hours and interannual variability, we classify hours as most active or less active and largely explain interannual variability in ecosystem fluxes, particularly for GPP and RE. Our results suggest that a better understanding and modeling of the occurrence of large values in high-frequency ecosystem fluxes will result in a better understanding of interannual variability of these fluxes.

  13. Short-term favorable weather conditions are an important control of interannual variability in carbon and water fluxes.

    PubMed

    Zscheischler, Jakob; Fatichi, Simone; Wolf, Sebastian; Blanken, Peter D; Bohrer, Gil; Clark, Kenneth; Desai, Ankur R; Hollinger, David; Keenan, Trevor; Novick, Kimberly A; Seneviratne, Sonia I

    2016-08-01

    Ecosystem models often perform poorly in reproducing interannual variability in carbon and water fluxes, resulting in considerable uncertainty when estimating the land-carbon sink. While many aggregated variables (growing season length, seasonal precipitation, or temperature) have been suggested as predictors for interannual variability in carbon fluxes, their explanatory power is limited and uncertainties remain as to their relative contributions. Recent results show that the annual count of hours where evapotranspiration (ET) is larger than its 95th percentile is strongly correlated with the annual variability of ET and gross primary production (GPP) in an ecosystem model. This suggests that the occurrence of favorable conditions has a strong influence on the annual carbon budget. Here we analyzed data from eight forest sites of the AmeriFlux network with at least 7 years of continuous measurements. We show that for ET and the carbon fluxes GPP, ecosystem respiration (RE), and net ecosystem production, counting the "most active hours/days" (i.e., hours/days when the flux exceeds a high percentile) correlates well with the respective annual sums, with correlation coefficients generally larger than 0.8. Phenological transitions have much weaker explanatory power. By exploiting the relationship between most active hours and interannual variability, we classify hours as most active or less active and largely explain interannual variability in ecosystem fluxes, particularly for GPP and RE. Our results suggest that a better understanding and modeling of the occurrence of large values in high-frequency ecosystem fluxes will result in a better understanding of interannual variability of these fluxes.

  14. Short-term favorable weather conditions are an important control of interannual variability in carbon and water fluxes

    DOE PAGES

    Zscheischler, Jakob; Fatichi, Simone; Wolf, Sebastian; ...

    2016-08-08

    Ecosystem models often perform poorly in reproducing interannual variability in carbon and water fluxes, resulting in considerable uncertainty when estimating the land-carbon sink. While many aggregated variables (growing season length, seasonal precipitation, or temperature) have been suggested as predictors for interannual variability in carbon fluxes, their explanatory power is limited and uncertainties remain as to their relative contributions. Recent results show that the annual count of hours where evapotranspiration (ET) is larger than its 95th percentile is strongly correlated with the annual variability of ET and gross primary production (GPP) in an ecosystem model. This suggests that the occurrence ofmore » favorable conditions has a strong influence on the annual carbon budget. Here we analyzed data from eight forest sites of the AmeriFlux network with at least 7 years of continuous measurements. We show that for ET and the carbon fluxes GPP, ecosystem respiration (RE), and net ecosystem production, counting the “most active hours/days” (i.e., hours/days when the flux exceeds a high percentile) correlates well with the respective annual sums, with correlation coefficients generally larger than 0.8. Phenological transitions have much weaker explanatory power. By exploiting the relationship between most active hours and interannual variability, we classify hours as most active or less active and largely explain interannual variability in ecosystem fluxes, particularly for GPP and RE. Our results suggest that a better understanding and modeling of the occurrence of large values in high-frequency ecosystem fluxes will result in a better understanding of interannual variability of these fluxes.« less

  15. Short-term favorable weather conditions are an important control of interannual variability in carbon and water fluxes

    SciTech Connect

    Zscheischler, Jakob; Fatichi, Simone; Wolf, Sebastian; Blanken, Peter D.; Bohrer, Gil; Clark, Kenneth; Desai, Ankur R.; Hollinger, David; Keenan, Trevor; Novick, Kimberly A.; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2016-08-08

    Ecosystem models often perform poorly in reproducing interannual variability in carbon and water fluxes, resulting in considerable uncertainty when estimating the land-carbon sink. While many aggregated variables (growing season length, seasonal precipitation, or temperature) have been suggested as predictors for interannual variability in carbon fluxes, their explanatory power is limited and uncertainties remain as to their relative contributions. Recent results show that the annual count of hours where evapotranspiration (ET) is larger than its 95th percentile is strongly correlated with the annual variability of ET and gross primary production (GPP) in an ecosystem model. This suggests that the occurrence of favorable conditions has a strong influence on the annual carbon budget. Here we analyzed data from eight forest sites of the AmeriFlux network with at least 7 years of continuous measurements. We show that for ET and the carbon fluxes GPP, ecosystem respiration (RE), and net ecosystem production, counting the “most active hours/days” (i.e., hours/days when the flux exceeds a high percentile) correlates well with the respective annual sums, with correlation coefficients generally larger than 0.8. Phenological transitions have much weaker explanatory power. By exploiting the relationship between most active hours and interannual variability, we classify hours as most active or less active and largely explain interannual variability in ecosystem fluxes, particularly for GPP and RE. Our results suggest that a better understanding and modeling of the occurrence of large values in high-frequency ecosystem fluxes will result in a better understanding of interannual variability of these fluxes.

  16. Favorable alleles for stem water-soluble carbohydrates identified by association analysis contribute to grain weight under drought stress conditions in wheat.

    PubMed

    Li, Weiyu; Zhang, Bin; Li, Runzhi; Chang, Xiaoping; Jing, Ruilian

    2015-01-01

    Drought is a major environmental constraint to crop distribution and productivity. Stem water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) buffer wheat grain yield against conditions unfavorable for photosynthesis during the grain filling stage. In this study, 262 winter wheat accessions and 209 genome-wide SSR markers were collected and used to undertake association analysis based on a mixed linear model (MLM). The WSC in different internodes at three growth stages and 1000-grain weight (TGW) were investigated under four environmental regimes (well-watered, drought stress during the whole growth period, and two levels of terminal drought stress imposed by chemical desiccation under the well-watered and drought stress during the whole growth period conditions). Under diverse drought stress conditions, WSC in lower internodes showed significant positive correlations with TGW, especially at the flowering stage under well-watered conditions and at grain filling under drought stress. Sixteen novel WSC-favorable alleles were identified, and five of them contributed to significantly higher TGW. In addition, pyramiding WSC favorable alleles was not only effective for obtaining accessions with higher WSC, but also for enhancing TGW under different water regimes. During the past fifty years of wheat breeding, WSC was selected incidentally. The average number of favorable WSC alleles increased from 1.13 in the pre-1960 period to 4.41 in the post-2000 period. The results indicate a high potential for using marker-assisted selection to pyramid WSC favorable alleles in improving WSC and TGW in wheat.

  17. Favorable Alleles for Stem Water-Soluble Carbohydrates Identified by Association Analysis Contribute to Grain Weight under Drought Stress Conditions in Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Li, Runzhi; Chang, Xiaoping; Jing, Ruilian

    2015-01-01

    Drought is a major environmental constraint to crop distribution and productivity. Stem water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) buffer wheat grain yield against conditions unfavorable for photosynthesis during the grain filling stage. In this study, 262 winter wheat accessions and 209 genome-wide SSR markers were collected and used to undertake association analysis based on a mixed linear model (MLM). The WSC in different internodes at three growth stages and 1000-grain weight (TGW) were investigated under four environmental regimes (well-watered, drought stress during the whole growth period, and two levels of terminal drought stress imposed by chemical desiccation under the well-watered and drought stress during the whole growth period conditions). Under diverse drought stress conditions, WSC in lower internodes showed significant positive correlations with TGW, especially at the flowering stage under well-watered conditions and at grain filling under drought stress. Sixteen novel WSC-favorable alleles were identified, and five of them contributed to significantly higher TGW. In addition, pyramiding WSC favorable alleles was not only effective for obtaining accessions with higher WSC, but also for enhancing TGW under different water regimes. During the past fifty years of wheat breeding, WSC was selected incidentally. The average number of favorable WSC alleles increased from 1.13 in the pre-1960 period to 4.41 in the post-2000 period. The results indicate a high potential for using marker-assisted selection to pyramid WSC favorable alleles in improving WSC and TGW in wheat. PMID:25768726

  18. The Pseudomonas fluorescens Siderophore Pyoverdine Weakens Arabidopsis thaliana Defense in Favor of Growth in Iron-Deficient Conditions1

    PubMed Central

    Trapet, Pauline; Avoscan, Laure; Klinguer, Agnès; Pateyron, Stéphanie; Chervin, Christian; Mazurier, Sylvie; Lemanceau, Philippe; Wendehenne, David; Besson-Bard, Angélique

    2016-01-01

    Pyoverdines are siderophores synthesized by fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. Under iron-limiting conditions, these high-affinity ferric iron chelators are excreted by bacteria in the soil to acquire iron. Pyoverdines produced by beneficial Pseudomonas spp. ameliorate plant growth. Here, we investigate the physiological incidence and mode of action of pyoverdine from Pseudomonas fluorescens C7R12 on Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants grown under iron-sufficient or iron-deficient conditions. Pyoverdine was provided to the medium in its iron-free structure (apo-pyoverdine), thus mimicking a situation in which it is produced by bacteria. Remarkably, apo-pyoverdine abolished the iron-deficiency phenotype and restored the growth of plants maintained in the iron-deprived medium. In contrast to a P. fluorescens C7R12 strain impaired in apo-pyoverdine production, the wild-type C7R12 reduced the accumulation of anthocyanins in plants grown in iron-deficient conditions. Under this condition, apo-pyoverdine modulated the expression of around 2,000 genes. Notably, apo-pyoverdine positively regulated the expression of genes related to development and iron acquisition/redistribution while it repressed the expression of defense-related genes. Accordingly, the growth-promoting effect of apo-pyoverdine in plants grown under iron-deficient conditions was impaired in iron-regulated transporter1 and ferric chelate reductase2 knockout mutants and was prioritized over immunity, as highlighted by an increased susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea. This process was accompanied by an overexpression of the transcription factor HBI1, a key node for the cross talk between growth and immunity. This study reveals an unprecedented mode of action of pyoverdine in Arabidopsis and demonstrates that its incidence on physiological traits depends on the plant iron status. PMID:26956666

  19. Are gestational age, birth weight, and birth length indicators of favorable fetal growth conditions? A structural equation analysis of Filipino infants.

    PubMed

    Bollen, Kenneth A; Noble, Mark D; Adair, Linda S

    2013-07-30

    The fetal origins hypothesis emphasizes the life-long health impacts of prenatal conditions. Birth weight, birth length, and gestational age are indicators of the fetal environment. However, these variables often have missing data and are subject to random and systematic errors caused by delays in measurement, differences in measurement instruments, and human error. With data from the Cebu (Philippines) Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey, we use structural equation models, to explore random and systematic errors in these birth outcome measures, to analyze how maternal characteristics relate to birth outcomes, and to take account of missing data. We assess whether birth weight, birth length, and gestational age are influenced by a single latent variable that we call favorable fetal growth conditions (FFGC) and if so, which variable is most closely related to FFGC. We find that a model with FFGC as a latent variable fits as well as a less parsimonious model that has birth weight, birth length, and gestational age as distinct individual variables. We also demonstrate that birth weight is more reliably measured than is gestational age. FFGCs were significantly influenced by taller maternal stature, better nutritional stores indexed by maternal arm fat and muscle area during pregnancy, higher birth order, avoidance of smoking, and maternal age 20-35 years. Effects of maternal characteristics on newborn weight, length, and gestational age were largely indirect, operating through FFGC. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Analysis of the hydrographic conditions and cyst beds in the San Jorge Gulf, Argentina, that favor dinoflagellate population development including toxigenic species and their toxins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krock, Bernd; Borel, C. Marcela; Barrera, Facundo; Tillmann, Urban; Fabro, Elena; Almandoz, Gastón O.; Ferrario, Martha; Garzón Cardona, John E.; Koch, Boris P.; Alonso, Cecilia; Lara, Rubén

    2015-08-01

    The overlay of cooler nutrient enriched Beagle-Magellan water with warmer nutrient depleted shelf water and a strong stratification of the water column in the San Jorge Gulf region, Argentina, coincided with relatively high dinoflagellate abundances in April 2012, up to 34,000 cells L- 1. This dinoflagellate proliferation was dominated by Ceratium spp., but environmental conditions also favored to a lesser amount the occurrence of toxigenic dinoflagellates, such as Alexandrium tamarense and Protoceratium reticulatum, whose toxins were hardly detected in any other areas along the expedition transect of the R/V Puerto Deseado between 38 and 56°S (Ushuaia-Mar del Plata) in March/April 2012. Generally vegetative cells of A. tamarense and P. reticulatum co-occurred with their respective phycotoxins in the water column and their cysts in the upper sediment layers. Two strains of A. tamarense were isolated from the bloom sample and morphologically characterized. Their PSP toxin profiles consisted of C1/2, gonyautoxins 1/4 and to a lesser amount of neosaxitoxin and confirmed earlier data from this region. The ratios between autotrophic picoplankton and heterotrophic bacteria were higher in shelf waters in the north than in Beagle-Magellan waters in the south of San Jorge Gulf.

  1. Piecewise Structural Equation Model (SEM) Disentangles the Environmental Conditions Favoring Diatom Diazotroph Associations (DDAs) in the Western Tropical North Atlantic (WTNA).

    PubMed

    Stenegren, Marcus; Berg, Carlo; Padilla, Cory C; David, Stefan-Sebastian; Montoya, Joseph P; Yager, Patricia L; Foster, Rachel A

    2017-01-01

    mesohaline salinities by het-1 and het-2, respectively. The use of the piecewise SEM to disentangle the complex and concomitant hydrography of the WTNA acting on two biogeochemically relevant populations was novel and underscores its use to predict conditions favoring abundance and distributions of microbial populations.

  2. Using geologic conditions and multiattribute decision analysis to determine the relative favorability of selected areas for siting a high-level radioactive waste repository

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, W.; Edgar, D.E.; Baker, C.H.; Buehring, W.A.; Whitfield, R.G.; Van Luik, A.E.J.; Sood, M.K.; Flower, M.F.J.; Warren, M.F.; Jusko, M.J.; Peerenboom, J.P.; Bogner, J.E.

    1988-05-01

    A method is presented for determining the relative favorability of geologically complex areas for isolating high-level radioactive wastes. In applying the method to the northeastern region of the United States, seismicity and tectonic activity were the screening criteria used to divide the region into three areas of increasing seismotectonic risk. Criteria were then used to subdivide the area of lowest seismotectonic risk into six geologically distinct subareas including characteristics, surface-water and groundwater hydrology, potential human intrusion, site geometry, surface characteristics, and tectonic environment. Decision analysis was then used to identify the subareas most favorable from a geologic standpoint for further investigation, with a view to selecting a site for a repository. Three subareas (parts of northeastern Vermont, northern New Hampshire, and western Maine) were found to be the most favorable, using this method and existing data. However, because this study assessed relative geologic favorability, no conclusions should be drawn concerning the absolute suitability of individual subareas for high-level radioactive waste isolation. 34 refs., 7 figs., 20 tabs.

  3. Les conditions d’hébergement favorables au rétablissement : perspective des usagers et usagères

    PubMed Central

    Piat, Myra; Boyer, Richard; Cloutier, Simon; Fleury, Marie-Josée; Lesage, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Cette recherche vise à mieux comprendre le rôle de l’hébergement dans le rétablissement des personnes vivant avec une maladie mentale grave. Quarante résidents et résidentes de différents types d’hébergement communautaire structuré ont été interrogés sur les conditions d’hébergement qui favorisent leur rétablissement. Les résultats indiquent qu’aux yeux des résidents et résidentes, les conditions matérielles d’existence ont une influence déterminante sur le rétablissement. Leurs préoccupations s’articulent autour des besoins de base tels que l’alimentation, le coût, les commodités et la qualité de leur hébergement. Les relations sociales avec leur entourage immédiat ont également une grande influence sur le rétablissement des personnes, lesquelles souhaitent d’abord conserver leurs modestes acquis, tant matériels que sociaux. Cette stabilité est prérequise à leur rétablissement. PMID:27099410

  4. Lowering the alemtuzumab dose in reduced intensity conditioning allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation is associated with a favorable early intense natural killer cell recovery.

    PubMed

    Gärtner, Frank; Hieke, Stefanie; Finke, Jürgen; Bertz, Hartmut

    2013-10-01

    The anti-CD52 monoclonal antibody alemtuzumab is employed in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) for the prevention of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). However, its optimal dosing in this setting has not been determined yet. We compared three different alemtuzumab dose levels in reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) alloHCT with respect to lymphocyte recovery and outcome. In 127 consecutive patients with predominantly advanced stage hematologic malignancies, a first alloHCT after RIC was performed, applying a fludarabine-based protocol (in 93% FBM: fludarabine, bis-chloroethyl-nitrosourea [BCNU], and melphalan). For GVHD prophylaxis, cyclosporine and alemtuzumab at three different dose levels (40 mg, 20 mg, 10 mg) were administered. Recovery of the peripheral blood (PB) lymphocyte sub-populations and clinical outcome were determined with regard to the alemtuzumab dose. Natural killer (NK) cell concentrations in PB around day +30 correlated inversely with the alemtuzumab dose, whereas other PB lymphocyte subtypes remained essentially unaffected by dosing of alemtuzumab. Lower alemtuzumab doses were associated with a tendency toward improved overall survival mainly during the early post-transplantation months. With regard to the PB NK cell concentration around day +30, "early intense NK cell reconstituters" tended to show an overall survival benefit. An alemtuzumab dose reduction to only 10-20 mg provides sufficient GVHD prophylaxis and supports improved NK cell regeneration early after alloHCT in PB ("NK cell saving effect"), which may have a positive effect on overall survival. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Favorable conditions noted for Australia shale oil

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    After brief descriptions of the Rundle, Condor, and Stuart/Kerosene Creek oil shale projects in Queensland, the competitive advantages of oil shale development and the state and federal governments' attitudes towards an oil shale industry in Australia are discussed. It is concluded that Australia is the ideal country in which to start an oil shale industry.

  6. Conditions Favoring Major Advances in Social Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deutsch, Karl W.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    Most of the 62 major advances in social sciences since 1900 have come from a few centers in the United States and England, had rapid effects, been produced by workers 35-45 years old, tended to be quantitative, interdisciplinary ideas stimulated by, and applied to, practical demands. (AL)

  7. Favor referential representations.

    PubMed

    Frazier, L; McNamara, P

    1995-06-01

    Avrutin and Hickok (1993) argue that agrammatic patients have the ability to represent nonreferential or "government" chains ("who ... e") but not referential or "binding" chains ("which girl ... e"). By contrast, we propose the "referential representation hypothesis," which suggests that agrammatics attempt to cope with their well-known capacity limitations by favoring referential or content-based representations. This predicts that agrammatic patients' performance should degrade noticeably as task demands increase, and referential demands should take priority over computational ones. In a semantic task, referential phrases should lead to better or more accurate performances. In syntactic tasks, the availability of a referential or content-based representation will interfere with the development of a syntactic representation, resulting in worse syntactic performance on the referential phrases than on nonreferential ones. This predicts that agrammatic patients should incorrectly accept (resumptive) pronoun sentences with a referential wh-phrase because the pronouns will find the semantic or discourse referent of the referential wh-phrase and take it as an antecedent for the pronoun. However, they should reject a (resumptive) pronoun in a sentence with the nonreferential question constituent "who" or "what." "Who" and "what" will remain in syntactic form, since they have only grammatical content and therefore will have only a "nonreferential" syntactic representation. Consequently, they cannot serve as the antecedent of the pronoun. These predictions were largely confirmed by the results of a grammaticality judgement study. Agrammatics performed well on questions with pragmatic biases but failed to distinguish reliably between grammatical and ungrammatical questions where pragmatic biases were neutralized. They assigned especially low ratings to object gap sentences with referential wh-constituents, as predicted. They assigned relatively high ratings to

  8. Promising reciprocity: When proposing a favor for a request increases compliance even if the favor is not accepted.

    PubMed

    Guéguen, Nicolas; Meineri, Sébastien; Ruiz, Clément; Pascual, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Research has reported that reciprocity is an important social norm in relationships. In previous studies on reciprocity, participants' behavior was examined after receiving a favor from someone. In a series of field studies, we examined the effect of a statement that proved that a solicitor was someone who respected this principle. Confederates solicited participants for money or a cigarette in exchange for stamps or money, respectively. It was found that the participants complied more readily with the request in the promised favor condition, but most of them refused to take the promised favor. We conclude that individuals were led to help those who respected the putative norm of reciprocity in their social interaction.

  9. GRIZZLY/FAVOR Interface Project Report

    SciTech Connect

    Dickson, Terry L; Williams, Paul T; Yin, Shengjun; Klasky, Hilda B; Tadinada, Sashi; Bass, Bennett Richard

    2013-06-01

    As part of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program, the objective of the GRIZZLY/FAVOR Interface project is to create the capability to apply GRIZZLY 3-D finite element (thermal and stress) analysis results as input to FAVOR probabilistic fracture mechanics (PFM) analyses. The one benefit of FAVOR to Grizzly is the PROBABILISTIC capability. This document describes the implementation of the GRIZZLY/FAVOR Interface, the preliminary verification and tests results and a user guide that provides detailed step-by-step instructions to run the program.

  10. Second Seminole War: Establishing Favorable Conditions for Conflict Resolution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-23

    Employment of the Force ............................................................................................................ 9 Legitimacy...people. Following the War of 1812, Major General Andrew Jackson invaded Spanish Florida to preempt Seminoles, former slaves, and British forces from...disagreed with contract terms, agents used duress and military force to gain consent. As Seminole leaders retaliated, agents declared the Seminoles as

  11. Minimum Favorable Conditions for Hydrogen-Diesel Combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Jacob Dylan

    A test apparatus was designed and fabricated that allowed very small amounts of diesel fuel to be injected into a hydrogen-air mixture. This apparatus was designed to be able to operate near the limits of diesel fuel injectors. The purpose of this apparatus is to find out if the injectors in diesel engines are capable of igniting a hydrogen-air mixture when operated at their limits and to explore past their limits for further advancement in the field of dual-fuel hydrogen-diesel combustion. The minimum flow rate of diesel fuel the apparatus could produce was 120.46 (cm3)/min and the fastest response time that could be achieved was 1 ms. Both of these parameters at least met the limits of the current diesel injection setups. The smallest mass of diesel fuel that could be injected was 15.7 mg. This mass produced combustion in the hydrogen-air mixture for all hydrogen concentrations and temperatures tested.

  12. To Form a Favorable Idea of Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heikkinen, Henry W.

    2010-01-01

    "To confess the truth, Mrs. B., I am not disposed to form a very favorable idea of chemistry, nor do I expect to derive much entertainment from it." That 200-year-old statement by Caroline to Mrs. Bryan, her teacher, appeared on the first page of Jane Marcet's pioneering secondary school textbook, "Conversations on Chemistry". It was published 17…

  13. New Study Says CAI May Favor Introverts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopmeier, George

    1981-01-01

    A personality research study using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator indicates that computer-assisted instruction programs favor introverts, i.e., those learners who can concentrate on details, memorize facts, and stay with a task until it is completed. (JJD)

  14. To Form a Favorable Idea of Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heikkinen, Henry W.

    2010-01-01

    "To confess the truth, Mrs. B., I am not disposed to form a very favorable idea of chemistry, nor do I expect to derive much entertainment from it." That 200-year-old statement by Caroline to Mrs. Bryan, her teacher, appeared on the first page of Jane Marcet's pioneering secondary school textbook, "Conversations on Chemistry". It was published 17…

  15. Familial risk factors favoring drug addiction onset.

    PubMed

    Zimić, Jadranka Ivandić; Jukić, Vlado

    2012-01-01

    This study, primarily aimed at identification of familial risk factors favoring drug addiction onset, was carried out throughout 2008 and 2009. The study comprised a total of 146 addicts and 134 control subjects. Based on the study outcome, it can be concluded that in the families the addicts were born into, familial risk factors capable of influencing their psychosocial development and favoring drug addiction onset had been statistically more frequently encountered during childhood and adolescence as compared to the controls. The results also indicated the need for further research into familial interrelations and the structure of the families addicts were born into, as well as the need for the implementation of family-based approaches to both drug addiction prevention and therapy.

  16. Favorable Progress of English Education in Japan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-20

    be a marvelous trigger for young children. Second, elementary school days are the right time to acquire proper pronunciation and better...listening capability. Some researchers say that below 12 or 13 years old is a favorable time to master natural pronunciation . They call this time...critical period”2. If they start to study English early, they will be able to acquire clear pronunciation and proper intonation. This time change

  17. On Favorable Thermal Fields for Detached Bridgman Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stelian, Carmen; Volz, Martin P.; Derby, Jeffrey J.

    2009-01-01

    The thermal fields of two Bridgman-like configurations, representative of real systems used in prior experiments for the detached growth of CdTe and Ge crystals, are studied. These detailed heat transfer computations are performed using the CrysMAS code and expand upon our previous analyses [14] that posited a new mechanism involving the thermal field and meniscus position to explain stable conditions for dewetted Bridgman growth. Computational results indicate that heat transfer conditions that led to successful detached growth in both of these systems are in accordance with our prior assertion, namely that the prevention of crystal reattachment to the crucible wall requires the avoidance of any undercooling of the melt meniscus during the growth run. Significantly, relatively simple process modifications that promote favorable thermal conditions for detached growth may overcome detrimental factors associated with meniscus shape and crucible wetting. Thus, these ideas may be important to advance the practice of detached growth for many materials.

  18. Children's need for favorable acoustics in schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Peggy B.

    2003-10-01

    Children continue to improve their understanding of speech in noise and reverberation throughout childhood and adolescence. They do not typically achieve adult performance levels until their late teenage years. As a result, schools that are designed to be acoustically adequate for adult understanding may be insufficient for full understanding by young children. In addition, children with hearing loss, those with attention problems, and those learning in a non-native language require even more favorable signal-to-noise ratios. This tutorial will review the literature gathered by the ANSl/ASA working group on classroom acoustics that shaped the recommendations of the working group. Special topics will include speech perception data from typically developing infants and children, from children with hearing loss, and from adults and children listening in a non-native language. In addition, the tutorial will overview recommendations contained within ANSI standard 12.60-2002: Acoustical Performance Criteria, Design Requirements, and Guidelines for Schools. The discussion will also include issues related to designing quiet classrooms and working with local schools and professionals.

  19. Favorable outcome of epileptic blindness in children.

    PubMed

    Shahar, Eli; Barak, Shai

    2003-01-01

    Acute blindness is a rare presentation of epileptic seizures, referring to loss of sight without loss of consciousness associated with electroencephalographic (EEG) epileptic discharges, mainly representing an ictal phase but also either pre- or postictal. We report a series of 14 children with documented epileptic blindness, describing the accompanying fits and thereafter the response to therapy to resolve the blindness and control associated seizures. All patients experienced episodes of acute complete visual obscuration lasting for 1 to 10 minutes. Seven patients hadaccompanying generalized seizures, with a photosensitive response recorded in three of them. All of these seven children were treated with valproic acid, regaining full vision, and six of them became seizure free. Three patients with acute blindness who had accompanying focal motor seizures and unilateral temporooccipital posterior epileptic discharges were treated with carbamazepine regained full vision and complete seizure control. Four additional children had the constellation of migrainous headaches, focal motor phenomena, and complete blindness, along with occipital discharges compatible with Gastaut syndrome, benign childhood epilepsy with occipital paroxysms. All four patients were started on carbamazepine and became asymptomatic. Our overall experience suggests that epileptic blindness in children is associated with a favorable outcome when promptly diagnosed and treated appropriately, resulting in complete resolution of blindness in all children and satisfactory control of seizures in most of them. We therefore recommend performing a prompt EEG in any child presenting with acute visual obscuration, even in the absence of other epileptic phenomena.

  20. Habitat heterogeneity favors asexual reproduction in natural populations of grassthrips

    PubMed Central

    Lavanchy, Guillaume; Strehler, Marie; Llanos Roman, Maria Noemi; Lessard‐Therrien, Malie; Humbert, Jean‐Yves; Dumas, Zoé; Jalvingh, Kirsten; Ghali, Karim; Fontcuberta García‐Cuenca, Amaranta; Zijlstra, Bart; Arlettaz, Raphaël; Schwander, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    Explaining the overwhelming success of sex among eukaryotes is difficult given the obvious costs of sex relative to asexuality. Different studies have shown that sex can provide benefits in spatially heterogeneous environments under specific conditions, but whether spatial heterogeneity commonly contributes to the maintenance of sex in natural populations remains unknown. We experimentally manipulated habitat heterogeneity for sexual and asexual thrips lineages in natural populations and under seminatural mesocosm conditions by varying the number of hostplants available to these herbivorous insects. Asexual lineages rapidly replaced the sexual ones, independently of the level of habitat heterogeneity in mesocosms. In natural populations, the success of sexual thrips decreased with increasing habitat heterogeneity, with sexual thrips apparently only persisting in certain types of hostplant communities. Our results illustrate how genetic diversity‐based mechanisms can favor asexuality instead of sex when sexual lineages co‐occur with genetically variable asexual lineages. PMID:27346066

  1. Salinity inversions in the thermocline under upwelling favorable winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burchard, Hans; Basdurak, N. Berkay; Gräwe, Ulf; Knoll, Michaela; Mohrholz, Volker; Müller, Selina

    2017-02-01

    This paper discusses and explains the phenomenon of salinity inversions in the thermocline offshore from an upwelling region during upwelling favorable winds. Using the nontidal central Baltic Sea as an easily accessible natural laboratory, high-resolution transect and station observations in the upper layers are analyzed. The data show local salinity minima in the strongly stratified seasonal thermocline during summer conditions under the influence of upwelling favorable wind. A simple analytical box model using parameters (including variation by means of a Monte Carlo method) estimated from a hindcast model for the Baltic Sea is constructed to explain the observations. As a result, upwelled water with high salinity and low temperature is warmed up due to downward surface heat fluxes while it is transported offshore by the Ekman transport. The warming of upwelled surface water allows maintenance of stable stratification despite the destabilizing salinity stratification, such that local salinity minima in the thermocline can be generated. Inspection of published observations from the Benguela, Peruvian, and eastern tropical North Atlantic upwelling systems shows that also there salinity inversions occur in the thermocline, but in these cases thermocline salinity shows local maxima, since upwelled water has a lower salinity than the surface water. It is hypothesized that thermocline salinity inversions should generally occur offshore from upwelling regions whenever winds are steady enough and surface warming is sufficiently strong.

  2. A Favorability Score for Vaginal Hysterectomy in a Statewide Collaborative.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Bethany D; Kamdar, Neil S; Mahnert, Nichole; Lim, Courtney S; Mullard, Andrew J; Campbell, Darrell A; As-Sanie, Sawsan; Morgan, Daniel M

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: Because it is associated with fewer complications and more rapid recovery, the vaginal approach is preferred for benign hysterectomy. Patient characteristics that traditionally favor a vaginal approach include adequate vaginal access, small uterine size, and low suspicion for extrauterine disease. However, the low proportion of hysterectomies performed vaginally in the United States suggests that these data are not routinely applied in clinical practice. We sought to analyze the association of parity, prior pelvic surgery, and uterine weight with the use of the vaginal, laparoscopic, robotic, and abdominal approaches to hysterectomy. A retrospective cohort study (Canadian Task Force classification II-2). The Michigan Surgical Quality Collaborative is a statewide organization of 52 academic and community hospitals in Michigan funded by Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Michigan/Blue Care Network, including patients from all insurance payers. Five thousand six hundred eight women undergoing hysterectomy for benign gynecologic conditions from January 1, 2013, through December 8, 2013, and included in the Michigan Surgical Quality Collaborative. To assess potential for vaginal hysterectomy, a favorability score of 0, 1, 2, or 3 was calculated by summing 1 point each for parity ≥1, no prior pelvic surgery, and uterine weight <250 g. Frequencies of surgical approaches to hysterectomy were compared using chi-square tests across favorability scores. The use of robotic hysterectomy was most frequent (41.9%, n = 2349/5608) followed by abdominal (19.7%, n = 1103/5608), laparoscopic (14.4%, n = 809/5608), vaginal (13.5%, n = 758/5608), and laparoscopic-assisted vaginal (10.5%, n = 589/5608) hysterectomy. With favorability scores of 0, 1, 2, and 3, vaginal hysterectomy was performed in 0.6% (n = 1/167), 5% (n = 66/1324), 13.7% (n = 415/3036), and 25.5% (n = 276/1081) of cases and abdominal hysterectomy in 41.9% (n = 70/167), 30.8% (n = 408

  3. Segue between Favorable and Unfavorable Solvation

    SciTech Connect

    Maibaum, Lutz; Chandler, David

    2007-03-21

    Solvation of small and large clusters are studied by simulation, considering a range of solvent-solute attractive energy strengths. Over a wide range of conditions, both for solvation in the Lennard-Jones liquid and in the SPC model of water, it is shown that the mean solvent density varies linearly with changes in solvent-solute adhesion or attractive energy strength. This behavior is understood from the perspective of Weeks theory of solvation [Ann. Rev. Phys. Chem. 2002, 53, 533] and supports theories based upon that perspective.

  4. Habitat heterogeneity favors asexual reproduction in natural populations of grassthrips.

    PubMed

    Lavanchy, Guillaume; Strehler, Marie; Llanos Roman, Maria Noemi; Lessard-Therrien, Malie; Humbert, Jean-Yves; Dumas, Zoé; Jalvingh, Kirsten; Ghali, Karim; Fontcuberta García-Cuenca, Amaranta; Zijlstra, Bart; Arlettaz, Raphaël; Schwander, Tanja

    2016-08-01

    Explaining the overwhelming success of sex among eukaryotes is difficult given the obvious costs of sex relative to asexuality. Different studies have shown that sex can provide benefits in spatially heterogeneous environments under specific conditions, but whether spatial heterogeneity commonly contributes to the maintenance of sex in natural populations remains unknown. We experimentally manipulated habitat heterogeneity for sexual and asexual thrips lineages in natural populations and under seminatural mesocosm conditions by varying the number of hostplants available to these herbivorous insects. Asexual lineages rapidly replaced the sexual ones, independently of the level of habitat heterogeneity in mesocosms. In natural populations, the success of sexual thrips decreased with increasing habitat heterogeneity, with sexual thrips apparently only persisting in certain types of hostplant communities. Our results illustrate how genetic diversity-based mechanisms can favor asexuality instead of sex when sexual lineages co-occur with genetically variable asexual lineages. © 2016 The Author(s) Evolution published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  5. Coevolution of robustness, epistasis, and recombination favors asexual reproduction.

    PubMed

    MacCarthy, Thomas; Bergman, Aviv

    2007-07-31

    The prevalence of sexual reproduction remains one of the most perplexing phenomena in evolutionary biology. The deterministic mutation hypothesis postulates that sexual reproduction will be advantageous under synergistic epistasis, a condition in which mutations cause a greater reduction in fitness when combined than would be expected from their individual effects. The inverse condition, antagonistic epistasis, correspondingly is predicted to favor asexual reproduction. To assess this hypothesis, we introduce a finite population evolutionary process that combines a recombination modifier formalism with a gene-regulatory network model. We demonstrate that when reproductive mode and epistasis are allowed to coevolve, asexual reproduction outcompetes sexual reproduction. In addition, no correlation is found between the level of synergistic epistasis and the fixation time of the asexual mode. However, a significant correlation is found between the level of antagonistic epistasis and asexual mode fixation time. This asymmetry can be explained by the greater reduction in fitness imposed by sexual reproduction as compared with asexual reproduction. Our findings present evidence and suggest plausible explanations that challenge both the deterministic mutation hypothesis and recent arguments asserting the importance of emergent synergistic epistasis in the maintenance of sexual reproduction.

  6. Competition favors elk over beaver in a riparian willow ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baker, B.W.; Peinetti, H.R.; Coughenour, M.C.; Johnson, T.L.

    2012-01-01

    Beaver (Castor spp.) conservation requires an understanding of their complex interactions with competing herbivores. Simulation modeling offers a controlled environment to examine long-term dynamics in ecosystems driven by uncontrollable variables. We used a new version of the SAVANNA ecosystem model to investigate beaver (C. Canadensis) and elk (Cervus elapses) competition for willow (Salix spp.). We initialized the model with field data from Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, USA, to simulate a 4-ha riparian ecosystem containing beaver, elk, and willow. We found beaver persisted indefinitely when elk density was or = 30 elk km_2. The loss of tall willow preceded rapid beaver declines, thus willow condition may predict beaver population trajectory in natural environments. Beaver were able to persist with slightly higher elk densities if beaver alternated their use of foraging sites in a rest-rotation pattern rather than maintained continuous use. Thus, we found asymmetrical competition for willow strongly favored elk over beaver in a simulated montane ecosystem. Finally, we discuss application of the SAVANNA model and mechanisms of competition relative to beaver persistence as metapopulations, ecological resistance and alternative state models, and ecosystem regulation.

  7. Most Americans Favor Larger Health Warnings on Cigarette Packs

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Most Americans Favor Larger Health Warnings on Cigarette Packs Even many smokers think these warnings should ... 31, 2017 FRIDAY, March 31, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Cigarette packs carry health warnings, but many Americans think ...

  8. 18 CFR 706.303 - Gifts, entertainment, and favors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... solicit from a person having business with the Council anything of value as a gift, gratuity, loan, entertainment, or favor for himself or another person, particularly one with whom he has family, business,...

  9. Ground states of stealthy hyperuniform potentials: I. Entropically favored configurations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, G; Stillinger, F H; Torquato, S

    2015-08-01

    Systems of particles interacting with "stealthy" pair potentials have been shown to possess infinitely degenerate disordered hyperuniform classical ground states with novel physical properties. Previous attempts to sample the infinitely degenerate ground states used energy minimization techniques, introducing algorithmic dependence that is artificial in nature. Recently, an ensemble theory of stealthy hyperuniform ground states was formulated to predict the structure and thermodynamics that was shown to be in excellent agreement with corresponding computer simulation results in the canonical ensemble (in the zero-temperature limit). In this paper, we provide details and justifications of the simulation procedure, which involves performing molecular dynamics simulations at sufficiently low temperatures and minimizing the energy of the snapshots for both the high-density disordered regime, where the theory applies, as well as lower densities. We also use numerical simulations to extend our study to the lower-density regime. We report results for the pair correlation functions, structure factors, and Voronoi cell statistics. In the high-density regime, we verify the theoretical ansatz that stealthy disordered ground states behave like "pseudo" disordered equilibrium hard-sphere systems in Fourier space. The pair statistics obey certain exact integral conditions with very high accuracy. These results show that as the density decreases from the high-density limit, the disordered ground states in the canonical ensemble are characterized by an increasing degree of short-range order and eventually the system undergoes a phase transition to crystalline ground states. In the crystalline regime (low densities), there exist aperiodic structures that are part of the ground-state manifold but yet are not entropically favored. We also provide numerical evidence suggesting that different forms of stealthy pair potentials produce the same ground-state ensemble in the zero

  10. Experimental Investigation of a Supersonic Boundary Layer Including Favorable Pressure Gradient Effects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-21

    United States Government. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF A SUPERSONIC BOUNDARY LAYER INCLUDING FAVORABLE PRESSURE GRADIENT EFFECTS THESIS Presented to...flow to be disturbed from its original state . Aside from providing a non-intrusive method of measurement, LDV has the advantage of measuring the...providing some useful test of turbulence modeling. 4. Well-defined experimental boundary conditions: All incoming conditions (especially the state of

  11. Short-term oral toxicity study of FAVOR PAC in rats.

    PubMed

    Haselbach, J; Hey, S; Berner, T

    2000-12-01

    A short-term rat feeding study was conducted to evaluate the oral toxicity of FAVOR PAC (CAS Registry No. 9003-04-7), one member of a family of cross-linked sodium polyacrylate polymers developed by Stockhausen GmbH & Co KG (Krefeld, Germany). FAVOR polymers are classified as superabsorbent polymers because of their ability to absorb and retain large volumes of fluid. In this short-term study, three groups of 10 male and 10 female Sprague-Dawley rats were administered 0 (control), 1, or 5% FAVOR PAC in the diet daily for up to 32 days. No significant changes in clinical signs, body weight and food consumption, functional observation battery results, ophthalmoscopy, hematology and clinical chemistries, or absolute and relative organ weights were observed. Significant differences between treated and control animals were limited to increases in water consumption and modifications in urinary ionic excretion. Both findings were likely the result of the relatively high concentration of sodium in the test article, and thus consistent with adaptive physiologic changes, not overt toxicity. In conclusion, levels of up to 5% FAVOR PAC in the diet produced no treatment-related toxicity in rats under the conditions of this short-term test (i.e., a NOAEL of 5% FAVOR PAC in the diet was identified).

  12. What favors the occurrence of subduction mega-earthquakes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brizzi, Silvia; Funiciello, Francesca; Corbi, Fabio; Sandri, Laura; van Zelst, Iris; Heuret, Arnauld; Piromallo, Claudia; van Dinther, Ylona

    2017-04-01

    Most of mega-earthquakes (MEqs; Mw > 8.5) occur at shallow depths along the subduction thrust fault (STF). The contribution of each subduction zone to the globally released seismic moment is not homogenous, as well as the maximum recorded magnitude MMax. Highlighting the ingredients likely responsible for MEqs nucleation has great implications for hazard assessment. In this work, we investigate the conditions favoring the occurrence of MEqs with a multi-disciplinary approach based on: i) multivariate statistics, ii) analogue- and iii) numerical modelling. Previous works have investigated the potential dependence between STF seismicity and various subduction zone parameters using simple regression models. Correlations are generally weak due to the limited instrumental seismic record and multi-parameter influence, which make the forecasting of the potential MMax rather difficult. To unravel the multi-parameter influence, we perform a multivariate statistical study (i.e., Pattern Recognition, PR) of the global database on convergent margins (Heuret et al., 2011), which includes seismological, geometrical, kinematic and physical parameters of 62 subduction segments. PR is based on the classification of objects (i.e., subduction segments) belonging to different classes through the identification of possible repetitive patterns. Tests have been performed using different MMax datasets and combination of inputs to indirectly test the stability of the identified patterns. Results show that the trench-parallel width of the subducting slab (Wtrench) and the sediment thickness at the trench (Tsed) are the most recurring parameters for MEqs occurrence. These features are mostly consistent, independently of the MMax dataset and combination of inputs used for the analysis. MEqs thus seem to be promoted for high Wtrench and Tsed, as their combination may potentially favor extreme (i.e., in the order of thousands of km) trench-parallel rupture propagation. To tackle the

  13. Conservatism in least favorable response analysis and testing

    SciTech Connect

    Paez, T L

    1980-01-01

    In order to assure that mechanical structures can meet design requirements it is desirable to test a structure using an input which is conservative but not a severe overtest. One method available for the specification of shock tests is the method of least favorable response. This method can be used analytically or in the laboratory and is guaranteed to provide tests which are conservative, at least in one sense. When the impulse response function, or equivalently the frequency response function, is available between a point of interest on a structure and the input point of the structure, and when we know the real function which envelops the modulus of the Fourier transform of all possible inputs which might excite the structure, then the method of least favorable response can be used to find an upper bound on the response which the point of interest on the structure can realize. We use this in the analysis of structural peak response. In the laboratory the least favorable response is generated experimentally, for example, by testing the structural unit on a shake table. If the structure survives the laboratory test, then we assume that it could survive any input in the class of inputs whose Fourier transform moduli are enveloped by the function used in the analysis. The objective of this study was to analyze the inherent conservatism of the method of least favorable response. A technique that can be used to do this is demonstrated. First, the method of least favorable response is reviewed and how it is used analytically and experimentally is demonstrated. Next the technique used to measure the conservatism in a least favorable response test is developed. Finally, the method is applied in some numerical examples where the degree of conservatism in the tests of some specific structures is measured. (LCL)

  14. 19 CFR 200.735-105 - Gifts, entertainment, and favors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Section 200.735-105 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT Provisions Governing Ethical and Other Conduct and Responsibilities of Employees § 200.735... employee may solicit or accept, directly or indirectly, any gift, gratuity, favor, entertainment, loan,...

  15. 19 CFR 200.735-105 - Gifts, entertainment, and favors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Section 200.735-105 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT Provisions Governing Ethical and Other Conduct and Responsibilities of Employees § 200.735... employee may solicit or accept, directly or indirectly, any gift, gratuity, favor, entertainment, loan,...

  16. 19 CFR 200.735-105 - Gifts, entertainment, and favors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Section 200.735-105 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT Provisions Governing Ethical and Other Conduct and Responsibilities of Employees § 200.735... employee may solicit or accept, directly or indirectly, any gift, gratuity, favor, entertainment, loan,...

  17. 11 CFR 7.8 - Gifts, entertainment, and favors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Employees or Commissioners § 7.8 Gifts, entertainment, and favors. (a) A Commissioner or employee of the... affected by the performance or nonperformance of the Commissioner or employee's official duty. (b... persons concerned which are the motivating factors; (2) To the acceptance of food, refreshments,...

  18. 19 CFR 200.735-105 - Gifts, entertainment, and favors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Section 200.735-105 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT Provisions Governing Ethical and Other Conduct and Responsibilities of Employees § 200.735... employee may solicit or accept, directly or indirectly, any gift, gratuity, favor, entertainment, loan,...

  19. 18 CFR 706.202 - Gifts, entertainment, and favors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT Conduct and Responsibilities of Employees § 706.202 Gifts, entertainment, and favors. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, an employee shall... to: (1) Obvious family or personal relationships, such as those between the employee and his...

  20. 22 CFR 1203.735-305 - Gifts, entertainment, and favors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Gifts, entertainment, and favors. 1203.735-305 Section 1203.735-305 Foreign Relations UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT COOPERATION AGENCY EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT Ethical and Other Conduct and Responsibilities of Special Government Employees § 1203...

  1. Increasing long term response by selecting for favorable minor alleles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Long-term response of genomic selection can be improved by considering allele frequencies of selected markers or quantitative trait loci (QTLs). A previous formula to weight allele frequency of favorable minor alleles was tested, and 2 new formulas were developed. The previous formula used nonlinear...

  2. 22 CFR 1203.735-305 - Gifts, entertainment, and favors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Gifts, entertainment, and favors. 1203.735-305 Section 1203.735-305 Foreign Relations UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT COOPERATION AGENCY EMPLOYEE... the Constitution and in 5 U.S.C. 7342, and the regulations promulgated thereunder pursuant to...

  3. 22 CFR 1203.735-305 - Gifts, entertainment, and favors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Gifts, entertainment, and favors. 1203.735-305 Section 1203.735-305 Foreign Relations UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT COOPERATION AGENCY EMPLOYEE... the Constitution and in 5 U.S.C. 7342, and the regulations promulgated thereunder pursuant to...

  4. Preschoolers Reduce Inequality While Favoring Individuals with More

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Vivian; Spitzer, Brian; Olson, Kristina R.

    2014-01-01

    Inequalities are everywhere, yet little is known about how children respond to people affected by inequalities. This article explores two responses--minimizing inequalities and favoring those who are advantaged by them. In Studies 1a (N = 37) and 1b (N = 38), 4- and 5-year-olds allocated a resource to a disadvantaged recipient, but judged…

  5. An Evaluation of the Favorable Alternate Sites Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kogan, Deborah; Vencill, Mary

    This final report describes and evaluates the Favorable Alternate Sites Project (FASP), developed in response to the oversettlement of refugees (particularly Southeast Asian refugees) in particular areas of the country. The project's goals were to reduce welfare dependency, increase the ability of FASP refugees to be self-supporting, and reduce…

  6. 12 CFR 560.110 - Most favored lender usury preemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 560.110 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LENDING AND INVESTMENT Lending and Investment Provisions Applicable to all Savings Associations § 560.110 Most favored... lending institution by the law of that state. If state law permits different interest charges on specified...

  7. Filtering the Net in Libraries: The Case (Mostly) in Favor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Michael A.

    1998-01-01

    Examines issues and decision-making involved in restricting Internet access in libraries, for the most part favoring filtering devices. Questions to consider when selecting a filtering program are provided. Some of the better filtering programs are described, and Web addresses are included for each. Security risks associated with Java and…

  8. Filtering the Net in Libraries: The Case (Mostly) in Favor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Michael A.

    1998-01-01

    Examines issues and decision-making involved in restricting Internet access in libraries, for the most part favoring filtering devices. Questions to consider when selecting a filtering program are provided. Some of the better filtering programs are described, and Web addresses are included for each. Security risks associated with Java and…

  9. 25 CFR 700.519 - Gifts, entertainment and favors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Employee Responsibility and Conduct § 700.519 Gifts, entertainment and favors. (a) Acceptance of gratuities... individuals with whom Commission employees do business. This prohibition extends to the acceptance of meals and refreshments offered by individuals conducting or seeking business with the Commission...

  10. A favorable effect of hydroxychloroquine on glucose and lipid metabolism beyond its anti-inflammatory role.

    PubMed

    Hage, Mirella P; Al-Badri, Marwa R; Azar, Sami T

    2014-08-01

    Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), a commonly used antimalarial drug in rheumatic diseases, has shown favorable metabolic effects on both glucose control and lipid profiles. We describe a case of a young woman with type 1 diabetes whose glycemic control was optimized with the introduction of HCQ as a treatment for her Sjogren syndrome in addition to a subtle yet measurable improvement in her lipid profile. An increasing body of evidence supports the beneficial impacts of HCQ in various ancillary conditions, including diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia. However, mechanisms of action responsible for these effects remain ill-defined and may include alterations in insulin metabolism and signaling through cellular receptors. These favorable metabolic effects of HCQ and further understanding of underlying mechanisms may provide an additional rational for its use in rheumatic diseases, conditions associated with an elevated cardiovascular risk.

  11. Multimodality therapy of favorable prognosis non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Corder, M.P.; Leimert, J.T.; Tewfik, H.H.; Lovett, J.M.

    1983-07-01

    Twenty-seven previously untreated patients with favorable prognosis non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were treated with a combination of total body irradiation followed by cyclophosphamide - vincristine - prednisone (CVP). The dose of total body irradiation was planned to be 150 rad followed by 6 cycles of chemotherapy. The complete response rate was 59%; the complete plus partial response rate, 93%. The 50% disease-free survival was 8 months. The actuarial projected 5 year survival was 60% and the disease-free survival at 5 years was 27%. The program was well tolerated by the majority of patients. It is possible for some patients with favorable non-Hodgkin's lymphomas to achieve prolonged periods of disesase-free survival when treated with combinations of irradiation plus chemotherapy.

  12. Design integration of favorable geometry, structural support and containment

    SciTech Connect

    Purcell, J.A.; McGehee, G.A.

    1991-07-01

    In designs for fissile processes at Savannah River site, different approaches have been used to provide engineered margins of safety for criticality with containment and seismic resistance as additional requirements. These requirements are frequently at odds in engineered systems. This paper proposes a plan to take advantage of vessels with favorable geometry to provide seismic resistance and to support a glovebox for containment. Thin slab tanks, small diameter pencil tanks, annular tanks, and other novel designs have been used for criticality safety. The requirement for DBE seismic resistance and rigid control of dimensions leads the designer to consider annular tanks for meeting these requirements. The high strength of annular tanks may logically be used to support secondary containment. Hands-on access to all instruments, piping etc. within containment can be provided through gloveports, thus a specialized glovebox. This paper examines the advantages of using an annular tank design to provide favorable geometry, structural support and containment.

  13. Design integration of favorable geometry, structural support and containment

    SciTech Connect

    Purcell, J.A.; McGehee, G.A.

    1991-07-01

    In designs for fissile processes at Savannah River site, different approaches have been used to provide engineered margins of safety for criticality with containment and seismic resistance as additional requirements. These requirements are frequently at odds in engineered systems. This paper proposes a plan to take advantage of vessels with favorable geometry to provide seismic resistance and to support a glovebox for containment. Thin slab tanks, small diameter pencil tanks, annular tanks, and other novel designs have been used for criticality safety. The requirement for DBE seismic resistance and rigid control of dimensions leads the designer to consider annular tanks for meeting these requirements. The high strength of annular tanks may logically be used to support secondary containment. Hands-on access to all instruments, piping etc. within containment can be provided through gloveports, thus a specialized glovebox. This paper examines the advantages of using an annular tank design to provide favorable geometry, structural support and containment.

  14. Contact line pinning favors the mass production of monodisperse microbubbles.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordillo, Jose Manuel; Campo-Cortes, Francisco; Riboux, Guillaume

    2015-11-01

    A robust method for the generation of phospholipid covered monodisperse microbubbles of diameters ~10 microns at production rates exceeding 0.1 MHz, is presented here. We show that bubbles are periodically formed from the tip of a long and thin gas ligament stabilized thanks to both the strong favorable pressure gradient existing at the entrance region of a long rectangular PDMS-PDMS channel and to the pinning of the gas-liquid interface at a centered groove of several microns width placed on one of its walls. Moreover, the long exit channel incorporated in our design, favors the transport of phospholipid molecules towards the gas-liquid interface. Our experiments show that the resulting phospholipid shell inhibit both the diffusion of the gas in the surrounding liquid as well as the coalescence between contacting bubbles. These evidences indicate that the proposed method is suitable for the generation of monodisperse microbubbles for diagnosis or therapeutical applications.

  15. Autophagy favors Brucella melitensis survival in infected macrophages.

    PubMed

    Guo, Fei; Zhang, Hui; Chen, Chuangfu; Hu, Shengwei; Wang, Yuanzhi; Qiao, Jun; Ren, Yan; Zhang, Ke; Wang, Yong; Du, Guoqing

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated the role of autophagy in the survival of the invasive bacterium Brucella melitensis strain 16M in murine macrophages. Here, Brucella melitensis 16M was found to trigger autophagosome formation, enhance autophagy flux and increase the expression level of the autophagy marker protein LC3-II. When autophagy was pharmacologically inhibited by 3-methyladenine (3-MA), Brucella replication efficiency was significantly decreased (p < 0.05). These results suggest that autophagy favors Brucella melitensis 16M survival in murine macrophages.

  16. Structured mixed phase is favored in neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Christiansen, Michael B.; Glendenning, Norman K.

    2003-01-01

    We give a general thermodynamical argument showing that in neutron stars, the Coulomb structured mixed phase is always favored for any first order phase transition involving systems in equilibrium with baryon number and electric charge as the two independent components. This finding is likely to have important consequences for many neutron star properties, e.g., glitch phenomena, transport and superfluid properties, r-mode instabilities, and the braking index.

  17. Bioactive, mechanically favorable, and biodegradable copolymer nanocomposites for orthopedic applications.

    PubMed

    Victor, Sunita Prem; Muthu, Jayabalan

    2014-06-01

    We report the synthesis of mechanically favorable, bioactive, and biodegradable copolymer nanocomposites for potential bone applications. The nanocomposites consist of in situ polymerized biodegradable copolyester with hydroxyapatite (HA). Biodegradable copolyesters comprise carboxy terminated poly(propylene fumarate) (CT-PPF) and poly(trimethylol propane fumarate co mannitol sebacate) (TF-Co-MS). Raman spectral imaging clearly reveals a uniform homogenous distribution of HA in the copolymer matrix. The mechanical studies reveal that improved mechanical properties formed when crosslinked with methyl methacrylate (MMA) when compared to N-vinyl pyrrolidone (NVP). The SEM micrographs of the copolymer nanocomposites reveal a serrated structure reflecting higher mechanical strength, good dispersion, and good interfacial bonding of HA in the polymer matrix. In vitro degradation of the copolymer crosslinked with MMA is relatively more than that of NVP and the degradation decreases with an increase in the amount of the HA filler. The mechanically favorable and degradable MMA based nanocomposites also have favorable bioactivity, blood compatibility, cytocompatibility and cell adhesion. The present nanocomposite is a more promising material for orthopedic applications.

  18. Metabolomic evaluation of conditions favoring mycotoxin production in isolates of Fusarium fungi

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Several species of Fusarium have the potential to produce secondary metabolites that have been identified as mycotoxins. Mycotoxins are often found in plants that serve as hosts for invasive fungi. Toxicity can serve as a mechanism for imparting virulence to invasive fungi, and can cause toxicity in...

  19. Do captive conditions favor shedding of parasites in the reared Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus)?

    PubMed

    Mladineo, I; Segvić, T; Petrić, M

    2011-01-01

    Tuna (Thunnus spp.) has been characterized by long distance migrations, highly predatory behavior and longevity, all of which in turn, enable infections with a wide spectrum of different parasitic groups, reflecting in a remarkable diversity of tuna parasite communities. Since 2003, we have been monitoring parasite communities of Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) that are caught from the wild and transferred into cages during spring-summer months, as well as assemblages in fish that exit rearing cycle during the winter harvest period after 1.5 years. Interestingly in reared tuna, parasitic populations exhibit a significant decreasing trend at the end of the rearing cycle, rarely observed in other intensive productions that represent a suitable environment for the emergence, establishment and transmission of pathogens. In order to assess epizootiological behavior of tuna parasites assemblages at the beginning (B group) and at the end (A group) of 1.5 year rearing cycle, we examined data on parasite prevalence and abundance over 4 years. The aim was to evaluate parasite diversity indices and emerging differences between newly caught and harvested fish, as well as community compositions and their nestedness in respect to the event in the rearing cycle (capture or harvest time). In order to be able to predict classification of tuna in two categories (newly caught or heavily infected and harvested or less infected fish), based on empirical didymozoids abundances and year of sampling, we built a decision tree model. Results suggest that specificities of parasite assemblages and their dynamics in tuna before and after farming have no similar precedents in aquaculture. A trend of parasitic pauperization repeating in each rearing cycle over four-years time, in once diverse and species rich parasite communities is observed, however, structures of both B and A group rearing assemblages remain nested, with the same species being core parasites (Didymosulcus katsuwonicola and Koellikerioides intestinalis). The B group exhibited significantly higher total parasite richness and mean parasites abundance, as well as the heteroxenous species richness and abundance in comparison to A group, where monoxenous species were not recorded at all. Eleven parasite species out of 26 taxa were selected as important in discriminating between B and A groups' parasites assemblages, while significantly the most abundant in B group were D. katsuwonicola, Platocystis alalongae, K. intestinalis, Koellikerioides internogastricus, Didymocystis abdominalis and Anisakis sp. It is hard to postulate the combination of factors affecting these parasite populations, but environmental, anthropogenic or host intrinsic influence has to be taken into account for further investigation.

  20. Full-Tree Skidding Favors Black Spruce Reproduction Under Certain Peatland Conditions

    Treesearch

    William F. Johnston

    1980-01-01

    Two trials on different sites indicate that clearcut black spruce reproduces well after full-tree skidding only on nonbrushy sites that have fairly abundant sphagnum seedbeds and adequate natural seeding.

  1. Cruzipain, a major Trypanosoma cruzi antigen, conditions the host immune response in favor of parasite.

    PubMed

    Giordanengo, Laura; Guiñazú, Natalia; Stempin, Cinthia; Fretes, Ricardo; Cerbán, Fabio; Gea, Susana

    2002-04-01

    We recently demonstrated that humoral immune response to cruzipain, a major antigen of Trypanosoma cruzi parasite, is implicated in the pathogenesis of experimental Chagas' disease. In the present study, the spleen cell phenotype and the cytokine profile induced by cruzipain in immunized mice were analyzed. The results showed that cruzipain increases the number of spleen cells with large size and granularity. Splenocyte populations with CD19(+), Mac-1(+), Gr-1(+) and CD11c(+) positive surface markers significantly increased in immune mice compared to controls ones. Histological study revealed the presence of high number of megacariocyte and granulocyte-macrophage progenitors, indicating extramedullary hemopoiesis in spleens of immune mice. The finding of high levels of IL-4, IL5 and IL-10 and low levels of IFN-gamma and IL-12 in supernatants of immune cells stimulated with cruzipain indicates a preferential activation of T2 type cells in immune animals. To investigate the role of innate immunity cells, the classical and alternative metabolic pathways of spleen macrophages from immune mice stimulated by cruzipain were also studied. The results showed an increase of urea associated with a decrease of nitrite levels, suggesting that cruzipain up-regulates the arginase way. Therefore, cruzipain leads to T2 type cytokine profile which may enhance the arginase via in the macrophages promoting a susceptible mechanism to infection. Thus, we postulate that during T. cruzi infection, cruzipain could be used by the parasite to spread inside the host.

  2. Organic particulate material levels in the atmosphere: conditions favoring sensitivity to varying relative humidity and temperature.

    PubMed

    Pankow, James F

    2010-04-13

    This study examines the sensitivity in predicted levels of atmospheric organic particulate matter (M(o), microg m(-3)) as those levels may potentially be affected by changes in relative humidity and temperature. In a given system, for each partitioning compound, f(g) and f(p) represent the gaseous and particulate fractions (f(g) + f(p) = 1). Sensitivity in the M(o) levels becomes dampened as the compounds contributing significantly to M(o) are increasingly found in the particle phase (f(p) --> 1). Thus, although local maxima in sensitivity can be encountered as M(o) levels increase, because as M(o) increases each f(p) --> 1, then increasing M(o) levels generally tend to reduce sensitivity in M(o) levels to changes in relative humidity and temperature. Experiments designed to elucidate the potential magnitudes of the effects of relative humidity and temperature on M(o) levels must be carried out at M(o) levels that are relevant for the ambient atmosphere: The f(p) values for the important partitioning compounds must not be elevated above ambient-relevant values. Systems in which M(o) levels are low (e.g., 1-2 microg m(-3)) and/or composed of unaged secondary organic aerosol are the ones most likely to show sensitivity to changing relative humidity and temperature. Results from two published chamber studies are examined in the above regard: [Warren B, et al. (2009) Atmos Environ 43:1789-1795] and [Prisle NL, et al. (2010) Geophys Res Lett 37:L01802].

  3. Testosterone Replacement Therapy and Risk of Favorable and Aggressive Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Loeb, Stacy; Folkvaljon, Yasin; Damber, Jan-Erik; Alukal, Joseph; Lambe, Mats; Stattin, Pär

    2017-05-01

    Purpose The association between exposure to testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) and prostate cancer risk is controversial. The objective was to examine this association through nationwide, population-based registry data. Methods We performed a nested case-control study in the National Prostate Cancer Register of Sweden, which includes all 38,570 prostate cancer cases diagnosed from 2009 to 2012, and 192,838 age-matched men free of prostate cancer. Multivariable conditional logistic regression was used to examine associations between TRT and risk of prostate cancer (overall, favorable, and aggressive). Results Two hundred eighty-four patients with prostate cancer (1%) and 1,378 control cases (1%) filled prescriptions for TRT. In multivariable analysis, no association was found between TRT and overall prostate cancer risk (odds ratio [OR], 1.03; 95% CI, 0.90 to 1.17). However, patients who received TRT had more favorable-risk prostate cancer (OR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.16 to 1.56) and a lower risk of aggressive prostate cancer (OR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.37 to 0.67). The increase in favorable-risk prostate cancer was already observed within the first year of TRT (OR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.10 to 2.34), whereas the lower risk of aggressive disease was observed after > 1 year of TRT (OR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.32 to 0.61). After adjusting for previous biopsy findings as an indicator of diagnostic activity, TRT remained significantly associated with more favorable-risk prostate cancer and lower risk of aggressive prostate cancer. Conclusion The early increase in favorable-risk prostate cancer among patients who received TRT suggests a detection bias, whereas the decrease in risk of aggressive prostate cancer is a novel finding that warrants further investigation.

  4. Favorable Long-term Prognosis of Cataract Surgery in Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Kulbhushan Prakash; Mahajan, Deepti; Panwar, Praveen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Scleritis is a rare presentation of herpes zoster ophthalmicus, complicated most commonly by iridocyclitis and raised intraocular pressure. These complications can recur in subsequent years, therefore they should be managed well. Case Report: We describe a female patient who developed scleritis, complicated cataract and secondary glaucoma 2 years after being diagnosed by HZO. Secondary glaucoma was managed medically, and the patient underwent extracapsular cataract extraction for the complicated cataract. Final visual acuity was 6/6 and IOP was 22.4 mm Hg. This is a rare report describing favorable long-term (>20 years) prognosis for surgical management of cataract associated with HZO together with scleritis, secondary glaucoma and post-herpetic neuralgia. Conclusion: A favorable outcome may be attained with surgery for complicated cataract associated with HZO if the condition is managed optimally and intraocular inflammation is well controlled. PMID:27413505

  5. Clinical quality is independently associated with favorable bond ratings.

    PubMed

    Haydar, Ziad; Nicewander, David; Convery, Paul; Black, Michael; Ballard, David

    2010-01-01

    The relation between clinical quality and bond rating for nonprofit hospitals has been proposed but never fully studied. We analyzed the relation between bond rating, clinical quality measures (The Joint Commission/Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services [CMS] core measures), and balance sheet and income statement financial measures of 236 hospitals across the United States that are rated by Moody's Investors Service and that reported clinical quality measures to CMS during the study period. We found a statistically significant relation between higher quality measures and more favorable bond ratings. This association remained significant after controlling for traditional financial parameters.

  6. HOW MUCH FAVORABLE SELECTION IS LEFT IN MEDICARE ADVANTAGE?

    PubMed

    Newhouse, Joseph P; Price, Mary; McWilliams, J Michael; Hsu, John; McGuire, Thomas G

    2015-01-01

    The health economics literature contains two models of selection, one with endogenous plan characteristics to attract good risks and one with fixed plan characteristics; neither model contains a regulator. Medicare Advantage, a principal example of selection in the literature, is, however, subject to anti-selection regulations. Because selection causes economic inefficiency and because the historically favorable selection into Medicare Advantage plans increased government cost, the effectiveness of the anti-selection regulations is an important policy question, especially since the Medicare Advantage program has grown to comprise 30 percent of Medicare beneficiaries. Moreover, similar anti-selection regulations are being used in health insurance exchanges for those under 65. Contrary to earlier work, we show that the strengthened anti-selection regulations that Medicare introduced starting in 2004 markedly reduced government overpayment attributable to favorable selection in Medicare Advantage. At least some of the remaining selection is plausibly related to fixed plan characteristics of Traditional Medicare versus Medicare Advantage rather than changed selection strategies by Medicare Advantage plans.

  7. Donepezil regulates energy metabolism and favors bone mass accrual.

    PubMed

    Eimar, Hazem; Alebrahim, Sharifa; Manickam, Garthiga; Al-Subaie, Ahmed; Abu-Nada, Lina; Murshed, Monzur; Tamimi, Faleh

    2016-03-01

    The autonomous nervous system regulates bone mass through the sympathetic and parasympathetic arms. The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) favors bone loss whereas the parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) promotes bone mass accrual. Donepezil, a central-acting cholinergic agonist, has been shown to down-regulate SNS and up-regulate PNS signaling tones. Accordingly, we hypothesize that the use of donepezil could have beneficial effects in regulating bone mass. To test our hypothesis, two groups of healthy female mice were treated either with donepezil or saline. Differences in body metabolism and bone mass of the treated groups were compared. Body and visceral fat weights as well as serum leptin level were increased in donepezil-treated mice compared to control, suggesting that donepezil effects on SNS influenced metabolic activity. Donepezil-treated mice had better bone quality than controls due to a decrease in osteoclasts number. These results indicate that donepezil is able to affect whole body energy metabolism and favors bone mass in young female WT mice.

  8. HOW MUCH FAVORABLE SELECTION IS LEFT IN MEDICARE ADVANTAGE?

    PubMed Central

    PRICE, MARY; MCWILLIAMS, J. MICHAEL; HSU, JOHN; MCGUIRE, THOMAS G.

