Science.gov

Sample records for conditions nelson forest

  1. Forest condition in Latvia

    Treesearch

    Madis Sipols

    1998-01-01

    Systematic assessment and observation (survey, inventory) of forests in Latvia has been underway since the 1700's. Latvia's forests are in the boreal/temperate forest zone and cover 44 percent of the country. Forest growing conditions are subdivided into five site class types: forests on dry mineral, wet mineral, wet peat, drained mineral, drained peat soils...

  2. Nelson syndrome: definition and management.

    PubMed

    Barber, T M; Adams, E; Wass, J A H

    2014-01-01

    Nelson syndrome is an important complication of treatment with total bilateral adrenalectomy (TBA) for patients with refractory Cushing's disease. Although early cases of Nelson syndrome often presented with the clinical features of large sellar masses, the modern face of Nelson syndrome has changed primarily due to earlier detection (with highly resolved magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and sensitive ACTH assays) and greater awareness of the condition, resulting in reduced morbidity and mortality. Although lack of administration of neoadjuvant pituitary radiotherapy post-TBA surgery may predict future development of Nelson syndrome, other predictive factors remain controversial. Therefore, Nelson syndrome should be screened for closely and long-term in all patients with a history of Cushing's disease and TBA. The diagnosis of Nelson syndrome remains controversial, and the pathogenesis of this condition is incompletely understood. Current hypotheses include the "released negative feedback" mechansism (residual pituitary corticotropinoma cells are "released" from the negative feedback effects of cortisol following TBA), and the "aggressive corticotropinoma" mechanism (Nelson syndrome is most likely to develop in those patients with refractory treatments - including TBA - for an underlying aggressive corticotropinoma). Effective management of Nelson syndrome with pituitary surgery and radiotherapy is often a challenge. Other therapies (such as Gamma Knife surgery and temozolomide) play an important role and merit further research into their efficacy and placement in the management pathway of Nelson syndrome.

  3. Forecasts of forest conditions

    Treesearch

    Robert Huggett; David N. Wear; Ruhong Li; John Coulston; Shan Liu

    2013-01-01

    Key FindingsAmong the five forest management types, only planted pine is expected to increase in area. In 2010 planted pine comprised 19 percent of southern forests. By 2060, planted pine is forecasted to comprise somewhere between 24 and 36 percent of forest area.Although predicted rates of change vary, all forecasts reveal...

  4. Forest resources and conditions

    Treesearch

    William H. McWilliams; Linda S. Heath; Gordon C. Reese; Thomas L. Schmidt

    2000-01-01

    The forests of the northern United States support a rich mix of floral and faunal communities that provide inestimable benefits to society. Today's forests face a range of biotic and abiotic stressors, not the least of which may be environmental change. This chapter reviews the compositional traits of presettlement forests and traces the major land use patterns...

  5. Meet EPA's Dan Nelson

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA’s Dan Nelson is the Director of the Human Research Protocol Office at the National Health and Environmental Effect Research Laboratory, Dan works to protect the rights and welfare of EPA’s research participants.

  6. Marilyn Nelson: Poetic Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierpont, Katherine

    2006-01-01

    This article features some of the books written by Marilyn Nelson. Here, the author discusses how she has written a children's book of poetry about lynching, entitled "A Wreath for Emmitt Till." The author discusses how her books for children honor and memorialize history-changing African Americans. Among other things, the author discusses some of…

  7. Marilyn Nelson: Poetic Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierpont, Katherine

    2006-01-01

    This article features some of the books written by Marilyn Nelson. Here, the author discusses how she has written a children's book of poetry about lynching, entitled "A Wreath for Emmitt Till." The author discusses how her books for children honor and memorialize history-changing African Americans. Among other things, the author discusses some of…

  8. Nelson's syndrome in pregnancy

    SciTech Connect

    Surrey, E.S.; Chang, R.J.

    1985-10-01

    The therapeutic considerations in the management of Nelson's syndrome in a 29 year old primigravida are described. CT scans revealed a 2-cm solid pituitary lesion with suprasellar extension and chiasmatic encroachment. A transsphenoidal hypophysectomy was performed to remove a eosinophilic pituitary adenoma. The patient's symptoms improved following surgery. Fetal growth was followed by ultrasound and a female infant was delivered by cesarean section. Follow-up CT scan 2 weeks after delivery revealed no evidence of tumor recurrence.

  9. Admiral Nelson's above elbow amputation.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Harold

    2014-12-01

    The loss of Horatio Nelson's right arm is undoubtedly the best known amputation in this country's history and the story is well worth the telling. In 1797, the 38 year old Nelson, then a Rear Admiral, devised a plan for a surprise night attack to seize treasure ships, which he believed were sheltering at Santa Cruz on Tenerife, (one of the Canary Islands). On the night of July 24th, Nelson led an armada of rowing boats from his fleet, anchored below the horizon. The plan was to land on the harbour mole and then rush the main square of the town. Unfortunately, the Spaniards were ready for them. As the little boats approached the harbour, the Spaniards opened fire with cannon and muskets and the British losses were heavy. As Nelson scrambled off his boat his right arm was shattered with grapeshot; "I am shot through the arm, I am a dead man" he exclaimed.

  10. Forest insect & disease conditions in the Northeast - 1956

    Treesearch

    W. E. Waters; Alma M. Waterman

    1957-01-01

    This annual report on forest pest conditions in the Northeast combines, for the first time, information about both the major forest insects and the major forest diseases in the region. It was prepared as an aid to those who have a concern for protecting our forests from insect and disease attacks.

  11. Forest conditions in the San Francisco Mountains Forest Reserve, Arizona

    Treesearch

    John B. Leiberg; Theodore F. Rixon; Arthur. Dodwell

    1904-01-01

    On April 12, 1902, President Roosevelt issued a proclamation "for the purpose of consolidating into one reserve the lands heretofore embraced in the San Francisco Mountains Forest Reserves and of including therein the other adjacent lands within the description herein after given." The consolidated area is now known as the San Francisco Mountains Forest...

  12. Forest insect conditions in the Northeast - 1955

    Treesearch

    W. E. Waters

    1956-01-01

    The tremendous destructive capacity of forest insects in reducing our resources of usable timber is becoming increasingly apparent as the shoe of the forest economy pinches tighter. The U.S. Forest Service's recent TIMBER RESOURCE REVIEW, which presents the findings of the most comprehensive survey to date of the present and future timber supply of the United...

  13. A selection of forest condition indicators for monitoring

    Treesearch

    Kurt H. Riitters; B.E. Law; R.C. Kucera; A.L. Gallant; R.L. DeVelice; C.J. Palmer

    1992-01-01

    Regional monitoring and assessments of the health of forested ecosystems require indicators of forest conditions and environmental stresses. Indicator selections depend on objectives and the strategy for data collection and analysis. This paper recommends a set of indicators to signal changes in forest ecosystem distribution, productivity, and disturbance. Additional...

  14. Risk of impaired condition of watersheds containing National Forest lands

    Treesearch

    Thomas C Brown; Pamela Froemke

    2010-01-01

    We assessed the risk of impaired condition of the nearly 3700 5th-level watersheds in the contiguous 48 states containing the national forests and grasslands that make up the U.S. Forest Service's National Forest System (NFS). The assessment was based on readily available, relatively consistent nationwide data sets for a series of indicators representing watershed...

  15. Chapter 15: A desired future condition for Sierra Nevada Forests

    Treesearch

    M. North

    2012-01-01

    An unexpected outcome of U.S. Forest Service General Technical Report PSW-GTR 220, "An Ecosystem Management Strategy for Sierran Mixed-Conifer Forests" (North et al. 2009), was how it generated discussion about a desired future condition for Sierra Nevada forests. The paper did not convey leading-edge research results or provide an exhaustive literature...

  16. Forest health conditions in North America

    Treesearch

    B. Tkacz; B. Moody; J.V. Castillo; M.E. Fenn

    2008-01-01

    Some of the greatest forest health impacts in North America are caused by invasive forest insects and pathogens (e.g., emerald ash borer and sudden oak death in the US), by severe outbreaks of native pests (e.g., mountain pine beetle in Canada), and fires exacerbated by changing climate. Ozone and N and S pollutants continue to impact the health of forests in several...

  17. Forest health conditions on the Allegheny National Forest (1989-1999): Analysis of forest health monitoring surveys

    Treesearch

    R.S. Morin; A.M. Liebhold; K.W. Gottschalk; D.B. Twardus; R.E. Acciavatti; R.L. White; S.B. Horsley; W.D. Smith; E.R. Luzader

    2001-01-01

    This publication describes the forest vegetation and health conditions of the Allegheny National Forest (ANF). During the past 15 years, the ANF has experienced four severe droughts, several outbreaks of exotic and native insect defoliators, and the effects of other disturbance agents. An increase in tree mortality has raised concerns about forest health. Historical...

  18. Forest insect conditions in the Northeast - 1954

    Treesearch

    W. E. Waters

    1955-01-01

    Forest insects continued to be a major cause of timber loss in the Northeast in 1954. A diversity of destructive pests caused these losses in different ways: by outright killing trees; by reducing growth; by reducing merchantable volume; and by reducing the quality of forest products. Some of the insects caused serious damage to woodlands that have high recreational...

  19. Nelson`s syndrome associated with a somatic frame shift mutation in the glucocorticoid recepter gene

    SciTech Connect

    Karl, M.; Stratakis, C.A.; Chrousos, G.P.; Katz, D.A.; Ali, I.U.; Oldfield, E.H.

    1996-01-01

    Nelson`s syndrome is the appearance and/or progression of ACTH-secreting pituitary macroadenomas in patients who had previously undergone bilateral adrenalectomy for Cushing`s disease. Extremely high plasma ACTH levels and aggressive neoplastic growth might be explained by the lack of appropriate glucocorticoid negative feedback due to defective glucocorticoid signal transduction. To study the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene in Nelson`s syndrome, DNA was extracted from pituitary adenomas and leukocytes of four patients with this condition and amplified by PCR for direct sequence analysis. In one of the tumors, a heterozygous mutation, consisting of an insertion of a thymine between complementary DNA nucleotides 1188 and 1189, was found in exon 2. This frame-shift mutation led to premature termination at amino acid residue 366 of the world-type coding sequence, excluding the expression of a functioning receptor protein from the defective allele. The mutation was not detected in the sequence of the GR gene in the patient`s leukocyte DNA, indicating a somatic origin. By lowering the receptor number in tumorous cells, this defect might have caused local resistance to negative glucocorticoid feedback similar to that caused by the presence of a null allele in a kindred with the generalized glucocorticoid resistance syndrome. P53 protein accumulation, previously reported in 60% of corticotropinomas, could not be detected in any of the four pituitary tumors examined by immunohistochemistry. We suggest that a somatic GR defect might have played a pathophysiological role in the tumorigenesis of the corticotropinoma bearing this mutation. 35 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Monitoring Forest Condition in Europe: Impacts of Nitrogen and Sulfur Depositions on Forest Ecosystems

    Treesearch

    M. Lorenz; G. Becher; V. Mues; E. Ulrich

    2006-01-01

    Forest condition in Europe has been monitored over 19 years jointly by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) and the European Union (EU). Large-scale variations of forest condition over space and time in relation to natural and anthropogenic factors are assessed on about 6,000 plots systematically spread across Europe. This large-scale monitoring...

  1. Describing the conditions of forest ecosystems using disturbance profiles

    Treesearch

    John E. Lundquist; J. P. Ward

    1995-01-01

    Data from a study on the effect of small-scale disturbances on small mammal prey of the Mexican spotted owl illustrates how spatial models of canopy cover and disturbance profiles of forest stands might be used to define forest stand condition and develop silvicultural prescriptions.

  2. Changes in winter conditions impact forest management in north temperate forests.

    PubMed

    Rittenhouse, Chadwick D; Rissman, Adena R

    2015-02-01

    Climate change may impact forest management activities with important implications for forest ecosystems. However, most climate change research on forests has focused on climate-driven shifts in species ranges, forest carbon, and hydrology. To examine how climate change may alter timber harvesting and forest operations in north temperate forests, we asked: 1) How have winter conditions changed over the past 60 years? 2) Have changes in winter weather altered timber harvest patterns on public forestlands? 3) What are the implications of changes in winter weather conditions for timber harvest operations in the context of the economic, ecological, and social goals of forest management? Using meteorological information from Climate Data Online and Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) models we document substantial changes in winter conditions in Wisconsin, including a two- to three-week shortening of frozen ground conditions from 1948 to 2012. Increases in minimum and mean soil temperatures were spatially heterogeneous. Analysis of timber harvest records identified a shift toward greater harvest of jack pine and red pine and less harvest of aspen, black spruce, hemlock, red maple, and white spruce in years with less frozen ground or snow duration. Interviews suggested that frozen ground is a mediating condition that enables low-impact timber harvesting. Climate change may alter frozen ground conditions with complex implications for forest management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Forest conditions in the Gila River Forest Reserve, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rixon, T.F.

    1905-01-01

    The Gila River Forest Reserve was established by proclamation of President McKinley on March 2, 1899. The following is a statement of the boundaries as laid down in the proclamation: "Beginning at a point on the boundary line between New Mexico and Arizona, where it is intersected by the north line of township five (5) south, range twenty-one (21) west, New Mexico principle meridian, New Mexico; thence easterly along the township line to the northeast corner of township five (5) south, range sixteen (16) west; thence southerly along the range line between ranges fifteen (15) and sixteen (16) west, to the southeast corner of township eight (8) south, range sixteen (16) west; thence easterly along the township line to the northeast corner of township nine (9) south, range fifteen (15) west; thence southerly along the range line to the southeast corner of said township; thence easterly along the township line to the northeast corner of township ten (10) south, range ten (10) west; thence southerly along the first guide meridian west, between ranges nine (9) and ten (10) west, to its intersection with the third (3rd) standard parallel south, between townships fifteen (15) and sixteen (16) south; thence westerly along the said third (3rd) standard parallel south to the southwest corner of township fifteen (15) south, range sixteen (16) west; thence northerly along the range line to the northwest corner of said township; thence westerly along the township line to the northeast corner of township fifteen (15) south, range nineteen (19) west; thence southerly along the range line to its intersection with the third (3d) standard parallel south; thence westerly along the third (3rd) standard parallel south to its intersection with the boundary line between New Mexico and Arizona; thence northerly along said boundary line to the point where it intersects the north line of township five (5) south, range twenty-one (21) west, the place of beginning."

  4. Treatment of Nelson's syndrome with temozolomide.

    PubMed

    Moyes, V J; Alusi, G; Sabin, H I; Evanson, J; Berney, D M; Kovacs, K; Monson, J P; Plowman, P N; Drake, W M

    2009-01-01

    A 64-year-old woman was previously treated for Cushing's disease with trans-sphenoidal surgery, external beam radiotherapy and bilateral adrenalectomy. Progression of an aggressive corticotroph adenoma was evident 3 years post-adrenalectomy; involvement of the clivus was treated with surgery and gamma knife radiosurgery. Tumour spread through the skull base, occiput and left ear with persistent facial pain and left ear discharge; progression continued despite second gamma knife treatment. ACTH levels peaked at 2472 and 2265 pmol/l pre- and post-hydrocortisone respectively. Treatment with temozolomide resulted in a significant improvement in symptoms, a reduction of plasma ACTH to 389 pmol/l and regression of tumour on magnetic resonance imaging scan after four cycles of treatment. We propose that temozolomide is an effective and well-tolerated therapeutic tool for the treatment of Nelson's syndrome and a useful addition to the range of therapies available to treat this condition.

  5. Forest conditions in the Black Mesa Forest Reserve, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plummer, F.G.; Rixon, T.F.; Dodwell, Arthur

    1904-01-01

    The Black Mesa Forest Reserve, in Arizona, was created by proclamation of President McKinley dated August 17, 1898. The following are its boundaries; "Beginning at a point on the boundary line between Arizona and New Mexico where it is intersected by the north line of township seven (7) north, range thirty-one (31) east, Gila and Salt River meridian, Arizona; thence westerly along the township line to the southeast corner of township eight (8) north, range twenty-seven (27) east; thence northerly to the northeast corner of said township; thence westerly along the second (2nd) standard parallel north to the southeast corner of township nine (9) north, range twenty-six (26) east; thence northerly to the northeast corner of said township; thence westerly along the township line to the southeast corner of township ten (10) north, range twenty-two (22) east; thence northerly to the northeast corner of said township; thence westerly along the township line to the southeast corner of township eleven (11) north, range nineteen (19) east; thence northerly.along the range line to its point of intersection with the forty miles limit of the grant to the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad Company; thence westerly following the forty miles limit of said grant to its intersection with the range line between ranges five (5) and six (6) east, in township fifteen (15) north; thence southerly to the southwest corner of said township; thence easterly along the township line to the northwest corner of township fourteen (14) north, range seven (7) east; thence southerly along the range line to the southwest corner of township thirteen (13) north, range seven (7) east; thence easterly along the third (3rd) standard parallel north to the northwest corner of township twelve (12) north, range eight (8) east; thence southerly to the south- west corner of said township; thence easterly along the township line to the north- west corner of township eleven (11) north, range twelve (12) east; thence

  6. Nelson Syndrome: Update on Therapeutic Approaches.

    PubMed

    Azad, Tej D; Veeravagu, Anand; Kumar, Sunny; Katznelson, Laurence

    2015-06-01

    To review the pathophysiology and therapeutic modalities availble for Nelson syndrome. We reviewed the current literature including managment for Nelson syndrome. For patients with NS, surgical intervention is often the first-line therapy. With refractory NS or tumors with extrasellar involvement, radiosurgery offers an important alternative or adjuvant option. Pharmacologic interventions have demonstrated limited usefulness, although recent evidence supports the feasibility of a novel somatostatin analog for patients with NS. Modern neuroimaging, improved surgical techniques, and the advent of stereotactic radiotherapy have transformed the management of NS. An up-to-date understanding of the pathophysiology underlying Nelson Syndrome and evidence-based management is imperative. Early detection may allow for more successful therapy in patients with Nelson Syndrome. Improved radiotherapeutic interventions and rapidly evolving pharmacologic therapies offer an opportunity to create targeted, multifocal treatment regiments for patients with Nelson Syndrome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Nelson River and Hudson Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Rivers that empty into large bodies of water can have a significant impact on the thawing of nearshore winter ice. This true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from May 18, 2001, shows the Nelson River emptying spring runoff from the Manitoba province to the south into the southwestern corner of Canada's Hudson Bay. The warmer waters from more southern latitudes hasten melting of ice near the shore, though some still remained, perhaps because in shallow coastal waters, the ice could have been anchored to the bottom. High volumes of sediment in the runoff turned the inflow brown, and the rim of the retreating ice has taken on a dirty appearance even far to the east of the river's entrance into the Bay. The sediment would have further hastened the melting of the ice because its darker color would have absorbed more solar radiation than cleaner, whiter ice. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  8. Nelson Spencer (1918-2002)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brace, Larry; Carignan, George; Donahue, Tom; Nagy, Andrew; Hunten, Donald

    Nelson Spencer, former chief of the Laboratory for Atmospheres at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, died on 31 August 2002 in Bethesda, Maryland, at the age of 84 due to complications from Parkinson's disease. He had been an AGU member (SPA) since 1950.He was born in Buffalo, New York, and graduated from the University of Michigan in 1941 with a degree in electrical engineering. Spencer served as a naval officer during World War II and attended Harvard and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology while in the service. After the war, he returned to the University of Michigan for graduate studies, earning his master's degree in electrical engineering in 1953. He soon became director of that department's Space Physics Research Laboratory (SPRL), and later, a full professor. In 1960, Spencer moved to Washington D.C. to lead Goddard's upper atmosphere research effort, serving for many years as chief of the Laboratory for Atmospheres. He retired in 1986.

  9. Land-Base Changes in the United States: Long-Term Assessments of Forest Land Condition

    Treesearch

    Ralph J. Alig

    2006-01-01

    Forest land conditions affect the potential of U.S. forests to sustain a wide array of forest goods and environmental services (e.g., biodiversity) that society demands. Forest survey data collected by U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) units are being used in long-term assessments of U.S. forest land conditions at large...

  10. ForWarn Forest Disturbance Change Detection System Provides a Weekly Snapshot of US Forest Conditions to Aid Forest Managers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargrove, W. W.; Spruce, J.; Kumar, J.; Hoffman, F. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Eastern Forest Environmental Threat Assessment Center and Western Wildland Environmental Assessment Center of the USDA Forest Service have collaborated with NASA Stennis Space Center to develop ForWarn, a forest monitoring tool that uses MODIS satellite imagery to produce weekly snapshots of vegetation conditions across the lower 48 United States. Forest and natural resource managers can use ForWarn to rapidly detect, identify, and respond to unexpected changes in the nation's forests caused by insects, diseases, wildfires, severe weather, or other natural or human-caused events. ForWarn detects most types of forest disturbances, including insects, disease, wildfires, frost and ice damage, tornadoes, hurricanes, blowdowns, harvest, urbanization, and landslides. It also detects drought, flood, and temperature effects, and shows early and delayed seasonal vegetation development. Operating continuously since January 2010, results show ForWarn to be a robust and highly capable tool for detecting changes in forest conditions. To help forest and natural resource managers rapidly detect, identify, and respond to unexpected changes in the nation's forests, ForWarn produces sets of national maps showing potential forest disturbances at 231m resolution every 8 days, and posts the results to the web for examination. ForWarn compares current greenness with the "normal," historically seen greenness that would be expected for healthy vegetation for a specific location and time of the year, and then identifies areas appearing less green than expected to provide a strategic national overview of potential forest disturbances that can be used to direct ground and aircraft efforts. In addition to forests, ForWarn also tracks potential disturbances in rangeland vegetation and agriculural crops. ForWarn is the first national-scale system of its kind based on remote sensing developed specifically for forest disturbances. The ForWarn system had an official unveiling and rollout in

  11. Nelson syndrome: historical perspectives and current concepts.

    PubMed

    Hornyak, Mark; Weiss, Martin H; Nelson, Don H; Couldwell, William T

    2007-01-01

    The appearance of an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-producing tumor after bilateral adrenalectomy for Cushing disease was first described by Nelson in 1958. The syndrome that now bears his name was characterized by hyperpigmentation, a sellar mass, and increased plasma ACTH levels. The treatment of Cushing disease has changed drastically since the 1950s, when the choice was adrenalectomy. Thus, the occurrence, diagnosis, and treatment of Nelson syndrome have changed as well. In the modern era of high-resolution neuroimaging, transsphenoidal microneurosurgery, and stereotactic radiosurgery, Nelson syndrome has become a rare entity. The authors describe the history of the diagnosis and treatment of Nelson syndrome. In light of the changes described, the authors believe this disease must be reevaluated in the contemporary era and a modern paradigm adopted.

  12. Air pollution, forest condition and forest decline in Southern Europe: an overview.

    PubMed

    Bussotti, F; Ferretti, M

    1998-01-01

    Over the last decades much of the work on the impact of air pollution on forests in Europe has concentrated on central and northern countries. The southern part of Europe has received far less attention, although air pollutants-especially the photochemical ones-can reach concentrations likely to have adverse effects on forest vegetation. Although international forest condition surveys present serious problems where data consistency is concerned, they reveal considerable year-by-year species-specific fluctuations rather than a large-scale forest decline. Cases of obvious decline related to environmental factors are well circumscribed: (1) the deterioration of some coastal forests due to the action of polluted seaspray; (2) the deterioration of reforestation projects, especially conifers, mainly due to the poor ecological compatibility between species and site; and (3) the decline of deciduous oaks in southern Italy and of evergreen oaks in the Iberian peninsula apparently due to the interaction of climate stresses and pests and diseases. However, besides obvious deterioration, changes in environmental factors can provoke situations of more subtle stress. The most sensitive stands are Mediterranean conifer forests and mesophile forests of the Mediterranean-montane plane growing at the edges of the natural ecological distribution. Evergreen sclerophyllous forests appear less sensitive to variations in climatic parameters, since they can adapt quite well to both drought and the action of UV-B rays. Several experiments were carried out to test the sensitivity of Mediterranean forest species to air pollutants. Most of those experiments used seedlings of different species treated with pollutant concentrations too high to be realistic, so it is difficult to derive adequate information on the response of adult trees in field conditions. Ozone has been proved to cause foliar injury in a variety of native forest species in different Southern European countries, while the

  13. Evaluation of Forest Health Conditions using Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatfield, M. C.; Heutte, T. M.

    2016-12-01

    US Forest Service Alaska Region Forest Health Protection (FHP) and University of Alaska Fairbanks, Alaska Center for Unmanned Aircraft Systems Integration (ACUASI) are evaluating capability of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) to monitor forest health conditions in Alaska's Interior Region. In July 2016, the team deployed UAS at locations in the Tanana Valley near Fairbanks in order to familiarize FHP staff with capabilities of UAS for evaluating insect and disease damage. While many potential uses of UAS to evaluate and monitor forest health can be envisioned, this project focused on use of a small UAS for rapid assessment of insect and disease damage. Traditional ground-based methods are limited by distance from ground to canopy and inaccessibility of forest stands due to terrain conditions. Observation from fixed-wing aircraft provide a broad overview of conditions but are limited by minimum safe flying altitude (500' AGL) and aircraft speed ( 100 mph). UAS may provide a crucial bridge to fill in gaps between ground and airborne methods, and offer significant cost savings and greater flexibility over helicopter-based observations. Previous uses of UAS for forest health monitoring are limited - this project focuses on optimizing choice of vehicle, sensors, resolution and area scanned from different altitudes, and use of visual spectrum vs NIR image collection. The vehicle selected was the ACUASI Ptarmigan, a small hexacopter (based on DJI S800 airframe and 3DR autopilot) capable of carrying a 1.5 kg payload for 15 min for close-range environmental monitoring missions. Sites were chosen for conditions favorable to UAS operation and presence of forest insect and disease agents including spruce broom rust, aspen leaf miner, birch leaf roller, and willow leafblotch miner. A total of 29 flights were conducted with 9000+ images collected. Mission variables included camera height, UAS speed, and medium- (Sony NEX-7) vs low-resolution (GoPro Hero) cameras. Invaluable

  14. Forest conditions and trends in the northern United States

    Treesearch

    Stephen R. Shifley; Francisco X. Aguilar; Nianfu Song; Susan I. Stewart; David J. Nowak; Dale D. Gormanson; W. Keith Moser; Sherri Wormstead; Eric J. Greenfield

    2012-01-01

    This section describes current conditions and trends for the 20 Northern States by focusing on selected characteristics associated with forest sustainability. Its format is based upon a set of 64 indicators within 7 broad criteria that the United States and 11 other countries have adopted under the auspices of the Montréal Process Working Group on Criteria and...

  15. Modeling current climate conditions for forest pest risk assessment

    Treesearch

    Frank H. Koch; John W. Coulston

    2010-01-01

    Current information on broad-scale climatic conditions is essential for assessing potential distribution of forest pests. At present, sophisticated spatial interpolation approaches such as the Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) are used to create high-resolution climatic data sets. Unfortunately, these data sets are based on 30-year...

  16. Forest biomass estimation with hemispherical photography for multiple forest types and various atmospheric conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Joshua Andrew

    The importance of accurately identifying inventories of domestic energy, including forest biomass, has increasingly become a priority of the US government and its citizens as the cost of fossil fuels has risen. It is useful to identify which of these resources can be processed and transported at the lowest cost for both private and public landowners. Accurate spatial inventories of forest biomass can help landowners allocate resources to maximize forest biomass utilization and provide information regarding current forest health (e.g., forest fire potential, insect susceptibility, wildlife habitat range). This research has indicated that hemispherical photography (HP) may be an accurate and low cost sensing technique for forest biomass measurements. In this dissertation: (1) It is shown that HP gap fraction measurements and both above ground biomass and crown biomass have a linear relationship. (2) It is demonstrated that careful manipulation of images improves gap fraction estimates, even under unfavorable atmospheric conditions. (3) It is shown that estimates of Leaf Area Index (LAI), based on transformations of gap fraction measurements, are the best estimator for both above ground forest biomass and crown biomass. (4) It is shown that many factors negatively influence the utility of HP for biomass estimation. (5) It is shown that biomass of forests stands with regular spacing is not modeled well using HP. As researchers continue to explore different methods for forest biomass estimation, HP is likely to remain as a viable technique, especially if LAI can be accurately estimated. However, other methods should be compared with HP, particularly for stands where LAI is poorly estimated by HP.

  17. Impacts of peatland forestation on regional climate conditions in Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yao; Markkanen, Tiina; Backman, Leif; Henttonen, Helena M.; Pietikäinen, Joni-Pekka; Laaksonen, Ari

    2014-05-01

    Climate response to anthropogenic land cover change happens more locally and occurs on a shorter time scale than the global warming due to increased GHGs. Over the second half of last Century, peatlands were vastly drained in Finland to stimulate forest growth for timber production. In this study, we investigate the biophysical effects of peatland forestation on near-surface climate conditions in Finland. For this, the regional climate model REMO, developed in Max Plank Institute (currently in Climate Service Center, Germany), provides an effective way. Two sets of 15-year climate simulations were done by REMO, using the historic (1920s; The 1st Finnish National Forest Inventory) and present-day (2000s; the 10th Finnish National Forest Inventory) land cover maps, respectively. The simulated surface air temperature and precipitation were then analyzed. In the most intensive peatland forestation area in Finland, the differences in monthly averaged daily mean surface air temperature show a warming effect around 0.2 to 0.3 K in February and March and reach to 0.5 K in April, whereas a slight cooling effect, less than 0.2 K, is found from May till October. Consequently, the selected snow clearance dates in model gridboxes over that area are advanced 0.5 to 4 days in the mean of 15 years. The monthly averaged precipitation only shows small differences, less than 10 mm/month, in a varied pattern in Finland from April to September. Furthermore, a more detailed analysis was conducted on the peatland forestation area with a 23% decrease in peatland and a 15% increase in forest types. 11 day running means of simulated temperature and energy balance terms, as well as snow depth were averaged over 15 years. Results show a positive feedback induced by peatland forestation between the surface air temperature and snow depth in snow melting period. This is because the warmer temperature caused by lower surface albedo due to more forest in snow cover period leads to a quicker and

  18. Experimental Study of the Conditions for Quenching Forest Combustible Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonov, D. V.; Volkov, R. S.; Zhdanova, A. O.; Kuznetsov, G. V.; Strizhak, P. A.

    2017-05-01

    To confirm the possibility of quenching forest combustible materials by small volumes of water, experimental studies have been made of the processes of interaction of droplets, films, and aerosol flows of water with small sources of combustion of typical forest combustible materials — birch leaves, pine needles, birch and asp twigs. Model combustion sources in the form of cylinders of diameter 20-60 mm and height 40-100 mm were constructed. With the use of high-speed video recording, the characteristic times of thermal decomposition of forest combustibles and the times of suppressing combustion of these materials under various conditions of their interaction with water (pulsed supply of aerosol, injection of water ″mist″ with droplets of radius up to 100 μm, sequential supply of large drops of radius about 1.5 mm) have been determined. Volumes of water sufficient for suppressing combustion depending on the method of supplying it onto the surface of the reacting forest combustible have been determined. Estimates have been made of the nonreacted portion of the material by comparing the initial mass of the sample of the forest combustible with its final mass (upon quenching the material).

  19. Vegetative composition in forested areas following application of desired forest condition treatments

    Treesearch

    Trent A. Danley; Andrew W. Ezell; Emily B. Schultz; John D. Hodges

    2015-01-01

    Desired forest conditions, or DFCs, are recently created parameters which strive to create diverse stands of hardwoods of various species and age classes, along with varying densities and canopy gaps, through the use of uneven-aged silvicultural methods and repeated stand entries. Little research has been conducted to examine residual stand composition and hardwood...

  20. Development history and bibliography of the US Forest Service crown-condition indicator for forest health monitoring

    Treesearch

    KaDonna Randolph

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensive assessment of individual-tree crown condition by the US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program has its origins in the concerns about widespread forest decline in Europe and North America that developed in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Programs such as the US National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program,...

  1. Nonparametric projections of forest and rangeland condition indicators: A technical document supporting the 2005 USDA Forest Service RPA Assessment Update

    Treesearch

    John Hof; Curtis Flather; Tony Baltic; Rudy King

    2006-01-01

    The 2005 Forest and Rangeland Condition Indicator Model is a set of classification trees for forest and rangeland condition indicators at the national scale. This report documents the development of the database and the nonparametric statistical estimation for this analytical structure, with emphasis on three special characteristics of condition indicator production...

  2. Using Modis Imagery to Track Changes in Forest Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chastain, R. A.

    2011-12-01

    The objective of the Real-Time Forest Disturbance (RTFD) project is to provide timely information regarding changes in forest conditions to assist the digital aerial sketch-mapping community in flight mission planning. To this end, a digital change detection methodology has been developed and implemented over the conterminous 48 U.S. states (CONUS) in 2008, 2009, and 2010 to track forest disturbances in near real-time (updated every 8 days). The RTFD approach uses MODIS satellite imagery, which provides daily observations to track developing disturbances that may also be ephemeral in nature. Also, the spectral grain of MODIS data permits the calculation of spectral indices, which the RTFD approach uses to characterize changes in forest condition. Baseline image data used in the RTFD method are produced using MODIS data composited from five years prior to the current growing season. In 2011, an additional 3-year baseline has been used in the change detection process. The RTFD approach has detected and tracked numerous defoliation events in the eastern deciduous biome, decline and mortality associated with beetle activity in the western coniferous biome, and forest damage associated with severe weather events. A quantitative retrospective assessment of 2010 RTFD results was performed to identify potential modifications to the analytical logic of the RTFD approach in order to improve detection efficiency. This assessment was performed within six study areas wherein forest disturbances occurred during 2010. Various methodological alterations were assessed within these study areas; principally, the use of different vegetation indices and alterations in baseline definition. Two-date Landsat change detection results acted as reference data to which RTFD results were compared. Differences in levels of agreement between various RTFD results and Landsat results were evaluated for significance using McNemar's test. The findings of this retrospective assessment indicate that a

  3. Bark beetle conditions in western forests and formation of the Western Bark Beetle Research Group

    Treesearch

    Robert J. Cain; Jane L. Hayes

    2009-01-01

    The recent dramatic impacts of bark beetle outbreaks across conifer forests of the West have been mapped and reported by entomology and pathology professionals with Forest Health Protection (FHP), a component of USDA Forest Service's State and Private Forestry, and their state counterparts. These forest conditions set the stage for the formation of the Western...

  4. Longleaf pine forest: Trends and current conditions. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Outcalt, K.W.; Sheffield, R.M.

    1996-09-01

    Longleaf pine is the key tree species in a complex of fire-dependent ecosystems long native to the Southeastern United States. This report is an assessment of the amount, location, ownership, and condition of the remaining longleaf ecosystem. These inventories were conducted on permanent sample plots systematically distributed across timberland to obtain a proportionate sample of all major forest types, sites, and ownership classes in the region.

  5. Decline of forest interior conditions in the conterminous United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    Forest fragmentation threatens the sustainability of forest interior environments, thereby endangering subordinate ecological attributes and functions. We analyzed the spatial patterns of forest disturbance and recovery for the conterminous United States from 2001 to 2006 to det...

  6. Interpreting Nelson-Denny Reading Test Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blai, Boris, Jr.

    Reading test results and their interpretation are stressed because of their importance in student achievement. The Nelson-Denny Reading Test used at Harcum Junior College is a useful measuring instrument for predicting academic achievement, screening students, and diagnosing reading and learning problems. General hints for interpretation of the…

  7. 78 FR 75205 - Death of Nelson Mandela

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-10

    ... lost an incomparable liberator, and the world has lost an inspiration for freedom, justice, and human.... His journey from a prisoner to a President embodied the promise that human beings--and countries--can.... While we mourn his loss, we will forever honor Nelson Mandela's memory. He left behind a South...

  8. A Conversation with Harold L. Nelson.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journalism History, 1979

    1979-01-01

    In this interview, Harold L. Nelson, former president of the Association for Education in Journalism and the American Association of Schools and Departments of Journalism, discusses a number of topics, including press freedom, research needs in journalism history, United States media history, and the current status of journalism history. (GT)

  9. Philosophical Remarks on Nelson Mandela's Education Legacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waghid, Yusef

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I reflect on Nelson Mandela's (Madiba, the clan name of Mandela) education legacy. I argue that Madiba's education legacy is constituted by three interrelated aspects: firstly, an education for non-violence guided by deliberation, compassion and reconciliation; secondly, education as responsibility towards the Other; and thirdly,…

  10. Philosophical Remarks on Nelson Mandela's Education Legacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waghid, Yusef

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I reflect on Nelson Mandela's (Madiba, the clan name of Mandela) education legacy. I argue that Madiba's education legacy is constituted by three interrelated aspects: firstly, an education for non-violence guided by deliberation, compassion and reconciliation; secondly, education as responsibility towards the Other; and thirdly,…

  11. Spatial interpolation of forest conditions using co-conditional geostatistical simulation

    Treesearch

    H. Todd Mowrer

    2000-01-01

    In recent work the author used the geostatistical Monte Carlo technique of sequential Gaussian simulation (s.G.s.) to investigate uncertainty in a GIS analysis of potential old-growth forest areas. The current study compares this earlier technique to that of co-conditional simulation, wherein the spatial cross-correlations between variables are included. As in the...

  12. Condition and fate of logged forests in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Treesearch

    Gregory P. Asner; Eben N. Broadbent; Paulo J. C. Oliveira; Michael Keller; David E. Knapp; Jose N. M. Silva

    2006-01-01

    The long-term viability of a forest industry in the Amazon region of Brazil depends on the maintenance of adequate timber volume and growth in healthy forests. Using extensive high-resolution satellite analyses, we studied the forest damage caused by recent logging operations and the likelihood that logged forests would be cleared within 4 years after timber harvest....

  13. Temporal trends of forest interior conditions in the United States

    Treesearch

    Kurt Riitters; James. Wickham

    2012-01-01

    Nature's benefits derived from forest interior environments cannot be sustained if the natural capital of forest interior area is not sustained. We analyzed the spatial patterns of forest loss and gain for the conterminous United States from 2001 to 2006 to determine whether forest interior environments were maintained at five spatial scales. A 1.1 percent net...

  14. Decline of forest interior conditions in the conterminous United States

    Treesearch

    Kurt H. Riitters; James D. Wickham

    2012-01-01

    Forest fragmentation threatens the sustainability of forest interior environments, thereby endangering subordinate ecological attributes and functions. We analyzed the spatial patterns of forest loss and gain for the conterminous United States from 2001 to 2006 to determine whether forest interior environments were maintained at five spatial scales. A 1.1% net loss of...

  15. Maximal conditional chi-square importance in random forests.

    PubMed

    Wang, Minghui; Chen, Xiang; Zhang, Heping

    2010-03-15

    High-dimensional data are frequently generated in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and other studies. It is important to identify features such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in GWAS that are associated with a disease. Random forests represent a very useful approach for this purpose, using a variable importance score. This importance score has several shortcomings. We propose an alternative importance measure to overcome those shortcomings. We characterized the effect of multiple SNPs under various models using our proposed importance measure in random forests, which uses maximal conditional chi-square (MCC) as a measure of association between a SNP and the trait conditional on other SNPs. Based on this importance measure, we employed a permutation test to estimate empirical P-values of SNPs. Our method was compared to a univariate test and the permutation test using the Gini and permutation importance. In simulation, the proposed method performed consistently superior to the other methods in identifying of risk SNPs. In a GWAS of age-related macular degeneration, the proposed method confirmed two significant SNPs (at the genome-wide adjusted level of 0.05). Further analysis showed that these two SNPs conformed with a heterogeneity model. Compared with the existing importance measures, the MCC importance measure is more sensitive to complex effects of risk SNPs by utilizing conditional information on different SNPs. The permutation test with the MCC importance measure provides an efficient way to identify candidate SNPs in GWAS and facilitates the understanding of the etiology between genetic variants and complex diseases. heping.zhang@yale.edu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  16. 7 CFR 1.673 - How will the Forest Service analyze a proposed alternative and formulate its modified condition?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... deciding whether to adopt a proposed alternative, the Forest Service must consider evidence and supporting.... (b) The Forest Service must adopt a proposed alternative if the Forest Service determines, based on... Forest Service files with FERC the condition that the Forest Service adopts as its modified condition...

  17. Forests in transition: Post-epidemic vegetation conditions [Chapter 4

    Treesearch

    Rob Hubbard; Michael Battaglia; Chuck Rhoades; Jim Thinnes; Tom Martin; Jeff Underhill; Mark Westfahl

    2014-01-01

    More than 23 million acres of lodgepole pine forests across the western U.S. have experienced overstory mortality following the recent mountain pine beetle (MPB) epidemic (USDA Forest Service 2013). Unknowns regarding the immediate and long-term consequences of the epidemic challenge the ability of managers to make informed decisions aimed at sustaining forest health...

  18. Evaluating a new method for reconstructing forest conditions from General Land Office survey records

    Treesearch

    Carrie R. Levine; Charles V. Cogbill; Brandon M. Collins; Andrew J. Larson; James A. Lutz; Malcolm P. North; Christina M. Restaino; Hugh D. Safford; Scott L. Stephens; John J. Battles

    2017-01-01

    Historical forest conditions are often used to inform contemporary management goals because historical forests are considered to be resilient to ecological disturbances. The General Land Office (GLO) surveys of the late 19th and early 20th centuries provide regionally quasi-contiguous data sets of historical forests across much of the Western United States....

  19. Reference conditions for old-growth pine forests in the Upper West Gulf Coastal Plain

    Treesearch

    Don C. Bragg

    2002-01-01

    Ecosystem restoration has become an important component of forest management. especially on public lands. However, determination of manageable reference conditions has lagged behind the interest. This paper presents a case study from pine-dominated forests in the Upper West Gulf Coastal Plain (UWGCP), with special emphasis on southern Arkansas. Decades of forest...

  20. Modelling Associations between Public Understanding, Engagement and Forest Conditions in the Inland Northwest, USA

    PubMed Central

    Hartter, Joel; Stevens, Forrest R.; Hamilton, Lawrence C.; Congalton, Russell G.; Ducey, Mark J.; Oester, Paul T.

    2015-01-01

    Opinions about public lands and the actions of private non-industrial forest owners in the western United States play important roles in forested landscape management as both public and private forests face increasing risks from large wildfires, pests and disease. This work presents the responses from two surveys, a random-sample telephone survey of more than 1500 residents and a mail survey targeting owners of parcels with 10 or more acres of forest. These surveys were conducted in three counties (Wallowa, Union, and Baker) in northeast Oregon, USA. We analyze these survey data using structural equation models in order to assess how individual characteristics and understanding of forest management issues affect perceptions about forest conditions and risks associated with declining forest health on public lands. We test whether forest understanding is informed by background, beliefs, and experiences, and whether as an intervening variable it is associated with views about forest conditions on publicly managed forests. Individual background characteristics such as age, gender and county of residence have significant direct or indirect effects on our measurement of understanding. Controlling for background factors, we found that forest owners with higher self-assessed understanding, and more education about forest management, tend to hold more pessimistic views about forest conditions. Based on our results we argue that self-assessed understanding, interest in learning, and willingness to engage in extension activities together have leverage to affect perceptions about the risks posed by declining forest conditions on public lands, influence land owner actions, and affect support for public policies. These results also have broader implications for management of forested landscapes on public and private lands amidst changing demographics in rural communities across the Inland Northwest where migration may significantly alter the composition of forest owner goals

  1. Relation of weather forecasts to the prediction of dangerous forest fire conditions

    Treesearch

    R. H. Weidman

    1923-01-01

    The purpose of predicting dangerous forest-fire conditions, of course, is to reduce the great cost and damage caused by forest fires. In the region of Montana and northern Idaho alone the average cost to the United States Forest Service of fire protection and suppression is over $1,000,000 a year. Although the causes of forest fires will gradually be reduced by...

  2. Modelling associations between public understanding, engagement and forest conditions in the Inland Northwest, USA.

    PubMed

    Hartter, Joel; Stevens, Forrest R; Hamilton, Lawrence C; Congalton, Russell G; Ducey, Mark J; Oester, Paul T

    2015-01-01

    Opinions about public lands and the actions of private non-industrial forest owners in the western United States play important roles in forested landscape management as both public and private forests face increasing risks from large wildfires, pests and disease. This work presents the responses from two surveys, a random-sample telephone survey of more than 1500 residents and a mail survey targeting owners of parcels with 10 or more acres of forest. These surveys were conducted in three counties (Wallowa, Union, and Baker) in northeast Oregon, USA. We analyze these survey data using structural equation models in order to assess how individual characteristics and understanding of forest management issues affect perceptions about forest conditions and risks associated with declining forest health on public lands. We test whether forest understanding is informed by background, beliefs, and experiences, and whether as an intervening variable it is associated with views about forest conditions on publicly managed forests. Individual background characteristics such as age, gender and county of residence have significant direct or indirect effects on our measurement of understanding. Controlling for background factors, we found that forest owners with higher self-assessed understanding, and more education about forest management, tend to hold more pessimistic views about forest conditions. Based on our results we argue that self-assessed understanding, interest in learning, and willingness to engage in extension activities together have leverage to affect perceptions about the risks posed by declining forest conditions on public lands, influence land owner actions, and affect support for public policies. These results also have broader implications for management of forested landscapes on public and private lands amidst changing demographics in rural communities across the Inland Northwest where migration may significantly alter the composition of forest owner goals

  3. The Northern Forest Futures Project: A forward look at forest conditions in the northern United States

    Treesearch

    W. Keith Moser; Stephen R. Shifley

    2012-01-01

    Forests and forest ecosystems provide a critical array of benefits, from clean air and water to commercial products to open space. The forests and their ability to provide desired benefi ts constantly change in response to natural forces, human decisions, and human needs. The complexity and rate of change demand a rigorous evaluation of existing and emerging natural...

  4. Development history and bibliography of the US Forest Service crown-condition indicator for forest health monitoring.

    PubMed

    Randolph, KaDonna C

    2013-06-01

    Comprehensive assessment of individual-tree crown condition by the US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program has its origins in the concerns about widespread forest decline in Europe and North America that developed in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Programs such as the US National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program, US National Vegetation Survey, Canadian Acid Rain National Early Warning System, and joint US-Canadian North American Sugar Maple Decline Project laid the groundwork for the development of the US Forest Service crown-condition indicator. The crown-condition assessment protocols were selected and refined through literature review, peer review, and field studies in several different forest types during the late 1980s and early 1990s. Between 1980 and 2011, 126 publications relating specifically to the crown-condition indicator were added to the literature. The majority of the articles were published by the US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service or other State or Federal government agency, and more than half were published after 2004.

  5. Forest management under changing climate conditions: Is timing a tool for Sustainable Forest Management? Relevant questions for research development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Aprile, Fabrizio; McShane, Paul; Tapper, Nigel

    2013-04-01

    Change of climate conditions influence energy fluxes applicable to forest ecosystems. These affect cycles of nutrients and materials, primary productivity of the ecosystem, biodiversity, ecological functionality and, consequently, carbon equilibria of the forest ecosystem. Temporal factors influence physical, biological, ecological, and climatic processes and functions. For example, seasonality, cycles, periodicity, and trends in climate variables; tree growth, forest growth, and forest metabolic activities (i.e., photosynthesis and respiration) are commonly known to be time-related. In tropical forests, the impacts of changing climate conditions may exceed temperature and/or precipitation thresholds critical to forest tree growth or health. Historically, forest management emphasises growth rates and financial returns as affected by species and site. Until recently, the influence of climate variability on growth dynamics has not been influential in forest planning and management. Under this system, especially in climatic and forest regions where most of species are stenoecious, periodical wood harvesting may occur in any phase of growth (increasing, decreasing, peak, and trough). This scenario presents four main situations: a) harvesting occurs when the rate of growth is decreasing: future productivity is damaged; the minimum biomass capital may be altered, and CO2 storage is negatively affected; b) harvesting occurs during a trough of the rate of growth: the minimum biomass capital necessary to preserve the resilience of the forest is damaged; the damage can be temporary (decades) or permanent; CO2 storage capacity is deficient - which may be read as an indirect emission of CO2 since the balance appears negative; c) harvesting occurs when the rate of growth is increasing: the planned wood mass can be used without compromising the resilience and recovery of the forest; CO2 storage remains increasing; d) harvesting occurs during a peak period of growth: the wood

  6. An efficient estimator to monitor rapidly changing forest conditions

    Treesearch

    Raymond L. Czaplewski; Michael T. Thompson; Gretchen G. Moisen

    2012-01-01

    Extensive expanses of forest often change at a slow pace. In this common situation, FIA produces informative estimates of current status with the Moving Average (MA) method and post-stratification with a remotely sensed map of forest-nonforest cover. However, MA "smoothes out" estimates over time, which confounds analyses of temporal trends; and post-...

  7. Aerial sketchmapping for monitoring forest conditions in Southern Brazil

    Treesearch

    Y. M. Malheiros de Oliveira; M. A. Doetzer Rosot; N. B. da Luz; W. M. Ciesla; E.W. Johnson; R. Rhea; J.F. Jr. Penteado

    2006-01-01

    Aerial sketchmapping is a simple, low cost remote sensing method used for detection and mapping of forest damage caused by biotic agents (insects, pathogens and other pests) and abiotic agents (wind, fire, storms, hurricane, ice storms) in North America. This method was introduced to Brazil in 2001/2002 via a USDA Forest Service/EMBRAPA technical exchange program,...

  8. Condition varies with habitat choice in postbreeding forest birds

    Treesearch

    Scott H. Stoleson

    2013-01-01

    Many birds that are experiencing population declines require extensive tracts of mature forest habitat for breeding. Recent work suggests that at least some may shift their habitat use to early-successional areas after nesting but before migration. I used constant-effort mist netting in regenerating clearcuts (4-8 years postcut) and dense mature-forest understories to...

  9. Condition and fate of logged forests in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Asner, Gregory P; Broadbent, Eben N; Oliveira, Paulo J C; Keller, Michael; Knapp, David E; Silva, José N M

    2006-08-22

    The long-term viability of a forest industry in the Amazon region of Brazil depends on the maintenance of adequate timber volume and growth in healthy forests. Using extensive high-resolution satellite analyses, we studied the forest damage caused by recent logging operations and the likelihood that logged forests would be cleared within 4 years after timber harvest. Across 2,030,637 km2 of the Brazilian Amazon from 1999 to 2004, at least 76% of all harvest practices resulted in high levels of canopy damage sufficient to leave forests susceptible to drought and fire. We found that 16+/-1% of selectively logged areas were deforested within 1 year of logging, with a subsequent annual deforestation rate of 5.4% for 4 years after timber harvests. Nearly all logging occurred within 25 km of main roads, and within that area, the probability of deforestation for a logged forest was up to four times greater than for unlogged forests. In combination, our results show that logging in the Brazilian Amazon is dominated by highly damaging operations, often followed rapidly by deforestation decades before forests can recover sufficiently to produce timber for a second harvest. Under the management regimes in effect at the time of our study in the Brazilian Amazon, selective logging would not be sustained.

  10. [Turbulent characteristics in forest canopy under atmospheric neutral condition].

    PubMed

    Diao, Yi-Wei; Guan, De-Xin; Jin, Chang-Jie; Wang, An-Zhi; Pei, Tie-Fan

    2010-02-01

    Based on the micrometeorological data of broad-leaved Korean pine forest in Changbai Mountain in 2003, a second-order closure model was employed to calculate and analyze the turbulent characteristics within and above the canopy of the forest. The calculated mean wind profile was coincident with the measured one. The Reynolds stress within the forest was significantly attenuated. The turbulent strength, velocity flux, and skew were the largest at forest-atmosphere interface, as well the wind shear. With the increase of velocity skew, the turbulent intermittence became more significant, and the downward turbulent eddy within the canopy was limited. Most of the turbulent deeply within the forest canopy was produced by the non-local contributions above the canopy.

  11. Forest reference conditions for ecosystem management in the Sacramento Mountains, New Mexico

    Treesearch

    M. R. Kaufmann; L. S. Huckaby; C. M. Regan; J. Popp

    1998-01-01

    We present the history of land use and historic vegetation conditions on the Sacramento Ranger District of the Lincoln National Forest within the framework of an ecosystem needs assessment. We reconstruct forest vegetation conditions and ecosystem processes for the period immediately before Anglo-American settlement using General Land Office survey records, historic...

  12. GRAHAM NELSON AND ANDREW HANKS WITH BREADBOARD ENGINE PROJECT CO

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-14

    Graham Nelson, right, and Andrew Hanks examine a combustion chamber developed by engineers at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, for an additively manufactured demonstration breadboard engine project. Nelson is project manager and Hanks is test lead for the project, in which engineers are designing components from scratch to be made entirely by 3-D printing.

