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Sample records for condom failure examining

  1. Condom Failure: Examining the Objective and Cultural Meanings Expressed in Interviews With African American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Sznitman, Sharon R.; Horner, Jennifer; Salazar, Laura F.; Romer, Daniel; Vanable, Peter A.; Carey, Michael P.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Valois, Robert F.; Stanton, Bonita F.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the meaning and context of self-reported “condom failure” among sexually active African American adolescents. Semistructured interviews regarding methods of protection from pregnancy and sexually transmitted disease (STD) with 124 youth (ages 14–19 years) were content analyzed. The findings suggested three meanings of condom failure. First, condom failure represents a legitimate and important risk related to sexual activity. Second, it can serve as an excuse repertoire for adolescents who engaged in unprotected sex and later experienced either pregnancy or a STD. Third, it may serve as an explanation for males who deceive their partners into having unprotected sex. The findings are discussed with regard to their implications for HIV or STD prevention and research. PMID:19148828

  2. Feasibility of local condom production examined.

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    Despite Africa being the world region worst affected by the HIV/AIDS pandemic, there is only 1 condom manufacturer on the continent, in Johannesburg. Hundreds of millions of condoms are donated and imported annually. For example, 500 million units were donated in 1996, of which 212 million came from the US Agency for International Development. A recently released study commissioned by the European Union's HIV/AIDS Program for Developing Countries determined that it would be technically viable to manufacture condoms in not only South Africa, but also in Mauritius, Cote d'Ivoire, and Kenya. All that is required is a factory, work force, water, and electricity, with the raw materials to be imported from Malaysia or Thailand regardless of where the factory is located. The financial returns of such an operation would depend upon the cost of labor, the type of factory and its output, and market demand. Benefits would include employment creation, potential exports, and foreign exchange savings. A typical condom plant, operating 24 hours a day with 2 production lines, can produce 160 million condom units per year. However, should such a factory be built and put into operation, managers must ensure that any condoms produced are of high quality.

  3. Condom

    MedlinePlus

    ... Is It? Condoms are a barrier method of contraception. There are male condoms and female condoms: A ... infections. In general, how well each type of birth control method works depends on a lot of things. ...

  4. Condom

    MedlinePlus

    ... sheath (usually made of latex, a type of rubber) that is worn on the penis. A female ... the vagina. The male condom, sometimes called a "rubber" or "prophylactic," is far more commonly used. How ...

  5. An intervention study examining the effects of condom wrapper graphics and scent on condom use in the Botswana Defence Force.

    PubMed

    Tran, Bonnie Robin; Thomas, Anne Goldzier; Vaida, Florin; Ditsela, Mooketsi; Phetogo, Robert; Kelapile, David; Haubrich, Richard; Chambers, Christina; Shaffer, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Free condoms provided by the government are often not used by Botswana Defence Force (BDF) personnel due to a perceived unpleasant scent and unattractive wrapper. Formative work with the BDF found that scented condoms and military-inspired (camouflage) wrapper graphics were appealing to personnel. A non-randomized intervention study was implemented to determine whether condom wrapper graphics and scent improved condom use in the BDF. Four military sites were selected for participation. Two sites in the south received the intervention condom wrapped in a generic wrapper and two sites in the north received the intervention condom wrapped in a military-inspired wrapper; intervention condoms were either scented or unscented. Two hundred and eleven male soldiers who ever had sex, aged 18-30 years, and stationed at one of the selected sites consented to participate. Sexual activity and condom use were measured pre- and post-intervention using sexual behavior diaries. A condom use rate (CUR; frequency of protected sex divided by the total frequency of sex) was computed for each participant. Mean CURs significantly increased over time (85.7% baseline vs. 94.5% post-intervention). Adjusted odds of condom use over time were higher among participants who received the intervention condom packaged in the military wrapper compared with the generic wrapper. Adjusted odds of condom use were also higher for participants who reported using scented vs. unscented condoms. Providing scented condoms and condoms packaged in a military-inspired wrapper may help increase condom use and reduce HIV infection among military personnel.

  6. A qualitative examination of men's condom use attitudes and resistance: "it's just part of the game".

    PubMed

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Schraufnagel, Trevor J; Kajumulo, Kelly F; Gilmore, Amanda K; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the variability in young heterosexual men's perceptions of the advantages and disadvantages of condom use in their casual sexual relationships. Because men who perceive greater disadvantages of condom use may be more likely to resist using them, we also explored the tactics that men employ to avoid using condoms. Semi-structured focus groups were conducted with single men who have sex with women (n = 60), aged 21-35 years, all of whom reported using condoms inconsistently. Transcripts were analyzed using a framework analysis approach. As expected, participants reported advantages and disadvantages to condom use that pertained to the likelihood and quality of sex, physical sensations during intercourse, and the risk of sexually transmitted infections and unwanted pregnancies. Within each of these topics, however, participants' appraisals of the relative pros and cons of condom use varied considerably. Additionally, participants reported that men use a wide range of condom use resistance tactics, including seduction, deception, and condom sabotage, and that the use of these tactics was viewed as normative behavior for men their age. These findings suggest that the effectiveness of sexual health prevention efforts could be enhanced by increasing young men's motivations to use condoms and by targeting social norms regarding condom use resistance. Additionally, the issue of men's condom use resistance clearly merits increased empirical investigation and intervention attention.

  7. Condoms - male

    MedlinePlus

    Prophylactics; Rubbers; Male condoms; Contraceptive - condom; Contraception - condom; Barrier method - condom ... rubber Polyurethane Condoms are the only method of birth control for men that are not permanent. They can ...

  8. Female condoms

    MedlinePlus

    Condoms for women; Contraception - female condom; Family planning - female condom; Birth control - female condom ... care provider or pharmacy for information about emergency contraception (Plan B) if the condom tears or the ...

  9. Always, never, or sometimes: examining variation in condom-use decision making among Black adolescent mothers.

    PubMed

    Nelson, LaRon E; Morrison-Beedy, Dianne; Kearney, Margaret H; Dozier, Ann

    2011-08-01

    Our purpose in this study was to describe Black adolescent mothers' decisions regarding condom use and non-use with their male sex partners, including their children's fathers. Research on partner type and condom use has been insufficiently focused on understanding the specific influence that the biological father of the baby has on condom use among adolescent mothers. We conducted five focus groups and three interviews with 31 predominantly African-American mothers. We found that their decisions to use condoms always, never, or sometimes were based on partner type and on emotional and relationship factors. The "baby daddy" was the only partner with whom they never used condoms. HIV/STI prevention interventions for adolescent mothers must address risk taking with their children's biological fathers.

  10. Understanding Failure of Condom Use Intention among Adolescents: Completing an Intensive Preventive Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauman, Laurie J.; Karasz, Alison; Hamilton, Adaoha

    2007-01-01

    Although interventions based on cognitive theories can reduce rates of unsafe sexual behavior in adolescents, effect sizes remain small. This study was a qualitative investigation of inner-city adolescents' intentions to use condoms following participation in an intensive safer sex program. In-depth interviews with 26 adolescents were analyzed…

  11. Female condoms.

    PubMed

    Bounds, W

    1997-06-01

    Early versions of a female condom were available in the 1920s and 1960s, but they were little used and soon forgotten. It took the arrival of AIDS, and the urgent need for a wider range of female-controlled barrier techniques, to rekindle scientific interest in this method. In the 1980s, three groups in Europe and the USA began development of new female condom designs, comprising 'Femidom (Reality)', the 'Bikini Condom', and 'Women's Choice'. Apart from differences in their physical design, Femidom differs from the others in that it is made of a polyurethane membrane, which has several advantages over latex. Of the three, Femidom is the most advanced in terms of development and clinical testing, and it is the only one to have reached the marketing stage. Laboratory studies and clinical trials suggest that its contraceptive efficacy is similar to that documented for the male condom, though a direct comparison is not possible because no comparative clinical trials have, as yet, been undertaken. Reported 'typical-use' pregnancy rates range from 12.4 to 22.2% at 6 months of use in the USA and Latin America, respectively, while a study in the UK observed a rate of 15% at 12 months. As with all barrier methods, most failures appear to be associated with poor compliance or incorrect use. 'Perfect-use' pregnancy rates were substantially lower, indicating that Femidom can be very effective, if used consistently and correctly. Evidence for Femidom's effectiveness to protect against transmission of sexual disease-causing organisms, including HIV, is still very limited and based largely on laboratory studies. Whilst, in theory, the condom should confer reliable protection, its efficacy in clinical use will depend upon correct and consistent use and upon the product's ability to maintain an effective physical barrier throughout penetrative intercourse. In this respect, the results of recent and ongoing clinical studies are expected with much interest. How valuable Femidom will

  12. Condom rating.

    PubMed

    Vazquez, E

    1999-01-01

    Consumer Reports reveals that out of 30 different non-polyurethane condoms that underwent airburst testing, only Trojan Plus 2 Spermicidal and Durex Pure Protection Spermicidally Lubricated failed. Condoms labeled as "extra strength" performed no better than those labeled as "thin," and vending machine condoms performed as well as others. Condoms are also less effective for anal sex than vaginal intercourse, and expiration dates should be checked.

  13. Condom Semiotics: Meaning and Condom Use in Rural Malawi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tavory, Iddo; Swidler, Ann

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the widespread resistance to condom use in sub-Saharan Africa by describing the major semiotic axes that organize how people talk about condoms and condom use. These axes include the "sweetness" of sex, trust and love between sexual partners, and assessments of risk and danger. Using data from rural Malawi, we show…

  14. Condoms used but sex not well protected.

    PubMed

    Lau, J T F; Zhou, H; Su, X Y; Feng, T J; Hong, F C; Tsui, H Y; Ma, Y L; Wang, Z; Walden, D

    2014-10-01

    Condom use is often equated to safer sex. The prevalence of condom use during sex work among female sex workers (FSW) in China is high. Condom use, however, co-exists with condom failure and improper use and hence risk of HIV transmission. In a cross-sectional study, we interviewed 195 FSW in Shenzhen, China. The prevalence of condom use in the last episode of sex work was 97.4 %, However, respectively 53.8 and 86.2 % had experienced at least one condition of condom failure that may lead to genital contact (wearing condoms after penetration, condom breakage/slippage, condoms removed by clients) and at least one condition of improper condom use (not removing air from the tip of the condom, not pulling it down to the root of penis and not choosing good quality condoms). Factors of individual level (e.g. never choosing high quality condoms for sex work), inter-personal level (e.g. agreement to have unprotected sex if fond of clients or paid more) and environmental/structural level (e.g. non-availability of condoms) were associated with various types of condom failure and improper use. Although HIV prevention interventions have increased prevalence of condom use among FSW, the risk of HIV transmission may still be high as "unsafe" sex due to condom failure and improper use is prevalent. Interventions promoting safer sex need to address such issues and take socio-ecological factors into account. Condom use during sex work is not equivalent to well protected sex as the protective effects could be compromised by frequent condom failure and improper use.

  15. Condom negotiation strategies as a mediator of the relationship between self-efficacy and condom use.

    PubMed

    French, Sabine Elizabeth; Holland, Kathryn J

    2013-01-01

    College students are a group at high risk of sexually transmitted infections due to inconsistent condom use and engaging in other risky sexual behaviors. This study examined whether condom use self-efficacy predicted the use of condom negotiation strategies (i.e., condom influence strategies) and whether condom influence strategies mediated the relationship between condom use self-efficacy and condom use within this population, as well as whether gender moderated the mediation model. Results showed a strong relationship between condom use self-efficacy and condom influence strategies. Additionally, condom influence strategies completely mediated the relationship between condom use self-efficacy and condom use. Although condom use self-efficacy was related to condom use, the ability to use condom negotiation strategies was the most important factor predicting condom use. The mediation model held across genders, except for the condom influence strategy withholding sex, where it was not significant for men. For women, condom use self-efficacy promoted the use of a very assertive negotiation strategy, withholding sex, and was consequently related to increased condom use. Overall, using assertive condom negotiation strategies (e.g., withholding sex and direct request) were found to be the most important aspects of increasing condom use for both women and men. Implications and suggestions for prevention programming are discussed.

  16. Counseling patients on proper use of condoms.

    PubMed

    Vinson, R P; Epperly, T D

    1991-06-01

    The best condoms are made of latex, are lubricated and coated with a spermicide, and have a reservoir tip. Condoms can protect against conception and sexually transmitted diseases, including acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. When condoms are used properly and in combination with vaginal spermicidal foam, the contraceptive failure rate is as low as 1 percent. Failure is more often due to user error than product defect. Recommendations for the proper use of condoms are presented.

  17. Where does treatment optimism fit in? Examining factors associated with consistent condom use among people receiving antiretroviral treatment in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hanif, Homaira; Bastos, Francisco I; Malta, Monica; Bertoni, Neilane; Winch, Peter J; Kerrigan, Deanna

    2014-10-01

    In the era of highly active antiretrovirals, people living with HIV (PLWH) have resumed sexual activity in the context of longer and healthier lives, and thus the chances of transmitting the HIV virus, as well as the potential to be re-infected also increase. HIV treatment optimism has been found to be associated with sexual risk behaviors among PLWH in different settings. A cross sectional survey was conducted to examine the relationship between treatment optimism, safer sex burnout and consistent condom use as well as variables associated with treatment optimism in a sample of PLWH on antiretrovirals (ARVs) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (n = 604). Seventy-two percent of participants always used a condom in the last 6 months. Homosexual, bisexual, transexual persons were less likely to use condoms consistently than heterosexuals (AOR .58 CI .42-.78). Those who were treatment optimistic (AOR .46 CI .25-.88) were more likely not use a condom consistently in the past 6 months, as were participants who reported safer sex burnout (AOR .58 CI .36-.90). Sexual orientation, safer sex burnout, and lower education levels were significantly associated with higher treatment optimism in multivariate analysis. Study findings highlight the need to address psychosocial factors such as treatment optimism and safer sex burnout associated with lower consistent condom use among PLWH in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  18. Choosing condoms.

    PubMed

    Billow, J A

    1992-09-01

    Condoms for men are currently the most effective of the nonprescription contraceptive methods. They are readily available, simple to use, and relatively inexpensive, and they are not associated with major adverse effects. If used both properly and consistently, condoms can significantly reduce the risk of transmission of HIV and other STDs. The protection offered by the latex condom may be increased by the concurrent use of a vaginal foam or cream containing nonoxynol 9. The practicing pharmacist should know about the variety of condoms available, be able to explain their correct use to maximize effectiveness, and compare condom use with other types of contraceptives. The practitioner should be available to answer patrons' questions and provide counseling on contraceptives and "safe sex" practices.

  19. Female Condom

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nov. 13, 2014. Hatcher RA, et al. Contraceptive Technology. 20th ed. New York, N.Y.: Ardent Media; 2011:391. FC2 female condom. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/ ...

  20. Optical testing of condoms.

    PubMed

    Smith, S R; Lowrance, J L; Tessarotto, L A

    1999-01-01

    Condoms provide one of the most important means of preventing pregnancy and the spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted diseases. Pinhole defects may lead to the passage of sperm or viruses through the condom wall. Embedded particles, which may become dislodged in handling or use, may represent latent pinhole defects. Thin regions in the condom wall may lead to breakage in use. Testing for such defects in regulatory laboratories, or in the factories as part of production screening or quality assurance efforts, is a major tool for ensuring condom reliability. A new optical method for testing condoms is presented, sensitive to pinholes, thin regions, and embedded particles. The method could supplement or replace the existing, less powerful, electrical test techniques in either regulatory testing laboratories or in the factory. The optical techniques presented provide quantitative data on the condoms tested, rather than just accept/reject decisions. They thus support detailed monitoring of production or lot characteristics that is generally not possible with existing electrical techniques. The ability of the optical techniques to separately test for and identify not only pinholes, but also thin regions and embedded particles, which are not separately tested for with the electrical technologies, is an especially important new capability. Further, the new optical techniques allow the locations of defects found to be precisely marked, making possible a microscopic examination of defects useful in studying their structure and possible causes. The optical technique is also totally nondestructive, in that it does not alter the defects whose structures are of interest. Initial results are reported on the testing of latex condoms purchased in retail stores. Condoms identified optically as being potentially defective were subjected to industry standard leak and burst testing. Results of the various tests are summarized. The data suggest that

  1. The shame of failure: examining the link between fear of failure and shame.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Holly A; Elliot, Andrew J

    2005-02-01

    The present research was designed to examine hypotheses derived from the proposition that shame is the core of fear of failure. Study 1 was conducted in a naturalistic setting and demonstrated that individuals high in fear of failure reported greater shame upon a perceived failure experience than those low in fear of failure. These findings were obtained controlling for other negative emotions. Study 2 was conducted in a controlled laboratory setting and demonstrated that high fear of failure individuals reported greater shame, overgeneralization, and closeness to their mother (controlling for baseline levels of these variables) than those low in fear of failure. Those high in fear of failure also reported that they would be less likely to tell their mother and father about their failure experience and would be more likely to tell their mother and father about their success experience. The implications of these findings for acquiring a deeper understanding of fear of failure are discussed.

  2. A Qualitative Examination of Men’s Condom Use Attitudes and Resistance: “It’s Just a Part of the Game”

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Schraufnagel, Trevor J.; Kajumulo, Kelly F.; Gilmore, Amanda K.; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the variability in young heterosexual men’s perceptions of the advantages and disadvantages of condom use in their casual sexual relationships. Because men who perceive greater disadvantages of condom use may be more likely to resist using them, we also explored the tactics that men employ to avoid using condoms. Semi-structured focus groups were conducted with single men who have sex with women (n = 60), aged 21 to 35, all of whom reported using condoms inconsistently. Transcripts were analyzed using a framework analysis approach. As expected, participants reported advantages and disadvantages to condom use that pertained to the likelihood and quality of sex, physical sensations during intercourse, and the risk of STIs and unwanted pregnancies. Within each of these topics, however, participants’ appraisals of the relative pros and cons of condom use varied considerably. Additionally, participants reported that men use a wide range of condom use resistance tactics - including seduction, deception, and condom sabotage – and that the use of these tactics is viewed as normative behavior for men their age. These findings suggest that the effectiveness of sexual health prevention efforts could be enhanced by increasing young men’s motivations to use condoms and by targeting social norms regarding condom use resistance. Additionally, the issue of men’s condom use resistance clearly merits increased empirical investigation and intervention attention. PMID:23912776

  3. Condoms in the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Sarah E., Ed.; Smith, Mark D., Ed.

    This book contains six papers on condom availability programs in the public schools. "Executive Summary" (Stryker, Samuels, and Smith) looks at the consequences of unprotected sex, adolescent condom use, condom promotion and availability, the role of schools, sex education in schools, how school condom programs work, distribution mechanisms,…

  4. Condom negotiation: findings and future directions.

    PubMed

    Peasant, Courtney; Parra, Gilbert R; Okwumabua, Theresa M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review was to summarize factors associated with condom negotiation among heterosexual men. Literature searches were conducted using multiple databases spanning several disciplines. Studies examining psychological, demographic, relational, communication, and environmental factors related to condom negotiation are described, and a three-dimensional framework of condom negotiation is proposed. This framework of condom negotiation may aid researchers in operationalizing this construct, organizing this literature, and facilitating measurement development. We used this three-dimensional framework to articulate the influence of gender, ethnicity, relationship type, partner characteristics, trauma history, post-traumatic stress, and alcohol use on condom negotiation. Areas for future research are outlined. More research is needed to understand how these factors interact to influence condom negotiation, as well as the interaction between gender and the identified factors.

  5. First plastic condom for men becomes available next year.

    PubMed

    1993-10-01

    A new male condom made of polyurethane will be marketed in 1994 for those who do not like latex condoms according to officials at London International U.S. Holdings in New York City, the manufacturing firm. The company makes well-known latex condoms, including Ramses, Sheik, Durex, Hatu, and London. Company officials expect it will be more acceptable to men because it is more comfortable to those who have objections to using latex condoms. The major objections include odor and decreased sensitivity. The new plastic condom will probably cost more than latex condoms but less than natural skin condoms. The condom will be made from a new material called Duron and it received clearance from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for market several years ago. In company-conducted tests, the new condom's failure rate was no different than for top-quality latex condoms. Because the new material is thinner and stronger than latex, it can be made to fit looser than a latex condom. The new condom will be slightly bigger than its latex counterpart. Polyurethane will not cause problems for those allergic to latex, and it will not break down when used with oil-based lubricants. The new material is expected to last longer than latex, but for safety it probably should be treated like a latex condom in terms of heat exposure. A new plastic condom is being studied at Family Health International (FHI), a nonprofit medical research organization located in Durham, NC. In June 1992, the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, MD, awarded FHI $1.3 million to develop and test over a 4-year period a condom made of soft, thin plastic. FHI has developed several prototypes and is evaluating them in ongoing clinical trials. Another nonlatex condom, called Tactylon, is still awaiting FDA approval. The FDA has called for several tests to rule out cancer risk from the product and to clarify any shelf-life hazards.

  6. Condom Availability in Schools: A Guide for Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Margaret Pruitt; And Others

    This guide for condom availability programs provides information on how to build support for school-based condom availability programs. Chapter One explains why such a program is important. It examines behaviors and risks of sexually active adolescents, presents strategies for risk reduction, and discusses condom availability and use. Chapter Two…

  7. The role of attitudes and self-efficacy in predicting condom use and purchase intentions.

    PubMed

    Gabler, Joanna; Kropp, Fredric; Silvera, David H; Lavack, Anne M

    2004-01-01

    This study examines the condom purchasing and use habits of 256 college students in Norway and English-speaking Canada, and develops a structural equation model to explain condom purchase and use. In the model, intention to purchase condoms is influenced by self-efficacy in condom purchasing, as well as by intention to use condoms. Intention to use condoms is influenced by having a positive attitude toward condom usage and by self-efficacy in persuading a partner to use condoms. The implications for health promotion and social marketing campaigns are discussed.

  8. Condoms -- if you care.

    PubMed

    Paalman, M

    1992-01-01

    All barrier methods except the IUD offer some protection against both unwanted pregnancy and disease. Male and female condoms, however, are the most reliable barrier methods. While they occasionally leak, tear, or slip off and may not protect against syphilis, herpes, and genital warts if lesions are located on a body site not covered by the condom, condoms do reduce the risk of HIV transmission. Condom use to prevent HIV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases should not be promoted in isolation, but should be part of a national prevention and control strategy incorporating other elements such as information, blood safety, clean injection equipment, surveillance, counseling, and care and treatment. A well- developed condom promotion plan will be sensitive to policy, psychosocial, behavioral, and programmatic issues. Condom promoters and users should not ignore the reality that condoms interfere with love-making and contrast directly with the desired and expected carefree notion of the process. While acknowledging the negative aspects of condom use, the positive side of condoms can nonetheless be stressed. Just as car safety belts reduce the risk of adverse consequence in case of a crash, condoms should be worn as protection during sexual intercourse; once on, sex may be had with far less worry of pregnancy and disease. Finally, steps need to be taken to create social conditions in which people are comfortable discussing sexuality and past experiences with peers and prospective sex partners. Marketing professionals also need to be called upon to help make condom use a desirable social norm.

  9. Condoms becoming more popular.

    PubMed

    Manuel, J

    1993-05-01

    Social marketing is a strategy which addresses a public health problem with private-sector marketing and sales techniques. In condom social marketing programs, condoms are often offered for sale to the public at low prices. 350 million condoms were sold to populations in developing countries through such programs in 1992, and another 650 million were distributed free through public clinics. The major donors of these condoms are the US Agency for International Development, the World Health Organization, the UN Population Fund, the International Planned Parenthood Federation, the World Bank, and the European Community. This marketing approach has promoted condom use as prevention against HIV transmission and has dramatically increased the number of condoms distributed and used throughout much of Africa, Latin America, and Asia. Donors are now concerned that they will not be able to provide condoms in sufficient quantities to keep pace with rapidly rising demand. Findings in selected countries, however, suggest that people seem willing to buy condoms which are well promoted and distributed. Increasing demand for condoms may therefore be readily met through greater dependence upon social marketing programs and condom sales. Researchers generally agree that a social marketing program must change for 100 condoms no more than 1% of a country's GNP in order to sell an amount of condoms equal to at least half of the adult male population. Higher prices may be charged for condoms in countries with relatively high per-capita incomes. Since prices charged tend to be too low to cover all promotional, packaging, distribution, and logistical management costs, most condom distribution programs will have to be subsidized on an ongoing basis.

  10. Sub-Saharan African university students' beliefs about condoms, condom-use intention, and subsequent condom use: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Heeren, G Anita; Jemmott, John B; Mandeya, Andrew; Tyler, Joanne C

    2009-04-01

    Whether certain behavioral beliefs, normative beliefs, and control beliefs predict the intention to use condoms and subsequent condom use was examined among 320 undergraduates at a university in South Africa who completed confidential questionnaires on two occasions separated by 3 months. Participants' mean age was 23.4 years, 47.8% were women, 48.9% were South Africans, and 51.1% were from other sub-Saharan African countries. Multiple regression revealed that condom-use intention was predicted by hedonistic behavioral beliefs, normative beliefs regarding sexual partners and peers, and control beliefs regarding condom-use technical skill and impulse control. Logistic regression revealed that baseline condom-use intention predicted consistent condom use and condom use during most recent intercourse at 3-month follow-up. HIV/STI risk-reduction interventions for undergraduates in South Africa should target their condom-use hedonistic beliefs, normative beliefs regarding partners and peers, and control beliefs regarding technical skill and impulse control.

  11. Use of the "NYC Condom" among people who use drugs.

    PubMed

    Des Jarlais, Don C; McKnight, Courtney; Arasteh, Kamyar; Feelemyer, Jonathan; Perlman, David; Hagan, Holly; Cooper, Hannah L F

    2014-06-01

    We assessed awareness and use of the "NYC Condom" among persons who use heroin and cocaine in New York City. The NYC Condom distribution program is the largest free condom distribution program in the USA, with over 30 million condoms distributed per year. It includes a condom social marketing program for a specific brand, the NYC Condom with its own packaging and advertising. People who use heroin and cocaine are at relatively high risk for HIV infection and are an important target population for the program. In order to assess awareness of the NYC Condom, structured interviews and blood testing for HIV, HSV-2, and sexually transmitted infections (STI) were conducted among entrants to the Beth Israel Medical Center drug detoxification and methadone treatment programs. Participants were asked about drug use, sexual risk behaviors, and awareness and use of the NYC Condom. Univariate and multivariable regression analyses were conducted to examine the associations between use of NYC Condoms and consistent condom use with primary and casual sexual partners. A total of 970 subjects were recruited between February 2011 and December 2012. Subjects were primarily African-American and Hispanic, with a mean age of 43. Fifty-five percent of subjects reported being sexually active with primary sexual partners, and 25 % reported being sexually active with a casual partner for the 6 months prior to the interview. Sixty-five percent of subjects had heard of the NYC Condom, 48 % of those who had heard of the condom had used it, and 58 % of those who had ever used it were currently using it (in the previous 6 months). In multivariable regression analyses, current use of NYC Condoms was strongly associated with consistent condom use with primary sexual partners (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 3.99, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.85-8.58) and consistent condom use with casual sexual partners (AOR = 4.48, 95 % CI 1.49-13.42). In terms of market share, 38 % of subjects consistently using

  12. Should condoms be free?

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    In Tanzania, the debate about whether condoms should be free is particularly significant because condoms were unheard of 5 years ago and are the least population form of contraception. A nongovernmental organization (NGO) is selling condoms which they promote as "fun." Sales blossomed after an advertising campaign was televised during the soccer World Cup. The new prevailing attitude seems to be that if a man can afford sex, he can afford to buy a condom. In fact, one NGO which distributed free condoms found that their supply at a local guest house was always depleted. Their pleasure with this success was diminished when they learned that people were selling their condoms across the border in Uganda.

  13. Condom Use in Heavy Drinking College Students: The Importance of Always Using Condoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Certain, Heather E.; Harahan, Brian J.; Saewyc, Elizabeth M.; Fleming, Michael F.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined whether alcohol use decreased condom use. Participants: The subjects were heavy-drinking students on 5 different college campuses. Methods: A face-to-face interview, administered between November of 2004 and February of 2007, gathered information about condom use, alcohol use, and other behaviors. Multivariate…

  14. Condom Use: Slippage, Breakage, and Steps for Proper Use among Adolescents in Alternative School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyle, Karin K.; Franks, Heather M.; Glassman, Jill R.; Stanoff, Nicole M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: School-based human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted infection (STI), and pregnancy prevention programs often focus on consistent and correct condom use. Research on adolescents' experience using condoms, including condom slippage/breakage, is limited. This exploratory study examines proper condom use and the…

  15. Influence of Sex Education on Condom Knowledge and Condom Use Skills Among Texas College Students.

    PubMed

    Clifton, Jessica; Penrose, Lindsay; Prien, Sam; Farooqi, Naghma

    2015-10-01

    Condoms have proven effective when used correctly; however, few studies have examined the relationship between a student's previous sex education and his or her general condom knowledge and ability to use a condom correctly. Educational systems in Texas provide a myriad of types of sexual education to their student populations. The objective of the present study was to compare the type of previous sex education with the condom knowledge and condom use skills among students attending college. Participants were recruited at health fairs conducted at a major Texas university during October 2010 and March 2011. Students were first asked to complete a computerized questionnaire and then participated in a condom demonstration. Of 180 students who completed both the questionnaire and the condom demonstration, 67% failed to apply the condom correctly. Further, the results were equally poor regardless of previous sex education format. The results of this study suggest that none of the current training mechanisms provide adequate information to ensure the proper use of condoms by college students and that alternatives need to be considered to protect the health and well-being of this important segment of the state's population.

  16. Condoms, Culture, and Conviction: The Effect of Acculturation and Religiosity on Latina Condom Use during First Sex with New Partners.

    PubMed

    Smith, Scott James

    2017-04-03

    Latinas in the United States are less likely than their non-Hispanic peers to use condoms. Previous research has identified acculturation and religiosity as two key determinants of Latina condom use, but results are inconsistent, impairing the translation of findings to practice. The current study examines these constructs together and addresses methodological concerns noted in the literature. Structural equation modeling performed on a nationally representative sample of Latinas indicated that intrinsic religiosity increased condom use whereas acculturation decreased condom use. Extrinsic religiosity indirectly increased condom use via intrinsic religiosity. Implications for practice and policy are discussed.

  17. Consumers Union rates condoms.

    PubMed

    1980-05-01

    In an effort to provide some insights as to why and how condoms fail, the Consumers Union of the United States tested brandname condoms for leakage, bursting, tensile strength and heat deterioration and surveyed 1900 women and men who used the method for birth control. The highest-ranked latex condoms were Nuform, Trojan Plus, Conceptrol Shield and Horizon Nuda. Least preferred were Sheik No. 22 unlubricated condoms and Trojan unlubricated. Preferences among skin condoms were Fourex Capsuled and Klingtite Naturalamb. Obvious advantages of the condom method of contraception, in addition to its potentially high success rate, include the following: 1) protection against venereal disease; 2) lack of side effects; 3) simplicity of method; and 4) reasonable price. 1/2 of the 1900 respondentes cited interruption of lovemaking, reduced sensitivity and mere awareness of condom presence as reasons why the method impaired sexual pleasure. Almost 1/4 of the respondents disliked the need for prompt withdrawal in order to avoid spillage, and some feared vigorous intercourse would result in the condom slipping off.

  18. Condom availability for adolescents.

    PubMed

    1996-06-01

    Although abstinence should be stressed as the certain way to prevent STDs and pregnancy, sexually active teens, male and female, must nonetheless be taught to use condoms properly, effectively, and consistently. The latex condom should be made widely available to young people. Ideally, young persons should have access to education and counseling when contraception is dispensed. However, condoms should be made easily available without any requirement for education. Condoms should be available not only through families, medical facilities, and commercial channels, but also through other appropriate and informed persons, without cost if possible, at sites where adolescents congregate. These sites may include schools, clubs, and other youth-serving agencies. A clear message from the medical community supporting condom use will enhance compliance.

  19. Cultural Factors and Program Implications: HIV/AIDS Interventions and Condom Use among Latinos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeakley, Anna M.; Gant, Larry M.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the failure to use condoms among U.S. Latino populations and identifies six "myths" related to traditional cultural values and gender roles, and associations between condoms and prostitution, infidelity, and disease, that prevent condom use in these populations. Suggests ways that programs can address these myths in HIV…

  20. Examination of pump failure data in the nuclear power industry

    SciTech Connect

    Casada, D.

    1996-12-01

    There are several elements that are critical to any program which is used to optimize the availability and reliability of process equipment. Perhaps the most important elements are routine monitoring and predictive maintenance elements. In order to optimize equipment monitoring and predictive maintenance, it is necessary to fundamentally and thoroughly understand the principal failure modes for the equipment and the effectiveness of alternative monitoring methods. While these observations are general in nature, they are certainly true for the {open_quotes}heart{close_quotes} of fluid systems - pumps. In recent years, particularly within the last decade, the capabilities and ease of use of previously existing pump diagnostic technologies, such as vibration monitoring and oil analysis, have improved dramatically. Newer technologies, such as thermal imaging, have been found effective at detecting certain undesirable or degraded conditions, such as misalignment and overheated bearings or packing. The ASME Code and NRC regulatory requirements have been, like essentially all similar code and regulatory bodies, conservative in their adoption or endorsement of newer technologies. The requirements prescribed by the Code and endorsed by the NRC have, in their essence, changed only minimally over more than a dozen years. As a follow-on to studies of check valve failure experience in the nuclear industry that have proven useful in identifying the effectiveness of alternative monitoring methods, a study of nuclear industry pump failure data has been conducted. The results of this study, conducted for the NRC by Oak Ridge National Laboratory, are presented. The historical effectiveness of both regulatory required and voluntarily implemented pump monitoring programs are shown. The distribution of pump failures by application, affected area, and level of significance are indicated. Apparent strengths and weaknesses of alternative monitoring methods are discussed.

  1. Differences in correlates of condom use between young adults and adults attending sexually transmitted infection clinics.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Amanda R; Blood, Emily A; Crosby, Richard A; Shrier, Lydia A

    2015-07-01

    Despite developmental differences between young adults and adults, studies of condom use have not typically considered young adults as a distinct age group. This study sought to examine how condom use and its correlates differed between high-risk young adults and adults. Sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic patients (n = 763) reported STI history, contraception, negative condom attitudes, fear of partner reaction to condom use and risky behaviours. Past 3-month condom use was examined as unprotected vaginal sex (UVS) acts, proportional condom use and consistent condom use. Regression models tested associations of age group and potential correlates with each condom use outcome. Interaction models tested whether associations differed by age group. Proportional condom use was greater in young adults than adults (mean 0.55 vs. 0.47); UVS and consistent condom use were similar between age groups. Young adults with a recent STI reported less condom use, whereas for older adults, a distant STI was associated with less condom use, compared to others in their age groups. Negative condom attitudes were more strongly linked to UVS acts for younger versus older adults. STI prevention efforts for younger adults may be improved by intensifying counselling about condom use immediately following STI diagnosis and targeting negative condom attitudes.

  2. Condom negotiation strategy use and effectiveness among college students.

    PubMed

    Holland, Kathryn J; French, Sabine Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    College students may engage in risky sexual behaviors, such as inconsistent condom use, which increase their risk of sexually transmitted infections. This study examined the association between six condom influence strategies (CIS) and reported condom use among a diverse group of college students. Differences in CIS and condom use were examined by gender, race or ethnicity, and relationship status (casual, monogamous, or no current relationship). The study also used a cluster analysis to investigate how the CIS were used relative to one another, and how patterns of CIS use were related to condom use. Results showed interesting differences in CIS use by gender, race or ethnicity, and relationship status. Four patterns of CIS usage emerged, and results suggested that using all CIS frequently and using more assertive CIS may be particularly important for increased condom use. Men reported more condom use than women overall, but results indicated that using CIS were especially vital for increasing condom use for women. Surprisingly, there were no differences in condom use found for race or ethnicity and relationship type. Programs aimed at increasing students' condom use could benefit from promoting and practicing CIS, and recognizing potential differences among demographic groups.

  3. Factors associated with parent support for condom education and availability.

    PubMed

    AugsJoost, Brett; Jerman, Petra; Deardorff, Julianna; Harley, Kim; Constantine, Norman A

    2014-04-01

    Expanding condom-related knowledge and skills and reducing barriers to condom use have the potential to help reduce pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections among youth. These goals are sometimes addressed through condom education and availability (CEA) programs as part of sexuality education in school. Parents are a key constituency in efforts to implement such programs. A representative statewide sample of households with children (N = 1,093) in California was employed to examine parent support for CEA and the potential influences of demographics (gender, age, and Hispanic ethnicity), sociodemographics (education, religious affiliation, religious service attendance, and political ideology), and condom-related beliefs (belief in condom effectiveness and belief that teens who use condoms during sex are being responsible) on parent support for CEA. The parents in our sample reported a high level of support for CEA (M = 3.23 on a 4-point scale) and believing in a high level of condom effectiveness (M = 3.36 on a 4-point scale). In addition, 84% of the parents agreed that teens who use condoms during sex are being responsible. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that parents who were younger, Hispanic, with a lower educational attainment, without a religious affiliation, less religiously observant, and politically liberal were more supportive of CEA. After controlling for these demographic and sociodemographic factors, condom effectiveness and responsibility beliefs each added independently to the predictability of parent support for CEA. These findings suggest that parent education related to condom effectiveness could help increase support for school-based CEA programs.

  4. Examining Productive Failure, Productive Success, Unproductive Failure, and Unproductive Success in Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapur, Manu

    2016-01-01

    Learning and performance are not always commensurable. Conditions that maximize performance in the initial learning may not maximize learning in the longer term. I exploit this incommensurability to theoretically and empirically interrogate four possibilities for design: productive success, productive failure, unproductive success, and…

  5. Condoms: Past, present, and future

    PubMed Central

    Marfatia, Y. S.; Pandya, Ipsa; Mehta, Kajal

    2015-01-01

    Though many methods of prevention of STI/HIV are available, condoms remain of utmost importance. They have gone a long way from the oiled silk paper used by the Chinese and the hard sheaths made of tortoise- shell used by the Japanese to the latex condoms of today. The breakthrough came when the rubber vulcanization process was invented by Charles Goodyear and eventually the first rubber condom was made. The condom offers maximum protection( more than 90%) against HIV, Hepatitis B virus and N.Gonorrhoea. They also offer protection in scenarios when alternate sexual practices are adapted. The female condom in the only female driven contraceptive method available today. Graphene and Nano lubricated condoms are new in the market and others in futuristic approach may include wearable technology/Technology driven condom and invisible Condoms. Both Correct and Consistent use of condoms needs to be promoted for HIV/STI prevention. PMID:26692603

  6. Condom Use Self-Efficacy among Younger Rural Adolescents: The Influence of Parent-Teen Communication, and Knowledge of and Attitudes toward Condoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritchwood, Tiarney D.; Penn, Dolly; Peasant, Courtney; Albritton, Tashuna; Corbie-Smith, Giselle

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the role of condom use knowledge and attitudes, and parent-teen communication about sex and relationship quality on reports of condom use self-efficacy among rural, African American youth. Participants were 465 North Carolinian youth (10-14 years). Results indicated that greater condom use self-efficacy was predicted by greater…

  7. Correlates of condom coupon redemption among urban sexually transmitted disease clinic patients.

    PubMed

    Witte, S; el-Bassel, N; Krishnan, S; Schilling, R; Bidassie, B

    1999-01-01

    This study expands upon coupon distribution strategies used to measure male condom acquisition in HIV/AIDS prevention by incorporating both female and male condoms and examining factors related to coupon redemption among urban STD clinic patients.

  8. Condom attitudes and behaviors among injection drug users participating in California syringe exchange programs.

    PubMed

    Bogart, Laura M; Kral, Alex H; Scott, Andrea; Anderson, Rachel; Flynn, Neil; Gilbert, Mary Lou; Bluthenthal, Ricky N

    2005-12-01

    This study examined condom attitudes, preferences, barriers, and use among a sample of 550 injection drug using clients of syringe exchange programs in California. In multivariate analyses, positive attitudes toward condoms were significantly associated with consistent condom use for vaginal, anal, and oral sex in the past six months, beyond the effects of confounding socio-demographic and HIV risk variables. Participants commonly cited partner-related barriers to condom use, such as reluctance to use condoms with steady partners (34%). Almost a quarter of the sample cited dislike of condoms (e.g., because of pleasure reduction). In addition, a third of respondents stated specific preferences regarding condom brands, sensitivity, sizes, and textures. Interventions that increase awareness about positive aspects of condom use and sexual risk from steady partners may be successful in increasing condom use among injection drug users.

  9. Condom testing: part 2.

    PubMed

    Kestelman, P

    1974-01-01

    Various government standards required for testing condoms to be sold are described. A minimum tensile strength of 200 kg/sq cm and a minimum elongation at breaking of 600 to 700% are required by some countries. Bursting volume by U.S. standards is over 1 cubic foot before and after aging. To test for holes condoms are filled with water and rolled on absorbent paper. Mean thickness by U.S. standards must be between .004 and .002 cm with no reading exceeding .009 cm. The weight of each of 20 condoms per batch must not exceed 1.7 gm. A minimum length of 16 cm is required. Minimum width standards vary from 4.4 cm to 4.9 cm and maximum from 5.4 to 5.6 cm. Dates of manufacture and time of expiration of guarantee are required by some countries. Instructions for use may be required. No laboratory test has been devised to predict the chance of a condom bursting in practice. Faulty handling or lubication may be the cause. A supplementary spermicide would reduce the risk of pregnanc y or of infection should the condom burst.

  10. Condom use within marriage: a neglected HIV intervention.

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Mohamed M.; Cleland, John; Shah, Iqbal H.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the contraceptive effectiveness of condoms versus oral contraceptive pills and estimate the reproductive consequences of a major shift from pill to condom use. METHODS: Secondary analysis was performed on nationally representative cross-sectional surveys of women in 16 developing countries. FINDINGS: In the 16 countries, the median per cent of married couples currently using condoms was 2%, compared with 13% for the pill. Condom users reported a higher 12-month failure and higher method-related discontinuation rates than pill users (9% and 44% vs 6% and 30%, respectively). Condom users were more likely to report subsequent abortion following failure (21% vs 14%), and also more likely to switch rapidly to another method (76% vs 58%). The reproductive consequences, in terms of abortion and unwanted births, of a hypothetical reversal of the relative prevalence of condom and pill were estimated to be minor. The main reason for this unexpected result is that the majority of abortions and unwanted births arise from non-use of any contraceptive method. CONCLUSION: A massive shift from the more effective oral contraceptive pills to the less effective condom would not jeopardize policy goals of reducing abortions and unwanted births. However, such a shift would potentially have an added benefit of preventing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections, especially in countries with generalized HIV epidemics. PMID:15112006

  11. Perceptions about HIV and Condoms and Consistent Condom Use among Male Clients of Commercial Sex Workers in the Philippines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regan, Rotrease; Morisky, Donald E.

    2013-01-01

    Because consistent condom use is an effective strategy in the prevention of sexually transmitted infections and HIV transmission, it is important to examine social cognitive influences of consistent condom use not only among female sex workers (FSWs) but also among their male clients, for whom less is known. Because little is known about how HIV…

  12. Perceptions about HIV and condoms and consistent condom use among male clients of commercial sex workers in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Regan, Rotrease; Morisky, Donald E

    2013-04-01

    Because consistent condom use is an effective strategy in the prevention of sexually transmitted infections and HIV transmission, it is important to examine social cognitive influences of consistent condom use not only among female sex workers (FSWs) but also among their male clients, for whom less is known. Because little is known about how HIV knowledge and condom attitudes affect condom use among male clients of FSWs in the Philippines, the main objective was to determine what characteristics (age, education, HIV knowledge, marital status) as well as attributes taken from protection motivation theory (perceived vulnerability, perceived severity, response efficacy) are significantly associated with consistent condom use among male clients of FSWs. Logistic regression analyses showed that the odds of using condoms consistently with an FSW are 13% higher for those with more years of education (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.13; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03, 1.23), higher versus lower perception of severity of HIV/AIDS (AOR = 1.97; 95% CI = 1.04, 3.73), and had a higher score for response efficacy of condoms (AOR = 1.14; 95% CI = 1.03, 1.27). Future HIV/AIDS prevention interventions that address condom use among male clients should promote educational attainment and focus on awareness of the enduring negative health consequences of acquiring HIV/AIDS, as well as cultivate positive attitudes toward the efficacy of condom use, using creative social marketing strategies.

  13. Errors and Predictors of Confidence in Condom Use amongst Young Australians Attending a Music Festival

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Karina M.; Youlden, Daniel J.; John-Leader, Franklin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To determine the confidence and ability to use condoms correctly and consistently and the predictors of confidence in young Australians attending a festival. Methods. 288 young people aged 18 to 29 attending a mixed-genre music festival completed a survey measuring demographics, self-reported confidence using condoms, ability to use condoms, and issues experienced when using condoms in the past 12 months. Results. Self-reported confidence using condoms was high (77%). Multivariate analyses showed confidence was associated with being male (P < 0.001) and having had five or more lifetime sexual partners (P = 0.038). Reading packet instructions was associated with increased condom use confidence (P = 0.011). Amongst participants who had used a condom in the last year, 37% had experienced the condom breaking and 48% had experienced the condom slipping off during intercourse and 51% when withdrawing the penis after sex. Conclusion. This population of young people are experiencing high rates of condom failures and are using them inconsistently or incorrectly, demonstrating the need to improve attitudes, behaviour, and knowledge about correct and consistent condom usage. There is a need to empower young Australians, particularly females, with knowledge and confidence in order to improve condom use self-efficacy. PMID:27957381

  14. Condoms--a new look.

    PubMed

    Harvey, P D

    1972-10-01

    There are many advantages to the condom, a contraceptive which is holding its own in the US market. This is the case although the product is not advertised as much as foam and is hardly promoted at all by physicians. With a major promotional effort on the part of manufacturers and family planning programs there might be a considerable increase in condom use. This could be important particularly in the prevention of premarital pregnancies and venereal disease among younger teenagers. Increased promotion would necessitate changes in current state laws which now restrict the sale, advertising, or display of condoms. Despite its advantages, the "sensation" objection is unquestionably valid, and more research is required into the potential extended use-effectiveness of thinner, more sensitive condoms compared with the thicker products which are freer from minor defects. Most of the world's condoms are manufactured in the US, the UK, and Japan. The Japanese are the world's most innovative and imaginative manufacturers and promoters of condoms. Thus, the Japanese condoms tend to dominate most markets in which they are freely allowed. In selecting condoms for use in a family planning program, or for other efforts by family planning professionals to promote condom use, the selection of brands can be critical. The basic variations in American condoms include differences in the material from which they are made, their shape, whether or not they are lubricated, their color, and their size. American manufactured condoms are made either of animal membrane or latex rubber. There are 2 basic variations in common shape in the US: the reservoir end; and the preshaped condom. Condoms are available dry and lubricated. Most users prefer lubricated brands. The 2 types of lubricants are moist and silicone. The role of color has been very little investigated. Evidence from other countries suggests a strong preference for condoms in color rather than plain white or transparent condoms

  15. Influencing a Partner to Use a Condom: A College Student Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBro, Sherrine Chapman; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examines the strategies college students use to convince new sexual partners to use a condom. Research of 393 students reveals that, to encourage condom use, men mostly employed seduction, whereas females withheld sex. To avoid using condoms, men were more likely than women to employ seduction, reward, and information. (GLR)

  16. Nigeria using more condoms.

    PubMed

    1997-09-01

    Marie Stopes International says a project it supports in Nigeria is making good progress in its efforts to promote the use of condoms to protect against STDs and for contraception. The program, which uses social marketing methods, is headed by Stewart Parkinson from the UK. His previous experience has been in the private sector; he has worked in sales, marketing, and advertising for companies like Coca Cola, Budweiser, Securicor, and Mates. "Social marketing," he says, "is simply getting people to buy a product". He sees no clash with more conventional health education practitioners, believing that the two approaches can complement each other. "Much of the work simply involves pointing out the benefits of condoms," says Parkinson. "You can convert large numbers of people to the idea in a short space of time if you get the message right]" Nevertheless, as he points out, the conversion rate usually drops after that. "At first the take-up is from middle-income people, who already have a latent demand for condoms. The poor are harder to reach." He says Nigeria is a very suitable country for a private sector approach to condom promotion, as there is no functioning public sector. He recently paid a visit to Zimbabwe, where the public sector is strong, and agrees that different approaches may be suitable there. The scheme provided 85% of the 65 million condoms used in Nigeria last year. Stewart Parkinson says, "It's working out at only US$5 to provide protection for one couple per year--a very cheap intervention]"

  17. An empirical study of ordinal condom use measures.

    PubMed

    Cecil, Heather; Pinkerton, Steven D; Bogart, Laura M; Pavlovic, Jelena; Kimball, Allison M

    2005-11-01

    Accurate condom use assessment is critical in sexually transmitted infection-prevention research. Ordinal condom use frequency measures may be problematic due to subjective interpretation by respondents. To assess this potential bias, we examined the ordinal condom use labels (e.g., "never," "rarely," etc.) assigned by college students to 17 scenarios that described how frequently a hypothetical couple used condoms. Scenarios varied by condom use frequency (0% to 100%) and by whether frequency was described by stating the number of protected acts out of 20 total acts of intercourse, out of 100 total acts, or as a proportion of acts that were protected. There was substantial interpersonal variability in the labels assigned by participants in all 17 scenarios and inconsistent use of the "never" and "always" labels to characterize 0% and 100% condom use, respectively. The assigned labels varied as a function of the number of total acts (20 vs. 100) and whether condom use was expressed as a count or a percentage, which suggests that participants did not convert the number of protected acts to an equivalent proportion. These results call into question both the reliability and validity of ordinal condom use measures.

  18. Condom use among female sex workers in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Bukenya, Justine; Vandepitte, Judith; Kwikiriza, Maureen; Weiss, Helen A; Hayes, Richard; Grosskurth, Heiner

    2013-01-01

    Consistent condom use can prevent HIV infection, yet levels of condom use are low in many settings. This paper examines determinants of inconsistent condom use among 905 women enrolled in a high-risk cohort in Kampala, Uganda, who reported sexual intercourse with paying clients in the last month. Among these, 40% participants reported using condoms inconsistently with paying clients in the past month. The most common reason for inconsistent condom use was client preference. Factors independently associated with inconsistent condom use included: sex work not being the sole source of income [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.54; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.13-2.09], sexual debut before 14 years (aOR = 1.46; 95% CI: 1.09-1.96), daily consumption of alcohol (aOR = 1.90; 95% CI: 1.26-2.88) and being currently pregnant (aOR = 2.11; 95% CI: 1.25-3.57). Being currently married (aOR = 0.36; 95% CI: 0.18-0.73) and a higher number of sexual partners per month (p-trend = 0.001) were associated with a lower risk of inconsistent condom use. Targeted programmes should be developed to promote consistent condom use in high-risk women, alongside interventions to reduce alcohol use.

  19. Latex condom breakage and slippage in a controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, M J; Waugh, M S

    1997-07-01

    Although millions of couples rely on male latex condoms to protect against unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, their use is limited in part by questions about their performance. Rates of condom breakage and slippage, two measures of performance, vary broadly across studies. This variation in part reflects study variability and limitations, including sample size, reliance on subjects' memory, user populations, and products evaluated. In an effort to define condom performance in a group of monogamous couples typical of those using condoms for contraception, we conducted a clinical trial of a single brand of lubricated condoms (Durex Ramses). A total of 4637 attempts to use the condom were evaluated. Six breaks occurred before intercourse (nonclinical breaks), and 10 condoms broke during intercourse or were only noted to have broken upon withdrawal (clinical breaks), resulting in a nonclinical breakage rate of 0.13% (95% confidence interval, 0.05-0.28%), clinical breakage rate of 0.28% (0.15-0.48%), and a total breakage rate of 0.41% (0.25-0.64%). The rate of complete slippage was 0.63% (0.42-0.90%), and total failure (clinical breaks plus complete slips) was 1.04% (0.76-1.37%). These rates are lower than those in other studies with the exception of one, a prospective investigation in a population of female prostitutes. Results indicate that condoms can, in experienced, motivated populations, provide excellent performance and suggest that their efficacy at preventing pregnancy may equal that of the most reliable forms of contraception. Because this study involved a single condom brand, these results may not be generalizable to other brands.

  20. Condom use behaviours and correlates of use in the Botswana Defence Force.

    PubMed

    Tran, Bonnie Robin; Thomas, Anne Goldzier; Ditsela, Mooketsi; Vaida, Florin; Phetogo, Robert; Kelapile, David; Chambers, Christina; Haubrich, Richard; Shaffer, Richard

    2013-11-01

    Preventing HIV infection is a priority for militaries. HIV prevention research is needed to monitor existing programme, identify areas for modification, and develop new interventions. Correct and consistent condom use is highly effective against HIV. However, use among soldiers is lower than ideal. This study describes condom use behaviours and examines correlates of use in the Botswana Defence Force (BDF). Analyses were based on 211 male BDF personnel, aged 18-30, who completed a cross-sectional survey that collected baseline data for an intervention study. Results showed that 51% of participants reported always using condoms, 35% used condoms most times, and 14% used condoms occasionally/never. Condom use varied by partner type and was typically higher with casual partners in comparison to regular partners. After adjustment for age and marital status, factors associated with lower condom use included excessive alcohol use, perception that using condoms reduce sexual pleasure, and having a trusted partner. However, higher levels of HIV knowledge and reports of being circumcised were protective against lower condom use. HIV interventions aimed at increasing condom use in the BDF should address condom perceptions, alcohol abuse, and issues of trust. Innovative ways to increase condom use in this population should also be explored.

  1. Self-efficacy and intent to use condoms among entering college freshmen.

    PubMed

    Joffe, A; Radius, S M

    1993-06-01

    We examined self-efficacy theory's ability to explain adolescents' intent to use condoms. In this study, 673 males and 404 females (mean age, 17.8 years) about to begin college, completed health surveys measuring self-efficacy regarding condom use. Perceived self-efficacy differed by gender and sexual experience. Regression analysis demonstrated that frequency of past condom use, perceived ability to talk with new partner about condoms and to enjoy sex using condoms explained 16% of sexually active males' intent to use condoms (p < 0.05). For sexually active females, explanators included frequency of past use and perceived ability to enjoy sex with condoms (R2 = 29.8%, p < 0.05). For never sexually active males, perceived ability to convince partner to use condoms and to buy condoms explained 16.1% of intent (p < 0.05); among never sexually active females, only perceived ability to convince partner to use condoms was significant (R2 = 6.2%, p < 0.05). Efforts to increase condom use should enhance perceptions of ability to negotiate aspects of condom use.

  2. Condoms and Coca-Cola.

    PubMed

    Townsend, S

    1992-01-01

    Social marketing entails promoting the appropriate and quality product to be sold in the right places at the right price. Even though mass media advertisement of condoms is forbid in Zaire, condoms have been effectively promoted and sold in the country using alternate approaches. 8 million units of the condom, Prudence, were sold in 1990, and Prudence has become the generic name for condoms in the Zaire. Noting that Coca-Cola, beer, and cigarettes may be purchased virtually ubiquitously, commercial outlets and local traders were enlisted to sell condoms at reduced prices on the market. Reduced price sales are possible since donor and government agencies provide the condoms to wholesalers and merchants free of charge. The successful social marketing of condoms expands condom availability to a greater segment of a country's population while recovering some public sector costs and shifting health care away from the public sector. Condoms are especially promoted to high risk groups such as commercial sex workers and their clients in Zaire. Similar programs have been inspired in 10 African countries including Cameroon and Burundi, as well as in Brazil, Haiti, and India. Prevention programs in Latin America and Asia will benefit from these program experiences in Africa. In closing, the article notes the need for an adequate and predictable commodity supply in attaining effective social marketing. Marked program success may, however, lead to sustainability problems.

  3. Sexual Pleasure and Condom Use

    PubMed Central

    Pinkerton, Steven D.; Bogart, Laura M.; Cecil, Heather; Abramson, Paul R.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether sexually-experienced individuals’ pleasure ratings for protected and unprotected vaginal intercourse would be related to actual condom use. College participants (80 women and 35 men, M age = 22.29 years) who reported engaging in vaginal intercourse in the past 3 months completed a questionnaire that assessed their perceptions of the pleasurability of unprotected and condom-protected vaginal intercourse and their own sexual behaviors. Both women and men rated unprotected vaginal intercourse as more pleasurable than protected vaginal intercourse. However, men’s pleasure ratings for unprotected vaginal intercourse were higher than women’s. Furthermore, men and women’s pleasure ratings for condom-protected intercourse were correlated with their actual condom use behaviors. Men’s “pleasure decrement” scores indicated a significantly greater reduction in pleasure ratings between unprotected and protected intercourse than women’s scores. Men who perceived a larger decrease in pleasure between unprotected and protected intercourse were less likely to have used condoms in the past 3 months than those who perceived a smaller decrease in pleasure. The results provide evidence that many people believe that condoms reduce sexual pleasure and that men, in particular, who believe that condoms decrease pleasure are less likely to use them. Condom promotion campaigns should work to emphasize the pleasure-enhancing aspects of condom use. PMID:17909960

  4. Depression Vulnerable and Nonvulnerable Smokers after a Failure Experience: Examining Cognitive Self-Regulation and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Walter D.; Beevers, Christopher G.; Mermelstein, Robin J.