    2015-01-01

    The health economics literature contains two models of selection, one with endogenous plan characteristics to attract good risks and one with fixed plan characteristics; neither model contains a regulator. Medicare Advantage, a principal example of selection in the literature, is, however, subject to anti-selection regulations. Because selection causes economic inefficiency and because the historically favorable selection into Medicare Advantage plans increased government cost, the effectiveness of the anti-selection regulations is an important policy question, especially since the Medicare Advantage program has grown to comprise 30 percent of Medicare beneficiaries. Moreover, similar anti-selection regulations are being used in health insurance exchanges for those under 65. Contrary to earlier work, we show that the strengthened anti-selection regulations that Medicare introduced starting in 2004 markedly reduced government overpayment attributable to favorable selection in Medicare Advantage. At least some of the remaining selection is plausibly related to fixed plan characteristics of Traditional Medicare versus Medicare Advantage rather than changed selection strategies by Medicare Advantage plans. PMID:26389127

  9. Favorable prognosis for children with Pfeiffer syndrome types 2 and 3: implications for classification.

    PubMed

    Robin, N H; Scott, J A; Arnold, J E; Goldstein, J A; Shilling, B B; Marion, R W; Cohen, M M

    1998-01-23

    Pfeiffer syndrome (PS) is an autosomal dominant condition comprising bilateral coronal craniosynostosis, midface hypoplasia with a beaked nasal tip, and broad and medially deviated thumbs and great toes. It is a clinically variable disorder and has been divided into three subtypes [Cohen, 1993: Am J Med Genet 45:300-307]. Type 1 represents the less severe cases, while types 2 and 3 are the more severe cases. These latter types tend to have a higher risk for neurodevelopmental problems and a reduced life expectancy. Here we review the clinical course of seven children with PS type 3. All of these children had severe manifestations of PS; however, development was essentially normal in three, mild delay was noted in two, and moderate delay in one. Favorable outcomes in children with types 2 and 3 PS were also documented by Moore et al. [1995: Cleft Pal-Craniofac J 32:62-70]. These cases illustrate that while children with PS types 2 and 3 have an increased risk for neurodevelopmental difficulties, a favorable outcome can be achieved in some cases with aggressive medical and surgical management. Finally, although such management should be the rule for PS types 2 and 3, it needs to be remembered that normal outcome is not the rule. The prognosis for favorable neurodevelopmental outcome and/or life expectancy remains guarded in most cases.

  10. Second octant favored for non-maximal 𝜃23

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frampton, Paul H.

    2017-06-01

    One of the most robust relationships predicted by binary tetrahedral (T‧) flavor symmetry relates the reactor neutrino angle 𝜃13 to the atmospheric neutrino angle 𝜃23, independently of 𝜃12. It has the form 𝜃13 = 2|π 4 - 𝜃23|. When this prediction first appeared in 2008, 𝜃13 was consistent with zero and 𝜃23 with π/4. Nonzero 𝜃13 was established by Daya Bay in 2012. Nonzero |π 4 - 𝜃23| is now favored by the NOνA experiment and, for 𝜃23, the aforementioned T‧ relation selects the second octant (𝜃23 > π 4 ) over the first octant (𝜃23 < π 4 ). This analysis initially assumes CP conservation in the lepton sector, but leptonic CP violation is discussed and it is shown that this specific T‧ relationship is invariant.

  11. Structures of Neural Correlation and How They Favor Coding

    PubMed Central

    Franke, Felix; Fiscella, Michele; Sevelev, Maksim; Roska, Botond; Hierlemann, Andreas; da Silveira, Rava Azeredo

    2017-01-01

    Summary The neural representation of information suffers from “noise”—the trial-to-trial variability in the response of neurons. The impact of correlated noise upon population coding has been debated, but a direct connection between theory and experiment remains tenuous. Here, we substantiate this connection and propose a refined theoretical picture. Using simultaneous recordings from a population of direction-selective retinal ganglion cells, we demonstrate that coding benefits from noise correlations. The effect is appreciable already in small populations, yet it is a collective phenomenon. Furthermore, the stimulus-dependent structure of correlation is key. We develop simple functional models that capture the stimulus-dependent statistics. We then use them to quantify the performance of population coding, which depends upon interplays of feature sensitivities and noise correlations in the population. Because favorable structures of correlation emerge robustly in circuits with noisy, nonlinear elements, they will arise and benefit coding beyond the confines of retina. PMID:26796692

  12. Does a Favor Request Increase Liking Toward the Requester?

    PubMed

    Niiya, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Although a request for help can impose a burden on the provider and has the potential of harming a relationship, the theory of amae suggests that in fact it could help promote a stronger relationship. In an experiment, both Japanese and American participants who were asked for help from a confederate increased their liking of the confederate relative to the baseline. Sociable impression of the confederate and perceived closeness of the relationship also increased relative to the baseline. There was, however, no such increase when participants helped the confederate without receiving a direct request. This study suggests that despite the potential risks to relationships, asking favors can provide opportunities for requesters to build and promote relationships.

  13. White House Budget Proposal Favorable Overall for Federal Science Agencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-02-01

    President Barack Obama's proposed federal budget of 3.8 trillion for fiscal year (FY) 2013, released on 13 February, provides an overall favorable funding picture for federal science agencies in a tight economic environment. However, there are also a number of proposed decreases, including a sharp cut to NASA's Planetary Science account. Overall, the budget proposal includes 140.8 billion for the federal investment in research and development, a 1.4% increase above the FY 2012 enacted level. Funding for federal basic and applied research would be 64 billion, 3.3% above FY 2012 enacted levels. Funding for defense research and development (R&D) would decrease to 75.9 billion, a drop of 1.5%; nondefense R&D would increase 5% to $64.9 billion.

  14. Reticulate evolution is favored in influenza niche switching

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Nichola J.; Zabilansky, Justin; Yuan, Kyle; Runstadler, Jonathan A.

    2016-01-01

    Reticulate evolution is thought to accelerate the process of evolution beyond simple genetic drift and selection, helping to rapidly generate novel hybrids with combinations of adaptive traits. However, the long-standing dogma that reticulate evolutionary processes are likewise advantageous for switching ecological niches, as in microbial pathogen host switch events, has not been explicitly tested. We use data from the influenza genome sequencing project and a phylogenetic heuristic approach to show that reassortment, a reticulate evolutionary mechanism, predominates over mutational drift in transmission between different host species. Moreover, as host evolutionary distance increases, reassortment is increasingly favored. We conclude that the greater the quantitative difference between ecological niches, the greater the importance of reticulate evolutionary processes in overcoming niche barriers. PMID:27114508

  15. Favorable Geochemistry from Springs and Wells in COlorado

    DOE Data Explorer

    Zehner, Richard E.

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Geothermal Development Associates, Reno Nevada Originator: United States Geological Survey (USGS) Originator: Colorado Geological Survey Publication Date: 2012 Title: Favorable Geochemistry Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Reno Nevada Publisher: Geothermal Development Associates, Reno, Nevada Description: This layer contains favorable geochemistry for high-temperature geothermal systems, as interpreted by Richard "Rick" Zehner. The data is compiled from the data obtained from the USGS. The original data set combines 15,622 samples collected in the State of Colorado from several sources including 1) the original Geotherm geochemical database, 2) USGS NWIS (National Water Information System), 3) Colorado Geological Survey geothermal sample data, and 4) original samples collected by R. Zehner at various sites during the 2011 field season. These samples are also available in a separate shapefile FlintWaterSamples.shp. Data from all samples were reportedly collected using standard water sampling protocols (filtering through 0.45 micron filter, etc.) Sample information was standardized to ppm (micrograms/liter) in spreadsheet columns. Commonly-used cation and silica geothermometer temperature estimates are included. Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4515595.841032 m Left: 149699.513964 m Right: 757959.309388 m Bottom: 4104156.435530 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Geothermal Development Associates, Reno, Nevada Contact Person: Richard “Rick” Zehner Address: 3740 Barron Way City: Reno State: NV Postal Code: 89511 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 775-737-7806 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich

  16. High nevus counts confer a favorable prognosis in melanoma patients.

    PubMed

    Ribero, Simone; Davies, John R; Requena, Celia; Carrera, Cristina; Glass, Daniel; Rull, Ramon; Vidal-Sicart, Sergi; Vilalta, Antonio; Alos, Lucia; Soriano, Virtudes; Quaglino, Pietro; Traves, Victor; Newton-Bishop, Julia A; Nagore, Eduardo; Malvehy, Josep; Puig, Susana; Bataille, Veronique

    2015-10-01

    A high number of nevi is the most significant phenotypic risk factor for melanoma and is in part genetically determined. The number of nevi decreases from middle age onward but this senescence can be delayed in patients with melanoma. We investigated the effects of nevus number count on sentinel node status and melanoma survival in a large cohort of melanoma cases. Out of 2,184 melanoma cases, 684 (31.3%) had a high nevus count (>50). High nevus counts were associated with favorable prognostic factors such as lower Breslow thickness, less ulceration and lower mitotic rate, despite adjustment for age. Nevus count was not predictive of sentinel node status. The crude 5- and 10-year melanoma-specific survival rate was higher in melanomas cases with a high nevus count compared to those with a low nevus count (91.2 vs. 86.4% and 87.2 vs. 79%, respectively). The difference in survival remained significant after adjusting for all known melanoma prognostic factors (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.43, confidence interval [CI] = 0.21-0.89). The favorable prognostic value of a high nevus count was also seen within the positive sentinel node subgroup of patients (HR = 0.22, CI = 0.08-0.60). High nevus count is associated with a better melanoma survival, even in the subgroup of patients with positive sentinel lymph node. This suggests a different biological behavior of melanoma tumors in patients with an excess of nevi. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of UICC.

  17. Domain expertise insulates against judgment bias by monetary favors through a modulation of ventromedial prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Kirk, Ulrich; Harvey, Ann; Montague, P. Read

    2011-01-01

    Recent work using an art-viewing paradigm shows that monetary sponsorship of the experiment by a company (a favor) increases the valuation of paintings placed next to the sponsoring corporate logo, an effect that correlates with modulation of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC). We used the same art-viewing paradigm to test a prevailing idea in the domain of conflict-of-interest: that expertise in a domain insulates against judgment bias even in the presence of a monetary favor. Using a cohort of art experts, we show that monetary favors do not bias the experts’ valuation of art, an effect that correlates with a lack of modulation of the VMPFC across sponsorship conditions. The lack of sponsorship effect in the VMPFC suggests the hypothesis that their brains remove the behavioral sponsorship effect by censoring sponsorship-dependent modulation of VMPFC activity. We tested the hypothesis that prefrontal regions play a regulatory role in mediating the sponsorship effect. We show that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is recruited in the expert group. Furthermore, we tested the hypothesis in nonexpert controls by contrasting brain responses in controls who did not show a sponsorship effect to controls who did. Changes in effective connectivity between the DLPFC and VMPFC were greater in nonexpert controls, with an absence of the sponsorship effect relative to those with a presence of the sponsorship effect. The role of the DLPFC in cognitive control and emotion regulation suggests that it removes the influence of a monetary favor by controlling responses in known valuation regions of the brain including the the VMPFC. PMID:21646526

  18. Population synthesis analysis: determining parameters and favorable scenarios for the formation of Solar System Analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronco, M. P.; Gulera, O. M.; de Elía, G. C.

    2017-07-01

    The primordial scenario and the initial conditions that gave rise to the Solar System are still under debate. A population synthesis analysis of the formation and evolution of Solar System Analogs (SSA) is a possible mechanism to understand our own Solar System. From a new numerical code called PlanetaLP, which is able to build a diversity of planetary systems describing the evolution of embryos and planetesimals during the gaseous phase, we determine which are the parameters of the disk and the most favorable scenarios that provide planetary systems like our own.

  19. Invariant natural killer T infiltration in neuroblastoma with favorable outcome.

    PubMed

    Hishiki, Tomoro; Mise, Naoko; Harada, Kazuaki; Ihara, Fumie; Takami, Mariko; Saito, Takeshi; Terui, Keita; Nakata, Mitsuyuki; Komatsu, Shugo; Yoshida, Hideo; Motohashi, Shinichiro

    2017-10-10

    Tumor immunity has been suggested to play a key role in clinical and biological behavior of neuroblastomas. Given that CD1-restricted invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells enhance both innate and acquired tumor immunity, we investigated the expression of the iNKT-cell-specific T-cell receptor Vα24-Jα18 in neuroblastoma tissues and its correlation with clinical and biological characteristics. Using real- time quantitative PCR, we quantified the expression of Vα24-Jα18 in untreated tumor samples from 107 neuroblastoma cases followed in our institution and analyzed the correlation between the presence of infiltrated iNKT cells and clinical characteristics or patients' outcome. Vα24-Jα18 receptor was detected in 62 untreated cases (57.9%). The expression was significantly higher in stages 1, 2, 3, or 4S (P = 0.0099), in tumors with low or intermediate risk (P = 0.0050), with high TrkA expression (P = 0.0229), with favorable histology (P = 0.0026), with aneuploidy (P = 0.0348), and in younger patients (P = 0.0036). The overall survival rate was significantly higher in patients with iNKT-cell infiltration (log-rank; P = 0.0089). Since tumor-infiltrating iNKT cells were predominantly observed in neuroblastomas undergoing spontaneous differentiation and/or regression, we suggest that iNKT cells might play a key role in these processes.

  20. Favorable selection, risk adjustment, and the Medicare Advantage program.

    PubMed

    Morrisey, Michael A; Kilgore, Meredith L; Becker, David J; Smith, Wilson; Delzell, Elizabeth

    2013-06-01

    To examine the effects of changes in payment and risk adjustment on (1) the annual enrollment and switching behavior of Medicare Advantage (MA) beneficiaries, and (2) the relative costliness of MA enrollees and disenrollees. From 1999 through 2008 national Medicare claims data from the 5 percent longitudinal sample of Parts A and B expenditures. Retrospective, fixed effects regression analysis of July enrollment and year-long switching into and out of MA. Similar regression analysis of the costliness of those switching into (out of) MA in the 6 months prior to enrollment (after disenrollment) relative to nonswitchers in the same county over the same period. Payment generosity and more sophisticated risk adjustment were associated with substantial increases in MA enrollment and decreases in disenrollment. Claims experience of those newly switching into MA was not affected by any of the policy reforms, but disenrollment became increasingly concentrated among high-cost beneficiaries. Enrollment is very sensitive to payment levels. The use of more sophisticated risk adjustment did not alter favorable selection into MA, but it did affect the costliness of disenrollees. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  1. Paleozoic unconformities favorable for uranium concentration in northern Appalachian basin

    SciTech Connect

    Dennison, J.M.

    1986-05-01

    Unconformities can redistribute uranium from protore rock as ground water moves through poorly consolidated strata beneath the erosion surface, or later moves along the unconformity. Groundwater could migrate farther than in present-day lithified Paleozoic strata in the Appalachian basin, now locally deformed by the Taconic and Allegheny orogenies. Several paleoaquifer systems could have developed uranium geochemical cells. Sandstone mineralogy, occurrences of fluvial strata, and reduzate facies are important factors. Other possibilities include silcrete developed during desert exposure, and uranium concentrated in paleokarst. Thirteen unconformities are evaluated to determine favorable areas for uranium concentration. Cambrian Potsdam sandstone (New York) contains arkoses and possible silcretes just above crystalline basement. Unconformities involving beveled sandstones and possible fluvial strata include Cambrian Hardyston sandstone (New Jersey), Cambrian Potsdam Sandstone (New York), Ordovician Oswego and Juniata formations (Pennsylvania and New York), Silurian Medina Group (New York), and Silurian Vernon, High Falls, and Longwood formations (New York and New Jersey). Devonian Catskill Formation is beveled by Pennsylvanian strata (New York and Pennsylvania). The pre-Pennsylvanian unconformity also bevels Lower Mississippian Pocono, Knapp, and Waverly strata (Pennsylvania, New York, and Ohio), truncates Upper Mississippian Mauch Chunk Formation (Pennsylvania), and forms paleokarst on Mississippian Loyalhanna Limestone (Pennsylvania) and Maxville Limestone (Ohio). Strata associated with these unconformities contain several reports of uranium. Unconformities unfavorable for uranium concentration occur beneath the Middle Ordovician (New York), Middle Devonian (Ohio and New York), and Upper Devonian (Ohio and New York); these involve marine strata overlying marine strata and probably much submarine erosion.

  2. Phenotypic selection favors missing trait combinations in coexisting annual plants.

    PubMed

    Kimball, Sarah; Gremer, Jennifer R; Huxman, Travis E; Lawrence Venable, D; Angert, Amy L

    2013-08-01

    Trade-offs among traits are important for maintaining biodiversity, but the role of natural selection in their construction is not often known. It is possible that trade-offs reflect fundamental constraints, negative correlational selection, or directional selection operating on costly, redundant traits. In a Sonoran Desert community of winter annual plants, we have identified a trade-off between relative growth rate and water-use efficiency among species, such that species with high relative growth rate have low water-use efficiency and vice versa. We measured selection on water-use efficiency, relative growth rate, and underlying traits within populations of four species at two study sites with different average climates. Phenotypic trait correlations within species did not match the among-species trade-off. In fact, for two species with high water-use efficiency, individuals with high relative growth rate also had high water-use efficiency. All populations experienced positive directional selection for water-use efficiency and relative growth rate. Selection tended to be stronger on water-use efficiency at the warmer and drier site, and selection on relative growth rate tended to be stronger at the cooler and wetter site. Our results indicate that directional natural selection favors a phenotype not observed among species in the community, suggesting that the among-species trade-off could be due to pervasive genetic constraints, perhaps acting in concert with processes of community assembly.

  3. Favorable Selection, Risk Adjustment, and the Medicare Advantage Program

    PubMed Central

    Morrisey, Michael A; Kilgore, Meredith L; Becker, David J; Smith, Wilson; Delzell, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To examine the effects of changes in payment and risk adjustment on (1) the annual enrollment and switching behavior of Medicare Advantage (MA) beneficiaries, and (2) the relative costliness of MA enrollees and disenrollees. Data From 1999 through 2008 national Medicare claims data from the 5 percent longitudinal sample of Parts A and B expenditures. Study Design Retrospective, fixed effects regression analysis of July enrollment and year-long switching into and out of MA. Similar regression analysis of the costliness of those switching into (out of) MA in the 6 months prior to enrollment (after disenrollment) relative to nonswitchers in the same county over the same period. Findings Payment generosity and more sophisticated risk adjustment were associated with substantial increases in MA enrollment and decreases in disenrollment. Claims experience of those newly switching into MA was not affected by any of the policy reforms, but disenrollment became increasingly concentrated among high-cost beneficiaries. Conclusions Enrollment is very sensitive to payment levels. The use of more sophisticated risk adjustment did not alter favorable selection into MA, but it did affect the costliness of disenrollees. PMID:23088500

  4. Increasing Spring temperature favors oak seed production in temperate areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caignard, Thomas; Kremer, Antoine; Firmat, Cyril; Nicolas, Manuel; Venner, Samuel; Delzon, Sylvain

    2017-04-01

    Although changes in vegetative phenology have considerable consequences for ecosystem functioning, little is known about how tree reproduction responds to climate change, while reproductive traits are key determinants of plant fitness. Assessing the response of tree reproduction to climate variations is needed for understanding tree and forest adaptation to environmental changes. We analyzed an extensive dataset of tree reproduction in 28 temperate oak forests distributed throughout France and examined how seed production responded to temperature variations over 14 years In addition, a "space-for-time" substitution experiment has been used to quantify the temperature sensitivity of acorn production. The amount of acorn produced in 10 Q. petraea populations along two parallel elevation gradients in Southern France were quantified from 2012 to 2015. During the past two decades, we observed a significant increase in reproductive effort for Q. petraea that correlates with a rise in spring temperature. Although no significant trend over time has been observed for Q. robur, a significant increase in seed production was also found with spring temperature. Such sensitivity to temperature of seed production has been confirmed along the elevational gradients. Our findings show that increasing spring temperature favors oak reproductive effort in temperate ecosystems. Nevertheless, while fitness can be enhanced by higher seed production, it also depends on the frequency and on the synchronization of mast seeding production that climate change may influence too.

  5. Gender bias in food intake favors male preschool Guatemalan children.

    PubMed

    Frongillo, E A; Bégin, F

    1993-02-01

    Gender bias in food intake and its subsequent effects on growth and illness were examined using data from rural Guatemalan children. Multiple regression controlled for energy requirements, illness, and maternal and economic factors. Gender bias in energy and protein intake favored boys; the magnitude for ages 2-5 y was 247 kJ/d. Analysis of subsequent effects showed that boys had higher rates of weight gain due to gender bias in energy intake than did girls for ages 1-2 y (0.27-0.97 kg/y), when there were no differences in illness rates due to gender bias in energy intake. For age 3-5 y, boys and girls did not differ in weight gain due to gender bias in energy intake. For ages 1-2 y for weight and stature, the growth rate for boys was faster than that of girls by 6-49% due to gender bias. This study provides evidence of gender bias in food intake in a Latin American population, but more work on the existence of and reasons for gender bias in food intake is needed before advocating that education or health programs should focus on this issue.

  6. Cardiac arrest at high elevation with a favorable outcome.

    PubMed

    Yanagawa, Youichi; Omori, Kazuhiko; Takeuchi, Ikuto; Jitsuiki, Kei; Yoshizawa, Toshihiko; Ishikawa, Kouhei; Kando, Yumi; Fukata, Mutsumu; Ohsaka, Hiromichi

    2017-04-01

    A 36-year-old man started to climb Mount Fuji (3776m above sea level: ASL), from the Gotemba new fifth station (2400m ASL). He had no significant medical history, and this was his first attempt to climb such a high mountain. He began feeling chest discomfort but continued to climb. When he reached the ninth station of the mountain (3600mASL), he lost consciousness. One individual immediately provided basic life support using an automated external defibrillator (AED) that was located in the station. After electroshocks, he regained consciousness. He was transported to the fifth station, where an ambulance could approach, in a large crawler. When the medical staff, who were transported via helicopter and ambulance, examined him near the fifth station, he still complained of chest discomfort. A single spray of nitroglycerin and aspirin (200mg) was administered. He was transported to the Cardiac Care Unit via ambulance and helicopter under escort by a physician. A chest computed tomography angiogram indicated triple-vessel disease. He was discharged without any neurological deficits after undergoing bypass surgery. In high mountains that can be easily accessed by amateur climbers who may have cardiac disease, the placement of AED devices and the establishment of the chain of survival from the scene to the intensive care unit are essential for obtaining a favorable outcome when a climber suffers cardiac arrest. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Musical FAVORS: Reintroducing music to adult cochlear implant users.

    PubMed

    Plant, Geoff

    2015-09-01

    Music represents a considerable challenge for many adult users of cochlear implants (CIs). Around half of adult CI users report that they do not find music enjoyable, and, in some cases, despite enhanced speech perception skills, this leads to considerable frustration and disappointment for the CI user. This paper presents suggestions to improve the musical experiences of deafened adults with CIs. Interviews with a number of adult CI users revealed that there were a number of factors which could lead to enhanced music experiences. The acronym FAVORS (familiar music, auditory-visual access, open-mindedness, and simple arrangements) summarizes the factors that have been identified, which can help CI users in their early music listening experiences. Each of these factors is discussed in detail, along with suggestions for how they can be used in therapy sessions. The use of a group approach (music focus groups) is also discussed and an overview of the approach and exercises used is presented. The importance of live music experiences is also discussed.

  8. Favorable outcome in open globe injuries with low OTS score.

    PubMed

    Cillino, Giovanni; Ferraro, Lucia; Casuccio, Alessandra; Cillino Salvatore

    2014-09-01

    Open globe eye injuries can have profound social and economic consequences. Here, we describe two cases of war and outdoor activity open globe eye injury where, despite a low OTS score, current microsurgical technology allowed for a favorable outcome. A 33-year-old Libyan soldier had been treated for an open-globe grenade blast trauma to his left eye, which showed light perception and OTS score 2. He had undergone a lensectomy and PPV with silicone oil tamponade. Surgical treatment included scleral buckling, cornea trephination, temporary Eckardt keratoprosthesis, PPV revision, intraocular lens (IOL) implantation, and corneal grafting. Six months later, his VA was improved to 20/70. CASE REPORT 2: A 35-year-old man presented with a corneal laceration in his left eye from a meat skewer, with marked hypotony and LP. After primary corneal wound closure, B-scan ultrasonography revealed massive vitreous hemorrhage (OTS score 2). The patient underwent open cataract extraction with IOL implantation, 23 gauge PPV, laser photocoagulation of the retinochoroidal laceration, and a gas tamponade. After three weeks, the patient underwent a 2nd 23G PPV due to a fibrinous reaction. Six month later, the patients exhibited 20/25 VA. These cases confirm that even for patients with a low OTS and poor visual prognosis, an up-to-date surgery protocol may achieve visual results adequate for leading an autonomous daily life.

  9. Sperm competition favors harmful males in seed beetles.

    PubMed

    Hotzy, Cosima; Arnqvist, Göran

    2009-03-10

    One of the most enigmatic observations in evolutionary biology is the evolution of morphological or physiological traits in one sex that physically injure members of the other sex. Such traits occur in a wide range of taxa and range from toxic ejaculate substances to genital or external spines that wound females during copulation. Current hypotheses for the adaptive evolution of such injurious traits rest entirely on the assumption that they are beneficial to their bearer by aiding in reproductive competition. Here, we assess this key assumption in seed beetles where genital spines in males physically injure females. We demonstrate that male spine length is positively correlated with harm to females during mating but also that males with longer spines are more successful in sperm competition. This is the first complete support for the proposal that sexual selection by sperm competition can favor morphological traits in males that inflict injury upon females. However, our results suggest that harm to females is a pleiotropic by-product, such that genital spines in males elevate success in sperm competition by means other than by causing harm.

  10. Quantifying favorableness for occurrence of a mineral deposit type using fuzzy logic; an example from Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gettings, Mark E.; Bultman, Mark W.

    1993-01-01

    An application of possibility theory from fuzzy logic to the quantification of favorableness for quartz-carbonate vein deposits in the southern Santa Rita Mountains of southeastern Arizona is described. Three necessary but probably not sufficient conditions for the formation of these deposits were defined as the occurrence of carbonate berain rocks within hypabyssal depths, significant fracturing of the rocks, and proximity to a felsic intrusive. The quality of data available to evaluate these conditions is variable over the study area. The possibility of each condition was represented as a fuzzy set enumerated over the area. The intersection of the sets measures the degree of simultaneous occurrence of hte necessary factors and provides a measure of the possibility of deposit occurrence. Using fuzzy set technicques, the effect of one or more fuzzy sets relative to the others in the intersection can be controlled and logical combinations of the sets can be used to impose a time sequential constraint on the necessary conditions. Other necessary conditions, and supplementary conditions such as variable data quality or intensity of exploration can be included in the analysis by their proper representation as fuzzy sets.

  11. Evoked and spontaneous transmission favored by distinct sets of synapses.

    PubMed

    Peled, Einat S; Newman, Zachary L; Isacoff, Ehud Y

    2014-03-03

    Spontaneous "miniature" transmitter release takes place at low rates at all synapses. Long thought of as an unavoidable leak, spontaneous release has recently been suggested to be mediated by distinct pre- and postsynaptic molecular machineries and to have a specialized role in setting up and adjusting neuronal circuits. It remains unclear how spontaneous and evoked transmission are related at individual synapses, how they are distributed spatially when an axon makes multiple contacts with a target, and whether they are commonly regulated. Electrophysiological recordings in the Drosophila larval neuromuscular junction, in the presence of the use-dependent glutamate receptor (GluR) blocker philanthotoxin, indicated that spontaneous and evoked transmission employ distinct sets of GluRs. In vivo imaging of transmission using synaptically targeted GCaMP3 to detect Ca(2+) influx through the GluRs revealed little spatial overlap between synapses participating in spontaneous and evoked transmission. Spontaneous and evoked transmission were oppositely correlated with presynaptic levels of the protein Brp: synapses with high Brp favored evoked transmission, whereas synapses with low Brp were more active spontaneously. High-frequency stimulation did not increase the overlap between evoked and spontaneous transmission, and instead decreased the rate of spontaneous release from synapses that were highly active in evoked transmission. Although individual synapses can participate in both evoked and spontaneous transmission, highly active synapses show a preference for one mode of transmission. The presynaptic protein Brp promotes evoked transmission and suppresses spontaneous release. These findings suggest the existence of presynaptic mechanisms that promote synaptic specialization to either evoked or spontaneous transmission. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Evoked and spontaneous transmission favored by distinct sets of synapses

    PubMed Central

    Peled, Einat S.; Newman, Zachary L.; Isacoff, Ehud Y.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Spontaneous “miniature” transmitter release takes place at low rates at all synapses. Long thought as an unavoidable leak, spontaneous release has recently been suggested to be mediated by distinct pre- and post-synaptic molecular machineries and to have a specialized role in setting up and adjusting neuronal circuits. It remains unclear how spontaneous and evoked transmission are related at individual synapses, how they are distributed spatially when an axon makes multiple contacts with a target and whether they are commonly regulated. Results Electrophysiological recordings in the Drosophila larval neuromuscular junction, in the presence of the use-dependent glutamate receptor (GluR) blocker Philanthotoxin, indicated that spontaneous and evoked transmission employ distinct sets of GluRs. In vivo imaging of transmission using synaptically-targeted GCaMP3 to detect Ca2+ influx through the GluRs revealed little spatial overlap between synapses participating in spontaneous and evoked transmission. Spontaneous and evoked transmission were oppositely correlated with presynaptic levels of the protein Brp: synapses with high Brp favored evoked transmission, whereas synapses with low Brp were more active spontaneously. High frequency stimulation did not increase the overlap between evoked and spontaneous transmission, and instead decreased the rate of spontaneous release from synapses that were highly active in evoked transmission. Conclusions While individual synapses can participate in both evoked and spontaneous transmission, highly-active synapses show a preference for one mode of transmission. The presynaptic protein Brp promotes evoked transmission and suppresses spontaneous release. These findings suggest the existence of presynaptic mechanisms that promote synaptic specialization to either evoked or spontaneous transmission. PMID:24560571

  13. Alkaline diets favor lean tissue mass in older adults1234

    PubMed Central

    Dawson-Hughes, Bess; Harris, Susan S; Ceglia, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Background Maintaining muscle mass while aging is important to prevent falls and fractures. Metabolic acidosis promotes muscle wasting, and the net acid load from diets that are rich in net acid–producing protein and cereal grains relative to their content of net alkali–producing fruit and vegetables may therefore contribute to a reduction in lean tissue mass in older adults. Objective We aimed to determine whether there was an association of 24-h urinary potassium and an index of fruit and vegetable content of the diet with the percentage lean body mass (%LBM) or change in %LBM in older subjects. Design Subjects were 384 men and women ≥65 y old who participated in a 3-y trial comparing calcium and vitamin D with placebo. Potassium was measured in 24-h urine collections at baseline. The %LBM, defined as total body nonfat, nonbone tissue weight ÷ weight × 100, was measured by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at baseline and at 3 y. Physical activity, height, and weight were assessed at baseline and at 3 y. Results At baseline, the mean urinary potassium excretion was 67.0 ± 21.1 mmol/d. Urinary potassium (mmol/d) was significantly positively associated with %LBM at baseline (β = 0.033, P = 0.006; adjusted for sex, weight, and nitrogen excretion) but not with 3-y change in %LBM. Over the 3-y study, %LBM increased by 2.6 ± 3.6%. Conclusion Higher intake of foods rich in potassium, such as fruit and vegetables, may favor the preservation of muscle mass in older men and women. PMID:18326605

  14. Alkaline diets favor lean tissue mass in older adults.

    PubMed

    Dawson-Hughes, Bess; Harris, Susan S; Ceglia, Lisa

    2008-03-01

    Maintaining muscle mass while aging is important to prevent falls and fractures. Metabolic acidosis promotes muscle wasting, and the net acid load from diets that are rich in net acid-producing protein and cereal grains relative to their content of net alkali-producing fruit and vegetables may therefore contribute to a reduction in lean tissue mass in older adults. We aimed to determine whether there was an association of 24-h urinary potassium and an index of fruit and vegetable content of the diet with the percentage lean body mass (%LBM) or change in %LBM in older subjects. Subjects were 384 men and women > or =65 y old who participated in a 3-y trial comparing calcium and vitamin D with placebo. Potassium was measured in 24-h urine collections at baseline. The %LBM, defined as total body nonfat, nonbone tissue weight/weight x 100, was measured by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at baseline and at 3 y. Physical activity, height, and weight were assessed at baseline and at 3 y. At baseline, the mean urinary potassium excretion was 67.0 +/- 21.1 mmol/d. Urinary potassium (mmol/d) was significantly positively associated with %LBM at baseline (beta = 0.033, P = 0.006; adjusted for sex, weight, and nitrogen excretion) but not with 3-y change in %LBM. Over the 3-y study, %LBM increased by 2.6 +/- 3.6%. Higher intake of foods rich in potassium, such as fruit and vegetables, may favor the preservation of muscle mass in older men and women.

  15. Patients with Spinal Cord Injuries Favor Administration of Methylprednisolone

    PubMed Central

    Bowers, Christian A.; Kundu, Bornali; Rosenbluth, Jeffrey; Hawryluk, Gregory W. J.

    2016-01-01

    Methylprednisolone sodium succinate (MPSS) for treatment of acute spinal cord injury (SCI) has been associated with both benefits and adverse events. MPSS administration was the standard of care for acute SCI until recently when its use has become controversial. Patients with SCI have had little input in the debate, thus we sought to learn their opinions regarding administration of MPSS. A summary of the published literature to date on MPSS use for acute SCI was created and adjudicated by 28 SCI experts. This summary was then emailed to 384 chronic SCI patients along with a survey that interrogated the patients’ neurological deficits, communication with physicians and their views on MPSS administration. 77 out of 384 patients completed the survey. 28 respondents indicated being able to speak early after injury and of these 24 reported arriving at the hospital within 8 hours of injury. One recalled a physician speaking to them about MPSS and one patient reported choosing whether or not to receive MPSS. 59.4% felt that the small neurological benefits associated with MPSS were ‘very important’ to them (p<0.0001). Patients had ‘little concern’ for potential side-effects of MPSS (p = 0.001). Only 1.4% felt that MPSS should not be given to SCI patients regardless of degree of injury (p<0.0001). This is the first study to report SCI patients’ preferences regarding MPSS treatment for acute SCI. Patients favor the administration of MPSS for acute SCI, however few had input into whether or not it was administered. Conscious patients should be given greater opportunity to decide their treatment. These results also provide some guidance regarding MPSS administration in patients unable to communicate. PMID:26789007

  16. Mechanical Heterogeneity Favors Fragmentation of Strained Actin Filaments

    PubMed Central

    De La Cruz, Enrique M.; Martiel, Jean-Louis; Blanchoin, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    We present a general model of actin filament deformation and fragmentation in response to compressive forces. The elastic free energy density along filaments is determined by their shape and mechanical properties, which were modeled in terms of bending, twisting, and twist-bend coupling elasticities. The elastic energy stored in filament deformation (i.e., strain) tilts the fragmentation-annealing reaction free-energy profile to favor fragmentation. The energy gradient introduces a local shear force that accelerates filament intersubunit bond rupture. The severing protein, cofilin, renders filaments more compliant in bending and twisting. As a result, filaments that are partially decorated with cofilin are mechanically heterogeneous (i.e., nonuniform) and display asymmetric shape deformations and energy profiles distinct from mechanically homogenous (i.e., uniform), bare actin, or saturated cofilactin filaments. The local buckling strain depends on the relative size of the compliant segment as well as the bending and twisting rigidities of flanking regions. Filaments with a single bare/cofilin-decorated boundary localize energy and force adjacent to the boundary, within the compliant cofilactin segment. Filaments with small cofilin clusters were predicted to fragment within the compliant cofilactin rather than at boundaries. Neglecting contributions from twist-bend coupling elasticity underestimates the energy density and gradients along filaments, and thus the net effects of filament strain to fragmentation. Spatial confinement causes compliant cofilactin segments and filaments to adopt higher deformation modes and store more elastic energy, thereby promoting fragmentation. The theory and simulations presented here establish a quantitative relationship between actin filament fragmentation thermodynamics and elasticity, and reveal how local discontinuities in filament mechanical properties introduced by regulatory proteins can modulate both the severing efficiency

  17. Mechanical heterogeneity favors fragmentation of strained actin filaments.

    PubMed

    De La Cruz, Enrique M; Martiel, Jean-Louis; Blanchoin, Laurent

    2015-05-05

    We present a general model of actin filament deformation and fragmentation in response to compressive forces. The elastic free energy density along filaments is determined by their shape and mechanical properties, which were modeled in terms of bending, twisting, and twist-bend coupling elasticities. The elastic energy stored in filament deformation (i.e., strain) tilts the fragmentation-annealing reaction free-energy profile to favor fragmentation. The energy gradient introduces a local shear force that accelerates filament intersubunit bond rupture. The severing protein, cofilin, renders filaments more compliant in bending and twisting. As a result, filaments that are partially decorated with cofilin are mechanically heterogeneous (i.e., nonuniform) and display asymmetric shape deformations and energy profiles distinct from mechanically homogenous (i.e., uniform), bare actin, or saturated cofilactin filaments. The local buckling strain depends on the relative size of the compliant segment as well as the bending and twisting rigidities of flanking regions. Filaments with a single bare/cofilin-decorated boundary localize energy and force adjacent to the boundary, within the compliant cofilactin segment. Filaments with small cofilin clusters were predicted to fragment within the compliant cofilactin rather than at boundaries. Neglecting contributions from twist-bend coupling elasticity underestimates the energy density and gradients along filaments, and thus the net effects of filament strain to fragmentation. Spatial confinement causes compliant cofilactin segments and filaments to adopt higher deformation modes and store more elastic energy, thereby promoting fragmentation. The theory and simulations presented here establish a quantitative relationship between actin filament fragmentation thermodynamics and elasticity, and reveal how local discontinuities in filament mechanical properties introduced by regulatory proteins can modulate both the severing efficiency

  18. Charcoal kiln relicts - a favorable site for tree growth?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buras, Allan; Hirsch, Florian; van der Maaten, Ernst; Takla, Melanie; Räbiger, Christin; Cruz Garcia, Roberto; Schneider, Anna; Raab, Alexandra; Raab, Thomas; Wilmking, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Soils with incompletely combusted organic material (aka 'black carbon') are considered fertile for plant growth. Considerable enrichment of soils with black carbon is known from Chernozems, from anthropogenic induced altering of soils like the 'Terra Preta' in South America (e.g. Glaser, 2001), and from charcoal kiln relicts. Recent studies have reported a high spatial frequency of charcoal kiln relicts in the Northeastern German lowlands (Raab et al., 2015), which today are often overgrown by forest plantations. In this context the question arises whether these sites are favorable for tree growth. Here we compare the performance of 22 Pinus sylvestris individuals - a commonly used tree species in forestry - growing on charcoal kiln relicts with 22 control trees. Growth performance (height growth and diameter growth) of the trees was determined using dendrochronological techniques, i.e. standard ring-width measurements were undertaken on each two cores per tree and tree height was measured in the field. Several other wood properties such as annual wood density, average resin content, as well as wood chemistry were analyzed. Our results indicate that trees growing on charcoal kiln relicts grow significantly less and have a significantly lower wood density in comparison with control trees. Specific chemical components such as Manganese as well as resin contents were significantly higher in kiln trees. These results highlight that tree growth on charcoal kiln relicts is actually hampered instead of enhanced. Possibly this is a combined effect of differing physical soil properties which alter soil water accessibility for plants and differing chemical soil properties which may negatively affect tree growth either if toxic limits are surpassed or if soil nutrient availability is decreased. Additional soil analyses with respect to soil texture and soil chemistry shall reveal further insight into this hypothesis. Given the frequent distribution of charcoal kiln relicts in

  19. The risk of predation favors cooperation among breeding prey.

    PubMed

    Krams, Indrikis; Krama, Tatjana; Berzins, Arnis; Rantala, Markus J

    2010-05-01

    Empirical studies have shown that animals often focus on short-term benefits under conditions of predation risk, which reduces the likelihood that they will cooperate with others. However, some theoretical studies predict that animals in adverse conditions should not avoid cooperation with their neighbors since it may decrease individual risks and increase long-term benefits of reciprocal help. We experimentally tested these two alternatives to find out whether increased predation risk enhances or diminishes the occurrence of cooperation in mobbing, a common anti-predator behavior, among breeding pied flycatchers, Ficedula hypoleuca. Our results show that birds attended mobs initiated by their neighbors more often, approached the stuffed predator significantly more closely, and mobbed it at a higher intensity in areas where the perceived risk of predation was experimentally increased. This study demonstrates a positive impact of predation risk on cooperation in breeding songbirds, which might help to explain the emergence and evolution of cooperation.

  20. The risk of predation favors cooperation among breeding prey

    PubMed Central

    Krama, Tatjana; Berzins, Arnis; Rantala, Markus J

    2010-01-01

    Empirical studies have shown that animals often focus on short-term benefits under conditions of predation risk, which reduces the likelihood that they will cooperate with others. However, some theoretical studies predict that animals in adverse conditions should not avoid cooperation with their neighbors since it may decrease individual risks and increase long-term benefits of reciprocal help. We experimentally tested these two alternatives to find out whether increased predation risk enhances or diminishes the occurrence of cooperation in mobbing, a common anti-predator behavior, among breeding pied flycatchers, Ficedula hypoleuca. Our results show that birds attended mobs initiated by their neighbors more often, approached the stuffed predator significantly more closely, and mobbed it at a higher intensity in areas where the perceived risk of predation was experimentally increased. This study demonstrates a positive impact of predation risk on cooperation in breeding songbirds, which might help to explain the emergence and evolution of cooperation. PMID:20714404

  1. ACR Appropriateness Criteria® Hodgkin Lymphoma-Favorable Prognosis Stage I and II.

    PubMed

    Dhakal, Sughosh; Advani, Ranjana; Ballas, Leslie K; Dabaja, Bouthaina S; Flowers, Christopher R; Ha, Chul S; Hoppe, Bradford S; Mendenhall, Nancy P; Metzger, Monika L; Plastaras, John P; Roberts, Kenneth B; Shapiro, Ronald; Smith, Sonali M; Terezakis, Stephanie A; Winkfield, Karen M; Younes, Anas; Constine, Louis S

    2016-12-01

    This topic addresses the treatment of newly diagnosed patients with favorable prognosis stage I and II Hodgkin lymphoma. In most cases, combined modality therapy (chemotherapy followed by involved site radiation therapy) constitutes the current standard of care. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment. By combining the most recent medical literature and expert opinion, this revised guideline can aid clinicians in the appropriate use of combined modality therapy for favorable prognosis stage I and II Hodgkin lymphoma. Increasing information about the late effects of treatment has led to attempts to decrease toxicity by using less chemotherapy (decreased duration and/or intensity or different agents) and less radiation therapy (reduced volume and/or dose) while maintaining excellent efficacy.

  2. Does Spontaneous Favorability to Power (vs. Universalism) Values Predict Spontaneous Prejudice and Discrimination?

    PubMed

    Souchon, Nicolas; Maio, Gregory R; Hanel, Paul H P; Bardin, Brigitte

    2017-10-01

    We conducted five studies testing whether an implicit measure of favorability toward power over universalism values predicts spontaneous prejudice and discrimination. Studies 1 (N = 192) and 2 (N = 86) examined correlations between spontaneous favorability toward power (vs. universalism) values, achievement (vs. benevolence) values, and a spontaneous measure of prejudice toward ethnic minorities. Study 3 (N = 159) tested whether conditioning participants to associate power values with positive adjectives and universalism values with negative adjectives (or inversely) affects spontaneous prejudice. Study 4 (N = 95) tested whether decision bias toward female handball players could be predicted by spontaneous attitude toward power (vs. universalism) values. Study 5 (N = 123) examined correlations between spontaneous attitude toward power (vs. universalism) values, spontaneous importance toward power (vs. universalism) values, and spontaneous prejudice toward Black African people. Spontaneous positivity toward power (vs. universalism) values was associated with spontaneous negativity toward minorities and predicted gender bias in a decision task, whereas the explicit measures did not. These results indicate that the implicit assessment of evaluative responses attached to human values helps to model value-attitude-behavior relations. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Personality Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. [Favorable, unfavorable and indifferent side effects of pharmacotherapy of psychoses].

    PubMed

    Gall, H

    1975-01-01

    Not all side-effects are undesirable side-effects of a treatment. Under certain conditions allergic side-effects during the therapy of phasic psychotics affect a turn in the course of the basic illness and bring a premature end to depression. As a result of the observation of a sudden cure of a deep vital depression in a 73 year old patient in direct chronological connection with the appearance of an allergic urticaria, studies were carried out, in the 8 years following, of a total of 18 cases of similar circumstances; during the treatment of an endogenous depression the development of intercurrent allergic skin reactions showed: in 6 cases the psychosis completely disappeared with the development of the urticaria; in 8 cases the symptoms were considerably relieved so that only the remains of vegetative disorders persisted; in 4 cases no effect could be determined. In 2 cases the same allergic reaction was consciously provoked by a reapplication of the medicaments concerned during a following depressive phase; again with favourable results since under these conditions coincidences are not very probable, the conclusion can be made, and experimentally supported, that allergic drug reactions may be employed in the course of depressions, with careful avoidance of complications.

  4. Evaluation Of Levels Of Climate Favorability For Viticulture In Breasta Viticultural Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzatu, Gilda-Diana; Mărăcineanu, Liviu Cristian

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this present research was to evaluate the climatic conditions of a viticultural centre, as there are always needed studies to determine the climate favorability of the vine cultivation and the varieties resistant to heat and water stress, especially when climate change affects globally viticulture. The present research was made using the interpretation of Craiova Regional Weather Centre's meteorological records for the year of 2014, for Breasta viticultural centre. The climatic factors permitted the determination of several indexes used in viticultural climatology for the appreciation of the viticultural biotope characteristics. Assessment of climatic resources through synthetic climatic indexes, clearly express the generous heliothermic offer available for Breasta viticultural centre, the guarantee of quality and specificity of vine products obtained in this area.

  5. Study the most favorable shapes of electrostatic quadrupole doublet lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, O. A.; Sise, O.

    2017-02-01

    The optical properties of an electrostatic quadrupole doublet lens with two different electrode shapes were studied with the aid of computer simulation. The optimal electrode voltages of the electrostatic quadrupole lenses which give the stigmatic image in both planes simultaneously were found for both concave cylindrical electrode shape and plan electrode shape of the operation mode: parallel to point focusing. The effect of electrode shape on the image properties was investigated, and the aberration figures were studied. The results showed that under the same operation condition and the geometrical dimensions, the changing of the electrode shape of the electrostatic quadrupole doublet lenses lead to important differences in the optical properties of the lenses and the characteristics of the systems.

  6. THE HANDICAP PROCESS FAVORS EXAGGERATED, RATHER THAN REDUCED, SEXUAL ORNAMENTS

    PubMed Central

    Tazzyman, Samuel J; Iwasa, Yoh; Pomiankowski, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Why are traits that function as secondary sexual ornaments generally exaggerated in size compared to the naturally selected optimum, and not reduced? Because they deviate from the naturally selected optimum, traits that are reduced in size will handicap their bearer, and could thus provide an honest signal of quality to a potential mate. Thus if secondary sexual ornaments evolve via the handicap process, current theory suggests that reduced ornamentation should be as frequent as exaggerated ornamentation, but this is not the case. To try to explain this discrepancy, we analyze a simple model of the handicap process. Our analysis shows that asymmetries in costs of preference or ornament with regard to exaggeration and reduction cannot fully explain the imbalance. Rather, the bias toward exaggeration can be best explained if either the signaling efficacy or the condition dependence of a trait increases with size. Under these circumstances, evolution always leads to more extreme exaggeration than reduction: although the two should occur just as frequently, exaggerated secondary sexual ornaments are likely to be further removed from the naturally selected optimum than reduced ornaments. PMID:24837599

  7. Glioblastoma cells inhibit astrocytic p53-expression favoring cancer malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Biasoli, D; Sobrinho, M F; da Fonseca, A C C; de Matos, D G; Romão, L; de Moraes Maciel, R; Rehen, S K; Moura-Neto, V; Borges, H L; Lima, F R S

    2014-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment has a dynamic and usually cancer-promoting function during all tumorigenic steps. Glioblastoma (GBM) is a fatal tumor of the central nervous system, in which a substantial number of non-tumoral infiltrated cells can be found. Astrocytes neighboring these tumor cells have a particular reactive phenotype and can enhance GBM malignancy by inducing aberrant cell proliferation and invasion. The tumor suppressor p53 has a potential non-cell autonomous function by modulating the expression of secreted proteins that influence neighbor cells. In this work, we investigated the role of p53 on the crosstalk between GBM cells and astrocytes. We show that extracellular matrix (ECM) from p53+/− astrocytes is richer in laminin and fibronectin, compared with ECM from p53+/+ astrocytes. In addition, ECM from p53+/− astrocytes increases the survival and the expression of mesenchymal markers in GBM cells, which suggests haploinsufficient phenotype of the p53+/– microenvironment. Importantly, conditioned medium from GBM cells blocks the expression of p53 in p53+/+ astrocytes, even when DNA was damaged. These results suggest that GBM cells create a dysfunctional microenvironment based on the impairment of p53 expression that in turns exacerbates tumor endurance. PMID:25329722

  8. The handicap process favors exaggerated, rather than reduced, sexual ornaments.

    PubMed

    Tazzyman, Samuel J; Iwasa, Yoh; Pomiankowski, Andrew

    2014-09-01

    Why are traits that function as secondary sexual ornaments generally exaggerated in size compared to the naturally selected optimum, and not reduced? Because they deviate from the naturally selected optimum, traits that are reduced in size will handicap their bearer, and could thus provide an honest signal of quality to a potential mate. Thus if secondary sexual ornaments evolve via the handicap process, current theory suggests that reduced ornamentation should be as frequent as exaggerated ornamentation, but this is not the case. To try to explain this discrepancy, we analyze a simple model of the handicap process. Our analysis shows that asymmetries in costs of preference or ornament with regard to exaggeration and reduction cannot fully explain the imbalance. Rather, the bias toward exaggeration can be best explained if either the signaling efficacy or the condition dependence of a trait increases with size. Under these circumstances, evolution always leads to more extreme exaggeration than reduction: although the two should occur just as frequently, exaggerated secondary sexual ornaments are likely to be further removed from the naturally selected optimum than reduced ornaments. © 2014 The Authors. Evolution published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  9. Factors for Predicting Favorable Outcome of Percutaneous Epidural Adhesiolysis for Lumbar Disc Herniation

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Sang Ho; Lee, Jae Il; Cho, Hyun Seok; Shin, Jin Woo

    2017-01-01

    Background. Lower back pain is a common reason for disability and the most common cause is lumbar disc herniation. Percutaneous epidural adhesiolysis has been applied to relieve pain and increase the functional capacity of patients who present this condition. Objectives. In this study, we retrospectively evaluated the factors which predict the outcome of percutaneous epidural adhesiolysis in patients who were diagnosed with lumbar disc herniation. Methods. Electronic medical records of patients diagnosed with lumbar disc herniation who have received percutaneous epidural adhesiolysis treatment were reviewed. The primary outcome was the factors that were associated with substantial response of ≥4 points or ≥50% of pain relief in the numerical rating scale pain score 12 months after the treatment. Results. Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the presence of high-intensity zone (HIZ) at magnetic resonance imaging was a predictor of substantial response to percutaneous epidural adhesiolysis for 12 months (P = 0.007). The presence of a condition involving the vertebral foramen was a predictor for unsuccessful response after 12 months (P = 0.02). Discussion and Conclusion. The presence of HIZ was a predictor of favorable long-term outcome after percutaneous epidural adhesiolysis for the treatment of lower back pain with radicular pain caused by lumbar disc herniation. PMID:28246488

  10. High potassium promotes differentiation of retinal neurons but does not favor rod differentiation.

    PubMed

    Araki, M; Tonè, S; Akagawa, K; Kimura, H

    1995-10-27

    Neural retinal cells of newborn rats were cultured under dissociated culture conditions. Differentiation of several types of retinal cells was confirmed by immunohistochemical detection of type-specific neural phenotypes. We used Thy-1.1 antigen as a ganglion cell marker, HPC-1 or GABA as an amacrine cell marker and rhodopsin as a rod cell marker. With a high concentration of potassium (38 mM), expression of the respective neural phenotypes were differentially affected. High K+ increased the number of Thy-1.1 positive cells 6 to 8 fold, and drastically promoted their neurite extension. The same culture conditions, however, reduced considerably the number of rhodopsin positive cells, possibly due to the unique membrane properties of photoreceptors. A high K+ concentration also promoted differentiation of HPC-1 positive and GABA positive cells, but to a lesser extent than the Thy-1.1 positive cells. Several possibilities were examined to understand the effect of a high K+ concentration on retinal neural cells. The total cell number in cultures with a high K+ concentration was approximately half of that in control cultures at day 3 and slightly smaller at day 11, suggesting that high K+ did not have a positive general effect on the proliferation or survival of retinal cells. Naturally occurring neuronal death (apoptosis) is a well-known phenomenon during retinal development. A histochemical method for detecting DNA fragmentation, a step preceding apoptosis, showed that high K+ had no preventive effect. BrdU (bromodeoxyuridine) immunohistochemistry showed that high K+ did not seem to enhance proliferation of neural precursor cells. These results indicate that a high K+ concentration promotes the expression of neuronal phenotypes but is not a favorable condition for rod differentiation. Since a high K+ concentration is considered to induce depolarization of nerve cells, the present results suggest an anterograde influence from surrounding neuronal cells, through chronic

  11. Understanding and Mitigating the Effects of Stable Dodecahydro- closo -dodecaborate Intermediates on Hydrogen-Storage Reactions

    DOE PAGES

    White, James L.; Newhouse, Rebecca J.; Zhang, Jin Z.; ...

    2016-10-25

    Alkali metal borohydrides can reversibly store hydrogen; however, the materials display poor cyclability, often times linked to occurrence of stable closo-polyborate intermediate species. In an effort to understand the role of such intermediates on the hydrogen storage properties of metal borohydrides, several alkali metal dodecahydro-closo-dodecaborate salts were isolated in anhydrous form and characterized by diffraction and spectroscopic techniques. Mixtures of Li2B12H12, Na2B12H12, and K2B12H12 with the corresponding alkali metal hydrides were subjected to hydrogenation conditions known to favor partial or full reversibility in metal borohydrides. The stoichiometric mixtures of MH and M2B12H12 salts form the corresponding metal borohydrides MBH4 (M=Li,more » Na, K) in almost quantitative yield at 100 MPa H2 and 500 °C. In addition, stoichiometric mixtures of Li2B12H12 and MgH2 were found to form MgB2 at 500 °C and above upon desorption in vacuum. The two destabilization strategies outlined above suggest that metal polyhydro-closo-polyborate species can be converted into the corresponding metal borohydrides or borides, albeit under rather harsh conditions of hydrogen pressure and temperature.« less

  12. 45 CFR 73.735-502 - Permissible acceptance of gifts, entertainment, and favors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... acceptance of gifts, entertainment, and favors. (a) An employee may accept a gift, gratuity, favor... between the employee and his or her parents, spouse or children, if it is clear that the relationship is the motivating factor. (b) Loans from banks or other financial institutions may be accepted...

  13. 45 CFR 73.735-502 - Permissible acceptance of gifts, entertainment, and favors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... acceptance of gifts, entertainment, and favors. (a) An employee may accept a gift, gratuity, favor... between the employee and his or her parents, spouse or children, if it is clear that the relationship is the motivating factor. (b) Loans from banks or other financial institutions may be accepted...

  14. 45 CFR 73.735-502 - Permissible acceptance of gifts, entertainment, and favors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... acceptance of gifts, entertainment, and favors. (a) An employee may accept a gift, gratuity, favor... between the employee and his or her parents, spouse or children, if it is clear that the relationship is the motivating factor. (b) Loans from banks or other financial institutions may be accepted...

  15. 45 CFR 73.735-502 - Permissible acceptance of gifts, entertainment, and favors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... acceptance of gifts, entertainment, and favors. (a) An employee may accept a gift, gratuity, favor... between the employee and his or her parents, spouse or children, if it is clear that the relationship is the motivating factor. (b) Loans from banks or other financial institutions may be accepted...

  16. 45 CFR 73.735-503 - Criminal provisions relating to gifts, entertainment, and favors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... GENERAL ADMINISTRATION STANDARDS OF CONDUCT Gifts, Entertainment, and Favors § 73.735-503 Criminal provisions relating to gifts, entertainment, and favors. (a) The law provides criminal penalties for whoever... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Criminal provisions relating to...

  17. "Time" and "Newsweek" Favor John F. Kennedy, Criticize Robert and Edward Kennedy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedler, Fred; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Finds that the percentage of favorable, neutral, and unfavorable statements about the three Kennedy brothers in two national news magazines was similar and that both magazines published proportionately more favorable statements about John Kennedy than about either of his brothers. (FL)

  18. Anticipated detection of favorable periods for wind energy production by means of information theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Eugenio; Saravia, Gonzalo; Kobe, Sigismund; Schumann, Rolf; Schuster, Rolf

    Managing the electric power produced by different sources requires mixing the different response times they present. Thus, for instance, coal burning presents large time lags until operational conditions are reached while hydroelectric generation can react in a matter of some seconds or few minutes to reach the desired productivity. Wind energy production (WEP) can be instantaneously fed to the network to save fuels with low thermal inertia (gas burning for instance), but this source presents sudden variations within few hours. We report here for the first time a method based on information theory to handle WEP. This method has been successful in detecting dynamical changes in magnetic transitions and variations of stock markets. An algorithm called wlzip based on information recognition is used to recognize the information content of a time series. We make use of publically available energy data in Germany to simulate real applications. After a calibration process the system can recognize directly on the WEP data the onset of favorable periods of a desired strength. Optimization can lead to a few hours of anticipation which is enough to control the mixture of WEP with other energy sources, thus saving fuels.

  19. Membrane-anchoring stabilizes and favors secretion of New Delhi Metallo-β-lactamase

    PubMed Central

    González, Lisandro J.; Bahr, Guillermo; Nakashige, Toshiki G.; Nolan, Elizabeth M.; Bonomo, Robert A.; Vila, Alejandro J.

    2016-01-01

    Carbapenems, “last resort” β-lactam antibiotics, are inactivated by zinc-dependent metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs). The host innate immune response withholds nutrient metal ions from microbial pathogens by releasing metal-chelating proteins such as calprotectin. We show that metal sequestration is detrimental for the accumulation of MBLs in the bacterial periplasm, since these enzymes are readily degraded in their non-metallated form. However, the New Delhi Metallo-β-lactamase (NDM-1) is able to persist under conditions of metal depletion. NDM-1 is a lipidated protein anchored to the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. Membrane-anchoring contributes to the unusual stability of NDM-1 and favors secretion of this enzyme in outer membrane vesicles (OMVs). OMVs containing NDM-1 can protect nearby populations of bacteria from otherwise lethal antibiotic levels, and OMVs from clinical pathogens expressing NDM-1 can carry this MBL and the blaNDM gene. We show that protein export into OMVs can be targeted, providing possibilities of new antibacterial therapeutic strategies. PMID:27182662

  20. Strong natural selection during plant restoration favors an unexpected suite of plant traits

    PubMed Central

    Kulpa, Sarah M; Leger, Elizabeth A

    2013-01-01

    Restoration is an opportunity to study natural selection: One can measure the distribution of traits in source propagules used to found populations, compare this with the distribution of traits in successful recruits, and determine the strength and direction of selection on potentially adaptive traits. We investigated whether natural selection influenced seedling establishment during postfire restoration in the Great Basin, an area where large-scale restoration occurs with a few widely available cultivars planted over a large range of environmental conditions. We collected seeds from established plants of the perennial grass Elymus elymoides ssp. californicus (squirreltail) at two restoration sites and compared the distribution of phenotypic traits of surviving plants with the original pool of restoration seeds. Seeds were planted in common gardens for two generations. Plants grown from seeds that established in the field were a nonrandom subset of the original seeds, with directional selection consistently favoring a correlated suite of traits in both field sites: small plant and seed size, and earlier flowering phenology. These results demonstrate that natural selection can affect restoration establishment in strong and predictable ways and that adaptive traits in these sites were opposite of the current criteria used for selection of restoration material in this system. PMID:23745142

  1. Multipotent adult hippocampal progenitor cells maintained as neurospheres favor differentiation toward glial lineages

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Jisun; Daniels, Gabrielle J.; Chiou, Lawrence S.; Ye, Eun-Ah; Jeong, Yong-Seob; Sakaguchi, Donald S.

    2014-01-01

    Adult hippocampal progenitor cells (AHPCs) are generally maintained as a dispersed monolayer population of multipotent neural progenitors. To better understand cell-cell interactions among neural progenitors and their influences on cellular characteristics, we generated free-floating cellular aggregates, or neurospheres, from the adherent monolayer population of AHPCs. Results from in vitro analyses demonstrated that both populations of AHPCs were highly proliferative under maintenance conditions, but AHPCs formed in neurospheres favored differentiation along a glial lineage and displayed greater migrational activity, than the traditionally cultured AHPCs. To study the plasticity of AHPCs from both populations in vivo, we transplanted GFP-expressing AHPCs via intraocular injection into the developing rat eyes. Both AHPC populations were capable of surviving and integrating into the developing host central nervous system, but considerably more GFP-positive cells were observed in the retinas transplanted with neurosphere AHPCs, compared to adherent AHPCs. These results suggest that the culture configuration during maintenance for neural progenitor cells (NPCs) influences cell fate and motility in vitro as well as in vivo. Our findings have implication for understanding different cellular characteristics of NPCs according to distinct intercellular architectures and for developing cell-based therapeutic strategies using lineage-committed NPCs. PMID:24844209

  2. Favorable effect of in-situ generated platinum in the membrane on fuel cell membrane durability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macauley, Natalia; Wong, Ka Hung; Watson, Mark; Kjeang, Erik

    2015-12-01

    The overall lifetime of polymer electrolyte fuel cells is often determined by the membrane durability. Platinum, which may dissolve from the catalyst layers during fuel cell operation and deposit in the membrane, has been shown to have both positive and negative effects on membrane stability. In the present work, we analyze what specific conditions are required in order to reach a favorable, membrane stabilizing effect with the controlled use of platinum in the membrane. Using accelerated membrane durability testing, field operated membrane samples, and electron microscopy, we demonstrate that a high platinum concentration with specific particle shapes and sizes is essential for enhanced membrane stability. Specifically, star shaped and dendritic particles with high particle density and high surface area are shown to be preferable. These particles contain high levels of Pt(111) and are expected to have high catalytic activity toward peroxide quenching and crossover gas consumption, thereby mitigating chemical membrane degradation. On the other hand, small, dispersed cubic particles are found to have no effect or the opposite, negative effect on membrane stability.

  3. Genotypic diversity effects on the performance of Taraxacum officinale populations increase with time and environmental favorability.

    PubMed

    Drummond, Emily B M; Vellend, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Within-population genetic diversity influences many ecological processes, but few studies have examined how environmental conditions may impact these short-term diversity effects. Over four growing seasons, we followed experimental populations of a clonal, ubiquitous weed, Taraxacum officinale, with different numbers of genotypes in relatively favorable fallow field and unfavorable mowed lawn environmental treatments. Population performance (measured as total leaf area, seed production or biomass) clearly and consistently increased with diversity, and this effect became stronger over the course of the experiment. Diversity effects were stronger, and with different underlying mechanisms, in the fallow field versus the mowed lawn. Large genotypes dominated in the fallow field driving overyielding (via positive selection effects), whereas in the mowed lawn, where performance was limited by regular disturbance, there was evidence for complementarity among genotypes (with one compact genotype in particular performing better in mixture than monoculture). Hence, we predict stronger genotypic diversity effects in environments where intense intraspecific competition enhances genotypic differences. Our four-year field experiment plus seedling establishment trials indicate that genotypic diversity effects have far-reaching and context-dependent consequences across generations.

  4. Genotypic Diversity Effects on the Performance of Taraxacum officinale Populations Increase with Time and Environmental Favorability

    PubMed Central

    Drummond, Emily B. M.; Vellend, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Within-population genetic diversity influences many ecological processes, but few studies have examined how environmental conditions may impact these short-term diversity effects. Over four growing seasons, we followed experimental populations of a clonal, ubiquitous weed, Taraxacum officinale, with different numbers of genotypes in relatively favorable fallow field and unfavorable mowed lawn environmental treatments. Population performance (measured as total leaf area, seed production or biomass) clearly and consistently increased with diversity, and this effect became stronger over the course of the experiment. Diversity effects were stronger, and with different underlying mechanisms, in the fallow field versus the mowed lawn. Large genotypes dominated in the fallow field driving overyielding (via positive selection effects), whereas in the mowed lawn, where performance was limited by regular disturbance, there was evidence for complementarity among genotypes (with one compact genotype in particular performing better in mixture than monoculture). Hence, we predict stronger genotypic diversity effects in environments where intense intraspecific competition enhances genotypic differences. Our four-year field experiment plus seedling establishment trials indicate that genotypic diversity effects have far-reaching and context-dependent consequences across generations. PMID:22348004

  5. Strong natural selection during plant restoration favors an unexpected suite of plant traits.

    PubMed

    Kulpa, Sarah M; Leger, Elizabeth A

    2013-04-01

    RESTORATION IS AN OPPORTUNITY TO STUDY NATURAL SELECTION: One can measure the distribution of traits in source propagules used to found populations, compare this with the distribution of traits in successful recruits, and determine the strength and direction of selection on potentially adaptive traits. We investigated whether natural selection influenced seedling establishment during postfire restoration in the Great Basin, an area where large-scale restoration occurs with a few widely available cultivars planted over a large range of environmental conditions. We collected seeds from established plants of the perennial grass Elymus elymoides ssp. californicus (squirreltail) at two restoration sites and compared the distribution of phenotypic traits of surviving plants with the original pool of restoration seeds. Seeds were planted in common gardens for two generations. Plants grown from seeds that established in the field were a nonrandom subset of the original seeds, with directional selection consistently favoring a correlated suite of traits in both field sites: small plant and seed size, and earlier flowering phenology. These results demonstrate that natural selection can affect restoration establishment in strong and predictable ways and that adaptive traits in these sites were opposite of the current criteria used for selection of restoration material in this system.

  6. Designation of less favorable areas by the regionalization of soil degradation on various spatial scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pásztor, L.; Szabó, J.; Bakacsi, Zs.; Laborczi, A.

    2009-04-01

    One of the main objectives of the EU's Common Agricultural Policy is to encourage maintaining agricultural production in less favorable areas (LFA) in order (among others) to sustain agricultural production and use natural resources, in such a way to secure both stable production and income to farmers and to protect the environment. LFA assignment has both ecological and severe economical aspects. Delimitation of LFAs can be carried out by using biophysical diagnostic criteria on low soil productivity and poor climate conditions. Identification of low-productivity areas requires regionalization of soil functions related to food and other biomass production. This process can be carried out in different scales from national to local level, but always requires map-based pedological and further environmental information with appropriate spatial resolution. For the regionalization of less productive areas in national scale a functional approach was used which integrates the knowledge on soil degradation processes in nationwide level. Specific soil threats were classified into ranked categories. Supposing (quasi)uniform distribution of vulnerability measure along these classes, we introduced a "standardized" value as a ratio of the class order to the maximum class order expressed in percentage. For the overall spatial characterization of degradation status, spatial information was integrated in a result map by summarizing the degradation specific "standardized" cell values. This map in one hand has been used for the delineation of soil degradation regions. On the other hand appropriate spatial aggregation of index values on geographical and administrative regions is suitable for their quantitative comparison thus they can be ranked and this feature can be used for the identification of less favorable areas. At the more detailed, county level the Digital Kreybig Soil Information System was used as a tool of the regionalization of soil functions related to soil

  7. Citations alone were enough to predict favorable conclusions in reviews of neuraminidase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xujuan; Wang, Ying; Tsafnat, Guy; Coiera, Enrico; Bourgeois, Florence T; Dunn, Adam G

    2015-01-01

    To examine the use of supervised machine learning to identify biases in evidence selection and determine if citation information can predict favorable conclusions in reviews about neuraminidase inhibitors. Reviews of neuraminidase inhibitors published during January 2005 to May 2013 were identified by searching PubMed. In a blinded evaluation, the reviews were classified as favorable if investigators agreed that they supported the use of neuraminidase inhibitors for prophylaxis or treatment of influenza. Reference lists were used to identify all unique citations to primary articles. Three classification methods were tested for their ability to predict favorable conclusions using only citation information. Citations to 4,574 articles were identified in 152 reviews of neuraminidase inhibitors, and 93 (61%) of these reviews were graded as favorable. Primary articles describing drug resistance were among the citations that were underrepresented in favorable reviews. The most accurate classifier predicted favorable conclusions with 96.2% accuracy, using citations to only 24 of 4,574 articles. Favorable conclusions in reviews about neuraminidase inhibitors can be predicted using only information about the articles they cite. The approach highlights how evidence exclusion shapes conclusions in reviews and provides a method to evaluate citation practices in a corpus of reviews. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Short-term favorable weather conditions are an important control of interannual variability in carbon and water fluxes

    Treesearch

    Jakob Zscheischler; Simone Fatichi; Sebastian Wolf; Peter D. Blanken; Gil Bohrer; Ken Clark; Ankur R. Desai; David Hollinger; Trevor Keenan; Kimberly A. Novick; Sonia I. Seneviratne

    2016-01-01

    Ecosystem models often perform poorly in reproducing interannual variability in carbon and water fluxes, resulting in considerable uncertainty when estimating the land-carbon sink. While many aggregated variables (growing season length, seasonal precipitation, or temperature) have been suggested as predictors for interannual variability in carbon fluxes, their...