  13. A Conceptual Model for Defining and Assessing Condition of Forest Stands.

    PubMed

    LUNDQUIST; BEATTY

    1999-05-01

    / Determining what indicators can be used to measure forest health has been much discussed but largely unresolved in the forestry literature. A model is presented in which the condition of a stand is quantified relative to a suitable target condition based on a preselected set of stands that, in the opinions of the managers, meet management objectives. Each stand was characterized by a list of variables that were selected from the existing forest database. We termed these characterizations stand profiles. Profiles of inventory data for 28 stands, each managed for either wildlife habitat or timber production in the Wallowa-Whitman National Forest in eastern Oregon, USA, were used to develop this model. Healthy stands were represented by points in multidimensional scaling space that fell within the bounds of a 65% kernel density estimation of the distribution of stands preselected for each management objective. Stands falling outside these bounds were, by definition unhealthy, and the distance from the bounds is a measure of degree of unhealthiness. Operationally, the objectives of silvicultural manipulations would be to maintain or move points to within the target space by selectively manipulating the values composing stand profiles. The direction and length of the trajectory associated with manipulations is an indicator of the effect of management actions. More work needs to be done to develop and validate this method. KEY WORDS: Monitoring forest condition; Forest health; Decision making; Silviculture prescriptions; Forest management; Forest pests; Forest diseases; Forest insects

  14. Stand conditions associated with tree regeneration in sierran mixed-conifer forests.

    Treesearch

    Andrew N. Gray; Harold S.J. Zald; Ruth A. Kern; Malcolm. North

    2005-01-01

    Fire suppression has significantly increased canopy cover, litter depth, and stem density in many western forests, altering microsite conditions that affect tree seedling establishment. We conducted studies in a mixed-conifer forest in the Sierra Nevada, California, to determine relationships between established understory trees and microsite quality, and to examine...

  15. Public preferences for future conditions in disturbed and undisturbed northern forest sites

    Treesearch

    Terry C. Daniel

    2006-01-01

    This study presented computer visualizations (pictures) of projected changes over an 80-year period to conditions in a northern forest that had been hit by a major blowdown. Study participants included local residents and forest visitors who were asked to choose between visualizations of projected outcome scenarios for 10 pairs of treatment versus no-treatment options...

  16. Southern forest resource conditions and management practices from 1900-1950: Benefits of research

    Treesearch

    James P. Barnett

    2004-01-01

    The vast harvest of the native forests of the South in the 19th and early 20th centuries created a great need for reforestation and silvicultural knowledge. An emphasis on forestry research that changed the face of the South began with the establishment of the Southern and Appalachian Forest Experiment Stations in 1921. Working under primitive conditions, early...

  17. Using the Forest Vegetation Simulator to reconstruct historical stand conditions in the Colorado Front Range

    Treesearch

    Paula J. Fornwalt; Merrill R. Kaufmann; Laurie S. Huckaby; Jason M. Stoker

    2002-01-01

    Presettlement ponderosa pine/Douglas-fir forests of the Colorado Front Range were open and heterogeneous. Logging, grazing, and fire suppression over past 100 to150 years have altered stand structure by changing diameter distributions and increasing overstory density. In an effort to guide forest restoration toward presettlement conditions, we are currently using the...

  18. Stand conditions associated with truffle abundance in western hemlock/Douglas-fir forests

    Treesearch

    Malcolm North; Joshua Greenberg

    1998-01-01

    Truffles are a staple food source for many forest small mammals yet the vegetation or soil conditions associated with truffle abundance are unknown. We examined the spatial distribution of forest structures, organic layer depth, root density, and two of the most common western North American truffles (Elaphomyces granulatus and Rhizopogon...

  19. Harmonic analysis of dense time series of landsat imagery for modeling change in forest conditions

    Treesearch

    Barry Tyler. Wilson

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the utility of dense time series of Landsat imagery for small area estimation and mapping of change in forest conditions over time. The study area was a region in north central Wisconsin for which Landsat 7 ETM+ imagery and field measurements from the Forest Inventory and Analysis program are available for the decade of 2003 to 2012. For the periods...

  20. Measurement of forest condition and response along the Pennsylvania atmospheric deposition gradent

    Treesearch

    D.D. David; J.M. Skelly; J.A. Lynch; L.H. McCormick; B.L. Nash; M. Simini; E.A. Cameron; J.R. McClenahen; R.P. Long

    1991-01-01

    Research in the oak-hickory forest of northcentral Pennsylvania is being conducted to detect anomalies in forest condition that may be due to atmospheric deposition, with the intent that such anomalies will be further studied to determine the role, if any, of atmospheric deposition. This paper presents the status of research along a 160-km gradient of sulfate/nitrate...

  1. Forests

    Treesearch

    Louis R. Iverson; Mark W. Schwartz

    1994-01-01

    Originally diminished by development, forests are coming back: forest biomass is accumulating. Forests are repositories for many threatened species. Even with increased standing timber, however, biodiversity is threatened by increased forest fragmentation and by exotic species.

  2. Forest area and conditions: a 2010 update of Chapter 16 of the Southern Forest Resource Assessment

    Treesearch

    Andrew J. Hartsell; Roger C. Conner

    2013-01-01

    This report updates the findings of Chapter 16 of the Southern Forest Resource Assessment (Wear and Greis 2002), based on 2010 report year data. Analysis focuses on changes in the South’s forest resources since 1999 using annual inventory, mapped-plot design data available for the first time for all 13 Southern States (excluding west Oklahoma and west Texas). The...

  3. RIPARIAN FOREST INDICATORS OF POTENTIAL FUTURE STREAM CONDITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Large wood in streams can play an extraordinarily important role in influencing the physical structure of streams and in providing habitat for aquatic organisms. Since wood is continually lost from streams, predicting the future input of wood to streams from riparian forests is c...

  4. Using crown condition variables as indicators of forest health

    Treesearch

    Stanley J. Zarnoch; William A. Bechtold; K.W. Stolte

    2004-01-01

    Indicators of forest health used in previous studies have focused on crown variables analyzed individually at the tree level by summarizing over all species. This approach has the virtue of simplicity but does not account for the three-dimensional attributes of a tree crown, the multivariate nature of the crown variables, or variability among species. To alleviate...

  5. RIPARIAN FOREST INDICATORS OF POTENTIAL FUTURE STREAM CONDITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Large wood in streams can play an extraordinarily important role in influencing the physical structure of streams and in providing habitat for aquatic organisms. Since wood is continually lost from streams, predicting the future input of wood to streams from riparian forests is c...

  6. Forest insect disease conditions in the Northeast - 1959

    Treesearch

    W. E. Waters; Paul V. Mook

    1958-01-01

    The one event of 1957 that most affected the forest insect and disease picture in the Northeast was the severe drought. The drought was most serious in New Jersey and the Delmarva Peninsula; eastern Maryland, Pennsylvania, and New York; and central and southern New England. Its duration was generally from mid-May to mid-August. With an area from New York to...

  7. BLM forest lands report -- 2006 status and condition

    Treesearch

    Tim Bottomley; Jim Menlove

    2006-01-01

    The Bureau of Land Management (BLM), an agency within the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI), administers over 261 million surface acres of public land in the western United States, including Alaska. Approximately 69 million acres, or 26 percent, are classified as forested.

  8. Dataset of timberland variables used to assess forest conditions in two Southeastern United States׳ fuelsheds.

    PubMed

    Parish, Esther S; Dale, Virginia H; Tobin, Emma; Kline, Keith L

    2017-08-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled "How is wood-based pellet production affecting forest conditions in the southeastern United States?" (Dale et al., 2017) [1]. This article describes how United States Forest Service (USFS) Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data from multiple state inventories were aggregated and used to extract ten annual timberland variables for trend analysis in two case study bioenergy fuelshed areas. This dataset is made publically available to enable critical or extended analyses of changes in forest conditions, either for the fuelshed areas supplying the ports of Savannah, Georgia and Chesapeake, Virginia, or for other southeastern US forested areas contributing biomass to the export wood pellet industry.

  9. Dataset of timberland variables used to assess forest conditions in two Southeastern United States' fuelsheds

    DOE PAGES

    Parish, Esther S.; Dale, Virginia H.; Tobin, Emma; ...

    2017-05-27

    The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled “How is wood-based pellet production affecting forest conditions in the southeastern United States?” (Dale et al., 2017). This article describes how United States Forest Service (USFS) Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data from multiple state inventories were aggregated and used to extract ten annual timberland variables for trend analysis in two case study bioenergy fuelshed areas. This dataset is made publically available to enable critical or extended analyses of changes in forest conditions, either for the fuelshed areas supplying the ports of Savannah, Georgia and Chesapeake, Virginia,more » or for other southeastern US forested areas contributing biomass to the export wood pellet industry.« less

  10. BIRD COMMUNITIES AND HABITAT AS ECOLOGICAL INDICATORS OF FOREST CONDITION IN REGIONAL MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecological indicators for long-term monitoring programs are needed to detect and assess changing environmental conditions, We developed and tested community-level environmental indicators for monitoring forest bird populations and associated habitat. We surveyed 197 sampling plo...

  11. BIRD COMMUNITIES AND HABITAT AS ECOLOGICAL INDICATORS OF FOREST CONDITION IN REGIONAL MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecological indicators for long-term monitoring programs are needed to detect and assess changing environmental conditions, We developed and tested community-level environmental indicators for monitoring forest bird populations and associated habitat. We surveyed 197 sampling plo...

  12. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey, Nelson E. Baldwin, Photographer Jan. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey, Nelson E. Baldwin, Photographer Jan. 16, 1937, View-Dutch Oven, Basement of the Hermitage, Linlithgo, Columbia County, N.Y. - The Hermitage, Linlithgo Hamlet Vicinity, Blue Store, Columbia County, NY

  13. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Nelson E. Baldwin, Photographer Jan. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Nelson E. Baldwin, Photographer Jan. 16, 1937, View-Fireplace in Living Room-The Hermitage, Linlithgo, Columbia County, N Y . - The Hermitage, Linlithgo Hamlet Vicinity, Blue Store, Columbia County, NY

  14. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Nelson E. Baldwin, Photographer Jan. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Nelson E. Baldwin, Photographer Jan. 16, 1937, View-Fireplace in Living Room The Hermitage, Columbia County, N.Y. - The Hermitage, Linlithgo Hamlet Vicinity, Blue Store, Columbia County, NY

  15. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey, Nelson E. Baldwin, Photographer Jan. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey, Nelson E. Baldwin, Photographer Jan. 16, 1937, View-Fireplace in Library-The Hermitage Linlithgo, Columbia, N Y . - The Hermitage, Linlithgo Hamlet Vicinity, Blue Store, Columbia County, NY

  16. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Nelson E. Baldwin, Photographer Jan. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Nelson E. Baldwin, Photographer Jan. 16, 1937, View-Front Elevation-The Hermitage Linlithgo, Columbia County, N Y . - The Hermitage, Linlithgo Hamlet Vicinity, Blue Store, Columbia County, NY

  17. Auxiliary power controls on the Nelson River HVDC scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Chand, J. )

    1992-02-01

    This paper describes the auxiliary power controls on the Nelson River HVDC scheme. It shows how the fast control feature of the HVDC link can be utilized to enhance the operation of an integrated ac/dc power system.

  18. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Nelson E. Baldwin, Photographer May ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Nelson E. Baldwin, Photographer May 12, 1936, VIEW-FRONT ELEVATION, BURR HOUSE, GLOVERSVILLE, N Y. - Nathaniel Burr House, 153 Kingsboro Avenue, Gloversville, Fulton County, NY

  19. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Nelson E. Baldwin, Photographer May ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Nelson E. Baldwin, Photographer May 12, 1936, VIEW-HIGHBOY AND WOODWORK, BURR HOUSE, GLOVERSVILLE, N Y. - Nathaniel Burr House, 153 Kingsboro Avenue, Gloversville, Fulton County, NY

  20. Astronauts van Hoften and Nelson conduct pre-breathing exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Astronauts James D. van Hoften and George D. Nelson, wearing Shuttle launch and entry helmets, conduct a pre-breathing exercise on the forward flight deck of the shuttle Challenger during the STS 41-C mission.

  1. 23. Historic American Buildings Survey, Nov. 9, 1936, Nelson E. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Historic American Buildings Survey, Nov. 9, 1936, Nelson E. Baldwin, Photographer, (P) INTERIOR, FIREPLACE FROM OLD HELP KITCHEN, IN BASEMENT OF HOUSE. - Johnson Hall, Johnstown, Fulton County, NY

  2. Astronauts van Hoften and Nelson conduct pre-breathing exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Astronauts James D. van Hoften and George D. Nelson, wearing Shuttle launch and entry helmets, conduct a pre-breathing exercise on the forward flight deck of the shuttle Challenger during the STS 41-C mission.

  3. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Nelson E. Baldwin, Photographer March ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Nelson E. Baldwin, Photographer March 20, 1937, View-Old Dutch Barn-Wemple Farm Ft. Hunter, N.Y. - Old Dutch Barn, Wemple Farm, Fort Hunter, Montgomery County, NY

  4. Benitez-Nelson Receives 2006 Ocean Sciences Early Career Award

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thunell, Robert; Benitez-Nelson, Claudia

    2007-03-01

    Claudia Benitez-Nelson received the AGU Ocean Sciences Early Career Award at the 2006 AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco, Calif., in recognition of significant contributions to and promise in the ocean sciences.

  5. Representative Bill Nelson prepares to eat a peeled grapefruit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1986-01-15

    61C-09-005 (15 Jan 1986) --- U.S. Representative Bill Nelson, (D. Florida), STS 61-C payload specialist, prepares to enjoy a freshly peeled grapefruit on the middeck of the earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Columbia.

  6. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Nelson E. Baldwin, Photographer April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Nelson E. Baldwin, Photographer April 30, 1937, VIEW-FRONT ELEVATION AND SIDE, RICE HOMESTEAD, RICEVILLE, N.Y. - Rice Homestead, Route 30, Mayfield, Fulton County, NY

  7. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey, Nelson E. Baldwin, Photographer April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey, Nelson E. Baldwin, Photographer April 30, 1936, VIEW-OLD KITCHEN FIREPLACE AND OVEN, RICE HOMESTEAD, RICEVILLE, N.Y. - Rice Homestead, Route 30, Mayfield, Fulton County, NY

  8. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Nelson E. Baldwin, Photographer April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Nelson E. Baldwin, Photographer April 30, 1936, VIEW-REAR AND SIDE ELEVATIONS, RICE HOMESTEAD, RICEVILLE, N Y. - Rice Homestead, Route 30, Mayfield, Fulton County, NY

  9. David Nelson, MD, MPH | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Dr. David E Nelson is the Director of the Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program (CPFP) Branch in the National Cancer Institute's Division of Cancer Prevention. The CPFP is an internationally renowned postdoctoral program designed to train early career scientific researchers and leaders in the field of cancer prevention. Dr. Nelson came to the CPFP in 2008 after working at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta for many years. |

  10. 7 CFR 1.620 - What supporting information must the Forest Service provide with its preliminary conditions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What supporting information must the Forest Service... § 1.620 What supporting information must the Forest Service provide with its preliminary conditions? (a) Supporting information. (1) When the Forest Service files preliminary conditions with FERC, it...

  11. 7 CFR 1.620 - What supporting information must the Forest Service provide with its preliminary conditions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What supporting information must the Forest Service... § 1.620 What supporting information must the Forest Service provide with its preliminary conditions? (a) Supporting information. (1) When the Forest Service files preliminary conditions with FERC, it...

  12. 7 CFR 1.620 - What supporting information must the Forest Service provide with its preliminary conditions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What supporting information must the Forest Service... § 1.620 What supporting information must the Forest Service provide with its preliminary conditions? (a) Supporting information. (1) When the Forest Service files preliminary conditions with FERC, it...

  13. 7 CFR 1.620 - What supporting information must the Forest Service provide with its preliminary conditions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What supporting information must the Forest Service... § 1.620 What supporting information must the Forest Service provide with its preliminary conditions? (a) Supporting information. (1) When the Forest Service files preliminary conditions with FERC, it...

  14. 7 CFR 1.620 - What supporting information must the Forest Service provide with its preliminary conditions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What supporting information must the Forest Service... § 1.620 What supporting information must the Forest Service provide with its preliminary conditions? (a) Supporting information. (1) When the Forest Service files preliminary conditions with FERC, it...

  15. Regional forest landscape restoration priorities: Integrating historical conditions and an uncertain future in the northern Rocky Mountains

    Treesearch

    Barry L. Bollenbacher; Russell T. Graham; Keith M. Reynolds

    2014-01-01

    National law and policy direct the management of the National Forests, with restoring resilient forest conditions being an overarching theme. Climate is a major driver of disturbances that affect ecosystems, especially those with vegetation that show large departures from historical conditions. Drought, fire, insects, and diseases are common forest stressors whose...

  16. Toward more robust projections of forest landscape dynamics under novel environmental conditions: embedding PnET within LANDIS-II

    Treesearch

    A. De Bruijn; E.J. Gustafson; B.R. Sturtevant; J.R. Foster; B.R. Miranda; N.I. Lichti; D.F. Jacobs

    2014-01-01

    Ecological models built on phenomenological relationships and behavior of the past may not be robustunder novel conditions of the future because global changes are producing environmental conditions that forests have not experienced historically. We developed a new succession extension for the LANDIS-II forest landscape model, PnET-Succession, to simulate forest growth...

  17. Assessment of oak forest condition based on leaf biochemical variables and chlorophyll fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Rossini, Micol; Panigada, Cinzia; Meroni, Michele; Colombo, Roberto

    2006-11-01

    Pedunculate oak forests (Quercus robur L.) in the Ticino Regional Park, Italy, are declining as a result of insect attacks, summer droughts and air pollution. The assessment and monitoring of forest condition can provide a basis for managing and conserving forest ecosystems and thereby avoid loss of valuable natural resources. Currently, most forest assessments are limited to ground-based visual evaluations that are local and subjective. It is therefore difficult to compare data collected by different crews or to define reliable trends over years. We examined vegetation variables that can be quantitatively estimated by remote observations and, thus, are suitable for objective monitoring over extended forested areas. We found that total chlorophyll (Chl) concentration is the most suitable variable for assessing pedunculate oak decline. It is highly correlated with visual assessments of discoloration. Furthermore, Chl concentration can be accurately estimated from leaf optical properties, making it feasible to map Chl concentration at the canopy level from satellite and airborne remote observations.

  18. Current forest conditions of older stands of the mixed mesophytic forest region on the Appalachian Plateaus Province of eastern Kentucky

    Treesearch

    James F. Jr. Rosson

    2008-01-01

    E. Lucy Braun coined the term "mixed mesophytic forest" in 1916. These forests are structurally complex and occur extensively across the Appalachian Plateaus Province. This region is considered the epicenter of highest development of the eastern deciduous forest. I used U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data to study current forest...

  19. 7 CFR 1.673 - How will the Forest Service analyze a proposed alternative and formulate its modified condition?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false How will the Forest Service analyze a proposed... will the Forest Service analyze a proposed alternative and formulate its modified condition? (a) In deciding whether to adopt a proposed alternative, the Forest Service must consider evidence and supporting...

  20. 7 CFR 1.673 - How will the Forest Service analyze a proposed alternative and formulate its modified condition?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false How will the Forest Service analyze a proposed... will the Forest Service analyze a proposed alternative and formulate its modified condition? (a) In deciding whether to adopt a proposed alternative, the Forest Service must consider evidence and supporting...

  1. 7 CFR 1.673 - How will the Forest Service analyze a proposed alternative and formulate its modified condition?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false How will the Forest Service analyze a proposed... will the Forest Service analyze a proposed alternative and formulate its modified condition? (a) In deciding whether to adopt a proposed alternative, the Forest Service must consider evidence and supporting...

  2. 7 CFR 1.673 - How will the Forest Service analyze a proposed alternative and formulate its modified condition?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false How will the Forest Service analyze a proposed... will the Forest Service analyze a proposed alternative and formulate its modified condition? (a) In deciding whether to adopt a proposed alternative, the Forest Service must consider evidence and supporting...

  3. U.S. Rep. Bill Nelson of Florida during medical tests at JSC's Clinic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    U.S. Rep. Bill Nelson of Florida during medical tests at JSC's Clinic. Photos include Rep. Nelson talking to Sharon Briceno (center) and Betty Lord before the tests begin. The congressman's torso bears a number of sensors for the testing (40835); Portrait view of Rep. Nelson with sensors attached to his chest (40836); Rep. Nelson gets some assistance from nurses at the clinic as he prepares to participate in medical tests. Help is provided by Betty Lord, right, and Sharon Briceno (40837); Rep. Nelson is being assisted to don 'halo' device for tests (40838); Rep. Nelson runs in place on a treadmill device (40839).

  4. U.S. Rep. Bill Nelson of Florida during medical tests at JSC's Clinic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    U.S. Rep. Bill Nelson of Florida during medical tests at JSC's Clinic. Photos include Rep. Nelson talking to Sharon Briceno (center) and Betty Lord before the tests begin. The congressman's torso bears a number of sensors for the testing (40835); Portrait view of Rep. Nelson with sensors attached to his chest (40836); Rep. Nelson gets some assistance from nurses at the clinic as he prepares to participate in medical tests. Help is provided by Betty Lord, right, and Sharon Briceno (40837); Rep. Nelson is being assisted to don 'halo' device for tests (40838); Rep. Nelson runs in place on a treadmill device (40839).

  5. Modelling the Meteorological Forest Fire Niche in Heterogeneous Pyrologic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    De Angelis, Antonella; Ricotta, Carlo; Conedera, Marco; Pezzatti, Gianni Boris

    2015-01-01

    Fire regimes are strongly related to weather conditions that directly and indirectly influence fire ignition and propagation. Identifying the most important meteorological fire drivers is thus fundamental for daily fire risk forecasting. In this context, several fire weather indices have been developed focussing mainly on fire-related local weather conditions and fuel characteristics. The specificity of the conditions for which fire danger indices are developed makes its direct transfer and applicability problematic in different areas or with other fuel types. In this paper we used the low-to-intermediate fire-prone region of Canton Ticino as a case study to develop a new daily fire danger index by implementing a niche modelling approach (Maxent). In order to identify the most suitable weather conditions for fires, different combinations of input variables were tested (meteorological variables, existing fire danger indices or a combination of both). Our findings demonstrate that such combinations of input variables increase the predictive power of the resulting index and surprisingly even using meteorological variables only allows similar or better performances than using the complex Canadian Fire Weather Index (FWI). Furthermore, the niche modelling approach based on Maxent resulted in slightly improved model performance and in a reduced number of selected variables with respect to the classical logistic approach. Factors influencing final model robustness were the number of fire events considered and the specificity of the meteorological conditions leading to fire ignition. PMID:25679957

  6. Modelling the meteorological forest fire niche in heterogeneous pyrologic conditions.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Antonella; Ricotta, Carlo; Conedera, Marco; Pezzatti, Gianni Boris

    2015-01-01

    Fire regimes are strongly related to weather conditions that directly and indirectly influence fire ignition and propagation. Identifying the most important meteorological fire drivers is thus fundamental for daily fire risk forecasting. In this context, several fire weather indices have been developed focussing mainly on fire-related local weather conditions and fuel characteristics. The specificity of the conditions for which fire danger indices are developed makes its direct transfer and applicability problematic in different areas or with other fuel types. In this paper we used the low-to-intermediate fire-prone region of Canton Ticino as a case study to develop a new daily fire danger index by implementing a niche modelling approach (Maxent). In order to identify the most suitable weather conditions for fires, different combinations of input variables were tested (meteorological variables, existing fire danger indices or a combination of both). Our findings demonstrate that such combinations of input variables increase the predictive power of the resulting index and surprisingly even using meteorological variables only allows similar or better performances than using the complex Canadian Fire Weather Index (FWI). Furthermore, the niche modelling approach based on Maxent resulted in slightly improved model performance and in a reduced number of selected variables with respect to the classical logistic approach. Factors influencing final model robustness were the number of fire events considered and the specificity of the meteorological conditions leading to fire ignition.

  7. Challenges in forest reclamation of marginal lands: a balance between site conditions and seedling quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landhäusser, Simon

    2017-04-01

    Forest loss and degradation is occurring worldwide, but at the same time efforts in forest restoration are ever increasing. While approaches to restoration often follow specific stakeholder objectives, regional climates and the degree of site degradation also play an important role in the prioritization of restoration efforts. Often the restoration of degraded lands can satisfy only few measurable objectives; however, to design and restore resistant and resilient ecosystems that can adapt to changing conditions, there is a need for new and adaptive management approaches. Mining and other resource extraction industries are affecting more and more forested areas worldwide. A priority in the reclamation and certification of forest lands disturbed by industrial activity is their expeditious redevelopment to functioning forests. To rehabilitate these heavily disturbed areas back to forest ecosystems, planting of trees remains one of the most effective strategies for the redevelopment of a continuous tree canopy on a site. It is well understood that access to good quality seedling stock is essential to achieve establishment success and early growth of seedlings. However, most reclamation areas have challenging initial site conditions and these conditions are often not a single factor but a combination of factors that can be additive or synergistic. Therefore successful forest restoration on degraded lands needs to consider multiple objectives and approaches to minimize trade-offs in achieving these objectives. To meet these demands, new methods for the production and evaluation of seedling stock types are needed to ensure that that seedlings are fit to grow on a wide range of site conditions or are particularly designed to grow in very specific conditions. Generally, defining seedling quality is difficult as it is species specific and results have been mixed; likely influenced by site conditions, further reiterating the need to carefully evaluate sites allowing

  8. Soil microbial diversity, site conditions, shelter forest land, saline water drip-irrigation, drift desert.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zhengzhong; Lei, Jiaqiang; Li, Shengyu; Xu, Xinwen

    2013-10-01

    Soil microbes in forest land are crucial to soil development in extreme areas. In this study, methods of conventional culture, PLFA and PCR-DGGE were utilized to analyze soil microbial quantity, fatty acids and microbial DNA segments of soils subjected to different site conditions in the Tarim Desert Highway forest land. The main results were as follows: the soil microbial amount, diversity indexes of fatty acid and DNA segment differed significantly among sites with different conditions (F < F0.05 ). Specifically, the values were higher in the middle and base of dunes than the top part of dunes and hardened flat sand, but all values for dunes were higher than for drift sand. Bacteria was dominant in the soil microbial community (>84%), followed by actinomycetes and then fungi (<0.05%). Vertical differences in the soil microbial diversity were insignificant at 0-35 cm. Correlation analysis indicated that the forest trees grew better as the soil microbial diversity index increased. Therefore, construction of the Tarim Desert Highway shelter-forest promoted soil biological development; however, for enhancing sand control efficiency and promoting sand development, we should consider the effects of site condition in the construction and regeneration of shelter-forest ecological projects.

  9. The longleaf pine forest: trends and current conditions

    Treesearch

    Kenneth W. Outcalt; Raymond M. Sheffield

    1996-01-01

    Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) ecosystems once occupied perhaps as much as 60 million acres in the Southeastern United States (fig. l), stretching from southeastern Virginia south to central Florida and west into eastern Texas (Stout and Marion 1993). These fire-dependent ecosystems covered a wide range of site conditions, from low, wet...

  10. Ongoing change of site conditions important for sustainable forest management planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bidló, András; Horváth, Adrienn; Gulyás, Krisztina; Gálos, Borbála

    2016-04-01

    Observed tree mortality of the last decades has shown that the vulnerable forest ecosystems are especially affected by the recurrent, long lasting droughts, heat waves and their consequences. From all site conditions climate is changing the fastest, in this way it can be the largest threatening factor in the 21st century. Beyond climate, soil characteristics are playing an important influencing role. Until now, silvicultural technologies and species preferences of many countries are prescribed by binding regulation based on climate conditions that are assumed to be constant over time. Therefore the aim of our research was to investigate the ongoing and projected change of site conditions that are considered to be of primary importance in terms of tree species selection. For a case study region in Hungary (Keszthely Mountains, near to Lake Balaton) long-term climate tendencies have been determined for the period 1961-2100, as well as a detailed soil sample analysis has been carried out including ~100 sites. Results show a 0.5 degree increase of temperature and a 6-7 % decrease of the precipitation amount for the summer months in the last decades. For the future, significant warming and drying of summers is expected. Decrease of the summer precipitation sum can exceed 25 % until the end of the century, probability of extreme hot days may increase. These tendencies together with the unfavourable soil conditions and biotic damages can be the reason of the ongoing forest dieback. One of the characteristic soil type of the region is rendzina with a thin topsoil layer and an unfavourable water holding capacity. These properties are limiting the amount of available water for plants, especially in case of intense precipitation events. Black pine stands planted on rendzinas after many years of grazing; therefore erosion may have played a significant role. Not only microclimate conditions but also soil types show a large diversity within a relatively small distance. However

  11. Reference conditions for giant sequoia forest restoration: structure, process, and precision

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stephenson, Nathan L.

    1999-01-01

    National Park Service policy directs that more natural conditions be restored to giant sequoia groves, which have been altered by a century of fire exclusion. Efforts to find a reasonable and practical definition of “natural” have helped drive scientists and land managers to use past grove conditions as reference conditions for restoration. Extensive research aimed at determining reference conditions has demonstrated that past fire regimes can be characterized with greater precision than past grove structures. Difficulty and imprecision in determining past grove structure has helped fuel a debate between “structural restorationists,” who believe that forest structure should be restored mechanically before fire is reintroduced, and “process restorationists,” who believe that simple reintroduction of fire is appropriate. I evaluate old and new studies from sequoia groves to show that some of the arguments of both groups have been flawed. Importantly, it appears that restoration of fire without a preceding mechanical restoration may restore the pre-Euro-American structure of sequoia groves, at least within the bounds of our imprecise knowledge of past grove structure. However, the same may not be true for all forest types that have experienced lengthy fire exclusion. Our ability to draw robust generalizations about fire's role in forest restoration will depend heavily on a thorough understanding of past and present interactions among climate, fire, and forest structure. Use of reference conditions will be central to developing this understanding.

  12. Seven decades of change in forest structure and composition in Pinus resinosa forests in northern Minnesota, USA: Comparing managed and unmanaged conditions

    Treesearch

    Brian D. Young; Anthony W. D' Amato; Christel C. Kern; Douglas N. Kastendick; Brian J. Palik

    2017-01-01

    An understanding of long-term patterns of forest structural and compositional development is critical for anticipating management outcomes and developing appropriate silvicultural strategies for restoring complex forest conditions. In most cases, this information comes from stand-level assessments; however, the impacts and outcomes of management and other disturbances...

  13. Forecasts of forest conditions in regions of the United States under future scenarios: a technical document supporting the Forest Service 2012 RPA Assessment

    Treesearch

    David N. Wear; Robert Huggett; Ruhong Li; Benjamin Perryman; Shan Liu

    2013-01-01

    The 626 million acres of forests in the conterminous United States represent significant reserves of biodiversity and terrestrial carbon and provide substantial flows of highly valued ecosystem services, including timber products, watershed protection benefits, and recreation. This report describes forecasts of forest conditions for the conterminous United States in...

  14. Forest and rangeland ecosystem condition indicators: identifying national areas of opportunity using data development analysis

    Treesearch

    John G. Hof; Curtis H. Flather; Tony J. Baltic; Rudy M. King

    2004-01-01

    This article reports the methodology and results of a data envelopment analysis (DEA) that attempts to identify areas in the country where there is maximum potential for improving the forest and rangeland condition, based on 12 indicator variables. This analysis differs from previous DEA studies in that the primary variables are measures of human activity and...

  15. Northwest Forest Plan—the first 20 years (1994–2013): watershed condition status and trends

    Treesearch

    Stephanie A. Miller; Sean N. Gordon; Peter Eldred; Ronald M. Beloin; Steve Wilcox; Mark Raggon; Heidi Andersen; Ariel. Muldoon

    2017-01-01

    The Aquatic and Riparian Effectiveness Monitoring Program focuses on assessing the degree to which federal land management under the aquatic conservation strategy (ACS) of the Northwest Forest Plan (NWFP) has been effective in maintaining and improving watershed conditions. We used stream sampling data and upslope/riparian geographic information system (GIS) and remote...

  16. Northwest Forest Plan—the first 15 years (1994–2008): watershed condition status and trend

    Treesearch

    Steven H. Lanigan; Sean N. Gordon; Peter Eldred; Mark Isley; Steve Wilcox; Chris Moyer; Heidi. Andersen

    2012-01-01

    We used two data sets to evaluate stream and watershed condition for sixth-field watersheds in each aquatic province within the Northwest Forest Plan (NWFP) area: stream data and upslope data. The stream evaluation was based on inchannel data (e.g., substrate, pieces of large wood, water temperature, pool frequency, and macroinvertebrates) we sampled from 2002 to 2009...

  17. A PROBABILITY SURVEY OF SUCCESSIONAL FOREST COMPOSITION AND CONDITION IN A GREAT RIVER FLOODPLAIN LANDSCAPE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Floodplains within the Great River Ecosystems (GREs) of the central U.S. are composed of dynamic mosaics of successional habitat that (when unmodified) are typically dominated by cottonwood forest (Populus ssp.). GRE riparian habitat condition and successional dynamics are linked...

  18. A PROBABILITY SURVEY OF SUCCESSIONAL FOREST COMPOSITION AND CONDITION IN A GREAT RIVER FLOODPLAIN LANDSCAPE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Floodplains within the Great River Ecosystems (GREs) of the central U.S. are composed of dynamic mosaics of successional habitat that (when unmodified) are typically dominated by cottonwood forest (Populus ssp.). GRE riparian habitat condition and successional dynamics are linked...

  19. STS-26 MS Nelson on fixed based (FB) shuttle mission simulator (SMS) middeck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Mission Specialist (MS) George D. Nelson trains on the middeck of the fixed based (FB) shuttle mission simulator (SMS). Nelson, wearing communications assembly headset, adjusts camera mounting bracket.

  20. STS-26 Mission Specialist Nelson in LES prior to JSC WETF emergency exercises

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Mission Specialist (MS) George D. Nelson, wearing newly designed (navy blue) launch and entry suit (LES), gets some moral support from Aimee Tess Nelson, his sixteen-year-old lifeguard daughter. Nelson was about to participate in a simulation of escape and rescue operations utilizing the crew escape system (CES) pole mode of egress from the Space Shuttle. Nelson is equipped with the LES partial pressure suit and parachute gear.

  1. STS-26 Mission Specialist Nelson in LES prior to JSC WETF emergency exercises

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Mission Specialist (MS) George D. Nelson, wearing newly designed (navy blue) launch and entry suit (LES), gets some moral support from Aimee Tess Nelson, his sixteen-year-old lifeguard daughter. Nelson was about to participate in a simulation of escape and rescue operations utilizing the crew escape system (CES) pole mode of egress from the Space Shuttle. Nelson is equipped with the LES partial pressure suit and parachute gear.

  2. Matrix Intensification Affects Body and Physiological Condition of Tropical Forest-Dependent Passerines

    PubMed Central

    Deikumah, Justus P.; McAlpine, Clive A.; Maron, Martine

    2015-01-01

    Matrix land-use intensification is a relatively recent and novel landscape change that can have important influences on the biota within adjacent habitat patches. While there are immediate local changes that it brings about, the influences on individual animals occupying adjacent habitats may be less evident initially. High-intensity land use could induce chronic stress in individuals in nearby remnants, leading ultimately to population declines. We investigated how physiological indicators and body condition measures of tropical forest-dependent birds differ between forest adjacent to surface mining sites and that near farmlands at two distances from remnant edge in southwest Ghana. We used mixed effects models of several condition indices including residual body mass and heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L) ratios (an indicator of elevated chronic stress) to explore the effect of matrix intensity on forest-dependent passerines classed as either sedentary area-sensitive habitat specialists or nomadic generalists. Individual birds occupying tropical forest remnants near surface mining sites were in poorer condition, as indicated by lower residual body mass and elevated chronic stress, compared to those in remnants near agricultural lands. The condition of the sedentary forest habitat specialists white-tailed alethe, Alethe diademata and western olive sunbird, Cyanomitra obscura was most negatively affected by high-intensity surface mining land-use adjacent to remnants, whereas generalist species were not affected. Land use intensification may set in train a new trajectory of faunal relaxation beyond that expected based on habitat loss alone. Patterns of individual condition may be useful in identifying habitats where species population declines may occur before faunal relaxation has concluded. PMID:26107179

  3. Matrix Intensification Affects Body and Physiological Condition of Tropical Forest-Dependent Passerines.

    PubMed

    Deikumah, Justus P; McAlpine, Clive A; Maron, Martine

    2015-01-01

    Matrix land-use intensification is a relatively recent and novel landscape change that can have important influences on the biota within adjacent habitat patches. While there are immediate local changes that it brings about, the influences on individual animals occupying adjacent habitats may be less evident initially. High-intensity land use could induce chronic stress in individuals in nearby remnants, leading ultimately to population declines. We investigated how physiological indicators and body condition measures of tropical forest-dependent birds differ between forest adjacent to surface mining sites and that near farmlands at two distances from remnant edge in southwest Ghana. We used mixed effects models of several condition indices including residual body mass and heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L) ratios (an indicator of elevated chronic stress) to explore the effect of matrix intensity on forest-dependent passerines classed as either sedentary area-sensitive habitat specialists or nomadic generalists. Individual birds occupying tropical forest remnants near surface mining sites were in poorer condition, as indicated by lower residual body mass and elevated chronic stress, compared to those in remnants near agricultural lands. The condition of the sedentary forest habitat specialists white-tailed alethe, Alethe diademata and western olive sunbird, Cyanomitra obscura was most negatively affected by high-intensity surface mining land-use adjacent to remnants, whereas generalist species were not affected. Land use intensification may set in train a new trajectory of faunal relaxation beyond that expected based on habitat loss alone. Patterns of individual condition may be useful in identifying habitats where species population declines may occur before faunal relaxation has concluded.

  4. Discrimination between acute and chronic decline of Central European forests using map algebra of the growth condition and forest biomass fuzzy sets: A case study.

    PubMed

    Samec, Pavel; Caha, Jan; Zapletal, Miloš; Tuček, Pavel; Cudlín, Pavel; Kučera, Miloš

    2017-12-01

    Forest decline is either caused by damage or else by vulnerability due to unfavourable growth conditions or due to unnatural silvicultural systems. Here, we assess forest decline in the Czech Republic (Central Europe) using fuzzy functions, fuzzy sets and fuzzy rating of ecosystem properties over a 1×1km grid. The model was divided into fuzzy functions of the abiotic predictors of growth conditions (Fpred including temperature, precipitation, acid deposition, soil data and relative site insolation) and forest biomass receptors (Frec including remote sensing data, density and volume of aboveground biomass, and surface humus chemical data). Fuzzy functions were designed at the limits of unfavourable, undetermined or favourable effects on the forest ecosystem health status. Fuzzy sets were distinguished through similarity in a particular membership of the properties at the limits of the forest status margins. Fuzzy rating was obtained from the least difference of Fpred-Frec. Unfavourable Fpred within unfavourable Frec indicated chronic damage, favourable Fpred within unfavourable Frec indicated acute damage, and unfavourable Fpred within favourable Frec indicated vulnerability. The model in the 1×1km grid was validated through spatial intersection with a point field of uniform forest stands. Favourable status was characterised by soil base saturation (BS)>50%, BCC/Al>1, Corg>1%, MgO>6g/kg, and nitrogen deposition<1200mol(H(+))/ha·year. Vulnerable forests had BShumus 46-60%, BCC/Al 9-20 and NDVI≈0.42. Chronic forest damage occurs in areas with low temperatures, high nitrogen deposition, and low soil BS and Corg levels. In the Czech Republic, 10% of forests were considered non-damaged and 77% vulnerable, with damage considered acute in 7% of forests and chronic in 5%. The fuzzy model used suggests that improvement in forest health will depend on decreasing environmental load and restoration concordance between growth conditions and tree species composition

  5. Tree species diversity affects decomposition through modified micro-environmental conditions across European forests.

    PubMed

    Joly, François-Xavier; Milcu, Alexandru; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael; Jean, Loreline-Katia; Bussotti, Filippo; Dawud, Seid Muhie; Müller, Sandra; Pollastrini, Martina; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten; Vesterdal, Lars; Hättenschwiler, Stephan

    2017-02-09

    Different tree species influence litter decomposition directly through species-specific litter traits, and indirectly through distinct modifications of the local decomposition environment. Whether these indirect effects on decomposition are influenced by tree species diversity is presently not clear. We addressed this question by studying the decomposition of two common substrates, cellulose paper and wood sticks, in a total of 209 forest stands of varying tree species diversity across six major forest types at the scale of Europe. Tree species richness showed a weak but positive correlation with the decomposition of cellulose but not with that of wood. Surprisingly, macroclimate had only a minor effect on cellulose decomposition and no effect on wood decomposition despite the wide range in climatic conditions among sites from Mediterranean to boreal forests. Instead, forest canopy density and stand-specific litter traits affected the decomposition of both substrates, with a particularly clear negative effect of the proportion of evergreen tree litter. Our study suggests that species richness and composition of tree canopies modify decomposition indirectly through changes in microenvironmental conditions. These canopy-induced differences in the local decomposition environment control decomposition to a greater extent than continental-scale differences in macroclimatic conditions.

  6. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Nelson E. Baldwin, Photographer, Jan. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Nelson E. Baldwin, Photographer, Jan. 16, 1937, View - Stairway from First to Second Floor Old Homeopathic Hospital (Office of the HABS), Albany, N.Y. - Old Homeopathic Hospital (Interiors), 123 North Pearl Street, Albany, Albany County, NY

  7. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey, Nelson E. Baldwin, Photographer, Jan. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey, Nelson E. Baldwin, Photographer, Jan. 16, 1937, View - Second to Third Floor Stairs Old Homeopathic Hospital, 123 North Pearl St., Albany, N.Y. - Old Homeopathic Hospital (Interiors), 123 North Pearl Street, Albany, Albany County, NY

  8. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Nelson E. Baldwin, Photographer, Jan. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Nelson E. Baldwin, Photographer, Jan. 16, 1937, View - Double Doors and Columns in Apartment on First Floor, 123 North Pearl St., Albany, N.Y. - Old Homeopathic Hospital (Interiors), 123 North Pearl Street, Albany, Albany County, NY

  9. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Nelson E. Baldwin, Photographer, Jan. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Nelson E. Baldwin, Photographer, Jan. 16, 1937, View - Interior Door Opening into Apartment on First Floor, 123 North Pearl St., Albany, N.Y. - Old Homeopathic Hospital (Interiors), 123 North Pearl Street, Albany, Albany County, NY

  10. A Good Time: A Conversation with C. Michael Nelson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zabel, Robert; Kaff, Marilyn; Teagarden, Jim

    2015-01-01

    C. Michael Nelson began his special education career as a teacher of adolescents with learning and behavior disorders. He has worked as a child psychologist and as a professor with the Department of Special Education and Rehabilitation Counseling at the University of Kentucky. He coordinated the graduate Personnel Preparation Program for Teachers…

  11. Assessment of the Use of the Nelson Denny Reading Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Dorothy

    1984-01-01

    The Nelson Denny Reading Test (NDRT) is probably the most widely used test of reading comprehension at the college level in the nation. However, reviews of the test, as well as recent reports of its failure to adequately measure gain or lack of gain of college students enrolled in reading improvement courses, do not support the popularity it has…

  12. The Nelson-Denny Reading Test: A Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Rayna

    1983-01-01

    Describes a study conducted at the University of Tennessee at Marin to find a test more suitable than the Nelson-Denny Reading Test (NDRT) to accurately measure reading improvement in developmental classes. Found no support for replacing the NDRT with the Descriptive Tests of Language Skills or the Comparative Guidance and Placement Program. (DMM)

  13. Use and Misuse of the Nelson-Denny Reading Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meter, B. Jean Van; Herrmann, Beth Ann

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the strengths and weaknesses of the Nelson-Denny Reading Test (NDRT) and compares the use and misuse of the test as revealed through published surveys. Finds problems in the use of the NDRT to diagnose the specific reading needs and deficiencies of low-achieving students and to measure individual growth. (CBC)

  14. John Nelson Darby: His Contributions to Evangelical Christian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Winston Terrance

    2010-01-01

    The study reported in this article focused on the contributions of John Nelson Derby to biblical hermeneutics and contemporary eschatological thought. Darby continues to exert a great influence on Christianity, particularly conservative evangelical Christianity. This research provides a discussion of Darby's contributions to contemporary…

  15. John Nelson Darby: Scholarship that Influenced the Bible College Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Winston Terrance

    2010-01-01

    The study reported in this article focused on the scholastic life of John Nelson Darby and his contributions to the Bible college movement. Darby continues to exert a great influence on Christianity, particularly conservative evangelical Christianity. This research provides a discussion of the forces that conspired to shape the direction of…

  16. John Nelson Darby: Scholarship that Influenced the Bible College Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Winston Terrance

    2010-01-01

    The study reported in this article focused on the scholastic life of John Nelson Darby and his contributions to the Bible college movement. Darby continues to exert a great influence on Christianity, particularly conservative evangelical Christianity. This research provides a discussion of the forces that conspired to shape the direction of…

  17. Rep. Bill Nelson rehearses for one of many biomedical experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Rep. Bill Nelson (D.,Florida) is assisted by David Dickerson as he rehearses for one of many biomedical experiments to fly on STS 61-C. The Congressman is to blow into the mouthpiece seen at left edge of frame while applying a doppler device to his jugglar vein to test for central venus pressure.

  18. Rep. Bill Nelson rehearses for one of many biomedical experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Rep. Bill Nelson, left, (D.,Florida) familiarizes himself with one of the experiments he is expected to monitor and/or perform during STS 61-C. The protein crystal growth experiment also draws the interest of (from left to right) Vaughn Yost, Charles Walker, and Dr. Larry DeLucas. The four are in JSC's Crew Compartment Trainer.

  19. Corner Office Interview: SirsiDynix's Rautenstrauch and Nelson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapp, David; Fialkoff, Francine

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an interview with SirsiDynix CEO Gary M. Rautenstrauch and newly appointed VP of library relations Berit Nelson about some of the issues that have been roiling the ILS world and the company itself, among them the recent consolidation of SirsiDynix's offices, customer service, the state of library budgets, the rise of ebooks…

  20. Rep. Bill Nelson inside a personal rescue sphere

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1985-09-25

    U.S. Representative Bill Nelson (D.,Florida) gives a thumbs up signal from inside a small ball called a personal rescue sphere (PRS). The PRS is not part of STS 61-C hardware, but serves to evaluate a subject's reaction to close quarters. The photo was taken through a visor on the 39-inch diameter fabric rescue sphere.

  1. In Honor of Eyak: The Art of Anna Nelson Harry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krauss, Michael E., Ed.

    Ten stories, in poem and narrative form, told by Anna Nelson Harry, are presented here. The stories represent a portion of the oral tradition of the Eyak, an Alaskan native nation of which few native speakers remain. An introductory section chronicles the history and decline of the Eyak, the research undertaken to preserve their culture, and the…

  2. A Good Time: A Conversation with C. Michael Nelson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zabel, Robert; Kaff, Marilyn; Teagarden, Jim

    2015-01-01

    C. Michael Nelson began his special education career as a teacher of adolescents with learning and behavior disorders. He has worked as a child psychologist and as a professor with the Department of Special Education and Rehabilitation Counseling at the University of Kentucky. He coordinated the graduate Personnel Preparation Program for Teachers…

  3. Corner Office Interview: SirsiDynix's Rautenstrauch and Nelson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapp, David; Fialkoff, Francine

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an interview with SirsiDynix CEO Gary M. Rautenstrauch and newly appointed VP of library relations Berit Nelson about some of the issues that have been roiling the ILS world and the company itself, among them the recent consolidation of SirsiDynix's offices, customer service, the state of library budgets, the rise of ebooks…

  4. In Honor of Eyak: The Art of Anna Nelson Harry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krauss, Michael E., Ed.

    Ten stories, in poem and narrative form, told by Anna Nelson Harry, are presented here. The stories represent a portion of the oral tradition of the Eyak, an Alaskan native nation of which few native speakers remain. An introductory section chronicles the history and decline of the Eyak, the research undertaken to preserve their culture, and the…

  5. John Nelson Darby: His Contributions to Evangelical Christian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Winston Terrance

    2010-01-01

    The study reported in this article focused on the contributions of John Nelson Derby to biblical hermeneutics and contemporary eschatological thought. Darby continues to exert a great influence on Christianity, particularly conservative evangelical Christianity. This research provides a discussion of Darby's contributions to contemporary…

  6. Monitoring the condition of the Canadian forest environment: The relevance of the concept of 'ecological indicators'.

    PubMed

    Kimmins, J P

    1990-11-01

    The Canadian forest environment is characterized by high spatial and temporal variability, especially in the west. Our forests vary according to climate, landform, and surficial geology, and according to the type, intensity, extent of, and the time since the last disturbance. Most Canadian forests have had a history of repeated acute, episodic disturbance from fire, insects, wind, diseases and/or logging, with a frequency of disturbance varying from a few decades to many centuries. These sources of variability have resulted in a complex and continually changing mosaic of forest conditions and stages of successional development.Monitoring the 'quality' of this dynamic forested landscape mosaic is extremely difficult, and in most cases the concept of a relatively simple index of forest ecosystem quality or condition (i.e. an 'ecological indicator') is probably inappropriate. Such ecological indicators are better suited for monitoring chronic anthropogenically induced disturbances that are continuous in their effect (e.g. 'acid rain', heavy metal pollution, air pollution, and the 'greenhouse effect') in ecosystems that, in the absence of such chronic disturbance, exhibit very slow directional change (e.g. lakes, higher order streams and rivers). Monitoring the effects of a chronic anthropogenic disturbance to forest ecosystems to determine if it is resulting in a sustained, directional alteration of environmental 'quality' will require a definition of the expected pattern of episodic disturbance and recovery therefrom (i.e. patterns of secondary succession in the absence of the chronic disturbance). Only when we have such a 'temporal fingerprint' of forest ecosystem condition for 'normal' patterns of disturbance and recovery can we determine if the ecosystem condition is being degraded by chronic human-induced alteration of the environment. Thus, degradation is assessed in terms of deviations from the expected temporal pattern of conditions rather than in terms of an

  7. Utility of tree crown condition indicators to predict tree survival using remeasured Forest Inventory and Analysis data

    Treesearch

    Randall S. Morin; Jim Steinman; KaDonna C. Randolph

    2012-01-01

    The condition of tree crowns is an important indicator of tree and forest health. Crown conditions have been evaluated during surveys of Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Phase 3 (P3) plots since 1999. In this study, remeasured data from 39,357 trees in the northern United States were used to assess the probability of survival among various tree species using the...

  8. Reliability of differing densities of sample grids used for the monitoring of forest condition in Europe.

    PubMed

    Köhl, M; Innes, J L; Kaufmann, E

    1994-02-01

    Concern about the possible deterioration of forest health led to the establishment in the 1980s of inventories of forest condition throughout Europe. International standardisation of the programmes was sought and a number of recommendations were made concerning sampling and assessment procedures. One of the most important rulings was that the assessment should be made on a systematic grid, the minimum density of which was 16×16 km. However, many countries adopted denser sampling grids, with 4×4 km being used in several countries and 1×1 km being used in the Netherlands. With five or more years of monitoring completed, there is a growing belief that a rapid and irreversible decline in forest health is not occurring. Consequently, some countries/regions are seeking to reduce their annual investment in forest health monitoring.The precision of national/regional estimates of forest health can be directly related to the sample size. As the sample size decreases, so also does the precision of the estimates. This is illustrated using data collected in Switzerland in 1992 and using grid densities of 4×4 km, 8×8 km, 12×12 km and 16×16 km. The value of the data is dependent on the sample size and the degree to which it is broken down (by region or species). The loss of precision associated with most subdivisions at the 8×8 km grid level remains acceptable, but a sharp deterioration in the precision occurs at the 12×12 km and 16×16 km grid levels. This has considerable implications for the interpretation of the inventories from those countries using a 16×16 km grid. In Switzerland, a reduction from the current 4×4 km grid to an 8×8 km grid (i.e. 75% reduction in sample size) would have relatively little impact on the overall results from the annual inventories of forest health.

  9. [Effects of atmospheric thermally stratified condition on sensible heat within forest canopy].

    PubMed

    Diao, Yi-Wei; Wang, An-Zhi; Guan, De-Xin; Jin, Chang-Jie; Pei, Tie-Fan

    2010-01-01

    By using Eulerian second-order closure model, this paper studied the source-sink distribution and flux characteristics of sensible heat within forest canopy under atmospheric thermally stratified condition. In the daytime, a notable feature for the atmospheric stratification of forest canopy was the unstable stratification above the canopy and the stable stratification under the canopy. The changes of temperature profile indicated there was a 'hot spot' at about 2/3 of canopy height. The counter-gradient fluxes within the canopy were discovered by modeling the heat flux under weak stable atmospheric condition. Simulations of the diurnal variation of sensible heat flux were consistent with the measurements (R2 = 0.9035, P < 0.01). Adding buoyancy in the sensible heat balance equation could increase the simulation accuracy of inversion model, and improve the simulation capability for heat flux balance.