    2008-01-01

    The present study extended previous tests of cognitive priming theories of depression by examining cognitive self-regulatory, motivational, and affective functioning of depression-vulnerable and nonvulnerable individuals after a failure experience. Participants were enrolled in a clinic-based smoking cessation program that consisted of seven group…

  5. Individual, Interpersonal, and Structural Power: Associations With Condom Use in a Sample of Young Adult Latinos.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Lynissa R; Harvey, S Marie; Warren, Jocelyn T

    2016-01-01

    Interviews were conducted with 480 sexually active Latino young adults from four rural counties in Oregon. We examined relationships between three levels of power (individual, interpersonal, and structural) and consistent condom use. Condom use self-efficacy and sexual decision-making, examples of individual and interpersonal measures of power, respectively, were associated with increased odds of consistent condom use among both men and women. Among men only, increasing relationship control, an interpersonal measure of power, was associated with lower odds of consistent condom use. Among women only, increasing medical mistrust, a structural measure of power, was associated with increased odds of consistent condom use.

  6. Self-reported penis size and experiences with condoms among gay and bisexual men.

    PubMed

    Grov, Christian; Wells, Brooke E; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2013-02-01

    As researchers and community-based providers continue to encourage latex condom use as a chief strategy to prevent HIV transmission among men who have sex with men, research is needed to better explore the intersecting associations among penis size (length and circumference), condom feel, ease of finding condoms, recent experience of condom failure (breakage and slippage), and unprotected anal sex. Data were taken from a 2010 community-based survey of self-identified gay and bisexual men in New York City (n = 463). More than half (51.4 %) reported penile length as 6-8 in. long (15-20 cm) and 31.5 % reported penile circumference as 4-6 in. around (10-15 cm). Variation in self-reported penile dimensions was significantly associated with men's attitudes toward the typical/average condom, difficulty finding condoms that fit, and the experience of condom breakage. Men who had engaged in recent unprotected insertive anal intercourse reported significantly higher values for both penile length and circumference, and these men were significantly more likely to report that the average/typical condom was "too tight." Most men had measured their length (86.2 %) and/or circumference (68.9 %), suggesting that penile measurement might be a common and acceptable practice among gay and bisexual men. As HIV and STI prevention providers continue to serve as leading distributers of free condoms, these findings further highlight the need for condom availability to be in a variety of sizes. Improving condom fit and attitudes toward condoms may also improve condom use and minimize condom slippage and breakage.

  7. Inappropriate lubricant use with condoms by homosexual men.

    PubMed

    Martin, D J

    1992-01-01

    Use of condoms has been advocated as an important method of reducing the risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission among high-risk groups such as homosexual and bisexual men, prostitutes, intravenous drug users, adolescents, and hemophiliacs. Despite risk-reduction education campaigns directed to gay men since the early 1980s, evidence shows continued deficits in condom-use skills and knowledge among gay men. Because most failures in the use of condoms are attributed to errors in use, increasing knowledge and skills in condom use is important in preventing HIV infection. Two groups of homosexual and bisexual men were sampled, those entering a risk-reduction education program and participants in a Gay Pride event. They were surveyed on their current sex practices and their efforts to reduce their risk of HIV infection. They were asked about their numbers of sex partners, specific sexual behaviors, use of condoms, types of condoms used, and lubricants used for genital-anal sex. The characteristics of those surveyed were similar to those of respondents in other studies of risk reduction among gay men. The use of an oil-based lubricant with condoms has been shown to weaken latex and to increase the likelihood of condom breakage, which use of water-based lubricants does not. Among respondents who reported having genital-anal sex, 60 percent reported use of an oil-based lubricant with a condom at least once during the year before the survey. Gay men in sexually exclusive relationships engaged in less consistent use of condoms for receptive genital-anal sex than did single gay men. The duration of their relationship with a partner was unrelated to the consistency of risk reducing behaviors practiced by men in sexually exclusive relationships. Gay Pride participants engaged in sexual behavior that was relatively more risky for HIV transmission than did the other group. Gay Pride participants used condoms less consistently for genital-anal sex than did the

  8. The Condom Conundrum: Condom Availability Promotes Health, Saves Lives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Margaret Pruitt

    1992-01-01

    Most adults would agree that the AIDS threat has reached crisis proportions and that strong measures are required to control the spread of HIV among adolescents. Although abstinence offers the best protection, teens exposed to risks must protect themselves with knowledge, skills, and access to latex condoms. High school condom distribution is…

  9. The Condom Conundrum: Apply Peer Pressure, Not Latex, against Casual Sex.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delattre, Edwin J.

    1992-01-01

    If saving lives were our only moral concern, distributing condoms in schools is not the best way to proceed. Abstinence has greater life-saving power than any piece of latex. School condom distribution promotes casual, promiscuous sex, ignores this contraceptive's failure rate, and runs counter to sound educational policy. Deferred gratification…

  10. Improving the effectiveness of condom advertising: a research note.

    PubMed

    Alden, D L; Crowley, A E

    1995-01-01

    A limited number of studies have examined ways that health promotion messages about condoms can be improved, leading to increased purchase and use. This study tests alternative message structures as a potential avenue to improving condom advertising. As hypothesized, two-sided messages (positive and negative information about the product category) result in more positive attitudes toward the advertisement and the brand than do one-sided messages (positive information only about the product category). The study's implications for health care marketers interested in developing more effective advertising for condoms and other health care products are discussed.

  11. The story of the condom

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Fahd; Mukhtar, Saheel; Dickinson, Ian K.; Sriprasad, Seshadri

    2013-01-01

    Condoms have been a subject of curiosity throughout history. The idea of safer sex has been explored in ancient and modern history, and has been used to prevent venereal diseases. We conducted a historical and medical review of condoms using primary and secondary sources as well as using the RSM library and the internet. These resources show that the first use of a condom was that of King Minos of Crete. Pasiphae, his wife, employed a goat's bladder in the vagina so that King Minos would not be able to harm her as his semen was said to contain “scorpions and serpents” that killed his mistresses. To Egyptians, condom-like glans caps were dyed in different colours to distinguish between different classes of people and to protect themselves against bilharzia. The Ancient Romans used the bladders of animals to protect the woman; they were worn not to prevent pregnancy but to prevent contraction of venereal diseases. Charles Goodyear, the inventor, utilized vulcanization, the process of transforming rubber into malleable structures, to produce latex condoms. The greater use of condoms all over the world in the 20th and 21st centuries has been related to HIV. This account of the use of condoms demonstrates how a primitive idea turned into an object that is used globally with a forecast estimated at 18 billion condoms to be used in 2015 alone. PMID:23671357

  12. The story of the condom.

    PubMed

    Khan, Fahd; Mukhtar, Saheel; Dickinson, Ian K; Sriprasad, Seshadri

    2013-01-01

    Condoms have been a subject of curiosity throughout history. The idea of safer sex has been explored in ancient and modern history, and has been used to prevent venereal diseases. We conducted a historical and medical review of condoms using primary and secondary sources as well as using the RSM library and the internet. These resources show that the first use of a condom was that of King Minos of Crete. Pasiphae, his wife, employed a goat's bladder in the vagina so that King Minos would not be able to harm her as his semen was said to contain "scorpions and serpents" that killed his mistresses. To Egyptians, condom-like glans caps were dyed in different colours to distinguish between different classes of people and to protect themselves against bilharzia. The Ancient Romans used the bladders of animals to protect the woman; they were worn not to prevent pregnancy but to prevent contraction of venereal diseases. Charles Goodyear, the inventor, utilized vulcanization, the process of transforming rubber into malleable structures, to produce latex condoms. The greater use of condoms all over the world in the 20(th) and 21(st) centuries has been related to HIV. This account of the use of condoms demonstrates how a primitive idea turned into an object that is used globally with a forecast estimated at 18 billion condoms to be used in 2015 alone.

  13. College Students and Condom Attitude: Validation of the Multi-Factor Attitude toward Condoms Scale (MFACS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollub, Ariane V.; Reece, Michael; Herbenick, Debby; Hensel, Devon J.; Middlestadt, Susan E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Sexually transmitted infections and the human immunodeficiency virus incidence rates remain high among college-aged individuals. This study examined the validity and reliability of the Multi-Factor Attitude toward Condoms Scale (MFACS). Participants: Participants were recruited from a large midwestern university during February and…

  14. Dual Incarceration and Condom Use in Committed Relationships.

    PubMed

    Groves, Allison K; Zhan, WeiHai; Del Río-González, Ana Maria; Rosenberg, Alana; Blankenship, Kim M

    2017-02-13

    Incarceration fractures relationship ties and has been associated with unprotected sex. Relationships where both individuals have a history of incarceration (dual incarceration) may face even greater disruption and involve more unprotected sex than relationships where only one individual has been incarcerated. We sought to determine whether dual incarceration is associated with condom use, and whether this association varies by relationship type. Data come from 499 sexual partnerships reported by 210 individuals with a history of incarceration. We used generalized estimating equations to examine whether dual incarceration was associated with condom use after controlling for individual and relationship characteristics. Interaction terms between dual incarceration and relationship commitment were also examined. Among currently committed relationships, dual incarceration was associated with inconsistent condom use (AOR: 4.33; 95% CI 1.02, 18.45). Dual incarceration did not affect condom use in never committed relationships. Reducing incarcerations may positively impact committed relationships and subsequently decrease HIV-related risk.

  15. Stage of behavior change for condom use: the influence of partner type, relationship and pregnancy factors.

    PubMed

    Santelli, J S; Kouzis, A C; Hoover, D R; Polacsek, M; Burwell, L G; Celentano, D D

    1996-01-01

    A theoretical model was used to examine the influence of relationship factors, pregnancy intentions, contraceptive behavior and other psychosocial characteristics on stages of behavior change in condom use among heterosexual black women of reproductive age. Data from an inner-city street survey compared women who were not contemplating condom use, women who were attempting to use condoms or had used them consistently for short periods of time, and those who had achieved long-term consistent use. Women's relationship with their main partner appears to be an important factor in understanding their use of condoms both with main partners and with other partners. For condom use with the main partner, factors such as emotional closeness and partner support were significant predictors of the likelihood that women would be attempting to use condoms rather than not contemplating use. Cohabitation and the belief that condom use builds trust were significant predictors of long-term consistent condom use. Having a regular or main partner was strongly associated with intentions to use condoms with other partners. Women who wanted to become pregnant were much less likely to intend to use condoms with their main partner, and women using oral contraceptives were less likely to be long-term consistent condom users.

  16. AIDS knowledge, condom attitudes, and risk-taking sexual behavior of substance-abusing juvenile offenders on probation or parole.

    PubMed

    Robertson, A; Levin, M L

    1999-10-01

    AIDS knowledge, condom attitudes, and sexual behavior were examined in a sample of 193 substance-abusing juvenile offenders on probation or parole. The majority of these youths reported being sexually active, and many admitted to early onset of sexual activity as well as unsafe sexual practices. Potential predictors of condom use by these juveniles were examined including age, condom use at first sexual experience, number of sexual partners in the last 6 months, locus of control, AIDS knowledge, condom attitudes, perceived risk for AIDS, self-efficacy for avoiding HIV, condom use by peers, delinquency risk, race, and gender. General attitudes toward condoms and the reported use of a condom at first sexual intercourse experience were the only statistically significant predictors of subsequent condom use. The relevance of these findings to the development of AIDS prevention programs for juvenile offenders is discussed.

  17. Condom ads promote illicit sex.

    PubMed

    Kippley, J F

    1994-01-01

    Written in 1987, this opinion was republished in the wake of US President Bill Clinton's AIDS prevention media campaign promoting condom use which began January 1994, targeted at young adults aged 18-25. The author staunchly opposes condom use even though he admits that people do not consider abstinence from sex to be a serious option for the prevention of HIV/STD infection. He believes that there is no moral use of sex with a condom and that condoms have always been a sign of immorality, be it prostitution, adultery, fornication, or marital contraception. Likewise, the author laments the success enjoyed by Planned Parenthood in achieving the social acceptance of marital contraception and sex outside of marriage. The complete social acceptance of homosexual activity, however, remains to be achieved. Magazines, newspapers, and television receive income in exchange for publishing or airing advertisements. Finding offensive advertisements which promote the use of condoms against HIV infection, the author recommends writing letters of complaint to the responsible media sources. If the television stations or publications in question continue to advertise condoms to the public, stop watching them or end one's subscriptions to the particular printed media. Such action taken collectively among many individuals will reduce product sales and income, and potentially sway corporate policy against condom ads.

  18. Another condom uproar in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Musoke, D

    1991-11-01

    A campaign to promote safe sex through the use of condoms has sparked a heated controversy in Uganda, as influential religious leaders have come out in opposition to a practice which they fear will lead to sexual promiscuity. The campaign, backed by the Ugandan government, is designed to halt the rapidly spreading AIDS epidemic. With 20,000 AIDS cases as of June 1991, Uganda leads all African countries in the number of reported cases. Additionally, it is estimated that some 7 million of the country's 17 million inhabitants are HIV-positive. This alarming situation forced President Yoweri Museveni to reverse his stance and come out in favor of the condom campaign. The campaign is being launched by the Ugandan pharmaceutical firm Armtrades Ltd with financial and technical support from USAID and the Ugandan government. The condom campaign, however, has aroused strong opposition from the religious community. Angered by advertisements advising Ugandans to "love carefully" by wearing condoms, Catholic Archbishop Emmanuel Wamala urged his followers in August to reject condoms, calling then an insult to the dignity of man. Following Wamala's lead, other top churchmen came out in opposition to the condom campaign at a recent AIDS prevention leadership conference. One of the clergymen present at the conference told Health Minister James Makumbi that the condom campaign will make young people indulge in uncontrolled sexual immorality. Moslem clerics have also stated their opposition to condoms, fearing sexual promiscuity. But the religious community itself has come under criticism for their opposition to condoms. Stressing that lives are at stake, the popular weekly Topic recently cautioned churchmen that this is not the time to engage in academic and moralistic debates.

  19. Sri Lanka drops leading condom.

    PubMed

    1984-01-01

    Sri Lanka's Family Planning Association has stopped selling its Preethi Regular condom, the backbone of its social marketing program for nearly a decade. Last year nearly 7 times as many Preethi condoms were sold as all other brands combined. The decision was reported to be caused by budget constraints following the International Planned Parenthood Federation's (IPPF) new policy of limiting the number of Preethi Regular condoms supplied to Sri Lanka. IPPF's Asian Regional Officer reported that the Preethi condom is a costly product, and that as many as needed of a US Agency for International Development (USAID) supplied product will be sent to Sri Lanka. The Contraceptive Retail Sales (CRS) program has devised a new sales strategy, based partly on the introduction of a high-priced condom to fill the gap left by the discontinuation of the Preethi Regular. The new Preethi Gold condom is expected to help the project become more financially self-reliant while taing advantage of Preethi's marketplace popularity. Preethi Gold is manufactured by the Malaysia Rubber Company and costs the project US $4.85/gross. It is sold for US $.14 for 3, about 3 times the price of a Preethi Regular. The project is also pushing the Panther condom, donated to IPPF by USAID. 2 Panther condoms sell for about 3.6U, about the cost of Preethi Regulars. The project also sells Moonbeam, Rough Rider, and Stimula condoms, the latter 2 at full commercial prices. A smooth transfer of demand from Preethi to Panther had been desired, but by the end of 1983 some retailers were hesitating to make the product switch because some Preethi Regulars were still available. Total condom sales in 1983 were down by nearly 590,000 from the approximately 6,860,000 sold in 1982. Total condom sales for the 1st quarter of 1984 were slightly over 1,218,000 pieces, compared to about 1,547,000 for the same quarter in 1983, a decline of 21%. The Family Planning Association is gearing up to reverse the downward trend

  20. Predicting condom use attitudes, norms, and control beliefs in Hispanic problem behavior youth: the effects of family functioning and parent-adolescent communication about sex on condom use.

    PubMed

    Malcolm, Shandey; Huang, Shi; Cordova, David; Freitas, Derek; Arzon, Margaret; Jimenez, Giselle Leon; Pantin, Hilda; Prado, Guillermo

    2013-08-01

    Hispanic problem behavior youth are at an increased risk of engaging in HIV risk behaviors, including low condom use. However, relatively little research has examined factors that affect condom use in this population. Although research indicates that family processes, such as higher levels of family functioning and open parent-adolescent communication about sex, and condom use attitudes, norms, and control beliefs as depicted by the theory of planned behavior have an effect on condom use behaviors, the combination of the two factors has received minimal attention. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of family functioning on condom use intentions and behaviors through communication about sex and condom use attitudes, parental norms, and control beliefs. A cross-sectional study of 171 predominately male (73.1%) sexually active Hispanic problem behavior adolescents (mean age = 14.88 years) was conducted. Structural equation modeling was used to test the study hypothesis. Findings largely support the overall model and suggest that family functioning had an indirect effect on condom use intention and behavior through communication about sex, condom use attitudes, and control beliefs. Family functioning, however, did not have an indirect effect on condom use intention and behavior through communication about sex and parental norms. Implications for prevention science and future research are discussed.

  1. 21 CFR 884.5330 - Female condom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Female condom. 884.5330 Section 884.5330 Food and... condom. (a) Identification. A female condom is a sheath-like device that lines the vaginal wall and is..., 2011, for any female condom that was in commercial distribution before May 28, 1976, or that has, on...

  2. 21 CFR 884.5330 - Female condom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Female condom. 884.5330 Section 884.5330 Food and... condom. (a) Identification. A female condom is a sheath-like device that lines the vaginal wall and is..., 2011, for any female condom that was in commercial distribution before May 28, 1976, or that has, on...

  3. 21 CFR 884.5330 - Female condom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Female condom. 884.5330 Section 884.5330 Food and... condom. (a) Identification. A female condom is a sheath-like device that lines the vaginal wall and is..., 2011, for any female condom that was in commercial distribution before May 28, 1976, or that has, on...

  4. Summary of Post Irradiation Examination Results of the AFIP-6 Failure

    SciTech Connect

    Adam Robinson; Daniel M. Wachs; Francine Rice; Danielle Perez

    2011-10-01

    The AFIP-6 test assembly was irradiated for one cycle in the Advanced Test Reactor at Idaho National Laboratory. The experiment was designed to test two monolithic fuel plates at power and burn-ups which bounded the operating conditions of both ATR and HFIR driver fuel. Both plates contain a solid U-Mo fuel foil with a zirconium diffusion barrier between 6061-aluminum cladding plates bonded by hot isostatic pressing. The experiment was designed with an orifice to restrict the coolant flow in order to obtain prototypic coolant temperature conditions. While these coolant temperatures were obtained, flow restriction resulted in low heat transfer coefficients and the failure of the fuel plates. The results from the post irradiation examinations and some observations of the failure mechanisms are outlined herein.

  5. Depression vulnerable and nonvulnerable smokers after a failure experience: examining cognitive self-regulation and motivation.

    PubMed

    Scott, Walter D; Beevers, Christopher G; Mermelstein, Robin J

    2008-07-01

    The present study extended previous tests of cognitive priming theories of depression by examining cognitive self-regulatory, motivational, and affective functioning of depression-vulnerable and nonvulnerable individuals after a failure experience. Participants were enrolled in a clinic-based smoking cessation program that consisted of seven group meetings. Major findings show that compared to the nonvulnerable group, depression-vulnerable individuals were less motivated to quit and experienced more negative affect, but only after a failure to quit smoking. However, after controlling for actual smoking rate, depression-vulnerable individuals did not evaluate their success any more negatively, nor did they indicate lower self-efficacy for quitting. Results are discussed in terms of cognitive self-regulatory and affect temperament models of motivation and depression.

  6. Examination of the damage and failure response of tantalum and copper under varied shock loading conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Bronkhorst, Curt A; Dennis - Koller, Darcie; Cerreta, Ellen K; Gray Ill, George T; Bourne, Neil

    2010-12-16

    A number of plate impact experiments have been conducted on high purity polycrystalline tantalum and copper samples using graded flyer plate configurations to alter the loading profile. These experiments are designed in a way so that a broad range of damage regimes are probed. The results show that the nucleation of damage primarily occurs at the grain boundaries of the materials. This affords us the opportunity to propose a porosity damage nucleation criterion which begins to account for the length scales of the microstructure (grain size distribution) and the mechanical response of the grain boundary regions (failure stress distribution). This is done in the context of a G-T-N type model for the ductile damage and failure response of both the materials examined. The role of micro-inertial effects on the porosity growth process is also considered.

  7. The First Condom Machine in a US Jail: The Challenge of Harm Reduction in a Law and Order Environment

    PubMed Central

    Harawa, Nina; Grinstead Reznick, Olga

    2010-01-01

    Most US jails and prisons do not provide condoms to prisoners because of concerns about possible negative consequences. Since 1989, the jail system of San Francisco, California, has provided condoms to male prisoners through 1-on-1 counseling sessions. Given the limitations of this approach, we installed, stocked, and monitored a free condom-dispensing machine in a jail to examine the feasibility of this method of providing condoms to jail prisoners. After the machine was installed, we observed increases in prisoners' awareness of programmatic access to condoms and in their likelihood of having obtained condoms. Particularly large increases in condom uptake were reported among those in high-risk groups. Sexual activity did not increase, custody operations were not impeded, and staff acceptance of condom access for prisoners increased. PMID:20395583

  8. The first condom machine in a US jail: the challenge of harm reduction in a law and order environment.

    PubMed

    Sylla, Mary; Harawa, Nina; Grinstead Reznick, Olga

    2010-06-01

    Most US jails and prisons do not provide condoms to prisoners because of concerns about possible negative consequences. Since 1989, the jail system of San Francisco, California, has provided condoms to male prisoners through 1-on-1 counseling sessions. Given the limitations of this approach, we installed, stocked, and monitored a free condom-dispensing machine in a jail to examine the feasibility of this method of providing condoms to jail prisoners. After the machine was installed, we observed increases in prisoners' awareness of programmatic access to condoms and in their likelihood of having obtained condoms. Particularly large increases in condom uptake were reported among those in high-risk groups. Sexual activity did not increase, custody operations were not impeded, and staff acceptance of condom access for prisoners increased.

  9. Proficiency in condom use among migrant workers.

    PubMed

    Rubens, Muni; McCoy, H Virginia; Shehadeh, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Consistent and correct use of condoms is important to prevent the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases. We evaluated condom use skills on an 11-point scale in which participants were observed placing a condom on a penile model. Participants were 375 sexually active African American and Hispanic migrant workers. For analysis, subjects were divided into skilled and unskilled groups by a median split of the condom use skills score. Sexual risk behaviors were analyzed between condom use skilled and unskilled groups and level of condom use skills between African Americans and Hispanics. African Americans showed better skills in using condoms, and participants in the condom-use skilled group used condoms more frequently. Finally, a logistic regression was conducted to find predictors of condom use skills. Significant predictors were ethnicity, language, and assistance-related social support (obtaining advice from people who could provide tangible assistance).

  10. Application of condoms on male clients by female sex workers in Yerevan, Armenia: prevalence and correlates.

    PubMed

    Darbinyan, Nelli; Lang, Delia L; Diclemente, Ralph J; Joseph, Jesse B; Markosyan, Karine

    2011-09-01

    This study sought to assess the prevalence of consistent condom application on male clients by female sex workers (FSWs) in Armenia and its association with demographic, psychosocial and behavioural factors. In this cross-sectional study, 120 street-based FSWs aged 20-52 completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire. The primary outcome measure was consistent application of condoms by FSWs on their male clients. A total of 21.7% of participants reported consistently applying condoms on clients. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that higher condom use self-efficacy (Adjusted Odds Ratio, AOR=1.1; p=0.01), lower perceived condom use barriers (AOR=0.9; p=0.04) and not using douching as a method to prevent STI/HIV (AOR=4.8; p=0.04) significantly predicted consistent condom application. Higher HIV/AIDS knowledge was a marginally significant predictor of condom application (AOR=1.3; p=0.05). Future interventions should address these modifiable factors to encourage FSWs to apply condoms on clients themselves, which may reduce condom failure and exposure to HIV transmission.

  11. Condom Misuse Among Adjudicated Girls: Associations with Laboratory - Confirmed Chlamydia and Gonorrhea

    PubMed Central

    Crosby, Richard; Salazar, Laura F.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Yarber, William L.; Caliendo, Angela M.; Staples-Horne, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To identify the prevalence of condom use errors among detained female teens and to test two inter-related hypotheses concerning condom failure. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 134 female teens recruited within eight detention facilities. Measures were collected using audio-computer assisted self-interviewing. Assessment for the presence of C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae was also conducted. Results Five forms of condom use errors/problems were common: not discussing condom use with the partner (34.3%), not having a condom when one was desired (48.5%), starting sex before application (21.6%), removing condoms before sex concludes (26.9%), and breakage (32.8%). Significant, associations were found between condom errors/problems and drug/alcohol use. Errors/problems with condom use were significantly higher among teens diagnosed with an STD (P=.039 for an index measure; P=.022 for a single-item measure). Conclusions Findings suggest that detained female teens may have experienced multiple condom use error and problems thereby increasing their vulnerability to STD acquisition. PMID:18082855

  12. Gender differences in determinants of condom use among HIV clients in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Walusaga, Happy Annet; Kyohangirwe, Rossette; Wagner, Glenn J

    2012-11-01

    Little research has examined gender differences in reporting of condom use, which is the goal of our analysis. A baseline study was conducted in two urban clinics and we examined data from sexually active clients entering HIV care who enrolled in a prospective longitudinal cohort study. The primary outcome was consistent condom use and determinant variables were demographics, physical health and immune status, economic well-being, relationship characteristics, psychosocial functioning, and self-efficacy. Of 280 participants, 129 were males and 151 females, and 41.7% had at least some secondary education; 60.7% did not always use condoms. Nearly half (48.1%) of men reported always using condoms compared to 31.8% of females. In bivariate analyses, men who consistently use condoms were more likely to be working, have a primary partner who was HIV negative, to have disclosed their HIV status to their primary partner, and to have higher general self-efficacy and condom use self-efficacy compared to men who did not always use condoms. Higher general self-efficacy and condom use self-efficacy were the only variables associated with reported consistent condom use among women. In regression analysis, working in the last 7 days, general self efficacy, and condom use self-efficacy were associated with consistent condom use among men. These findings reveal low rates of consistent condom use among people living with HIV, and a gender difference with men more likely to report consistent condom use. These data suggest the need for gender sensitive prevention programs and strategies, including programs that can provide women with greater control and self-efficacy regarding use of protective methods.

  13. Microstructural examination of high temperature creep failure of Zircaloy-2 cladding in irradiated PHWR fuel pins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Prerna; Sah, D. N.; Kumar, Sunil; Anantharaman, S.

    2012-10-01

    Cladding samples taken from the ballooned region of the irradiated Zircaloy-2 cladded PHWR fuel pins which failed during isothermal heating tests carried out at 800-900 °C were examined using optical and scanning electron microscopy. The examination of samples from the fuel pin tested at 900 °C showed an intergranular mode of failure in the cladding due to formation of cracks, cavities and zirconium hydride precipitates on the grain boundaries in the cladding material. A thin hard α-Zr(O) layer was observed on outer surface due to dissolution of the oxide layer formed during reactor operation. Grain boundary sliding was identified to be the main mode of creep deformation of Zircaloy-2 at 900 °C. Examination of the cladding tested at 800 °C showed absence of cracks or cavities in the deformed material and no localisation of hydrides was observed at the grain boundaries. The failure of the cladding occurred after necking followed by extensive wall thinning of the cladding tube.

  14. Predicting Condom Use Attitudes, Norms, and Control Beliefs in Hispanic Problem Behavior Youth: The Effects of Family Functioning and Parent-Adolescent Communication about Sex on Condom Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malcolm, Shandey; Huang, Shi; Cordova, David; Freitas, Derek; Arzon, Margaret; Jimenez, Giselle Leon; Pantin, Hilda; Prado, Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    Hispanic problem behavior youth are at an increased risk of engaging in HIV risk behaviors, including low condom use. However, relatively little research has examined factors that affect condom use in this population. Although research indicates that family processes, such as higher levels of family functioning and open parent-adolescent…

  15. The Causal Effects of Relational Security and Insecurity on Condom Use Attitudes and Acquisition Behavior.

    PubMed

    Sakaluk, John Kitchener; Gillath, Omri

    2016-02-01

    Research on attachment and condom use has been limited to correlational studies of self-report measures, yielding inconsistent results. Here, we examined the causal effects of attachment priming on self-reported condom use attitudes and an observational measure of condom acquisition behavior. In three experiments, participants were exposed to one of three attachment primes (security, anxiety, or avoidance) or a control prime. For Study 1, participants in the security and anxiety conditions preferred condom non-use to a greater extent, compared to participants in the avoidance condition. This effect was replicated in Study 2, and was mediated by perceptions of sexual health threat. In Study 3, the effect of security priming on condom acquisition behavior was eliminated through the use of a framing manipulation, though the effect of primed attachment on condom use attitudes was not significant. A meta-analysis, however, revealed that the predicted effects of attachment priming were consistent across the three studies, supporting the role of attachment in evaluations of condom use. Priming attachment security or anxiety leads participants to perceive their sexual partners as less of a sexual health threat, resulting in a devaluation of condom use. Primed security also reduced condom acquisition behavior, though this negative effect eliminated by framing condoms as protecting a partner's sexual health. Overall, these studies suggest that relational factors, such as attachment, require greater consideration when studying sexual health and designing interventions.

  16. "Do You Know What You're Doing?" College Students' Experiences with Male Condoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarber, William L.; Graham, Cynthia A.; Sanders, Stephanie A.; Crosby, Richard A.; Butler, Scott M.; Hartzell, Rose M.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Although quantitative assessment of male condom use errors and problems has received increased research attention, few studies have qualitatively examined this sexual health behavior. Purpose: This study examined problems of male condom use as experienced by college men and women at a large, public Midwestern university. Methods:…

  17. Factors associated with failure in breeding soundness examination of Western USA rams.

    PubMed

    Van Metre, David C; Rao, Sangeeta; Kimberling, Cleon V; Morley, Paul S

    2012-06-01

    Breeding-soundness examination (BSE) and eradication of Brucella ovis infection in rams are critical components of flock-health programs. The aims of this retrospective, cross-sectional study were to describe the results of BSE in a large sample of rams in the Western USA and to determine the association between BSE outcome and the semen collection method (penis manually extended vs. retained in the preputial cavity), ram body-condition score (BCS), the presence of ulcerative posthitis, and the size of the flock of origin. We evaluated the first BSE in a given year for rams from Colorado, Wyoming, and Utah, USA, from 2000 through 2007. Breeding-soundness examination consisted of physical examination, scrotal circumference and BCS measurement, semen collection by electroejaculation, and microscopic examination of semen motility, morphology, and leukocyte concentration. We assigned a reason for failure to each failed BSE and used multivariable logistic and Poisson regressions to measure associations between ram and flock variables and the risk or reason for failure on BSE. A non-random, owner-selected subset of rams was tested for antibodies to B. ovis by serum indirect ELISA (iELISA). The Rogan-Gladen corrected B. ovis seroprevalence was measured. Of the 14,667 BSEs performed on 11,804 rams, 29.0% were classified as "failed;" the most common reason for failure was substandard semen parameters (43.8%). Breeding-soundness examinations were more likely to have been categorized as failure for inflammatory causes when performed on rams from medium-sized flocks (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.1, 2.3) and large flocks (OR 1.4; 95% CI 1.0, 1.9) (P=0.02), suggesting that larger flocks are at higher risk of contagious diseases. The adjusted seroprevalence of B. ovis antibodies among tested rams in this study was 10.0%. Of 233 rams seropositive to B. ovis, 125 (53.6%) were subclinical, a finding that supports the importance of this test in ram BSE. We found that emaciation in rams was

  18. The impact of the work environment on condom use among female bar workers in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Morisky, Donald E; Peña, Melanie; Tiglao, Teodora V; Liu, Kenn Y

    2002-08-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine how condom use is affected by specific aspects of the work environment: (1) social-structural and environmental influences and constraints, (2) mandatory condom use policy, and (3) the level of social influence and reinforcement between manager and employee. A total of 1,340 bar workers and 308 nonestablishment freelance workers comprise the study group. In establishments where a condom use policy exists, female bar workers were 2.6 times more likely to consistently use condoms during sexual intercourse compared with establishments that do not have such a policy in place. The results suggest a need for the development of comprehensive educational policies in all entertainment establishments, including regular meetings with employees, reinforcing attendance at the Social Hygiene Clinic, promoting AIDS awareness, making condoms available in the workplace, and mandating 100% condom use behavior among all employees.

  19. Correlates of condom use among female prostitutes and tourist clients in Bali, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, L; Ford, K; Fajans, P; Wirawan, D N

    1997-04-01

    This study examines the commercial sex activity of both tourist client and local prostitute groups in the host country of Indonesia. The study provides a profile of social and behavioural characteristics of foreign tourist men and Indonesian women engaging in commercial sex, using cross-sectional data gathered in the tourist resort town of Kuta, Bali. Univariate statistical analysis and multiple logistic regression are used to assess psychosocial and other factors associated with consistent condom use in commercial sex encounters, drawing from the Health Belief model and social cognitive theory. Results from both respondent groups indicate that condom use is high between tourist clients and female Indonesian sex workers, although not 100% consistent. Beliefs about condom efficacy and effects on pleasure, as well as susceptibility to STD infection were related to condom use for female sex workers. Beliefs about condoms being too much trouble, and self-efficacy were related to condom use for tourist clients.

  20. Using condoms in the age of AIDS: a phenomenological study with marketing implications.

    PubMed

    Hill, R P; Stephens, D L

    1990-03-01

    The authors examine respondents' potential reactions to the suggestion of condom usage by and to their sex partner. Results indicate that when a sex partner suggests condom use, individuals may react with a feeling of shared responsibility and/or look favorably upon the suggesting partner. In contrast, persons who suggest condom usage may be questioning their partner's past and envisioning a short-term relationship. The effects of individual-difference variables on feelings about condom usage are described and implications for marketing are delineated.

  1. Closing the condom KAP gap.

    PubMed

    Roberto, E L

    1977-01-01

    A number of program strategies have been suggested to close the gap between knowledge and awareness of family planning, and its practice. Most focus on the interim between awareness and usage. This article presents data to support the argument that the problem lies in the awareness stage. Its assumption is that the quality of the awareness is important. As opposed to the survey method of determining awareness, the author proposes the "Focus Group Discussion." As illustration, he presents results of a study using this method, on awareness about condoms, undertaken as part of a Population Center Foundation Condom Distribution Project, in 1975. Its purpose was to identify the more important attitudes toward condoms among married couples, the factors which motivate the couples to use or reject them, and the meanings associated with condoms and how these influence the time, manner, and reasons for rejecting or accepting them. 4 group discussions were carried out, with 8 or 10 married male and female respondents, age 18-35, with at least 2 children, of middle and lower class, and all having at least heard of condoms. Discussions were taped and subjected to content analysis. The 7 major findings are: 1) Quality of awareness depends on experience with use. 2) Experience with use does not guarantee positive quality awareness -- some regular users were still ignorant of some aspects of condom use. 3) Respondents perceive positive aspects of condoms, which should be reinforced. 4) Most of the negative qualities perceived by respondents were imaginary, but can be combatted by the positive statements of users. 5) Filipino men respond to their wives' reactions and project an image of sexual prowess, both possibly damaging to the reputation of condoms; communicators and educators must address the wives equally with their husbands. 6) Buying condoms is embarrassing: studies are needed on how this can be overcome at the places of purchase. 7) Brand awareness is low: only 3 or 4 out

  2. Barriers to condom purchasing: Effects of product positioning on reactions to condoms.

    PubMed

    Scott-Sheldon, Lori A J; Glasford, Demis E; Marsh, Kerry L; Lust, Sarah A

    2006-12-01

    Correct and consistent condom use has been promoted as a method to prevent sexually transmitted infections including HIV. Yet research has repeatedly shown that people fail to use condoms consistently. One influence on the pervasive lack of condom use that has received relatively little attention is the context in which consumers are exposed to condoms (i.e., how condoms are displayed in retail settings). In this paper we present two studies explored variations in condom shelf placement and its effects on people's condom attitudes and acquisition. Study 1 explored the shelf placement of condoms in 59 retail outlets in Connecticut, USA and found that condoms were typically located in areas of high visibility (e.g., next to the pharmacy counter) and on shelves adjacent to feminine hygiene and disease treatment products. In Study 2, 120 heterosexual undergraduate students at the University of Connecticut were randomly assigned to evaluate condoms adjacent to sensual, positive, neutral, or negative products and found that overall men reported more positive attitudes and acquired more condoms when exposed to condoms in a sensual context compared to women in the same condition. Among women, condom attitudes were more positive in the context of neutral products; condom acquisition was strongest for women exposed to condoms in the positive aisles. These results suggest a gender-specific approach to condom promotion. Implications of these studies for HIV prevention, public health, and condom marketing strategies are discussed.

  3. Effects of condom social marketing on condom use in developing countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis, 1990–2010

    PubMed Central

    Denison, Julie; Kennedy, Caitlin; Tedrow, Virginia; O'Reilly, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To examine the relationship between condom social marketing programmes and condom use. Methods Standard systematic review and meta-analysis methods were followed. The review included studies of interventions in which condoms were sold, in which a local brand name(s) was developed for condoms, and in which condoms were marketed through a promotional campaign to increase sales. A definition of intervention was developed and standard inclusion criteria were followed in selecting studies. Data were extracted from each eligible study, and a meta-analysis of the results was carried out. Findings Six studies with a combined sample size of 23 048 met the inclusion criteria. One was conducted in India and five in sub-Saharan Africa. All studies were cross-sectional or serial cross-sectional. Three studies had a comparison group, although all lacked equivalence in sociodemographic characteristics across study arms. All studies randomly selected participants for assessments, although none randomly assigned participants to intervention arms. The random-effects pooled odds ratio for condom use was 2.01 (95% confidence interval, CI: 1.42–2.84) for the most recent sexual encounter and 2.10 (95% CI: 1.51–2.91) for a composite of all condom use outcomes. Tests for heterogeneity yielded significant results for both meta-analyses. Conclusion The evidence base for the effect of condom social marketing on condom use is small because few rigorous studies have been conducted. Meta-analyses showed a positive and statistically significant effect on increasing condom use, and all individual studies showed positive trends. The cumulative effect of condom social marketing over multiple years could be substantial. We strongly encourage more evaluations of these programmes with study designs of high rigour. PMID:22893745

  4. Prophylactic Procurement of University Students in Southern Ethiopia: Stigma and the Value of Condom Machines on Campus

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Christopher J.; Alano, Abraham

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Risky sexual behavior among Ethiopian university students, especially females, is a major contributor to young adult morbidity and mortality. Ambaw et al. found that female university students in Ethiopia may fear the humiliation associated with procuring condoms. A study in Thailand suggests condom machines may provide comfortable condom procurement, but the relevance to a high-risk African context is unknown. The objective of this study was to examine if the installation of condom machines in Ethiopia predicts changes in student condom uptake and use, as well as changes in procurement related stigma. Methods Students at a large urban university in Southern Ethiopia completed self reported surveys in 2010 (N  = 2,155 surveys) and again in 2011 (N =  2,000), six months after the installation of condom machines. Mann-Whitney and Chi-square tests were conducted to evaluate significant changes in student sexual behavior, as well as condom procurement and associated stigma over the subsequent one year period. Results After installing condom machines, the average number of trips made to procure condoms on-campus significantly increased 101% for sexually active females and significantly decreased 36% for sexually active males. Additionally, reports of condom use during last sexual intercourse showed a non-significant 4.3% increase for females and a significant 9.0% increase for males. During this time, comfort procuring condoms and ability to convince sexual partners to use condoms were significantly higher for sexually active male students. There was no evidence that the condom machines led to an increase in promiscuity. Conclusions The results suggest that condom machines may be associated with more condom procurement among vulnerable female students in Ethiopia and could be an important component of a comprehensive university health policy. PMID:23565272

  5. Condom Use in College: Students' Self-Protection against HIV. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dekin, Bonnie J.; And Others

    This study examined condom use by college students and factors associated with consistent condom use. It is based on a survey of 212 sexually active residential students at a major eastern doctoral granting institution conducted in the spring of 1994. The survey found that a substantial number of sexually active students were engaging in behaviors…

  6. Condom and Other Contraceptive Use among a Random Sample of Female Adolescents: A Snapshot in Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimley, Diane M.; Lee, Patricia A.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the sexual practices of 235 females aged 15 to 19 years and their readiness to use specific contraceptive methods. Results indicate that, despite the availability of newer contraceptive methods, most sexually active adolescents were least resistant to using condoms, perceiving the male condom as an acceptable preventative both for…

  7. HIV Prevention and Social Desirability: Husband-Wife Discrepancies in Reports of Condom Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordero-Coma, Julia; Breen, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Greater use of condoms within marriage would help limit the spread of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. Using data from the Malawi Diffusion and Ideational Change Project (MDICP), the authors examined the influence that the fidelity norm and the traditional association between marriage and reproduction have on condom use with a spouse. The sample…

  8. Correlates of Condom Use among Male High School Students in Nairobi, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabiru, Caroline W.; Orpinas, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    Background: Correct and consistent condom use is an effective strategy to reduce the risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). This study examines sociodemographic, behavioral, and psychosocial characteristics of 3 groups of adolescent males: consistent, sporadic, and non-condom users. Methods: The sample consisted of 931 sexually…

  9. Sexual Relationship Power, Intimate Partner Violence, and Condom Use among Minority Urban Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teitelman, Anne M.; Ratcliffe, Sarah J.; Morales-Aleman, Mercedes M.; Sullivan, Cris M.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the association between sexual relationship power, intimate partner violence, and condom use among African American and Hispanic urban girls. In this sample of 56 sexually active girls, 50% did not use condoms consistently and therefore were at higher risk for acquiring HIV or sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Teens who…

  10. Predicting Intentions to Use Condoms Using Gender, Sexual Experience, and the Theory of Planned Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, Daniel; Goggin, Kathy; Gerkovich, Mary; Metcalf, Kimberly; Kennedy, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    This study examined condom use intentions among a large diverse group of African American adolescents and provides useful information to assist in the development of effective HIV prevention interventions. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), we explored which constructs are important in shaping intentions to use condoms for younger versus…

  11. Moderating Effects of Gender on Alcohol Use: Implications for Condom Use at First Intercourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dye, Claire; Upchurch, Dawn M.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined whether the effects of level of alcohol consumption on condom use at first sex depend on adolescents' gender, utilizing data from Wave I of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Compared to girls who did not consume any alcohol, inebriated girls were significantly less likely to use a condom at…

  12. The Effectiveness of a Female Condom Intervention on Women's Use of Condoms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardwick, Deborah

    2002-01-01

    Evaluated a female condom promotion intervention for socioeconomically disadvantaged women at high risk for sexually transmitted diseases and HIV who had never used female condoms. Pre- and postintervention surveys indicated that providing education and counseling, along with unlimited quantities of male condoms, female condoms, and water-based…

  13. Changes in Condom Use Over Time Among Female Sex Workers and Their Male Noncommercial Partners and Clients.

    PubMed

    Tracas, Ashley; Bazzi, Angela Robertson; Artamonova, Irina; Rangel, M Gudelia; Staines, Hugo; Ulibarri, Monica D

    2016-08-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) often report inconsistent condom use with clients and noncommercial male partners, yet changes in condom use with various partner types during participation in observation studies remains underexplored. This longitudinal study of 214 FSWs and their male, noncommercial partners in the Mexico-U.S. border region, where HIV prevalence among FSWs continues to be high, utilized negative binomial regressions to examine changes in condom use with intimate partners and clients (regular and nonregular) over 24 months. Condom use decreased over time among couples in Ciudad Juarez, but there was no change in condom use among couples in Tijuana. FSWs' condom use with regular and nonregular clients significantly increased over time, which is consistent with previous research finding behavioral changes when participating in observational studies. Findings suggest the need for continued efforts to promote condom use among FSWs and their noncommercial male partners in addition to clients.

  14. Methamphetamine use, attitudes about condoms, and sexual risk behavior among HIV-positive men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Nadine; Mausbach, Brent T; Ulibarri, Monica D; Semple, Shirley J; Patterson, Thomas L

    2011-04-01

    This study examined attitudes about condoms as a moderator of the relationship between methamphetamine use and sexual risk behavior in a sample of 297 HIV-positive, methamphetamine-using men who have sex with men (MSM). To test for a moderating effect of attitudes towards condoms, an interaction term was included in multiple regression analysis along with age, income, negative condom attitudes, frequency of methamphetamine use, and Beck depression score. A post hoc analysis was conducted to determine the relations between methamphetamine use and unprotected sex for persons with more vs. less negative attitudes toward condoms. These analyses indicated that when individuals had more negative attitudes toward condoms, the relation between methamphetamine frequency and unprotected sex was significant, while among participants with less negative attitudes toward condoms, no significant association was found. Addressing methamphetamine-using MSM's attitudes about condoms can serve as a form of harm reduction for those who are not yet ready or willing to discontinue methamphetamine use.

  15. Predictors of Condom Use Among Mexican Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Carmen; Villarruel, Antonia M.; Zhou, Yan; Gallegos, Esther

    2012-01-01

    Mexican adolescents continue to be at increased risk for HIV infection due to inconsistent condom use. The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of condom use intentions and condom use among Mexican adolescents who participated in a randomized control trial designed to test a sexual-risk reduction intervention. Data from sexually active adolescents 17 to 21 years (n = 157) of age who were assigned to the control group were analyzed 48 months post intervention. Regression analysis showed that positive attitudes toward condoms, subjective norms, and control beliefs significantly explained intention to use condoms (R2 = .75, p < .001). Attitudes toward condoms (β = .67, p < .001), technical skills (β = .13, p = .01), and condom use self-efficacy (β = .24, p < .001) were significant predictors of condom use intention. Compared to those who inconsistently used condoms, adolescents who used condoms consistently had greater intention to use condoms and greater impulse control. Findings suggest that attitudes and control beliefs should be further explored with Mexican adolescents in order to support consistent condom use. PMID:20949835

  16. 21 CFR 884.5300 - Condom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Condom. 884.5300 Section 884.5300 Food and Drugs... OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Therapeutic Devices § 884.5300 Condom. (a) Identification. A condom is a sheath which completely covers the penis with a closely fitting membrane....

  17. 21 CFR 884.5330 - Female condom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Female condom. 884.5330 Section 884.5330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... condom. (a) Identification. A female condom is a sheath-like device that lines the vaginal wall and...

  18. 21 CFR 884.5300 - Condom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Condom. 884.5300 Section 884.5300 Food and Drugs... OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Therapeutic Devices § 884.5300 Condom. (a) Identification. A condom is a sheath which completely covers the penis with a closely fitting membrane....

  19. 21 CFR 884.5300 - Condom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Condom. 884.5300 Section 884.5300 Food and Drugs... OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Therapeutic Devices § 884.5300 Condom. (a) Identification. A condom is a sheath which completely covers the penis with a closely fitting membrane....

  20. Teaching Teens To Use Condoms Faithfully

    MedlinePlus

    ... Size Email Print Share Teaching Teens To Use Condoms Faithfully Page Content Article Body The latex condom is the only form of birth control that ... chosen, calls for the male to wear a condom, while his female partner uses any of the ...

  1. 21 CFR 884.5330 - Female condom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Female condom. 884.5330 Section 884.5330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... condom. (a) Identification. A female condom is a sheath-like device that lines the vaginal wall and...

  2. 21 CFR 884.5300 - Condom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Condom. 884.5300 Section 884.5300 Food and Drugs... OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Therapeutic Devices § 884.5300 Condom. (a) Identification. A condom is a sheath which completely covers the penis with a closely fitting membrane....

  3. Barriers to Condom Use among High Risk Men Who Have Sex with Men in Uganda: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Musinguzi, Geofrey; Bastiaens, Hilde; Matovu, Joseph K. B.; Nuwaha, Fred; Mujisha, Geoffrey; Kiguli, Juliet; Arinaitwe, Jim; Van Geertruyden, Jean-Pierre; Wanyenze, Rhoda K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Unprotected sexual intercourse is a major risk factor for HIV transmission. Men who have sex with men (MSM) face challenges in accessing HIV prevention services, including condoms. However, there is limited in-depth assessment and documentation of the barriers to condom use among MSM in sub-Saharan Africa. In this paper, we examine the barriers to condom use among MSM in Uganda. Methods The data for this study were extracted from a larger qualitative study conducted among 85 self-identified adult (>18 years) MSM in 11 districts in Uganda between July and December 2013. Data on sexual behaviours and access and barriers to condom use were collected using semi-structured interviews. All interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. This paper presents an analysis of data for 33 MSM who did not use condoms at last sex, with a focus on barriers to condom use. Analysis was conducted using the content analysis approach. Results Six major barriers to condom use were identified: Difficulties with using condoms, access challenges, lack of knowledge and misinformation about condom use, partner and relationship related issues, financial incentives and socio-economic vulnerability, and alcohol consumption. Conclusion The findings suggest that several reasons account for lack of condom use among high-risk MSM. The findings are valuable to inform interventions needed to increase condom use among MSM. PMID:26172374

  4. Condom negotiation across different relationship types by young women engaged in sex work in Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Maher, Lisa; Mooney-Somers, Julie; Phlong, Pisith; Couture, Marie-Claude; Kien, Serey Phal; Stein, Ellen; Bates, Anna Juong; Sansothy, Neth; Page, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    Cambodia's 100% Condom Use Programme is credited with an increase in consistent condom use in commercial sexual interactions and a decrease in HIV prevalence among female sex workers (FSWs). There has been little improvement in condom use between FSWs and non-commercial partners, prompting calls for more innovative approaches to increasing condom use in these relationships. To understand why condoms are used or not used in sexual interactions involving FSWs, we examined condom negotiation across different types of relationships. We conducted 33 in-depth interviews with young (15 to 29 years) women engaged in sex work in Phnom Penh. There was an important interplay between the meanings of condom use and the meanings of women's relationships. Commercial relationships were characterised as inherently risky and necessitated condom use. Despite a similar lack of sexual fidelity, sweetheart relationships were rarely construed as risky and typically did not involve condom use. Husbands and wives constructed their sexual interactions with each other differently, making agreement on condom use difficult. The lack of improvement in condom use in FSWs' non-commercial sexual relationships needs to be understood in relation to both sex work and the broader Cambodian sexual culture within which these relationships are embedded.

  5. What really works? An exploratory study of condom negotiation strategies.

    PubMed

    Lam, Amy G; Mak, Amy; Lindsay, Patricia D; Russell, Stephen T

    2004-04-01

    Verbal-direct strategies are assumed to be the most effective strategies in negotiating condom use. Both cultural and gender differences in communication styles suggest that individuals may negotiate condoms in ways that are not exclusively verbal and direct. This study examined the use of other forms of condom negotiations by developing an exploratory scale that distinguished strategies on how verbal and direct they were (i.e., verbal-direct, verbal-indirect, nonverbal-direct, nonverbal-indirect). The study compared the use of negotiation strategies among Asian and White American students at a northern California university. Results indicated that although direct strategies (verbal and nonverbal) were more frequently used, condom users also employed indirect strategies (verbal and nonverbal) to negotiate condom use. Moreover, Asians used verbal-indirect strategies more than Whites. Women used nonverbal-indirect strategies more than men. HIV preventions seeking to be culturally sensitive to Asians and women may benefit from incorporating these strategies into their interventions.

  6. Perceptions of a campus-wide condom distribution programme: An exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Diane B; Noar, Seth M; Widman, Laura; Willoughby, Jessica Fitts; Sanchez, Diana M; Garrett, Kyla P

    2016-01-01

    Objective Condom distribution programmes are an important means of preventing sexually transmitted infections (STIs); yet little research has examined their perceived and actual impact on college campuses. Design Quantitative, cross-sectional study. Setting Large public university in the Southeastern USA. Method Approximately 2 months after a campus-wide condom distribution programme began, we utilised intercept surveys with 355 students (68% women; 43% racial/ethnic minorities) to examine their perceptions of the availability, accessibility and acceptability of condoms, and their perceptions and use of the newly installed condom dispensers. Results Students perceived condoms to be available and accessible on campus after implementation of the condom dispensers. Students had heard about the dispensers from other people (36%), through social media (18%) and the campus newspaper (15%). Most students (71%) had seen the dispensers. Almost one in four students (23%) had taken a condom from the dispensers; among those who were sexually active during the 2months that the dispensers were available, 33% had used them. More than one-third of students (37%) – and 53% of sexually active students – indicated intentions to use the dispensers in the next 6months. Multiple regression analysis controlling for age, gender and race revealed that prior condom use, attitudes about the dispensers and comfort with the dispensers were significant predictors of sexually active students’ intentions to use the dispensers (p<.001). Conclusion Overall, results indicate that over a short time period, this condom distribution programme was successful in reaching students and providing free condoms. Implications for implementing condom distribution programmes on college campuses as well as future directions for research are discussed. PMID:27917002

  7. Condoms hitch lift with truckers.

    PubMed

    Kilimwiko, L

    1991-09-01

    This article reports on the efforts being made in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania and other road stops in central Tanzania to provide condoms to long-haul drivers and the women who serve on-the-road-companionship. The Truck Driver's AIDS Intervention Project (TDAIP) in collaboration with the African Medical Research Foundation (AMREF) and Tanzania's National AIDS Control Program (NACP) are working to protect these 2 at risk populations. Along the 1000 km Tanzania/Zambia highway, gasoline pump attendants offer drivers condoms. Prostitutes at these stops also offer condoms. There are meter long stickers with "condoms prevent AIDs" available. The message from the NACP regional office is that those at risk, such as truck drivers, are unlikely to attend rallies, or hear radio message when behind the wheel. Research has shown that men are more receptive to messages given in a work setting. Barmaids at 5 of the most frequented truckstops have been trained as peer health educators. Their job is to sensitize the men to the dangers of AIDs. An operating example is given of the barmaid serving drinks, and when approached, replies with the messages of how protection can be accomplished. One partner only is recommended, and if this is not possible, then one should avoid assuming "labda huyu hana ukimwi" (hopefully this one is AIDs free). There is no safe sex. The peer educators are trained in AIDs prevention and communication skills, and are paid a monthly wage. 725,000 condoms and 250,000 pieces of educational literature were distributed by TDAIP at these 5 truckstops in the 1st 6 months of 1990. Several drawbacks to this effort have occurred. It is difficult to sustain the distribution system outside a medical setting, and it is difficult to effectively monitor and support peer educators spread out across the country. One barmaid observed that those seeking condoms were primarily from outside Tanzania: Zambia, Malawi, Zaire, Rwanda, and Burundi, where better information about the

  8. Differences in condom behaviors and beliefs among female drug users recruited from two cities.

    PubMed

    Wood, M M; Tortu, S; Rhodes, F; Deren, S

    1998-01-01

    This paper examines predictors of condom cognitions and condom use for vaginal sex within women's main and paying partnerships. The sample consisted of active injection drug and crack-using women recruited from two cities with disparate HIV rates. A total of 338 drug-using women who reported vaginal sex with a main and/or paying partner in the prior 30 days were recruited for this study. Recruitment site was a significant predictor for several of the variables examined, for both main and paying partners. Ethnicity and prior HIV test result were also significant predictors, but only for main sex partners. Findings support previous research and suggest that the factors which predict condom beliefs, intention, and behaviors are different for main versus paying partners. Interventions designed to increase condom use must recognize that cognitive factors associated with condom use may vary by partner type, ethnicity, and recruitment site, particularly when important contextual variables, such as local seroprevalence, vary.

  9. Women's Autonomy and Attitudes toward Condom Use: A Multicountry Analysis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Bonita B; Small, Eusebius; Mengo, Cecilia; Ude, Paula

    2017-01-01

    Autonomy gives women the ability to negotiate safe sex and make decisions on their health. This study explores the gender stratification framework to understand the intertwined nature of HIV and women's autonomy using the nationally representative Demographic Health Survey. It examines women's autonomy and attitudes toward condom use for prevention of HIV/AIDS in four culturally diverse countries. Findings from the logistic regression indicate that labor force participation, individual autonomy, and decision making significantly increased the odds of always using a condom during sex in all countries. Promoting prevention policies highlighting women's autonomy may contribute in reducing the spread of HIV infection.

  10. "Condoms are the standard, right?": Exploratory study of the reasons for using condoms by Black American emerging adult women.

    PubMed

    Longmire-Avital, Buffie; Oberle, Virginia

    2016-01-01

    Condoms are considered a highly effective form of sexually transmitted infection prevention for heterosexual sex. Black American women (BAW) have been and are at elevated risk for heterosexual exposure to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) because they have been and continue to be less likely to negotiate condom use with a partner that supports them financially. However, BAW who have made tremendous educational gains may still encounter challenges regarding the distribution of power that can affect condom use and negotiation. The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the reasons that highly educated, emerging, adult BAW reported for using condoms. One hundred twenty-seven emerging adult BAW (ages 18-29 years) completed a mixed-methods online survey during the spring of 2013 (January-May). Approximately 80% of the women were in college or college graduates. They had a high rate of previous HIV testing (68.5%). Through the use of an interpretive paradigm and grounded theory, three themes emerged regarding the reasons that the participants in this sample used condoms as their primary form of protection: (1) the reliable "standard," (2) pregnancy prevention, and (3) cost effective and "easily accessible." Findings are discussed in terms of their public health significance for this seemingly lower-risk population.