  9. Providing favorable conditions to simulate the mid to late Pliocene glaciations (3.3-2.5 Ma)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, N.; Ramstein, G.; Dumas, C.; Ladant, J. B.; Contoux, C.

    2016-12-01

    This study is devoted to the understanding of the long term evolution of climate and cryosphere prior to, during and after the perennial Greenland glaciation (2.7 Ma). Major issues in this study are both to understand the onset and termination of the previous Greenland glaciation (MIS M2) which took place 600 Kyrs before the establishment of the perennial Greenland glaciation (2.7 Ma) and to simulate the evolution of the perennial Greenland glaciation (from 3.0 to 2.5 Ma.). Although it is established that the variation of the summer insolation at 65°N triggers these glaciations, the response of atmospheric CO2 concentration (pCO2) and other feedbacks as vegetation have been shown to be major players in the amplification and duration of these glaciations. We study the dynamics of climate and cryosphere in both cases with a fully coupled atmosphere ocean general circulation model (IPSL-CM5A) and ice-sheet model (GRISLI) to provide snapshot and transient behaviors of the climate cryosphere system. We show that, MIS M2 glaciation only lasted 50 Kyrs, whereas in the context of the late Pliocene (3.0 - 2.5 Ma), the onset of the perennial Greenland ice sheet lasted several orbital cycles. Indeed, the simulated scenarios of Greenland ice-sheet evolution differ from one another when using different pCO2 records. But the common feature remains, for all pCO2 reconstruction scenarios, that the onset of this glaciation is not an abrupt transition but spans over several astronomical cycles. More highly resolved pCO2 records are vital to confirm and to better understand the underlying mechanism for these glaciations in the late Pliocene.

  10. 15 CFR Supplement No. 3 to Part 740 - License Exception ENC Favorable Treatment Countries

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Treatment Countries No. Supplement No. 3 to Part 740 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to... Favorable Treatment Countries Austria Australia Belgium Bulgaria Canada Cyprus Czech Republic Estonia... Turkey United Kingdom...

  11. Catalytic performance and thermostability of chloroperoxidase in reverse micelle: achievement of a catalytically favorable enzyme conformation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yali; Wu, Jinyue; Ru, Xuejiao; Jiang, Yucheng; Hu, Mancheng; Li, Shuni; Zhai, Quanguo

    2011-06-01

    The catalytic performance of chloroperoxidase (CPO) in peroxidation of 2, 2'-azinobis-(-3 ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfononic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) and oxidation of indole in a reverse micelle composed of surfactant-water-isooctane-pentanol was investigated and optimized in this work. Some positive results were obtained as follows: the peroxidation activity of CPO was enhanced 248% and 263%, while oxidation activity was enhanced 215% and 222% in cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTABr) reverse micelle medium and dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTABr) medium, respectively. Thermostability was also greatly improved in reverse micelle: at 40 °C, CPO essentially lost all its activity after 5 h incubation, while 58-76% catalytic activity was retained for both reactions in the two reverse micelle media. At 50 °C, about 44-75% catalytic activity remained for both reactions in reverse micelle after 2 h compared with no observed activity in pure buffer under the same conditions. The enhancement of CPO activity was dependent mainly on the surfactant concentration and structure, organic solvent ratio (V(pentanol)/V(isooctane)), and water content in the reverse micelle. The obtained kinetic parameters showed that the catalytic turnover frequency (k(cat)) was increased in reverse micelle. Moreover, the lower K(m) and higher k(cat)/K(m) demonstrated that both the affinity and specificity of CPO to substrates were improved in reverse micelle media. Fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD) and UV-vis spectra assays indicated that a catalytically favorable conformation of enzyme was achieved in reverse micelle, including the strengthening of the protein α-helix structure, and greater exposure of the heme prosthetic group for easy access of the substrate in bulk solution. These results are promising in view of the industrial applications of this versatile biological catalyst.

  12. Favorable Circulatory System Outcomes as Adjuvant Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Treatment for Cerebrovascular Diseases in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Hsienhsueh Elley; Hong, Yu-Chiang; Chang, Ku-Chou; Shih, Chun-Chuan; Hung, Jen-Wen; Liu, Chia-Wei; Tan, Teng-Yeow; Huang, Chih-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background This study searches the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) used in a previous project, aiming for reconstructing possible cerebrovascular disease-related groups (DRG),and estimating the costs between cerebrovascular disease and related diseases. Methods and Materials We conducted a nationwide retrospective cohort study in stroke inpatients, we examined the overall costs in 3 municipalities in Taiwan, by evaluating the possible costs of the expecting diagnosis related group (DRG) by using the international classification of diseases version-9 (ICD-9) system, and the overall analysis of the re-admission population that received traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) treatment and those who did not. Results The trend demonstrated that the non-participant costs were consistent with the ICD-9 categories (430 to 437) because similarities existed between years 2006 to 2007. Among the TCM patients, a wide variation and additional costs were found compared to non-TCM patients during these 2 years. The average re-admission duration was significantly shorter for TCM patients, especially those initially diagnosed with ICD 434 during the first admission. In addition, TCM patients demonstrated more severe general symptoms, which incurred high conventional treatment costs, and could result in re-admission for numerous reasons. However, in Disease 7 of ICD-9 category, representing the circulatory system was most prevalent in non-TCM inpatients, which was the leading cause of re-admission. Conclusion We concluded that favorable circulatory system outcomes were in adjuvant TCM treatment inpatients, there were less re-admission for circulatory system events and a two-third reduction of re-admission within ICD-9 code 430 to 437, compared to non-TCM ones. However, there were shorter re-admission duration other than circulatory system events by means of unfavorable baseline condition. PMID:24475108

  13. Elevated CO2 and phosphate limitation favor Micromonas pusilla through stimulated growth and reduced viral impact.

    PubMed

    Maat, Douwe S; Crawfurd, Katherine J; Timmermans, Klaas R; Brussaard, Corina P D

    2014-05-01

    Growth and viral infection of the marine picoeukaryote Micromonas pusilla was studied under a future-ocean scenario of elevated partial CO2 (pCO2; 750 μatm versus the present-day 370 μatm) and simultaneous limitation of phosphorus (P). Independent of the pCO2 level, the ratios of M. pusilla cellular carbon (C) to nitrogen (N), C:P and N:P, increased with increasing P stress. Furthermore, in the P-limited chemostats at growth rates of 0.32 and 0.97 of the maximum growth rate (μmax), the supply of elevated pCO2 led to an additional rise in cellular C:N and C:P ratios, as well as a 1.4-fold increase in M. pusilla abundance. Viral lysis was not affected by pCO2, but P limitation led to a 150% prolongation of the latent period (6 to 12 h) and an 80% reduction in viral burst sizes (63 viruses per cell) compared to P-replete conditions (4 to 8 h latent period and burst size of 320). Growth at 0.32 μmax further prolonged the latent period by another 150% (12 to 18 h). Thus, enhanced P stress due to climate change-induced strengthened vertical stratification can be expected to lead to reduced and delayed virus production in picoeukaryotes. This effect is tempered, but likely not counteracted, by the increase in cell abundance under elevated pCO2. Although the influence of potential P-limitation-relieving factors, such as the uptake of organic P and P utilization during infection, is unclear, our current results suggest that when P limitation prevails in future oceans, picoeukaryotes and grazing will be favored over larger-sized phytoplankton and viral lysis, with increased matter and nutrient flow to higher trophic levels.

  14. Favorable circulatory system outcomes as adjuvant traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) treatment for cerebrovascular diseases in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Hsienhsueh Elley; Hung, Yu-Chiang; Hong, Yu-Chiang; Chang, Ku-Chou; Shih, Chun-Chuan; Hung, Jen-Wen; Liu, Chia-Wei; Tan, Teng-Yeow; Huang, Chih-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    This study searches the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) used in a previous project, aiming for reconstructing possible cerebrovascular disease-related groups (DRG),and estimating the costs between cerebrovascular disease and related diseases. We conducted a nationwide retrospective cohort study in stroke inpatients, we examined the overall costs in 3 municipalities in Taiwan, by evaluating the possible costs of the expecting diagnosis related group (DRG) by using the international classification of diseases version-9 (ICD-9) system, and the overall analysis of the re-admission population that received traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) treatment and those who did not. The trend demonstrated that the non-participant costs were consistent with the ICD-9 categories (430 to 437) because similarities existed between years 2006 to 2007. Among the TCM patients, a wide variation and additional costs were found compared to non-TCM patients during these 2 years. The average re-admission duration was significantly shorter for TCM patients, especially those initially diagnosed with ICD 434 during the first admission. In addition, TCM patients demonstrated more severe general symptoms, which incurred high conventional treatment costs, and could result in re-admission for numerous reasons. However, in Disease 7 of ICD-9 category, representing the circulatory system was most prevalent in non-TCM inpatients, which was the leading cause of re-admission. We concluded that favorable circulatory system outcomes were in adjuvant TCM treatment inpatients, there were less re-admission for circulatory system events and a two-third reduction of re-admission within ICD-9 code 430 to 437, compared to non-TCM ones. However, there were shorter re-admission duration other than circulatory system events by means of unfavorable baseline condition.

  15. Favorable responses to acute and chronic exercise in McArdle patients.

    PubMed

    Maté-Muñoz, José L; Moran, Maria; Pérez, Margarita; Chamorro-Viña, Carolina; Gómez-Gallego, Félix; Santiago, Catalina; Chicharro, Luis; Foster, Carl; Nogales-Gadea, Gisela; Rubio, Juan C; Andreu, Antoni L; Martín, Miguel A; Arenas, Joaquín; Lucia, Alejandro

    2007-07-01

    This study reports acute exercise responses in a large (N = 46) series of patients with McArdle disease and responses to exercise training in a smaller (n = 9) set of patients. Patients were studied during both incremental and steady-state cycle ergometer exercise, using cardiopulmonary testing, and the patients were compared with age- and gender-matched controls. The study was performed in a university setting (clinical exercise physiology laboratory). The 46 patients showed common features of McArdle disease. They were definitively diagnosed by histochemistry, biochemistry, and/or molecular genetic analysis. The 46 controls were healthy, sedentary individuals. Nine patients were studied before and after an 8-month supervised aerobic exercise training program (including five weekly sessions of walking and/or cycling exercise with a duration no greater than 60 minutes). The main indicators of exercise capacity that we measured were peak power output, peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), and ventilatory threshold (VT). Exercise capacity (peak power output, 35% control; VO2peak, 44% control; VT, 66% control) was markedly depressed in the patients. The patients who trained improved peak power output (25%), VO2peak (44%), and VT (27%), with no evidence of negative outcomes from training. Although not achieving normal values, the response to training put the patients into the lower limit of normal controls. Under carefully controlled conditions, patients with McArdle disease may perform acute exercise safely, and they may respond favorably to training. This may offer an additional therapeutic option to help normalize the lifestyles of these patients.

  16. Dopamine Receptor D3 Signaling on CD4+ T Cells Favors Th1- and Th17-Mediated Immunity.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Francisco; Prado, Carolina; González, Hugo; Franz, Dafne; Osorio-Barrios, Francisco; Osorio, Fabiola; Ugalde, Valentina; Lopez, Ernesto; Elgueta, Daniela; Figueroa, Alicia; Lladser, Alvaro; Pacheco, Rodrigo

    2016-05-15

    Dopamine receptor D3 (DRD3) expressed on CD4(+) T cells is required to promote neuroinflammation in a murine model of Parkinson's disease. However, how DRD3 signaling affects T cell-mediated immunity remains unknown. In this study, we report that TCR stimulation on mouse CD4(+) T cells induces DRD3 expression, regardless of the lineage specification. Importantly, functional analyses performed in vivo using adoptive transfer of OVA-specific OT-II cells into wild-type recipients show that DRD3 deficiency in CD4(+) T cells results in attenuated differentiation of naive CD4(+) T cells toward the Th1 phenotype, exacerbated generation of Th2 cells, and unaltered Th17 differentiation. The reciprocal regulatory effect of DRD3 signaling in CD4(+) T cells favoring Th1 generation and impairing the acquisition of Th2 phenotype was also reproduced using in vitro approaches. Mechanistic analysis indicates that DRD3 signaling evokes suppressor of cytokine signaling 5 expression, a negative regulator of Th2 development, which indirectly favors acquisition of Th1 phenotype. Accordingly, DRD3 deficiency results in exacerbated eosinophil infiltration into the airways of mice undergoing house dust mite-induced allergic response. Interestingly, our results show that, upon chronic inflammatory colitis induced by transfer of naive CD4(+) T cells into lymphopenic recipients, DRD3 deficiency not only affects Th1 response, but also the frequency of Th17 cells, suggesting that DRD3 signaling also contributes to Th17 expansion under chronic inflammatory conditions. In conclusion, our findings indicate that DRD3-mediated signaling in CD4(+) T cells plays a crucial role in the balance of effector lineages, favoring the inflammatory potential of CD4(+) T cells.

  17. MET receptor variant R970C favors calpain-dependent generation of a fragment promoting epithelial cell scattering.

    PubMed

    Montagne, Rémi; Baranzelli, Anne; Muharram, Ghaffar; Catherine, Leroy; Lesaffre, Marie; Vinchent, Audrey; Kherrouche, Zoulika; Werkmeister, Elisabeth; Cortot, Alexis B; Tulasne, David

    2017-01-04

    The receptor tyrosine kinase MET and its ligand, the hepatocyte growth factor, are essential to embryonic development, whereas deregulation of MET signaling is associated with tumorigenesis leading to various cancers, including lung carcinoma. Mutations in the MET kinase domain lead to constitutive kinase activity and are associated with tumorigenesis. In lung cancer, however, some mutations are found in the juxtamembrane domain, and their functional consequences are unknown. Because the juxtamembrane domain of MET is targeted by several proteolytic cleavages, involved in its degradation during cell death or under steady-state conditions, we evaluated the influence of these mutations on the MET proteolytic cleavages. In stably transfected epithelial cells expressing MET, the juxtamembrane mutations R970C, P991S, and T992I were found not to modify the known caspase or presenilin-dependent regulated intramembrane proteolysis. Yet when overexpressed, the R970C variant caused generation of an as yet undescribed 45-kDa fragment (p45 MET). This fragment was found in the confluent lung cancer cell line NCI-H1437 carrying the R970C mutation and at a lesser extent in cell lines expressing WT MET, suggesting that R970C mutation favors this cleavage. Generation of p45 MET required the activity of the calpain proteases, confirming the involvement of proteolysis. Ectopic expression of reconstituted p45 MET in epithelial cell lines favored cell scattering and invasion indicating active role of this fragment in HGF/SF induced responses. Hence, although the juxtamembrane mutations of MET do not affect its known proteolytic cleavages, the R970C MET variant favors calpain dependent proteolytic cleavage in lung cancer cells.

  18. Effects of Maternal Mental Health on Engagement in Favorable Health Practices During Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Alhusen, Jeanne L.; Ayres, Lauren; DePriest, Kelli

    2016-01-01

    Introduction A woman’s health practices during pregnancy are associated with maternal and neonatal outcomes. Yet limited research has examined predictors of a woman’s engagement in favorable health practices, particularly in pregnant women at greatest risk for adverse outcomes. We examined the role of mental health on engagement in favorable health practices during pregnancy in a sample of pregnant, low-income, predominantly African American women. Methods A convenience sample of pregnant women was obtained from 3 obstetric clinics within a large Mid-Atlantic academic health system. Pregnant women (N = 166) completed measures of depression, social support, and engagement in favorable health practices during their second trimester. Six domains of health practices (ie, balance of rest and exercise, safety measures, nutrition, substance use, health care access, access to pregnancy-related information) were assessed by the Health Practices in Pregnancy Questionnaire-II. Multiple linear regression was used to examine predictors of engagement in favorable health practices. Results Fifty-nine percent of the study participants experienced depressive symptomatology during pregnancy. Multivariate linear regression modeling demonstrated that increased depressive symptoms, decreased social support, young age, and prepregnancy overweight or obesity were significant predictors of nonengagement in favorable health practices during pregnancy. Discussion Findings suggest that pregnant women with poor mental health (eg, depressive symptomatology, poor social support) and specific sociodemographic characteristics (eg, young age, prepregnancy overweight or obesity) were less likely to engage in favorable health practices during pregnancy. Health care providers are uniquely positioned to assess a woman’s mental health and related indicators to optimize pregnancy and neonatal outcomes. PMID:26849176

  19. ASPECTS is a predictor of favorable CT perfusion in acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Yaghi, Shadi; Bianchi, Nicholas; Amole, Adewumi; Hinduja, Archana

    2014-07-01

    Computed tomography perfusion (CTP) is used by some stroke centers to stratify stroke patients who may potentially benefit from endovascular treatment. Our aim is to identify predictors of a favorable CTP in acute ischemic stroke patients evaluated within 8h from symptoms onset for possible endovascular treatment. We reviewed records of patients who had CTP studies between August 2010 and September 2012. We included all patients with anterior circulation strokes with evidence of large vessel disease. All patients had CT head and CT angiography head and neck as part of our protocol. Favorable CTP was defined as core infarct size less than one third the middle cerebral artery distribution and penumbra>20% of infarct size. The patients were divided into two groups based on favorable CTP or not. Baseline characteristics, time parameters, laboratory data and radiological data were compared between both groups. For statistical analysis, we used independent and Fisher's exact tests and a multivariate logistic regression model. During this period, 60 patients met the inclusion criteria. Patients with favorable CTP were likely to be ≥ 80 years (33% vs 9%, P = 0.026), have Alberta Stroke Program early CT score (ASPECTS) > 7 (81% v. 21%, P ≤ 0.001) and lower mean time from symptom onset to CTP (234 ± 91 vs 305 ± 122, P = 0.015). On regression analysis, ASPECTS was the only independent predictor of a favorable CTP (OR = 16.2, CI: 4.3-62.2, P < 0.001). ASPECT score may be used as a tool to predict a favorable CTP. Larger studies are needed to confirm our findings. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  20. Ratings of characteristics of ethnic groups by authoritarians and nonauthoritarians when stereotypes vary in favorability.

    PubMed

    Raden, David

    2002-12-01

    White non-Jewish participants in the 1990 General Social Survey with low scores on Tolerance of deviation ("Intolerant"), a measure of authoritarianism, rated African Americans more unfavorably than did Tolerant respondents on two traits, intelligence and laziness, when stereotypes about the latter group are unfavorable. But the Intolerant were not more negative in their evaluations than the Tolerant when Jews, a group for whom the stereotypes on these traits are favorable, were rated. The Intolerant rated Jews more favorably on intelligence, and their ratings of laziness did not differ from those by the Tolerant.

  1. Reciprocal sign epistasis and truncation selection: When is recombination favorable in a pre-breeding program with a selfing species?

    PubMed

    Vagne, Constance; David, Jacques; Tavaud, Muriel; Fontez, Bénédicte

    2015-12-07

    Since the dawn of agriculture, humans have applied artificial selection on traits of interest, regardless of their genetic architecture. Yet, still today, most models used to study and streamline this process overlook genetic interactions. In this study, we determined the conditions in which a target genotype can be fixed when truncation selection is applied on an epistatic trait. Previous studies have shown that reciprocal sign epistasis with two fitness peaks of unequal height involves multiple equilibrium states, i.e. below one critical parameter value, such as a critical recombination rate, one genotype may be fixed, and above it, another one may be fixed. Using a haploid bi-locus model, we identified which genotype would be fixed, and how quickly, in an infinite population selected for a phenotypic trait subject to reciprocal sign epistasis with unequal peak heights, depending on two criteria: the recombination rate and percentage of selected individuals. The critical parameter values at which bistability sets in, were also calculated. These results were complemented by stochastic simulations in finite populations. Our results confirmed that, in the case of fitness under reciprocal sign epistasis, high recombination rates induce blockage at the local optimum or attainment of an equilibrium state between the two peaks. However, if linkage disequilibrium is negative in the initial population, recombination is necessary to create the most favorable genotype. Therefore, in this case, reciprocal sign epistasis favors non-null recombination rates, particularly if selection is intense. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Favored subjects and psychosocial needs in music therapy in terminally ill cancer patients: a content analysis.

    PubMed

    Preissler, Pia; Kordovan, Sarah; Ullrich, Anneke; Bokemeyer, Carsten; Oechsle, Karin

    2016-05-12

    Research has shown positive effects of music therapy on the physical and mental well-being of terminally ill patients. This study aimed to identify favored subjects and psychosocial needs of terminally ill cancer patients during music therapy and associated factors. Forty-one Patients receiving specialized inpatient palliative care prospectively performed a music therapy intervention consisting of at least two sessions (total number of sessions: 166; per patient average: 4, range, 2-10). Applied music therapy methods and content were not pre-determined. Therapeutic subjects and psychosocial needs addressed in music therapy sessions were identified from prospective semi-structured "field notes" using qualitative content analysis. Patient- and treatment-related characteristics as well as factors related to music and music therapy were assessed by questionnaire or retrieved from medical records. Seven main categories of subjects were identified: "condition, treatment, further care", "coping with palliative situation", "emotions and feelings", "music and music therapy", "biography", "social environment", and "death, dying, and spiritual topics". Patients addressed an average of 4.7 different subjects (range, 1-7). Some subjects were associated with gender (p = .022) and prior impact of music in patients' life (p = .012). The number of subjects per session was lower when receptive music therapy methods were used (p = .040). Psychosocial needs were categorized into nine main dimensions: "relaxing and finding comfort", "communication and dialogue", "coping and activation of internal resources", "activity and vitality", "finding expression", "sense of self and reflection", "finding emotional response", "defocusing and diversion", and "structure and hold". Patients expressed an average of 4.9 psychosocial needs (range, 1-8). Needs were associated with age, parallel art therapy (p = .010), role of music in patient's life (p = .021), and the applied music

  3. An ignored but most favorable channel for NCO +C2H2 reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Hong-bin; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Shao-wen; Ding, Yi-hong; Sun, Chia-chung

    2006-09-01

    The NCO +C2H2 reaction has been considered as a prototype for understanding the chemical reactivity of the isocyanate radical towards unsaturated hydrocarbons in fuel-rich combustion. It has also been proposed to provide an effective route for formation of oxazole-containing compounds in organic synthesis, and might have potential applications in interstellar processes. Unfortunately, this reaction has met mechanistic controversy both between experiments and between experiments and theoretical calculations. In this paper, detailed theoretical investigations at the Becke's three parameter Lee-Yang-Parr-B3LYP /6-31G(d), B3LYP /6-311++G(d,p), quadratic configuration interaction with single and double excitations QCISD /6-31G(d), and Gaussian-3 levels are performed for the NCO +C2H2 reaction, covering various entrance, isomerization, and decomposition channels. Also, the highly cost-expensive coupled-cluster theory including single and double excitations and perturbative inclusion of triple excitations CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ single-point energy calculation is performed for the geometries obtained at the Becke's three parameter Lee-Yang-Parr-B3LYP /6-311++G(d,p) level. A previously ignored yet most favorable channel via a four-membered ring intermediate with allyl radical character is found. However, formation of P3 H +HCCNCO and the five-membered ring channel predicted by previous experimental and theoretical studies is kinetically much less competitive. With the new channel, master equation rate constant calculations over a wide range of temperatures (298-1500K) and pressures (10-560Torr) show that the predicted total rate constants exhibit a positive-temperature dependence and no distinct pressure dependence effect. This is in qualitative agreement with available experimental results. Under the experimental conditions, the predicted values are about 50% lower than the latest experimental results. Also, the branching ratio variations of the fragments P2 HCN +HCCO and P5

  4. Land use dynamics in favorable and unfavorable areas of southwest Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henkner, Jessica; Ahlrichs, Jan; Knopf, Thomas; Scholten, Thomas; Kühn, Peter

    2017-04-01

    Since the Neolithic Revolution and the beginning of agriculture in central Europe about 7.500 a ago human influence on the environment is increasing. Human activities created a cultural landscape during the Holocene, which led to quasi-natural relief formation. Colluvial deposits are the correlate sediments of human induced soil erosion on slopes and depict an excellent archive for land use and landscape history. The present study combines pedological, archaeological and palynological knowledge with AMS 14C and luminescence datings to build up a chronostratigraphy of colluvial deposits, thereby allowing the reconstruction of past land use and settlement dynamics in the Baar and the Black Forest (SW Germany). Compared with Black Forest the Baar is a favorable area for agricultural land use, where seven main phases of colluvial deposition could be detected. Increased colluviation, and thus land use intensity, took place during the younger Neolithic ( 3700 BCE), the early to middle Bronze Age ( 1400 BCE), the Iron Age ( 500 BCE), the Roman Empire ( 200 CE) and in three phases from the High Middle Ages onwards ( 1100 CE, 1300 CE, 1600 CE). The Black Forest low mountain range is an unfavorable area characterized by low temperatures, high precipitation and steep slopes. Nevertheless, human influence dates back to the Neolithic in the Black Forest. Minor colluvial deposition phases were detected before the Middle Ages and increased formation of colluvial deposits during the High Middle Ages ( 1100 CE) and the Modern Times (>1500 CE). This colluvial stratigraphy shows an intense land use of the Black Forest area from the Middle Ages onwards. The different land use dynamics in the Baar area compared to the Black Forest will be discussed against the paleoenvironmental conditions reconstructed from different archives. It is to analyze whether climate was the main determining factor for the settlement pattern in time and space or if there were other factors responsible. Such

  5. Perceptions of Female and Male Comic Strip Characters II: Favorability and Identification are Different Dimensions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potkay, Charles R.; Potkay, Catherine E.

    1984-01-01

    Identification ratings of 20 comic strip characters replicated a prediction that male characters would elicit greater identification, even though previous research showed that female characters are seen in an equivalent or more favorable light than male characters. Significant interaction findings also affirmed a great degree of same sex…

  6. Correlates of Perceived Favorability of Online Courses for Quantitative versus Qualitative Undergraduate Business Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blau, Gary; Pred, Robert; Drennan, Rob B., Jr.; Kapanjie, Darin

    2016-01-01

    An online survey tested the association among background, technological, and course-related variables with perceived favorability of online courses for two independent samples of fall 2015 and spring 2016 business undergraduates taking at least one online or hybrid course. Results showed that perceived learning was a consistent positive correlate…

  7. 49 CFR 805.735-5 - Receipt of gifts, entertainment, and favors by Members or employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Members or employees. 805.735-5 Section 805.735-5 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT § 805.735-5 Receipt of gifts, entertainment, and favors by Members or employees. (a) Except as provided in...

  8. Does Favorable Selection Among Medicare Advantage Enrollees Affect Measurement of Hospital Readmission Rates?

    PubMed

    Wong, Edwin S; Hebert, Paul L; Maciejewski, Matthew L; Perkins, Mark; Bryson, Chris L; Au, David H; Liu, Chuan-Fen

    2014-08-01

    Literature indicates favorable selection among Medicare Advantage (MA) enrollees compared with fee-for-service (FFS) enrollees. This study examined whether favorable selection into MA affected readmission rates among Medicare-eligible veterans following hospitalization for congestive heart failure in the Veterans Affairs Health System (VA). We measured total (VA + Medicare FFS) 30-day all-cause readmission rates across hospitals and all of VA. We used Heckman's correction to adjust readmission rates to be representative of all Medicare-eligible veterans, not just FFS-enrolled veterans. The adjusted all-cause readmission rate among FFS veterans was 27.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 26.5% to 27.7%), while the adjusted readmission rate among Medicare-eligible veterans was 25.3% (95% CI = 23.6% to 27.1%) after correcting for favorable selection. Readmission rate estimates among FFS veterans generalize to all Medicare-eligible veterans only after accounting for favorable selection into MA. Estimation of quality metrics should carefully consider sample selection to produce valid policy inferences.

  9. Intercultural Attitudes Predict Favorable Study Abroad Expectations of U.S. College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Randi I.; Goldstein, Susan B.

    2005-01-01

    This study focused on identifying intercultural attitudes associated with favorable expectations about participation in study abroad programs. A total of 282 U.S. 1st-year college students completed a questionnaire that included measures of ethnocentrism, intercultural communication apprehension, language interest and competence, prejudice,…

  10. Increasing long-term response by selecting for favorable minor alleles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Long-term response of genomic selection can be improved by considering allele frequencies of selected markers or quantitative trait loci (QTLs). A previous formula to weight allele frequency of favorable minor alleles was tested, and 2 new formulas were developed. The previous formula used nonlinear...

  11. 41 CFR 101-39.404 - Claims in favor of the Government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.4-Accidents and Claims § 101-39.404 Claims in favor of..., the agency responsible for investigating the accident shall submit all original documents and data pertaining to the accident and its investigation to the servicing GSA IFMS fleet management center. The GSA...

  12. Evidence from Biochemical Pathways in Favor of Unfinished Evolution Rather than Intelligent Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrman, Edward J.; Marzluf, George A.

    2004-01-01

    An argument is made in favor of imperfect or unfinished evolution based on some metabolic pathways in which it seems that intelligent design would have done better. The case studies noted indicate the absence of highly intelligent design and are not intended as comprehensive collection but as a limited sample of inefficient situations in…

  13. Favorable response to aggressive chemotherapy in a patient with primary plasma cell leukemia.

    PubMed

    Lishner, M; Lang, R; Jutrin, I; Ravid, M

    1985-01-01

    Primary plasma cell leukemia was diagnosed in a previously healthy 58-year-old man. The unusual presentation with concomitant multiple osteolytic lesions and hepatosplenomegaly, the favorable response to aggressive chemotherapy with COAP, and the relatively long survival of 22 months prompted this report. This and several other cases recently reported should encourage an aggressive therapeutic approach to this disease.

  14. Evidence from Biochemical Pathways in Favor of Unfinished Evolution Rather than Intelligent Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrman, Edward J.; Marzluf, George A.

    2004-01-01

    An argument is made in favor of imperfect or unfinished evolution based on some metabolic pathways in which it seems that intelligent design would have done better. The case studies noted indicate the absence of highly intelligent design and are not intended as comprehensive collection but as a limited sample of inefficient situations in…

  15. Biofilm mode of growth of Streptococcus intermedius favored by a competence-stimulating signaling peptide.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Fernanda C; Pecharki, Daniele; Scheie, Anne A

    2004-09-01

    Gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria use quorum sensing to coordinate population behavior. In several streptococci, quorum sensing mediated by competence-stimulating peptides (CSP) is associated with development of competence for transformation. We show here that a synthetic CSP favored the biofilm mode of growth of Streptococcus intermedius without affecting the rate of culture growth.

  16. 45 CFR 1303.22 - Decision on appeal in favor of grantee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Decision on appeal in favor of grantee. 1303.22 Section 1303.22 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH...

  17. 49 CFR 805.735-5 - Receipt of gifts, entertainment, and favors by Members or employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Members or employees. 805.735-5 Section 805.735-5 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT § 805.735-5 Receipt of gifts, entertainment, and favors by Members or employees. (a) Except as provided in...

  18. Ability of Schizophrenic Women to Create a Favorable or Unfavorable Impression on an Interviewer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Fredda S.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    The most striking finding is that schizophrenic women appear capable of creating, at will, favorable or unfavorable impressions. These results support the idea that schizophrenics can be effective in some social situations. The existance of individual differences in schizophrenic women's interpersonal skills was only partially supported.…

  19. Challenging the Courtesy Bias Interpretation of Favorable Clients' Perceptions of Family Planning Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Len, Federico R.; Lundgren, Rebecka; Huapaya, Ana; Sinai, Irit; Jennings, Victoria

    2007-01-01

    Favorable client perceptions of provider's interpersonal behavior in contraceptive delivery, documented in clinic exit questionnaires, appear to contradict results from qualitative evaluations and are attributed to clients' courtesy bias. In this study, trained simulated clients requested services from Ministry of Health providers in three…

  20. The Art of the Favor: The Connection between Networking and Personal Influence within a College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simplicio, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses various strategies for utilizing favors as a means for developing a personal powerbase and influencing individuals within a college setting. Building a personal network of influence centers upon effectively utilizing various strategies including; learning how to control the budget, how to empower others, when to compromise…

  1. CVT-4325: a potent fatty acid oxidation inhibitor with favorable oral bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Elzein, Elfatih; Ibrahim, Prabha; Koltun, Dmitry O; Rehder, Ken; Shenk, Kevin D; Marquart, Timothy A; Jiang, Bob; Li, Xiaofen; Natero, Reina; Li, Yuan; Nguyen, Marie; Kerwar, Suresh; Chu, Nancy; Soohoo, Daniel; Hao, Jia; Maydanik, Victoria Y; Lustig, David A; Zeng, Dewan; Leung, Kwan; Zablocki, Jeff A

    2004-12-20

    New inhibitors of palmitoyl-CoA oxidation are based on the introduction of nitrogen heterocycles in the 'Western Portion' of the molecule. SAR studies led to the discovery of CVT-4325 (shown), a potent FOXi (IC50=380 nM rat mitochondria) with favorable PK properties (F=93%, t(1/2)=13.6h, dog).

  2. Correlates of Perceived Favorability of Online Courses for Quantitative versus Qualitative Undergraduate Business Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blau, Gary; Pred, Robert; Drennan, Rob B., Jr.; Kapanjie, Darin

    2016-01-01

    An online survey tested the association among background, technological, and course-related variables with perceived favorability of online courses for two independent samples of fall 2015 and spring 2016 business undergraduates taking at least one online or hybrid course. Results showed that perceived learning was a consistent positive correlate…

  3. Frequency Affects Object Relative Clause Processing: Some Evidence in Favor of Usage-Based Accounts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reali, Florencia

    2014-01-01

    The processing difficulty of nested grammatical structure has been explained by different psycholinguistic theories. Here I provide corpus and behavioral evidence in favor of usage-based models, focusing on the case of object relative clauses in Spanish as a first language. A corpus analysis of spoken Spanish reveals that, as in English, the…

  4. Monetary favors and their influence on neural responses and revealed preference

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Ann H.; Kirk, Ulrich; Denfield, George H.; Montague, P. Read

    2010-01-01

    Favors from a sender to a receiver are known to bias decisions made by the recipient, especially when the decision relates to the sender – a feature of social exchange known as reciprocity. Using an art-viewing paradigm possessing no objectively correct answer for preferring one piece of art over another, we show that sponsorship of the experiment by a company endows the company’s logo with the capacity to bias revealed preference for art displayed next to the logo. Merely offering to sponsor the experiment similarly endowed the gesturing company’s logo with the capacity to bias revealed preferences. These effects do not depend upon the size of the displayed art or the proximity of the sponsoring logo to the piece of art. We used fMRI to show that such monetary favors do not modulate a special collection of brain responses, but instead modulate responses in neural networks normally activated by a wide range of preference judgments. The results raise the important possibility that monetary favors bias judgments in domains seemingly unrelated to the favor, but nevertheless act in an implicit way through neural networks that underlie normal, ongoing preference judgments. PMID:20631188

  5. Challenging the Courtesy Bias Interpretation of Favorable Clients' Perceptions of Family Planning Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Len, Federico R.; Lundgren, Rebecka; Huapaya, Ana; Sinai, Irit; Jennings, Victoria

    2007-01-01

    Favorable client perceptions of provider's interpersonal behavior in contraceptive delivery, documented in clinic exit questionnaires, appear to contradict results from qualitative evaluations and are attributed to clients' courtesy bias. In this study, trained simulated clients requested services from Ministry of Health providers in three…

  6. Frequency Affects Object Relative Clause Processing: Some Evidence in Favor of Usage-Based Accounts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reali, Florencia

    2014-01-01

    The processing difficulty of nested grammatical structure has been explained by different psycholinguistic theories. Here I provide corpus and behavioral evidence in favor of usage-based models, focusing on the case of object relative clauses in Spanish as a first language. A corpus analysis of spoken Spanish reveals that, as in English, the…

  7. Monetary favors and their influence on neural responses and revealed preference.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Ann H; Kirk, Ulrich; Denfield, George H; Montague, P Read

    2010-07-14

    Favors from a sender to a receiver are known to bias decisions made by the recipient, especially when the decision relates to the sender, a feature of social exchange known as reciprocity. Using an art-viewing paradigm possessing no objectively correct answer for preferring one piece of art over another, we show that sponsorship of the experiment by a company endows the logo of the company with the capacity to bias revealed preference for art displayed next to the logo. Merely offering to sponsor the experiment similarly endowed the gesturing logo of the company with the capacity to bias revealed preferences. These effects do not depend upon the size of the displayed art or the proximity of the sponsoring logo to the piece of art. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to show that such monetary favors do not modulate a special collection of brain responses but instead modulate responses in neural networks normally activated by a wide range of preference judgments. The results raise the important possibility that monetary favors bias judgments in domains seemingly unrelated to the favor but nevertheless act in an implicit way through neural networks that underlie normal, ongoing preference judgments.

  8. 48 CFR 53.301-275 - Reinsurance Agreement in Favor of the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Reinsurance Agreement in Favor of the United States. 53.301-275 Section 53.301-275 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Illustrations of Forms 53.301-275...

  9. 48 CFR 53.301-275 - Reinsurance Agreement in Favor of the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reinsurance Agreement in Favor of the United States. 53.301-275 Section 53.301-275 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Illustrations of Forms 53.301-275...

  10. 48 CFR 53.301-275 - Reinsurance Agreement in Favor of the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Reinsurance Agreement in Favor of the United States. 53.301-275 Section 53.301-275 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Illustrations of Forms 53.301-275...

  11. 48 CFR 53.301-275 - Reinsurance Agreement in Favor of the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reinsurance Agreement in Favor of the United States. 53.301-275 Section 53.301-275 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Illustrations of Forms 53.301-275...

  12. 48 CFR 53.301-275 - Reinsurance Agreement in Favor of the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reinsurance Agreement in Favor of the United States. 53.301-275 Section 53.301-275 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Illustrations of Forms 53.301-275...

  13. 15 CFR Supplement No. 3 to Part 740 - License Exception ENC Favorable Treatment Countries

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false License Exception ENC Favorable Treatment Countries No. Supplement No. 3 to Part 740 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to... ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS LICENSE EXCEPTIONS Pt. 740, Supp. 3 Supplement No. 3 to Part 740—License Exception ENC...

  14. 15 CFR Supplement No. 3 to Part 740 - License Exception ENC Favorable Treatment Countries

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false License Exception ENC Favorable Treatment Countries No. Supplement No. 3 to Part 740 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to... ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS LICENSE EXCEPTIONS Pt. 740, Supp. 3 Supplement No. 3 to Part 740—License Exception ENC...

  15. 15 CFR Supplement No. 3 to Part 740 - License Exception ENC Favorable Treatment Countries

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false License Exception ENC Favorable Treatment Countries No. Supplement No. 3 to Part 740 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to... ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS LICENSE EXCEPTIONS Pt. 740, Supp. 3 Supplement No. 3 to Part 740—License Exception ENC...

  16. 15 CFR Supplement No. 3 to Part 740 - License Exception ENC Favorable Treatment Countries

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false License Exception ENC Favorable Treatment Countries No. Supplement No. 3 to Part 740 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to... ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS LICENSE EXCEPTIONS Pt. 740, Supp. 3 Supplement No. 3 to Part 740—License Exception ENC...

  17. Colleges, Fighting U.S. Trade Proposal, Say It Favors For-Profit Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Andrea

    2002-01-01

    Describes how many colleges are opposing a U.S. plan that they say favors for-profit distance education. The proposal before the World Trade Organization asks member countries to begin formal negotiations to reduce barriers that keep higher education institutions from offering courses in other countries. (EV)

  18. New Risk-Adjustment System Was Associated With Reduced Favorable Selection in Medicare Advantage

    PubMed Central

    McWilliams, J. Michael; Hsu, John; Newhouse, Joseph P.

    2012-01-01

    Health plans participating in the Medicare managed care program, now called Medicare Advantage, have historically attracted healthier enrollees than the traditional fee-for-service program. Medicare Advantage plans have gained financially from this favorable risk selection because until recently Medicare payments to plans were adjusted only minimally for the clinical characteristics of enrollees, such that payments systematically exceeded costs for healthier enrollees and were systematically lower than costs for sicker enrollees. To address favorable selection in Medicare Advantage, a new risk-adjustment system adjusting plan payments for clinical diagnoses was phased in from 2004 to 2007. Also, a lock-in provision was instituted in 2006 and strengthened in 2007 to limit midyear disenrollment by Medicare Advantage enrollees, particularly those experiencing health declines whose disenrollment could benefit plans financially. To determine if these reforms were associated with intended reductions in favorable selection in Medicare Advantage, we compared self-reported utilization and health for Medicare Advantage vs. traditional Medicare beneficiaries and for those who switched into or out of Medicare Advantage vs. non-switchers both before and after these reforms were implemented. In 2001-2003, differences in utilization and health between these groups suggested favorable selection in Medicare Advantage. By 2006-2007, however, most differences were substantially narrowed, indicating reduced selection. For example, Medicare Advantage enrollees reported 17.7% lower utilization than traditional Medicare enrollees in 2001-2003 but 8.1% lower in 2006-2007. Similar risk-adjustment methods may help may help mitigate incentives for Accountable Care Organizations participating in the Medicare Shared Savings Program and plans competing in health insurance exchanges to select patients with favorable clinical risks. PMID:23213147

  19. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the Boeing Delta II rocket and its Mars Exploration Rover (MER-A) payload are free of the tower (right) and ready for launch. This will be the third launch attempt in as many days after weather concerns postponed the launches June 8 and June 9. MER-A is the first of two rovers being launched to Mars. When the two rovers arrive at Mars in 2004, they will bounce to airbag-cushioned landings at sites offering a balance of favorable conditions for safe landings and interesting science. The rovers see sharper images, can explore farther and examine rocks better than anything that has ever landed on Mars. The designated site for MER-A mission is Gusev Crater, which appears to have been a crater lake. The second rover, MER-B, is scheduled to launch June 25.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the Boeing Delta II rocket and its Mars Exploration Rover (MER-A) payload are free of the tower (right) and ready for launch. This will be the third launch attempt in as many days after weather concerns postponed the launches June 8 and June 9. MER-A is the first of two rovers being launched to Mars. When the two rovers arrive at Mars in 2004, they will bounce to airbag-cushioned landings at sites offering a balance of favorable conditions for safe landings and interesting science. The rovers see sharper images, can explore farther and examine rocks better than anything that has ever landed on Mars. The designated site for MER-A mission is Gusev Crater, which appears to have been a crater lake. The second rover, MER-B, is scheduled to launch June 25.

  20. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the launch tower rolls back from the Boeing Delta II rocket and its Mars Exploration Rover (MER-A) payload in preparation for another launch attempt. The first two attempts, June 8 and June 9, were postponed due to weather concerns. MER-A is the first of two rovers being launched to Mars. When the two rovers arrive at Mars in 2004, they will bounce to airbag-cushioned landings at sites offering a balance of favorable conditions for safe landings and interesting science. The rovers see sharper images, can explore farther and examine rocks better than anything that has ever landed on Mars. The designated site for MER-A mission is Gusev Crater, which appears to have been a crater lake. The second rover, MER-B, is scheduled to launch June 25.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the launch tower rolls back from the Boeing Delta II rocket and its Mars Exploration Rover (MER-A) payload in preparation for another launch attempt. The first two attempts, June 8 and June 9, were postponed due to weather concerns. MER-A is the first of two rovers being launched to Mars. When the two rovers arrive at Mars in 2004, they will bounce to airbag-cushioned landings at sites offering a balance of favorable conditions for safe landings and interesting science. The rovers see sharper images, can explore farther and examine rocks better than anything that has ever landed on Mars. The designated site for MER-A mission is Gusev Crater, which appears to have been a crater lake. The second rover, MER-B, is scheduled to launch June 25.

  1. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The launch tower (right) on Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, has been rolled back from the Boeing Delta II rocket and its Mars Exploration Rover (MER-A) payload (left) in preparation for a second attempt at launch. The first attempt on June 8, 2003, was scrubbed due to bad weather in the vicinity. MER-A is the first of two rovers being launched to Mars. When the two rovers arrive at Mars in 2004, they will bounce to airbag-cushioned landings at sites offering a balance of favorable conditions for safe landings and interesting science. The rovers see sharper images, can explore farther and examine rocks better than anything that has ever landed on Mars. The designated site for MER-A mission is Gusev Crater, which appears to have been a crater lake. The second rover, MER-B, is scheduled to launch June 25.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-09

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The launch tower (right) on Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, has been rolled back from the Boeing Delta II rocket and its Mars Exploration Rover (MER-A) payload (left) in preparation for a second attempt at launch. The first attempt on June 8, 2003, was scrubbed due to bad weather in the vicinity. MER-A is the first of two rovers being launched to Mars. When the two rovers arrive at Mars in 2004, they will bounce to airbag-cushioned landings at sites offering a balance of favorable conditions for safe landings and interesting science. The rovers see sharper images, can explore farther and examine rocks better than anything that has ever landed on Mars. The designated site for MER-A mission is Gusev Crater, which appears to have been a crater lake. The second rover, MER-B, is scheduled to launch June 25.

  2. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the Boeing Delta II rocket and its Mars Exploration Rover (MER-A) payload waits for rollback of the launch tower in preparation for a second attempt at launch. The first attempt on June 8, 2003, was scrubbed due to bad weather in the vicinity. MER-A is the first of two rovers being launched to Mars. When the two rovers arrive at Mars in 2004, they will bounce to airbag-cushioned landings at sites offering a balance of favorable conditions for safe landings and interesting science. The rovers see sharper images, can explore farther and examine rocks better than anything that has ever landed on Mars. The designated site for MER-A mission is Gusev Crater, which appears to have been a crater lake. The second rover, MER-B, is scheduled to launch June 25.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-09

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the Boeing Delta II rocket and its Mars Exploration Rover (MER-A) payload waits for rollback of the launch tower in preparation for a second attempt at launch. The first attempt on June 8, 2003, was scrubbed due to bad weather in the vicinity. MER-A is the first of two rovers being launched to Mars. When the two rovers arrive at Mars in 2004, they will bounce to airbag-cushioned landings at sites offering a balance of favorable conditions for safe landings and interesting science. The rovers see sharper images, can explore farther and examine rocks better than anything that has ever landed on Mars. The designated site for MER-A mission is Gusev Crater, which appears to have been a crater lake. The second rover, MER-B, is scheduled to launch June 25.

  3. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the launch tower begins to roll back from the Boeing Delta II rocket and its Mars Exploration Rover (MER-A) payload in preparation for another launch attempt. The first two attempts were postponed due to weather concerns. MER-A is the first of two rovers being launched to Mars. When the two rovers arrive at Mars in 2004, they will bounce to airbag-cushioned landings at sites offering a balance of favorable conditions for safe landings and interesting science. The rovers see sharper images, can explore farther and examine rocks better than anything that has ever landed on Mars. The designated site for MER-A mission is Gusev Crater, which appears to have been a crater lake. The second rover, MER-B, is scheduled to launch June 25.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the launch tower begins to roll back from the Boeing Delta II rocket and its Mars Exploration Rover (MER-A) payload in preparation for another launch attempt. The first two attempts were postponed due to weather concerns. MER-A is the first of two rovers being launched to Mars. When the two rovers arrive at Mars in 2004, they will bounce to airbag-cushioned landings at sites offering a balance of favorable conditions for safe landings and interesting science. The rovers see sharper images, can explore farther and examine rocks better than anything that has ever landed on Mars. The designated site for MER-A mission is Gusev Crater, which appears to have been a crater lake. The second rover, MER-B, is scheduled to launch June 25.

  4. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Blue sky and sun give a dramatic backdrop for the launch of the Delta II rocket with its Mars Exploration Rover (MER-A) payload. Liftoff occurred on time at 1:58 p.m. EDT from Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. MER-A, known as "Spirit," is the first of two rovers being launched to Mars. When the two rovers arrive at the red planet in 2004, they will bounce to airbag-cushioned landings at sites offering a balance of favorable conditions for safe landings and interesting science. The rovers see sharper images, can explore farther and examine rocks better than anything that has ever landed on Mars. The designated site for the MER-A mission is Gusev Crater, which appears to have been a crater lake. The second rover, MER-B, is scheduled to launch June 25.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Blue sky and sun give a dramatic backdrop for the launch of the Delta II rocket with its Mars Exploration Rover (MER-A) payload. Liftoff occurred on time at 1:58 p.m. EDT from Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. MER-A, known as "Spirit," is the first of two rovers being launched to Mars. When the two rovers arrive at the red planet in 2004, they will bounce to airbag-cushioned landings at sites offering a balance of favorable conditions for safe landings and interesting science. The rovers see sharper images, can explore farther and examine rocks better than anything that has ever landed on Mars. The designated site for the MER-A mission is Gusev Crater, which appears to have been a crater lake. The second rover, MER-B, is scheduled to launch June 25.

  5. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On Launch Complex 17-B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the Delta II Heavy launch vehicle carrying the second Mars Exploration Rover, Opportunity, is poised for launch after rollback of the Mobile Service Tower. Opportunity will reach Mars on Jan. 25, 2004. Together the two MER rovers, Spirit (launched June 10) and Opportunity, seek to determine the history of climate and water at two sites on Mars where conditions may once have been favorable to life. The rovers are identical. They will navigate themselves around obstacles as they drive across the Martian surface, traveling up to about 130 feet each Martian day. Each rover carries five scientific instruments including a panoramic camera and microscope, plus a rock abrasion tool that will grind away the outer surfaces of rocks to expose their interiors for examination. Each rover’s prime mission is planned to last three months on Mars.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-07-07

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On Launch Complex 17-B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the Delta II Heavy launch vehicle carrying the second Mars Exploration Rover, Opportunity, is poised for launch after rollback of the Mobile Service Tower. Opportunity will reach Mars on Jan. 25, 2004. Together the two MER rovers, Spirit (launched June 10) and Opportunity, seek to determine the history of climate and water at two sites on Mars where conditions may once have been favorable to life. The rovers are identical. They will navigate themselves around obstacles as they drive across the Martian surface, traveling up to about 130 feet each Martian day. Each rover carries five scientific instruments including a panoramic camera and microscope, plus a rock abrasion tool that will grind away the outer surfaces of rocks to expose their interiors for examination. Each rover’s prime mission is planned to last three months on Mars.

  6. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On Launch Complex 17-B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the Delta II Heavy launch vehicle carrying the rover "Opportunity" for the second Mars Exploration Rover mission launches at 11:18:15 p.m. EDT. Opportunity will reach Mars on Jan. 25, 2004. Together the two MER rovers, Spirit (launched June 10) and Opportunity, seek to determine the history of climate and water at two sites on Mars where conditions may once have been favorable to life. The rovers are identical. They will navigate themselves around obstacles as they drive across the Martian surface, traveling up to about 130 feet each Martian day. Each rover carries five scientific instruments including a panoramic camera and microscope, plus a rock abrasion tool that will grind away the outer surfaces of rocks to expose their interiors for examination. Each rover’s prime mission is planned to last three months on Mars.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-07-07

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On Launch Complex 17-B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the Delta II Heavy launch vehicle carrying the rover "Opportunity" for the second Mars Exploration Rover mission launches at 11:18:15 p.m. EDT. Opportunity will reach Mars on Jan. 25, 2004. Together the two MER rovers, Spirit (launched June 10) and Opportunity, seek to determine the history of climate and water at two sites on Mars where conditions may once have been favorable to life. The rovers are identical. They will navigate themselves around obstacles as they drive across the Martian surface, traveling up to about 130 feet each Martian day. Each rover carries five scientific instruments including a panoramic camera and microscope, plus a rock abrasion tool that will grind away the outer surfaces of rocks to expose their interiors for examination. Each rover’s prime mission is planned to last three months on Mars.

  7. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Surrounded by smoke and steam, the Delta II rocket with its Mars Exploration Rover (MER-A) payload hurtles through it into the blue sky to begin its journey to Mars. Liftoff occurred on time at 1:58 p.m. EDT from Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. MER-A, known as "Spirit," is the first of two rovers being launched to Mars. When the two rovers arrive at the red planet in 2004, they will bounce to airbag-cushioned landings at sites offering a balance of favorable conditions for safe landings and interesting science. The rovers see sharper images, can explore farther and examine rocks better than anything that has ever landed on Mars. The designated site for the MER-A mission is Gusev Crater, which appears to have been a crater lake. The second rover, MER-B, is scheduled to launch June 25.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Surrounded by smoke and steam, the Delta II rocket with its Mars Exploration Rover (MER-A) payload hurtles through it into the blue sky to begin its journey to Mars. Liftoff occurred on time at 1:58 p.m. EDT from Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. MER-A, known as "Spirit," is the first of two rovers being launched to Mars. When the two rovers arrive at the red planet in 2004, they will bounce to airbag-cushioned landings at sites offering a balance of favorable conditions for safe landings and interesting science. The rovers see sharper images, can explore farther and examine rocks better than anything that has ever landed on Mars. The designated site for the MER-A mission is Gusev Crater, which appears to have been a crater lake. The second rover, MER-B, is scheduled to launch June 25.

  8. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - With smoke and steam billowing beneath, the Delta II rocket with its Mars Exploration Rover (MER-A) payload leaps off the launch pad into the blue sky to begin its journey to Mars. Liftoff occurred on time at 1:58 p.m. EDT from Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. MER-A, known as "Spirit," is the first of two rovers being launched to Mars. When the two rovers arrive at the red planet in 2004, they will bounce to airbag-cushioned landings at sites offering a balance of favorable conditions for safe landings and interesting science. The rovers see sharper images, can explore farther and examine rocks better than anything that has ever landed on Mars. The designated site for the MER-A mission is Gusev Crater, which appears to have been a crater lake. The second rover, MER-B, is scheduled to launch June 25.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - With smoke and steam billowing beneath, the Delta II rocket with its Mars Exploration Rover (MER-A) payload leaps off the launch pad into the blue sky to begin its journey to Mars. Liftoff occurred on time at 1:58 p.m. EDT from Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. MER-A, known as "Spirit," is the first of two rovers being launched to Mars. When the two rovers arrive at the red planet in 2004, they will bounce to airbag-cushioned landings at sites offering a balance of favorable conditions for safe landings and interesting science. The rovers see sharper images, can explore farther and examine rocks better than anything that has ever landed on Mars. The designated site for the MER-A mission is Gusev Crater, which appears to have been a crater lake. The second rover, MER-B, is scheduled to launch June 25.

  9. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The Delta II rocket with its Mars Exploration Rover (MER-A) payload breaks forth from the smoke and steam into the blue sky to begin its journey to Mars. Liftoff occurred on time at 1:58 p.m. EDT from Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. MER-A, known as "Spirit," is the first of two rovers being launched to Mars. When the two rovers arrive at the red planet in 2004, they will bounce to airbag-cushioned landings at sites offering a balance of favorable conditions for safe landings and interesting science. The rovers see sharper images, can explore farther and examine rocks better than anything that has ever landed on Mars. The designated site for the MER-A mission is Gusev Crater, which appears to have been a crater lake. The second rover, MER-B, is scheduled to launch June 25

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The Delta II rocket with its Mars Exploration Rover (MER-A) payload breaks forth from the smoke and steam into the blue sky to begin its journey to Mars. Liftoff occurred on time at 1:58 p.m. EDT from Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. MER-A, known as "Spirit," is the first of two rovers being launched to Mars. When the two rovers arrive at the red planet in 2004, they will bounce to airbag-cushioned landings at sites offering a balance of favorable conditions for safe landings and interesting science. The rovers see sharper images, can explore farther and examine rocks better than anything that has ever landed on Mars. The designated site for the MER-A mission is Gusev Crater, which appears to have been a crater lake. The second rover, MER-B, is scheduled to launch June 25

  10. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The Delta II rocket with its Mars Exploration Rover (MER-A) payload leaps off the launch pad into the blue sky to begin its journey to Mars. Liftoff occurred on time at 1:58 p.m. EDT from Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. MER-A, known as "Spirit," is the first of two rovers being launched to Mars. When the two rovers arrive at the red planet in 2004, they will bounce to airbag-cushioned landings at sites offering a balance of favorable conditions for safe landings and interesting science. The rovers see sharper images, can explore farther and examine rocks better than anything that has ever landed on Mars. The designated site for the MER-A mission is Gusev Crater, which appears to have been a crater lake. The second rover, MER-B, is scheduled to launch June 25.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The Delta II rocket with its Mars Exploration Rover (MER-A) payload leaps off the launch pad into the blue sky to begin its journey to Mars. Liftoff occurred on time at 1:58 p.m. EDT from Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. MER-A, known as "Spirit," is the first of two rovers being launched to Mars. When the two rovers arrive at the red planet in 2004, they will bounce to airbag-cushioned landings at sites offering a balance of favorable conditions for safe landings and interesting science. The rovers see sharper images, can explore farther and examine rocks better than anything that has ever landed on Mars. The designated site for the MER-A mission is Gusev Crater, which appears to have been a crater lake. The second rover, MER-B, is scheduled to launch June 25.

  11. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Leaving smoke and steam behind, the Delta II rocket with its Mars Exploration Rover (MER-A) payload lifts off the pad on time at 1:58 p.m. EDT from Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. MER-A, known as "Spirit," is the first of two rovers being launched to Mars. When the two rovers arrive at the red planet in 2004, they will bounce to airbag-cushioned landings at sites offering a balance of favorable conditions for safe landings and interesting science. The rovers see sharper images, can explore farther and examine rocks better than anything that has ever landed on Mars. The designated site for the MER-A mission is Gusev Crater, which appears to have been a crater lake. The second rover, MER-B, is scheduled to launch June 25.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Leaving smoke and steam behind, the Delta II rocket with its Mars Exploration Rover (MER-A) payload lifts off the pad on time at 1:58 p.m. EDT from Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. MER-A, known as "Spirit," is the first of two rovers being launched to Mars. When the two rovers arrive at the red planet in 2004, they will bounce to airbag-cushioned landings at sites offering a balance of favorable conditions for safe landings and interesting science. The rovers see sharper images, can explore farther and examine rocks better than anything that has ever landed on Mars. The designated site for the MER-A mission is Gusev Crater, which appears to have been a crater lake. The second rover, MER-B, is scheduled to launch June 25.

  12. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Amid billows of smoke and steam, the Delta II rocket with its Mars Exploration Rover (MER-A) payload lifts off the pad on time at 1:58 p.m. EDT from Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. MER-A, known as "Spirit," is the first of two rovers being launched to Mars. When the two rovers arrive at the red planet in 2004, they will bounce to airbag-cushioned landings at sites offering a balance of favorable conditions for safe landings and interesting science. The rovers see sharper images, can explore farther and examine rocks better than anything that has ever landed on Mars. The designated site for the MER-A mission is Gusev Crater, which appears to have been a crater lake. The second rover, MER-B, is scheduled to launch June 25.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Amid billows of smoke and steam, the Delta II rocket with its Mars Exploration Rover (MER-A) payload lifts off the pad on time at 1:58 p.m. EDT from Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. MER-A, known as "Spirit," is the first of two rovers being launched to Mars. When the two rovers arrive at the red planet in 2004, they will bounce to airbag-cushioned landings at sites offering a balance of favorable conditions for safe landings and interesting science. The rovers see sharper images, can explore farther and examine rocks better than anything that has ever landed on Mars. The designated site for the MER-A mission is Gusev Crater, which appears to have been a crater lake. The second rover, MER-B, is scheduled to launch June 25.

  13. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the launch tower begins to roll back from the Boeing Delta II rocket and its Mars Exploration Rover (MER-A) payload in preparation for a second attempt at launch. The first attempt on June 8, 2003, was scrubbed due to bad weather in the vicinity. MER-A is the first of two rovers being launched to Mars. When the two rovers arrive at Mars in 2004, they will bounce to airbag-cushioned landings at sites offering a balance of favorable conditions for safe landings and interesting science. The rovers see sharper images, can explore farther and examine rocks better than anything that has ever landed on Mars. The designated site for MER-A mission is Gusev Crater, which appears to have been a crater lake. The second rover, MER-B, is scheduled to launch June 25.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-09

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the launch tower begins to roll back from the Boeing Delta II rocket and its Mars Exploration Rover (MER-A) payload in preparation for a second attempt at launch. The first attempt on June 8, 2003, was scrubbed due to bad weather in the vicinity. MER-A is the first of two rovers being launched to Mars. When the two rovers arrive at Mars in 2004, they will bounce to airbag-cushioned landings at sites offering a balance of favorable conditions for safe landings and interesting science. The rovers see sharper images, can explore farther and examine rocks better than anything that has ever landed on Mars. The designated site for MER-A mission is Gusev Crater, which appears to have been a crater lake. The second rover, MER-B, is scheduled to launch June 25.

  14. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the Boeing Delta II rocket and Mars Exploration Rover 2 (MER-A) are ready for the third launch attempt after weather concerns postponed earlier attempts. MER-A is the first of two rovers being launched to Mars. When the two rovers arrive at Mars in 2004, they will bounce to airbag-cushioned landings at sites offering a balance of favorable conditions for safe landings and interesting science. The rovers see sharper images, can explore farther and examine rocks better than anything that has ever landed on Mars. The designated site for MER-A mission is Gusev Crater, which appears to have been a crater lake. The second rover, MER-B, is scheduled to launch June 25.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the Boeing Delta II rocket and Mars Exploration Rover 2 (MER-A) are ready for the third launch attempt after weather concerns postponed earlier attempts. MER-A is the first of two rovers being launched to Mars. When the two rovers arrive at Mars in 2004, they will bounce to airbag-cushioned landings at sites offering a balance of favorable conditions for safe landings and interesting science. The rovers see sharper images, can explore farther and examine rocks better than anything that has ever landed on Mars. The designated site for MER-A mission is Gusev Crater, which appears to have been a crater lake. The second rover, MER-B, is scheduled to launch June 25.

  15. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The Boeing Delta II rocket and its Mars Exploration Rover (MER-A) payload is viewed from under the launch tower as it moves away on Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. This will be a second attempt at launch. The first attempt on June 8, 2003, was scrubbed due to bad weather in the vicinity. MER-A is the first of two rovers being launched to Mars. When the two rovers arrive at Mars in 2004, they will bounce to airbag-cushioned landings at sites offering a balance of favorable conditions for safe landings and interesting science. The rovers see sharper images, can explore farther and examine rocks better than anything that has ever landed on Mars. The designated site for MER-A mission is Gusev Crater, which appears to have been a crater lake. The second rover, MER-B, is scheduled to launch June 25.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-09

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The Boeing Delta II rocket and its Mars Exploration Rover (MER-A) payload is viewed from under the launch tower as it moves away on Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. This will be a second attempt at launch. The first attempt on June 8, 2003, was scrubbed due to bad weather in the vicinity. MER-A is the first of two rovers being launched to Mars. When the two rovers arrive at Mars in 2004, they will bounce to airbag-cushioned landings at sites offering a balance of favorable conditions for safe landings and interesting science. The rovers see sharper images, can explore farther and examine rocks better than anything that has ever landed on Mars. The designated site for MER-A mission is Gusev Crater, which appears to have been a crater lake. The second rover, MER-B, is scheduled to launch June 25.

  16. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The launch tower on Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, clears the Boeing Delta II rocket and its Mars Exploration Rover (MER-A) payload in preparation for a second attempt at launch. The first attempt on June 8, 2003, was scrubbed due to bad weather in the vicinity. MER-A is the first of two rovers being launched to Mars. When the two rovers arrive at Mars in 2004, they will bounce to airbag-cushioned landings at sites offering a balance of favorable conditions for safe landings and interesting science. The rovers see sharper images, can explore farther and examine rocks better than anything that has ever landed on Mars. The designated site for MER-A mission is Gusev Crater, which appears to have been a crater lake. The second rover, MER-B, is scheduled to launch June 25.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-09

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The launch tower on Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, clears the Boeing Delta II rocket and its Mars Exploration Rover (MER-A) payload in preparation for a second attempt at launch. The first attempt on June 8, 2003, was scrubbed due to bad weather in the vicinity. MER-A is the first of two rovers being launched to Mars. When the two rovers arrive at Mars in 2004, they will bounce to airbag-cushioned landings at sites offering a balance of favorable conditions for safe landings and interesting science. The rovers see sharper images, can explore farther and examine rocks better than anything that has ever landed on Mars. The designated site for MER-A mission is Gusev Crater, which appears to have been a crater lake. The second rover, MER-B, is scheduled to launch June 25.

  17. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the Boeing Delta II rocket and its Mars Exploration Rover (MER-A) payload are viewed as the launch tower overhead rolls back. This will be the third launch attempt in as many days after weather concerns postponed the launches June 8 and June 9. MER-A is the first of two rovers being launched to Mars. When the two rovers arrive at Mars in 2004, they will bounce to airbag-cushioned landings at sites offering a balance of favorable conditions for safe landings and interesting science. The rovers see sharper images, can explore farther and examine rocks better than anything that has ever landed on Mars. The designated site for MER-A mission is Gusev Crater, which appears to have been a crater lake. The second rover, MER-B, is scheduled to launch June 25.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the Boeing Delta II rocket and its Mars Exploration Rover (MER-A) payload are viewed as the launch tower overhead rolls back. This will be the third launch attempt in as many days after weather concerns postponed the launches June 8 and June 9. MER-A is the first of two rovers being launched to Mars. When the two rovers arrive at Mars in 2004, they will bounce to airbag-cushioned landings at sites offering a balance of favorable conditions for safe landings and interesting science. The rovers see sharper images, can explore farther and examine rocks better than anything that has ever landed on Mars. The designated site for MER-A mission is Gusev Crater, which appears to have been a crater lake. The second rover, MER-B, is scheduled to launch June 25.

  18. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the Boeing Delta II rocket and its Mars Exploration Rover (MER-A) payload are free of the tower and ready for launch. This will be the third launch attempt in as many days after weather concerns postponed the launches June 8 and June 9. MER-A is the first of two rovers being launched to Mars. When the two rovers arrive at Mars in 2004, they will bounce to airbag-cushioned landings at sites offering a balance of favorable conditions for safe landings and interesting science. The rovers see sharper images, can explore farther and examine rocks better than anything that has ever landed on Mars. The designated site for MER-A mission is Gusev Crater, which appears to have been a crater lake. The second rover, MER-B, is scheduled to launch June 25.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the Boeing Delta II rocket and its Mars Exploration Rover (MER-A) payload are free of the tower and ready for launch. This will be the third launch attempt in as many days after weather concerns postponed the launches June 8 and June 9. MER-A is the first of two rovers being launched to Mars. When the two rovers arrive at Mars in 2004, they will bounce to airbag-cushioned landings at sites offering a balance of favorable conditions for safe landings and interesting science. The rovers see sharper images, can explore farther and examine rocks better than anything that has ever landed on Mars. The designated site for MER-A mission is Gusev Crater, which appears to have been a crater lake. The second rover, MER-B, is scheduled to launch June 25.

  19. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the Boeing Delta II rocket and its Mars Exploration Rover (MER-A) payload are in the clear after tower rollback in preparation for a second attempt at launch. The first attempt on June 8, 2003, was scrubbed due to bad weather in the vicinity. MER-A is the first of two rovers being launched to Mars. When the two rovers arrive at Mars in 2004, they will bounce to airbag-cushioned landings at sites offering a balance of favorable conditions for safe landings and interesting science. The rovers see sharper images, can explore farther and examine rocks better than anything that has ever landed on Mars. The designated site for MER-A mission is Gusev Crater, which appears to have been a crater lake. The second rover, MER-B, is scheduled to launch June 25.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-09

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the Boeing Delta II rocket and its Mars Exploration Rover (MER-A) payload are in the clear after tower rollback in preparation for a second attempt at launch. The first attempt on June 8, 2003, was scrubbed due to bad weather in the vicinity. MER-A is the first of two rovers being launched to Mars. When the two rovers arrive at Mars in 2004, they will bounce to airbag-cushioned landings at sites offering a balance of favorable conditions for safe landings and interesting science. The rovers see sharper images, can explore farther and examine rocks better than anything that has ever landed on Mars. The designated site for MER-A mission is Gusev Crater, which appears to have been a crater lake. The second rover, MER-B, is scheduled to launch June 25.