  10. [Effects of topographical condition and sampling number on the interpolation precision of forest litter carbon density].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jia-jia; Fu, Wei-jun; Du, Qun; Zhang, Guo-jiang; Jiang, Pei-kun

    2013-08-01

    The territory of Zhejiang Province, East China was grouped into 3 topographical units (plain-coastal area, hill-basin area, and mountain area) to investigate the effects of topographical condition and sampling number on the Kriging interpolation precision of forest litter carbon density in the Province. The forest litter carbon density in the 3 topographical units showed a medium spatial correlation pattern, with the semi-variance nugget/sill ratio value ranged from 28.3% to 72.4%. The Kriging interpolation precision was in the order of plain-coastal area > hill-basin area > mountain area, indicating that the Kriging interpolation precision decreased with the increase of terrain complexity degree. Within the same topographical units, the Kriging interpolation precision improved with increasing sampling number, being most obvious in the mountain area. Therefore, under complicated topographical conditions, greater sampling number was required to achieve a high precision of Kriging interpolation.

  11. Microbial diversity during cellulose decomposition in different forest stands: I. microbial communities and environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Kubartová, Ariana; Moukoumi, Judicaël; Béguiristain, Thierry; Ranger, Jacques; Berthelin, Jacques

    2007-10-01

    We studied the effect of forest tree species on a community of decomposers that colonize cellulose strips. Both fungal and bacterial communities were targeted in a native forest dominated by beech and oak and 30-year-old beech and spruce plantations, growing in similar ecological conditions in the Breuil-Chenue experimental forest site in Morvan (France). Microbial ingrowths from the 3rd to 10th month of strip decomposition (May to December 2004) were studied. Community composition was assessed using temperature gradient gel electrophoresis with universal fungal (ITS1F, ITS2) and bacterial (1401r, 968f) primers. Soil temperature and moisture as well as fungal biomass were also measured to give additional information on decomposition processes. Changing the dominant tree species had no significant influence in the number of decomposer species. However, decomposer community composition was clearly different. If compared to the native forest, where community composition highly differed, young monocultures displayed similar species structure for fungi and bacteria. Both species numbers and community composition evolved during the decay process. Time effect was found to be more important than tree species. Nevertheless, the actual environmental conditions and seasonal effect seemed to be even more determining factors for the development of microbial communities. The course and correlations of the explored variables often differed between tree species, although certain general trends were identified. Fungal biomass was high in summer, despite that species richness (SR) decreased and conversely, that high SR did not necessarily mean high biomass values. It can be concluded that the growth and development of the microbiological communities that colonized a model material in situ depended on the combination of physical and biological factors acting collectively and interdependently at the forest soil microsite.

  12. Observed response of vulnerable forest ecosystems to ongoing site condition changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bidló, András; Gulyás, Krisztina; Gálos, Borbála; Horváth, Adrienn

    2017-04-01

    In the last decades, several symptoms of drought damages have been observed in the Hungarian forests (e.g. sparse canopy, leaf drop, top drying, fungal diseases). Forest responses are also influenced by other factors beyond climate (e.g. available water content, soil conditions, biotic damages, adaptive capacity, etc.). Our aim was to prepare a complex analysis of the change of all site conditions, that could lead to the observed health status decline of the forest tree species. For a case study region in Hungary (Keszthely Mountains, near to Lake Balaton) precipitation and temperature tendencies as well as the frequency of extreme dry summers have been determined for the period 1961-2100. Soil conditions have been investigated in 9 profiles and soil mapping analysis has been carried out including 100 sites with hand soil auger. For the investigation of the water-balance we used the modified Thornthwaite-type monthly model and determined water stress when the relative extractable water (REW) decreased below 40% (Granier et al., 1999). In the last 30 years three severe droughts have been detected when duration of extremely dry and hot periods exceeded 3-4 years. Not only orographic and microclimate conditions but also soil types show a large diversity within a relatively small distance in the case study area. On rendzina with shallow topsoil layer thickness, low water holding capacity, black pine was planted. Brown earth with medium and brown forest soils with deep topsoil layer thickness is favourable for oak (sessile or Turkey) and beech. These microscale differences between the three site condition types resulted different available water contents quantified by the modified Thornthwaite-type monthly water-balance model. Our results show the different sensitivity of the studied sites to water stress. It means that the local scale orographic and soil conditions can enhance the projected drought risk of the region. However, the favourable microclimatic effects of

  13. Associations of Forest Type, Parasitism and Body Condition of Two European Passerines, Fringilla coelebs and Sylvia atricapilla

    PubMed Central

    Lüdtke, Bruntje; Moser, Isabelle; Santiago-Alarcon, Diego; Fischer, Markus; Kalko, Elisabeth KV.; Schaefer, H. Martin; Suarez-Rubio, Marcela; Tschapka, Marco; Renner, Swen C.

    2013-01-01

    Human-induced forest modification can alter parasite-host interactions and might change the persistence of host populations. We captured individuals of two widespread European passerines (Fringilla coelebs and Sylvia atricapilla) in southwestern Germany to disentangle the associations of forest types and parasitism by haemosporidian parasites on the body condition of birds. We compared parasite prevalence and parasite intensity, fluctuating asymmetries, leukocyte numbers, and the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (H/L-ratio) among individuals from beech, mixed-deciduous and spruce forest stands. Based on the biology of bird species, we expected to find fewer infected individuals in beech or mixed-deciduous than in spruce forest stands. We found the highest parasite prevalence and intensity in beech forests for F. coelebs. Although, we found the highest prevalence in spruce forests for S. atricapilla, the highest intensity was detected in beech forests, partially supporting our hypothesis. Other body condition or health status metrics, such as the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (H/L-ratio), revealed only slight differences between bird populations inhabiting the three different forest types, with the highest values in spruce for F. coelebs and in mixed-deciduous forests for S. atricapilla. A comparison of parasitized versus non-parasitized individuals suggests that parasite infection increased the immune response of a bird, which was detectable as high H/L-ratio. Higher infections with blood parasites for S. atricapilla in spruce forest indicate that this forest type might be a less suitable habitat than beech and mixed-deciduous forests, whereas beech forests seem to be a suboptimal habitat regarding parasitism for F. coelebs. PMID:24339923

  14. Identifying Hydrological Controls in the Lower Nelson River Basin utilizing Stable Water Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delavau, C. J.; Smith, A. A.; Stadnyk, T.; Koenig, K.

    2012-12-01

    In 2010 a Stable Water Isotope (SWI) Monitoring Network was established within the lower Nelson River Basin (LNRB) (approximately 90,000 km2) in northern Manitoba, Canada, through a joint collaboration between the University of Manitoba and Manitoba Hydro (MH). The monitoring network encompasses over 60 sites where surface waters are regularly sampled, four sites sampling isotopes in precipitation, two sites utilizing drive point piezometers for the isotopic sampling of baseflow waters, and one site collecting evaporatively enriched water samples from an evaporation pan. In addition, two synoptic surveys have been completed in June 2011 and July 2012 to obtain annual snapshots of the monitoring network at a point in time. Currently, over 700 samples have been collected and analyzed. The LNRB contains approximately 9% of the total Nelson River Basin (NRB) drainage area, which encompasses an area of over 1 million km2. A diversion from the Churchill River through the Rat/Burntwood system routes an additional portion of flow into the northwest portion of the LNRB. The LNRB is significant to MH's network as it represents 75% of their power generation potential through six generating stations, thus resulting in a large portion of the basin being regulated. The watershed is topographically flat, therefore the movement and runoff of water, as well as isotopic composition of streamflow, is suspected to be highly impacted by changes in landscape and hydrography. The LNRB is a coniferous and wetland dominated basin, with almost 35% of the land cover composed of coniferous forest and 40% comprised of wetlands and lakes. Interpretation of the LNRB isotope framework shows that the major water sources (rainfall, snowfall, groundwater and surface waters) and rivers are isotopically distinct from one another. The main stem of the Nelson River shows little spatial or temporal variability, with an average δ18O of -10.6‰ and a standard deviation of 0.5‰ throughout the sampling

  15. How Socio-Economic Conditions Influence Forest Policy Development in Central and South-East Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vuletić, Dijana; Potočić, Nenad; Krajter, Silvija; Seletković, Ivan; Fürst, Christine; Makeschin, Franz; Galić, Zoran; Lorz, Carsten; Matijašič, Dragan; Zupanič, Matjaž; Simončič, Primož; Vacik, Harald

    2010-12-01

    In this article, several findings on socio-economic conditions derived from national reports and a web-based questionnaire are discussed and related to the changing role of forestry and the future forest policy development. A number of Central and South-eastern European countries taking part in a SEE-ERA-NET project ReForMan project ( www.reforman.de ) participated in data acquisition: Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Germany, Serbia and Slovenia. The aim of the research was to illustrate the present structure of forestry sector, as well as investigate newly emerging topics in forestry of Central and South-eastern Europe. The results indicated certain patterns in attitudes and perceptions among stakeholders that can be related to socio-economic conditions defined for each country. Clear differences between member and non-member countries exist only in level of implementation of EU legislation. Results showed consensus on main threats to the forests among all countries, but also some country specifics in perceptions of factors influencing forestry, their importance and professional competencies. These results could be additionally explained by influence of historical conditions which shaped development of forest sector in SEE region especially in its organizational dimension as well as in perceived role of forestry expressed through recognition of main forest functions. The influence of European forest policy processes in the region is evident through adaptation of EU legislation and perceived implications of international processes on national levels. Based on this observation, two possible options for future development of the forestry sector can be foreseen: (i) focusing on the productive function of forests and fostering its' sustainable use; or (ii) putting an emphasis on environmental and social issues. In both cases supporting public

  16. Gamma knife radiosurgery for Cushing's disease and Nelson's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Marek, Josef; Ježková, Jana; Hána, Václav; Kršek, Michal; Liščák, Roman; Vladyka, Vilibald; Pecen, Ladislav

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents our 18 years of experience in treating ACTH secreting adenomas (Cushing's disease and Nelson's syndrome) using the Leksell gamma knife (LGK) irradiation. Twenty-six patients with Cushing's disease were followed-up after LGK irradiation for 48-216 months (median 78 months). Seventeen patients had undergone previous surgery, in nine patients LGK irradiation was the primary therapy. Furthermore, 14 patients with Nelson's syndrome were followed-up for 30-204 months (median 144 months). LGK treatment resulted in hormonal normalization in 80.7 % of patients with Cushing's disease. Time to normalization was 6-54 months (median 30 months). The volume of the adenoma decreased in 92.3% (in 30.7% disappeared completely). There was no recurrence of the disease. In all 14 patients with Nelson's syndrome ACTH levels decreased (in two patients fully normalized) their ACTH levels. When checked up 5-10 years after irradiation regrowth of the adenoma was only detected in one patient (9.1%), in 27.3% adenoma volume remained unchanged, in 45.4% adenoma volume decreased and in 18.2% adenoma completely disappeared. Hypopituitarism did not develop in any patient where the critical dose to the pituitary and distal infundibulum was respected. LGK radiation represents an effective and well-tolerated option for the treatment of patients with Cushing's disease after unsuccessful surgery and may be valuable even as a primary treatment in patients who are not suitable for, or refuse, surgery. In the case of Nelson's syndrome it is possible to impede tumorous growth and control the size of the adenoma in almost all patients.

  17. Climate phase drives canopy condition in a large semi-arid floodplain forest.

    PubMed

    Wen, Li; Saintilan, Neil

    2015-08-15

    To maintain and restore the ecological integrity of floodplains, allocating water for environmental benefits (i.e. environmental water) is widely practised globally. To efficiently manage the always limited environmental water, there is pressing need to advance our understanding of the ecological response to long-term climate cycles as evidence grows of intensification of extreme climatic events such as severe drought and heat waves. In this study, we assessed the alleviating effects of artificial flooding on drought impact using the canopy condition of the iconic river red gum forests in Australia's Murray Darling Basin (MDB). To achieve this, we jointly analysed spatial-temporal patterns of NDVI response and drought conditions for the period of 2000-2013, during which the MDB experienced an extreme dry-wet cycle. Our results indicated that while NDVI-derived canopy condition was better at the sites receiving environmental water during the dry phases, both watered and unwatered sites displayed great similarity in seasonality and trends. Furthermore, we did not find any significant difference in NDVI response of the canopy between the sites to suggest significant differences in ecosystem stability and resilience, with watered and unwatered sites showing similar responses to the extreme wet conditions as the drought broke. The highly significant relationship between long-term drought index and NDVI anomaly suggest that climate phase is the main forcing driving canopy condition in semi-arid floodplain forests.

  18. Stand structure, fuelloads, and fire behavior in riparian and upland forests, Sierra Nevada Mountains, USA; a comparison of current and reconstructed conditions

    Treesearch

    Kip Van de Water; Malcolm North

    2011-01-01

    Fire plays an important role in shaping many Sierran coniferous forests, but longer fire return intervals and reductions in area burned have altered forest conditions. Productive, mesic riparian forests can accumulate high stem densities and fuel loads, making them susceptible to high-severity fire. Fuels treatments applied to upland forests, however, are...

  19. Carbon and Nitrogen dynamics in forest soils depending on light conditions and tree species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veselinovic, Bojana; Hager, Herbert

    2013-04-01

    Climate change mitigation actions under the Kyoto Protocol apply among other decreases of CO2-emissions and/or increases of carbon (C) stocks. As soils represent the second biggest C-reservoir on Earth, an exact estimation of the stocks and reliable knowledge on C-dynamics in forest soils is of high importance. Anyhow, here, the accurate GHG-accounting, emission reductions and increase in C stocks is hampered due to lack of reliable data and solid statistical methods for the factors which influence C-sequestration in and its release from these systems. In spite of good progress in the scientific research, these factors are numerous and diverse in their interactions. This work focuses on influence of the economically relevant tree species - Picea abies, Fagus sylvatica and Quercus spp. - and light conditions on forest floor and mineral soil C and N dynamics in forest soils. Spruce monocultures have been widely used management practices in central European forests during the past century. Such stands are in lower altitudes and on heavy and water logged soils unstable and prone to disturbances, especially to windthrows. We hypothesize that windthrow areas loose C & N and that the establishment of the previous nutrient stocks is, if at all, only possible to be reached over the longer periods of time. We research also how the increased OM depletion affects the change of C & N stocks in forest floor vs. mineral soil. Conversion of such secondary spruce monocultures to site adequate beech and oak forests may enable higher stocks allocated predominantly as stable organic carbon and as plant available nitrogen. For this purpose sites at 300-700 m altitude with planosols were chosen in the region of the Northern Alpine Foothills. A false chronosequence approach was used in order to evaluate the impacts of the tree species and change in light conditions on dynamic of C & N in the forest floor and mineral soil, over the period 0-100 (for oak 120 y.) years. The C- and N

  20. Evaluating a new method for reconstructing forest conditions from General Land Office survey records.

    PubMed

    Levine, Carrie R; Cogbill, Charles V; Collins, Brandon M; Larson, Andrew J; Lutz, James A; North, Malcolm P; Restaino, Christina M; Safford, Hugh D; Stephens, Scott L; Battles, John J

    2017-07-01

    Historical forest conditions are often used to inform contemporary management goals because historical forests are considered to be resilient to ecological disturbances. The General Land Office (GLO) surveys of the late 19th and early 20th centuries provide regionally quasi-contiguous data sets of historical forests across much of the Western United States. Multiple methods exist for estimating tree density from point-based sampling such as the GLO surveys, including distance-based and area-based approaches. Area-based approaches have been applied in California mixed-conifer forests but their estimates have not been validated. To assess the accuracy and precision of plotless density estimators with potential for application to GLO data in this region, we imposed a GLO sampling scheme on six mapped forest stands of known densities (159-784 trees/ha) in the Sierra Nevada in California, USA, and Baja California Norte, Mexico. We compared three distance-based plotless density estimators (Cottam, Pollard, and Morisita) as well as two Voronoi area (VA) estimators, the Delincé and mean harmonic Voronoi density (MHVD), to the true densities. We simulated sampling schemes of increasing intensity to assess sampling error. The relative error (RE) of density estimates for the GLO sampling scheme ranged from 0.36 to 4.78. The least biased estimate of tree density in every stand was obtained with the Morisita estimator and the most biased was obtained with the MHVD estimator. The MHVD estimates of tree density were 1.2-3.8 times larger than the true densities and performed best in stands subject to fire exclusion for 100 yr. The Delincé approach obtained accurate estimates of density, implying that the Voronoi approach is theoretically sound but that its application in the MHVD was flawed. The misapplication was attributed to two causes: (1) the use of a crown scaling factor that does not correct for the number of trees sampled and (2) the persistent underestimate of the true

  1. Influence of climatic variables, forest type, and condition on activity patterns of Geoffroyi's spider monkeys throughout Mesoamerica.

    PubMed

    González-Zamora, Arturo; Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor; Chaves, Oscar M; Sánchez-López, Sónia; Aureli, Filippo; Stoner, Kathryn E

    2011-12-01

    Understanding how species cope with variations in climatic conditions, forest types and habitat amount is a fundamental challenge for ecologists and conservation biologists. We used data from 18 communities of Mesoamerican spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) throughout their range to determine whether their activity patterns are affected by climatic variables (temperature and rainfall), forest types (seasonal and nonseasonal forests), and forest condition (continuous and fragmented). Data were derived from 15 published and unpublished studies carried out in four countries (Mexico, El Salvador, Costa Rica, and Panama), cumulatively representing more than 18 years (221 months, >3,645 hr) of behavioral observations. Overall, A. geoffroyi spent most of their time feeding (38.4 ± 14.0%, mean ± SD) and resting (36.6 ± 12.8%) and less time traveling (19.8 ± 11.3%). Resting and feeding were mainly affected by rainfall: resting time increased with decreasing rainfall, whereas feeding time increased with rainfall. Traveling time was negatively related to both rainfall and maximum temperature. In addition, both resting and traveling time were higher in seasonal forests (tropical dry forest and tropical moist forest) than in nonseasonal forests (tropical wet forest), but feeding time followed the opposite pattern. Furthermore, spider monkeys spent more time feeding and less time resting (i.e., higher feeding effort) in forest fragments than in continuous forest. These findings suggest that global climate changes and habitat deforestation and fragmentation in Mesoamerica will threaten the survival of spider monkeys and reduce the distributional range of the species in the coming decades.

  2. Region and site conditions affect phenotypic trait variation in five forest herbs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemke, Isgard Holle; Kolb, Annette; Diekmann, Martin Reemt

    2012-02-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is the ability of organisms to express different phenotypes under different environmental conditions. It may buffer individuals both against short-term environmental fluctuations and long-term effects of global change. A plastic behaviour in response to changes in the environment may be especially important in species with low migration rates and colonization capacities, such as in many forest plants in present-day fragmented landscapes. We compared the phenotypic trait variation (used as a proxy for the amount of phenotypic plasticity) of five forest herbs (Brachypodium sylvaticum, Circaea lutetiana, Impatiens noli-tangere, Sanicula europaea and Stachys sylvatica) between two regions in Germany that differ in their overall environmental conditions (Bremen in the northwest, Freiburg in the southwest; 5 species × 2 regions × 8-15 populations × 25-50 individuals). In addition, we measured light intensity and important soil parameters (soil pH, moisture, K, P and N) in all populations. We found consistent differences in trait variability between the two regions in several species. In Brachypodium and Stachys both vegetative and reproductive traits were more variable in Freiburg. Similarly, reproductive traits of Impatiens and Sanicula appeared to be more variable in Freiburg, while in both species at least one of the vegetative traits was more variable in Bremen. Mean local environmental conditions also affected trait variation; in most of the species both vegetative and reproductive traits were more variable in sites with higher nutrient contents and higher light availability. Across all traits and both regions, seed or fruit production was most variable. In summary, at least some of the studied forest herbs appear to respond strongly to large-scale environmental differences, showing a higher trait variability in the more southern region. Given the assumption that phenotypic trait variation is positively associated with phenotypic plasticity

  3. Practical aspects of gene regulatory inference via conditional inference forests from expression data.

    PubMed

    Bessonov, Kyrylo; Van Steen, Kristel

    2016-12-01

    Gene regulatory network (GRN) inference is an active area of research that facilitates understanding the complex interplays between biological molecules. We propose a novel framework to create such GRNs, based on Conditional Inference Forests (CIFs) as proposed by Strobl et al. Our framework consists of using ensembles of Conditional Inference Trees (CITs) and selecting an appropriate aggregation scheme for variant selection prior to network construction. We show on synthetic microarray data that taking the original implementation of CIFs with conditional permutation scheme (CIFcond ) may lead to improved performance compared to Breiman's implementation of Random Forests (RF). Among all newly introduced CIF-based methods and five network scenarios obtained from the DREAM4 challenge, CIFcond performed best. Networks derived from well-tuned CIFs, obtained by simply averaging P-values over tree ensembles (CIFmean ) are particularly attractive, because they combine adequate performance with computational efficiency. Moreover, thresholds for variable selection are based on significance levels for P-values and, hence, do not need to be tuned. From a practical point of view, our extensive simulations show the potential advantages of CIFmean -based methods. Although more work is needed to improve on speed, especially when fully exploiting the advantages of CITs in the context of heterogeneous and correlated data, we have shown that CIF methodology can be flexibly inserted in a framework to infer biological interactions. Notably, we confirmed biologically relevant interaction between IL2RA and FOXP1, linked to the IL-2 signaling pathway and to type 1 diabetes.

  4. [Nelson syndrome: a rare cause of generalized hyperpigmentation of the skin].

    PubMed

    Barabash, R; Moreno-Suárez, F G; Rodríguez, L; Molina, A M; Conejo-Mir, J

    2010-01-01

    Nelson syndrome is a rare cause of generalized mucocutaneous hyperpigmentation. Its clinical manifestations are due to excessive secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone from a pituitary adenoma, which develops after bilateral therapeutic adrenalectomy. As this operation has fallen into disuse, Nelson syndrome is now extremely rare and difficult to recognize. We present a very severe case of generalized hyperpigmentation due to Nelson syndrome in a 37-year-old woman.

  5. Northwest Forest Plan—the first 10 years (1994–2003): preliminary assessment of the condition of watersheds.

    Treesearch

    Kirsten Gallo; Steven H. Lanigan; Peter Eldred; Sean N. Gordon; Chris. Moyer

    2005-01-01

    We aggregated road, vegetation, and inchannel data to assess the condition of sixth-field watersheds and describe the distribution of the condition of watersheds in the Northwest Forest Plan (the Plan) area. The assessment is based on 250 watersheds selected at random within the Plan area. The distributions of conditions are presented for watersheds and for many of the...

  6. Rep. Bill Nelson during space food and consumables orientation and suit fitting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Rita Rapp, a flight coordinator, briefs U.S. Rep. Bill Nelson (D.-Florida) on space food during an orientation session in the life sciences laboratory at JSC (27753); Rep. Nelson tries on a glove during a suit fitting session (27754); Rep. Nelson samples a package of re-hydratable fruit in the life sciences laboratory during early STS 61-C training (27755); Rep. Nelson listens to Laura Louviere brief him on hygiene articles soon after reporting to Houston for STS 61-C training. On the table in front of him is a tube marked Palmalive, a tube marked Gillette and various other articles (27756).

  7. Rep. Bill Nelson during space food and consumables orientation and suit fitting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Rita Rapp, a flight coordinator, briefs U.S. Rep. Bill Nelson (D.-Florida) on space food during an orientation session in the life sciences laboratory at JSC (27753); Rep. Nelson tries on a glove during a suit fitting session (27754); Rep. Nelson samples a package of re-hydratable fruit in the life sciences laboratory during early STS 61-C training (27755); Rep. Nelson listens to Laura Louviere brief him on hygiene articles soon after reporting to Houston for STS 61-C training. On the table in front of him is a tube marked Palmalive, a tube marked Gillette and various other articles (27756).

  8. Have changing forests conditions contributed to pollinator decline in the southeastern United States?

    Treesearch

    James L. Hanula; Scott Horn; Joseph J. O' Brien

    2015-01-01

    Two conservation goals of the early 20th century, extensive reforestation and reduced wildfire through fire exclusion, may have contributed to declining pollinator abundance as forests became denser and shrub covered. To examine how forest structure affects bees we selected 5 stands in each of 7 forest types including: cleared forest; dense young pines; thinned young...

  9. An integrated approach to mapping forest conditions in the Southern Appalachians (North Carolina)

    Treesearch

    Weimin Xi; Lei Wang; Andrew G Birt; Maria D. Tchakerian; Robert N. Coulson; Kier D. Klepzig

    2009-01-01

    Accurate and continuous forest cover information is essential for forest management and restoration (SAMAB 1996, Xi et al. 2007). Ground-truthed, spatially explicit forest data, however, are often limited to federally managed land or large-scale commercial forestry operations where forest inventories are regularly collected. Moreover,...

  10. Parks and Recreation: Resource Limitations Affect Condition of Forest Service Recreation Sites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    hereafter called districts.2 The Forest Service manages 149 national forests in the United State3 and Puerto Rico . Because the Forest Service’s day-to-day...meet the needs of people with disabilities. According to the questionnaire respondent in the Santa Lucia district of the Los Padres National Forest in

  11. Mercury in Nelson's Sparrow Subspecies at Breeding Sites

    PubMed Central

    Winder, Virginia L.; Emslie, Steven D.

    2012-01-01

    Background Mercury is a persistent, biomagnifying contaminant that can cause negative effects on ecosystems. Marshes are often areas of relatively high mercury methylation and bioaccumulation. Nelson's Sparrows (Ammodramus nelsoni) use marsh habitats year-round and have been documented to exhibit tissue mercury concentrations that exceed negative effects thresholds. We sought to further characterize the potential risk of Nelson's Sparrows to mercury exposure by sampling individuals from sites within the range of each of its subspecies. Methodology/Principal Findings From 2009 to 2011, we captured adult Nelson's Sparrows at sites within the breeding range of each subspecies (A. n. nelsoni: Grand Forks and Upham, North Dakota; A. n. alterus: Moosonee, Ontario; and A. n. subvirgatus: Grand Manan Island, New Brunswick) and sampled breast feathers, the first primary feather (P1), and blood for total mercury analysis. Mean blood mercury in nelsoni individuals captured near Grand Forks ranged from 0.84±0.37 to 1.65±1.02 SD ppm among years, between 2.0 and 4.9 times as high as concentrations at the other sites (P<0.01). Breast feather mercury did not vary among sites within a given sampling year (site means ranged from 0.98±0.69 to 2.71±2.93 ppm). Mean P1 mercury in alterus (2.96±1.84 ppm fw) was significantly lower than in any other sampled population (5.25±2.24–6.77±3.51 ppm; P≤0.03). Conclusions/Significance Our study further characterized mercury in Nelson's Sparrows near Grand Forks; we documented localized and potentially harmful mercury concentrations, indicating that this area may represent a biological mercury hotspot. This finding warrants further research to determine if wildlife populations of conservation or recreational interest in this area may be experiencing negative effects due to mercury exposure. We present preliminary conclusions about the risk of each sampled population to mercury exposure. PMID:22384194

  12. Failure Analysis of Main Flame Deflector Nelson Studs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, Victoria

    2009-01-01

    NASA Structures engineers submitted two Nelson refractory studs from the main flame deflector at Launch Complex (LC) 39 A for analysis when they were observed to be missing a significant amount of material after launch. The damaged stud and an unused comparative stud were analyzed by macroscopic and microscopic examination along with metallographic evaluation of the microstructure. The stud lost material due to a combination of erosion and corrosion. Plain carbon steel readily forms an oxide layer in the coastal launch environment at Kennedy Space Center. The blast during a launch removes this brittle oxide layer, which then forms again post-launch, thereby further removing material. No indications of melting were observed.

  13. Treatment of Acromegaly, Cushing Disease and Nelson Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, John H.; Linfoot, John A.

    1980-01-01

    Since 1957 we have treated more than 429 patients who had pituitary neoplasms, most of which were hormone-secreting tumors. Long-term follow-up in the large group of patients treated for acromegaly shows a median survival of better than 16 years, with improvement over time. The short-term follow-up results in patients with Cushing* disease, Nelson syndrome and chromophobe adenoma are very encouraging. To compare these excellent results with those following surgical procedures, a large study of patients followed for a long period after the operations is needed. ImagesFigure 2.Figure 6. PMID:7415170

  14. Practical Application of Electrochemical Nitrate Sensor under Laboratory and Forest Nursery Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Caron, William-Olivier; Lamhamedi, Mohammed S.; Viens, Jeff; Messaddeq, Younès

    2016-01-01

    The reduction of nitrate leaching to ensure greater protection of groundwater quality has become a global issue. The development of new technologies for more accurate dosing of nitrates helps optimize fertilization programs. This paper presents the practical application of a newly developed electrochemical sensor designed for in situ quantification of nitrate. To our knowledge, this paper is the first to report the use of electrochemical impedance to determine nitrate concentrations in growing media under forest nursery conditions. Using impedance measurements, the sensor has been tested in laboratory and compared to colorimetric measurements of the nitrate. The developed sensor has been used in water-saturated growing medium and showed good correlation to certified methods, even in samples obtained over a multi-ion fertilisation season. A linear and significant relationship was observed between the resistance and the concentration of nitrates (R2 = 0.972), for a range of concentrations of nitrates. We also observed stability of the sensor after exposure of one month to the real environmental conditions of the forest nursery. PMID:27483266

  15. Snowpack Response to Changes in Forest Condition Over Six Years Post Mountain Pine Beetle Attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, R.; Boon, S.

    2011-12-01

    Since 1994, 17.5 million hectares of lodgepole pine dominated forest in British Columbia have been attacked by mountain pine beetle (MPB). More than 6 million hectares of timber in Alberta are susceptible, as are lodgepole pine stands throughout the western United States. Such extensive forest die-off raises concern regarding increased snow accumulation and ablation rates in affected stands and associated increases in snowmelt generated streamflow. To quantify changes in snow accumulation and ablation post-MPB, forest condition and snow were monitored in an attacked young lodgepole pine stand, a mature mixed species green stand and a clearcut near Mayson Lake in the southern interior of BC. Surveys began in 2006, the year following attack, and continued until 2011, as trees turned from green to red to grey. Forest canopy loss was described by canopy transmittance and litter in and on the snowpack. Canopy transmittance in the attacked stand increased from 27% in fall 2007 to 49% in spring 2011. Canopy transmittance in the mature stand remained constant, averaging 19% across the stand. The greatest canopy loss in the attacked stand occurred in summer 2009 when canopy transmittance increased from 35% to 42%. However, the largest accumulation of litter over a winter was measured in the spring of 2009 when the weight of litter in the snowpack (210 g m-2) was double that in the green stand and ten times the amount collected in 2010, by which time trees were turning grey. At mid-melt 2009, snow surface litter cover in the attacked stand varied from 0% to 54% and averaged 18% compared to ≤9% in other years. Increases in forest litter in the attacked stand caused a more rapid decay in snow surface albedo in spring 2009 than in other years. Snow water equivalent near the onset of melt varied significantly from year to year; from 148 mm to 263 mm on April 1 in the clearcut, 88 mm to 191 mm in the attacked pine, and 65 mm to 144 mm in the green mature stand. The strongest

  16. Carbon dynamics of two adjacent temperate forests under similar climatic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malla Thakuri, B.; Kim, J.

    2012-12-01

    The proximity (< 1.5 km) of the two KoFlux towers (i.e., Gwangneung coniferous forest site, GCK and deciduous forest site, GDK) provides an excellent opportunity to study carbon dynamics of the two different plant functional types under similar climate and environmental conditions. We have analyzed the CO2 flux data measured by eddy covariance from 2007 to 2010 at GCK and GDK sites. Our objectives were (1) to compare and contrast the seasonality and inter-annual variability in net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) of the two adjacent forests and (2) to interpret their carbon dynamics in the framework of resilience concept. The multi-year measurements of CO2 fluxes at both sites showed contrasting inter-annual trends. Overall, both the annual gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (RE) were higher for GCK site with an average NEE of -220 (±137) g C m-2 yr-1 while that of GDK was -67 (±58) g C m-2 yr-1. The GCK showed a continuous, threefold increase in NEE with lower water use efficiency whereas the GDK fluctuated between carbon source and weak to moderate carbon sink. Each year, both sites manifested a mid-season depression in GPP (and thus NEE), which was more pronounced at GCK. On a seasonal basis, summer was the most productive for GDK while spring for GCK. The results are interpreted in terms of phenology and different stages of adaptive cycles. Acknowledgment This work was funded by the Korea Meteorological Administration Research and Development Program under Grant CATER 2012-3030.

  17. Ten-year variability in fluxes, meteorology, and environmental conditions at a Colorado subalpine forest site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, S. P.; Turnipseed, A.; Bowling, D. R.; Hu, J.; Monson, R. K.

    2009-12-01

    Changing meteorological and environmental conditions affect fluxes; model analysis has shown that environmental variability directly accounts for about half the interannual variability in net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2 whereas the other 50% is due to biotic responses to these changing variables (Richardson et al. 2007). In our study, ten years (1998-2008) of turbulent flux measurements of heat, water vapor, and CO2 at the Niwot Ridge AmeriFlux site (Monson et al. 2002) are examined with respect to meteorological conditions (atmospheric temperature, stability, precipitation, and cloudiness) as well as changes in environmental conditions, such as snow depth and soil moisture. The typical yearly cycle and an estimate of the magnitude of year-to-year variability in the diurnal fluxes and other variables for a high-elevation subalpine forest ecosystem are presented. Wintertime ecosystem respiration has an average 30-min NEE of 0.62 μmol m-2 s-1 with an interannual range between 0.5-1 μmol m-2 s-1. Uptake of CO2 in late summer has an average NEE of -0.71 μmol m-2 s-1 with an interannual range between -0.1 to -1.5 μmol m-2 s-1. Previous studies at the Niwot Ridge AmeriFlux site have described the importance of photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) (Monson et al. 2002) and also growing season length (Hu et al. 2009) on NEE. Water isotope ratios analyzed by Hu et al. (2009) have shown that trees at the site primarily rely on water from snowmelt to sustain them throughout the summer; combining this result with the SIPNET model, Hu et al. conclude that there is a limited connection between summer precipitation and the cumulative annual gross primary production (GPP). We have tested this conclusion more explicitly by examining the response of NEE to specific precipitation events and the effect of extended dry periods on the diel cycle of the fluxes, CO2 mole fraction, sap flow, and other meteorological and soil variables. Additionally, we examine the connection

  18. Effects of snow condition on microbial respiration of Scots pine needle litter in a boreal forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnuki, Masataka; Domisch, Timo; Dannoura, Masako; Ataka, Mioko; Finér, Leena; Repo, Tapani; Osawa, Akira

    2016-04-01

    Climate warming scenarios predict decreasing snow depths and increasing winter precipitation in boreal forests ("rain on snow"). I These conditions may affect the decomposition and the microbial respiration of leaf litter, contributing a major part of tree litters, To understand how different snow conditions during winter would affect the microbial respiration of Scots pine needle litter in a boreal forest, we conducted a laboratory experiment using needle litter of two age classes (newly dropped and older litter). The experiment simulated four different winter treatments, followed by spring and early summer : (1) ambient snow cover (SNOW), (2) Compressed snow and ice encasement (ICE), (3) frozen flood (FLOOD) and (4) no snow cover at all (NO SNOW). The experiment was carried out in four walk-in dasotrons (n=3) with soil temperatures of -2° C and air temperatures of 2° C during winter and increased to 15° C and 20° C during spring, respectively . Needle litter samples were collected three times (prior to the winter, just after winter and at the end of the experiment). We evaluated the microbial respiration from the litter at several temperatures (-5° C, 0° C, 5° C and 12° C), the SIR index (an index estimating the microbial biomass), and the C/N ratio .And we calculated Q10 value (index of microbial respiration activity) using microbial respiration data. We found significant differences in microbial respiration between the newly dropped and older litter at the beginning and at the end of the experiment. However, there were no significant differences in Q10 value and the SIR (index of microbial biomass) between the different winter treatments. All samples showed decrease of microbial activity with time. Finally, we conclude that the winter snow conditions with mild air temperatures as used in our experiment, are not detrimentally affecting the Scots pine needle litter decomposition and its respiration.

  19. National projections of forest and rangeland condition indicators: a supporting technical document for the 1999 RPA assessment.

    Treesearch

    John Hof; Curtis Flather; Tony Baltic; Stephen. Davies

    1999-01-01

    The 1999 forest and rangeland condition indicator model is a set of independent econometric production functions for environmental outputs (measured with condition indicators) at the national scale. This report documents the development of the database and the statistical estimation required by this particular production structure with emphasis on two special...

  20. Relationship between PRI-MODIS and LUE in a Mediterranean deciduous forest under water stress condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guarini, Rocchina; Loizzo, Rosa; Nichol, Caroline J.; Borghetti, Marco

    2010-05-01

    In this study the relationship between ecosystem-level light-use efficiency (LUE) obtained from eddy covariance data and MODIS-derived values of PRI (Photochemical Reflectance Index) for a Mediterranean Quercus cerris L. forest site (Roccarespampani, Viterbo , Italy) in two different years was investigated. The years considered are contrasting in temperature and rainfall conditions (i.e. 2003, dry, and 2004, wet). The PRI relates LUE to the de-epoxidation xanthophyll state which is linked to the biochemical mechanism down-regulating photosynthesis to prevent photo-oxidative damage in leaves. It is based on the reflectance at 531 and 570 nm, according to the following relationship PRI = (R531 - R570) = (R531 + R570). The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between LUE and a scaled PRI (sPRI) for a Mediterranean Quercus cerris L. forest site (Roccarespampani, Viterbo, Italy) in two different years. Variations in canopy reflectance related to the xanthophyll cycle were detected using MODIS sensor ocean band 11 centered at 531 nm and band 12 (551 nm) was used as reference. Strong correlation between MODIS-sPRI and LUE were found, only during the wet year (2004), and only for backscattering scenes. Future studies could be investigated to test whether physiological reflectance signals are affected by sun position, heterogeneous landscape or atmospheric interfaces.

  1. Rebuttal to Nelson et al. 'Response to Bodin and Grote regarding postdoctoral recruitment in clinical neuropsychology'.

    PubMed

    Bodin, Doug; Grote, Christopher L

    2016-07-01

    Nelson et al. provided a response to our commentary on the postdoctoral match in clinical neuropsychology. In this brief rebuttal, we will focus on statements from Nelson et al. that we believe are factual inaccuracies or misunderstandings of some of the points we made in our commentary. In addition, we will comment briefly on the proposed guidelines offered in their response.

  2. Towards the harmonization between National Forest Inventory and Forest Condition Monitoring. Consistency of plot allocation and effect of tree selection methods on sample statistics in Italy.

    PubMed

    Gasparini, Patrizia; Di Cosmo, Lucio; Cenni, Enrico; Pompei, Enrico; Ferretti, Marco

    2013-07-01

    In the frame of a process aiming at harmonizing National Forest Inventory (NFI) and ICP Forests Level I Forest Condition Monitoring (FCM) in Italy, we investigated (a) the long-term consistency between FCM sample points (a subsample of the first NFI, 1985, NFI_1) and recent forest area estimates (after the second NFI, 2005, NFI_2) and (b) the effect of tree selection method (tree-based or plot-based) on sample composition and defoliation statistics. The two investigations were carried out on 261 and 252 FCM sites, respectively. Results show that some individual forest categories (larch and stone pine, Norway spruce, other coniferous, beech, temperate oaks and cork oak forests) are over-represented and others (hornbeam and hophornbeam, other deciduous broadleaved and holm oak forests) are under-represented in the FCM sample. This is probably due to a change in forest cover, which has increased by 1,559,200 ha from 1985 to 2005. In case of shift from a tree-based to a plot-based selection method, 3,130 (46.7%) of the original 6,703 sample trees will be abandoned, and 1,473 new trees will be selected. The balance between exclusion of former sample trees and inclusion of new ones will be particularly unfavourable for conifers (with only 16.4% of excluded trees replaced by new ones) and less for deciduous broadleaves (with 63.5% of excluded trees replaced). The total number of tree species surveyed will not be impacted, while the number of trees per species will, and the resulting (plot-based) sample composition will have a much larger frequency of deciduous broadleaved trees. The newly selected trees have-in general-smaller diameter at breast height (DBH) and defoliation scores. Given the larger rate of turnover, the deciduous broadleaved part of the sample will be more impacted. Our results suggest that both a revision of FCM network to account for forest area change and a plot-based approach to permit statistical inference and avoid bias in the tree sample

  3. The Forest Ecosystem Study: background, rationale, implementation, baseline conditions, and silvicultural assessment.

    Treesearch

    Andrew B. Carey; David R. Thysell; Angus W. Brodie

    1999-01-01

    The Forest Ecosystem Study (FES) came about as an early response to the need for innovative silvicultural methods designed to stimulate development of late-successional attributes in managed forests—a need ensuing from the exceptional and longstanding controversies over old-growth forests and endangered species concerns in the Pacific Northwest. In 1991, scientists...

  4. Area and percent of forest affected by abiotic agents beyond reference conditions

    Treesearch

    Jim Ellenwood

    2012-01-01

    Criterion 3, Indicator 16, of the Montréal Process Criteria and Indicators for the Conservation and Sustainable Management of Temperate and Boreal Forests was designed to assess the impact of abiotic agents upon forests (Montréal Process Working Group 2007). Various abiotic agents, both natural and human-induced, can change forest structure and species composition....

  5. Health of Idaho's Forests: A Summary of conditions, issues and implications

    Treesearch

    David Atkins; James Byler; Ladd Livingston; Paul Rogers; Dayle Bennett

    1999-01-01

    The desire for lasting and healthy forests in which to live, work and play is something we all share - not only in Idaho but across our nation. In Idaho we have a number of forest health issues confronting us, our forest ecosystems are not as resilient as desired and the ability to sustain our communities is at risk.

  6. FUEL CONDITIONS ASSOCIATED WITH NATIVE AND EXOTIC GRASSES IN A SUBTROPICAL DRY FOREST IN PUERTO RICO

    Treesearch

    Jarrod M. Thaxton; Skip J. Van Bloem; Stefanie Whitmire

    2012-01-01

    Exotic grasses capable of increasing frequency and intensity of anthropogenic fire have invaded subtropical and tropical dry forests worldwide. Since many dry forest trees are susceptible to fire, this can result in decline of native species and loss of forest cover. While the contribution of exotic grasses to altered fire regimes has been well documented, the role of...

  7. Warm Dry Weather Conditions Cause of 2016 Fort McMurray Wild Forest Fire and Associated Air Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Azevedo, S. C.; Singh, R. P.; da Silva, E. A., Sr.

    2016-12-01

    The climate change is evident from the increasing temperature around the world, day to day life and increasing frequency of natural hazards. The warm and dry conditions are the cause of frequent forest fires around the globe. Forest fires severely affect the air quality and human health. Multi sensor satellites and dense network of ground stations provide information about vegetation health, meteorological, air quality and atmospheric parameters. We have carried out detailed analysis of satellite and ground data of wild forest fire that occurred in May 2016 in Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada. This wild forest fire destroyed 10 per cent of Fort McMurray's housing and forced more than 90,000 people to evacuate the surrounding areas. Our results show that the warm and dry conditions with low rainfall were the cause of Fort McMurray wild fire. The air quality parameters (particulate matter, CO, ozone, NO2, methane) and greenhouse gases measured from Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) satellite show enhanced levels soon after the forest fire. The emissions from the forest fire affected health of population living in surrounding areas up to 300 km radius.

  8. Variable strength of forest stand attributes and weather conditions on the questing activity of Ixodes ricinus ticks over years in managed forests.

    PubMed

    Lauterbach, Ralf; Wells, Konstans; O'Hara, Robert B; Kalko, Elisabeth K V; Renner, Swen C

    2013-01-01

    Given the ever-increasing human impact through land use and climate change on the environment, we crucially need to achieve a better understanding of those factors that influence the questing activity of ixodid ticks, a major disease-transmitting vector in temperate forests. We investigated variation in the relative questing nymph densities of Ixodes ricinus in differently managed forest types for three years (2008-2010) in SW Germany by drag sampling. We used a hierarchical Bayesian modeling approach to examine the relative effects of habitat and weather and to consider possible nested structures of habitat and climate forces. The questing activity of nymphs was considerably larger in young forest successional stages of thicket compared with pole wood and timber stages. Questing nymph density increased markedly with milder winter temperatures. Generally, the relative strength of the various environmental forces on questing nymph density differed across years. In particular, winter temperature had a negative effect on tick activity across sites in 2008 in contrast to the overall effect of temperature across years. Our results suggest that forest management practices have important impacts on questing nymph density. Variable weather conditions, however, might override the effects of forest management practices on the fluctuations and dynamics of tick populations and activity over years, in particular, the preceding winter temperatures. Therefore, robust predictions and the detection of possible interactions and nested structures of habitat and climate forces can only be quantified through the collection of long-term data. Such data are particularly important with regard to future scenarios of forest management and climate warming.

  9. Variable Strength of Forest Stand Attributes and Weather Conditions on the Questing Activity of Ixodes ricinus Ticks over Years in Managed Forests

    PubMed Central

    Lauterbach, Ralf; Wells, Konstans; O'Hara, Robert B.; Renner, Swen C.

    2013-01-01

    Given the ever-increasing human impact through land use and climate change on the environment, we crucially need to achieve a better understanding of those factors that influence the questing activity of ixodid ticks, a major disease-transmitting vector in temperate forests. We investigated variation in the relative questing nymph densities of Ixodes ricinus in differently managed forest types for three years (2008–2010) in SW Germany by drag sampling. We used a hierarchical Bayesian modeling approach to examine the relative effects of habitat and weather and to consider possible nested structures of habitat and climate forces. The questing activity of nymphs was considerably larger in young forest successional stages of thicket compared with pole wood and timber stages. Questing nymph density increased markedly with milder winter temperatures. Generally, the relative strength of the various environmental forces on questing nymph density differed across years. In particular, winter temperature had a negative effect on tick activity across sites in 2008 in contrast to the overall effect of temperature across years. Our results suggest that forest management practices have important impacts on questing nymph density. Variable weather conditions, however, might override the effects of forest management practices on the fluctuations and dynamics of tick populations and activity over years, in particular, the preceding winter temperatures. Therefore, robust predictions and the detection of possible interactions and nested structures of habitat and climate forces can only be quantified through the collection of long-term data. Such data are particularly important with regard to future scenarios of forest management and climate warming. PMID:23372852

  10. Steam pretreatment of spruce forest residues: optimal conditions for biogas production and enzymatic hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Janzon, Ron; Schütt, Fokko; Oldenburg, Saskia; Fischer, Elmar; Körner, Ina; Saake, Bodo

    2014-01-16

    Steam refining of non-debarked spruce forest residues was investigated as pretreatment for enzymatic hydrolysis as well as for biogas production. Pretreatment conditions were varied in the range of 190-220 °C, 5-10 min and 0-3.7% SO₂ according to a statistical design. For both applications highest product yields were predicted at 220 °C and 2.4% SO₂, whereas the reaction time had only a minor influence. The conformity of the model results allows the conclusion that enzymatic hydrolysis is a suitable test method to evaluate the degradability of lignocellulosic biomass in the biogas process. In control experiments under optimal conditions the results of the model were verified. The yield of total monomeric carbohydrates after enzymatic hydrolysis was equivalent to 55% of all theoretically available polysaccharides. The corresponding biogas yield from the pretreated wood amounted to 304 mL/gODM. Furthermore, furans produced under optimal process conditions showed no inhibitory effect on biogas production. It can be concluded that steam refining opens the structure of wood, thus improving the enzymatic hydrolysis of the polysaccharides to fermentable monomeric sugars and subsequently enabling a higher and faster production of biogas. Anaerobic fermentation of pretreated wood is a serious alternative to alcoholic fermentation especially when low quality wood grades and residues are used. Anaerobic digestion should be further investigated in order to diversify the biorefinery options for lignocellulosic materials. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Vertical gradient of climate change and climate tourism conditions in the Black Forest.

    PubMed

    Endler, Christina; Oehler, Karoline; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Due to the public discussion about global and regional warming, the regional climate and the modified climate conditions are analyzed exemplarily for three different regions in the southern Black Forest (southwest Germany). The driving question behind the present study was how can tourism adapt to modified climate conditions and associated changes to the tourism potential in low mountain ranges. The tourism potential is predominately based on the attractiveness of natural resources being climate-sensitive. In this study, regional climate simulations (A1B) are analyzed by using the REMO model. To analyze the climatic tourism potential, the following thermal, physical and aesthetic parameters are considered for the time span 1961-2050: thermal comfort, heat and cold stress, sunshine, humid-warm conditions (sultriness), fog, precipitation, storm, and ski potential (snow cover). Frequency classes of these parameters expressed as a percentage are processed on a monthly scale. The results are presented in form of the Climate-Tourism-Information-Scheme (CTIS). Due to warmer temperatures, winters might shorten while summers might lengthen. The lowland might be more affected by heat and sultriness (e.g., Freiburg due to the effects of urban climate). To adapt to a changing climate and tourism, the awareness of both stakeholders and tourists as well as the adaptive capability are essential.

  12. Recent Extreme Forest Fire Activity in Western Russia: Fire Danger Conditions, Fire Behavior and Smoke Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocks, B. J.; Fromm, M.; Goldammer, J.; Carr, R.; Sukhinin, A. I.

    2010-12-01

    During the summer of 2010, widespread forest and peatland fires in western Russia burned over hundreds of thousands of hectares, burning over croplands, destroying hundreds of homes, and directly causing the death of more than 50 people. Unprecedented drought conditions, combined with an extended heat wave, resulted in extreme fire danger conditions and explosive fire behavior in a region of Russia not noted for large fires. Several fires exhibited pyroconvection, injecting smoke directly into the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, while deep-burning fires created major regional smoke problems. This smoke persisted in the heavily-populated areas around Moscow, exposing millions to high levels of ozone and particulate matter, and creating both immediate and longer-term health risks. This presentation will explore the drought conditions leading to the catastrophic fire behavior experienced in western Russia, and analyze fire behavior in terms of fuel consumption, smoke production, fire intensity levels, and pyroconvection. Impacts of regional and long-range smoke transport will also be discussed.

  13. Chloride and organic chlorine in forest soils: storage, residence times, and influence of ecological conditions.

    PubMed

    Redon, Paul-Olivier; Abdelouas, Abdesselam; Bastviken, David; Cecchini, Sébastien; Nicolas, Manuel; Thiry, Yves

    2011-09-01

    Recent studies have shown that extensive chlorination of natural organic matter significantly affects chlorine (Cl) residence time in soils. This natural biogeochemical process must be considered when developing the conceptual models used as the basis for safety assessments regarding the potential health impacts of 36-chlorine released from present and planned radioactive waste disposal facilities. In this study, we surveyed 51 French forested areas to determine the variability in chlorine speciation and storage in soils. Concentrations of total chlorine (Cl(tot)) and organic chlorine (Cl(org)) were determined in litterfall, forest floor and mineral soil samples. Cl(org) constituted 11-100% of Cl(tot), with the highest concentrations being found in the humus layer (34-689 mg Cl(org) kg(-1)). In terms of areal storage (53 - 400 kg Cl(org) ha(-1)) the mineral soil dominated due to its greater thickness (40 cm). Cl(org) concentrations and estimated retention of organochlorine in the humus layer were correlated with Cl input, total Cl concentration, organic carbon content, soil pH and the dominant tree species. Cl(org) concentration in mineral soil was not significantly influenced by the studied environmental factors, however increasing Cl:C ratios with depth could indicate selective preservation of chlorinated organic molecules. Litterfall contributions of Cl were significant but generally minor compared to other fluxes and stocks. Assuming steady-state conditions, known annual wet deposition and measured inventories in soil, the theoretical average residence time calculated for total chlorine (inorganic (Cl(in)) and organic) was 5-fold higher than that estimated for Cl(in) alone. Consideration of the Cl(org) pool is therefore clearly important in studies of overall Cl cycling in terrestrial ecosystems.

  14. Use of remotely sensed data for assessing forest stand conditions in the Eastern United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, D. L.; Nelson, R. F.

    1986-01-01

    Techniques for the detection, classification, and measurement of forest disturbances, using digital Landsat data for three study areas (Pennsynvania, North Carolina, and Maine) are reported. Results with respect to (1) the delineation and assessment of forest damage due to the use of two forest insect defoliators, and (2) qualitative assessment of the Multispectral Scanner (MSS) and the Thematic Mapper data for delineating forest stand characteristics are presented. Key results include a development of a statewide MSS digital data base and associated image-processing techniques for accurately delineating insect-damaged and healthy forest areas. For classification of broad land-cover classes which are spectrally homogeneous, the accuracy yielded by the use of either MSS data or TM Simulator data is similar. However, the TMS data provided 20 percent accuracy improvement over the MSS results when detailed (Level III) forest classes were mapped.