  11. Social marketing: making condoms available to communities. An interview with Duncan Earle.

    PubMed

    1994-05-01

    This document presents an interview in which AIDSCAP private-sector officer Duncan Earle discusses how condom social marketing contributes to AIDS prevention efforts. Condom social marketing uses commercial marketing techniques to promote condom use by making them more accessible and affordable. Thus, condoms are sold where people can purchase them without embarrassment (often by street hawkers) or where they may be needed in impulsive situations (in bars, hotels, and nightclubs). Social marketing relies on such marketing techniques as identifying wholesalers, assisting wholesalers with sales, creating point-of-purchase advertising, and developing attractive packaging. Prices are based on rough formulas derived from per capita gross national product and the prices people are willing to pay for such products as matches, cigarettes, candy, and aspirin. Quality is assured if the condoms are obtained through the US Agency for International Development's procurement system. Samples of condoms obtained from other sources are submitted for quality testing. The success of social marketing programs can be determined by examining sales and resupply. Cost effectiveness is determined by the cost of delivering 100 condoms (1 couple-year of protection). While social marketing would be more cost effective without expenditures on advertising, it would be less effective overall. Some barriers that must be overcome to market condoms include laws outlawing the sale or advertising of condoms, duties and customs' surcharges on imported condoms (which, in some cases, increase the cost 33%), and religious objections to contraception. As well as selling condoms, social marketing programs educate people about AIDS using any kind of media available.

  12. Correlates of condom use among female sex workers in The Gambia: results of a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Grosso, Ashley L; Lei, Esther L; Ketende, Sosthenes C; Peitzmeier, Sarah; Mason, Krystal; Ceesay, Nuha; Diouf, Daouda; Drame, Fatou Maria; Loum, Jaegan; Papworth, Erin; Baral, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This study examined correlates of condom use among 248 female sex workers (FSW) in The Gambia. Methods. Between July and August 2011, FSW in The Gambia who were older than 16 years of age, the age of consent in The Gambia, were recruited for the study using venue-based sampling and snowball sampling, beginning with seeds who were established clients with the Network of AIDS Services Organizations. To be eligible, FSW must have reported selling sex for money, favors, or goods in the past 12 months. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to determine associations and the relative odds of the independent variables with condom use. Four different condom use dependent variables were used: consistent condom use in the past six months during vaginal or anal sex with all clients and partners; consistent condom use in the past month during vaginal sex with new clients; consistent condom use in the past month during vaginal sex with nonpaying partners (including boyfriends, husbands, or casual sexual partners); and condom use at last vaginal or anal sex with a nonpaying partner. Results. Many FSW (67.34%, n = 167) reported it was not at all difficult to negotiate condom use with clients in all applicable situations, and these FSW were more likely to report consistent condom use with all clients and partners in the past 6 months (aOR 3.47, 95% CI [1.70-7.07]) compared to those perceiving any difficulty in condom negotiation. In addition, FSW were more likely to report using condoms in the past month with new clients (aOR 8.04, 95% CI [2.11-30.65]) and in the past month with nonpaying partners (aOR 2.93, 95% CI [1.09-7.89]) if they had been tested for HIV in the past year. Women who bought all their condoms were less likely than those who received all of their condoms for free (aOR 0.38, 95% CI [0.15-0.97]) to have used a condom at last vaginal or anal sex with a nonpaying partner. Conclusions. HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI

  13. Condom Use at Last Sex as a Proxy for Other Measures of Condom Use: Is It Good Enough?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Younge, Sinead N.; Salazar, Laura F.; Crosby, Richard F.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Wingood, Gina M.; Rose, Eve

    2008-01-01

    Condom use at last sex is a widely used indicator in sexual behavior research; however, there is little empirical research validating this indicator. This study examined whether a single-event recall period (the last time coitus occurred) was consistent with longer recall periods (14 days and 60 days) for a sample of African American adolescent…

  14. Acceptability of female condom use among women exchanging street sex in New York City.

    PubMed

    Witte, S S; el-Bassel, N; Wada, T; Gray, O; Wallace, J

    1999-03-01

    Greater access to alternative female-initiated barrier methods, such as the female condom, is needed among women exchanging street sex. This study describes knowledge of and experience with the female condom among 101 women exchanging sex for money and drugs on the streets of New York City, and examines the acceptability of female condom use as an alternative barrier method for HIV/STD prevention among this population. Female condom use among this sample of sex workers was found to be related to having a regular sexual partner, living with someone who is a drug or alcohol abuser, not being homeless, using alcohol or intravenous heroin, having heard of the device, and having discussed the device with other women or with a regular sexual partner. Despite decreased acceptability post-use, most sex workers indicated an intention for future female condom use.

  15. Theories of reasoned action and planned behavior as models of condom use: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Albarracín, D; Johnson, B T; Fishbein, M; Muellerleile, P A

    2001-01-01

    To examine how well the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior predict condom use, the authors synthesized 96 data sets (N = 22,594) containing associations between the models' key variables. Consistent with the theory of reasoned action's predictions, (a) condom use was related to intentions (weighted mean r. = .45), (b) intentions were based on attitudes (r. = .58) and subjective norms (r. = .39), and (c) attitudes were associated with behavioral beliefs (r. = .56) and norms were associated with normative beliefs (r. = .46). Consistent with the theory of planned behavior's predictions, perceived behavioral control was related to condom use intentions (r. = .45) and condom use (r. = .25), but in contrast to the theory, it did not contribute significantly to condom use. The strength of these associations, however, was influenced by the consideration of past behavior. Implications of these results for HIV prevention efforts are discussed.

  16. The NYC Condom: Use and Acceptability of New York City's Branded Condom

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Ryan C.; Wilson, Juliet; Bernstein, Kyle T.; Grosskopf, Nicholas; Murrill, Christopher; Cutler, Blayne; Sweeney, Monica

    2009-01-01

    We assessed awareness and experience with the NYC Condom via surveys at 7 public events targeting priority condom distribution populations during 2007. Most respondents (76%) were aware of NYC Condoms. Of those that had obtained them, 69% had used them. Most (80%) wanted alternative condoms offered for free: 22% wanted ultra-thin, 18% extra-strength, and 14% larger-size. Six months after the NYC Condom launch, we found high levels of awareness and use. Because many wanted alternative condoms, the Department of Health and Mental Hygiene began distributing the 3 most-requested alternatives. PMID:19834001

  17. Condoms in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Maticka-Tyndale, Eleanor

    2012-03-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is the region with the world's highest rates of HIV and other sexually transmissible infections (STIs), yet numerous studies show that condom use is generally rare. This suggests a need for a better understanding of how condoms fit within sexual practices and relationships in SSA. This paper seeks to address this need by reviewing research published between the late 1980s and 2011 on use and factors influencing use of male condoms in SSA. What is evident from this research is that condom use involves complex social and interpersonal dynamics, with structural and cultural conditions exerting an influence through framing social cognitions and setting boundaries on autonomy that make the apparently irrational choice of eschewing condoms a rational decision. The influences of poverty; relationships with parents, peers and partners; limited, insufficient or absent information especially in rural areas and among men who have sex with men; gender and sexual norms, and the dynamics of gendered power; and beliefs and attitudes about HIV, condoms and sexuality all have been shown to work against condom use for a large proportion of Africa's people. However, promising results are shown in trends towards increased condom use among single women in numerous countries, increasing acceptance and use of condoms among some university students, successes in producing potentially sustainable condom use resulting from select interventions, and resistance to succumbing to the dominant gender-power dynamics and structural-cultural impediments that women in groups have mobilised.

  18. Patterns of condom acquisition by condom-using men in the United States.

    PubMed

    Reece, Michael; Mark, Kristen; Schick, Vanessa; Herbenick, Debra; Dodge, Brian

    2010-07-01

    Condom-distribution programs have striven to make condoms more accessible to sexually active individuals, particularly adolescents and populations disproportionately affected by HIV and other STIs. Despite such programs, little is known about where condom-using men in the United States acquire their condoms. The purpose of this study was to document condom-access trends among a large sample of sexually active condom-using men in the United States. Data were collected from 1,832 men from all 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia by using an Internet-based survey in which men provided details regarding the source of condoms that they had used within the past 30 days. Men reported acquiring their condoms from a variety of sources, including free condom-distribution programs (56.7%) and from venues where they had purchased condoms for themselves (75.7%). Bivariate analyses indicated that participants who reported using free condoms tended to be younger, self-identified as not heterosexual, or not currently in a monogamous relationship. Further, results indicated that those participants who accessed only free condoms did not differ from those who used only purchased condoms, indicating that perhaps efforts to make condoms more accessible through public health distribution campaigns are reaching a more general population of condom-using men than expected. Findings illustrate the importance of continuing free condom-distribution efforts but also suggest benefits of facilitating linkages between public health and a community's retail venues to increase access to the growing diversity of condoms in the marketplace.

  19. Detailed examination of HLA antibody development on renal allograft failure and function.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lan; Lee, Po-Chang; Everly, Matthew J; Terasaki, Paul I

    2008-01-01

    This is a long-term retrospective case-control study. Serial sera were collected over 17 years (1991-2008) from two groups comprised of 29 patients with allograft failure (250 sera) and 25 controls with functioning grafts (305 sera), each control matched by transplant date to one failure-group patient, and all patients tested with single antigen beads. The median follow-up for failure-group patients was 7.3 +/- 4.7 years and 11.8 +/- 4.4 years for controls. HLA alloantibodies appeared in 28 of the 29 failure-group patients (97%) and in 12 of the 25 controls (48%) (p < 0.0001). DSA and non-DSA that appeared alone--without any DSA detected-were both associated with graft failure (p = 0.001, p = 0.01). DSA against HLA-DQ antigen was found in 13 of 17 graft-failed patients who had received DQ-incompatible transplants (76%) compared with only one of 11 similarly DQ-mismatched control patients (9%) (p < 0.001). The strength of strong DSA (defined as MFI > 5000) was higher in graft-failed patients than in graft-functioning patients. The time it took for antibodies to develop also differed between groups. HLA antibodies were formed sooner in the failure group compared with the controls (1.7 versus 3.7 years, P < 0.01). Fifteen of the failure group patients developed antibodies within one year while none in the control group did. In conclusion, our study reinforces the observation that circulating de novo HLA alloantibodies predict adverse long-term kidney allograft outcomes. The significant negative impact of all alloantibodies calls for clinicians to monitor patients and implement removal therapy when alloantibody is first detected. This may prove a key step in the ongoing attempt to prevent chronic rejection and prolonging renal allograft survival.

  20. Female condom skill and attitude: results from a NIDA Clinical Trials Network gender-specific HIV risk reduction study.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Aimee N C; Tross, Susan; Hu, Mei-Chen; Pavlicova, Martina; Kenney, Jennifer; Nunes, Edward V

    2011-08-01

    The female condom is effective in reducing unprotected sexual acts; however, it remains underutilized in the United States. This study examined whether a five-session HIV prevention intervention (Safer Sex Skills Building [SSB]), including presentation, discussion, and practice with female condoms, improved female condom skills and attitude among women in outpatient substance abuse treatment. Mixed-effects modeling was used to test the effect of SSB on skills and attitude over 3- and 6-month posttreatment among 515 randomized women. SSB was significantly associated with increases in skills and attitude, and the female condom demonstration session was primarily responsible for skills improvement. Attitude was a partial mediator of the intervention effect in reducing unprotected sex. Findings emphasize the utility of integrating female condom messages targeting proximal behavioral outcomes into HIV prevention. The study supports the use of female condom skill instruction via brief, hands-on exercises, as well as further research to enhance attitudinal change to reduce sexual risk.

  1. Randomized crossover trial comparing the eZ.on plastic condom and a latex condom.

    PubMed

    Cook, L; Nanda, K; Taylor, D

    2001-01-01

    This randomized crossover trial compared the breakage and slippage rates, safety, and acceptability of the recently developed polyurethane bi-directional eZ.on condom with a marketed latex condom. Three hundred sixty couples were asked to use 4 eZ.on condoms and 4 latex condoms. Like several other non-latex condoms tested to date, the eZ.on condom had a higher clinical breakage rate than its latex comparator, while the slippage rates were similar. The clinical breakage rate for the eZ.on condom was 5.6%, compared with 0.9% for the latex condom (difference = 4.76%, with upper 95% confidence bound on the difference = 6.26%). Thus, based on an a priori definition of a 2% clinically acceptable difference, the study failed to conclude equivalence relative to clinical breakage. The complete slippage rate for eZ.on was 1.6%; compared to 0.7% for latex (difference = 0.87%, with upper 95% confidence bound = 1.55%). Thus, based on an a priori definition of a 2% difference we concluded equivalence relative to complete slippage. The safety profile of the eZ.on condom was good and similar to the latex condom. The eZ.on was also found to be easier to don and remove than the latex condom. Although no overall preference existed for either condom, nearly 30%women and men strongly preferred the eZ.on condom to the latex condom. The eZ.on condom may be an acceptable alternative for couples unable or unwilling to use latex condoms.

  2. Correlates of condom-associated erection problems in young, heterosexual men: condom fit, self-efficacy, perceptions, and motivations.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Stephanie A; Hill, Brandon J; Crosby, Richard A; Janssen, Erick

    2014-01-01

    Questionnaire data from 479 heterosexual men 18-24 years old were analyzed for correlates of CAEP during application (CAEP-Application) and CAEP during penile-vaginal intercourse (CAEP-PVI). Potential correlates were self-efficacy (condom application, product selection, and maintaining arousal), condom perceptions (condom worry/distraction, negative condom perceptions, concerns about application speed), condom fit, and motivation to use condoms. We conclude that (1) experiencing CAEP may become a repeating cycle, both affecting and being affected by, worry and distraction related to losing erections and maintaining arousal while using a condom (2) poorly fitting condoms may contribute to CAEP, and (3) CAEP may decrease motivation to use condoms.

  3. Perceived social approval and condom use with casual partners among youth in urban Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background HIV prevention programs targeting youth often emphasize the role of peers, and assume that youths will model their behavior after their peers'. We challenge this view; we argue that adopting a given behavior requires social approval, and that youths do not necessarily turn to peers for such approval. This study analyzes survey data on youths in urban Cameroon to 1) identify which type of persons youths look to for social approval, and 2) establish how important social approval by these persons is for condom use among youths. Methods We analyzed data from three survey waves (2000, 2002, and 2003) of a reproductive health survey conducted among urban Cameroonian youth (aged 15-24). Only respondents who reported having at least one casual partner in the past year were retained for the analysis. Bivariate analyses and structural equation modeling were used to examine relationships among perceived social approval, attitudes towards condoms and condom use. Results The data show that only 3% of youths named their friends as people whose opinion they valued, while 93% mentioned family members. The perceived approval of condom use by these persons had a significant positive effect on the frequency of condom use among youths. The frequency of condom use was also affected by the respondents' attitudes toward condom use, the range of persons with whom they discussed reproductive health matters, whether they were enrolled in school, socioeconomic status, their self-efficacy, perceived severity of AIDS, risk perception and sexual risk behavior. The perceived social approval of condom use and the respondents' own condom attitudes were correlated. Conclusions Our analysis demonstrates that perceived social approval facilitates the adoption of condom use among urban Cameroonian youth. However, youths tend to value the opinions of family members much more than the opinions of their peers. These results suggest that interventions targeting youths should not focus

  4. Minority College Women's Views on Condom Negotiation.

    PubMed

    McLaurin-Jones, TyWanda; Lashley, Maudry-Beverly; Marshall, Vanessa

    2015-12-22

    This study utilized quantitative and qualitative methods to (1) investigate the relationship between frequency of condom use and negotiation strategies and (2) evaluate experiences with condom negotiations among sexually active, heterosexual, African American college women. One hundred female students from a Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) completed a questionnaire that included the Condom Influence Strategies Scale (CIS) and participated in a focus group. An ANOVA was conducted to compare differences between never, inconsistent, and consistent condom users. Consistent condom users scored higher than never users on the "withholding sex" subscale of the CIS (4.88 vs. 3.55; p < 0.001) as well as endorsed items more strongly on the "direct request" subscale of the CIS (4.63 vs. 3.82, p < 0.05) than never users. A thematic analysis of open discussions identified overarching themes. Similarly, refusing sex and/or having direct communications with partner emerged as primary strategies. Threats to negotiation included deciding the "right timing" of discussion and having a previous history of sexual intercourse without a condom with their partner. Other key concepts that contribute to condom negotiation are the views that condoms are a male's responsibility and stigma of women who carry condoms.

  5. Gender Differences and Condom-Associated Embarrassment in the Acquisition of Purchased versus Free Condoms among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Brandy; Ickes, Melinda J.; Mark, Kristen P.

    2016-01-01

    Condoms are not used consistently among sexually active college students, indicating a need to understand condom acquisition patterns. This study describes purchased and free acquisition of condoms, factors influencing purchased condom acquisition, and condom-associated embarrassment among college students. A random sample of students at a public…

  6. Condom use around the globe: how can we fulfil the prevention potential of male condoms?

    PubMed

    Warner, Lee; Gallo, Maria F; Macaluso, Maurizio

    2012-03-01

    Despite a global epidemic of sexually transmissible infections and the availability and endorsement of condoms as an effective intervention, the overall use of condoms remains low. This review explores various challenges and opportunities to fully realizing the prevention potential for condoms.

  7. Sex work venue and condom use among female sex workers in Senggigi, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Safika, Iko; Levy, Judith A; Johnson, Timothy P

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the structural influence of sex work venues on condom use among female sex workers in the Senggigi area of Lombok, Indonesia. A cross-sectional design employing ethnographic observation, structured interviews and hierarchical linear modelling was used to examine condom use among female sex workers who solicited clients at three types of sex work venues: (1) freelance locations, (2) brothels and (3) entertainment places (karaoke bars and massage parlours). The sample consisted of 115 women 'nested' within 16 sex work venues drawn from the three venue types. Rate (39%) of condom use varied across sex work venues. Perceived management style, HIV/AIDS-related policies and risk-reduction services differed by venue, but this variation did not explain differences in condom use. At the individual level, higher condom use was associated with female sex workers having ever been married. At the client level, condoms were more likely to be used with foreign rather than domestic/local Indonesian clients. Low rates of condom use among Indonesian female sex workers during commercial sex suggests the need for increased HIV-prevention efforts that acknowledge sex worker characteristics and relationships with clients that place them at risk. Future research into the effects of social context on HIV risk should also be considered.

  8. Sex Work Venue and Condom Use among Female Sex Workers in Senggigi, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Safika, Iko; Levy, Judith A.; Johnson, Timothy P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the structural influence of sex work venues on condom use among female sex workers in the Senggigi area of Lombok, Indonesia. A cross-sectional design employing ethnographic observation, structured interviews and hierarchical linear modeling was used to examine condom use among female sex workers who solicited clients at three types of sex work venues: freelance, brothels, and entertainment places (karaoke bars and massage parlours). The sample consisted of 115 women “nested” within 16 sex work venues drawn from the three venue types. Rate (39%) of condom use varied across sex work venues. Perceived management style, HIV/AIDS-related policies, and risk-reduction services differed by venue, but this variation did not explain differences in condom use. At the individual level, higher condom use was associated with female sex workers having ever been married. At the client level, condoms were more likely to be used with foreign rather than domestic/local Indonesian clients. Low rates of condom use among Indonesian female sex workers during commercial sex suggests the need for increased HIV prevention efforts that acknowledge sex worker characteristics and relationships with clients that place them at risk. Future research into the effects of social context on HIV risk should also be considered. PMID:23472595

  9. [Examination of safety improvement by failure record analysis that uses reliability engineering].

    PubMed

    Kato, Kyoichi; Sato, Hisaya; Abe, Yoshihisa; Ishimori, Yoshiyuki; Hirano, Hiroshi; Higashimura, Kyoji; Amauchi, Hiroshi; Yanakita, Takashi; Kikuchi, Kei; Nakazawa, Yasuo

    2010-08-20

    How the maintenance checks of the medical treatment system, including start of work check and the ending check, was effective for preventive maintenance and the safety improvement was verified. In this research, date on the failure of devices in multiple facilities was collected, and the data of the trouble repair record was analyzed by the technique of reliability engineering. An analysis of data on the system (8 general systems, 6 Angio systems, 11 CT systems, 8 MRI systems, 8 RI systems, and the radiation therapy system 9) used in eight hospitals was performed. The data collection period assumed nine months from April to December 2008. Seven items were analyzed. (1) Mean time between failures (MTBF) (2) Mean time to repair (MTTR) (3) Mean down time (MDT) (4) Number found by check in morning (5) Failure generation time according to modality. The classification of the breakdowns per device, the incidence, and the tendency could be understood by introducing reliability engineering. Analysis, evaluation, and feedback on the failure generation history are useful to keep downtime to a minimum and to ensure safety.

  10. Coping with Achievement-Related Failure: An Examination of Conversations between Friends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altermatt, Ellen Rydell; Broady, Elizabeth F.

    2009-01-01

    Prior research has identified ways in which parents and teachers contribute to learned helpless responses to failure, but little is known about the role that interactions with peers might play. In this study, the conversations of fourth- through sixth- grade children and their friends were observed after children experienced an achievement-related…

  11. Examining the Causes of Memory Strength Variability: Recollection, Attention Failure, or Encoding Variability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koen, Joshua D.; Aly, Mariam; Wang, Wei-Chun; Yonelinas, Andrew P.

    2013-01-01

    A prominent finding in recognition memory is that studied items are associated with more variability in memory strength than new items. Here, we test 3 competing theories for why this occurs--the "encoding variability," "attention failure", and "recollection" accounts. Distinguishing among these theories is critical…

  12. AIDS public service announcements: effects of fear and repetition on predictors of condom use.

    PubMed

    Treise, D; Weigold, M F

    2001-01-01

    An experiment examined the effects of varying levels of fear and message repetition in a radio public service announcement (PSA) on attitudes toward and intentions to use condoms. Predictions were derived from the Theory of Reasoned Action and Fazio's accessibility model. Results suggest that repetition and fear have important effects on intentions to use condoms and attitudes toward using condoms, even after accounting for inputs specified by the Theory of Reasoned Action In addition, frequency affected the relative weights of attitudinal versus normative effects on intentions, suggesting that PSAs may be able to affect attitudes and intentions through spontaneous attitude activation as described by Fazio (1990).

  13. The catastrophic failures of plants hydraulic network examined trough an model system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bienaimé, Diane; Marmottant, Philippe; Brodribb, Tim

    2015-11-01

    Plants live a dangerous game: they have to facilitate water transport in their xylem conduits while minimizing the consequence of hydraulic failure. Indeed, as water flows under negative pressure inside these conduits, cavitation bubbles can spontaneously occur. The failure dynamics of this hydraulic network is poorly studied, while it has important ecological and bioengineering implications. Here, by using dark-field transmission microscopy, we were able to directly visualize the spreading of cavitation bubbles within leaves, where the xylem conduits form a 2D and transparent network. We observe the surprising fact that the probability of cavitation increases in larger veins, where the majority of water flows. Next, in order to understand the physical mechanism of nucleation and propagation, we built artificial networks of channels made in hydrogel, where evaporation generates negative pressures. We find the hydraulic failure follows two stages: first a sudden bubble nucleation relaxing to the elastic stored of the system, and then a slow expansion driven by the flow of water in the surrounding medium. Channel constrictions slow the propagation of the bubble, similarly to the small valves that connect plants conduits. P.M. acknowledges support from the University of Tasmania for a visiting scholar grant.

  14. 21 CFR 884.5300 - Condom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... (b) Classification. (1) Class II (special controls) for condoms made of materials other than natural rubber latex, including natural membrane (skin) or synthetic. (2) Class II (special controls) for natural...: Labeling for Natural Rubber Latex Condoms Classified Under 21 CFR 884.5300” will serve as the...

  15. Introducing and negotiating the use of female condoms in sexual relationships: qualitative interviews with women attending a family planning clinic.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyung-Hee; Wojcicki, Janet; Valencia-Garcia, Dellanira

    2004-09-01

    Safe sex skills training often teach women to be assertive in condom use negotiations. However, it has been suggested that assertiveness training may be inappropriate for women who lack power in their sexual relationship. Our qualitative study of 62 women attending a family planning clinic explored various communication styles they used to introduce and negotiate female condom use in their sexual relationships. We further examined how different introduction and negotiation styles were related to actual use of the device. The device was introduced using a direct, semidirect, indirect, or nonverbal communication approach. Use of the female condom was negotiated by avoiding sex, using humor, discussing the possibility of using the condom, or being argumentative with partners. The outcome of introducing and negotiating female condom use was often mediated by other factors including partner characteristics, relationship power dynamics, situational context, and use of additional discourse strategies (e.g., describing the female condom as a sexual toy or taking the opportunity to educated partners about the female condom). Less direct approaches appeared to be as effective in facilitating use of the female condom as more direct approaches. Female condom introduction and negotiation styles that continued to engage their partners by using additional discourse strategies led to more frequent use of the device. Implications of our findings for HIV risk reduction program development are discussed.

  16. Condom negotiation and use among female sex workers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Bui, Thanh Cong; Markham, Christine M; Tran, Ly T H; Beasley, R Palmer; Ross, Michael W

    2013-02-01

    We examined condom-use negotiation strategies and condom use among 81 female sex workers (FSWs) in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Percentages of FSWs who did not negotiate condom use or could not describe a negotiation strategy with native clients, foreign clients, and non-paying partners were 15.0, 29.0 and 67.6 %, respectively. The most common negotiation strategy used was "provision of risk information" for native clients (43.8 %) and non-paying partners (26.5 %), and "direct request" for foreign clients (39.5 %). About half could not describe more than one negotiation strategy. Consistent condom use was high with native clients (98.8 %), yet comparatively lower with foreign clients (86.9 %) and non-paying partners (26.5 %). FSWs who did not negotiate or did not know how to negotiate condom use were less likely to report condom use with non-paying regular partners. Future interventions should enhance condom negotiation strategies between FSWs and all partner types.

  17. Influence of the parent-adolescent relationship on condom use among South Korean male college students.

    PubMed

    Cha, Eun Seok; Kim, Kevin H; Doswell, Willa M

    2007-12-01

    This study examined the mediating role of condom self-efficacy between the parent-adolescent relationship and the intention to use condoms with a submodel based on the Theory of Planned Behavior. Male students aged 18-25 years (n = 176) were recruited from a university in Seoul, South Korea, using a flyer and self-referral in 2004. A sample of 170 male students was retained for the final data analyses as six subjects had incomplete data on more than one instrument. Condom self-efficacy completely mediated the prediction of intention to use condoms by the quality of the mother-son relationship. However, condom self-efficacy did not mediate the relationship between the quality of the father-son relationship and the intention to use condoms. Only an indirect effect between the quality of the father-son relationship and the intention to use condoms existed. The suggested sex education programs should develop culture-specific, theory-based, and family-based interventions in order to reduce risky sexual behavior among South Korean adolescents.

  18. Sexual behavior, psychosocial and knowledge differences between consistent, inconsistent and non-users of condoms: a study of female bar and hotel workers in Moshi, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Tassiopoulos, Katherine K; Seage, George R; Sam, Noel E; Ao, Trong T H; Masenga, Elisante J; Hughes, Michael D; Kapiga, Saidi H

    2006-07-01

    Understanding psychosocial, sexual behavior and knowledge differences between never, inconsistent and consistent condom users can improve interventions to increase condom use in resource-poor countries, but they have not been adequately studied. We examined these differences in a cohort of 961 female hotel and bar workers in Moshi, Tanzania. Forty-nine percent of women reported no condom use; 39% reported inconsistent use, and 12% reported consistent use. Women with multiple sexual partners in the past five years were less likely to be consistent rather than inconsistent users as were women who had ever exchanged sex for gifts or money. Inconsistent users had higher condom knowledge and higher perceived acceptability of condom use than did never users, but they did not differ from consistent users by these factors. There are important differences between women by level of condom use. These findings can help inform interventions to increase condom use.

  19. From awareness to adoption: the effect of AIDS education and condom social marketing on condom use in Tanzania (1993-1996).

    PubMed

    Eloundou-Enyegue, Parfait M; Meekers, Dominique; Calvès, Anne Emmanuèle

    2005-05-01

    This paper uses retrospective event-history data covering a four-year period to examine the timing of exposure to HIV/AIDS education and social marketing condom promotion campaigns, relative to the timing of changes in sexual risk behaviour in Tanzania. Analysis of the event-history data shows that the process of exposure to AIDS education messages and exposure to brand advertising for Salama brand condoms was very different. While exposure to AIDS education was early and gradual, exposure to Salama brand condoms started later, but was much more rapid. After one year of advertising, over half of the target population had been reached by the Salama advertising campaign, mostly through newspapers, radio and television. During the study period, condom use increased from 15% at the beginning of 1993 to 42% at the end of 1996. Increases in condom use were driven both by men who became sexually active, and by men who were not yet protected, or not fully protected. The results further show that it is uncommon for men who adopted condom use to return to more risky behaviour, which suggests that behaviour change in the study population is permanent.

  20. Patterns of Caribbean Masculinities and Condom Compliance Among Males in Grenada.

    PubMed

    Hegamin-Younger, Cecilia; Jeremiah, Rohan; Bilbro, Nicole

    2014-07-01

    The construction of Caribbean male identities based on ideas of masculinity has raised widespread concerns across the island states, and in a region with such high rates of teenage pregnancy (18%), stigmatizing safe sex, contraception, and HIV/AIDS prevalence can only exacerbate the problem. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which males use condoms and to explore the association of condom use with their concern with acquiring and transmission of sexually transmitted infections.

  1. Advise condom users to follow 10-part patient instructions.

    PubMed

    Reese, M; Hatcher, R A

    1984-09-01

    This article outlines 10 rules for condom users: 1) use condoms at every intercourse, 2) use spermicidal condoms, 3) out the condom on the penis before the penis is inserted into the vagina, 4) do not use petroleum products such as Vaseline for additional lubrication, 5) use a backup method of contraception to increase the effectiveness of condoms, 6) after intercourse hold onto the rim part of the condom to avoid spillage of semen as the penis is withdrawn, 7) check to make sure the condom is intact before throwing the condom away, 8) do not reuse condoms, 9) use each condom definitely only once if it is being used as protection against sexually transmissible diseases, and 10) store condoms in a cool and dry place to avoid deterioration of the rubber.

  2. Adolescent Sexual Health Communication and Condom Use: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Widman, Laura; Noar, Seth M.; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Francis, Diane

    2014-01-01

    Objective Condom use is critical for the health of sexually active adolescents, and yet many adolescents fail to use condoms consistently. One interpersonal factor that may be key to condom use is sexual communication between sexual partners; however, the association between communication and condom use has varied considerably in prior studies of youth. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to synthesize the growing body of research linking adolescents’ sexual communication to condom use, and to examine several moderators of this association. Methods A total of 41 independent effect sizes from 34 studies with 15,046 adolescent participants (Mage=16.8, age range=12–23) were meta-analyzed. Results Results revealed a weighted mean effect size of the sexual communication-condom use relationship of r = .24, which was statistically heterogeneous (Q=618.86, p<.001, I2 =93.54). Effect sizes did not differ significantly by gender, age, recruitment setting, country of study, or condom measurement timeframe; however, communication topic and communication format were statistically significant moderators (p<.001). Larger effect sizes were found for communication about condom use (r = .34) than communication about sexual history (r = .15) or general safer sex topics (r = .14). Effect sizes were also larger for communication behavior formats (r = .27) and self-efficacy formats (r = .28), than for fear/concern (r = .18), future intention (r = .15), or communication comfort (r = −.15) formats. Conclusions Results highlight the urgency of emphasizing communication skills, particularly about condom use, in HIV/STI prevention work for youth. Implications for the future study of sexual communication are discussed. PMID:25133828

  3. Changes in Condom Use During the First Year of HIV Treatment in Uganda and the Relationship to Depression

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Glenn J.; Ghosh-Dastidar, Bonnie; Slaughter, Mary Ellen; Akena, Dickens; Nakasujja, Noeline; Musisi, Seggane

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We examined the effect of antiretroviral therapy (ART), and the predictive role of depression, on condom use with primary partners. Methods Data from three studies in Uganda were combined into a sample of 750 patients with a primary sex partner, with 502 starting ART and 248 entering HIV care, and followed for 12 months. Random-effects logistic regression models were used to examine the impact of ART, and the influence of baseline level and change in depression, on condom use with primary partners. Results At Month 12, 61% ART and 67% non-ART patients were consistent condom users, compared to 44% and 41% at baseline, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that consistent condom use increased similarly for ART and non-ART patients, and that Minor Depression at baseline and increased depression over time predicted inconsistent condom use. Conclusions Improved depression diagnosis and treatment could benefit HIV prevention. PMID:24504978

  4. The effect of exposure to a condom script on attitudes toward condoms.

    PubMed

    Kyes, K B; Brown, I S; Pollack, R H

    1991-01-01

    The effect of reading an erotic script that described condom placement on attitudes toward condom use was investigated in 102 male and 108 female US university students. It was hypothesized that, when integrated into an erotic script, condom use would become viewed as a pleasurable activity rather than just a means of avoiding pregnancy or disease. Controls received identical scripts except that the use of condoms was omitted or received no stories. Subjects who read the erotic accounts exhibited a positive change from pretest to posttest in attitudes toward condom use, but there was no difference in this outcome between condom story and no-condom erotic story conditions. In women, but not men, a high level of arousal induced by the script was associated with negative attitudes toward condoms, suggesting that males and females may require different reading materials. Given the finding, at least in women, of an inverse relationship between explicit eroticism/sexual arousal and condom attitude scores, a 2nd experiment involving less explicit stories written by college students was conducted. Here, 100 men and 100 women students received erotic stories that either featured or did not include condom use. Again, males who read stories incorporating condom placement held more positive attitudes toward condom use than same-sex controls, but women were not affected by the manipulation. For women, a positive attitude toward condom use was associated only with history of sexual activity. Helpful would be the preparation of erotic scripts that appeal to both sexes given the demonstrated effectiveness of this social learning technique with the male subjects in both experiments.

  5. Female condom importance acknowledged in HIV prevention.

    PubMed

    1996-12-09

    The Female Health Co. (FHC), London, United Kingdom, has signed a three-year agreement with the Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) to provide a global public sector price for the female condom to 193 affiliated countries. An adjunct education and social marketing program, supported by UNAIDS, will be launched. High rates of acceptance have been shown previously when the female condom has been introduced with an effective educational approach. Negotiations between FHC and UNAIDS began in September 1996; 80 of 193 countries, upon inquiry, have already identified a requirement for over 7 million female condoms in 1997. UNAIDS estimates that nearly 50% of new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections are in women; the female condom is the only woman-controlled product providing protection against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Studies have indicated that the number of unprotected sex acts decreases when the female condom is available. Dr. Peter Piot (UNAIDS) states that the female condom is important in those cultures and situations where women have limited control over sexual decisions. Dr. Mary Ann Leeper (FHC) states that the company is committed to making the female condom available in developing countries.

  6. Between tradition and change: condom use with primary sexual partners among Mexican migrants.

    PubMed

    Caballero-Hoyos, Ramiro; Torres-Lopez, Teresa; Pineda-Lucatero, Alicia; Navarro-Nuñez, Carlos; Fosados, Raquel; Valente, Thomas W

    2008-07-01

    The frequency of male Mexico-US migration has been associated with increased HIV risk for sexual partners awaiting their return in Mexico. This study examined the association between sexual partner characteristics and condom use among a sample of 354 male migrants from two Mexican municipalities. Migrants were interviewed about their past year's sex practices. Results indicated that migrants were more likely to use condoms with their non-spousal partners, partners with less education than the migrant, and partners with higher employment status. Condom use was greater among younger migrants and residents of the more densely populated municipality. Findings suggest the coexistence of a traditional cultural orientation that does not support condom use and another one that does provided the sex partner is formally employed. Prevention programs must strengthen the structural conditions fostering greater equality between the sexes and adapt their approaches for different population density, age and partner types.

  7. 21 CFR 884.5310 - Condom with spermicidal lubricant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Condom with spermicidal lubricant. 884.5310... Devices § 884.5310 Condom with spermicidal lubricant. (a) Identification. A condom with spermicidal... that contains a spermicidal agent, nonoxynol-9. This condom is used for contraceptive and...

  8. 21 CFR 884.5310 - Condom with spermicidal lubricant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Condom with spermicidal lubricant. 884.5310... Devices § 884.5310 Condom with spermicidal lubricant. (a) Identification. A condom with spermicidal... that contains a spermicidal agent, nonoxynol-9. This condom is used for contraceptive and...

  9. 21 CFR 884.5310 - Condom with spermicidal lubricant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Condom with spermicidal lubricant. 884.5310... Devices § 884.5310 Condom with spermicidal lubricant. (a) Identification. A condom with spermicidal... that contains a spermicidal agent, nonoxynol-9. This condom is used for contraceptive and...

  10. 21 CFR 884.5310 - Condom with spermicidal lubricant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Condom with spermicidal lubricant. 884.5310... Devices § 884.5310 Condom with spermicidal lubricant. (a) Identification. A condom with spermicidal... that contains a spermicidal agent, nonoxynol-9. This condom is used for contraceptive and...

  11. 21 CFR 884.5310 - Condom with spermicidal lubricant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Condom with spermicidal lubricant. 884.5310... Devices § 884.5310 Condom with spermicidal lubricant. (a) Identification. A condom with spermicidal... that contains a spermicidal agent, nonoxynol-9. This condom is used for contraceptive and...

  12. Assessing a thematic condom advertising campaign on condom use in urban Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Agha, Sohail; Beaudoin, Christopher E

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to assess communication processes involving a thematic condom advertising campaign in Pakistan in 2009. To evaluate the social marketing campaign for Touch condoms, the authors conducted a nationally representative survey of 1,606 men married to women aged 15-49 years. About 15% of urban married men were aware of Touch advertising. After controlling for a range of other variables including daily television viewership, confirmed awareness of Touch advertising was associated with a higher level of belief in the effectiveness of condoms, reduced embarrassment in negotiating condom use, reduced embarrassment in purchasing condoms, increased discussion of family planning, and increased use of condoms and other contraceptive methods. The findings have implications for the further development and dissemination of contraceptive advertising in Pakistan, as well as the broader construction of scientific knowledge on how advertising can influence contraceptive and other critical health behaviors in other contexts.

  13. Identifying Students at Risk for Failure on the Licensing Examination for Registered Nurses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Susan J.; Orr, Scott P.

    A method was developed for identifying students who may be at high risk for failing the State Board Licensing Examination (SBE) for registered nurses. The subjects used in developing prediction equations included 50 students who graduated from the nursing program at Saint Joseph's College (SJC) in North Windham (Maine) during the years 1983-84.…

  14. Four Radical Panaceas for Reversing Mass Failure in Certificate English Language Examinations in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasasi, Khabyr Alowonle; Amadi, Gloria U.

    2015-01-01

    Given the present-day perspectives of Nigerians to the imperatives of qualitative education in the lives of youths, quite a lot of Nigerians have strongly bemoaned and condemned the recurrent woeful performances of students in Certificate examinations. Many research works have therefore concerned themselves with solving the problems of mass…

  15. As AID condom prices climb, so do calls for more condom sources.

    PubMed

    1992-01-01

    USAID is the world's largest distributer of condoms with over 800 million condoms distributed in 1990, the most recent year figures are available. However, this year's order is 300 million smaller because AID will no longer be supplying Bangladesh or Pakistan. This, combined with inflation has caused the price to rise 16% or from $4.51/100-$5.35/100. Bangladesh will not longer be supplied because the European Community will provide condoms as part of a new 5 year plan from the World Bank. Pakistan will no longer be supplied because US law forbids foreign aid to countries that refuse to sign the United Nations Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty. The UNFPA distributed 98.5 million condoms last year. The WHO Global Program on AIDS supplied 140 million in 1989 and 30 million in 1990. The International Planned Parenthood Federation distributed 15 million condoms in 1990. Unlike AID, the other organizations can buy their condoms from any manufacture that meets the new international condom standard set up with the help of the WHO. AID must buy condoms manufactured in the US in accordance with US law. AID does however get a much better price for IUDs, oral contraceptive and Norplant. As a result AID is trying to work with other organizations in an attempt to maximize the amount of contraceptives available world wide for family planning. Since other groups are not restricted by the same rules, they could provide condoms, while AID could use its price advantage to supply other methods.

  16. Talking to Your Partner about Condoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... at the top of your (or your partner's) penis. This gets rid of trapped air, which can ... Remove the condom immediately after ejaculation, before the penis softens. You or your partner should hold the ...

  17. Safer sex negotiation and its association with condom use among clients of female sex workers in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Kamal, S M Mostafa; Hassan, Che Hashim; Salikon, Roslan Hj

    2015-03-01

    This study examines safer sex negotiation and its association with condom use among clients of female sex workers (FSWs) in Bangladesh. Data were collected from 484 FSWs living in Dhaka city following a convenient sampling procedure. Overall, 47% of the clients were suggested to use condom during last sexual intercourse and 21% did so. Both bivariate and multivariable binary logistic regression analyses yielded significantly increased risk of negotiation for safer sex with clients among FSWs with higher education. The power bargaining significantly (P < .001) increased the risk of condom use by 2.15 times (95% confidence interval = 1.28-3.59). The odds of condom use were significantly higher among the FSWs with higher education, unmarried, hotel-based, and among those with higher level of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge. The Bangladeshi FSWs have little control over their profession. HIV prevention programs should aim to encourage FSWs through information, education, and communication program to insist on condom use among clients.

  18. Is cost a structural barrier preventing men who have sex with men accessing condoms? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ubrihien, Ashley; Davies, Stephen C; Driscoll, Tim

    2016-11-01

    A systematic review was undertaken to determine whether cost is a structural barrier preventing men who have sex with men (MSM) accessing condoms. Studies were examined from a range of countries where condoms have been distributed free to particular populations and also those where condoms were available at a cost to the individual. The study inclusion criteria were: published between January 1990 and September 2014 inclusive; published in any language, discussed cost as a barrier to condom use, discussed cost barriers to MSM accessing condoms and included a measure of outcome. Articles were systematically extracted from MEDLINE, Embase, PyschINFO and Informat using the five search terms; Male Homosexuality, Access, Cost, Cost and Cost analysis, Condoms. Sixty-four articles were initially identified and 11 included in the final review. The included studies used cost-utility analysis, qualitative, cross-sectional, cohort or randomised control trial design. Large-scale free distribution programmes and smaller targeted programmes showed positive correlations in reducing the burden of disease from HIV and other sexually transmitted infections through eliminating the issue of cost. Decreasing the cost of condoms, and providing them for no cost, appears to increase their utilisation amongst MSM and possibly reduce the burden from HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. Inequality and stigma remain important barriers to MSM accessing and using condoms particularly in the developing world.

  19. Safe sex versus safe love? Relationship context and condom use among male adolescents in the favelas of Recife, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Juarez, Fatima; Martín, Teresa Castro

    2006-02-01

    This study examined the influence of the relationship context where adolescent sexual activity takes place on contraceptive decisions. The data were collected in a specially designed survey carried out in May 2000 on 1,438 adolescent males aged 13-19 residing in favelas (urban slum areas) of Recife, Brazil. A logistic regression analysis of condom use at last sexual intercourse and a multinomial logit analysis of contraceptive method choice were performed for 678 sexually active adolescents. Educational attainment, degree of knowledge of HIV transmission and prevention, and condom use at first sexual intercourse were found to be significantly associated with current condom use. Regarding the relationship context, the analysis revealed that adolescent males in steady relationships were less likely to use condoms, less likely to regard themselves at risk of HIV infection, and more concerned about pregnancy prevention than adolescents in casual relationships. Differentials in condom use by type of relationship, however, did not result from a higher rejection of contraception by steady partners but from their higher likelihood to rely on other contraceptive methods. Results suggest that prevention campaigns need to take into account the intimate context where adolescents assess potential health risks, and to address the divergent symbolic meanings condoms may have in different types of relationships. If an increase of condom use among stable sexual partners is pursued, public health campaigns might need to romanticize condom use as a sign of love and trust and place more emphasis on the benefits of dual protection.

  20. The Role of Condom Use Self-Efficacy on Intended and Actual Condom Use Among University Students in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Oppong Asante, Kwaku; Osafo, Joseph; Doku, Paul N

    2016-02-01

    Little attention has been paid to the dimensions that help to predict and understand condom use among university students within an African context. A cross-sectional study involving 518 university students in Accra, Ghana was conducted to determine how the Condom Use self-Efficacy Scale-Ghana (CUSES-G) can predict both actual condom use and future condom use. Of all the participants, 84% were sexually active but less than half of the sample (48%) reported to have used condom during their last sexual intercourse. A hierarchical regression analysis showed that components of the Condom Use Self-Efficacy Scale (CUESE-G) such as appropriation, assertiveness, pleasure and intoxication, and STDs predicted condom use and condom use intentions. Behavioural change campaigns targeting university students should encourage condom use self-efficacy, as this would strengthen condom use, which is economically cheap and practically effective means of preventing STIs including HIV.

  1. Condoms, HIV and the Roman Catholic Church.

    PubMed

    Benagiano, Giuseppe; Carrara, Sabina; Filippi, Valentina; Brosens, Ivo

    2011-06-01

    For decades, the Roman Catholic Church opposed use of condoms to prevent spread of sexually transmitted infections (STI) because of their contraceptive effect. In 2009, Pope Benedict XVI said that widespread use of condoms could worsen the situation, a position rejected as 'unscientific'. Recently, however the Pontiff stated that because the Church considers acts of prostitution and homosexuality to be gravely immoral and disordered, in such specific cases use of a condom might become an initial step in the direction of a moralization leading to an assumption of responsibility and a new awareness of the meaning of sexuality. In doing so, he reaffirmed his belief that condoms cannot solve the problem of STI spread, stressing the Church's position that modern societies no longer see sexuality as an 'expression of love, but only as a sort of drug that people administer to themselves'. The new Papal position has been widely applauded, but made conservative Catholics unhappy. A dialogue with the Church now seems possible: Does concentrating on condoms hinder the effectiveness of other strategies? What are the respective roles of condoms and other approaches to prevent infection spread? Does a special situation exist in Africa requiring specific and focused interventions?

  2. Condom Use and Intimacy among Tajik Male Migrants and their Regular Female Partners in Moscow

    PubMed Central

    Polutnik, Chloe; Jonbekov, Jonbek; Shoakova, Farzona; Bahromov, Mahbat; Weine, Stevan

    2014-01-01

    This study examined condom use and intimacy among Tajik male migrants and their regular female partners in Moscow, Russia. This study included a survey of 400 Tajik male labour migrants; and longitudinal ethnographic interviews with 30 of the surveyed male migrants and 30 of their regular female partners. 351 (88%) of the surveyed male migrants reported having a regular female partner in Moscow. Findings demonstrated that the migrants’ and regular partners’ intentions to use condoms diminished with increased intimacy, yet each party perceived intimacy differently. Migrants’ intimacy with regular partners was determined by their familiarity and perceived sexual cleanliness of their partner. Migrants believed that Muslim women were cleaner than Orthodox Christian women and reported using condoms more frequently with Orthodox Christian regular partners. Regular partners reported determining intimacy based on the perceived commitment of the male migrant. When perceived commitment faced a crisis, intimacy declined, and regular partners renegotiated condom use. The association between intimacy and condom use suggests that HIV prevention programmes should aim to help male migrants and female regular partners to dissociate their approaches to condom use from their perceptions of intimacy. PMID:25033817

  3. Condom Negotiations among Female Sex Workers in the Philippines: Environmental Influences

    PubMed Central

    Urada, Lianne A.; Morisky, Donald E.; Pimentel-Simbulan, Nymia; Silverman, Jay G.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Social and structural influences of condom negotiation among female sex workers (FSWs) remain understudied. This study assesses environmental and individual factors associated with condom negotiation among FSWs at high risk for acquiring HIV in a large urban setting of Metro Manila, Philippines. Methods Female bar/spa workers (N = 498), aged 18 and over, underwent interview-led surveys examining their sexual health practices in the context of their risk environments. Data were collected from April 2009-January 2010 from 54 venues. Multiple logistic regressions were conducted to assess socio-behavioral factors (e.g., age, education, length of time employed as an entertainer, and alcohol/drug use) and socio-structural factors (e.g., venue-level peer/manager support, condom rule/availability, and sex trafficking) associated with condom negotiation, adjusting for individuals nested within venues. Results Of 142 FSWs who traded sex in the previous 6 months (included in the analysis), 24% did not typically negotiate condom use with venue patrons. Factors in the physical environment - trafficked/coerced into work (AOR = 12.92, 95% CI = 3.34–49.90), economic environment - sex without a condom to make more money (AOR = 1.52, 95% CI 1.01–2.30), policy environment - sex without a condom because none was available (AOR = 2.58, 95% CI = 1.49–4.48), and individual risk - substance use (AOR = 2.36, 95% CI = 1.28–4.35) were independently associated with FSWs' lack of condom negotiation with venue patrons. Conclusions Factors in the physical, economic, and policy environments, over individual (excepting substance use) and social level factors, were significantly associated with these FSWs' condom negotiations in the Philippines. Drawing upon Rhodes' risk environment framework, these results highlight the need for policies that support safer sex negotiations among sex workers in the context of their risk environments. Interventions

  4. Relationship power, sexual decision making and condom use among women at risk for HIV/STDS.

    PubMed

    Harvey, S Marie; Bird, Sheryl Thorburn; Galavotti, Christine; Duncan, Ernestine A W; Greenberg, Donna

    2002-01-01

    This study examines the associations among relationship power, sexual decision-making dominance, and condom use within a sample of women at risk of HIV/STDs. Data from face-to-face interviews with 112 women were analyzed to (a) describe who women perceive as more powerful and who makes sexual decisions within their heterosexual relationships, (b) explore the association between relationship power and sexual decision-making dominance, and (c) examine the relationship of power and decision making regarding condom use to condom use behavior. Women were recruited from clinics and community locations in Atlanta, Los Angeles, Oklahoma City and Portland, OR. Participants were 18-25 years of age and were primarily Hispanic and African American. Over half (58.2%) reported that they share power with their partner, 25.5% said they have more power, and 16.4% reported that their partner has more power in their relationship. For the five domains of sexual decision-making examined, over half (50.5%-75.7%) of the women reported that they and their partners make decisions together. A higher percentage of women who perceived that they have more power or share power, as compared to those who perceived that their partners have more power, reported that "I/We" make decisions about birth control use, condom use, whether to have sex, and type of sexual activity. Relationship power was not associated with condom use. Condom use was, however, significantly higher among women who reported that they make decisions about using condoms alone or with their partner as compared to those who reported that their partner makes those decisions.

  5. Everywhere you go, everyone is saying condom, condom. But are they being used consistently? Reflections of South African male students about male and female condom use.

    PubMed

    Mantell, Joanne E; Smit, Jennifer A; Beksinska, Mags; Scorgie, Fiona; Milford, Cecilia; Balch, Erin; Mabude, Zonke; Smith, Emily; Adams-Skinner, Jessica; Exner, Theresa M; Hoffman, Susie; Stein, Zena A

    2011-10-01

    Young men in South Africa can play a critical role in preventing new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections, yet are seldom targeted for HIV prevention. While reported condom use at last sex has increased considerably among young people, consistent condom use remains a challenge. In this study, 74 male higher education students gave their perspectives on male and female condoms in 10 focus group discussions. All believed that condoms should be used when wanting to prevent conception and protect against HIV, although many indicated that consistent condom use was seldom attained, if at all. Three possible situations for not using condoms were noted: (i) when sex happens in the heat of the moment and condoms are unavailable, (ii) when sexual partnerships have matured and (iii) when female partners implicitly accept unprotected sex. Men viewed it as their responsibility to have male condoms available, but attitudes about whose decision it was to initiate condom use were mixed. Almost all sexually active men had male condom experience; however, very few had used female condoms. Prevention initiatives should challenge traditional gendered norms that underpin poor condom uptake and continued use and build on the apparent shifts in these norms that are allowing women greater sexual agency.

  6. Condom use among female sex workers and their non-commercial partners: Effects of a sexual risk intervention in two Mexican cities

    PubMed Central

    Ulibarri, Monica D.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Lozada, Remedios; Staines-Orozco, Hugo S.; Abramovitz, Daniela; Semple, Shirley; Martínez, Gustavo A.; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether a brief behavioral intervention promoting condom use among female sex workers (FSWs) and their clients had the added benefit of increasing condom use among FSWs and their steady, non-commercial partners (e.g., husbands, boyfriends). Participants were 362 FSWs, aged ≥ 18, living in Tijuana or Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, who received a behavioral intervention to promote condom use with clients. Repeated measures negative binomial regression was used to assess FSWs' condom use with steady partners versus clients across time. Results showed that FSWs engaged in unprotected sex with steady partners more than with their clients, and that the intervention changed FSWs' condom use with clients but not their steady partners. HIV prevention interventions for FSWs should promote consistent condom use across partner type. Targeting couples rather than individuals may also be necessary. PMID:22581944

  7. Emerging sociodemographic and lifestyle predictors of intention to use condom in human immunodeficiency virus intervention among uniformed services personnel.

    PubMed

    Essien, Ekere James; Ogungbade, Gbadebo O; Kamiru, Harrison N; Ekong, Ernest; Ward, Doriel; Holmes, Laurens

    2006-10-01

    Appropriate and consistent use of condom remains an effective approach to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) intervention. We analyzed the baseline data gathered for a situationally based HIV/AIDS intervention to assess the potential predictors of condom use among the Uniformed Services Personnel in Nigeria. Using condom purchase as a proxy for intention to use condom, we examined the distribution of the demographic and lifestyle characteristics, knowledge of HIV transmission mode, and knowledge of how to correctly use a condom. A univariable logistic regression was used to identify the potential predictors, followed by multivariable logistic regression modeling. The knowledge of how to correctly wear a condom was the most significant positive predictor of the intention to use a condom (adjusted prevalence odds ratio (APOR), 5.99 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.26, 19.79). The other main positive predictors of intent to use a condom were the knowledge of the mode of HIV transmission via blood, APOR 2.43 (95% CI, 1.01, 5.82), saliva (5. 87, 95% CI, 3.15, 10.94), and pre-ejaculatory fluid (APOR, 3.58, 95% CI, 1.67, 7.48). Male gender was also a significant positive predictor of the intent to use a condom (APOR, 2.55, (95% CI, 1.10, 5.97)). The results further indicated alcohol use (APOR, 0.32, 95%CI, 0.16, 0.61), marijuana use (APOR, 0.24, 95% CI, 0.11, 0.56), and the frequency of oral sexual behavior (APOR, 0.006, 95%CI, 0.002, 0.019) as negative predictors of the intent to use a condom. Therefore, these findings suggest that for an HIV/AIDS intervention to be effective in this population, it must incorporate these predictor variables into its design and conduct.

  8. Condom Use Among Men Who Have Sex With Men and Male-to-Female Transgenders in Jakarta, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Safika, Iko; Johnson, Timothy P; Cho, Young Ik; Praptoraharjo, Ignatius

    2014-07-01

    This article examined differences in condom use during anal intercourse among men who have sex with men (MSM) and male-to-female transgender women in Jakarta, Indonesia. A cross-sectional design, structured interviews, and hierarchical linear modeling were used to examine condom use among MSM recruited from entertainment places (EPs; e.g., discotheques/dance clubs/karaoke bars), massage parlors (MPs), and among transgender women who congregated and/or sought sexual partners on streets/parks (S/P). The sample consisted of 91, 97, and 114 of MSM-EP, MSM-MP, and transgender-S/P, respectively. Respondents reported on 641 unique sexual partner encounters, which were "nested" within 302 respondents. Reported condom use was high, 66%, 84%, and 83% for MSM-EP, MSM-MP, and transgender-S/P, respectively, and varied across type of respondent. At the individual level, depressive symptoms and history of physical abuse during childhood and adulthood were associated with lower condom use (p < .05). By contrast, having a higher level of education was associated with more condom use (p < .05). At the partner level, condom use was associated with type of partners and the use of club drugs before sex. HIV-prevention efforts should take into account the multilevel determinants of condom use within these populations.

  9. Identification and Use of Frailty Indicators from Text to Examine Associations with Clinical Outcomes Among Patients with Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yijun; Mohanty, April F; Ahmed, Ali; Weir, Charlene R; Bray, Bruce E; Shah, Rashmee U; Redd, Douglas; Zeng-Treitler, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Frailty is an important health outcomes indicator and valuable for guiding healthcare decisions in older adults, but is rarely collected in a quantitative, systematic fashion in routine healthcare. Using a cohort of 12,000 Veterans with heart failure, we investigated the feasibility of topic modeling to identify frailty topics in clinical notes. Topics were generated through unsupervised learning and then manually reviewed by an expert. A total of 53 frailty topics were identified from 100,000 notes. We further examined associations of frailty with age-, sex-, and Charlson Comorbidity Index-adjusted 1-year hospitalizations and mortality (composite outcome) using logistic regression. Frailty (≤ 4 topics versus <4) was associated with twice the risk of the composite outcome, Odds Ratio: 2.2, 95% Confidence Interval: (2.0-2.4). This study demonstrates the feasibility of identifying frailty indicators from clinical notes and linking these to clinically relevant outcomes. Future work includes integrating frailty indicators into validated predictive tools.

  10. The male polyurethane condom: a review of current knowledge.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, M J; Waugh, M S; Solomon, H M; Lyszkowski, A D

    1996-03-01

    Condoms are one of the oldest form of contraceptive and the best recognized form of protection against sexually transmitted diseases. Their use, however, is limited by both behavioral factors and device-related factors, including complaints about decreased sensitivity and sexual enjoyment. To address these limitations, a male condom made of polyurethane was developed. Polyurethane is a strong impermeable material with good heat transfer characteristics that is less susceptible to deterioration during storage than latex. Because little information is available comparing polyurethane and latex condoms in terms of consumer preferences as well as breakage and slippage, we reviewed four pre-marketing studies of polyurethane condoms, one of which included comparison to latex. No significant differences in slippage and breakage rates between latex and polyurethane condoms were reported in the study that included a latex comparator, and other studies of polyurethane condoms alone resulted in rates in the same range as published for latex condoms. Subjectively, consumers expressed significantly greater preference for the polyurethane condom over latex in regard to appearance, lack of smell, likelihood of slippage, comfort, sensitivity, natural look, natural feel, and overall. While additional testing is needed, these preliminary results suggest that the male polyurethane condom reviewed performed at least as well as latex condoms and is preferred by consumers. If preference translates to greater use, the male polyurethane condom may address important barriers that have been linked with inadequate condom use in the past. These results, however, may not be generalizable to other brands of polyurethane condom currently under development.