  20. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the Boeing Delta II rocket and its Mars Exploration Rover (MER-A) payload are free of the tower and ready for launch. This will be the third launch attempt in as many days after weather concerns postponed the launches June 8 and June 9. MER-A is the first of two rovers being launched to Mars. When the two rovers arrive at the red planet in 2004, they will bounce to airbag-cushioned landings at sites offering a balance of favorable conditions for safe landings and interesting science. The rovers see sharper images, can explore farther and examine rocks better than anything that has ever landed on Mars. The designated site for MER-A mission is Gusev Crater, which appears to have been a crater lake. The second rover, MER-B, is scheduled to launch June 25.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the Boeing Delta II rocket and its Mars Exploration Rover (MER-A) payload are free of the tower and ready for launch. This will be the third launch attempt in as many days after weather concerns postponed the launches June 8 and June 9. MER-A is the first of two rovers being launched to Mars. When the two rovers arrive at the red planet in 2004, they will bounce to airbag-cushioned landings at sites offering a balance of favorable conditions for safe landings and interesting science. The rovers see sharper images, can explore farther and examine rocks better than anything that has ever landed on Mars. The designated site for MER-A mission is Gusev Crater, which appears to have been a crater lake. The second rover, MER-B, is scheduled to launch June 25.

  1. Current termination of resuscitation (TOR) guidelines predict neurologically favorable outcome in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kajino, Kentaro; Kitamura, Tetsuhisa; Iwami, Taku; Daya, Mohamud; Ong, Marcus Eng Hock; Hiraide, Atsushi; Shimazu, Takeshi; Kishi, Masashi; Yamayoshi, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    It is unclear whether the basic life support (BLS) and advanced life support (ALS) pre-hospital termination of resuscitation (TOR) rules developed in North America can be applied successfully to patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in other countries. To assess the performance of the BLS and ALS TOR in Japan. Retrospective nationwide, population-based, observational cohort study of consecutive OHCA patients with emergency responder resuscitation attempts from 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2009 in Japan. The BLS TOR rule has 3 criteria whereas the ALS TOR rule includes 2 additional criteria. We extracted OHCA patients meeting all criteria for each TOR rule, and calculated the specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) of each TOR rule for identifying OHCA patients who did not have neurologically favorable one-month survival. During the study-period, 151,152 cases were available to evaluate the BLS TOR rule, and 137,986 cases to evaluate the ALS TOR rule. Of 113,140 patients that satisfied all three criteria for the BLS TOR rule, 193 (0.2%) had a neurologically favorable one-month survival. The specificity of BLS TOR rule was 0.968 (95% CI: 0.963-0.972), and the PPV was 0.998 (95% CI: 0.998-0.999) for predicting lack of neurologically favorable one-month survival. Of 41,030 patients that satisfied all five criteria for the ALS TOR rule, just 37 (0.1%) had a neurologically favorable one-month survival. The specificity of ALS TOR rule was 0.981 (95% CI: 0.973-0.986), and the PPV was 0.999 (95% CI: 0.998-0.999) for predicting lack of neurologically favorable one-month survival. The prehospital BLS and ALS TOR rules performed well in Japan with high specificity and PPV for predicting lack of neurologically favorable one-month survival in Japan. However, the specificity and PPV were not 1000 and we have to develop more specific TOR rules. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Glucose Promotes a Pro-Oxidant and Pro-Inflammatory Stromal Microenvironment Which Favors Motile Properties in Breast Tumor Cells.

    PubMed

    Kallens, Violeta; Tobar, Nicolás; Molina, Jessica; Bidegain, Arantzazú; Smith, Patricio C; Porras, Omar; Martínez, Jorge

    2017-05-01

    Chronic inflammation and metabolic reprogramming have been proposed as hallmarks of cancer development. Currently, many of the functional clues between these two phenomena are studied under the integrative view of functional stroma-epithelia interaction. It has been proposed that stromal cells, due to their abundance and avidity for glucose, are able to modify the metabolic behavior of an entire solid tumor. In the present study, using a mammary stromal cell line derived from healthy tissue subjected to long-term culture in low (5 mM) or high (25 mM) glucose, we found that the hyperglycemic condition favors the establishment of a pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidant environment characterized by the induction of the COX-2/PGE2 axis. In this condition, epithelial migration was stimulated. Moreover, we also found that stromal-derived PGE2, acting as a stimulator of IL-1 epithelial expression was one of the factors that promote the acquisition of motile properties by epithelial cells and the maintenance of a COX-2/PGE2-dependent inflammatory condition. Overall, our work provides experimental evidence that glucose stimulates a tumor inflammatory environment that, as a result of a functional cross-talk between stroma and epithelia, may be responsible for tumor progression. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 994-1002, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Uricase alkaline enzymosomes with enhanced stabilities and anti-hyperuricemia effects induced by favorable microenvironmental changes

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yunli; Zhang, Mi; He, Dan; Hu, Xueyuan; Xiong, Huarong; Wu, Jianyong; Zhu, Biyue; Zhang, Jingqing

    2016-01-01

    Enzyme therapy is an effective strategy to treat diseases. Three strategies were pursued to provide the favorable microenvironments for uricase (UCU) to eventually improve its features: using the right type of buffer to constitute the liquid media where catalyze reactions take place; entrapping UCU inside the selectively permeable lipid vesicle membranes; and entrapping catalase together with UCU inside the membranes. The nanosized alkaline enzymosomes containing UCU/(UCU and catalase) (ESU/ESUC) in bicine buffer had better thermal, hypothermal, acid-base and proteolytic stabilities, in vitro and in vivo kinetic characteristics, and uric acid lowering effects. The favorable microenvironments were conducive to the establishment of the enzymosomes with superior properties. It was the first time that two therapeutic enzymes were simultaneously entrapped into one enzymosome having the right type of buffer to achieve added treatment efficacy. The development of ESU/ESUC in bicine buffer provides valuable tactics in hypouricemic therapy and enzymosomal application. PMID:26823332

  4. Detecting Two-Spirit erotics: The fiction of Carole laFavor.

    PubMed

    Tatonetti, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the life and novels of Carole laFavor, arguing for her importance to and influence in Two-Spirit studies. Along with being a writer, laFavor was a powerful voice for social justice and Indigenous health sovereignty in Minnesota and the nation. Her two novels, Along the Journey River and Evil Dead Center, which both focus on Anishinaabe lesbian detective protagonist Renee LaRoche, are the first lesbian detective fiction published by a Native author. Renee's embrace of a specifically Two-Spirit erotics anchors her to family and brings her tribal community a powerful healing when she employs her skills to protect her people from instances of racism, abuse, and injustice. This article, then, reads these novels as the first of an emerging genre of texts that claim an overtly Two-Spirit erotic as well as vital precursors to the present embrace of sovereign erotics in Indigenous studies.

  5. Cytoskeleton-centric protein transportation by exosomes transforms tumor-favorable macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yizhi; Zhou, Yanlong; Yin, Xingfeng; Guo, Jiahui; Zhang, Gong; Wang, Tong; He, Qing-Yu

    2016-01-01

    The exosome is a key initiator of pre-metastatic niche in numerous cancers, where macrophages serve as primary inducers of tumor microenvironment. However, the proteome that can be exosomally transported from cancer cells to macrophages has not been sufficiently characterized so far. Here, we used colorectal cancer (CRC) exosomes to educate tumor-favorable macrophages. With a SILAC-based mass spectrometry strategy, we successfully traced the proteome transported from CRC exosomes to macrophages. Such a proteome primarily focused on promoting cytoskeleton rearrangement, which was biologically validated with multiple cell lines. We reproduced the exosomal transportation of functional vimentin as a proof-of-concept example. In addition, we found that some CRC exosomes could be recognized by macrophages via Fc receptors. Therefore, we revealed the active and necessary role of exosomes secreted from CRC cells to transform cancer-favorable macrophages, with the cytoskeleton-centric proteins serving as the top functional unit. PMID:27602764

  6. Development of Discussion Supporting System Based on the "Value of Favorable Words' Influence"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotani, Tetsuro; Seki, Kazuya; Matsui, Tatsunori; Okamoto, Toshio

    The importance of the WEB chat in discussion has been well known and used effectively in collaborative learning environment. In order to activate discussions, various functions such as identification of participants' roles, motivation to participate, and resolution of depressed discussions are needed. This research proposes the function to calculate the "values of favorable words' influence" on real time, which are estimated by member of participants' words and their transitive structures. In this paper, firstly we define the "values of favorable wards' influence" as an index for the active direction of discussion and the discussion model based on this index, secondly we introduce an architecture of the discussion supporting system based on this model and its performance and finally through some practical experiments we examine the validity and effectiveness of our discussion model.

  7. Designing convex repulsive pair potentials that favor assembly of kagome and snub square lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piñeros, William D.; Baldea, Michael; Truskett, Thomas M.

    2016-08-01

    Building on a recently introduced inverse strategy, isotropic and convex repulsive pair potentials were designed that favor assembly of particles into kagome and equilateral snub square lattices. The former interactions were obtained by a numerical solution of a variational problem that maximizes the range of density for which the ground state of the potential is the kagome lattice. Similar optimizations targeting the snub square lattice were also carried out, employing a constraint that required a minimum chemical potential advantage of the target over select competing structures. This constraint helped to discover isotropic interactions that meaningfully favored the snub square lattice as the ground state structure despite the asymmetric spatial distribution of particles in its coordination shells and the presence of tightly competing structures. Consistent with earlier published results [W. Piñeros et al., J. Chem. Phys. 144, 084502 (2016)], enforcement of greater chemical potential advantages for the target lattice in the interaction optimization led to assemblies with enhanced thermal stability.

  8. Perceived Distributive Fairness of EU Transfer Payments, Outcome Favorability, Identity, and EU-Tax Compliance.

    PubMed

    Hartner, Martina; Rechberger, Silvia; Kirchler, Erich; Wenzel, Michael

    2011-01-01

    In a representative UK study (N = 1000) the link between distributive fairness perceptions, outcome favorability, identity, and tax compliance was researched in the context of European transfer payments. Results showed that both forms of tax compliance (i.e., individual and collective EU-tax compliance) were influenced by perceived distributive fairness judgments of EU transfer payments. Fairness itself was related to perceived outcome favorability (i.e., whether their own nation benefits from the EU in financial as well as socio-political terms). Additionally, national identifiers (i.e., people identifying with their own nation, but not with Europe) perceived EU membership as unbeneficial in financial as well as in socio-political terms and thus considered the transfer payments as less fair. Dual identifiers (i.e., people identifying with their own nation and with Europe) perceived the socio-political outcomes from EU membership as more beneficial and thus evaluated the transfer payments as fairer.

  9. Influences of Mental Illness Stigma on Perceptions of and Responses to Requests for Favors.

    PubMed

    Imai, Tatsuya; Dailey, René

    2016-07-01

    This article examines mental illness stigma effects on a request for a favor from a mentally ill individual. Four hundred and fourteen participants interacted with a hypothetical target on Facebook who was believed to have schizophrenia, depression, or a tooth cavity (i.e., the control group). Participants were asked to rate the favor request in terms of face threat, in addition to writing a response, which was then coded using message design logics. Results indicated that a request by a schizophrenic target threatened participants' positive face more significantly than that of a target with depression or without any mental illness. Participants' responses to the schizophrenic target were more likely to be conventional messages, whereas responses to the depressed target were more likely to be rhetorical messages. Theoretical and practical contributions are considered.

  10. Designing convex repulsive pair potentials that favor assembly of kagome and snub square lattices.

    PubMed

    Piñeros, William D; Baldea, Michael; Truskett, Thomas M

    2016-08-07

    Building on a recently introduced inverse strategy, isotropic and convex repulsive pair potentials were designed that favor assembly of particles into kagome and equilateral snub square lattices. The former interactions were obtained by a numerical solution of a variational problem that maximizes the range of density for which the ground state of the potential is the kagome lattice. Similar optimizations targeting the snub square lattice were also carried out, employing a constraint that required a minimum chemical potential advantage of the target over select competing structures. This constraint helped to discover isotropic interactions that meaningfully favored the snub square lattice as the ground state structure despite the asymmetric spatial distribution of particles in its coordination shells and the presence of tightly competing structures. Consistent with earlier published results [W. Piñeros et al., J. Chem. Phys. 144, 084502 (2016)], enforcement of greater chemical potential advantages for the target lattice in the interaction optimization led to assemblies with enhanced thermal stability.

  11. Uricase alkaline enzymosomes with enhanced stabilities and anti-hyperuricemia effects induced by favorable microenvironmental changes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yunli; Zhang, Mi; He, Dan; Hu, Xueyuan; Xiong, Huarong; Wu, Jianyong; Zhu, Biyue; Zhang, Jingqing

    2016-01-29

    Enzyme therapy is an effective strategy to treat diseases. Three strategies were pursued to provide the favorable microenvironments for uricase (UCU) to eventually improve its features: using the right type of buffer to constitute the liquid media where catalyze reactions take place; entrapping UCU inside the selectively permeable lipid vesicle membranes; and entrapping catalase together with UCU inside the membranes. The nanosized alkaline enzymosomes containing UCU/(UCU and catalase) (ESU/ESUC) in bicine buffer had better thermal, hypothermal, acid-base and proteolytic stabilities, in vitro and in vivo kinetic characteristics, and uric acid lowering effects. The favorable microenvironments were conducive to the establishment of the enzymosomes with superior properties. It was the first time that two therapeutic enzymes were simultaneously entrapped into one enzymosome having the right type of buffer to achieve added treatment efficacy. The development of ESU/ESUC in bicine buffer provides valuable tactics in hypouricemic therapy and enzymosomal application.

  12. Misperceiving Bullshit as Profound Is Associated with Favorable Views of Cruz, Rubio, Trump and Conservatism.

    PubMed

    Pfattheicher, Stefan; Schindler, Simon

    2016-01-01

    The present research investigates the associations between holding favorable views of potential Democratic or Republican candidates for the US presidency 2016 and seeing profoundness in bullshit statements. In this contribution, bullshit is used as a technical term which is defined as communicative expression that lacks content, logic, or truth from the perspective of natural science. We used the Bullshit Receptivity scale (BSR) to measure seeing profoundness in bullshit statements. The BSR scale contains statements that have a correct syntactic structure and seem to be sound and meaningful on first reading but are actually vacuous. Participants (N = 196; obtained via Amazon Mechanical Turk) rated the profoundness of bullshit statements (using the BSR) and provided favorability ratings of three Democratic (Hillary Clinton, Martin O'Malley, and Bernie Sanders) and three Republican candidates for US president (Ted Cruz, Marco Rubio, and Donald Trump). Participants also completed a measure of political liberalism/conservatism. Results revealed that favorable views of all three Republican candidates were positively related to judging bullshit statements as profound. The smallest correlation was found for Donald Trump. Although we observe a positive association between bullshit and support for the three Democrat candidates, this relationship is both substantively small and statistically insignificant. The general measure of political liberalism/conservatism was also related to judging bullshit statements as profound in that individuals who were more politically conservative had a higher tendency to see profoundness in bullshit statements. Of note, these results were not due to a general tendency among conservatives to see profoundness in everything: Favorable views of Republican candidates and conservatism were not significantly related to profoundness ratings of mundane statements. In contrast, this was the case for Hillary Clinton and Martin O'Malley. Overall, small

  13. [Caroli's syndrome. Report of a case beginning in childhood with favorable course].

    PubMed

    Rivero, M J; Román, E; Cilleruelo, M L; Sánchez, F; Barrio, J

    2000-07-01

    Caroli's disease is a rare entity that is included in the fibropolycystic abnormalities of the bile ducts. Ultrasonographic patterns consist of evident dilatation of the bile ducts. Although it is thought to be a congenital disease, it usually presents in young adults and few cases have been reported in children. We present the case of a 10-year-old boy with Caroli's syndrome (Caroli's disease, congenital hepatic fibrosis and polycystic renal disease). Evolution was favorable.

  14. Misperceiving Bullshit as Profound Is Associated with Favorable Views of Cruz, Rubio, Trump and Conservatism

    PubMed Central

    Pfattheicher, Stefan; Schindler, Simon

    2016-01-01

    The present research investigates the associations between holding favorable views of potential Democratic or Republican candidates for the US presidency 2016 and seeing profoundness in bullshit statements. In this contribution, bullshit is used as a technical term which is defined as communicative expression that lacks content, logic, or truth from the perspective of natural science. We used the Bullshit Receptivity scale (BSR) to measure seeing profoundness in bullshit statements. The BSR scale contains statements that have a correct syntactic structure and seem to be sound and meaningful on first reading but are actually vacuous. Participants (N = 196; obtained via Amazon Mechanical Turk) rated the profoundness of bullshit statements (using the BSR) and provided favorability ratings of three Democratic (Hillary Clinton, Martin O’Malley, and Bernie Sanders) and three Republican candidates for US president (Ted Cruz, Marco Rubio, and Donald Trump). Participants also completed a measure of political liberalism/conservatism. Results revealed that favorable views of all three Republican candidates were positively related to judging bullshit statements as profound. The smallest correlation was found for Donald Trump. Although we observe a positive association between bullshit and support for the three Democrat candidates, this relationship is both substantively small and statistically insignificant. The general measure of political liberalism/conservatism was also related to judging bullshit statements as profound in that individuals who were more politically conservative had a higher tendency to see profoundness in bullshit statements. Of note, these results were not due to a general tendency among conservatives to see profoundness in everything: Favorable views of Republican candidates and conservatism were not significantly related to profoundness ratings of mundane statements. In contrast, this was the case for Hillary Clinton and Martin O’Malley. Overall

  15. Secondary Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis in a Patient With Favorable Histology Wilms Tumor.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Erin P; Mo, Jun; Yoon, Janet M

    2015-11-01

    Secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is most commonly associated with malignancy, infection, or an underlying autoimmune disorder. Malignancy-associated hemophagocytic syndrome is responsible for most secondary HLH cases, but it has not been well described in children. We present a case of a 4-year-old female with favorable histology of Wilms tumor who developed secondary HLH after unsuccessful resection of the tumor and initiation of chemotherapy.

  16. [Comparison of the quick Gram stain method to the B&M modified and favor methods].

    PubMed

    Osawa, Kayo; Kataoka, Nobumasa; Maruo, Toshio

    2011-01-01

    The Gram stain is an established method for bacterial identification, but the time needed to carry out this stain is 2-3 min. We attempted to shorten this time and stained a total of 70 clinical specimens isolated from using the Bartholomew & Mittwer (B&M) modified or Favor methods with a 3 s duration for washing and staining steps. Results were plotted and analyzed using a Hue Saturation Intensity (HSI) model. The range based on a plot of the two methods with the HSI model was presented as a reference interval. Our results indicated that 100% (35/35) of strains were Gram positive and 97.1% (34/35) were Gram negative for the quick B&M modified method. In the quick Favor method, 80.0% (28/35) were Gram positive and 68.6% (24/35) of strains were Gram negative. We propose that the quick B&M modified method is equivalent to the standard Gram staining method and is superior to the quick Favor method.

  17. Some features of surface pressure fluctuations in turbulent boundary layers with zero and favorable pressure gradients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgrath, B. E.; Simpson, R. L.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements of surface pressure fluctuation spectra, coherence and convective wave speeds from zero and favorable pressure gradient turbulent boundary layers are reported for momentum Reynolds numbers from 3000 to 18,800. The acceleration parameter K is near 2 x 10 to the -7 power for the favorable pressure gradient flow. The outer variables, U sub e, tau sub w and delta sub 1 non-dimensionalize and collapse the spectra for the low to middle range of frequencies for most test cases. The grouping using the inner variable, U sub tau and gamma, collapse the spectra for the middle to high range of frequencies for all test cases. The value of p'/tau sub w was near 3.8 and 2.8 for the smallest values of d+ in the zero and favorable pressure gradient flows, respectively. The coherence exhibits a decay that is not exponential in some cases, but the Corcos similarity parameters omega Delta x/U sub c and omega Delta z/U sub c collapse the data for all test cases. The ratio of U sub c/U sub e increases with omega delta sub 1/U sub e up to omega delta sub 1/U sub e on the order of unity, where U sub c/U sub e becomes nearly constant. This was observed in the present results for both streamwise pressure gradient flows. The experimental results presented show good agreement with previous research.

  18. Effects of Personality Disorders on Self-Other Agreement and Favorableness in Personality Descriptions.

    PubMed

    Tandler, Nancy; Mosch, Alice; Wolf, Annegret; Borkenau, Peter

    2016-10-01

    The authors studied effects of self-reported personality disorder (PD) symptoms on interpersonal perception, particularly self-other agreement and favorableness. Using a round-robin design, 52 groups of four well-acquainted students described themselves and each other on a measure of the Five-Factor model of personality and were administered a self-report screening instrument for DSM-IV (Axis 2). Using the Social Accuracy Model, the peer reports were predicted, across items, from either (a) the target person's self-reports plus the self-report item means, or (b) the items' social desirability. This resulted in separate coefficients for each peer-target dyad, indicating either self-other agreement or favorableness. These coefficients were then predicted from the PD scores of the target and the peer, using multilevel modeling. Main findings were that persons scoring high on PD measures agreed less with their peers on their unique personality characteristics, and that such persons were described by, and described their peers, less favorably.

  19. A Global Overview of the Impact of Peritoneal Dialysis First or Favored Policies: An Opinion

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Frank Xiaoqing; Gao, Xin; Inglese, Gary; Chuengsaman, Piyatida; Pecoits-Filho, Roberto; Yu, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Given the ever-increasing burden of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in a global milieu of limited financial and health resources, interested parties continue to search for ways to optimize dialysis access. Government and payer initiatives to increase access to renal replacement therapies (RRTs), particularly peritoneal dialysis (PD) and hemodialysis (HD), may have meaningful impacts from clinical and health-economic perspectives; and despite similar clinical and humanistic outcomes between the two dialysis modalities, PD may be the more convenient and resource-conscious option. This review assessed country-specific PD-First/Favored policies and their associated background, implementation, and outcomes. It was found that barriers to policy-implementation are broadly associated with government policy, economics, provider or healthcare professional education, modality-related factors, and patient-related factors. Notably, the success of a given country's PD-Favored policy was inversely associated with the extent of HD infrastructure. It is hoped that this review will provide a foundation across countries to share lessons learned during the development and implementation of PD-First/Favored policies. PMID:25082840

  20. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists favorably address all components of metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Sanjay; Ghosal, Samit; Chatterjee, Saurav

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular death is the leading cause of mortality for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The etiology of cardiovascular disease in diabetes may be divided into hyperglycemia per se and factors operating through components of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Hyperglycemia causes direct injury to vascular endothelium and possibly on cardiac myocytes. MetS is a cluster of risk factors like obesity, hyperglycemia, hypertension and dyslipidemia. The incidence of this syndrome is rising globally. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RA) are a group of drugs, which address all components of this syndrome favorably. Experimental evidence suggests that they have favorable actions on myocardium as well. Several compounds belonging to GLP-1RA class are in market now and a large number awaiting their entry. Although, originally this class of drugs emerged as a treatment for type 2 diabetes mellitus, more recent data generated revealed beneficial effects on multiple metabolic parameters. We have studied literature published between 2000 and 2016 to look into effects of GLP-1RA on components of MetS. Results from recently concluded clinical trials suggest that some of the molecules in this class may have favorable effects on cardiovascular outcome. PMID:27795818

  1. Global health actors no longer in favor of user fees: a documentary study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Since the advent of health user fees in low- and middle-income countries in the 1980s, the discourse of global health actors (GHAs) has changed to the disadvantage of this type of healthcare financing mechanism. The aim of the study was to identify and analyze the stance of GHAs in the debate on user fees. Methods We conducted documentary research using public documents published by and officially attributed to GHAs from 2005 to 2011. We categorized GHAs into four groups: intergovernmental organizations, international non-governmental organizations, government agencies, and working groups and networks. We then classified the GHAs according to their stance relative to the abolition of user fees, and conducted a thematic analysis of their discourse to understand the arguments used by each GHA to justify its stance. Results We identified 56 GHAs, for which we analyzed 140 documents. Among them, 55% were in favor of the abolition of user fees or in favor of free care at the point of delivery. None of the GHAs stated that they were in favor of user fees; however, 30% did not take a stand. Only the World Bank declares that it is both in favor of user fees and in favor of free care at point of service. GHAs generally circumscribe their stance to specific populations (pregnant women, children under 5 years, etc.) or to specific health services (primary, basic, essential). Three types of arguments are used by GHAs to justify their stance: economic, moral and ethical, and pragmatic. Conclusions The principle of “user pays” seems to have fizzled. Production and dissemination of evidence, as well as certain advocacy networks, may have contributed to this change in discourse. However, GHAs should go a step further and translate their words into action, so that free healthcare at the point of delivery becomes a reality in low- and middle-income countries. They should provide technical and financial support to those countries that have chosen to implement user fee

  2. Elongated TCR alpha chain CDR3 favors an altered CD4 cytokine profile

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background CD4 T lymphocyte activation requires T cell receptor (TCR) engagement by peptide/MHC (major histocompatibility complex) (pMHC). The TCR complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) contains variable α and β loops critical for pMHC recognition. During any immune response, tuning of TCR usage through progressive clonal selection occurs. Th1 and Th2 cells operate at different avidities for activation and display distinct transcriptional programs, although polarization may be plastic, influenced by pathogens and cytokines. We therefore hypothesized that CDR3αβ sequence features may intrinsically influence CD4 phenotype during progression of a response. Results We show that CD4 polarization involves distinct CDR3α usage: Th1 and Th17 cells favored short TCR CDR3α sequences of 12 and 11 amino acids, respectively, while Th2 cells favored elongated CDR3α loops of 14 amino acids, with lower predicted affinity. The dominant Th2- and Th1-derived TCRα sequences with14 amino acid CDR3 loops and 12 amino acid CDR3 loops, respectively, were expressed in TCR transgenics. The functional impact of these TCRα transgenes was assessed after in vivo priming with a peptide/adjuvant. The short, Th1-derived receptor transgenic T cell lines made IFNγ, but not IL-4, 5 or 13, while the elongated, Th2-derived receptor transgenic T cell lines made little or no IFNγ, but increased IL-4, 5 and 13 with progressive re-stimulations, mirrored by GATA-3 up-regulation. T cells from primed Th2 TCRα transgenics selected dominant TCR Vβ expansions, allowing us to generate TCRαβ transgenics carrying the favored, Th2-derived receptor heterodimer. Primed T cells from TCRαβ transgenics made little or no IL-17 or IFNγ, but favored IL-9 after priming with Complete Freund’s adjuvant and IL-4, 5, 9, 10 and 13 after priming with incomplete Freund’s. In tetramer-binding studies, this transgenic receptor showed low binding avidity for pMHC and polarized T cell lines show TCR avidity

  3. Prehospital Intubation is Associated with Favorable Outcomes and Lower Mortality in ProTECT III.

    PubMed

    Denninghoff, Kurt R; Nuño, Tomas; Pauls, Qi; Yeatts, Sharon D; Silbergleit, Robert; Palesch, Yuko Y; Merck, Lisa H; Manley, Geoff T; Wright, David W

    2017-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) causes more than 2.5 million emergency department visits, hospitalizations, or deaths annually. Prehospital endotracheal intubation has been associated with poor outcomes in patients with TBI in several retrospective observational studies. We evaluated the relationship between prehospital intubation, functional outcomes, and mortality using high quality data on clinical practice collected prospectively during a randomized multicenter clinical trial. ProTECT III was a multicenter randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of early administration of progesterone in 882 patients with acute moderate to severe nonpenetrating TBI. Patients were excluded if they had an index GCS of 3 and nonreactive pupils, those with withdrawal of life support on arrival, and if they had documented prolonged hypotension and/or hypoxia. Prehospital intubation was performed as per local clinical protocol in each participating EMS system. Models for favorable outcome and mortality included prehospital intubation, method of transport, index GCS, age, race, and ethnicity as independent variables. Significance was set at α = 0.05. Favorable outcome was defined by a stratified dichotomy of the GOS-E scores in which the definition of favorable outcome depended on the severity of the initial injury. Favorable outcome was more frequent in the 349 subjects with prehospital intubation (57.3%) than in the other 533 patients (46.0%, p = 0.003). Mortality was also lower in the prehospital intubation group (13.8% v. 19.5%, p = 0.03). Logistic regression analysis of prehospital intubation and mortality, adjusted for index GCS, showed that odds of dying for those with prehospital intubation were 47% lower than for those that were not intubated (OR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.36-0.78). 279 patients with prehospital intubation were transported by air. Modeling transport method and mortality, adjusted for index GCS, showed increased odds of dying in those transported by ground

  4. Increasing long-term response by selecting for favorable minor alleles.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chuanyu; VanRaden, Paul M

    2014-01-01

    Long-term response of genomic selection can be improved by considering allele frequencies of selected markers or quantitative trait loci (QTLs). A previous formula to weight allele frequency of favorable minor alleles was tested, and 2 new formulas were developed. The previous formula used nonlinear weights based on square root of frequency of the favorable allele. The new formulas included a parameter δ to balance long- and short-term progress; one used square root and the other used simple linear weights. The formulas were tested by simulation of 20 generations (population size of 3,000 for each generation) with direct selection on 3,000 QTLs (100 per chromosome). A QTL distribution with normally distributed allele effects and a heavy-tailed distribution were tested. Optimum δ from simulation was applied to data from Holstein, Jersey and Brown Swiss dairy cattle to compare differences of adjusted and official genomic evaluations. From simulation, optimum δ was 0.4 for the heavy-tailed QTL distribution but only 0.1 or 0.2 for a normal distribution. The previous formula had slower response than unweighted selection in early generations and did not recover by generation 20. Long-term response was slightly greater with the new formulas than with unweighted selection; the linear formula may be best for routine use because of more progress in early generations compared to nonlinear formula. Official and adjusted U.S. evaluations based on actual genotypes and estimated marker effects were correlated by 0.994 for Holsteins and Jerseys and 0.989 for Brown Swiss using linear weighting of allele frequency, which was higher than nonlinear weighting. The difference between adjusted and official evaluations was highly correlated negatively with an animal's average genomic relationship to the population. Thus, strategies to reduce genomic inbreeding may achieve almost as much long-term progress as selection of favorable minor alleles.

  5. Partisan perspectives in the medical literature: a study of high frequency editorialists favoring hormone replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Tatsioni, Athina; Siontis, George C M; Ioannidis, John P A

    2010-09-01

    Unfavorable results of major studies have led to a large shrinkage of the market for hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in the last 6 years. Some scientists continue to strongly support the use of HRT. We analyzed a sample of partisan editorializing articles on HRT to examine their arguments, the reporting of competing interests, the journal venues and their sponsoring societies. Through Thomson ISI database, we selected articles without primary data written by the five most prolific editorialists that addressed clinical topics pertaining to HRT and that were published in regular journal issues in 2002-2008. We recorded the number of articles with a partisan stance and their arguments, the number of partisan articles that reported conflicting interests, and the journal venues and their sponsoring societies publishing the partisan editorials. We analyzed 114 eligible articles (58 editorials, 16 guidelines, 37 reviews, 3 letters), of which 110 (96%) had a partisan stance favoring HRT. Typical arguments were benefits for menopausal and related symptoms (64.9%), criticism of unfavorable studies (78.9%), preclinical data that showed favorable effects of HRT (50%), and benefits for major outcomes such as osteoporosis and fractures (49.1%), cardiovascular disease (31.6%), dementia (24.6%) or colorectal cancer (20.2%), but also even breast cancer (4.4%). All 5 prolific editorialists had financial relationships with hormone manufacturers, but these were reported in only 6 of the 110 partisan articles. Four journals published 15-37 partisan articles each. The medical societies of these journals reported on their websites that several pharmaceutical companies sponsored them or their conferences. There is a considerable body of editorializing articles favoring HRT use and very few of these articles report conflicts of interest. Full disclosure of conflicts of interest is needed, especially for articles without primary data.

  6. Tau neutrinos favored over sterile neutrinos in atmospheric muon neutrino oscillations.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, S; Fukuda, Y; Ishitsuka, M; Kajita, T; Kameda, J; Kaneyuki, K; Kobayashi, K; Koshio, Y; Miura, M; Moriyama, S; Nakahata, M; Nakayama, S; Obayashi, Y; Okada, A; Okumura, K; Sakurai, N; Shiozawa, M; Suzuki, Y; Takeuchi, H; Takeuchi, Y; Toshito, T; Totsuka, Y; Yamada, S; Earl, M; Habig, A; Kearns, E; Messier, M D; Scholberg, K; Stone, J L; Sulak, L R; Walter, C W; Goldhaber, M; Barszczak, T; Casper, D; Gajewski, W; Kropp, W R; Mine, S; Price, L R; Smy, M; Sobel, H W; Vagins, M R; Ganezer, K S; Keig, W E; Ellsworth, R W; Tasaka, S; Kibayashi, A; Learned, J G; Matsuno, S; Takemori, D

    2000-11-06

    The previously published atmospheric neutrino data did not distinguish whether muon neutrinos were oscillating into tau neutrinos or sterile neutrinos, as both hypotheses fit the data. Using data recorded in 1100 live days of the Super-Kamiokande detector, we use three complementary data samples to study the difference in zenith angle distribution due to neutral currents and matter effects. We find no evidence favoring sterile neutrinos, and reject the hypothesis at the 99% confidence level. On the other hand, we find that oscillation between muon and tau neutrinos suffices to explain all the results in hand.

  7. Some concepts of favorability for world-class-type uranium deposits in the northeastern United States

    SciTech Connect

    Adler, H.H.

    1981-03-01

    An account is given of concepts of favorability of geologic environments in the eastern United States for uranium deposits of several major types existing elsewhere in the world. The purpose is to convey some initial ideas about the interrelationships of the geology of the eastern United States and the geologic settings of certain of these world-class deposits. The study and report include consideration of uranium deposits other than those generally manifesting the geologic, geochemical and genetic characteristics associated with the conventional sandstone-type ores of the western United States.

  8. Sex differences favoring women in verbal but not in visuospatial episodic memory.

    PubMed

    Lewin, C; Wolgers, G; Herlitz, A

    2001-04-01

    Sex differences favoring women have been found in a number of studies of episodic memory. This study examined sex differences in verbal, nonverbal, and visuospatial episodic memory tasks. Results showed that although women performed at a higher level on a composite verbal and nonverbal episodic memory score, men performed at a higher level on a composite score of episodic memory tasks requiring visuospatial processing. Thus, men can use their superior visuospatial abilities to excel in highly visuospatial episodic memory tasks, whereas women seem to excel in episodic memory tasks in which a verbalization of the material is possible.

  9. The development of cambered airfoil sections having favorable lift characteristics at supercritical Mach numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, Donald J

    1949-01-01

    Several groups of new airfoil sections, designated as the NACA 8-series, are derived analytically to have lift characteristics at supercritical Mach numbers which are favorable in the sense that the abrupt loss of lift, characteristic of the usual airfoil section at Mach numbers above the critical, is avoided. Aerodynamic characteristics determined from two-dimensional wind-tunnel tests at Mach numbers up to approximately 0.9 are presented for each of the derived airfoils. Comparisons are made between the characteristics of these airfoils and the corresponding characteristics of representative NACA 6-series airfoils.

  10. Expectant management with selective delayed intervention for favorable risk prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Klotz, Laurence

    2002-01-01

    Management options for favorable risk prostate cancer are diverse, varying from a conservative approach (expectant management) to definitive treatment (radical prostatectomy or radiotherapy.) Several studies have suggested that expectant management provides similar 10-year survival rates and quality-adjusted life years compared with radical prostatectomy or radiotherapy. Expectant management alone clearly deprives some patients with potentially curable life-threatening disease of the opportunity for curative therapy. However, every series of conservative management contains a substantial subset of long-term survivors, particularly in the group with favorable clinical parameters. We have conducted a clinical study to evaluate a novel approach in which the choice between a definitive therapy and conservative policy is determined by the rate of PSA increase or the development of early, rapid clinical and/or histologic progression. This strategy, which has never been previously evaluated, offers the powerful attraction of individualizing therapy according to the biological behavior of the cancer. This would mean that patients with slowly growing malignancy would be spared the side effects of radical treatment, while those with more rapidly progressive cancer would still benefit from curative therapy. Doubling time varied widely. In this series of 200 patients, neither grade, stage, nor baseline PSA predicted the PSA doubling time. Thirty-three percent of patients had a PSA doubling time (T(D)) > 10 years. Doubling time appears to be a useful tool to guide treatment intervention for patients managed initially with expectant management. A doubling time of less than 2 years appears to identify patients at high risk for local progression in spite of otherwise favorable prognostic factors. Fifteen to 20% of patients will fall into this category. The remainder have a high chance of remaining free of recurrence and progression for many years. Watchful waiting is clearly

  11. [Postero-medial bulbar hematoma with a favorable outcome. Study of dysautonomia].

    PubMed

    Rousseaux, M; Griffie, G; Dhellemmes, P; Dupard, T; Caron, J

    1988-01-01

    A case of postero-medial medullary hematoma in a 21 year-old woman is reported. An initial neurovegetative severe disregulation had a favorable outcome after surgery. Late deficits, characterizing the postero-medial medullary syndrome have been studied: paresis of the tongue, suppression of the nauseous reflex, instability with retropulsion, and downbeating nystagmus in primary position of the eyes were noted. Heart rate and arterial blood pressure analysis showed explosive tachycardic reactions and transitory disappearance of oculo-cardiac reflexes, suggesting the involvement of the efferent parasympathetic system coming from the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve.

  12. Favorable areas for prospecting adjacent to the Roberts Mountains thrust in southern Lander County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, John Harris; McKee, Edwin H.

    1968-01-01

    Recent geologic mapping by the U.S. Geological Survey of more than 2,500 square miles of a relatively little-studied part of central Nevada has outlined four areas favorable for the discovery of metallic mineral deposits. In these areas, lower Paleozoic carbonate rocks crop out below the Roberts Mountains thrust, a widespread fault in central and north-central Nevada. These areas have a stratigraphic and structural setting similar to that of the areas where large, open-pit gold deposits have been discovered recently at Carlin and Cortez in north-central Nevada.

  13. Tau Neutrinos Favored over Sterile Neutrinos in Atmospheric Muon Neutrino Oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, S.; Fukuda, Y.; Ishitsuka, M.; Itow, Y.; Kajita, T.; Kameda, J.; Kaneyuki, K.; Kobayashi, K.; Koshio, Y.; Miura, M.; Moriyama, S.; Nakahata, M.; Nakayama, S.; Obayashi, Y.; Okada, A.; Okumura, K.; Sakurai, N.; Shiozawa, M.; Suzuki, Y.; Takeuchi, H.; Takeuchi, Y.; Toshito, T.; Totsuka, Y.; Yamada, S.; Earl, M.; Habig, A.; Kearns, E.; Messier, M. D.; Scholberg, K.; Stone, J. L.; Sulak, L. R.; Walter, C. W.; Goldhaber, M.; Barszczak, T.; Casper, D.; Gajewski, W.; Kropp, W. R.; Mine, S.; Price, L. R.; Smy, M.; Sobel, H. W.; Vagins, M. R.; Ganezer, K. S.; Keig, W. E.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Tasaka, S.; Kibayashi, A.; Learned, J. G.; Matsuno, S.; Takemori, D.; Hayato, Y.; Ishii, T.; Kobayashi, T.; Nakamura, K.; Oyama, Y.; Sakai, A.; Sakuda, M.; Sasaki, O.; Kohama, M.; Suzuki, A. T.; Inagaki, T.; Nishikawa, K.; Haines, T. J.; Blaufuss, E.; Kim, B. K.; Sanford, R.; Svoboda, R.; Chen, M. L.; Goodman, J. A.; Guillian, G.; Sullivan, G. W.; Hill, J.; Jung, C. K.; Martens, K.; Malek, M.; Mauger, C.; McGrew, C.; Sharkey, E.; Viren, B.; Yanagisawa, C.; Kirisawa, M.; Inaba, S.; Mitsuda, C.; Miyano, K.; Okazawa, H.; Saji, C.; Takahashi, M.; Takahata, M.; Nagashima, Y.; Nitta, K.; Takita, M.; Yoshida, M.; Kim, S. B.; Ishizuka, T.; Etoh, M.; Gando, Y.; Hasegawa, T.; Inoue, K.; Ishihara, K.; Maruyama, T.; Shirai, J.; Suzuki, A.; Koshiba, M.; Hatakeyama, Y.; Ichikawa, Y.; Koike, M.; Nishijima, K.; Fujiyasu, H.; Ishino, H.; Morii, M.; Watanabe, Y.; Golebiewska, U.; Kielczewska, D.; Boyd, S. C.; Stachyra, A. L.; Wilkes, R. J.; Young, K. K.

    2000-11-01

    The previously published atmospheric neutrino data did not distinguish whether muon neutrinos were oscillating into tau neutrinos or sterile neutrinos, as both hypotheses fit the data. Using data recorded in 1100 live days of the Super-Kamiokande detector, we use three complementary data samples to study the difference in zenith angle distribution due to neutral currents and matter effects. We find no evidence favoring sterile neutrinos, and reject the hypothesis at the 99% confidence level. On the other hand, we find that oscillation between muon and tau neutrinos suffices to explain all the results in hand.

  14. Active Surveillance for Favorable Risk Prostate Cancer in African Caribbean Men: Results of a Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Meunier, Matthias; Eyraud, Rémi; Sénéchal, Cédric; Gourtaud, Gilles; Roux, Virginie; Lanchon, Cécilia; Brureau, Laurent; Blanchet, Pascal

    2017-05-01

    Active surveillance is a treatment option for favorable risk prostate cancer. However, data are missing on populations of African descent. We evaluated the safety and benefit of active surveillance in an African Caribbean cohort with favorable risk prostate cancer. Between 2005 and 2016, a single center, prospective cohort study was performed in Guadeloupe, French West Indies, including patients on active surveillance who had low risk prostate cancer (prostate specific antigen 10 ng/ml or less and Gleason score 6 or less) or favorable intermediate risk prostate cancer (prostate specific antigen 10 to 20 ng/ml, Gleason score 3 + 4 or less and life expectancy less than 10 years). Treatment was recommended in case of grade progression, increased tumor volume, prostate cancer doubling time less than 36 months or patient wish. Overall survival, disease specific survival and duration of active surveillance were calculated with the Kaplan-Meier method. Multivariate analysis was performed using the Cox proportional hazards model to identify predictors of active surveillance termination. A total of 234 patients with a median age of 64 years were enrolled in study. Median followup was 4 years (IQR 2.3-5.5). Overall survival at 30 months, 5 years and 10 years was 99.5%, 98.5% and 90.7%, respectively. Disease specific survival at 30 months, and 5 and 10 years was 100%. At 30 months, 5 years and 10 years 72.7%, 52.6% and 40.4% of patients, respectively, remained untreated and on active surveillance. Age (HR 0.96 per additional year, 95% CI 0.93-0.99) and prostate specific antigen density (HR 1.52 per additional 0.1 ng/ml, 95% CI 1.20-1.89) were found to be independent predictors of active surveillance termination. Active surveillance is safe and beneficial for highly selected African Caribbean patients. It seems to be feasible for patients at low risk and intermediate favorable risk. Prostate specific antigen density could help better select these patients. Copyright © 2017

  15. Favorable effect of moderate dose caffeine on the skeletal system in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Folwarczna, Joanna; Pytlik, Maria; Zych, Maria; Cegieła, Urszula; Kaczmarczyk-Sedlak, Ilona; Nowińska, Barbara; Sliwiński, Leszek

    2013-10-01

    Caffeine, a methylxanthine present in coffee, has been postulated to be responsible for an increased risk of osteoporosis in coffee drinkers; however, the data are inconsistent. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a moderate dose of caffeine on the skeletal system of rats with normal and decreased estrogen level (developing osteoporosis due to estrogen deficiency). The experiments were carried out on mature nonovariectomized and ovariectomized Wistar rats, divided into control rats and rats receiving caffeine once daily, 20 mg/kg p.o., for 4 wk. Serum bone turnover markers, bone mass, mass of bone mineral, calcium and phosphorus content, histomorphometric parameters, and bone mechanical properties were examined. Caffeine favorably affected the skeletal system of ovariectomized rats, slightly inhibiting the development of bone changes induced by estrogen deficiency (increasing bone mineralization, and improving the strength and structure of cancellous bone). Moreover, it favorably affected mechanical properties of compact bone. There were no significant effects of caffeine in rats with normal estrogen levels. In conclusion, results of the present study indicate that low-to-moderate caffeine intake may exert some beneficial effects on the skeletal system of mature organisms. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Spatial structure favors cooperative behavior in the snowdrift game with multiple interactive dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Qi; Li, Aming; Wang, Long

    2017-02-01

    Spatial reciprocity is generally regarded as a positive rule facilitating the evolution of cooperation. However, a few recent studies show that, in the snowdrift game, spatial structure still could be detrimental to cooperation. Here we propose a model of multiple interactive dynamics, where each individual can cooperate and defect simultaneously against different neighbors. We realize individuals' multiple interactions simply by endowing them with strategies relevant to probabilities, and every one decides to cooperate or defect with a probability. With multiple interactive dynamics, the cooperation level in square lattices is higher than that in the well-mixed case for a wide range of cost-to-benefit ratio r, implying that spatial structure favors cooperative behavior in the snowdrift game. Moreover, in square lattices, the most favorable strategy follows a simple relation of r, which confers theoretically the average evolutionary frequency of cooperative behavior. We further extend our study to various homogeneous and heterogeneous networks, which demonstrates the robustness of our results. Here multiple interactive dynamics stabilizes the positive role of spatial structure on the evolution of cooperation and individuals' distinct reactions to different neighbors can be a new line in understanding the emergence of cooperation.

  17. Spatial heterogeneity in human activities favors the persistence of wolves in agroecosystems.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Mohsen; López-Bao, José Vicente; Kaboli, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    As human populations expand, there is increasing demand and pressure for land. Under this scenario, behavioural flexibility and adaptation become important processes leading to the persistence of large carnivores in human-dominated landscapes such as agroecosystems. A growing interest has recently emerged on the outcome of the coexistence between wolves and humans in these systems. It has been suggested that spatial heterogeneity in human activities would be a major environmental factor modulating vulnerability and persistence of this contentious species in agroecosystems. Here, we combined information from 35 den sites detected between 2011 and 2012 in agroecosystems of western Iran (Hamedan province), a set of environmental variables measured at landscape and fine spatial scales, and generalized linear models to identify patterns of den site selection by wolves in a highly-modified agroecosystem. On a landscape level, wolves selected a mixture of rangelands with scattered dry-farms on hillsides (showing a low human use) to locate their dens, avoiding areas with high densities of settlements and primary roads. On a fine spatial scale, wolves primarily excavated dens into the sides of elevated steep-slope hills with availability of water bodies in the vicinity of den sites, and wolves were relegated to dig in places with coarse-soil particles. Our results suggest that vulnerability of wolves in human-dominated landscapes could be compensated by the existence of spatial heterogeneity in human activities. Such heterogeneity would favor wolf persistence in agroecosystems favoring a land sharing model of coexistence between wolves and people.

  18. Bound on the Slope of Steady Water Waves with Favorable Vorticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauss, Walter A.; Wheeler, Miles H.

    2016-12-01

    We consider the angle {θ} of inclination (with respect to the horizontal) of the profile of a steady two dimensional inviscid symmetric periodic or solitary water wave subject to gravity. Although {θ} may surpass 30° for some irrotational waves close to the extreme wave, Amick (Arch Ration Mech Anal 99(2):91-114, 1987) proved that for any irrotational wave the angle must be less than 31.15°. Is the situation similar for periodic or solitary waves that are not irrotational? The extreme Gerstner wave has infinite depth, adverse vorticity and vertical cusps ( θ = 90°). Moreover, numerical calculations show that even waves of finite depth can overturn if the vorticity is adverse. In this paper, on the other hand, we prove an upper bound of 45° on {θ} for a large class of waves with favorable vorticity and finite depth. In particular, the vorticity can be any constant with the favorable sign. We also prove a series of general inequalities on the pressure within the fluid, including the fact that any overturning wave must have a pressure sink.

  19. VEGF expression correlates with neuronal differentiation and predicts a favorable prognosis in patients with neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Weng, Wen-Chin; Lin, Kuan-Hung; Wu, Pei-Yi; Ho, Ya-Hsuan; Liu, Yen-Lin; Wang, Bo-Jeng; Chen, Chien-Chin; Lin, Yueh-Chien; Liao, Yung-Feng; Lee, Wang-Tso; Hsu, Wen-Ming; Lee, Hsinyu

    2017-09-11

    Neuroblastoma (NB) is a childhood cancer with a low survival rate and great metastatic potential. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), an angiogenesis factor, has been found to be involved in CRT-related neuronal differentiation of NB cells. In this study, we further confirmed the role VEGF in NB through mouse xenograft model and clinical analysis from NB patients. In xenograft experiments, CRT overexpression effectively inhibited the tumor growth. In addition, the mRNA and protein levels of VEGF and differentiation marker GAP-43 were upregulated by induced CRT expression. However, no significant correlation between the expression level of VEGF and microvessel density was observed in human NB tumors, suggesting a novel mechanism of VEGF participating in NB tumorigenesis through an angiogenesis-independent pathway. In NB patients' samples, mRNA expression levels of CRT and VEGF were positively correlated. Furthermore, positive VEGF expression by immunostaining of NB tumors was found to correlate well with histological grade of differentiation and predicted a favorable prognosis. In conclusion, our findings suggest that VEGF is a favorable prognostic factor of NB and might affect NB tumor behavior through CRT-driven neuronal differentiation rather than angiogenesis that might shed light on a novel therapeutic strategy to improve the outcome of NB.

  20. Atomistic Design of Favored Compositions for Synthesizing the Al-Ni-Y Metallic Glasses

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Q.; Li, J. H.; Liu, J. B.; Liu, B. X.

    2015-01-01

    For a ternary alloy system promising for obtaining the so-called bulk metallic glasses (BMGs), the first priority issue is to predict the favored compositions, which could then serve as guidance for the appropriate alloy design. Taking the Al-Ni-Y system as an example, here we show an atomistic approach, which is developed based on a recently constructed and proven realistic interatomic potential of the system. Applying the Al-Ni-Y potential, series simulations not only clarify the glass formation mechanism, but also predict in the composition triangle, a hexagonal region, in which a disordered state, i.e., the glassy phase, is favored energetically. The predicted region is defined as glass formation region (GFR) for the ternary alloy system. Moreover, the approach is able to calculate an amorphization driving force (ADF) for each possible glassy alloy located within the GFR. The calculations predict an optimized sub-region nearby a stoichiometry of Al80Ni5Y15, implying that the Al-Ni-Y metallic glasses designed in the sub-region could be the most stable. Interestingly, the atomistic predictions are supported by experimental results observed in the Al-Ni-Y system. In addition, structural origin underlying the stability of the Al-Ni-Y metallic glasses is also discussed in terms of a hybrid packing mode in the medium-range scale. PMID:26592568

  1. Biomechanical remodeling of the microenvironment by stromal Caveolin-1 favors tumor invasion and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Goetz, Jacky G.; Minguet, Susana; Navarro-Lérida, Inmaculada; Lazcano, Juan José; Samaniego, Rafael; Calvo, Enrique; Tello, Marta; Osteso-Ibáñez, Teresa; Pellinen, Teijo; Echarri, Asier; Cerezo, Ana; Klein-Szanto, Andres J.P.; Garcia, Ricardo; Keely, Patricia J.; Sánchez-Mateos, Paloma; Cukierman, Edna; Del Pozo, Miguel A.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Mechanotransduction, a key determinant of tissue homeostasis and tumor progression, is driven by intercellular adhesions, cell contractility and forces generated with the microenvironment, dependent on extracellular matrix composition, organization and compliance. Caveolin-1 (Cav1) favors cell elongation in 3D cultures and promotes Rho-and force-dependent contraction, matrix alignment and microenvironment stiffening through regulation of p190RhoGAP. In turn, microenvironment remodeling by Cav1-fibroblasts forces cell elongation. Cav1-deficient mice have disorganized stromal tissue architecture. Stroma associated with human carcinomas and melanoma metastases is enriched in Cav1-expressing carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs). Cav1 expression in breast CAFs correlates with low survival, and Cav1 depletion in CAFs decreases CAF contractility. Consistently, fibroblast expression of Cav1, through p190RhoGAP regulation, favors directional migration and invasiveness of carcinoma cells in vitro. In vivo, stromal Cav1 remodels peri- and intratumoral microenvironments to facilitate tumor invasion, correlating with increased metastatic potency. Thus, Cav1 modulates tissue responses through force-dependent architectural regulation of the microenvironment. PMID:21729786

  2. High DBC1 (CCAR2) expression in gallbladder carcinoma is associated with favorable clinicopathological factors.

    PubMed

    Won, Kyu Yeoun; Cho, Hyuck; Kim, Gou Young; Lim, Sung-Jig; Bae, Go Eun; Lim, Jun Uk; Sung, Ji-Youn; Park, Yong-Koo; Kim, Youn Wha; Lee, Juhie

    2015-01-01

    There have been several studies on gallbladder carcinogenesis, and mutations of the KRAS, TP53, and CDKN2A genes have been reported in gallbladder carcinoma. The DBC1 gene (deleted in breast cancer 1) was initially cloned from region 8p21, which was homozygously deleted in breast cancer. DBC1 has been implicated in cancer cell proliferation and death. The functional role of DBC1 in normal cells and the role of DBC1 loss in cancer are not entirely clear. And DBC1 expression and its clinical implications in gallbladder carcinoma have yet to be thoroughly elucidated. Therefore, we evaluated DBC1 expression in 104 gallbladder carcinoma tissues in relation to survival and other prognostic factors via immunohistochemical analysis. DBC1 expression was divided into two categories: high DBC1 expression was observed in 32/104 cases (30.8%) and low expression in 72/104 cases (69.2%). High DBC1 expression correlated significantly with favorable clinicopathologic variables. Furthermore, in survival analysis, the high-DBC1 expression group showed a better survival rate compared to the low-DBC1 expression group. In conclusion, high DBC1 expression is associated with several favorable clinicopathologic factors in gallbladder carcinoma. These findings suggest that loss of DBC1 expression plays a role in tumorigenesis and tumor progression in gallbladder carcinoma.

  3. High Concentrations of H2O2 Make Aerobic Glycolysis Energetically More Favorable for Cellular Respiration

    PubMed Central

    Molavian, Hamid R.; Kohandel, Mohammad; Sivaloganathan, Sivabal

    2016-01-01

    Since the original observation of the Warburg Effect in cancer cells, over 8 decades ago, the major question of why aerobic glycolysis is favored over oxidative phosphorylation has remained unresolved. An understanding of this phenomenon may well be the key to the development of more effective cancer therapies. In this paper, we use a semi-empirical method to throw light on this puzzle. We show that aerobic glycolysis is in fact energetically more favorable than oxidative phosphorylation for concentrations of peroxide (H2O2) above some critical threshold value. The fundamental reason for this is the activation and high engagement of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) in response to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) H2O2 by mitochondria and the high concentration of H2O2 (produced by mitochondria and other sources). This makes oxidative phosphorylation an inefficient source of energy since it leads (despite high levels of ATP production) to a concomitant high energy consumption in order to respond to the hazardous waste products resulting from cellular processes associated with this metabolic pathway. We also demonstrate that the high concentration of H2O2 results in an increased glucose consumption, and also increases the lactate production in the case of glycolysis. PMID:27601999

  4. [Who is against prevention? A map of policy actors favoring smoking in Spain].

    PubMed

    Granero, Lluís; Villalbí, Joan Ramón; Gallego, Raquel

    2004-01-01

    For a comprehensive approach to policies on smoking, the map of actors related to tobacco and their political ties needs to be identified. The present article constitutes the first attempt at this task in Spain. Analysis of the press, industry publications, and interviews with key people. Active actors favoring smoking in Spain were identified and classified according to their characteristics, the sphere in which they act, and their preferred territorial arena. We identified tobacco companies (Altadis and Philip Morris dominate the market), tobacco trade organizations (tobacconists), front-line organizations created by the tobacco industry (The Smokers for Tolerance Club), organizations of tobacco growers, and processing companies. Distribution to retailers is dominated by Logista, owned by Altadis. Other sectors to take into account are vending companies and those manufacturing related products (cigarette paper, matches or lighters). The contacts of these actors with the public administration are reviewed, notable among which are the role of the Commissioner for the Tobacco Market, the Ministry of Agriculture, the Ministry of Finance and the Ministry of the Economy. Ties were also found with employers' organizations, some political parties, and unions, as well as with other sectors with social influence such as the media and advertising sectors. The map of actors favoring smoking in Spain is complex and goes beyond the confines of the tobacco industry. Understanding this web is crucial to promoting comprehensive prevention policies.

  5. Selection on Inversion Breakpoints Favors Proximity to Pairing Sensitive Sites in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Corbett-Detig, Russell B

    2016-09-01

    Chromosomal inversions are widespread among taxa, and have been implicated in a number of biological processes including adaptation, sex chromosome evolution, and segregation distortion. Consistent with selection favoring linkage between loci, it is well established that length is a selected trait of inversions. However, the factors that affect the distribution of inversion breakpoints remain poorly understood. "Sensitive sites" have been mapped on all euchromatic chromosome arms in Drosophila melanogaster, and may be a source of natural selection on inversion breakpoint positions. Briefly, sensitive sites are genomic regions wherein proximal structural rearrangements result in large reductions in local recombination rates in heterozygotes. Here, I show that breakpoints of common inversions are significantly more likely to lie within a cytological band containing a sensitive site than are breakpoints of rare inversions. Furthermore, common inversions for which neither breakpoint intersects a sensitive site are significantly longer than rare inversions, but common inversions whose breakpoints intersect a sensitive site show no evidence for increased length. I interpret these results to mean that selection favors inversions whose breakpoints disrupt synteny near to sensitive sites, possibly because these inversions suppress recombination in large genomic regions. To my knowledge this is the first evidence consistent with positive selection acting on inversion breakpoint positions. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  6. Immunolocalization of thymidylate synthase as a favorable prognostic marker in estrogen receptor-positive breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Kiyoshi; Miki, Yasuhiro; Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Hirakawa, Hisashi; Kakugawa, Yoichiro; Amano, Goro; Watanabe, Mika; Ishida, Takanori; Sasano, Hironobu; Suzuki, Takashi

    2015-10-01

    Thymidylate synthase (TS) is an enzyme involved in DNA synthesis, and it is a target for 5-fluorouracil. Previous studies have demonstrated that TS is a potent estrogen-induced gene in breast carcinoma cells, suggesting the importance of TS in estrogen-receptor (ER)-positive breast carcinoma. TS immunolocalization has been reported previously, but the clinicopathological significance of TS in ER-positive breast carcinoma still remains unclear. We immunolocalized TS in 178 breast carcinoma tissues in total, and examined its significance according to the ER-status. TS status was positive in 58% of ER-positive ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) cases, and it was significantly associated with the Ki-67 and progesterone receptor (PR). Moreover, in ER-positive DCIS patients who received aromatase inhibitor (AI) before surgery, TS immunoreactivity was significantly decreased after AI treatment. In ER-positive invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) cases, TS status was significantly associated with PR, and it turned out an independent favorable prognostic factor for recurrence of the patients by multivariate analysis. On the other hand, TS status was positively correlated with pathological T factor in ER-negative IDC cases, and tended to have a worse prognosis for disease-free survival of the patients. These results suggest that TS expression is mainly regulated by estrogen in ER-positive breast carcinoma and is associated with estrogen-mediated proliferation. TS status is a favorable prognostic factor in ER-positive IDC patients, which is different from the ER-negative cases.

  7. Transient hypothyroidism favors oligodendrocyte generation providing functional remyelination in the adult mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Remaud, Sylvie; Ortiz, Fernando C; Perret-Jeanneret, Marine; Aigrot, Marie-Stéphane; Gothié, Jean-David; Fekete, Csaba; Kvárta-Papp, Zsuzsanna; Gereben, Balázs; Langui, Dominique; Lubetzki, Catherine; Angulo, Maria Cecilia; Zalc, Bernard; Demeneix, Barbara

    2017-09-06

    In the adult brain, both neurons and oligodendrocytes can be generated from neural stem cells located within the Sub-Ventricular Zone (SVZ). Physiological signals regulating neuronal versus glial fate are largely unknown. Here we report that a thyroid hormone (T3)-free window, with or without a demyelinating insult, provides a favorable environment for SVZ-derived oligodendrocyte progenitor generation. After demyelination, oligodendrocytes derived from these newly-formed progenitors provide functional remyelination, restoring normal conduction. The cellular basis for neuronal versus glial determination in progenitors involves asymmetric partitioning of EGFR and TRα1, expression of which favor glio- and neuro-genesis, respectively. Moreover, EGFR(+) oligodendrocyte progenitors, but not neuroblasts, express high levels of a T3-inactivating deiodinase, Dio3. Thus, TRα absence with high levels of Dio3 provides double-pronged blockage of T3 action during glial lineage commitment. These findings not only transform our understanding of how T3 orchestrates adult brain lineage decisions, but also provide potential insight into demyelinating disorders.

  8. Spatial Heterogeneity in Human Activities Favors the Persistence of Wolves in Agroecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Mohsen; López-Bao, José Vicente; Kaboli, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    As human populations expand, there is increasing demand and pressure for land. Under this scenario, behavioural flexibility and adaptation become important processes leading to the persistence of large carnivores in human-dominated landscapes such as agroecosystems. A growing interest has recently emerged on the outcome of the coexistence between wolves and humans in these systems. It has been suggested that spatial heterogeneity in human activities would be a major environmental factor modulating vulnerability and persistence of this contentious species in agroecosystems. Here, we combined information from 35 den sites detected between 2011 and 2012 in agroecosystems of western Iran (Hamedan province), a set of environmental variables measured at landscape and fine spatial scales, and generalized linear models to identify patterns of den site selection by wolves in a highly-modified agroecosystem. On a landscape level, wolves selected a mixture of rangelands with scattered dry-farms on hillsides (showing a low human use) to locate their dens, avoiding areas with high densities of settlements and primary roads. On a fine spatial scale, wolves primarily excavated dens into the sides of elevated steep-slope hills with availability of water bodies in the vicinity of den sites, and wolves were relegated to dig in places with coarse-soil particles. Our results suggest that vulnerability of wolves in human-dominated landscapes could be compensated by the existence of spatial heterogeneity in human activities. Such heterogeneity would favor wolf persistence in agroecosystems favoring a land sharing model of coexistence between wolves and people. PMID:25251567

  9. Glutamine supplementation favors weight loss in nondieting obese female patients. A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Laviano, A; Molfino, A; Lacaria, M T; Canelli, A; De Leo, S; Preziosa, I; Rossi Fanelli, F

    2014-11-01

    Glutamine supplementation improves insulin sensitivity in critically ill patients, and prevents obesity in animals fed a high-fat diet. We hypothesized that glutamine supplementation favors weight loss in humans. Obese and overweight female patients (n=6) were enrolled in a pilot, cross-over study. After recording anthropometric (that is, body weight, waist circumference) and metabolic (that is, glycemia, insulinemia, homeostatic model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)) characteristics, patients were randomly assigned to 4-week supplementation with glutamine or isonitrogenous protein supplement (0.5 g/KgBW/day). During supplementation, patients did not change their dietary habits nor lifestyle. At the end, anthropometric and metabolic features were assessed, and after 2 weeks of washout, patients were switched to the other supplement for 4 weeks. Body weight and waist circumference significantly declined only after glutamine supplementation (85.0±10.4 Kg vs 82.2±10.1 Kg, and 102.7±2.0 cm vs 98.9±2.9 cm, respectively; P=0.01). Insulinemia and HOMA-IR declined by 20% after glutamine, but not significantly so. This pilot study shows that glutamine is safe and effective in favoring weight loss and possibly enhancing glucose metabolism.

  10. Determining Favorable Maxillary Implant Locations Using Three-Dimensional Simulation Software and Computed Tomography Data.

    PubMed

    Gonda, Tomoya; Kamei, Koichiro; Maeda, Yoshinobu

    Success rates for maxillary implant treatment are lower than for mandibular treatment because of the presence of poorer bone quality or quantity in the maxilla. The purpose of this study was to determine favorable implant positions in the maxilla using implant simulation software and clinical anatomical morphology together with bone quality data obtained by computed tomography (CT). A convenience research sample of 10 edentulous subjects was recruited, and research information from right and left edentulous sites was obtained from each subject. The height, width, angulation, and Hounsfield unit value of the maxillary alveolar bone were measured using CT data obtained from the subjects. Bone height in the incisor area was significantly greater than in the molar area, and bone width in the incisor area was significantly narrower than in the molar area. The average bone quality in the maxillary molar area was significantly higher when compared with the premolar and incisor areas. The angle between the occlusal plane and the bisector of the alveolar bone in the incisor area was reduced when compared with the molar area. The premolar region appears to be the most favorable area in the maxillary arch for implant placement with regard to bone height, width, angulation, and quality.

  11. Molecular subtype analysis determines the association of advanced breast cancer in Egypt with favorable biology

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Prognostic markers and molecular breast cancer subtypes reflect underlying biological tumor behavior and are important for patient management. Compared to Western countries, women in North Africa are less likely to be prognosticated and treated based on well-characterized markers such as the estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and Her2. We conducted this study to determine the prevalence of breast cancer molecular subtypes in the North African country of Egypt as a measure of underlying biological characteristics driving tumor manifestations. Methods To determine molecular subtypes we characterized over 200 tumor specimens obtained from Egypt by performing ER, PR, Her2, CK5/6, EGFR and Ki67 immunohistochemistry. Results Our study demonstrated that the Luminal A subtype, associated with favorable prognosis, was found in nearly 45% of cases examined. However, the basal-like subtype, associated with poor prognosis, was found in 11% of cases. These findings are in sharp contrast to other parts of Africa in which the basal-like subtype is over-represented. Conclusions Egyptians appear to have favorable underlying biology, albeit having advanced disease at diagnosis. These data suggest that Egyptians would largely profit from early detection of their disease. Intervention at the public health level, including education on the benefits of early detection is necessary and would likely have tremendous impact on breast cancer outcome in Egypt. PMID:21961708

  12. Nut consumption has favorable effects on lipid profiles of Korean women with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Joo; Nam, Ga Eun; Seo, Ji A; Yoon, Taehyung; Seo, Ilwon; Lee, Jin Hee; Im, Donggil; Bahn, Kyeong-Nyeo; Jeong, Si An; Kang, Tae Seok; Ahn, Jae Hee; Kim, Do Hoon; Kim, Nan Hee

    2014-09-01

    Nut consumption has been studied for its cardioprotective effects. However, the findings of clinical intervention studies are inconsistent; and no intervention studies have been conducted in the Korean population. We hypothesized that nut supplementation may have favorable influence on metabolic markers. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effects of nut consumption on metabolic parameters and biomarkers related to inflammation, oxidative stress, and endothelial function in Korean adults with metabolic syndrome. To this end, we designed a randomized, parallel, controlled dietary intervention study (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02023749). Subjects with metabolic syndrome and a body mass index of at least 23 kg/m(2) were randomized to the Control group and the Nut group, which received supplementation with 30 g/d of mixed nuts (walnuts, peanuts, and pine nuts) for 6 weeks. Sixty volunteers were included in the final analysis. Metabolic markers were evaluated at baseline and at the end of the study. Total cholesterol and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels significantly improved in the Nut group compared to those in the Control group (P = .023 and P = .016, respectively) in women. Biomarkers related to inflammation, oxidative stress, and endothelial function did not significantly change from baseline in either group. Thus, supplementing a usual diet with mixed nuts for 6 weeks had favorable effects on several lipid parameters in Korean women with metabolic syndrome. These findings present a possible mechanism for the cardioprotective effects of nut consumption. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Genetic Gains in Yield and Yield Related Traits under Drought Stress and Favorable Environments in a Maize Population Improved Using Marker Assisted Recurrent Selection

    PubMed Central

    Bankole, Folusho; Menkir, Abebe; Olaoye, Gbadebo; Crossa, Jose; Hearne, Sarah; Unachukwu, Nnanna; Gedil, Melaku

    2017-01-01

    The objective of marker assisted recurrent selection (MARS) is to increase the frequency of favorable marker alleles in a population before inbred line extraction. This approach was used to improve drought tolerance and grain yield (GY) in a biparental cross of two elite drought tolerant lines. The testcrosses of randomly selected 50 S1 lines from each of the three selection cycles (C0, C1, C2) of the MARS population, parental testcrosses and the cross between the two parents (F1) were evaluated under drought stress (DS) and well watered (WW) well as under rainfed conditions to determine genetic gains in GY and other agronomic traits. Also, the S1 lines derived from each selection types were genotyped with single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. Testcrosses derived from C2 produced significantly higher grain field under DS than those derived from C0 with a relative genetic gain of 7% per cycle. Also, the testcrosses of S1 lines from C2 showed an average genetic gain of 1% per cycle under WW condition and 3% per cycle under rainfed condition. Molecular analysis revealed that the frequency of favorable marker alleles increased from 0.510 at C0 to 0.515 at C2, while the effective number of alleles (Ne) per locus decreased from C0 (1.93) to C2 (1.87). Our results underscore the effectiveness of MARS for improvement of GY under DS condition. PMID:28567048

  14. 8 CFR 316.11 - Attachment to the Constitution; favorable disposition towards the good order and happiness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... disposition towards the good order and happiness. 316.11 Section 316.11 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF... the Constitution; favorable disposition towards the good order and happiness. (a) General. An... favorably disposed toward the good order and happiness of the United States. Attachment implies a depth...