  15. Response of the agile antechinus to habitat edge, configuration and condition in fragmented forest.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, Christopher P; Lill, Alan; Reina, Richard D

    2011-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation and degradation seriously threaten native animal communities. We studied the response of a small marsupial, the agile antechinus Antechinus agilis, to several environmental variables in anthropogenically fragmented Eucalyptus forest in south-east Australia. Agile antechinus were captured more in microhabitats dominated by woody debris than in other microhabitats. Relative abundances of both sexes were positively correlated with fragment core area. Male and female mass-size residuals were smaller in larger fragments. A health status indicator, haemoglobin-haematocrit residuals (HHR), did not vary as a function of any environmental variable in females, but male HHR indicated better health where sites' microhabitats were dominated by shrubs, woody debris and trees other than Eucalyptus. Females were trapped less often in edge than interior fragment habitat and their physiological stress level, indicated by the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio in peripheral blood, was higher where fragments had a greater proportion of edge habitat. The latter trend was potentially due to lymphopoenia resulting from stress hormone-mediated leukocyte trafficking. Using multiple indicators of population condition and health status facilitates a comprehensive examination of the effects of anthropogenic disturbances, such as habitat fragmentation and degradation, on native vertebrates. Male agile antechinus' health responded negatively to habitat degradation, whilst females responded negatively to the proportion of edge habitat. The health and condition indicators used could be employed to identify conservation strategies that would make habitat fragments less stressful for this or similar native, small mammals.

  16. Response of the Agile Antechinus to Habitat Edge, Configuration and Condition in Fragmented Forest

    PubMed Central

    Johnstone, Christopher P.; Lill, Alan; Reina, Richard D.

    2011-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation and degradation seriously threaten native animal communities. We studied the response of a small marsupial, the agile antechinus Antechinus agilis, to several environmental variables in anthropogenically fragmented Eucalyptus forest in south-east Australia. Agile antechinus were captured more in microhabitats dominated by woody debris than in other microhabitats. Relative abundances of both sexes were positively correlated with fragment core area. Male and female mass-size residuals were smaller in larger fragments. A health status indicator, haemoglobin-haematocrit residuals (HHR), did not vary as a function of any environmental variable in females, but male HHR indicated better health where sites' microhabitats were dominated by shrubs, woody debris and trees other than Eucalyptus. Females were trapped less often in edge than interior fragment habitat and their physiological stress level, indicated by the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio in peripheral blood, was higher where fragments had a greater proportion of edge habitat. The latter trend was potentially due to lymphopoenia resulting from stress hormone-mediated leukocyte trafficking. Using multiple indicators of population condition and health status facilitates a comprehensive examination of the effects of anthropogenic disturbances, such as habitat fragmentation and degradation, on native vertebrates. Male agile antechinus' health responded negatively to habitat degradation, whilst females responded negatively to the proportion of edge habitat. The health and condition indicators used could be employed to identify conservation strategies that would make habitat fragments less stressful for this or similar native, small mammals. PMID:22076129

  17. Area and percent of forest affected by biotic agents beyond reference conditions

    Treesearch

    Jeffrey A. Mai

    2012-01-01

    Criterion 3, Indicator 15, of the Montréal Process identifies the impact that biotic processes and agents have on forests (Montréal Process Working Group 2007). Where change due to these agents and processes occurs beyond a critical threshold, forest ecosystem health and vitality may be significantly altered and a forest’s ability to recover could be reduced or lost....

  18. Canopy structure and tree condition of young, mature, and old-growth Douglas-fir/hardwood forests

    Treesearch

    B.B. Bingham; J.O. Sawyer

    1992-01-01

    Sixty-two Douglas-fir/hardwood stands ranging from 40 to 560 years old were used to characterize the density; diameter, and height class distributions of canopy hardwoods and conifers in young (40 -100 yr), mature (101 - 200 yr) and old-growth (>200 yr) forests. The crown, bole, disease, disturbance, and cavity conditions of canopy conifers and hardwoods were...

  19. Severity of a mountain pine beetle outbreak across a range of stand conditions in Fraser Experimental Forest, Colorado, United States

    Treesearch

    Anthony G. Vorster; Paul H. Evangelista; Thomas J. Stohlgren; Sunil Kumar; Charles C. Rhoades; Robert M. Hubbard; Antony S. Cheng; Kelly Elder

    2017-01-01

    The recent mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) outbreaks had unprecedented effects on lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) in western North America. We used data from 165 forest inventory plots to analyze stand conditions that regulate lodgepole pine mortality across a wide range of stand structure and species composition at the Fraser...

  20. Breaking The Enzymatic Latch: Do Anaerobic Conditions Constrain Decomposition In Humid Tropical Forest Soil?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, S. J.; Silver, W. L.

    2011-12-01

    Anaerobic conditions have been proposed to impose a "latch" on soil organic matter decomposition by inhibiting the activity of extracellular enzymes that catalyze the transformation of organic polymers into monomers for microbial assimilation. Here, we tested the hypothesis that anaerobiosis inhibits soil hydrolytic enzyme activity in a humid tropical forest ecosystem in Puerto Rico. We sampled surface and sub-surface soil from each of 59 plots (n = 118) stratified across distinct topographical zones (ridges, slopes, and valleys) known to vary in soil oxygen (O2) concentrations, and measured the potential activity of five hydrolytic enzymes that decompose carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) substrates. We measured reduced iron (Fe (II)) concentrations in soil extractions to provide a spatially and temporally integrated index of anaerobic microbial activity, since iron oxides constitute the dominant anaerobic terminal electron acceptor in this ecosystem. Surprisingly, we observed positive relationships between Fe (II) concentrations and the activity of all enzymes that we assayed. Linear mixed effects models that included Fe (II) concentration, topographic position, and their interaction explained between 30 to 70 % of the variance of enzyme activity of β-1,4-glucosidase, β-cellobiohydrolase, β-xylosidase, N-acetylglucosaminidase, and acid phosphatase. Soils from ridges and slopes contained between 10 and 800 μg Fe (II) g-1 soil, and exhibited consistently positive relationships (p < 0.0001) between Fe (II) and enzyme activity. Valley soils did not display significant relationships between enzyme activity and Fe (II), although they displayed variation in soil Fe (II) concentrations similar to ridges and slopes. Overall, valleys exhibited lower enzyme activity and lower Fe (II) concentrations than ridges or slopes, possibly related to decreased root biomass and soil C. Our data provide no indication that anaerobiosis suppresses soil enzyme activity, but

  1. Hyperspectral Remote Sensing to Detect Water Repellent Soil Conditions after Forest Fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, S. A.; Robichaud, P. R.; Wu, J. Q.

    2002-12-01

    The burning of organic surface litter during forest fires often results in a water repellent soil layer at or near the soil surface. Organic matter is volatilized and a significant fraction moves into the upper soil layers (top 5 cm). Upon cooling, soil particles are coated with hydrophobic organic substances and the soil displays drastically reduced infiltration capabilities. The degree of water repellency is related to the amount of organic material on the surface prior to the fire, and the duration and temperature of the burn. Carbon compounds that are indicative of burned organic matter have been identified spectrally in soils under laboratory conditions. The 1000-2500 nm (near through short wave infrared) range is the span of the electromagnetic spectrum exhibiting significant adsorption for many organic compounds. Since burning alters surface organic matter and it is possible to detect such a change spectrally, a hyperspectral sensor should be able to provide information ultimately relating the change in organic matter to soil water repellency. This study aims to use a hyperspectral sensor to determine the degree of water repellency of surface soil in three burn classifications (low, moderate, and high) after a forest fire. One hundred eighty plots (sixty per burn class) were selected within the Hayman fire perimeter in southern Colorado in July 2002. A hand-held hyperspectral sensor was used to measure soil reflectance at several plots within each burn classification. An aerially- mounted hyperspectral sensor was also flown over the fire site. Twelve flight lines were flown to ensure contiguous coverage of the entire fire. The on-site ground truthing included both the Water Drop Penetration Time (WDPT) test and an infiltrometer test, with the former being a traditional method and the latter a new approach for testing water repellency. Both methods correlate the time to the start of infiltration with the degree of soil water repellency. The measured soil

  2. Effects of foggy conditions on the measurement of stem respiration in a cloud forest in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, S.-C.; Wang, H.-K.; Lin, Y.-C.; Hsia, Y.-J.

    2010-07-01

    Stem CO2 efflux of a Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana forest ecosystem was measured at the Chi-Lan Mountain (CLM) site in northern Taiwan. The site is located at an altitude of 1650 m and is subjected to frequent fog coverage around the year. Stem CO2 efflux was measured continuously at 1 m height by horizontally mounting an automatic soil respiration chamber system (LI-8100 Survey Chamber, LI-COR) on the stem surface. Every 10 min, the chamber was closed for 2 min for the measurement of CO2 concentration within the closed system. Stem temperature beside the chamber was monitored by a thermistor inserted 3 cm into the stem. Sapflow velocity was recorded using thermal dissipation probes installed on five nearby Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana trees. The data from May 2009 was used in the current analysis. Under clear weather, e. g. on May 8, 2009, the diurnal stem CO2 efflux rate vs. stem temperature showed a clear hysteresis loop. The daytime stem CO2 efflux rates were lower than the potential values, which were predicted by the nighttime stem temperature-stem CO2 efflux relation. The magnitude of the daytime depression of the stem CO2 efflux was positively correlated with the sapflow velocity. On the contrary, when the site was submerged in fog during the daytime, the hysteresis did not take place and the very low sapflow velocities caused only minor decrease in the daytime stem CO2 efflux compared to those in nighttime. In May 2009, the daily accumulated daytime depression of stem CO2 efflux ranged from 0.54 to 7.70 mmol m-2. The daily daytime foggy time had a negative linear correlation with the amount of daily depression. The effects of foggy conditions on the stem CO2 efflux measurement might have some ecological implications. The frequent occurrence of fog in the cloud forests, where the transpiration rates are low, might guarantee a less biased estimation of stem respiration by the chamber method. The measured stem CO2 efflux might significantly

  3. Water Quality Conditions Associated with Cattle Grazing and Recreation on National Forest Lands.

    PubMed

    Roche, Leslie M; Kromschroeder, Lea; Atwill, Edward R; Dahlgren, Randy A; Tate, Kenneth W

    2013-01-01

    There is substantial concern that microbial and nutrient pollution by cattle on public lands degrades water quality, threatening human and ecological health. Given the importance of clean water on multiple-use landscapes, additional research is required to document and examine potential water quality issues across common resource use activities. During the 2011 grazing-recreation season, we conducted a cross sectional survey of water quality conditions associated with cattle grazing and/or recreation on 12 public lands grazing allotments in California. Our specific study objectives were to 1) quantify fecal indicator bacteria (FIB; fecal coliform and E. coli), total nitrogen, nitrate, ammonium, total phosphorus, and soluble-reactive phosphorus concentrations in surface waters; 2) compare results to a) water quality regulatory benchmarks, b) recommended maximum nutrient concentrations, and c) estimates of nutrient background concentrations; and 3) examine relationships between water quality, environmental conditions, cattle grazing, and recreation. Nutrient concentrations observed throughout the grazing-recreation season were at least one order of magnitude below levels of ecological concern, and were similar to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) estimates for background water quality conditions in the region. The relative percentage of FIB regulatory benchmark exceedances widely varied under individual regional and national water quality standards. Relative to USEPA's national E. coli FIB benchmarks-the most contemporary and relevant standards for this study-over 90% of the 743 samples collected were below recommended criteria values. FIB concentrations were significantly greater when stream flow was low or stagnant, water was turbid, and when cattle were actively observed at sampling. Recreation sites had the lowest mean FIB, total nitrogen, and soluble-reactive phosphorus concentrations, and there were no significant differences in FIB and nutrient

  4. Water Quality Conditions Associated with Cattle Grazing and Recreation on National Forest Lands

    PubMed Central

    Roche, Leslie M.; Kromschroeder, Lea; Atwill, Edward R.; Dahlgren, Randy A.; Tate, Kenneth W.

    2013-01-01

    There is substantial concern that microbial and nutrient pollution by cattle on public lands degrades water quality, threatening human and ecological health. Given the importance of clean water on multiple-use landscapes, additional research is required to document and examine potential water quality issues across common resource use activities. During the 2011 grazing-recreation season, we conducted a cross sectional survey of water quality conditions associated with cattle grazing and/or recreation on 12 public lands grazing allotments in California. Our specific study objectives were to 1) quantify fecal indicator bacteria (FIB; fecal coliform and E. coli), total nitrogen, nitrate, ammonium, total phosphorus, and soluble-reactive phosphorus concentrations in surface waters; 2) compare results to a) water quality regulatory benchmarks, b) recommended maximum nutrient concentrations, and c) estimates of nutrient background concentrations; and 3) examine relationships between water quality, environmental conditions, cattle grazing, and recreation. Nutrient concentrations observed throughout the grazing-recreation season were at least one order of magnitude below levels of ecological concern, and were similar to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) estimates for background water quality conditions in the region. The relative percentage of FIB regulatory benchmark exceedances widely varied under individual regional and national water quality standards. Relative to USEPA’s national E. coli FIB benchmarks–the most contemporary and relevant standards for this study–over 90% of the 743 samples collected were below recommended criteria values. FIB concentrations were significantly greater when stream flow was low or stagnant, water was turbid, and when cattle were actively observed at sampling. Recreation sites had the lowest mean FIB, total nitrogen, and soluble-reactive phosphorus concentrations, and there were no significant differences in FIB and

  5. Snag Condition and Woodpecker Foraging Ecology in a Bottomland Hardwood Forest

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; Stanley D. Jones; Gretchen D. Jones

    1994-01-01

    We studied woodpecker foraging behavior, snag quality, and surrounding habitat in a bottomland hardwood forest in the Stephen F. Austin Experimental Forest from December 1984 through November 1986. The amount and location of woodpecker foraging excavations indicated that woodpeckers excavated mainly at the well-decayed tops and bases of snags. Woodpeckers preferred to...

  6. Huckleberry abundance, stand conditions, and use in western Oregon: evaluating the role of forest management.

    Treesearch

    Becky K Kerns; Susan J. Alexander; John D. Bailey

    2004-01-01

    Huckleberries are major components of the understory vegetation in coniferous Pacific Northwest forests of the United States. Vaccinium species also have a long history of human use. However, little research has been done to ascertain how they respond to common forest management practices. We used data obtained from old-growth, young thinned, and...

  7. Wildlife Habitat Conditions in Mature Pine Hardwood Stands in the Ouachita/Ozark National Forests

    Treesearch

    Ronald E. Thill; Philip A. Tappe; Nancy E. Koerth

    1994-01-01

    A long-term, stand-level, interdisciplinsry research and demonstration project was initiated on the Ouachia (ONF) and Ozark-St. Francis National Forests in Arkansas in 1990 to compare the impacts of alternative reproduction cutting methods on commodity and noncommodity forest resources including wildlife habitat and populations. Habitat masurement procedures and...

  8. Achievable future conditions as a framework for guiding forest conservation and management

    Treesearch

    S.W. Golladay; K.L. Martin; James Vose; Dave Wear; A.P. Covich; R.J. Hobbs; Kier Klepzig; G.E. Likens; R.J. Naiman; A.W. Shearer

    2016-01-01

    We contend that traditional approaches to forest conservation and management will be inadequate given the predicted scale of social-economic and biophysical changes in the 21st century. New approaches, focused on anticipating and guiding ecological responses to change, are urgently needed to ensure the full value of forest ecosystem services for future generations....

  9. Groupwise conditional random forests for automatic shape classification and contour quality assessment in radiotherapy planning.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Chris; Svistoun, Igor; Purdie, Thomas G

    2013-06-01

    Radiation therapy is used to treat cancer patients around the world. High quality treatment plans maximally radiate the targets while minimally radiating healthy organs at risk. In order to judge plan quality and safety, segmentations of the targets and organs at risk are created, and the amount of radiation that will be delivered to each structure is estimated prior to treatment. If the targets or organs at risk are mislabelled, or the segmentations are of poor quality, the safety of the radiation doses will be erroneously reviewed and an unsafe plan could proceed. We propose a technique to automatically label groups of segmentations of different structures from a radiation therapy plan for the joint purposes of providing quality assurance and data mining. Given one or more segmentations and an associated image we seek to assign medically meaningful labels to each segmentation and report the confidence of that label. Our method uses random forests to learn joint distributions over the training features, and then exploits a set of learned potential group configurations to build a conditional random field (CRF) that ensures the assignment of labels is consistent across the group of segmentations. The CRF is then solved via a constrained assignment problem. We validate our method on 1574 plans, consisting of 17[Formula: see text] 579 segmentations, demonstrating an overall classification accuracy of 91.58%. Our results also demonstrate the stability of RF with respect to tree depth and the number of splitting variables in large data sets.

  10. Forest Plantations

    Treesearch

    D. Zhang; J.A. Stanturf

    2008-01-01

    Between the extremes of afforestation and unaided naturalregeneration of natural forests, there is a range offorest conditions in which human intervention occurs.Previously, forest plantations were defined as...

  11. Application of the Ecosystem Disturbance and Recovery Tracker in Detection of Forest Health Departure from Desired Conditions in Sierra Nevada National Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slaton, M.; Koltunov, A.; Ramirez, C.

    2016-12-01

    Three Sierra Nevada national forests have recently released draft revised land management plans to the public for comment. These plans include components guiding land management projects (e.g. timber harvest) over the next decades. Desired conditions for land cover types were identified, and are based on the concept of the natural range of variability (NRV); the agency aims to achieve vegetation structure and composition that is within the range that has occurred in that system during the Holocene, prior to Euro-American settlement. Such systems are identified as having ecological integrity, with the ability to withstand and recover from disturbance. Comparisons between current conditions and the NRV period are often made qualitatively, with quantitative comparisons possible through the reconstruction of forest parameters using paleoecological evidence such as pollen or tree rings. Where such information is lacking, comparisons can be made using more recent data for locations or time periods believed to closely represent NRV. Such evaluations are necessary to develop projects that will be within the agency's desired conditions. As an example, the most recent estimate of the extent of tree mortality in CA continues to rise and expand at an aggressive rate, creating the need to track progress as compared to baseline conditions. The Ecosystem Disturbance and Recovery Tracker (eDaRT) is a system developed by the US Forest Service Region 5 Remote Sensing Lab and UC Davis CSTARS center that uses all available Landsat imagery to detect anomalies in vegetation indices, and has been adapted to detect current tree mortality as compared to modern pre-drought baseline conditions. We present initial results for the southern Sierra Nevada (5,260,913 hectares; 13 million acres) that have been validated using WorldView imagery and field data. The high spatial resolution and large extent of the dataset as compared to other mortality maps enabled identification of factors correlated

  12. Correlating Reading and Academic Variables with the Nelson-Denny Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heerman, Charles E.; Seltzer, Kathryn N.

    1983-01-01

    Concludes that the Nelson-Denny Reading Test (NDRT) provides valid predictions of student academic aptitude and is a reliable measure of reading attitude. Finds no significant correlation between the NDRT and student self-concept. (FL)

  13. The Relationship of the Nelson-Denny Reading Test to the Scholastic Aptitude Verbal Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, T. Dary; Millikin, J. Lee

    1980-01-01

    Scholastic Aptitude Test verbal, reading comprehension, and vocabulary scores are similar to the Nelson-Denny total, reading comprehension, and vocabulary scores. Correlation coefficients developed from these comparisons, when viewed as validity coefficients, are moderately high. (Author)

  14. Placement Testing in Community Colleges: A Response to Hughes and Nelson.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, Maggie

    1993-01-01

    Analyzes Hughes and Nelson's study of placement testing at Riverside Community College and offers an alternative method of evaluating placement systems using logistic regression. Reanalyzes data from an ASSET placement test validity study using logistic regression. (DMM)

  15. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Nelson Collection, McCoy Label Co., ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Nelson Collection, McCoy Label Co., S.F. Circa 1876 VIEW DURING ERECTION - U. S. Sub-Treasury & Mint, 608 Commercial Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  16. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Nelson Collection, McCoy Label Co., ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Nelson Collection, McCoy Label Co., S.F. Circa - 1876 VIEW DURING ERECTION - U. S. Sub-Treasury & Mint, 608 Commercial Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  17. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Nelson Collection, McCoy Label Co., ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Nelson Collection, McCoy Label Co., S.F. Circa 1876 VIEW DURING ERECTION - U. S. Sub-Treasury & Mint, 608 Commercial Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  18. Influence of forest stands on soil and ecosystem carbon stocks in the conditions of the European part of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaganov, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    Forest stands are one of the most important components of ecosystems, both in Russia and around the world and at the same time forest vegetation is able to provide environment-modifying effect on the occupied landscape and, in particular, on the soil cover. Currently, due to the large interest in the carbon cycle, there is a question about the influence of forest vegetation on carbon stocks in ecosystems and in particular in the soil cover. To perform the study we selected 9 objects located in the European part of Russia from the area of the southern taiga to the semi-desert zone: Novgorod region, Kostroma region, Moscow region (2 objects), Penza region, Voronezh region, Volgograd region (2 objects) and Astrakhan region. For studying the influence of forest vegetation on the soil`s carbon, we organized the following experiment scheme: in each of the objects two key sites were selected, so that they originally were in the same soil conditions and the difference between them was only in a course development of vegetation - forest or grass. One part of the experimental sites, presenting forest vegetation, were the restored forests on abandoned lands with the age of 70-200 years. The second part of the experimental sites were artificial forest plantations aged from 60 to 112 years planted on the originally treeless forest-steppe or steppe landscapes. Perennial hayfields, perennial abandoned agricultural landscapes and virgin steppe areas were used as reference sites with grass vegetation. For each forest site we estimated the major carbon pools: phytomass, mortmass (dead wood, dry grass), debris, litter and soil. All data were recalculated using the conversion factors in carbon stocks in t C ha-1. We collected soil samples every 10 cm until the depth of 50 cm, and then at 50-75 and 75-100 cm soil layers. Bulk density and total organic carbon were determined by CHN analyzer. As a result, the soil`s carbon was also calculated into t C ha-1. We found out that the total

  19. Disturbances catalyze the adaptation of forest ecosystems to changing climate conditions.

    PubMed

    Thom, Dominik; Rammer, Werner; Seidl, Rupert

    2017-01-01

    The rates of anthropogenic climate change substantially exceed those at which forest ecosystems - dominated by immobile, long-lived organisms - are able to adapt. The resulting maladaptation of forests has potentially detrimental effects on ecosystem functioning. Furthermore, as many forest-dwelling species are highly dependent on the prevailing tree species, a delayed response of the latter to a changing climate can contribute to an extinction debt and mask climate-induced biodiversity loss. However, climate change will likely also intensify forest disturbances. Here, we tested the hypothesis that disturbances foster the reorganization of ecosystems and catalyze the adaptation of forest composition to climate change. Our specific objectives were (i) to quantify the rate of autonomous forest adaptation to climate change, (ii) examine the role of disturbance in the adaptation process, and (iii) investigate spatial differences in climate-induced species turnover in an unmanaged mountain forest landscape (Kalkalpen National Park, Austria). Simulations with a process-based forest landscape model were performed for 36 unique combinations of climate and disturbance scenarios over 1000 years. We found that climate change strongly favored European beech and oak species (currently prevailing in mid- to low-elevation areas), with novel species associations emerging on the landscape. Yet, it took between 357 and 706 years before the landscape attained a dynamic equilibrium with the climate system. Disturbances generally catalyzed adaptation and decreased the time needed to attain equilibrium by up to 211 years. However, while increasing disturbance frequency and severity accelerated adaptation, increasing disturbance size had the opposite effect. Spatial analyses suggest that particularly the lowest and highest elevation areas will be hotspots of future species change. We conclude that the growing maladaptation of forests to climate and the long lead times of autonomous

  20. Technologies of Physical Monitoring and Mathematical Modeling for Estimation of Ground Forest Fuel Fire Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranovskiy, Nikolay V.; Bazarov, Alexandr V.

    2016-02-01

    Description of new experimental installations for the control of parameters of environment with a view of monitoring of forest fires presented in article. Stationary and mobile variants developed. Typical results of operation of installations during a fire-dangerous season of 2015 in vicinities of Ulan-Ude (Republic Buryatiya, Russia) presented. One-dimensional mathematical model of forest fuel drying which can be used for monitoring of forest fire danger with attraction of environmental parameters data during fire-dangerous season offered. Verification of mathematical model with use of known experimental data spent.

  1. New synchronous compensators for the Nelson River HVDC system; Planning requirements and specifications

    SciTech Connect

    Thio, C.V.; Davies, J.B. )

    1991-04-01

    The first units of Limestone Generating Station, the third plant on the Lower Nelson River in northern Manitoba, will come into service in the fall of 1990. Additional var compensation equipment is required at the inverter end of the Nelson River HVdc system to accommodate power from Limestone. This paper describes the system requirements of and the overall specification for the synchronous compensators selected to supply the reactive power and voltage support.

  2. Conservative Diffusions: a Constructive Approach to Nelson's Stochastic Mechanics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlen, Eric Anders

    In Nelson's stochastic mechanics, quantum phenomena are described in terms of diffusions instead of wave functions; this thesis is a study of that description. We emphasize that we are concerned here with the possibility of describing, as opposed to explaining, quantum phenomena in terms of diffusions. In this direction, the following questions arise: "Do the diffusions of stochastic mechanics--which are formally given by stochastic differential equations with extremely singular coefficients--really exist?" Given that they exist, one can ask, "Do these diffusions have physically reasonable sample path behavior, and can we use information about sample paths to study the behavior of physical systems?" These are the questions we treat in this thesis. In Chapter I we review stochastic mechanics and diffusion theory, using the Guerra-Morato variational principle to establish the connection with the Schroedinger equation. This chapter is largely expository; however, there are some novel features and proofs. In Chapter II we settle the first of the questions raised above. Using PDE methods, we construct the diffusions of stochastic mechanics. Our result is sufficiently general to be of independent mathematical interest. In Chapter III we treat potential scattering in stochastic mechanics and discuss direct probabilistic methods of studying quantum scattering problems. Our results provide a solid "Yes" in answer to the second question raised above.

  3. Mapping Robinia Pseudoacacia Forest Health Conditions by Using Combined Spectral, Spatial and Textureal Information Extracted from Ikonos Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Zhao, Y.; Pu, R.; Zhang, Z.

    2016-10-01

    In this study grey-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) textures and a local statistical analysis Getis statistic (Gi), computed from IKONOS multispectral (MS) imagery acquired from the Yellow River Delta in China, along with a random forest (RF) classifier, were used to discriminate Robina pseudoacacia tree health levels. The different RF classification results of the three forest health conditions were created: (1) an overall accuracy (OA) of 79.5% produced using the four MS band reflectances only; (2) an OA of 97.1% created with the eight GLCM features calculated from IKONOS Band 4 with the optimal window size of 13 × 13 and direction 45°; (3) an OA of 94.0% created using the four Gi features calculated from the four IKONOS MS bands with the optimal distance value of 5 and Queen's neighborhood rule; and (4) an OA of 96.9% created with the combined 16 spectral (four), spatial (four), and textural (eight) features. The experimental results demonstrate that (a) both textural and spatial information was more useful than spectral information in determining the Robina pseudoacacia forest health conditions; and (b) IKONOS NIR band was more powerful than visible bands in quantifying varying degree of forest crown dieback.

  4. The Influence Of Variability Of Water Resources In Lowland Forests On Selected Parameters Describing The Condition Of Trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyszka, Jan; Stolarek, Andrzej; Fronczak, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    The influence of water conditions on the condition and growth of tree stands has been analysed in the context of the climatic and hydrological functions forest plays. Long observational series obtained for precipitation, outflow and depths below the surface of the water table have been put together with measured increases in the breast-height diameters of Scots pines and the severity of crown defoliation observable in selected tree species growing on the Polish Lowland, in order to determine the overall scope to the reaction stand condition manifests in the face of ongoing variability of water conditions within forest. An overall improvement in the condition of stands over the last 20 years does not disguise several-year cyclicity to changes capable of shaping the situation, i.a. departures from long-term mean values for precipitation totals and groundwater levels. The condition of stands is seen to worsen in both dry and wet years. Analysis of the degree to which pine, spruce and broadleaved stands experience defoliation points to spruce stands responding most to extreme hydro-climatic conditions. Extreme situations as regards water resources were seen to involve a response over two-year time intervals in the case of coniferous stands. Unsurprisingly, optimal growing-season (June-September) precipitation totals correspond with long-term average figures, while being slightly higher for spruce (at 384 mm), than for Scots pine or broadleaved species (375 mm). The relationships reported gain confirmation in analysis of periodic change in breast-height diameter increments characterising Scots pines, whose growth is seen to depend closely, not only on precipitation, but also above all on the depth of the water table in the summer half-year. Optimal depths of the water table proved to be different, being around 20 cm below ground in the case of marshy coniferous forest, 80 cm in wet habitats, and 135 cm in fresh habitats. Depending on the possibilities for water to soak

  5. Monitoring of environmental conditions in taiga forests using ERS-1 SAR

    SciTech Connect

    Rignot, E.; Way, J.B.; McDonald, K. ); Viereck, L.; Williams, C.; Adams, P.; Payne, C.; Wood, W. ); Shi, J. )

    1994-08-01

    Synthetic-aperture radar images of forest site near Manley Hot Springs (64[degree]N, 151[degree]W), Alaska, were collected between August 1991 and December 1991, day and night, every 3 days, at C-band frequency ([lambda] = 5.7 cm), vertical receive and transmit polarization, by the European Space Agency First Remote Sensing Satellite, ERS-1. During the same period, air and soil temperatures and dielectric and gravimetric moisture properties of the forest canopy and forest floor were monitored in three forest stands dominated, respectively, by black spruce (Picea mariana), white spruce (Picea glauca), and balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera). The calibrated ERS-1 radar backscatter values, [sigma][degree], of the forest stands are shown to exhibit a pronounced temporal pattern, with little separability between tree species. The largest change in [sigma][degree], a 3-dB decrease almost independent of tree species, is observed in early winter when the soil and vegetation freeze. In the summer, temporal fluctuations in [sigma][degree] are about 1--2 dB in magnitude, depending on tree species. Diurnal variations in [sigma][degree] are as large as 2 dB during fall freeze-up, and less than 1 dB in summer and winter. These temporal variations in radar backscatter from the forest are interpreted using the MIMICS radar backscatter model and the in situ surface observations as due to changes in the dielectric properties of the forest floor and forest canopy induced by precipitation (summer), drought (fall), and freezing (fall-winter) events. In winter, [sigma][degree] increases across the entire landscape, probably because of volume scattering from large depth hoar ice crystals forming in the snow pack.

  6. Simulating the carbon balance of a temperate larch forest under various meteorological conditions

    PubMed Central

    Toda, Motomu; Yokozawa, Masayuki; Sumida, Akihiro; Watanabe, Tsutomu; Hara, Toshihiko

    2007-01-01

    Background Changes in the timing of phenological events may cause the annual carbon budget of deciduous forests to change. Therefore, one should take such events into account when evaluating the effects of global warming on deciduous forests. In this article, we report on the results of numerical experiments done with a model that includes a phenological module simulating the timing of bud burst and other phenological events and estimating maximum leaf area index. Results This study suggests that the negative effects of warming on tree productivity (net primary production) outweigh the positive effects of a prolonged growing season. An increase in air temperature by 3°C (5°C) reduces cumulative net primary production by 21.3% (34.2%). Similarly, cumulative net ecosystem production (the difference between cumulative net primary production and heterotrophic respiration) decreases by 43.5% (64.5%) when temperatures are increased by 3°C (5°C). However, the positive effects of CO2 enrichment (2 × CO2) outweigh the negative effects of warming (<5°C). Conclusion Although the model was calibrated and validated for a specific forest ecosystem, the implications of the study may be extrapolated to deciduous forests in cool-temperate zones. These forests share common features, and it can be conjectured that carbon stocks would increase in such forests in the face of doubled CO2 and increased temperatures as long as the increase in temperature does not exceed 5°C. PMID:17535447

  7. Ectomycorrhizal community structure of different genotypes of Scots pine under forest nursery conditions.

    PubMed

    Leski, Tomasz; Aucina, Algis; Skridaila, Audrius; Pietras, Marcin; Riepsas, Edvardas; Rudawska, Maria

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, we report the effect of Scots pine genotypes on ectomycorrhizal (ECM) community and growth, survival, and foliar nutrient composition of 2-year-old seedlings grown in forest bare-root nursery conditions in Lithuania. The Scots pine seeds originated from five stands from Latvia (P1), Lithuania (P2 and P3), Belarus (P4), and Poland (P5). Based on molecular identification, seven ECM fungal taxa were identified: Suillus luteus and Suillus variegatus (within the Suilloid type), Wilcoxina mikolae, Tuber sp., Thelephora terrestris, Cenococcum geophilum, and Russuloid type. The fungal species richness varied between five and seven morphotypes, depending on seed origin. The average species richness and relative abundance of most ECM morphotypes differed significantly depending on pine origin. The most essential finding of our study is the shift in dominance from an ascomycetous fungus like W. mikolae in P2 and P4 seedlings to basidiomycetous Suilloid species like S. luteus and S. variegatus in P1 and P5 seedlings. Significant differences between Scots pine origin were also found in seedling height, root dry weight, survival, and concentration of C, K, Ca, and Mg in the needles. The Spearman rank correlation coefficient revealed that survival and nutritional status of pine seedlings were positively correlated with abundance of Suilloid mycorrhizas and negatively linked with W. mikolae abundance. However, stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that only survival and magnesium content in pine needles were significantly correlated with abundance of ECM fungi, and Suilloid mycorrhizas were a main significant predictor. Our results may have implications for understanding the physiological and genetic relationship between the host tree and fungi and should be considered in management decisions in forestry and ECM fungus inoculation programs.

  8. Drought-induced oxidative stress in Canarian laurel forest tree species growing under controlled conditions.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Díaz, Manuel; Tapia, Carolina; Antolín, M Carmen

    2007-10-01

    We studied photoprotection and antioxidative protection in the three major species of the Canarian laurel forest (Laurus azorica (Seub.) Franco, Persea indica (L.) K. Spreng and Myrica faya Aiton). Trees were exposed to drought under controlled conditions by withholding water until leaf relative water content (RWC) reached 50-55%. Drought reduced photosynthetic rate (P(N)) and was associated with decreased quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII) electron transport and increased non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) in L. azorica and M. faya, but did not increase NPQ in P. indica. Drought-treated trees of L. azorica had the highest de-epoxidation state (DPS) of the xanthophyll cycle and the highest zeaxanthin (Z) concentration, suggesting that this species had more effective photoprotective mechanisms than M. faya and P. indica. Moreover, beta-carotene remained unaltered in L. azorica trees during drought, suggesting that the chloroplasts of this species are better protected against oxidative stress than those of M. faya and P. indica. Increased antioxidation by ascorbate peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase in L. azorica removed activated oxygen species (AOS) generated during drought treatment. Although M. faya was able to increase its energy dissipation rate by forming Z and thus increasing the DPS of the xanthophyll cycle, it did not respond to drought-induced oxidative stress with the result that beta-carotene degradation occurred. Persea indica did not activate an energy dissipation mechanism in response to drought treatment, hence formation of AOS was likely high in the drought-treated trees. In general, L. azorica was most resistant and P. indica most sensitive to photoinhibition and oxidative stress during drought.

  9. Radiocarbon ages of terrestrial gastropods extend duration of ice-free conditions at the Two Creeks forest bed, Wisconsin, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rech, Jason A.; Nekola, Jeffrey C.; Pigati, Jeffrey S.

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of terrestrial gastropods that underlie the late Pleistocene Two Creeks forest bed (~ 13,800–13,500 cal yr BP) in eastern Wisconsin, USA provides evidence for a mixed tundra-taiga environment prior to formation of the taiga forest bed. Ten new AMS 14C analyses on terrestrial gastropod shells indicate the mixed tundra-taiga environment persisted from ~ 14,500 to 13,900 cal yr BP. The Twocreekan climatic substage, representing ice-free conditions on the shore of Lake Michigan, therefore began near the onset of peak warming conditions during the Bølling–Allerød interstadial and lasted ~ 1000 yr, nearly 600 yr longer than previously thought. These results provide important data for understanding the response of continental ice sheets to global climate forcing and demonstrate the potential of using terrestrial gastropod fossils for both environmental reconstruction and age control in late Quaternary sediments.

  10. A comparison of the conditional inference survival forest model to random survival forests based on a simulation study as well as on two applications with time-to-event data.

    PubMed

    Nasejje, Justine B; Mwambi, Henry; Dheda, Keertan; Lesosky, Maia

    2017-07-28

    Random survival forest (RSF) models have been identified as alternative methods to the Cox proportional hazards model in analysing time-to-event data. These methods, however, have been criticised for the bias that results from favouring covariates with many split-points and hence conditional inference forests for time-to-event data have been suggested. Conditional inference forests (CIF) are known to correct the bias in RSF models by separating the procedure for the best covariate to split on from that of the best split point search for the selected covariate. In this study, we compare the random survival forest model to the conditional inference model (CIF) using twenty-two simulated time-to-event datasets. We also analysed two real time-to-event datasets. The first dataset is based on the survival of children under-five years of age in Uganda and it consists of categorical covariates with most of them having more than two levels (many split-points). The second dataset is based on the survival of patients with extremely drug resistant tuberculosis (XDR TB) which consists of mainly categorical covariates with two levels (few split-points). The study findings indicate that the conditional inference forest model is superior to random survival forest models in analysing time-to-event data that consists of covariates with many split-points based on the values of the bootstrap cross-validated estimates for integrated Brier scores. However, conditional inference forests perform comparably similar to random survival forests models in analysing time-to-event data consisting of covariates with fewer split-points. Although survival forests are promising methods in analysing time-to-event data, it is important to identify the best forest model for analysis based on the nature of covariates of the dataset in question.

  11. Classification of riparian forest species and health condition using multi-temporal and hyperspatial imagery from unmanned aerial system.

    PubMed

    Michez, Adrien; Piégay, Hervé; Lisein, Jonathan; Claessens, Hugues; Lejeune, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    Riparian forests are critically endangered many anthropogenic pressures and natural hazards. The importance of riparian zones has been acknowledged by European Directives, involving multi-scale monitoring. The use of this very-high-resolution and hyperspatial imagery in a multi-temporal approach is an emerging topic. The trend is reinforced by the recent and rapid growth of the use of the unmanned aerial system (UAS), which has prompted the development of innovative methodology. Our study proposes a methodological framework to explore how a set of multi-temporal images acquired during a vegetative period can differentiate some of the deciduous riparian forest species and their health conditions. More specifically, the developed approach intends to identify, through a process of variable selection, which variables derived from UAS imagery and which scale of image analysis are the most relevant to our objectives.The methodological framework is applied to two study sites to describe the riparian forest through two fundamental characteristics: the species composition and the health condition. These characteristics were selected not only because of their use as proxies for the riparian zone ecological integrity but also because of their use for river management.The comparison of various scales of image analysis identified the smallest object-based image analysis (OBIA) objects (ca. 1 m(2)) as the most relevant scale. Variables derived from spectral information (bands ratios) were identified as the most appropriate, followed by variables related to the vertical structure of the forest. Classification results show good overall accuracies for the species composition of the riparian forest (five classes, 79.5 and 84.1% for site 1 and site 2). The classification scenario regarding the health condition of the black alders of the site 1 performed the best (90.6%).The quality of the classification models developed with a UAS-based, cost-effective, and semi-automatic approach

  12. Ecohydrological Response of Trees to Leaf Wetness Gradients Under Wet and Dry Canopy Conditions in a Montane Tropical Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aparecido, L. M. T.; Moore, G. W.; Miller, G. R.; Cahill, A. T.

    2014-12-01

    Wet canopy evaporation is a significant component of the water budget in rainforests. Frequent precipitation events followed by drying produce spatial and temporal variation in wet/dry forest canopy conditions that influence processes such as photosynthesis and growth. Upper canopies contribute a disproportionately large fraction of transpiration and carbon assimilation relative to lower canopy layers as exposed leaves dry more rapidly following each rain event. However, the partitioning between wet canopy evaporation and dry canopy transpiration has not been extensively studied in tropical forests. As part of a larger study in central Costa Rica aimed at improving land-surface modeling of evapotranspiration (ET) processes in tropical montane forests, we compared transpiration among trees with exposed and shaded crowns under both wet and dry canopy conditions. Transpiration was measured using 33 sap flow sensors in 20 trees (7 dominant and co-dominant, 8 mid-story, and 5 suppressed) in a mature forest stand surrounding a 40-m tower equipped with eddy covariance and micrometeorological sensors. During the wet month of July, leaves were dry 53% of the time in the upper canopy compared with only 16% of the time in the lower canopy. Dominant and co-dominant trees contributed 68% to total transpiration at this site (23% mid-story, 9% suppressed). Under dry conditions, sap flow rates of dominant and co-dominant trees were about double that of suppressed trees, while suppressed trees differed little between wet and dry days. On partially wet days, all trees had similar sap flow rates, regardless of canopy exposure, with rates nearly as low as days that were entirely wet. This behavior is due to rapid individual tree responses to the transition between wet and dry conditions, indicating that persistently wet tropical environments are uniquely adapted to short-term dryness. ET has important influence on precipitation in tropical forests through land-atmosphere interactions

  13. Local climatic conditions constrain soil yeast diversity patterns in Mediterranean forests, woodlands and scrub biome.

    PubMed

    Yurkov, Andrey M; Röhl, Oliver; Pontes, Ana; Carvalho, Cláudia; Maldonado, Cristina; Sampaio, José Paulo

    2016-02-01

    Soil yeasts represent a poorly known fraction of the soil microbiome due to limited ecological surveys. Here, we provide the first comprehensive inventory of cultivable soil yeasts in a Mediterranean ecosystem, which is the leading biodiversity hotspot for vascular plants and vertebrates in Europe. We isolated and identified soil yeasts from forested sites of Serra da Arrábida Natural Park (Portugal), representing the Mediterranean forests, woodlands and scrub biome. Both cultivation experiments and the subsequent species richness estimations suggest the highest species richness values reported to date, resulting in a total of 57 and 80 yeast taxa, respectively. These values far exceed those reported for other forest soils in Europe. Furthermore, we assessed the response of yeast diversity to microclimatic environmental factors in biotopes composed of the same plant species but showing a gradual change from humid broadleaf forests to dry maquis. We observed that forest properties constrained by precipitation level had strong impact on yeast diversity and on community structure and lower precipitation resulted in an increased number of rare species and decreased evenness values. In conclusion, the structure of soil yeast communities mirrors the environmental factors that affect aboveground phytocenoses, aboveground biomass and plant projective cover.

  14. Georgia's forests

    Treesearch

    Raymond M. Sheffield; Herbert A. Knight

    1984-01-01

    In accordance with the Forest and rangeland renewable resources planning act(RPA) of 1974, the fifth inventory of Georgia’s forest was expanded to accommodate nontimber as well as timber resources. This report presents the principal findings concerning the extent of condition of forest lands, associated timber volumes, and rates of growth and removals. Nontimber...

  15. Quantifying spatial patterns of tree groups and gaps in mixed-conifer forests: reference conditions and long-term changes following fire suppression and logging

    Treesearch

    Jamie M. Lydersen; Malcolm P. North; Eric E. Knapp; Brandon M. Collins

    2013-01-01

    Fire suppression and past logging have dramatically altered forest conditions in many areas, but changes to within-stand tree spatial patterns over time are not as well understood. The few studies available suggest that variability in tree spatial patterns is an important structural feature of forests with intact frequent fire regimes that should be incorporated in...

  16. Towards complete and harmonized assessment of soil carbon stocks and balance in forests: The ability of the Yasso07 model across a wide gradient of climatic and forest conditions in Europe.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Laura; Jandl, Robert; Blujdea, Viorel N B; Lehtonen, Aleksi; Kriiska, Kaie; Alberdi, Iciar; Adermann, Veiko; Cañellas, Isabel; Marin, Gheorghe; Moreno-Fernández, Daniel; Ostonen, Ivika; Varik, Mats; Didion, Markus

    2017-12-01

    Accurate carbon-balance accounting in forest soils is necessary for the development of climate change policy. However, changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) occur slowly and these changes may not be captured through repeated soil inventories. Simulation models may be used as alternatives to SOC measurement. The Yasso07 model presents a suitable alternative because most of the data required for the application are readily available in countries with common forest surveys. In this study, we test the suitability of Yasso07 for simulating SOC stocks and stock changes in a variety of European forests affected by different climatic, land use and forest management conditions and we address country-specific cases with differing resources and data availability. The simulated SOC stocks differed only slightly from measured data, providing realistic, reasonable mean SOC estimations per region or forest type. The change in the soil carbon pool over time, which is the target parameter for SOC reporting, was generally found to be plausible although not in the case of Mediterranean forest soils. As expected under stable forest management conditions, both land cover and climate play major roles in determining the SOC stock in forest soils. Greater mean SOC stocks were observed in northern latitudes (or at higher altitude) than in southern latitudes (or plains) and conifer forests were found to store a notably higher amount of SOC than broadleaf forests. Furthermore, as regards change in SOC, an inter-annual sink effect was identified for most of the European forest types studied. Our findings corroborate the suitability of Yasso07 to assess the impact of forest management and land use change on the SOC balance of forests soils, as well as to accurately simulate SOC in dead organic matter (DOM) and mineral soil pools separately. The obstacles encountered when applying the Yasso07 model reflect a lack of available input data. Future research should focus on improving our knowledge of

  17. Color estimation of forest-steppe soils by digital photography under laboratory conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valeeva, A. A.; Aleksandrova, A. B.; Koposov, G. F.

    2016-09-01

    Numerical values in the RGB, HSB, and L*a*b systems for the colors of structurally differentiated soils (Luvisols) in the Volga-Kama forest-steppe have been obtained using a digital camera. A high correlation has been revealed between the soil color and the content of humus in the range 0.39-6%. When the content of humus exceeds 6%, the color of humus horizon varies only slightly. A regression equation within the RRGB range from 85 to 173 has been calculated for the rapid determination of humus content in low- and medium-humus texturally differentiated soils of the Volga-Kama forest-steppe.

  18. Long term impact of organic amendments on forest soil properties under semiarid Mediterranean climatic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hueso González, Paloma; Francisco Martinez Murillo, Juan; Damian Ruiz Sinoga, Jose

    2017-04-01

    M, Zorzona BG, Caravaca F.: Soil microbial biomass and activity under different agricultural management systems in a semiarid Mediterranean agroecosystem. Soil and Tillage Research 109: 110-115, 2010. DOI: 10.1016/j.still.2010.05.005 Hueso-González, P., Martínez-Murillo, J.F., and Ruiz Sinoga., J.D.: The impact of organic amendments on forest soil properties under Mediterranean climatic conditions, Land Degradation and Development, 25, 604-612, 2014. Hueso-González, P., Martínez-Murillo, J.F., and Ruiz Sinoga., J.D.: Effects of topsoil treatments on afforestation in a dry-Mediterranean climate (Southern Spain), Solid Earth, 7, 1479-1489, 2016. Hueso-González, P., Ruíz Sinoga, J.D., Martínez-Murillo, J.F., and Lavee, H.: Overland flow generation mechanisms affected by topsoil treatment: Application to soil conservation, Geomorphology, 228, 796-804, 2015. Martínez-Murillo, J.F., Hueso-González, P., Ruiz-Sinoga, J.D., Lavee, H.: Short-Experimental fire effects in soil and water losses in southern of Spain. Land Degradation and Development, 27, 1513-1522, 2016. Parras-Alcántara L, Díaz-Jaimes L, Lozano-García B.: Organic farming affects C and N in soils under olive groves in Mediterranean areas. Land Degradation & Development, 2013. DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2231.

  19. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi increased early growth of two nontimber forest product species Dyera polyphylla and Aquilaria filaria under greenhouse conditions.

    PubMed

    Turjaman, Maman; Tamai, Yutaka; Santoso, Erdy; Osaki, Mitsuru; Tawaraya, Keitaro

    2006-10-01

    Nontimber forest products (NTFPs) represent an important source of income to millions of people in tropical forest regions, but some NTFP species have decreased in number and become endangered due to overexploitation. There is increasing concern that the planting stocks of Dyera polyphylla and Aquilaria filaria are not sufficient to sustain the yield of NTFPs and promote forest conservation. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of two arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, Glomus clarum and Gigaspora decipiens, on the early growth of two NTFP species, D. polyphylla and A. filaria, under greenhouse conditions. The seedlings of both species were inoculated with G. clarum or G. decipiens, or uninoculated (control) under greenhouse conditions. Percentage of AM colonization, plant growth, survival rate, and nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations were measured after 180 days of growth. The percentage of AM colonization of D. polyphylla and A. filaria ranged from 87 to 93% and from 22 to 39%, respectively. Colonization by G. clarum and G. decipiens increased plant height, diameter, and shoot and root dry weights. Shoot N and P concentrations of the seedlings were increased by AM colonization by as much as 70-153% and 135-360%, respectively. Survival rates were higher in the AM-colonized seedlings at 180 days after transplantation than in the control seedlings. The results suggest that AM fungi can accelerate the establishment of the planting stocks of D. polyphylla and A. filaria, thereby promoting their conservation ecologically and sustaining the production of these NTFPs economically.

  20. Influence of soil conditions on dissolved organic matter leached from forest and wetland soils: a controlled growth chamber study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Ah; Nguyen, Hang Vo-Minh; Oh, Hae Sung; Hur, Jin; Choi, Jung Hyun

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of various soil conditions, including drying-rewetting, nitrogen deposition, and temperature rise, on the quantities and the composition of dissolved organic matter leached from forest and wetland soils. A set of forest and wetland soils with and without the nitrogen deposition were incubated in the growth chambers under three different temperatures. The moisture contents were kept constant, except for two-week drying intervals. Comparisons between the original and the treated samples revealed that drying-rewetting was a crucial environmental factor driving changes in the amount of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The DOC was also notably increased by the nitrogen deposition to the dry forest soil and was affected by the temperature of the dry wetland soil. A parallel factor (PARAFAC) analysis identified three sub-fractions of the fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) from the fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (EEMs), and their compositions depended on drying-rewetting. The data as a whole, including the DOC and PARAFAC components and other optical indices, were possibly explained by the two main variables, which were closely related with the PARAFAC components and DOC based on principal component analysis (PCA). Our results suggested that the DOC and PARAFAC component information could provide a comprehensive interpretation of the changes in the soil-leached DOM in response to the different environmental conditions.

  1. Modeling the potential of the Northern China forest shelterbelt in improving hydroclimate conditions

    Treesearch

    Yongqiang Liu; John Stanturf; Houquan Lu

    2008-01-01

    The forest shelterbelt (afforestation) project in northern China is the most significant ecosystem project initiated in China during the past three decades. It aims to improve and conserve the ecological environment in the project areas. The tree belt stands along the southern edge of the sandy lands, nearly paralleling to the Great Wall. This study used a regional...

  2. Influence of headwater site conditions and riparian buffers on terrestrial salamander response to forest thinning.

    Treesearch

    D.E. Rundio; D.H. Olson

    2007-01-01

    We examined the effect of forest thinning and riparian buffers along headwater streams on terrestrial salamanders at two sites in western Oregon. Salamander numbers were reduced postthinning at one site with lower down-wood volume. Terrestrial salamander distributions along stream-to-upslope transects suggest benefits of one and two site-potential tree-height stream...

  3. Restocking conditions on the burned-over forest lands of southwestern Maine, June 1949

    Treesearch

    Wayne G. Banks; James C. Rettie

    1949-01-01

    Disastrous fires swept over some 130,000 acres of forest land in southwestern Maine during the autumn of 1947. Practically all of the timber stand (211 million board feet of saw timber and 400,000 cords of pole timber) was killed or injured by this fire.

  4. Current and projected condition of mid-elevation Sierra Nevada forests

    Treesearch

    Malcolm P. North; Mark W. Schwartz; Brandon M. Collins; John J. Keane

    2017-01-01

    Most of the California spotted owl’s (Strix occidentalis occidentalis) habitat is concentrated in mid-elevation forests of the Sierra Nevada (see chapter 9 for a discussion of southern California spotted owls and their habitat), which are made up primarily of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Lawson & C. Lawson), mixed-...

  5. Vegetative conditions and management options in even-age stands on the Monongahela National Forest

    Treesearch

    Gary W. Miller; James N. Kochenderfer; James Knibbs; John E. Baumgras

    2001-01-01

    In 1998, personnel with the Northeastern Research Station and the Monongahela National Forest initiated a comprehensive survey of even-age stands that regenerated between 1964 and 1990. Preliminary results indicate that clearcutting was successful in regenerating these young stands with a variety of woody and herbaceous plant species. Early cleanings using crop-tree...