  11. Can women 'refuse' condoms? Dilemmas of condom negotiation among men living with HIV in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mfecane, Sakhumzi

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes challenges that men living with HIV experience in negotiating condom use with sexual partners. After testing HIV-positive, the men in this study attended support groups of people living with HIV. Here they were taught to behave 'responsibly' by adopting safer sex measures. However, some men faced strong resistance from women concerning condom use, particularly from women with whom they had been sexually involved prior to testing HIV-positive. This paper explores the reasoning behind the rejection of condoms by women, focusing specifically on the nature of relationships, disclosure of HIV status and gender power dynamics. Analysis of the findings, which are taken from an ethnographic study conducted over 14 months, indicates that efforts to initiate condom use allowed women to challenge men's authority in sexual affairs and assert their own (limited) agency - albeit by demanding unprotected sex. However, women's rejection of condoms occurred in a knowledge vacuum about their own HIV risk because male partners had failed to disclose their HIV status prior to initiating condoms. Interventions need to encourage men to disclose their HIV status before they initiate condom use with their sexual partners. Furthermore men need to encourage their partners to be open about their sexual needs.

  12. Predictors of Condom Use Among Iranian Women at Risk of HIV.

    PubMed

    Lotfi, Razieh; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Salehifar, Delara; Dworkin, Shari L

    2016-02-01

    Sexual transmission of HIV/AIDS is increasing in Iran and is the main route of infection among women. In order to foster the development of future HIV prevention interventions for women, researchers need to understand the factors that influence sexual risk reduction behaviors in this group. The aim of this study was to explore the predictors of condom use among women at risk of HIV and develop a model of condom use in a sample of women at risk of HIV. We cross-sectionally examined predictors of condom use among 200 women at risk of HIV. Women were recruited from drop-in centers and voluntary counseling and testing centers in Tehran. Condom use among women at risk of HIV was examined using path analysis, and fit indices showed a good fit for the model. Condom use self-efficacy, social support, and less stereotypic gender roles influenced sexually protective behaviors of women at risk of HIV. Our results can provide a basis for future gender-specific intervention programs among women at risk of HIV. Researchers, practitioners, and organizations that play a central role in protecting the health of this population can make use of these results for the benefit of sexual and reproductive health programs.

  13. Latex rubber condoms: predicting and extending shelf life.

    PubMed

    Free, M J; Srisamang, V; Vail, J; Mercer, D; Kotz, R; Marlowe, D E

    1996-04-01

    Condoms from five manufacturers were subjected to controlled exposures of heat, humidity, and air and to different natural environments in five countries. Under aerobic conditions (condoms in permeable packages or unpackaged), stress properties declined. The relationship between rate of decline as a function of temperature was quadratic. Under oxygen-restricted conditions (foil-wrapped packages) at average storage temperatures of 30 degrees C and lower, strain properties declined with little or no significant change in stress properties. The effect is to cause condoms to become stiffer; high-breakage rates in use have been correlated with product stiffening. A new rationale for accelerated-aging tests to predict condom shelf stability is suggested, including a test to control the trend of condoms to stiffen. Silicone lubricant, impermeable packaging, and inclusion of antioxidants in the condom formulation can prevent or minimize aerobic breakdown of latex condoms. Specifying low-modulus condoms can prevent excessive stiffening.

  14. Condom distribution in jail to prevent HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Leibowitz, Arleen A; Harawa, Nina; Sylla, Mary; Hallstrom, Christopher C; Kerndt, Peter R

    2013-10-01

    To determine if a structural intervention of providing one condom a week to inmates in the Los Angeles County Men's Central Jail MSM unit reduces HIV transmissions and net social cost, we estimated numbers of new HIV infections (1) when condoms are available; and (2) when they are not. Input data came from a 2007 survey of inmates, the literature and intervention program records. Base case estimates showed that condom distribution averted 1/4 of HIV transmissions. We predict .8 new infections monthly among 69 HIV-negative, sexually active inmates without condom distribution, but .6 new infections with condom availability. The discounted future medical costs averted due to fewer HIV transmissions exceed program costs, so condom distribution in jail reduces total costs. Cost savings were sensitive to the proportion of anal sex acts protected by condoms, thus allowing inmates more than one condom per week could potentially increase the program's effectiveness.

  15. Condom breakage and slippage among men in the United States.

    PubMed

    Grady, W R; Tanfer, K

    1994-01-01

    Data on condom breakage and slippage from a nationally representative survey show that the average condom breakage rate experienced by 20-39-year-old men who have used a condom in the preceding six months was 2.7%, and that 1.9% of all condoms used during that time broke. Comparable condom slippage rates are 2.7% and 2.0%, respectively. Condom breakage and slippage appear to be 4-5 times higher among black men than among men of other races. Levels of breakage and slippage are also elevated among low-income men and those who used condoms relatively infrequently in the six months before the survey. The data also indicate that men who engage in high-risk sexual behavior, such as having multiple partners and engaging in anal intercourse, are more likely to experience condom breakage and slippage.

  16. Words Can Hurt: The Effects of Physical and Psychological Partner Violence on Condom Negotiation and Condom Use among Young Women.

    PubMed

    Peasant, Courtney; Sullivan, Tami P; Ritchwood, Tiarney D; Parra, Gilbert R; Weiss, Nicole H; Meyer, Jaimie P; Murphy, James G

    2017-04-12

    Physical and psychological intimate partner violence (IPV) are prevalent on college campuses and may affect young women's condom use behavior. This study explored condom negotiation as a mediator of the relation of physical and psychological IPV to condom use among college women. A total of 235 heterosexual college women were recruited during September 2012-May 2013. Participants completed online questionnaires assessing lifetime history of IPV, frequency of condom negotiation, and use of condoms during the last 30 days. Specific forms of psychological IPV were related to less condom use. This association was mediated by condom negotiation, such that those who had experienced psychological IPV were less likely to negotiate condom use, and as a result, less likely to report using condoms in the past 30 days. Campus-based sexual health efforts should consider the relation of psychological IPV to condom negotiation and condom use and offer skills to promote condom negotiation among college women to increase condom use and reduce their risk of sexually transmitted infections.

  17. It Takes Two: The Role of Partner Ethnicity and Age Characteristics on Condom Negotiations of Heterosexual Chinese and Filipina American College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Amy G.; Barnhart, James E.

    2006-01-01

    To date, limited attention is paid to how partners influence the condom negotiation process. This study examined whether partner ethnicity and age were associated with condom negotiations (i.e., verbal-direct, verbal-indirect, nonverbal-direct, nonverbal-indirect) in heterosexual Chinese and Filipina American college women. Results from 181 women…

  18. Determinants of condom use intentions of university students in Ghana: an application of the theory of reasoned action.

    PubMed

    Bosompra, K

    2001-04-01

    The study examined the applicability of the Theory of Reasoned Action to the study of condom use intentions of students at a university in southern Ghana. The data supported the model, explaining 33% of the variance in students' condom use intentions. Subjective norms and the perceived disadvantages of condom use were significant determinants of intention, with the former being more important. Respondents who intended to use condoms consistently ("intenders") and those with no such intentions ("non-intenders") were equally motivated to comply with the wishes of their significant referents (sexual partners, close friends, parents and medical doctors). The critical difference was that "intenders" consistently held a stronger belief than "non-intenders" that their significant referents approved of condom use. Significantly, whereas "intenders" believed that their sexual partners would approve of condom use, the "non-intenders" held the contrary belief that their partners would disapprove of such behavior. This suggests that AIDS education interventions targeting a similar audience like the university students in this study should shift their foci away from individuals alone and instead, focus simultaneously on individuals, their sexual partners and their broader social networks in order to enhance perceptions of peer acceptance of condom use.

  19. Condom Use Trajectories in Adolescence and the Transition to Adulthood: The Role of Mother and Father Support

    PubMed Central

    Pingel, Emily S.; Bauermeister, José A.; Elkington, Katherine S.; Fergus, Stevenson; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Zimmerman, Marc A.

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have investigated how mother and father support differ on predicting youths' sexual risk behavior. We therefore examined the influence of parental support on condom use trajectories and its correlates in a predominantly African American sample [(N=627; 53% female; M = 14.86 years (SD=. 64)] from adolescence to young adulthood. We used hierarchical growth curve modeling to examine the relationship between condom use, substance use, psychological distress and parental support prospectively. We found that consistent condom use decreased over time and was associated negatively with psychological distress and substance use. Furthermore, both maternal and paternal support were associated with more condom use over time. We discuss the implications of our findings for HIV prevention programs. PMID:22639524

  20. Prototypical Images in Condom Scripts among AIDS-Bereaved Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reich, Warren A.; Rubin, Rachel M.

    2007-01-01

    Twenty-five HIV-negative late adolescents (13 women and 12 men) who had lost a parent to AIDS generated vignettes in which the characters were deciding whether to use a condom (condom scripts). Two clinically trained judges rated the interpersonal tone of the condom scripts on 17 semantic differential scales. Three other clinically trained raters…

  1. Factors Associated with Parent Support for Condom Education and Availability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AugsJoost, Brett; Jerman, Petra; Deardorff, Julianna; Harley, Kim; Constantine, Norman A.

    2014-01-01

    Expanding condom-related knowledge and skills and reducing barriers to condom use have the potential to help reduce pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections among youth. These goals are sometimes addressed through condom education and availability (CEA) programs as part of sexuality education in school. Parents are a key constituency in…

  2. Talking to Your Partner about Condoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Yes, parents. Not everyone feels comfortable talking about sex with their parents, but lots of teens do. Parents often have the best tips. Health ... sex). But if you do decide to have sex, using a condom allows you to protect yourself. Reviewed by: Rupal Christine Gupta, MD Date reviewed: ... For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC ...

  3. Everyday exposure to benevolent sexism and condom use among college women.

    PubMed

    Fitz, Caroline C; Zucker, Alyssa N

    2015-01-01

    Understanding factors related to condom use is critical in reducing the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), especially for women, who are disproportionately affected by many STIs. Extant work has shown that perceived sexism is one such factor associated with lower levels of condom use among women, but has yet to explore whether benevolent sexism in particular-a subtle form of sexism that often goes unnoticed and increases cognitions and behaviors consistent with traditional female gender roles (e.g., sexual submissiveness)-relates negatively to this safer-sex practice. The present research tested this possibility and, in addition, examined whether relational sex motives, which reflect a desire to engage in sex as a means to foster partners' sexual satisfaction, mediated the relation between benevolent sexism and condom use. During the spring of 2011, female college students (N = 158) reported how often they experienced benevolent sexism in their daily lives and, 2 weeks later, their relational sex motives and condom use. Supporting hypotheses results indicated that greater exposure to benevolent sexism was associated significantly with lower condom use, and that relational sex motives mediated this relationship. We discuss implications for women's well-being, including ways to promote safer sex in the face of sexism.

  4. Why do men often not use condoms in their relationships with casual sexual partners in Uganda?

    PubMed

    Rutakumwa, Rwamahe; Mbonye, Martin; Kiwanuka, Thadeus; Bagiire, Daniel; Seeley, Janet

    2015-01-01

    With a focus on Uganda, this paper examines men's condom use in sexual relationships with casual partners and what this might tell us about men's vulnerability to HIV-infection. We carried out repeat interviews with 31 men attending a clinic serving women at high risk for HIV infection and their partners in Kampala. We found that the experience of condom-less sex in the men's youth, itself the outcome of a restrictive home environment, was perceived as influencing later unsafe sexual behaviour. Peer pressure encouraged men to have multiple partners. Alcohol negatively affected condom use. Men often opted not to use a condom with women they thought looked healthy, particularly if they had had sex with the same woman before. Some men who were HIV-positive said they saw little point in using condoms since they were already infected. A concerted effort is required to reach men, like those in our study, to halt HIV and the transmission of other sexually transmitted infections.

  5. Depression, Abuse, Relationship Power and Condom Use by Pregnant and Postpartum Women with Substance Abuse History.

    PubMed

    Dévieux, Jessy G; Jean-Gilles, Michèle; Rosenberg, Rhonda; Beck-Sagué, Consuelo; Attonito, Jennifer M; Saxena, Anshul; Stein, Judith A

    2016-02-01

    Substance-abusing pregnant and postpartum women are less likely to maintain consistent condom use and drug and alcohol abstinence, which is particularly concerning in high HIV-prevalence areas. Data from 224 pregnant and postpartum women in substance abuse treatment were analyzed to examine effects of history of substance use, child abuse, and mental health problems on current substance use and condom-use barriers. Mediators were depression, relationship power and social support. Most participants (72.9 %) evidenced current depression. Less social support (-0.17, p < 0.05) and relationship power (-0.48, p < 0.001), and greater depression (-0.16, p < 0.05) predicted more condom-use barriers. History of mental health problems predicted condom-use barriers, mediated by recent depression and relationship power (0.15, p < 0.001). These findings suggest depression and diminished relationship power limit highest-risk women's ability to negotiate condom use and abstain from substance use, increasing their risk of acute HIV infection and vertical transmission.

  6. Habitual condom use across partner type and sexual position among younger gay and bisexual men: findings from New Zealand HIV behavioural surveillance 2006–2011

    PubMed Central

    Lachowsky, N J; Dewey, C E; Dickson, N P; Saxton, P J W; Hughes, A J; Milhausen, R R; Summerlee, A J S

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Our objectives were to investigate demographic and behavioural factors associated with condom use and to examine how habitual condom use was across partner types and sexual positions among younger men who have sex with men (YMSM), aged 16–29, surveyed in New Zealand. Methods We analysed the 2006–2011 national HIV behavioural surveillance data from YMSM who reported anal intercourse in four scenarios of partner type and sexual position: casual insertive, casual receptive, regular insertive and regular receptive. For each, respondents’ condom use was classified as frequent (always/almost always) or otherwise, with associated factors identified with multivariate mixed-effect logistic regression. Habitual condom use across scenarios was examined using a latent variable technique that estimated the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Results Frequent condom use was reported for 63.6% of 5153 scenarios reported from 2412 YMSM. Frequent use increased from boyfriend to fuckbuddy to casual partners. Infrequent use was associated with online recruitment, Pacific ethnicity, less education, HIV positivity, sex with women, having ≥20 sexual partners versus 1 and reporting insertive and receptive sexual positions. Frequent condom use was associated with having two to five sexual partners versus one and shorter regular partnerships. The ICC=0.865 indicated highly habitual patterns of use; habitual infrequent condom use was most prevalent with regular partners (53.3%) and habitual frequent condom use was most prevalent with casual partners (70.2%) and for either sexual position (50.5% and 49.1%). Conclusions Habitual condom use among YMSM highlights the value of early, engaging and sustained condom promotion. Public health should provide better and more compelling condom education, training and promotion for YMSM. PMID:25605969

  7. Condom Access: Associations with Consistent Condom Use among Female Sex Workers in Two Northern Border Cities of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Fátima A.; Pollini, Robin A.; Zúñiga, María Luisa; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Lozada, Remedios; Martínez, Gustavo A.; Valles-Medina, Ana M.; Sirotin, Nicole; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2011-01-01

    To determine whether condom access is associated with consistent condom use among FSWs in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, between 2004 and 2006 we administered a questionnaire to 924 FSWs who reported unprotected sex with a client in the past two months. Of these women, 43% reported consistent (“often” or “always”) condom use; 74% said condoms were available; and 38% reported having access to free condoms. In a logistic regression, factors positively associated with consistent condom use were condom availability (AdjOR = 2.00; 95% CI: 1.32–3.03), condom affordability (AdjOR = 1.72; 95% CI: 1.25–2.38) and self–efficacy (AdjOR = 2.16; 95% CI: 1.54–3.04). Factors inversely associated with consistent condom use included poor financial status (AdjOR = 0.65; 95% CI: 0.47–0.90), methamphetamine use (AdjOR = 0.58; 95% CI: 0.40–0.83), alcohol use (AdjOR = 0.68; 95% CI: 0.49–0.96), and recent injection drug use (AdjOR = 0.62; 95% CI: 0.39–0.97). While increased condom availability may improve condom use among FSWs in general, interventions to broaden condom use among lower-income and drug-using FSWs are critically needed. PMID:20973665

  8. Relationship-Specific Condom Attitudes Predict Condom Use among STD Clinic Patients with both Primary and Non-Primary Partners

    PubMed Central

    Senn, Theresa E.; Scott-Sheldon, Lori A. J.; Carey, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    Although condom use differs by partner type (i.e., primary vs. non-primary partner), attitudes towards condom use are typically measured without consideration of partner type. This study investigated the predictive utility of condom attitudes measured separately by partner type. Participants were 270 patients (37% women, 72% Black) recruited from a publicly-funded STD clinic who reported having both primary and non-primary partners. They completed a computerized survey assessing relationship-specific condom attitudes by partner type, condom attitudes related to pleasure and respect, and condom use with primary and non-primary partners. Participants reported more positive relationship-specific condom attitudes with a non-primary vs. primary partner. When considering pleasure-related, respect-related, and relationship-specific condom attitudes simultaneously, only relationship-specific condom attitudes predicted unprotected sex, with both primary and non-primary partners. In general, pleasure and respect-related condom attitudes did not predict unprotected sex; however, pleasure-related attitudes predicted unprotected sex with a non-primary partner for men. Future research should assess relationship-specific condom attitudes. Sexual risk reduction interventions that address interpersonal consequences of condom use in both primary and non-primary relationships should be a priority. PMID:24567031

  9. Self-regulatory failure and the perpetration of adolescent dating violence: Examining an alcohol use by gene explanation.

    PubMed

    Foshee, Vangie A; Benefield, Thad S; Puvanesarajah, Samantha; Reyes, Heath Luz McNaughton; Haberstick, Brett C; Smolen, Andrew; Ennett, Susan T; Suchindran, Chirayath

    2015-03-01

    Studies report that alcohol use is related to partner violence, but for many, alcohol use does not culminate in violence against partners. Guided by a self-regulatory failure framework, we predicted that alcohol use would be more strongly associated with dating violence perpetration among adolescents with genotypes linked to impulsivity and emotional reactivity. The hypothesis was tested using random coefficient modeling of data from a multi-wave longitudinal study spanning grades 8-12 (ages 13-18) (n = 1,475). Analyses adjusted for multiple testing and race, and the potential for gene by environment correlation was examined. As predicted, alcohol use was more strongly associated with dating violence among adolescents who had a high rather than a low multilocus genetic profile composed of five genetic markers that influence dopamine signaling. Alcohol use was more strongly related to dating violence among boys with long rather than short 5-HTTLPR alleles, the opposite of the prediction. MAOA-uVNTR did not interact with alcohol, but it had a main effect on dating violence by boys in later grades in the expected direction: boys with more low activity alleles perpetrated more dating violence. Exploratory analyses found variation in findings by race. Our findings demonstrate the importance of incorporating genes into etiological studies of adolescent dating violence, which to date has not been done. Aggr. Behav. Aggr. Behav. 42:189-203, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Identification and Use of Frailty Indicators from Text to Examine Associations with Clinical Outcomes Among Patients with Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Yijun; Mohanty, April F.; Ahmed, Ali; Weir, Charlene R.; Bray, Bruce E.; Shah, Rashmee U.; Redd, Douglas; Zeng-Treitler, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Frailty is an important health outcomes indicator and valuable for guiding healthcare decisions in older adults, but is rarely collected in a quantitative, systematic fashion in routine healthcare. Using a cohort of 12,000 Veterans with heart failure, we investigated the feasibility of topic modeling to identify frailty topics in clinical notes. Topics were generated through unsupervised learning and then manually reviewed by an expert. A total of 53 frailty topics were identified from 100,000 notes. We further examined associations of frailty with age-, sex-, and Charlson Comorbidity Index-adjusted 1-year hospitalizations and mortality (composite outcome) using logistic regression. Frailty (≤ 4 topics versus <4) was associated with twice the risk of the composite outcome, Odds Ratio: 2.2, 95% Confidence Interval: (2.0-2.4). This study demonstrates the feasibility of identifying frailty indicators from clinical notes and linking these to clinically relevant outcomes. Future work includes integrating frailty indicators into validated predictive tools. PMID:28269908

  11. Associations of a Sexually Transmitted Disease Diagnosis During a Relationship with Condom Use and Psychosocial Outcomes: (Short) Windows of Opportunity

    PubMed Central

    Magriples, Urania; Niccolai, Linda M.; Gordon, Derrick M.; Divney, Anna A.; Kershaw, Trace S.

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have examined whether and how receiving an sexually transmitted disease (STD) diagnosis while in a romantic relationship relates to condom use and psychosocial sexual outcomes. Using dyadic data, we examined associations of a personal or a partner’s STD diagnosis during a relationship with condom use, monogamy intentions, condom intentions and attitudes, and STD susceptibility and communication. Because beliefs about how the STD was acquired may shape associations with behavior and cognitions, gender and suspecting that one’s partner had other sexual partners (i.e., partner concurrency) were examined as moderators. Participants were 592 individuals in 296 couples expecting a baby; 108 individuals had been diagnosed with an STD during the relationship. Personal STD diagnosis was unrelated to outcomes or was associated with increased risk. A partner’s diagnosis related to more positive condom intentions and attitudes. Among men who suspected concurrency, both a personal and a partner’s STD diagnosis were associated with less condom use. Receiving the STD diagnosis during pregnancy was associated with greater susceptibility and marginally greater condom use. Results suggest potential benefits of enhancing communication and encouraging joint risk reduction counseling among couples, engaging men more fully in preventive efforts, and capitalizing on the short window during which risk reduction occurs. PMID:23321987

  12. Incomplete use of condoms: the importance of sexual arousal.

    PubMed

    Graham, Cynthia A; Crosby, Richard A; Milhausen, Robin R; Sanders, Stephanie A; Yarber, William L

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify associations between incomplete condom use (not using condoms from start to finish of sex) and sexual arousal variables. A convenience sample of heterosexual men (n = 761) completed a web-based questionnaire. Men who scored higher on sexual arousability were more likely to put a condom on after sex had begun (AOR = 1.58). Men who reported difficulty reaching orgasm were more likely to report removing condoms before sex was over (AOR = 2.08). These findings suggest that sexual arousal may be an important, and under-studied, factor associated with incomplete use of condoms.

  13. The context of condom use among young adults in the Philippines: Implications for HIV prevention

    PubMed Central

    Lucea, Marguerite B.; Hindin, Michelle J.; Gultiano, Socorro; Kub, Joan; Rose, Linda

    2012-01-01

    We examine current perceptions and constraints surrounding condom use among young adults in the Philippines to garner a deeper contextual understanding of this aspect of HIV prevention within Filipino society. Through thematic analysis of focus group data, we found three broad themes, all of which included societal and individual barriers to using condoms. The findings may provide insight for similar settings that have strong religious influences on society. To strengthen HIV prevention efforts in such settings, we suggest that the development of strategies to address these constraints in the cultural setting and promote sexual health of young adults is essential. PMID:23394323

  14. Predictors of Condom Use Behaviors Based on the Health Belief Model (HBM) among Female Sex Workers: A Cross-Sectional Study in Hubei Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jinzhu; Song, Fujian; Ren, Shuhua; Wang, Yan; Wang, Liang; Liu, Wei; Wan, Ying; Xu, Hong; Zhou, Tao; Hu, Tian; Bazzano, Lydia; Sun, Yi

    2012-01-01

    Background HIV infection related to commercial sexual contact is a serious public health issue in China. The objectives of the present study are to explore the predictors of condom use among female sex workers (FSWs) in China and examine the relationship between Health Belief Model (HBM) constructs. Methodology/Principal Findings A cross-sectional study was conducted in two cities (Wuhan and Suizhou) in Hubei Province, China, between July 2009 and June 2010. A total of 427 FSWs were recruited through mediators from the ‘low-tier’ entertainment establishments. Data were obtained by self-administered questionnaires. Structural equation models were constructed to examine the association. We collected 363 valid questionnaires. Within the context of HBM, perceived severity of HIV mediated through perceived benefits of condom use had a weak effect on condom use (r = 0.07). Perceived benefits and perceived barriers were proximate determinants of condom use (r = 0.23 and r = −0.62, respectively). Self-efficacy had a direct effect on perceived severity, perceived benefits, and perceived barriers, which was indirectly associated with condom use behaviors (r = 0.36). Conclusions/Significance The HBM provides a useful framework for investigating predictors of condom use behaviors among FSWs. Future HIV prevention interventions should focus on increasing perceived benefits of condom use, reducing barriers to condoms use, and improving self-efficacy among FSWs. PMID:23185355

  15. Condoms "contain worms" and "cause HIV" in Tanzania: Negative Condom Beliefs Scale development and implications for HIV prevention.

    PubMed

    Siegler, Aaron J; Mbwambo, Jessie K; McCarty, Frances A; DiClemente, Ralph J

    2012-11-01

    Condom promotion remains a key component of HIV prevention programs, complimenting recent successes in biomedical HIV prevention. Although condom use has increased in much of East Africa, it remains substantially below optimal levels. Negative rumors about condoms have been documented in East Africa, yet the prevalence and effects of belief in the negative rumors have not been explored. This study evaluated levels of belief in negative rumors about condoms, developed a Negative Condom Beliefs Scale, and assessed its accuracy in predicting willingness to use condoms. A cross-sectional, cluster survey (n = 370) was conducted representing adults in two rural districts in Northern Tanzania in 2008. Item agreement ranged from 35 to 53% for the following rumors regarding condoms: causing cancer, having holes, containing HIV, having worms, and the worms causing HIV. Items loaded on a single latent factor and had high internal consistency and convergent validity. In a multivariate model, negative condom score (AOR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.6, 0.8) was the strongest single predictor of willingness to use condoms, followed by greater perceived anonymity in acquiring condoms (AOR = 4.36, 95% CI = 2.2, 8.6) and higher condom self-efficacy (AOR = 4.24, 95% CI = 2.0, 8.9). Our findings indicate high levels of subscription to negative beliefs about condoms, with two out of three respondents affirming belief in at least one negative condom rumor. This study highlights the relation between condom rumor beliefs and willingness to use condoms, and indicates avenues for future research and means for improving the design of HIV prevention programs.

  16. 'It's Not What You Said, It's How You Said It': Perceptions of Condom Proposers by Gender and Strategy.

    PubMed

    Broaddus, Michelle R; Morris, Heather; Bryan, Angela D

    2010-05-01

    We examined effects of proposer gender and condom negotiation strategy on perceptions of condom proposers in undergraduates in the southwestern regions of the US. Using a video manipulation (N=150), a female proposer was evaluated no more harshly than a male proposer, and was evaluated more positively in some ways. In a vignette manipulation (N=193) a female proposer using an Eroticization negotiation strategy (compared to Refusal of sex or Explanation of consequences) was seen as more exciting and likely to engage in sex. Surprisingly, women were harsher judges than men of a female condom proposer using an Eroticization strategy. Greater attention should be paid to the nature of condom negotiation within the framework of the sexual script.

  17. ‘It's Not What You Said, It's How You Said It’: Perceptions of Condom Proposers by Gender and Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Heather; Bryan, Angela D.

    2010-01-01

    We examined effects of proposer gender and condom negotiation strategy on perceptions of condom proposers in undergraduates in the southwestern regions of the US. Using a video manipulation (N=150), a female proposer was evaluated no more harshly than a male proposer, and was evaluated more positively in some ways. In a vignette manipulation (N=193) a female proposer using an Eroticization negotiation strategy (compared to Refusal of sex or Explanation of consequences) was seen as more exciting and likely to engage in sex. Surprisingly, women were harsher judges than men of a female condom proposer using an Eroticization strategy. Greater attention should be paid to the nature of condom negotiation within the framework of the sexual script. PMID:20544008

  18. Demographic Correlates of Constant Condom Use among Sex Workers in Tangail, Dhaka, Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eva, Nilufar Akter; Munakata, Tsunetsugu; Onuoha, Francis N.

    2007-01-01

    Consistent condom use, particularly by promiscuous individuals, is a major safeguard against sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV/AIDS. This study examines some demographic factors that may affect such use among Bangladeshi female commercial sex workers at a brothel in Tangail (n = 196; mean age = 23.44 years), and the streets of Dhaka (n…

  19. Perceptions of a Campus-Wide Condom Distribution Programme: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Diane B.; Noar, Seth M.; Widman, Laura; Willoughby, Jessica Fitts; Sanchez, Diana M.; Garrett, Kyla P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Condom distribution programmes are an important means of preventing sexually transmitted infections (STIs); yet little research has examined their perceived and actual impact on college campuses. Design: Quantitative, cross-sectional study. Setting: Large public university in the Southeastern USA. Method: Approximately 2 months after a…

  20. Sexual Coercion, Verbal Aggression, and Condom Use Consistency among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fair, Cynthia D.; Vanyur, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The relationship between condom use and 2 less visible categories of intimate partner violence (IPV), sexual coercion and verbal aggression, was examined among college students. Methods: In March 2007 a random cross-sectional sample of undergraduates from the southeast region of the United States was taken to collect information about…

  1. Determinants of Condom Use Intentions and Behavior among Turkish Youth: A Theoretically Based Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozakinci, Gozde; Weinman, John A.

    2006-01-01

    The assumptions of two social cognition models, the Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen, 1991) and the Health Belief Model (Rosenstock, 1974) are examined in 2 samples of Turkish university students: sexually active and sexually inactive. For sexually inactive participants, perceived benefits of condom use and self-efficacy beliefs regarding condom…

  2. Relational Commitment and Threats to Relationship Maintenance Goals: Influences on Condom Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umphrey, Laura; Sherblom, John

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined the effects of relational commitment (high commitment versus low commitment) and relationship maintenance goals (high threat versus low threat) on decisions to request the use of a condom. Methods: The authors conducted a 2-part study using a survey of responses to hypothetical scenarios and decisions in actual…

  3. Condom Use among Heterosexual Immigrant Latino Men in the Southeastern United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knipper, Emily; Rhodes, Scott D.; Lindstrom, Kristen; Bloom, Fred R.; Leichliter, Jami S.; Montano, Jaime

    2007-01-01

    Latinos in the United States have been disproportionately affected by the intersecting epidemics of HIV and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). We examined correlates of condom use among adult heterosexual Latino men who are members of a large multicounty soccer league in rural North Carolina. Of 222 participants, the mean (plus or minus SD) age…

  4. Reasons for non-use of condoms among men who have sex with men: a comparison of receptive and insertive role in sex and online and offline meeting venue.

    PubMed

    Ostergren, Jenny E; Rosser, B R Simon; Horvath, Keith J

    2011-02-01

    This study examined reasons for non-use of condoms among an online survey sample of 462 non-condom using men who have sex with men to: (1) identify major domains, themes and categories encompassing reasons for non-use of condoms and (2) examine whether reasons varied by role-in-sex (insertive or receptive) and meeting venue (online or offline). A thematic analysis was completed on participant responses to an open-ended question about reasons for non-condom use. Preference for not using condoms and contextual factors were the top two reasons given for not using condoms, followed by a reasoned judgment based on risk assessment, relationship status and interpersonal communication. No major differences were found between men who reported non-condom use at last receptive and insertive anal intercourse. By contrast when meeting online, men were more likely to report reasons for non-condom use that corresponded to individual preference and mutual agreement not to use condoms. When meeting offline, men were more likely to cite reasons related to context and relationships. In developing HIV-prevention interventions for this population, researchers should address both venues separately, as reasons why men engage in non-use of condoms appear to differ.

  5. Consistent condom use among Thai heterosexual adult males in Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Janepanish, Poolsuk; Dancy, Barbara L; Park, Chang

    2011-04-01

    Thai heterosexual males between 20 and 39 years old are at increased risk for HIV infection. Consistent condom use is effective against HIV transmission, but little is known about determinants of consistent condom use for these males. The purpose of this study is to explore determinants of consistent condom use for this population. The determinants of interest are age, educational level, marital status, income, and concepts from the theory of planned behavior: attitude toward condom use, subjective norm about consistent condom use, perceived behavioral control (PBC) of consistent condom use, and intention to use condoms consistently. We used a cross-sectional descriptive research design with a convenience sample of 400 heterosexual Thai males between 20 and 39 years. Our sample had a mean age of 28.71 years (SD = 6.33). During the last three months, 39.5% reported using condoms consistently, 23% reported using condoms inconsistently, and 37.5% reported never using condoms. The results from the regression analyses revealed that marital status, income, subjective norm about consistent condom use, PBC of consistent condom use, and intention to use condoms consistently were determinants of consistent condom use. Also the effect of subjective norm about consistent condom use and PBC of consistent condom use on consistent condom use was mediated by intention to use condoms consistently. These results suggest that interventions to increase consistent condom use should focus on enhancing intention to use condoms consistently by promoting subjective norm about consistent condom use and PBC of consistent condom use.

  6. Malaysian made condoms sold locally as well as exported.

    PubMed

    1979-01-01

    Malaysia, famous for its natural rubber, is also producing condoms made from local rubber. About 40,000 gross of condoms a month are being produced by a factory with about 30 female workers. 30-40% of the production is exported to Europe, Middle East, Asia, Japan, Singapore and South America. The size of the condoms conform to international standards, 49 mm and 52 mm. As there is a greater demand for the 52 mm. condoms overseas, the company produces more of this than the 49 mm. condoms. In April 1975, the Standard Institution and Industrial Research of Malaysia gave its quality control approval to a condom which can hold 5 gallons of water and with thickness varying from 0.03 mm, 0.06 mm. and 0.05-0.07 mm. A 10% tax/piece and a 5% surtax are imposed on imported condoms to protect the local industry from foreign competition. Local condoms are sold tax-free. Pink and black colored condoms appear to be popular among consumers. Although complaints are few, 1 in 10,000 users may suffer from allergic problems because of the silicone oil treatment of the condoms. Another local condom factory which uses Malaysian rubber for condom manufacture is located in Klang, approximately 24 miles from Kuala Lumpur; the factory has 25 workers producing 12,000 gross of lubricated and non-lubricated condoms for local consumption only. There is increasing evidence that condoms are increasing in popularity in Malaysia and that the average consumer is now being more selective in choosing contraceptive methods.

  7. Men's Intentions to Have Sex With a New Partner: Sexual and Emotional Responding, Alcohol, and Condoms.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, Amanda K; George, William H; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J; Granato, Hollie F; Davis, Kelly Cue; Norris, Jeanette; Heiman, Julia R

    2016-01-01

    Findings regarding the relation between alcohol and intentions to have sex have been mixed, and little research has examined the role of condom availability on intentions to have sex. Sexual and emotional responding may influence subsequent sexual decisions. Thus, a better understanding of sexual and emotional responding combined with situational factors such as condom presence could help explain the discrepancies in findings regarding alcohol's effect on intentions to have sex. The effects of alcohol and condom presence on men's intentions to have sex were examined using an experimental paradigm involving an alcohol administration study and a second-person eroticized scenario. The effects of sexual and emotional responding were also examined in relation to intentions to have sex. It was found that alcohol increased positive mood, which was associated with higher intentions to have sex. In addition, condom presence was directly associated with higher intentions to have sex. More sexual desire was related to increased likelihood of sexual intentions. These findings increase understanding of mechanisms underlying the relation between alcohol and intentions to have sex.

  8. Television station acceptance of AIDS prevention PSAs and condom advertisements.

    PubMed

    Abernethy, A M; Wicks, J L

    1998-01-01

    AIDS is a fatal, though preventable disease with more than 56,000 new cases reported in 1996 alone. Condom advertisements and AIDS public service announcements (AIDS PSAs) can help prevent the spread of AIDS, but these AIDS PSAs often contain controversial subject matter and are thus rejected for broadcast by television stations. It is for this reason why a large-scale national mail survey was conducted. The survey, which examined the impact of personal ethical considerations of television station management on AIDS acceptance decisions in the US, was based on five hypothetical questions. It used questionnaires mailed to television station managers. Responses were received from 364 stations, yielding a 40.63% response rate. Significant results were found related to the impact of personal ethical concerns of television managers on AIDS acceptance decision. Most stations were unlikely to accept condom or safe sex advertisements but were more likely to accept generic AIDS messages. These findings pose a dilemma for public health officials, which include the high cost of television advertisements and the difficulty in choosing a creative execution type. The most effective approach would be to appeal to sales managers to run the advertisements since they are important for the community and serve the public interest.

  9. Determinants of intention to use condoms among clients of female sex workers in Haiti.

    PubMed

    Couture, Marie-Claude; Soto, Julio C; Akom, Edit; Joseph, Gerard; Zunzunegui, Maria-Victoria

    2010-02-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted to examine factors influencing intention of condom use among 378 clients of female sex workers (FSWs) visiting commercial sex sites in St-Marc and Gonaives, Haiti. Mean age of the study participants was 24 years. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic characteristics, behaviors, and the theory of planned behavior (TPB) constructs. Seventy-four percentage of clients reported having used condoms with a FSW the last time they had had sexual intercourse. The majority (81.7%) firmly intended to use condoms during the next sexual encounter with a FSW. Multivariate logistic models revealed that subjective norms (odds ratio (OR)=1.75; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06-2.88), perceived behavioral control (OR=1.34; 95% CI: 1.09-1.63) and attitudes (OR=1.23; 95% CI: 1.04-1.44) were predictors of intention to use condoms, with norms being more important. Clients having used condoms the last time they had a sexual intercourse with a FSW, were more likely to have the intention to use them in the future (OR=3.17; 95% CI: 1.65-6.10), indicating an adopted behavior. Lastly, having had a previous sexually transmitted infection was associated with intention, suggesting that a negative experience can influence a future behavior. In conclusion, intention to use condoms among the clients of Haitian FSWs was well predicted by TPB constructs. Our findings provide evidence for designing interventions targeted at reducing risky sex behaviors in this population.

  10. Factors Associated With Condom Breakage During Anal Intercourse: A Cross-Sectional Study of Men Who Have Sex With Men Recruited in an Online Survey

    PubMed Central

    Khosropour, Christine M; Prater, Adam B; Rosenberg, Eli S; Siegler, Aaron J; Sullivan, Patrick S

    2016-01-01

    Background Within the United States, HIV affects men who have sex with men (MSM) disproportionally compared to the general population. In 2011, MSM represented nearly two-thirds of all new HIV infections while representing less than 2% of the US male population. Condoms continue to be the foundation of many HIV prevention programs; however, the failure rate of condoms during anal intercourse among MSM is estimated to be 0.5% to 8%, and condom breakages leave those affected at high risk for HIV transmission. Objective Estimate the frequency of condom breakage and associated demographic and behavioral factors during last act of anal intercourse using data from a national online HIV prevention survey of MSM. Methods From March 19 to April 16, 2009, data were collected on 9005 MSM through an online survey of US MSM recruited through a social networking site. Using multivariable logistic regression and controlling for several demographic and sexual risk behaviors, we estimated odds ratios of the association between condom breakage and several risk factors. Results In the study, 8063 participants reported having at least one male sexual partner in the last 12 months. The median age of participants was 21 years (range 18-65). More than two-thirds (68.2%, 5498/8063) reported anal intercourse during last sex and 16.90% (927/5498) reported using a condom during last anal intercourse act. Condom breakage was reported by 4.4% (28/635) participants who engaged in receptive anal intercourse and 3.5% (16/459) participants who engaged in insertive anal intercourse, with an overall failure rate of 4.0% (95% CI 3.2%-6.0%). Age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] per 5 years: 0.53 (95% CI 0.30-0.94), number of male sex partners (aOR per 5 sex partners: 1.03 (95% CI 1.00-1.08), and being high or buzzed during sex with a casual sex partner (aOR: 3.14, 95% CI 1.02-9.60) were associated with condom breakage. Conclusions Our results indicate condom breakage is an important problem for MSM that may

  11. Geospatial analysis of condom availability and accessibility in urban Malawi.

    PubMed

    Shacham, Enbal; Thornton, Rebecca; Godlonton, Susan; Murphy, Ryan; Gilliland, Jake

    2016-01-01

    Prevalence of HIV in sub-Saharan African countries persists at alarming rates. There are currently four promoted methods to prevent HIV infection: adherence to antiretroviral therapy, male circumcision, pre-exposure prophylaxis and use of condoms. This study aimed to assess the availability and accessibility of one of the prevention efforts, condoms, in Kawale, Lilongwe, Malawi. A total of 220 potential condom-selling establishments were surveyed in 2012. Data were collected with store owners or staff and locations were geocoded to assess store density. Descriptive analyses were conducted. Of those audited, 96 stores sold condoms, 13 of which distributed free condoms. The stores were most often small shops and located in markets or trading centres. Condoms were most often found at the back of the store in an open space. There were approximately 1.2 stores per ¼ mile; 44% of the businesses in the study region carried condoms. This one method of prevention exhibited multiple barriers in this region: few stores sold condoms, high costs, condom locations within stores and limited availability. The limited accessibility is likely to influence social norms surrounding condom use. Future research should incorporate assessing norms and addressing barriers to uptake of HIV prevention efforts.

  12. Public Policy Failure and Fiasco in Education: Perspectives on the British Examinations Crises of 2000-2002 and Other Episodes since 1975

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, William

    2007-01-01

    In recent years there has been a re-appraisal within political science of the characteristics of various kinds of public policy failure. At the same time, the political significance of education has grown in most liberal democracies. The present paper examines public policy in British education since the mid-1970s and asks: What goes wrong in…

  13. Brand equity and willingness to pay for condoms in zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Zimbabwe suffers from one of the greatest burdens of HIV/AIDS in the world that has been compounded by social and economic instability in the past decade. However, from 2001 to 2009 HIV prevalence among 15-49 year olds declined from 26% to approximately 14%. Behavior change and condom use may in part explain this decline. PSI-Zimbabwe socially markets the Protector Plus (P+) branded line of condoms. When Zimbabwe converted to a dollar-based economy in 2009, the price of condoms was greatly increased and new marketing efforts were undertaken. This paper evaluates the role of condom marketing, a multi-dimensional scale of brand peceptions (brand equity), and price in condom use behavior. Methods We randomly sampled sexually active men age 15-49 from 3 groups - current P+ users, former users, and free condom users. We compared their brand equity and willingness to pay based on survey results. We estimated multivariable logistic regression models to compare the 3 groups. Results We found that the brand equity scale was positive correlated with willingness to pay and with condom use. Former users also indicated a high willingness to pay for condoms. We found differences in brand equity between the 3 groups, with current P+ users having the highest P+ brand equity. As observed in previous studies, higher brand equity was associated with more of the targeted health behavior, in this case and more consistent condom use. Conclusions Zimbabwe men have highly positive brand perceptions of P+. There is an opportunity to grow the total condom market in Zimbabwe by increasing brand equity across user groups. Some former users may resume using condoms through more effective marketing. Some free users may be willing to pay for condoms. Achieving these objectives will expand the total condom market and reduce HIV risk behaviors. PMID:22029874

  14. Building a (UN) condom manufacturing plant for social marketing projects.

    PubMed

    Yonese, T

    1994-12-01

    At the 10th International Conference on AIDS held in Yokohama, Japan, August 7-12, 1994, reports revealed that the social marketing of condoms has become popular and successful in developing countries. The nongovernmental organization distribution approach is very useful in providing condoms to new users, whose numbers have been increasing since the condom was identified as effective in preventing sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV. The rapid establishment of semi-commercial outlets even in remote areas enabled many people to obtain condoms more easily than from the government program and at a cheaper price. The social marketing concept has a clear advantage: condoms can be distributed with little government budget disbursement, and the project is based on self-reliance. Meanwhile, the additional free supply programs by many governments of developing countries are reportedly not functioning efficiently, since often large quantities of condoms, donated by agencies for family planning and STD programs, pile up in warehouses and do not reach those who need them. Moreover, the demand for condoms is limited because of the lack of effective campaigns to encourage their use. Quality condoms can be procured at lower costs if a special manufacturing plant could be built that produces condoms exclusively for the social marketing free supply program. Such a condom plant could be built in a developing country where good quality latex, the material used for condoms, is available. The unit production cost of condoms at the proposed plant would be lower compared to costs in developed countries because personnel expenses in latex-producing countries such as Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia, India, and Sri Lanka, are cheaper, and the price of latex itself is lower. Mass production is possible because the demand for condoms for the social marketing projects is expected to grow even more.

  15. A Multilevel Analysis of Gatekeeper Characteristics and Consistent Condom Use Among Establishment-Based Female Sex Workers in Guangxi, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qing; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita; Fang, Xiaoyi; Zhao, Ran

    2010-01-01

    Background Multilevel analytical techniques are being applied in condom use research to ensure the validity of investigation on environmental/structural influences and clustered data from venue-based sampling. The literature contains reports of consistent associations between perceived gatekeeper support and condom use among entertainments establishment-based female sex workers (FSWs) in Guangxi, China. However, the clustering inherent in the data (FSWs being clustered within establishment) has not been accounted in most of the analyses. We used multilevel analyses to examine perceived features of gatekeepers and individual correlates of consistent condom use among FSWs and to validate the findings in the existing literature. Methods We analyzed cross-sectional data from 318 FSWs from 29 entertainment establishments in Guangxi, China in 2004, with a minimum of 5 FSWs per establishment. The Hierarchical Linear Models program with Laplace estimation was used to estimate the parameters in models containing random effects and binary outcomes. Results About 11.6% of women reported consistent condom use with clients. The intraclass correlation coefficient indicated 18.5% of the variance in condom use could be attributed to their similarity between FSWs within the same establishments. Women’s perceived gatekeeper support and education remained positively associated with condom use (P < 0.05), after controlling for other individual characteristics and clustering. Conclusions After adjusting for data clustering, perceived gatekeeper support remains associated with consistent condom use with clients among FSWs in China. The results imply that combined interventions to intervene both gatekeepers and individual FSW may effectively promote consistent condom use. PMID:20539262

  16. Correlates of self-efficacy for condom use among male clients of female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Volkmann, Tyson; Wagner, Karla D; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Semple, Shirley J; Ompad, Danielle C; Chavarin, Claudia V; Patterson, Thomas L

    2014-05-01

    Male clients of female sex workers (FSWs) in Tijuana, Mexico engage in high levels of unprotected sex. While behavioral change theories posit that self-efficacy predicts condom use, correlates of self-efficacy for condom use remain largely unstudied. We examined these correlates among male clients of FSWs in Tijuana. Eligible male clients were at least 18 years of age, HIV-negative, lived in Tijuana or San Diego, reported unprotected sex with a Tijuana FSW at least once in the past 4 months, and agreed to be treated for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Participants completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire including demographics, substance use, psychosocial and psychosexual characteristics (e.g., outcome expectancies for negotiation of safer sex, social support, and sexual sensation seeking), and sexual behaviors. Participants also underwent HIV/STI testing. A stepwise hierarchical multiple regression analysis identified correlates of self-efficacy for condom use. Of 393 male clients, median age was 37 years. Participants were mostly Spanish-speaking and employed. Factors independently associated with higher self-efficacy for condom use were higher positive outcome expectancies for negotiation of safer sex, lower sexual sensation seeking scores, and higher social support scores. Both psychosocial and psychosexual factors may influence self-efficacy for condom use among male clients of FSWs. These factors represent central constructs in sociocognitive models that explain behavioral change and could be intervention targets for improving self-efficacy for condom use and, ultimately, safer sex behavior.

  17. Social and structural factors associated with consistent condom use among female entertainment workers trading sex in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Urada, Lianne A; Morisky, Donald E; Hernandez, Laufred I; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2013-02-01

    This paper examined socio-structural factors of consistent condom use among female entertainment workers at high risk for acquiring HIV in Metro Manila, Quezon City, Philippines. Entertainers, aged 18 and over, from 25 establishments (spa/saunas, night clubs, karaoke bars), who traded sex during the previous 6 months, underwent cross-sectional surveys. The 143 entertainers (42% not always using condoms, 58% always using condoms) had median age (23), duration in sex work (7 months), education (9 years), and 29% were married/had live-in boyfriends. In a logistic multiple regression model, social-structural vs. individual factors were associated with inconsistent condom use: being forced/deceived into sex work, less manager contact, less STI/HIV prevention knowledge acquired from medical personnel/professionals, not following a co-workers' condom use advice, and an interaction between establishment type and alcohol use with establishment guests. Interventions should consider the effects of physical (force/deception into work), social (peer, manager influence), and policy (STI/HIV prevention knowledge acquired from medical personnel/professionals) environments on consistent condom use.

  18. Everywhere You Go, Everyone Is Saying Condom, Condom. but Are They Being Used Consistently? Reflections of South African Male Students about Male and Female Condom Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mantell, Joanne E.; Smit, Jennifer A.; Beksinska, Mags; Scorgie, Fiona; Milford, Cecilia; Balch, Erin; Mabude, Zonke; Smith, Emily; Adams-Skinner, Jessica; Exner, Theresa M.; Hoffman, Susie; Stein, Zena A.

    2011-01-01

    Young men in South Africa can play a critical role in preventing new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections, yet are seldom targeted for HIV prevention. While reported condom use at last sex has increased considerably among young people, consistent condom use remains a challenge. In this study, 74 male higher education students gave their…

  19. Coital frequency and condom use in monogamous and concurrent sexual relationships in Cape Town, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Delva, Wim; Meng, Fei; Beauclair, Roxanne; Deprez, Nele; Temmerman, Marleen; Welte, Alex; Hens, Niel

    2013-01-01

    Introduction A decreased frequency of unprotected sex during episodes of concurrent relationships may dramatically reduce the role of concurrency in accelerating the spread of HIV. Such a decrease could be the result of coital dilution – the reduction in per-partner coital frequency from additional partners – and/or increased condom use during concurrency. To study the effect of concurrency on the frequency of unprotected sex, we examined sexual behaviour data from three communities with high HIV prevalence around Cape Town, South Africa. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey from June 2011 to February 2012 using audio computer-assisted self-interviewing to reconstruct one-year sexual histories, with a focus on coital frequency and condom use. Participants were randomly sampled from a previous TB and HIV prevalence survey. Mixed effects logistic and Poisson regression models were fitted to data from 527 sexually active adults reporting on 1210 relationship episodes to evaluate the effect of concurrency status on consistent condom use and coital frequency. Results The median of the per-partner weekly average coital frequency was 2 (IQR: 1–3), and consistent condom use was reported for 36% of the relationship episodes. Neither per-partner coital frequency nor consistent condom use changed significantly during episodes of concurrency (aIRR=1.05; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.99–1.24 and aOR=1.01; 95% CI: 0.38–2.68, respectively). Being male, coloured, having a tertiary education, and having a relationship between 2 weeks and 9 months were associated with higher coital frequencies. Being coloured, and having a relationship lasting for more than 9 months, was associated with inconsistent condom use. Conclusions We found no evidence for coital dilution or for increased condom use during concurrent relationship episodes in three communities around Cape Town with high HIV prevalence. Given the low levels of self-reported consistent condom use, our

  20. Barriers to condom use among women attending planned parenthood clinics.

    PubMed

    Detzer, M J; Wendt, S J; Solomon, L J; Dorsch, E; Geller, B M; Friedman, J; Hauser, H; Flynn, B S; Dorwaldt, A L

    1995-01-01

    Assessed condom use, barriers to condom use, oral contraceptive use, partnership status and STD history in 457 15-30 year-old women attending four family planning clinics. Subjects were classified into three condom use groups: Non Users (37%); Current Users (33%); and Past Users (30%). Factor analysis revealed five barriers to condom use: Partner's Perception, Peer's Perception, Pleasure/Intimacy, Communication, and Low Perceived Need. Multivariate analyses revealed significant group differences on only two barrier factors: Pleasure/Intimacy and Low Perceived Need. Low Perceived Need accounted for 13.5% of the variance in condom use. Women with low perceived need to use condoms were more likely to use oral contraceptives.

  1. Effectiveness of condoms in preventing sexually transmitted infections.

    PubMed

    Holmes, King K; Levine, Ruth; Weaver, Marcia

    2004-06-01

    In June 2000, the United States National Institutes of Health (NIH) organized a review of the scientific evidence on the effectiveness of condoms in preventing sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The review concluded that condoms were effective in protecting against transmission of HIV to women and men and in reducing the risk of men becoming infected with gonorrhoea. Evidence for the effectiveness of condoms in preventing other STIs was considered to be insufficient. We review the findings of prospective studies published after June 2000 that evaluated the effectiveness of condoms in preventing STIs. We searched Medline for publications in English and included other articles, reports, and abstracts of which we were aware. These prospective studies, published since June 2000, show that condom use is associated with statistically significant protection of men and women against several other types of STIs, including chlamydial infection, gonorrhoea, herpes simplex virus type 2, and syphilis. Condoms may also be associated with protecting women against trichomoniasis. While no published prospective study has found protection against genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, two studies reported that condom use was associated with higher rates of regression of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and clearance of cervical HPV infection in women and with regression of HPV-associated penile lesions in men. Research findings available since the NIH review add considerably to the evidence of the effectiveness of condoms against STIs. Although condoms are not 100% effective, partial protection can substantially reduce the spread of STIs within populations.

  2. Special report: the truth about condoms. Barriers to better condom "killing people"; regulatory, political hurdles stifle development.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    The condom industry in the US is dominated by Carter Wallace and the London International Group. They offer very little product differentiation. Ten years ago, however, two engineers in a small California laboratory began working on a nonlatex condom which would be both stronger and more sensitive than the traditional male latex condom. Their efforts resulted in the development of the polyurethane Avanti condom currently being marketed in thirteen states of the Western US. Made by London International Group plc in Cambridge, England, Avanti should be available nationwide as of April 1995. The public, however, has received only very little information about the product and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is concerned about the safety and efficacy of polyurethane/plastic condoms. Six other condom manufacturers are developing plastic condoms, with at least five such condoms awaiting FDA premarket clearance to be marketed. Recent delays in marketing Avanti are due to disagreements between the manufacturer and the FDA over labeling. Other delays have involved safety and efficacy concerns. Bob Kohmescher, public health analyst with the US Centers for Disease Control office of the assistant director of HIV/AIDS, notes that even his agency is moving slower than expected on the polyurethane condom and has not reached a consensus over how to describe them. In the effort to protect themselves, FDA officials have insisted upon labeling which recommends plastic condoms for use by only people who are allergic to latex. These labeling guidelines, finalized in November, are so restrictive that some manufacturers cannot take their products to market. Despite these current FDA obstacles to bringing a higher quality condom to the US market, industry experts and health officials hope that the polyurethane and other plastic condoms will expand the practice of safer sex, while providing an alternative method of barrier protection for the estimated 1-2 million American adults

  3. Condom use self-efficacy and HIV risk practices among men who use the internet to find male partners for unprotected sex.

    PubMed

    Klein, Hugh

    2014-05-01

    This research examines the levels of condom use self-efficacy in a population of men who have sex with men who are at great risk for contracting/transmitting HIV. It focuses on the relationship between condom use self-efficacy and risk involvement, and examines the factors associated with greater/lower levels of condom use self-efficacy. The data come from a national sample of men, randomly chosen, who used any of 16 websites specifically to identify other men with whom they could engage in unprotected sex. Data were collected between January 2008 and May 2009 from 332 men, via telephone interviews. Multivariate analyses and structural equation modeling were used to test a conceptual model based on syndemics theory. Overall levels of condom use self-efficacy were fairly high, and self-efficacy was related inversely to involvement in HIV risk practices. Six factors were found to be indicative of levels of condom use self-efficacy: the number of drug problems experienced, sexual role identity as a "bottom," not caring about the HIV serostatus of potential sex partners, experiencing childhood maltreatment, having confidence in HIV-related information provided in other men's online profiles, and level of HIV knowledge. Condom use self-efficacy plays an integral role in HIV risk practices among high-risk men who have sex with men. This is true despite the fact that, overall, condom use self-efficacy levels were fairly high in this population.

  4. Anabolic-androgenic steroids and condom use: potential mechanisms in adolescent males.

    PubMed

    Blashill, Aaron J; Gordon, Janna R; Safren, Steven A

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has revealed a significant bivariate relationship between anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) use and reduced condom use among adolescent boys. However, to date, no known studies have explored the psychological mechanisms that may explain this relationship. Thus, the current study sought to examine two possible mediators in the association between AAS and condom use: depressive symptoms and substance use. Data were extracted from a nationally representative sample of U.S. adolescents. Participants were 3,780 U.S. high school boys who responded to self-report items assessing a number of health behaviors, including symptoms of depression, substance use, AAS use, and use of condoms during their most recent act of intercourse. Both depression and substance use were significant mediators in the relationship between AAS and condom use. However, when these effects were contrasted, the indirect effect of substance use was significantly stronger in magnitude than the effect of depression. Although AAS use was associated with sexual risk behaviors among adolescent boys, significant variance in this relationship was accounted for by elevated levels of depression and substance use, with substance use demonstrating a particularly salient pathway.