  15. 8 CFR 316.11 - Attachment to the Constitution; favorable disposition towards the good order and happiness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... disposition towards the good order and happiness. 316.11 Section 316.11 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF... the Constitution; favorable disposition towards the good order and happiness. (a) General. An... favorably disposed toward the good order and happiness of the United States. Attachment implies a depth of...

  16. 8 CFR 316.11 - Attachment to the Constitution; favorable disposition towards the good order and happiness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... disposition towards the good order and happiness. 316.11 Section 316.11 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF... the Constitution; favorable disposition towards the good order and happiness. (a) General. An... favorably disposed toward the good order and happiness of the United States. Attachment implies a depth of...

  17. 8 CFR 316.11 - Attachment to the Constitution; favorable disposition towards the good order and happiness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... disposition towards the good order and happiness. 316.11 Section 316.11 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF... the Constitution; favorable disposition towards the good order and happiness. (a) General. An... favorably disposed toward the good order and happiness of the United States. Attachment implies a depth of...

  18. 8 CFR 316.11 - Attachment to the Constitution; favorable disposition towards the good order and happiness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... disposition towards the good order and happiness. 316.11 Section 316.11 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF... the Constitution; favorable disposition towards the good order and happiness. (a) General. An... favorably disposed toward the good order and happiness of the United States. Attachment implies a depth of...

  19. Low preoperative albumin-globulin score predicts favorable survival in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhi-qiang; Wang, De-shen; Wang, Yun; Zhang, Dong-sheng; Wang, Feng-hua; Fu, Jian-hua; Xu, Rui-hua; Li, Yu-hong

    2016-01-01

    This study retrospectively investigated the prognostic significance of the preoperative albumin-globulin score (AGS) and albumin/globulin ratio (AGR) in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). A cohort of 458 newly diagnosed ESCC patients who underwent radical esophagectomy in Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center (Guangzhou, China) between January 2006 and December 2010 were selected into this study. The optimal cut-off value was identified to be 45.6 g/L, 26.9 g/L and 1.30 for albumin (ALB), globulin (GLB) and AGR in terms of survival, respectively. Patients with low ALB levels (< 45.6 g/L) and high GLB levels (≥ 26.9 g/L) were assigned an AGS of 2, those with only one of the two abnormalities were assigned an AGS of 1, and those with neither of the two abnormalities were assigned an AGS of 0. Univariate survival analysis showed that low AGS (0) was significantly associated with favorable disease free survival (DFS) [hazard ratio (HR), 0.635; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.441–0.914; P = 0.015] and overall survival (OS) (HR, 0.578; 95% CI, 0.387–0.862; P = 0.007), and it remained an independent predictor for OS (HR, 0.630; 95% CI, 0.418–0.952; P = 0.028), but not for DFS (HR, 0.697; 95% CI, 0.479–1.061; P = 0.060) in multivariate models. High AGR (≥ 1.30) was also correlated with favorable DFS (HR, 0.626; 95% CI, 0.430–0.910; P = 0.014) and OS (HR, 0.622; 95% CI, 0.422–0.916; P = 0.016) in univariate analysis, but it failed to be an independent prognostic indicator for DFS (HR, 0.730; 95% CI, 0.494–1.078; P = 0.114) or OS (HR, 0.759; 95% CI, 0.507–1.137; P = 0.181) by multivariate analysis. Low preoperative AGS could serve as a valuable and convenient biochemical marker to predict favorable long-term survival in ESCC patients. PMID:27105522

  20. Partisan Perspectives in the Medical Literature: A Study of High Frequency Editorialists Favoring Hormone Replacement Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Tatsioni, Athina; Siontis, George C. M.

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Unfavorable results of major studies have led to a large shrinkage of the market for hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in the last 6 years. Some scientists continue to strongly support the use of HRT. Objectives We analyzed a sample of partisan editorializing articles on HRT to examine their arguments, the reporting of competing interests, the journal venues and their sponsoring societies. Data Sources Through Thomson ISI database, we selected articles without primary data written by the five most prolific editorialists that addressed clinical topics pertaining to HRT and that were published in regular journal issues in 2002–2008. Main Measures We recorded the number of articles with a partisan stance and their arguments, the number of partisan articles that reported conflicting interests, and the journal venues and their sponsoring societies publishing the partisan editorials. Key Results We analyzed 114 eligible articles (58 editorials, 16 guidelines, 37 reviews, 3 letters), of which 110 (96%) had a partisan stance favoring HRT. Typical arguments were benefits for menopausal and related symptoms (64.9%), criticism of unfavorable studies (78.9%), preclinical data that showed favorable effects of HRT (50%), and benefits for major outcomes such as osteoporosis and fractures (49.1%), cardiovascular disease (31.6%), dementia (24.6%) or colorectal cancer (20.2%), but also even breast cancer (4.4%). All 5 prolific editorialists had financial relationships with hormone manufacturers, but these were reported in only 6 of the 110 partisan articles. Four journals published 15–37 partisan articles each. The medical societies of these journals reported on their websites that several pharmaceutical companies sponsored them or their conferences. Conclusions There is a considerable body of editorializing articles favoring HRT use and very few of these articles report conflicts of interest. Full disclosure of conflicts of interest is needed, especially

  1. Low acetate concentrations favor polyphosphate-accumulating organisms over glycogen-accumulating organisms in enhanced biological phosphorus removal from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Tu, Yunjie; Schuler, Andrew J

    2013-04-16

    Glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs) are thought to compete with polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) in enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) wastewater treatment systems. A laboratory sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was operated for one year to test the hypothesis that PAOs have a competitive advantage at low acetate concentrations, with a focus on low pH conditions previously shown to favor GAOs. PAOs dominated the system under conventional SBR operation with rapid acetate addition (producing high in-reactor concentrations) and pH values of 7.4-8.4. GAOs dominated when the pH was decreased (6.4-7.0). Decreasing the acetate addition rate led to very low reactor acetate concentrations, and PAOs recovered, supporting the study hypothesis. When the acetate feed rate was increased, EBPR failed again. Dominant PAOs and GAOs were Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis and Defluviicoccus Cluster 2, respectively, according to fluorescent in situ hybridization and 454 pyrosequencing. Surprisingly, GAOs were not the immediate causes of PAO failures, based on functional and population measurements. Pyrosequencing results suggested Dechloromonas and Tetrasphaera spp. may have also been PAOs, and additional potential GAOs were also identified. Full-scale systems typically have lower in-reactor acetate concentrations than laboratory SBRs, and so, previous laboratory studies may have overestimated the practical importance of GAOs as causes of EBPR failure.

  2. Combined phosphate and nitrogen limitation generates a nutrient stress transcriptome favorable for arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis in Medicago truncatula.

    PubMed

    Bonneau, Laurent; Huguet, Stéphanie; Wipf, Daniel; Pauly, Nicolas; Truong, Hoai-Nam

    2013-07-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis is stimulated by phosphorus (P) limitation and contributes to P and nitrogen (N) acquisition. However, the effects of combined P and N limitation on AM formation are largely unknown. Medicago truncatula plants were cultivated in the presence or absence of Rhizophagus irregularis (formerly Glomus intraradices) in P-limited (LP), N-limited (LN) or combined P- and N-limited (LPN) conditions, and compared with plants grown in sufficient P and N. The highest AM formation was observed in LPN, linked to systemic signaling by the plant nutrient status. Plant free phosphate concentrations were higher in LPN than in LP, as a result of cross-talk between P and N. Transcriptome analyses suggest that LPN induces the activation of NADPH oxidases in roots, concomitant with an altered profile of plant defense genes and a coordinate increase in the expression of genes involved in the methylerythritol phosphate and isoprenoid-derived pathways, including strigolactone synthesis genes. Taken together, these results suggest that low P and N fertilization systemically induces a physiological state of plants favorable for AM symbiosis despite their higher P status. Our findings highlight the importance of the plant nutrient status in controlling plant-fungus interaction.

  3. Brain glucagon-like peptide–1 increases insulin secretion and muscle insulin resistance to favor hepatic glycogen storage

    PubMed Central

    Knauf, Claude; Cani, Patrice D.; Perrin, Christophe; Iglesias, Miguel A.; Maury, Jean François; Bernard, Elodie; Benhamed, Fadilha; Grémeaux, Thierry; Drucker, Daniel J.; Kahn, C. Ronald; Girard, Jean; Tanti, Jean François; Delzenne, Nathalie M.; Postic, Catherine; Burcelin, Rémy

    2005-01-01

    Intestinal glucagon-like peptide–1 (GLP-1) is a hormone released into the hepatoportal circulation that stimulates pancreatic insulin secretion. GLP-1 also acts as a neuropeptide to control food intake and cardiovascular functions, but its neural role in glucose homeostasis is unknown. We show that brain GLP-1 controlled whole-body glucose fate during hyperglycemic conditions. In mice undergoing a hyperglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp, icv administration of the specific GLP-1 receptor antagonist exendin 9–39 (Ex9) increased muscle glucose utilization and glycogen content. This effect did not require muscle insulin action, as it also occurred in muscle insulin receptor KO mice. Conversely, icv infusion of the GLP-1 receptor agonist exendin 4 (Ex4) reduced insulin-stimulated muscle glucose utilization. In hyperglycemia achieved by i.v. infusion of glucose, icv Ex4, but not Ex9, caused a 4-fold increase in insulin secretion and enhanced liver glycogen storage. However, when glucose was infused intragastrically, icv Ex9 infusion lowered insulin secretion and hepatic glycogen levels, whereas no effects of icv Ex4 were observed. In diabetic mice fed a high-fat diet, a 1-month chronic i.p. Ex9 treatment improved glucose tolerance and fasting glycemia. Our data show that during hyperglycemia, brain GLP-1 inhibited muscle glucose utilization and increased insulin secretion to favor hepatic glycogen stores, preparing efficiently for the next fasting state. PMID:16322793

  4. Tumor-associated macrophages favor C26 murine colon carcinoma cell proliferation in an oxidative stress-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Luput, Lavinia; Licarete, Emilia; Sesarman, Alina; Laura, Patras; Alupei, Marius Costel; Banciu, Manuela

    2017-02-17

    The role of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in the development of colon carcinoma is still controversial. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the TAM‑driven processes that may affect colon cancer cell proliferation. To achieve this purpose, murine macrophages were co-cultured with C26 murine colon carcinoma cells at a cell density ratio that approximates physiological conditions for colon carcinoma development in vivo. In this respect, the effects of TAM-mediated angiogenesis, inflammation and oxidative stress on the proliferative capacity of C26 murine colon carcinoma cells were studied. To gain insight into the TAM-driven oxidative stress, NADPH oxidase, the main pro-oxidant enzyme in macrophages, was inhibited. Our data revealed that the stimulatory effects of TAMs on C26 cell proliferation may be related mainly to their pro-oxidant actions exerted by NADPH oxidase activity, which maintains the redox status and the angiogenic capacity of the tumor microenvironment. Additionally, the anti-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic effects of TAMs on tumor cells were found to create a favorable microenvironment for C26 colon carcinoma development and progression. In conclusion, our data confirmed the protumor role of TAMs in the development of colon carcinoma in an oxidative stress-dependent manner that potentiates the angiogenic capacity of the tumor microenvironment. These data may offer valuable information for future tumor-targeted therapies based on TAM 're-education' strategies.

  5. Optimization of medium compositions favoring butanol and 1,3-propanediol production from glycerol by Clostridium pasteurianum.

    PubMed

    Moon, Chuloo; Lee, Chang Hwan; Sang, Byoung-In; Um, Youngsoon

    2011-11-01

    Medium compositions favoring butanol and 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PDO) production from glycerol by Clostridium pasteurianum DSM525 were investigated using statistical experimental designs. Medium components affecting butanol and 1,3-PDO production were screened using a fractional factorial experimental design. Among the six tested variables (phosphate buffer, MnSO4·H2O, MgSO4·7H2O, FeSO4·7H2O, (NH4)2SO4, and yeast extract), FeSO4·7H2O, (NH4)2SO4, and yeast extract were found to be significant variables for further optimization of medium using a Box-Behnken design. Optimal butanol (0.98 g/L/h) and 1,3-PDO (1.19 g/L/h) productivities were predicted by the corresponding quadratic model for each product and the models were validated experimentally under optimized conditions. The optimal medium composition for butanol production was significantly different from that for 1,3-PDO production (0.06 vs. 0 g/L for FeSO4·7H2O, 7.35 vs. 0 g/L for (NH4)2SO4, and 5.08 vs. 8.0 g/L for yeast extract), suggesting that the product formation from glycerol by C. pasteurianum DSM525 can be controlled by changing medium compositions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Brain glucagon-like peptide-1 increases insulin secretion and muscle insulin resistance to favor hepatic glycogen storage.

    PubMed

    Knauf, Claude; Cani, Patrice D; Perrin, Christophe; Iglesias, Miguel A; Maury, Jean François; Bernard, Elodie; Benhamed, Fadilha; Grémeaux, Thierry; Drucker, Daniel J; Kahn, C Ronald; Girard, Jean; Tanti, Jean François; Delzenne, Nathalie M; Postic, Catherine; Burcelin, Rémy

    2005-12-01

    Intestinal glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a hormone released into the hepatoportal circulation that stimulates pancreatic insulin secretion. GLP-1 also acts as a neuropeptide to control food intake and cardiovascular functions, but its neural role in glucose homeostasis is unknown. We show that brain GLP-1 controlled whole-body glucose fate during hyperglycemic conditions. In mice undergoing a hyperglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp, icv administration of the specific GLP-1 receptor antagonist exendin 9-39 (Ex9) increased muscle glucose utilization and glycogen content. This effect did not require muscle insulin action, as it also occurred in muscle insulin receptor KO mice. Conversely, icv infusion of the GLP-1 receptor agonist exendin 4 (Ex4) reduced insulin-stimulated muscle glucose utilization. In hyperglycemia achieved by i.v. infusion of glucose, icv Ex4, but not Ex9, caused a 4-fold increase in insulin secretion and enhanced liver glycogen storage. However, when glucose was infused intragastrically, icv Ex9 infusion lowered insulin secretion and hepatic glycogen levels, whereas no effects of icv Ex4 were observed. In diabetic mice fed a high-fat diet, a 1-month chronic i.p. Ex9 treatment improved glucose tolerance and fasting glycemia. Our data show that during hyperglycemia, brain GLP-1 inhibited muscle glucose utilization and increased insulin secretion to favor hepatic glycogen stores, preparing efficiently for the next fasting state.

  7. Favored configurations for four-quasiparticle K isomerism in the heaviest nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H. L.; Walker, P. M.; Xu, F. R.

    2014-04-01

    Configuration-constrained potential-energy-surface calculations are performed including β6 deformation to investigate high-K isomeric states in nuclei around 254No and 270Ds, the heaviest nuclei where there have been some observations of two-quasiparticle isomers, while data for four-quasiparticle isomers are scarce. We predict the prevalent occurrence of four-quasiparticle isomeric states in these nuclei, together with their favored configurations. The most notable examples, among others, are Kπ=20+ states in 266,268Ds and 268,270Cn having very high K value, relatively low excitation energy, and well-deformed axially symmetric shape. The predicted isomeric states, with hindered spontaneous fission and α decay, could play a significant role in the future study of superheavy nuclei.

  8. Cosmology favoring extra radiation and sub-eV mass sterile neutrinos as an option.

    PubMed

    Hamann, Jan; Hannestad, Steen; Raffelt, Georg G; Tamborra, Irene; Wong, Yvonne Y Y

    2010-10-29

    Precision cosmology and big-bang nucleosynthesis mildly favor extra radiation in the Universe beyond photons and ordinary neutrinos, lending support to the existence of low-mass sterile neutrinos. We use the WMAP 7-year data, small-scale cosmic microwave background observations from ACBAR, BICEP, and QuAD, the SDSS 7th data release, and measurement of the Hubble parameter from HST observations to derive credible regions for the assumed common mass scale m{s} and effective number N{s} of thermally excited sterile neutrino states. Our results are compatible with the existence of one or perhaps two sterile neutrinos, as suggested by LSND and MiniBooNE, if m{s} is in the sub-eV range.

  9. "I knew we would win": hindsight bias for favorable and unfavorable team decision outcomes.

    PubMed

    Louie, T A; Curren, M T; Harich, K R

    2000-04-01

    This study examined hindsight bias for team decisions in a competitive setting in which groups attempted to outperform each other. It was anticipated that, because of self-serving mechanisms, individuals would show hindsight bias only when decision outcomes allowed them to take credit for their own team's success or to downgrade another team for being unsuccessful. MBA students playing a market simulation game made hindsight estimates regarding the likelihood that either their own or another team would perform well. Consistent with a self-serving interpretation, when decision outcomes were favorable individuals evaluating their own team, but not those evaluating another, showed hindsight bias. When outcomes were unfavorable individuals evaluating their own team did not show hindsight bias, but those evaluating another team did. Discussion focuses on implications of hindsight bias in team decision-making settings.

  10. Prejudice, Social Dominance, and Similarity among People who Favor Integration of Minorities.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Carmen; Saiz, José; Angosto, Josefa

    2016-04-12

    This study examines differences in prejudice, perceived similarity, and social dominance in members of the majority who favor integration as a means of minority acculturation. A total of 342 non-Gypsy Spanish participants filled out a questionnaire about their relationship to one of three outgroups: Maghrebians, Gypsies, and Latin Americans. Hierarchical cluster analysis showed that a three-cluster solution was most fitting for every outgroup. ANOVAs applied to the three clusters indicated significant differences in prejudice, perceived similarity, and social dominance. Referring to Gypsies the largest effect size was observed in manifest prejudice (η2 = .63), in Maghrebians, the largest effect size was observed in subtle prejudice (η2 =.77), while for Latin Americans, perceived similarity had the largest effect size η2 ( = .60). The results reveal a need to modify existing measures of integration; we recommend using questionnaires to measure behaviors that members of the majority would be willing to implement.

  11. To favor survival under food shortage, the brain disables costly memory.

    PubMed

    Plaçais, Pierre-Yves; Preat, Thomas

    2013-01-25

    The brain regulates energy homeostasis in the organism. Under resource shortage, the brain takes priority over peripheral organs for energy supply. But can the brain also down-regulate its own consumption to favor survival? We show that the brain of Drosophila specifically disables the costly formation of aversive long-term memory (LTM) upon starvation, a physiological state required for appetitive LTM formation. At the neural circuit level, the slow oscillations normally triggered in two pairs of dopaminergic neurons to enable aversive LTM formation were abolished in starved flies. Transient artificial activation of these neurons during training restored LTM formation in starved flies but at the price of a reduced survival. LTM formation is thus subject to adaptive plasticity that helps survival under food shortage.

  12. Cosmology Favoring Extra Radiation and Sub-eV Mass Sterile Neutrinos as an Option

    SciTech Connect

    Hamann, Jan; Hannestad, Steen; Raffelt, Georg G.; Tamborra, Irene; Wong, Yvonne Y. Y.

    2010-10-29

    Precision cosmology and big-bang nucleosynthesis mildly favor extra radiation in the Universe beyond photons and ordinary neutrinos, lending support to the existence of low-mass sterile neutrinos. We use the WMAP 7-year data, small-scale cosmic microwave background observations from ACBAR, BICEP, and QuAD, the SDSS 7th data release, and measurement of the Hubble parameter from HST observations to derive credible regions for the assumed common mass scale m{sub s} and effective number N{sub s} of thermally excited sterile neutrino states. Our results are compatible with the existence of one or perhaps two sterile neutrinos, as suggested by LSND and MiniBooNE, if m{sub s} is in the sub-eV range.

  13. Maternal Acceptance: Its Contribution to Children's Favorable Perceptions of Discipline and Moral Identity.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Renee B; Gibbs, John C

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined the contribution of maternal acceptance or warmth to children's and adolescents' perceptions of discipline and formation of moral identity. The sample consisted of 93 male and female students from Grades 5, 8, and 10 and their mothers. Students completed measures pertaining to perceived maternal discipline practices and acceptance-rejection, as well as moral identity. A subsample of mothers reported on their accepting or rejecting actions toward their children. Children were more likely to feel accepted, if their mothers used inductive discipline (vs. power assertion and love withdrawal). Perceived acceptance was also related to more favorable discipline evaluations in certain respects. Specifically, inductive discipline recipients who felt accepted also evaluated induction as appropriate and responded to it with positive and guilt-related emotions. Power assertion was evaluated as appropriate among those children who did feel accepted. Finally, among inductive discipline recipients, those who felt accepted also reported higher moral identity.

  14. Recurrent DGCR8, DROSHA, and SIX Homeodomain Mutations in Favorable Histology Wilms Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Walz, Amy L.; Ooms, Ariadne; Gadd, Samantha; Gerhard, Daniela S.; Smith, Malcolm A.; Guidry Auvil, Jamie M.; Meerzaman, Daoud; Chen, Qing-Rong; Hsu, Chih Hao; Yan, Chunhua; Nguyen, Cu; Hu, Ying; Bowlby, Reanne; Brooks, Denise; Ma, Yussanne; Mungall, Andrew J.; Moore, Richard A.; Schein, Jacqueline; Marra, Marco A.; Huff, Vicki; Dome, Jeffrey S.; Chi, Yueh-Yun; Mullighan, Charles G.; Ma, Jing; Wheeler, David A.; Hampton, Oliver A.; Jafari, Nadereh; Ross, Nicole; Gastier-Foster, Julie M.; Perlman, Elizabeth J.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY We report the most common single nucleotide substitution/deletion mutations in Favorable Histology Wilms Tumors (FHWT) to occur within SIX1/2 (7% of 534 tumors) and microRNA processing genes (miRNAPG) DGCR8 and DROSHA (15% of 534 tumors). Comprehensive analysis of 77 FHWTs indicates that tumors with SIX1/2 and/or miRNAPG mutations show a pre-induction metanephric mesenchyme gene expression pattern and are significantly associated with both perilobar nephrogenic rests and 11p15 imprinting aberrations. Significantly decreased expression of mature Let-7a and the miR-200 family (responsible for mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition) in miRNAPG-mutant tumors is associated with an undifferentiated blastemal histology. The combination of SIX and miRNAPG mutations in the same tumor is associated with evidence of RAS activation and a higher rate of relapse and death. PMID:25670082

  15. Structural centrosome aberrations favor proliferation by abrogating microtubule-dependent tissue integrity of breast epithelial mammospheres

    PubMed Central

    Schnerch, D; Nigg, E A

    2016-01-01

    Structural centrosome aberrations are frequently observed in early stage carcinomas, but their role in malignant transformation is poorly understood. Here, we examined the impact of overexpression of Ninein-like protein (Nlp) on the architecture of polarized epithelia in three-dimensional mammospheres. When Nlp was overexpressed to levels resembling those seen in human tumors, it formed striking centrosome-related bodies (CRBs), which sequestered Ninein and affected the kinetics of microtubule (MT) nucleation and release. In turn, the profound reorganization of the MT cytoskeleton resulted in mislocalization of several adhesion and junction proteins as well as the tumor suppressor Scribble, resulting in the disruption of epithelial polarity, cell-cell interactions and mammosphere architecture. Remarkably, cells harboring Nlp-CRBs displayed an enhanced proliferative response to epidermal growth factor. These results demonstrate that structural centrosome aberrations cause not only the disruption of epithelial polarity but also favor overproliferation, two phenotypes typically associated with human carcinomas. PMID:26364601

  16. Constraining unparticle physics with C P violation in Cabibbo-favored decays of D mesons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ettefaghi, Mohammadmahdi; Moazzemi, Reza; Rousta, Mohsen

    2017-05-01

    According to the standard model, the Cabibbo-favored (CF) decays are C P conserved at tree level. Observation of any finite C P asymmetry can be received as a signal of new physics. In CF charm meson decays, D0→K-π+ and D+→Ks0π+, the following experimental values for their C P asymmetry are reported, respectively: (0.3 ±0.7 )% and (-0.41 ±0.09 )%. The value of the later can be attributed to the mixing of K0 and K0¯, however, its contribution is about (-0.332 ±0.006 )%. In this paper, we use these experimental results to constrain the unparticle stuff as a new physics which may contribute to these C P asymmetries.

  17. mTOR pathway activation is a favorable prognostic factor in human prostate adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Stelloo, Suzan; Sanders, Joyce; Nevedomskaya, Ekaterina; de Jong, Jeroen; Peters, Dennis; van Leenders, Geert J.L.H.; Jenster, Guido; Bergman, Andries M.; Zwart, Wilbert

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer patients with localized disease are treated with curative intent. However, the disease will recur in approximately 30% of patients with a high incidence of morbidity and mortality. Prognostic biomarkers are needed to identify patients with high risk of relapse. mTOR pathway activation is reported in prostate cancer, but clinical trials testing efficacy of mTOR inhibitors were unsuccessful. To explain this clinical observation, we studied the expression and prognostic impact of mTOR-S2448 phosphorylation in localized prostate carcinomas. mTOR-S2448 phosphorylation is indicative for an activated mTOR pathway in prostate cancer. Surprisingly, the mTOR signaling pathway is activated specifically in prostate cancer patients with a favorable outcome. Since tumors from poor-outcome patients have low levels of mTOR-S2448 phosphorylation, this may explain why mTOR inhibitors proved unsuccessful in prostate cancer trials. PMID:27096957

  18. Graphitic Nanocarbon-Selenium Cathode with Favorable Rate Capability for Li-Se Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuai-Feng; Wang, Wen-Peng; Xin, Sen; Ye, Huan; Yin, Ya-Xia; Guo, Yu-Guo

    2017-03-15

    A well-organized selenium/carbon nanosheets nanocomposite(Se/CNSs) is prepared by confining chain-like Sen molecules in hierarchically micromesoporous carbon nanosheets. A unique two-dimensional morphology and high graphitization degree of carbon nanosheets benefits fast Li(+)/e(-) access to the active Se, which guarantees a high utilization of Se during the(de)lithiation process. Besides, the chain-like Se molecules confined in the carbon matrix could alleviate the shuttle effect of polyselenides and promise a stable electrochemistry. Therefore, the resultant Se/CNSs delivers a highly reversible capacity, a long cycle life and favorable rate capabilities. Furthermore, a Li-Se pouch cell built from a metallic Li anode and the as-prepared Se/CNSs cathode exhibits an excellent electrochemical performance, demonstrating the potential of Se/CNSs in serving future energy storage devices with high energy density.

  19. High temperature favors elimination of toxin-producing Microcystis and degradation of microcystins by mixotrophic Ochromonas.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lu; Gu, Lei; Wei, Qian; Zhu, Xuexia; Wang, Jun; Wang, Xiaojun; Yang, Zhou

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the influence of temperature on the ability of the mixotrophic flagellate Ochromonas to eliminate a toxic Microcystis population and degrade microcystins. We exposed Microcystis to cultures with or without Ochromonas YZ1 at 20, 25, and 30 °C for 10 days. Results showed that increased temperature promoted the growth of Ochromonas YZ1 and Microcystis, with the latter achieving high abundance without grazing. With increased temperature, Ochromonas YZ1 clearance rate increased, and Microcystis populations were earlier eliminated. Importantly, Ochromonas YZ1 degraded both intracellular and extracellular microcystins by grazing effects. The reduction ratios of Microcystis abundances and microcystins were both approximately 100% after 6 days at high temperature. In addition, more microcystins were released outside at 20 °C than at the higher temperatures. Overall, this study showed that high temperature favors elimination of toxin-producing Microcystis and degradation of microcystins by mixotrophic Ochromonas.

  20. Teaching accreditation exams reveal grading biases favor women in male-dominated disciplines in France.

    PubMed

    Breda, Thomas; Hillion, Mélina

    2016-07-29

    Discrimination against women is seen as one of the possible causes behind their underrepresentation in certain STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) subjects. We show that this is not the case for the competitive exams used to recruit almost all French secondary and postsecondary teachers and professors. Comparisons of oral non-gender-blind tests with written gender-blind tests for about 100,000 individuals observed in 11 different fields over the period 2006-2013 reveal a bias in favor of women that is strongly increasing with the extent of a field's male-domination. This bias turns from 3 to 5 percentile ranks for men in literature and foreign languages to about 10 percentile ranks for women in math, physics, or philosophy. These findings have implications for the debate over what interventions are appropriate to increase the representation of women in fields in which they are currently underrepresented. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  1. The drive to ban the NOEC/LOEC in favor of ECx is misguided and misinformed.

    PubMed

    Green, John W; Springer, Timothy A; Staveley, Jane P

    2013-01-01

    Challenges to the use of the no observed effect concentration (NOEC) in ecotoxicology have appeared over the years, with a recent call for banning its use in favor of the x% effects concentration (ECx). This article presents an opposing view, providing reasons for the continued use of the NOEC, and for hypothesis testing in general. Although the use of ECx values is appropriate in many situations, there are numerous real-world examples where it is not suitable and offers no advantage over the use of hypothesis testing. These examples are presented with recommended data analysis techniques, illustrating the variety of statistical approaches that are meaningful in analyzing ecotoxicity data. Thoughtful consideration of study design and proper analysis and interpretation of the results will go further to advance the science of ecotoxicology than attempting to implement a blanket prohibition or endorsement of any single statistical approach.

  2. The experience of freedom in decisions - Questioning philosophical beliefs in favor of psychological determinants.

    PubMed

    Lau, Stephan; Hiemisch, Anette; Baumeister, Roy F

    2015-05-01

    Six experiments tested two competing models of subjective freedom during decision-making. The process model is mainly based on philosophical conceptions of free will and assumes that features of the process of choosing affect subjective feelings of freedom. In contrast, the outcome model predicts that subjective freedom is due to positive outcomes that can be expected or are achieved by a decision. Results heavily favored the outcome model over the process model. For example, participants felt freer when choosing between two equally good than two equally bad options. Process features including number of options, complexity of decision, uncertainty, having the option to defer the decision, conflict among reasons, and investing high effort in choosing generally had no or even negative effects on subjective freedom. In contrast, participants reported high freedom with good outcomes and low freedom with bad outcomes, and ease of deciding increased subjective freedom, consistent with the outcome model. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Ground water favorability and surficial geology of the Portland area, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prescott, Glenn C.

    1976-01-01

    This hydrologic atlas describes the surficial geology and groundwater resources of about 240 square miles in Cumberland County, Maine. The most productive aquifers are outwash and ice-contact deposits. Their locations and the most favorable areas for obtaining large yields from them are indicated on the map. The largest reported yield from a well in unconsolidated deposits is 100 gpm, but it is likely that in places as much as 500 gpm can be obtained from properly located and developed wells. Ground water is available to drilled wells in bedrock in sufficient quantity for domestic use. The average yield from bedrock wells is 11 gpm, the median yield is 5 gpm, and the maximum reported yield is 150 gpm. The quality of the water is generally good, although brackish or salty water is obtained by some wells on the coast. (Woodard-USGS)

  4. Is there a Relationship between Patient Satisfaction and Favorable Surgical Outcomes?

    PubMed Central

    Tevis, Sarah E.; Kennedy, Gregory D.; Kent, K. Craig

    2015-01-01

    Summary Satisfaction of patients with their health care is gaining importance as a measure of hospital quality due to public reporting of these values and an increasing connection between hospital reimbursement and scores on the current tool to measure satisfaction, the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) survey. We found that high hospital and surgical volume and low rates of risk-adjusted mortality are associated with high patient satisfaction. However, other favorable patient outcomes are not consistently associated with positive satisfaction scores on HCAHPS. Contributors to patients' perceptions of their care are likely multifactorial and not related just to outcomes traditionally assessed by surgeons or hospitals. Moving in a direction of patient centered care, with a focus on increased understanding and involvement of patients in the care process, will likely strengthen the relationship between surgical outcomes and patient satisfaction. PMID:26299501

  5. [Gitelman syndrome in pregnancy--a severe hypokalemia with favorable perinatal prognosis].

    PubMed

    Rušavý, Z; Hudec, A; Karbanová, J; Korečko, V; Janů, R; Kališ, V

    2012-10-01

    Gitelman syndrom is a rare congenital tubulopathy characterized by hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, metabolic alkalosis and hypocalciuria. We report a case of a 32-year-old patient admitted for asymptomatic hypokalemia and hypomagnesemia in the 30th week of gestation. A diagnosis of Gitelman syndrom was made and intravenous administration of potassium chloride in high doses combined with spironolactone was started. Despite intensive potassium supplementation (8 g/day), the serum potassium levels remained at the lower limit of normality throughout the pregnancy. The patient delivered a healthy female 2670 g/48 cm after labor induction in the 39th week of gestation. A summary of 22 so far published cases of Gitelman syndrome in pregnancy is presented. The analysis of published case studies suggests a need for ion supplementation, reduction of urinary potassium wasting, monitoring of fetal well-being and amniotic fluid levels. Pregnancy has a very favorable perinatal prognosis despite critical serum levels of potassium and magnesium throughout the pregnancy.

  6. Chromosomal Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    ... 150 babies is born with a chromosomal condition. Down syndrome is an example of a chromosomal condition. Because ... all pregnant women be offered prenatal tests for Down syndrome and other chromosomal conditions. A screening test is ...

  7. On- and off-grid operation of hybrid renewable power plants: When are the economics favorable?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrakopoulou, F.; Santana, D.

    2016-12-01

    Hybrid renewable energy conversion systems offer a good alternative to conventional systems in locations where the extension of the electrical grid is difficult or not economical or where the cost of electricity is high. However, stand-alone operation implies net energy output restrictions (limited to exclusively serve the energy demand of a region), capacity oversizing and large storage facilities. In interconnected areas, on the other hand, the operational restrictions of the power stations change significantly and the efficiencies and costs of renewable technologies become more favorable. In this paper, the operation of three main renewable technologies (CSP, PV and wind) is studied assuming both hybrid and individual operation for both autonomous and inter-connected operation. The case study used is a Mediterranean island of ca. 3,000 inhabitants. Each system is optimized to fully cover the energy demand of the community. In addition, in the on-grid operation cases, it is required that the annual energy generated from the renewable sources is net positive (i.e., the island generates at least as much energy as it uses). It is found that when connected to the grid, hybridization of more than one technology is not required to satisfy the energy demand, as expected. Each of the renewable technologies investigated can satisfy the annual energy demand individually, without significant complications. In addition, the cost of electricity generated with the three studied technologies drops significantly for on-grid applications, when compared to off-grid operation. However, when compared to business-as-usual scenarios in both the on- and off-grid cases, both investigated hybrid and single-technology renewable scenarios are found to be economically viable. A sensitivity analysis reveals the limits of the acceptable costs that make the technologies favorable when compared to conventional alternatives.

  8. Protein phosphatase methylesterase-1 (PME-1) expression predicts a favorable clinical outcome in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Amanpreet; Elzagheid, Adam; Birkman, Eva-Maria; Avoranta, Tuulia; Kytölä, Ville; Korkeila, Eija; Syrjänen, Kari; Westermarck, Jukka; Sundström, Jari

    2015-12-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) accounts for high mortality. So far, there is lack of markers capable of predicting which patients are at risk of aggressive course of the disease. Protein phosphatase-2A (PP2A) inhibitor proteins have recently gained interest as markers of more aggressive disease in certain cancers. Here, we report the role of PP2A inhibitor PME-1 in CRC. PME-1 expression was assessed from a rectal cancer patient cohort by immunohistochemistry, and correlations were performed for various clinicopathological variables and patient survival. Rectal cancer patients with higher cytoplasmic PME-1 protein expression (above median) had less recurrences (P = 0.003, n = 195) and better disease-free survival (DFS) than the patients with low cytoplasmic PME-1 protein expression (below median). Analysis of PPME-1 mRNA expression from TCGA dataset of colon and rectal adenocarcinoma (COADREAD) patient cohort confirmed high PPME1 expression as an independent protective factor predicting favorable overall survival (OS) (P = 0.005, n = 396) compared to patients with low PPME1 expression. CRC cell lines were used to study the effect of PME-1 knockdown by siRNA on cell survival. Contrary to other cancer types, PME-1 inhibition in CRC cell lines did not reduce the viability of cells or the expression of active phosphorylated AKT and ERK proteins. In conclusion, PME-1 expression predicts for a favorable outcome of CRC patients. The unexpected role of PME-1 in CRC in contrast with the oncogenic role of PP2A inhibitor proteins in other malignancies warrants further studies of cancer-specific function for each of these proteins.

  9. Metastasis of circulating tumor cells: Favorable soil or suitable biomechanics, or both?

    PubMed Central

    Azevedo, Ana Sofia; Follain, Gautier; Patthabhiraman, Shankar; Harlepp, Sébastien; Goetz, Jacky G

    2015-01-01

    Metastasis is the end product of a multistep process where cancer cells disseminate and home themselves in distant organs. Tumor cell extravasation is a rare, inefficient and transient event in nature and makes its studies very difficult. Noteworthy, little is known about how cancer cells arrest, adhere and pass through the endothelium of capillaries. Moreover, the key events driving metastatic growth in specific organs are not well understood. Thus, although metastasis is the leading cause of cancer-related death, how cancer cells acquire their abilities to colonize distant organs and why they do so in specific locations remain central questions in the understanding of this deadly disease. In this review, we would like to confront 2 concepts explaining the efficiency and location of metastatic secondary tumors. While the “seed and soil” hypothesis states that metastasis occurs at sites where the local microenvironment is favorable, the “mechanical” concept argues that metastatic seeding occurs at sites of optimal flow patterns. In addition, recent evidence suggests that the primary event driving tumor cell arrest before extravasation is mostly controlled by blood circulation patterns as well as mechanical cues during the process of extravasation. In conclusion, the organ tropism displayed by cancer cells during metastatic colonization is a multi-step process, which is regulated by the delivery and survival of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) through blood circulation, the ability of these CTCs to adhere and cross the physical barrier imposed by the endothelium and finally by the suitability of the soil to favor growth of secondary tumors. PMID:26312653

  10. Favorable effect of aerobic exercise on arterial pressure and aortic pulse wave velocity during stress testing.

    PubMed

    Milatz, Florian; Ketelhut, Sascha; Ketelhut, Sascha; Ketelhut, Reinhard G

    2015-07-01

    Increased central pulse wave velocity is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The favorable influence of exercise on arterial stiffness (AS) and blood pressure (BP) has been reported exclusively at rest. The present study investigated the influence of a single bout of acute cycling on AS and BP during recovery and, moreover, during cold pressor stress testing. 32 healthy men (33.7 ± 8 years, BMI 24 ± 2.5 kg/m²) performed a 60 minute endurance exercise on a bicycle ergometer (45 % VO2max). Before and after exercise aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV) as well as central and peripheral BP were measured non-invasively at rest and at the end of a 2 minute cold pressor test (CPT). Even after 60 minutes of recovery aPWV (- 0.22 ± 0.3 m / sec) was significantly reduced (p < 0.01). Exercise decreased peripheral (- 8 ± 7 mmHg) and central (- 7 ± 8 mmHg) systolic BP as well as peripheral (- 3 ± 5 mmHg) and central (- 4 ± 7 mmHg) diastolic BP (p < 0.01). In comparison to measurements during CPT pre-exercise, there was a significant reduction in aPWV (- 0.19 ± 0.3 m / sec), peripheral (- 6 ± 10 mmHg) and central (- 5 ± 8 mmHg) systolic BP as well as peripheral (- 3 ± 6 mmHg) and central (- 3 ± 6 mmHg) diastolic BP during CPT after exercise (p < 0.01). The present study suggests that acute endurance exercise leads not only to decreased BP but even more reduces aPWV as a measure of AS even after 60 minutes of recovery. In particular, the investigation provides evidence that acute moderate-intensity exercise has a favorable effect on BP and aPWV during stress testing.

  11. Surgeons can favorably influence career choices and goals for students interested in careers in medicine.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Jonathan; Al-Saadi, Sam; Boyle, Robert; Villadolid, Desireé; Ross, Sharona; Murr, Michele; Rosemurgy, Alexander

    2009-07-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the impact of an academic summer research, shadowing, and mentorship program on students interested in medicine and surgery. Forty-four (92%) of 48 participants of a summer research, shadowing, and mentorship program returned blinded questionnaires that focused on the program's impact on their scholarly skills, career choices, and goals. The program interfaced academic surgeons with students interested in careers in medicine and enabled students to participate in research projects, attend daily lectures, and shadow physicians in the operating room, clinic, and hospital. Proficiency in scholarly skills, before and after the program, was scored by the participants using a Likert scale (0 = none to 10 = proficient). Ninety-three percent of participants were in or had completed college; only 7% had advanced degrees. With the program, proficiency in all categories assessed improved considerably, including medical terminology, abstract writing, statistical analysis, graph and table construction, article writing, and video production. During the last 5 years, participants coauthored 112 national presentations (29 video presentations), 46 published abstracts, and 57 peer-reviewed published articles. Ninety-two percent developed more favorable opinions of a career in medicine; 8% believed the experience deterred them from a career in medicine because of lifestyle and studious demands. Seventy-seven percent believed the program promoted a career in surgery; 82% believed it elevated their goals to become leaders in American medicine. Shadowing opportunities, mentoring, and didactic teaching of scholarly skills for college and graduate students foster academic productivity and elevation of career goals. Academic surgeons can favorably influence career choices and goals for students interested in careers in medicine and surgery.

  12. Dynamic telecytology compares favorably to rapid onsite evaluation of endoscopic ultrasound fine needle aspirates

    PubMed Central

    Buxbaum, James L.; Eloubeidi, Mohamad A.; Lane, Christianne J.; Varadarajulu, Shyam; Linder, Ami; Crowe, Amanda E.; Jhala, Darshana; Jhala, Nirag C.; Crowe, David R.; Eltoum, Isam A.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Rapid onsite evaluation (ROSE) has been demonstrated to correlate with final cytologic interpretations and improves the diagnostic yield of EUS-FNA, however, its availability is variable across centers. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate whether remote telecytology can substitute for ROSE. Methods Consecutive patients who underwent EUS-FNA for diverse indications at a high volume referral center were enrolled All samples were prospectively evaluated by three methods. ROSE was performed by a cytopathologist in the procedure room; simultaneously dynamic telecytology was done by a different cytopathologist in a remote location at our institution. The third method, final cytologic interpretation in the laboratory, was the gold standard. Telecytology was performed using an Olympus microscope system (BX) which broadcasts live images over the internet. Accuracy of telecytology and agreement with other methods were the principle outcome measurements. Results Twenty-five consecutive samples were obtained from participants 40–87 years (median age =63, 48% male). There was 88% agreement between telecytology and final cytology (p < 0.001) and 92% agreement between ROSE and final cytology (p <0.001). There was consistency between telecytology and ROSE (p-value for McNemar’s χ2 = 1.0). Cohen’s kappa for agreement for telecytology and ROSE was 0.80 (SE = 0.11), confirming favorable correlation. Conclusion Dynamic telecytology compares favorably to ROSE in the assessment of EUS acquired fine needle aspirates. If confirmed by larger trials, this system might obviate the need for onsite interpretation of EUS-FNA specimens. PMID:22729624

  13. Does community-based conservation shape favorable attitudes among locals? an empirical study from nepal.

    PubMed

    Mehta, J N; Heinen, J T

    2001-08-01

    Like many developing countries, Nepal has adopted a community-based conservation (CBC) approach in recent years to manage its protected areas mainly in response to poor park-people relations. Among other things, under this approach the government has created new "people-oriented" conservation areas, formed and devolved legal authority to grassroots-level institutions to manage local resources, fostered infrastructure development, promoted tourism, and provided income-generating trainings to local people. Of interest to policy-makers and resource managers in Nepal and worldwide is whether this approach to conservation leads to improved attitudes on the part of local people. It is also important to know if personal costs and benefits associated with various intervention programs, and socioeconomic and demographic characteristics influence these attitudes. We explore these questions by looking at the experiences in Annapurna and Makalu-Barun Conservation Areas, Nepal, which have largely adopted a CBC approach in policy formulation, planning, and management. The research was conducted during 1996 and 1997; the data collection methods included random household questionnaire surveys, informal interviews, and review of official records and published literature. The results indicated that the majority of local people held favorable attitudes toward these conservation areas. Logistic regression results revealed that participation in training, benefit from tourism, wildlife depredation issue, ethnicity, gender, and education level were the significant predictors of local attitudes in one or the other conservation area. We conclude that the CBC approach has potential to shape favorable local attitudes and that these attitudes will be mediated by some personal attributes.

  14. Pre and Post-copulatory Selection Favor Similar Genital Phenotypes in the Male Broad Horned Beetle

    PubMed Central

    House, Clarissa M.; Sharma, M. D.; Okada, Kensuke; Hosken, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Sexual selection can operate before and after copulation and the same or different trait(s) can be targeted during these episodes of selection. The direction and form of sexual selection imposed on characters prior to mating has been relatively well described, but the same is not true after copulation. In general, when male–male competition and female choice favor the same traits then there is the expectation of reinforcing selection on male sexual traits that improve competitiveness before and after copulation. However, when male–male competition overrides pre-copulatory choice then the opposite could be true. With respect to studies of selection on genitalia there is good evidence that male genital morphology influences mating and fertilization success. However, whether genital morphology affects reproductive success in more than one context (i.e., mating versus fertilization success) is largely unknown. Here we use multivariate analysis to estimate linear and nonlinear selection on male body size and genital morphology in the flour beetle Gnatocerus cornutus, simulated in a non-competitive (i.e., monogamous) setting. This analysis estimates the form of selection on multiple traits and typically, linear (directional) selection is easiest to detect, while nonlinear selection is more complex and can be stabilizing, disruptive, or correlational. We find that mating generates stabilizing selection on male body size and genitalia, and fertilization causes a blend of directional and stabilizing selection. Differences in the form of selection across these bouts of selection result from a significant alteration of nonlinear selection on body size and a marginally significant difference in nonlinear selection on a component of genital shape. This suggests that both bouts of selection favor similar genital phenotypes, whereas the strong stabilizing selection imposed on male body size during mate acquisition is weak during fertilization. PMID:27371390

  15. HLA Class II Antigen Expression in Colorectal Carcinoma Tumors as a Favorable Prognostic Marker12

    PubMed Central

    Sconocchia, Giuseppe; Eppenberger-Castori, Serenella; Zlobec, Inti; Karamitopoulou, Eva; Arriga, Roberto; Coppola, Andrea; Caratelli, Sara; Spagnoli, Giulio Cesare; Lauro, Davide; Lugli, Alessandro; Han, Junyi; Iezzi, Giandomenica; Ferrone, Cristina; Ferlosio, Amedeo; Tornillo, Luigi; Droeser, Raoul; Rossi, Piero; Attanasio, Antonio; Ferrone, Soldano; Terracciano, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the frequency of HLA class II antigen expression in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) tumors, its association with the clinical course of the disease, and the underlying mechanism(s). Two tissue microarrays constructed with 220 and 778 CRC tumors were stained with HLA-DR, DQ, and DP antigen-specific monoclonal antibody LGII-612.14, using the immunoperoxidase staining technique. The immunohistochemical staining results were correlated with the clinical course of the disease. The functional role of HLA class II antigens expressed on CRC cells was analyzed by investigating their in vitro interactions with immune cells. HLA class II antigens were expressed in about 25% of the 220 and 21% of the 778 tumors analyzed with an overall frequency of 23%. HLA class II antigens were detected in 19% of colorectal adenomas. Importantly, the percentage of stained cells and the staining intensity were significantly lower than those detected in CRC tumors. However, HLA class II antigen staining was weakly detected only in 5.4% of 37 normal mucosa tissues. HLA class II antigen expression was associated with a favorable clinical course of the disease. In vitro stimulation with interferon gamma (IFNγ) induced HLA class II antigen expression on two of the four CRC cell lines tested. HLA class II antigen expression on CRC cells triggered interleukin-1β (IL-1β) production by resting monocytes. HLA class II antigen expression in CRC tumors is a favorable prognostic marker. This association may reflect stimulation of IL-1β production by monocytes. PMID:24563618

  16. Characterization of a novel N-acetylneuraminic acid lyase favoring N-acetylneuraminic acid synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Wenyan; Sun, Wujin; Feng, Jinmei; Song, Tianshun; Zhang, Dalu; Ouyang, Pingkai; Gu, Zhen; Xie, Jingjing

    2015-01-01

    N-Acetylneuraminic acid lyase (NAL, E.C. number 4.1.3.3) is a Class I aldolase that catalyzes the reversible aldol cleavage of N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) from pyruvate and N-acetyl-D-mannosamine (ManNAc). Due to the equilibrium favoring Neu5Ac cleavage, the enzyme catalyzes the rate-limiting step of two biocatalytic reactions producing Neu5Ac in industry. We report the biochemical characterization of a novel NAL from a “GRAS” (General recognized as safe) strain C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 (CgNal). Compared to all previously reported NALs, CgNal exhibited the lowest kcat/Km value for Neu5Ac and highest kcat/Km values for ManNAc and pyruvate, which makes CgNal favor Neu5Ac synthesis the most. The recombinant CgNal reached the highest expression level (480 mg/L culture), and the highest reported yield of Neu5Ac was achieved (194 g/L, 0.63 M). All these unique properties make CgNal a promising biocatalyst for industrial Neu5Ac biosynthesis. Additionally, although showing the best Neu5Ac synthesis activity among the NAL family, CgNal is more related to dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHDPS) by phylogenetic analysis. The activities of CgNal towards both NAL's and DHDPS' substrates are fairly high, which indicates CgNal a bi-functional enzyme. The sequence analysis suggests that CgNal might have adopted a unique set of residues for substrates recognition. PMID:25799411

  17. Computation assisted design of favored composition for ternary Mg-Cu-Y metallic glass formation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Q; Li, J H; Liu, B X

    2015-06-14

    With the aid of ab initio calculations, a realistic interatomic potential was constructed for the Mg-Cu-Y ternary system under the proposed formalism of smoothed and long-range second-moment approximation of tight-binding. Taking the potential as the starting base, an atomistic computation/simulation route was developed for designing favored and optimized compositions for Mg-Cu-Y metallic glass formation. Simulations revealed that the physical origin of metallic glass formation is the collapse of crystalline lattice when solute concentration exceeds a critical value, thus leading to predict a hexagonal region in the Mg-Cu-Y composition triangle, within which metallic glass formation is energetically favored. It is proposed that the hexagonal region can be defined as the intrinsic glass formation region, or quantitative glass formation ability of the system. Inside the hexagonal region, the driving force for formation of each specific glassy alloy was further calculated and correlated with its forming ability in practice. Calculations pinpointed the optimized stoichiometry in the Mg-Cu-Y system to be Mg64Cu16Y20, at which the formation driving force reaches its maximum, suggesting that metallic glasses designed to have compositions around Mg64Cu16Y20 are most stable or easiest to obtain. The predictions derived directly from the atomistic simulations are supported by experimental observations reported so far in the literature. Furthermore, Honeycutt-Anderson analysis indicated that pentagonal bipyramids (although not aggregating to form icosahedra) dominate in the local structure of the Mg-Cu-Y metallic glasses. A microscopic picture of the medium-range packing can then be described as an extended network of the pentagonal bipyramids, entangled with the fourfold and sixfold disclination lines, jointly fulfilling the space of the metallic glasses.

  18. Observing end-state comfort favorable actions does not modulate action plan recall

    PubMed Central

    Seegelke, Christian

    2015-01-01

    A large corpus of work demonstrates that observing other people’s actions activates corresponding motor representations in the observer by running an internal simulation of the observed action. Recent evidence suggests that recalled action plans reflect a plan of how the observer would execute that action (based on the specific motor representation) rather than a plan of the actually observed action (based on the visual representation). This study examined whether people would recall an action plan based on a visual representation if the observed movement is biomechanically favorable for their own subsequent action. Participants performed an object manipulation task alongside a confederate. In the intra-individual task, the participant (or confederate) transported a plunger from an outer platform of fixed height to a center target platform located at different heights (home-to-target move), and then the same person transported the plunger back to the outer platform (target-back-to-home move). In the inter-individual task, the sequence was split between the two persons such that the participant (or confederate) performed the home-to-target move and the other person performed the target-back-to-home move. Importantly, the confederate always grasped the plunger at the same height. This grasp height was designated such that if participants would copy the action (i.e., grasp the object at the same height) it would place the participant’s arm in a comfortable position at the end of the target-back-to-home move (i.e., end-state comfort). Results show that participants’ grasp height was inversely related to center target height and similar regardless of direction (home-to-target vs. target-back-to-home move) and task (intra- vs. inter-individual). In addition, during the inter-individual task, participant’s target-back-to-home grasp height was correlated with their own, but not with the confederate’s grasp height during the home-to-target moves. These findings

  19. Observing end-state comfort favorable actions does not modulate action plan recall.

    PubMed

    Seegelke, Christian

    2015-01-01

    A large corpus of work demonstrates that observing other people's actions activates corresponding motor representations in the observer by running an internal simulation of the observed action. Recent evidence suggests that recalled action plans reflect a plan of how the observer would execute that action (based on the specific motor representation) rather than a plan of the actually observed action (based on the visual representation). This study examined whether people would recall an action plan based on a visual representation if the observed movement is biomechanically favorable for their own subsequent action. Participants performed an object manipulation task alongside a confederate. In the intra-individual task, the participant (or confederate) transported a plunger from an outer platform of fixed height to a center target platform located at different heights (home-to-target move), and then the same person transported the plunger back to the outer platform (target-back-to-home move). In the inter-individual task, the sequence was split between the two persons such that the participant (or confederate) performed the home-to-target move and the other person performed the target-back-to-home move. Importantly, the confederate always grasped the plunger at the same height. This grasp height was designated such that if participants would copy the action (i.e., grasp the object at the same height) it would place the participant's arm in a comfortable position at the end of the target-back-to-home move (i.e., end-state comfort). Results show that participants' grasp height was inversely related to center target height and similar regardless of direction (home-to-target vs. target-back-to-home move) and task (intra- vs. inter-individual). In addition, during the inter-individual task, participant's target-back-to-home grasp height was correlated with their own, but not with the confederate's grasp height during the home-to-target moves. These findings provide

  20. Understanding and Mitigating the Effects of Stable Dodecahydro- closo -dodecaborate Intermediates on Hydrogen-Storage Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    White, James L.; Newhouse, Rebecca J.; Zhang, Jin Z.; Udovic, Terrence J.; Stavila, Vitalie

    2016-10-25

    Alkali metal borohydrides can reversibly store hydrogen; however, the materials display poor cyclability, often times linked to occurrence of stable closo-polyborate intermediate species. In an effort to understand the role of such intermediates on the hydrogen storage properties of metal borohydrides, several alkali metal dodecahydro-closo-dodecaborate salts were isolated in anhydrous form and characterized by diffraction and spectroscopic techniques. Mixtures of Li2B12H12, Na2B12H12, and K2B12H12 with the corresponding alkali metal hydrides were subjected to hydrogenation conditions known to favor partial or full reversibility in metal borohydrides. The stoichiometric mixtures of MH and M2B12H12 salts form the corresponding metal borohydrides MBH4 (M=Li, Na, K) in almost quantitative yield at 100 MPa H2 and 500 °C. In addition, stoichiometric mixtures of Li2B12H12 and MgH2 were found to form MgB2 at 500 °C and above upon desorption in vacuum. The two destabilization strategies outlined above suggest that metal polyhydro-closo-polyborate species can be converted into the corresponding metal borohydrides or borides, albeit under rather harsh conditions of hydrogen pressure and temperature.

  1. AMPKα1 deficiency suppresses brown adipogenesis in favor of fibrogenesis during brown adipose tissue development.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Junxing; Yang, Qiyuan; Zhang, Lupei; Liang, Xingwei; Sun, Xiaofei; Wang, Bo; Chen, Yanting; Zhu, Meijun; Du, Min

    2017-09-16

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) dissipates energy for thermogenesis which reduces or prevents obesity and metabolic dysfunction. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a master regulator of energy metabolism and its activity is inhibited in the developing BAT due to obesity. We previously found that AMPK is required for brown fat development and thermogenic function, but the non-brown adipogenic differentiation of progenitor cells due to AMPKα1 deficiency has not been defined. We found that, in vivo, the thermogenic capacity and morphology of BAT were compromised due to AMPK deficiency, which was correlated with decreased progenitor density in BAT. In addition, the expression of fibrogenic markers was higher in AMPK deficient compared to wild-type mice. Furthermore, we transplanted AMPKα1 wild-type (WT) and floxed BAT into the same recipient mice; following tamoxifen induced AMPKα1 knockout in floxed BAT, the fibrogenesis was enhanced compared to WT mice. Taken together, our data demonstrated that AMPKα1 deficiency suppressed brown adipogenesis in favor of fibrogenesis during BAT development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Small-Molecule Anticonvulsant Agents with Potent in vitro Neuroprotection and Favorable Drug-like Properties

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Garry R.; Brenneman, Douglas E.; Zhang, Yan; Du, Yanming; Reitz, Allen B.

    2014-01-01

    Severe seizure activity is associated with reoccurring cycles of excitotoxicity and oxidative stress that result in progressive neuronal damage and death. Intervention with these pathological processes is a compelling disease-modifying strategy for the treatment of seizure disorders. We have optimized a series of small molecules for neuroprotective and anticonvulsant activity as well as altered their physical properties to address potential metabolic liabilities, to improve CNS penetration and to prolong the duration of action in vivo. Utilizing phenotypic screening of hippocampal cultures with nutrient medium depleted of antioxidants as a disease model, cell death and decreased neuronal viability produced by acute treatment with glutamate or hydrogen peroxide were prevented. Modifications to our previously reported proof of concept compounds have resulted in a lead which has full neuroprotective action at < 1 nM and antiseizure activity across six animal models, including the kindled rat, and displays excellent pharmacokinetics including high exposure to the brain. These modifications have also eliminated the requirement for a chiral molecule, removing the possibility of racemization and making large scale synthesis more easily accessible. These studies strengthen our earlier findings which indicate that potent, multifunctional neuroprotective anticonvulsants are feasible within a single molecular entity which also possesses favorable CNS-active drug properties in vitro and in vivo. PMID:24277343

  3. Femtomolar inhibitors bind to 5'-methylthioadenosine nucleosidases with favorable enthalpy and entropy.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Keisha; Haapalainen, Antti M; Burgos, Emmanuel S; Evans, Gary B; Tyler, Peter C; Gulab, Shivali; Guan, Rong; Schramm, Vern L

    2012-09-25

    5'-Methylthioadenosine/S-adenosylhomocysteine nucleosidase (MTAN) catalyzes the hydrolytic cleavage of adenine from methylthioadenosine (MTA). Inhibitor design and synthesis informed by transition state analysis have developed femtomolar inhibitors for MTANs, among the most powerful known noncovalent enzyme inhibitors. Thermodynamic analyses of the inhibitor binding reveals a combination of highly favorable contributions from enthalpic (-24.7 to -4.0 kcal mol(-1)) and entropic (-10.0 to 6.4 kcal mol(-1)) interactions. Inhibitor binding to similar MTANs from different bacterial species gave distinct energetic contributions from similar catalytic sites. Thus, binding of four transition state analogues to EcMTAN and SeMTAN is driven primarily by enthalpy, while binding to VcMTAN is driven primarily by entropy. Human MTA phosphorylase (hMTAP) has a transition state structure closely related to that of the bacterial MTANs, and it binds tightly to some of the same transition state analogues. However, the thermodynamic signature of binding of an inhibitor to hMTAP differs completely from that with MTANs. We conclude that factors other than first-sphere catalytic residue contacts contribute to binding of inhibitors because the thermodynamic signature differs between bacterial species of the same enzyme.

  4. The multiscale factors favorable for a persistent heavy rain event over Hainan Island in October 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huijie; Sun, Jianhua; Zhao, Sixiong; Wei, Jie

    2016-06-01

    A case study is presented of the multiscale characteristics that produced the record-breaking persistent heavy rainfall event (PHRE) over Hainan Island, northern South China Sea (SCS), in autumn 2010. The study documents several key weather systems, from planetary scale to mesoscale, that contributed to the extreme rainfall during this event. The main findings of this study are as follows. First, the convectively active phase of the MJO was favorable for the establishment of a cyclonic circulation and the northward expansion of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). The active disturbances in the northward ITCZ helped direct abundant moisture from adjacent oceans towards Hainan Island continuously throughout the event, where it interacted with cold air from the midlatitudes and caused heavy rain. Second, the 8-day-long PHRE can be divided into three processes according to different synoptic systems: peripheral cloud clusters of a tropical depression-type disturbance over the central SCS in process 1; interactions between the abnormally far north ITCZ and the invading cold air in process 2; and the newly formed tropical depression near Hainan Island in process 3. In the relatively stable synoptic background of each process, meso- α- and meso- β-scale cloud clusters repeatedly traveled along the same path to Hainan Island. Finally, based on these analyses, a conceptual model is proposed for this type of PHRE in autumn over the northern SCS, which demonstrates the influences of multiscale systems.

  5. Anthropogenic N Deposition Slows Decay by Favoring Bacterial Metabolism: Insights from Metagenomic Analyses

    DOE PAGES

    Freedman, Zachary B.; Upchurch, Rima A.; Zak, Donald R.; ...

    2016-03-02

    Litter decomposition is an enzymatically-complex process that is mediated by a diverse assemblage of saprophytic microorganisms. It is a globally important biogeochemical process that can be suppressed by anthropogenic N deposition. In a northern hardwood forest ecosystem located in Michigan, USA, 20 years of experimentally increased atmospheric N deposition has reduced forest floor decay and increased soil C storage. Here, we paired extracellular enzyme assays with shotgun metagenomics to assess if anthropogenic N deposition has altered the functional potential of microbial communities inhabiting decaying forest floor. Experimental N deposition significantly reduced the activity of extracellular enzymes mediating plant cell wallmore » decay, which occurred concurrently with changes in the relative abundance of metagenomic functional gene pathways mediating the metabolism of carbohydrates, aromatic compounds, as well as microbial respiration. Moreover, experimental N deposition increased the relative abundance of 50 of the 60 gene pathways, the majority of which were associated with saprotrophic bacteria. Conversely, the relative abundance and composition of fungal genes mediating the metabolism of plant litter was not affected by experimental N deposition. Future rates of atmospheric N deposition have favored saprotrophic soil bacteria, whereas the metabolic potential of saprotrophic fungi appears resilient to this agent of environmental change. Results presented here provide evidence that changes in the functional capacity of saprotrophic soil microorganisms mediate how anthropogenic N deposition increases C storage in soil.« less

  6. Anthropogenic N Deposition Slows Decay by Favoring Bacterial Metabolism: Insights from Metagenomic Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Freedman, Zachary B.; Upchurch, Rima A.; Zak, Donald R.; Cline, Lauren C.

    2016-03-02

    Litter decomposition is an enzymatically-complex process that is mediated by a diverse assemblage of saprophytic microorganisms. It is a globally important biogeochemical process that can be suppressed by anthropogenic N deposition. In a northern hardwood forest ecosystem located in Michigan, USA, 20 years of experimentally increased atmospheric N deposition has reduced forest floor decay and increased soil C storage. Here, we paired extracellular enzyme assays with shotgun metagenomics to assess if anthropogenic N deposition has altered the functional potential of microbial communities inhabiting decaying forest floor. Experimental N deposition significantly reduced the activity of extracellular enzymes mediating plant cell wall decay, which occurred concurrently with changes in the relative abundance of metagenomic functional gene pathways mediating the metabolism of carbohydrates, aromatic compounds, as well as microbial respiration. Moreover, experimental N deposition increased the relative abundance of 50 of the 60 gene pathways, the majority of which were associated with saprotrophic bacteria. Conversely, the relative abundance and composition of fungal genes mediating the metabolism of plant litter was not affected by experimental N deposition. Future rates of atmospheric N deposition have favored saprotrophic soil bacteria, whereas the metabolic potential of saprotrophic fungi appears resilient to this agent of environmental change. Results presented here provide evidence that changes in the functional capacity of saprotrophic soil microorganisms mediate how anthropogenic N deposition increases C storage in soil.

  7. Fluorescent Pseudomonas Strains with only Few Plant-Beneficial Properties Are Favored in the Maize Rhizosphere

    PubMed Central

    Vacheron, Jordan; Moënne-Loccoz, Yvan; Dubost, Audrey; Gonçalves-Martins, Maximilien; Muller, Daniel; Prigent-Combaret, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) enhance plant health and growth using a variety of traits. Effective PGPR strains typically exhibit multiple plant-beneficial properties, but whether they are better adapted to the rhizosphere than PGPR strains with fewer plant-beneficial properties is unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that strains with higher numbers of plant-beneficial properties would be preferentially selected by plant roots. To this end, the co-occurrence of 18 properties involved in enhanced plant nutrition, plant hormone modulation, or pathogen inhibition was analyzed by molecular and biochemical methods in a collection of maize rhizosphere and bulk soil isolates of fluorescent Pseudomonas. Twelve plant-beneficial properties were found among the 698 isolates. Contrarily to expectation, maize preferentially selected pseudomonads with low numbers of plant-beneficial properties (up to five). This selection was not due to the predominance of strains with specific assortments of these properties, or with specific taxonomic status. Therefore, the occurrence of only few plant-beneficial properties appeared favorable for root colonization by pseudomonads. PMID:27610110

  8. Malignant fibrous histiocytoma: Database review suggests a favorable prognosis in the head and neck.

    PubMed

    Borucki, Robert B; Neskey, David M; Lentsch, Eric J

    2017-10-08

    The malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) is the most common soft tissue sarcoma of the head and neck. Currently, most of the data on this tumor relies on small retrospective studies. The objective of this study is to use the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database to compare characteristics of this tumor based on location to better understand its prognosis in the head and neck region. This article represents the largest study analyzing prognosis of this tumor in the head and neck to date. Retrospective analysis of SEER database. Using the SEER database, 395 patients with MFH of the head and neck were compared with 3,968 patients with MFH of the trunk and extremities. Disease-specific survival was carried out comparing these two cohorts, as well as univariate and multivariate analysis to determine hazard ratios. Head and neck MFH had a significantly higher disease-specific survival compared with trunk and extremity disease. However, head and neck tumors were more frequently a smaller size (P < .0001) and lower grade (P < .0001). Larger tumors and grade III and IV tumors conferred a worse prognosis (P < .0001). Head and neck malignant fibrous histiocytoma presents at a smaller size and lower grade, likely due to earlier presentation in this region. Because of this, head and neck malignant fibrous histiocytoma represents a more favorable survival prognosis compared with trunk and extremity disease. 4. Laryngoscope, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  9. Heightened exposure to parasites favors the evolution of immunity in brood parasitic cowbirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hahn, Caldwell; Reisen, William K.