  6. Multivariate geomorphic analysis of forest streams: Implications for assessment of land use impacts on channel condition

    Treesearch

    Richard. D. Wood-Smith; John M. Buffington

    1996-01-01

    Multivariate statistical analyses of geomorphic variables from 23 forest stream reaches in southeast Alaska result in successful discrimination between pristine streams and those disturbed by land management, specifically timber harvesting and associated road building. Results of discriminant function analysis indicate that a three-variable model discriminates 10...

  7. Measuring Ecological Effects of Prescribed Fire Using Birds as Indicators of Forest Conditions

    Treesearch

    Nathaniel E. Seavy; John D. Alexander

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the ecological effects of prescribed fire, bird and vegetation surveys were conducted in four study areas of the Klamath National Forest where prescribed fires are being used for management. Bird and vegetation data were collected at sites treated with prescribed fire and nearby untreated control sites. Data were collected at stations from 2000 (pre-...

  8. Herb layer diversity and phytoindicative evaluation of habitat conditions of forest permanent plots in Poland

    Treesearch

    Ewa Roo-Zielinska; Jerzy Solon

    1998-01-01

    The influence of climatic and pollution gradients was determined on species richness, species diversity, and values of phytoindicators of the herb layer in pine and mixed pine forest communities in Poland. Geographical longitude was used as a synthetic measure of geographical position. Ellenberg's indices were used as synthetic measures of habitat differentiation...

  9. Management and conservation of tree squirrels: the importance of endemism, species richness, and forest condition

    Treesearch

    John L. Koprowski

    2005-01-01

    Tree squirrels are excellent indicators of forest health yet the taxon is understudied. Most tree squirrels in the Holarctic Region are imperiled with some level of legal protection. The Madrean Archipelago is the epicenter for tree squirrel diversity in North America with 5 endemic species and 2 introduced species. Most species of the region are poorly studied in...

  10. Ecological consequences of changing hydrological conditions in wetland forests of coastal Louisiana

    Treesearch

    Richard F. Keim; Jim L. Chambers; Melinda S. Hughes; J. Andrew Nyman; Craig A. Miller; Blake J. Amos; William H. Conner; John W. Day; Stephen P. Faulkner; Emile S. Gardiner; Sammy L. King; Kenneth W. McLeod; Gary P. Shaffer

    2006-01-01

    Large-scale and localized alterations of processes affecting deltaic coastal wetlands have caused the complete loss of some coastal wetland forests and reduced the productivity and vigor of many areas in coastal Louisiana. This loss and degradation threatens ecosystem functions and the services they provide. This paper summarizes ecological relationships controlled by...

  11. The effects of catchment and riparian forest quality on stream environmental conditions across a tropical rainforest and oil palm landscape in Malaysian Borneo.

    PubMed

    Luke, Sarah H; Barclay, Holly; Bidin, Kawi; Chey, Vun Khen; Ewers, Robert M; Foster, William A; Nainar, Anand; Pfeifer, Marion; Reynolds, Glen; Turner, Edgar C; Walsh, Rory P D; Aldridge, David C

    2017-06-01

    Freshwaters provide valuable habitat and important ecosystem services but are threatened worldwide by habitat loss and degradation. In Southeast Asia, rainforest streams are particularly threatened by logging and conversion to oil palm, but we lack information on the impacts of this on freshwater environmental conditions, and the relative importance of catchment versus riparian-scale disturbance. We studied 16 streams in Sabah, Borneo, including old-growth forest, logged forest, and oil palm sites. We assessed forest quality in riparian zones and across the whole catchment and compared it with stream environmental conditions including water quality, structural complexity, and organic inputs. We found that streams with the highest riparian forest quality were nearly 4 °C cooler, over 20 cm deeper, had over 40% less sand, greater canopy cover, more stored leaf litter, and wider channels than oil palm streams with the lowest riparian forest quality. Other variables were significantly related to catchment-scale forest quality, with streams in the highest quality forest catchments having 40% more bedrock and 20 times more dead wood, along with higher phosphorus, and lower nitrate-N levels compared to streams with the lowest catchment-scale forest quality. Although riparian buffer strips went some way to protecting waterways, they did not maintain fully forest-like stream conditions. In addition, logged forest streams still showed signs of disturbance 10-15 years after selective logging. Our results suggest that maintenance and restoration of buffer strips can help to protect healthy freshwater ecosystems but logging practices and catchment-scale forest management also need to be considered.

  12. Differential winter stemflow generation under contrasting storm conditions in a southern New England broad-leaved deciduous forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levia, Delphis F., Jr.

    2004-04-01

    Despite the importance of stemflow as a hydroecological process, differential winter stemflow generation among and within precipitation types (e.g. snow, rain-to-snow) is poorly understood. The purpose of the present study is to understand winter stemflow generation better under contrasting meteorological conditions in a leafless deciduous forest. It is hypothesized that stemflow volume and production, expressed as a funnelling ratio, will differ significantly among and within precipitation event types. Acceptance of this hypothesis would mean that intra-event meteorological conditions have a significant and discernible effect on stemflow production in deciduous forests, differentially affecting soil moisture, groundwater recharge, soil solution chemistry, and nutrient cycling. Stemflow volumes generated from seven canopy trees were monitored in a leafless deciduous forest of southern New England on a precipitation event basis over two successive winter seasons. Stemflow volume was found to differ significantly among different and same-type precipitation events. A rain event that occurred on 8 December 1998 and snow-to-rain event on 18 January 1999 were of similar duration, magnitude, and intensity, yet produced stemflow volumes that differed by a factor of 4. For two snow-to-rain events, stemflow volumes differed by a factor of 11. Stemflow production even varies widely within a discrete precipitation event as a function of meteorological conditions. Significant differential stemflow yield under contrasting storm conditions obviates generalizations concerning stemflow production as a function of precipitation event type and necessitates a deeper, process-level understanding of winter stemflow generation before modelling exercises are undertaken.

  13. Evaluating the condition of a mangrove forest of the Mexican Pacific based on an estimated leaf area index mapping approach.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, J M; King, J M L; Flores de Santiago, F; Flores-Verdugo, F

    2009-10-01

    Given the alarming global rates of mangrove forest loss it is important that resource managers have access to updated information regarding both the extent and condition of their mangrove forests. Mexican mangroves in particular have been identified as experiencing an exceptional high annual rate of loss. However, conflicting studies, using remote sensing techniques, of the current state of many of these forests may be hindering all efforts to conserve and manage what remains. Focusing on one such system, the Teacapán-Agua Brava-Las Haciendas estuarine-mangrove complex of the Mexican Pacific, an attempt was made to develop a rapid method of mapping the current condition of the mangroves based on estimated LAI. Specifically, using an AccuPAR LP-80 Ceptometer, 300 indirect in situ LAI measurements were taken at various sites within the black mangrove (Avicennia germinans) dominated forests of the northern section of this system. From this sample, 225 measurements were then used to develop linear regression models based on their relationship with corresponding values derived from QuickBird very high resolution optical satellite data. Specifically, regression analyses of the in situ LAI with both the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and the simple ration (SR) vegetation index revealed significant positive relationships [LAI versus NDVI (R (2) = 0.63); LAI versus SR (R (2) = 0.68)]. Moreover, using the remaining sample, further examination of standard errors and of an F test of the residual variances indicated little difference between the two models. Based on the NDVI model, a map of estimated mangrove LAI was then created. Excluding the dead mangrove areas (i.e. LAI = 0), which represented 40% of the total 30.4 km(2) of mangrove area identified in the scene, a mean estimated LAI value of 2.71 was recorded. By grouping the healthy fringe mangrove with the healthy riverine mangrove and by grouping the dwarf mangrove together with the poor condition

  14. Imported Case of Acute Respiratory Tract Infection Associated with a Member of Species Nelson Bay Orthoreovirus

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Kouji; Singh, Harpal; Himeji, Daisuke; Kikuchi, Ikuo; Ueda, Akira; Yamamoto, Seigo; Miura, Miho; Shioyama, Yoko; Kawano, Kimiko; Nagaishi, Tokiko; Saito, Minako; Minomo, Masumi; Iwamoto, Naoyasu; Hidaka, Yoshio; Sohma, Hirotoshi; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Kanai, Yuta; Kawagishi, Takehiro; Nagata, Noriyo; Fukushi, Shuetsu; Mizutani, Tetsuya; Tani, Hideki; Taniguchi, Satoshi; Fukuma, Aiko; Shimojima, Masayuki; Kurane, Ichiro; Kageyama, Tsutomu; Odagiri, Takato; Saijo, Masayuki; Morikawa, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    A Japanese man suffered from acute respiratory tract infection after returning to Japan from Bali, Indonesia in 2007. Miyazaki-Bali/2007, a strain of the species of Nelson Bay orthoreovirus, was isolated from the patient's throat swab using Vero cells, in which syncytium formation was observed. This is the sixth report describing a patient with respiratory tract infection caused by an orthoreovirus classified to the species of Nelson Bay orthoreovirus. Given the possibility that all of the patients were infected in Malaysia and Indonesia, prospective surveillance on orthoreovirus infections should be carried out in Southeast Asia. Furthermore, contact surveillance study suggests that the risk of human-to-human infection of the species of Nelson Bay orthoreovirus would seem to be low. PMID:24667794

  15. [Clonal plasticity of Iris japonica under different soil and canopy conditions in subtropocal evergreen broad-leaved forest].

    PubMed

    He, Yue-Jun; Han, Wen-Ping; Zhong, Zhang-Cheng

    2011-02-01

    An investigation was made on the growth indices of Iris japonica growing on the yellow soil and Karst soil within a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest and in the forest gaps, aimed to approach the clonal plasticity of I. japonica in heterogeneous habitats. The results showed that the ramet height and diameter and the rhizome diameter of I. japonica were significantly higher in yellow soil habitat than in Karst soil habitat, while the individual density was in adverse. Light had significant effects on rhizome diameter, but soil condition had lesser effects under the same light environment. Within the forest of Karst soil habitat, the bud number and flower number of I. japonica were zero, possibly due to the double pressure from soil quality and light environment for the balance between resources uptake and energy assignment and for the sustaining of growth. In a certain extent, I. japonica in yellow soil habitat tended to K strategy via decreasing the individual number for improving competition to adapt environment, while I. japonica in Karst soil habitat tended to r strategy via increasing individual number for sustaining competition capability.

  16. The effects of catchment and riparian forest quality on stream environmental conditions across a tropical rainforest and oil palm landscape in Malaysian Borneo

    PubMed Central

    Barclay, Holly; Bidin, Kawi; Chey, Vun Khen; Ewers, Robert M.; Foster, William A.; Nainar, Anand; Pfeifer, Marion; Reynolds, Glen; Turner, Edgar C.; Walsh, Rory P. D.; Aldridge, David C.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Freshwaters provide valuable habitat and important ecosystem services but are threatened worldwide by habitat loss and degradation. In Southeast Asia, rainforest streams are particularly threatened by logging and conversion to oil palm, but we lack information on the impacts of this on freshwater environmental conditions, and the relative importance of catchment versus riparian‐scale disturbance. We studied 16 streams in Sabah, Borneo, including old‐growth forest, logged forest, and oil palm sites. We assessed forest quality in riparian zones and across the whole catchment and compared it with stream environmental conditions including water quality, structural complexity, and organic inputs. We found that streams with the highest riparian forest quality were nearly 4 °C cooler, over 20 cm deeper, had over 40% less sand, greater canopy cover, more stored leaf litter, and wider channels than oil palm streams with the lowest riparian forest quality. Other variables were significantly related to catchment‐scale forest quality, with streams in the highest quality forest catchments having 40% more bedrock and 20 times more dead wood, along with higher phosphorus, and lower nitrate‐N levels compared to streams with the lowest catchment‐scale forest quality. Although riparian buffer strips went some way to protecting waterways, they did not maintain fully forest‐like stream conditions. In addition, logged forest streams still showed signs of disturbance 10–15 years after selective logging. Our results suggest that maintenance and restoration of buffer strips can help to protect healthy freshwater ecosystems but logging practices and catchment‐scale forest management also need to be considered. PMID:28706573

  17. EnviroAtlas - Ecosystem Service Market and Project Enabling Conditions, U.S., 2016, Forest Trends' Ecosystem Marketplace

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This EnviroAtlas dataset contains polygons depicting conditions enabling market-based programs, referred to herein as markets, and projects addressing ecosystem services protection in the United States. Polygons represent the area in which a particular condition, policy, or regulation is implemented with the result of direct or indirect facilitation of a market-based approach to investing in and protecting biodiversity (i.e., imperiled species/habitats; wetlands and streams), carbon, and/or water ecosystem services. The data were collected via desk research conducted by Forest Trends' Ecosystem Marketplace during 2015-2016. Attribute data include the ecosystem service(s) of interest, year established, design mechanisms(s) employed, and the regulatory authority associated with a particular condition. This dataset was produced by Forest Trends' Ecosystem Marketplace for Enviroatlas in order to support public access to and use of information related to environmental markets. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-shee

  18. Measuring water accumulation rates using GRACE data in areas experiencing glacial isostatic adjustment: The Nelson River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, A.; Huang, J.; Kamp, G.; Henton, J.; Mazzotti, S.; James, T. S.; Courtier, N.; Barr, A. G.

    2013-12-01

    Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite-derived total water storage can be obscured by glacial isostatic adjustment. In order to solve this problem for the Nelson River drainage basin in Canada, a gravity rate map from 110 months (June 2002 to October 2011) of GRACE gravity data was corrected for glacial isostatic adjustment using an independent gravity rate map derived from updated GPS vertical velocities. The GPS-based map was converted to equivalent gravity rate using a transfer function developed from GPS and absolute-g data at colocated sites. The corrected GRACE gravity rate map revealed a major positive anomaly within the drainage basin, which was independently shown by hydrological data to be due to changes in water storage. The anomaly represents a cumulative increase at its center of about 340 mm of water, reflecting a progression from extreme drought to extremely wet conditions.

  19. The Validity of the Nelson-Denny Reading Test as a Predictor of Performance in Introductory Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerow, Josh R.; Murphy, Daniel P.

    1980-01-01

    The median correlation of Nelson-Denny scores with first unit examination and semester point total was 0.56. When standardized aptitude scores are not available, the Nelson-Denny would be a useful predictor of performance in an introductory psychology class. (Author/CP)

  20. 78 FR 66353 - EAM Nelson Holdings, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission EAM Nelson Holdings, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...-referenced proceeding, of EAM Nelson Holdings, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  1. Survival, growth and reproduction by big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) in open clearing vs. forested conditions in Brazil

    Treesearch

    James Grogan; Mark Schulze; Jurandir Galvao

    2010-01-01

    Big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) trees are often retained in agricultural fields and pastures for seed and timber production after selective logging and forest clearing in the Brazilian Amazon. At a forest management site in southeast Para´, we censused trees growing scattered across a large open clearing after forest removal and in heavily disturbed forest...

  2. Forest statistics for Alabama

    Treesearch

    Philip R. Wheeler

    1953-01-01

    This report summarizes data on forest acreage, timber volume, growth, and drain1/ collected by the Southern Forest Survey in Alabama, It is primarily the product of the new Forest Survey of the State, made between 1951 and 1953, but it also draws on the first Forest Survey of 1935-36 to show the changes in forest conditions during the intervening...

  3. Effect of redox conditions on bacterial and fungal biomass and carbon dioxide production in Louisiana coastal swamp forest sediment.

    PubMed

    Seo, Dong Cheol; DeLaune, Ronald D

    2010-08-01

    Fungal and bacterial carbon dioxide (CO2) production/emission was determined under a range of redox conditions in sediment from a Louisiana swamp forest used for wastewater treatment. Sediment was incubated in microcosms at 6 Eh levels (-200, -100, 0, +100, +250 and +400 mV) covering the anaerobic range found in wetland soil and sediment. Carbon dioxide production was determined by the substrate-induced respiration (SIR) inhibition method. Cycloheximide (C15H23NO4) was used as the fungal inhibitor and streptomycin (C21H39N7O12) as the bacterial inhibitor. Under moderately reducing conditions (Eh > +250 mV), fungi contributed more than bacteria to the CO2 production. Under highly reducing conditions (Eh < or = 0 mV), bacteria contributed more than fungi to the total CO2 production. The fungi/bacteria (F/B) ratios varied between 0.71-1.16 for microbial biomass C, and 0.54-0.94 for microbial biomass N. Under moderately reducing conditions (Eh > or = +100 mV), the F/B ratios for microbial biomass C and N were higher than that for highly reducing conditions (Eh < or = 0 mV). In moderately reducing conditions (Eh > or = +100 mV), the C/N microbial biomass ratio for fungi (C/N: 13.54-14.26) was slightly higher than for bacteria (C/N: 9.61-12.07). Under highly reducing redox conditions (Eh < or = 0 mV), the C/N microbial biomass ratio for fungi (C/N: 10.79-12.41) was higher than for bacteria (C/N: 8.21-9.14). For bacteria and fungi, the C/N microbial biomass ratios under moderately reducing conditions were higher than that in highly reducing conditions. Fungal CO2 production from swamp forest could be of greater ecological significance under moderately reducing sediment conditions contributing to the greenhouse effect (GHE) and the global warming potential (GWP). However, increases in coastal submergence associated with global sea level rise and resultant decrease in sediment redox potential from increased flooding would likely shift CO2 production to bacteria rather than

  4. Application of the Nelson model to four timelag fuel classes using Oklahoma field observations: Model evaluation and comparison with national Fire Danger Rating System algorithms

    Treesearch

    J. D. Carlson; Larry S. Bradshaw; Ralph M. Nelson; Randall R Bensch; Rafal Jabrzemski

    2007-01-01

    The application of a next-generation dead-fuel moisture model, the 'Nelson model', to four timelag fuel classes using an extensive 21-month dataset of dead-fuel moisture observations is described. Developed by Ralph Nelson in the 1990s, the Nelson model is a dead-fuel moisture model designed to take advantage of frequent automated weather observations....

  5. Radical Questioning on the Long Walk to Freedom: Nelson Mandela and the Practice of Critical Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookfield, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Nelson Mandela's autobiography "The Long Walk to Freedom" describes how an iconic political activist and freedom fighter reflected on, and sometimes modified, four core assumptions at the heart of his struggle to overturn the White supremacist, minority hegemony and create a free South Africa. Critical reflection's focus is on…

  6. 78 FR 56224 - Hydro Nelson, Ltd.; Hydro-WM, LLC; Notice of Transfer of Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-12

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Hydro Nelson, Ltd.; Hydro-WM, LLC; Notice of Transfer of Exemption 1. By documentation filed July 8, 2013 and supplemented on September 4, 2013, Hydro-WM, LLC informed the Commission... March 26, 1982,\\1\\ has been transferred to Hydro-WM, LLC. The project is located on the Rockfish River...

  7. U.S. SENATOR BILL NELSON AT FRICTION STIR WELD LAB

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-02-12

    U.S. SENATOR BILL NELSON OF FLORIDA, RIGHT, LISTENS AS ANDY SCHORR, ASSISTANT MANAGER FOR SPACECRAFT/PAYLOAD INTEGRATION AND EVOLUTION, EXPLAINS THE PROGRESS OF NASA'S SPACE LAUNCH SYSTEM DURING A VISIT TO NASA'S MARSHALL SPACE FLIGHT CENTER ON FEB. 12, 2016

  8. The Nelson-Denny Reading Test and Harcum-earned Academic Averages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blai, Boris, Jr.

    Research shows that there is a substantial degree of correlation between scores obtained on the Nelson-Denny Reading Test and the academic averages obtained by freshmen students at Harcum Junior College. This indicates that the reading test is a useful measuring instrument for predicting general levels of first-year academic achievement. (CK)

  9. The Nelson-Denny Reading Test as a Predictor of College Freshman Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Peter H.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the difficulty level, the internal consistency, and the usefulness of the Nelson-Denny Reading Test (NDRT) as a predictor of college freshmen grades. Adding the NDRT to a prediction equation already containing high school grade point average did improve the prediction. (Author/BW)

  10. UK Data from 197 Undergraduates for the Nelson Denny Reading Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masterson, Jackie; Hayes, Maureen

    2004-01-01

    The Nelson Denny Reading Test (Brown, Fishco & Hanna, 1993) provides measures of comprehension, reading rate and vocabulary. It is widely used in research studies with high school and undergraduate students and for assessment purposes in the USA. No widely used test of this kind exists for adults in the UK. The present paper reports data from 197…

  11. Passageless Comprehension on the "Nelson-Denny Reading Test": Well above Chance for University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Chris; Lindstrom, Jennifer; Nelson, Jason; Lindstrom, William; Gregg, K. Noel

    2010-01-01

    The comprehension section of the "Nelson-Denny Reading Test" (NDRT) is widely used to assess the reading comprehension skills of adolescents and adults in the United States. In this study, the authors explored the content validity of the NDRT Comprehension Test (Forms G and H) by asking university students (with and without at-risk…

  12. Adult Learners: New Norms on the Nelson-Denny Reading Test for Healthcare Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haught, Patricia A.; Walls, Richard T.

    2002-01-01

    Presents new norms on the Nelson-Denny Reading Test for healthcare-professional students. Notes that it is generally accepted that professional and graduate schools require students with good reading ability because of the quantity of material to be read. Presents standard scores, percentile ranks, and stanine scores as revised norms based on test…

  13. A Scale for Evaluating Standardized Reading Tests, with Results for Nelson-Denny, Iowa, and Stanford.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Melvin W., II

    1983-01-01

    Uses a scale to analyze three tests used for assessing community college students' reading levels: The Stanford Diagnostic Reading Test (SDRT), the Nelson-Denny Reading Test (NDRT), and the Iowa Silent Reading Tests (ISRT). Judges the ISRT to be the best and the NDRT to be unacceptable according to the criteria of the scale. (FL)

  14. Relationships among the MCAT Reading Subtest, Nelson-Denny Reading Test, and Medical School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, James R.; Brooks, C. Michael

    1985-01-01

    The relationship between reading scores on the Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) and scores on the Nelson-Denny Reading Test (NDRT) was investigated, along with the tests' predictive validities for medical school achievement. Although NDRT was better as a single predictor of achievement, it has limitations as a predictive device. (SW)

  15. The Nelson-Denny Reading Test as a Predictor of Community College English and Psychology Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Bernard H.; And Others

    This paper reports the results of a study conducted to examine the predictive validity of the Nelson-Denny Reading Test (NDRT) in the Virginia Community College System. Subjects were students at Blue Ridge Community College enrolled in English 101, 102, 111, 112, and Psychology 201, 202, or 203 during one academic year. The NDRT (Form A) was…

  16. The Nelson-Denny Reading Test as a Predictor of College Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, T. Dary

    1981-01-01

    Provides evidence of some predictive validity of the Nelson-Denny Reading Test (NDRT) for college students. Argues that because the NDRT is more convenient and economical to administer, it can serve as a feasible alternative to the SAT when a quick verbal measure is needed in the college setting. (FL)

  17. "Passageless" Administration of the Nelson-Denny Reading Comprehension Test: Associations with IQ and Reading Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ready, Rebecca E.; Chaudhry, Maheen F.; Schatz, Kelly C.; Strazzullo, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    There are few tests that assess reading comprehension in adults, but these tests are needed for a comprehensive assessment of reading disorders (RD). "The Nelson-Denny Reading Test" (NDRT) has a long-passage reading comprehension component that can be used with adolescents and adults. A problem with the NDRT is that reading comprehension…

  18. "Finding Useful Questions: On Bayesian Diagnosticity, Probability, Impact, and Information Gain": Correction to Nelson (2005)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Jonathan D.

    2007-01-01

    Reports an error in "Finding Useful Questions: On Bayesian Diagnosticity, Probability, Impact, and Information Gain" by Jonathan D. Nelson (Psychological Review, 2005[Oct], Vol 112[4], 979-999). In Table 13, the data should indicate that 7% of females had short hair and 93% of females had long hair. The calculations and discussion in the article…

  19. "Finding Useful Questions: On Bayesian Diagnosticity, Probability, Impact, and Information Gain": Correction to Nelson (2005)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Jonathan D.

    2007-01-01

    Reports an error in "Finding Useful Questions: On Bayesian Diagnosticity, Probability, Impact, and Information Gain" by Jonathan D. Nelson (Psychological Review, 2005[Oct], Vol 112[4], 979-999). In Table 13, the data should indicate that 7% of females had short hair and 93% of females had long hair. The calculations and discussion in the article…

  20. Celebrating the Hero in All of Us: An Interview with Kadir Nelson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sableski, Mary-Kate; Arnold, Jackie Marshall; Adomat, Donna Sayers

    2015-01-01

    Books provide an opportunity through which children can learn what it means to be in the world and to respond flexibly and creatively to a diverse range of situations. Author/illustrator Kadir Nelson creates books that provide these opportunities for readers of all ages. A dominant theme in current conversations surrounding children's literature…

  1. Celebrating the Hero in All of Us: An Interview with Kadir Nelson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sableski, Mary-Kate; Arnold, Jackie Marshall; Adomat, Donna Sayers

    2015-01-01

    Books provide an opportunity through which children can learn what it means to be in the world and to respond flexibly and creatively to a diverse range of situations. Author/illustrator Kadir Nelson creates books that provide these opportunities for readers of all ages. A dominant theme in current conversations surrounding children's literature…

  2. Shaping Influences on the Leadership of Genghis Khan, George Washington, and Nelson Mandela: Applications for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bongila, Jean-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Using a prosopographical methodology this study examines common leadership influences that might have existed among Genghis Khan, George Washington, and Nelson Mandela. Shoup (2005) suggests that the following seven influences have contributed to nurturing the leadership of 12 renowned individuals: involved parents, happy childhood, formal,…

  3. Astronaut Nelson wipes off helmet visor in the middeck of Shuttle Challenger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Astronaut George D. Nelson, 41-C mission specialist, wipes off his helmet visor in the middeck of Shuttle Challenger. Astronaut James D. van. Hoften, is seen in the background. Both crew members are wearing the liquid cooled undergarments for the extravehicular mobility unit (EMU).

  4. U.S. Rep. William Nelson drinking tea from shuttle beverage container

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    U.S. Rep. William Nelson of Florida tries drinking tea from a straw-equipped beverage dispenser in JSC's life sciences laboratory during a space food orientation session. The congressman is in early stages of training for a position on the STS 61-C mission.

  5. Low immunohistochemical expression of MGMT in ACTH secreting pituitary tumors of patients with Nelson syndrome.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Fateme; Scheithauer, Bernd W; Moyes, Veronica J; Drake, William M; Syro, Luis V; Manoranjan, Branavan; Sharma, Soniya; Horvath, Eva; Kovacs, Kalman

    2010-12-01

    MGMT expression in tumors has been correlated with response to treatment with temozolomide therapy. Few medical therapies are available for Nelson syndrome, and the efficacy of such therapeutics remains limited. The aim of the present study was to assess immunohistochemical expression of MGMT in ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas of patients with Nelson syndrome. Our material consisted of eight specimens from ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas of patients with Nelson syndrome. Immunohistochemical staining for MGMT was performed using the streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method. MGMT immunoreactivity was assessed microscopically and recorded as an estimated percentage of nuclear MGMT immunostaining (0 = none, 1=<10%, 2=<25%, 3=<50%, 4=>50%). Five of the eight specimens (65%) exhibited no MGMT immunoreactivity, with two out of eight cases (25%) showing slight MGMT staining (<10%) and one out of eight cases (12%) demonstrating moderate MGMT positivity (<25%). Patient male/female ratio was 3:5, with average patient age being 62.4 (range 57–66). Our findings suggest that temozolomide therapy may be of potential use in patients with Nelson syndrome, as these tumors express absent/low levels of MGMT. Absent or low MGMT staining in brain and other neoplasms has been shown to correlate with successful treatment with temozolomide, and recent reports of aggressive pituitary adenomas suggest similar outcomes.

  6. 3 CFR 9067 - Proclamation 9067 of December 5, 2013. Death of Nelson Mandela

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... transfer power and reconcile with those who jailed him set an example that all humanity should aspire to... been lifted up by the power of his example. We will not see the likes of Nelson Mandela again. It falls... be flown at half-staff at the White House and upon all public buildings and grounds, at all military...

  7. Coherent Backscattering: Conceptions and Misconceptions (Reply to Comments by Bruce W. Hapke and Robert M. Nelson)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tishkovets, Victor P.; Mishchenko, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Although the note by Hapke and Nelson has virtually no relevance to our original publication, it contains a number of statements that are misleading and/or wrong. We, therefore, use this opportunity to dispel several profound misconceptions that continue to hinder the progress in remote sensing of planetary surfaces.

  8. Part of the Solution: Judy Nelson--Pierce County Library System, Tacoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Journal, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Judy Nelson thinks it's important to understand what the community wants for its young people, "which means lots of listening." We need to give taxpayers more good reasons to support libraries, she says, and the community's problems and unmet needs are opportunities for libraries to be an integral part of the solution. One problem Nelson…

  9. Social Justice and Human Rights in Education Policy Discourse: Assessing Nelson Mandela's Legacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gebremedhin, Abrehet; Joshi, Devin

    2016-01-01

    Twenty years after South Africa's democratisation, Nelson Mandela's passing has prompted scholars to examine his legacy in various domains. Here we take a look at his legacy in education discourse. Tracing Mandela's thoughts and pronouncements on education we find two major emphases: a view of education as a practical means to economic…

  10. Detail perspective view of the I.T.T. Nelson Building (Building O), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail perspective view of the I.T.T. Nelson Building (Building O), 100 A Street West, view looking northwest - Vale Commercial Historic District, A Street between Holland & Longfellow Streets, north side of B Street between Holland & Main Streets, Main Street South from A Street through B Street, & Stone House at 283 Main Street South, Vale, Malheur County, OR

  11. Perspective view of the I.T.T. Nelson Building (Building O), 100 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of the I.T.T. Nelson Building (Building O), 100 A Street West, view looking northwest - Vale Commercial Historic District, A Street between Holland & Longfellow Streets, north side of B Street between Holland & Main Streets, Main Street South from A Street through B Street, & Stone House at 283 Main Street South, Vale, Malheur County, OR

  12. Shaping Influences on the Leadership of Genghis Khan, George Washington, and Nelson Mandela: Applications for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bongila, Jean-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Using a prosopographical methodology this study examines common leadership influences that might have existed among Genghis Khan, George Washington, and Nelson Mandela. Shoup (2005) suggests that the following seven influences have contributed to nurturing the leadership of 12 renowned individuals: involved parents, happy childhood, formal,…

  13. U.S. Rep. William Nelson drinking tea from shuttle beverage container

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    U.S. Rep. William Nelson of Florida tries drinking tea from a straw-equipped beverage dispenser in JSC's life sciences laboratory during a space food orientation session. The congressman is in early stages of training for a position on the STS 61-C mission.

  14. "Passageless" Administration of the Nelson-Denny Reading Comprehension Test: Associations with IQ and Reading Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ready, Rebecca E.; Chaudhry, Maheen F.; Schatz, Kelly C.; Strazzullo, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    There are few tests that assess reading comprehension in adults, but these tests are needed for a comprehensive assessment of reading disorders (RD). "The Nelson-Denny Reading Test" (NDRT) has a long-passage reading comprehension component that can be used with adolescents and adults. A problem with the NDRT is that reading comprehension…

  15. Radical Questioning on the Long Walk to Freedom: Nelson Mandela and the Practice of Critical Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookfield, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Nelson Mandela's autobiography "The Long Walk to Freedom" describes how an iconic political activist and freedom fighter reflected on, and sometimes modified, four core assumptions at the heart of his struggle to overturn the White supremacist, minority hegemony and create a free South Africa. Critical reflection's focus is on…

  16. Part of the Solution: Judy Nelson--Pierce County Library System, Tacoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Journal, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Judy Nelson thinks it's important to understand what the community wants for its young people, "which means lots of listening." We need to give taxpayers more good reasons to support libraries, she says, and the community's problems and unmet needs are opportunities for libraries to be an integral part of the solution. One problem Nelson…

  17. Social Justice and Human Rights in Education Policy Discourse: Assessing Nelson Mandela's Legacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gebremedhin, Abrehet; Joshi, Devin

    2016-01-01

    Twenty years after South Africa's democratisation, Nelson Mandela's passing has prompted scholars to examine his legacy in various domains. Here we take a look at his legacy in education discourse. Tracing Mandela's thoughts and pronouncements on education we find two major emphases: a view of education as a practical means to economic…

  18. Monitoring of environmental conditions in the Alaskan forests using ERS-1 SAR data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rignot, Eric; Way, Jobea; Mcdonald, Kyle; Viereck, Leslie; Adams, Phyllis

    1992-01-01

    Preliminary results from an analysis of the multitemporal radar backscatter signatures of tree species acquired by European Remote Sensing Satellite (ERS-1) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data are presented. Significant changes in radar backscatter are detected. Correlation of these differences with ground truth observations indicate that these are due to changes in soil and liquid water content as a result of freeze/thaw events. C-band observations acquired by the NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory Airborne SAR (JPL AIRSAR) instrument demonstrate the potential of a C-band radar instrument to monitor drought/flood events. The potential of ERS-1 for monitoring phenologic changes in the forest and for classifying tree species is less promising.

  19. Effects of warming conditions in eastern North American forests on red-backed salamander morphology.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, James P; Karraker, Nancy E

    2006-06-01

    Several studies have reported climate-associated changes in phenotypically plastic traits of amphibians, yet it remains unknown whether amphibians can manifest an evolutionary response to global climate change at the rate and magnitude that it is occurring. To assess this issue, we examined temporal change in the morphology of the red-backed salamander (Plethodon cinereus), a small, abundant woodland salamander distributed widely in eastern North America with two distinct morphotypes: striped individuals associated with cooler microclimates and unstriped individuals associated with warmer microclimates. We compiled morph frequencies for 50,960 individual salamanders from 558 sites as recorded in the published literature and in unpublished field notes of herpetologists between 1908 and 2004. We observed that striping probability increased with increasing latitude, longitude, and elevation and decreased (from 80% to 74% range wide) with time. The combined forces of regional climate warming and, particularly, forest disturbance have evidently been sufficient to cause morphological evolution in this amphibian over the last century.

  20. Monitoring of environmental conditions in the Alaskan forests using ERS-1 SAR data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rignot, Eric; Way, Jobea; Mcdonald, Kyle; Viereck, Leslie; Adams, Phyllis

    1992-01-01

    Preliminary results from an analysis of the multitemporal radar backscatter signatures of tree species acquired by European Remote Sensing Satellite (ERS-1) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data are presented. Significant changes in radar backscatter are detected. Correlation of these differences with ground truth observations indicate that these are due to changes in soil and liquid water content as a result of freeze/thaw events. C-band observations acquired by the NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory Airborne SAR (JPL AIRSAR) instrument demonstrate the potential of a C-band radar instrument to monitor drought/flood events. The potential of ERS-1 for monitoring phenologic changes in the forest and for classifying tree species is less promising.

  1. Present condition of the coniferous undergrowth of forest-tundra ecotone of North-Chuya ridge (Central Altai)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Propastilova, Olga; Timoshok, Elena

    2010-05-01

    Investigations of high-mountain regions which are characterized by extreme climate conditions are of current importance since the response of environmental ecosystems to climate changes is clearly expressed there. The work presented was performed on the territory of two mountain glacial basins located on the northern macroslope of North-Chuya ridge (Russia, Central Altai). High-mountain vegetation of the area being considered didn't undergo an anthropogenic impact. It should be noted that investigations of coniferous undergrowth of forest-tundra ecotone of Aktru and Korumdu mountain glacial basins (2200-2500 m ab. s.l.) haven't been conducted before. A climatic representativeness of Aktru basin was proved by numerous data (Tronov et all, 1965, Sevastianov, 1998). The goal of the work was studying of condition and adaptations of young Pinus sibirica Du Tour and Larix sibirica Ledeb. to forest-tundra ecotone conditions. These species form the treeline on many ridges of Central Altai (Kuminova, 1960), including North-Chuya (Timoshok, 2004). It is shown that the number of young Siberian stone pines and larches in the forest-tundra ecotone is not big, Siberian stone pine being found more often than larch. A considerable quantity of young Siberian stone pines grows in sheltered sites (near big stones, boulders, stumps, etc.). During the research period dead young trees have been found in single cases. The maximum percentage of Siberian stone pine trees (42.4%) growing in sheltered sites was registered in Aktru basin on the east-southeast slope whereas on the west-northwest slope the maximum percentage of Siberian stone pines growing in clusters has been revealed (34.4%). Also on the west-northwest slope the maximum quantity of Siberian stone pines that changed their terminal shoots have been found (62.5%). During the investigation young trees with signs of diseases were registered. Chermes (Pineus cembrae Chol.) has been found on shoots and needles. On the west

  2. Attaining the canopy in dry and moist tropical forests: strong differences in tree growth trajectories reflect variation in growing conditions

    PubMed Central

    Zuidema, Pieter A.; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel

    2009-01-01

    Availability of light and water differs between tropical moist and dry forests, with typically higher understorey light levels and lower water availability in the latter. Therefore, growth trajectories of juvenile trees—those that have not attained the canopy—are likely governed by temporal fluctuations in light availability in moist forests (suppressions and releases), and by spatial heterogeneity in water availability in dry forests. In this study, we compared juvenile growth trajectories of Cedrela odorata in a dry (Mexico) and a moist forest (Bolivia) using tree rings. We tested the following specific hypotheses: (1) moist forest juveniles show more and longer suppressions, and more and stronger releases; (2) moist forest juveniles exhibit wider variation in canopy accession pattern, i.e. the typical growth trajectory to the canopy; (3) growth variation among dry forest juveniles persists over longer time due to spatial heterogeneity in water availability. As expected, the proportion of suppressed juveniles was higher in moist than in dry forest (72 vs. 17%). Moist forest suppressions also lasted longer (9 vs. 5 years). The proportion of juveniles that experienced releases in moist forest (76%) was higher than in dry forest (41%), and releases in moist forests were much stronger. Trees in the moist forest also had a wider variation in canopy accession patterns compared to the dry forest. Our results also showed that growth variation among juvenile trees persisted over substantially longer periods of time in dry forest (>64 years) compared to moist forest (12 years), most probably because of larger persistent spatial variation in water availability. Our results suggest that periodic increases in light availability are more important for attaining the canopy in moist forests, and that spatial heterogeneity in water availability governs long-term tree growth in dry forests. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s

  3. Attaining the canopy in dry and moist tropical forests: strong differences in tree growth trajectories reflect variation in growing conditions.

    PubMed

    Brienen, Roel J W; Zuidema, Pieter A; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel

    2010-06-01

    Availability of light and water differs between tropical moist and dry forests, with typically higher understorey light levels and lower water availability in the latter. Therefore, growth trajectories of juvenile trees--those that have not attained the canopy--are likely governed by temporal fluctuations in light availability in moist forests (suppressions and releases), and by spatial heterogeneity in water availability in dry forests. In this study, we compared juvenile growth trajectories of Cedrela odorata in a dry (Mexico) and a moist forest (Bolivia) using tree rings. We tested the following specific hypotheses: (1) moist forest juveniles show more and longer suppressions, and more and stronger releases; (2) moist forest juveniles exhibit wider variation in canopy accession pattern, i.e. the typical growth trajectory to the canopy; (3) growth variation among dry forest juveniles persists over longer time due to spatial heterogeneity in water availability. As expected, the proportion of suppressed juveniles was higher in moist than in dry forest (72 vs. 17%). Moist forest suppressions also lasted longer (9 vs. 5 years). The proportion of juveniles that experienced releases in moist forest (76%) was higher than in dry forest (41%), and releases in moist forests were much stronger. Trees in the moist forest also had a wider variation in canopy accession patterns compared to the dry forest. Our results also showed that growth variation among juvenile trees persisted over substantially longer periods of time in dry forest (>64 years) compared to moist forest (12 years), most probably because of larger persistent spatial variation in water availability. Our results suggest that periodic increases in light availability are more important for attaining the canopy in moist forests, and that spatial heterogeneity in water availability governs long-term tree growth in dry forests.

  4. Responses of Tree Growths to Tree Size, Competition, and Topographic Conditions in Sierra Nevada Forests Using Bi-temporal Airborne LiDAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Q.; Su, Y.; Tao, S.; Guo, Q.

    2016-12-01

    Trees in the Sierra Nevada (SN) forests are experiencing rapid changes due to human disturbances and climatic changes. An improved monitoring of tree growth and understanding of how tree growth responses to different impact factors, such as tree competition, forest density, topographic and hydrologic conditions, are urgently needed in tree growth modeling. Traditional tree growth modeling mainly relied on field survey, which was highly time-consuming and labor-intensive. Airborne Light detection and ranging System (ALS) is increasingly used in forest survey, due to its high efficiency and accuracy in three-dimensional tree structure delineation and terrain characterization. This study successfully detected individual tree growth in height (∆H), crown area (∆A), and crown volume (∆V) over a five-year period (2007-2012) using bi-temporal ALS data in two conifer forest areas in SN. We further analyzed their responses to original tree size, competition indices, forest structure indices, and topographic environmental parameters at individual tree and forest stand scales. Our results indicated ∆H was strongly sensitive to topographic wetness index; whereas ∆A and ∆V were highly responsive to forest density and original tree sizes. These ALS based findings in ∆H were consistent with field measurements. Our study demonstrated the promising potential of using bi-temporal ALS data in forest growth measurements and analysis. A more comprehensive study over a longer temporal period and a wider range of forest stands would give better insights into tree growth in the SN, and provide useful guides for forest growth monitoring, modeling, and management.

  5. Modelling changes in nitrogen cycling to sustain increases in forest productivity under elevated atmospheric CO2 and contrasting site conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, R. F.

    2013-11-01

    If increases in net primary productivity (NPP) caused by rising concentrations of atmospheric CO2 (Ca) are to be sustained, key N processes such as soil mineralization, biological fixation, root uptake and nutrient conservation must also be increased. Simulating the response of these processes to elevated Ca is therefore vital for models used to project the effects of rising Ca on NPP. In this modelling study, hypotheses are proposed for changes in soil mineralization, biological fixation, root nutrient uptake and plant nutrient conservation with changes in Ca. Algorithms developed from these hypotheses were tested in the ecosystem model ecosys against changes in N and C cycling measured over several years under ambient vs. elevated Ca in Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) experiments in the USA at the Duke Forest in North Carolina, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory forest in Tennessee, and the USDA research forest in Wisconsin. More rapid soil N mineralization was found to be vital for simulating sustained increases in NPP measured under elevated vs. ambient Ca at all three FACE sites. This simulation was accomplished by priming decomposition of N-rich humus from increases in microbial biomass generated by increased litterfall modelled under elevated Ca. Greater nonsymbiotic N2 fixation from increased litterfall, root N uptake from increased root growth, and plant N conservation from increased translocation under elevated Ca were found to make smaller contributions to simulated increases in NPP. However greater nutrient conservation enabled larger increases in NPP with Ca to be modelled with coniferous vs. deciduous plant functional types. The effects of these processes on productivity now need to be examined over longer periods under transient rises in Ca and a greater range of site conditions.

  6. Modelling changes in nitrogen cycling to sustain increases in forest productivity under elevated atmospheric CO2 and contrasting site conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, R. F.

    2013-04-01

    If increases in net primary productivity (NPP) caused by rising concentrations of atmospheric CO2 (Ca) are to be sustained, key N processes such as soil mineralization, biological fixation, root uptake and plant translocation must be hastened. Simulating the response of these processes to elevated Ca is therefore vital for models used to project the effects of rising Ca on NPP. In this modelling study, hypotheses are proposed for changes in soil mineralization, biological fixation, root uptake and plant translocation with changes in Ca. Algorithms developed from these hypotheses were tested in the ecosystem model ecosys against changes in N and C cycling measured over several years under ambient vs. elevatedCa in Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) experiments at the Duke Forest in North Carolina, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory forest in Tennessee, and the USDA research forest in Wisconsin, USA. Simulating more rapid soil N mineralization was found to be vital for modelling sustained increases in NPP measured under elevated vs. ambient Ca at all three FACE sites. This simulation was accomplished by priming decomposition of N-rich humus from increases in microbial biomass generated by increased litterfall modelled under elevated Ca. Simulating more rapid nonsymbiotic N2 fixation, root N uptake and plant N translocation under elevated Ca was found to make much smaller contributions to modelled increases in NPP, although such contributions might be greater over longer periods and under more N-limited conditions than those simulated here. Greater increases in NPP with Ca were also modelled with increased temperature and water stress, and with coniferous vs. deciduous plant functional types. These increases were also associated with changes in N cycling.

  7. The role of fleshy pericarp in seed germination and dispersal under flooded conditions in three wetland forest species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mora, Juan P.; Smith-Ramírez, Cecilia; Zúñiga-Feest, Alejandra

    2013-01-01

    In flooded habitats, inundations affect important forest regeneration processes, such as seed dispersal and germination. The main seed dispersal mechanism used by species in Austral South American temperate swamp and riparian forests is endozoochory, which releases seeds from the fleshy pericarp. Endozoochory could be favorable or unfavorable in wetland habitats, since this mechanism exposes seeds directly to water and can, in some cases, be detrimental to germination. In this study, we studied whether or not the fleshy pericarp favors germination after the flooding period's end. Furthermore, we quantified if the number of days which the fruit was found to be floating related to its germination success. We used the seeds of three common fleshy fruit species of flooded habitats from southern Chile, the trees Luma apiculata and Rhaphithamnus spinosus, and the vine Luzuriaga radicans. We simulated flooding periods of 7, 15, 30 and 45 days submerging seeds, with and without pericarps, in water. We found that the pericarp's presence significantly increased Luma's germination success and significantly decreased that of Luzuriaga. The germination of Rhaphithamnus was low after periods of flooding in both seed treatments, with no significant differences found between them. The fruits could float for an average of one to four weeks, depending on the species, which did not relate to their germination success. These results show that germination was affected by the presence of fleshy pericarps in flooded conditions and furthermore, that flotation allows for hydrochory from one week to one month. We suggest that in swamp forests multiple seed dispersal mechanisms are advantageous, especially for fleshy-fruited species.

  8. Sun/shade conditions affect recruitment and local adaptation of a columnar cactus in dry forests.

    PubMed

    Miranda-Jácome, Antonio; Montaña, Carlos; Fornoni, Juan

    2013-02-01

    Facilitation among plants in water-limited environments (i.e. where evapotranspiration overcomes the availability of water during the growing season) has been considered a local adaptation to water and light conditions. Among cacti, early life-history stages can benefit from the facilitative effects of nurse plants that reduce solar radiation and water stress. However, whether light condition itself acts as an agent of selection through facilitation remains untested. The aim of this study was to determine (1) whether light conditions affect seedling recruitment, (2) whether the positive effect of shade on seedling recruitment is more intense under more stressful conditions and (3) whether shade condition (facilitation) reduces the magnitude of local adaptation on seedling recruitment relative to full sunlight conditions. A reciprocal transplant experiment, coupled with the artificial manipulation of sun/shade conditions, was performed to test for the effects of local adaptation on germination, seedling survival and growth, using two demes of the columnar cactus Pilosocereus leucocephalus, representing different intensities of stressful conditions. Full sunlight conditions reduced recruitment success and supported the expectation of lower recruitment in more stressful environments. Significant local adaptation was mainly detected under full sunlight conditions, indicating that this environmental factor acts as an agent of selection at both sites. The results supported the expectation that the magnitude of local adaptation, driven by the effects of facilitative nurse plants, is less intense under reduced stressful conditions. This study is the first to demonstrate that sun/shade conditions act as a selective agent accounting for local adaptation in water-limited environments, and that facilitation provided by nurse plants in these environments can attenuate the patterns of local adaptation among plants benefiting from the nurse effect.

  9. Sun/shade conditions affect recruitment and local adaptation of a columnar cactus in dry forests

    PubMed Central

    Miranda-Jácome, Antonio; Montaña, Carlos; Fornoni, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Facilitation among plants in water-limited environments (i.e. where evapotranspiration overcomes the availability of water during the growing season) has been considered a local adaptation to water and light conditions. Among cacti, early life-history stages can benefit from the facilitative effects of nurse plants that reduce solar radiation and water stress. However, whether light condition itself acts as an agent of selection through facilitation remains untested. The aim of this study was to determine (1) whether light conditions affect seedling recruitment, (2) whether the positive effect of shade on seedling recruitment is more intense under more stressful conditions and (3) whether shade condition (facilitation) reduces the magnitude of local adaptation on seedling recruitment relative to full sunlight conditions. Methods A reciprocal transplant experiment, coupled with the artificial manipulation of sun/shade conditions, was performed to test for the effects of local adaptation on germination, seedling survival and growth, using two demes of the columnar cactus Pilosocereus leucocephalus, representing different intensities of stressful conditions. Key Results Full sunlight conditions reduced recruitment success and supported the expectation of lower recruitment in more stressful environments. Significant local adaptation was mainly detected under full sunlight conditions, indicating that this environmental factor acts as an agent of selection at both sites. Conclusions The results supported the expectation that the magnitude of local adaptation, driven by the effects of facilitative nurse plants, is less intense under reduced stressful conditions. This study is the first to demonstrate that sun/shade conditions act as a selective agent accounting for local adaptation in water-limited environments, and that facilitation provided by nurse plants in these environments can attenuate the patterns of local adaptation among plants benefiting

  10. Evaluation of the airborne imaging spectrometer for remote sensing of forest stand conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Charles E., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Five pairs of plots were established in forest stands with one of each pair trenched and covered to prevent precipitation from reaching the tree roots. High winds and falling limbs destroyed the covers on three of the plots. The two remaining plots were in a red pine plantation and in a natural stand of sugar maple. Trees in both plots developed levels of moisture stress more than nine bars higher than control trees on the dates of overflights with the Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) and the Collins' Airborne Spectroradiometer (CAS). Hemispherical reflectance from stressed and control trees was measured with a Beckman DK2A spectrophotometer. On the day of the AIS overflight, stressed maple foliage was less reflective than the control from 1000 to 1300 nm, but more reflective at wavelengths longer than 1300 nm. Pine foliage was less reflective than the control from 1000 to 1600 nm, but the difference was small at wavelengths longer than 1350 nm. AIS data collected showed brightness values for both maple and pine to be lower than for the controls from 1000 to 1300 nm. CAS data were used to determine the gain in species identification accuracy obtainable with high spectral resolution data.

  11. Changes in forest conditions 1936-1949 north central Minnesota and Upper Peninsula of Michigan (a preliminary analysis)

    Treesearch

    R.N. Cunningham

    1951-01-01

    What has happened to the forests of the Lake States as a result of the abnormally heavy cutting during and since World War II and also from the stimulus of improved fire protection and other measures of forest management? This is a question of great interest to many foresters, conservationists, and others concerned with the timber resource. In Michigan and Minnesota...

  12. Sustaining the Landscape: A Method for Comparing Current and Desired Future Conditions of Forest Ecosystems in the North Cumberland Plateau and Mountains

    SciTech Connect

    Druckenbrod, D.L.

    2004-12-22

    This project initiates an integrated-landscape conservation approach within the Northern Cumberlands Project Area in Tennessee and Kentucky. The mixed mesophytic forests within the Cumberland Plateau and Mountains are among the most diverse in North America; however, these forests have been impacted by and remain threatened from changes in land use across this landscape. The integrated-landscape conservation approach presented in this report outlines a sequence of six conservation steps. This report considers the first three of these steps in two, successive stages. Stage 1 compares desired future conditions (DFCs) and current prevailing conditions (CPCs) at the landscape-scale utilizing remote sensing imagery, remnant forests, and descriptions of historical forest types within the Cumberland Plateau. Subsequently, Stage 2 compares DFCs and CPCs for at-risk forest types identified in Stage 1 utilizing structural, compositional, or functional attributes from USFS Forest Inventory and Analysis data. Ecological indicators will be developed from each stage that express the gaps between these two realizations of the landscape. The results from these first three steps will directly contribute to the final three steps of the integrated-landscape conservation approach by providing guidance for the generation of new conservation strategies in the Northern Cumberland Plateau and Mountains.

  13. Development of a mixed shrub-tanoak-douglas-fir community in a treated and untreated condition. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, P.M.; Fiddler, G.O.

    1996-08-01

    On a medium site in northern California, a tanoak-mixed shrub community was given several treatments (manual release two and three times, a combination chainsaw and cut surface herbicide treatment, two foliar herbicides, and a tank mix of the two herbicides) to study its development in both a natural (control) and treated condition. The herbicides were 2,4-D, Garlon 3A, and Garlon 4, each applied two times. Survival of planted Douglas-fir seedlings was recorded for 11 years and growth was quantified for 9 years after the last treatment application. In addition to Douglas-fir, data are presented individually for the two most abundant species (tanoak and snowbrush), for greenleaf manzanita, and for the hardwood tree and shrubs combined. The treatment response data, cost information, and plant community relationships provides the forest land manager with knowledge on how to attain some specific plant communities in the future, and their developmental potentials.