  5. Condom vending machines in Canada's secondary schools.

    PubMed

    Kerr, D L

    1990-03-01

    A case study of 1 of the 3 school boards approving in 1989 installation of condom machines is presented: The Lisgar Collegiate Institute, Ottawa, Canada. The school is characterized as having 1000 college preparatory students from middle and upper middle class homes and university educated parents. The project was student initiated and involved 1) meeting with communication consultants to determine feasibility, 2) conducting an informal peer consultation to seek out interest and support, 3) meeting with public health officials to gain support and ideas, and 4) conducting research. Condom machine installation (2) was only 1 component; a pilot sexuality education program was included as well. The student proposal was presented and rejected by the principal and the Superintendent of Student Services. Students then lobbied the school board trustees. 2 students lobbies each school board member. Letters of support were obtained from parents' advisory groups, parents, the student council, and other influential people. The media provided coverage in a popular morning television show. The student proposal was submitted to the Board of Education's Education Committee in June 1989; students were assisted by teachers and the Parents Advisory Committee. The school board approved. In the fall of 1989, sexuality awareness week was designated as October 30-November 3. Parents were asked for comments on the designated program, but only 50 contributed in a supportive way. During this week lunch-hour displays and videos, peer-facilitated discussion groups, informal talks by experts, and student theater presentations were sponsored activities. Following this event, the school board arranged for the installment of machines in the men's and women's washrooms near where social events were held and in toilet cubicles in order to provide privacy, as requested by students. The individual cost is US$1/condom. Evaluation is planned. Students have been amused by the amount of public response

  6. Aid cutoff threatens condom program in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Barron, T

    1991-01-01

    The Pressler Amendment, a law prohibiting US assistance to any country that does not sign the UN Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty, is forcing USAID to shut down its highly successful Social Marketing of Contraceptives (SMC) program in Pakistan. Adopted in 1985, the amendment calls for an end of funding for projects in Pakistan as of fiscal year 1991, since the country has refused to sign the treaty. Only previously committed funds have kept SMC running, but it may soon have a close shop. The cutoff comes at an especially inopportune time--just when SMC had begun to make an impact. Introduced 5 years ago, Sathi condoms (the project's main product) account for 2/3 of all condoms used in Pakistan. Sales jumped from 30 million in 1978 to 74 million last year. SMC administrators explain that the country has a vast potential for social marketing. But because of the cutoff in aid, the program will exhaust its supply of condoms by March 1992. The end of the SMC program will mean a serious setback for Pakistan, which already has the 2nd largest population in southern Asia, and which has double the fertility of the most populous country in the region, India. Only 7% of the women in Pakistan rely on a modern method of contraception, compared to 42% in India and 26% in Bangladesh. USAID officials explain that the organization is working with the Pakistani government to find ways to continue funding the program after US funds run out. They add that this development will provide Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif an opportunity to demonstrate his stated commitment to curb population growth.

  7. Violence, condom breakage and HIV infection among female sex workers in Benin, West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Tounkara, Fatoumata K.; Diabaté, Souleymane; Guédou, Fernand A.; Ahoussinou, Clément; Kintin, Frédéric; Zannou, Djimon M.; Kpatchavi, Adolphe; Bédard, Emmanuelle; Bietra, Raphaël; Alary, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between violence, condom breakage and HIV prevalence among female sex workers (FSWs). Methods Data were obtained from the 2012 cross-sectional integrated biological and behavioural survey conducted in Benin. Multivariable log-binomial regression was used to estimate the adjusted prevalence ratios (APRs) of HIV infection and condom breakage in relation to violence towards FSWs. A score was created to examine the relationship between the number of violence types reported and HIV infection. Results Among the 981 women who provided a blood sample, HIV prevalence was 20.4%. During the last month, 17.2%, 13.5% and 33.5% of them had experienced physical, sexual and psychological violence, respectively. In addition, 15.9% reported at least one condom breakage during the previous week. There was a significant association between all types of violence and HIV prevalence. The APRs of HIV were 1.45 (95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 1.05 – 2.00), 1.42 (95%CI: 1.02 – 1.98), and 1.41 (95%CI: 1.08 – 1.41) among those who had ever experienced physical, sexual and psychological violence, respectively. HIV prevalence increased with the violence score (p=0.002, test for trend), and physical and sexual violence were independently associated with condom breakage (p values 0.010 and 0.003, respectively). Conclusion The results show that violence is associated with a higher HIV prevalence among FSWs and that condom breakage is a potential mediator for this association. Longitudinal studies designed to analyse this relationship and specific interventions integrated to current HIV prevention strategies are needed to reduce the burden of violence among FSWs. PMID:24722385

  8. Lights, Camera, Condoms! Assessing College Men's Attitudes toward Condom Use in Pornography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraus, Shane W.; Rosenberg, Harold

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Investigate male college students' attitudes toward actors' use of condoms in pornography. Participants: Two hundred thirteen undergraduate males attending a large, state-supported midwestern university in the fall semester, 2012. Methods: Using a Web-based procedure, participants completed questionnaires assessing their pornography…

  9. Gender Differences in AIDS-Relevant Condom Attitudes and Condom Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sacco, William P.; And Others

    Many heterosexuals have not altered their sexual practices in response to the threat of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Knowledge of risk alone appears to have little effect on altering sexual behavior; more complex psychological factors seem to be involved. Condom use to prevent the spread of Human Immunodeficiency Virus is a unique…

  10. Social marketing campaign swaps condoms for bottle tops.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    PSI, a non-profit organization based in the United States, uses private sector condom marketing programs to provide condoms to developing countries at low cost to help stem the spread of AIDS. PSI started promoting condoms in the CAR in November 1991. 150,000 Prudence brand condoms were sold in the 1st month. The price for a pack of 4 was far below that charged by private pharmacies. PSI turned to a collaborative venture with Societe Centrafricaine des Boissons (SCB), a local drinks manufacturer. In a joint campaign in April 1992, 4 packs of condoms were exchanged for 5 tops from SCB bottles. At markets and bars promotional items were given away during condom demonstration contests. SCB bought all the condoms from PSI and financed all the publicity. Similar promotion launched the improved Prudence Plus condom in December. Cumulative sales of Prudence and Plus condoms in the CAR now exceed 1 million. Another marketing idea was to commission a textile company called UCATEX to design a fabric based on the Prudence logo. 1600 lengths of cotton cloth were printed and sold. There was also Operation Taxi Bus. PSI's team broadcast twice on the taxi association's weekly radio show about AIDS prevention, the importance of condoms, and the Prudence brand. Then, every morning for a week, PSI promoters put stickers on as many taxis as possible. Every driver agreeing to display a sticker was entitled to receive 2 packets of Prudence for personal use. The 450 taxis with stickers now in a city of 500,000 are an effective promotion network. In order to prevent a gap in supply before PSI receives its long-term funding from a US donor, The World Health Organization recently bought 500,000 Prudence condoms for PSI to distribute.

  11. Men's Alcohol Intoxication and Condom Use during Sexual Assault Perpetration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Kiekel, Preston A.; Schraufnagel, Trevor J.; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H.; Kajumulo, Kelly F.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the association between alcohol consumption and condom use during penetrative sexual assault acts perpetrated by young adult men. Men aged 21 to 35 who reported inconsistent condom use and heavy episodic drinking (N = 225) completed a questionnaire assessing their perpetration of sexual assault since the age of 15, their consumption of…

  12. The pleasure principle: the effect of perceived pleasure loss associated with condoms on unprotected anal intercourse among immigrant Latino men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, Sarah K; Reisen, Carol A; Zea, Maria Cecilia; Poppen, Paul J; Bianchi, Fernanda T

    2012-07-01

    Sexual pleasure has been identified as an important consideration in decision-making surrounding condom use. We examined the impact of perceived pleasure loss associated with condom use on recent history of insertive and receptive unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) among Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) living in the United States. A total of 482 Dominican, Colombian, and Brazilian immigrant MSM were surveyed regarding sexual attitudes and practices via computer-assisted self-interviewing technology with audio enhancement (ACASI). Participants rated the pleasure they derived from protected and unprotected anal intercourse in each position (insertive and receptive) and also reported their HIV status, relationship status, and recent sexual history. Men who had engaged in both positions, with and without condoms (n=268), perceived a greater pleasure loss associated with condoms during anal intercourse in the insertive versus receptive position. Logistic regression analyses controlling for HIV status, relationship status, and age revealed that men who perceived greater pleasure loss from condoms were more likely to have engaged in UAI over the past 3 months (n[insertive]=297; n[receptive]=284). Findings indicate that the pleasure loss associated with condoms may be a key deterrent for their use in either sex position among Latino MSM. Therefore, pleasure needs to be prioritized in the development of condoms and other sexual safety measures as well as in the promotion of their use.

  13. Patterns of Oral Contraceptive Pill-taking and Condom Use among Adolescent Contraceptive Pill Users

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Jennifer L.; Shew, Marcia L.; Tu, Wanzhu; Ofner, Susan; Ott, Mary A.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Imperfect oral contraceptive pill (OCP) regimen adherence may impair contraceptive effectiveness. The purpose of this study was to describe daily adherence patterns of OCP use, to analyze OCP protection on an event level basis, and to examine pill-taking and condom use during method transitions. Methods Women (n = 123, ages 14–17 years) completed quarterly interviews to classify OCP method choice into four categories: stable, initiated, stopped, and discordant use. Within each OCP category, daily diaries were used to assess occurrence of coitus, condom use, and patterns of day-to-day OCP use (i.e., consecutive days of OCP use reported with no more than two consecutive days of nonuse). A coital event was OCP protected if pills were used on both the day of the coitus and the day preceding. Results There were 123 participants who reported at least some OCP use in 210 diary periods (average diary length = 75.5 days). Fifty-three participants categorized as stable users reported 87 diary periods: the average interval of consecutive OCP use in this group was 32.5 days. Among stable users, only 45% of coital events were associated with both OCP and condom use. Over one-fifth of coital events in all groups were protected by no method of contraception. Conclusion Dual use of OCP and barrier contraception remains an elusive goal. The time during OCP adoption or discontinuation is often unprotected by condoms. However, concurrent missed pills and condom nonuse increase pregnancy and infection risk even among stable OCP users. Understanding motivation for method usage may improve education and prevention techniques. PMID:16919800

  14. Individual and Partner-Level Factors Associated with Condom Non-Use Among African American STI Clinic Attendees in the Deep South: An Event-Level Analysis.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Brandon D L; Perez-Brumer, Amaya G; MacCarthy, Sarah; Mena, Leandro; Chan, Philip A; Towey, Caitlin; Barnett, Nancy; Parker, Sharon; Barnes, Arti; Brinkley-Rubinstein, Lauren; Rose, Jennifer S; Nunn, Amy S

    2016-06-01

    The US HIV/AIDS epidemic is concentrated in the Deep South, yet factors contributing to HIV transmission are not fully understood. We examined relationships between substance use, sexual partnership characteristics, and condom non-use in an African American sample of STI clinic attendees in Jackson, Mississippi. We assessed condom non-use at last intercourse with up to three recent sexual partners reported by participants between January and June 2011. Participant- and partner-level correlates of condom non-use were examined using generalized estimating equations. The 1295 participants reported 2880 intercourse events, of which 1490 (51.7 %) involved condom non-use. Older age, lower educational attainment, reporting financial or material dependence on a sex partner, sex with a primary partner, and higher frequency of sex were associated with increased odds of condomless sex. HIV prevention efforts in the South should address underlying socioeconomic disparities and structural determinants that result in partner dependency and sexual risk behavior.

  15. High-Stakes Tests: Comparative Study Examining the Impact on the Achievement Gap that Causes Minority Students Continued Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor-Smith, Carol J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this comparative qualitative study examined the impact of the achievement gap on the lack of highly qualified teachers instructing African American students consistently from K-12th grades and its effects on high-stakes testing. In addition, the study examined teacher perceptions that could also be contributing factors of the…

  16. Condom distribution in Bali: assuring supply meets demand.

    PubMed

    Merati, T P

    1994-01-01

    Hundreds of thousands of tourists visit Bali each year, many of whom pay to have sex with local residents. Kuta, one of Bali's major tourist resort towns, has manifested an higher demand for condoms than other studied areas in Indonesia. Such demand is laudable in the context of a growing HIV/AIDS epidemic, but demand must encounter supply to be worthwhile. The Citra Usadha Indonesia Foundation (YCUI) has been conducting outreach education in Kuta and other areas of Bali since February 1992. Over that time, outreach workers have found that street youths' and prostitutes' main sources for condoms, pharmacies, supermarkets, and YCUI outreach workers, are either closed or potentially unavailable at night, when most sexual transactions occur. Pharmacies and supermarkets close at 10 pm. YCUI therefore initiated a six-month condom distribution program in 1994 to encourage the approximately 150 street vendors working in Kuta to sell condoms. Street vendors who enrolled in the program were provided with a monthly supply of 30 free condoms for the period of six months and invited to sell them to the public at whatever price the market set. Concurrently, YCUI promoted condom sales and increased awareness of the new condom source through social marketing techniques and their network of outreach workers. After six months, 122 vendors had participated in the program selling 10,255 condoms. Vendors were able to sell more and more condoms as the program progressed. A final evaluation will be conducted October 1994 to determine how many vendors still sell condoms now that the free supplies have been discontinued.

  17. Sexual health and use of condoms among local and international sex workers in Sydney.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, C C; Berry, G; Rohrsheim, R; Donovan, B

    1996-02-01

    This study analyzes data on all female sex workers who attended the Sydney Sexual Health Center for a first visit for a sexually transmitted disease (STD) screening during June 1, 1991, and May 31, 1993. International sex workers were identified as women who do not speak English at home and were born outside Australia. Diseases were confirmed clinically, by specimen or culture or by antibody or serological tests. Results apply to 91 local and 123 international prostitutes. 47% of international prostitutes and 34% of local prostitutes were aged 21-25 years. Most international sex workers spoke Thai or a Chinese dialect. 10% of local prostitutes were born in Asia. 90% of international prostitutes were born in Thailand, Malaysia, or China. Local prostitutes were better educated. 7% of the local prostitutes and none of the international sex workers had a history of injectable drug use. Local prostitutes tended to use condoms for birth control, and international prostitutes tended to use oral contraceptives. One international prostitute tested HIV positive. 1 in 7 international prostitutes had gonorrhea and the same proportion had chlamydia. Viral STDs (chronic hepatitis B, HIV infection, and genital warts) were more prevalent, but uncommon among international prostitutes. More international prostitutes had multiple STDs. 79 international sex workers and only 9 local sex workers had an STD. 47% of international sex workers and only 10% of local sex workers had worked overseas as a prostitute in the preceding 12 months. Over half of local sex workers and only 8% of international sex workers consistently used condoms. Failure to use condoms was associated with being an international sex worker. Inconsistent use of condoms among local prostitutes was related to increased age.

  18. Carter-Wallace debuts new polyurethane condom in U.S.

    PubMed

    1999-07-01

    Condom users in the US will have a choice in male polyurethane condoms when Carter-Wallace of Cranbury, New Jersey, introduces its first polyurethane condom, the Trojan Supra Microsheer, in July 1999. The Trojan condom joins the Durex Avanti from the London International Group of London, England, as the only nonlatex synthetic male condoms available in the US. The sole female condom, Reality, from the Female Health Co. of Chicago, is also made of polyurethane. The condom is manufactured through a dipping process of an aliphatic polyurethane material, which results in a condom that has higher tensile strength and break force than a latex condom. Furthermore, condoms manufactured from polyurethane and other plastics enhance sensitivity, do not cause allergic reactions, and are compatible with oil-based lubricants. Sensicon Corporation and Mayer Laboratories are also planning to introduce nonlatex condoms in the country.

  19. Modelling condom use: Does the theory of planned behaviour explain condom use in a low risk, community sample?

    PubMed

    Thomas, Joanna; Shiels, Chris; Gabbay, Mark B

    2014-01-01

    To date, most condom research has focused on young or high-risk groups, with little evidence about influences on condom use amongst lower-risk community samples. These groups are not risk free and may still wish to negotiate safer sex; yet the considerations involved could be different from those in higher-risk groups. Our research addresses this gap: We report a cross-sectional questionnaire study enquiring about recent condom use and future use intentions in community settings. Our sample (n = 311) purposively included couples in established relationships, known to be condom users. Items included demographics, sexual history and social-cognitive variables taken from the theory of planned behaviour. The strongest association with condom use/use intentions amongst our respondents was sexual partner's perceived willingness to use them. This applied across both univariate and multivariate analyses. Whilst most social-cognitive variables (attitudes; self-efficacy and peer social norms) were significant in univariate analyses, this was not supported in multivariate regression. Of the social-cognitive variables, only "condom-related attitudes" were retained in the model explaining recent condom use, whilst none of them entered the model explaining future use intentions. Further analysis showed that attitudes concerning pleasure, identity stigma and condom effectiveness were most salient for this cohort. Our results suggest that, in community samples, the decision to use a condom involves different considerations from those highlighted in previous research. Explanatory models for established couples should embrace interpersonal perspectives, emphasising couple-factors rather than individual beliefs. Messages to this cohort could usefully focus on negotiation skills, condom advantages (other than disease prevention) and reducing the stigma associated with use.

  20. Social marketing of condoms in India.

    PubMed

    Thapa, S; Prasad, C V; Rao, P H; Severy, L J; Rao, S R

    1994-01-01

    Contraceptive social marketing is a way of supplying contraceptives to consumers who cannot afford to buy them at full market price, yet are not reached by the free public distribution program. The process involves supplying a subsidized product through existing commercial distribution networks, using the mass media and other retail marketing techniques to commercially advertise the products. India was the first country to introduce this concept to its family planning program. India's social marketing program is also the largest in the world. Over the past 25 years, total condom sales in India have expanded under the program from less than 10 million per year to more than one billion. The authors present an overview of India's social marketing initiative, describe the firms participating in the program, and summarize the lessons learned from the social marketing experience. Problems and prospects, and experiences and implications are discussed.

  1. Beyond the Condom: Frontiers in Male Contraception.

    PubMed

    Roth, Mara Y; Amory, John K

    2016-05-01

    Nearly half of all pregnancies worldwide are unplanned, despite numerous contraceptive options available. No new contraceptive method has been developed for men since the invention of condom. Nevertheless, more than 25% of contraception worldwide relies on male methods. Therefore, novel effective methods of male contraception are of interest. Herein we review the physiologic basis for both male hormonal and nonhormonal methods of contraception. We review the history of male hormonal contraception development, current hormonal agents in development, as well as the potential risks and benefits of male hormonal contraception options for men. Nonhormonal methods reviewed will include both pharmacological and mechanical approaches in development, with specific focus on methods which inhibit the testicular retinoic acid synthesis and action. Multiple hormonal and nonhormonal methods of male contraception are in the drug development pathway, with the hope that a reversible, reliable, safe method of male contraception will be available to couples in the not too distant future.

  2. Examining Older Adults’ Perceptions of Usability and Acceptability of Remote Monitoring Systems to Manage Chronic Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Evangelista, Lorraine S.; Moser, Debra K.; Lee, Jung-Ah; Moore, Alison A.; Ghasemzadeh, Hassan; Sarrafzadeh, Majid; Mangione, Carol M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility, usability, and acceptability of using remote monitoring systems (RMS) in monitoring health status (e.g., vital signs, symptom distress) in older adults (≥55) with chronic heart failure (HF). Method: Twenty-one patients (52.4% women, mean age 73.1 ± 9.3) were trained to measure and transmit health data with an RMS. Data transmissions were tracked for 12 weeks. Results: All participants initiated use of RMS within 1 week; 71%, 14%, and 14% of patients transmitted daily health data 100%, ≥75%, and <75% of the time, respectively, for 12 weeks. Overall usability and acceptability of the RMS were 4.08 ± 0.634 and 4.10 ± 0.563, respectively (when scored on a range of 1-5, where 1 = strongly disagree and 5 = strongly agree). Discussion: Findings show that an RMS-based intervention can be successfully implemented in a group of older patients with chronic HF. PMID:28138479

  3. Using the theory of reasoned action (TRA) to understand the decision to use condoms in an STD clinic population.

    PubMed

    Baker, S A; Morrison, D M; Carter, W B; Verdon, M S

    1996-11-01

    The theory of reasoned action (TRA) provides useful information when designing health education interventions. In this study, 703 heterosexual STD clinic clients responded to a TRA-based survey. With steady partners, social norms and attitudes toward condom use were significant predictors of intention for both men and women. The interaction of attitude and norm increased prediction for men (R = .64, p < 0.001) and women (R = .70, p < 0.001). With casual partners, attitude was a predictor for men and social norm was a predictor for women. Prior use of condoms increased prediction for men (R = .38, p < 0.001) and women (R = .47, p < 0.001). Findings suggest that, in addition to traditional TRA model variables, the relationship between sexual partners and the individual's prior experience with condom use should be incorporated into attempts to understand this complex, dyadic behavior. Examining specific outcome and normative beliefs also provides important information for intervention design.

  4. Factors Associated with HIV Discussion and Condom Use with Sexual Partners in an Underserved Community in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Conserve, Donaldson F.; Middelkoop, Keren; King, Gary; Bekker, Linda-Gail

    2016-01-01

    We examined factors associated with discussing HIV and condom use with a sexual partner. Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted in 2004 prior to the implementation of an HIV awareness campaign in a South African community and in 2008 after a three-year education program. Overall, the proportion of individuals who had discussed HIV with a sexual partner increased from 76% in 2004 to 89% in 2008 (p < .001). Among respondents who had sex six months before completing the surveys, condom use significantly increased from 64% in 2004 to 79% in 2008 (p < .05). Respondents who discussed HIV with a sexual partner were more likely to use condoms than respondents who had not discussed HIV with a sexual partner (OR=2.08, 95% CI=1.16, 3.72). These findings indicate the importance of interventions aimed at promoting HIV awareness and discussion of HIV in communities with individuals at risk of acquiring HIV. PMID:27698549

  5. Condom use negotiation in heterosexual African American adults: responses to types of social power-based strategies.

    PubMed

    Otto-Salaj, Laura; Reed, Barbara; Brondino, Michael J; Gore-Felton, Cheryl; Kelly, Jeffrey A; Stevenson, L Yvonne

    2008-01-01

    This study examined gender differences and preferences in the use of and response to six different styles of condom use negotiation with a hypothetical sexual partner of the opposite gender. Participants were 51 heterosexually active African American adults attending an inner-city community center. Participants completed a semistructured qualitative interview in which they were presented with six negotiation strategies based on Raven's 1992 Power/Interaction Model of Interpersonal Influence. Results showed that female participants responded best to referent, reward, and legitimate strategies, and worst to informational tactics. Male participants responded best to reward strategies, and worst to coercion to use condoms. Further, responses given by a subset of participants indicated that use of negotiation tactics involving coercion to use condoms may result in negative or angry reactions. Response to strategies may vary with the value of the relationship as viewed by the target of negotiation. Implications for HIV prevention efforts are discussed.

  6. Association between perceived social norm and condom use among people living with HIV/AIDS in Guangzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qian; Wu, Yan; Hong, Yan Alicia; Yang, Cui; Cai, Weiping; Zhu, Yajing; Guo, Zihan; Guo, Yan

    2017-01-01

    The number of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) has been increasing in China. Previous studies have examined the association between social norms and risk behaviors among high-risk populations for HIV infection. However, little is known about social norms and condom use among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). This study sought to investigate the relationship between perceived social norms on condom use and inconsistent condom use among PLWHA. A cross-sectional survey was conducted through convenience sampling among 412 PLWHA between March and June 2013 in Guangzhou, China. Descriptive norm of condom use was measured as perception of number of friends thinking it necessary to use condoms when having sex. About three-fourths (n = 301, 73.1%) of the PLWHA were sexually active since HIV diagnosis. Among the sexually active PLWHA, the average age was 36.5 years; about two-thirds were male; the majority was Han ethnic (92.7%); 55.5% discussed condom use with their friends and the rate of inconsistent condom use in the last three sexual encounters was 29.2%. In the multivariate logistic regression, PLWHA who perceived more of their friends' approval of condom use were less likely to engage in unprotected sex than their counterparts (aOR = 0.25, p = .001). Those whose family members were aware of their HIV infection status were less likely to engage in unprotected sex than their counterparts (aOR = 0.17, p < .001). Those who lived with family members were more likely to have unprotected sex than those who lived with friends (aOR = 8.47, p = .007). The results underscore the importance of developing culturally appropriate social norm-based HIV interventions among PLWHA. Future interventions focused on changing social norms on risk behaviors in the social network of PLWHA have the potential to reduce risk behaviors and to promote condom use among PLWHA.

  7. Planned condom use among women undergoing tubal sterilization.

    PubMed

    Sangi-Haghpeykar, H; Poindexter, A N

    1998-08-01

    Women undergoing tubal sterilization are at risk of various sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) if they do not use a barrier method of contraception. The authors investigated the planned use of condoms for protection against STDs among 2782 women undergoing surgical sterilization during 1991-96 at the Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, Texas. The women were 18-50 years old (mean age, 30.3 years); 62% were Hispanic, 20% Black, and 17% White. 31% reported being unmarried, the mean level of educational attainment was 9.8 years, and 20% had a known risk factor for HIV. 646 of the women reported regular condom use during the 3 months before being sterilized, of whom 45% had no plans to continue their practice after becoming sterilized. 11% of the total sample therefore planned to stop using condoms once sterilized. Among Hispanic, White, and Black women, respectively, 55%, 36%, and 18% planned to stop condom use once sterilized. Also, among former condom users, 54% of married women and 21% of unmarried women planned to abandon condom use. Factors found through multiple regression analysis to be associated with future condom use were younger age, being Black, unmarried status, having previously had a STD, not having a steady sex partner, having a relatively higher number of previous sex partners, having ever used condoms to prevent disease, and lack of partner involvement in the decision to be sterilized. The planned future use of condoms among women undergoing sterilization increased steadily and significantly from 1991 to 1996, irrespective of age, marital status, or ethnic background.

  8. Predictors of condom use among peer social networks of men who have sex with men in Ghana, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Nelson, LaRon E; Wilton, Leo; Agyarko-Poku, Thomas; Zhang, Nanhua; Zou, Yuanshu; Aluoch, Marilyn; Apea, Vanessa; Hanson, Samuel Owiredu; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw

    2015-01-01

    Ghanaian men who have sex with men (MSM) have high rates of HIV infection. A first step in designing culturally relevant prevention interventions for MSM in Ghana is to understand the influence that peer social networks have on their attitudes and behaviors. We aimed to examine whether, in a sample of Ghanaian MSM, mean scores on psychosocial variables theorized to influence HIV/STI risk differed between peer social networks and to examine whether these variables were associated with condom use. We conducted a formative, cross-sectional survey with 22 peer social networks of MSM (n = 137) in Ghana. We assessed basic psychological-needs satisfaction, HIV/STI knowledge, sense of community, HIV and gender non-conformity stigmas, gender equitable norms, sexual behavior and condom use. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance, generalized estimating equations, and Wilcoxon two sample tests. All models were adjusted for age and income, ethnicity, education, housing and community of residence. Mean scores for all psychosocial variables differed significantly by social network. Men who reported experiencing more autonomy support by their healthcare providers had higher odds of condom use for anal (AOR = 3.29, p<0.01), oral (AOR = 5.06, p<0.01) and vaginal (AOR = 1.8, p<0.05) sex. Those with a stronger sense of community also had higher odds of condom use for anal sex (AOR = 1.26, p<0.001). Compared to networks with low prevalence of consistent condom users, networks with higher prevalence of consistent condom users had higher STD and HIV knowledge, had norms that were more supportive of gender equity, and experienced more autonomy support in their healthcare encounters. Healthcare providers and peer social networks can have an important influence on safer-sex behaviors in Ghanaian MSM. More research with Ghanaian MSM is needed that considers knowledge, attitudes, and norms of their social networks in the development and implementation of culturally relevant HIV

  9. Relaying the message of safer sex: condom races for community-based skills training.

    PubMed

    Elkins, D B; Dole, L R; Maticka-Tyndale, E; Stam, K R

    1998-09-01

    This paper describes a community-based HIV prevention program designed to improve confidence in condom use skills by giving community members 'hands-on' experience in using condoms correctly. A condom race activity which had been effective in increasing condom skills confidence among university students in the US was modified and implemented with the general population in rural Northeast Thailand. In addition to providing training in condom use skills, the condom race was part of an integrated condom promotion and distribution campaign which responded to needs identified by the community, built upon the credibility and influence of local leaders and peers, and extended access to condoms into rural communities. Local leaders who had participated in a training-of-trainers program organized condom races in their communities, serving as positive role models for community acceptance of condom use. The condom race stimulated community discussion about condoms and increased participants' feelings of self-efficacy in correct condom use. Participation in the condom race activity was particularly empowering to women, who reported increased confidence in their ability to use condoms and to suggest using condoms with their partners after the race.

  10. Condom Use Trajectories in Adolescence and the Transition to Adulthood: The Role of Mother and Father Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pingel, Emily S.; Bauermeister, Jose A.; Elkington, Katherine S.; Fergus, Stevenson; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Zimmerman, Marc A.

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have investigated how mother and father support differ on predicting youths' sexual risk behavior. We therefore examined the influence of parental support on condom use trajectories and its correlates in a predominantly African-American sample (N = 627; 53% female participants; M = 14.86 years [SD = 0.64]) from adolescence to young…

  11. Exploring Gender Differences in the Relationship between HIV/STD Testing and Condom Use among Undergraduate College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bontempi, Jean Breny; Mugno, Raymond; Bulmer, Sandra M.; Danvers, Karina; Vancour, Michele L.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Rates of HIV/AIDS, and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), are increasing among university students. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine gender differences in the relationship between condom use and (1) HIV/STD testing behaviors, (2) STD treatment behaviors and, (3) alcohol use behaviors. Methods: A survey was…

  12. Safer Sex in a Digital World: A Web-Based Motivational Enhancement Intervention to Increase Condom Use among College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starosta, Amy J.; Cranston, Emma; Earleywine, Mitch

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study is a randomized trial of a Web-based intervention to increase condom use among college women. Participants: From October 2012 to March 2013, N = 422 completed baseline questionnaires and intervention procedures. n = 216 completed 3-month follow-up. Methods: Participants completed a decisional balance exercise examining their…

  13. Sociocultural and Behavioral Contexts of Condom Use in Heterosexual Married Couples in India: Challenges to the HIV Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhattacharya, Gauri

    2004-01-01

    This article examines sociocultural expectations of sexual behavior and the reasons why not using condoms may be logical to married heterosexual couples in India. Married women who report monogamous sexual relationships with their husbands are a high-risk group for HIV infection in India. Based on the public health model and a population-based…

  14. Impact of Beliefs about HIV Treatment and Peer Condom Norms on Risky Sexual Behavior among Gay and Bisexual Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, John L.; Bakeman, Roger

    2006-01-01

    The association between perceptions about condom use among one's peers, beliefs about new HIV treatments, and HIV sexual risk behavior was examined in a large urban sample ( N = 454) of gay and bisexual men in the Southeast. Results partially confirmed the hypothesis that men who endorsed new HIV treatment beliefs would report lower norms for…

  15. Interim modelling analysis to validate reported increases in condom use and assess HIV infections averted among female sex workers and clients in southern India following a targeted HIV prevention programme

    PubMed Central

    Foss, Anna M; Vickerman, Peter; Deering, Kathleen; Verma, Supriya; Demers, Eric; Washington, Reynold; Ramesh, BM; Moses, Stephen; Blanchard, Jamie; Lowndes, Catherine M; Alary, Michel; Reza-Paul, Sushena; Boily, Marie-Claude

    2010-01-01

    Objectives This study assesses whether the observed declines in HIV prevalence since the beginning of the ‘Avahan’ India HIV/AIDS prevention initiative are consistent with self-reported increases in condom use by female sex workers (FSWs) in two districts of southern India, and provides estimates of the fraction of new infections averted among FSWs and clients due to increases in condom use in commercial sex after 2004. Methods A deterministic compartmental model of HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) transmission incorporating heterogeneous sexual behaviour was developed, parameterised and fitted using data from two districts in Karnataka, India. Three hypotheses of condom use among FSWs were tested: (H0), that condom use increased in line with reported FSW survey data prior to the Avahan initiative but remained constant afterwards; (H1) that condom use increased following the Avahan initiative, in accordance with survey data; (H2) that condom use increased according to estimates derived from condom distribution data. The proportion of fits to HIV/STI prevalence data was examined to determine which hypothesis was most consistent. Results For Mysore 0/36/82.7 fits were identified per million parameter sets explored under hypothesis H0/H1/H2, respectively, while for Belgaum 9.7/8.3/0 fits were identified. The HIV epidemics in Belgaum and Mysore are both declining. In Mysore, increases in condom use during commercial sex between 2004 and 2009 may have averted 31.2% to 47.4% of new HIV infections in FSWs, while in Belgaum it may have averted 24.8% to 43.2%, if there was an increase in condom use. Discussion Increased condom use following the Avahan intervention is likely to have played a role in curbing the HIV epidemic in Mysore. In Belgaum, given the limitations in available data, this method cannot be used alone to decide if there has been an increase in condom use. PMID:20167728

  16. Study of characteristics of condom-acceptors using condom as first choice and alternative method of contraception in 1981-1987 at the NPFDB, GHKL.

    PubMed

    Low Boon Song

    1990-06-01

    Factors influencing condom acceptance were studied and compared in 2 groups of condom-acceptors--those using condoms as a 1st method of contraception and those using condoms as an alternative method of contraception. Data was obtained by reviewing the condom-acceptor cards during 1981-1987 at the General Hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 208 cards for the 1st group and 230 for the 2nd group were included in the study. Statistical analysis was conducted to determine characteristics influencing condom-use. AGe of wife, duration of marriage, number of living children, wife's level of education and socioeconomic status were identified as factors influencing condom acceptance. No significant difference was observed between the 2 group concerning their purpose of contraception. Age of wife had a significant influence on the use of condoms as contraception. Age of wife had a significant influence on the use of condoms as contraception; 74.5% of group 1 users were 31 years and 56.5% of group 2 users were 30 years. A very significant relationship also exist between condom use and duration of marriage and number of living children; condom-acceptors using condoms as the 1st method of contraception did so within 9 years of marriage (85.6%) and practiced condom use when they had 2 of children (73.6%) while those who used condoms subsequently were married 10 years (46.5%) and did so after having 3 or children (57.8%). Significant differences were observed between groups in higher socioeconomic status and higher level of education. With 7 or more years of education, a significant proportion of condom-acceptors used condoms as a 1st method of contraception as compared with those who used it as a subsequent method of contraception. For the higher socioeconomic, a significant number of acceptors used condoms as a 1st method of contraception.

  17. The Impact of Condom Use Negotiation Self-Efficacy and Partnership Patterns on Consistent Condom Use Among College-Educated Women.

    PubMed

    Nesoff, Elizabeth D; Dunkle, Kristin; Lang, Delia

    2016-02-01

    This study sought to explore the impact of condom negotiation self-efficacy, interpersonal factors, and sensational factors on condom use behavior among a population of college-educated women with different patterns and types of sexual partner. We administered an online questionnaire capturing sexual behavior, partnership patterns, perceived benefits of and barriers to condom use, and condom use negotiation self-efficacy. A total of 433 women completed the online survey. Perceived sensual, erotic, and interpersonal benefits and barriers to condom use, along with negotiation self-efficacy, were found to be significantly associated with consistent condom use. When compared to respondents reporting only main partners, respondents reporting only casual partners were more likely to use condoms while respondents reporting both main and casual partners were least likely to use condoms. Previous negative experiences with condoms were significantly associated with decreased condom use, while history of sexually transmitted infection diagnosis was not consistently associated with condom use. This study supports the importance of negotiation self-efficacy in promoting condom use; however, building women's self-efficacy is not enough for effective condom use promotion among women. The impact of interpersonal, sensual and erotic factors, as well as the context of different partnership patterns, must be considered in future interventions.

  18. Condom sales boom as Rwanda and Haiti struggle to rebuild.

    PubMed

    Dadian, M J

    1997-06-01

    Condom social marketing (CSM) programs have been extremely successful in Rwanda and Haiti despite political and economic chaos. Hundreds of small sales outlets have been established throughout Rwanda for CSM. Using commercial marketing techniques, affordable pricing, and existing retail networks to promote, distribute, and sell condoms, the AIDS Control and Prevention (AIDSCAP) Project's nonprofit CSM programs have created enormous demand for condoms even in places where resistance to them used to be extremely strong. Overcoming cultural barriers to condom use is one of the great challenges facing CSM programs throughout the world. Cooperation amid chaos, violent civil conflict in Rwanda, and partnerships with communities, nongovernmental organizations, and other community-based organizations are discussed.

  19. Condom use and the popular press in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Renne, E P

    1993-04-01

    The increased acceptability and use of condoms by men in southwestern Nigeria is reflected in joking references to condoms in the comic-style popular press. Yet these references display an ambivalence about condoms that is mirrored in survey data and in interviews regarding condom use by rural Ekiti Yoruba men. This ambivalence, which is often couched in terms of health, has implications for the acceptance of government-sponsored HIV/AIDS-related educational programs. Because of the irreverence of comic-style newspapers and the 'unofficial' nature of their authority which coincides with popular attitudes about health programs, they have a credibility that could be useful in educating adolescents about sexually-transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS.

  20. Men’s Intentions to Have Sex With a New Partner: Sexual and Emotional Responding, Alcohol, and Condoms

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, Amanda K.; George, William H.; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J.; Granato, Hollie F.; Davis, Kelly Cue; Norris, Jeanette; Heiman, Julia R.

    2016-01-01

    Findings regarding the relation between alcohol and intentions to have sex have been mixed, and little research has examined the role of condom availability on intentions to have sex. Sexual and emotional responding may influence subsequent sexual decisions. Thus, a better understanding of sexual and emotional responding combined with situational factors such as condom presence could help explain the discrepancies in findings regarding alcohol’s effect on intentions to have sex. The effects of alcohol and condom presence on men’s intentions to have sex were examined using an experimental paradigm involving an alcohol administration study and a second-person eroticized scenario. The effects of sexual and emotional responding were also examined in relation to intentions to have sex. It was found that alcohol increased positive mood, which was associated with higher intentions to have sex. In addition, condom presence was directly associated with higher intentions to have sex. More sexual desire was related to increased likelihood of sexual intentions. These findings increase understanding of mechanisms underlying the relation between alcohol and intentions to have sex. PMID:25529527

  1. [Historical reflections on health protection and the condom].

    PubMed

    Forrai, J

    1991-12-01

    The condom was first mentioned in a 1564 writing by Gabriel Fallopius as a means of protection against syphilis describing his tests on 1100 people. The name itself has been ascribed to the Latin word condere, Cum Domino, the French city of Condom, and doctor Quondom, the physician of the English King Charles II. The Marquis de Sade and Casanova used it to avoid venereal diseases (VDs). In London condom manufacturing started in the 18th century. Later it became a symbol of prostitution and immorality. The material used consisted of fish bladder or animal intestines (calf, sheep). The discovery of the rubber tree and the invention of vulcanization by the American technician Goodyear in 1840 made possible large-scale production. In Hungary the 1st rubber manufacturing plant EMERGE started production in 1893 along with toys and other wares. IN 1895 the HUngarian medial association warned about the spread of syphilis facilitated by the activities of 15,400 syphilitic prostitutes in the country. 30% of hospital patients had syphilis. The use of the condom was limited, and illegitimate births increased by 10.5% during the millennium celebrations of Hungary's existence in 1896. EMERGE manufactured condoms called Nono which were mostly distributed to soldiers during World War I, yet they had little popularity. US soldiers did not use the condoms either, as 7 million active days were lost due to VDs during World War II. In the 1950's Anna Ratko was Minister of Health in Hungary who opposed promotion of condoms to increase the population. The invention of penicillin in 1942 also pushed the condom to the background, but in the 1980's the epidemic of AIDS has made its use widespread.

  2. Predictors of intention to use condoms among Chinese college students.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ruiling; McAleese, Willis J; Appleby, Karen M; Guo, Jianhui; Zhang, Wei; Huang, Yi; Peterson, Teri

    2014-08-01

    China is experiencing one of the fastest growing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemics in the world. Condom use is consistently low among Chinese college students. The purpose of this study was to identify the predictors that determine the intention to use condoms among Chinese college students applying the theory of planned behavior (TPB). A non-probability convenience sample of 433 participants was drawn from three universities in Central, Eastern, and Southwestern China, respectively. An anonymous written questionnaire was self-administered. Data were collected and analyzed descriptively and statistically using Predictive Analytical Software 19.0. Multiple linear regression was performed to identify the predictors among 402 participants with non-missing data. Eighteen percent (78/433) of the participants reported being sexually active in the past 6 months. The percentage of times these individuals reported using condoms during intercourse was 38.19%. Intention to use condoms was statistically significantly (R(2) = 50.4%) predicted by attitudes (β = 0.213), subjective norms (β = 0.259), and perceived behavior control (PBC) (β = 0.332). All predictors were statistically significant at the 0.001 level (p < 0.001). PBC was the strongest predictor of intention to use condoms. The study findings indicated that the TPB could be used as a framework to determine the predictors of intention to use condoms among the Chinese college students. It is recommended that the HIV education programs should increase the intention to use condoms through promoting positive attitudes, subjective norms and PBC of condom use in Chinese college students.

  3. Making sense of condoms: social representations in young people's HIV-related narratives from six African countries.

    PubMed

    Winskell, Kate; Obyerodhyambo, Oby; Stephenson, Rob

    2011-03-01

    Condoms are an essential component of comprehensive efforts to control the HIV epidemic, both for those who know their status and for those who do not. Although young people account for almost half of all new HIV infections, reported condom use among them remains low in many sub-Saharan African countries. In order to inform education and communication efforts to increase condom use, we examined social representations of condoms among young people aged 10-24 in six African countries/regions with diverse HIV prevalence rates: Swaziland, Namibia, Kenya, South-East Nigeria, Burkina Faso, and Senegal. We used a unique data source, namely 11,354 creative ideas contributed from these countries to a continent-wide scriptwriting contest, held from 1(st) February to 15(th) April 2005, on the theme of HIV/AIDS. We stratified each country sample by the sex, age (10-14, 15-19, 20-24), and urban/rural location of the author and randomly selected up to 10 narratives for each of the 12 resulting strata, netting a total sample of 586 texts for the six countries. We analyzed the narratives qualitatively using thematic data analysis and narrative-based methodologies. Differences were observed across settings in the prominence accorded to condoms, the assessment of their effectiveness, and certain barriers to and facilitators of their use. Moralization emerged as a key impediment to positive representations of condoms, while humour was an appealing means to normalize them. The social representations in the narratives identify communication needs in and across settings and provide youth-focused ideas and perspectives to inform future intervention efforts.

  4. Making sense of condoms: social representations in young people’s HIV-related narratives from six African countries

    PubMed Central

    Winskell, Kate; Obyerodhyambo, Oby; Stephenson, Rob

    2011-01-01

    Condoms are an essential component of comprehensive efforts to control the HIV epidemic, both for those who know their status and for those who do not. Although young people account for almost half of all new HIV infections, reported condom use among them remains low in many sub-Saharan African countries. In order to inform education and communication efforts to increase condom use, we examined social representations of condoms among young people aged 10–24 in six African countries/regions with diverse HIV prevalence rates: Swaziland, Namibia, Kenya, South-East Nigeria, Burkina Faso, and Senegal. We used a unique data source, namely 11,354 creative ideas contributed from these countries to a continent-wide scriptwriting contest, held from 1st February to 15th April 2005, on the theme of HIV/AIDS. We stratified each country sample by the sex, age (10–14, 15–19, 20–24), and urban/rural location of the author and randomly selected up to 10 narratives for each of the 12 resulting strata, netting a total sample of 586 texts for the six countries. We analyzed the narratives qualitatively using thematic data analysis and narrative-based methodologies. Differences were observed across settings in the prominence accorded to condoms, the assessment of their effectiveness, and certain barriers to and facilitators of their use. Moralization emerged as a key impediment to positive representations of condoms, while humour was an appealing means to normalize them. The social representations in the narratives identify communication needs in and across settings and provide youth-focused ideas and perspectives to inform future intervention efforts. PMID:21388731

  5. $1.5 million female condom order awarded.

    PubMed

    1997-12-01

    The Female Health Co. of Chicago, Illinois, has reported receiving an order for 1.5 million female condoms from South Africa's Department of Health. Shipments are scheduled to begin immediately and are expected to be completed by early 1998. Earlier, South Africa ordered 90,000 female condoms in order to test the device. This order is part of the company's multi-year agreement with the Joint UN Program on AIDS (UNAIDS) which provides a special price based upon global public sector demand. The launch of the female condom in South Africa is just one of a series planned in Africa and other areas of the developing world. The globalization of the female condom, albeit in its early stages, affords the Female Health Co. with the opportunity to explore other options for the future development of its business. The company has engaged Vector Securities International, Inc. to help identify, develop, and evaluate those options. The female condom is currently marketed in the US, the UK, Canada, South Korea, Taiwan, and Holland, and will soon be launched in Brazil. Female Health Co. is also engaged in discussions with potential partners for Europe, the US, India, China, and other countries. The female condom was also recently launched in Zimbabwe as pert of the Joint UNAIDS, and an application had been submitted to Koseisho for marketing approval in Japan.

  6. Contextual Influence on Condom Use in Commercial Sex Venues: a Multi-level Analysis among Female Sex Workers and Gatekeepers in Guangxi, China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yiyun; Li, Xiaoming; Shen, Zhiyong; Zhou, Yuejiao; Tang, Zhenzhu; Huedo-Medina, Tania B.

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to assess the influence of commercial sex venues on consistent condom use among female sex workers (FSWs) and to examine associations between individual and venue level factors and consistent condom use with clients. Analysis was based on a sample of 637 FSWs and 123 gatekeepers from 51 venues in Guangxi, China. Multi-level logistic regression using Bayesian simulation via Markov Chain Monte Carlo was applied to investigate whether FSWs’ individual propensity to use condom with clients was statistically dependent on the venue of working. Multi-level modeling revealed considerable variability across venues in the likelihood of consistent condom use with clients among FSWs. Characteristics at both individual and venue levels helped to explain the observed variation. Certain venue-level factors exerted their influence on condom use over and above the effect of individual-level characteristics. The contextual influence exerted on condom use behaviors among FSWs may imply a potential to harness the path to individual behaviors from a higher and more dominant level, and shed light on the design of more effective sexual risk reduction intervention among venue-based FSWs. PMID:26004452

  7. Applying the Theory of Reasoned Action to condom use among sex workers.

    PubMed

    Sneed, C D; Morisky, D E

    1998-01-01

    This study assessed the relationship between constructs from the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) on condom use in a sample of 1394 Filipino female sex workers. Path analysis for observed variables was used to examine the relationship between attitudes, norms and behavioral intentions on behaviors within the context of condom use during vaginal sex. Results indicate that the direct paths between attitudes toward the behavior and subjective norms were small in comparison to the direct paths between these two constructs and behavioral intentions. This supports the findings of the TRA, which states that behaviors are influenced by attitudes toward the behavior and subjective norms as mediated through intentions to perform the behavior. In addition, it was illustrated that the participation of the managers in the intervention will more than likely influence the success of the intervention. These findings exemplify the need to develop HIV preventative interventions that are sample specific. In conclusion, condom attitudes and policies of managers who employ commercial sex workers are very important for reducing risky sexual practice among their workers.

  8. First anal intercourse and condom use among men who have sex with men in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Balthasar, Hugues; Jeannin, André; Dubois-Arber, Françoise

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the circumstances of first anal intercourse (FAI) among men who have sex with men (MSM) and to identify factors associated with condom use at this event. We conducted a cross-sectional survey among a convenience sample of MSM living in Switzerland (N = 2,200). Anonymous questionnaires were distributed using Swiss gay communication channels (newspapers, associations, websites) and gay bathhouses. We gathered data on age at FAI, age of the partner, degree of familiarity with him, place of first meeting, and sociodemographic indicators. We did not ask whether FAI was insertive, receptive, or both. Data were stratified by birth year classes (birth cohorts). The median age at FAI fell from 24.5 years among men born before 1965 to 20.0 years among those born between 1975 and 1984 (p < .001). In each birth cohort, between 20 and 30% reported a partner 10 years older or more. Of eight variables examined in multivariate analysis, two were positively associated with condom use: age of participants at FAI and low degree of familiarity between partners. Conversely, large age discrepancy between partners was negatively associated with condom use. In conclusion, our data showed that early initiation of anal intercourse and large age discrepancy were associated with risk taking: a pattern of initiation that may facilitate HIV transmission from older to younger cohorts of MSM. Since age at FAI is on the decrease, there is an urgent need to heighten awareness of prevention actions regarding sexual debut of MSM.

  9. The condom controversy: should latex prophylactics be part of everyday life?

    PubMed

    1994-01-19

    In the Philippines, the Catholic Church opposes condom use and the government's promotion of condom use, yet people can easily buy condoms. In the conservative southern Philippines, both church-going men and women buy condoms from stress near churches. Condom use is being promoted throughout Asia as a means to protect against sexually transmitted diseases and AIDS. Some people object to the openness of public health advocates when they discuss condom use and quality because they believe that the advocates are sending an underlying message that casual sex is acceptable. They call for promotion of sexual abstinence. An Indonesian official suggests a condom red line to mark areas where sex workers operate; anyone entering a red line district would have to have a condom. No advertisements for condoms exist in Malaysia, but condom are readily available at most convenience stores. Most of the 601 HIV-positive people in Japan became infected via contaminated blood products. Condoms have been the primary method of birth control in Japan for many years. At least 27 condom boutiques operate in Japan, resulting in a changed condom image. Condoms sold in Japan must meet strict standards. In a recent condom quality survey in Hong Kong, 66% of 34 model condoms did not pass. They leaked, stretched insufficiently, or had no expiration date or instructions. A marketing director notes that condoms assume value when people spend money for them, while free condoms have little value and are often used as balloons. An advertising agency in India promotes enjoyment while past ads made people feel sleazy. In Malaysia, like in other parts of Asia, it is difficult for women, even educated, professional women, to negotiate safe sex. The Philippines uses this motto--We Follow the ABC's: A for Abstinence, B for Be Faithful, and C for Condoms.

  10. Women may underestimate their partners' desires to use condoms: possible implications for behaviour.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Gaynor L; Barber, Bonnie L

    2010-01-01

    Australian young adults reported how often they wanted to use condoms in both romantic (n = 667) and casual relationship (n = 152) contexts and how often they thought their partners wanted to use condoms. Young adults wanted to use condoms more often than they perceived their partners to in both casual and romantic relationship contexts. Gender interactions showed that this pattern was especially strong among young women. Women seemed to underestimate the frequency at which their male partners wanted to use condoms. Furthermore, both the participants' condom use desires and perceptions of their partners' condom use desires predicted condom use behavior. Results suggest that gendered expectations may play a part in how often individuals perceive their partners to want to use condoms, which, in effect, may determine condom use behavior.

  11. Introducing diaphragms into the mix: what happens to male condom use patterns?

    PubMed

    Posner, Samuel F; van der Straten, Ariane; Kang, Mi-Suk; Padian, Nancy; Chipato, Tsungai

    2005-12-01

    The objective of this analysis was to assess the effect of introducing the diaphragm on condom use patterns. Participants included one hundred eighty-nine women attending family planning clinics in Harare, Zimbabwe who reported less than 100% condom use. The proportion of acts where at least one method was used significantly increased over using follow-up; male condom use remained stable. A diaphragm was used with 50% to 54% of acts; male condoms were also used about 50% of the time. The proportion of acts where a female condom was used decreased. Women who used both male and female condoms were more likely to use diaphragms than those who reported not using female condoms. Introducing the diaphragm increased the overall proportion of protected acts. The proportion of acts where a male condom was used did not change. Female condoms use declined because concurrent use with the diaphragm is not possible.

  12. The prevalence of condom use among university students in zimbabwe: implications for planning and policy.

    PubMed

    Nkomazana, Njabulo; Maharaj, Pranitha

    2013-09-01

    Young people, especially university students, are at high risk of HIV infections because of little or no parental or administrative prohibitions in campus environments. The aim of this study was to ascertain the level of condom use among university students in Zimbabwe; that is, condom use at last sex and consistent condom use among both regular and casual partners. The study draws on self-completed questionnaires administered to university students. The results reveal that, while 78.3% of sexually active respondents had used condoms in penetrative sexual encounters before, only 56.2% had used condoms at their last sexual encounter. As expected, consistent condom use was lower in regular sexual partnerships than it was in casual partnerships (30.6% versus 54.6%). Condom use at first sex and high personal HIV risk perception were found to be the most important factors in explaining condom use at last sex and consistent condom use with casual partners. Condom use intentions were high, as 75% of respondents indicated that they would use condoms at their next sexual encounters. Whilst this is commendable, use rates should ideally be higher still. Campus HIV/AIDS programmers should endeavour to ensure that condoms are available at all times in order to help translate these intentions into actual condom use. In addition, promotional programmes should encourage those who have not yet initiated sexual intercourse to use condoms at their first sex and also to improve personal HIV risk perceptions in order to trigger initiation of protective sexual behaviours.

  13. Social marketing of condoms: selling protection and changing behavior.

    PubMed

    Townsend, S

    1991-06-01

    Social marketing of condoms in Zaire began in 1987 and sales rose to 8 million in 1990, a notable change from the previous situation where about half a million condoms were distributed by government health clinics only. Social marketing is the use of for-profit sales and marketing techniques for public health problem.s When the Zaire National AIDS Committee initiated social marketing of condoms, with the assistance of Population Services International, they had the experience of successful Asian programs of the 1970s, and the political sanction resulting from the AIDS threat to back them up. Efforts were made to find just the right product name, "Prudence," logo, package, color and slogan by consumer research. Prudence implies responsible behavior, capturing both the AIDS and STD prevention and the family planning markets. Consumers like the package and associate it with quality, since most condoms sold before in Zaire had no special packaging. Distribution outlets include 7000 retail shops, groceries, pharmacies, hotel, social clubs, 300 bars and even Congo River barges which sex workers frequent. The price was set close to that of a pack of gum for 3, or that of a bottle of beer for a dozen. Promotion is limited by a government ban of advertising in mass media, so point of purchase materials, special offers and promotional items are being used. Prudence condoms are now being marketed in Cameroon and Burundi.

  14. Karet KB and jamu: an integrated approach to condom marketing.

    PubMed

    Piet, D L; Hendrata, L

    1974-01-01

    The development of an out-of-clinic method for marketing condoms in Indonesia is described. A jamu company (jamu referes to any herbal medicant, many of which are related to sexual activity, whose use is firmly integrated into the Indonesian way of life) was contracted by the private, non-profit Prosperous Indonesia Foundation (YIS) to distribute condoms as a jamu item. The condoms are donated to YIS by the U.S. Agency for International Development, and are retailed at 20 rupees for a package of 3, with a profit of 4 rupees for the retailer. Mobile promotional/sales units are the most effective means for selling the devices. The approach appeals to the cultural and sexual character of the people. The media is used extensively to promote condoms and family planning. Although it is too early to assess the impact of the program, it is anticipated that this novel approach will spread the use of condoms to all areas of Indonesia.

  15. Technical considerations in the use of external condom catheter systems.

    PubMed

    deHoll, J D; Williams, L A; Steers, W D; Rodeheaver, G T; Clark, M M; Edlich, R F

    1992-01-01

    Since the advent of rehabilitation engineering new advances have been made that have revolutionized condom catheter drainage systems (CCDS). An innovative CCDS has been designed that ensures unobstructed urine flow. Its condom catheter has several unique design features. It has a double row of convolutions near the catheter tip that prevent kinking and twisting so that the pathway remains open. The condom catheter features a unique inner flap that fits snugly on the glans to prevent backflow of urine on the shaft. This condom catheter is connected to a vented leg bag that eliminates the development of a partial vacuum in the connecting tube. This vacuum can create siphoning, which in turn interferes with urine flow into the leg bag. In addition, a new rechargeable battery-operated clipper has been developed that makes nick-free hair removal from the genitals exceptionally easy. This atraumatic hair removal eliminates the pubic hair that becomes trapped under the condom catheter. The clinical impact of these new advances in CCDS requires further investigation.

  16. Spermiotoxicity of commercial condoms made from polyurethane, polyisoprene and latex, using domestic ruminants as an experimental animal model.

    PubMed

    Pradiee, J; O'Brien, E; Esteso, M C; Castaño, C; Toledano-Díaz, A; López-Sebastián, A; Santiago-Moreno, J

    2016-05-01

    The use of condoms could provide a means of collecting high-quality spermatozoa from different species under physiological ejaculation conditions. However, certain condom materials may affect sperm functionality. This study examined the spermiotoxicity of different commercial condom materials towards ram and goat spermatozoa. Sperm samples were diluted in Tyrode's medium and placed in contact with a piece of condom material (polyurethane, polyisoprene or latex) and incubated for 30 or 90 min. Contact time in the polyisoprene and latex treatments affected some sperm variables; no such effects were seen, however, in the polyurethane treatments. For ram spermatozoa in contact with polyisoprene, the percentage of dead spermatozoa with a damaged acrosome increased at 90 min, while for spermatozoa in contact with latex, the percentage of live spermatozoa with an intact acrosome decreased. For goat spermatozoa in contact with both polyisoprene and latex, the percentage of dead spermatozoa with a damaged acrosome increased at 90 min, while for spermatozoa in contact with polyisoprene, the percentage of live spermatozoa with an intact acrosome decreased. In conclusion, latex and polyisoprene contain components that affect sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity and acrosome function. Polyurethane does not seem to reduce the quality of semen.