    2011-01-01

    Immunologists and evolutionary biologists are interested in how the immune system evolves to fit an ecological niche. We studied the relationship between exposure to parasites and strength of immunity by investigating the response of two species of New World cowbirds (genus Molothrus, Icteridae), obligate brood parasites with contrasting life history strategies, to experimental arboviral infection. The South American shiny cowbird (M. bonariensis) is an extreme host-generalist that lays its eggs in the nests of >225 different avian species. The Central American bronzed cowbird (M. aeneus) is a relative host-specialist that lays its eggs preferentially in the nests of approximately 12 orioles in a single sister genus. West Nile virus provided a strong challenge and delineated immune differences between these species. The extreme host-generalist shiny cowbird, like the North American host-generalist, the brown-headed cowbird, showed significantly lower viremia to three arboviruses than related icterid species that were not brood parasites. The bronzed cowbird showed intermediate viremia. These findings support the interpretation that repeated exposure to a high diversity of parasites favors the evolution of enhanced immunity in brood parasitic cowbirds and makes them useful models for future studies of innate immunity.

  10. Aerosol deposition favors red tide phytoplankton in the East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackey, K. R.; Chien, C.; Chen, Y.; Glover, D. M.; Paytan, A.

    2013-12-01

    Chinese marginal seas support vast fisheries and vital economies, but their productivity is threatened by eutrophication from runoff and atmospheric deposition. The East China Sea is inundated with nitrogen from the Yangtze River and anthropogenic emissions, leading to elevated N:P ratios. We show that aerosol additions approximating one week of moderate deposition to offshore waters favor the growth of red tide phytoplankton, such as Skeletonema costatum, by providing nutrients and trace metals (iron and zinc) needed for growth. In contrast toxin-producing Pseudonitzchia does not benefit from aerosols in this region, possibly due to its preference for lower N:P ratios. A dose-dependent toxic response was observed in Synechococcus at high aerosol loads approximating a week of heavy deposition in the region. In contrast, phytoplankton growth at an onshore station was light limited, and aerosol additions did not have an appreciable effect on phytoplankton growth. Aerosol and chlorophyll observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite have the potential to explore the effect of aerosols on phytoplankton blooms over longer time scales and seasons. This study shows the potential for aerosols to control N:P ratios in offshore waters and to shape the phytoplankton community through fertilization and toxicity, contributing to the occurrence of red tides.

  11. Platelet count recovery after intravenous immunoglobulin predicts a favorable outcome in children with immune thrombocytopenia

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Mi Hong; Kim, Sung Jin; Ahn, Hyo Seop

    2016-01-01

    Background Childhood immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is a common acquired bleeding disorder. Even though most children recover, either spontaneously or with therapy, 10-20% of newly diagnosed ITP cases have a chronic course beyond 12 months. This study evaluated whether clinical and laboratory findings can predict the response to intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and progression to persistent or chronic ITP in children. Methods During the period between March 2003 and June 2015, we retrospectively analyzed 72 children, newly diagnosed with ITP, who received IVIG treatment. Peripheral blood counts were obtained at diagnosis and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after IVIG treatment. Results After 6 months of IVIG treatment, 14 of 72 patients (19.4%) had persistent ITP, and after 12 months, 7 of 40 patients (17.5%) had chronic ITP. Age at diagnosis, gender, history of viral infection, or vaccination before disease onset were not statistically correlated with platelet recovery at 6 and 12 months. However, a platelet count recovery of ≥100×103/µL at 1 and 3 months was significantly correlated with platelet recovery at 6 (P<0.001 and P<0.001, respectively) and 12 (P=0.007 and P=0.004, respectively) months. Conclusion This study demonstrated that early platelet count recovery, at 1 and 3 months after IVIG treatment, predicts a short disease duration and a favorable outcome in children with newly diagnosed ITP. Further investigation in a larger group of patients is warranted to validate these findings. PMID:27382553

  12. Anthropogenic N Deposition Slows Decay by Favoring Bacterial Metabolism: Insights from Metagenomic Analyses.

    PubMed

    Freedman, Zachary B; Upchurch, Rima A; Zak, Donald R; Cline, Lauren C

    2016-01-01

    Litter decomposition is an enzymatically-complex process that is mediated by a diverse assemblage of saprophytic microorganisms. It is a globally important biogeochemical process that can be suppressed by anthropogenic N deposition. In a northern hardwood forest ecosystem located in Michigan, USA, 20 years of experimentally increased atmospheric N deposition has reduced forest floor decay and increased soil C storage. Here, we paired extracellular enzyme assays with shotgun metagenomics to assess if anthropogenic N deposition has altered the functional potential of microbial communities inhabiting decaying forest floor. Experimental N deposition significantly reduced the activity of extracellular enzymes mediating plant cell wall decay, which occurred concurrently with changes in the relative abundance of metagenomic functional gene pathways mediating the metabolism of carbohydrates, aromatic compounds, as well as microbial respiration. Moreover, experimental N deposition increased the relative abundance of 50 of the 60 gene pathways, the majority of which were associated with saprotrophic bacteria. Conversely, the relative abundance and composition of fungal genes mediating the metabolism of plant litter was not affected by experimental N deposition. Future rates of atmospheric N deposition have favored saprotrophic soil bacteria, whereas the metabolic potential of saprotrophic fungi appears resilient to this agent of environmental change. Results presented here provide evidence that changes in the functional capacity of saprotrophic soil microorganisms mediate how anthropogenic N deposition increases C storage in soil.

  13. Anthropogenic N Deposition Slows Decay by Favoring Bacterial Metabolism: Insights from Metagenomic Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, Zachary B.; Upchurch, Rima A.; Zak, Donald R.; Cline, Lauren C.

    2016-01-01

    Litter decomposition is an enzymatically-complex process that is mediated by a diverse assemblage of saprophytic microorganisms. It is a globally important biogeochemical process that can be suppressed by anthropogenic N deposition. In a northern hardwood forest ecosystem located in Michigan, USA, 20 years of experimentally increased atmospheric N deposition has reduced forest floor decay and increased soil C storage. Here, we paired extracellular enzyme assays with shotgun metagenomics to assess if anthropogenic N deposition has altered the functional potential of microbial communities inhabiting decaying forest floor. Experimental N deposition significantly reduced the activity of extracellular enzymes mediating plant cell wall decay, which occurred concurrently with changes in the relative abundance of metagenomic functional gene pathways mediating the metabolism of carbohydrates, aromatic compounds, as well as microbial respiration. Moreover, experimental N deposition increased the relative abundance of 50 of the 60 gene pathways, the majority of which were associated with saprotrophic bacteria. Conversely, the relative abundance and composition of fungal genes mediating the metabolism of plant litter was not affected by experimental N deposition. Future rates of atmospheric N deposition have favored saprotrophic soil bacteria, whereas the metabolic potential of saprotrophic fungi appears resilient to this agent of environmental change. Results presented here provide evidence that changes in the functional capacity of saprotrophic soil microorganisms mediate how anthropogenic N deposition increases C storage in soil. PMID:26973633

  14. Favorable control of advanced colon adenocarcinoma with severe bone marrow metastasis: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Hanamura, Fumiyasu; Shibata, Yoshihiro; Shirakawa, Tsuyoshi; Kuwayama, Miyuki; Oda, Hisanobu; Ariyama, Hiroshi; Taguchi, Kenichi; Esaki, Taito; Baba, Eishi

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) has a propensity to metastasize to the liver, lungs and regional abdominal lymph nodes, but rarely to the bone marrow. A 60-year-old man presented to the National Hospital Organization Kyushu Cancer Center with a 4-week history of persistent lower back pain, anorexia and difficulty defecating. Complete blood count revealed severe thrombocytopenia and erythroblastosis, suggesting a hematological malignancy. However, the bone marrow examination demonstrated involvement by a moderately to poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, but no hematopoietic abnormalities. A computed tomography scan revealed thickening of the wall of the sigmoid colon, with para-aortic, hilar, mediastinal and supraclavicular lymphadenopathy. The patient was thus diagnosed with sigmoid colon adenocarcinoma with lymph node and bone marrow metastasis. Modified FOLFOX6 was promptly initiated, with concurrent therapy for disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). An increased number of thrombocytes was observed on day 6. After 3 cycles of treatment, the patient recovered from DIC and the levels of serum carcinoembryonic antigen and cytokeratin 19 fragment were decreased. Tumor biopsy during colonoscopy following recovery from DIC demonstrated poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma with mucin production, without mutations in the RAS, BRAF or PIK3CA genes, and a cytokeratin (CK) 7-negative, CK20-positive phenotype. The patient has been treated with chemotherapy for 150 days without disease progression. However, the efficacy of chemotherapy for rarely encountered bone marrow metastasis from CRC is poor. The present case was favorably maintained on chemotherapy and survived for 10 months. PMID:27900088

  15. Music, clicks, and their imaginations favor differently the event-based timing component for rhythmic movements.

    PubMed

    Bravi, Riccardo; Quarta, Eros; Del Tongo, Claudia; Carbonaro, Nicola; Tognetti, Alessandro; Minciacchi, Diego

    2015-06-01

    The involvement or noninvolvement of a clock-like neural process, an effector-independent representation of the time intervals to produce, is described as the essential difference between event-based and emergent timing. In a previous work (Bravi et al. in Exp Brain Res 232:1663-1675, 2014a. doi: 10.1007/s00221-014-3845-9 ), we studied repetitive isochronous wrist's flexion-extensions (IWFEs), performed while minimizing visual and tactile information, to clarify whether non-temporal and temporal characteristics of paced auditory stimuli affect the precision and accuracy of the rhythmic motor performance. Here, with the inclusion of new recordings, we expand the examination of the dataset described in our previous study to investigate whether simple and complex paced auditory stimuli (clicks and music) and their imaginations influence in a different way the timing mechanisms for repetitive IWFEs. Sets of IWFEs were analyzed by the windowed (lag one) autocorrelation-wγ(1), a statistical method recently introduced for the distinction between event-based and emergent timing. Our findings provide evidence that paced auditory information and its imagination favor the engagement of a clock-like neural process, and specifically that music, unlike clicks, lacks the power to elicit event-based timing, not counteracting the natural shift of wγ(1) toward positive values as frequency of movements increase.

  16. The cohesion stabilizer sororin favors DNA repair and chromosome segregation during mouse oocyte meiosis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Jie; Yuan, Yi-Feng; Wu, Di; Khan, Faheem Ahmed; Jiao, Xiao-Fei; Huo, Li-Jun

    2017-03-01

    Maintenance and timely termination of cohesion on chromosomes ensures accurate chromosome segregation to guard against aneuploidy in mammalian oocytes and subsequent chromosomally abnormal pregnancies. Sororin, a cohesion stabilizer whose relevance in antagonizing the anti-cohesive property of Wings-apart like protein (Wapl), has been characterized in mitosis; however, the role of Sororin remains unclear during mammalian oocyte meiosis. Here, we show that Sororin is required for DNA damage repair and cohesion maintenance on chromosomes, and consequently, for mouse oocyte meiotic program. Sororin is constantly expressed throughout meiosis and accumulates on chromatins at germinal vesicle (GV) stage/G2 phase. It localizes onto centromeres from germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) to metaphase II stage. Inactivation of Sororin compromises the GVBD and first polar body extrusion (PBE). Furthermore, Sororin inactivation induces DNA damage indicated by positive γH2AX foci in GV oocytes and precocious chromatin segregation in MII oocytes. Finally, our data indicate that PlK1 and MPF dissociate Sororin from chromosome arms without affecting its centromeric localization. Our results define Sororin as a determinant during mouse oocyte meiotic maturation by favoring DNA damage repair and chromosome separation, and thereby, maintaining the genome stability and generating haploid gametes.

  17. Atherosclerotic Lesion Progression Changes Lysophosphatidic Acid Homeostasis to Favor its Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Bot, Martine; Bot, Ilze; Lopez-Vales, Rubén; van de Lest, Chris H.A.; Saulnier-Blache, Jean Sébastien; Helms, J. Bernd; David, Samuel; van Berkel, Theo J.C.; Biessen, Erik A.L.

    2010-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) accumulates in the central atheroma of human atherosclerotic plaques and is the primary platelet-activating lipid constituent of plaques. Here, we investigated the enzymatic regulation of LPA homeostasis in atherosclerotic lesions at various stages of disease progression. Atherosclerotic lesions were induced in carotid arteries of low-density lipoprotein receptor–deficient mice by semiconstrictive collar placement. At 2-week intervals after collar placement, lipids and RNA were extracted from the vessel segments carrying the plaque. Enzymatic-and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry–based lipid profiling revealed progressive accumulation of LPA species in atherosclerotic tissue preceded by an increase in lysophosphatidylcholine, a precursor in LPA synthesis. Plaque expression of LPA-generating enzymes cytoplasmic phospholipase A2IVA (cPLA2IVA) and calcium-independent PLA2VIA (iPLA2VIA) was gradually increased, whereas that of the LPA-hydrolyzing enzyme LPA acyltransferase α was quenched. Increased expression of cPLA2IVA and iPLA2VIA in advanced lesions was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Moreover, LPA receptors 1 and 2 were 50% decreased and sevenfold upregulated, respectively. Therefore, key proteins in LPA homeostasis are increasingly dysregulated in the plaque during atherogenesis, favoring intracellular LPA production. This might at least partly explain the observed progressive accumulation of this thrombogenic proinflammatory lipid in human and mouse plaques. Thus, intervention in the enzymatic LPA production may be an attractive measure to lower intraplaque LPA content, thereby reducing plaque progression and thrombogenicity. PMID:20431029

  18. The spreading front of invasive species in favorable habitat or unfavorable habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Chengxia; Lin, Zhigui; Zhang, Qunying

    2014-07-01

    Spatial heterogeneity and habitat characteristic are shown to determine the asymptotic profile of the solution to a reaction-diffusion model with free boundary, which describes the moving front of the invasive species. A threshold value R0Fr(D,t) is introduced to determine the spreading and vanishing of the invasive species. We prove that if R0Fr(D,t0)⩾1 for some t0⩾0, the spreading must happen; while if R0Fr(D,0)<1, the spreading is also possible. Our results show that the species in the favorable habitat can establish itself if the diffusion is slow or the occupying habitat is large. In an unfavorable habitat, the species dies out if the initial value of the species is small. However, big initial number of the species is benefit for the species to survive. When the species spreads in the whole habitat, the asymptotic spreading speed is given. Some implications of these theoretical results are also discussed.

  19. Retinoblastoma Protein Knockdown Favors Oxidative Metabolism and Glucose and Fatty Acid Disposal in Muscle Cells.

    PubMed

    Petrov, Petar D; Ribot, Joan; López-Mejía, Isabel C; Fajas, Lluís; Palou, Andreu; Bonet, M Luisa

    2016-03-01

    Deficiency in the retinoblastoma protein (Rb) favors leanness and a healthy metabolic profile in mice largely attributed to activation of oxidative metabolism in white and brown adipose tissues. Less is known about Rb modulation of skeletal muscle metabolism. This was studied here by transiently knocking down Rb expression in differentiated C2C12 myotubes using small interfering RNAs. Compared with control cells transfected with non-targeting RNAs, myotubes silenced for Rb (by 80-90%) had increased expression of genes related to fatty acid uptake and oxidation such as Cd36 and Cpt1b (by 61% and 42%, respectively), increased Mitofusin 2 protein content (∼2.5-fold increase), increased mitochondrial to nuclear DNA ratio (by 48%), increased oxygen consumption (by 65%) and decreased intracellular lipid accumulation. Rb silenced myotubes also displayed up-regulated levels of glucose transporter type 4 expression (∼5-fold increase), increased basal glucose uptake, and enhanced insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation. Interestingly, exercise in mice led to increased Rb phosphorylation (inactivation) in skeletal muscle as evidenced by immunohistochemistry analysis. In conclusion, the silencing of Rb enhances mitochondrial oxidative metabolism and fatty acid and glucose disposal in skeletal myotubes, and changes in Rb status may contribute to muscle physiological adaptation to exercise. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Evolution of learning in fluctuating environments: when selection favors both social and exploratory individual learning.

    PubMed

    Borenstein, Elhanan; Feldman, Marcus W; Aoki, Kenichi

    2008-03-01

    Cumulative cultural change requires organisms that are capable of both exploratory individual learning and faithful social learning. In our model, an organism's phenotype is initially determined innately (by its genotypic value) or by social learning (copying a phenotype from the parental generation), and then may or may not be modified by individual learning (exploration around the initial phenotype). The environment alternates periodically between two states, each defined as a certain range of phenotypes that can survive. These states may overlap, in which case the same phenotype can survive in both states, or they may not. We find that a joint social and exploratory individual learning strategy-the strategy that supports cumulative culture-is likely to spread when the environmental states do not overlap. In particular, when the environmental states are contiguous and mutation is allowed among the genotypic values, this strategy will spread in either moderately or highly stable environments, depending on the exact nature of the individual learning applied. On the other hand, natural selection often favors a social learning strategy without exploration when the environmental states overlap. We find only partial support for the "consensus" view, which holds that individual learning, social learning, and innate determination of behavior will evolve at short, intermediate, and long environmental periodicities, respectively.

  1. Tumor-infiltrating CD45RO(+) Memory T Lymphocytes Predict Favorable Clinical Outcome in Solid Tumors.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guoming; Wang, Shimin

    2017-09-04

    The prognostic role of tumor-infiltrating CD45RO(+) memory T lymphocytes (CD45RO(+) T cells) in human solid tumors remains controversial. Herein, we conducted a meta-analysis including 25 published studies with 4720 patients identified from PubMed and EBSCO to assess the prognostic impact of tumor-infiltrating CD45RO(+) T cells in human solid tumors. We found that CD45RO(+) T cell infiltration was significantly associated with improved overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) in all types of solid tumors. In stratified analyses, CD45RO(+) T cell infiltration significantly improved 1-year, 3-year and 5-year OS in colorectal, gastric and esophageal cancer, but only 5-year OS in hepatocellular carcinoma. And these cells were positively associated with 1-year, 3-year and 5-year DFS in hepatocellular, colorectal and esophageal cancer. In addition, high density of intratumoral CD45RO(+) T cells inversely correlated with TNM stage of solid tumor. In conclusion, CD45RO(+) memory T lymphocyte infiltration leads to a favorable clinical outcome in solid tumors, implicating that it is a valuable biomarker for prognostic prediction for human solid malignances.

  2. TTK is a favorable prognostic biomarker for triple-negative breast cancer survival

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qianqian; Xu, Yali; Pan, Bo; Wu, Liangcai; Ren, Xinyu; Zhou, Yidong; Mao, Feng; Lin, Yan; Guan, Jinghong; Shen, Songjie; Zhang, Xiaohui; Wang, Changjun; Zhong, Ying; Zhou, Liangrui; Liang, Zhiyong; Zhao, Haitao; Sun, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Previous studies demonstrate that threonine and tyrosine kinase (TTK) is overexpressed in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), but there are conflicting results regarding its effect on TNBC survival. The purpose of this study was to assess the prognostic significance of TTK expression in primary TNBC. Results Of 169 consecutive cases eligible for this study, 164 included follow-up information. Cytoplasm and membrane TTK staining was observed in 99.4% of cases, while 5.9% displayed whole cell immunostaining. At a discriminating threshold of 55, elevated TTK expression was associated with prolonged disease free survival (DFS) (p < 0.001) and overall survival (OS) (p = 0.024) in primary TNBC and prolonged DFS in individual basal-like (p = 0.001) and non-basal-like (p = 0.001) TNBC subtypes. In addition, Cox regression analysis demonstrated that elevated TTK expression was an independent prognostic factor for DFS in TNBC (p < 0.001). Methods TTK expression of 169 samples was tested by immunohistochemistry (IHC). A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to identify a cutpoint for TTK expression, which was analyzed for its association with patients' clinicopathological factors and survival using Chi-square, log-rank, and Cox regression analyses. Conclusions TTK is a favorable prognostic biomarker associated with TNBC survival. PMID:27833085

  3. Experimental Evolution Reveals Favored Adaptive Routes to Cell Aggregation in Yeast.

    PubMed

    Hope, Elyse A; Amorosi, Clara J; Miller, Aaron W; Dang, Kolena; Heil, Caiti Smukowski; Dunham, Maitreya J

    2017-06-01

    Yeast flocculation is a community-building cell aggregation trait that is an important mechanism of stress resistance and a useful phenotype for brewers; however, it is also a nuisance in many industrial processes, in clinical settings, and in the laboratory. Chemostat-based evolution experiments are impaired by inadvertent selection for aggregation, which we observe in 35% of populations. These populations provide a testing ground for understanding the breadth of genetic mechanisms Saccharomyces cerevisiae uses to flocculate, and which of those mechanisms provide the biggest adaptive advantages. In this study, we employed experimental evolution as a tool to ask whether one or many routes to flocculation are favored, and to engineer a strain with reduced flocculation potential. Using a combination of whole genome sequencing and bulk segregant analysis, we identified causal mutations in 23 independent clones that had evolved cell aggregation during hundreds of generations of chemostat growth. In 12 of those clones, we identified a transposable element insertion in the promoter region of known flocculation gene FLO1, and, in an additional five clones, we recovered loss-of-function mutations in transcriptional repressor TUP1, which regulates FLO1 and other related genes. Other causal mutations were found in genes that have not been previously connected to flocculation. Evolving a flo1 deletion strain revealed that this single deletion reduces flocculation occurrences to 3%, and demonstrated the efficacy of using experimental evolution as a tool to identify and eliminate the primary adaptive routes for undesirable traits. Copyright © 2017 Hope et al.

  4. Gender bias favors female nursing students in the written examination evaluation: Crossover study.

    PubMed

    Kiekkas, Panagiotis; Igoumenidis, Michael; Stefanopoulos, Nikolaos; Bakalis, Nick; Kefaliakos, Antonios; Aretha, Diamanto

    2016-10-01

    Gender discrimination against male nursing students has been reported and attributed to the female-dominated tradition of nursing profession. To investigate gender bias in the written examination evaluation of undergraduate nursing students. One-group crossover study with two phases. Four male and four female examiners provided 400 previously graded examination scripts (50 each) of nursing students. Participating examiners were asked to re-grade scripts after any information about student identity was covered to allow blind marking. Script degrees after non-blind and blind marking were compared within male and within female students, as well as between male and female students. Significantly more female students' degrees shifted downwards and less of them shifted upwards compared with male students' degrees after blind marking, while mean degree of female students was significantly lower. Among male examiners, significantly more female students' degrees shifted downwards and less of them shifted upwards compared with male students' degrees after blind marking, while mean degree of male students was significantly higher. Among female examiners, mean degree of both male and female students was significantly lower after blind marking. No central tendency bias was detected. Gender bias in favor of females was detected in the written examination evaluation of nursing students. This unequal treatment may prevent retention of males in nursing studies and profession. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Progesterone receptor induces bcl-x expression through intragenic binding sites favoring RNA polymerase II elongation

    PubMed Central

    Bertucci, Paola Y.; Nacht, A. Silvina; Alló, Mariano; Rocha-Viegas, Luciana; Ballaré, Cecilia; Soronellas, Daniel; Castellano, Giancarlo; Zaurin, Roser; Kornblihtt, Alberto R.; Beato, Miguel; Vicent, Guillermo P.; Pecci, Adali

    2013-01-01

    Steroid receptors were classically described for regulating transcription by binding to target gene promoters. However, genome-wide studies reveal that steroid receptors-binding sites are mainly located at intragenic regions. To determine the role of these sites, we examined the effect of progestins on the transcription of the bcl-x gene, where only intragenic progesterone receptor-binding sites (PRbs) were identified. We found that in response to hormone treatment, the PR is recruited to these sites along with two histone acetyltransferases CREB-binding protein (CBP) and GCN5, leading to an increase in histone H3 and H4 acetylation and to the binding of the SWI/SNF complex. Concomitant, a more relaxed chromatin was detected along bcl-x gene mainly in the regions surrounding the intragenic PRbs. PR also mediated the recruitment of the positive elongation factor pTEFb, favoring RNA polymerase II (Pol II) elongation activity. Together these events promoted the re-distribution of the active Pol II toward the 3′-end of the gene and a decrease in the ratio between proximal and distal transcription. These results suggest a novel mechanism by which PR regulates gene expression by facilitating the proper passage of the polymerase along hormone-dependent genes. PMID:23640331

  6. Biogenesis and early life on Earth and Europa: favored by an alkaline ocean?

    PubMed

    Kempe, Stephan; Kazmierczak, Jozef

    2002-01-01

    Recent discoveries about Europa--the probable existence of a sizeable ocean below its ice crust; the detection of hydrated sodium carbonates, among other salts; and the calculation of a net loss of sodium from the subsurface--suggest the existence of an alkaline ocean. Alkaline oceans (nicknamed "soda oceans" in analogy to terrestrial soda lakes) have been hypothesized also for early Earth and Mars on the basis of mass balance considerations involving total amounts of acids available for weathering and the composition of the early crust. Such an environment could be favorable to biogenesis since it may have provided for very low Ca2+ concentrations mandatory for the biochemical function of proteins. A rapid loss of CO2 from Europa's atmosphere may have led to freezing oceans. Alkaline brine bubbles embedded in ice in freezing and impact-thawing oceans could have provided a suitable environment for protocell formation and the large number of trials needed for biogenesis. Understanding these processes could be central to assessing the probability of life on Europa.

  7. Alginate-polyester comacromer based hydrogels as physiochemically and biologically favorable entities for cardiac tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Thankam, Finosh G; Muthu, Jayabalan

    2015-11-01

    The physiochemical and biological responses of tissue engineering hydrogels are crucial in determining their desired performance. A hybrid comacromer was synthesized by copolymerizing alginate and poly(mannitol fumarate-co-sebacate) (pFMSA). Three bimodal hydrogels pFMSA-AA, pFMSA-MA and pFMSA-NMBA were synthesized by crosslinking with Ca(2+) and vinyl monomers acrylic acid (AA), methacrylic acid (MA) and N,N'-methylene bisacrylamide (NMBA), respectively. Though all the hydrogels were cytocompatible and exhibited a normal cell cycle profile, pFMSA-AA exhibited superior physiochemical properties viz non-freezable water content (58.34%) and water absorption per unit mass (0.97 g water/g gel) and pore length (19.92±3.91 μm) in comparing with other two hydrogels. The increased non-freezable water content and water absorption of pFMSA-AA hydrogels greatly influenced its biological performance, which was evident from long-term viability assay and cell cycle proliferation. The physiochemical and biological favorability of pFMSA-AA hydrogels signifies its suitability for cardiac tissue engineering. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Effects of Eliminating Lectures in Favor of In-class Collaborative Learning Experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause Dandaneau, Debra; Caracappa, Erin

    2009-05-01

    To meet the objectives of a general-education conceptual physics course (namely to ``reduce students' fears of science and to convey to them a substantial understanding'', students must be engaged in the learning process. Hands-on work and peer instruction are thought to be most effective, and when such methods are used, the course can reinforce research-based pedagogy to preservice teachers. Often, due to time constraints, interactive engagement is nonetheless auxiliary. In the current conceptual courses at our institution, the lecture has been virtually eliminated in favor of collaborative in-class activities, which make use of free, online, research-based simulations. Students perform experiments using simple materials when simulations are not available or can be supplemented. The course will be described and compared to a lecture-based course, in terms of attitudes improvement and learning gains. How Things Work text description from L. Bloomfield's site: http://howthingswork.virginia.edu/course.html) Primarily those on the PhET site: http://phet.colorado.edu/index.php

  9. APOBEC3G ubiquitination by Nedd4-1 favors its packaging into HIV-1 particles.

    PubMed

    Dussart, Sylvie; Douaisi, Marc; Courcoul, Marianne; Bessou, Gilles; Vigne, Robert; Decroly, Etienne

    2005-01-21

    APOBEC3G is a cytidine deaminase that limits the replication of many retroviruses. This antiviral host factor is packaged into retrovirus particles, where it targets single-stranded DNA generated during reverse transcription and induces up to 2% of G-to-A mutations, which are lethal for the HIV-1 provirus. Vif protein counteracts this antiviral factor by decreasing its packaging into lentivirus particles. Here, we demonstrate that Nedd4-1, an HECT E3 ubiquitin ligase, interacts with APOBEC3G, through its WW2 and WW3 domains. As a result of this interaction, APOBEC3G undergoes post-translational modification by addition of ubiquitin moieties. Accordingly, we demonstrate that the dominant negative Nedd4-1 C/S form prevents APOBEC3G ubiquitination. Moreover, the packaging of APOBEC3G into Pr55 Gag virus-like particles and into HIV-1 virions is reduced when Nedd4-1 C/S is expressed. During HIV-1 viral production in the presence of APOBEC3G, Nedd4-1 C/S restores partially the infectivity of Deltavif HIV-1. We conclude that the ubiquitination of APOBEC3G by Nedd4-1 favors its targeting to the virus assembly site where APOBEC3G interacts with Gag and is packaged into HIV-1 particles in the absence of Vif.

  10. Favorable prognostic influence of T-box transcription factor Eomesodermin in metastatic renal cell cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Dielmann, Anastasia; Letsch, Anne; Nonnenmacher, Anika; Miller, Kurt; Keilholz, Ulrich; Busse, Antonia

    2016-02-01

    T-box transcription factors, T-box expressed in T cells (T-bet) encoded by Tbx21 and Eomesodermin (Eomes), drive the differentiation of effector/memory T cell lineages and NK cells. The aim of the study was to determine the prognostic influence of the expression of these transcription factors in peripheral blood (pB) in a cohort of 41 metastatic (m) RCC patients before receiving sorafenib treatment and to analyze their association with the immunophenotype in pB. In contrast to Tbx21, in the multivariate analysis including clinical features, Eomes mRNA expression was identified as an independent good prognostic factor for progression-free survival (PFS, p = 0.042) and overall survival (OS, p = 0.001) in addition to a favorable ECOG performance status (p = 0.01 and p = 0.008, respectively). Eomes expression correlated positively not only with expression of Tbx21 and TGFβ1 mRNA, but also with mRNA expression of the activation marker ICOS, and with in vivo activated HLA-DR(+) T cells. Eomes expression was negatively associated with TNFα-producing T cells. On protein level, Eomes was mainly expressed by CD56(+)CD3(-) NK cells in pB. In conclusion, we identified a higher Eomes mRNA expression as an independent good prognostic factor for OS and PFS in mRCC patients treated with sorafenib.

  11. TRAF4 Is a Novel Phosphoinositide-Binding Protein Modulating Tight Junctions and Favoring Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Rousseau, Adrien; McEwen, Alastair G.; Poussin-Courmontagne, Pierre; Rognan, Didier; Nominé, Yves; Rio, Marie-Christine; Tomasetto, Catherine; Alpy, Fabien

    2013-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor 4 (TRAF4) is frequently overexpressed in carcinomas, suggesting a specific role in cancer. Although TRAF4 protein is predominantly found at tight junctions (TJs) in normal mammary epithelial cells (MECs), it accumulates in the cytoplasm of malignant MECs. How TRAF4 is recruited and functions at TJs is unclear. Here we show that TRAF4 possesses a novel phosphoinositide (PIP)-binding domain crucial for its recruitment to TJs. Of interest, this property is shared by the other members of the TRAF protein family. Indeed, the TRAF domain of all TRAF proteins (TRAF1 to TRAF6) is a bona fide PIP-binding domain. Molecular and structural analyses revealed that the TRAF domain of TRAF4 exists as a trimer that binds up to three lipids using basic residues exposed at its surface. Cellular studies indicated that TRAF4 acts as a negative regulator of TJ and increases cell migration. These functions are dependent from its ability to interact with PIPs. Our results suggest that TRAF4 overexpression might contribute to breast cancer progression by destabilizing TJs and favoring cell migration. PMID:24311986

  12. Prompting participation in health: Fostering favorable attitudes toward personal health records through message design.

    PubMed

    Glowacki, Elizabeth M

    2016-03-01

    Personal health records (PHRs) offer many benefits. However, a relatively small amount of individuals take advantage of PHRs. This study examined how message composition influences attitudes toward electronic PHRs. Participants (N=329) were randomly assigned to read one of two fictitious editorials proposing that all patients have PHRs. One version assigned linguistic agency (capacity for action) to PHRs (e.g.,PHRs can guard against long-term health problems) and the other to humans (e.g.,people can guard themselves against long-term health problems). One-way analyses of variance revealed significant main effects of agency on perceptions of PHR benefits. Respondents reported feeling more comfortable using PHRs and perceived them as more effective at protecting patients when agency was assigned to PHRs rather than to humans. Messages with PHRs as the primary acting agents elicited favorable reactions about PHR use. Patients may be more willing to engage with this technology if the emphasis is put on what PHRs can do for patients. Providers and staff can make strategic choices about wording when discussing PHRs and healthcare. Attention to linguistic agency can help providers better engage patients in discussions about this topic and enable patients to become more proactive. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Intratumoral lymphatic vessel density in vulvar squamous cell carcinomas: a possible association with favorable prognosis.

    PubMed

    Goes, Renata Sampaio; Carvalho, Jesus P; Almeida, Bernardo G L; Bacchi, Carlos E; Goes, Joao Carlos Sampaio; Calil, Marcelo Alvarenga; Baracat, Edmund C; Carvalho, Filomena M

    2012-01-01

    Lymphatic vessels serve as major routes for regional dissemination, and therefore, lymph node status is a key indicator of prognosis. To predict lymph node metastasis, tumor lymphatic density and lymphangiogenesis-related molecules have been studied in various tumor types. To our knowledge, no previous studies have evaluated the role of intratumoral lymphatic vessel density (LVD) in the behavior of vulvar carcinomas. The aim of this study was to analyze intratumoral LVD in relation to patient survival and well-characterized prognostic factors for cancer. Thirty-five patients with vulvar squamous cell carcinoma underwent vulvectomy and dissection of regional lymph nodes. Clinical records were reviewed, in addition to histological grade, peritumoral lymphatic invasion, and depth of infiltration for each case. Tissue microarray paraffin blocks were created, and lymphatic vessels were detected using immunohistochemical staining of podoplanin (D2-40 antibody). Intratumoral LVD was quantified by counting the number of stained vessels. Higher values for intratumoral LVD were associated with low-grade and low-stage tumors, and with tumors without lymphatic invasion and reduced stromal infiltration. In a univariate analysis, high intratumoral LVD was associated with a higher rate of overall survival and a lower rate of lymph node metastasis. Our results suggest that increased intratumoral LVD is associated with favorable prognosis in vulvar squamous carcinomas.

  14. Do clinical evaluations in a psychiatry clerkship favor students with positive personality characteristics?

    PubMed

    Chibnall, John T; Blaskiewicz, Robert J

    2008-01-01

    The authors examine associations of personality characteristics, National Board of Medical Examiners subject examination performance, and Objective Structured Clinical Examination performance with clinical evaluations of third-year medical students in a psychiatry clerkship. Students completed the Revised NEO Personality Inventory, which measures personality domains of neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness and associated personality traits. At clerkship completion, students completed the National Board of Medical Examiners subject examination and a psychiatry Objective Structured Clinical Examination, and were evaluated by attending physicians (using a standardized evaluation form) regarding their clinical "knowledge and skill" and "interpersonal behavior." Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation and canonical correlation. National Board of Medical Examiners subject examination and Objective Structured Clinical Examination scores were uncorrelated with clinical evaluations of "knowledge and skill" and "interpersonal behavior." Personality variables explained a moderate amount of variance in clinical evaluations. "Knowledge and skill" was positively associated with the domain of conscientiousness, the extraversion trait of warmth, and the conscientiousness traits of competence and achievement striving. "Interpersonal behavior" was negatively associated with the neuroticism trait of angry hostility and positively associated with the domain of agreeableness; the extraversion traits of warmth, gregariousness, and positive emotions; and the agreeableness traits of trust, altruism, compliance, and tender-mindedness. Clinical evaluations of medical students may favor personality styles that reflect positive elements of extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. The present findings raise questions regarding the validity of clinical evaluation elements in clerkship performance appraisal.

  15. Randomness + determinism = progresses: why random processes could be favored by evolution.

    PubMed

    Schabanel, Nicolas

    2012-09-01

    Biologists are somehow pioneers on the idea that progress can be driven by randomness: randomness is one of the main engine of evolution; small variations induced by randomness coupled with natural selection allows the species to self-adapt to their moving environment. Studies from the last 40 years in computer science suggest that randomness is in fact able of doing much more and revealed unexpected possibilities which might appear impossible at first. Furthermore, it turns out that these discoveries are faster, cheaper and above all exponentially thriftier than their deterministic alternatives. This means that random explorations would almost surely generate a stochastic process way before any equivalent deterministic counterpart is found. It follows that most likely these processes are favored by evolution and should thus be known to anyone dealing with systems (alive or not) having access to random sources. This article presents some of these counter-intuitive results as a possible source of inspiration for studying systems fed with randomness. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Predictors of favorable results in pulmonary tuberculosis treatment (Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil, 2001-2004).

    PubMed

    Sassaki, Cinthia Midori; Scatena, Lucia Marina; Gonzales, Roxana Isabel Cardozo; Ruffino-Netto, Antonio; Hinos, Paula; Villa, Tereza Cristina Scatena

    2010-06-01

    Based on data available in the Information System for Notifiable Diseases, predictive factors of favorable results were identified in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis, diagnosed between 2001 and 2004 and living in Recife-PE, Brazil. Uni- and multivariate logistic regression methods were used. In multivariate analysis, the following factors remained: Age (years), 0 to 9 (OR = 4.27; p = 0.001) and 10 to 19 (OR = 1.78; p = 0.011), greater chance of cure than over 60; Education (years), 8 to 11 (OR = 1.52; p = 0.049), greater chance of cure than no education; Type of entry, ne wcase s (OR = 3.31; p < 0.001) and relapse (OR = 3.32; p < 0.001), greater chances of cure than restart after abandonment; Time (months) 2, 5--6 (OR = 9.15; p < 0.001); 6--9 (OR = 27.28; p < 0.001) and More than 9 (OR = 24.78; p < 0.001), greater chances of cure than less than 5; Health Unit District, DSII (OR = 1.60; p = 0.018) and DSIIV (OR = 2.87; p < 0.001), greater chance sof cure than DS II.

  17. FLARE STARS—A FAVORABLE OBJECT FOR STUDYING MECHANISMS OF NONTHERMAL ASTROPHYSICAL PHENOMENA

    SciTech Connect

    Oks, E.; Gershberg, R. E.

    2016-03-01

    We present a spectroscopic method for diagnosing a low-frequency electrostatic plasma turbulence (LEPT) in plasmas of flare stars. This method had been previously developed by one of us and successfully applied to diagnosing the LEPT in solar flares. In distinction to our previous applications of the method, here we use the latest advances in the theory of the Stark broadening of hydrogen spectral lines. By analyzing observed emission Balmer lines, we show that it is very likely that the LEPT was developed in several flares of AD Leo, as well as in one flare of EV Lac. We found the LEPT (though of different field strengths) both in the explosive/impulsive phase and at the phase of the maximum, as well as at the gradual phase of the stellar flares. While for solar flares our method allows diagnosing the LEPT only in the most powerful flares, for the flare stars it seems that the method allows revealing the LEPT practically in every flare. It should be important to obtain new and better spectrograms of stellar flares, allowing their analysis by the method outlined in the present paper. This can be the most favorable way to the detailed understanding of the nature of nonthermal astrophysical phenomena.

  18. Li7(BH)5(+): a new thermodynamically favored star-shaped molecule.

    PubMed

    Torres-Vega, Juan J; Vásquez-Espinal, Alejandro; Beltran, Maria J; Ruiz, Lina; Islas, Rafael; Tiznado, William

    2015-07-15

    The potential energy surfaces (PESs) of Lin(BH)5(n-6) systems (where n = 5, 6, and 7) were explored using the gradient embedded genetic algorithm (GEGA) program, in order to find their global minima conformations. This search predicts that the lowest-energy isomers of Li6(BH)5 and Li7(BH)5(+) contain a (BH)5(6-) pentagonal fragment, which is isoelectronic and structurally analogous to the prototypical aromatic hydrocarbon anion C5H5(-). Li7(BH)5(+), along with Li7C5(+), Li7Si5(+) and Li7Ge5(+), joins a select group of clusters that adopt a seven-peak star-shape geometry, which is favored by aromaticity in the central five-membered ring, and by the preference of Li atoms for bridging positions. The theoretical analysis of chemical bonding, based on magnetic criteria, supports the notion that electronic delocalization is an important stabilization factor in all these star-shaped clusters.

  19. Aquatic pollution may favor the success of the invasive species A. franciscana.

    PubMed

    Varó, I; Redón, S; Garcia-Roger, E M; Amat, F; Guinot, D; Serrano, R; Navarro, J C

    2015-04-01

    The genus Artemia consists of several bisexual and parthenogenetic sibling species. One of them, A. franciscana, originally restricted to the New World, becomes invasive when introduced into ecosystems out of its natural range of distribution. Invasiveness is anthropically favored by the use of cryptobiotic eggs in the aquaculture and pet trade. The mechanisms of out-competition of the autochthonous Artemia by the invader are still poorly understood. Ecological fitness may play a pivotal role, but other underlying biotic and abiotic factors may contribute. Since the presence of toxicants in hypersaline aquatic ecosystems has been documented, our aim here is to study the potential role of an organophosphate pesticide, chlorpyrifos, in a congeneric mechanism of competition between the bisexual A. franciscana (AF), and one of the Old World parthenogenetic siblings, A. parthenogenetica (PD). For this purpose we carried out life table experiments with both species, under different concentrations of the toxicant (0.1, 1 and 5μg/l), and analyzed the cholinesterase inhibition at different developmental stages. The results evidence that both, AF and PD, showed an elevated tolerance to high ranges of chlorpyrifos, but AF survived better and its fecundity was less affected by the exposure to the pesticide than that of PD. The higher fecundity of AF is a selective advantage in colonization processes leading to its establishment as NIS. Besides, under the potential selective pressure of abiotic factors, such as the presence of toxicants, its higher resistance in terms of survival and biological fitness also indicates out-competitive advantages.

  20. Renal capsule for augmentation cystoplasty in canine model: a favorable biomaterial?

    PubMed Central

    Salehipour, Mehdi; Mohammadian, Reza; Malekahmadi, Amir; Hosseinzadeh, Massood; Yadollahi, Mahnaz; Natami, Mohammad; Mohammadian, Mahsa

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate effectiveness of canine renal capsule for augmentation cystoplasty. Materials and Methods: Ten adult dogs participated in this study. After induction of anesthesia each animal underwent bed side urodynamic study, bladder capacity and bladder pressure was recorded. Then via mid line incision abdominal cavity was entered, right kidney was identified and its capsule was dissected. Bladder augmentation was done by anastomosing the renal capsule to the bladder. After 6 months bed side urodynamic study was performed again and changes in bladder volume and pressure were recorded. Then the animals were sacrificed and the augmented bladders were sent for histopathology evaluation. Results: Mean maximum anatomic bladder capacity before cystoplasty was 334.00±11.40cc which increased to 488.00±14.83cc post-operatively (p=0.039). Mean anatomic bladder pressure before cystoplasty was 19.00±1.58cmH2O which decreased to 12.60±1.14cmH2O post-operatively (p=0.039). Histopathology evaluation revealed epithelialization of the renal capsule with urothelium without evidence of fibrosis, collagen deposits or contracture. Conclusions: Our data shows that renal capsule is a favorable biomaterial for bladder augmentation in a canine model. PMID:27256195

  1. Superstition predicts favorable weight change in an open-placebo trial: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Rekhviashvili, Nino; Gupta, Sumati

    2015-09-01

    Given the difficulty of losing weight via adhering to healthy lifestyle choices, this study sought to understand how a placebo may elicit favorable weight change. Specifically, we examined if superstition may be related to increased responsiveness to an open-placebo. In this pilot study of 25 undergraduate participants, it was hypothesized that individuals with higher levels of superstition may be more responsive to a 3-week open-placebo weight change trial. Participants were given once-daily saltine crackers to use as open-placebos for weight change in their preferred direction (gain or loss). The weight of each participant was measured before and after the 3-week open-placebo period. A Pearson's r correlation showed a significant positive relationship between superstition and placebo responsiveness, determined by weight gain or loss in the preferred direction, r (25) = 0.493, p < 0.05. We hope these preliminary results engender future research on open-placebo uses for weight management.

  2. Asymmetry of glia near central synapses favors presynaptically directed glutamate escape.

    PubMed Central

    Lehre, Knut Petter; Rusakov, Dmitri A

    2002-01-01

    Recent findings demonstrate that synaptically released excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate activates receptors outside the immediate synaptic cleft and that the extent of such extrasynaptic actions is regulated by the high affinity glutamate uptake. The bulk of glutamate transporter systems are evenly distributed in the synaptic neuropil, and it is generally assumed that glutamate escaping the cleft affects pre- and postsynaptic receptors to a similar degree. To test whether this is indeed the case, we use quantitative electron microscopy and establish the stochastic pattern of glial occurrence in the three-dimensional (3D) vicinity of two common types of excitatory central synapses, stratum radiatum synapses in hippocampus and parallel fiber synapses in cerebellum. We find that the occurrence of glia postsynaptically is strikingly higher (3-4-fold) than presynaptically, in both types of synapses. To address the functional consequences of this asymmetry, we simulate diffusion and transport of synaptically released glutamate in these two brain areas using a detailed 3D compartmental model of the extracellular space with glutamate transporters arranged unevenly, in accordance with the obtained experimental data. The results predict that glutamate escaping the synaptic cleft is 2-4 times more likely to activate presynaptic compared to postsynaptic receptors. Simulations also show that postsynaptic neuronal transporters (EAAT4 type) at dendritic spines of cerebellar Purkinje cells exaggerate this asymmetry further. Our data suggest that the perisynaptic environment of these common central synapses favors fast presynaptic feedback in the information flow while preserving the specificity of the postsynaptic input. PMID:12080105

  3. The sequential activation of the mitotic microtubule assembly pathways favors bipolar spindle formation

    PubMed Central

    Cavazza, Tommaso; Malgaretti, Paolo; Vernos, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Centrosome maturation is the process by which the duplicated centrosomes recruit pericentriolar components and increase their microtubule nucleation activity before mitosis. The role of this process in cells entering mitosis has been mostly related to the separation of the duplicated centrosomes and thereby to the assembly of a bipolar spindle. However, spindles can form without centrosomes. In fact, all cells, whether they have centrosomes or not, rely on chromatin-driven microtubule assembly to form a spindle. To test whether the sequential activation of these microtubule assembly pathways, defined by centrosome maturation and nuclear envelope breakdown, plays any role in spindle assembly, we combined experiments in tissue culture cells and Xenopus laevis egg extracts with a mathematical model. We found that interfering with the sequential activation of the microtubule assembly pathways compromises bipolar spindle assembly in tissue culture cells but not in X. laevis egg extracts. Our data suggest a novel function for centrosome maturation that determines the contribution of the chromosomal microtubule assembly pathway and favors bipolar spindle formation in most animal cells in which tubulin is in limiting amounts. PMID:27489339

  4. Intragenomic conflict produces sex ratio dynamics that favor maternal sex ratio distorters.

    PubMed

    Rood, Elaine S; Freedberg, Steven

    2016-11-01

    Maternal sex ratio distorters (MSDs) are selfish elements that enhance their transmission by biasing their host's sex allocation in favor of females. While previous models have predicted that the female-biased populations resulting from sex ratio distortion can benefit from enhanced productivity, these models neglect Fisherian selection for nuclear suppressors, an unrealistic assumption in most systems. We used individual-based computer simulation modeling to explore the intragenomic conflict between sex ratio distorters and their suppressors and explored the impacts of these dynamics on population-level competition between species characterized by MSDs and those lacking them. The conflict between distorters and suppressors was capable of producing large cyclical fluctuations in the population sex ratio and reproductive rate. Despite fitness costs associated with the distorters and suppressors, MSD populations often exhibited enhanced productivity and outcompeted non-MSD populations in single and multiple-population competition simulations. Notably, the conflict itself is beneficial to the success of populations, as sex ratio oscillations limit the competitive deficits associated with prolonged periods of male rarity. Although intragenomic conflict has been historically viewed as deleterious to populations, our results suggest that distorter-suppressor conflict can provide population-level advantages, potentially helping to explain the persistence of sex ratio distorters in a range of taxa.

  5. Interleukin-33 Expression Indicates a Favorable Prognosis in Malignant Salivary Gland Tumors.

    PubMed

    Rössle, Matthias; Cathomas, Gieri; Bonapace, Laura; Sachs, Melanie; Dehler, Silvia; Storz, Martina; Huber, Gerhard; Moch, Holger; Junt, Tobias; Mertz, Kirsten D

    2016-08-01

    The cytokine interleukin-33 (IL-33) is abundantly expressed in epithelial barrier tissues such as salivary glands. Here, we characterized nuclear IL-33 protein expression by immunohistochemistry in benign and malignant salivary gland tumors and associated it with disease outcome. Most benign salivary gland tumors expressed IL-33, and all Warthin's tumors showed strong and consistent IL-33 expression in the basally oriented cells of their bilayered epithelium. In the malignant group of neoplasms, nuclear IL-33 expression was limited to specific tumor entities-for example, to epithelial-myopepithelial carcinomas (n = 9/11), acinic cell carcinomas (n = 13/27), and oncocytic carcinomas (n = 2/2). IL-33 expression in the combined group of malignant salivary gland neoplasms was significantly associated with favorable histological parameters, lack of metastasis, and longer overall survival, compared with IL-33-negative tumors. We conclude that IL-33 expression is a novel prognostic marker for malignant salivary gland tumors with potential use in clinical diagnostics. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Prediction of the most favorable configuration in the ACBP-membrane interaction based on electrostatic calculations.

    PubMed

    Vallejo, Diego F; Zamarreño, Fernando; Guérin, Diego M A; Grigera, J Raul; Costabel, Marcelo D

    2009-03-01

    Acyl-CoA binding proteins (ACBPs) are highly conserved 10 kDa cytosolic proteins that bind medium- and long-chain acyl-CoA esters. They act as intracellular carriers of acyl-CoA and play a role in acyl-CoA metabolism, gene regulation, acyl-CoA-mediated cell signaling, transport-mediated lipid synthesis, membrane trafficking and also, ACBPs were indicated as a possible inhibitor of diazepam binding to the GABA-A receptor. To estimate the importance of the non-specific electrostatic energy in the ACBP-membrane interaction, we computationally modeled the interaction of HgACBP with both anionic and neutral membranes. To compute the Free Electrostatic Energy of Binding (dE), we used the Finite Difference Poisson Boltzmann Equation (FDPB) method as implemented in APBS. In the most energetically favorable orientation, ACBP brings charged residues Lys18 and Lys50 and hydrophobic residues Met46 and Leu47 into membrane surface proximity. This conformation suggests that these four ACBP amino acids are most likely to play a leading role in the ACBP-membrane interaction and ligand intake. Thus, we propose that long range electrostatic forces are the first step in the interaction mechanism between ACBP and membranes.

  7. Local skull trephination before transfer is associated with favorable outcomes in cerebral herniation from epidural hematoma.

    PubMed

    Nelson, James A

    2011-01-01

    The patient with epidural hematoma and cerebral herniation has a good prognosis with immediate drainage, but a poor prognosis with delay to decompression. Such patients who present to nonneurosurgical hospitals are commonly transferred without drainage to the nearest neurosurgical center. This practice has never been demonstrated to be the safest approach to treating these patients. A significant minority of emergency physicians (EPs) have advised and taught bedside burr hole drainage or skull trephination before transfer for herniating patients. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of nonneurosurgeon drainage on neurologic outcome in patients with cerebral herniation from epidural hematoma. A structured literature review was performed using EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and the Emergency Medicine Abstracts database. No evidence meeting methodologic criteria was found describing outcomes in patients transferred without decompressive procedures. For patients receiving local drainage before transfer, 100% had favorable outcomes. Although the total number of patients is small and the population highly selected, the natural history of cerebral herniation from epidural hematoma and the best available evidence suggests that herniating patients have improved outcomes with drainage procedures before transport. © 2010 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  8. A new algorithm for determining collimator angles that favor efficiency in MLC based IMRT delivery.

    PubMed

    Wang, David; Hill, R W; Lam, S

    2004-05-01

    A new algorithm to determine collimator angles that favor delivery efficiency of intensity modulated radiotherapy plans was developed. It was found that the number of segments and monitor units (MUs) were largely reduced with the set of collimator angles determined with the new algorithm without compromising plan quality. The improvement of delivery efficiency using the new algorithm depends on the size and shape of the target(s), the number of modulation levels, and the type of leaf-sequencing algorithm. In a typical prostate case, when a sweeping leaf-sequencer is used for Varian 120 leaf (0.5 x 0.5 cm2 beamlet), 80 leaf (1 x 1 cm2 beamlet) and Elekta 40 leaf (1 x 1 cm2 beamlet), the number of segments was reduced by 42%, 29%, and 5%, respectively. The number of MUs was reduced by 41%, 35%, and 10%. For the Siemens MLC (IMFAST leaf sequencer, 1 x 1 cm2 beamlet) the segment reduction was 32% and the MU reduction was 14%. Comparison of the plans using the new and Brahme algorithms, in terms of target conformity index and dose volume histogram of the organs at risk, showed that the quality of the plans using the new algorithm was uncompromised. Similar results were obtained for a set of head and neck treatment plans.

  9. Social heuristics and social roles: Intuition favors altruism for women but not for men.

    PubMed

    Rand, David G; Brescoll, Victoria L; Everett, Jim A C; Capraro, Valerio; Barcelo, Hélène

    2016-04-01

    Are humans intuitively altruistic, or does altruism require self-control? A theory of social heuristics, whereby intuitive responses favor typically successful behaviors, suggests that the answer may depend on who you are. In particular, evidence suggests that women are expected to behave altruistically, and are punished for failing to be altruistic, to a much greater extent than men. Thus, women (but not men) may internalize altruism as their intuitive response. Indeed, a meta-analysis of 13 new experiments and 9 experiments from other groups found that promoting intuition relative to deliberation increased giving in a Dictator Game among women, but not among men (Study 1, N = 4,366). Furthermore, this effect was shown to be moderated by explicit sex role identification (Study 2, N = 1,831): the more women described themselves using traditionally masculine attributes (e.g., dominance, independence) relative to traditionally feminine attributes (e.g., warmth, tenderness), the more deliberation reduced their altruism. Our findings shed light on the connection between gender and altruism, and highlight the importance of social heuristics in human prosociality.

  10. Lifestyle intervention favorably affects weight loss and maintenance following obesity surgery.

    PubMed

    Papalazarou, Anastasios; Yannakoulia, Mary; Kavouras, Stavros A; Komesidou, Vasiliki; Dimitriadis, George; Papakonstantinou, Alexandros; Sidossis, Labros S

    2010-07-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the 3 year effects of a lifestyle intervention on weight loss and maintenance, dietary, and physical activity habits and eating behavior of patients following vertical banded gastroplasty (VBG). Thirty severely obese female volunteers were included in the study and they were randomly assigned to one of two intervention groups: usual care (UC) or lifestyle intervention (LS) group. Patients were followed for 3 years postoperatively. Outcome measures included weight loss, dietary habits, physical activity level (PAL), and eating behavior changes. Weight was significantly lower in the LS group after 12 months (84.4 +/- 3.9 kg vs. 98.4 +/- 4.4 kg, P < 0.05), 24 months (83.0 +/- 3.3 vs. 101.9 +/- 5.3 kg, P < 0.05), and 36 months following surgery (84.2 +/- 3.3 vs. 102.5 +/- 3.5 kg, P < 0.05). Repeated measures ANOVA revealed significant differences between the two groups overall and at specific time points for the PAL and TV viewing. With regard to eating behavior, the LS group scored significantly better in total Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ), Restraint Eating and External Eating scales at all postoperative time points. Similarly, significant differences were found between the two groups in dietary intake. These findings outline the importance of lifestyle intervention on weight loss and maintenance following bariatric surgery. The favorable effects of lifestyle intervention may be through adoption of healthier eating behaviors and increased physical activity.

  11. Chlorophyll a is a favorable substrate for Chlamydomonas Mg-dechelatase encoded by STAY-GREEN.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Kaori; Shimoda, Yousuke; Tanaka, Ayumi; Ito, Hisashi

    2016-12-01

    Mg removal from chlorophyll by Mg-dechelatase is the first step of chlorophyll degradation. Recent studies showed that in Arabidopsis, Stay Green (SGR) encodes Mg-dechelatase. Though the Escherichia coli expression system is advantageous for investigating the properties of Mg-dechelatase, Arabidopsis Mg-dechelatase is not successfully expressed in E. coli. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii SGR (CrSGR) has a long, hydrophilic tail, suggesting that active CrSGR can be expressed in E. coli. After the incubation of chlorophyll a with CrSGR expressed in E. coli, pheophytin a accumulated, indicating that active CrSGR was expressed in E. coli. Substrate specificity of CrSGR against chlorophyll b and an intermediate molecule of the chlorophyll b degradation pathway was examined. CrSGR exhibited no activity against chlorophyll b and low activity against 7-hydroxymethyl chlorophyll a, consistent with the fact that chlorophyll b is degraded only after conversion to chlorophyll a. CrSGR exhibited low activity against divinyl chlorophyll a and chlorophyll a', and no activity against chlorophyllide a, protochlorophyll a, chlorophyll c2, and Zn-chlorophyll a. These observations indicate that chlorophyll a is the most favorable substrate for CrSGR. When CrSGR was expressed in Arabidopsis cells, the chlorophyll content decreased, further confirming that SGR has Mg-dechelating activity in chloroplasts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Do Halogen-Hydrogen Bond Donor Interactions Dominate the Favorable Contribution of Halogens to Ligand-Protein Binding?

    PubMed

    Lin, Fang-Yu; MacKerell, Alexander D

    2017-07-20

    Halogens are present in a significant number of drugs, contributing favorably to ligand-protein binding. Currently, the contribution of halogens, most notably chlorine and bromine, is largely attributed to halogen bonds involving favorable interactions with hydrogen bond acceptors. However, we show that halogens acting as hydrogen bond acceptors potentially make a more favorable contribution to ligand binding than halogen bonds based on quantum mechanical calculations. In addition, bioinformatics analysis of ligand-protein crystal structures shows the presence of significant numbers of such interactions. It is shown that interactions between halogens and hydrogen bond donors (HBDs) are dominated by perpendicular C-X···HBD orientations. Notably, the orientation dependence of the halogen-HBD (X-HBD) interactions is minimal over greater than 100° with favorable interaction energies ranging from -2 to -14 kcal/mol. This contrasts halogen bonds in that X-HBD interactions are substantially more favorable, being comparable to canonical hydrogen bonds, with a smaller orientation dependence, such that they make significant, favorable contributions to ligand-protein binding and, therefore, should be actively considered during rational ligand design.

  13. Holsteins Favor Heifers, Not Bulls: Biased Milk Production Programmed during Pregnancy as a Function of Fetal Sex

    PubMed Central

    Hinde, Katie; Carpenter, Abigail J.; Clay, John S.; Bradford, Barry J.

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian females pay high energetic costs for reproduction, the greatest of which is imposed by lactation. The synthesis of milk requires, in part, the mobilization of bodily reserves to nourish developing young. Numerous hypotheses have been advanced to predict how mothers will differentially invest in sons and daughters, however few studies have addressed sex-biased milk synthesis. Here we leverage the dairy cow model to investigate such phenomena. Using 2.39 million lactation records from 1.49 million dairy cows, we demonstrate that the sex of the fetus influences the capacity of the mammary gland to synthesize milk during lactation. Cows favor daughters, producing significantly more milk for daughters than for sons across lactation. Using a sub-sample of this dataset (N = 113,750 subjects) we further demonstrate that the effects of fetal sex interact dynamically across parities, whereby the sex of the fetus being gestated can enhance or diminish the production of milk during an established lactation. Moreover the sex of the fetus gestated on the first parity has persistent consequences for milk synthesis on the subsequent parity. Specifically, gestation of a daughter on the first parity increases milk production by ∼445 kg over the first two lactations. Our results identify a dramatic and sustained programming of mammary function by offspring in utero. Nutritional and endocrine conditions in utero are known to have pronounced and long-term effects on progeny, but the ways in which the progeny has sustained physiological effects on the dam have received little attention to date. PMID:24498270

  14. Holsteins favor heifers, not bulls: biased milk production programmed during pregnancy as a function of fetal sex.

    PubMed

    Hinde, Katie; Carpenter, Abigail J; Clay, John S; Bradford, Barry J

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian females pay high energetic costs for reproduction, the greatest of which is imposed by lactation. The synthesis of milk requires, in part, the mobilization of bodily reserves to nourish developing young. Numerous hypotheses have been advanced to predict how mothers will differentially invest in sons and daughters, however few studies have addressed sex-biased milk synthesis. Here we leverage the dairy cow model to investigate such phenomena. Using 2.39 million lactation records from 1.49 million dairy cows, we demonstrate that the sex of the fetus influences the capacity of the mammary gland to synthesize milk during lactation. Cows favor daughters, producing significantly more milk for daughters than for sons across lactation. Using a sub-sample of this dataset (N = 113,750 subjects) we further demonstrate that the effects of fetal sex interact dynamically across parities, whereby the sex of the fetus being gestated can enhance or diminish the production of milk during an established lactation. Moreover the sex of the fetus gestated on the first parity has persistent consequences for milk synthesis on the subsequent parity. Specifically, gestation of a daughter on the first parity increases milk production by ∼ 445 kg over the first two lactations. Our results identify a dramatic and sustained programming of mammary function by offspring in utero. Nutritional and endocrine conditions in utero are known to have pronounced and long-term effects on progeny, but the ways in which the progeny has sustained physiological effects on the dam have received little attention to date.

  15. Al- or Si-decorated graphene oxide: A favorable metal-free catalyst for the N2O reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esrafili, Mehdi D.; Sharifi, Fahimeh; Nematollahi, Parisa

    2016-11-01

    The structural and catalytic properties of Al- or Si-decorated graphene oxide (Al-/Si-GO) are studied by means of density functional theory calculations. The relatively large adsorption energy together with the small Alsbnd O or Sisbnd O binding distances indicate that the epoxy groups over the GO surface can strongly stabilize the single Al or Si atom. Hence, Al-GO and Si-GO are stable enough to be utilized in catalytic reduction of N2O by CO molecule. It is found that the adsorption and decomposition of N2O molecule over Si-GO is more favorable than over Al-GO, due to its larger adsorption energy (Eads) and charge transfer (qCT) values. On the other hand, the CO molecule is physically adsorbed over both surfaces, with relatively small Eads and qCT values. Therefore, at the presence of N2O and CO molecules as the reaction gas, the Al or Si atom of the surface should be dominantly covered by N2O molecule. Our results indicate that the N2O decomposition process can take place with a negligible activation energy over Al-/Si-GO surface, where the N2 molecule can be easily released from the surface. Then, the activated oxygen atom (Oads) which remains over the surface reacts with the CO molecule to form the CO2 molecule via the reaction Oads + CO → CO2. Based on the calculated activation energies, it is suggested that both Al-GO and Si-GO can be used as an efficient metal-free catalyst for the reduction of N2O molecule at ambient conditions.

  16. Epithelial splicing regulatory protein 1 and 2 paralogues correlate with splice signatures and favorable outcome in human colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Deloria, Abigail J.; Höflmayer, Doris; Kienzl, Philip; Łopatecka, Justyna; Sampl, Sandra; Klimpfinger, Martin; Braunschmid, Tamara; Bastian, Fabienne; Lu, Lingeng; Marian, Brigitte; Stättner, Stefan; Holzmann, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    ESRPs are master splice regulators implicated in alternative mRNA splicing programs important for epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and tumor progression. ESRP1 was identified in some tumors as good or worse predictor of outcome, but in colorectal cancer (CRC) the prognostic value of ESRPs and relation with mesenchymal splice variants is not clear. Here, we studied 68 CRC cases, compared tissue expression of ESRPs with clinical data and with EMT gene splice patterns of conditional CRC cells with deficient ESRP1 expression. Around 72% of patients showed global decreased transcript expression of both ESRPs in tumor as compared to matched non-neoplastic colorectal epithelium. Reduction of ESRP1 in tumor cells was evaluated by immunohistochemistry, associated with microsatellite stability and switch to mesenchymal splice signatures of FGFRs, CD44, ENAH and CTNND1(p120-catenin). Expression of ESRPs was significantly associated with favorable overall survival (log-rank test, P=0.0186 and 0.0408), better than prognostic stratification by tumor staging; and for ESRP1 confirmed with second TCGA cohort (log-rank test, P=0.0435). Prognostic value is independent of the pathological stage and microsatellite instability (ESRP1: HR=0.36, 95%CI 0.15–0.91, P=0.032; ESRP2: HR=0.23, 95%CI 0.08–0.65, P=0.006). Our study supports the role of ESRP1 as tumor suppressor and strongly suggests that ESRPs are candidate markers for early detection, diagnosis, and prognosis of CRC. PMID:27650542

  17. Testosterone deficiency induced by progressive stages of diabetes mellitus impairs glucose metabolism and favors glycogenesis in mature rat Sertoli cells.

    PubMed

    Rato, Luís; Alves, Marco G; Duarte, Ana I; Santos, Maria S; Moreira, Paula I; Cavaco, José E; Oliveira, Pedro F

    2015-09-01

    The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and its prodromal stage, pre-diabetes, is rapidly increasing among young men, leading to disturbances in testosterone synthesis. However, the impact of testosterone deficiency induced by these progressive stages of diabetes on the metabolic behavior of Sertoli cells remains unknown. We evaluated the effects of testosterone deficiency associated with pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes on Sertoli cells metabolism, by measuring (1) the expression and/or activities of glycolysis and glycogen metabolism-related proteins and (2) the metabolite secretion/consumption in Sertoli cells obtained from rat models of different development stages of the disease, to unveil the mechanisms by which testosterone deregulation may affect spermatogenesis. Glucose and pyruvate uptake were decreased in cells exposed to the testosterone concentration found in pre-diabetic rats (600nM), whereas the decreased testosterone concentrations found in type 2 diabetic rats (7nM) reversed this profile. Lactate production was not altered, although the expression and/or activity of lactate dehydrogenase and monocarboxylate transporter 4 were affected by progressive testosterone-deficiency. Sertoli cells exposed to type 2 diabetic conditions exhibited intracellular glycogen accumulation. These results illustrate that gradually reduced levels of testosterone, induced by progressive stages of diabetes mellitus, favor a metabolic reprogramming toward glycogen synthesis. Our data highlights a pivotal role for testosterone in the regulation of spermatogenesis metabolic support by Sertoli cells, particularly in individuals suffering from metabolic diseases. Such alterations may be in the basis of male subfertility/infertility associated with the progression of diabetes mellitus.