  14. Molecular characterization of forest soil based Paenibacillus elgii and optimization of various culture conditions for its improved antimicrobial activity

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, S. N.; Jacob, Jubi; Reshma, U. R.; Rajesh, R. O.; Kumar, B. S. D.

    2015-01-01

    Microorganisms have provided a bounty of bioactive secondary metabolites with very exciting biological activities such as antibacterial, antifungal antiviral, and anticancer, etc. The present study aims at the optimization of culture conditions for improved antimicrobial production of Paenibacillus elgii obtained from Wayanad forest of Western Ghats region of Kerala, India. A bacterial strain isolated from the Western Ghats forest soil of Wayanad, Kerala, India was identified as P. elgii by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. P. elgii recorded significant board spectrum activity against all human and plant pathogenic microorganism tested except Candida albicans. It has been well known that even minor variations in the fermentation medium may impact not only the quantity of desired bioactive metabolites but also the general metabolic profile of the producing microorganisms. Thus, further studies were carried out to assess the impact of medium components on the antimicrobial production of P. elgii and to optimize an ideal fermentation medium to maximize its antimicrobial production. Out of three media [nutrient broth (NA), Luria broth (LB) and Trypticase soy broth (TSB)] used for fermentation, TSB medium recorded significant activity. Glucose and meat peptone were identified as the best carbon and nitrogen sources, which significantly affected the antibiotic production when supplemented with TSB medium. Next the effect of various fermentation conditions such as temperature, pH, and incubation time on the production of antimicrobial compounds was studied on TSB + glucose + meat peptone and an initial pH of 7 and a temperature of 30°C for 3 days were found to be optimum for maximum antimicrobial production. The results indicate that medium composition in the fermentation media along with cultural parameters plays a vital role in the enhanced production of antimicrobial substances. PMID:26539188

  15. The effects of forest fragmentation on biodiversity under post-drought conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, A.; Swei, A.

    2016-12-01

    Habitat fragmentation is the greatest threat to wildlife worldwide. Understanding the impact of habitat fragmentation on biodiversity can benefit from theories established in island biogeography. Landscapes surrounded by human development are analogous to oceanic islands in that the size of habitat fragment can determine biodiversity. For terrestrial ecosystems, species traits can influence how they respond to the disturbance of habitat fragmentation. We tested how habitat patch size correlates to species richness and abundance of mammals in northern California in a post-drought environment. Using GIS and Fragstat we established nine forest fragments of varying size, differing minimally in location, topography, climate, and vegetation cover. This allows us to minimize site differences to test the effects of patch size on biodiversity. We used wildlife cameras to estimate richness of medium and large mammals and mark-and-recapture analysis to estimate species richness and abundance of small mammals. We also collected ticks with standard dragging and flagging techniques to determine the relationship between habitat patch size and species richness on Lyme disease risk. Our preliminary results indicate that meso-and-large mammal richness increases significantly with patch area (P=0.024) as well as larval tick density (P=0.035). At the same time, small mammal richness, abundance and diversity peaks in intermediate sized fragments. Further we found invasive species such as house mouse, Norway rat, and black rat only in patches smaller than 50 ha. Our results support the theory that invasive species are better adapted to disturbed areas versus native habitat. The ways in which habitat destruction and fragmentation are acting upon species and communities has critical consequences for conservation, ecosystem services, landscape planning, and many fields of environmental change research.

  16. Random forest models for the probable biological condition of streams and rivers in the USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Rivers and Streams Assessment (NRSA) is a probability based survey conducted by the US Environmental Protection Agency and its state and tribal partners. It provides information on the ecological condition of the rivers and streams in the conterminous USA, and the ex...

  17. Tracing Nitrogen Sources in Forested Catchments Under Varying Flow Conditions: Seasonal and Event Scale Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebestyen, S. D.; Shanley, J. B.; Boyer, E. W.; Kendall, C.

    2004-12-01

    Our ability to assess how stream nutrient concentrations respond to biogeochemical transformations and stream flow dynamics is often limited by datasets that do not include all flow conditions that occur over event, monthly, seasonal, and yearly time scales. At the Sleepers River Research Watershed in northeastern Vermont, USA, nitrate, DOC (dissolved organic carbon), and major ion concentrations were measured on samples collected over a wide range of flow conditions from summer 2002 through summer 2004. Nutrient flushing occurred at the W-9 catchment and high-frequency sampling revealed critical insights into seasonal and event-scale controls on nutrient concentrations. In this seasonally snow-covered catchment, the earliest stage of snowmelt introduced nitrogen directly to the stream from the snowpack. As snowmelt progressed, the source of stream nitrate shifted to flushing of soil nitrate along shallow subsurface flow paths. In the growing season, nitrogen flushing to streams varied with antecedent moisture conditions. More nitrogen was available to flush to streams when antecedent moisture was lowest, and mobile nitrogen stores in the landscape regenerated under baseflow conditions on times scales as short as 7 days. Leaf fall was another critical time when coupled hydrological and biogeochemical processes controlled nutrient fluxes. With the input of labile organic carbon from freshly decomposing leaves, nitrate concentrations declined sharply in response to in-stream immobilization or denitrification. These high-resolution hydrochemical data from multiple flow regimes are identifying "hot spots" and "hot moments" of biogeochemical and hydrological processes that control nutrient fluxes in streams.

  18. Random forest models for the probable biological condition of streams and rivers in the USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Rivers and Streams Assessment (NRSA) is a probability based survey conducted by the US Environmental Protection Agency and its state and tribal partners. It provides information on the ecological condition of the rivers and streams in the conterminous USA, and the ex...

  19. Woodland pond salamander abundance in relation to forest management and environmental conditions in northern Wisconsin

    Treesearch

    Deahn M. Donner; Christine A. Ribic; Albert J. Beck; Dale Higgins; Dan Eklund; Susan. Reinecke

    2015-01-01

    Woodland ponds are important landscape features that help sustain populations of amphibians that require this aquatic habitat for successful reproduction. Species abundance patterns often reflect site-specific differences in hydrology, physical characteristics, and surrounding vegetation. Large-scale processes such as changing land cover and environmental conditions...

  20. Global Climate Model Simulated Hydrologic Droughts and Floods in the Nelson-Churchill Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, M. J. F.; Stadnyk, T. A.; Koenig, K. A.

    2014-12-01

    There is uncertainty surrounding the duration, magnitude and frequency of historical hydroclimatic extremes such as hydrologic droughts and floods prior to the observed record. In regions where paleoclimatic studies are less reliable, Global Climate Models (GCMs) can provide useful information about past hydroclimatic conditions. This study evaluates the use of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) GCMs to enhance the understanding of historical droughts and floods across the Canadian Prairie region in the Nelson-Churchill Watershed (NCW). The NCW is approximately 1.4 million km2 in size and drains into Hudson Bay in Northern Manitoba, Canada. One hundred years of observed hydrologic records show extended dry and wet periods in this region; however paleoclimatic studies suggest that longer, more severe droughts have occurred in the past. In Manitoba, where hydropower is the primary source of electricity, droughts are of particular interest as they are important for future resource planning. Twenty-three GCMs with daily runoff are evaluated using 16 metrics for skill in reproducing historic annual runoff patterns. A common 56-year historic period of 1950-2005 is used for this evaluation to capture wet and dry periods. GCM runoff is then routed at a grid resolution of 0.25° using the WATFLOOD hydrological model storage-routing algorithm to develop streamflow scenarios. Reservoir operation is naturalized and a consistent temperature scenario is used to determine ice-on and ice-off conditions. These streamflow simulations are compared with the historic record to remove bias using quantile mapping of empirical distribution functions. GCM runoff data from pre-industrial and future projection experiments are also bias corrected to obtain extended streamflow simulations. GCM streamflow simulations of more than 650 years include a stationary (pre-industrial) period and future periods forced by radiative forcing scenarios. Quantile mapping adjusts for magnitude

  1. Relationship of the Nelson Denny Reading Test to scores on the National Physical Therapy Licensure Examination.

    PubMed

    Aldridge, Roy Lee; Keith, Becky; Sloas, Stacy; Mott-Murphree, Ashley

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between scaled scores of reading comprehension as measured by the Nelson Denny Reading Test and scaled scores on the National Physical Therapy Licensure Examination (NPTE). Sixty-seven graduate students from Arkansas State University participated in this study. The Nelson Denny Reading Test was given at the initiation of the physical therapy program, and the NPTE was taken after successful completion of the graduate program in physical therapy. A correlation analysis examined the scaled scores of these graduates from the Reading Test and the NPTE. Analysis revealed that a moderate positive relationship and statistically significant difference existed between scaled scores on the Reading Test and the NPTE for those graduates who passed the NPTE their first time.

  2. Petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in Nelson Lagoon, Alaska, sampling three different matrices.

    PubMed

    Lance, Ellen W; Matz, Angela C; Reeves, Mari K; Verbrugge, Lori A

    2012-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) levels were measured in sediments, bivalves and semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs) in the relatively pristine marine environment of Nelson Lagoon, Alaska. Most PAH levels in Nelson Lagoon were low, and similar to global background concentrations. Sampling media type can significantly influence conclusions of PAH contamination in the environment. Concentration of a broad size range of PAHs was observed in the tissues of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis). SPMDs collected some two- to three-ring PAHs from the dissolved water phase, while sediments collected five- to six-ring PAHs that were likely adsorbed onto particulate matter. Benzo(a)pyrene, a potent carcinogen, was found in mussels at levels similar to more industrialized harbors in Alaska.

  3. The man who loved flies: a biographical profile of Nelson Papavero .

    PubMed

    Klassa, Bruna; Santos, Charles Morphy D

    2014-04-29

    Nelson Papavero is one of the major Brazilian zoologists. His contribution to the field began in the second half of the twentieth century, when he started publishing in the areas of entomology, systematics, biogeography, and history of science, while working at graduate courses and training teachers and students. Papavero was one of the earliest Brazilian advocates of Hennig's phylogenetic systematics. In his entomological work, his first widely recognised works were the Catalogue of South American Diptera and his essays on the history of Neotropical Dipterology. Papavero's greatest contribution however, is in his Special Courses on Zoological Systematics, as well as his numerous administrative positions during his academic career. All these were fundamental to the development of zoology and comparative biology in Brazil and other Latin American countries. Here we present a biography of Nelson Papavero, along with several personal anecdotes, and his role in the development of Brazilian biological systematics over the last 50 years. 

  4. Underwater EVA training in the WETF with astronauts Nelson and van Hoften

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1983-11-01

    S83-42895 (19 Oct 1983) --- Astronauts George D. Nelson and James D. van Hoften, NASA Flight STS-41C mission specialists, offer an underwater version of a preview of their mission's extravehicular activity (EVA). The April 1984 flight includes as one of its primary objectives a two-person EVA and a visit to the damaged Solar Maximum Satellite (SMS). Van Hoften, left, and Nelson work here with the mobile foot restraint (MFR), which attaches to the remote manipulator system (RMS) arm to form a "cherry-picker" device. Van Hoften is standing on the MFR. The two are making use of the Johnson Space Center's (JSC) weightless environment training facility (WET-F). This photograph was taken by Otis Imboden.

  5. Meteorological factors and air pollution in Lithuanian forests: possible effects on tree condition.

    PubMed

    Ozolincius, Remigijus; Stakenas, Vidas; Serafinaviciute, Brigita

    2005-10-01

    This study investigates changes in tree condition and environmental factors in Lithuania during the active growing season in 1991-2001. The average crown defoliation and the proportion of healthy trees of Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies, Betula sp., Fraxinus excelsior, Alnus incana, Alnus glutinosa, Populus tremula, and Quercus robur, meteorological (average temperature, amount of precipitation, hydrothermal coefficient) and air pollution data (acidity of precipitation, concentrations of SO2, NO2 and exposure of O3) were analysed. During the period 1991-2001 the condition of Pinus sylvestris, Populus tremula showed a tendency of improvement, while defoliation of Fraxinus excelsior significantly increased. The proportion of healthy trees correlated well with the average temperature and O3 (AOT40), while defoliation correlated well with the acidity of precipitation and the concentrations of SO2 and NO2. Deciduous species appeared to be more sensitive to O3 exposure and conifers to the concentrations of SO2 and NO2.

  6. The role of seasonal and hydrological conditions in regulating dissolved inorganic nitrogen budgets in a forested catchment in SW Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Rusjan, Simon; Vidmar, Andrej

    2017-01-01

    During two consecutive years the monitoring of rainfall nitrate (NO3(-)) and ammonium (NH4(+)) concentrations, combined with high-frequency measurements of streamwater NO3(-) concentrations, provided insight into the mechanisms controlling the dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) budgets of the forested Padež stream catchment in SW Slovenia. During both years, the catchment's annual wet atmospheric DIN deposition (12.6 and 13.8kg-N/ha) exceeded the annual DIN export (10.7kg-N/ha and 8.8kg-N/ha). The analysis of the monthly DIN budgets discloses seasonal patterns. In winter and early spring, the catchment behaves as a net source of DIN, whereas during late spring, summer, and early fall the catchment generally behaves as a net sink of the atmospheric DIN. Due to large evapotranspiration in the growth period, most of the DIN remains in the catchment and is flushed during the dormant season. Despite high evapotranspiration and consequently low runoff coefficients characteristic for the Mediterranean climate, large rainfall events in the growth period can cause intensive washout of DIN from the catchment. At a monthly basis, the DIN flushing might exceed the catchment's DIN retention capacity and the catchment might behave as a net source of DIN. Therefore, the hydrological conditions have the ability to shift the catchment's role in regulating the DIN budgets. The high responsiveness of the streamwater NO3(-) concentration in the growth period indicates a large pool of DIN in the forest soils which can become mobile by runoff formation. Wet atmospheric DIN deposition at the Padež catchment is considerable; highest DIN inputs can be expected when air masses approach the catchment from the southwest to southeast where there are extensive urban areas along the Italian, Slovenian and Croatian coast. However, the Padež catchment does not appear to be approaching N saturation, presumably due to strong internal N cycle in the forest soils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B

  7. Pathogenicity of Beauveria bassiana isolated from Moroccan Argan forests soil against larvae of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Imoulan, Abdessamad; Elmeziane, Abdellatif

    2014-03-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae), is the major tephritid pest in Morocco. This pest survives in Moroccan forests Argania spinosa and continually invades the nearest agricultural areas. Entomopathogenic fungi are an interesting tool for fruit fly control and hold a useful alternative to conventional insecticides. However, primary selection of effective pathogens should be taken in laboratory condition prior to applying them in the field. Here, we used third late instar larvae of C. capitata to investigate the effectiveness of 15 local Beauveria bassiana isolates. Results showed that all isolates were able to infect the larval stage, producing a large mortality rate in puparia ranging from 65 to 95 % and caused significant reduction in adult emergence. The fungal treatments revealed that the mycosis occurred also in adults escaping infection as pupariating larvae. The percentage of mycosed puparia was highest in strain TAM6.2 (95 %) followed by ERS4.16 (90 %), therefore they were the most virulent. Median lethal concentration (LC₅₀) was studied for five isolates at four concentrations ranging from 10⁵ to 10⁸ conidia ml⁻¹. The results showed that the slopes of regression lines for B. bassiana ERS4.16 (slope = 0.386) and TAM6.2 (slope = 0.41) were the most important and had the lowest LC₅₀ values (2.85 × 10³ and 3.16 × 10³ conidia ml⁻¹ respectively). This investigation suggests that the soil of Argan forests contains pathogenic B. bassiana isolates and highlights for the first time their potential as biological control toward C. capitata larval stage in Morocco.

  8. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography coregistration for diagnosis and intraoperative localization in recurrent nelson syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hintz, Eric B; Tomlin, Jeffery M; Chengazi, Vaseem; Vates, G Edward

    2013-06-01

    Recurrent pituitary disease presents unique challenges, including in some cases difficulty localizing a tumor radiographically. Here, we present the case of a patient with recurrent Nelson syndrome whose radiographic work-up was complicated by a significant parasellar metallic artifact. Positron emission tomography ultimately localized the lesion, and coregistration with computed tomography allowed for accurate intraoperative navigation. Additionally, we review a range of imaging techniques available in the evaluation of pituitary disease.

  9. View of Astronaut Nelson using MMU to examine Solar Maximum Mission Satellite

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1984-04-08

    41C-22-885 (8 April 1984) --- The 35mm camera was used to photograph this scene of Astronaut George D. Nelson, STS-41C mission specialist, as he uses the manned maneuvering unit (MMU) to make an excursion to the plagued Solar Maximum, Mission Satellite (SMMS)._Astronaut James D. van Hoften remained in the Challenger's cargo bay during the April 8 extravehicular activity (EVA).

  10. Freshmen Reading Ability: Fall 1967-Day Session, Nelson-Denny Reading Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Peter B.

    Results of the Nelson-Denny Reading Test are used as a screening device for selecting students for remedial work in the Reading and Study Skills Center (R-S) at New York Community College (NYCC). A descriptive analysis of the fall 1967 day session freshmen showed that the average freshman at NYCC was reading at the 12.6 grade level, or .4 grade…

  11. Accuracy of nelson and best guess formulae in estimation of weights in nigerian children population.

    PubMed

    Omisanjo, A O; Orimadegun, A E; Akinbami, F O

    2014-12-01

    An alternative method of estimating children's weights, when direct weighing is impracticable is the use of age-based formulae but these formulae have not been validated in Nigeria. This study compares estimated weights from two commonly used formulae against actual weights of healthy children. Children aged 1 month to 11 years (n= 2754) were randomly selected in Ibadan, Nigeria using a two-stage sampling procedure. Weight of each child, measured using a standard calibrated scale and determined using Nelson and Best Guess formulae, were compared. Demographic characteristics were also obtained. Mean percentage error (MPE) was calculated and stratified by gender and age. Bland-Altman graphs were used for visual assessment of the agreement between estimated and measured weights. Clinically acceptable MPE was defined as ±5%. Descriptive statistics and paired t test were used to examine the data. Statistical level of significance was set at p = 0.05. There were 1349 males and 1405 females. Nelson and Best Guess formulae overestimated weight by 10.11% (95% CI: -20.44, 40.65) in infants. For 1-5 years group, Nelson formula marginally underestimated weight by -0.59% (95% CI: -5.16, 3.96) while it overestimated weight by 9.87% (95% CI: 24.89, 44.63) in 6-11 years. Best Guess formulae consistently overestimated weight in all age groups with the MPE ranging from 10.11 to 30.67%. Nelson and Best Guess formulae are inaccurate for weight estimations in infants and children aged 6-11 years. Development of new formulae or modifications should be considered for use in the Nigerian children population.

  12. Beluga whale summer habitat associations in the Nelson River estuary, western Hudson Bay, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Alexander J.; Higdon, Jeff W.; Richard, Pierre; Orr, Jack; Bernhardt, Warren

    2017-01-01

    To understand beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) estuarine use in the Nelson River estuary, southwest Hudson Bay, we recorded and examined beluga movements and habitat associations for the July through August period in 2002–2005. We compared locations of belugas fitted with satellite transmitters (“tags”) (2002–2005) and aerial-surveyed (2003 and 2005) belugas for years of differing freshwater flow from the Nelson River which is influenced by hydroelectric activity. Using the beluga telemetry location data, we estimated an early August behavioral shift in beluga distribution patterns from local estuarine use to a progressively more migratory behavior away from the estuary. The timing of this shift in behavior was also apparent in results of beluga aerial surveys from the 1940s–1960s, despite environmental changes including later freeze-up and warming ocean temperatures. Overall, during the higher than average discharge (“wet”) year of 2005, the three tagged belugas ranged farther from the Nelson River but not farther from the nearest shore along southwestern Hudson Bay, compared to the 10 tagged belugas tracked during the “dry” years of 2002–2004 with below average discharges. Aerial survey data for 2003 and 2005 display a similar dry vs. wet year shift in spatial patterns, with no significant change in overall density of belugas within the study area. In the Nelson estuary, proximity to the fresh-salt water mixing area may be more important than the shallow waters of the upper estuary. Killer whales (Orcinus orca) were observed in the Churchill area (200 km northwest) during each year of study, 2002–05, and belugas may benefit from the proximity to shallow estuary waters that provide protection from the larger-bodied predator. Study results contribute to an understanding of the influence of environmental variation on how and why belugas use estuaries although considerable uncertainties exist and additional research is required. PMID

  13. STS-26 MS Nelson during training exercise in JSC Mockup and Integration Lab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Mission Specialist (MS) George D. Nelson, wearing navy blue launch and entry suit (LES) and launch and entry helmet (LEH), is seated in his launch and entry position on crew compartment trainer (CCT) middeck during a training exercise in JSC Mockup and Integration Laboratory Bldg 9A. Visible in the background are the airlock, stowed treadmill, and sleep restraints. NOTE: Photo was taken by William H. Bowers, crew photo instructor, with wide angle lens.

  14. Preliminary report on the Nelson and Radovan copper prospects, Nizina district, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sainsbury, C.J.

    1952-01-01

    Renewed copper exploration by Alaska Copper Mines, Incorporated, at the Nelson and Radovan prospects, Nizina district, Alaska, led the Geological Survey in 1951 to map in detail the Nelson fault block, and to re-examine the old workings. In addition, two new prospects were studied. The Nelson fault block is cut by many dominantly strike-slip faults of small displacement, and by bedding faults. Slickensided chalcocite shows post-mineral movement, and chalcocite veinlet in a filled solution cavity indicates that some of the chalcocite is secondary, perhaps very recent. Structural relations indicate two overthrust faults cut the block. The Radovan Greenstone prospect shows massive chalcocite, up to 3 feet wide, in a silicified, epidotized fault zone in the Nikolai greenstone. Ore indicated by surface exposures may amount to 450 tons of chalcocite. The Radovan Low-Contact prospect is on a continuation of the same fault approximately 3 miles southwest of the Greenstone prospect, and 150 feet above the contact of the Nikolai greenstone and the overlying Chitistone limestone. Limonite staining is widespread in bedding planes and small faults near the fault zone; mineralization in the fault zone consists of pyrite, chalcocite, bornite, malachite, realgar, orpiment and stibnite. The sulphides in the fault zone, plus the widespread silicification and epidotization indicate a strong zone of hydrothermal activity which merits extensive prospecting.

  15. Structuring expert input for a knowledge-based approach to watershed condition assessment for the Northwest Forest Plan, USA.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Sean N; Gallo, Kirsten

    2011-01-01

    Assessments of watershed condition for aquatic and riparian species often have to rely on expert opinion because of the complexity of establishing statistical relationships among the many factors involved. Such expert-based assessments can be difficult to document and apply consistently over time and space. We describe and reflect on the process of developing a computer-based decision support application from expert judgments for assessing aquatic and riparian conditions over the 100,000 km² managed by the US federal government under the Northwest Forest Plan. The decision support system helped structure and document the assessment process and provided consistency and transparency to the evaluation methodology. However, many decisions and trade-offs were required in the expert engagement and model-building processes. Knowledge elicitation in an interactive group had a number of benefits over nominal group or Delphi processes, but efficient knowledge capture required considerable planning and expertise in the subject matter and modeling process. Communicating model results for validation was problematic and only effectively accomplished via in-person workshops. The choice to use different expert groups for each biophysical province provided more opportunities for participation and promoted greater ownership in the assessment, but it also led to increased variation among the resulting model structures. We propose three possible approaches for better managing the consistency of assessment models when multiple expert groups are involved.

  16. Random Forest-Based Approach for Maximum Power Point Tracking of Photovoltaic Systems Operating under Actual Environmental Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Shareef, Hussain; Mohamed, Azah

    2017-01-01

    Many maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithms have been developed in recent years to maximize the produced PV energy. These algorithms are not sufficiently robust because of fast-changing environmental conditions, efficiency, accuracy at steady-state value, and dynamics of the tracking algorithm. Thus, this paper proposes a new random forest (RF) model to improve MPPT performance. The RF model has the ability to capture the nonlinear association of patterns between predictors, such as irradiance and temperature, to determine accurate maximum power point. A RF-based tracker is designed for 25 SolarTIFSTF-120P6 PV modules, with the capacity of 3 kW peak using two high-speed sensors. For this purpose, a complete PV system is modeled using 300,000 data samples and simulated using the MATLAB/SIMULINK package. The proposed RF-based MPPT is then tested under actual environmental conditions for 24 days to validate the accuracy and dynamic response. The response of the RF-based MPPT model is also compared with that of the artificial neural network and adaptive neurofuzzy inference system algorithms for further validation. The results show that the proposed MPPT technique gives significant improvement compared with that of other techniques. In addition, the RF model passes the Bland–Altman test, with more than 95 percent acceptability. PMID:28702051

  17. Random Forest-Based Approach for Maximum Power Point Tracking of Photovoltaic Systems Operating under Actual Environmental Conditions.

    PubMed

    Shareef, Hussain; Mutlag, Ammar Hussein; Mohamed, Azah

    2017-01-01

    Many maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithms have been developed in recent years to maximize the produced PV energy. These algorithms are not sufficiently robust because of fast-changing environmental conditions, efficiency, accuracy at steady-state value, and dynamics of the tracking algorithm. Thus, this paper proposes a new random forest (RF) model to improve MPPT performance. The RF model has the ability to capture the nonlinear association of patterns between predictors, such as irradiance and temperature, to determine accurate maximum power point. A RF-based tracker is designed for 25 SolarTIFSTF-120P6 PV modules, with the capacity of 3 kW peak using two high-speed sensors. For this purpose, a complete PV system is modeled using 300,000 data samples and simulated using the MATLAB/SIMULINK package. The proposed RF-based MPPT is then tested under actual environmental conditions for 24 days to validate the accuracy and dynamic response. The response of the RF-based MPPT model is also compared with that of the artificial neural network and adaptive neurofuzzy inference system algorithms for further validation. The results show that the proposed MPPT technique gives significant improvement compared with that of other techniques. In addition, the RF model passes the Bland-Altman test, with more than 95 percent acceptability.

  18. Vegetation types and climate conditions reflected by the modern phytolith assemblages in the subalpine Dalaoling Forest Reserve, central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traoré, Djakanibé Désiré; Gu, Yansheng; Liu, Humei; Shemsanga, Ceven; Ge, Jiwen

    2015-06-01

    This research describes modern phytolith records and distributions from subalpine surface soils in the Dalaoling Forest Reserve, and reveals its implications for local climate conditions with respect to the altitude gradient. Well-preserved phytolith morpho-types, assemblages, and climatic indices were used to study the relationship between local vegetation and climate conditions. The phytolith classification system is mainly based on the characteristics of detailed morpho-types described for anatomical terms, which are divided into seven groups: long cells, short cells, bulliform cells, hair cells, pteridophyte type, broad-leaved type, and gymnosperm type. Phytoliths originating from the Poaceae are composed of Pooideae (rondel and trapeziform), Panicoideae (bilobate, cross, and polylobate), Chloridoideae (short/square saddle), and Bambusoideae (oblong concave saddle). Based on the altitudinal distribution of the phytolith assemblages and the indices of aridity (Iph), climate (Ic), and tree cover density (D/P), five phytolith assemblage zones have revealed the five types of climatic conditions ranging from 1,169 m to 2,005 m in turn: warm-wet, warm-xeric to warm-mesic, warm-xeric to cool-mesic, cool-xeric, and cool-mesic to cool-xeric. The Bambusoideae, Panicoideae, and Chloridoideae are the dominant vegetation at the lower-middle of the mountains, while Pooideae is mainly distributed in the higher mountains. The close relationship between phytolith assembleages and changes of altitude gradient suggest that vegetation distribution patterns and plant ecology in the Dalaoling mountains are controlled by temperature and humidity conditions. Our results highlight the importance of phytolith records as reliable ecoclimatic indicators for vegetation ecology in subtropical regions.

  19. Relationships of three species of bats impacted by white-nose syndrome to forest condition and management

    Treesearch

    A. Silvis; Roger Perry; W.M. Ford

    2016-01-01

    Forest management activities can have substantial effects on forest structure and community composition and response of wildlife therein. Bats can be highly influenced by these structural changes, and understanding how forest management affects day-roost and foraging ecology of bats is currently a paramount conservation issue. With populations of many cave-hibernating...

  20. What is forest restoration?

    Treesearch

    John A. Stanturf

    2005-01-01

    The need to repair habitat and restore forest structure and funciton is recognized throughout the temperate and boreal zones as a component of sustainable forest management (Krishnaswamy and Hanson 1999; Dobson et al. 1997). Forest restoration is a complex task, complicated by diverse ecological and social conditions, that challenges our understanding of forest...

  1. A dynamic organic soil biogeochemical model for simulating the effects of wildfire on soil environmental conditions and carbon dynamics of black spruce forests

    Treesearch

    Shuhua Yi; A. David McGuire; Eric Kasischke; Jennifer Harden; Kristen Manies; Michelle Mack; Merritt. Turetsky

    2010-01-01

    Ecosystem models have not comprehensively considered how interactions among fire disturbance, soil environmental conditions, and biogeochemical processes affect ecosystem dynamics in boreal forest ecosystems. In this study, we implemented a dynamic organic soil structure in the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (DOS-TEM) to investigate the effects of fire on soil temperature...

  2. Forest structure and landscape patterns in the subalpine lodgepole pine type: A procedure for quantifying past and present conditions. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Arno, S.F.; Reinhardt, E.D.; Scott, J.H.

    1993-02-01

    The report presents a method of quantitatively representing the mosaic of stand types on a small landscape in the subalpine lodgepole pine forest type. The method utilizes macroplots placed systematically on a transect grid. Structure and composition of both current and past stands are inventoried. Procedures for data analysis and interpretation are illustrated for a lodgepole pine landscape in Montana.

  3. Nontimber forest products in the United States: Montreal Process indicators as measures of current conditions and sustainability

    Treesearch

    Susan J. Alexander; Sonja N. Oswalt; Marla R. Emery

    2011-01-01

    The United States, in partnership with 11 other countries, participates in the Montreal Process. Each country assesses national progress toward the sustainable management of forest resources by using a set of criteria and indicators agreed on by all member countries. Several indicators focus on nontimber forest products (NTFPs). In the United States, permit and...

  4. Five anthropogenic factors that will radically alter forest conditions and management needs in the Northern United States

    Treesearch

    Stephen R. Shifley; W. Keith Moser; David J. Nowak; Patrick D. Miles; Brett J. Butler; Francisco X. Aguilar; Ryan D. DeSantis; Eric J. Greenfield

    2014-01-01

    The Northern United States includes the 20 states bounded by Maine, Maryland, Missouri, and Minnesota. With 70 million ha of forestland and 124 million people, it is the most densely forested (42% of land area) and most densely populated (74 people/km2) quadrant of the United States. Three recent, large-scale, multiresource assessments of forest...

  5. Re-sampling remotely sensed data to improve national and regional mapping of forest conditions with confidential field data

    Treesearch

    Raymond L. Czaplewski

    2005-01-01

    Forest Service Research and Development (R&D) and State and Private Forestry Deputy Areas, in partnership with the National Forest System Remote Sensing Applications Center (RSAC), built a 250-m resolution (6.25-ha pixel) dataset for the entire USA. It assembles multi-seasonal hyperspectral MODIS data and derivatives, Landsat derivatives (i.e., summary statistics...

  6. Burial of downed deadwood is strongly affected by log attributes, forest ground vegetation, edaphic conditions, and climate zones

    Treesearch

    Jogeir N. Stokland; Christopher W. Woodall; Jonas Fridman; Göran Ståhl

    2016-01-01

    Deadwood can represent a substantial portion of forest ecosystem carbon stocks and is often reported following good practice guidance associated with national greenhouse gas inventories. In high-latitude forest ecosystems, a substantial proportion of downed deadwood is overgrown by ground vegetation and buried in the humus layer. Such burial obfuscates the important...

  7. Remote sensing of interannual boreal forest NDVI in relation to climatic conditions in interior Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbyla, David

    2015-12-01

    Climate has warmed substantially in interior Alaska and several remote sensing studies have documented a decadal-scale decline in the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) termed a ‘browning trend’. Reduced summer soil moisture due to changing climatic factors such as earlier springs, less snowpack, and summer drought may reduce boreal productivity and NDVI. However, the relative importance of these climatic factors is poorly understood in boreal interior Alaska. In this study, I used the remotely sensed peak summer NDVI as an index of boreal productivity at 250 m pixel size from 2000 to 2014. Maximum summer NDVI was related to last day of spring snow, early spring snow water equivalent (SWE), and a summer moisture index. There was no significant correlation between early spring SWE and peak summer NDVI. There was a significant correlation between the last day of spring snow and peak summer NDVI, but only for a few higher elevation stations. This was likely due to snowmelt occurring later at higher elevations, thus having a greater effect on summer soil moisture relative to lower elevation sites. For most of boreal interior Alaska, summer drought was likely the dominant control on peak summer NDVI and this effect may persist for several years. Peak summer NDVI declined at all 26 stations after the 2004 drought, and the decline persisted for 2 years at all stations. Due to the shallow rooting zone of most boreal plants, even cool and moist sites at lower elevations are likely vulnerable to drought. For example the peak summer NDVI response following the 2004 drought was similar for adjacent cold and warm watershed basins. Thus, if frequent and severe summer droughts continue, moisture stress effects are likely to be widespread and prolonged throughout most of interior boreal Alaska, including relatively cool, moist sites regardless of spring snowpack conditions or spring phenology.

  8. Influence of Vegetation Structure on Lidar-derived Canopy Height and Fractional Cover in Forested Riparian Buffers During Leaf-Off and Leaf-On Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Wasser, Leah; Day, Rick; Chasmer, Laura; Taylor, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Estimates of canopy height (H) and fractional canopy cover (FC) derived from lidar data collected during leaf-on and leaf-off conditions are compared with field measurements from 80 forested riparian buffer plots. The purpose is to determine if existing lidar data flown in leaf-off conditions for applications such as terrain mapping can effectively estimate forested riparian buffer H and FC within a range of riparian vegetation types. Results illustrate that: 1) leaf-off and leaf-on lidar percentile estimates are similar to measured heights in all plots except those dominated by deciduous compound-leaved trees where lidar underestimates H during leaf off periods; 2) canopy height models (CHMs) underestimate H by a larger margin compared to percentile methods and are influenced by vegetation type (conifer needle, deciduous simple leaf or deciduous compound leaf) and canopy height variability, 3) lidar estimates of FC are within 10% of plot measurements during leaf-on periods, but are underestimated during leaf-off periods except in mixed and conifer plots; and 4) depth of laser pulse penetration lower in the canopy is more variable compared to top of the canopy penetration which may influence within canopy vegetation structure estimates. This study demonstrates that leaf-off lidar data can be used to estimate forested riparian buffer canopy height within diverse vegetation conditions and fractional canopy cover within mixed and conifer forests when leaf-on lidar data are not available. PMID:23382966

  9. Influence of vegetation structure on lidar-derived canopy height and fractional cover in forested riparian buffers during leaf-off and leaf-on conditions.

    PubMed

    Wasser, Leah; Day, Rick; Chasmer, Laura; Taylor, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Estimates of canopy height (H) and fractional canopy cover (FC) derived from lidar data collected during leaf-on and leaf-off conditions are compared with field measurements from 80 forested riparian buffer plots. The purpose is to determine if existing lidar data flown in leaf-off conditions for applications such as terrain mapping can effectively estimate forested riparian buffer H and FC within a range of riparian vegetation types. Results illustrate that: 1) leaf-off and leaf-on lidar percentile estimates are similar to measured heights in all plots except those dominated by deciduous compound-leaved trees where lidar underestimates H during leaf off periods; 2) canopy height models (CHMs) underestimate H by a larger margin compared to percentile methods and are influenced by vegetation type (conifer needle, deciduous simple leaf or deciduous compound leaf) and canopy height variability, 3) lidar estimates of FC are within 10% of plot measurements during leaf-on periods, but are underestimated during leaf-off periods except in mixed and conifer plots; and 4) depth of laser pulse penetration lower in the canopy is more variable compared to top of the canopy penetration which may influence within canopy vegetation structure estimates. This study demonstrates that leaf-off lidar data can be used to estimate forested riparian buffer canopy height within diverse vegetation conditions and fractional canopy cover within mixed and conifer forests when leaf-on lidar data are not available.

  10. Influence of light conditions on the allometry and growth of the understory palm Geonoma undata subsp. edulis (Arecaceae) of neotropical cloud forests.

    PubMed

    Sylvester, Olivia; Avalos, Gerardo

    2013-12-01

    Knowledge on the growth responses of understory palms to changing light conditions within neotropical cloud forests is limited. The low light regime of these environments, in addition to persistent cloudiness, low ambient temperatures, and slow nutrient cycles, imposes significant constraints on biomass accumulation. Here, we evaluate how changes in the understory light conditions influenced the allometry and growth of G. undata subsp. edulis in two cloud forests in Costa Rica. We examined the structural relationships between stem diameter, stem height, and crown area in reproductive and nonreproductive individuals. We related the variation in stem growth and crown area with allometry, leaf production and longevity, and light conditions that we measured using hemispherical photographs over 1 year. The allometric and growth pattern of G. undata subsp. edulis was characterized by its investment in crown area, which was strongly and positively related to increments in palm height and reproduction. Growth, measured as the increase in crown area and stem height, was not explained by the variation in the light regime spanning 1 year. However, reproductive individuals were generally taller, more slender, and had larger leaf areas than nonreproductive individuals. Our results demonstrated that stem growth responses were mostly controlled by initial crown size rather than by temporal differences in the understory light regimes of cloud forests. These results suggest that cloud forest understory palms have a limited capacity to respond to light changes and rely mostly on an opportunistic strategy for biomass accumulation and reproduction.

  11. The Westphalian D fossil lepidodendrid forest at Table Head, Sydney Basin, Nova Scotia: Sedimentology, paleoecology and floral response to changing edaphic conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Calder, J.H.; Gibling, M.R.; Eble, C.F.; Scott, A.C.; MacNeil, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    Strata of Westphalian D age on the western coast of the Sydney Basin expose a fossil forest of approximately 30 lepidodendrid trees within one of several clastic splits of the Harbour Seam. A mutidisciplinary approach was employed to interpret the origins of the coal bed, the depositional history of the site and the response of the fossil forest to changing edaphic conditions. The megaspore and miospore records indicate that the mire vegetation was dominated by arboreous lycopsids, especially Paralycopodites, with subdominant tree ferns. Petrographic, palynological and geochemical evidence suggest that the Harbour coal bed at Table Head originated as a rheotrophic (cf. planar) mire (eutric histosol). The mire forest is interpreted to have been engulfed by prograding distributary-channel sediments; sparse protist assemblages are suggestive of a freshwater delta-plain lake environment occasionally in contact with brackish waters. Lepidodendrids persisted as site colonizers of clastic substrates even after burial of the rheotrophic peatland and influenced the morphology of deposited sediment, but apparently were unable to colonize distributary channels. Equivocal taxonomic data (compression fossils) show the fossil forest to have been composed of both monocarpic (Lepidodendron) and polycarpic (Diaphorodendron, Paralycopodites, ?Sigillaria) lycopsids, genera recorded in the palynology of the uppermost ply of the underlying coal bed. Comparatively rare within the clastic beds of the fossil forest, however, is the stem compression of Paralycopodites, whose dispersed megapores and miospores dominate the underlying coal bed. Tree diameter data recorded equivalent to breast height indicate a forest of mixed age. These data would appear to suggest that some lepidodendrids employing a polycarpic reproductive strategy were better able to cross the ecological barrier imposed between peat and clastic substrates. Foliar compressions indicate that an understory or stand of

  12. Use of the Priestley-Taylor evaporation equation for soil water limited conditions in a small forest clearcut

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, A.L.; Childs, S.W.

    1991-01-01

    The Priestley-Taylor equation, a simplification of the Penman equation, was used to allow calculations of evapotranspiration under conditions where soil water supply limits evapotranspiration. The Priestley-Taylor coefficient, ??, was calculated to incorporate an exponential decrease in evapotranspiration as soil water content decreases. The method is appropriate for use when detailed meteorological measurements are not available. The data required to determine the parameter for the ?? coefficient are net radiation, soil heat flux, average air temperature, and soil water content. These values can be obtained from measurements or models. The dataset used in this report pertains to a partially vegetated clearcut forest site in southwest Oregon with soil depths ranging from 0.48 to 0.70 m and weathered bedrock below that. Evapotranspiration was estimated using the Bowen ratio method, and the calculated Priestley-Taylor coefficient was fitted to these estimates by nonlinear regression. The calculated Priestley-Taylor coefficient (?????) was found to be approximately 0.9 when the soil was near field capacity (0.225 cm3 cm-3). It was not until soil water content was less than 0.14 cm3 cm-3 that soil water supply limited evapotranspiration. The soil reached a final residual water content near 0.05 cm3 cm-3 at the end of the growing season. ?? 1991.

  13. Is evapotranspiration and its components from boreal forests constant with stand age after fire and drainage conditions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewers, B. E.; Barker, C.; Angstmann, J.; Amiro, B.; Bond-Lamberty, B.; Kwon, H.; Gower, S. T.

    2008-12-01

    Boreal forests play a crucial role in the global C cycle, but our understanding of how the feedbacks from the boreal water cycle will affect regional and global climate is limited. In addition, boreal fire return intervals are shortening but the impact of shifting successional and soil drainage patterns on evapotranspiration is not known. We quantified evapotranspiration and its components across a chronosequence of three sites ages 42, 76 and 156 years in 2007, with each site containing separate well- and poorly-drained stands (bogs). Estimates of evapotranspiration, tree canopy transpiration and bryophyte evaporation were made using energy balance, sap flux and chamber measurements respectively. Energy balance measurements (net radiation and sensible and ground heat flux) were inter-calibrated across sites to minimize instrument biases. Daily average growing season evapotranspiration increased 15 percent with stand age from 1.61 to 1.85 mm/day and 14 percent with improved soil drainage from 1.61 to 1.84 mm/day. These increases in evapotranspiration were driven by tree transpiration increasing from 0.59 to 0.69 mm/day with stand age and from 0.24 to 0.61 mm/day with improved soil drainage. Bryophyte contributions to evapotranspiration were larger than tree sources averaging 0.75 and 1.0 mm/day for the well and poorly drained stands respectively, but did not change significantly within the three site ages. To independently test our scaling of component fluxes to evapotranspiration, stable isotope measurements of water sources and fluxes were made in the 76 year old site. Keeling plot analyses agreed with evapotranspiration estimates with higher gradients in the well-drained stand and a source signature dominated by trees in the poorly drained stand. Our results clearly show that evapotranspiration is not constant with increasing stand age or soil drainage conditions after fire. These changes in evapotranspiration are due to varying tree species contributions to

  14. Co-effect of increased humidity and meteorological conditions on greenhouse gas fluxes in a young hybrid aspen forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Raili; Mander, Ülo; Kupper, Priit; Soosaar, Kaido; Maddison, Martin; Sõber, Jaak; Lõhmus, Krista

    2014-05-01

    Due to the climate change, higher precipitation and an increase in air humidity is expected in northern Europe in the near future (IPCC 2007). There are some studies about irrigation, elevated CO2 and O3 etc., but still we have too little knowledge about the humidity effect on the deciduous forest ecosystem. In 2006 a free-air humidity manipulation (FAHM) facility was established in Estonia and in 2008 we started to artificially increase the air humidity in young hybrid aspen (Populus tremula L. x P. tremuloides Michx.) forest trials on an Endogleyic Planosol of former arable land. Air humidity was raised on average about 7% compared to ambient condition (Tullus et al., 2012). We measured the carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide fluxes from the FAHM system using closed static chamber and gas-chromatograph techniques from July 2009 to November 2012 during snow free periods. Flux measurements were done once a month in three humidification (h) plots and in three control (c) plots. We monitored soil temperature, soil water potential (SWP), precipitation and relative humidity. The vegetation period was rainy in 2009, droughty in 2010 and 2011 (according to SWP the drought was severe in 2011) and cold in 2012. Soil respiration was the lowest in 2011 both in c and h plots; however it was significantly higher in h. Most of the time the soil was a sink for methane, but less CH4 was oxidized in the soil of h plots. Emission of N2O did not have good correlation with air humidity, although one could observe a clear tendency of bigger N2O fluxes when soil was continuously water-saturated. Expectedly, soil respiration had strong positive correlations with soil temperature and CH4 emission demonstrated strong positive correlation with SWP. Hence, interaction of humidification and precipitation affected greenhouse gas fluxes. IPCC, Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 2007. Tullus A, Kupper P, Sellin A, Parts L, Sõber J

  15. Investigating Over Critical Thresholds of Forest Megafires Danger Conditions in Europe Utilising the ECMWF ERA-Interim Reanalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petroliagkis, Thomas I.; Camia, Andrea; Liberta, Giorgio; Durrant, Tracy; Pappenberger, Florian; San-Miguel-Ayanz, Jesus

    2014-05-01

    The European Forest Fire Information System (EFFIS) has been established by the Joint Research Centre (JRC) and the Directorate General for Environment (DG ENV) of the European Commission (EC) to support the services in charge of the protection of forests against fires in the EU and neighbour countries, and also to provide the EC services and the European Parliament with information on forest fires in Europe. Within its applications, EFFIS provides current and forecast meteorological fire danger maps up to 6 days. Weather plays a key role in affecting wildfire occurrence and behaviour. Meteorological parameters can be used to derive meteorological fire weather indices that provide estimations of fire danger level at a given time over a specified area of interest. In this work, we investigate the suitability of critical thresholds of fire danger to provide an early warning for megafires (fires > 500 ha) over Europe. Past trends of fire danger are analysed computing daily fire danger from weather data taken from re-analysis fields for a period of 31 years (1980 to 2010). Re-analysis global data sets coming from the construction of high-quality climate records, which combine past observations collected from many different observing and measuring platforms, are capable of describing how Fire Danger Indices have evolved over time at a global scale. The latest and most updated ERA-Interim dataset of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) was used to extract meteorological variables needed to compute daily values of the Canadian Fire Weather Index (CFWI) over Europe, with a horizontal resolution of about 75x75 km. Daily time series of CFWI were constructed and analysed over a total of 1,071 European NUTS3 centroids, resulting in a set of percentiles and critical thresholds. Such percentiles could be used as thresholds to help fire services establish a measure of the significance of CFWI outputs as they relate to levels of fire potential, fuel

  16. Montana's forest resources. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, R.C.; O'Brien, R.A.

    1993-09-01

    The report includes highlights of the forest resource in Montana as of 1989. Also the study describes the extent, condition, and location of the State's forests with particular emphasis on timberland. Includes statistical tables, area by land classes, ownership, and forest type, growing stock and sawtimber volumes, growth, mortality, and removals for timberland.

  17. Forest health from different perspectives

    Treesearch

    T. E. Kolb; M. R. Wagner; W. W. Covington

    1995-01-01

    Forest health is an increasingly important concept in natural resource management. However, definition of forest health is difficult and dependent on human perspective. From a utilitarian perspective, forest health has been defined by the production of forest conditions which directly satisfy human needs. From an ecosystem-centered perspective, forest health has been...

  18. Geology, hydrology, and water quality of the glacial drift aquifer in the vicinity of the Nelson landfill near Yorkville, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kay, Robert T.

    2006-01-01

    The geologic and hydrologic characteristics of the sand-and-gravel deposits that compose the glacial drift aquifer in the vicinity of the Nelson Landfill site in Yor-kville, Illinois indicate that the aquifer could be devel-oped as a source of public water supply. The geology of these deposits within the Newark Bedrock Valley is com-plex, however, and a detailed investigation of their water bearing and transmitting properties will be required to successfully locate high-capacity wells. Volatile organic compounds, pesticides, and cyanide were not detected in ground water during this investiga-tion. Metals and nitrogen compounds were not detected at concentrations above their Maximum Contaminant Level. Iron, manganese, and aluminum were detected at concentrations above their Secondary Maximum Con-taminant Level and various constituents were detected at concentrations above background levels downgradi-ent of the landfill. Nitrate and ammonia, presumably derived from agricultural practices, also were detected in samples from locations hydraulically upgradient of the landfill. Oxidation-reduction conditions in the aquifer become more reducing with depth. This change is reflected by a change in the type of nitrogen compound detected and the concentration of dissolved oxygen and iron in the glacial drift aquifer. Concentrations of some of the major ions and metals may be affected by disso-lution of carbonate minerals in the aquifer and perhaps road salts.

  19. Comparing the observed differences in snowmelt energy fluxes during rain-on-snow and clear sky conditions at numerous open and forested sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garvelmann, J.; Pohl, S.; Weiler, M.

    2013-12-01

    The spatial and temporal variability of snowcover processes and the associated energy balance factors are still not well understood, especially in forested environments. A high-density network consisting of novel, low cost, standalone snow monitoring stations (SnoMoS) was deployed to measure snow depth and the meteorological variables controlling the available energy fluxes at the snow surface in the Black Forest, a typical mid latitude medium elevation mountain range (500-1500m). The winter periods in this environment are characterized by multiple snow accumulation and melt periods including frequent rain-on-snow events. A stratified sampling design was set-up to cover most of the elevation range and exposures in the study area. Furthermore SnoMoS pairs (forest/open) were installed to investigate the influence of the forest cover on the snow accumulation and melt processes. The meteorological variables measured in hourly intervals allowed for a continuous direct estimation of the individual surface energy balance components for different topographic situations, different vegetation covers, and a variety of climatic conditions. The study shows the relative importance and quantifies the contributions of the individual snowmelt energy balance components along with their respective spatial variability during a rain-on-snow event in December 2012 compared to clear sky snowmelt in early spring 2013 based on the data of 65 SnoMoS. The derived snowmelt energy balance for the 65 open and forested locations in the study area show the importance of the turbulent fluxes of sensible and latent heat accounting for, on average, 62% of the total melt energy available for snowmelt at open sites during a rain-on-snow event. At the forested sites, net longwave radiation (55%) and turbulent energy fluxes (32%) dominated snowmelt during this time. In contrast, during clear sky conditions net global radiation was dominating the energy balance at the open sites (92%) and forested sites

  20. Passageless comprehension on the Nelson-Denny reading test: well above chance for university students.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Chris; Lindstrom, Jennifer; Nelson, Jason; Lindstrom, William; Gregg, K Noël

    2010-01-01

    The comprehension section of the Nelson-Denny Reading Test (NDRT) is widely used to assess the reading comprehension skills of adolescents and adults in the United States. In this study, the authors explored the content validity of the NDRT Comprehension Test (Forms G and H) by asking university students (with and without at-risk status for learning disorders) to answer the multiple-choice comprehension questions without reading the passages. Overall accuracy rates were well above chance for both NDRT forms and both groups of students. These results raise serious questions about the validity of the NDRT and its use in the identification of reading disabilities.

  1. The Translation Invariant Massive Nelson Model: III. Asymptotic Completeness Below the Two-Boson Threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dybalski, Wojciech; Møller, Jacob Schach

    2015-11-01

    We show asymptotic completeness of two-body scattering for a class of translation invariant models describing a single quantum particle (the electron) linearly coupled to a massive scalar field (bosons). Our proof is based on a recently established Mourre estimate for these models. In contrast to previous approaches, it requires no number cutoff, no restriction on the particle-field coupling strength, and no restriction on the magnitude of total momentum. Energy, however, is restricted by the two-boson threshold, admitting only scattering of a dressed electron and a single asymptotic boson. The class of models we consider include the UV-cutoff Nelson and polaron models.

  2. [A biographical profile of Nelson Chaves and his contribution to nutrition in public health in Brazil].

    PubMed

    de Assis Guedes de Vasconcelos, F

    2001-01-01

    This study focuses on the academic and intellectual career of scientist Nelson Chaves, founder of the Nutritionists School and the Institute of Nutrition at the Federal University in Pernambuco. The methodology was based on quantitative and qualitative analyses of this author's scientific production, published from 1932 to 1982. Beginning with his search for solutions to malnutrition children from the Zona da Mata region in Pernambuco, this scientist created what is commonly called the humanist-ecological paradigm of the Brazilian nutritional issue, thus contributing to the institutionalization of the field of nutrition in public health throughout Brazil.

  3. Rep. Bill Nelson prepares to photograph samples of protein crystal growth

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1986-01-12

    61C-05-036 (12-18 Jan. 1986) --- U.S. Representative Bill Nelson (Democrat - Florida), STS-61C payload specialist, prepares to photograph individual samples in the Handheld Protein Crystal Growth Experiment (HPCG) on Columbia's middeck. The operations involve the use of four pieces of equipment to attempt the growth of 60 different types of crystals -- 12 by means of dialysis and 48 via the vapor diffusion method. The photo was used by members of the STS-61C crew at their Jan. 23, 1986, Post-Flight Press Conference.