  17. Attitudes Towards PrEP and Anticipated Condom Use Among Concordant HIV-Negative and HIV-Discordant Male Couples

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarty, Deepalika; Bircher, Anja E.; Campbell, Chadwick K.; Grisham, Kirk; Neilands, Torsten B.; Wilson, Patrick A.; Dworkin, Shari

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Since the July 2012 approval by the FDA of emtricitabine/ tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (Truvada) for use as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) against HIV, its feasibility and acceptability has been under study. HIV-discordant couples are likely targets for PrEP but little is known about how this new prevention tool impacts relationships. We examined, among gay male couples, the acceptability of individual and partner use of PrEP and intentions to use condoms with primary and outside partners in the context of PrEP use. Data are from two independent samples of couples recruited in the San Francisco bay area and New York City—a qualitative one (N=48 couples) between March and November, 2011, and a quantitative one (N=171 couples) between June, 2012 and May, 2013. Data were categorized by couple HIV status and general linear models; chi-square tests of independence were used to examine condom-use intentions with primary and outside partners, by sexual risk profile, and race. Almost half of the HIV-negative couples felt PrEP was a good HIV prevention strategy for themselves and their partner. Over half reported that they would not change their current condom use if they or their partner were taking PrEP. However, approximately 30% of HIV-negative couples reported that they would stop using condoms or use them less with primary and outside partners if they were on PrEP or if their partner was on PrEP. A large percentage of couples view PrEP positively. However, to ensure safety for both partners, future programing must consider those who intend not to use condoms while on PrEP. PMID:26057304

  18. Attitudes Towards PrEP and Anticipated Condom Use Among Concordant HIV-Negative and HIV-Discordant Male Couples.

    PubMed

    Hoff, Colleen C; Chakravarty, Deepalika; Bircher, Anja E; Campbell, Chadwick K; Grisham, Kirk; Neilands, Torsten B; Wilson, Patrick A; Dworkin, Shari

    2015-07-01

    Since the July 2012 approval by the FDA of emtricitabine/ tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (Truvada) for use as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) against HIV, its feasibility and acceptability has been under study. HIV-discordant couples are likely targets for PrEP but little is known about how this new prevention tool impacts relationships. We examined, among gay male couples, the acceptability of individual and partner use of PrEP and intentions to use condoms with primary and outside partners in the context of PrEP use. Data are from two independent samples of couples recruited in the San Francisco bay area and New York City-a qualitative one (N=48 couples) between March and November, 2011, and a quantitative one (N=171 couples) between June, 2012 and May, 2013. Data were categorized by couple HIV status and general linear models; chi-square tests of independence were used to examine condom-use intentions with primary and outside partners, by sexual risk profile, and race. Almost half of the HIV-negative couples felt PrEP was a good HIV prevention strategy for themselves and their partner. Over half reported that they would not change their current condom use if they or their partner were taking PrEP. However, approximately 30% of HIV-negative couples reported that they would stop using condoms or use them less with primary and outside partners if they were on PrEP or if their partner was on PrEP. A large percentage of couples view PrEP positively. However, to ensure safety for both partners, future programing must consider those who intend not to use condoms while on PrEP.

  19. An Intervention Study Examining the Effects of Condom Wrapper Graphics and Scent on Condom Use in the Botswana Defence Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    contained the largest number of diverse BDF personnel. Respondent bias was plausible due to self-reported behaviors. We attempted to minimize this by...S0277- 9536(00)00272-0 Meyer-Weitz, A., Reddy, P., Weijts, W., van den Borne, B., & Kok, G. (1998). The socio- cultural contexts of sexually transmitted...Ajuwon, A. J. (2004). Knowledge of AIDS and HIV risk-related sexual behavior among Nigerian naval personnel. BMC Public Health, 4, 24. doi:10.1186

  20. Beyond the Syndemic: Condom Negotiation and Use among Women Experiencing Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Peasant, Courtney; Sullivan, Tami P.; Weiss, Nicole H.; Martinez, Isabel; Meyer, Jaimie P.

    2016-01-01

    Background HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) disproportionately affect women who experience intimate partner violence (IPV). Objective The current study 1) applied a syndemic framework to study the collective effects of problematic drug use, hazardous drinking, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on fear of condom negotiation, condom negotiation, and condom use and 2) evaluated condom negotiation (controlling for fear of condom negotiation) as a mediator of the association between syndemic severity and condom use among low-income IPV-exposed women. Methods Participants were 158 women living in the community and experiencing ongoing IPV who completed face-to-face, computer-assisted interviews. Almost three-fourths of the participants reported problematic drug use, hazardous drinking, depression, and/or PTSD; many of these factors were significantly correlated, indicating a syndemic. Results Multivariate logistic and linear regression analyses revealed associations between syndemic severity and fear of condom negotiation (OR = 1.57, p = .02), condom negotiation (β = −8.51, p = .001) and condom use (β = −8.26, p = .01). Meditation analyses identified condom negotiation as a mediator of the association between syndemic severity and condom use (Effect = −6.57, SE = 2.01, [95% CI: − 10.66, − 2.77]). Conclusions Results fill a critical gap in previous research by identifying condom negotiation as a mechanism through which this syndemic affects condom use. Prevention and intervention programs should consider addressing condom negotiation to reduce sexual risk among this high-risk population. Further, because IPV-exposed women may experience fear related to condom negotiation, it is critical that prevention and intervention efforts for this population offer skills to safely negotiate condom use, increase condom use, and reduce STI and HIV risk. PMID:27590004

  1. Improving the accessibility of condoms in South Africa: the role of informal distribution.

    PubMed

    Myer, L; Mathews, C; Little, F

    2002-12-01

    Lack of access to condoms presents a fundamental barrier to HIV prevention across most of sub-Saharan Africa. One strategy to enhance the accessibility of condoms is to promote their informal distribution outside of health facilities through existing social networks. To investigate the prevalence and practices of informal condom distribution, we administered a questionnaire to individuals procuring condoms at 12 public health facilities in four regions of South Africa. Of the 554 individuals interviewed, 269 (48%) reported either giving or receiving condoms informally in the month before the study. In multivariate analysis, reporting informal condom distribution was associated with increased education, male gender, multiple sex partners and recent condom use. The specific practices involved in giving or receiving condoms differed between males and females, with women more likely to involve family members and men more likely to involve friends. These results indicate that informal condom distribution is surprisingly common among individuals procuring public sector condoms in South Africa, and begin to suggest the gendered nature of informal condom distribution networks. While these findings require confirmation in other populations, the practices of informal condom distribution described here provide an excellent opportunity for enhancing condom accessibility and delivering other interventions for HIV prevention.

  2. Sexual partners and condom use of migrant workers in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ford, Kathleen; Chamrathrithirong, Aphichat

    2007-11-01

    The objectives of this paper were to identify the types of sexual partners and condom use of migrant workers. Data for the study were drawn from a survey of 3,426 migrant workers in southern coastal and northern areas of Thailand conducted in 2004. Among sexually active men, 25% reported visiting a sex worker, 57% reported a regular partner, and 6% reported another non-regular partner in the last year. Reported condom use was high with sex workers (79% reported always use), but low with regular partners (4% ever use). Factors related to visiting sex workers included marital status (more visits if not married), longer residence in Thailand, occupation of seafarer or seafood production worker, Cambodian origin, and perceived AIDS risk. Condom use with sex workers was higher for younger men, married men, men who had been in Thailand longer, men with lower perceived AIDS risk, and men who drank alcohol less frequently.

  3. Acceptability of condom availability in a U.S. jail.

    PubMed

    May, John P; Williams, Earnest L

    2002-10-01

    Studies have documented the transmission of HIV in incarcerated populations resulting from injection drug use or sexual activity. Less than 1% of the jails and prisons in the United States allow inmates access to condoms, and none allows access to needles. Results of a survey to measure the acceptability of a condom distribution program at the Washington, DC. Central Detention Facility, where condoms are available to inmates, are presented here. Three hundred seven inmates and 100 correctional officers were surveyed from October 2000 through October 2001. The surveys demonstrate that the program is generally supported and thought to be important by inmates and correctional staff. The program has not resulted in any major security infractions and could be replicated in other correctional settings.

  4. Adolescent relationships and condom use: trust, love and commitment.

    PubMed

    Bauman, Laurie J; Berman, Rebecca

    2005-06-01

    Research indicates that people use condoms less often with a regular sexual partner than with a casual partner because they believe condoms are not needed. This article reports qualitative findings from four group meetings and 11 in-depth interviews in which sexually experienced inner-city adolescents aged 14-17 talked about their sexual relationships. Three types of relationships were described: messing, for sex only; boy-girlfriend, a more intense relationship, and "hubby-wifey," which mimics marriage. The four types of relationships differ along four analytic dimensions, which give them meaning: future commitment; public vs. secret; expectation of monogamy; and degree of affection and love. Decisions about condom use are influenced by these dimensions which may be underestimated in theoretical models that focus on individuals, not couples.

  5. Access to condoms in U.S. prisons.

    PubMed

    McLemore, Megan

    2008-07-01

    Despite overwhelming evidence that condom use prevents the transmission of HIV, U.S. prison officials continue to limit the availability of condoms to incarcerated persons. Concern for transmission of HIV in prison and in the community upon prisoners'release has increased the interest of some policymakers in the issue. In this article, Megan McLemore addresses security concerns as well as human rights arguments in support of efforts to adopt a public health approach to harm reduction in U.S. prisons.

  6. A process evaluation of condom availability in the Seattle, Washington public schools.

    PubMed

    Brown, N L; Pennylegion, M T; Hillard, P

    1997-10-01

    In 1993, Seattle began making condoms available in all of its 15 high schools. As part of an evaluation of this program, 16 focus groups with students from 13 high schools were conducted to explore students' perceptions of the school environment, program effectiveness, and suggestions for program improvement. The study also included data from a student survey conducted in 10 high schools. The focus group results revealed that students support school condom availability but have concerns about privacy when obtaining condoms. Students prefer obtaining condoms from baskets in private areas of school-based clinics to obtaining them from vending machines. Students do not believe that having condoms available has affected sexual activity or condom use among students. Recommendations for improving school condom availability include access to free condoms in private locations.

  7. Influences of social power and normative support on condom use decisions: a research synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Albarracín, D.; Kumkale, G. T.; Johnson, B. T.

    2016-01-01

    A meta-analysis of 58 studies involving 30,270 participants examined how study population and methodological characteristics influence the associations among norms, control perceptions, attitudes, intentions and behaviour in the area of condom use. Findings indicated that control perceptions generally correlated more strongly among members of societal groups that lack power, including female, younger individuals, ethnic-minorities and people with lower educational levels. Furthermore, norms generally had stronger influences among younger individuals and among people who have greater access to informational social support, including males, ethnic majorities and people with higher levels of education. These findings are discussed in the context of HIV prevention efforts. PMID:15370059

  8. Heart Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Heart Failure What is Heart Failure? In heart failure, the heart cannot pump enough ... failure often experience tiredness and shortness of breath. Heart Failure is Serious Heart failure is a serious and ...

  9. Condom Discomfort and Associated Problems with Their Use among University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosby, Richard; Yarber, William L.; Sanders, Stephanie A.; Graham, Cynthia A.

    2005-01-01

    In addition to consistent use, condoms must be used correctly. The purpose of this study was to identify prevalence and types of condom-associated discomfort among university students, the outcomes of this discomfort, and the role of discomfort in condom breakage. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 206 students attending a private university…

  10. Young Men's Aggressive Tactics to Avoid Condom Use: A Test of a Theoretical Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Logan-Greene, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Although research has demonstrated that men's aggression against women and inconsistent condom use are related phenomena, little is known about what factors increase risk for aggression to avoid condom use. The present article tests a theory-based model of condom avoidance through use of sexual aggression. Adult male participants (N = 289) were…

  11. Condom use and perceived risk of HIV transmission among sexually active HIV-positive men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Belcher, Lisa; Sternberg, Maya R; Wolitski, Richard J; Halkitis, Perry; Hoff, Colleen

    2005-02-01

    This study examined the association between HIV transmission risk perception and the sexual risk behaviors of HIV-positive men who have sex with men. Respondents rated the degree of risk of transmitting HIV through insertive anal intercourse and insertive oral sex. We examined (a) the perceived level of HIV transmission risk assigned to each sexual behavior and (b) the association between perceived risk for HIV transmission and condom use during insertive anal intercourse and insertive oral sex. We found for behaviors that have achieved less risk consensus that as transmission risk perception increases, so too does the likelihood of condom use. This study highlights the need for more research in understanding how perceived health risk to others influences protective behaviors.

  12. Female condom reuse in Lusaka, Zambia: evidence from 12 cases.

    PubMed

    Smith, J B; Nkhama, G; Trottier, D A

    2001-12-01

    Female condom reuse could address one of the principal barriers to use, namely, cost; however, the safety of reuse has not been established. Recent reports have provided information related to reuse safety under carefully specified research study conditions. Still, little is known about reuse outside a research study context, and there are outstanding questions related to feasibility of reuse among general populations. This study reports on naturally occurring reuse from a small, purposive sample of self-identified women who, prior to the study, had reused the female condom of their own volition without reuse instruction. Three types of reuse were identified. Most women attempted to clean devices between removal and reinsertion. A number of agents, including water (only), bath soap, laundry detergent, Dettol, and beer were used for cleaning. A number of agents were used for relubrication, including Reality((R)) lubricant, various kinds of cooking oil, and Vaseline((TM)). Perception of the strength and integrity of female condoms making them suitable for reuse were influenced by both provider advice and product packaging. Most participants reported no problems with reuse. Some women, faced with barriers to single use of a female condom or use of an acceptable alternative, will resort to reuse and rely on their own "common sense" notions to implement reuse. Providers and purveyors have opportunities to shape responses to reuse for the better, and the research community is obligated to provide a solid scientific base regarding reuse safety.

  13. AIDS and condoms in Brasilia: a telephone survey.

    PubMed

    Chequer, P; VanOss Marín, B; Paiva, L; Hudes, E S; Piazza, T; Rodrigues, L; Hearst, N

    1997-10-01

    A telephone survey was conducted to measure AIDS knowledge, media usage and condom attitudes and behaviors among 500 adults aged 18 to 49 in Brasilia, as well as to evaluate the feasibility of the telephone survey method in a developing country. The response rate was 91.6%. Respondents had good knowledge about correct modes of HIV transmission and prevention but also believed HIV was transmitted through blood donation, public toilets, swimming pools, and mosquito bites. TV and newspapers were the most important sources of information on health matters and AIDS, though health workers were considered the most credible sources of such information. Only 19% of sexual encounters in the 4 weeks prior to the survey included condoms. Single and younger respondents and those with more positive attitudes used condoms more frequently. More work is needed to identify appropriate messages to motivate people to use condoms. Telephone surveys regarding AIDS and sexual attitudes and behaviors are feasible in Brasilia, a planned community with universal telephone coverage.

  14. Condom use and alcohol consumption in adolescents and youth

    PubMed Central

    Mola, Rachel; Pitangui, Ana Carolina Rodarti; Barbosa, Sháyra Anny Moura; Almeida, Layane Sá; de Sousa, Mayara Ruth Marinho; Pio, Wellypâmela Pauliny de Lima; de Araújo, Rodrigo Cappato

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To determine the association between not using the male condom and alcohol consumption in adolescents and schoolchildren. Methods An epidemiological study, with a cross-sectional, descriptive, and correlation design carried out from March to July 2014. The sample consisted of students in public primary and secondary education, aged between 12 and 24 years. The social and demographic survey and the Youth Risk Behavior Survey questionnaire were used. Results The study included 1,275 students, of these; 37.0% reported having had sexual relations. The prevalent age of sexual initiation was 14-16 years 55.7% and 65.6% used condom in the last sexual intercourse. Regarding the lack of condom use at the last intercourse, girls showed an association with drunkenness in the previous 30 days (2.19; 95%CI: 1.06-4.54). Conclusion In females, the non-use of condoms was associated with drunkenness in the previous 30 days. PMID:27462887

  15. 1988 public awareness survey on AIDS and condoms in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Forster, S J; Furley, K E

    1989-03-01

    This report presents the results of a survey conducted between February and April 1988 to ascertain Ugandans' perception of AIDS as a problem, their knowledge of the disease and how it is spread, the resultant change in their sexual behaviour and their knowledge of, and attitudes towards, condoms. Two hundred and four people (98 women, 106 men) were interviewed from three locations; Kampala (an area with a high incidence of AIDS), Kabale, a town in central Kigezi, and villages in North Kigezi (both relatively low incidence areas). The main points to emerge are: (1) all the respondents were aware of the disease; (2) only 3.6% of respondents mentioned AIDS of their own accord as a problem for Uganda; (3) those in Kampala were most knowledgeable and men in all three areas were generally more informed than women; (4) change in behaviour was more pronounced in those who had known an AIDS victim personally; (5) 100% of men and 79% of women had heard of condoms but only eight men (9.4%) and one woman (1.0%) used condoms regularly for the prevention of AIDS, and (6) there was, nonetheless, a degree of willingness to use condoms once informed that they could reduce the risk of AIDS.

  16. How to sell a condom? The impact of demand creation tools on male and female condom sales in resource limited settings.

    PubMed

    Terris-Prestholt, Fern; Windmeijer, Frank

    2016-07-01

    Despite condoms being cheap and effective in preventing HIV, there remains an 8billion shortfall in condom use in risky sex-acts. Social marketing organisations apply private sector marketing approaches to sell public health products. This paper investigates the impact of marketing tools, including promotion and pricing, on demand for male and female condoms in 52 countries between 1997 and 2009. A static model differentiates drivers of demand between products, while a dynamic panel data estimator estimates their short- and long-run impacts. Products are not equally affected: female condoms are not affected by advertising, but highly affected by interpersonal communication and HIV prevalence. Price and promotion have significant short- and long-run effects, with female condoms far more sensitive to price than male condoms. The design of optimal distribution strategies for new and existing HIV prevention technologies must consider both product and target population characteristics.

  17. The latex condom, an efficient barrier against sexual transmission of AIDS-related viruses.

    PubMed

    Van de Perre, P; Jacobs, D; Sprecher-Goldberger, S

    1987-05-01

    Using a mechanical model, we studied human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) leakage through six different trademark condoms. The presence of the recovered virus was determined after passage to MT-2 cells and to cultured mitogen-stimulated normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMC). Only the natural membrane condom showed virus leakage after inside pressure. In addition, the kinetics of virus inactivation at 37 degrees C were followed inside and outside the condom. The virus was partially inactivated after 10 min at 37 degrees C inside the condom, but the degree of inactivation seemed higher in some of the trademark condoms.

  18. Selling condoms to women: liberation plus legislation gives new life to the old rubber.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, S

    1985-10-01

    Liberation in combination with legislation gives new life to condoms, which now find their way into the purses, brief cases, and shopping carts of increasing numbers of women. The number of female buyers of condoms has risen from 15% in the mid-1970s to perhaps as high as 40% today, thanks to the increasing number of women who are dissatisfied with contraceptive alternatives and a condom industry that is playing to its growing female audience with new packaging and marketing methods. The condom has a distinct advantage in an age when women are more concerned and knowledgeable about their bodies than ever before. The condom has no side effects. The $200 million-a-year condom industry enjoys a current growth rate in sales of about 12%. This is not too bad for a product that has been termed "16th century technology." Currently, Youngs, Schmid, and approximately 4 dozen other US condom companies mold, dry, test, roll and pack nearly 1000 condoms a minute, 400-500 million condoms a year. The Japanese buy 612 million condoms a year. Fewer than 15% of all US couples use condoms, which account for a quarter of the $800 million-a-year contraceptive industry. The growth in condoms was steady until about 3 years ago when it really started to move. There are 3 reasons for the growth spurt. In 1977, the Supreme Court struck down some lingering blue-nosed state laws that regulated who could buy condoms (not minors), where and why they could be sold (only in pharmacies for "disease control" rather than for contraception), how they could be advertised to the public (not at all), and where they could be displayed (out of sight). At the same time, a number of female contraceptive methods considerably trendier and more sophisticated than condoms fell into public, if not medical, disrepute. Finally, venereal diseases have grown in number to fill a category called sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) that includes more than 30 ailments. Condoms are the only contraceptives that also are

  19. Predictors of Condom Use among Peer Social Networks of Men Who Have Sex with Men in Ghana, West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, LaRon E.; Wilton, Leo; Agyarko-Poku, Thomas; Zhang, Nanhua; Zou, Yuanshu; Aluoch, Marilyn; Apea, Vanessa; Hanson, Samuel Owiredu; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw

    2015-01-01

    Ghanaian men who have sex with men (MSM) have high rates of HIV infection. A first step in designing culturally relevant prevention interventions for MSM in Ghana is to understand the influence that peer social networks have on their attitudes and behaviors. We aimed to examine whether, in a sample of Ghanaian MSM, mean scores on psychosocial variables theorized to influence HIV/STI risk differed between peer social networks and to examine whether these variables were associated with condom use. We conducted a formative, cross-sectional survey with 22 peer social networks of MSM (n = 137) in Ghana. We assessed basic psychological-needs satisfaction, HIV/STI knowledge, sense of community, HIV and gender non-conformity stigmas, gender equitable norms, sexual behavior and condom use. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance, generalized estimating equations, and Wilcoxon two sample tests. All models were adjusted for age and income, ethnicity, education, housing and community of residence. Mean scores for all psychosocial variables differed significantly by social network. Men who reported experiencing more autonomy support by their healthcare providers had higher odds of condom use for anal (AOR = 3.29, p<0.01), oral (AOR = 5.06, p<0.01) and vaginal (AOR = 1.8, p<0.05) sex. Those with a stronger sense of community also had higher odds of condom use for anal sex (AOR = 1.26, p<0.001). Compared to networks with low prevalence of consistent condom users, networks with higher prevalence of consistent condom users had higher STD and HIV knowledge, had norms that were more supportive of gender equity, and experienced more autonomy support in their healthcare encounters. Healthcare providers and peer social networks can have an important influence on safer-sex behaviors in Ghanaian MSM. More research with Ghanaian MSM is needed that considers knowledge, attitudes, and norms of their social networks in the development and implementation of culturally relevant HIV

  20. Condom use and HIV testing among men who have sex with men in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Alkaiyat, Abdulsalam; Schaetti, Christian; Liswi, Mohammad; Weiss, Mitchell G

    2014-01-01

    Introduction To identify sociocultural determinants of self-reported condom use and HIV testing and examine variables related to accessibility, motivation and obstacles among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Jordan. Design Cross-sectional study among MSM who were identified through services of a local non-governmental organization (NGO). Methods Respondents were studied with a semi-structured interview based on the Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue (EMIC) framework. The vignette-based EMIC interview considered locally relevant HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, risk perception and perceived causes, as well as awareness of services and sources of support. Results Of the 97 respondents, 27% reported that they used a condom at last intercourse; 38% had been tested at least once for HIV. Positive determinants of condom use were higher education level, acknowledging MSM as a high-risk group, seeking advice from a medical doctor and the perceived causes “sex with prostitutes” and “sex with animals.” Awareness of available treatment was a positive determinant of HIV testing. Blood transfusion as a perceived cause and asking advice from friends were negative determinants. Conclusions Jordanian MSM seem to be aware of the risk of HIV infection and effective prevention methods, and they are willing to be tested for HIV. Our findings addressed the importance of the sexual meaning of HIV/AIDS on the control of HIV/AIDS among MSM. More effective engagement of NGOs and MSM in the prevention and control of HIV/AIDS is needed, enlisting the support of medical doctors and community health workers. Peer education should be strategically strengthened. Political commitment is needed to mitigate social stigma. PMID:24695243

  1. Effects of a Health Behavior Change Model-Based HIV/STI Prevention Intervention on Condom Use among Heterosexual Couples: A Randomized Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, S. Marie; Kraft, Joan Marie; West, Stephen G.; Taylor, Aaron B.; Pappas-DeLuca, Katina A.; Beckman, Linda J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines an intervention for heterosexual couples to prevent human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted infections. It also evaluates the effect of the intervention, which is based on current models of health behavior change, on intermediate outcomes (individual and relationship factors) and consistency of condom use. Eligible…

  2. Racial/Ethnic Differences in HIV-Related Knowledge among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men and Their Association with Condom Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garofalo, Robert; Gayles, Travis; Bottone, Paul Devine; Ryan, Dan; Kuhns, Lisa M.; Mustanski, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Objective: HIV disproportionately affects young men who have sex with men, and knowledge about HIV transmission is one factor that may play a role in high rate of infections for this population. This study examined racial/ethnic differences in HIV knowledge among young men who have sex with men in the USA and their correlation to condom usage…

  3. Condom Advertising and AIDS. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Health and the Environment of the Committee on Energy and Commerce. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Energy and Commerce.

    This document present witnesses' testimonies from the Congressional hearing called to examine condom advertising and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Opening statements are included by Congressmen Henry Waxman, William Dannemeyer, and Jim Bates. C. Everett Koop, United States Surgeon General, and Gary Noble, AIDS coordinator for the…

  4. Condom attitudes, perceived vulnerability, and sexual risk behaviors of young Latino male urban street gang members: implications for HIV prevention.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Ronald A; Lee, Sung-Jae; Stover, Gabriel N; Barkley, Thomas W

    2009-10-01

    We examined condom attitudes, perceived vulnerability to HIV, HIV testing experiences, and sexual and substance use risk behaviors of 161 active Latino male gang members, aged 18-26 years old, living in Los Angeles, California. Gang members reported negative condom attitudes and a perceived vulnerability to HIV. The majority (53%) of gang members reported unprotected vaginal intercourse (UVI) in the previous 12 months. Multivariate analyses indicated that participants who engaged in the following behaviors were more likely to report UVI: had sex with someone they just met (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 3.66), received money or drugs for sex (AOR = 5.05), or had sex with someone who had a sexually transmitted disease (AOR = 4.99). Participants with a higher perceived vulnerability to HIV were less likely to report UVI (AOR = 0.82). Our findings offer implications for development of an HIV prevention intervention for Latino male gang members.

  5. Distal and Proximal Influences on Men's Intentions to Resist Condoms: Alcohol, Sexual Aggression History, Impulsivity, and Social-Cognitive Factors.

    PubMed

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Danube, Cinnamon L; Neilson, Elizabeth C; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H; Kajumulo, Kelly F

    2016-01-01

    Recent scientific evidence demonstrates that many young men commonly resist condom use with their female sex partners and that both alcohol intoxication and a history of sexual aggression may increase the risk of condom use resistance (CUR). Using a community sample of heterosexual male non-problem drinkers with elevated sexual risk (N = 311), this alcohol administration study examined the direct and indirect effects of intoxication and sexual aggression history on men's CUR intentions through a sexual risk analogue. State impulsivity, CUR-related attitudes, and CUR-related self-efficacy were assessed as mediators. Results demonstrated that alcohol intoxication directly increased CUR intentions, and sexual aggression history both directly and indirectly increased CUR intentions. These findings highlight the importance of addressing both alcohol use and sexual aggression in risky sex prevention programs, as well as indicate the continued worth of research regarding the intersection of men's alcohol use, sexual aggression, and sexual risk behaviors, especially CUR.

  6. CONDOM ATTITUDES, PERCEIVED VULNERABILITY, AND SEXUAL RISK BEHAVIORS OF YOUNG LATINO MALE URBAN STREET GANG MEMBERS: IMPLICATIONS FOR HIV PREVENTION

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Ronald A.; Lee, Sung-Jae; Stover, Gabriel N.; Barkley, Thomas W.

    2010-01-01

    We examined condom attitudes, perceived vulnerability to HIV, HIV testing experiences, and sexual and substance use risk behaviors of 161 active Latino male gang members, aged 18–26 years old, living in Los Angeles, California. Gang members reported negative condom attitudes and a perceived vulnerability to HIV. The majority (53%) of gang members reported unprotected vaginal intercourse (UVI) in the previous 12 months. Multivariate analyses indicated that participants who engaged in the following behaviors were more likely to report UVI: had sex with someone they just met (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 3.66), received money or drugs for sex (AOR = 5.05), or had sex with someone who had a sexually transmitted disease (AOR = 4.99). Participants with a higher perceived vulnerability to HIV were less likely to report UVI (AOR = 0.82). Our findings offer implications for development of an HIV prevention intervention for Latino male gang members. PMID:19824836

  7. Distal & Proximal Influences on Men's Intentions to Resist Condoms: Alcohol, Sexual Aggression History, Impulsivity, and Social-Cognitive Factors

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Danube, Cinnamon L.; Neilson, Elizabeth C.; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A.; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H.; Kajumulo, Kelly F.

    2015-01-01

    Recent scientific evidence demonstrates that many young men commonly resist condom use with their female sex partners and that both alcohol intoxication and a history of sexual aggression may increase the risk of condom use resistance (CUR). Using a community sample of heterosexual male non-problem drinkers with elevated sexual risk (N=311), this alcohol administration study examined the direct and indirect effects of intoxication and sexual aggression history on men's CUR intentions through a sexual risk analogue. State impulsivity, CUR-related attitudes, and CUR-related self-efficacy were assessed as mediators. Results demonstrated that alcohol intoxication directly increased CUR intentions, and sexual aggression history both directly and indirectly increased CUR intentions. These findings highlight the importance of addressing both alcohol use and sexual aggression in risky sex prevention programs, as well as indicate the continued worth of research regarding the intersection of men's alcohol use, sexual aggression, and sexual risk behaviors, especially CUR. PMID:26156881

  8. Justify your love: testing an online STI-risk communication intervention designed to promote condom use and STI-testing.

    PubMed

    Mevissen, Fraukje E F; Ruiter, Robert A C; Meertens, Ree M; Zimbile, Filippo; Schaalma, Herman P

    2011-02-01

    The efficacy of a tailored, web-based intervention communicating the risks of sexually transmitted infections (STI) for heterosexual young adults was examined in a randomised, controlled trial. The main aims of the relationship-oriented intervention were to influence risk perceptions and to promote (maintenance of) condom use and STI-testing among young adults who reported being recently engaged in a heterosexual relationship. The intervention addressed risk perceptions, attitudes, normative beliefs, self-efficacy and skills related to condom use and STI-testing. Outcomes were compared immediately after the intervention (N = 171) and 3 months later (N = 115) to a non-tailored intervention group and to a control group. Cognitive and behavioural outcomes showed that the tailored intervention was efficacious in influencing perceived susceptibility to STI and STI-testing intentions immediately after the intervention, and in reducing rates of unprotected sex at 3 months.

  9. Parental support and condom use among transgender female youth

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Erin C.; Iverson, Ellen; Garofalo, Robert; Belzer, Marvin

    2011-01-01

    Evidence suggests that transgender female youth (TFY), much like their adult transgender female peers, are at high risk for HIV. Yet little attention has been given to important developmental experiences of TFY that may impact HIV risk for this youth population. The overall purpose of this study was to explore HIV risk in TFY. A re-occurring theme from the qualitative data was the importance of parents. To better understand the impact of parents on HIV risk among TFY, in-depth individual interview data from 21 TFY in Los Angeles and Chicago were analyzed, suggesting a potential link between HIV-related risk behavior and parental support. Youth with parental support in this sample reported regular condom use, while those without such support reported inconsistent condom use. Implications for the unique research and interventions needs of TFY related to parental support and sexual risk behaviors are discussed. PMID:22079675

  10. Delayed application of condoms with safer and unsafe sex: factors associated with HIV risk in a community sample of gay and bisexual men.

    PubMed

    Allman, Dan; Xu, Kunyong; Myers, Ted; Aguinaldo, Jeffrey; Calzavara, Liviana; Maxwell, John; Burchell, Ann; Remis, Robert S

    2009-06-01

    While condom use remains one of the most effective measures to prevent the sexual transmission of HIV, decreasing attention appears to be given to its importance and techniques of effective use relative to potential biomedical technologies. This paper focuses on delayed condom application (DCA), one practice which has been implicated in HIV transmission among gay and bisexual men. It examines the prevalence of the practice within a gay community and explores factors associated with condom use among those who practice only safer sex and those who report at least some unprotected anal sex. Data were taken from an anonymous, cross-sectional study of a self-identified sample of gay and bisexual men (N=5080). Among 2614 men who responded to relevant questions, multivariate polytomous logistic regressions were used to identify variables associated with DCA. Nearly, half of the men reported delayed condom application for insertive anal intercourse in the previous 12 months. While the majority of this group also reported episodes of unprotected anal sex, more than 25% of those who reported delayed application only reported safer sexual practices. Most socio-demographic variables found to be associated with unsafe sex in other studies were not associated with DCA. Negative condom use experiences such as tearing, splitting and slippage were associated with delayed application among the two groups. DCA, which may be considered by men as an effective harm reduction strategy requires attention. Interventions to address this behavior need to consider the physical issues of condom use along with the complex array of social, structural, psychological, and interpersonal issues.

  11. Predictors of consistent condom use based on the Information-Motivation-Behavior Skill (IMB) model among senior high school students in three coastal cities in China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background High prevalence of risky sexual behaviors and lack of information, skills and preventive support mean that, adolescents face high risks of HIV/AIDS. This study applied the information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) model to examine the predictors of consistent condom use among senior high school students from three coastal cities in China and clarify the relationships between the model constructs. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess HIV/AIDS related information, motivation, behavioral skills and preventive behaviors among senior high school students in three coastal cities in China. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was used to assess the IMB model. Results Of the 12313 participants, 4.5% (95% CI: 4.2–5.0) reported having had premarital sex and among them 25.0% (95% CI: 21.2–29.1) reported having used a condom in their sexual debut. Only about one–ninth of participants reported consistent condom use. The final IMB model provided acceptable fit to the data (CFI = 0.981, RMSEA = 0.014). Consistent condom use was significantly predicted by motivation (β = 0.175, P < 0.01) and behavioral skills (β = 0.778, P < 0.01). Information indirectly predicted consistent condom use, and was mediated by behavioral skills (β = 0.269, P < 0.05). Conclusions The results highlight the importance of conducting HIV/AIDS preventive health promotion among senior high school students in China. The IMB model could predict consistent condom use and suggests that future interventions should focus on improving motivation and behavioral skills. PMID:23734860

  12. The Impact of Condom Use Negotiation Self-Efficacy and Partnership Patterns on Consistent Condom Use among College-Educated Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesoff, Elizabeth D.; Dunkle, Kristin; Lang, Delia

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to explore the impact of condom negotiation self-efficacy, interpersonal factors, and sensational factors on condom use behavior among a population of college-educated women with different patterns and types of sexual partner. We administered an online questionnaire capturing sexual behavior, partnership patterns, perceived…

  13. A stochastic model of AIDS and condom use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalal, Nirav; Greenhalgh, David; Mao, Xuerong

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we introduce stochasticity into a model of AIDS and condom use via the technique of parameter perturbation which is standard in stochastic population modelling. We show that the model established in this paper possesses non-negative solutions as desired in any population dynamics. We also carry out a detailed analysis on asymptotic stability both in probability one and in pth moment. Our results reveal that a certain type of stochastic perturbation may help to stabilise the underlying system.

  14. Lubrication use in condom promotion among commercial sex workers and their clients in Ratchaburi, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Rojanapithayakorn, W; Goedken, J

    1995-07-01

    Condom promotion has been intensified in Thailand to prevent the spread of HIV. A water soluble lubricant (WSL) could be used to alleviate many unpleasant side effects of frequent condom use experienced by sex workers and their clients. This study was conducted to determine the efficacy of WSL use in preventing the side effects of condom use including condom breakage, and to assess the acceptance of WSLs within the sex-worker population. The results of this study showed that 83 (111) of the 134 sex workers reported use of the WSL provided during the study period and more than 95 per cent (106) expressed interest in employing the WSL regularly, saying that WSLs reduce unpleasant side-effects relating to frequent condom use. Also 70 per cent of them reported that the majority of their clients found using the WSL made condom use more enjoyable. A follow-up study showed that 57 per cent of the respondents were still using a WSL on a regular basis and all of them felt it reduced condom breakage. Therefore, WSL use should be an acceptable and useful method for alleviating problems associated with regular use of condoms within the sex-worker population. In addition, there is evidence that WSLs can reduce the incidence of condom breakage. Thus, WSLs could be valuable tools in condom promotion for AIDS control within this high risk population and their clients.

  15. Sexual behavior and condom use among urban, low-income, African-American and Hispanic youth.

    PubMed

    Ford, K; Rubinstein, S; Norris, A

    1994-06-01

    Low income, urban, African-American, and Hispanic youth have been identified as a group for which there is concern about the spread of HIV. Using data from a household probability sample of 1,435 minority youth aged 15 to 24 in Detroit, this paper evaluates levels of sexual activity, condom use, and reasons for condom use and non-use. Comparisons with national samples of minority youth indicated that Detroit low-income youth have similar patterns of sexual behavior to national samples, although males and African-American females began their sexual experiences earlier and were less likely to have used condoms or other protection from pregnancy or sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) at first intercourse. Recent levels of condom use also left many Detroit youth unprotected from STDs. Less than half used a condom at least intercourse in the last year with nonmarital partners that they "knew well." In addition, condom use with partners that they "did not know well" was very low for Hispanic youth: Among those who had at least one casual partner in the last year, only 30% to 33% had ever used a condom with that partner. Analysis of reasons for use indicate that both pregnancy prevention and disease prevention were important motivations for condom use. However, many youth did not use condoms for reasons such as unavailability of condoms or unplanned sex.

  16. Condom use as a function of number of coital events in new relationships

    PubMed Central

    He, Fei; Hensel, Devon J.; Harezlak, Jaroslaw; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Study Objective Assess condom use as a function of number of coital events in newly formed sexual relationships. Methods Participants who reported at least one new partner during the 12-week study interval (N=115; ages 18–29 years; 48% women; 90% African American) completed weekly sexually transmitted infections testing and three-times daily electronic diary collection assessing individual and partner-specific affect, daily activities, sexual behavior and condom use. We analyzed event-level condom use percentage and subject-level behavior response effects. Generalized Additive Mixed Models (GAMMs) were used to estimate condom use probability accounting for within-partner and within-subject correlations via random effects. Results The average condom use probability at the first coital event in new relationships was 55% for men and 36% for women. Analyses showed that smooth shapes of estimated condom use probabilities were similar for both sexes and were fitted using GAMMs. Relatively higher condom use percentage was followed by a sharp decline during the first 9 coital events decreasing to 16% for men and 8% for women. More rapid decline in condom use among women was highly associated with higher levels of relationship and sexual satisfaction. Conclusions The likelihood of condom use declines sharply for both men and women after the early accrual experience with a partner. Relationship and sexual satisfaction also influence declines in condom use, especially among women. PMID:26766522

  17. Teaching condom use skills: practice is superior to observation.

    PubMed

    Calsyn, Donald A; Hatch-Maillette, Mary A; Doyle, Suzanne R; Cousins, Sarah; Chen, TeChieh; Godinez, Melinda

    2010-10-01

    Men exposed to a condom skills practice exercise were hypothesized to perform better on condom skills measures than those exposed only to a demonstration or to no intervention. As part of a larger National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) Clinical Trials Network HIV Prevention protocol, men in substance abuse treatment were administered male and female condom use skills measures (MCUS, FCUS) at preintervention, 2 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months postintervention. The MCUS and FCUS scores were compared for 3 intervention exposure groups (demonstration only [DO, n = 149], demonstration plus practice [D+P; n = 112], attended no sessions [NS, n = 139]) across the 4 assessment time points using a mixed effects linear regression model. There is a statistically significant intervention group-by-time effect (P < .0001) for both the MCUS and FCUS. Post hoc, pairwise linear trends across time indicated that for both the MCUS and the FCUS, the D+P group is significantly superior to the DO group and the NS group.

  18. Coverage and representation of condoms in conjunction with HIV/AIDS in the Kenyan Daily Nation Newspaper from 1989-2003: a qualitative content analysis to inform health promotion.

    PubMed

    McMorrow, Shannon L; Lagerwey, Mary D; Ford, Leigh A

    HIV/AIDS has been a pressing problem in the East African country of Kenya for over 20 years. Promotion of condom use is one prevention strategy embraced in global health prevention of HIV, but use remains relatively low in Kenya. In order to better understand the socio-historic context of discourses about condoms in Kenya, this study explored how condoms were covered and represented in the Kenyan Daily Nation newspaper from 1989-2003. Qualitative content analysis was conducted for 91 items from the Daily Nation including articles, letters to the editor, columns, opinion and editorial pieces, advertisements, and cartoons. These items were systematically examined for the manner and content of manifest and latent references to condoms. Researchers found four major themes, "controversy and confusion," "we need to do more: condoms might help," "not for Kenyans or from Kenyans," and "stigmatized associations." Findings provide needed insight into the socio-cultural context surrounding condoms in Kenya that is often lacking within health promotion and HIV prevention programs.

  19. Is pornography consumption associated with condom use and intoxication during hookups?

    PubMed

    Braithwaite, Scott R; Givens, Anneli; Brown, Jacob; Fincham, Frank

    2015-01-01

    In order to examine whether pornography consumption is associated with risky sexual behaviour among emerging adults, we examined two large samples of those who reported hooking up in the past 12 months (combined n =  1216). Pornography use was associated with a higher likelihood of having a penetrative hookup; a higher incidence of intoxication during hookups for men (but a lower incidence of intoxication during hookups for women); increasing levels of intoxication during hookups for men but decreasing levels of intoxication for women; and a higher likelihood of being in the riskiest category of having a penetrative hookup, without a condom, while intoxicated. For each of these outcomes, our point estimates for Study 2 fell within the 95% confidence intervals from Study 1. Controlling for trait self-control, binge drinking frequency, broader problematic patterns of alcohol use, openness to experience, and attitudes toward casual sex did not change the pattern of results. Implications for interventions to reduce sexual risk are discussed.

  20. Crack smokers' intention to use condoms with loved partners: intervention development using the theory of reasoned action, condom beliefs, and processes of change.

    PubMed

    Bowen, A M; Williams, M; McCoy, H V; McCoy, C B

    2001-10-01

    Prevalence rates of HIV infection acquired through heterosexual contacts have risen steadily since 1982. Crack cocaine smokers are at particular risk of HIV infection due to heterosexual exposure. HIV risk reduction interventions seeking to increase condom use among drug users have met with minimal success, and there is a need for interventions to be strongly grounded in psychosocial models of behaviour change. This study presents the results of an investigation of predictors of intention to use condoms and related therapy processes among heterosexual drug users. Data were analyzed from 586 crack smokers recruited in Washington, DC, Miami, Florida, and Collier County, Florida who reported having both primary and casual sex partners. Participants responded to items derived from the theory of reasoned action, the theory of planned behaviour and the transtheoretical model of change. Condom use beliefs and therapy processes used to initiate and maintain condom use were assessed. Outcome expectancies and normative beliefs were the strongest predictors of intention to use condoms with a primary sexual partner. In turn, beliefs that condoms inhibit sexual romance and decrease sexual pleasure strongly predicted outcome expectancies. Therapy processes found to be associated with these constructs included: self-liberation, counter conditioning and stimulus control/reinforcement. Results suggest that HIV risk reduction interventions using a group format and targeting condom beliefs related to sexual romance and pleasure will decrease negative outcome expectancies about condom use. Also, reinforcing attempts to use condoms with intimate partners should increase positive outcome expectancies and intention to initiate or maintain condoms with a primary sexual partner.

  1. Why communication is crucial: meta-analysis of the relationship between safer sexual communication and condom use.

    PubMed

    Noar, Seth M; Carlyle, Kellie; Cole, Christi

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantitatively synthesize the growing literature on the relationship between safer sexual communication (SSC) among sexual partners and condom use, and to systematically examine a number of conceptual and methodological moderators of this relationship. Data from 53 articles published in 27 journals met criteria for the study. Fifty-five independent effect sizes coded from samples totaling N=18,529 were meta-analyzed. Results indicate that the mean sample-size weighted effect size of the SSC-condom use relation was r=.22, and a number of conceptual variables were found to moderate this relationship. Specifically, communication about condom use (r=.25) and sexual history (r=.23) had significantly (p<.05) larger effect sizes than communication about safer sex (r=.18). In addition, SSC measures operationalized differently had significantly (p<.05) different effect sizes. From largest to smallest, these were behavioral format (r=.29), intentional format (r=.18), and self-efficacy format (r=.13). Measures that tried to assess persuasion attempts as compared with informational exchanges were not found to have significantly different effect sizes (p>.05). Further, methodological moderators tended to be unrelated to effect size. Implications for the future study of safer sexual communication as well as the importance of emphasizing communication skills in HIV preventive interventions are discussed.

  2. Predictors of condom use behaviour among male street labourers in urban Vietnam using a modified Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model.

    PubMed

    Van Huy, Nguyen; P Dunne, Michael; Debattista, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    HIV risk in vulnerable groups such as itinerant male street labourers is often examined via a focus on individual determinants. This study provides a test of a modified Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model to predict condom use behaviour among male street workers in urban Vietnam. In a cross-sectional survey using a social mapping technique, 450 male street labourers from 13 districts of Hanoi, Vietnam were recruited and interviewed. Collected data were first examined for completeness; structural equation modelling was then employed to test the model fit. Condoms were used inconsistently by many of these men, and usage varied in relation to a number of factors. A modified IMB model had a better fit than the original IMB model in predicting condom use behaviour. This modified model accounted for 49% of the variance, versus 10% by the original version. In the modified model, the influence of psychosocial factors was moderately high, whilst the influence of HIV prevention information, motivation and perceived behavioural skills was moderately low, explaining in part the limited level of condom use behaviour. This study provides insights into social factors that should be taken into account in public health planning to promote safer sexual behaviour among Asian male street labourers.

  3. Condom use in unmarried Latino men: a test of cultural constructs.

    PubMed

    Marín, B V; Gómez, C A; Tschann, J M; Gregorich, S E

    1997-09-01

    The effects of cultural factors on condom use were assessed in a random digit-dialing household survey of 1,600 unmarried Latino adults in 10 states with large Latino populations. Measures of traditional gender-role beliefs, sexual coercion, sexual comfort, and self-efficacy in using condoms were developed specifically for this population. A multisample structural equation model analysis included 594 men who reported one or more heterosexual partners in the 12 months before interview. As predicted, men with more traditional gender-role beliefs reported more sexual coercion and less sexual comfort. Men reporting more sexual coercion and less sexual comfort had lower condom self-efficacy. Men with more condom self-efficacy and stronger condom social norms reported more condom use.

  4. Condom use with various types of sex partners by money boys in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shusen; Chen, Lin; Li, Li; Zhao, Jin; Cai, Wende; Rou, Keming; Wu, Zunyou; Detels, Roger

    2012-04-01

    Money boys (MBs) who typically sell sex to males have not yet been extensively studied in China. In this 2009 study, 28 venue-based MBs were interviewed. We analyzed their condom use behaviors with various partners, including male and female clients, male and female casual partners, other MBs and female sex workers, and boyfriends and girlfriends. All participants were aware of the need for using condoms; however, usage with different partner types varied. The longer a relationship with a partner, the less frequent was condom use. A major reason for not using condoms was that they or their partners did not like the loss of sensation due to condom use. Other factors included sexual orientation, age, duration in commercial sex, concerns about HIV/AIDS, attractiveness of partners, and support of "mommies" (brothel supervisors). Both individual- and venue-level interventions are needed to promote condom use, and mommies need to be included in intervention strategies.

  5. Factors Associated With Condom Use for HIV Prevention Among Nepalese Labor Migrant Couples.

    PubMed

    Thapa, Subash; Pathak, Srijana; Leppin, Anja; Buve, Anne; Hannes, Karin; Kandel, Ghanshyam; Mathei, Catharina

    2016-04-01

    Information about factors associated with condom use among Nepalese labor migrant couples that are considered being at high risk of HIV infection is not clearly understood. Therefore, we carried out a cross-sectional study to identify the factors associated with condom use among Nepalese labor migrant couples. A total of 266 wives of Nepalese labor migrants were invited for an interview. Hierarchical logistic regression analysis was performed to analyze data. We found that almost 39% of the women reported having used a condom while having sex with their husbands. Age was the only husband-related factor independently associated with condom use. School education, knowledge about HIV/AIDS, discussion of HIV with peers and sexual negotiation with the husband were the wife-related factors independently associated with condom use. Our findings highlight a clear need to develop effective HIV prevention interventions targeting illiterate labor migrant couples, with a particular emphasis on increasing women's ability to negotiate condom use.

  6. Developing, implementing, and evaluating a condom promotion program targeting sexually active adolescents.

    PubMed

    Alstead, M; Campsmith, M; Halley, C S; Hartfield, K; Goldbaum, G; Wood, R W

    1999-12-01

    This article describes the development, implementation, and evaluation of the Condom Campaign, a 1995 HIV prevention program promoting condom use among sexually active adolescents in three King County, Washington, urban communities. This program employed three main strategies: (a) mobilizing all levels of the target communities to support and guide program development and implementation; (b) creating and implementing a mass media campaign targeting sexually active teenagers that promoted correct condom use and favorable attitudes toward condoms; and (c) recruiting public agencies, community organizations, and businesses to distribute condoms from bins and vending machines. We evaluated the program through a series of cross-sectional interviews conducted in the three communities chosen for their elevated levels of adolescent sexual risk behavior. Overall, 73% of target youth reported exposure to the Condom Campaign; exposure did not differ by age, gender, race, or level of sexual experience. Levels of sexual activity remained stable throughout the media campaign.

  7. Knowledge and views regarding condom use among female garment factory workers in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Webber, Gail; Edwards, Nancy; Amaratunga, Carol; Graham, Ian D; Keane, Vincent; Ros, Socheat

    2010-05-01

    Cambodia is experiencing a generalized HIV epidemic; there is evidence some populations within Cambodia are particularly vulnerable to infection. A mixed methods study was conducted in 2006 on the vulnerability to contract HIV of rural-to-urban migrant Cambodian garment factory workers. This paper reports the views of these female migrant workers regarding the use of condoms in their sexual relationships. Semi-structured interviews were conducted among 20 workers about their knowledge and experiences regarding condom use. Both married and single women were knowledgeable about HIV transmission, but there was a spectrum of perspectives about condom use with their current or future partners. Some women insisted partners use condoms, while others did not expect partner compliance, and a third group avoided discussing condom use with their partners. HIV prevention programs should include male partners. For many of these migrant women, interventions focussing on education about HIV transmission and condom negotiation skills are insufficient since implementation requires male cooperation.

  8. The effect of marriage and HIV risks on condom use acceptability in rural Malawi.

    PubMed

    Anglewicz, Philip; Clark, Shelley

    2013-11-01

    A large and increasing proportion of HIV transmissions in sub-Saharan Africa occur within marriage. Condom use within marriage could, therefore, be an important prevention strategy, but there is considerable debate about whether married couples would be willing to use condoms. This paper contributes to this debate by identifying key factors that affect the acceptability of condom use within marriage and actual condom use among men and women in rural Malawi, using three waves of longitudinal data from 2004, 2006 and 2008. Specifically, we focused on the effect of (1) entry into first marriage, (2) respondent's HIV status, HIV perceptions, and risk behaviors, and (3) spouse's HIV characteristics on condom use acceptability within marriage and actual condom use with a spouse or steady partner. Using fixed-effects regression, we found that getting married coincides with a pronounced attitudinal shift regarding the acceptability of condom use within marriage that cannot be explained by differences in fertility status or selection into marriage. In addition, we found that, for women, perceived HIV status of the respondent and spouse generally had greater influence than actual HIV status on the acceptability of condom use within marriage and actual condom use with a spouse or steady partner, even after HIV status is known; while actual HIV status and HIV risk behaviors are generally more important among men. Although condom use within marriage remained low, these findings suggest that attitudes about and use of condoms are susceptible to change and that both marital status and perceptions of risk are important influences on condom use.

  9. Interaction between 5-HTTLPR polymorphism and abuse history on adolescent African-American females' condom use behavior following participation in an HIV prevention intervention.

    PubMed

    Sales, Jessica M; DiClemente, Ralph J; Brody, Gene H; Philibert, Robert A; Rose, Eve

    2014-06-01

    Not everyone exposed to an efficacious human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) intervention will reduce sexual risk behaviors, yet little is known about factors associated with "failure to change" high-risk sexual behaviors post-intervention. History of abuse and polymorphisms in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTT) may be associated with non-change. The current study sought to identify genetic, life history, and psychosocial factors associated with adolescents' failure to change condom use behaviors post-participation in an HIV prevention intervention. A sub-set of participants from a clinic-based sample of adolescent African-American females (N = 254) enrolled in a randomized trial of an HIV-prevention was utilized for the current study. Forty-four percent did not increase their condom use from baseline levels 6 months after participating in the sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV prevention intervention. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, an interaction between abuse and 5-HTTLPR group was significantly associated with non-change status, along with partner communication frequency scores at follow-up. Follow-up tests found that having a history of abuse was significantly associated with greater odds of non-change in condom use post-intervention for only those with the s allele. For those with ll allele, participants with higher partner communication frequency scores were at decreased odds of non-change in condom use post-intervention. Thus, STI/HIV interventions for adolescent females may consider providing a more in-depth discussion and instruction on how to manage and overcome fear or anxiety related to being assertive in sexual decisions or sexual situations. Doing so may improve the efficacy of STI/HIV prevention programs for adolescent women who have experienced abuse in their lifetime.

  10. HIV prevention and marriage: peer group effects on condom use acceptability in rural Kenya.

    PubMed

    Cordero Coma, Julia

    2014-09-01

    The twofold function of condom use - contraception and sexually transmitted disease protection - should be taken into account when understanding attitudes towards this practice. Emphasis on the interpretation of condom use as a protective practice conflicts with the norms of fidelity and trust, which regulate marriage. The alternative interpretation of condom use as a contraceptive method may be less problematic. This paper analyzes the extent to which the attitude of married men and women towards condom use with their spouses, and their actual use of condoms within marriage, are affected by their expectations about the dominant attitudes and behaviors in their peer group. I expect that a social consensus on understanding condom use as an HIV-preventive behavior will not make this practice more acceptable within marriage, while social acceptance of modern contraception and, more specifically, of the use of condoms for contraceptive purposes will. Two waves of a longitudinal survey from 1996 to 1999 in rural Kenya are analyzed using fixed-effects regression. Social support for each function of condom use is measured with indicators of the proportion of individuals in the peer group that use condoms for a particular purpose or have a positive attitude towards each of the uses, according to the respondent. The results support the hypothesis for men, but are inconclusive for women.

  11. Predictors of condom use and refusal among the population of Free State province in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This study investigated the extent and predictors of condom use and condom refusal in the Free State province in South Africa. Methods Through a household survey conducted in the Free Sate province of South Africa, 5,837 adults were interviewed. Univariate and multivariate survey logistic regressions and classification trees (CT) were used for analysing two response variables ‘ever used condom’ and ‘ever refused condom’. Results Eighty-three per cent of the respondents had ever used condoms, of which 38% always used them; 61% used them during the last sexual intercourse and 9% had ever refused to use them. The univariate logistic regression models and CT analysis indicated that a strong predictor of condom use was its perceived need. In the CT analysis, this variable was followed in importance by ‘knowledge of correct use of condom’, condom availability, young age, being single and higher education. ‘Perceived need’ for condoms did not remain significant in the multivariate analysis after controlling for other variables. The strongest predictor of condom refusal, as shown by the CT, was shame associated with condoms followed by the presence of sexual risk behaviour, knowing one’s HIV status, older age and lacking knowledge of condoms (i.e., ability to prevent sexually transmitted diseases and pregnancy, availability, correct and consistent use and existence of female condoms). In the multivariate logistic regression, age was not significant for condom refusal while affordability and perceived need were additional significant variables. Conclusions The use of complementary modelling techniques such as CT in addition to logistic regressions adds to a better understanding of condom use and refusal. Further improvement in correct and consistent use of condoms will require targeted interventions. In addition to existing social marketing campaigns, tailored approaches should focus on establishing the perceived need for condom-use and

  12. Factors associated with condom use negotiation by female sex workers in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Alam, Nazmul; Chowdhury, Mahbub Elahi; Mridha, Malay K; Ahmed, Anisuddin; Reichenbach, Laura J; Streatfield, Peter Kim; Azim, Tasnim

    2013-10-01

    Negotiation for condom use by female sex workers with their male clients can enhance condom use. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1395 female sex workers; 439 from two brothels, 442 from 30 hotels, and 514 from streets of two cities in Bangladesh to determine the predictors of condom use negotiation. Consistent condom use rates in the 7 days prior to interview were reported to be 16.2%, 21.7%, and 4.5% among the brothel, hotel, and street-based female sex workers, respectively. Overall, 28.1% of female sex workers negotiated for condom use with their clients. Participation in behaviour change communication (BCC) programmes (AOR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.2-2.0) and self-perceived risk of human immunodeficiency virus infection (AOR, 1.8 95% CI, 1.6-2.1) were positive predictors for condom negotiation. Compared to the hotel-based female sex workers, street (AOR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.4-0.9) and brothel-based female sex workers (AOR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.5-0.9) were less likely to negotiate for condom use. Female sex workers in Bangladesh are at high risk for sexually transmitted infection / human immunodeficiency virus infection because of low overall negotiation for condom use. Participation in BCC programmes had positive effect on condom negotiation by female sex workers, and should be strengthened in commercial sex venues.

  13. Younger Gay and Bisexual Men's Condom Use With Main Regular Sexual Partner in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Lachowsky, Nathan J; Saxton, Peter J W; Hughes, Anthony J; Dickson, Nigel P; Summerlee, Alastair J S; Milhausen, Robin R; Dewey, Cate E

    2015-06-01

    Main partners are a common source of new HIV infections among men who have sex with men (MSM). National behavioral surveillance data (2006-2011) for younger MSM (YMSM, aged 16-29) in New Zealand were analyzed to investigate condom use during anal intercourse with a regular partner (boyfriend/fuckbuddy) by sexual position (insertive/receptive). Backward-stepwise multivariate multinomial logistic regression was used to identify demographic, relational, behavioral, and cognitive factors associated with condom use frequency (high, medium, low). Most YMSM who reported a current regular partner (n=1,221) classified them as a boyfriend (59.5%) versus fuckbuddy (40.5%), though condom use was higher with the latter partner type. Condom use or nonuse was habitual across partners, although insertive sexual position was positively associated with condom use. YMSM who believed condoms reduce sensitivity reported lower condom use. Condoms remain the leading HIV/STI prevention tool for YMSM; efforts to improve condom use must consider sexual position and relationship factors.