  18. XE991 and Linopirdine Are State-Dependent Inhibitors for Kv7/KCNQ Channels that Favor Activated Single Subunits.

    PubMed

    Greene, Derek L; Kang, Seungwoo; Hoshi, Naoto

    2017-07-01

    M-channel inhibitors, especially XE991, are being used increasingly in animal experiments; however, insufficient characterization of XE991 at times confounds the interpretation of results when using this compound. Here, we demonstrate that XE991 and linopirdine are state-dependent inhibitors that favor the activated-subunit of neuronal Kv7/KCNQ channels. We performed patch-clamp experiments on homomeric Kv7.2 or heteromeric Kv7.2/3 channels expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells to characterize XE991 and linopirdine. Neither inhibitor was efficacious around the resting membrane potential of cells in physiologic conditions. Inhibition of Kv7.2 and Kv7.2/3 channels by XE991 was closely related with channel activation. When the voltage dependence of activation was left-shifted by retigabine or right-shifted by the mutation, Kv7.2(R214D), the shift in half-activation voltage proportionally coincided with the shift in the half-effective potential for XE991 inhibition. Inhibition kinetics during XE991 wash-in was facilitated at depolarized potentials. Ten-minute washout of XE991 resulted in ∼30% current recovery, most of which was attributed to surface transport of Kv7.2 channels. Linopirdine also exhibited similar inhibition characteristics, with the exception of near- complete current recovery after washout at depolarized potentials. Inhibition kinetics of both XE991 and linopirdine was not as sensitive to changes in voltage as would be predicted by open- channel inhibition. Instead, they were well explained by binding to a single activated subunit. The characteristics of XE991 and linopirdine should be taken into account when these M-channel inhibitors are used in experiments. Copyright © 2017 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  19. Albumin dialysis has a favorable effect on amino acid profile in hepatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Koivusalo, Anna-Maria; Teikari, Taru; Höckerstedt, Krister; Isoniemi, Helena

    2008-12-01

    According to one popular theory, hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is partly caused by an imbalance in plasma amino acid levels. The Fischer's ratio between branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) and aromatic amino acids (AAAs) correlates with the degree of HE; the lower Fischer's ratio, the higher the grade of HE. Extra-corporeal liver support systems, like MARS(R)-albumin dialysis (Molecular Adsorbents Recirculating System), can improve HE. The MARS(R) system uses a hyperosmolar albumin circuit to remove both water-soluble and albumin-bound substances. Plasma levels of neuroactive amino acids were analyzed in 82 consecutive patients with life-threatening liver failure admitted to our ICU. All patients fulfilled our indications for MARS treatment and most also fulfilled the criteria for liver transplantation (LTx). In patients with acute liver failure (ALF), as compared to those with acute decompensation of chronic liver failure (AcOChr), levels of leucine and isoleucine were significantly higher before MARS(R) treatment. In all patients, before MARS(R) treatment the higher the grade of HE grade the lower was the Fischer's ratio and higher were the levels of inhibitory neuroactive amino acids. During MARS(R) treatments the Fischer's ratio increased, and the grade of HE decreased. The increase in Fischer's ratio was mainly due to the decrease in AAAs. The plasma levels of neuroactive amino acids, methionine, glutamine, glutamate, histidine and taurine decreased during MARS(R)-treatment. In this study MARS(R)-albumin dialysis had a favorable effect on the plasma amino acid profile of patients with HE.

  20. Favorable environments for the occurrence of overshooting tops in tropical cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Liangxiao; Zhuge, Xiaoyong; Wang, Yuan

    2017-04-01

    Based on Multifunctional Transport Satellite data and the infrared window-texture detection algorithm, the level of overshooting top (OT) activity within a tropical cyclone (TC), which is defined as the hourly mean number of OT occurrence, was statistically investigated in the western North Pacific basin for the period 2005-12. Based on the level of OT activity, the samples were divided into OT and non-OT cases or high-activity-OT (HA-OT) and low-activity-OT (LA-OT) cases. The differences in large-scale environmental variables between OT (HA-OT) and non-OT (LA-OT) cases were examined 12 hours prior to the OT occurrence. Statistical analysis showed that environmental differences did exist between the OT and non-OT cases. The OTs were more skewed towards the early stage of the TC life cycle, and mostly concentrated in low latitudes. Meanwhile, a sufficiently deep warm-water layer, large temperature difference between the upper- and lower-level troposphere, large humidity at the middle and upper levels, and large atmospheric instability, were favorable for OT occurrence. The differences in large-scale environmental characteristics between HA-OTs and LA-OTs were not as significant as those between OTs and non-OTs, but the HA-OT samples tended to occur when the vertical shear was weak and the TC intensity was low. Finally, statistical models were designed to predict the OT and HA-OT. When at least three OT (HA-OT) predictor thresholds were satisfied, the Peirce skill score reached a maximum value of 0.49 (0.30).

  1. Purification and characterization of a novel phloretin-2′-O-glycosyltransferase favoring phloridzin biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tingjing; Liang, Jianqiang; Wang, Panxue; Xu, Ying; Wang, Yutang; Wei, Xinyuan; Fan, Mingtao

    2016-01-01

    Phloretin-2′-O-glycosyltransferase (P2′GT) catalyzes the last glycosylation step in the biosynthesis of phloridzin that contributes to the flavor, color and health benefits of apples and processed apple products. In this work, a novel P2′GT of Malus x domestica (MdP2′GT) with a specific activity of 46.82 μkat/Kg protein toward phloretin and uridine diphosphate glucose (UDPG) at an optimal temperature of 30 °C and pH 8.0 was purified from the engineered Pichia pastoris broth to homogeneity by anion exchange chromatography, His-Trap affinity chromatography and gel filtration. The purified MdP2′GT was low N-glycosylated and secreted as a stable dimer with a molecular mass of 70.7 kDa in its native form. Importantly, MdP2′GT also exhibited activity towards quercetin and adenosine diphosphate glucose (ADPG), kaempferol and UDPG, quercetin and UDP-galactose, isoliquiritigenin and UDPG, and luteolin and UDPG, producing only one isoquercitrin, astragalin, hyperoside, isoliquiritin, or cynaroside, respectively. This broad spectrum of activities make MdP2′GT a promising biocatalyst for the industrial preparation of the corresponding polyphenol glycosides, preferably for their subsequent isolation and purification. Besides, MdP2′GT displayed the lowest Km and the highest kcat/Km for phloretin and UDPG compared to all previously reported P2′GTs, making MdP2′GT favor phloridzin synthesis the most. PMID:27731384

  2. Professional development programs in health promotion: tools and processes to favor new practices.

    PubMed

    Torres, Sara; Richard, Lucie; Guichard, Anne; Chiocchio, François; Litvak, Eric; Beaudet, Nicole

    2017-06-01

    Developing innovative interventions that are in sync with a health promotion paradigm often represents a challenge for professionals working in local public health organizations. Thus, it is critical to have both professional development programs that favor new practices and tools to examine these practices. In this case study, we analyze the health promotion approach used in a pilot intervention addressing children's vulnerability that was developed and carried out by participants enrolled in a public health professional development program. More specifically, we use a modified version of Guichard and Ridde's (Une grille d'analyse des actions pour lutter contre les inégalités sociales de santé. In Potvin, L., Moquet, M.-J. and Jones, C. M. (eds), Réduire les Inégalités Sociales en Santé. INPES, Saint-Denis Cedex, pp. 297-312, 2010) analytical grid to assess deductively the program participants' use of health promotion practices in the analysis and planning, implementation, evaluation, sustainability and empowerment phases of the pilot intervention. We also seek evidence of practices involving (empowerment, participation, equity, holism, an ecological approach, intersectorality and sustainability) in the intervention. The results are mixed: our findings reveal evidence of the application of several dimensions of health promotion (equity, holism, an ecological approach, intersectorality and sustainability), but also a lack of integration of two key dimensions; that is, empowerment and participation, during various phases of the pilot intervention. These results show that the professional development program is associated with the adoption of a pilot intervention integrating multiple but not all dimensions of health promotion. We make recommendations to facilitate a more complete integration. This research also shows that the Guichard and Ridde grid proves to be a thorough instrument to document the practices of participants. © The Author 2015. Published by

  3. CD8+ lymphocyte infiltration is an independent favorable prognostic indicator in basal-like breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes may indicate an immune response to cancer development, but their significance remains controversial in breast cancer. We conducted this study to assess CD8+ (cytotoxic T) lymphocyte infiltration in a large cohort of invasive early stage breast cancers, and to evaluate its prognostic effect in different breast cancer intrinsic subtypes. Methods Immunohistochemistry for CD8 staining was performed on tissue microarrays from 3992 breast cancer patients. CD8+ tumor infiltrating lymphocytes were counted as intratumoral when in direct contact with tumor cells, and as stromal in adjacent locations. Kaplan-Meier functions and Cox proportional hazards regression models were applied to examine the associations between tumor infiltrating lymphocytes and breast cancer specific survival. Results Among 3403 cases for which immunohistochemical results were obtained, CD8+ tumor infiltrating lymphocytes were identified in an intratumoral pattern in 32% and stromal pattern in 61% of the cases. In the whole cohort, the presence of intratumoral tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes was significantly correlated with young age, high grade, estrogen receptor negativity, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 positivity and core basal intrinsic subtype, and was associated with superior breast cancer specific survival. Multivariate analysis indicated that the favorable prognostic effect of CD8+ tumor infiltrating lymphocytes was significant only in the core basal intrinsic subgroup (Hazard ratio, HR = 0.35, 95% CI = 0.23-0.54). No association with improved survival was present in those triple negative breast cancers that lack expression of basal markers (HR = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.48-2.04) nor in the other intrinsic subtypes. Conclusions CD8+ tumor infiltrating lymphocytes are an independent prognostic factor associated with better patient survival in basal-like breast cancer, but not in non-basal triple negative breast cancers nor in other intrinsic

  4. Disregarding RBE variation in treatment plan comparison may lead to bias in favor of proton plans.

    PubMed

    Wedenberg, Minna; Toma-Dasu, Iuliana

    2014-09-01

    Currently in proton radiation therapy, a constant relative biological effectiveness (RBE) equal to 1.1 is assumed. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of disregarding variations in RBE on the comparison of proton and photon treatment plans. Intensity modulated treatment plans using photons and protons were created for three brain tumor cases with the target situated close to organs at risk. The proton plans were optimized assuming a standard RBE equal to 1.1, and the resulting linear energy transfer (LET) distribution for the plans was calculated. In the plan evaluation, the effect of a variable RBE was studied. The RBE model used considers the RBE variation with dose, LET, and the tissue specific parameter α/β of photons. The plan comparison was based on dose distributions, DVHs and normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCPs). Under the assumption of RBE=1.1, higher doses to the tumor and lower doses to the normal tissues were obtained for the proton plans compared to the photon plans. In contrast, when accounting for RBE variations, the comparison showed lower doses to the tumor and hot spots in organs at risk in the proton plans. These hot spots resulted in higher estimated NTCPs in the proton plans compared to the photon plans. Disregarding RBE variations might lead to suboptimal proton plans giving lower effect in the tumor and higher effect in normal tissues than expected. For cases where the target is situated close to structures sensitive to hot spot doses, this trend may lead to bias in favor of proton plans in treatment plan comparisons.

  5. Favorable Pulse Wave Augmentation Indices and Left Ventricular Diastolic Profile in β-Thalassemia Minor.

    PubMed

    Chamaidi, Aikaterini; Karagiannis, Georgios; Christidi, Aikaterini; Parisis, Charalambos; Koutrakis, Konstantinos; Xanthopoulos, Andrew; Skoularigis, John; Giamouzis, Gregory; Triposkiadis, Filippos K

    2017-11-01

    β-Thalassemia minor (β-Τm) is associated with rheological and biochemical alterations that can affect cardiovascular function. We aimed to evaluate the elastic arterial properties and the pulse wave augmentation indices in a population of patients with β-Τm. Seventy-five individuals with β-Τm (age 55.5 [42.75-65.25], women 48%) and 127 controls (age 57 years [48-63], women 55.1%) underwent comprehensive echocardiographic evaluation and applanation tonometry of the radial and femoral artery. Pulse wave analysis revealed that augmentation pressure, augmentation index (AIx), and heart rate-corrected AIx were significantly lower (median [interquartile range]: 8.75 [4.625-13] vs 11 [6.5-14.5], P = .017; 26.5 [17.5-33.375] vs 30.5 [20.75-37.5], P = .014; and 22.25 [15.125-29.5] vs 27 [20.5-33], P = .008, respectively) in the β-Τm group compared to controls. The left atrial active emptying volume was significantly lower and the isovolumic relaxation time was shorter in the β-Τm group compared to the control group (10.2 [7.4-14.4] vs 12.0 [8.6-15.8], P = .040 and 78 [70-90] vs 90 [70-104], P = .034, respectively). β-Thalassemia minor is associated with favorable pulse wave augmentation indices and left ventricular diastolic function profile in asymptomatic individuals with cardiovascular risk factors.

  6. Both soybean and kudzu phytoestrogens modify favorably the blood lipoprotein profile in ovariectomized and castrated hamsters.

    PubMed

    Guan, Lei; Yeung, Sai Ying Venus; Huang, Yu; Chen, Zhen-Yu

    2006-06-28

    The present study compared the hypolipidemic activity of kudzu phytoestrogens with that of soybean phytoestrogen in estrogen- and androgen-deficient hamsters. In the first experiment, ovariectomized hamsters (n = 37) were randomly divided into four groups (n = 9-10 each group). The first group was the control group, whereas the second group had the time-releasing estradiol-17beta subcutaneous (pellet) implants as a positive control. The third and fourth groups were orally administered soybean or kudzu phytoestrogen extracts (30 mg/kg of body weight) per day. In the second experiments, the first group of male hamsters (n = 9) received a sham operation, whereas the other three groups of male hamsters (n = 9 each) were castrated. The castrated control group received orally distilled water, whereas the second and third castrated groups were orally given 30 mg/kg soybean or kudzu phytoestrogen extracts. The results for the first experiment showed that the ovariectomized hamsters orally given soybean and kudzu phytoestrogen extracts had significantly decreased serum total cholesterol (TC) and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) with HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) being unaffected. The data from the second experiment demonstrated that administration of soybean but not kudzu phytoestrogen extracts decreased significantly serum TC. However, administration of kudzu phytoestrogens caused redistribution of cholesterol among lipoproteins, leading to a significant decrease in the ratio of non-HDL-C to HDL-C. It was concluded that both soybean and kudzu phytoestrogens could modify favorably lipoprotein profiles in ovariectomized and castrated hamsters.

  7. Identification of a vibration regime favorable for bone healing and muscle in estrogen-deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Komrakova, Marina; Sehmisch, Stephan; Tezval, Mohammad; Ammon, Jan; Lieberwirth, Peggy; Sauerhoff, Cordula; Trautmann, Lukas; Wicke, Michael; Dullin, Christian; Stuermer, Klaus M; Stuermer, Ewa K

    2013-06-01

    Numerous whole-body vibration (WBV) devices of various forces are available on the market, although their influence on the musculoskeletal system is not yet understood. The effect of different WBVs on bone healing and muscle function was evaluated in rats ovariectomized at 3 months of age. 2 months after ovariectomy, bilateral metaphyseal tibia osteotomy and T-plate osteosynthesis were performed. Rats were divided into groups: intact, OVX, and OVX exposed to vertical WBVs of 35, 50, 70, or 90 Hz (experiment 1) or horizontal WBVs of 30, 50, 70, or 90 Hz (experiment 2) 5 days after osteotomy (0.5 mm, 15 min/day for 30 days). The tibia and gastrocnemius and soleus muscles were collected. Vertical vibrations (>35 Hz) improved cortical and callus densities, enlarged callus area and width, suppressed the tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase gene, enhanced citrate synthase activity, accelerated osteotomy bridging (35 and 50 Hz), upregulated the osteocalcin (Oc) gene (70 Hz), and increased relative muscle weight (50 Hz). Horizontal vibrations reduced cortical width (<90 Hz) and callus density (30 Hz), enhanced alkaline phosphatase (Alp) gene expression (50 Hz), decreased the size of oxidative fibers (35 and 70 Hz), and increased capillary density (70, 90 Hz). Biomechanical data; serum Oc, Alp, and creatine kinase activities; body weight; and food intake did not change after WBVs. Vertical WBVs of 35 and 50 Hz produced more favorable results than the higher frequencies. Horizontal WBV showed no positive or negative effects. Further studies are needed to elucidate the effects of WBV on different physiological systems, and precautions must be taken when implementing WBV in the treatment of patients.

  8. Somatic Mutations Favorable to Patient Survival Are Predominant in Ovarian Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wensheng; Edwards, Andrea; Flemington, Erik; Zhang, Kun

    2014-01-01

    Somatic mutation accumulation is a major cause of abnormal cell growth. However, some mutations in cancer cells may be deleterious to the survival and proliferation of the cancer cells, thus offering a protective effect to the patients. We investigated this hypothesis via a unique analysis of the clinical and somatic mutation datasets of ovarian carcinomas published by the Cancer Genome Atlas. We defined and screened 562 macro mutation signatures (MMSs) for their associations with the overall survival of 320 ovarian cancer patients. Each MMS measures the number of mutations present on the member genes (except for TP53) covered by a specific Gene Ontology (GO) term in each tumor. We found that somatic mutations favorable to the patient survival are predominant in ovarian carcinomas compared to those indicating poor clinical outcomes. Specially, we identified 19 (3) predictive MMSs that are, usually by a nonlinear dose-dependent effect, associated with good (poor) patient survival. The false discovery rate for the 19 “positive” predictors is at the level of 0.15. The GO terms corresponding to these MMSs include “lysosomal membrane” and “response to hypoxia”, each of which is relevant to the progression and therapy of cancer. Using these MMSs as features, we established a classification tree model which can effectively partition the training samples into three prognosis groups regarding the survival time. We validated this model on an independent dataset of the same disease (Log-rank p-value <2.3×10-4) and a dataset of breast cancer (Log-rank p-value <9.3×10−3). We compared the GO terms corresponding to these MMSs and those enriched with expression-based predictive genes. The analysis showed that the GO term pairs with large similarity are mainly pertinent to the proteins located on the cell organelles responsible for material transport and waste disposal, suggesting the crucial role of these proteins in cancer mortality. PMID:25390899

  9. Prolactin Receptor Expression is an Independent Favorable Prognostic Marker in Human Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Hachim, Ibrahim Y; Hachim, Mahmood Y; Lopez, Vanessa M; Lebrun, Jean-Jacques; Ali, Suhad

    2016-04-01

    Prolactin (PRL) hormone plays an important role in the development of the mammary gland and terminal differentiation of the mammary epithelial cells. While initial studies suggested that PRL may contribute to the development of breast cancer through PRL/prolactin receptor (PRLR) autocrine function, mounting evidence indicate a different role for PRL, highlighting this hormone as a regulator of epithelial plasticity and as a potential tumor suppressor. To gain further insights into the role of PRL in human breast carcinogenesis, immunohistochemistry analyses of PRLR protein expression levels using tissue microarray of 102 cases were done in comparison with various clinical/pathologic parameters and molecular subtypes. In addition, gene expression level of PRLR was also evaluated in relation to intrinsic molecular subtypes, tumor grade, and patient outcome using GOBO database for 1881 breast cancer patients. Interestingly, PRLR expression was found to be significantly downregulated in invasive breast cancer (21.4%) in comparison with normal/benign (80%) and in situ carcinoma (60%) (P=0.003498). Moreover, PRLR expression was associated with lymph node negativity and low-grade well-differentiated tumors. PRLR expression was strongest in luminal A subtype, and was virtually undetectable in the worse prognosis triple-negative breast cancer subtype (P=0.00001). Furthermore, PRLR expression was independent of ER, PR, HER-2, and P53 status. Finally, PRLR expression was significantly (P<0.01) associated with prolonged distant metastasis-free survival in breast cancer patients. In conclusion, our results highlight PRLR as an independent predictor of favorable prognosis in human breast cancer.

  10. Local Ambient Seismic Noise Survey in Dixie Valley, NV for Engineered Geothermal System Favorability Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tibuleac, I. M.; Iovenitti, J. L.; von Seggern, D. H.; Sainsbury, J.

    2013-12-01

    The primary objective of this study is to develop and test the seismic component of a calibrated exploration method that integrated geological, geophysical, and geochemical data to identify potential drilling targets for Engineered Geothermal Systems (EGS). In exploring for EGS sites, the selection criteria identified by the AltaRock Energy, Inc. (AltaRock) and University of Nevada, Reno teams are, in order of importance, (1) temperature greater than 200C at 1.5 km depth, (2) rock type at the depth of interest (porous rocks at 1-3 km); and (3) favorable stress regime (tensional environment). To improve spatial resolution, a dense seismic array (21 three-component, broadband sensors, with an overall array aperture of 45km) was installed in two deployments in Dixie Valley, NV, each deployment having a three-month duration Ambient seismic noise and signal were used to retrieve inter-station and same-station Green's Functions (GFs), to be used for subsurface imaging. We used ambient seismic noise interferometry to extract GFs from crosscorrelation of continuous records. An innovative aspect of the seismic work was estimating the receiver functions beneath the stations using noise auto-correlation which was used to image the substructure. We report results of applying the technique to estimate a P/S velocity model from the GF surface wave components and from the GF body-wave reflection component, retrieved from ambient noise and signal cross-correlation and auto-correlation beams. We interpret our results in terms of temperature, pressure and rock composition. The estimated seismic velocity model capability to infer temperature is statistically assessed, in combination with other geophysical technique results.

  11. Suboptimal temperature favors reserve formation in biennial carrot (Daucus carota) plants.

    PubMed

    González, María V; Sadras, Victor O; Equiza, María A; Tognetti, Jorge A

    2009-09-01

    In response to suboptimal temperatures, temperate annual plants often increase root:shoot ratios, build-up carbohydrates and display typical morphological and anatomical changes. We know less about the responses of biennials such as carrot. As a model plant, carrot has the additional feature of two functionally and morphologically distinct root parts: the taproot, which stores carbohydrate and other compounds, and the fibrous root system involved in acquisition of water and nutrients. Here, we analyze the effects of temperature (12 vs 25°C) on growth, carbohydrate accumulation and whole-plant morphology in two carrot cultivars. Our working hypothesis is that suboptimal temperature favors active formation of reserve structures, rather than passive accumulation of storage carbohydrates. In comparison with plants grown at 25°C, plants grown at 12°C had: (1) higher fibrous root:shoot ratio (13%) , (2) thicker (10-15%) and smaller (up to two- to three-fold) leaves, (3) lower leaf cuticular permeance (two- to four-fold), (4) higher taproot:shoot ratio (two-fold), (5) higher phloem:xylem ratios in taproot (two- to six-fold), (6) unchanged percentage dry matter content (%DMC) in leaves, petioles or fibrous roots and (7) higher %DMC in taproot (20%). However, %DMC of individual taproot tissues (phloem and xylem) was unaffected by temperatures and was consistently higher in the phloem (up to 30%). Therefore, the higher %DMC of whole taproots at 12°C was attributed solely to the increased development of phloem tissue. Carrot, therefore, shares many of the most conspicuous elements of temperate plant responses to low temperatures. Consistently with our hypothesis, however, carrots grown at suboptimal temperature promoted reserve structures, rather than the increase in carbohydrate concentration typical of most temperate annual species and woody perennials. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2009.

  12. UVB Radiation as a Potential Selective Factor Favoring Microcystin Producing Bloom Forming Cyanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yi; Song, Lirong; Sedmak, Bojan

    2013-01-01

    Due to the stratospheric ozone depletion, several organisms will become exposed to increased biologically active UVB (280–320 nm) radiation, not only at polar but also at temperate and tropical latitudes. Bloom forming cyanobacteria are exposed to UVB radiation on a mass scale, particularly during the surface bloom and scum formation that can persist for long periods of time. All buoyant species of cyanobacteria are at least periodically exposed to higher irradiation during their vertical migration to the surface that usually occurs several times a day. The aim of this study is to assess the influence on cyanobacteria of UVB radiation at realistic environmental intensities. The effects of two UVB intensities of 0.5 and 0.99 W/m2 in up to 0.5 cm water depth were studied in vitro on Microcystis aeruginosa strains, two microcystin producing and one non-producing. After UVB exposure their ability to proliferate was estimated by cell counting, while cell fitness and integrity were evaluated using light microscopy, autofluorescence and immunofluorescence. Gene damage was assessed by TUNEL assay and SYBR Green staining of the nucleoide area. We conclude that UVB exposure causes damage to the genetic material, cytoskeletal elements, higher sedimentation rates and consequent cell death. In contrast to microcystin producers (PCC7806 and FACHB905), the microcystin non-producing strain PCC7005 is more susceptible to the deleterious effects of radiation, with weak recovery ability. The ecological relevance of the results is discussed using data from eleven years’ continuous UVB radiation measurements within the area of Ljubljana city (Slovenia, Central Europe). Our results suggest that increased solar radiation in temperate latitudes can have its strongest effect during cyanobacterial bloom formation in spring and early summer. UVB radiation in this period may significantly influence strain composition of cyanobacterial blooms in favor of microcystin producers. PMID

  13. ALCOHOL MODULATION OF MMP AND TIMP EXPRESSION IN THE HEART FAVORS COLLAGEN ACCUMULATION

    PubMed Central

    El Hajj, E.C.; El hajj, M.C.; Voloshenyuk, T.G.; Mouton, A.J.; Khoutorova, E.; Molina, P.E.; Gilpin, N.W.; Gardner, J.D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic alcohol consumption has been shown in human and animal studies to result in collagen accumulation, myocardial fibrosis, and heart failure. Cardiac fibroblasts produce collagen and regulate extracellular matrix (ECM) homeostasis through the synthesis and activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) and tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMP), with the balance of MMPs/TIMPs determining the rate of collagen turnover. Dynamic changes of MMP and TIMP expression were reported in alcohol induced hepatic fibrosis; however, the effect of alcohol on MMP/TIMP balance in the heart and cardiac fibroblasts is unknown. We hypothesized that alcohol exposure alters cardiac fibroblast MMP and TIMP expression to promote collagen accumulation in the heart. Methods Cardiac fibroblasts isolated from adult rats were cultured in the presence of alcohol (12.5–200 mM) for 48 hrs. MMP, TIMP, and collagen type I and III expression were assayed by Western blot analysis. Hydroxyproline (HPro) was used as a marker of collagen production. The in vivo cardiac effects of ethanol were determined using rats exposed to ethanol vapor for two weeks, resulting in blood alcohol levels of 150–200 mg/dl. Cardiac collagen volume fraction (CVF), as well as MMP, TIMP and collagen expression, was assessed. Results Ethanol exposed rats exhibited upregulation of TIMP-1, -3 and -4 in the heart, with no significant increases in MMPs. Cardiac fibroblasts exhibited transformation to a profibrotic phenotype following exposure to alcohol. These changes were reflected by increased α-smooth muscle actin and collagen I and III expression, as well as increased collagen secretion. In vivo ethanol exposure also produced fibrosis, indicated by increased CVF and expression of collagens. Conclusion Alcohol exposure modulates cardiac fibroblast MMP/TIMP expression favoring a profile associated with collagen accumulation. Our data suggest that this disrupted MMP/TIMP profile may contribute to the development of

  14. Overexpression of the chemokine receptor CXCR3 and its correlation with favorable prognosis in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Hu, Min; Li, Kai; Maskey, Ninu; Xu, Zhigao; Yu, Fang; Peng, ChunWei; Li, Yan; Yang, Guifang

    2015-12-01

    Chemokine receptor, CXCR3, has been increasingly reported to be involved in tumorigenesis and tumor progression, but limited data are available regarding the expression of CXCR3 in gastric cancer (GC). In the present study, the expressions of CXCR3 and its variants were detected in 96 GC and corresponding nontumor gastric tissues by immunohistochemical staining, in 40 freshly frozen GC and nontumor gastric tissues by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and in 10 freshly frozen GC and nontumor gastric tissues by Western blotting. Results revealed that an overexpression of CXCR3 occurs in GC tissues as compared to the nontumor gastric tissues. High level of CXCR3 expression was found to be inversely associated with invasion depth and metastasis (P = .030 and P = .019, respectively) and directly associated with improved overall survival (log-rank test, P < .001). Furthermore, multivariate analysis showed that high CXCR3 expression acts an independent prognostic factor for GC patients (hazard ratio, 0.379 [0.196-0.734]; P = .004). The messenger RNA expression of both the CXCR3 variants, CXCR3-A and CXCR3-B, were up-regulated in GC tissues (P = .006 and P = .002, respectively), although CXCR3-B messenger RNA expression was significantly higher than CXCR3-A, with an average CXCR3-B to CXCR3-A ratio of 1.80. CXCR3-B protein expression was also up-regulated in GC tissues (P = .023). In conclusion, our study suggested a potential use of CXCR3 overexpression as a prognostic marker for GC and involvement of the up-regulation of CXCR3-B in favorable prognosis of GC patients.

  15. Geology and uranium favorability of the Sonora Pass region, Alpine and Tuolumne Counties, California

    SciTech Connect

    Rapp, J.S.; Short, W.O.

    1981-06-01

    Uranium mineralization at the Juniper Mine is restricted to host rocks of the Relief Peak Formation and is most common in coarse-grained lithic sandstone, conglomerate, and lithic wacke. The richest beds contain as much as 0.5% U/sub 3/O/sub 8/. Uranium is present as coffinite, uraninite, and unidentified minerals. Thorium/uranium ratios are generally low and erratic. Equivalent uranium determinations are low in comparison with chemical uranium values, indicating that uranium mineralization of the Juniper Mine is geologically young. Core drilling at 16 localities shows that widely separated exposures of the Relief Peak Formation have very similar lithology, geochemistry, and stratigraphy. Some sections are similar to the Juniper Mine section. Core from the bottom of drill hole SP-1 contains 83 ppM uranium, the greatest known concentration outside the mine area. Significant uranium deposits may be concealed beneath the thick Tertiary volcanic cover of the region. The quartz latitic Eureka Valley Tuff is fairly widespread in east-central California and western Nevada. It contains 12 to 14 ppM uranium and stratigraphically overlies the Relief Peak Formation. It is permeable and contains abundant alkali metals and volcanic glass. Because of its petrology, geochemistry, and position, this formation is the most likely source for uranium mineralization of the Sonora Pass region. It should be examined as a potential source rock in other areas with special regard to its relationship to carbonaceous sedimentary formations. The uraniferous granite pegmatitite dike that crops out in the Niagara Creek area appears too small to be a significant source rock. The most favorable rocks in the Sonora Pass region occur near the Juniper Mine and west of it, in the Dardanelles, the Whittakers Dardanelles, and the area of the Big Meadow Quadrangle. Potential uranium host rocks crop out in areas along the crest of the Sierra Nevada from Lake Tahoe to Yosemite.

  16. Favorable glycemic response of type 2 diabetics to low-calorie cranberry juice.

    PubMed

    Wilson, T; Meyers, S L; Singh, A P; Limburg, P J; Vorsa, N

    2008-11-01

    Fruit and vegetable intake is typically low for type 2 diabetics, possibly due to a perceived adverse effect on glycemic control. Cranberry juice (CBJ) may represent an attractive means for increasing fruit intake and simultaneously affording positive health benefits. This single cross-over design compared metabolic responses of type 2 diabetics (n= 12) to unsweetened low-calorie CBJ (LCCBJ; 19 Cal/240 mL), carbohydrate sweetened normal calorie CBJ (NCCBJ; 120 Cal/240 mL), isocaloric low-calorie sugar water control (LCC), and isocaloric normal calorie sugar water control (NCC) interventions. CBJ flavonols and anthocyanins, and proanthocyanidins were quantified with HPLC, LC-MS, and MALDI-TOF that includes an original characterization of several large oligomeric proanthocyanidins. Blood glucose peaked 30 min postingestion after NCCBJ and NCC at 13.3 +/- 0.5 and 12.8 +/- 0.9 (mmol/L), and these responses were significantly greater than the LCCBJ and LCC peaks of 8.1 +/- 0.5 and 8.7 +/- 0.5, respectively. Differences in glycemic response remained significant 60 min, but not 120 min postingestion. Plasma insulin values 60 min postingestion for NCCBJ and NCC interventions were 140 +/- 19 and 151 +/- 18 (pmol/L), respectively, and significantly greater than the LCCBJ and LCC values of 56 +/- 10 and 54 +/- 10; differences were not significant 120 min postingestion. Metabolic responses within the 2 high and 2 low-calorie beverages were virtually identical; however, exposure to potentially beneficial nutrients was greater with CBJ. Relative to conventionally sweetened preparation, LCCBJ provides a favorable metabolic response and should be useful for promoting increased fruit consumption among type 2 diabetics or others wishing to limit carbohydrate intake.

  17. UVB radiation as a potential selective factor favoring microcystin producing bloom forming Cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yi; Song, Lirong; Sedmak, Bojan

    2013-01-01

    Due to the stratospheric ozone depletion, several organisms will become exposed to increased biologically active UVB (280-320 nm) radiation, not only at polar but also at temperate and tropical latitudes. Bloom forming cyanobacteria are exposed to UVB radiation on a mass scale, particularly during the surface bloom and scum formation that can persist for long periods of time. All buoyant species of cyanobacteria are at least periodically exposed to higher irradiation during their vertical migration to the surface that usually occurs several times a day. The aim of this study is to assess the influence on cyanobacteria of UVB radiation at realistic environmental intensities. The effects of two UVB intensities of 0.5 and 0.99 W/m(2) in up to 0.5 cm water depth were studied in vitro on Microcystis aeruginosa strains, two microcystin producing and one non-producing. After UVB exposure their ability to proliferate was estimated by cell counting, while cell fitness and integrity were evaluated using light microscopy, autofluorescence and immunofluorescence. Gene damage was assessed by TUNEL assay and SYBR Green staining of the nucleoide area. We conclude that UVB exposure causes damage to the genetic material, cytoskeletal elements, higher sedimentation rates and consequent cell death. In contrast to microcystin producers (PCC7806 and FACHB905), the microcystin non-producing strain PCC7005 is more susceptible to the deleterious effects of radiation, with weak recovery ability. The ecological relevance of the results is discussed using data from eleven years' continuous UVB radiation measurements within the area of Ljubljana city (Slovenia, Central Europe). Our results suggest that increased solar radiation in temperate latitudes can have its strongest effect during cyanobacterial bloom formation in spring and early summer. UVB radiation in this period may significantly influence strain composition of cyanobacterial blooms in favor of microcystin producers.

  18. Leishmania donovani-Induced Increase in Macrophage Bcl-2 Favors Parasite Survival

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Rajeev Kumar; Mehrotra, Sanjana; Sharma, Smriti; Gudde, Ramachandra Subbaraya; Sundar, Shyam; Shaha, Chandrima

    2016-01-01

    Members of the Bcl-2 family are major regulators of apoptosis in mammalian cells, and hence infection-induced perturbations in their expression could result into elimination of the parasites or creation of a niche favoring survival. In this investigation, we uncover a novel role of host Bcl-2 in sustaining Leishmania donovani infection. A rapid twofold increase in Bcl-2 expression occurred in response to parasite challenge. Downregulation of post infection Bcl-2 increase using siRNA or functional inhibition using Bcl-2 small molecule inhibitors interfered with intracellular parasite survival confirming the necessity of elevated Bcl-2 during infection. An increased nitric oxide (NO) response and reduced parasitic burden was observed upon Bcl-2 inhibition, where restitution of the NO response accounted for parasite mortality. Mechanistic insights revealed a major role of elevated Th2 cytokine IL-13 in parasite-induced Bcl-2 expression via the transcription factor STAT-3, where blocking at the level of IL-13 receptor or downstream kinase JAK-2 dampened Bcl-2 induction. Increase in Bcl-2 was orchestrated through Toll like receptor (TLR)-2-MEK-ERK signaling, and changes in TLR-2 levels affected parasite uptake. In a mouse model of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), Bcl-2 inhibitors partially restored the antimicrobial NO response by at least a twofold increase that resulted in significantly reduced parasite burden. Interestingly, monocytes derived from the peripheral blood of six out of nine human VL subjects demonstrated Bcl-2 expression at significantly higher levels, and sera from these patients showed only marginally quantifiable nitrites. Collectively, our study for the first time reveals a pro-parasitic role of host Bcl-2 and the capacity of host-derived IL-13 to modulate NO levels during infection via Bcl-2. Here, we propose Bcl-2 inhibition as a possible therapeutic intervention for VL. PMID:27826299

  19. Assessment of pathological prostate cancer characteristics in men with favorable biopsy features on predominantly sextant biopsy.

    PubMed

    Chun, Felix K-H; Suardi, Nazareno; Capitanio, Umberto; Jeldres, Claudio; Ahyai, Sascha; Graefen, Markus; Haese, Alexander; Steuber, Thomas; Erbersdobler, Andreas; Montorsi, Francesco; Huland, Hartwig; Karakiewicz, Pierre I

    2009-03-01

    The rate of insignificant prostate cancer (IPCa) is increasing. To examine three end points in patients with a single, positive core and no high-grade prostate cancer (PCa) at biopsy, namely (1) rate of clinical IPCa at radical prostatectomy (RP), defined as organ-confined PCa with a Gleason score of 6 or lower and tumor volume<0.5 cc; (2) rate of pathologically unfavorable PCa at RP (Gleason 7-10 or non-organ-confined disease); and (3) ability to predict either insignificant or unfavorable PCa at RP. Retrospective analysis of 209 men with one positive biopsy core showing Gleason 6 or lower. : Detailed clinical and RP data were used in multivariable logistic regression models. Their bias-corrected accuracy estimates were quantified using the area under the curve (AUC) method. At RP, IPCa was present in 28 patients (13.4%) and pathologically unfavorable PCa, defined as Gleason 7 or higher or non-organ-confined PCa, was reported in 70 (33.5%) of 209 men; when Gleason 8 or higher or non-organ-confined PCa was considered, the proportion fell to 11%. Our multivariable models predicting different categories of pathologically unfavorable PCa at RP had an accuracy rate between 56% and 68% for predicting IPCa at RP versus 65.1% to 66.1% and 61.7% for the IPCa nomograms of Kattan et al and Nakanishi et al, respectively. Our data are not applicable to screening because they originate from a referral population. Despite highly favorable biopsy features, between 11% and 33% of men had unfavorable PCa at RP and only a minority (13.4%) had pathologically confirmed IPCa. Neither clinically insignificant nor pathologically unfavorable features could be predicted with sufficient accuracy for clinical decision making.

  20. Chronic Voluntary Ethanol Consumption Induces Favorable Ceramide Profiles in Selectively Bred Alcohol-Preferring (P) Rats

    PubMed Central

    Godfrey, Jessica; Jeanguenin, Lisa; Castro, Norma; Olney, Jeffrey J.; Dudley, Jason; Pipkin, Joseph; Walls, Stanley M.; Wang, Wei; Herr, Deron R.; Harris, Greg L.; Brasser, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    alcohol-preferring P rats as a result of chronic voluntary exposure may have favorable vs. detrimental effects on lipid profiles in this genetic line, consistent with data supporting beneficial cardioprotective and neuroprotective effects of moderate ethanol consumption. PMID:26405804

  1. A better surgical resectability of WHO grade II gliomas is independent of favorable molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Cordier, Dominik; Gozé, Catherine; Schädelin, Sabine; Rigau, Valérie; Mariani, Luigi; Duffau, Hugues

    2015-01-01

    A higher extent of resection (EOR) in WHO grade II gliomas (GIIG) is correlated with longer survival. However, the molecular markers also feature prognostic relevance. Here, we examined whether maximal EOR was related to the genetic profile. We retrospectively investigated the predictive value of 1p19q, IDH1, 53 expression and Ki67 index for the EOR in 200 consecutive GIIGs (2007-2013). Data were modeled in a linear model. The analysis was performed with two statistical methods (arcsin-sqrt and Beta-regression model with logit link). There was no deletion 1p19q in 118 cases, codeletion 1p19q (57 cases), single deletion 1p (4 cases) or19q (16 cases). 155 patients had a mutation of IDH1. p53 was graded in 4 degrees (0:92 cases, 1:52 cases, 2:31 cases, 3:8 cases). Mean Ki67 index was 5.2 % (range 1-20 %). Mean preoperative tumor volume was 60.8 cm(3) (range 3.3-250 cm(3)) and mean EOR was 0.917 (range 0.574-1). The statistical analysis was significant for a lower EOR in patients with codeletion 1p19q (OR 0.738, p = 0.0463) and with a single deletion 19q (OR 0.641, p = 0.0168). There was no significant correlation between IDH1 or p53 and the EOR. Higher Ki67 was marginally associated with higher EOR (p = 0.0603). The study demonstrates in a large cohort of GIIG that a higher EOR is not attributable to favorable genetic markers. This original result supports maximal surgical resection as an important therapeutic factor per se to optimize prognosis, independently of the molecular pattern.

  2. Resection of ictal high-frequency oscillations leads to favorable surgical outcome in pediatric epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Fujiwara, Hisako; Greiner, Hansel M.; Lee, Ki Hyeong; Holland-Bouley, Katherine D.; Seo, Joo Hee; Arthur, Todd; Mangano, Francesco T.; Leach, James L.; Rose, Douglas F.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Purpose Intracranial electroencephalography (EEG) is performed as part of an epilepsy surgery evaluation when noninvasive tests are incongruent or the putative seizure-onset zone is near eloquent cortex. Determining the seizure-onset zone using intracranial EEG has been conventionally based on identification of specific ictal patterns with visual inspection. High-frequency oscillations (HFOs, >80 Hz) have been recognized recently as highly correlated with the epileptogenic zone. However, HFOs can be difficult to detect because of their low amplitude. Therefore, the prevalence of ictal HFOs and their role in localization of epileptogenic zone on intracranial EEG are unknown. Methods We identified 48 patients who underwent surgical treatment after the surgical evaluation with intracranial EEG, and 44 patients met criteria for this retrospective study. Results were not used in surgical decision making. Intracranial EEG recordings were collected with a sampling rate of 2,000 Hz. Recordings were first inspected visually to determine ictal onset and then analyzed further with time-frequency analysis. Forty-one (93%) of 44 patients had ictal HFOs determined with time-frequency analysis of intracranial EEG. Key Findings Twenty-two (54%) of the 41 patients with ictal HFOs had complete resection of HFO regions, regardless of frequency bands. Complete resection of HFOs (n = 22) resulted in a seizure-free outcome in 18 (82%) of 22 patients, significantly higher than the seizure-free outcome with incomplete HFO resection (4/19, 21%). Significance Our study shows that ictal HFOs are commonly found with intracranial EEG in our population largely of children with cortical dysplasia, and have localizing value. The use of ictal HFOs may add more promising information compared to interictal HFOs because of the evidence of ictal propagation and followed by clinical aspect of seizures. Complete resection of HFOs is a favorable prognostic indicator for surgical outcome. PMID

  3. Design of a novel chimeric tissue plasminogen activator with favorable Vampire bat plasminogen activator properties.

    PubMed

    Kazemali, MohammadReza; Majidzadeh-A, Keivan; Sardari, Soroush; Saadatirad, Amir Hossein; Khalaj, Vahid; Zarei, Najmeh; Barkhordari, Farzaneh; Adeli, Ahmad; Mahboudi, Fereidoun

    2014-12-01

    Fibrinolytic agents are widely used in treatment of the thromboembolic disorders. The new generations like recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA, alteplase) are not showing promising results in clinical practice in spite of displaying specific binding to fibrin in vitro. Vampire bat plasminogen activator (b-PA) is a plasminogen activator with higher fibrin affinity and specificity in comparison to t-PA resulting in reduced probability of hemorrhage. b-PA is also resistant to plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) showing higher half-life compared to other variants of t-PA. However, its non-human origin was a driving force to design a human t-PA with favorable properties of b-PA. In the present study, we designed a chimeric t-PA with desirable b-PA properties and this new molecule was called as CT-b. The construct was prepared through kringle 2 domain removal and replacement of t-PA finger domain with b-PA one. In addition, the KHRR sequence at the initial part of protease domain was replaced by four alanine residues. The novel construct was integrated in Pichia pastoris genome by electroporation. Catalytic activity was investigated in the presence and absence of fibrin. The purified protein was analyzed by western blot. Fibrin binding and PAI resistance assays were also conducted. The activity of the recombinant protein in the presence of fibrin was 1560 times more than its activity in the absence of fibrin, showing its higher specificity to fibrin. The fibrin binding of CT-b was 1.2 fold more than t-PA. In addition, it was inhibited by PAI enzyme 44% less than t-PA. Although the presented data demonstrate a promising in vitro activity, more in vivo studies are needed to confirm the therapeutic advantage of this novel plasminogen activator.

  4. Time-Based Partitioning Model for Predicting Neurologically Favorable Outcome among Adults with Witnessed Bystander Out-of-Hospital CPA

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Toshikazu; Tokuda, Yasuharu; Cook, E. Francis

    2011-01-01

    Background Optimal acceptable time intervals from collapse to bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) for neurologically favorable outcome among adults with witnessed out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA) have been unclear. Our aim was to assess the optimal acceptable thresholds of the time intervals of CPR for neurologically favorable outcome and survival using a recursive partitioning model. Methods and Findings From January 1, 2005 through December 31, 2009, we conducted a prospective population-based observational study across Japan involving consecutive out-of-hospital CPA patients (N = 69,648) who received a witnessed bystander CPR. Of 69,648 patients, 34,605 were assigned to the derivation data set and 35,043 to the validation data set. Time factors associated with better outcomes: the better outcomes were survival and neurologically favorable outcome at one month, defined as category one (good cerebral performance) or two (moderate cerebral disability) of the cerebral performance categories. Based on the recursive partitioning model from the derivation dataset (n = 34,605) to predict the neurologically favorable outcome at one month, 5 min threshold was the acceptable time interval from collapse to CPR initiation; 11 min from collapse to ambulance arrival; 18 min from collapse to return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC); and 19 min from collapse to hospital arrival. Among the validation dataset (n = 35,043), 209/2,292 (9.1%) in all patients with the acceptable time intervals and 1,388/2,706 (52.1%) in the subgroup with the acceptable time intervals and pre-hospital ROSC showed neurologically favorable outcome. Conclusions Initiation of CPR should be within 5 min for obtaining neurologically favorable outcome among adults with witnessed out-of-hospital CPA. Patients with the acceptable time intervals of bystander CPR and pre-hospital ROSC within 18 min could have 50% chance of neurologically favorable outcome. PMID:22194860

  5. Oxygen limitation favors the production of protein with antimicrobial activity in Pseudoalteromonas sp

    PubMed Central

    López, Ruth; Monteón, Víctor; Chan, Ernesto; Montejo, Rubí; Chan, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effect of dissolved oxygen concentration on the production of biomass and metabolites with antimicrobial activity of Pseudoalteromonas sp cultured at 0, 150, 250, or 450 revolutions per minute (rev. min-1). Dissolved oxygen (D.O) was monitored during the fermentation process, biomass was quantified by dry weight, and antimicrobial activity was assessed using the disk diffusion method. The bacterium Pseudoalteromonas reached similar concentration of biomass under all experimental agitation conditions, whereas antimicrobial activity was detected at 0 and 150 rev. min-1 registering 0% and 12% of D.O respectively corresponding to microaerophilic conditions. Antibiotic activity was severely diminished when D.O was above 20% of saturation; this corresponded to 250 or 450 rev. min-1. SDS-PAGE electrophoresis revealed a protein with a molecular weight of approximately 80 kilodaltons (kDa) with antimicrobial activity. Pseudoalteromonas is capable of growing under oxic and microaerophilic conditions but the metabolites with antimicrobial activity are induced under microaerophilic conditions. The current opinion is that Pseudoalteromonas are aerobic organisms; we provide additional information on the amount of dissolved oxygen during the fermentation process and its effect on antimicrobial activity. PMID:24031945

  6. High expression of HLA-E in colorectal carcinoma is associated with a favorable prognosis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)-E is a non-classical class I HLA molecule that can be stabilized by ligands donated by other classical (HLA-A, -B, -C) and non-classical (HLA-G) family members. HLA-E engages a variety of immune receptors expressed by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), Natural killer (NK) cells and NK-CTLs. In view of the opposing outcomes (activation or inhibition) of the different HLA-E receptors, the preferred role (if any) of HLA-E expressed in vivo on tumor cells remains to be established. Methods Taking advantage of MEM-E/02, a recently characterized antibody to denatured HLA-E molecules, HLA-E expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry on an archival collection (formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded) of 149 colorectal primary carcinoma lesions paired with their morphologically normal mucosae. Lymphoid infiltrates were assessed for the expression of the HLA-E-specific, inhibitory, non-rearranging receptor NKG2A. Results High HLA-E expression did not significantly correlate with the expression of classical HLA-B and HLA-C molecules, but it did correlate with high expression of its preferential ligand donor HLA-A. In addition, it correlated with lymphoid cell infiltrates expressing the inhibitory NKG2A receptor, and was an independent predictor of good prognosis, particularly in a subset of patients whose tumors express HLA-A levels resembling those of their paired normal counterparts (HLA-A). Thus, combination phenotypes (HLA-Elo-int/HLA-AE and HLA-Ehi/HLA-AE) of classical and non-classical class I HLA molecules mark two graded levels of good prognosis. Conclusions These results suggest that HLA-E favors activating immune responses to colorectal carcinoma. They also provide evidence in humans that tumor cells entertain extensive negotiation with the immune system until a compromise between recognition and escape is reached. It is implied that this process occurs stepwise, as predicted by the widely accepted 'immunoediting' model. PMID

  7. Fault barriers favor activation of backthrusts near segment ends of megathrust ruptures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, S.; Fukuyama, E.; Ben-Zion, Y.; Ampuero, J. P.

    2013-12-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that backthrusts may become active during or after megathrust ruptures in subduction zones, such as in Chile and Sumatra areas (Melnick et al., 2012; Singh et al., 2011). Previous studies on relevant mechanisms mainly focused on the interaction between forethrusts and the megathrust. Here we aim to investigate through dynamic rupture simulations how backthrusts may be activated by megathrust ruptures in subduction zone environment. Assuming a single backthrust branch, our preliminary results show that the activation of backthrust is difficult if the megathrust rupture can easily pass through the fault junction, owing to a quickly established stress shadow zone in the wake of the megathrust rupture front. In contrast, if the megathrust rupture is arrested or delayed around the junction, a resultant backward stress lobe of the type discussed by Xu and Ben-Zion (2013) can load the backthrust over a considerable amount of time and facilitates rupture activation along the backthrust. A number of candidates can serve to arrest or delay megathrust ruptures, such as the velocity-strengthening frictional behavior and off-fault weak materials in the shallow portion of subduction zones, fault bend or ramp, and subducted seamount. Moreover, these features are also found capable of generating backthrusts during the long-term quasi-static process, which provide pre-existing weakness to be reactivated by later dynamic ruptures. Our results agree, from a different point of view, with the study based on the critical taper theory (Cubas et al., 2013) that an increase of friction towards the trench favors the activation of backthrusts near the up-dip limit of megathrust ruptures. The results highlight the role of fault geometric or strength heterogeneities in controlling the strain partitioning on and off the main fault plane. Accordingly, activated backthrusts may be treated as markers that reflect the limits of seismogenic zones, and thus may be used

  8. Long-term prognosis of clinically early IgA nephropathy is not always favorable

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The long-term prognosis of clinically early IgA nephropathy (IgAN) patients remains to be clarified. We investigated the long-term outcomes of IgAN patients with an apparently benign presentation and evaluated prognostic factors for renal survival. Methods We included patients with biopsy-proven IgAN who had estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2, normal blood pressure, and proteinuria <0.5 g/day at the time of biopsy. The primary outcome was progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The secondary outcome was a 50% increase in serum creatinine level or an increase in proteinuria to >1 g/day. Results The analysis included 153 patients who met the inclusion criteria. At diagnosis, their median systolic blood pressure was 120 (110–130) mmHg, eGFR was 85.9 (74.9–100.1) mL/min/1.73 m2, and proteinuria was 0.25 (0.13–0.38) g/day. Of these, 4 patients died and 6 reached ESRD. The 30-year renal survival rate was 85.5%. Three patients had increased serum creatinine levels and 11 developed proteinuria. Remission was observed in 35 (22.9%) patients. A moderate or severe degree of interstitial fibrosis (adjusted odd ratio [OR] 5.93, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.44–24.45, P = 0.014) and hypoalbuminemia (adjusted OR 6.18, 95% CI 1.20–31.79, P = 0.029) were independent predictors of the secondary outcome. Conclusions This study showed that the prognosis of early IgAN was not always favorable, even resulting in progression to ESRD in some cases. Hypoalbuminemia and interstitial fibrosis should also be considered important prognostic factors in clinically early IgAN patients. PMID:24946688

  9. Are Press Depictions of Affordable Care Act Beneficiaries Favorable to Policy Durability?

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    status, age, gender, and race/ethnicity appear to receive little attention. Existing literature suggests that these portrayal patterns may both support and limit ACA durability. In favor of durability is that ACA beneficiaries are depicted in terms that have been associated with deservingness in past American social policy--particularly being cast as workers and insiders. Yet, the results also give three reasons for caution. First, ACA insurance-losers are also portrayed as deserving. Second, it is unclear how the portrayal patterns found may impact the durability of the ACA's efforts to cut insurance disparities by age, health status, and especially race/ethnicity. Third, portrayals' strong casting of beneficiaries as workers, and limited attention to beneficiaries' economic heterogeneity and to young adults, may do little to help cultivate beneficiary political engagement around the ACA.

  10. Favorable pressure gradient turbulent flow over straight and inclined ribs on both channel walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tachie, Mark F.; Shah, Mohammad K.

    2008-09-01

    This paper reports on experimental study of turbulent flows over straight and inclined transverse ribs of square and triangular cross sections attached to the bottom and top walls of an asymmetric converging channel. The pitch-to-height ratio of the ribs was 10. A particle image velocimetry technique was used to conduct extensive velocity measurements at channel midspan and in planes close to the leading and trailing edges of the inclined ribs. From these measurements, spatial averaged profiles of the mean velocity and higher order statistics were obtained to study the effects of rib geometry, pressure gradient, spanwise plane, and rib inclination on the flow characteristics. The results show that rib geometry has no significant effects on the mean flow and turbulent quantities. The roughness effects produced by the straight ribs outweighed pressure gradient effects in the inner region of the flow. As a result, the skin friction coefficient is nearly independent of pressure gradient. The Reynolds shear stress and turbulent transport of the shear stress are also independent of pressure gradient. On the contrary, favorable pressure gradient decreased the Reynolds normal stresses in the outer region and increased the magnitudes of the triple velocity correlations and transport of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE). The three-dimensional secondary motion produced by the inclined ribs distorted the mean flow pattern and substantially diminished the ribs' effectiveness to augment skin friction and turbulence. For example, the skin friction over the inclined ribs is only 50%-70% of the value measured over the straight ribs. Furthermore, the size of equivalent sand grain required to produce the same amount of drag is one-tenth to one-third of the rib height for the inclined ribs compared to two- to fourfold for the straight ribs. The inclined ribs also reduced the level of the Reynolds stresses, triple velocity correlations, and transport of both the turbulent kinetic energy

  11. Are human embryos Kantian persons?: Kantian considerations in favor of embryonic stem cell research

    PubMed Central

    Manninen, Bertha Alvarez

    2008-01-01

    paper by drawing from Allen Wood's work in Kantian philosophy in order to generate an argument in favor of hESCR. PMID:18237425

  12. Translation-rotation decoupling of tracers of locally favorable structures in glass-forming liquids.

    PubMed

    Park, Yoonjae; Kim, Jeongmin; Sung, Bong June

    2017-09-28

    Particles in glass-forming liquids may form domains of locally favorable structures (LFSs) upon supercooling. Whether and how the LFS domains would relate to the slow relaxation of the glass-forming liquids have been issues of interest. In this study, we employ tracers of which structures resemble the LFS domains in Wahnström and Kob-Andersen (KA) glass-forming liquids and investigate the translation-rotation decoupling of the tracers. We find that the tracer structure affects how the translation and the rotation of tracers decouple and that information on the local mobility around the LFS domains may be gleaned from the tracer dynamics. According to the Stokes-Einstein relation and the Debye-Stokes-Einstein relation, the ratio of the translational (DT) and rotational (DR) diffusion coefficients is expected to be a constant over a range of T/η, where η and T denote the medium viscosity and temperature, respectively. In supercooled liquids and glasses, however, DT and DR decouple due to dynamic heterogeneity, thus DT/DR not being constant any more. In Wahnström glass-forming liquids, icosahedron LFS domains are the most long-lived ones and the mobility of neighbor particles around the icosahedron LFS domain is suppressed. We find from our simulations that the icosahedron tracers, similar in size and shape to the icosahedron LFS domains, experience drastic translation-rotation decoupling upon cooling. The local mobility of liquid particles around the icosahedron tracers is also suppressed significantly. On the other hand, tracers of FCC and HCP structures do not show translation-rotation decoupling in the Wahnström liquid. In KA glass-forming liquids, bicapped square antiprism LFS domains are the most long-lived LFS domains but are not correlated significantly with the local mobility. We find from our simulations that DT and DR of bicapped square antiprism tracers, also similar in size and shape to the bicapped square antiprism LFS domains, do not decouple

  13. Thyroid hormone can favorably remodel the diabetic myocardium after acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Kalofoutis, Christos; Mourouzis, Iordanis; Galanopoulos, Georgios; Dimopoulos, Antonios; Perimenis, Philippos; Spanou, Danai; Cokkinos, Dennis V; Singh, Jaipaul; Pantos, Constantinos

    2010-12-01

    It has been previously shown that regulators of physiological growth such as thyroid hormone (TH) can favorably remodel the post ischaemic myocardium. Here, we further explored whether this effect can be preserved in the presence of co-morbidities such as diabetes which accelerates cardiac remodeling and increases mortality after myocardial infarction. Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) was induced by left coronary ligation in rats with type I diabetes (DM) induced by streptozotocin administration (STZ; 35 mg/kg; i.p.) while sham-operated animals served as controls (SHAM). AMI resulted in distinct changes in cardiac function and geometry; EF% was significantly decreased in DM-AMI [37.9 ± 2.0 vs. 74.5 ± 2.1 in DM-SHAM]. Systolic and diastolic chamber dimensions were increased without concomitant increase in wall thickness and thus, wall tension index [WTI, the ratio of (Left Ventricular Internal Diameter at diastole)/2*(Posterior Wall thickness)], an index of wall stress, was found to be significantly increased in DM-AMI; 2.27 ± 0.08 versus 1.70 ± 0.05. 2D-Strain echocardiographic analysis showed reduced systolic radial strain in all segments, indicating increased loss of cardiac myocytes in the infarct related area and less compensatory hypertrophy in the viable segments. This response was accompanied by a marked decrease in the expression of TRα1 and TRβ1 receptors in the diabetic myocardium without changes in circulating T3 and T4. Accordingly, the expression of TH target genes related to cardiac contractility was altered; β-MHC and PKCα were significantly increased. TH (L-T4 and L-T3) administration prevented these changes and resulted in increased EF%, normal wall stress and increased systolic radial strain in all myocardial segments. Acute myocardial infarction in diabetic rats results in TH receptor down-regulation with important physiological consequences. TH treatment prevents this response and improves cardiac hemodynamics.

  14. Are human embryos Kantian persons?: Kantian considerations in favor of embryonic stem cell research.

    PubMed

    Manninen, Bertha Alvarez

    2008-01-31

    paper by drawing from Allen Wood's work in Kantian philosophy in order to generate an argument in favor of hESCR.

  15. Fire disturbance disrupts an acacia ant-plant mutualism in favor of a subordinate ant species.

    PubMed

    Sensenig, Ryan L; Kimuyu, Duncan K; Ruiz Guajardo, Juan C; Veblen, Kari E; Riginos, Corinna; Young, Truman P

    2017-05-01

    Although disturbance theory has been recognized as a useful framework in examining the stability of ant-plant mutualisms, very few studies have examined the effects of fire disturbance on these mutualisms. In myrmecophyte-dominated savannas, fire and herbivory are key drivers that could influence ant-plant mutualisms by causing complete colony mortality and/or decreasing colony size, which potentially could alter dominance hierarchies if subordinate species are more fire resilient. We used a large-scale, replicated fire experiment to examine long-term effects of fire on acacia-ant community composition. To determine if fire shifted ant occupancy from a competitive dominant to a subordinate ant species, we surveyed the acacia-ant community in 6-7 yr old burn sites and examined how the spatial scale of these burns influenced ant community responses. We then used two short-term fire experiments to explore possible mechanisms for the shifts in community patterns observed. Because survival of ant colonies is largely dependent on their ability to detect and escape an approaching fire, we first tested the evacuation response of all four ant species when exposed to smoke (fire signal). Then to better understand how fire and its interaction with large mammal herbivory affect the density of ants per tree, we quantified ant worker density in small prescribed burns within herbivore exclusion plots. We found clear evidence suggesting that fire disturbance favored the subordinate ant Crematogaster nigriceps more than the dominant and strong mutualist ant C. mimosae, whereby C. nigriceps (1) was the only species to occupy a greater proportion of trees in 6-7 yr old burn sites compared to unburned sites, (2) had higher burn/unburn tree ratios with increasing burn size, and (3) evacuated significantly faster than C. mimosae in the presence of smoke. Fire and herbivory had opposite effects on ant density per meter of branch for both C. nigriceps and C. mimosae, with fire

  16. [Social politics against poverty and in favor of health in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Hamui-Sutton, Alicia; Irigoyen-Coria, Arnulfo; Gómez-Clavelina, Francisco Javier; Fernández-Ortega, Miguel Angel

    2006-01-01

    One of the biggest challenges that Mexico faces is to fight against the poverty. The transition of a characteristic welfare model from the government in a closed economy, to an open economy where the functions of the State are limited, has modified the modalities of the social politics against poverty. Six indispensable conditions are identified for poverty's reduction: 1. Economic development with stability in order to generate more and better jobs for poor people. 2. To improve regional economies. 3. To improve home conditions of poor people. 4. To elevate education levels (to encourage an authentic heath education). 5. To diminish catastrophic expenses for health problems. 6. Technical training for all workers. The impact of poverty over health can provide valuable elements to establish effective preventive strategies on health workers.

  17. Early selection of black spruce seedlings and global change: Which genotypes should we favor

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Z.M.; Lechowicz, M.J.; Potvin, C. )

    1994-08-01

    The effects of both soil fertility and predicted changes in climate on growth of different families of black spruce, Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P., during the first growing season was studied. The results were used to examine whether reforestation programs should consider changing their preferred family lines in anticipation of altered performance given global climate change. We grew seedlings of 16 open-pollinated maternal families of black spruce under phytotron conditions simulating present and mid-21st century climatic conditions during the growing season. The realistic, simulated future climate included both elevated CO[sub 2] levels and seasonally appropriate increases in mean daily temperature. To explore the dependence of climatic responses on site quality, seedlings were irrigated with solutions having either 5 or 100 mg/L of nitrogen. The lower nitrogen level represents a poor site for black spruce growth and survival, but the higher level provides ample nitrogen. We also recorded seed size for each seedling to evaluate the degree to which maternal investments might buffer responses to future climate and fertility during the first year on the seedbed. Seedling survival and growth increase both under the future climate regime and with nitrogen fertilization. The two factors interacted synergistically, with nitrogen enrichment significantly enhancing the positive effects of the future climate regime. Nitrogen-poor conditions, however, did not preclude a positive seedling response to the future climate. Our results indicate that seedling survival and height growth are highly dependent upon initial seed mass, seed germination, and seedling, survival and growth, but their relative performances did not vary significantly among the treatments. These results suggest that black spruce families selected for rapid growth under present conditions will also do well in the future, at least in terms of early establishment and performance on sites regenerated by seeding.

  18. An impaired ubiquitin ligase complex favors initial growth of auxotrophic yeast strains in synthetic grape must.

    PubMed

    Mangado, Ana; Tronchoni, Jordi; Morales, Pilar; Novo, Maite; Quirós, Manuel; Gonzalez, Ramon

    2015-02-01

    We used experimental evolution in order to identify genes involved in the adaptation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to the early stages of alcoholic fermentation. Evolution experiments were run for about 200 generations, in continuous culture conditions emulating the initial stages of wine fermentation. We performed whole-genome sequencing of four adapted strains from three independent evolution experiments. Mutations identified in these strains pointed to the Rsp5p-Bul1/2p ubiquitin ligase complex as the preferred evolutionary target under these experimental conditions. Rsp5p is a multifunctional enzyme able to ubiquitinate target proteins participating in different cellular processes, while Bul1p is an Rsp5p substrate adaptor specifically involved in the ubiquitin-dependent internalization of Gap1p and other plasma membrane permeases. While a loss-of-function mutation in BUL1 seems to be enough to confer a selective advantage under these assay conditions, this did not seem to be the case for RSP5 mutated strains, which required additional mutations, probably compensating for the detrimental effect of altered Rsp5p activity on essential cellular functions. The power of this experimental approach is illustrated by the identification of four independent mutants, each with a limited number of SNPs, affected within the same pathway. However, in order to obtain information relevant for a specific biotechnological process, caution must be taken in the choice of the background yeast genotype (as shown in this case for auxotrophies). In addition, the use of very stable continuous fermentation conditions might lead to the selection of a rather limited number of adaptive responses that would mask other possible targets for genetic improvement.

  19. Transmission advantage favors selfing allele in experimental populations of self-incompatible Witheringia solanacea (Solanaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Judy L.; VanWyk, Emily J.; Hale, Jennifer R.

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of self-fertilization is one of the most commonly traversed transitions in flowering plants, with profound implications for population genetic structure and evolutionary potential. We investigated factors influencing this transition using Witheringia solanacea, a predominantly self-incompatible species within which self-compatible genotypes have been identified. We showed that self-compatibility in this species segregates with variation at the S-locus as inherited by plants in F1 and F2 generations. To examine reproductive assurance and the transmission advantage of selfing, we placed self-compatible and self-incompatible genotypes in genetically replicated gardens and monitored male and female reproductive success, as well as selfing rates of self-compatible plants. Self-compatibility did not lead to increased fruit or seed set, even under conditions of pollinator scarcity, and the realized selfing rate of self-compatible plants was less than 10%. Self-compatible plants had higher fruit abortion rates, consistent with previous evidence showing strong inbreeding depression at the embryonic stage. Although the selfing allele did not provide reproductive assurance under observed conditions, it also did not cause pollen discounting, so the transmission advantage of selfing should promote its spread. Given observed numbers of S-alleles and selfing rates, self-compatibility should spread even under conditions of exceedingly high initial inbreeding depression. PMID:24713065

  20. Transmission advantage favors selfing allele in experimental populations of self-incompatible Witheringia solanacea (solanaceae).

    PubMed

    Stone, Judy L; VanWyk, Emily J; Hale, Jennifer R

    2014-07-01

    The evolution of self-fertilization is one of the most commonly traversed transitions in flowering plants, with profound implications for population genetic structure and evolutionary potential. We investigated factors influencing this transition using Witheringia solanacea, a predominantly self-incompatible (SI) species within which self-compatible (SC) genotypes have been identified. We showed that self-compatibility in this species segregates with variation at the S-locus as inherited by plants in F1 and F2 generations. To examine reproductive assurance and the transmission advantage of selfing, we placed SC and SI genotypes in genetically replicated gardens and monitored male and female reproductive success, as well as selfing rates of SC plants. Self-compatibility did not lead to increased fruit or seed set, even under conditions of pollinator scarcity, and the realized selfing rate of SC plants was less than 10%. SC plants had higher fruit abortion rates, consistent with previous evidence showing strong inbreeding depression at the embryonic stage. Although the selfing allele did not provide reproductive assurance under observed conditions, it also did not cause pollen discounting, so the transmission advantage of selfing should promote its spread. Given observed numbers of S-alleles and selfing rates, self-compatibility should spread even under conditions of exceedingly high initial inbreeding depression.

  1. Consenting options for posthumous organ donation: presumed consent and incentives are not favored

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    less preferred mandated choice with medical incentive option (7[4,9] vs. 5[2,7], p < 0.001). There was no association between consenting options ranking scores and age, health status, education level, or knowing an organ donor or recipient. Conclusions We conclude that: 1) most respondents were in favor of posthumous organ donation, 2) mandated choice system was the most preferred and presumed consent system was the least preferred, 3) there was no difference between preference and perception of norm in consenting systems ranking, and 4) financial (especially in females) and medical (especially in males) incentives reduced preference. PMID:23173834

  2. Analysis of 4999 Online Physician Ratings Indicates That Most Patients Give Physicians a Favorable Rating

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Larry F; Kadry, Bayan; Gammas, Danya; Macario, Alex

    2011-01-01

    physician correlated with the other dimensions of care that were rated by patients for the same physician (Pearson correlation, r = .73, P < .001). Conclusions Most patients give physicians a favorable rating on online physician-rating sites. A single overall rating to evaluate physicians may be sufficient to assess a patient’s opinion of the physician. The optimal content and rating method that is useful to patients when visiting online physician-rating sites deserves further study. Conducting a qualitative analysis to compare the quantitative ratings would help validate the rating instruments used to evaluate physicians. PMID:22088924

  3. High expression of CD11c indicates favorable prognosis in patients with gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuan; Xu, Bin; Hu, Wen-Wei; Chen, Lu-Jun; Wu, Chang-Ping; Lu, Bin-Feng; Shen, Yue-Ping; Jiang, Jing-Ting

    2015-01-01

    : 0.23-0.67, P < 0.01) compared with patients with low CD11c expression after adjustment of potential confounders, with the exception of tumor size. However, the protective effect related to death (HR = 0.90, 95%CI: 0.49-1.67, P = 0.749) and relapse (HR = 0.65, 95%CI: 0.36-1.19, P = 0.160) disappeared when tumor size was incorporated into the model. CONCLUSION: High expression of CD11c decreased the risk of death and relapse, and may be regarded as an alternative indicator of favorable prognosis in patients with GC. PMID:26309367

  4. High expression of CD11c indicates favorable prognosis in patients with gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan; Xu, Bin; Hu, Wen-Wei; Chen, Lu-Jun; Wu, Chang-Ping; Lu, Bin-Feng; Shen, Yue-Ping; Jiang, Jing-Ting

    2015-08-21

    < 0.01) compared with patients with low CD11c expression after adjustment of potential confounders, with the exception of tumor size. However, the protective effect related to death (HR = 0.90, 95%CI: 0.49-1.67, P = 0.749) and relapse (HR = 0.65, 95%CI: 0.36-1.19, P = 0.160) disappeared when tumor size was incorporated into the model. High expression of CD11c decreased the risk of death and relapse, and may be regarded as an alternative indicator of favorable prognosis in patients with GC.