  4. STS-26 MS Nelson operates controls for PVTOS-2 experiment on aft middeck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Mission Specialist (MS) George D. Nelson operates generic electronics module for the Physical Vapor Transport of Organic Solids 2 (PVTOS-2) experiment on Discovery's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103's, aft middeck. PVTOS-2 consists of nine independent experimental cells about 12 inches long and 3 inches in diameter. They are mounted in a circular base plate inside the drum-like experimental apparatus container (EAC). PVTOS-2 is sponsored by NASA's Office of Commercial Programs and is being conducted by 3M's Space Research and Applications Laboratory.

  5. The divine clockwork: Bohr's correspondence principle and Nelson's stochastic mechanics for the atomic elliptic state

    SciTech Connect

    Durran, Richard; Neate, Andrew; Truman, Aubrey

    2008-03-15

    We consider the Bohr correspondence limit of the Schroedinger wave function for an atomic elliptic state. We analyze this limit in the context of Nelson's stochastic mechanics, exposing an underlying deterministic dynamical system in which trajectories converge to Keplerian motion on an ellipse. This solves the long standing problem of obtaining Kepler's laws of planetary motion in a quantum mechanical setting. In this quantum mechanical setting, local mild instabilities occur in the Keplerian orbit for eccentricities greater than (1/{radical}(2)) which do not occur classically.

  6. Changes in dissolved organic matter quality in a peatland and forest headwater stream as a function of seasonality and hydrologic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broder, Tanja; Knorr, Klaus-Holger; Biester, Harald

    2017-04-01

    Peatlands and peaty riparian zones are major sources of dissolved organic matter (DOM), but are poorly understood in terms of export dynamics and controls thereof. Thereby quality of DOM affects function and behavior of DOM in aquatic ecosystems, but DOM quality can also help to track DOM sources and their export dynamics under specific hydrologic preconditions. The objective of this study was to elucidate controls on temporal variability in DOM concentration and quality in stream water draining a bog and a forested peaty riparian zone, particularly considering drought and storm flow events. DOM quality was monitored using spectrofluorometric indices for aromaticity (SUVA254), apparent molecular size (SR) and precursor organic material (FI), as well as PARAFAC modeling of excitation emission matrices (EEMs). Indices for DOM quality exhibited major changes due to different hydrologic conditions, but patterns were also dependent on season. Stream water at the forested site with mineral, peaty soils generally exhibited higher variability in DOM concentrations and quality compared to the outflow of an ombrotrophic bog, where DOM was less susceptible to changes in hydrologic conditions. During snowmelt and spring events, near-surface protein-like DOM pools were exported. A microbial DOM fraction originating from groundwater and deep peat layers was increasing during drought, while a strongly microbially altered DOM fraction was also exported by discharge events with dry preconditions at the forested site. This might be due to accelerated microbial activity in the peaty riparian zone of the forested site under these preconditions. Our study demonstrated that DOM export dynamics are not only a passive mixing of different hydrological sources, but monitoring studies have to consider that DOM quality depends on hydrologic preconditions and season. Moreover, the forested peaty riparian zone generated the most variability in headwater DOM quantity and quality, as could be

  7. Hyperspectral data for assessment of temporal changes in Norway spruce forest conditions in the mountainous region of the Czech Republic affected by long-term acidic deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrechtova, J.; Lhotakova, Z.; Misurec, J.; Kopackova, V.; Campbell, P. K. E.; Edwards-Jonasova, M.; Kupkova, L.; Cervena, L.; Potuckova, M.; Cudlin, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Ore Mts. located in the western part of the Czech Republic suffered during 1950's-1990´s heavy atmospheric pollution due to the mining activities and brown coal combustion. Acidic deposition in combination with harsh climatic conditions led there to large-scale forest decline. Although the load of SO2 has significantly decreased since 1991, tree damage was still visible in 1998 in terms of high defoliation or dead trees. Nowadays Norway spruce trees do not exhibit visible symptoms of damage but the full recovery of Norway spruce forests is not complete yet due to persisting adverse soil conditions. The temporal changes in the physiological status of Norway spruce forests in the Krušné Hory Mts. were evaluated using two sets of spectral images acquired in 1998 (ASAS) and in 2013 (APEX) and ground truth data (LAI, tree crown status, photosynthetic pigment contents, leaf spectral properties measured by spectroradiometer, soil properties - pH, contents of basic cations, heavy metals, etc.). Ground truth data were evaluated by unconstrained and constrained multivariate analyses using Canoco 5. The high resolution spectral images (ASAS and APEX) enabled the identification of a gradient of forest conditions and their comparison. In 1998 the stands exhibited different physiological status corresponding to the pollution gradient with healthier trees at the western part of the mountains. Analysis of the foliar chemistry in 2013 show a slight improvement of the Norway spruce physiological status in the eastern part of the mountains while the status of the western-located stands slightly worsened. In 2013 we also studied the differences in soil geochemical conditions, which appeared to be less favorable in the western part of the mountains characterized by a low base cation contents in the top organic horizon and a very low pH (pH<3).

  8. Relative Importance of Current and Past Landscape Structure and Local Habitat Conditions for Plant Species Richness in Dry Grassland-Like Forest Openings

    PubMed Central

    Husáková, Iveta; Münzbergová, Zuzana

    2014-01-01

    In fragmented landscapes, plant species richness may depend not only on local habitat conditions but also on landscape structure. In addition, both present and past landscape structure may be important for species richness. There are, however, only a few studies that have investigated the relative importance of all of these factors. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of current and past landscape structures and habitat conditions on species richness at dry grassland-like forest openings in a forested landscape and to assess their relative importance for species richness. We analyzed information on past and present landscape structures using aerial photographs from 1938, 1973, 1988, 2000 and 2007. We calculated the area of each locality and its isolation in the present and in the past and the continuity of localities in GIS. At each locality, we recorded all vascular plant species (296 species in 110 forest openings) and information on abiotic conditions of the localities. We found that the current species richness of the forest openings was significantly determined by local habitat conditions as well as by landscape structure in the present and in the past. The highest species richness was observed on larger and more heterogeneous localities with rocks and shallow soils, which were already large and well connected to other localities in 1938. The changes in the landscape structure in the past can thus have strong effects on current species richness. Future studies attempting to understand determinants of species diversity in fragmented landscapes should also include data on past landscape structure, as it may in fact be more important than the present structure. PMID:24809474

  9. Relative importance of current and past landscape structure and local habitat conditions for plant species richness in dry grassland-like forest openings.

    PubMed

    Husáková, Iveta; Münzbergová, Zuzana

    2014-01-01

    In fragmented landscapes, plant species richness may depend not only on local habitat conditions but also on landscape structure. In addition, both present and past landscape structure may be important for species richness. There are, however, only a few studies that have investigated the relative importance of all of these factors. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of current and past landscape structures and habitat conditions on species richness at dry grassland-like forest openings in a forested landscape and to assess their relative importance for species richness. We analyzed information on past and present landscape structures using aerial photographs from 1938, 1973, 1988, 2000 and 2007. We calculated the area of each locality and its isolation in the present and in the past and the continuity of localities in GIS. At each locality, we recorded all vascular plant species (296 species in 110 forest openings) and information on abiotic conditions of the localities. We found that the current species richness of the forest openings was significantly determined by local habitat conditions as well as by landscape structure in the present and in the past. The highest species richness was observed on larger and more heterogeneous localities with rocks and shallow soils, which were already large and well connected to other localities in 1938. The changes in the landscape structure in the past can thus have strong effects on current species richness. Future studies attempting to understand determinants of species diversity in fragmented landscapes should also include data on past landscape structure, as it may in fact be more important than the present structure.

  10. Forest Restoration following Southern Pine Beetle

    Treesearch

    John D. Waldron

    2011-01-01

    Forest restoration is the process of transforming a damaged or unhealthy forest into a healthy one. After the southern pine beetle (SPB) has damaged a forest, it is sometimes, if not most times, necessary to restore that forest. It is important to know the restoration goals, conditions prior to SPB, current conditions, and potential future conditions of the forest...

  11. Effects of forest cover changes in European Russia on regional weather conditions: results of numerical experiments with the COSMO-CLM model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olchev, Alexander; Kuzmina, Ekaterina; Rozinkina, Inna; Nikitin, Mikhail; Rivin, Gdaly S.

    2017-04-01

    The forests have a significant effect on the climatic system. They capture CO2 from the atmosphere, regulate the surface evaporation and runoff, and influence the radiation and thermal conditions of the land surface. It is obvious, that their influence depends on many different factors including regional climate conditions, land use and vegetation structure, surface topography, etc. The main goal of the study is to assess the possible influence of forest cover changes (under deforestation and/or afforestation) on regional weather conditions in the central part of European Russia using the results of modeling experiments provided by the meso-scale COSMO-CLM model. The need of the study lies in a lack of the experimental and modeling data characterizing the influence of the forest and land-use changes on regional weather conditions in European part of Russia. The forest ecosystems in the study region play a very important biosphere role that is significantly increased in the last decades due to considerable strengthening of anthropogenic activity in the area of European Russia. The area selected for the study is located in the central part of European Russia between 55 and 59N and 28 and 37E. It comprises several geographical zones including dark-coniferous forests of the South-European taiga in the north, the mixed forests in the central part and the broad-leaved forests in the south. The forests within the study area are very heterogeneous. The total area covered by forests according to recent remote sensing data is about 50%. The numerical experiments were provided using the COSMO-CLM model with the spatial resolution 13.2 km. As initial and boundary conditions for the numerical experiments the global reanalysis ERA Interim (with the 6-hour resolution in time and 0.75° × 0.75° in space) were used. The weather conditions were simulated in a continuous cycle for several months for the entire area of European Russia using the results of global reanalysis on

  12. Development and validation of detailed controls models of the Nelson River Bipole 1 HVDC system

    SciTech Connect

    Kuffel, P.; Kent, K.L.; Mazur, G.B.; Weekes, M.A. )

    1993-01-01

    With the Nelson River Bipole 1 mercury arc valve group replacement project and planning for the expansion of the Nelson River HVDC system with a third bipole underway, it was decided to pursue a program to develop and validate detailed models of the existing HVDC transmission facilities and their associated ac systems for use in system studies. The first phase of the program concentrated on the development of detailed controls models associated with the Bipole 1 transmission facility. Based on previous experience at Manitoba Hydro with the Electromagnetic Transient DC simulation program (EMTDC), it was decided that model development and validation would use this program. This paper presents the reasons behind the development of detailed models, the methods used in developing models related to Bipole 1, results of validation tests, difficulties encountered during the process, and the overall benefits resulting from the project. An example of applying the models to investigate a low frequency oscillation which has occurred on the dc system in the past is also presented.

  13. The soil indicator of forest health in the Forest Inventory and Analysis Program

    Treesearch

    Michael C. Amacher; Charles H. Perry

    2010-01-01

    Montreal Process Criteria and Indicators (MPCI) were established to monitor forest conditions and trends to promote sustainable forest management. The Soil Indicator of forest health was developed and implemented within the USFS Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program to assess condition and trends in forest soil quality in U.S. forests regardless of ownership. The...

  14. An accuracy assessment of positions obtained using survey- and recreational-grade Global Positioning System receivers across a range of forest conditions within the Tanana Valley of interior Alaska

    Treesearch

    Hans-Erik Andersen; Tobey Clarkin; Ken Winterberger; Jacob. Strunk

    2009-01-01

    The accuracy of recreational- and survey-grade global positioning system (GPS) receivers was evaluated across a range of forest conditions in the Tanana Valley of interior Alaska. High-accuracy check points, established using high-order instruments and closed-traverse surveying methods, were then used to evaluate the accuracy of positions acquired in different forest...

  15. Using silvicultural practices to regulate competition, resource availability, and growing conditions for Pinus palustris seedlings underplanted in Pinus taeda forests

    Treesearch

    Benjamin O. Knapp; G. Geoff Wang; Joan L. Walker; Huifeng Hu

    2016-01-01

    In the southeastern United States, many forest managers are interested in restoring longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) to upland sites that currently support loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). We quantified the effects of four canopy treatments (uncut Control; MedBA, harvest to 9 m2·ha−1...

  16. Extent and Distribution of Old Forest Conditions on DNR-Managed State Trust Lands in Eastern Washington

    Treesearch

    Jerry F. Franklin; Miles Hemstrom; Robert Van Pelt; Joe Buchanan; Sabra Hull; Rex Crawford; Steve Curry; Walt Obermeyer

    2007-01-01

    An inventory was conducted of old forests on state trust lands in Eastern Washington managed by the Washington State Department of Natural Resources (DNR), in response to legislative direction (ESSB 6384, Section 189,2006). This inventory was conducted with guidance from an independent science panel, chaired by Jerry Franklin of the University of Washington. As...

  17. Simulation of forest change in the New Jersey Pine Barrens under current and pre-colonial conditions

    Treesearch

    Robert M. Scheller; Steve Van Tuyl; Kenneth Clark; Nicholas G. Hayden; John Hom; David J. Mladenoff

    2008-01-01

    Changes in land use patterns in and around forests, including rural development and road building, have occurred throughout the United States and are accelerating in many areas. As a result, there have been significant departures from 'natural' or pre-settlement disturbance regimes. Altered disturbance regimes can shift composition and dominance in tree...

  18. Georgia's forests, 1989

    Treesearch

    Raymond M. Sheffield; Tony G. Johnson

    1993-01-01

    This resource bulletin presents the principal findings of the sixth inventory of Georgia's forest resources. Data on the extent, condition, and classification of forest land and associated timber volumes, growth, removals, and mortality are described and interpreted. Whereas data on nontimber commodities associated with forests were also collected, evaluations of...

  19. Florida's forests, 1987

    Treesearch

    William A. Bechtold; Mark J. Brown; Raymond M. Sheffield

    1990-01-01

    This resource bulletin describes the principal findings of the sixth inventory of Florida’s forest resources. Data concerning the extent and condition of forest land, as well as associated timber inventory, growth, and removal volumes are presented and analyzed. In accordance with the Forest and rangeland renewable resources planning act of 1974, information on...

  20. North Carolina's forests

    Treesearch

    Raymond M. Sheffield; Herbert A. Knight

    1986-01-01

    In accordance with the Forest and Rangeland Renewable Resources Planning Act (RPA) of 1974, the fifth inventory of North Carolina's forests was expanded to accommodate nontimber as well as timber resources. This report presents the principal findings concerning the extent and condition of forest land, associated timber volumes, and rates of growth and removals....

  1. The forests of Connecticut

    Treesearch

    Eric H. Wharton; Richard H. Widmann; Carol L. Alerich; Charles H. Barnett; Andrew J. Lister; Tonya W. Lister; Don Smith; Fred Borman

    2004-01-01

    A report on the fourth forest inventory of Connecticut conducted in 1997-98 by the Forest Inventory and Analysis unit of the Northeastern Research Station. Explains the current condition and changes from previous inventories for forest area, timber volume, biomass, growth and removals, and harvesting. Graphics depict data at the state and geographic-unit level and,...

  2. South Carolina's forests, 1993

    Treesearch

    Roger C. Conner

    1998-01-01

    This resource bulletin describes the principal findings of the seventh inventory of South Carolina’s forest re-sources. Data on the extent, condition, and classification of forest land and associated timber volumes, growth, removals, and mortality are described and interpreted. Whereas data on nontimber commodities associated with forests were also collected,...

  3. South Carolina's forests

    Treesearch

    John B. Tansey; Cecil C. Hutchins

    1988-01-01

    This report presents the principal findings of the sixth evaluation of South Carolina's forest resources. Data concerning the extent and condition of forest land, associated timber volumes, and rates of growth and removals are included. In accordance with the Forest and Rangeland Renewable Resources Planning Act (RPA) of 1974, the sixth inventory of South Carolina...

  4. Determination of critical habitat for the endangered Nelson's bighorn sheep in southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turner, J.C.; Douglas, C.L.; Hallum, C.R.; Krausman, P.R.; Ramey, R.R.

    2004-01-01

    The United States Fish and Wildlife Service's (USFWS) designation of critical habitat for the endangered Nelson's bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni) in the Peninsular Ranges of southern California has been controversial because of an absence of a quantitative, repeatable scientific approach to the designation of critical habitat. We used 12,411 locations of Nelson's bighorn sheep collected from 1984-1998 to evaluate habitat use within 398 km2 of the USFWS-designated critical habitat in the northern Santa Rosa Mountains, Riverside County, California. We developed a multiple logistic regression model to evaluate and predict the probability of bighorn use versus non-use of native landscapes. Habitat predictor variables included elevation, slope, ruggedness, slope aspect, proximity to water, and distance from minimum expanses of escape habitat. We used Earth Resources Data Analysis System Geographic Information System (ERDAS-GIS) software to view, retrieve, and format predictor values for input to the Statistical Analysis Systems (SAS) software. To adequately account for habitat landscape diversity, we carried out an unsupervised classification at the outset of data inquiry using a maximum-likelihood clustering scheme implemented in ERDAS. We used the strata resulting from the unsupervised classification in a stratified random sampling scheme to minimize data loads required for model development. Based on 5 predictor variables, the habitat model correctly classified >96% of observed bighorn sheep locations. Proximity to perennial water was the best predictor variable. Ninety-seven percent of the observations were within 3 km of perennial water. Exercising the model over the northern Santa Rosa Mountain study area provided probabilities of bighorn use at a 30 x 30-m2 pixel level. Within the 398 km 2 of USFWS-designated critical habitat, only 34% had a graded probability of bighorn use to non-use ranging from ???1:1 to 6,044:1. The remaining 66% of the study area

  5. Mixing and photoreactivity of dissolved organic matter in the Nelson/Hayes estuarine system (Hudson Bay, Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guéguen, C.; Mokhtar, M.; Perroud, A.; McCullough, G.; Papakyriakou, T.

    2016-09-01

    This work presents the results of a 4-year study (2009-2012) investigating the mixing and photoreactivity of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the Nelson/Hayes estuary (Hudson Bay). Dissolved organic carbon (DOC), colored DOM, and humic-like DOM decreased with increasing salinity (r2 = 0.70-0.84). Removal of DOM was noticeable at low to mid salinity range, likely due to degradation and/or adsorption to particles. DOM photobleaching rates (i.e., decrease in DOM signal resulting from exposure to solar radiation) ranged from 0.005 to 0.030 h- 1, corresponding to half-lives of 4.9-9.9 days. Dissolved organic matter from the Nelson and Hayes Rivers was more photoreactive than from the estuary where the photodegradation of terrestrial DOM decreased with increasing salinity. Coincident with the loss of CDOM absorption was an increase in spectral slope S, suggesting a decrease in DOM molecular weight. Marked differences in photoreactivity of protein- and humic-like DOM were observed with highly humidified material being the most photosensitive. Information generated by our study will provide a valuable data set for better understanding the impacts of future hydroelectric development and climate change on DOM biogeochemical dynamics in the Nelson/Hayes estuary and coastal domain. This study will constitute a reference on terrestrial DOM fate prior to building additional generating capacity on the Nelson River.

  6. The Nelson-Denny Reading Test as a Predictor of Academic Success in Selected Classes in a Specific Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gudan, Sirkka

    A review of the literature indicates that the Nelson-Denny Reading Test (NDRT) may be a viable instrument for screening students and predicting their academic success in particular circumstances. In 1981, a study was conducted at Schoolcraft College to determine the extent of the relationship between the reading abilities of entering students and…

  7. The Relationship Between Nelson-Denny Test Scores and Academic Performance of Educational Opportunity Program Students. EAC Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamagishi, Midori; Gillmore, Gerald M.

    The relationship of Nelson-Denny Reading Test scores and an English course placement recommendation to academic success of Educational Opportunity Program students at the University of Washington was studied. The placement recommendation was based on a writing sample and test scores. The 207 freshmen students who entered in either 1976 or 1978…

  8. Comments on Mika's Critique of Hartnett, Nelson, and Rinn's Article, "Gifted or ADHD? The Possibilities of Misdiagnosis"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goerss, Jean; Amend, Edward R.; Webb, James T.; Webb, Nadia; Beljan, Paul

    2006-01-01

    The Hartnett, Nelson, and Rinn 2004 study indicates that diagnostic confusion between ADD/ADHD and giftedness exists, and that research on medication practices is warranted. Mika disagrees, saying that there is no empirical evidence of misdiagnosis of gifted children as having ADD/ADHD. We disagree with Mika's logic, and describe evidence that…

  9. Commentary: The Development of Hippocampal-Dependent Memory Functions: Theoretical Comments on Jabès and Nelson Review (2015)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachevalier, Jocelyne

    2015-01-01

    Studies investigating the development of memory processes and their neural substrates have flourished over the past two decades. The review by Jabès and Nelson (2015) adds an important piece to our understanding of the maturation of different elements and circuits within the hippocampal system and their association with the progressive development…

  10. The "Naked Truth" Isn't Very Revealing: A Response to Wade Nelson on School Reform in Minnesota.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitton, Debra Eckerman

    1999-01-01

    A participant in Minnesota's standards-based reform initiative claims Wade Nelson, in his May 1998 "Kappan" article, is misinformed about teachers' exclusion from this movement. The standards constitute a minimal competence level in reading, math, and writing, were developed cooperatively, and have raised teacher expectations of…

  11. Comments on Mika's Critique of Hartnett, Nelson, and Rinn's Article, "Gifted or ADHD? The Possibilities of Misdiagnosis"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goerss, Jean; Amend, Edward R.; Webb, James T.; Webb, Nadia; Beljan, Paul

    2006-01-01

    The Hartnett, Nelson, and Rinn 2004 study indicates that diagnostic confusion between ADD/ADHD and giftedness exists, and that research on medication practices is warranted. Mika disagrees, saying that there is no empirical evidence of misdiagnosis of gifted children as having ADD/ADHD. We disagree with Mika's logic, and describe evidence that…

  12. Commentary: The Development of Hippocampal-Dependent Memory Functions: Theoretical Comments on Jabès and Nelson Review (2015)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachevalier, Jocelyne

    2015-01-01

    Studies investigating the development of memory processes and their neural substrates have flourished over the past two decades. The review by Jabès and Nelson (2015) adds an important piece to our understanding of the maturation of different elements and circuits within the hippocampal system and their association with the progressive development…

  13. The "Naked Truth" Isn't Very Revealing: A Response to Wade Nelson on School Reform in Minnesota.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitton, Debra Eckerman

    1999-01-01

    A participant in Minnesota's standards-based reform initiative claims Wade Nelson, in his May 1998 "Kappan" article, is misinformed about teachers' exclusion from this movement. The standards constitute a minimal competence level in reading, math, and writing, were developed cooperatively, and have raised teacher expectations of…

  14. Interannual variability in the extent and intensity of tropical dry forest deciduousness in the Mexican Yucatan (2000-2016): Drivers and Links to Regional Atmospheric Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuba, Nicholas Joseph

    The dry topical forests of the southern Yucatan Peninsula experience multiple natural and anthropogenic disturbances, as well as substantial interannual climate variability that can result in stark interannual differences in vegetation phenology. Dry season deciduousness is a typical response to limit tree water loss during prolonged periods of hot and dry conditions, and this behavior has both direct implications for ecosystem functioning, and the potential to indicate climate conditions when observed using remotely-sensed data. The first research paper of this dissertation advances methods to assess the accuracy of remotely-sensed measurements of canopy conditions using in-situ observations. Linear regression models show the highest correlation (R2 = 0.751) between in-situ canopy gap fraction and Landsat NDWISWIR2. MODIS time series NDWISWIR2 are created for the period March 2000-February 2011, and exhibit stronger correlation with time series of TRMM precipitation data than do MODIS EVI time series (R2= 0.48 vs. R2 = 0.43 in deciduous forest areas). The second paper examines differences between the deciduous phenology of young forest stands and older forest stands. Land-cover maps are overlaid to determine whether forested areas are greater than or less than 22 years old in 2010, and metrics related to deciduous phenology are derived from MODIS EVI2 time series in three years, 2008 to 2011. Statistical tests that compare matched pairs of young (12-22 years) and older (>22 years) forest stand age class samples are used to detect significant differences in metrics related to the intensity and timing of deciduousness. In all three years, younger forests exhibit significantly more intense deciduousness, measured as total seasonal change of EVI2 normalized by annual maximum EVI2 (p<0.001), and exhibit larger EVI2 declines at successive 32-day periods during dry season months (p<0.02), than nearby older forests that are assumed to share similar environmental

  15. Assessment of the state of soil microbial cenoses in the forest-tundra zone under conditions of airborne industrial pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogorodskaya, A. V.; Ponomareva, T. V.; Shapchenkova, O. A.; Shishikin, A. S.

    2012-05-01

    The quantitative and functional responses of soil microbial cenoses in the forest-tundra zone to pollution have been studied in the area exposed to emissions from the Norilsk Mining and Metallurgical Works. The strongest structural and functional disturbances of the soil biota have been recorded on the plots with completely destroyed vegetation. A decrease in the content of microbial carbon and an elevated respiration rate in the technogenically transformed soils provide evidence for the functioning of the microbial communities under stress caused by the continuous input of aggressive pollutants. The degree of transformation and the contents of technogenic elements (Ni, Cu, Co, Pb, and S) in the organic horizons of the forest-tundra soils are the major factors affecting the development and functioning of the soil microbial cenoses.

  16. "Passageless" administration of the Nelson-Denny Reading Comprehension Test: associations with IQ and reading skills.

    PubMed

    Ready, Rebecca E; Chaudhry, Maheen F; Schatz, Kelly C; Strazzullo, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    There are few tests that assess reading comprehension in adults, but these tests are needed for a comprehensive assessment of reading disorders (RD). The Nelson-Denny Reading Test (NDRT) has a long-passage reading comprehension component that can be used with adolescents and adults. A problem with the NDRT is that reading comprehension test items can be answered correctly without reading the associated passage. The current study determined how IQ, verbal comprehension, and reading skills were associated with scores on a passageless administration of the NDRT. Results indicated that IQ, verbal comprehension, and broad reading skills were significantly associated with greater NDRT passageless scores. Results raise questions about the validity of the reading comprehension component of the NDRT and suggest that the test may have differential validity based on individual differences in vocabulary, general fund of knowledge, and broad reading skills.

  17. Revisiting the Nelson-Morfey scaling law for flow noise from duct constrictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kårekull, Oscar; Efraimsson, Gunilla; Åbom, Mats

    2015-11-01

    The semi-empirical scaling law by Nelson and Morfey [1] predicts the noise generation from constrictions in ducts with low Mach number flows. The results presented here demonstrate that the original model loses accuracy for constrictions of high pressure loss. A generalization based on a momentum flux assumption of the dipole forces is suggested and is evaluated against measurement results for orifice geometries of higher pressure loss than earlier evaluated. A prediction model including constrictions at flow duct terminations is also suggested. Improved accuracy for the predictions of the new model is found for orifice geometries of high pressure loss inside and at the end of ducts. The extended model is finally evaluated by measurements on a regular ventilation air terminal device.

  18. [A life among insects and books: an interview with Nelson Papavero].

    PubMed

    Klassa, Bruna; Santos, Charles Morphy D

    2012-12-01

    Nelson Papavero is one of the top representatives of Brazilian zoology. His decisive contributions to this science began in the second half of the twentieth century, when he started publishing in the areas of zoology, systematics, biogeography, and the history of science while also working at graduate courses and training teachers and students. He was key to the introduction of Hennig's phylogenetic systematics in Brazil and its chief advocate. His active participation in the creation of the Special Courses on Zoological Systematics within the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development and his work at numerous administrative posts which he held during his academic career were vital to the development of zoology and comparative biology in Brazil. His endeavors also reached into other Latin American countries, like Mexico and Argentina.

  19. Application of an improved Nelson-Nguyen analysis to eccentric, arbitrary profile liquid annular seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padavala, Satyasrinivas; Palazzolo, Alan B.; Vallely, Pat; Ryan, Steve

    1994-01-01

    An improved dynamic analysis for liquid annular seals with arbitrary profile based on a method, first proposed by Nelson and Nguyen, is presented. An improved first order solution that incorporates a continuous interpolation of perturbed quantities in the circumferential direction, is presented. The original method uses an approximation scheme for circumferential gradients, based on Fast Fourier Transforms (FFT). A simpler scheme based on cubic splines is found to be computationally more efficient with better convergence at higher eccentricities. A new approach of computing dynamic coefficients based on external specified load is introduced. This improved analysis is extended to account for arbitrarily varying seal profile in both axial and circumferential directions. An example case of an elliptical seal with varying degrees of axial curvature is analyzed. A case study based on actual operating clearances of an interstage seal of the Space Shuttle Main Engine High Pressure Oxygen Turbopump is presented.

  20. Sustainability of forest management under changing climatic conditions in the southern United States: adaptation strategies, economic rents and carbon sequestration.

    PubMed

    Susaeta, Andres; Carter, Douglas R; Adams, Damian C

    2014-06-15

    The impacts of climate change on profitability and carbon storage in even-aged forest stands of two dominant commercial pine species, loblolly and slash pine, in the southern United States were assessed under alternative assumptions about the impact of climate change on forest productivity and catastrophic disturbance rates. Potential adaptation strategies to reduce losses from disturbance included: 1) alternative planting densities, and 2) planting slash pine instead of loblolly pine. In addition, the amount of sequestered carbon was used to develop an index of economic efficiency for carbon sequestration, which further helps rank the suitability of alternative adaptation strategies. Our results indicate that greater economic rents from forests occur with lower planting densities and the substitution of slash pine for high density loblolly pine. However, less carbon is sequestered by low density loblolly pine compared to slash pine and high density loblolly pine. Both adaptation strategies are economically more effective in terms of carbon sequestration compared to the baseline since they generate more economic revenues per Mg of sequestered carbon. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Beneficial gamma-knife radiosurgery in a patient with Nelson's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wolffenbuttel, B H; Kitz, K; Beuls, E M

    1998-03-01

    A 50-year-old female patient with Cushing's disease had undergone transsphenoidal removal of the pituitary adenoma and conventional radiotherapy in 1988. Since no remission was achieved, she underwent bilateral adrenalectomy in May 1989. During out-patient follow-up, she developed signs and symptoms due to invasive Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)-producing macroadenoma (Nelson's syndrome) in 1994. ACTH levels at that time were 3400 ng/l. Near-total surgical resection of a 2.0 x 2.5 pituitary tumour which slightly extended laterally into the cavernous sinus was achieved by subfrontal approach in June 1994. However, she rapidly developed a recurrence of her complaints, with a visual field defect inferior-nasal of the left eye, and a second operation was carried out in November 1994. Culture of the tumour's cells revealed significant inhibition of ACTH production by bromocriptine. Adjuvant treatment with this drug therefore was started in November 1994. Because of the rapid recurrence it was decided to treat her with gamma-knife radiosurgery. The dose that was given in January 1995 was 12 Gy to the border and 40 Gy into the centre of the tumour. During a follow-up of more than 2 years, no recurrence, but even a minor reduction of tumour mass was observed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Plasma ACTH levels decreased gradually to levels between 200 and 400 ng/l, and ophthalmologic complaints disappeared. It is concluded that gamma-knife radiosurgery may be a good alternative for patients with Nelson's syndrome who have rapidly recurring disease.

  2. Nelson's syndrome: complete remission with cabergoline but not with bromocriptine or cyproheptadine treatment.

    PubMed

    Casulari, Luiz Augusto; Naves, Luciana A; Mello, Paulo A; Pereira Neto, Aldo; Papadia, Carla

    2004-01-01

    A woman affected by Cushing's disease underwent bilateral adrenalectomy followed by radiotherapy of the hypothalamic-pituitary area when she was 18 years old. Thereafter, she used hydrocortisone acetate replacement therapy (35.5 mg divided into two daily doses). At the age of 26 years, the patient exhibited the clinical signs of the Nelson's syndrome, i.e. skin and gingival hyperpigmentation accompanied by amenorrhea, and elevated ACTH plasma levels (2,850 pg/ml, normal range 15-80 pg/ml). The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis of the sellar region evidenced a pituitary macroadenoma, measuring 14 x 13 mm. The patient was initially treated with cyproheptadine hydrochloride (12 mg/day) for 18 months. There was a partial improvement of the symptoms, with a reduction of the ACTH plasma levels to 112 pg/ml, but without any modification of the tumor mass. Due to sleepiness and weight gain, the cyproheptadine treatment was interrupted and substituted by a cabergoline (0.5 mg twice a week) therapy. Soon after cabergoline was applied an improvement of the clinical symptoms and signs was observed such as a regression of the tumor mass and the normalization of the ACTH plasma titers (38 pg/ml). Later, cabergoline was substituted by bromocriptine (7.5 mg/day) and the plasma levels of ACTH increased again (247 pg/ml), and headache and cutaneous hyperpigmentation were recorded. When cabergoline was reintroduced there was a clinical improvement and normalization of ACTH plasma levels (64 pg/ml). The MRI analysis of the sella region demonstrated a complete remission of the pituitary adenoma. The results obtained show for the first time that a long-term treatment with cabergoline also brings about a complete remission of Nelson's syndrome in the presence of a pituitary macroadenoma.

  3. [Seedlings growth and survival of five Acacia (Fabaceae) species that coexists in neotropical semi-arid forests of Argentina, under different light and water availability conditions].

    PubMed

    Venier, Paula; Cabido, Marcelo; Mangeaud, Arnaldo; Funes, Guillermo

    2013-06-01

    Seedlings growth and survival of five Acacia (Fabaceae) species that coexists in neotropical semi-arid forests of Argentina, under different light and water availability conditions. Seedling establishment is one of the most risky stages of plants, especially in arid and semiarid regions, where low water availability and high solar radiation influence its emergence, development and survival. In seasonally dry xerophytic forests occurring in North-Western Córdoba, central Argentina, five neotropical species of Acacia co-exist: A. aroma, A. caven, A. atramentaria, A. gilliesii and A. praecox. With the aim to evaluate growth variables and survival of these five species seedlings, in response to water stress and different light availability conditions, a greenhouse experiment was undertaken from March to June of 2010. Although small differences were found between species (F = 5.66, p = 0.001), all of them showed high percentages of seedling survival in response to different light and water treatments, suggesting that seedlings would be tolerant to water stress and could be established both in light and shade. On the other hand, although all species showed an increase in growth in light conditions and without water stress, we have found some trends towards a greater growth in the seedlings ofA. aroma, A. caven and A. atramentaria when compared to those of A. praecox and A. gilliessi in most of the variables considered (F = 41.9, p < 0.0001; F = 7.06, p < 0.0001; F = 53.59, p < 0.0001). This pattern was confirmed through a cluster analysis that classified the species in two main groups. These results, together with others already reported, would indicate a regenerative niche differentiation that might be favoring the regional coexistence of these five species in semiarid forests in central Argentina.

  4. Controls of Net Ecosystem Exchange at an Old Field, a Pine Plantation, and a Hardwood Forest under Identical Climatic and Edaphic Conditions-Isotopic Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Chanton, J. P.; Mortazavi, B.

    2004-11-04

    During the past year we have submitted two manuscripts. 1. Mortazavi, B., J. Chanton, J.L. Prater, A.C. Oishi, R. Oren and G. Katul. Temporal variability in 13C of respired CO2 in a pine and a hardwood forest subject to similar climatic conditions (in Press). Oecologia 2. Mortazavi, B. and J. P. Chanton. Use of Keeling plots for determining sources of dissolved organic carbon in nearshore and open ocean systems (Published in Limnology and Oceanography (2004) Vol 49 pages 102-108). 3. Mortazavi, B., J. L. Prater, and J. P. Chanton (2004). A field-based method for simultaneous measurements of the 18O and 13C of soil CO2 efflux. Biogeosciences Vol 1:1-16 Most recent products delivered: Mortazavi, B. and J. P. Chanton. Abiotic and biotic controls on the 13C of respired CO2 in the southeastern US forest mosaics and a new technique for measuring the of soil CO2 efflux. Joint Biosphere Stable Isotope Network (US) and Stable Isotopes in Biosphere Atmosphere Exchange (EU) 2004 Meeting, Interlaken, Switzerland, March 31-April 4, 2004. Mortazavi, B., J. Chanton, J.L. Prater, A.C. Oishi, R. Oren and G. Katul. Temporal variability in 13C of respired CO2 in a pine and a hardwood forest subject to similar climatic conditions. American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, San Francisco, USA, December 8-12, 2003. Prater, J., Mortazavi, B. and J. P. Chanton. Measurement of discrimination against 13C during photosynthesis and quantification of the short-term variability of 13C over a diurnal cycle. American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, San Francisco, USA, December 8-12, 2003.

  5. Pigment patterns and photoprotection of anthocyanins in the young leaves of four dominant subtropical forest tree species in two successional stages under contrasting light conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhu, H; Zhang, T J; Zhang, P; Peng, C L

    2016-09-01

    Light-driven subtropical forest succession is a dynamic process in which mesophytic climax communities replace heliophytic ones. Juvenile leaves (particularly mesophytic ones) are sensitive to high irradiances. To determine the photoprotection strategy that juvenile leaves use during subtropical forest succession, anthocyanin accumulation patterns were investigated in the young leaves of two mid-successional dominant trees (i.e., Schima superba and Castanopsis fissa) and two late-successional dominant trees (i.e., Cryptocarya concinna and Acmena acuminatissima) grown in 100% (FL) and 25% (LL) of full sunlight. All four tree species produced anthocyanins in their juvenile leaves when <50% of chlorophylls and carotenoids had developed. Higher anthocyanin concentrations accumulated in the young leaves grown in FL than in those grown in LL and in late-successional than in mid-successional trees. The juvenile leaves of late-successional trees were subjected to higher light-induced photoinhibition than those of mid-successional trees, despite of the fact that the leaves of late-successional trees showed greater non-photochemical quenching than those of mid-successional trees. Under LL conditions, photosystem II excitation pressure (1 - qP) was significantly higher in the juvenile leaves of late-successional trees than those of mid-successional trees. Under either FL or LL conditions, anthocyanin concentrations in juvenile leaves were negatively related to the light compensation point in mature leaves across species. However, anthocyanin concentrations were positively related to the antioxidant capacity of juvenile leaves. These results indicate that anthocyanin accumulation in the juvenile leaves of subtropical dominant trees during forest community succession is a flexible photoprotective response to ambient irradiances according to leaf sensitivity to light.

  6. Responses of CO(2), N(2)O and CH(4) fluxes between atmosphere and forest soil to changes in multiple environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Yan, Junhua; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Keya; Qin, Fen; Wang, Wantong; Dai, Huitang; Li, Peixue

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effects of multiple environmental conditions on greenhouse gas (CO2 , N2 O, CH4 ) fluxes, we transferred three soil monoliths from Masson pine forest (PF) or coniferous and broadleaved mixed forest (MF) at Jigongshan to corresponding forest type at Dinghushan. Greenhouse gas fluxes at the in situ (Jigongshan), transported and ambient (Dinghushan) soil monoliths were measured using static chambers. When the transported soil monoliths experienced the external environmental factors (temperature, precipitation and nitrogen deposition) at Dinghushan, its annual soil CO2 emissions were 54% in PF and 60% in MF higher than those from the respective in situ treatment. Annual soil N2 O emissions were 45% in PF and 44% in MF higher than those from the respective in situ treatment. There were no significant differences in annual soil CO2 or N2 O emissions between the transported and ambient treatments. However, annual CH4 uptake by the transported soil monoliths in PF or MF was not significantly different from that at the respective in situ treatment, and was significantly lower than that at the respective ambient treatment. Therefore, external environmental factors were the major drivers of soil CO2 and N2 O emissions, while soil was the dominant controller of soil CH4 uptake. We further tested the results by developing simple empirical models using the observed fluxes of CO2 and N2 O from the in situ treatment and found that the empirical models can explain about 90% for CO2 and 40% for N2 O of the observed variations at the transported treatment. Results from this study suggest that the different responses of soil CO2 , N2 O, CH4 fluxes to changes in multiple environmental conditions need to be considered in global change study. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Physiological and foliar symptom response in the crowns of Prunus serotina, Fraxinus americana and Acer rubrum canopy trees to ambient ozone under forest conditions.

    PubMed

    Schaub, M; Skelly, J M; Zhang, J W; Ferdinand, J A; Savage, J E; Stevenson, R E; Davis, D D; Steiner, K C

    2005-02-01

    The crowns of five canopy dominant black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.), five white ash (Fraxinus americana L.), and six red maple (Acer rubrum L.) trees on naturally differing environmental conditions were accessed with scaffold towers within a mixed hardwood forest stand in central Pennsylvania. Ambient ozone concentrations, meteorological parameters, leaf gas exchange and leaf water potential were measured at the sites during the growing seasons of 1998 and 1999. Visible ozone-induced foliar injury was assessed on leaves within the upper and lower crown branches of each tree. Ambient ozone exposures were sufficient to induce typical symptoms on cherry (0-5% total affected leaf area, LAA), whereas foliar injury was not observed on ash or maple. There was a positive correlation between increasing cumulative ozone uptake (U) and increasing percent of LAA for cherry grown under drier site conditions. The lower crown leaves of cherry showed more severe foliar injury than the upper crown leaves. No significant differences in predawn leaf water potential (psi(L)) were detected for all three species indicating no differing soil moisture conditions across the sites. Significant variation in stomatal conductance for water vapor (g(wv)) was found among species, soil moisture, time of day and sample date. When comparing cumulative ozone uptake and decreased photosynthetic activity (P(n)), red maple was the only species to show higher gas exchange under mesic vs. drier soil conditions (P < 0.05). The inconsistent differences in gas exchange response within the same crowns of ash and the uncoupling relationship between g(wv) and P(n) demonstrate the strong influence of heterogeneous environmental conditions within forest canopies.

  8. The effect of changing environmental conditions on microwave signatures of forest ecosystems - Preliminary results of the March 1988 Alaskan aircraft SAR experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Way, Jobea; Paris, Jack; Kasischke, Eric; Slaughter, Charles; Viereck, Leslie

    1990-01-01

    In preparation for the ESA ERS-1 mission, a series of multitemporal, multifrequency, multipolarization aircraft SAR data sets were acquired near Fairbanks in March 1988. P-, L-, and C-band data were acquired with the NASA/JPL Airborne SAR on five different days over a period of two weeks. The airborne data were augmented with intensive ground calibration data as well as detailed simultaneous in situ measurements of the geometric, dielectric, and moisture properties of the snow and forest canopy. During the time period over which the SAR data were collected, the environmental conditions changed significantly; temperatures ranged from unseasonably warm (1 to 9 C) to well below freezing (-8 to -15 C), and the moisture content of the snow and trees changed from a liquid to a frozen state. The SAR data clearly indicate the radar return is sensitive to these changing environmental factors, and preliminary analysis of the L-band SAR data shows a 0.4 to 5.8 dB increase (depending on polarization and canopy type) in the radar cross section of the forest stands under the warm conditions relative to the cold. These SAR observations are consistent with predictions from a theoretical scattering model.

  9. Monitoring of the CO2 emission and the contents of microbial biomass in agroecosystems on gray forest soils of the Cisbaikal region under conditions of fluoride pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pomazkina, L. V.

    2015-08-01

    The influence of the technogenic pollution of gray forest soils in the forest-steppe zone of the Cisbaikal region with fluorides emitted by aluminum smelters on the functioning and state of local agroecosystems was studied within the framework of a long-term agroecological monitoring program. Hydrothermic conditions of the growing season during the monitoring period (1997-2012) were compared with the climatic norm (1961-1990). It was found that the adverse effect of the technogenic pollution on the agroecosystem becomes more pronounced during the years with abnormal weather conditions. An increase in the CO2 emission into the atmosphere as a response of the microbial complex to the rise in the air temperatures was characterized by the linear dependence irrespectively of the degree of soil contamination. The methods of systems analysis were applied to generalize the results. The considered agroecosystem was studied as the system of particular components (soil-microorganisms-plants-atmosphere) integrated by the carbon fluxes. The regimes of the agroecosystem functioning and the ecological loads on it were estimated on the basis of data on the fluxes of net mineralized and (re)immobilized carbon. The environmental factors affecting the state and functioning of the agroecosystem were identified.

  10. Forest Health Monitoring in the Interior West: A baseline summary of forest issues, 1996-1999

    Treesearch

    Paul Rogers; David Atkins; Michelle Frank; Douglas Parker

    2001-01-01

    Although forest health may be difficult to define and measure, a strong demand exists for assessment of forest conditions at various state, regional, and national scales. Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) is a national program designed to measure the status, changes, and trends of forest conditions annually. This report presents a broad view of forest health issues...

  11. Nelson's syndrome: single centre experience using the linear accelerator (LINAC) for stereotactic radiosurgery and fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Peter J; Williams, Janet R; Smee, Robert I

    2014-09-01

    Nelson's syndrome is a unique clinical phenomenon of growth of a pituitary adenoma following bilateral adrenalectomies for the control of Cushing's disease. Primary management is surgical, with limited effective medical therapies available. We report our own institution's series of this pathology managed with radiation: prior to 1990, 12 patients were managed with conventional radiotherapy, and between 1990 and 2007, five patients underwent stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and two patients fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT), both using the linear accelerator (LINAC). Tumour control was equivocal, with two of the five SRS patients having a reduction in tumour volume, one patient remaining unchanged, and two patients having an increase in volume. In the FSRT group, one patient had a decrease in tumour volume whilst the other had an increase in volume. Treatment related morbidity was low. Nelson's syndrome is a challenging clinical scenario, with a highly variable response to radiation in our series.

  12. Nematode community shifts in response to experimental warming and canopy conditions are associated with plant community changes in the temperate-boreal forest ecotone.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Madhav Prakash; Reich, Peter B; Fisichelli, Nicholas A; Stefanski, Artur; Cesarz, Simone; Dobies, Tomasz; Rich, Roy L; Hobbie, Sarah E; Eisenhauer, Nico

    2014-06-01

    Global climate warming is one of the key forces driving plant community shifts, such as range shifts of temperate species into boreal forests. As plant community shifts are slow to observe, ecotones, boundaries between two ecosystems, are target areas for providing early evidence of ecological responses to warming. The role of soil fauna is poorly explored in ecotones, although their positive and negative effects on plant species can influence plant community structure. We studied nematode communities in response to experimental warming (ambient, +1.7, +3.4 °C) in soils of closed and open canopy forest in the temperate-boreal ecotone of Minnesota, USA and calculated various established nematode indices. We estimated species-specific coverage of understory herbaceous and shrub plant species from the same experimental plots and tested if changes in the nematode community are associated with plant cover and composition. Individual nematode trophic groups did not differ among warming treatments, but the ratio between microbial-feeding and plant-feeding nematodes increased significantly and consistently with warming in both closed and open canopy areas and at both experimental field sites. The increase in this ratio was positively correlated with total cover of understory plant species, perhaps due to increased predation pressure on soil microorganisms causing higher nutrient availability for plants. Multivariate analyses revealed that temperature treatment, canopy conditions and nematode density consistently shaped understory plant communities across experimental sites. Our findings suggest that warming-induced changes in nematode community structure are associated with shifts in plant community composition and productivity in the temperate-boreal forest ecotones.

  13. A personal experience in the presence of a man who transformed a nation and changed the world: Nelson Mandela.

    PubMed

    Brown, Geraldine

    2014-01-01

    At this time in history, I consider myself very privileged to have spent some three hours in the presence of President Nelson Mandela as a Howard University faculty member in the late 1990s. Then, President of Howard University, H. Patrick Swygert bestowed upon President Nelson Mandela, Esquire an Honorary Doctorate of Human Letters. I can only equate this experience to my four mile walk up the Bedaling Wall (Great Wall) in China (a magnificent ancient wonder of the world), and trying to relate this event to something only fortunate souls have had the chance to enjoy. I also treasure the once in a lifetime visit to the Republic of South Africa in 1998 when the Association of Black Nursing Faculty, Inc., Chi Eta Phi Nursing Sorority, Inc., and the Department of Nursing (University of Botswana) sponsored the trip as an attempt to establish partnerships, share common interests and discussion in how to meet health needs of emerging majority and disadvantaged populations in the world, including mainly, the continent of Africa, in the 21st century. This short memoir can only piggy-back the massive coverage in the media that began almost instantly as a long anticipated event (death of Nelson Mandela), but startled upon its occurrence.

  14. Forested wetland habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duberstein, Jamie A.; Krauss, Ken W.; Kennish, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    A forested wetland (swamp) is a forest where soils are saturated or flooded for at least a portion of the growing season, and vegetation, dominated by trees, is adapted to tolerate flooded conditions. A tidal freshwater forested wetland is a forested wetland that experiences frequent but short-term surface flooding via tidal action, with average salinity of soil porewater less than 0.5 g/l. It is known locally as tidal várzea in the Amazon delta, Brazil. A tidal saltwater forested wetland (mangrove forest) is a forested wetland that experiences frequent but short-term surface flooding via tidal action, with average salinity often exceeding 3 g/l and reaching levels that can exceed seawater. Mangrove ecosystems are composed of facultative halophytes that generally experience better growth at moderate salinity concentrations.

  15. Controls on variations in MODIS fire radiative power in Alaskan boreal forests: implications for fire severity conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barrett, Kirsten; Kasischke, Eric S.

    2013-01-01

    Fire activity in the Alaskan boreal forest, though episodic at annual and intra-annual time scales, has experienced an increase over the last several decades. Increases in burned area and fire severity are not only releasing more carbon to the atmosphere, but likely shifting vegetation composition in the region towards greater deciduous dominance and a reduction in coniferous stands. While some recent studies have addressed qualitative differences between large and small fire years in the Alaskan boreal forest, the ecological effects of a greater proportion of burning occurring during large fire years and during late season fires have not yet been examined. Some characteristics of wildfires that can be detected remotely are related to fire severity and can provide new information on spatial and temporal patterns of burning. This analysis focused on boreal wildfire intensity (fire radiative power, or FRP) contained in the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) daily active fire product from 2003 to 2010. We found that differences in FRP resulted from seasonality and intra-annual variability in fire activity levels, vegetation composition, latitudinal variation, and fire spread behavior. Our studies determined two general categories of active fire detections: new detections associated with the spread of the fire front and residual pixels in areas that had already experienced front burning. Residual pixels had a lower average FRP than front pixels, but represented a high percentage of all pixels during periods of high fire activity (large fire years, late season burning, and seasonal periods of high fire activity). As a result, the FRP from periods of high fire activity was less intense than those from periods of low fire activity. Differences related to latitude were greater than expected, with higher latitudes burning later in the season and at a higher intensity than lower latitudes. Differences in vegetation type indicate that coniferous vegetation

  16. Assessing the expected effects of wildfire on vegetation condition on the Bridger-Teton National Forest, Wyoming, USA

    Treesearch

    J. H. Scott; D. J. Helmbrecht; M. P. Thompson

    2014-01-01

    Characterizing wildfire risk to a fire-adapted ecosystem presents particular challenges due to its broad spatial extent, inherent complexity, and the difficulty in defining wildfire-induced losses and benefits. Our approach couples stochastic wildfire simulation with a vegetation condition assessment framework to estimate the conditional and expected response of...

  17. Population dynamics of aerial and terrestrial populations Phytophthora ramorum in a California forest under different climatic conditions

    Treesearch

    C.A. Eyre; M. Kozanitas; M. Garbelotto

    2013-01-01

    Limited information is available on how soil and leaf populations of the sudden oak death pathogen, Phytophthora ramorum, may differ in their response to changing weather conditions, and their corresponding role in initiating the next disease cycle after unfavorable weather conditions. We sampled and cultured from 425 trees in six sites, three...

  18. Ecological condition of the East Fork of the Gila River and selected tributaries: Gila National Forest, New Mexico

    Treesearch

    Robert D. Ohmart

    1996-01-01

    Ecological condition of riparian habitats along the East Fork of the Gila River, Main Diamond Creek, lower South Diamond Creek, and Black Canyon Creek are all in very heavily degraded condition. Channel cross-sections show extensive entrenchment, high width-to-depth ratios, and numerous reaches where banks are sloughing into the stream, especially on the East Fork of...

  19. Using climate-FVS to project landscape-level forest carbon stores for 100 years from field and LiDAR measures of initial conditions

    Treesearch

    Fabian B. Galvez; Andrew T. Hudak; John C. Byrne; Nicholas L. Crookston; Robert F. Keefe

    2014-01-01

    Forest resources supply a wide range of environmental services like mitigation of increasing levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). As climate is changing, forest managers have added pressure to obtain forest resources by following stand management alternatives that are biologically sustainable and economically profitable. The goal of this study is to project the...

  20. Southern pine beetle infestations in relation to forest stand conditions, previous thinning, and prescribed burning: evaluation of the Southern Pine Beetle Prevention Program

    Treesearch

    John T. Nowak; James R. Meeker; David R. Coyle; Chris A. Steiner; Cavell Brownie

    2015-01-01

    Since 2003, the Southern Pine Beetle Prevention Program (SPBPP) (a joint effort of the USDA Forest Service and Southern Group of State Foresters) has encouraged and provided cost-share assistance for silvicultural treatments to reduce stand/forest susceptibility to the southern pine beetle (SPB)(Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann) in the southeastern United States....