  14. Predictors of consistent condom use among Portuguese women attending family planning clinics.

    PubMed

    Costa, Eleonora C V; Oliveira, Rosa; Ferreira, Domingos; Pereira, M Graça

    2016-01-01

    Women account for 30% of all AIDS cases reported to the Health Ministry in Portugal and most infections are acquired through unprotected heterosexual sex with infected partners. This study analyzed socio-demographic and psychosocial predictors of consistent condom use and the role of education as a moderator variable among Portuguese women attending family planning clinics. A cross-sectional study using interviewer-administered fully structured questionnaires was conducted among 767 sexually active women (ages 18-65). Logistic regression analyses were used to explore the association between consistent condom use and the predictor variables. Overall, 78.7% of the women were inconsistent condom users. The results showed that consistent condom use was predicted by marital status (being not married), having greater perceptions of condom negotiation self-efficacy, having preparatory safer sexual behaviors, and not using condoms only when practicing abstinence. Living with a partner and having lack of risk perception significantly predicted inconsistent condom use. Less educated women were less likely to use condoms even when they perceive being at risk. The full model explained 53% of the variance in consistent condom use. This study emphasizes the need for implementing effective prevention interventions in this population showing the importance of taking education into consideration.

  15. Condom Use Determinants and Practices Among People Living with HIV in Kisii County, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Emmanuel, Wamalwa; Edward, Neyole; Moses, Poipoi; William, Ringera; Geoffrey, Otomu; Monicah, Bitok; Rosemary, Mbaluka

    2015-01-01

    The male condom remains the single, most efficient and available technology to reduce sexual transmission of HIV as well as sexually transmitted infections. This study sought to establish condom use determinants and practices among people living with HIV (PLHIVs) in Kisii County, Kenya. We interviewed 340 PLHIVs and 6 health workers. Although most PLHIVs had correct knowledge and approved condoms as effective for HIV prevention, consistent use and condom use at last sex were notably low especially among PLHIVs aged 18 – 24, those who depended on remittances from kin as main source of income, as well as during sex with secondary and casual partners. This study notes that knowledge on various benefits of using condoms is associated with enhanced condom use practices. Non-disclosure of HIV status to secondary and casual partners remains a key barrier to condom use among PLHIVs Our observations highlight the need to further promote condom use among specific PLHIVs socio-demographic groups who continue to exhibit low condom use rates. PMID:26668671

  16. Parents' knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and barriers to promoting condom use among their adolescent sons.

    PubMed

    Tipwareerom, Worawan; Weglicki, Linda

    2017-03-16

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is increasing in Thai youth. Consequently, a school-based National Condom Strategy program was launched in 2015 to reduce the rate of HIV and sexually transmitted infections. We conducted in-depth interviews of 31 parents/adoptive guardians of high-school age Thai boys to explore parents' knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and barriers to promoting condom use and its role in preventing HIV/sexually transmitted infections. A descriptive phenomenological approach and thematic analysis was used. Most participants had knowledge and positive attitudes about condom use. Half disagreed with the National Condom Strategy of placing condom vending machines in schools. More than half did not initiate teaching male youth about condom use until the youth had broached the question or only intended to do so when the youths were older. Barriers included parents' lack of condom experience and knowledge, embarrassment/discomfort when talking about condoms, and belief that youth were not sexually active. Parents are a key factor for supporting condom use in Thailand. This study supports the need for education programs for parents.

  17. USING THE THEORY OF PLANNED BEHAVIOR TO DETERMINE THE CONDOM USE BEHAVIOR AMONG COLLEGE STUDENTS

    PubMed Central

    Asare, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The study utilized the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to determine condom use behavior among college students. A total of 218 college students with mean age of 20.9 years old participated in the study. A 32- item cross-sectional survey was administered among the participants. The constructs of attitude towards behavior, perceived behavioral control, and subjective norm (p<0.001) significantly predicted intention to use condoms and they accounted for 64% of the variance. Behavioral intention significantly predicted condom use and it accounted for 15% of the variance. The TPB could be used to guide programs in promoting condom use among college students. PMID:26512197

  18. Mobile phones and sex work in South India: the emerging role of mobile phones in condom use by female sex workers in two Indian states.

    PubMed

    Navani-Vazirani, Sonia; Solomon, Davidson; Gopalakrishnan; Heylen, Elsa; Srikrishnan, Aylur Kailasom; Vasudevan, Canjeevaram K; Ekstrand, Maria L

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine female sex workers' solicitation of clients using mobile phones and the association between this and condom use with clients. Cross-sectional data were utilised to address the study's aim, drawing on data collected from female sex workers in Calicut, Kerala, and Chirala, Andhra Pradesh. Use of mobile phone solicitation was reported by 46.3% (n = 255) of Kerala participants and 78.7% (n = 464) of those in Andhra Pradesh. Kerala participants reporting exclusive solicitation using mobile phones demonstrated 1.67 times higher odds (95% CI: 1.01-2.79) of inconsistent condom use than those reporting non-use of mobile phones for solicitation. However, those reporting exclusive solicitation through mobile phones in Andhra Pradesh reported lower odds of inconsistent condom use (OR: 0.03; 95% CI: 0.01-0.26) than those not using mobile phones for solicitation. Findings indicate that solicitation of clients using mobile phones facilitates or hampers consistency in condom use with clients depending on the context, and how mobile phones are incorporated into solicitation practices. Variations in sex work environments, including economic dependence on sex work or lack thereof may partially account for the different effects found.

  19. Mobile phones and sex work in South India: The emerging role of mobile phones in condom use by female sex workers in two Indian states

    PubMed Central

    Navani-Vazirani, S; Solomon, D; Krishnan, G; Heylen, E; Srikrishnan, AK; Vasudevan, CK; Ekstrand, ML

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine female sex workers’ solicitation of clients using mobile phones and the association between this and condom use with clients. Cross-sectional data were utilised to address the study's aim, drawing on data collected from female sex workers in Calicut, Kerala and Chirala, Andhra Pradesh. Use of mobile phone solicitation was reported by 46.3% (n = 255) of Kerala participants and 78.7% (n = 464) of those in Andhra Pradesh. Kerala participants reporting exclusive solicitation using mobile phones demonstrated 1.67 times higher odds (95% CI: 1.01–2.79) of inconsistent condom use than those reporting non-use of mobile phones for solicitation. However, those reporting exclusive solicitation through mobile phones in Andhra Pradesh reported lower odds of inconsistent condom use (OR: 0.03; 95% CI: 0.01–0.26) than those not using mobile phones for solicitation. Findings indicate that solicitation of clients using mobile phones facilitates or hampers consistency in condom use with clients depending on the context, and how mobile phones are incorporated into solicitation practices. Variations in sex work environments, including economic dependence on sex work or lack thereof may partially account for the different effects found. PMID:25301669

  20. Social Cohesion Among Sex Workers and Client Condom Refusal in a Canadian Setting: Implications for Structural and Community-Led Interventions.

    PubMed

    Argento, Elena; Duff, Putu; Bingham, Brittany; Chapman, Jules; Nguyen, Paul; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Shannon, Kate

    2016-06-01

    Community empowerment can be a powerful determinant of HIV risk among sex workers (SWs). This study modeled the impact of social cohesion on client condom refusal among SWs in Vancouver. Longitudinal data were drawn from a prospective cohort of SWs (2010-2013). Lippman and colleagues' Social Cohesion Scale measured SWs' connectedness (i.e., perception of mutual aid, trust, support). Multivariable logistic regression examined the independent effect of social cohesion on client condom refusal. Of 654 SWs, 22 % reported baseline client condom refusal and 34 % over 3 years. The baseline median social cohesion score was 24 (IQR 20-29, range 4-45). In the final confounding model, for every one-point increase in the social cohesion score, average odds of condom refusal decreased by 3 % (AOR 0.97; 95 % CI 0.95-0.99). Community empowerment can have a direct protective effect on HIV risk. These findings highlight the need for a legal framework that enables collectivization and SW-led efforts in the HIV response.

  1. Condom use: exploring verbal and non-verbal communication strategies among Latino and African American men and women.

    PubMed

    Zukoski, Ann P; Harvey, S Marie; Branch, Meredith

    2009-08-01

    A growing body of literature provides evidence of a link between communication with sexual partners and safer sexual practices, including condom use. More research is needed that explores the dynamics of condom communication including gender differences in initiation, and types of communication strategies. The overall objective of this study was to explore condom use and the dynamics surrounding condom communication in two distinct community-based samples of African American and Latino heterosexual couples at increased risk for HIV. Based on 122 in-depth interviews, 80% of women and 74% of men reported ever using a condom with their primary partner. Of those who reported ever using a condom with their current partner, the majority indicated that condom use was initiated jointly by men and women. In addition, about one-third of the participants reported that the female partner took the lead and let her male partner know she wanted to use a condom. A sixth of the sample reported that men initiated use. Although over half of the respondents used bilateral verbal strategies (reminding, asking and persuading) to initiate condom use, one-fourth used unilateral verbal strategies (commanding and threatening to withhold sex). A smaller number reported using non-verbal strategies involving condoms themselves (e.g. putting a condom on or getting condoms). The results suggest that interventions designed to improve condom use may need to include both members of a sexual dyad and focus on improving verbal and non-verbal communication skills of individuals and couples.

  2. Heart Failure: A Primer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Christopher S; Auld, Jonathan

    2015-12-01

    Heart failure is a complex and multisystem clinical syndrome that results from impaired ventricular contractility and/or relaxation. Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and coronary artery disease are common antecedents to heart failure. The main pathogenic mechanisms involved in heart failure include sympathetic nervous and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activation, as well as inflammation. A detailed history and physical examination and additional diagnostic tests may be needed to diagnose heart failure. Most treatment strategies target neurohormonal systems. Nonpharmacologic interventions and effective engagement in self-care are also important in overall heart failure management. Therapeutic strategies are geared toward prolonging life and optimizing quality of life.

  3. Success-Failure on the National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses by Nurse Candidates from an Accelerated Baccalaureate Nursing Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Andrew C.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Nine years of data from first-time nurse candidates taking the National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses (NCLEX-RN) were examined to identify predictors of successful performance and determine probabilities of success. Variables placing nurse candidates at risk included first-semester grade point average, sex, and whether they…

  4. Study urges prisons to consider condoms, drug needles.

    PubMed

    1996-10-04

    A study of sexual activity and intravenous drug use in U.S. correctional facilities reveals that condoms, dental dams, and sterile needles should be made available to inmates. The rate of AIDS is 7 times higher among prisoners than among the general population. The study revealed that sexual activity and drug use occurs frequently and usually without the use of measures that would protect inmates from HIV transmission. Focus group participants disclosed that prisoners often exchange sex for drugs, and protection. Drug use is common and inmates reportedly use dirty syringes and use makeshift syringes from unsafe material. An editorial accompanying the study indicates that current measures to prevent HIV transmission in prisons are ineffective and do not recognize the diverse nature of inmates' needs and behavior. It is also noted that making condoms available to male prisoners might be challenging since most male inmates will not acknowledge that they have sex with other men. Female prisoners, however, freely admit to having consensual sex with other female inmates.

  5. Correlates of Condom Use among Chinese College Students in Hunan Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiao, Zhiwen

    2012-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted to test an integrated model of condom use with a sample of 490 sexually active Chinese college students. A number of variables in the integrated model were predictors of condom use, explaining 33.4% of the variance in use. Partner communication was the strongest predictors (beta = 0.317, SE = 0.038, p less…

  6. Resisting the "Condom Every Time for Anal Sex" Health Education Message

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Jeffery; Neville, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Ensuring men who have sex with men (MSM) adopt and maintain condom use for anal sex is a challenging health education goal. In order to inform the development of social marketing practices to encourage safe-sex practices, the views of MSM about a key HIV health education message ("using a condom every time for anal sex") were…

  7. Reported Condom Use among Students Enrolled in a Personal Health and Wellness Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson,Yasenka; Johnson, Maureen; Hutchins, Matthew; Florence, Candace

    2013-01-01

    When used consistently and correctly every time, condoms can prevent against the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unplanned pregnancies. Condoms are a significant prevention method viable for all populations. This study was conducted among students (277) at a Midwestern University who were enrolled in a personal health and…

  8. Preparatory Behavior for Condom Use among Heterosexual Young Men: A Longitudinal Mediation Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carvalho, Telma; Alvarez, Maria-João; Barz, Milena; Schwarzer, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Motivation is not sufficient to actually use condoms, as self-regulatory processes are needed to translate motivation into action. Buying condoms and carrying them constitute preparatory behaviors that may serve as proximal predictors of action. Whether or not such preparatory behaviors operate as mediators between intention and action…

  9. [In vitro studies of factors possibly influencing the performance of latex condoms].

    PubMed

    Guigon, P; Breton, D; Mendes-Oustric, A C; Pech, A; Clair, P

    2005-11-01

    Male condoms are undoubtedly the best protection against sexually transmitted diseases. The French Military Health Service buys condoms from civilian manufacturers using a public purchasing process. This process includes strict technical analysis that allows selection of the best supplier. In addition each batch of condoms delivered to French armed forces undergoes quality testing in the laboratory of the Armed Services Central Pharmacy before being distributed to troops. Despite these strict control measures, several isss remain unclear. One issue involves the shelf life of condoms stored in warm humid tropical conditions. Another issue involves the effect of lubricants on condom quality. The purpose of this report is to describe a study designed to gain insight into these two issues. This study was conducted by the Armed Services Central Pharmacy in colaboration with the Procuremnt and Central Establishment Directorate. Findings showed that stage conditions have no negative effects on the intrinsic physico-chemial properties of condoms supplied by two different manufacturers. Conversely use of inadequate lubricants (alimentary or cosmetic compounds) appeared to have extremely deleterious effects on condom quality. Laboratory tests showed that lubricants composed mainly of fatty acids dramatically decreased the effectiveness of condoms.

  10. Risk factors influencing non-use of condoms at sexual relations in populations under heightened risk.

    PubMed

    Medić, Alan; Dzelalija, Boris; Koźul, Karlo; Novosel, Iva Pem; Dijanić, Tomislav

    2014-09-01

    To determine risk factors for non-use of condoms when engaging in sexual intercourse among high-risk population groups for acquiring HIV/STIs. We collected the data obtained by interviews in the period from 2005 to 2011 in the Voluntary Counseling and Testing Center for HIV/AIDS at the Institute of Public Health of Zadar County. Four hundred ninety four respondents were divided into risk and control groups. The majority of the respondents in our population does not consistently use condoms, in the risk group as much as 89.9%, and in the control group 65.7% of them (p< 0.001). Persons consuming alcohol when having sexual relations use condoms about 5x less often compared to those not consuming alcohol at all (OR=5.00; CI=1.69-14.29). There are significant differences among women and men in the risk group regarding reasons for non-use of condoms. The main reason with women is "I trust mypartners" 33.7% while men "do not like having sex with condoms, 53.6% of them (p < 0.001). The main risk factors for non-use of condoms are alcohol consumption at sexual relations, non-use of condoms in a casual relationship. Having in mind the non-use of condoms among populations of high-risk groups of acquiring HIV there are significant differences among genders.

  11. Condom Availability at Four-Year State Universities in the North Central Census Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estes, K. R.; And Others

    This survey of 66 4-year state universities with enrollments greater than 5,000 students in the North Central census region investigated the availability of condoms on campuses to prevent sexually transmitted diseases, including acquired immune deficiency syndrome. The survey sought to determine condom availability, location, cost to students, and…

  12. Young Men's Aggressive Tactics to Avoid Condom Use: A Test of a Theoretical Model

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Logan-Greene, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Although research has demonstrated that men's aggression against women and inconsistent condom use are related phenomena, little is known about what factors increase risk for aggression to avoid condom use. The present article tests a theory-based model of condom avoidance through use of sexual aggression. Adult male participants (N = 289) were recruited nationally through online advertisements. Aggressive tactics to avoid condom use were measured using an adapted version of the revised Sexual Experiences Survey, and a variety of aggressive behaviors spanning coercion to physical force were assessed. One hundred participants (35.3%) reported at least one instance of coercion or aggression to avoid using a condom. Structural equation modeling indicated that attitudes toward women, inconsistent condom use, and number of sexual partners were significant predictors of aggressive tactics to avoid condom use. A better understanding of the attitudinal and behavioral pathways through which men avoid condom use through aggressive and coercive means will ultimately result in improved education and prevention efforts for at-risk men and women. PMID:23139623

  13. A Condom Distribution Program for Adolescents: The Findings of a Feasibility Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Charles B.; Cogswell, Betty E.

    This paper describes a family planning service for adolescent males in an inner-city area. The program utilized the distribution of free condoms through local commercial outlets (barber shops, grocery stores, pool hall, restaurant). The proprietors agreed to distribute condoms in the target area which included approximately 3,000 males aged 12-26…

  14. Are Written Instructions Enough? Efficacy of Male Condom Packaging Leaflets among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindemann, Dana F.; Harbke, Colin R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate whether or not written condom use instructions successfully inform correct condom use skills. Design: Between-subjects, two-group design. Setting: Public university located in rural Midwestern region of the United States. Method: Participants were randomly assigned to either a control condition (read physical exercise…

  15. Implementation and Evaluation of a Condom Availability Program on a College Campus: Lessons from the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastman-Mueller, Heather P.; Gomez-Scott, Jessica R.; Jung, Ae-Kyung; Oswalt, Sara B.; Hagglund, Kristofer

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention advocate access to condoms as a critical sexual health prevention strategy. The purpose of this article is to discuss the implementation and evaluation of a condom availability program using dispensing machines in residence halls at a Midwestern U.S. university. Undergraduate students (N = 337)…

  16. One Size Fits All? Promoting Condom Use for Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention among Heterosexual Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Visser, Richard

    2005-01-01

    The aims of this exploratory qualitative study were to increase our understanding of heterosexual young adults knowledge and beliefs about sexually transmitted infections (STIs) other than HIV, to explore their beliefs about the factors that influence condom use for STI prevention, and to explore their ideas about how best to promote condom use…

  17. The Condom Works in All Situations? Paradoxical Messages in Mainstream Sex Education in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolander, Eva

    2015-01-01

    The condom plays a vital part in safe sex, the ideal outcome of mainstream Swedish sex education. As researchers have pointed out, however, the condom is not a neutral object; rather, it plays a part in shaping, in different ways, both sexual practices and the idea of what sex is. This paper focuses on sex education television programmes produced…

  18. A Process Evaluation of Condom Availability in the Seattle, Washington Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Nancy L.; Pennylegion, Michelle T.; Hillard, Pamela

    1997-01-01

    Surveys and focus groups involving students from high schools with condom availability programs assessed health risk behaviors and perceptions of school environment, program effectiveness, and program improvement. Students supported such programs. Students worried about privacy when obtaining condoms, recommending private locations for accessing…

  19. Brief Report: Sexual Violence Against HIV-Positive Women in the Nyanza Region of Kenya: Is Condom Negotiation an Instigator?

    PubMed Central

    Onu, Chinwe C.; Dworkin, Shari L.; Ongeri, Linnet G.; Oyaro, Patrick; Neylan, Thomas C.; Cohen, Craig R.; Bukusi, Elizabeth A.; Rota, Grace

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: For people living with HIV, exposure to sexual violence (SV) is associated with decreased adherence to antiretroviral medication, a primary predictor of their survival. Identification of risk factors for SV is a pressing issue in sub-Saharan Africa, where the global majority of HIV-positive women live and the prevalence of SV against women is high. We used qualitative data to examine SV against HIV-positive women enrolled in HIV care in Kenya. Respondents identified husbands as perpetrators of SV in the context of women's efforts to use condoms as directed by HIV care providers. PMID:27509254

  20. Condom use at last sexual relationship among adolescents of Santiago Island, Cape Verde, - West Africa

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objective To estimate factors associated with condom use at last sexual intercourse among adolescents. Methods Cross-sectional study of a representative sample of 368 sexually active adolescents aged 13–17 years from eight public high schools on Santiago Island, Cape Verde, 2007. The level of significance was 5.0% obtained from logistic regression, considering the association between condom use and socio-demographic, sexual and reproductive variables. Results The prevalence of condom use at last sexual intercourse was 94.9%. Factors associated with condom use at last sexual relationship were: non-Catholic religion (OR=0.68, 95%CI: 0.52; 0.88) and affective-sexual partnership before the interview (OR=5.15, 95%CI: 1.79; 14.80). Conclusions There was a high prevalence of condom use at last sexual intercourse of adolescents. PMID:23153259

  1. Barriers to condom use among heterosexual male and female college students.

    PubMed

    Wendt, S J; Solomon, L J

    1995-11-01

    The authors used a questionnaire to assess gender differences in barriers to condom use among 198 female and 89 male heterosexual undergraduate college students. Participants were divided into three groups--consistent users, inconsistent users, and nonusers--based on their reported condom use. Factor analyses on each gender revealed similar barrier factor structures, but the barriers explained more of the variance in condom use among women than among men. Of the 9 or 10 predictors assessed, the low perceived need barrier was the most powerful predictor of condom use for both genders. Male and female participants who were nonusers, in a current monogamous relationship, and using oral contraceptives were more likely to report a low perceived need to use condoms. Implications for future research are discussed.

  2. HIV prevalence, AIDS knowledge, and condom use among female sex workers in Santiago, Chile.

    PubMed

    Barrientos, Jaime E; Bozon, Michel; Ortiz, Edith; Arredondo, Anabella

    2007-08-01

    This paper describes HIV seroprevalence, knowledge of HIV transmission, and condom use among female sex workers (FSW) attending five specialized sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics in Santiago, Chile. A short questionnaire with socio-demographic, AIDS knowledge, and condom-use variables was administered to 626 FSW. HIV seroprevalence was estimated with a blood test sent to the Chilean Public Health Institute. ELISA was used to confirm HIV in suspected cases. HIV prevalence was 0%. FSW showed adequate overall knowledge of HIV, even better than reported for the Chilean general population on some items. Condom use with clients was high ("always" = 93.4%), although regular use with steady partners was low ("always" = 9.9%). The zero HIV seroprevalence and consistent condom use with clients confirms the positive impact of intervention strategies for FSW, increasing both correct knowledge of AIDS and condom use with clients and helping decrease these women's HIV/AIDS vulnerability.

  3. Demographic factors and sexist beliefs as predictors of condom use among Latinos in the USA.

    PubMed

    Albarracin, Julia; Plambeck, Chad R

    2010-08-01

    Based on a survey conducted among 198 Latinos in Central Illinois, USA, this study shows that income, education, and language skills were important predictors of condom use. In addition, hostile and benevolent sexist ideas had a differing impact on condom use. Hostile sexist ideas, such as the belief that women try to control men, increased condom use with both main and occasional partners. Benevolent sexism, for example, the idea that women should be cherished and protected, was negatively and significantly correlated with condom use with main partner. In this sense, benevolent sexism, an apparently less harmful type of prejudice against women, seems to out them at higher risk of HIV/AIDS infection. Therefore, HIV/AIDS prevention interventions designed for Latinos should not only address the dangers of hostile sexist beliefs in reproducing negative feelings about women but also the problems associated with benevolent sexist beliefs, which seem to decrease condom use.

  4. The reach and effect of radio communication campaigns on condom use in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Meekers, Dominique; Van Rossem, Ronan; Silva, Martha; Koleros, Andrew

    2007-06-01

    This study uses data from the 2004 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey to assess the reach of selected radio programs about family planning and health in Malawi and their effect on condom use and discussion of family planning. The results show that such radio programs in Malawi reach a broad audience: eight of the 12 programs were heard by at least half of the respondents, although women were less effectively reached than men. For both women and men, the radio programs were found to have a significant impact on family planning discussion with one's partner. The programs' effect on condom use was limited, however. A positive association was found with ever use of condoms, but no association was found with condom use at last intercourse. This limited impact suggests that such radio communication campaigns need to be informed by research identifying the specific constraints to current condom use in Malawi.

  5. Association of negotiation strategies with consistent use of male condoms by women receiving an HIV prevention intervention in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Ann; Moore, Janet S; Khumalo-Sakutukwa, Gertrude; Loeb, Lisa; Cobb, Daphne; Hruschka, Dan; Khan, Rizwana; Padian, Nancy

    2003-07-25

    One of the fundamental aspects of HIV counselling for women is condom negotiation strategy development. The present research sought to identify condom request strategies used by Zimbabwean women and to determine which were most effective in persuading male partners to use condoms. Of six types of strategies used by women after a prevention intervention, one was significantly associated with consistent condom use 2 months later. Implications for the development of counselling and testing protocols are discussed.

  6. Men’s Condom Use Resistance: Alcohol Effects on Theory of Planned Behavior Constructs

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J.; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A.; Danube, Cinnamon L.; Morrison, Diane M.; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study is a novel investigation of 1) the utility of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to predict men’s condom use resistance (CUR; i.e., attempts to avoid condom use with a partner who wants to use one) and 2) the effects of alcohol on endorsement of TPB-CUR constructs. Methods Using an alcohol administration protocol, a between- and within-subjects experiment was conducted with a community sample of 312 young male non-problem drinkers who have sex with women. After assessing endorsement of TPB-CUR constructs (e.g., attitudes, norms, self-efficacy, control, and intentions) in a sober state, beverage condition was experimentally manipulated between subjects and endorsement of TPB-CUR constructs was reassessed. Results Analyses included repeated measures MANOVAs with beverage condition (no alcohol vs. alcohol) as the between-subjects factor and time (pre-beverage vs. post-beverage) as the within-subjects factor. Between-subjects, intoxicated participants reported significantly stronger CUR intentions, more favorable CUR attitudes and normative perceptions, and greater CUR self-efficacy than sober participants. There were significant within-subject changes for CUR intentions, attitudes, normative perceptions, and self-efficacy. Neither between- nor within-subjects effects were found for CUR control. An exploratory multi-group path analysis indicated that the relationships among the TPB-CUR constructs were similar for alcohol and no alcohol groups. Conclusions Findings indicated that alcohol intoxication increased men’s CUR intentions and self-efficacy and led to more positive CUR attitudes and norms, yet had no effect on CUR control. Future research should examine whether there are similar effects of intoxication on TPB constructs related to other sexual risk behaviors. PMID:26348499

  7. Lack of recent condom use among detained adolescent males: a multilevel investigation

    PubMed Central

    Crosby, R; Salazar, L; DiClemente, R

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate multiple levels of influence with respect to the lack of recent condom use among a high risk sample of adolescent males recruited from short term detention facilities. Methods: A cross sectional survey of 231 adolescent males serving, predominantly, short term detention sentences. Assessments were conducted using audiocomputer assisted self interviewing. Condom use during the most recent sexual event was assessed as well as 20 potential correlates of not using condoms. Correlates were assessed within five levels of causation: personal, relational, peer affiliation, family, and societal. Results: Nine correlates achieved bivariate significance (p<0.05). Of these, the personal level correlates were particularly important in a multivariate model. The motivation subscale from the Condom Barriers Scale was the strongest multivariate correlate of recent condom use. Adolescents scoring below the median were about 3.4 times more likely to report lack of recent condom use (p = 0.0006). Adolescents indicating they had ever caused a pregnancy were about 2.5 times more likely to report lack of condom use (p = 0.02). Finally, those reporting their peers did not use condoms were about twice as likely to report lack of use (p = 0.048). Conclusion: Upon investigating multiple levels of potential influence on condom use, the multivariate findings suggest that personal level factors may be the most important determinant of non-use among adolescent males in short term detention facilities. Although structural changes may be needed to influence some forms of safer sex behaviour, direct intervention with adolescent males may be justified to favourably alter determinants of condom use. PMID:15572607

  8. Dimensions of poverty and inconsistent condom use among youth in urban Kenya.

    PubMed

    Davidoff-Gore, Alena; Luke, Nancy; Wawire, Salome

    2011-10-01

    To date, research on the link between poverty and unsafe sexual behaviors has utilized limited measures of socioeconomic status and has overlooked key dimensions of poverty at the individual level. This study explored how various dimensions of socioeconomic status are associated with inconsistent condom use and how these associations vary by gender. We analyzed unique life history survey data from 261 young men and women in Kisumu, Kenya, and conducted analyses based on 959 person-months in which respondents had been sexually active in nonmarital relationships. Dependent variables were inconsistent condom use (not always using a condom) and never use of condoms. Condoms were used inconsistently in 57% of months and were never used in 31%. Corroborating existing literature, lower household wealth and lower educational attainment were associated with inconsistent condom use. Lower individual economic status (lower earned income, food insufficiency, and larger material transfers from partners) were also important determinants of inconsistent condom use. There were no significant differences in these associations by gender, with the exception of food insufficiency, which increased the risk of inconsistent condom use for young women but not for young men. None of these individual measures of socioeconomic status were associated with never use of a condom. The findings suggest that both household- and individual-level measures of socioeconomic status are important correlates of condom use and that individual economic resources play a crucial role in negotiations over the highest level of usage. The results highlight the importance of poverty in shaping sexual behavior, and, in particular, that increasing individual access to resources beyond the household, including ensuring access to food and providing educational and work opportunities, could prove to be effective strategies for decreasing the risk of HIV among youth.

  9. Do main partner conflict, power dynamics, and control over use of male condoms predict subsequent use of the female condom?

    PubMed

    Cabral, Rebecca J; Posner, Samuel F; Macaluso, Maurizio; Artz, Lynn M; Johnson, Christopher; Pulley, LeaVonne

    2003-01-01

    This study assessed hypotheses that measures of power and control over male condom (MC) use would predict use of the female condom (FC) among women with main partners from two public STD clinics (n = 616). The women (mean age 24 years, 87% African American) were enrolled in an intervention study to promote barrier contraceptive use and were interviewed at baseline and at 6 monthly follow-up visits. Seven baseline predictor variables were assessed: her having requested MC use, his having objected, her having wanted a MC used but not asking, percentage of MC use, perceived control over MC use, anticipated consequences of refusing unprotected sex, and physical violence. In the first Poisson regression analysis, none of the hypothesized predictors was significantly associated with FC use during follow up. In the second regression analysis, which assessed the influence of the hypothesized set of predictors on follow-up FC use in situations when MCs were not used, we found two effects. Either no or inconsistent MC use before study entry was associated with less subsequent FC use; women who reported, at study entry, having more control over MC use were more likely to use FCs during follow up. We found no evidence of adoption of the FC by women in relationships marked by history of conflict over the MC, circumstances in which alternatives are most needed. On the contrary, we found that women with a history of control and consistent use of MCs were the most likely users of FCs when MCs were not used.

  10. Not to stigmatize but to humanize sexual lives of the transgender (hijra) in Bangladesh: condom chat in the AIDS era.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sharful Islam; Hussain, Mohammed Iftekher; Gourab, Gorkey; Parveen, Shaila; Bhuiyan, Mahbubul Islam; Sikder, Joya

    2008-01-01

    Despite condom interventions since year 2000 with the transgender (hijra) population, condom use remains low. Consequently, hijra suffer from higher rates of active syphilis, putting them under threat of HIV transmission. In an ethnographic study, 50 in-depth interviews with diverse groups of hijra along with 20 key-informants interviews with various stakeholders, and 13 focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted with comprehensive field observations. Findings indicate that most hijra understand the importance of condoms, but none use condoms consistently. Complex underlying reasons positioned beyond the individual's cognitive domain include: low self-confidence; economic hardships for mere survival; multiple transient partners; sexual desire, preferences, and eroticisms concerning anal sex; stigma associated with purchasing condoms; poor quality and interrupted supply of condoms and lubricants; limitation of fear-producing messages in favor of condoms; inadequate professional skills and motivational impetus of the outreach staff for condom promotion, and incompetent management with inadequate understanding about the dynamics of condom use. Imposing condoms by disregarding socio-cultural and socio-economic scripts of sexual relationships and eroticism of hijra-sexuality have challenged the effectiveness of current condom interventions. Interventions should not mechanize the process, rather they may humanize and eroticize sexual lives of the hijra. A paradigm shift is required where condoms enhance the dignity and quality of sexual lives of the hijra beyond the framework of disgrace, disease, and death.

  11. Development of Condom-Use Self-Efficacy over 36 Months among Early Adolescents: A Mediation Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xinguang; Dinaj-Koci, Veronica; Brathwaite, Nanika; Cottrell, Lesley; Deveaux, Lynette; Gomez, Perry; Harris, Carole; Li, Xiaoming; Lunn, Sonja; Marshall, Sharon; Stanton, Bonita

    2012-01-01

    This research evaluates condom-use self-efficacy and its increase throughout adolescence. Documentation of the development of condom-use self-efficacy would be important for prevention efforts given the influence of self-efficacy on actual condom usage. This study assesses a hypothesized mediation mechanism of the development of self-efficacy…

  12. A Comprehensive Test of the Health Belief Model in the Prediction of Condom Use among African American College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winfield, Evelyn B.; Whaley, Arthur L.

    2002-01-01

    Tested an expanded version of the Health Belief Model (HBM) in predicting condom use among heterosexual African American college students. Overall, only the core HBM explained a significant amount of variance in condom use. Perceived barriers and gender significantly predicted condom use. Perceived barriers mediated the correlation between gender…

  13. Condom-Associated Erection Problems: A Study of High-Risk Young Black Males Residing in the Southern United States.

    PubMed

    Graham, Cynthia A; Crosby, Richard; Sanders, Stephanie; Milhausen, Robin; Yarber, William L

    2016-03-01

    Previous research indicates that young men may experience condom-associated erection loss and that these problems may lead to inconsistent or incomplete condom use. The primary aim of this study was to assess, using a retrospective recall period of 2 months, correlates of condom-associated erection problems among young Black men attending sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics. Data were collected in clinics treating patients with STIs in three southern U.S. cities. Males 15 to 23 years of age who identified as Black/African American and reported recent (past 2 months) condom use were eligible. A total of 494 men participated. Nineteen percent reported that condom-associated erection problems during condom application occurred at least once, and 17.8% indicated erection difficulties occurred during sexual intercourse at least once in the past 2 months. Multivariate analyses identified that condom-associated erection problems were associated with reports of sex with more than one partner during the recall period, reported problems with condom fit and feel, lower motivation to use condoms, and attempts at condom application before having a full erection. Findings suggest that clinic interventions should address possible condom-associated erection problems among young Black men who are at risk of STIs. Encouraging men who may be vulnerable to erection loss when condoms are used to allow sufficient time for sexual arousal to build may be an effective strategy.

  14. Influences of Situational Factors and Alcohol Expectancies on Sexual Desire and Arousal Among Heavy-Episodic Drinking Women: Acute Alcohol Intoxication and Condom Availability

    PubMed Central

    George, William H.; Nguyen, Hong V.; Heiman, Julia R.; Davis, Kelly Cue; Norris, Jeanette

    2013-01-01

    Although studies suggest that alcohol increases women’s sexual desire, no studies to our knowledge have examined the effects of acute alcohol intoxication on women’s sexual desire. The majority of research examining alcohol’s effects on sexual arousal in women suggests that alcohol increases self-reported arousal. In an alcohol administration study in which women projected themselves into an eroticized scenario depicting a consensual sexual encounter with a new male partner, we examined the effects of alcohol and condom condition on women’s sexual desire and arousal. The moderating effects of sex-related alcohol expectancies were also examined. Results revealed that alcohol intoxication was related to less desire to engage in sex with a new partner and condom presence was related to more desire. Alcohol interacted with sexual disinhibition alcohol expectancies, indicating that more expectancy endorsement was associated with greater sexual desire and self-reported arousal in the alcohol condition, but not the control condition. Condom condition had no effect on self-reported sexual arousal. The present research suggests that sexual desire merits research attention in non-clinical samples, and experimental methodology can provide valuable information about alcohol’s influence on women’s sexual desire, thus advancing our understanding of this relationship beyond cross-sectional correlations. The current findings also provide evidence that sex-related alcohol expectancies may play an important role in alcohol-involved sexual experiences including desire and arousal. PMID:23661324

  15. Examining the Potential for Gender Bias in the Prediction of Symptom Validity Test Failure by MMPI-2 Symptom Validity Scale Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Tayla T. C.; Graham, John R.; Sellbom, Martin; Gervais, Roger O.

    2012-01-01

    Using a sample of individuals undergoing medico-legal evaluations (690 men, 519 women), the present study extended past research on potential gender biases for scores of the Symptom Validity (FBS) scale of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 by examining score- and item-level differences between men and women and determining the…

  16. Predictors of consistent condom use among Chinese female sex workers: an application of the protection motivation theory.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liying; Li, Xiaoming; Zhou, Yuejiao; Lin, Danhua; Su, Shaobing; Zhang, Chen; Stanton, Bonita

    2015-01-01

    We utilized Protection Motivation Theory to assess predictors of intention and behavior of consistent condom use among Chinese female sex workers (FSWs). A self-administered questionnaire was used in a cross-sectional survey among 700 FSWs in Guangxi, China. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that extrinsic and intrinsic rewards, self-efficacy, and response costs predicted consistent condom use intention and behavior among FSWs. Sexually transmitted infection/ HIV prevention programs need to reduce FSWs' perceptions of positive extrinsic rewards and intrinsic rewards for engaging in consistent condom use, reduce FSWs' perception of response costs for using a condom, and increase condom use self-efficacy among FSWs.

  17. Predictors of Consistent Condom Use Among Chinese Female Sex Workers: An Application of the Protection Motivation Theory

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liying; Li, Xiaoming; Zhou, Yuejiao; Lin, Danhua; Su, Shaobing; Zhang, Chen; Stanton, Bonita

    2014-01-01

    We utilized the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) to assess predictors of intention and behavior of consistent condom use among Chinese female sex workers (FSWs). A self-administered questionnaire was used in a cross-sectional survey among 700 FSWs in Guangxi, China. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that extrinsic and intrinsic rewards, self-efficacy and response costs predicted consistent condom use intention and behavior among FSWs. STI/HIV prevention programs need to reduce FSWs’ perceptions of positive extrinsic rewards and intrinsic rewards for engaging in consistent condom use, reduce FSWs’ perception of response costs for using a condom, and increase condom use self-efficacy among FSWs. PMID:25061932

  18. Predictors of female condom use among women exchanging street sex in New York City.

    PubMed

    Witte, S S; Wada, T; El-Bassel, N; Gilbert, L; Wallace, J

    2000-02-01

    This study investigated the characteristics of street sex workers that influence the initial use of the female condom in New York City. Interviews, demonstration of proper female condom use and distribution of 10 female condoms were conducted among 113 female sex workers. Only 96 respondents were included in the study after a 2-week follow-up evaluation. Measure variables used in the study included sociodemographic characteristics, drug history, sexual risk behavior, and victimization, while dependent variables were female condom use for any reason and female condom use with commercial sexual partners. Results revealed that the 3 strongest variables associated with female condom use were the following: 1) living with anyone with a drug-alcohol problem; 2) having heard of the female condom; and 3) physical or sexual abuse by a commercial partner. This study emphasized the need to develop innovative programs that focus on street workers, with information promotion carried out in areas of sex work strolls which addresses the issues of accessibility and ease of use among sex workers.

  19. Comparison of condom breakage during human use with performance in laboratory testing.

    PubMed

    Russell-Brown, P; Piedrahita, C; Foldesy, R; Steiner, M; Townsend, J

    1992-05-01

    This paper combines results from a study of the determinants of condom quality and use conducted by The Population Council in two countries in the Caribbean with results from a condom breakage study conducted by Family Health International (FHI) in the United States. The studies, conducted two years apart, compared the breakage rates of condoms from the same lot during human use to their performance in laboratory test results. Breakage rates of 12.9% for Barbados, 10.1% for St. Lucia and 6.7% for the United States compared to passing ASTM laboratory tests suggest that existing laboratory tests as used with the current pass/fail standards are either not sufficiently sensitive or not well-defined to reliably predict condom performance during human use. The study also suggests that user behaviors and practices may be a factor in condom breakage. If the condom is to be an effective method against unplanned pregnancy and STD/HIV infection, and if consumer confidence is to be retained, condom breakage during sexual intercourse must be reduced.

  20. Condom-associated erection problems: behavioural responses and attributions in young, heterosexual men

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Brandon J.; Sanders, Stephanie A.; Crosby, Richard A.; Ingelhart, Kara N.; Janssen, Erick

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous studies have associated men who experience condom-associated erection problems (CAEP) with incomplete condom use and/or foregoing using condoms altogether. However, how men respond to CAEP and what they attribute CAEP to, remains unclear. Understanding young men's CAEP responses and attributions could help improve sexually transmissible infections (STI)/HIV prevention programs and interventions. Methods Behavioural responses to, and attributions for, CAEP during application (CAEP-Application) and/or during penile-vaginal intercourse (CAEP-PVI) were reported using an online questionnaire by 295 young, heterosexual men (aged 18–24 years) who were recruited via social media websites and university Listservs across major cities in the Midwestern USA. Results Behavioural responses to CAEP-Application included receiving oral or manual stimulation, stimulating a partner, self-stimulation, foregoing condom use and applying the condom after starting intercourse. Attributions for CAEP-Application included: distraction, fit and feel problems, application taking too long and having consumed too much alcohol. Behavioural responses to CAEP-PVI included increasing the intensity of intercourse, removing the condom to receive oral or manual stimulation and removing condom and continuing intercourse. Attributions for CAEP-PVI included: lack of sensation, taking too long to orgasm, not being ‘turned on’ enough, fit and feel problems and partner-related factors. Conclusions Men who report CAEP respond with both STI/HIV risk-reducing and potentially risk-increasing behaviours (e.g. forgoing condom use). Men attribute their experiences to a wide range of individual- and partner-level factors. Addressing men's CAEP behavioural responses and attributions may increase the efficacious value of condom programs and STI/HIV prevention interventions – particularly among men who experience CAEP. PMID:26166025

  1. Egocentric Network and Condom Use Among Mid-Age Female Sex Workers in China: A Multilevel Modeling Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The epidemics of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) have spread among older adults in the world, including China. This study addresses the deficiency of studies about the multiple contextual influences on condom use among mid-age female sex workers (FSWs) over 35 years old. A combination of an egocentric network design and multilevel modeling was used to investigate factors of condom use over mid-age FSWs (egos) particular relationships with sexual partners (alters). Of the 1245 mid-age FSWs interviewed, 73% (907) reported having at least one sexual partner who would provide social support to egos. This generated a total of 1300 ego–alter sex ties in egos' support networks. Condoms were consistently used among one-third of sex ties. At the ego level, condoms were more likely to be used consistently if egos received a middle school education or above, had stronger perceived behavioral control for condom use, or consistently used condoms with other sex clients who were not in their support networks. At the alter level, condoms were not consistently used over spousal ties compared to other ties. Condoms were less likely to be used among alters whom ego trusted and provided emotional support. Cross-level factors (egos' attitudes toward condom use and emotional support from alters) documented a significant positive interaction on consistent condom use. Given the low frequency of condom use, future interventions should focus on mid-age FSWs and their partners within and beyond their support networks. PMID:27028182

  2. Condom acquisition and preferences within a sample of sexually active gay and bisexual men in the southern United States.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Scott D; Hergenrather, Kenneth C; Yee, Leland J; Wilkin, Aimee M; Clarke, Thomas L; Wooldredge, Rich; Brown, Monica; Davis, A Bernard

    2007-11-01

    Health departments, community-based organizations (CBOs), and AIDS service organizations (ASOs) in the United States and abroad distribute large quantities of free condoms to sexually active individuals; however, little is known about where individuals who use condoms actually acquire them. This community-based participatory research (CBPR) study was designed to identify factors associated with the use of free condoms during most recent anal intercourse among self-identifying gay and bisexual men who reported condom use. Data were collected using targeted intercept interviewing during North Carolina Pride Festival events in Fall 2006, using the North Carolina Condom Acquisition and Preferences Assessment (NC-CAPA). Of the 606 participants who completed the assessment, 285 met the inclusion criteria. Mean age of participants was 33 (+/-10.8) years. The sample was predominantly white (80%), 50% reported being single or not dating anyone special, and 38% reported the use of free condoms during most recent anal intercourse. In multivariable analysis, participants who reported using free condoms during most recent anal sex were more likely to report increased age; dating someone special or being partnered; and having multiple male sexual partners in the past 3 months. These participants were less likely to report ever having had a sexually transmitted disease. Despite being in the third decade of the HIV epidemic, little is known about condom acquisition among, and condom preferences of, gay and bisexual men who use condoms. Although more research is needed, our findings illustrate the importance of free condom distribution.

  3. Egocentric Network and Condom Use Among Mid-Age Female Sex Workers in China: A Multilevel Modeling Analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongjie

    2016-04-01

    The epidemics of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) have spread among older adults in the world, including China. This study addresses the deficiency of studies about the multiple contextual influences on condom use among mid-age female sex workers (FSWs) over 35 years old. A combination of an egocentric network design and multilevel modeling was used to investigate factors of condom use over mid-age FSWs (egos) particular relationships with sexual partners (alters). Of the 1245 mid-age FSWs interviewed, 73% (907) reported having at least one sexual partner who would provide social support to egos. This generated a total of 1300 ego-alter sex ties in egos' support networks. Condoms were consistently used among one-third of sex ties. At the ego level, condoms were more likely to be used consistently if egos received a middle school education or above, had stronger perceived behavioral control for condom use, or consistently used condoms with other sex clients who were not in their support networks. At the alter level, condoms were not consistently used over spousal ties compared to other ties. Condoms were less likely to be used among alters whom ego trusted and provided emotional support. Cross-level factors (egos' attitudes toward condom use and emotional support from alters) documented a significant positive interaction on consistent condom use. Given the low frequency of condom use, future interventions should focus on mid-age FSWs and their partners within and beyond their support networks.

  4. HIV risk among young Ghanaians in high school: validation of a multidimensional attitude towards condom use scale

    PubMed Central

    Masa, Rainier D.; Chowa, Gina A.

    2014-01-01

    Condom use remains low among sexually active youth in sub-Saharan Africa. Theoretical and empirical evidence suggests that attitudes towards condom use are important predictors of actual condom use. However, few attempts have been made to systematically develop a valid scale that measures attitudes towards condom use among youth, particularly high school students in sub-Saharan Africa. Using the health belief model, we developed an instrument that measures such attitudes. We analysed survey data collected from 6252 Ghanaian junior high school students. We assessed construct validity using confirmatory factor analysis. Results indicate that attitudes towards condom use among young Ghanaians are best represented by a multidimensional construct. Young Ghanaians differentiate constructs related to perception of benefits and barriers to condom use, as well as perception of severity and susceptibility to HIV. This instrument offers a valid tool for assessing high school students' attitudes towards condom use and their HIV risk. PMID:25431514

  5. Effects of alcohol, expectancies, and partner type on condom use in college males: event-level analyses.

    PubMed

    LaBrie, Joseph; Earleywine, Mitch; Schiffman, Jason; Pedersen, Eric; Marriot, Charles

    2005-08-01

    Sexually active heterosexual college males (N = 93) provided data on over 1,500 sexual encounters. Alcohol consumption, expectancies about alcohol's impact on condom use, and partner type each contributed to use of a condom. Partner type covaried with alcohol consumption and condom use. The men consumed significantly more alcohol with new partners, followed by casual partners, and then by regular partners. In contrast, they were more likely to use condoms with new partners than with casual or regular partners. Drinking alcohol decreased condom use, but only with casual partners. Expectancies about alcohol's disinhibiting sexual effects decreased condom use as well. These data suggest that alcohol consumption does decrease condom use, particularly with casual partners and when drinkers believe alcohol alters sexual disinhibition. Improving knowledge about HIV and other STD transmission in casual partners and challenging expectancies about alcohol as a sexual disinhibitor could help decrease the spread of HIV and other STDs.

  6. HIV risk among young Ghanaians in high school: validation of a multidimensional attitude towards condom use scale.

    PubMed

    Masa, Rainier D; Chowa, Gina A

    2014-10-02

    Condom use remains low among sexually active youth in sub-Saharan Africa. Theoretical and empirical evidence suggests that attitudes towards condom use are important predictors of actual condom use. However, few attempts have been made to systematically develop a valid scale that measures attitudes towards condom use among youth, particularly high school students in sub-Saharan Africa. Using the health belief model, we developed an instrument that measures such attitudes. We analysed survey data collected from 6252 Ghanaian junior high school students. We assessed construct validity using confirmatory factor analysis. Results indicate that attitudes towards condom use among young Ghanaians are best represented by a multidimensional construct. Young Ghanaians differentiate constructs related to perception of benefits and barriers to condom use, as well as perception of severity and susceptibility to HIV. This instrument offers a valid tool for assessing high school students' attitudes towards condom use and their HIV risk.

  7. Obstetrical and gynecological devices; designation of special controls for male condoms made of natural rubber latex.

    PubMed

    2008-11-10

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the classification regulation for condoms to designate a special control for male condoms made of natural rubber latex (latex). The special control for the device is the guidance document entitled "Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Labeling for Natural Rubber Latex Condoms Classified Under 21 CFR 884.5300." The FDA will publish a notice in the Federal Register announcing the availability of the special control guidance document no later than the effective date of this final rule.

  8. HIV vulnerability and condom use among migrant women factory workers in Puebla, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Tamil; Pelcastre, Blanca Estela

    2010-06-01

    International migration is associated with increased HIV vulnerability, but little is known about the vulnerability of internal migrants. This qualitative study explored perceptions of HIV and condom use among Mexican migrant female factory workers. Migration and male sexual infidelity contributed to increased HIV vulnerability and unprotected sex was ubiquitous. The dominant cultural discourse that dichotomizes "good" (monogamous) and "bad" (sexually stigmatized) women, and male partner's resistance, were barriers to condom use. Women's positive attitudes toward the dual protection (pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections) offered by condoms and sexual agency expressed by refusing unwanted sexual contact are resources for HIV prevention.

  9. How can psychological theory help to promote condom use in sub-Saharan African developing countries?

    PubMed

    Campbell, T

    1997-06-01

    Condom use for HIV prevention has been very inconsistent in most sub-Saharan African countries. Studies from around the continent report that knowledge about HIV transmission is variable and seems to be related to gender, socioeconomic and educational status. There is a large body of psychological knowledge about HIV prevention which has been applied to condom promotion campaigns in developed countries. These approaches to condom promotion, based on formal theory, have not been used on a wide scale in African countries and this paper explores ways in which psychological theory might be appropriately applied in a situation of high HIV prevalence.

  10. Legal implications for failure to comply with advance directives: an examination of the incompetent individual's right to refuse life-sustaining medical treatment.

    PubMed

    Perry, Sherynn J

    2002-01-01

    Life-sustaining medical technology in the past century has created a growing body of case law and legislation recognizing the incompetent individual's right to make his or her own end-of-life decisions. This article focuses on California's leadership in the area of these specific end-of-life issues: specifically, exploring the right of an incompetent individual to refuse life-sustaining medical treatment. The article examines advance directives along with various judicial decision-making standards for incompetent individuals and explores the sociobehavioral and legal rationale for compliance with incompetent individual's rights to make end-of-life decisions. Finally this article concludes (i) that advance directives allow competent individuals to state the medical treatment they would prefer in the event they should later become incompetent and (ii) that when advance directives are properly executed in a detailed manner, under laws currently in effect in some jurisdictions, the preferences stated in the directive bind health care providers.

  11. Open, closed, or in between: relationship configuration and condom use among men who use the internet to seek sex with men.

    PubMed

    Brady, Sonya S; Iantaffi, Alex; Galos, Dylan L; Rosser, B R Simon

    2013-05-01

    Nearly 70 % of HIV+ men who have sex with men (MSM) are estimated to have contracted HIV from a main partner. We examine whether condom use varies by relationship configuration, including open relationships with and without cheating. 656 MSM in committed relationships were recruited through a sexually explicit social networking website. Of the 55 % of MSM who had anal sex with a non-main partner in the past 90 days, two-thirds did not use a condom. Adjusting for covariates, MSM in relationships characterized as open with cheating versus monogamous were more likely to have unprotected anal sex with both main and non-main partners. MSM who perceived that their partner played around or cheated were more likely to have unprotected anal sex with a non-main partner. Prevention messages should attempt to reduce cheating and increase personal responsibility for protecting partners from HIV. Messages should be tailored to reflect open and monogamous relationships.

  12. Combined HIV prevention, the New York City condom distribution program, and the evolution of safer sex behavior among persons who inject drugs in New York City.

    PubMed

    Des Jarlais, D C; Arasteh, K; McKnight, C; Feelemyer, J; Hagan, H; Cooper, H L F; Perlman, D C

    2014-03-01

    Examine long term sexual risk behaviors among persons who inject drugs (PWID) in New York City following implementation of "combined" prevention programming, including condom social marketing. Quantitative interviews and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing were conducted among PWID entering Beth Israel Medical Center drug treatment programs 1990-2012. Data were analyzed by four time periods corresponding to the cumulative implementation of HIV prevention interventions. 7,132 subjects were recruited from 1990 to 2012; little change in sexual behavior occurred among HIV seronegative subjects, while HIV seropositive subjects reported significant decreases in being sexually active and significant increases in consistent condom use. HIV transmission risk (being HIV positive and engaging in unprotected sex) declined from 14 % in 1990-1995 to 2 % in 2007-2012 for primary sexual partners and from 6 to 1 % for casual partners. Cumulative implementation of combined prevention programming for PWID was associated with substantial decreases in sexual risk behavior among HIV seropositives.

  13. Respiratory Failure

    MedlinePlus

    Respiratory failure happens when not enough oxygen passes from your lungs into your blood. Your body's organs, ... brain, need oxygen-rich blood to work well. Respiratory failure also can happen if your lungs can' ...

  14. Sex Trafficking, Violence Victimization, and Condom Non-Use Among Prostituted Women in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Decker, Michele R.; Mack, Katelyn P.; Barrows, Jeffery J.; Silverman, Jay G.

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis Prostituted women report disempowerment-related barriers to condom use, extensive violence victimization and trafficking experiences; findings indicate that disempowerment must be addressed within STI/HIV prevention efforts. PMID:19577234

  15. Factors associated with condom use in women from an urban area in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silveira, Mariângela Freitas; dos Santos, Iná Silva; Béria, Jorge Umberto; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Tomasi, Elaine; Victora, Cesar Gomes

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of factors associated with condom use during last sexual intercourse in 15-49-year-old women in a probabilistic sample from the urban area of Pelotas, southern Brazil. A questionnaire administered by an interviewer, investigating socioeconomic characteristics and habits, and another (self-administered) questionnaire on sexual behavior-related variables were used. Poisson regression, following a hierarchical model, was used for data analysis. 1,543 women were included, and losses and refusals amounted to 3.5%. Prevalence of condom use in last sexual intercourse was 28.0%. Condom use was positively associated with younger age, greater schooling, non-white color, single marital status, and greater number of sex partners in the previous three months. This suggests that the group most vulnerable to STDs/AIDS due to lack of condom use is white, adult women, in stable unions, with fewer sexual partners.

  16. Condom Use among Immigrant Latino Sexual Minorities: Multilevel Analysis after Respondent-Driven Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Scott D.; McCoy, Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored correlates of condom use within a respondent-driven sample of 190 Spanish-speaking immigrant Latino sexual minorities, including gay and bisexual men, other men who have sex with men (MSM), and transgender person, in North Carolina. Five analytic approaches for modeling data collected using respondent-driven sampling (RDS) were compared. Across most approaches, knowledge of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and increased condom use self-efficacy predicted consistent condom use and increased homophobia predicted decreased consistent condom use. The same correlates were not significant in all analyses but were consistent in most. Clustering due to recruitment chains was low, while clustering due to recruiter was substantial. This highlights the importance accounting for clustering when analyzing RDS data. PMID:25646728

  17. [Social representations of adolescents on sexual relations and the use of condoms].

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Bezerra, Elys; Pereira, Maria Lúcia Duarte; Chaves, Ana Clara Patriota; de Vasconcelos Monteiro, Priscila

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this investigation was to identify how adolescents structure the social representations of sexual intercourse and use of condoms. Exploratory and descriptive research was conducted with a convenience sample consisting of 234 students of a public secondary school in Fortaleza-CE, Brazil, between July 2009 and April 2010. Data were collected using a questionnaire with variables on socioeconomic status and sexual behaviour, and Free Association test with three terms: 'sex', 'unprotected sex' and 'sex with a condom'. Sexual intercourse was represented by love and affection among the women, while men associated sex to pleasure, desire and attraction toward the female body. The condom was considered important by both groups, but men represented condoms as being something bad that restricts pleasure. Health professionals are granted the opportunity to identify vulnerabilities of this population to DST/HIV/AIDS and work with these vulnerabilities in the most appropriate way.

  18. Condom Tamponade in the Management of Primary Postpartum Haemorrhage: A Report of three cases in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Maya, Ernest T; Buntugu, Kennedy A; Aki, Lovelace; Srofenyoh, Emmanuel K

    2015-09-01

    Postpartum haemorrhage is one of the major causes of maternal mortality worldwide. The leading cause of primary postpartum haemorrhage is uterine atony and active management of the third stage of labour with oxytocin is recommended for preventing primary postpartum haemorrhage. Parenteral oxytocin is also the drug of choice for medical management of postpartum haemorrhage secondary to uterine atony. Condom uterine balloon tamponade is .a low cost technique that can be used as a second-line option for treatment. We report retrospectively three cases of primary PPH secondary to uterine atony which were managed successfully with condom tamponade. Condom tamponade is effective in managing post partum haemorrhage secondary to uterine atony and we advocate for the training of all skilled attendants on how to insert the condom tamponade.

  19. Correlates of condom self-efficacy in an incarcerated juvenile population.

    PubMed

    Tsay, Sharon; Childs, Gwendolyn; Cook-Heard, Dayna; Sturdevant, Marsha

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to enhance awareness of modes of HIV transmission and increase HIV/sexually transmitted diseases (STD) prevention efforts for incarcerated youth through use of an HIV/STD prevention program guided by the Making Proud Choices! curriculum. A convenience sample of 662 youth aged 13 to 18 was recruited from Alabama juvenile detention facilities. Participants took part in three 2-hour sessions. Baseline and postintervention data were collected. There was no significant difference between males and females in intent to use condoms at baseline and postintervention. Intent to use condoms was the most influential predictor of condom self-efficacy. However, there was little change in condom self-efficacy among males and females at baseline and postintervention.