  5. The response of inorganic carbon distributions and dynamics to upwelling-favorable winds on the northern Gulf of Mexico during summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, W.-J.; Cai, W.-J.; Wang, Y.; Hu, X.; Chen, B.; Lohrenz, S. E.; Chakraborty, S.; He, R.; Brandes, J.; Hopkinson, C. S.

    2015-12-01

    Upwelling-favorable winds and an offshore-distributed Mississippi and Atchafalaya River plume trajectory were observed in summer 2009 in contrast to the mean conditions from 2002 to 2010 (upwelling-unfavorable winds and an alongshore river plume trajectory), a set of conditions which was also observed in summer 2007. The responses of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) distributions and dynamics to upwelling-favorable winds are studied by comparing the contrasting conditions between summer 2009 and summer 2007 on the northern Gulf of Mexico. Patterns of surface water partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2), DIC, δ13C in DIC, and total alkalinity (TA) determined in July 2009 and August 2007 were strongly related to river plume trajectories, and differed between the two summers. The slope of the relationship between dissolved oxygen (DO) and DIC in summer 2007 was comparable to the Redfield O/C ratio of 1.3, which was attributed to respiration of organic matter in the bottom water. The slope of the DO and DIC relationship and δ13CDIC values in bottom waters during July 2009 were clearly affected by mixing since their salinities were <35. A three end-member mixing model was used to remove mixing effects in (1) δ13CDIC, to estimate the organic source of respiration, and (2) in DIC concentrations, to calculate DIC removal and release. δ13CDIC results in both summers were consistent with an apparent release of DIC in hypoxic waters (DO less than 2 mg L-1) associated with respiration of surface organic matter. The area-weighted surface DIC removal (i.e., biological production) was lower in 2009 than in 2007 on the shelf, as the plume was distributed offshore. The release of DIC in bottom waters was higher over the shelf in 2009 and was surmised to be related to stronger mixing, which was favorable for the DO supply for respiration. Overall, surface waters on the continental shelf in the region of study in July 2009 acted as a weak CO2 source to the atmosphere, but a weak CO2 sink

  6. A case of isolated neck extensor myopathy responding favorably to immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Håvard; Bogaard, Pauline W; Oppel, Lorenz

    2013-12-01

    We report on a case of a 79-year-old man with dropped head syndrome, where diagnostic tests, ruling out other differential diagnoses, confirmed the relatively rarely occurring condition known as isolated neck extensor myopathy. Biopsy of the neck extensor musculature was with classical pronounced fibrosis, without signs of myositis. The patient was treated with 3 cycles of corticosteroids with pronounced clinical improvement of his symptoms. This emphasizes the importance of considering isolated neck extensor myopathy as a differential diagnosis when encountered with a patient with dropped head syndrome and the importance of trying therapy with corticosteroids even when myositis is absent.

  7. Chromosomal Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    ... unit (NICU) Birth defects & other health conditions Loss & grief Tools & Resources Frequently asked health questions Ask our ... experts Calculating your due date Ovulation calendar Order bereavement materials News Moms Need Blog News & Media News ...

  8. Polling Students about Conditions of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strom, Paris; Strom, Robert; Wing, Charlotte

    2008-01-01

    Online polling was examined as a procedure for decision makers to find out how students perceive conditions of learning at their school. Students in Grades 7-12 from eight schools completed online polls about learning on the Internet, time management, and tutoring. Principals favorably evaluated polling as a method for gathering information and…

  9. Aging impairs osteoblast differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells grown on titanium by favoring adipogenesis

    PubMed Central

    ABUNA, Rodrigo Paolo Flores; STRINGHETTA-GARCIA, Camila Tami; FIORI, Leonardo Pimentel; DORNELLES, Rita Cassia Menegati; ROSA, Adalberto Luiz; BELOTI, Marcio Mateus

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aging negatively affects bone/titanium implant interactions. Our hypothesis is that the unbalance between osteogenesis and adipogenesis induced by aging may be involved in this phenomenon. Objective We investigated the osteoblast and adipocyte differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from young and aged rats cultured on Ti. Material and Methods Bone marrow MSCs derived from 1-month and 21-month rats were cultured on Ti discs under osteogenic conditions for periods of up to 21 days and osteoblast and adipocyte markers were evaluated. Results Cell proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, extracellular matrix mineralization and gene expression of RUNX2, osterix, ALP, bone sialoprotein, osteopontin, and osteocalcin were reduced in cultures of 21-month rats compared with 1-month rats grown on Ti. Gene expression of PPAR-γ , adipocyte protein 2, and resistin and lipid accumulation were increased in cultures of 21-month rats compared with 1-month rats grown on the same conditions. Conclusions These results indicate that the lower osteogenic potential of MSCs derived from aged rats compared with young rats goes along with the higher adipogenic potential in cultures grown on Ti surface. This unbalance between osteoblast and adipocyte differentiation should be considered in dental implant therapy to the elderly population. PMID:27556209

  10. Ketamine Effects on Memory Reconsolidation Favor a Learning Model of Delusions

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Jennifer M.; Piggot, Jennifer S.; Turner, Danielle C.; Everitt, Jessica C.; Arana, Fernando Sergio; Morgan, Hannah L.; Milton, Amy L.; Lee, Jonathan L.; Aitken, Michael R. F.; Dickinson, Anthony; Everitt, Barry J.; Absalom, Anthony R.; Adapa, Ram; Subramanian, Naresh; Taylor, Jane R.; Krystal, John H.; Fletcher, Paul C.

    2013-01-01

    Delusions are the persistent and often bizarre beliefs that characterise psychosis. Previous studies have suggested that their emergence may be explained by disturbances in prediction error-dependent learning. Here we set up complementary studies in order to examine whether such a disturbance also modulates memory reconsolidation and hence explains their remarkable persistence. First, we quantified individual brain responses to prediction error in a causal learning task in 18 human subjects (8 female). Next, a placebo-controlled within-subjects study of the impact of ketamine was set up on the same individuals. We determined the influence of this NMDA receptor antagonist (previously shown to induce aberrant prediction error signal and lead to transient alterations in perception and belief) on the evolution of a fear memory over a 72 hour period: they initially underwent Pavlovian fear conditioning; 24 hours later, during ketamine or placebo administration, the conditioned stimulus (CS) was presented once, without reinforcement; memory strength was then tested again 24 hours later. Re-presentation of the CS under ketamine led to a stronger subsequent memory than under placebo. Moreover, the degree of strengthening correlated with individual vulnerability to ketamine's psychotogenic effects and with prediction error brain signal. This finding was partially replicated in an independent sample with an appetitive learning procedure (in 8 human subjects, 4 female). These results suggest a link between altered prediction error, memory strength and psychosis. They point to a core disruption that may explain not only the emergence of delusional beliefs but also their persistence. PMID:23776445

  11. Ketamine effects on memory reconsolidation favor a learning model of delusions.

    PubMed

    Corlett, Philip R; Cambridge, Victoria; Gardner, Jennifer M; Piggot, Jennifer S; Turner, Danielle C; Everitt, Jessica C; Arana, Fernando Sergio; Morgan, Hannah L; Milton, Amy L; Lee, Jonathan L; Aitken, Michael R F; Dickinson, Anthony; Everitt, Barry J; Absalom, Anthony R; Adapa, Ram; Subramanian, Naresh; Taylor, Jane R; Krystal, John H; Fletcher, Paul C

    2013-01-01

    Delusions are the persistent and often bizarre beliefs that characterise psychosis. Previous studies have suggested that their emergence may be explained by disturbances in prediction error-dependent learning. Here we set up complementary studies in order to examine whether such a disturbance also modulates memory reconsolidation and hence explains their remarkable persistence. First, we quantified individual brain responses to prediction error in a causal learning task in 18 human subjects (8 female). Next, a placebo-controlled within-subjects study of the impact of ketamine was set up on the same individuals. We determined the influence of this NMDA receptor antagonist (previously shown to induce aberrant prediction error signal and lead to transient alterations in perception and belief) on the evolution of a fear memory over a 72 hour period: they initially underwent Pavlovian fear conditioning; 24 hours later, during ketamine or placebo administration, the conditioned stimulus (CS) was presented once, without reinforcement; memory strength was then tested again 24 hours later. Re-presentation of the CS under ketamine led to a stronger subsequent memory than under placebo. Moreover, the degree of strengthening correlated with individual vulnerability to ketamine's psychotogenic effects and with prediction error brain signal. This finding was partially replicated in an independent sample with an appetitive learning procedure (in 8 human subjects, 4 female). These results suggest a link between altered prediction error, memory strength and psychosis. They point to a core disruption that may explain not only the emergence of delusional beliefs but also their persistence.

  12. The Bias in Favor of Venture Capital Finance in U.S. Entrepreneurial Education: At the Expense of Trade Credit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clement, Thomas; LeMire, Steven; Silvernagel, Craig

    2015-01-01

    The authors examine whether U.S. college-level entrepreneurship education demonstrates a bias favoring venture capital (VC) financing while marginalizing trade credit financing, and the resulting impact on entrepreneurship students. A sample of U.S. business textbooks and survey data from entrepreneurship students reveals a significant bias toward…

  13. Financial competing interests were associated with favorable conclusions and greater author productivity in nonsystematic reviews of neuraminidase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Adam G; Zhou, Xujuan; Hudgins, Joel; Arachi, Diana; Mandl, Kenneth D; Coiera, Enrico; Bourgeois, Florence T

    2016-12-01

    To characterize the conclusions and production of nonsystematic reviews about neuraminidase inhibitors relative to financial competing interests held by the authors. We searched for articles about neuraminidase inhibitors and influenza (January 2005 to April 2015), identifying nonsystematic reviews and grading them according to the favorable/nonfavorable presentation of evidence on safety and efficacy. We recorded financial competing interests disclosed in the reviews and from other articles written by their authors. We measured associations between competing interests, author productivity, and conclusions. Among 213 nonsystematic reviews, 138 (65%) presented favorable conclusions. Financial competing interests were identified for 26% (137/532) of authors; 51% (108/213) of reviews were associated with a financial competing interest. Reviews produced exclusively by authors with financial competing interests (33%; 71/213) were more likely to present favorable conclusions than reviews with no competing interests (risk ratio 1.27; 95% confidence interval 1.03-1.55). Authors with financial competing interests published more articles about neuraminidase inhibitors than their counterparts. Half of nonsystematic reviews about neuraminidase inhibitors included an author with a financial competing interest. Reviews produced exclusively by these authors were more likely to present favorable conclusions, and authors with financial competing interests published a greater number of reviews. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Development of intelligent model to determine favorable wheelchair tilt and recline angles for people with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jicheng; Jan, Yih-Kuen; Jones, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Machine-learning techniques have found widespread applications in bioinformatics. Such techniques provide invaluable insight on understanding the complex biomedical mechanisms and predicting the optimal individualized intervention for patients. In our case, we are particularly interested in developing an individualized clinical guideline on wheelchair tilt and recline usage for people with spinal cord injury (SCI). The current clinical practice suggests uniform settings to all patients. However, our previous study revealed that the response of skin blood flow to wheelchair tilt and recline settings varied largely among patients. Our finding suggests that an individualized setting is needed for people with SCI to maximally utilize the residual neurological function to reduce pressure ulcer risk. In order to achieve this goal, we intend to develop an intelligent model to determine the favorable wheelchair usage to reduce pressure ulcers risk for wheelchair users with SCI. In this study, we use artificial neural networks (ANNs) to construct an intelligent model that can predict whether a given tilt and recline setting will be favorable to people with SCI based on neurological functions and SCI injury history. Our results indicate that the intelligent model significantly outperforms the traditional statistical approach in accurately classifying favorable wheelchair tilt and recline settings. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study using intelligent models to predict the favorable wheelchair tilt and recline angles. Our methods demonstrate the feasibility of using ANN to develop individualized wheelchair tilt and recline guidance for people with SCI.

  15. Explaining financial and prosocial biases in favor of attractive people: Interdisciplinary perspectives from economics, social psychology, and evolutionary psychology.

    PubMed

    Maestripieri, Dario; Henry, Andrea; Nickels, Nora

    2017-01-01

    Financial and prosocial biases in favor of attractive adults have been documented in the labor market, in social transactions in everyday life, and in studies involving experimental economic games. According to the taste-based discrimination model developed by economists, attractiveness-related financial and prosocial biases are the result of preferences or prejudices similar to those displayed toward members of a particular sex, racial, ethnic, or religious group. Other explanations proposed by economists and social psychologists maintain that attractiveness is a marker of personality, intelligence, trustworthiness, professional competence, or productivity. Evolutionary psychologists have argued that attractive adults are favored because they are preferred sexual partners. Evidence that stereotypes about attractive people are causally related to financial or prosocial biases toward them is weak or nonexistent. Consistent with evolutionary explanations, biases in favor of attractive women appear to be more consistent or stronger than those in favor of attractive men, and biases are more consistently reported in interactions between opposite-sex than same-sex individuals. Evolutionary explanations also account for increased prosocial behavior in situations in which attractive individuals are simply bystanders. Finally, evolutionary explanations are consistent with the psychological, physiological, and behavioral changes that occur when individuals are exposed to potential mates, which facilitate the expression of courtship behavior and increase the probability of occurrence of mating. Therefore, multiple lines of evidence suggest that mating motives play a more important role in driving financial and prosocial biases toward attractive adults than previously recognized.

  16. The Bias in Favor of Venture Capital Finance in U.S. Entrepreneurial Education: At the Expense of Trade Credit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clement, Thomas; LeMire, Steven; Silvernagel, Craig

    2015-01-01

    The authors examine whether U.S. college-level entrepreneurship education demonstrates a bias favoring venture capital (VC) financing while marginalizing trade credit financing, and the resulting impact on entrepreneurship students. A sample of U.S. business textbooks and survey data from entrepreneurship students reveals a significant bias toward…

  17. Relationship between the Southeast Pacific Anticyclone and the upwelling favorable winds along the west coast of South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguirre, C.

    2016-02-01

    The Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems maintains high productive fisheries and marine ecosystems. In particular, the influence of the Southeast Pacific Anticyclone (SPA) results in predominantly southerly winds that sustain the Humboldt Upwelling System (HUS) along the west coast of South America. Under this classical picture, paleoclimatic reconstructions of winds using coastal marine sediments have often assumed that an increase in upwelling favorable winds equals to an intensified SPA through geostrophic adjustment. On the other hand, climate projections under warming scenarios show an increase of the upwelling intensity at the HUS south of 35ºS. Nevertheless, connection between changes in the SPA and upwelling favorable winds has not been considered in detail and Bakuńs hypothesis (i.e. alongshore winds intensified by strengthening the land-sea thermal difference in upwelling regions) has concentrated more attention. We use reanalysis data (CFSR), as well as historical and future simulations of 27 models of the CMIP5 project to investigate the relationship between the SPA and the upwelling favorable winds at several latitudes along the HUS during the upwelling season (Dec-Jan-Feb). Results show a significant relationship between the intensity of the SPA and the upwelling favorable winds south of 35ºS, but not further north. No significant relationship at lower latitudes is probably due to the frequent occurrence of a synoptic low-level jet, which is forced by an alongshore pressure gradient. Composite of the reanalysis data reveal that an increase of upwelling favorable winds at 30ºS is accompanied by an intensified SPA and an increment of the synoptic variability at the coast. In contrast, an increase of upwelling favorable winds at higher latitudes (south of 35ºS) is mainly due to a displacement of the SPA and a decrease of the synoptic variability at the coast is observed. The CMIP5 models show a positive tendency of the SPA intensity which produces an

  18. Preferential uptake of ribose by primitive cells might explain why RNA was favored over its analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohorille, Andrew; Wei, Chenyu

    perme-ation, even though it is non-negligibly populated in aqueous solution. The differences in free energy barrier between ribose and arabinose or xylose are due to stronger, highly cooperative, intramolecular interactions between consecutive exocyclic hydroxyl groups, which are stable in non-polar media, but rare in water. Most recently, we extended calculations of permeations to ribonucleosides and their anomers. We determined that, in contrast to sugars, permeation of membranes to these species is nearly identical. This is because sugars of nucleotides exist in the furanose rather than pyranose form. In this form intermolecular interactions between hydroxyl groups are not nearly as efficient for sterical reasons. Our results contribute to the discussion about autotrophic vs. heterotrophic origins of life. Chemical reactions inside protobiological vesicle required supply of organic material from the environment. What was the inventory of organics that must have been delivered to primitive cells is still being debated. According to the autotrophic hypothesis, ancestors of cells pro-duced complex organic molecules from simple substrates. In contrast, the heterotrophic model implies that protocells were able to utilize complex organics delivered from external sources. A possibility of sufficiently efficient uptake of molecules needed to build biopolymers provides an important argument supporting the heterotrophic hypothesis [3]. Viewed in the context of the "RNA world" hypothesis [4], which states that RNA molecules were the first biological poly-mers and acted as both catalysts of biochemical reactions and information storage systems, our results demonstrate that, in the absence of sophisticated mechanisms available to contemporary organisms for achieving selectivity during synthesis and transmembrane transport, preferential uptake of ribose by primitive cells might have provided a kinetic mechanism that favored its selective incorporation into nucleic acids and

  19. Neural Circuitry and Plasticity Mechanisms Underlying Delay Eyeblink Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, John H.; Steinmetz, Adam B.

    2011-01-01

    Pavlovian eyeblink conditioning has been used extensively as a model system for examining the neural mechanisms underlying associative learning. Delay eyeblink conditioning depends on the intermediate cerebellum ipsilateral to the conditioned eye. Evidence favors a two-site plasticity model within the cerebellum with long-term depression of…

  20. Neural Circuitry and Plasticity Mechanisms Underlying Delay Eyeblink Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, John H.; Steinmetz, Adam B.

    2011-01-01

    Pavlovian eyeblink conditioning has been used extensively as a model system for examining the neural mechanisms underlying associative learning. Delay eyeblink conditioning depends on the intermediate cerebellum ipsilateral to the conditioned eye. Evidence favors a two-site plasticity model within the cerebellum with long-term depression of…

  1. Prospective Benefit-Risk Monitoring of New Drugs for Rapid Assessment of Net Favorability in Electronic Health Care Data.

    PubMed

    Gagne, Joshua J; Bykov, Katsiaryna; Najafzadeh, Mehdi; Choudhry, Niteesh K; Martin, Diane P; Kahler, Kristijan H; Rogers, James R; Schneeweiss, Sebastian

    2015-12-01

    Benefit-risk assessment (BRA) methods can combine measures of benefits and risks into a single value. To examine BRA metrics for prospective monitoring of new drugs in electronic health care data. Using two electronic health care databases, we emulated prospective monitoring of three drugs (rofecoxib vs. nonselective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, prasugrel vs. clopidogrel, and denosumab vs. bisphosphonates) using a sequential propensity score-matched cohort design. We applied four BRA metrics: number needed to treat and number needed to harm; incremental net benefit (INB) with maximum acceptable risk; INB with relative-value-adjusted life-years; and INB with quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). We determined whether and when the bootstrapped 99% confidence interval (CI) for each metric excluded zero, indicating net favorability of one drug over the other. For rofecoxib, all four metrics yielded a negative value, suggesting net favorability of nonselective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs over rofecoxib, and the 99% CI for all but the number needed to treat and number needed to harm excluded the null during follow-up. For prasugrel, only the 99% CI for INB-QALY excluded the null, but trends in values over time were similar across the four metrics, suggesting overall net favorability of prasugrel versus clopidogrel. The 99% CI for INB-relative-value-adjusted life-years and INB-QALY excluded the null in the denosumab example, suggesting net favorability of denosumab over bisphosphonates. Prospective benefit-risk monitoring can be used to determine net favorability of a new drug in electronic health care data. In three examples, existing BRA metrics produced qualitatively similar results but differed with respect to alert generation. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Gauging the response to cardiac resynchronization therapy: The important interplay between predictor variables and definition of a favorable outcome.

    PubMed

    Petrovic, Milan; Petrovic, Marija; Milasinovic, Goran; Vujisic Tesic, Bosiljka; Trifunovic, Danijela; Petrovic, Olga; Nedeljkovic, Ivana; Petrovic, Ivana; Banovic, Marko; Boricic-Kostic, Marija; Petrovic, Jelena; Arena, Ross; Popovic, Dejana

    2017-03-01

    Selection of patients who are viable candidates for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), prediction of the response to CRT as well as an optimal definition of a favorable response, all require further exploration. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the interplay between the prediction of the response to CRT and the definition of a favorable outcome. Seventy patients who received CRT were included. All patients met current guideline criteria for CRT. Forty-three echocardiographic parameters were evaluated before CRT and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. M-mode, 2D echocardiography, and Doppler imaging were used to quantify left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic function, mitral regurgitation, right ventricular systolic function, pulmonary artery pressure, and myocardial mechanical dyssynchrony. The following definitions of a favorable CRT response were used: left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) improvement more >5% acutely following CRT, LVEF improvement >20% at 12-month follow-up, and a LV end-systolic volume (LVESV) decrease >15% at 12-month follow-up. For the LVEF improvement >5%, the best predictor was isovolumetric relaxation time (IVRT; P=.035). For improvement of LVEF >20%, the best predictors were left ventricular stroke index (LVSI; P=.044) and left ventricular fractional shortening (LVFS; P=.031). For the drop in left ventricular systolic volume (LVESV >15%), the best predictor was septal-to-lateral wall delay (ΔT) (P=.043, RR=1.023, 95% CI for RR=1.001-1.045). The definition of a favorable CRT response influenced the optimal predictor variable(s). Standardization of defining a favorable response to CRT is needed to guide clinical decision making processes. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Identification of favorable SNP alleles and candidate genes for traits related to early maturity via GWAS in upland cotton.

    PubMed

    Su, Junji; Pang, Chaoyou; Wei, Hengling; Li, Libei; Liang, Bing; Wang, Caixiang; Song, Meizhen; Wang, Hantao; Zhao, Shuqi; Jia, Xiaoyun; Mao, Guangzhi; Huang, Long; Geng, Dandan; Wang, Chengshe; Fan, Shuli; Yu, Shuxun

    2016-08-30

    Early maturity is one of the most important and complex agronomic traits in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L). To dissect the genetic architecture of this agronomically important trait, a population consisting of 355 upland cotton germplasm accessions was genotyped using the specific-locus amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) approach, of which a subset of 185 lines representative of the diversity among the accessions was phenotypically characterized for six early maturity traits in four environments. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was conducted using the generalized linear model (GLM) and mixed linear model (MLM). A total of 81,675 SNPs in 355 upland cotton accessions were discovered using SLAF-seq and were subsequently used in GWAS. Thirteen significant associations between eight SNP loci and five early maturity traits were successfully identified using the GLM and MLM; two of the 13 associations were common between the models. By computing phenotypic effect values for the associations detected at each locus, 11 highly favorable SNP alleles were identified for five early maturity traits. Moreover, dosage pyramiding effects of the highly favorable SNP alleles and significant linear correlations between the numbers of highly favorable alleles and the phenotypic values of the target traits were identified. Most importantly, a major locus (rs13562854) on chromosome Dt3 and a potential candidate gene (CotAD_01947) for early maturity were detected. This study identified highly favorable SNP alleles and candidate genes associated with early maturity traits in upland cotton. The results demonstrate that GWAS is a powerful tool for dissecting complex traits and identifying candidate genes. The highly favorable SNP alleles and candidate genes for early maturity traits identified in this study should be show high potential for improvement of early maturity in future cotton breeding programs.

  4. Recent tree cover increases in eastern China linked to low, declining human pressure, steep topography, and climatic conditions favoring tree growth

    PubMed Central

    Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2017-01-01

    Globally, the extent of forest continues to decline, however, some countries have increased their forest extent in recent years. China is one of these countries and has managed to increase their tree cover through huge reforestation and afforestation programs during recent decades as well as land abandonment dynamics. This study investigates tree cover change in the eastern half of China between 2000 and 2010 on three different scales, using random forest modeling of remote sensing data for tree cover in relation to environmental and anthropogenic predictor variables. Our results show that between the years 2000 and 2010 2,667,875 km2 experienced an increase in tree cover while 1,854,900 km2 experienced a decline in tree cover. The area experiencing ≥10% increase in tree cover is almost twice as large as the area with ≥10% drop in tree cover. There is a clear relation between topography and tree cover change with steeper and mid-elevation areas having a larger response on tree cover increase than other areas. Furthermore, human influence, change in population density, and actual evapotranspiration are also important factors in explaining where tree cover has changed. This study adds to the understanding of tree cover change in China, as it has focus on the entire eastern half of China on three different scales and how tree cover change is linked to topography and anthropogenic pressure. Though, our results show an increase in tree cover in China, this study emphasizes the importance of incorporating anthropogenic factors together with biodiversity protection into the reforestation and afforestation programs in the future. PMID:28591146

  5. Recent tree cover increases in eastern China linked to low, declining human pressure, steep topography, and climatic conditions favoring tree growth.

    PubMed

    Nüchel, Jonas; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2017-01-01

    Globally, the extent of forest continues to decline, however, some countries have increased their forest extent in recent years. China is one of these countries and has managed to increase their tree cover through huge reforestation and afforestation programs during recent decades as well as land abandonment dynamics. This study investigates tree cover change in the eastern half of China between 2000 and 2010 on three different scales, using random forest modeling of remote sensing data for tree cover in relation to environmental and anthropogenic predictor variables. Our results show that between the years 2000 and 2010 2,667,875 km2 experienced an increase in tree cover while 1,854,900 km2 experienced a decline in tree cover. The area experiencing ≥10% increase in tree cover is almost twice as large as the area with ≥10% drop in tree cover. There is a clear relation between topography and tree cover change with steeper and mid-elevation areas having a larger response on tree cover increase than other areas. Furthermore, human influence, change in population density, and actual evapotranspiration are also important factors in explaining where tree cover has changed. This study adds to the understanding of tree cover change in China, as it has focus on the entire eastern half of China on three different scales and how tree cover change is linked to topography and anthropogenic pressure. Though, our results show an increase in tree cover in China, this study emphasizes the importance of incorporating anthropogenic factors together with biodiversity protection into the reforestation and afforestation programs in the future.

  6. Use of generalized regression tree models to characterize vegetation favoring Anopheles albimanus breeding.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, J E; Epstein, L D; Rodriguez, M H; Rodriguez, A D; Rejmankova, E; Roberts, D R

    1997-03-01

    We propose the use of generalized tree models (GTMs) to analyze data from entomological field studies. Generalized tree models can be used to characterize environments with different mosquito breeding capacity. A GTM simultaneously analyzes a set of predictor variables (e.g., vegetation coverage) in relation to a response variable (e.g., counts of Anopheles albimanus larvae), and how it varies with respect to a set of criterion variables (e.g., presence of predators). The algorithm produces a treelike graphical display with its root at the top and 2 branches stemming down from each node. At each node, conditions on the value of predictors partition the observations into subgroups (environments) in which the relation between response and criterion variables is most homogeneous.

  7. [Phrenic nerve paralysis of obstetrical origin: favorable course using continuous positive airway pressure].

    PubMed

    Escande, B; Cerveau, C; Kuhn, P; Astruc, D; Daemgen, F; Messer, J

    2000-09-01

    Isolated diaphragmatic paralysis due to obstetrical factors is rare and therapeutic management modalities are not quite clear. A neonate born by breech delivery presented with respiratory distress due to isolated paralysis of the right hemidiaphragm. The clinical course was progressive, his condition worsening with oxygen supplementation. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) delivered via a nasal cannula was started in the one-month-old child, inducing gradual improvement towards recovery at the age of two months and a half. Non-invasive nasal CPAP should be proposed for the treatment of phrenic nerve obstetrical palsy before introducing more invasive ventilation techniques. Surgical plication should be delayed until the child reaches the age of at least three months.

  8. Aridity, not fire, favors nitrogen-fixing plants across tropical savanna and forest biomes.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, Adam F A; Staver, A Carla; Hedin, Lars O; Charles-Dominique, Tristan; Tourgee, Amy

    2016-09-01

    Tropical savannas are hypothesized to be hot spots of nitrogen-fixer diversity and activity because of the high disturbance and low nitrogen characteristic of savanna landscapes. Here we compare the abundances of nitrogen-fixing and non-fixing trees in both tropical savannas and tropical forests under climatically equivalent conditions, using plant inventory studies across 566 plots in South America and Africa. A single factor, aridity, explained 19-54% of the variance in fixer abundance, and unexpectedly was more important than fire frequency, biome, and continent. Nitrogen fixers were more abundant in arid environments; as a result, African savannas, which tend to be drier, were richer in nitrogen fixers than South American savannas. Fixer abundance converged on similar levels in forests in both continents. We conclude that climate plays a greater role than fire in determining the distribution of nitrogen fixers across tropical savanna and forest biomes.

  9. Nocturnal Propagating Thunderstorms May Favor Urban "Hot-Spots": A Model-Based Study over Minneapolis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganeshan, Manisha; Murtugudde, Raghu

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution WRF model sensitivity experiments are carried out (with and without urban land cover) to study urban impacts on nocturnal propagating thunderstorms over the city of Minneapolis. It is found that the storm spatial characteristics, especially the position of the storm cell, are appreciably altered by the presence of urban land cover. The most robust urban instability during stormy conditions is the enhanced surface convergence due to increased frictional drag. No urban impact is visible on the rainfall intensity simulated by the model. The frictional convergence, aided by the nocturnal Urban Heat Island (UHI), appears to be responsible for attracting propagating storms towards the urban center. Advanced modeling experiments are needed to quantify the mechanical and thermal influence along with similar studies in other cities to further investigate the urban impact on the frequency and trajectory of nocturnal propagating storms.

  10. Nocturnal Propagating Thunderstorms May Favor Urban "Hot-Spots": A Model-Based Study over Minneapolis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganeshan, Manisha; Murtugudde, Raghu

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution WRF model sensitivity experiments are carried out (with and without urban land cover) to study urban impacts on nocturnal propagating thunderstorms over the city of Minneapolis. It is found that the storm spatial characteristics, especially the position of the storm cell, are appreciably altered by the presence of urban land cover. The most robust urban instability during stormy conditions is the enhanced surface convergence due to increased frictional drag. No urban impact is visible on the rainfall intensity simulated by the model. The frictional convergence, aided by the nocturnal Urban Heat Island (UHI), appears to be responsible for attracting propagating storms towards the urban center. Advanced modeling experiments are needed to quantify the mechanical and thermal influence along with similar studies in other cities to further investigate the urban impact on the frequency and trajectory of nocturnal propagating storms.

  11. Why Do Slow Earthquakes Occur Favorably in Hot Subduction Zones? : 2D Numerical Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, T.; Schubnel, A.

    2014-12-01

    It is puzzling why slow earthquakes occur in hot subduction zones only. We study numerically how antigorite dehydration coupled with slip-induced dilatancy and thermal pressurization affects rupture behavior to solve the above puzzle. Recent related studies actually suggest importance of antigorite dehydration. We assume faulting in a 2D thermoporoelastic medium. The mineral reaction is assumed using a first order Arrhenius law. Nondimensional parameters important in the modeling are Su, Su' and X' according to our former study; Su' and Su are proportional to permeability and increase rate of slip-induced porosity. X' denotes volume change induced by the reaction. Our calculation shows that moment release rate and fault tip growth rate are smaller for larger values of Su, smaller values of X' or smaller values of Su'. These two rates are found to be negligibly small compared with the solutions for the dynamic elasticity analysis when Su>1 and X'<0 are satisfied. Slow sustained fault growth occurs for such values of Su and X'. This suggests that Su>1 and X'<0 are satisfied at hot subduction zones; the condition X'<0 is consistent with the reaction expected at hot subduction zones. In cold subduction zones however, antigorite dehydration will occur at depth greater than 60km, with -0.1condition Su<1 will be due to the fact that slip-dilatancy is more prohibited at larger depth.

  12. Cheatgrass is favored by warming but not CO2 enrichment in a semi-arid grassland.

    PubMed

    Blumenthal, Dana M; Kray, Julie A; Ortmans, William; Ziska, Lewis H; Pendall, Elise

    2016-09-01

    Elevated CO2 and warming may alter terrestrial ecosystems by promoting invasive plants with strong community and ecosystem impacts. Invasive plant responses to elevated CO2 and warming are difficult to predict, however, because of the many mechanisms involved, including modification of phenology, physiology, and cycling of nitrogen and water. Understanding the relative and interactive importance of these processes requires multifactor experiments under realistic field conditions. Here, we test how free-air CO2 enrichment (to 600 ppmv) and infrared warming (+1.5 °C day/3 °C night) influence a functionally and phenologically distinct invasive plant in semi-arid mixed-grass prairie. Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass), a fast-growing Eurasian winter annual grass, increases fire frequency and reduces biological diversity across millions of hectares in western North America. Across 2 years, we found that warming more than tripled B. tectorum biomass and seed production, due to a combination of increased recruitment and increased growth. These results were observed with and without competition from native species, under wet and dry conditions (corresponding with tenfold differences in B. tectorum biomass), and despite the fact that warming reduced soil water. In contrast, elevated CO2 had little effect on B. tectorum invasion or soil water, while reducing soil and plant nitrogen (N). We conclude that (1) warming may expand B. tectorum's phenological niche, allowing it to more successfully colonize the extensive, invasion-resistant northern mixed-grass prairie, and (2) in ecosystems where elevated CO2 decreases N availability, CO2 may have limited effects on B. tectorum and other nitrophilic invasive species.

  13. Rhinocerebral zygomycosis: an increasingly frequent challenge: update and favorable outcomes in two cases.

    PubMed

    Islam, Mohammed N; Cohen, Donald M; Celestina, Leslie J; Ojha, Junu; Claudio, Reinaldo; Bhattacharyya, Indraneel B

    2007-11-01

    Zygomycosis or mucormycosis is an increasingly frequent life-threatening infection caused by opportunistic fungal organisms of the class Zygomycetes. The pathognomonic feature is the presence of invasive aseptate mycelia that are larger than other filamentous fungi with the hyphae exhibiting right angle and haphazard branching. Usually classified as rhinocerebral, disseminated, and cutaneous types, this classification serves as important predictor of pathogenesis and outcome. These occur mostly in immunosuppressed patients including individuals with diabetes (43% exhibit the rhino-cerebral form) and patients with organ transplants and hematologic malignancies. Without early aggressive treatment, the disease follows a dismal and fatal course. The prognosis has not shown any appreciable change in the past 40 years with a stagnant mortality rate of 44%. We present 2 cases of rhinocerebral zygomycosis (RCZ), in a 58-year-old male and a 63-year-old female; both were poorly controlled diabetic patients with maxillary lesions suggestive of osteomyelitis. The patients were leading a near normal life with minimal discomfort or signs and symptoms of underlying mycosis. Most of the health care professionals treating these patients often overlooked the disease or recommended inadequate therapy. Despite long delays and inadequate initial therapy these patients survived with little outward morbidity. The prognosis for this condition may therefore be considered less dire than previously thought.

  14. St. John's Wort Has Metabolically Favorable Effects on Adipocytes In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Allison J.; Ribnicky, David M.; Mynatt, Randall; Stephens, Jacqueline M.

    2014-01-01

    In addition to serving as a storage site for reserve energy, adipocytes play a critical role in whole-body insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism. St. John's Wort (SJW) is a botanical supplement widely used as an over-the-counter treatment of depression and a variety of other conditions associated with anxiety and nerve pain. Previous studies in our laboratory demonstrated that SJW inhibits insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and adipocyte differentiation in cultured murine and mature human adipocytes. To investigate the effects of SJW on adipocyte function in vivo, we utilized C57BL/6J mice. In our studies, mice were administered SJW extract (200 mg/kg) once daily by gavage for two weeks. In contrast to our in vitro studies, mice treated with SJW extract showed increased levels of adiponectin in white adipose tissue in a depot specific manner (P < 0.01). SJW also exerted an insulin-sensitizing effect as indicated by a significant increase in insulin-stimulated Akt serine phosphorylation in epididymal white adipose tissue (P < 0.01). Food intake, body weight, fasting blood glucose, and fasting insulin did not differ between the two groups. These results are important as they indicate that SJW does not promote metabolic dysfunction in adipose tissue in vivo. PMID:25136373

  15. St. John's Wort Has Metabolically Favorable Effects on Adipocytes In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Scott; Richard, Allison J; Ribnicky, David M; Beyl, Robbie; Mynatt, Randall; Stephens, Jacqueline M

    2014-01-01

    In addition to serving as a storage site for reserve energy, adipocytes play a critical role in whole-body insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism. St. John's Wort (SJW) is a botanical supplement widely used as an over-the-counter treatment of depression and a variety of other conditions associated with anxiety and nerve pain. Previous studies in our laboratory demonstrated that SJW inhibits insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and adipocyte differentiation in cultured murine and mature human adipocytes. To investigate the effects of SJW on adipocyte function in vivo, we utilized C57BL/6J mice. In our studies, mice were administered SJW extract (200 mg/kg) once daily by gavage for two weeks. In contrast to our in vitro studies, mice treated with SJW extract showed increased levels of adiponectin in white adipose tissue in a depot specific manner (P < 0.01). SJW also exerted an insulin-sensitizing effect as indicated by a significant increase in insulin-stimulated Akt serine phosphorylation in epididymal white adipose tissue (P < 0.01). Food intake, body weight, fasting blood glucose, and fasting insulin did not differ between the two groups. These results are important as they indicate that SJW does not promote metabolic dysfunction in adipose tissue in vivo.

  16. Favorable Effects of Weak Acids on Negative-Ion Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zengru; Gao, Wenqing; Phelps, Mitch A.; Wu, Di; Miller, Duane D.; Dalton, James T.

    2007-01-01

    Despite widespread use in pharmacokinetic, drug metabolism, and pesticide residue studies, little is known about the factors governing response during reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled with negative-ion electrospray ionization (ESI−) mass spectrometry. We examined the effects of various mobile-phase modifiers on the ESI− response of four selective androgen receptor modulators using a postcolumn infusion system. Acetic, propionic, and butyric acid improved the ESI− responses of analytes to varying extents at low concentrations. Formic acid suppressed ionization, as did neutral salts (ammonium formate, ammonium acetate) and bases (ammonium hydroxide, triethylamine) under most conditions. Two modifiers (2,2,2-trifluoroethanol, formaldehyde) that produce anions with high gas-phase proton affinity increased ESI− responses. However, the concentrations of these modifiers required to enhance ESI− response were higher than that of acidic modifiers, which is a phenomenon likely related to their low pKa values. 2,2,2-Trifluoroethanol increased response of more hydrophobic compounds but decreased response of a more hydrophilic compound. Formaldehyde improved response of all the compounds, especially the hydrophilic compound with lower surface activity. In summary, these results suggest that an ideal ESI− modifier should provide cations that can be easily electrochemically reduced and produce anions with small molecular volume and high gas-phase proton affinity. PMID:14750883

  17. Lactobacillus plantarum favors the early emergence of fit and fertile adult Drosophila upon chronic undernutrition.

    PubMed

    Téfit, Mélisandre A; Leulier, François

    2017-03-01

    Animals are naturally surrounded by a variety of microorganisms with which they constantly interact. Among these microbes, some live in close association with a host and form its microbiota. These communities are being extensively studied, owing to their contributions to shaping various aspects of animal physiology. One of these commensal species, Lactobacillus plantarum, and in particular the L.p.(WJL) strain, has been shown to promote the growth of Drosophila larvae upon nutrient scarcity, allowing earlier metamorphosis and adult emergence compared with axenic individuals. As for many insects, conditions surrounding the post-embryonic development dictate key adult life history traits in Drosophila, and adjusting developmental timing according to the environment is essential for adult fitness. Thus, we wondered whether the growth acceleration induced by L.p.(WJL) in a context of poor nutrition could adversely impact the fitness of Drosophila adults. Here, we show that the L.p.(WJL) -mediated acceleration of growth is not deleterious; adults emerging after an accelerated development are as fit as their axenic siblings. Additionally, the presence of L.p.(WJL) even leads to a lifespan extension in nutritionally challenged males. These results demonstrate that L.p.(WJL) is a beneficial partner for Drosophila melanogaster through its entire life cycle. Thus, commensal bacteria allow the earlier emergence and longer survival of fit and fertile individuals and might represent one of the factors contributing to the ecological success of Drosophila. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. Characterizing acrylic pressure-sensitive adhesive tapes favoring diverse biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhijji, Saleh Mohammed S.

    Strong, self-adhesive acrylic polymer-based tapes have been identified as FDA-approved medical device construction components that might also serve in diverse biological locations as artificial muscles, ligaments, or compressive support discs. After assuring that the tapes themselves were not cytotoxic, they were evaluated as possible low-tension muscle substitutes for eyelids, jaws, and other modest body re-closing needs, and well as for higher-tension applications as artificial ligaments. Self-adhesion of the tapes to representative biomaterials, before and after radio-frequency glow discharge treatment for surface energy modification, illustrated the conditions for maximum attachment strength to nonphysiologic substances. Attachment to bony host parts was challenging but apparently met by the application of acrylic-composite-to-dentin bonding systems that has shown good long-term experience in the mouth. Above all, the compression-relaxation properties of the tape materials were superior and their uses in potential Nucleus Pulposus applications for spinal disc repair were most completely explored. Tests included tape-disc performance longevity, both dry and wet, for over 5000 load-relaxation cycles, with no apparent changes in results for the most dense of the tapes evaluated. Direct abrasion was avoided by insertion of rigid polymeric layers. It is recommended that the compressive loading properties of acrylic tapes be further evaluated for spine repair applications.

  19. Are hard lenses superior to soft? Arguments in favor of hard lenses.

    PubMed

    Key, J E

    1990-01-01

    The overriding consideration in choosing between soft contact lenses (SCLs) and rigid gas-permeable (RGP) lenses is the severity of the changes each induces in the corneal epithelium, endothelium, and conjunctival structures. Lens-related epithelial changes are largely the consequence of relative oxygen deprivation and consequent corneal edema. Factors such as lower oxygen transmissibility, minimal tear exchange capacity, and large diameters may explain why SCL wearers show a higher rate of corneal infiltrates, sterile ulcers, and irregular staining patterns than users of RGP lenses. The greater association of hydrogels with infectious keratitis may reflect their tendency to accumulate proteinaceous deposits, harbor bacteria in the polymer matrix, and resist easy disinfection. SCL wear has been linked to endothelial polymegethism, a largely irreversible condition that may cause more rapid corneal swelling and slower deswelling after periods of hypoxic stress. Among the conjunctival problems more often seen in SCL wearers are superficial neovascularization, contact lens-related superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis, and giant papillary conjunctivitis. Mechanical irritation from large-diameter lenses, a tendency to build up mucoproteinaceous deposits, corneal draping, and hypersensitivity to preservatives in SCL care products may play a role in these problems.

  20. Parvalbumin-Positive Inhibitory Interneurons Oppose Propagation But Favor Generation of Focal Epileptiform Activity.

    PubMed

    Sessolo, Michele; Marcon, Iacopo; Bovetti, Serena; Losi, Gabriele; Cammarota, Mario; Ratto, Gian Michele; Fellin, Tommaso; Carmignoto, Giorgio

    2015-07-01

    Parvalbumin (Pv)-positive inhibitory interneurons effectively control network excitability, and their optogenetic activation has been reported to block epileptic seizures. An intense activity in GABAergic interneurons, including Pv interneurons, before seizures has been described in different experimental models of epilepsy, raising the hypothesis that an increased GABAergic inhibitory signal may, under certain conditions, initiate seizures. It is therefore unclear whether the activity of Pv interneurons enhances or opposes epileptiform activities. Here we use a mouse cortical slice model of focal epilepsy in which the epileptogenic focus can be identified and the role of Pv interneurons in the generation and propagation of seizure-like ictal events is accurately analyzed by a combination of optogenetic, electrophysiological, and imaging techniques. We found that a selective activation of Pv interneurons at the focus failed to block ictal generation and induced postinhibitory rebound spiking in pyramidal neurons, enhancing neuronal synchrony and promoting ictal generation. In contrast, a selective activation of Pv interneurons distant from the focus blocked ictal propagation and shortened ictal duration at the focus. We revealed that the reduced ictal duration was a direct consequence of the ictal propagation block, probably by preventing newly generated afterdischarges to travel backwards to the original focus of ictal initiation. Similar results were obtained upon individual Pv interneuron activation by intracellular depolarizing current pulses. The functional dichotomy of Pv interneurons here described opens new perspectives to our understanding of how local inhibitory circuits govern generation and spread of focal epileptiform activities.

  1. Lactobacillus plantarum favors the early emergence of fit and fertile adult Drosophila upon chronic undernutrition

    PubMed Central

    Téfit, Mélisandre A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Animals are naturally surrounded by a variety of microorganisms with which they constantly interact. Among these microbes, some live in close association with a host and form its microbiota. These communities are being extensively studied, owing to their contributions to shaping various aspects of animal physiology. One of these commensal species, Lactobacillus plantarum, and in particular the L.p.WJL strain, has been shown to promote the growth of Drosophila larvae upon nutrient scarcity, allowing earlier metamorphosis and adult emergence compared with axenic individuals. As for many insects, conditions surrounding the post-embryonic development dictate key adult life history traits in Drosophila, and adjusting developmental timing according to the environment is essential for adult fitness. Thus, we wondered whether the growth acceleration induced by L.p.WJL in a context of poor nutrition could adversely impact the fitness of Drosophila adults. Here, we show that the L.p.WJL-mediated acceleration of growth is not deleterious; adults emerging after an accelerated development are as fit as their axenic siblings. Additionally, the presence of L.p.WJL even leads to a lifespan extension in nutritionally challenged males. These results demonstrate that L.p.WJL is a beneficial partner for Drosophila melanogaster through its entire life cycle. Thus, commensal bacteria allow the earlier emergence and longer survival of fit and fertile individuals and might represent one of the factors contributing to the ecological success of Drosophila. PMID:28062579

  2. Clathrin self-assembly involves coordinated weak interactions favorable for cellular regulation.

    PubMed

    Wakeham, Diane E; Chen, Chih-Ying; Greene, Barrie; Hwang, Peter K; Brodsky, Frances M

    2003-10-01

    The clathrin triskelion self-assembles into a polyhedral coat surrounding membrane vesicles that sort receptor cargo to the endocytic pathway. A triskelion comprises three clathrin heavy chains joined at their C-termini, extending into proximal and distal leg segments ending in a globular N-terminal domain. In the clathrin coat, leg segments entwine into parallel and anti-parallel interactions. Here we define the contributions of segmental interactions to the clathrin assembly reaction and measure the strength of their interactions. Proximal and distal leg segments were found to lack sufficient affinity to form stable homo- or heterodimers under assembly conditions. However, chimeric constructs of proximal or distal leg segments, trimerized by replacement of the clathrin trimerization domain with that of the invariant chain protein, were able to self-assemble in reversible reactions. Thus clathrin assembly occurs because weak leg segment affinities are coordinated through trimerization, sharing a dependence on multiple weak interactions with other biopolymers. Such polymerization is sensitive to small environmental changes and is therefore compatible with cellular regulation of assembly, disassembly and curvature during formation of clathrin-coated vesicles.

  3. The Case in Favor of E-Cigarettes for Tobacco Harm Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Nitzkin, Joel L.

    2014-01-01

    A carefully structured Tobacco Harm Reduction (THR) initiative, with e-cigarettes as a prominent THR modality, added to current tobacco control programming, is the most feasible policy option likely to substantially reduce tobacco-attributable illness and death in the United States over the next 20 years. E-cigarettes and related vapor products are the most promising harm reduction modalities because of their acceptability to smokers. There are about 46 million smokers in the United States, and an estimated 480,000 deaths per year attributed to cigarette smoking. These numbers have been essentially stable since 2004. Currently recommended pharmaceutical smoking cessation protocols fail in about 90% of smokers who use them as directed, even under the best of study conditions, when results are measured at six to twelve months. E-cigarettes have not been attractive to non-smoking teens or adults. Limited numbers non-smokers have experimented with them, but hardly any have continued their use. The vast majority of e-cigarette use is by current smokers using them to cut down or quit cigarettes. E-cigarettes, even when used in no-smoking areas, pose no discernable risk to bystanders. Finally, addition of a THR component to current tobacco control programming will likely reduce costs by reducing the need for counseling and drugs. PMID:25003176

  4. Accumulation of Flavonols over Hydroxycinnamic Acids Favors Oxidative Damage Protection under Abiotic Stress.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Vicente; Mestre, Teresa C; Rubio, Francisco; Girones-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Moreno, Diego A; Mittler, Ron; Rivero, Rosa M

    2016-01-01

    Efficient detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is thought to play a key role in enhancing the tolerance of plants to abiotic stresses. Although multiple pathways, enzymes, and antioxidants are present in plants, their exact roles during different stress responses remain unclear. Here, we report on the characterization of the different antioxidant mechanisms of tomato plants subjected to heat stress, salinity stress, or a combination of both stresses. All the treatments applied induced an increase of oxidative stress, with the salinity treatment being the most aggressive, resulting in plants with the lowest biomass, and the highest levels of H2O2 accumulation, lipid peroxidation, and protein oxidation. However, the results obtained from the transcript expression study and enzymatic activities related to the ascorbate-glutathione pathway did not fully explain the differences in the oxidative damage observed between salinity and the combination of salinity and heat. An exhaustive metabolomics study revealed the differential accumulation of phenolic compounds depending on the type of abiotic stress applied. An analysis at gene and enzyme levels of the phenylpropanoid metabolism concluded that under conditions where flavonols accumulated to a greater degree as compared to hydroxycinnamic acids, the oxidative damage was lower, highlighting the importance of flavonols as powerful antioxidants, and their role in abiotic stress tolerance.

  5. Accumulation of Flavonols over Hydroxycinnamic Acids Favors Oxidative Damage Protection under Abiotic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Vicente; Mestre, Teresa C.; Rubio, Francisco; Girones-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Moreno, Diego A.; Mittler, Ron; Rivero, Rosa M.

    2016-01-01

    Efficient detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is thought to play a key role in enhancing the tolerance of plants to abiotic stresses. Although multiple pathways, enzymes, and antioxidants are present in plants, their exact roles during different stress responses remain unclear. Here, we report on the characterization of the different antioxidant mechanisms of tomato plants subjected to heat stress, salinity stress, or a combination of both stresses. All the treatments applied induced an increase of oxidative stress, with the salinity treatment being the most aggressive, resulting in plants with the lowest biomass, and the highest levels of H2O2 accumulation, lipid peroxidation, and protein oxidation. However, the results obtained from the transcript expression study and enzymatic activities related to the ascorbate-glutathione pathway did not fully explain the differences in the oxidative damage observed between salinity and the combination of salinity and heat. An exhaustive metabolomics study revealed the differential accumulation of phenolic compounds depending on the type of abiotic stress applied. An analysis at gene and enzyme levels of the phenylpropanoid metabolism concluded that under conditions where flavonols accumulated to a greater degree as compared to hydroxycinnamic acids, the oxidative damage was lower, highlighting the importance of flavonols as powerful antioxidants, and their role in abiotic stress tolerance. PMID:27379130

  6. Changes in labor regulations during economic crises: does deregulation favor health and safety?

    PubMed

    Jhang, Won Gi

    2011-01-01

    The regulatory changes in Korea during the national economic crisis 10 years ago and in the current global recession were analyzed to understand the characteristics of deregulation in labor policies. Data for this study were derived from the Korean government's official database for administrative regulations and a government document reporting deregulation. A great deal of business-friendly deregulation took place during both economic crises. Occupational health and safety were the main targets of deregulation in both periods, and the regulation of employment promotion and vocational training was preserved relatively intact. The sector having to do with working conditions and the on-site welfare of workers was also deregulated greatly during the former economic crisis, but not in the current global recession. Among the three main areas of labor policy, occupational health and safety was most vulnerable to the deregulation in economic crisis of Korea. A probable reason for this is that the impact of deregulation on the health and safety of workers would not be immediately disclosed after the policy change.

  7. The spread of alphabetical writing may have favored the latest variant of the ASPM gene.

    PubMed

    Frost, Peter

    2008-01-01

    ASPM, a gene that regulates brain growth, has evolved considerably in the primate lineage that leads to humans. It continued to evolve even after the emergence of modern humans, with the latest ASPM variant arising about 6000 years ago somewhere in the Middle East. The new variant then proliferated within and outside this region, reaching higher incidences in the Middle East (37-52%) and in Europe (38-50%) than in East Asia (0-25%). Despite its apparent selective advantage, this variant does not seem to improve cognitive performance, at least not on standard IQ tests. At present, we can only say that it probably assists performance on a task that exhibited the same geographic expansion from a Middle Eastern origin roughly 6000 years ago. The closest match seems to be the invention of alphabetical writing, specifically the task of transcribing speech and copying texts into alphabetical script. Though more easily learned than ideographs, alphabetical characters place higher demands on mental processing, especially under premodern conditions (continuous text with little or no punctuation, real-time stenography, absence of automated assistance for publishing or copying, etc.). This task was largely delegated to scribes of various sorts who enjoyed privileged status and probably superior reproductive success. Such individuals may have served as vectors for spreading the new ASPM variant.

  8. From liability to challenge: Complex environments are associated with favorable psychosocial outcomes in adolescent sport participants.

    PubMed

    García Bengoechea, Enrique; Wilson, Philip M; Dunn, Steven

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to identify different groups of adolescents who have distinct profiles based upon their perceptions of interpersonal and activity-based dimensions of the sport environment. A sample of 310 adolescents from Eastern Canada (Mage = 14.69 ± 1.60 years; 54.8% girls) completed questionnaires assessing selected interpersonal, activity-based, demographic and sport-specific variables. Using TwoStep Cluster Analysis, we identified three groupings of adolescent sport participants. Consistent with the literature, we labeled these groups 'negative context,' 'positive context,' and 'complex context,' respectively. As expected, participants in the last two groups reported greater enjoyment, perceived competence, and commitment to sport. Further, participants in the 'complex context' group showed the highest levels of sport commitment. We draw on insights from Csikszentmihalyi's theory of complexity and relational conceptions of compensation and resilience to interpret the findings, and offer an alternative account of contextual conditions suitable for adolescents involved in competitive sport. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Further evidence in favor of prior entry from endogenous attention to a location in space.

    PubMed

    Redden, Ralph S; d'Entremont, Ghislain; Klein, Raymond M

    2017-03-09

    Titchener's (1908) law of prior entry states that "the object of attention comes to consciousness more quickly than the objects which we are not attending to," or otherwise, that attended stimuli are perceived earlier than unattended stimuli. Shore, Spence, and Klein (Psychological Science, 12, 205-212. doi: 10.1111/1467-9280.00337 , 2001) showed that endogenous visuospatial orienting does in fact elicit prior-entry effects, albeit to a smaller degree than does exogenous visuospatial orienting. In disagreement with this finding, Schneider and Bavelier (Cognitive Psychology, 47, 333-366. doi: 10.1016/S0010-0285(03)00035-5 , 2003) found no effect of their instruction to attend. They concluded that nonattentional effects could masquerade as prior entry, which could account for findings such as those in Shore et al.'s endogenous condition. We investigated this empirical and theoretical discord by replicating the temporal-order judgment task used by Shore, Spence, and Klein, while manipulating and measuring endogenous orienting by way of an orthogonal color probe task. We showed evidence of prior entry as a consequence of endogenous orienting, supporting the conclusions of Shore, Spence, and Klein.

  10. Exopolysaccharides favor the survival of Erwinia amylovora under copper stress through different strategies.

    PubMed

    Ordax, Mónica; Marco-Noales, Ester; López, María M; Biosca, Elena G

    2010-09-01

    Erwinia amylovora causes fire blight, a destructive disease of rosaceous plants very difficult to control. We demonstrated that copper, employed to control plant diseases, induces the "viable-but-nonculturable" (VBNC) state in E. amylovora. Moreover, it was previously reported that copper increases production of its main exopolysaccharide (EPS), amylovoran. In this work, the copper-complexing ability of amylovoran and levan, other major EPS of E. amylovora, was demonstrated. Following this, EPS-deficient mutants were used to determine the role of these EPSs in survival of this bacterium in AB mineral medium with copper, compared to their wild type strain and AB without copper. Total, viable and culturable counts of all strains were monitored for six months. With copper, a larger fraction of the viable population of EPS mutants entered into the VBNC state, and earlier than their wild type strain, showing the contribution of both EPSs to long-term survival in a culturable state. Further, we demonstrated that both EPSs can be used as carbon source by E. amylovora under deprivation conditions. Overall, these previously unreported functions of amylovoran and levan provide survival advantages for E. amylovora, which could contribute to its enhanced persistence in nature.

  11. Aquatic conditions

    Treesearch

    Warren E. Heilman

    1999-01-01

    This publication provides citizens, private and public organizations, scientists, and others with information about the aquatic conditions in or near national forests in the Ozark-Ouachita Highlands: the Mark Twain in Missouri, the Ouachita in Arkansas and Oklahoma, and the Ozark-St. Francis National Forests in Arkansas. This report includes water quality analyses...

  12. Improved glucose tolerance with lifetime diet restriction favorably affects disease and survival in dogs.

    PubMed

    Larson, Brian T; Lawler, Dennis F; Spitznagel, Edward L; Kealy, Richard D

    2003-09-01

    Labrador retrievers (42 of original 48) were used to assess the effects of lifetime diet restriction on glucose tolerance at ages 9-12 y. Restricted-fed (RF) dogs were fed 75% of the same diet consumed by control-fed (CF) pair-mates. An intravenous glucose tolerance test was done annually (maximal stimulation, nonsteady-state). Diet treatment, age, and interactions were fixed effects. Statistical procedures used included mixed-model, repeated-measures ANOVA; least-squares means; Tukey's multiple comparison; paired t tests; and Spearman rank correlations. Glucose k-value and half-life, and insulin sensitivity (total, and 9, 10, 11 y, and per lean mass) were higher (P < 0.05) in RF than in CF dogs. Late-phase insulin release [area under the curve (AUC) 30-120 min] was less (P < 0.05) in RF than in CR dogs. Early-phase insulin release (AUC 0-5 min), y 12 insulin sensitivity and insulinogenic index did not differ between RF and CF dogs. Insulin peak, delta and total AUC increased (P < 0.05) with age, whereas the glucose k-value and glucose half-life were not affected by age. Insulin sensitivity was negatively, and insulin AUC 30-120 min, peak and delta glucose were positively correlated with body weight, body condition score, fat mass, percentage of fat and abdominal fat/total tissue. Higher insulinogenic indices tended (P = 0.053) to be associated with greater median survival and dogs with higher insulin sensitivity were at lower (P < 0.05) risk of dying or receiving chronic disease treatment. Time to first osteoarthritis treatment or death was greater with lower basal glucose and higher insulin sensitivity (P < 0.05), but diet restriction explained most of this relationship's variation. Glucose disposal efficiency and insulin response were associated with increased quality and length of life in diet-restricted dogs.

  13. [Chronic myelogenous leukemia: monitoring and predictors of a favorable response to treatment with imatinib].

    PubMed

    Mela Osorio, María J; Giere, Isabel A; Fernández, Isolda; Pavlovsky, Miguel A; Intile, Dante; Pavlovsky, Carolina

    2017-01-01

    The expected five-year survival of chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia patients treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors is over 90%. Little data is available regarding the results in the Argentinian population. This information might be of interest as generic imatinib is now available in the region. The aim of this study is to provide information on monitoring and the long-term treatment with imatinib outside of a controlled clinical trial, as well as to analyze the predictive effect of early responses to achieve molecular remission 4.0 (RM 4.0) and the detection of variables that may condition treatment failure. We included 106 patients, who received imatinib 400 mg daily as first-line inhibitor for a median of 8.9 years (IQR 5.8-11.7) between June 2000 and December, 2015. Overall survival was 93%. At latest follow-up 74% of patients continues on initial imatinib. The achievement of response at targeted milestones (6, 12 months) was associated with increased failure-free survival: 87% vs. 56%, p = 0.007; 90% vs. 69% p = 0.01 and was independently associated to RM 4.0: OR 5.6 (95% CI: 1.6-19.0); OR 5.3 (95% CI: 1.4-21.0) p = 0.006. After long-term follow-up, imatinib provided high-rates of response and survival. The prognostic value of response at targeted milestones was confirmed. This study reinforces the importance of molecular monitoring under IS standardization at known timepoints and this must continue to be a target in Argentina.

  14. Expression of CD64 on Circulating Neutrophils Favoring Systemic Inflammatory Status in Erythema Nodosum Leprosum.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Veronica; Prata, Rhana Berto da Silva; Barbosa, Mayara Garcia de Mattos; Mendes, Mayara Abud; Brandão, Sheila Santos; Amadeu, Thaís Porto; Rodrigues, Luciana Silva; Ferreira, Helen; Costa, Fabrício da Mota Ramalho; Dos Santos, Jessica Brandão; Pacheco, Fabiana Dos Santos; Machado, Alice de Miranda; Nery, José Augusto da Costa; Hacker, Mariana de Andrea; Sales, Anna Maria; Pinheiro, Roberta Olmo; Sarno, Euzenir Nunes

    2016-08-01

    Erythema Nodosum Leprosum (ENL) is an immune reaction in leprosy that aggravates the patient´s clinical condition. ENL presents systemic symptoms of an acute infectious syndrome with high leukocytosis and intense malaise clinically similar to sepsis. The treatment of ENL patients requires immunosuppression and thus needs to be early and efficient to prevent both disabilities and permanent nerve damage. Some patients experience multiple episodes of ENL and prolonged use of immunosuppressive drugs may lead to serious adverse effects. Thalidomide treatment is extremely effective at ameliorating ENL symptoms. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the efficacy of thalidomide in ENL, including the inhibition of TNF production. Given its teratogenicity, thalidomide is prohibitive for women of childbearing age. A rational search for molecular targets during ENL episodes is essential to better understand the disease mechanisms involved, which may also lead to the discovery of new drugs and diagnostic tests. Previous studies have demonstrated that IFN-γ and GM-CSF, involved in the induction of CD64 expression, increase during ENL. The aim of the present study was to investigate CD64 expression during ENL and whether thalidomide treatment modulated its expression. Leprosy patients were allocated to one of five groups: (1) Lepromatous leprosy, (2) Borderline leprosy, (3) Reversal reaction, (4) ENL, and (5) ENL 7 days after thalidomide treatment. The present study demonstrated that CD64 mRNA and protein were expressed in ENL lesions and that thalidomide treatment reduced CD64 expression and neutrophil infiltrates-a hallmark of ENL. We also showed that ENL blood neutrophils exclusively expressed CD64 on the cell surface and that thalidomide diminished overall expression. Patient classification based on clinical symptoms found that severe ENL presented high levels of neutrophil CD64. Collectively, these data revealed that ENL neutrophils express CD64, presumably

  15. Expression of CD64 on Circulating Neutrophils Favoring Systemic Inflammatory Status in Erythema Nodosum Leprosum

    PubMed Central

    Prata, Rhana Berto da Silva; Barbosa, Mayara Garcia de Mattos; Mendes, Mayara Abud; Brandão, Sheila Santos; Amadeu, Thaís Porto; Rodrigues, Luciana Silva; Ferreira, Helen; Costa, Fabrício da Mota Ramalho; dos Santos, Jessica Brandão; Pacheco, Fabiana dos Santos; Machado, Alice de Miranda; Nery, José Augusto da Costa; Hacker, Mariana de Andrea; Sales, Anna Maria; Pinheiro, Roberta Olmo; Sarno, Euzenir Nunes

    2016-01-01

    Erythema Nodosum Leprosum (ENL) is an immune reaction in leprosy that aggravates the patient´s clinical condition. ENL presents systemic symptoms of an acute infectious syndrome with high leukocytosis and intense malaise clinically similar to sepsis. The treatment of ENL patients requires immunosuppression and thus needs to be early and efficient to prevent both disabilities and permanent nerve damage. Some patients experience multiple episodes of ENL and prolonged use of immunosuppressive drugs may lead to serious adverse effects. Thalidomide treatment is extremely effective at ameliorating ENL symptoms. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the efficacy of thalidomide in ENL, including the inhibition of TNF production. Given its teratogenicity, thalidomide is prohibitive for women of childbearing age. A rational search for molecular targets during ENL episodes is essential to better understand the disease mechanisms involved, which may also lead to the discovery of new drugs and diagnostic tests. Previous studies have demonstrated that IFN-γ and GM-CSF, involved in the induction of CD64 expression, increase during ENL. The aim of the present study was to investigate CD64 expression during ENL and whether thalidomide treatment modulated its expression. Leprosy patients were allocated to one of five groups: (1) Lepromatous leprosy, (2) Borderline leprosy, (3) Reversal reaction, (4) ENL, and (5) ENL 7 days after thalidomide treatment. The present study demonstrated that CD64 mRNA and protein were expressed in ENL lesions and that thalidomide treatment reduced CD64 expression and neutrophil infiltrates—a hallmark of ENL. We also showed that ENL blood neutrophils exclusively expressed CD64 on the cell surface and that thalidomide diminished overall expression. Patient classification based on clinical symptoms found that severe ENL presented high levels of neutrophil CD64. Collectively, these data revealed that ENL neutrophils express CD64, presumably

  16. Heat Stress Reduces Intestinal Barrier Integrity and Favors Intestinal Glucose Transport in Growing Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Sarah C.; Mani, Venkatesh; Boddicker, Rebecca L.; Johnson, Jay S.; Weber, Thomas E.; Ross, Jason W.; Rhoads, Robert P.; Baumgard, Lance H.; Gabler, Nicholas K.

    2013-01-01

    Excessive heat exposure reduces intestinal integrity and post-absorptive energetics that can inhibit wellbeing and be fatal. Therefore, our objectives were to examine how acute heat stress (HS) alters intestinal integrity and metabolism in growing pigs. Animals were exposed to either thermal neutral (TN, 21°C; 35–50% humidity; n = 8) or HS conditions (35°C; 24–43% humidity; n = 8) for 24 h. Compared to TN, rectal temperatures in HS pigs increased by 1.6°C and respiration rates by 2-fold (P<0.05). As expected, HS decreased feed intake by 53% (P<0.05) and body weight (P<0.05) compared to TN pigs. Ileum heat shock protein 70 expression increased (P<0.05), while intestinal integrity was compromised in the HS pigs (ileum and colon TER decreased; P<0.05). Furthermore, HS increased serum endotoxin concentrations (P = 0.05). Intestinal permeability was accompanied by an increase in protein expression of myosin light chain kinase (P<0.05) and casein kinase II-α (P = 0.06). Protein expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins in the ileum revealed claudin 3 and occludin expression to be increased overall due to HS (P<0.05), while there were no differences in claudin 1 expression. Intestinal glucose transport and blood glucose were elevated due to HS (P<0.05). This was supported by increased ileum Na+/K+ ATPase activity in HS pigs. SGLT-1 protein expression was unaltered; however, HS increased ileal GLUT-2 protein expression (P = 0.06). Altogether, these data indicate that HS reduce intestinal integrity and increase intestinal stress and glucose transport. PMID:23936392

  17. Favorable patient reported outcomes after penile plication for wide array of peyronie disease abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Hudak, Steven J; Morey, Allen F; Adibi, Mehrad; Bagrodia, Aditya

    2013-03-01

    We present patient reported outcomes from our 5-year experience using penile plication to correct a wide variety of Peyronie disease malformations. We reviewed the records of all men who underwent penile plication for Peyronie dise