  1. Aquatic conditions

    Treesearch

    Warren E. Heilman

    1999-01-01

    This publication provides citizens, private and public organizations, scientists, and others with information about the aquatic conditions in or near national forests in the Ozark-Ouachita Highlands: the Mark Twain in Missouri, the Ouachita in Arkansas and Oklahoma, and the Ozark-St. Francis National Forests in Arkansas. This report includes water quality analyses...

  2. Geologic map of the Nelson quadrangle, Lewis and Clark County, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, Mitchell W.; Hays, William H.

    2003-01-01

    The geologic map of the Nelson quadrangle, scale 1:24,000, was prepared as part of the Montana Investigations Project to provide new information on the stratigraphy, structure, and geologic history of an area in the geologically complex southern part of the Montana disturbed belt. In the Nelson area, rocks ranging in age from Middle Proterozoic through Cretaceous are exposed on three major thrust plates in which rocks have been telescoped eastward. Rocks within the thrust plates are folded and broken by thrust faults of smaller displacement than the major bounding thrust faults. Middle and Late Tertiary sedimentary and volcaniclastic rocks unconformably overlie the pre-Tertiary rocks. A major normal fault displaces rocks of the western half of the quadrangle down on the west with respect to strata of the eastern part. Alluvial and terrace gravels and local landslide deposits are present in valley bottoms and on canyon walls in the deeply dissected terrain. Different stratigraphic successions are exposed at different structural levels across the quadrangle. In the northeastern part, strata of the Middle Cambrian Flathead Sandstone, Wolsey Shale, and Meagher Limestone, the Middle and Upper Cambrian Pilgrim Formation and Park Shale undivided, the Devonian Maywood, Jefferson, and lower part of the Three Forks Formation, and Lower and Upper Mississippian rocks assigned to the upper part of the Three Forks Formation and the overlying Lodgepole and Mission Canyon Limestones are complexly folded and faulted. These deformed strata are overlain structurally in the east-central part of the quadrangle by a succession of strata including the Middle Proterozoic Greyson Formation and the Paleozoic succession from the Flathead Sandstone upward through the Lodgepole Limestone. In the east-central area, the Flathead Sandstone rests unconformably on the middle part of the Greyson Formation. The north edge, northwest quarter, and south half of the quadrangle are underlain by a

  3. Forest Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weicherding, Patrick J.; And Others

    This bulletin deals with forest management and provides an overview of forestry for the non-professional. The bulletin is divided into six sections: (1) What Is Forestry Management?; (2) How Is the Forest Measured?; (3) What Is Forest Protection?; (4) How Is the Forest Harvested?; (5) What Is Forest Regeneration?; and (6) What Is Forest…

  4. Urban Forests

    Treesearch

    David Nowak

    2016-01-01

    Urban forests (and trees) constitute the second forest resource considered in this report. We specifically emphasize the fact that agricultural and urban forests exist on a continuum defined by their relationship (and interrelationship) with a given landscape. These two forest types generally serve different purposes, however. Whereas agricultural forests are...

  5. Quantifying Forest and Coastal Disturbance from Industrial Mining Using Satellite Time Series Analysis Under Very Cloudy Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonzo, M.; Van Den Hoek, J.; Ahmed, N.

    2015-12-01

    The open-pit Grasberg mine, located in the highlands of Western Papua, Indonesia, and operated by PT Freeport Indonesia (PT-FI), is among the world's largest in terms of copper and gold production. Over the last 27 years, PT-FI has used the Ajkwa River to transport an estimated 1.3 billion tons of tailings from the mine into the so-called Ajkwa Deposition Area (ADA). The ADA is the product of aggradation and lateral expansion of the Ajkwa River into the surrounding lowland rainforest and mangroves, which include species important to the livelihoods of indigenous Papuans. Mine tailings that do not settle in the ADA disperse into the Arafura Sea where they increase levels of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and associated concentrations of dissolved copper. Despite the mine's large-scale operations, ecological impact of mine tailings deposition on the forest and estuarial ecosystems have received minimal formal study. While ground-based inquiries are nearly impossible due to access restrictions, assessment via satellite remote sensing is promising but hindered by extreme cloud cover. In this study, we characterize ridgeline-to-coast environmental impacts along the Ajkwa River, from the Grasberg mine to the Arafura Sea between 1987 and 2014. We use "all available" Landsat TM and ETM+ images collected over this time period to both track pixel-level vegetation disturbance and monitor changes in coastal SPM levels. Existing temporal segmentation algorithms are unable to assess both acute and protracted trajectories of vegetation change due to pervasive cloud cover. In response, we employ robust, piecewise linear regression on noisy vegetation index (NDVI) data in a manner that is relatively insensitive to atmospheric contamination. Using this disturbance detection technique we constructed land cover histories for every pixel, based on 199 image dates, to differentiate processes of vegetation decline, disturbance, and regrowth. Using annual reports from PT-FI, we show

  6. Risk stratification based on screening history: the NELSON lung cancer screening study.

    PubMed

    Yousaf-Khan, Uraujh; van der Aalst, Carlijn; de Jong, Pim A; Heuvelmans, Marjolein; Scholten, Ernst; Walter, Joan; Nackaerts, Kristiaan; Groen, Harry; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Ten Haaf, Kevin; Oudkerk, Matthijs; de Koning, Harry

    2017-09-01

    Debate about the optimal lung cancer screening strategy is ongoing. In this study, previous screening history of the Dutch-Belgian Lung Cancer Screening trial (NELSON) is investigated on if it predicts the screening outcome (test result and lung cancer risk) of the final screening round. 15 792 participants were randomised (1:1) of which 7900 randomised into a screening group. CT screening took place at baseline, and after 1, 2 and 2.5 years. Initially, three screening outcomes were possible: negative, indeterminate or positive scan result. Probability for screening outcome in the fourth round was calculated for subgroups of participants. Based on results of the first three rounds, three subgroups were identified: (1) those with exclusively negative results (n=3856; 73.0%); (2) those with ≥1 indeterminate result, but never a positive result (n=1342; 25.5%); and (3) with ≥1 positive result (n=81; 1.5%). Group 1 had the highest probability for having a negative scan result in round 4 (97.2% vs 94.8% and 90.1%, respectively, p<0.001), and the lowest risk for detecting lung cancer in round 4 (0.6% vs 1.6%, p=0.001). 'Smoked pack-years' and 'screening history' significantly predicted the fourth round test result. The third round results implied that the risk for detecting lung cancer (after an interval of 2.5 years) was 0.6% for those with negative results compared with 3.7% of those with indeterminate results. Previous CT lung cancer screening results provides an opportunity for further risk stratifications of those who undergo lung cancer screening. Results, ISRCTN63545820. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. Structuring expert input for a knowledge-based approach to watershed condition assessment for the Northwest Forest Plan, USA

    Treesearch

    Sean N. Gordon; Gallo. Kirsten

    2011-01-01

    Assessments of watershed condition for aquatic and riparian species often have to rely on expert opinion because of the complexity of establishing statistical relationships among the many factors involved. Such expert-based assessments can be difficult to document and apply consistently over time and space. We describe and reflect on the process of developing a...

  8. Forest insurance number.

    Treesearch

    Thornton T. Munger; H.B. Shepard

    1934-01-01

    This inquiry, originally conceived as an effort to determine definitely whether the existing lack of adequate and practical forest fire insurance facilities is in truth unavoidable and, if possible, to suggest means whereby the condition might be remedied, finds no apparent reason why successful forest fire insurance should not be possible as far as the loss situation...

  9. Cooperative Alaska Forest Inventory

    Treesearch

    Thomas Malone; Jingjing Liang; Edmond C. Packee

    2009-01-01

    The Cooperative Alaska Forest Inventory (CAFI) is a comprehensive database of boreal forest conditions and dynamics in Alaska. The CAFI consists of field-gathered information from numerous permanent sample plots distributed across interior and south-central Alaska including the Kenai Peninsula. The CAFI currently has 570 permanent sample plots on 190 sites...

  10. Iowa forest statistics

    Treesearch

    The Forest Survey Organization. Central States Forest Experiment Station

    1956-01-01

    This report contains forest area and timber volume statistics for the State of Iowa. The information presented here was gathered and compiled according to three different geographical units, the divisions being made on the basis of similar forest, soil, and economic conditions (frontispiece). So, for the benefit of those who might find such localized information useful...

  11. Going beyond the green: senesced vegetation material predicts basal area and biomass in remote sensing of tree cover conditions in an African tropical dry forest (miombo woodland) landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayes, Marc; Mustard, John; Melillo, Jerry; Neill, Christopher; Nyadzi, Gerson

    2017-08-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), tropical dry forests and savannas cover over 2.5 million km2 and support livelihoods for millions in fast-growing nations. Intensifying land use pressures have driven rapid changes in tree cover structure (basal area, biomass) that remain poorly characterized at regional scales. Here, we posed the hypothesis that tree cover structure related strongly to senesced and non-photosynthetic (NPV) vegetation features in a SSA tropical dry forest landscape, offering improved means for satellite remote sensing of tree cover structure compared to vegetation greenness-based methods. Across regrowth miombo woodland sites in Tanzania, we analyzed relationships among field data on tree structure, land cover, and satellite indices of green and NPV features based on spectral mixture analyses and normalized difference vegetation index calculated from Landsat 8 data. From satellite-field data relationships, we mapped regional basal area and biomass using NPV and greenness-based metrics, and compared map performances at landscape scales. Total canopy cover related significantly to stem basal area (r 2 = 0.815, p < 0.01) and biomass (r 2 = 0.635, p < 0.01), and NPV dominated ground cover (> 60%) at all sites. From these two conditions emerged a key inverse relationship: skyward exposure of NPV ground cover was high at sites with low tree basal area and biomass, and decreased with increasing stem basal area and biomass. This pattern scaled to Landsat NPV metrics, which showed strong inverse correlations to basal area (Pearson r = -0.85, p < 0.01) and biomass (r = -0.86, p < 0.01). Biomass estimates from Landsat NPV-based maps matched field data, and significantly differentiated landscape gradients in woody biomass that greenness metrics failed to track. The results suggest senesced vegetation metrics at Landsat scales are a promising means for improved monitoring of tree structure across disturbance and ecological gradients

  12. Population dynamics of aerial and terrestrial populations of Phytophthora ramorum in a California forest under different climatic conditions.

    PubMed

    Eyre, C A; Kozanitas, M; Garbelotto, M

    2013-11-01

    Limited information is available on how soil and leaf populations of the sudden oak death pathogen, Phytophthora ramorum, may differ in their response to changing weather conditions, and their corresponding role in initiating the next disease cycle after unfavorable weather conditions. We sampled and cultured from 425 trees in six sites, three times at the end of a 3-year-long drought and twice during a wet year that followed. Soil was also sampled twice with similar frequency and design used for sampling leaves. Ten microsatellites were used for genetic analyses on cultures from successful isolations. Results demonstrated that incidence of leaf infection tripled at the onset of the first wet period in 3 years in spring 2010, while that of soil populations remained unchanged. Migration of genotypes among sites was low and spatially limited under dry periods but intensity and range of migration of genotypes significantly increased for leaf populations during wet periods. Only leaf genotypes persisted significantly between years, and genotypes present in different substrates distributed differently in soil and leaves. We conclude that epidemics start rapidly at the onset of favorable climatic conditions through highly transmissible leaf genotypes, and that soil populations are transient and may be less epidemiologically relevant than previously thought.

  13. Occurrence of Phytophthora plurivora and other Phytophthora species in oak forests of southern Poland and their association with site conditions and the health status of trees.

    PubMed

    Jankowiak, R; Stępniewska, H; Bilański, P; Kolařík, M

    2014-11-01

    Phytophthora plurivora and other Phytophthora species are known to be serious pathogens of forest trees. Little is known, however, about the presence of P. plurivora in Polish oak forests and their role in oak decline. The aims of this study were to identify P. plurivora in healthy and declining Quercus robur stands in southern Poland and to demonstrate the relationship between different site factors and the occurrence of P. plurivora. In addition, the virulence of P. plurivora and other Phytophthora species was evaluated through inoculations using 2-year-old oak seedlings. Rhizosphere soil was investigated from 39 oak stands representing different healthy tree statuses. The morphology and DNA sequences of the internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS) of the ribosomal DNA and the mitochondrial cox1 gene were used for identifications. P. plurivora, an oak fine root pathogen, was isolated from rhizosphere soil samples in 6 out of 39 stands. Additionally, Phytophthora cambivora, Phytophthora polonica and Phytophthora rosacearum-like were also obtained from several stands. The results showed a significant association between the presence of P. plurivora and the health status of oak trees. Similar relationships were also observed for all identified Phytophthora species. In addition, there was evidence for a connection between the presence of all identified Phytophthora species and some site conditions. Phytophthora spp. occurred more frequently in declining stands and in silt loam and sandy loam soils with pH ≥ 3.66. P. plurivora and P. cambivora were the only species capable of killing whole plants, producing extensive necrosis on seedling stems.

  14. Amphibian Beta Diversity in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest: Contrasting the Roles of Historical Events and Contemporary Conditions at Different Spatial Scales

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Fernando Rodrigues; Almeida-Neto, Mário; Arena, Mariana Victorino Nicolosi

    2014-01-01

    Current patterns of biodiversity distribution result from a combination of historical and contemporary processes. Here, we compiled checklists of amphibian species to assess the roles of long-term climate stability (Quaternary oscillations), contemporary environmental gradients and geographical distance as determinants of change in amphibian taxonomic and phylogenetic composition in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. We calculated beta diversity as both variation in species composition (CBD) and phylogenetic differentiation (PBD) among the assemblages. In both cases, overall beta diversity was partitioned into two basic components: species replacement and difference in species richness. Our results suggest that the CBD and PBD of amphibians are determined by spatial turnover. Geographical distance, current environmental gradients and long-term climatic conditions were complementary predictors of the variation in CBD and PBD of amphibian species. Furthermore, the turnover components between sites from different regions and between sites within the stable region were greater than between sites within the unstable region. On the other hand, the proportion of beta-diversity due to species richness difference for both CBD and PBD was higher between sites in the unstable region than between sites in the stable region. The high turnover components from CBD and PBD between sites in unstable vs stable regions suggest that these distinct regions have different biogeographic histories. Sites in the stable region shared distinct clades that might have led to greater diversity, whereas sites in the unstable region shared close relatives. Taken together, these results indicate that speciation, environmental filtering and limited dispersal are complementary drivers of beta-diversity of amphibian assemblages in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. PMID:25295514

  15. Amphibian beta diversity in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest: contrasting the roles of historical events and contemporary conditions at different spatial scales.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Fernando Rodrigues; Almeida-Neto, Mário; Arena, Mariana Victorino Nicolosi

    2014-01-01

    Current patterns of biodiversity distribution result from a combination of historical and contemporary processes. Here, we compiled checklists of amphibian species to assess the roles of long-term climate stability (Quaternary oscillations), contemporary environmental gradients and geographical distance as determinants of change in amphibian taxonomic and phylogenetic composition in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. We calculated beta diversity as both variation in species composition (CBD) and phylogenetic differentiation (PBD) among the assemblages. In both cases, overall beta diversity was partitioned into two basic components: species replacement and difference in species richness. Our results suggest that the CBD and PBD of amphibians are determined by spatial turnover. Geographical distance, current environmental gradients and long-term climatic conditions were complementary predictors of the variation in CBD and PBD of amphibian species. Furthermore, the turnover components between sites from different regions and between sites within the stable region were greater than between sites within the unstable region. On the other hand, the proportion of beta-diversity due to species richness difference for both CBD and PBD was higher between sites in the unstable region than between sites in the stable region. The high turnover components from CBD and PBD between sites in unstable vs stable regions suggest that these distinct regions have different biogeographic histories. Sites in the stable region shared distinct clades that might have led to greater diversity, whereas sites in the unstable region shared close relatives. Taken together, these results indicate that speciation, environmental filtering and limited dispersal are complementary drivers of beta-diversity of amphibian assemblages in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

  16. Forest fire danger indices under extreme meteorological conditions in a complex topography - the situation in the Bavarian Alps in autumn 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schunk, C.; Wastl, C.; Leuchner, M.; Schuster, C.; Menzel, A.

    2012-04-01

    Temperature inversions in mountainous areas cause situations in which spatial forest fire danger distribution is quite different than under normal conditions. Due to this effect, fire danger can vary distinctively within a relatively small scale with much greater fire danger at higher than at lower elevations. This paper investigates such a peculiar situation in a case study in the Bavarian Alps and its representation by standard forest fire danger indices. A persistent high pressure system caused a major drought event and a pronounced temperature inversion in the northern part of the European Alps in autumn 2011. This drought, during which no precipitation at all was registered over more than a month in some locations, came at a time when normally the first snow would have been expected (November). In addition to the drought, the atmosphere was stratified very stable with cool, humid conditions in the lower and warmer, dryer conditions in the elevated regions. The result was a massive drying of fuels in higher elevations, which lead to a very high fire danger level and multiple fire occurrences in these areas (e.g. November 7th near Bayrischzell and November 20th near Fall). On the other hand, lower overall temperatures and nightly wetting due to dew and even rime occurred in the valleys, therefore fire danger remained moderate there. To assess the accuracy of fire danger rating indices in this situation, meteorological data and selected indices (Angstrom, M-68, Fine Fuel Moisture Code, Duff Moisture Code, hourly calculated FFMC) from two close-by stations at the valley floor (719m a.s.l.) and a south-facing mid-slope position (1260m a.s.l.) near Garmisch-Partenkirchen (Germany) were compared against the actual fire danger as apparent from expert observations, multiple fire occurrences and some fuel moisture measurements. The results revealed that during temperature inversion, differences in the daily cycle of meteorological parameters have a major influence on

  17. Forest health and global change.

    PubMed

    Trumbore, S; Brando, P; Hartmann, H

    2015-08-21

    Humans rely on healthy forests to supply energy, building materials, and food and to provide services such as storing carbon, hosting biodiversity, and regulating climate. Defining forest health integrates utilitarian and ecosystem measures of forest condition and function, implemented across a range of spatial scales. Although native forests are adapted to some level of disturbance, all forests now face novel stresses in the form of climate change, air pollution, and invasive pests. Detecting how intensification of these stresses will affect the trajectory of forests is a major scientific challenge that requires developing systems to assess the health of global forests. It is particularly critical to identify thresholds for rapid forest decline, because it can take many decades for forests to restore the services that they provide. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  18. Foliar photochemical processes and carbon metabolism under favourable and adverse winter conditions in a Mediterranean mixed forest, Catalonia (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sperlich, D.; Chang, C. T.; Peñuelas, J.; Gracia, C.; Sabaté, S.

    2014-06-01

    Evergreen trees in the Mediterranean region must cope with a wide range of environmental stresses from summer drought to winter cold. The mildness of Mediterranean winters can periodically lead to favourable environmental conditions above the threshold for a positive carbon balance, benefitting evergreen woody species more than deciduous ones. The comparatively lower solar energy input in winter decreases the foliar light saturation point. This leads to a higher susceptibility to photoinhibitory stress especially when chilly (< 12 °C) or freezing temperatures (< 0 °C) coincide with clear skies and relatively high solar irradiances. Nonetheless, the advantage of evergreen species that are able to photosynthesize all year round where a significant fraction can be attributed to winter months, compensates for the lower carbon uptake during spring and summer in comparison to deciduous species. We investigated the ecophysiological behaviour of three co-occurring mature evergreen tree species (Quercus ilex L., Pinus halepensis Mill., and Arbutus unedo L.) during a period of mild winter conditions and their responses to a sudden cold period. The state of the photosynthetic machinery in both periods was thus tested by estimating the foliar photosynthetic potential with CO2 response curves in parallel with chlorophyll fluorescence measurements. The studied evergreen tree species benefited strongly from mild winter conditions by exhibiting extraordinarily high photosynthetic potentials similar to those under spring conditions. A sudden period of frost, however, negatively affected the photosynthetic apparatus, leading to significant decreases in key physiological parameters such as the maximum carboxylation velocity (Vc, max), the maximum photosynthetic electron transport rate (Jmax), and the optimal fluorometric quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm). This change persisted for several weeks after the cold period despite the recovery of the temperature to the conditions

  19. Assessing Structure and Condition of Temperate And Tropical Forests: Fusion of Terrestrial Lidar and Airborne Multi-Angle and Lidar Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saenz, Edward J.

    Forests provide vital ecosystem functions and services that maintain the integrity of our natural and human environment. Understanding the structural components of forests (extent, tree density, heights of multi-story canopies, biomass, etc.) provides necessary information to preserve ecosystem services. Increasingly, remote sensing resources have been used to map and monitor forests globally. However, traditional satellite and airborne multi-angle imagery only provide information about the top of the canopy and little about the forest structure and understory. In this research, we investigative the use of rapidly evolving lidar technology, and how the fusion of aerial and terrestrial lidar data can be utilized to better characterize forest stand information. We further apply a novel terrestrial lidar methodology to characterize a Hemlock Woolly Adelgid infestation in Harvard Forest, Massachusetts, and adapt a dynamic terrestrial lidar sampling scheme to identify key structural vegetation profiles of tropical rainforests in La Selva, Costa Rica.

  20. Foliar photochemical processes and carbon metabolism under favourable and adverse winter conditions in a Mediterranean mixed forest, Catalonia (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sperlich, D.; Chang, C. T.; Peñuelas, J.; Gracia, C.; Sabaté, S.

    2014-10-01

    Evergreen trees in the Mediterranean region must cope with a wide range of environmental stresses from summer drought to winter cold. The mildness of Mediterranean winters can periodically lead to favourable environmental conditions above the threshold for a positive carbon balance, benefitting evergreen woody species more than deciduous ones. The comparatively lower solar energy input in winter decreases the foliar light saturation point. This leads to a higher susceptibility to photoinhibitory stress especially when chilly (< 12 °C) or freezing temperatures (< 0 °C) coincide with clear skies and relatively high solar irradiances. Nonetheless, the advantage of evergreen species that are able to photosynthesize all year round where a significant fraction can be attributed to winter months, compensates for the lower carbon uptake during spring and summer in comparison to deciduous species. We investigated the ecophysiological behaviour of three co-occurring mature evergreen tree species (Quercus ilex L., Pinus halepensis Mill., and Arbutus unedo L.). Therefore, we collected twigs from the field during a period of mild winter conditions and after a sudden cold period. After both periods, the state of the photosynthetic machinery was tested in the laboratory by estimating the foliar photosynthetic potential with CO2 response curves in parallel with chlorophyll fluorescence measurements. The studied evergreen tree species benefited strongly from mild winter conditions by exhibiting extraordinarily high photosynthetic potentials. A sudden period of frost, however, negatively affected the photosynthetic apparatus, leading to significant decreases in key physiological parameters such as the maximum carboxylation velocity (Vc, max), the maximum photosynthetic electron transport rate (Jmax), and the optimal fluorometric quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm). The responses of Vc, max and Jmax were highly species specific, with Q. ilex exhibiting the highest and P

  1. Tennessee’s forests, 2009

    Treesearch

    Christopher M. Oswalt; Sonja N. Oswalt; Tony G. Johnson; Consuelo Brandeis; KaDonna C. Randolph; Christopher R. King

    2012-01-01

    This resource bulletin consolidates data from the eighth complete survey of Tennessee’s forest resources which was conducted during the period 2005–09 by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program in coordination with the Tennessee Department of Agriculture Division of Forestry. Data on the extent, condition, and...

  2. Assessment and monitoring of recreation impacts and resource conditions on mountain summits: examples from the Northern Forest, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Monz, Christopher A.; Marion, Jeffrey L.; Goonan, Kelly A.; Manning, Robert E.; Wimpey, Jeremy; Carr, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Mountain summits present a unique challenge to manage sustainably: they are ecologically important and, in many circumstances, under high demand for recreation and tourism activities. This article presents recent advances in the assessment of resource conditions and visitor disturbance in mountain summit environments, by drawing on examples from a multiyear, interdisciplinary study of summits in the northeastern United States. Primary impact issues as a consequence of visitor use, such as informal trail formation, vegetation disturbance, and soil loss, were addressed via the adaption of protocols from recreation ecology studies to summit environments. In addition, new methodologies were developed that provide measurement sensitivity to change previously unavailable through standard recreation monitoring protocols. Although currently limited in application to the northeastern US summit environments, the methods presented show promise for widespread application wherever summits are in demand for visitor activities.

  3. Dopamine: helping males copulate for at least 200 million years: theoretical comment on Kleitz-Nelson et al. (2010).

    PubMed

    Pfaus, James G

    2010-12-01

    Brain dopamine (DA) systems are implicated in a variety of behavioral responses and clinical syndromes, including sex, drug addiction, feeding, satiety, sleep, wakefulness, arousal, attention, reward, decision-making, depression, anxiety, psychosis, and movement disorders. The paper in this issue by Kleitz-Nelson, Dominguez, and Ball (2010) shows how DA release in the medial preoptic area of male quail are activated in an androgen-dependent manner during appetitive and consummatory phases of sexual behavior, similar to that reported previously in male rats. Those data suggest that the steroid-dependent role of hypothalamic DA in male sexual behavior has been conserved through evolutionary time. © 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Contrasting Styles of Monazite Growth in the Nelson Contact Aureole, British Columbia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomkins, H. S.; Pattison, D. R.

    2004-05-01

    The Jurassic Nelson Batholith in southern British Columbia has undergone post-intrusion tilting, such that the surrounding contact aureole reveals a series of contrasting pressure-dependent prograde mineral assemblage sequences in pelitic rocks of similar bulk composition. Three east-west transects across the aureole within 10 km of each other show garnet-staurolite bearing rocks in the north (highest pressure), andalusite + biotite ± garnet-bearing rocks along the middle transect, and garnet-free cordierite-bearing assemblages in the south (lowest pressure). The low-grade pelitic protolith in all three transects is virtually identical with respect to both major and accessory mineral assemblages, containing biotite + muscovite + quartz + albitic plagioclase + graphite with abundant, sub- to euhedral apatite, euhedral allanite, and no monazite. The transition from an allanite-dominant to monazite-bearing assemblage is seen texturally in both of the southerly transects, where monazite can be shown to directly replace allanite downgrade of either cordierite or andalusite development. In the most southerly transect, rocks in the cordierite + biotite zone contain distinct `clusters' of monazite, most likely as pseudomorphs after allanite. These monazites show no chemical zonation, and little change in morphology or distribution from low to high grade. In the middle transect, rocks in the andalusite zone show two distinct forms of monazite, depending on the presence or absence of garnet. Samples without garnet contain monazite distributed in clusters, as described above. In contrast, garnet-bearing rocks contain monazite as lone grains in the matrix, often with a high Th core. With increasing grade, these monazites become coarser, with a more rounded, regular shape, and commonly display a Th+Y-rich rim. In the highest pressure, garnet + staurolite-bearing samples, the garnet-in isograd abruptly marks the last appearance of allanite and the first occurrence of monazite

  5. The New England forest: baseline for New England forest health monitoring

    Treesearch

    Robert T. Brooks; Thomas S Frieswyk; Douglas M. Griffith; Ellen Cooter; Luther Smith; Luther Smith

    1992-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service along with various cooperators has initiated Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) in New England to assess the condition and stressors of the region's forests, to analyze changes in these data over time, and to identify any relationships between forest condition and stressors. A major component of FHM in New England is 263 permanent plots located...

  6. Development of a mixed shrub-ponderosa pine community in a natural and treated condition. Forest Service research paper (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, P.M.; Fiddler, G.O.

    1995-05-01

    On a medium site in northern California, a mostly shrub community was treated by two manual release techniques and by two herbicides, to study its development in both a natural (control) and treated condition. Survival and growth of planted ponderosa pine seedlings were quantified for 8 to 11 years after initial treatment applications. Treatments included manual release in a 4-foot radius around pine seedlings one, two, and three times; grubbing the entire one-seventh acre plot two times; applying 2,4-D and Velpar herbicides to the entire plot one time; and a control. Data are presented for the most abundant species (greenleaf manzanita), second most abundant species (snowbrush), by the two species combined, and by all 10 shrub species combined. At the end of the study in 1990, manzanita was the most abundant species with 15,267 plants per acre, cover of 24,800 ft, and height of 5.4 feet. Ponderosa pine developed best in plots where the entire area was grubbed twice (mean height of 14.2 feet).

  7. Where do forests influence rainfall?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang-Erlandsson, Lan; van der Ent, Ruud; Fetzer, Ingo; Keys, Patrick; Savenije, Hubert; Gordon, Line

    2017-04-01

    Forests play a major role in hydrology. Not only by immediate control of soil moisture and streamflow, but also by regulating climate through evaporation (i.e., transpiration, interception, and soil evaporation). The process of evaporation travelling through the atmosphere and returning as precipitation on land is known as moisture recycling. Whether evaporation is recycled depends on wind direction and geography. Moisture recycling and forest change studies have primarily focused on either one region (e.g. the Amazon), or one biome type (e.g. tropical humid forests). We will advance this via a systematic global inter-comparison of forest change impacts on precipitation depending on both biome type and geographic location. The rainfall effects are studied for three contemporary forest changes: afforestation, deforestation, and replacement of mature forest by forest plantations. Furthermore, as there are indications in the literature that moisture recycling in some places intensifies during dry years, we will also compare the rainfall impacts of forest change between wet and dry years. We model forest change effects on evaporation using the global hydrological model STEAM and trace precipitation changes using the atmospheric moisture tracking scheme WAM-2layers. This research elucidates the role of geographical location of forest change driven modifications on rainfall as a function of the type of forest change and climatic conditions. These knowledge gains are important at a time of both rapid forest and climate change. Our conclusions nuance our understanding of how forests regulate climate and pinpoint hotspot regions for forest-rainfall coupling.

  8. Morley Nelson Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Simpson, Michael K. [R-ID-2

    2009-01-14

    House - 02/04/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on National Parks, Forests and Public Lands. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.146, which became Public Law 111-11 on 3/30/2009. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  9. Morley Nelson Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Simpson, Michael K. [R-ID-2

    2009-01-14

    02/04/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on National Parks, Forests and Public Lands. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.146, which became Public Law 111-11 on 3/30/2009. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  10. Morley Nelson Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Simpson, Michael K. [R-ID-2

    2009-01-14

    02/04/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on National Parks, Forests and Public Lands. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.146, which became Public Law 111-11 on 3/30/2009. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  11. Evaluation of the Non-Formal Forest Education Sector in the State of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany: Organisations, Programmes and Framework Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimm, Anne; Mrosek, Thorsten; Martinsohn, Anna; Schulte, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Although a large number of different organisations offer various forest education programmes within Germany, specific information (i.e., sectoral and programme content and provision at a state level) is lacking. This study used a survey of all 61 forest education organisations (43 respondents) in the state of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, to…

  12. Evaluation of the Non-Formal Forest Education Sector in the State of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany: Organisations, Programmes and Framework Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimm, Anne; Mrosek, Thorsten; Martinsohn, Anna; Schulte, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Although a large number of different organisations offer various forest education programmes within Germany, specific information (i.e., sectoral and programme content and provision at a state level) is lacking. This study used a survey of all 61 forest education organisations (43 respondents) in the state of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, to…

  13. Stem anatomical characteristics of the climbing palm Desmoncus orthacanthos (Arecaceae) under two natural growth conditions in a tropical forest.

    PubMed

    Quiroz, Joaquín; Orellana, Roger; Canto, Gabriel; Rebollar, Silvia; Herrera-Franco, Pedro

    2008-06-01

    Desmoncus orthacanthos is a Neotropical climbing palm that resembles rattan and therefore has similar potential applications. The genus Desmoncus (subfamily Arecoideae, subtribe Bactridinae) is distributed throughout the Americas, from Veracruz, Mexico, to Brazil and Bolivia. The anatomical characteristics of its support tissue have not been thoroughly studied, although some observations from Central American artisans suggest that the stems collected from undisturbed sites possess better characteristics; these include a good capacity to withstand bending without breaking (i.e., higher fracture strength than plants from disturbed sites). Stem samples were collected from individuals from disturbed and undisturbed sites, at three points along the length of the stem (basal, medium and apical). Collections were made of one ramet from five individuals (n=5) at both sites. Each ramet was divided into three sections: basal, from soil surface to a height of 0.5 m; medium, from a height of 0.5 to 5.0 m; and apical, from a height 5.0 to 10.0 m. An anatomical analysis including vascular bundles, parenchyma elements and fibers was performed in the radial direction and also along the longitudinal direction of the stems. The amount of vascular bundles was greater for samples from undisturbed site stems; the amount of parenchyma cells differ between samples from both sites and the amount of fibers was greater for samples from disturbed site stems. The anatomical structural dimensions were smaller for samples from the undisturbed site stems. These findings partially confirm the artisans' belief and supports the conclusion that microclimatic conditions affect plant anatomical structure.

  14. Forest hydrology

    Treesearch

    Ge Sun; Devendra Amatya; Steve McNulty

    2016-01-01

    Forest hydrology studies the distribution, storage, movement, and quality of water and the hydrological processes in forest-dominated ecosystems. Forest hydrological science is regarded as the foundation of modern integrated water¬shed management. This chapter provides an overview of the history of forest hydrology and basic principles of this unique branch of...

  15. Forest Management

    Treesearch

    S. Hummel; K. L. O' Hara

    2008-01-01

    Global variation in forests and in human cultures means that a single method for managing forests is not possible. However, forest management everywhere shares some common principles because it is rooted in physical and biological sciences like chemistry and genetics. Ecological forest management is an approach that combines an understanding of universal processes with...

  16. Arkansas forests

    Treesearch

    William W.S. van Hees

    1980-01-01

    The 1978 Arkansas Forest survey shows a 9 percent reduction in forest land area since 1969. Presently 16.6 million acres, 50 percent of the total State area, are forested. Diversions of forest land to agriculture, particularly to soybean fields in the Delta and to pasture in the Ozarks, account for most of the decline.

  17. Forest soils

    Treesearch

    Charles H. (Hobie) Perry; Michael C. Amacher

    2009-01-01

    Productive soils are the foundation of sustainable forests throughout the United States. Forest soils are generally subjected to fewer disturbances than agricultural soils, particularly those that are tilled, so forest soils tend to have better preserved A-horizons than agricultural soils. Another major contrast between forest and agricultural soils is the addition of...

  18. Joint Annual Forest Inventory and Monitoring System

    Treesearch

    Ronald E. McRoberts

    1999-01-01

    The Renewable Forest and Rangeland Resources Planning Act of 1978 requires that the USDA Forest Service conduct periodic inventories of forestland in the United States to determine its extent and condition and the volume of standing timber, timber growth, and timber depletions. Five separate Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) programs, located in USDA Forest Service...

  19. The forest resources of Puerto Rico

    Treesearch

    Richard A. Birdsey; Peter L. Weaver

    1982-01-01

    A forest survey conducted in 1980 found 130 thousand hectares of potential commercial timberland and 148 thousand hectares of other forest land. Most of the forest area has regrown on abandoned pasture and cropland including coffee production areas. The timberland areas are composed of numerous species and forest conditions.

  20. Wildlife of westside and high montane forests.

    Treesearch

    D.H. Olson; J.C. Hagar; A.B. Carey; J.H. Cissel; F.J. Swanson

    2001-01-01

    More than 300 vertebrate species are associated with western forests of Oregon and Washington (Table 1). Western and montane conifer-hardwood forests and oak woodlands are some of the more species-rich areas within the two states. Both the productivity and the mosaic of conditions within western forests contribute to the higher vertebrate diversity. These forests are...

  1. Natural and near natural tropical forest values

    Treesearch

    Daniel H. Henning

    2011-01-01

    This paper identifies and describes some of the values associated with tropical rain forests in their natural and near-natural conditions. Tropical rain forests are moist forests in the humid tropics where temperature and rainfall are high and the dry season is short. These closed (non-logged) and broad-leaved forests are a global resource. Located almost entirely in...

  2. Overview of the Forest Health Monitoring Program

    Treesearch

    Robert D. Mangold

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Forest Health Monitoring Program (FHM), a partnership among the USDA Forest Service, State Foresters, universities, and the USDI Bureau of Land Management. The purpose of FHM is to annually assess the condition of the Nation's forested ecosystems in a standardized way. There are four components of the program-Detection...

  3. Overview of the forest health monitoring program

    Treesearch

    Robert D. Mangold

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Forest Health Monitoring Program (FHM), a partnership among the USDA Forest Service, State Foresters, universities, and the USDI Bureau of Land Management. The purpose of FHM is to annually assess the condition of the nation's forested ecosystems in a standardized way. There are four components of the program - Detection...

  4. Mangrove forests: a tough system to invade

    Treesearch

    Ariel E. Lugo

    1998-01-01

    Tropical forests are the most species-rich forests in the world. As many as 225 tree species per hectare have been reported in these ecosystems, values that are equivalent to almost finding a different tree species every other tree encountered in the forest. Under some conditions, tree species richness decreases in tropical forests. For example, Hart et al. (1989)...

  5. Southern forest science: past, present, and future

    Treesearch

    H. Michael Rauscher; Kurt Johnsen

    2004-01-01

    Southern forests provide innumerable benefits. Forest scientists, managers, owners, and users have in common the desire to improve the condition of these forests and the ecosystems they support. A first step is to understand the contributions science has made and continues to make to the care and management of forests. This book represents a celebration of past...

  6. Helminth parasite communities of two Physalaemus cuvieri Fitzinger, 1826 (Anura: Leiuperidae) populations under different conditions of habitat integrity in the Atlantic Rain Forest of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, A; Toledo, G M; Anjos, L A; Silva, R J

    2015-11-01

    Adults of Physalaemus cuvieri were collected and necropsied between November 2009 and January 2010. This was carried out in order to report and compare the helminth fauna associated with two populations of this anuran species from the Brazilian Atlantic rain forest under different conditions of habitat integrity. The hosts from the disturbed area were parasitized with five helminth taxa: Cosmocerca parva, Aplectana sp., Physaloptera sp., Rhabdias sp., Oswaldocruzia subauricularis (Nematoda) and Polystoma cuvieri (Monogenea) while those from the preserved area had four helminth taxa: C. parva, Aplectana sp., Physaloptera sp., Rhabdias sp., and Acanthocephalus saopaulensis (Acanthocephala). Prevalence, mean intensity of infection, mean abundance, mean richness, importance index and dominance frequency of helminth component communities were similar in both areas. The helminth community associated with anurans from the disturbed area had higher diversity than that from the preserved area. This study is the first to report on the acanthocephalan parasites of Ph. cuvieri, and the similarity between helminth fauna composition of two host populations under different selective pressures.

  7. Observations of wing-feather molt and summer feeding ecology of Steller's Eiders at Nelson Lagoon, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, Margaret R.

    1980-01-01

    The population size, moult chronology, food habits, and feeding behaviour of Steller's Eiders Polysticta stelleri were studied at Nelson Lagoon, Alaska from May to October 1977. Sub-adults were flightless from late July to late August and the adult males were flightless from late August to mid September. Adult females were rarely flightless at Nelson Lagoon but commonly flightless at Izembek Bay. Steller's Eiders ate primarily bivalve mollusca and amphipod crustacea, with Mytilus edulis and Anisogammarus pugettensis the most important foods. Eiders took amphipoda prior to the wing-feather moult, bivalves during the wing-feather moult, and both types of invertebrates after the wing-feather moult. Steller's Eiders fed primarily at the low tide by diving (flock-feeding) or head-dipping, both during the day and at night. There was no difference in feeding behaviour between ages or sexes. Eiders fed almost exclusively by diving after the wing-feather moult and apparently fed more as the season progressed.

  8. The development of hippocampal-dependent memory functions: Theoretical comments on Jabès and Nelson review (2015)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Studies investigating the development of memory processes and their neural substrates have flourished over the last two decades. The review by Jabès and Nelson (2015) adds an important piece to our understanding of the maturation of different elements and circuits within the hippocampal system and their association with the progressive development of hippocampal-dependent memory processes in humans. In this accompanying commentary, we explore some additional connections between the nonhuman primate work and the human data, and take the opportunity to highlight some common and additional interpretations of the results. This commentary makes three points: (1) the recognition processes present in the first few days of life may be linked to the early maturation of the medial temporal cortical areas instead of, or in addition to, the early maturation of the subiculum; (2) recent findings on the differential protracted maturation of spatial relational memory processes in monkeys further support the notion proposed by Jabès and Nelson that this protracted development may reflect progressive maturation of the CA1 field of the hippocampus followed by further maturation of CA3/dentate gyrus; (3) finally, further considerations of the differential maturation of the longitudinal hippocampal axis and of the diencephalon are proposed as additional contributors to the refinement of episodic memory functions during development. PMID:26366027

  9. Using climate-FVS to project landscape-level forest carbon stores for 100 years from field and LiDAR measures of initial conditions

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, John C; Crookston, Nicholas L; Keefe, Robert F

    2014-01-01

    Background Forest resources supply a wide range of environmental services like mitigation of increasing levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). As climate is changing, forest managers have added pressure to obtain forest resources by following stand management alternatives that are biologically sustainable and economically profitable. The goal of this study is to project the effect of typical forest management actions on forest C levels, given a changing climate, in the Moscow Mountain area of north-central Idaho, USA. Harvest and prescribed fire management treatments followed by plantings of one of four regionally important commercial tree species were simulated, using the climate-sensitive version of the Forest Vegetation Simulator, to estimate the biomass of four different planted species and their C sequestration response to three climate change scenarios. Results Results show that anticipated climate change induces a substantial decrease in C sequestration potential regardless of which of the four tree species tested are planted. It was also found that Pinus monticola has the highest capacity to sequester C by 2110, followed by Pinus ponderosa, then Pseudotsuga menziesii, and lastly Larix occidentalis. Conclusions Variability in the growth responses to climate change exhibited by the four planted species considered in this study points to the importance to forest managers of considering how well adapted seedlings may be to predicted climate change, before the seedlings are planted, and particularly if maximizing C sequestration is the management goal. PMID:24495313

  10. The role of ash on soil water repellency changes in a Mediterranean area affected by a forest fire: a field conditions study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Pinilla, P.; Lozano, E.; Mataix-Solera, J.; Arcenegui, V.; Zavala, L. M.; Jordán, A.; Morugán, A.; Pérez-Bejarano, A.; Bárcenas, G. M.

    2012-04-01

    Soil water repellency (WR) is one of the properties most affected by combustion during a forest fire (Doerr, et al., 2000). The modifications of soil organic matter by the heating and the condensation of distilled organic compounds over mineral surfaces are the main factors responsible..After a fire, a layer of ash covers the soil surface affecting also its wettability; it has been demonstrated that ash can also be water repellent depending on the degree of combustion, and type of plant burned (Bodí, et al., 2011). Ash plays an important role in terms of fertility but also in the hydrology of the affected area. The aim of this study is to assess how ash influences the behaviour of soil WR in the short-term after a forest fire. In July 2011, a forest fire affected an area of 50 has in Gorga, Alicante Province, SE Spain. Immediately after fire plots for monitoring were installed in burned (B) and adjacent control (unburned; C) area. In the burned area two treatments were established: Burned ash (Ba): plots where ash was kept, and Burned without ash (Bwa): plots where ash was removed simulating an ash exportation that sometimes occurs through wind erosion. The main objective being to study was therefore the effect of the ash factor. All of the plots were installed underneath Pinus halepensis specie. The water drop penetration time test (WDPT) was used to measure the persistence of WR over topsoil (surface of A mineral horizon) under field conditions in July (immediately after the fire), and in September, October and December 2011,the last measure being after a very rainy period. Ash samples were collected after fire and WR was also measured in laboratory. As expected, WR in July was the highest measured during the study period both in burned and control soil, being higher (670 ± 289) in burned compared to control area (228 ± 92). The measurements of ash WR in laboratory revealed that 50% of samples were water repellent (mainly in the WDPT classes of 10 and 30 s

  11. Statement of Facts for 1975 City-Wide Mock Trial Competitions. Georgia Floyd, Individually and as Parent and Next Friend of Minor, Nelson Floyd v. Fix-It Home Remodeling, Inc. and Sam Baldwin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. for Citizen Education in the Law, Washington, DC.

    Prepared by the District of Columbia Street Law Project for its annual city-wide mock trial competition, this instructional handout provides material for a civil trial over a claim for damages. During an argument, a friend pushed Nelson Floyd against the railing of a porch. Falling onto the concrete below, Nelson was injured with a broken shin…

  12. Statement of Facts for 1975 City-Wide Mock Trial Competitions. Georgia Floyd, Individually and as Parent and Next Friend of Minor, Nelson Floyd v. Fix-It Home Remodeling, Inc. and Sam Baldwin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. for Citizen Education in the Law, Washington, DC.

    Prepared by the District of Columbia Street Law Project for its annual city-wide mock trial competition, this instructional handout provides material for a civil trial over a claim for damages. During an argument, a friend pushed Nelson Floyd against the railing of a porch. Falling onto the concrete below, Nelson was injured with a broken shin…

  13. Doug Nelson's Contributions to our Understanding of Young Continent-Continent Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klemperer, S. L.; Brown, L. D.; Jones, A. G.

    2002-12-01

    K. Douglas Nelson, Department Chair and Jessie Page Heroy Professor of Earth Sciences at Syracuse University, died suddenly of heart failure on August 17th, 2002, age 49. At the time of his death he was at the heights of an increasingly distinguished career, and had, just prior to his death, agreed to be an invited speaker in this session of the 2002 Fall AGU meeting. Doug began his professional career as a field structural geologist, writing his PhD on the Newfoundland Appalachians, and as a post-doc in South Island, New Zealand. From there he went to Cornell University to join COCORP; he learned to interpret deep seismic reflection data and became hooked on the value of geophysics to the study of large-scale processes in mountain belts. He became one of the proponents of taking the COCORP methodology overseas, to the world's type example of young, continent-continent collisions, the Himalaya. For 10 years from 1992, by now a faculty member at Syracuse, Doug provided operational and intellectual leadership to the INDEPTH program (International Deep Profiling of Tibet and the Himalaya). His talk in this session would undoubtedly have focused on our new understanding of Tibet that resulted in large part from the work that he led and supervised. From the initial conception of INDEPTH as a single reflection profile across Earth's highest mountain range and largest plateau, the program grew through three major stages to encompass a full range of geophysical and geological surveys in a transect that now reaches from the High Himalaya across Tibet. Doug more than anyone was the enthusiastic integrator in the large multi-national group of investigators (from the U.S., China, Canada and Germany), not bound by a single technique, and best able to synthesize the seemingly disparate observations from all the techniques. In recent years he was particularly interested in the combination of magneto-telluric with seismic results to better constrain interpretation of deep geology

  14. Pantropical forest hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumagai, T.; Kanamori, H.; Chappell, N. A.

    2015-12-01

    First, we show pantropical distributions of annual amount and seasonality of precipitation with world tropical forest map, derived from the global-scale gridded data. Then, using the atmospheric water balance method with the global-scale data, we built pantropical maps of evapotranspiration (ET), runoff (Q) and rainfall recycle (from precipitation) ratio (RR). Comparisons of the pantropical gridded-computations of ET, Q and RR with those from pantropical fields (mostly, experimental forest watersheds) data revealed differences in hydrologic component characteristics between temperate and tropical forests and how such tropical hydrologic components are generated. Furthermore, an application of Budyko's Radiation Dryness Index to our pantropical analyses allowed us to consider the limits of world tropical forests and future distribution of tropical forests under climate change conditions.

  15. Record-setting forest stress in the Rocky Mountains caused by low snowfall and high potential evapotranspiration, consistent with expected future conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molotch, Noah; Trujillo, Ernesto

    2014-05-01

    Projections of future climate for the Southwestern U.S. and other semi-arid regions globally include reductions in mountain snow accumulation and increased summer potential evapotranspiration. These changes may significantly alter runoff production, evapotranspiration, and gross primary productivity in mountain forests. Analysis of remotely sensed vegetation greenness data indicate strong forest and understory growth dependencies associated with snow accumulation and snowmelt with peak snow water equivalent explaining 40-50% of inter-annual variability in forest greenness in the Sierra Nevada and Rocky Mountains. Examples of these dependencies will be presented based on the 2012 drought in the Southwestern US whereby near record low snow accumulation and record high potential evapotranspiration have resulted in record low forest greening as evident in the 30+ year satellite record. Forest response to aridity in 2012 was exacerbated by forest disturbance with greenness anomalies 90% greater in magnitude in Bark Beetle and Spruce Budworm affected areas versus undisturbed areas and 182% greater in magnitude in areas impacted by fire. Given potential future changes in the hydroclimatology of mountainous regions, the results of these measurements may identify tipping points regarding ecosystem responses to water availability across gradients in physiography.

  16. Full-Waveform, Wide-Swath Lidar Imaging of Forested and Urban Areas in Leaf-On Conditions: Development, Results and Future Direction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blair, James B.; Hofton, M.; Rabine, David; Welch, Wayne; Ramos, Luis; Padden, Phillip

    2003-01-01

    Full-Waveform lidar measurements provide unprecedented views of the vertical and horizontal structure of vegetation and the topography of the Earth s surface. Utilizing a high signal-to-noise ratio lidar system, larger than typical laser footprints (10-20 m), and the recorded time history of interaction between a short-duration (approx. 10 ns) pulse of laser light and the surface of the Earth, full-waveform lidar is able to simultaneously image sub-canopy topography as well as the vertical structure of any overlying vegetation. These data reveal the true 3-D vegetation structure in leaf-on conditions enabling important biophysical parameters such as above-ground biomass to be estimated with unprecedented accuracy. An airborne lidar mission was conducted July-August 2003 in support of the North America Carbon Program. NASA s Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS) was used to image approximately 2,000 km$^2$ in Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts and Maryland. Areas with available ground and other data were included (e.g., experimental forests, FLUXNET sites) in order to facilitate as many bio- and geophysical investigations as possible. Data collected included ground elevation and canopy height measurements for each laser footprint, as well as the vertical distribution of intercepted surfaces. Data will be publicly distributed within 6- 12 months of collection. Further details of the mission, including the lidar system technology, the locations of the mapped areas, and examples of the numerous data products that can be derived from the return waveform data products will be presented. Future applications including detection of ground and vegetation canopy changes and a spaceborne implementation of wide-swath, full-waveform imaging lidar will also be discussed.

  17. Full-Waveform, Wide-Swath Lidar Imaging of Forested and Urban Areas in Leaf-On Conditions: Development, Results and Future Direction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blair, James B.; Hofton, M.; Rabine, David; Welch, Wayne; Ramos, Luis; Padden, Phillip

    2003-01-01

    Full-Waveform lidar measurements provide unprecedented views of the vertical and horizontal structure of vegetation and the topography of the Earth s surface. Utilizing a high signal-to-noise ratio lidar system, larger than typical laser footprints (10-20 m), and the recorded time history of interaction between a short-duration (approx. 10 ns) pulse of laser light and the surface of the Earth, full-waveform lidar is able to simultaneously image sub-canopy topography as well as the vertical structure of any overlying vegetation. These data reveal the true 3-D vegetation structure in leaf-on conditions enabling important biophysical parameters such as above-ground biomass to be estimated with unprecedented accuracy. An airborne lidar mission was conducted July-August 2003 in support of the North America Carbon Program. NASA s Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS) was used to image approximately 2,000 km$^2$ in Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts and Maryland. Areas with available ground and other data were included (e.g., experimental forests, FLUXNET sites) in order to facilitate as many bio- and geophysical investigations as possible. Data collected included ground elevation and canopy height measurements for each laser footprint, as well as the vertical distribution of intercepted surfaces. Data will be publicly distributed within 6- 12 months of collection. Further details of the mission, including the lidar system technology, the locations of the mapped areas, and examples of the numerous data products that can be derived from the return waveform data products will be presented. Future applications including detection of ground and vegetation canopy changes and a spaceborne implementation of wide-swath, full-waveform imaging lidar will also be discussed.

  18. Analysis of Nelson-Denny Reading Test Scores, Leeward Community College, Fall 1975 New Students. Student Flow Project, Report No. 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii Univ., Honolulu. Community Coll. System.

    This document represents one of a series of continuing reports on student flow in Hawaii community colleges. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of student scores on the Nelson-Denny Reading Test (NDRT) to academic performance as reflected by grade point averages (GPA). NDRT scores for 1,981 entering students at Leeward…

  19. The Relationship between College Performance and Basic Skills Assessment Using SAT Scores, the Nelson Denny Reading Test, and Degrees of Reading Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Bruce W.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes a study of basic skills testing in mathematics and reading. Examines the relationships between mathematics course performance and class standing, gender, age, transfer status, and math Scholastic Assessment Tests (SAT) scores; and reading course performance and verbal SAT, Nelson Denny Reading Test, and Degrees of Reading Power Test…

  20. Does Humor Have an Effect on the Performance of College Freshmen in Improving Scores on the Nelson Denny Reading Post Test?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiller, Maryann F.

    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of humor on the performance of college freshmen on the Nelson Denny Reading Post Test. The subjects, 36 college freshmen from two developmental reading improvement classes, were randomly assigned to experimental A or B or control sample groups. Students had previously taken forms F and C of the test…