  20. Condom use among immigrant Latino sexual minorities: multilevel analysis after respondent-driven sampling.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Scott D; McCoy, Thomas P

    2015-02-01

    This study explored correlates of condom use within a respondent-driven sample of 190 Spanish-speaking immigrant Latino sexual minorities, including gay and bisexual men, other men who have sex with men (MSM), and transgender person, in North Carolina. Five analytic approaches for modeling data collected using respondent-driven sampling (RDS) were compared. Across most approaches, knowledge of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and increased condom use self-efficacy predicted consistent condom use and increased homophobia predicted decreased consistent condom use. The same correlates were not significant in all analyses but were consistent in most. Clustering due to recruitment chains was low, while clustering due to recruiter was substantial. This highlights the importance accounting for clustering when analyzing RDS data.

  1. Heart Failure

    MedlinePlus

    Heart failure is a condition in which the heart can't pump enough blood to meet the body's needs. Heart failure does not mean that your heart has stopped ... Tiredness and shortness of breath Common causes of heart failure are coronary artery disease, high blood pressure and ...

  2. Is anyone around me using condoms? Site-specific condom-use norms and their potential impact on condomless sex across various gay venues and websites in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    van den Boom, Wijnand; Stolte, Ineke G; Roggen, Astrid; Sandfort, Theo; Prins, Maria; Davidovich, Udi

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate site-specific condom-use norms as assumed by visitors of gay venues and websites across the Netherlands and their association with men’s own use of condoms. Methods In 2010, men who have sex with men (MSM) visiting 18 sex venues (e.g., saunas), 30 non-sex venues (e.g., bars), 6 dating websites, and 2 social network websites completed an on-site questionnaire measuring two site-specific norms concerning anal sex: descriptive (assumed condom use of others at venue or website) and injunctive (assumed approval of condom use by others at venue or website). We measured the association between assumed descriptive norms and own use of condoms using logistic regression. Results Among 2376 participants (median age=30 years; IQR=22–43), 62% (n=1483) assumed that other visitors would not use condoms. Among men self-reporting on their own use of condoms, 22% (318/1421) reported condomless anal sex. Men at non-sex venues assumed other visitors would use condoms more often and approved of using them more often compared to men at sex venues. At all sites (venues/websites), men who assumed that others did not use condoms were more likely to have condomless sex themselves. Conclusions At gay sites across the Netherlands, more than half of MSM believed visitors of these sites would not use condoms during anal sex. The perception that others would not use condoms was associated with less own condom use. HIV prevention should address problematic on-site condom-use norms, as they play a role in influencing sexual behavior between men that meet at these sites. PMID:25938795

  3. Context matters: the moderating role of bar context in the association between substance use during sex and condom use among male clients of female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pitpitan, Eileen V; Wagner, Karla D; Goodman-Meza, David; Semple, Shirley J; Chavarin, Claudia; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Patterson, Thomas L

    2013-10-01

    Tijuana is situated on Mexico's northern border with the U.S., where sex work is quasi-legal. Whereas previous work has focused on the risk behaviors of female sex workers (FSWs), less is known about the risk behaviors of their male clients. Further, research has not examined structural factors as moderators of the association between substance use and condom use, including the contexts in which sex takes place. The purpose of the current study is to examine whether having sex with FSWs in a bar moderates the link between alcohol intoxication during sex and condom use. We recruited 375 male clients of FSWs in Tijuana, Mexico from San Diego, California and Tijuana. Using computer assisted interviewing, we surveyed participants on their alcohol use, condom use, and physical contexts of sex with FSWs in the past 4 months. Results showed that more frequent intoxication during sex with FSWs is associated with more unprotected sex, but only among clients having sex with FSWs in a bar context. Results point to potential reasons for inconsistent condom use with FSWs in this context, including lower risk perceptions of sex with FSWs in bars. Future research should examine structural factors that underlie clients' risk behavior in bars in order to inform structural-level HIV prevention interventions.

  4. Do natural rubber latex condoms pose a risk to aquatic systems?

    PubMed

    Lambert, Scott; Johnson, Catherine; Keller, Virginie D J; Sinclair, Chris J; Williams, Richard J; Boxall, Alistair B A

    2013-12-01

    The presence and potential adverse effects of plastic-polymers in the environment are receiving increasing attention in the popular and scientific press. However, quantifying emissions, exposure and effects of these materials remains a challenge. This paper describes the application of a questionnaire survey to quantify emissions of condom material from the domestic household to the sewage waste stream. Condoms are an important mainstay for birth control and the reduction of sexually transmitted infections. Survey participants were estimated to flush condoms down the toilet 2.96% of the time, and emissions were calculated as 0.99 mg of condom material per person per day. Using information on screening efficiencies at sewage treatment plants, the questionnaire data was combined with a GIS-based water quality model (LF2000-WQX) to predicted environmental concentrations (PEC) in a UK river basin catchment. Annual average PECs of condom material were 0.08-0.2 μg L(-1), under the model scenario used. To put these PECs into context, rubber latex condom material was degraded in outdoor microcosms. This resulted in the formation of a complex mixture of substances including chemical degradation products and particles in the nano range. The direct effects of the degradation mixture were investigated using two freshwater organisms with different life cycle traits, the water column crustacean Daphnia magna and the sediment-dwelling larval of Chironomus riparius. Ecotoxicity tests investigated both acute and chronic endpoints and were shown to exhibit no toxic effects. This precluded the derivation of a genuine no-effect concentration. Hence, the results suggest that limited risk to invertebrates is associated with latex condom degradation products to the organisms tested. Future studies should extend this risk framework to assess risks of condoms to other taxonomic groups as well as the risks of other polymer materials.

  5. Allergic contact dermatitis to condoms: description of a clinical case and analytical review of current literature.

    PubMed

    Foti, Caterina; Bonamonte, D; Antelmi, A; Conserva, A; Angelini, G

    2004-08-01

    We describe the case of a 42-years-old non-atopic man who developed a severe eczematous reaction in the genital area some hours after the use of a condom (Settebello-Hatù Durex) containing a retarding cream. Patch test revealed a strong allergic reaction to the retarding cream and to benzocaine and paraben mix contained in the cream itself. Condoms with retarding cream should be avoided in man sensitized to local anestethetics.

  6. Condom use and concurrent partnering among heterosexually active, African American men: a qualitative report.

    PubMed

    Frye, Victoria; Williams, Kim; Bond, Keosha T; Henny, Kirk; Cupid, Malik; Weiss, Linda; Lucy, Debbie; Koblin, Beryl A

    2013-10-01

    African Americans are overrepresented among heterosexual cases of HIV/AIDS in the USA. Inconsistent condom use and concurrent partnering are two sexual behaviors driving the heterosexual HIV epidemic in the African American community. To inform the development of an HIV prevention behavioral intervention to decrease concurrent partnering and increase condom use among African American heterosexual men, we conducted formative research, including 61 structured interviews, 5 focus groups with 25 men, and 30 in-depth qualitative interviews between July and December 2009. We used a grounded theoretical approach and categorizing strategies to code and analyze the qualitative data. Results around condom use confirmed earlier findings among heterosexual men in general: condoms diminish pleasure, interfere with erection, and symbolize infidelity. Although valued by some as a form of disease prevention and pregnancy prevention, condoms are often used only with specific types of female partners, such as new or casual partners, or due to visual risk assessment. Sex partner concurrency was described as normative and ascribed to men's "natural" desire to engage in a variety of sexual activities or their high sex drive, with little recognition of the role it plays in the heterosexual HIV epidemic. Fatherhood emerged among many men as a crucial life event and compelling motivation for reducing sexual risk behavior. Based on these results, we conclude that existing HIV prevention efforts to improve attitudes towards and motivate use of condoms either have not reached or have not been successful with African American heterosexual men. In designing behavioral interventions to decrease concurrent partnering and increase condom use, addressing negative attitudes towards condoms and partner risk assessment is critical, as is integrating novel motivational approaches related to identity as fathers and men in the African American community.

  7. Why don’t urban youth in Zambia use condoms? The influence of gender and marriage on non-use of male condoms among young adults

    PubMed Central

    Pinchoff, Jessie; Boyer, Christopher B.; Mutombo, Namuunda; Chowdhuri, Rachna Nag; Ngo, Thoai D.

    2017-01-01

    Background Zambia experiences high unmet need for family planning and high rates of HIV, particularly among youth. While male condoms are widely available and 95% of adults have heard of them, self-reported use in the past 12 months is low among young adults (45%). This study describes factors associated with non-use of male condoms among urban young adults in Zambia. Methods A household cross-sectional survey in four urban districts was conducted from November 2015 to January 2016 among sexually active young adults ages 18–24 years. A random walk strategy was implemented in urban areas; eligible, enrolled participants were administered a survey on household characteristics, health access, and knowledge, attitudes and practices related to contraception. Relative risk regression models were built to determine factors associated with the decision to not use a male condom (non-use) at most recent sexual intercourse. Results A total of 2,388 individuals were interviewed; 69% were female, 35% were married, and average lifetime sex partners was 3.45 (SD±6.15). Non-use of male condoms was 59% at most recent sexual intercourse. In a multivariate model, women were more likely to report non-use of a male condom compared with men (aRR = 1.24 [95% CI: 1.11, 1.38]), married individuals were more likely to report non-use compared with unmarried individuals (aRR = 1.59 [1.46, 1.73]), and those residing in the highest poverty wards were more likely to report non-use compared with those in the lowest poverty wards (aRR = 1.31 [1.16, 1.48]). Those with more negative perceptions of male condom use were 6% more likely to report non-use (aRR = 1.06 [1.03, 1.09]). Discussion regarding contraception with a partner decreased non-use 13% (aRR = 0.87 [0.80, 0.95]) and agreement regarding male condom use with a partner decreased non-use 16% (aRR = 0.84 [0.77, 0.91)]). Discussion Non-use of male condoms is high among young, married adults, particularly women, who may be interested in

  8. Children's conceptions of AIDS, HIV and condoms: a study from Botswana.

    PubMed

    Plattner, Ilse Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed at exploring how young children in Botswana conceptualise AIDS, HIV and condoms. Data were collected from a sample of 75 children aged four to seven years who were asked to draw a picture about AIDS and tell a story about the drawing; this was followed by three questions in which participants were asked to explain what AIDS, HIV and a condom is. Narratives and responses were categorised and coded to enable statistical analysis. Most children had conceptions of AIDS (80.0%) and condoms (78.7%), but only 45.3% of HIV; the rationality attached to them varied widely at all ages. The results suggest that four- to seven-year-old children construct their own individual and unique meaning about AIDS, HIV and condoms and they also illustrate how children utilise their own experiences to arrive at their conclusions. Even when children narrated some correct HIV and AIDS information, their understanding of it contradicted its correct meaning. Children's interpretations of AIDS-related knowledge carried a potential for emotional distress. Many children had a negative conception of condoms associated with fear and the belief that a condom would cause illness and AIDS. The findings are of significance for parent education, HIV prevention education and for health care professionals providing antiretroviral treatment to children.

  9. Implementation intentions for buying, carrying, discussing and using condoms: the role of the quality of plans.

    PubMed

    de Vet, Emely; Gebhardt, Winifred Anne; Sinnige, Judith; Van Puffelen, Anne; Van Lettow, Britt; de Wit, John B F

    2011-06-01

    Forming implementation intentions (i.e. action plans that specify when, where and how a person will act) could be effective in promoting condom use on a large scale. However, the technique implies that people are able to form high quality implementation plans that are likely to induce behaviour change. Young single females, aged 16-30 years old, were asked to form either an implementation intention for the target behaviour using condoms (n = 159) or preparatory implementation intentions for buying, carrying, discussing and using condoms (n = 146). Condom preparations were assessed at follow-up 2 months later. The implementation intentions that participants formed were rated on quality. In general, it appeared hard for young women to form high quality general implementation intentions for the target behaviour condom use. Implementation intentions for the preparatory behaviours were of better quality than general implementation intentions. Females who formed strong implementation intentions in the preparatory behaviours condition were more committed to these plans and perceived them as more useful. Plan commitment and perceived usefulness predicted condom preparations at follow-up. We conclude that it is important to ask individuals to form implementation intentions for the preparatory behaviours rather than for the target behaviour alone.

  10. Determination of burst initiation location and tear propagation velocity during air burst testing of latex condoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidhazy, Andrew

    1991-04-01

    The stress testing of latex condoms by an air burst procedure has been slow in gaining industry acceptance because questions have been raised regarding the influence of the test apparatus on the likelihood of breakage occurring where the condom is attached to the inflation device. It was desired to locate the areas at which the condoms tend to burst and thus corroborate or disprove these claims. Several factors associated with the bursting condom demanded the use of special instrumentation to detect arid study the burst initiation process. Microsecond duration electronic flashes were used for the initial stages of the investigation. Although the absolute point of initiation of a given burst could not be photographed, these high speed studies tend to indicate that the most likely place for high quality condoms to break is not where they are attached to the inflation device but at an intermediate area between the base and the tip of the condom. In addition, tear propagation characteristics and velocities were determined with a delayed-flash technique, a double-slit strip method and a rotating drum framing camera.

  11. Sex workers, condoms, and mobility among men in Uzbekistan: implications for HIV transmission.

    PubMed

    Smolak, Alex; El-Bassel, Nabila; Malin, Anne; Terlikbayeva, Assel; Samatova, Salkynai

    2016-03-01

    Uzbekistan has one of the fastest growing HIV epidemics in the world. In this study, men who reported mobility were compared to non-mobile men in regard to paying for sex and condom use during paid sex. The sample included 2333 men between the ages of 15 and 59 in Uzbekistan. Generalised linear models were used to assess the relationship between mobility, paid sex, and condom use while adjusting for possible confounders. Of the total sample, 103 (4.4%) reported engaging in paid sex and 43 (42%) reported using condoms while engaging in paid sex. Mobile men were found to have more than three times the odds of paid sex than non-mobile men (OR: 3.209; 95% CI: 2.481, 4.150; p < 0.001). Mobile men were not significantly different from non-mobile men in terms of condom use; however, unmarried men were found to have six times the odds of not using a condom when compared to married men during paid sex (OR: 6.411; 95% CI: 2.502, 16.425; p = 0.004). Only one of the men who reported paid sex also reported using a condom with their spouses at last intercourse. The findings contribute to understanding mobility and HIV risk, and have important implications for HIV prevention interventions.

  12. Can the Catholic Church agree to condom use by HIV-discordant couples?

    PubMed

    Bovens, L

    2009-12-01

    Does the position of the Roman Catholic Church on contraception also imply that the usage of condoms by HIV-discordant couples is illicit? A standard argument is to appeal to the doctrine of double effect to condone such usage, but this meets with the objection that there exists an alternative action that brings about the good effect-namely, abstinence. I argue against this objection, because an HIV-discordant couple does not bring about any bad outcome through condom usage-there is no disrespect displayed for the generative function of sex. One might retort that the badness of condom usage consists in thwarting the unitive function of sex. I argue that also this objection cannot be upheld. In conclusion, if there are no in-principle objections against condom usage for HIV-discordant couples, then policies that deny access to condoms to such couples are indefensible. HIV-discordant couples have a right to continue consummating their marriage in a manner that is minimally risky and this right cannot be trumped by utilitarian concerns that the distribution of condoms might increase promiscuity and along with it the HIV infection rate.

  13. Influence of attitudes on the intention to use condoms in Quebec sexually active male adolescents.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, M N; Saucier, J F; Pica, L A

    1994-05-01

    The authors surveyed between April and June 1989, 1328 males from six secondary schools in grades 7-11 in Laval, Quebec, to determine the influence of attitudes and other variables on their intentions to use condoms. Findings are based upon survey feedback from the 433 students who reported being sexually active. Although they ranged in age from 12 to 19 years, 91.9% were aged 13-17. Laval is a mainly French-speaking middle-class white suburb immediately north of Montreal and is the second most populous city in the province of Quebec with a population of 314,398. Condom use at first intercourse was greatest among 14 year olds at 72.7%, compared to only 51.2% of 17 year olds. Older adolescents depended more upon their female partners' use of oral contraceptives. In younger adolescents, the intention to use condoms was significantly associated with supportive parental attitudes about sexuality and contraception. Information on condoms provided by parents, peers, schools, and the media had no positive effect upon subjects' intentions to use condoms. The young men seemed instead to be more affected by their personal attitudes about condoms. The authors suggest exposing young men to programs designed to prevent unwanted pregnancy, HIV infection, and other sexually transmitted diseases early in their lives. Parents should also be encouraged to take a greater role in sex education.

  14. Using the Internet and social media to promote condom use in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Purdy, Christopher H

    2011-05-01

    Condoms are an important contraceptive method in Turkey, used by one in three couples using modern methods. However, withdrawal remains the most common form of contraception, resulting in many unwanted pregnancies. To address this issue and increase condom use in Turkey, DKT International, a social marketing enterprise, leveraged the high use of the Internet and social networking to help build Fiesta, a premium condom brand, and promote sales and condom use. By utilising a wide range of digital platforms--a new website, Facebook page, Google Adwords, an e-newsletter, viral marketing, banner ads and involving bloggers--Fiesta achieved strong recognition among the target audience of sexually active young people, though far more men than women. Retail audits, Internet analysis and sales performance suggest that using the Internet was instrumental in establishing Fiesta. Sales reached 4.3 million condoms (of which 8% were sold online) in the first 18 months. In contrast, Kiss, a far more inexpensive DKT condom, launched at the same time but with no digital campaign, sold 2.6 million. With the growing availability and use of the Internet and social media globally, family planning organizations should consider incorporating these technologies into their educational, outreach and marketing programmes.

  15. Short-Term Acceptability of the Woman's Condom among Married Couples in Shanghai

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Junqing; Huang, Zirong

    2016-01-01

    Background. The Woman's Condom, a second-generation female condom designed for acceptability, is poised for introduction in China. Method. This single-arm study was conducted among 60 couples in China in 2010 to assess acceptability of the Woman's Condom. Results. Male participants reported that ease of handling, inserting, and removing the device improved significantly from first to fourth use. Female and male participants reported that comfort during insertion, feel of lubricant during insertion, comfort/fit of outer ring during use, and overall comfort improved significantly from first to fourth use. Further, at fourth use, female participants reported significant improvement in the comfort of the feel of the condom material and lubricant. Female and male participants reported that satisfaction with stability and sensation during sex and ability to achieve orgasm improved significantly from first to fourth use. At fourth use, female participants reported statistically significant improvement in sensation compared to using nothing. A majority of participants (78%) stated that they would use the Woman's Condom in the future, primarily due to its dual protection profile. Conclusion. This study has shown that, in China, the Woman's Condom appears to be acceptable to married couples. User experience contributes to improvement in many aspects of device acceptability. PMID:27547481

  16. Dynamic failure in brittle solids

    SciTech Connect

    Grady, D.E.

    1994-04-01

    Failure of brittle solids within the extremes of the shock loading environment is not well understood. Recent shock-wave data on compression shear failure and tensile spall failure for selected high-strength ceramics are presented and used to examine the mechanisms of dynamic failure. Energy-based theories are used to bound the measured strength properties. A new concept of failure waves in brittle solids is explored in light of the kinetic processes of high-rate fracture. Classical failure criteria are compared with the present base of dynamic strength data on ceramics.

  17. A total market approach for condoms in Myanmar: the need for the private, public and socially marketed sectors to work together for a sustainable condom market for HIV prevention

    PubMed Central

    Longfield, Kim; Mundy, Gary; Win, Zaw; Montagu, Dominic

    2015-01-01

    Background Concerns about appropriate pricing strategies and the high market share of subsidized condoms prompted Population Services International (PSI)/Myanmar to adopt a total market approach (TMA). This article presents data on the size and composition of the Myanmar condom market, identifies inefficiencies and recommends methods for better targeting public subsidy. Methodology Data on condom need and condom use came from PSI/Myanmar’s (PSI/M’s) behavioural surveys; data for key populations’ socioeconomic status profiles came from the same surveys and the National Tuberculosis Prevalence Survey. Data on market share, volumes, value and number of condoms were from PSI/M’s quarterly retail audits and Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). Results Between 2008 and 2010, the universal need for condoms decreased from 112.9 to 98.2 million while condom use increased from 32 to 46%. Free and socially marketed condoms dominated the market (94%) in 2009–11 with an increase in the proportion of free condoms over time. The retail price of socially marketed condoms was artificially low at 44 kyats ($0.05 USD) in 2011 while the price for commercial condoms was 119–399 kyats ($0.15–$0.49 USD). Equity analyses demonstrated an equal distribution of female sex workers across national wealth quintiles, but 54% of men who have sex with men and 55% of male clients were in the highest two quintiles. Donor subsidies for condoms increased over time; from $434 000 USD in 2009 to $577 000 USD in 2011. Conclusion The market for male condoms was stagnant in Myanmar due to: limited demand for condoms among key populations, the dominance of free and socially marketed condoms on the market and a neglected commercial sector. Subsidies for socially marketed and free condoms have prevented the growth of the private sector, an unintended consequence. A TMA is needed to grow and sustain the condom market in Myanmar, which requires close co-ordination between the

  18. Factors Associated with Use of Latex Condom-Compatible Lubricants by Men Who Have Sex with Men in India: Implications for HIV Prevention.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, Shreena; Chakrapani, Venkatesan; Ramakrishnan, Lakshmi; Goswami, Prabuddhagopal; Yadav, Diwakar; George, Bitra; Sen, Shrabanti; Rachakulla, Harikumar; Subramanian, Thilakavathi; Paranjape, Ramesh S

    2013-01-01

    We examined the prevalence and type of rectal lubricants use and factors associated with exclusive use of latex-condom compatible lubricants (water-based lubricants) among men who have sex with men (MSM) using data from a large-scale cross-sectional survey conducted in 2009/10 in three Indian states. Using time-location cluster sampling, 3880 MSM were recruited from cruising sites. We used multiple logistic regression to assess the association between type of lubricants used and sociodemographic and programmatic indicators. Among those who reported using lubricants (64%) more than half (53%) exclusively used water-based lubricants, less than one-tenth used exclusively oil-based lubricants, and nearly 40% used both water-based and oil-based lubricants. Factors associated with exclusive use of water-based lubricants were exposure to HIV prevention interventions (AOR: 6.18, 95% CI 4.82 to 7.92) and kothi-identified MSM-feminine/anal-receptive (AOR: 2.56, 95% CI 2.12 to 3.10). Targeted HIV interventions among MSM need to promote and distribute latex condom-compatible lubricants for use during anal sex-irrespective of their presumed or stated sexual role in anal sex, and educate them not to use oil-based lubricants with condoms.

  19. Bridges crossed yesterday, peaks to be conquered tomorrow. AIDS and the condom.

    PubMed

    Mouli, V C

    1992-07-01

    The experiences of the condom promotion campaign in Zambia are recounted since AIDS public education began in 1987. The initial challenges were to make condoms an acceptable option, to legitimize public promotion, to expand access, to obtain the highest level approval, and to avoid offending the religious community. The 1st major publication was the production of a booklet on AIDS information for secondary school students, which advocated abstinence before marriage and condom use for those already sexually active. A public debate ensued. A truce was reached in December 1989, and religious groups withdrew their attacks on the promotion of condoms by health workers, continued their encouragement of condom use within their congregations. The Ministry of Health also received the endorsement from top political leadership, and a public campaign was launched. Posters and leaflets were distributed to high risk groups and in bars and taverns through Ministry of Health workers and National AIDS Prevention and Control Program (NAPSP) workers. Access through hospitals and clinics was improved and a knowledge, attitudes, and practices survey was conducted in September 1990. A brochure about what health workers should know about condoms was and continues to be distributed to health personnel. By 1990 it became clear that the subject of condoms was no longer taboo, e.g., the leading national daily newspaper ran articles based on 2 booklets about AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases without a public outcry. Mistakes can be made, however. In another African country in 1991, a newspaper printed the message that the Bible saves souls and the condom saves people and the religious community vehemently protested. Another survey in May 1990 produced findings from 10 focus groups which identified the association between condom use and promiscuity. The challenges ahead are to promote condom use for effective AIDS and sexually transmitted disease prevention and to link use with

  20. High speed cinematography of the initial break-point of latex condoms during the air burst test.

    PubMed

    Stube, R; Voeller, B; Davidhazy, A

    1990-06-01

    High speed cinematography of latex condoms inflated to burst under standard (ISO) conditions reveals that rupture of the condom typically is initiated at a small focal point on the shank of the condom and then rapidly propagates throughout the condom's surface, often ending with partial or full severance of the condom at its point of attachment to the air burst instrument. This sequence of events is the reverse of that sometimes hypothesized to occur, where initiation of burst was considered to begin at the attachment point and to constitute a testing method artifact. This hypothesis of breakage at the attachment point, if true, would diminish the value of the air burst test as a standard for assessing manufacturing quality control as well as for condom strength measurements and comparisons.

  1. Determinants of inconsistent condom use with female sex workers among men attending the STD clinic in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Wee, S; Barrett, M; Lian, W; Jayabaskar, T; Chan, K

    2004-01-01

    Background/objectives: Female sex workers and their male clients have been identified as risk groups for the transmission of STDs and HIV. Behavioural interventions targeting clients need to address inconsistent condom use among them. The aim of the study is to assess the sociodemographic, behavioural, and psychological factors associated with inconsistent condom use among clients of sex workers. Methods: 229 male patients attending the STD clinic in Singapore who reported paying for sex in the previous 6 months were interviewed. Response rate was 91%. Results: Overall, 45% used condoms inconsistently; these clients were more likely to have poor STD knowledge, visit sex workers five or more times in the past 6 months, have lower self efficacy, less favourable social norms for condom use, and more likely to forget condom use when intoxicated (alcohol impaired decision making). Conclusions: Behavioural interventions for clients need to improve STD/HIV transmission knowledge and focus on improving client's self efficacy in using condoms. PMID:15295132

  2. Determinants of condom use among junior high school students in a minority, inner-city school district.

    PubMed

    DiClemente, R J; Durbin, M; Siegel, D; Krasnovsky, F; Lazarus, N; Comacho, T

    1992-02-01

    Condoms reduce the risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission; however, their use among adolescents has been inconsistent. Little is known about factors which motivate consistent condom use, particularly among younger adolescents. In a study designed to identify such factors, 1899 inner-city junior high school students were surveyed. In June 1988, students completed an anonymous self-report questionnaire assessing HIV-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. Among sexually active students (N = 403), logistic regression analysis evaluated the influence of demographic, psychosocial, and behavioral factors on frequency of condom use. Respondents who believe condoms are effective in preventing HIV transmission were 2.2 times more likely to report using condoms consistently during sexual intercourse; those with low perceived costs associated with condom use were 1.9 times more likely to be consistent users. Number of lifetime sexual partners was inversely related to frequency of condom use. Respondents with a history of three or more sex partners were half as likely to use condoms consistently. Factors not associated with consistent condom use include age, age at sexual debut, ethnicity, HIV knowledge, perceived efficacy to avoid HIV infection, and alcohol and drug use. School- and community-based HIV prevention programs will have to go beyond the didactic transfer of factual information and include more interactive teaching strategies to improve adolescents' attitudes toward condoms are self-efficacy to increase condom use and to counter negative peer influences and adolescents' perceptions of invulnerability. Physicians are an underutilized source of HIV prevention information. They have an important role in counseling adolescents about effective HIV-prevention methods and dispelling misperceptions which hinder consistent condom use.

  3. Determinants of risky sexual behavior and condom use among college students in China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xinying; Liu, Xiaona; Shi, Yuhui; Wang, Yanling; Wang, Peiyu; Chang, Chun

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to assess sexual behavior and condom use among Chinese college students, and to explore social-environmental and social-cognitive determinants associated with risky sexual behaviors within this population. A survey was conducted among 19,123 Chinese college students recruited through stratified cluster sampling. About 9% of the students reported having had sex (male=13.3%, female=5.0%, OR=2.918), 3.6% had multiple sexual partners (male=5.7%, female=1.6%, OR=3.624), and 0.9% had commercialized sex (male=1.6%, female=0.3%, OR=6.169). Only 24.8% of sexually active students had used a condom for every sexual encounter, and there was no significant difference in condom use between male students and female students. Logistic regression showed that sex (female, OR=0.769), age (older, OR=1.263), exposure to pornographic information (higher, OR=1.751), drinking (intoxication, OR=1.437), and smoking (OR=2.123-5.112) were all determinants of sexual behaviors. Path analysis showed that exposure to pornographic information, level of consumption, and sex education were important social-environmental factors of condom use. Condom use was more common among those who had greater HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes toward high-risk behavior, self-efficacy, and intent to use a condom. Intentions were the most important and direct factor influencing condom use. The study concluded that college students are vulnerable to sexually transmitted diseases - including HIV/AIDS infection - through sexual contact. Therefore, future HIV/AIDS prevention and safer sex interventions should focus on self-protection skills and target behavior change.

  4. Partnership Concurrency Status and Condom Use among Women Diagnosed with T. vaginalis

    PubMed Central

    Lichtenstein, Bronwen; Desmond, Renee A.; Schwebke, Jane R.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction and Background Partner concurrency increases the risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as T. vaginalis. Women diagnosed with T. vaginalis have a two to three-fold risk of acquiring HIV/AIDS. Goals To describe partnership concurrency (multiple sexual partners during the same time period) and condom use among women diagnosed with T. vaginalis, and to compare reports of concurrency between matched female and male dyads. Methods A baseline interview on partnership status and condom use was administered to women diagnosed with T. vaginalis at a public STI clinic. A male partner sub-study was also conducted. Seventy-three dyads were matched by unique identifier and female and male responses were compared. Results The participants were 319 African American women and 10 white women aged 15 to 40 years (N=329). Almost three fourths (72.3%) had only one partner over a three month period, compared to more than one fourth (27.7%) with two or more partners. Regular condom use was low (16.4%), especially with regular partners (9.1%). In the matched sub-study, men reported significantly higher rates of concurrency than women (47.3% versus 23.0%; p=<0.002). Men who practiced concurrency were not significantly more likely than other men to use condoms with regular partners. Conclusions Women seldom used condoms with their regular male partners and these partners had significantly higher rates of concurrency and low rates of condom use. Women may underestimate the risk of acquiring STI from regular partners and counseling strategies should include the risk of being infected with STDs such as trichomonas by regular partners as well as by casual partners in the absence of condom use. PMID:18657997

  5. Adherence to Traditionally Masculine Norms and Condom-Related Beliefs: Emphasis on African American and Hispanic Men

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Wilson; Gordon, Derrick M.; Campbell, Christina; Ward, Nadia L.; Albritton, Tashuna; Kershaw, Trace

    2015-01-01

    Although studies have shown that adherence to traditional masculine norms (i.e., Status, Toughness, Antifemininity) affect men’s attitudes toward sexual health, there is little research on how men’s adherence to these norms affect them in the context of heterosexual, dyadic relationships. Among 296 young pregnant couples, we investigated the extent to which adherence to traditional masculine norms affected male and female partners’ own condom-related beliefs (i.e., condom self-efficacy, positive condom attitudes) and that of their partners. We tested an interdependence model using a dyadic-analytic approach to path analysis. We also tested for differences across gender and race-ethnicity (i.e., African American, Hispanic). Results showed that adherence to the Antifemininity and Toughness masculine norms predicted negative condom-related beliefs, whereas, overall, adherence to the Status norm predicted positive condom-related beliefs. Men’s and women’s adherence to traditional norms about masculinity were associated with their partner’s condom self-efficacy, and moderated associations based on gender and race-ethnicity were detected. In contrast, each dyad member’s traditional masculine norms were not associated with his or her partner’s positive condom attitudes. Taken together, findings indicated that the roles of traditional masculinity and condom-related beliefs in sexual health should be addressed within the context of relationships and associations between masculine norms and condom-related beliefs are not uniformly negative. PMID:26957949

  6. [Russia: lacking condoms in the fight against AIDS].

    PubMed

    1994-02-15

    Russia has 80% of all HIV infections that have occurred in the former Soviet Union, and the increased mobility of people will lead to higher figures in the whole of eastern Europe if nothing is done. Earlier all foreigners were tested who came to Russia, but such screening was too expensive and was not the most effective way of dealing with the problem, according to a Russian doctor who is the director of disease prevention in Europe at the World Health Organization (WHO). New awareness about AIDS has created a problem because many people refuse to let their children be vaccinated against infectious diseases such as diphtheria, since in Russia no disposable syringes are available. 25 people became infected with HIV at a hospital in the village of Elista because of deficient sterilization. There are attempts to improve surveillance methods, visitors are no longer tested, but pregnant women are tested twice, and all hospital patients undergo mandatory testing for HIV. The number of HIV-tested people increased from 3 million in 1987 to 33 million in 1990. In April 1994 at an AIDS conference in Riga 35 participants approved a resolution that demands rapid treatment, respect for and protection of human rights, and human dignity. At a WHO conference in Athens, where 50 countries participated, the main view was to learn about the mistakes that were committed in the campaigns against AIDS at other sites worldwide, and to set in motion an effective campaign in the East. In this campaign safe sex is the slogan, but to achieve safe sex, Russian men must have access to more than 12 condoms a year.

  7. Trends in Inequalities in the Use of Condom by Urban Teenagers in Spain.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Bruned, Laia; Garcia-Continente, Xavier; Gotsens, Mercè; Pérez, Anna; Pérez, Gloria

    2015-12-01

    Social and economic inequalities in condom use by adolescents have been reported previously. Also, condom use has declined during the last decade. The aim of the study was to describe trends in the use of condoms in our setting, and how these trends may differ between socioeconomic groups in boys, and separately in girls, aged 17-19 years attending school in Barcelona between 2004 and 2012. We analyzed data from three annual surveys on risk factors in secondary students, which included a representative sample of the city's population; individuals who had previously had sexual intercourse (n = 1570) were included in the study. We calculated adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) and their confidence intervals (95% CI) using robust Poisson regression models. The prevalence of condom use among boys was 87.0% in 2004 and 76.2% in 2012, and 76.7 and 64.7% among girls, respectively. This decrease was greater in adolescents with a low socioeconomic level, both in boys (aPR = 0.80) and girls (aPR = 0.84). The observed increase of socioeconomic inequalities in condom use in adolescents highlights a possible deterioration in good sexual practices and policies during the studied period.

  8. Migration of nitrosamines from rubber products--are balloons and condoms harmful to the human health?

    PubMed

    Altkofer, Werner; Braune, Stefan; Ellendt, Kathi; Kettl-Grömminger, Margit; Steiner, Gabriele

    2005-03-01

    Studies performed in 2001 and 2003 surveyed the release of carcinogenic nitrosamines and nitrosatable substances from rubber toy balloons by extraction with artificial saliva and gas chromatography-thermal energy analysis (GC-TEA). 81% of the 16 in 2001 sampled balloons and 93% of the 14 in 2003 sampled balloons released nitrosamines above the recommended level in Germany of 10 mug per kg material. Furthermore, 32 rubber condom samples collected in 2004 from the German market were surveyed for nitrosamines by determining the amount migrating into an artificial sweat test solution. The levels released from condoms varied from < 10 to 660 mug per kg material (i. e., up to 1.4 mug nitrosamines per condom). In a model calculation, not considering the differences that may exist in the resorption rate, we have calculated that the exposure from condoms may exceed the exposure from food 1.5-3 fold. To our knowledge so far no legal binding legislation exists worldwide concerning nitrosamine migration from toy balloons or condoms.

  9. Epidemiologic and behavioral characterization of knowledge of condom use and modeling among military personnel.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Laurens; Ogungbade, Gbadebo; Ward, Doriel D; Ross, Michael W; Ekong, Ernest; Essien, Ekere James

    2008-08-01

    How accurately condoms are being used vary across populations and knowledge of the factors determining its proper use remains unclear. Knowledge of such differentials and determinants would aid in evaluating the contributions of condom use to HIV epidemic reduction. Baseline data from the Situationally Focused Individual HIV/AIDS intervention to promote HIV protective behavior among 2,213 Nigerian Military Personnel were analyzed. Educational status as a predictor variable was assessed using univariable and multivariable logistic regression model. Compared to those with less than high school education, those with high school and some college education were two times more likely to demonstrate knowledge of condom use and modeling, prevalence odds ratio (POR), 2.32, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.60-3.37. After adjustment for the relevant covariates, higher education attainment was associated with nonsignificant 62% increase in knowledge and modeling, POR, 1.62, 95% CI = 0.78-3.38. This study is indicative of low knowledge of condom use and modeling among the Nigerian military personnel; as well as a direct correlation between education attainment and knowledge of condom use and modeling.

  10. Decision Processes about Condom Use among Shelter-Homeless LGBT Youth in Manhattan.

    PubMed

    Ream, Geoffrey L; Barnhart, Kate F; Lotz, Kevin V

    2012-01-01

    Health behavior interventions based on Theory of Planned Behavior address participants' personally-held beliefs, perceived social norms, and control over the behavior. New data are always needed to "member check" participants' decision processes and inform interventions. This qualitative study investigates decision processes around condom use among 81 homeless LGBT youth ages 18-26. Findings indicated considerable endorsement of the conventional policy of always using condoms, promulgated in HIV prevention education targeting this population. Although some participants reported risk behavior in contexts of sex work, survival sex, casual encounters, open relationships, and substance use, most were aware of these risks and consistently safe in those situations. Condoms use boundaries became vulnerable in states of emotional need and negative mood. The only effect participants acknowledged of homelessness on condom use was indirect, through negative mood states. The most prevalent context of condom non-use was with long-term primary partners, a potential area of vulnerability because, of 13 participants for HIV or HCV, nine mentioned how they had been infected, and all nine believed they had acquired it from a primary partner. Findings imply programs should emphasize HIV risk potential within long-term romantic partnerships and mental health services to remediate negative mood states.

  11. Social marketing campaigns that promote condom use among MSM: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Neville, Stephen; Adams, Jeffery; Holdershaw, Judith

    2014-03-01

    The turn of the century has seen an increase in reported cases of sexually transmitted infections including the human immunodeficiency virus, particularly in groups of men who have sex with men. Both internationally and in New Zealand the implementation of social marketing human immunodeficiency virus prevention programmes are identified as appropriate mechanisms to promote condom use in men who have sex with men. This paper presents a review of the literature on research-based social marketing initiatives designed to decrease sexually transmitted infections, including the human immunodeficiency virus, through an increase in condom use by men who have sex with men. Eleven quality assured articles met the inclusion criteria and were consequently included in the review. The review presented here strongly supports the utilisation of behaviourally based social marketing campaigns to increase condom use in men who have sex with men. Nurses are frequently first point of contact for consumers of health services. As such they need to have a sound understanding of not only Get it On!, a New Zealand social marketing campaign designed to promote condom use, but also about existing international campaigns. Nurses should also know about social marketing principles if they are to effect positive changes in condom use and address the complex challenges inherent in tackling increased rates of sexually transmitted infections, including the human immunodeficiency virus.

  12. Men who have sex with men account for nonuse of condoms.

    PubMed

    Adams, Jeffery; Neville, Stephen

    2009-12-01

    Despite several decades of health promotion activity targeted at men who have sex with men (MSM), rates for nonuse of condoms for anal sex among MSM worldwide and in New Zealand have been increasing in recent times. In this article we report on the first local qualitative investigation undertaken in Auckland, New Zealand, of how members of a particular group of MSM account for nonuse of condoms for anal sex with other men. We collected qualitative data from 22 MSM (17 face-to-face interviews, and three online interviews involving 5 men). Thematic analysis led to the identification of five patterns that account for the nonuse of condoms: (a) substance use, (b) psychological aspects, (c) difficulties using condoms, (d) condoms in relationships, and (e) managing risk. We conclude that although this information generally confirms the findings in the wider research literature, it is also important in the local context as the first research that can be used with confidence in developing and refining health promotion initiatives to address this issue.

  13. Blockage and flow: intimate experiences of condoms and microbicides in a South African clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Stadler, Jonathan; Saethre, Eirik

    2011-01-01

    Based on qualitative research undertaken during a phase-three microbicide gel trial, this paper explores female participants' experiences and perceptions of gel and condom use and the opinions of their male partners and community members. Participants were aware that condoms were effective in preventing HIV infection and that the efficacy of the microbicide was unproven. Yet, in narratives about gel and condom use, participants ascribed improvements to their reproductive health and intimate relationships with men to gel use. In contrast, condoms were believed to prevent disease, yet also embodied mistrust, were believed to contain dangerous substances and were felt to block the womb. These apparently contradictory views about condoms and gels are explored in the light of conceptions of flow and blockage. Health is achieved by maintaining a steady balance of substances within the body, while preventing fluid flow results in illness. We argue that women enrolled in the trial broadened the meaning of the gel beyond its primary intended effect of preventing HIV. Through their accounts of gel use, women 'reinvented' the gel as a substance that transformed their bodies and sexual relations. This has implications for understanding how local knowledge of health and illness intersects with biomedical knowledge.

  14. Fruity, fun and safe: creating a youth condom brand in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Purdy, Christopher H

    2006-11-01

    DKT Indonesia, a social marketing enterprise, undertook research among young people in Indonesia to develop a strategy to heighten understanding of safer sex and increase the availability and use of condoms among sexually active youth. The centerpiece of this campaign was the launch in 2003 of Fiesta condoms, with a range of flavours, colours, shapes and pricing aimed to appeal to young people. Working with key commercial and NGO partners, distribution has focused on places where young people often congregate and shop. The campaign relies heavily on the media, including TV commercials, radio talk shows, print media and mobile text messaging. DKT has also partnered with MTV, the Staying Alive campaign and other NGO and private sector partners to educate young people on a range of reproductive and sexual health issues. Based on retail audits and focus group discussions, the Fiesta brand has been a success. In three years, it has gained a 10% share of the condom market and helped to increase overall condom sales by 22%. Young people identify Fiesta as "their" brand and have started to use Fiesta condoms in significant numbers.

  15. Decision Processes about Condom Use among Shelter-Homeless LGBT Youth in Manhattan

    PubMed Central

    Ream, Geoffrey L.; Barnhart, Kate F.; Lotz, Kevin V.

    2012-01-01

    Health behavior interventions based on Theory of Planned Behavior address participants' personally-held beliefs, perceived social norms, and control over the behavior. New data are always needed to “member check” participants' decision processes and inform interventions. This qualitative study investigates decision processes around condom use among 81 homeless LGBT youth ages 18–26. Findings indicated considerable endorsement of the conventional policy of always using condoms, promulgated in HIV prevention education targeting this population. Although some participants reported risk behavior in contexts of sex work, survival sex, casual encounters, open relationships, and substance use, most were aware of these risks and consistently safe in those situations. Condoms use boundaries became vulnerable in states of emotional need and negative mood. The only effect participants acknowledged of homelessness on condom use was indirect, through negative mood states. The most prevalent context of condom non-use was with long-term primary partners, a potential area of vulnerability because, of 13 participants for HIV or HCV, nine mentioned how they had been infected, and all nine believed they had acquired it from a primary partner. Findings imply programs should emphasize HIV risk potential within long-term romantic partnerships and mental health services to remediate negative mood states. PMID:22693658

  16. Concordant and discordant reports on shared sexual behaviors and condom use among African American serodiscordant couples in four cities.

    PubMed

    2010-10-01

    This paper examines the concordance of reported shared sexual behaviors, including condom use, among 535 heterosexual, African American, serodiscordant couples and identifies factors that might predict discordant reports. Percentages of agreement, Kappa and McNemar's statistics and conditional probability indices are used to measure concordance. Logistic regression models identify predictors of couples' discordant sexual reports. Analyses revealed Kappa statistics for reporting anal sex, fellatio and cunnilingus indicated moderate to substantial agreement. The effects of demographics and the couples' relationship contexts on concordance of reported sexual behaviors were found to vary somewhat by gender and type of sexual behavior. Findings showed that concordance of reporting between the couples was consistent for the past 90 and 30 days. Findings from this paper provide new scientific insights into the knowledge base of self-reported couples' data and suggest that these data can be used to evaluate their accuracy and serve as a proxy for validity.

  17. Concordant and Discordant Reports on Shared Sexual Behaviors and Condom Use Among African American Serodiscordant Couples in Four Cities

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the concordance of reported shared sexual behaviors, including condom use, among 535 heterosexual, African American, serodiscordant couples and identifies factors that might predict discordant reports. Percentages of agreement, Kappa and McNemar’s statistics and conditional probability indices are used to measure concordance. Logistic regression models identify predictors of couples’ discordant sexual reports. Analyses revealed Kappa statistics for reporting anal sex, fellatio and cunnilingus indicated moderate to substantial agreement. The effects of demographics and the couples’ relationship contexts on concordance of reported sexual behaviors were found to vary somewhat by gender and type of sexual behavior. Findings showed that concordance of reporting between the couples was consistent for the past 90 and 30 days. Findings from this paper provide new scientific insights into the knowledge base of self-reported couples’ data and suggest that these data can be used to evaluate their accuracy and serve as a proxy for validity. PMID:20499151

  18. Sexual behavior of female sex workers and access to condoms in Kenya and Uganda on the Trans-Africa highway.

    PubMed

    Morris, Chester N; Morris, Sheldon R; Ferguson, Alan G

    2009-10-01

    Female sex workers and their clients remain a high risk core group for HIV in Africa. We measured sexual behavior of a snowball sample of female sex workers (FSW) along the Trans Africa highway from Mombasa, Kenya to Kampala, Uganda and surveyed the availability of male condoms at 1,007 bars and lodgings in Kenya along the highway trucking stops where transactional sex occurs. There were 578 FSW one month sex diaries analyzed, 403 from Kenya and 175 from Uganda. Kenyan FSW had a median of 45 sexual acts per 28 days compared to 39 sex acts per 28 days by Ugandan FSW (P < 0.05). Condom use by FSW for all sexual liaisons was 79% in Kenya compared to 74% in Uganda. In multivariate analysis, adjusting for repeated measures, Kenyan FSW were more likely to use a condom by an adjusted odds ratio of 2.54 (95% confidence interval 1.89-3.41) compared to Ugandan FSW. Condom use with regular clients was 50.8% in Uganda compared with 68.7% in Kenya (P < 0.01). The number of sex workers reporting 100% condom use was 26.8% in Kenya and 18.9% in Uganda (P < 0.01). Bars and lodges in Kenya compared to Uganda were more likely to: have condom dispensers, 25% versus 1%, respectively (P < 0.01); distribute or sell condoms, 73.9% versus 47.6% (P < 0.01); and have more weekly condom distribution, 4.92 versus 1.27 condoms per seating capacity (P < 0.01). Our data indicate that in both countries condom use for FSW is suboptimal, particularly with regular partners, and greater condom use by Trans African highway FSW in Kenya compared to Uganda may be related to availability. Targeted interventions are warranted for FSW and truck drivers to prevent transmission in this important core group.

  19. Everyday Attention Failures: An Individual Differences Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unsworth, Nash; McMillan, Brittany D.; Brewer, Gene A.; Spillers, Gregory J.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined individual differences in everyday attention failures. Undergraduate students completed various cognitive ability measures in the laboratory and recorded everyday attention failures in a diary over the course of a week. The majority of attention failures were failures of distraction or mind wandering in educational…

  20. The influence of marijuana and alcohol use on condom use behavior: findings from a sample of young adult female bar drinkers.

    PubMed

    Parks, Kathleen A; Collins, R Lorraine; Derrick, Jaye L

    2012-12-01

    Prevalence data indicate that alcohol and marijuana are frequently used intoxicants among young adults in the United States. In a number of studies, both alcohol use and marijuana use have been associated with failure to use condoms, a high-risk sexual behavior. The purpose of the current study was to assess the individual and additive effects of alcohol and marijuana use on this risky sexual behavior among 251 young adult, female bar drinkers. Multilevel modeling was used to assess the likelihood of condom use during sexual events that occurred as a function of substance use (none, only alcohol, only marijuana, or both) prior to and partner type (known or casual) during the event, as well as individual differences in sexual assertiveness. Initial model testing (Levels 1 and 2) revealed that there were significant main effects for partner type (known), substance use (alcohol and marijuana) and sexual assertiveness (refusal, pregnancy/STI prevention) on risky sex. Final model testing indicated that sexual assertiveness interacted with substance use to influence risky sex. Women who were low in sexual assertiveness refusal were more likely to engage in risky sex on days when they had consumed both alcohol and marijuana prior to the sexual activity. These findings highlight the complex nature of the relationship between substance use and risky sex.

  1. Condoms and condiments: compatibility and safety of personal lubricants and their use in Africa.

    PubMed

    Geibel, Scott

    2013-07-09

    Previous research on the use of personal lubricants for sexual intercourse is limited and has primarily focused on condom compatibility and breakage, with only recent limited assessment of lubricant safety and possible epidemiologic implications. This article discusses the global evidence of lubricant compatibility with latex condoms and biological safety of lubricants, as well as documentation of lubricant use and current guidelines for HIV prevention programming in Africa. Data on lubricant compatibility with condoms are less available than commonly realized, and many lubricant products may not have been thoroughly tested for safety due to flexible regulatory environments. Recent laboratory and study findings from microbicides research also suggest that some water-based lubricants may have safety issues. Some African populations are using several types of lubricants, especially oil-based petroleum jellies, and receive little evidence-based guidance. More research is needed from the medical community to guide prevention programming.

  2. A Condom Distribution Program in the Los Angeles Men's Central Jail: Sheriff Deputy's Attitudes and Opinions

    PubMed Central

    McCuller, William J.; Harawa, Nina T.

    2014-01-01

    The K6G unit of Los Angeles Men's Central Jail (MCJ) is comprised of males who have sex with males (MSM), whether gay, bisexual or transgender. Within this unit, condoms are distributed to inmates, one condom per week. The current study was conducted to better understand the experiences and opinions of jail staff as it pertains to the condom distribution program's effectiveness and impact on jail safety and management. A total of 10 staff interviews were conducted with the unit's line staff (n=8) and administrative personnel (n=2). Findings suggest that despite the contradictory “mixed message” that jail staff felt the program sent, it causes few operational or safety concerns and is perceived to be beneficial to public health. PMID:24934837

  3. Condoms and condiments: compatibility and safety of personal lubricants and their use in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Geibel, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Previous research on the use of personal lubricants for sexual intercourse is limited and has primarily focused on condom compatibility and breakage, with only recent limited assessment of lubricant safety and possible epidemiologic implications. This article discusses the global evidence of lubricant compatibility with latex condoms and biological safety of lubricants, as well as documentation of lubricant use and current guidelines for HIV prevention programming in Africa. Data on lubricant compatibility with condoms are less available than commonly realized, and many lubricant products may not have been thoroughly tested for safety due to flexible regulatory environments. Recent laboratory and study findings from microbicides research also suggest that some water-based lubricants may have safety issues. Some African populations are using several types of lubricants, especially oil-based petroleum jellies, and receive little evidence-based guidance. More research is needed from the medical community to guide prevention programming. PMID:23841994

  4. Prevention is still the best medicine. Condom social marketing campaign changes attitudes and actions in Guinea.

    PubMed

    Hess, L L

    1993-09-01

    In Guinea, jingles promoting Prudence condoms are heard on radio and television in 4 different national languages 5 times a day. This has produced an attitudinal change through an intense national media campaign orchestrated by the USAID-financed Social Marketing of Contraceptives Project carried out by Population Services International (PSI), which provides family planning information, products and services through public and private outlets for 500,000 sexually active couples. PSI's paid media campaign has sponsored call-in talk shows on women and AIDS and religion and AIDS at the rural radio station in Labe. Billboards placed in key locations remind people that using condoms helps prevent AIDS. PSI organized a team of 10 Prudence condom marketing agents in March 1992 to establish 400 nontraditional retail and 50 traditional retail and wholesale outlets for condoms. Outlets include pharmacies, restaurants, hotels, grocery stores, and nightclubs. The distributors sell the condoms at a profit. In the first 6 months, PSI distributed 2.3 million condoms. Young women want to space their children and limit the number of children, said the chief midwife for the Guinean Association for Family Well Being clinic in Conakry. Guinea's population growth rate is 2.8%, which will result in a doubling of the population in 25 years. In May 1992, Guinea's government ratified a national population policy supporting family planning. One of the primary goals is to increase contraceptive use to 25% of all couples. PSI works with the Ministry of Health and the Guinean Association for Family Well Being to integrate family planning and sexually transmitted disease prevention activities into 32 primary health care centers in Guinea's Forest Region. To combat the spread of HIV infection, PSI provides technical assistance to the National AIDS Committee to carry out AIDS information activities throughout the country, targeting the military, police, truck drivers, and students.

  5. Dispelling the myth: Exploring associations between the HPV vaccine and inconsistent condom use among college students.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Otero, Coralia; Thompson, Erika L; Daley, Ellen M; Griner, Stacey B; Logan, Rachel; Vamos, Cheryl A

    2016-12-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination is safe and effective in preventing anogenital cancers and warts. However, myths have surrounded the HPV vaccine since its approval, including the possibility that HPV vaccinated young people are more likely to engage in risky sexual behaviors. The purpose of this study was to assess the association between HPV vaccination and engaging in inconsistent condom use in a sample of U.S. college students. A secondary data analysis of the National College Health Assessment-II (Fall 2013) was conducted in 2015. Risky sexual activity was operationalized as inconsistent condom use for oral, vaginal or anal sexual activity. Logistic regression models were stratified by sexual activity and gender, and controlled for socio-demographics and history of STIs. Inconsistent condom use was reported among females for vaginal (47%), oral (94%), and anal sex (75%); while males reported levels of inconsistency for vaginal (38%), oral (94%), and anal sex (58%). Sixty-nine percent of females reported receiving the HPV vaccine compared to 43% of males. Among females, there was no significant association between HPV vaccination and inconsistent condom use in any of the sexual activities. Among males, there was no significant association between HPV vaccination and inconsistent condom use in oral or vaginal sex. HPV-vaccinated males were less likely to report inconsistent condom use during anal sexual activity. This study contributes to the increasing evidence that HPV vaccination is not associated with risky sexual behavior. Dispelling this myth is important to facilitate uptake and completion of the HPV vaccine in the U.S.

  6. Kidney Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dialysis or Transplant Paying for Kidney Failure Treatment Contact Us Health Information Center Phone: 1-800-860- ... to share this content freely. October 2, 2013 Contact Us Health Information Center Phone: 1-800-860- ...

  7. Heart Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... for people who can't tolerate ACE inhibitors. Beta blockers. This class of drugs not only slows your ... rhythms and lessen your chance of dying unexpectedly. Beta blockers may reduce signs and symptoms of heart failure, ...

  8. Factors related to condom use among four groups of female sex workers in Bali, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Ford, K; Wirawan, D N; Fajans, P

    1998-02-01

    This article tests a behavioral model of condom use for four groups of female commercial sex workers. Data were drawn from a study of 614 female sex workers conducted in Bali, Indonesia. AIDS knowledge, risk behaviors, and factors related to condom use varied substantially among the four groups of women and reflect the social context of their work. Interventions for each group need to reflect these differences. Important factors to consider include the level of AIDS and STD knowledge in their environment, the characteristics of the clients served, and the degree of supervision that they receive.

  9. Condom use less likely, high risk behavior more common at Spring break. Safe sex.

    PubMed

    1997-04-21

    According to a Durex Sheik online survey of Panama City Beach, Florida, spring breakers, college students are actually less sexually active during spring break than they are back on campus, despite long-standing perceptions to the contrary. That's the good news. The bad news is that those having sex at spring break are more likely to be doing so with several different partners and less likely to be using condoms than they are back at school. The survey of 664 college students, who responded via beach side computers hooked up to the Internet, showed that 36% of spring breakers hadn't had any sexual encounters during their week at the beach vs. 23% who said they had no such encounters during a typical week at school. 23% said they had one encounter per week during spring break, while 18% had two or three liaisons, 9% had four or five, and 13% had more than five. A closer look at those who had more than five partners per week reveals even more startling figures: 47% said they did not use a condom during any of their encounters during spring break vs. 23% for all spring breakers and 15% for those who were with only one partner. And among those who had more than five partners and for whom alcohol was involved in all of their encounters, a shocking 74% didn't use condoms. "We conducted this survey to better understand sexual attitudes and behavior at spring break," said Catherine Taylor, Durex. "What we found is a small but dangerous group of individuals who are engaging in very risky behavior, supporting the belief that we need to talk to young adults in their own language to teach them how condoms can be a normal part of a healthy intimate relationship." To normalize the acceptance of condoms, two 7-foot-tall Durex condom characters handed out 70,000 free Durex Sheik condom samples in Panama City Beach. Durex Sheik also hosted an event with MTV "Singled Out" star Carmen Electra and conducted a hands-on game in which contestants, racing against the clock, slipped

  10. The Relevance of Cultural Factors in Predicting Condom-Use Intentions among Immigrants from the Netherlands Antilles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kocken, P. L.; van Dorst, A. G.; Schaalma, H.

    2006-01-01

    A study into the relevance of cultural factors in predicting condom-use intentions among Antillean migrants in the Netherlands is described in this article. The association between the intention to use condoms with a new sexual partner and a perceived taboo on discussing sex, beliefs about sex education and machismo beliefs on gender and power…

  11. The Experience of Condom Use and Other Sexual Risk Practices among Male Brewery Employees Who Recently Migrated in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunmola, Adegbenga M; Adebayo, Dada; Olapegba, Makinde; Alarape, Aderemi

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To identify factors that predict condom use and sexual practices of brewery employees who had recently been on short- and longterm migration in the course of their jobs in Nigeria. Design: A cross-sectional survey design was adopted to investigate the relationship between sexual practices and condom use of migrant employees, and to…

  12. Theory-Based Predictors of Condom Use among University Students in the United States and South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heeren, G. Anita; Jemmott, John B., III; Mandeya, Andrew; Tyler, Joanne C.

    2007-01-01

    This study compared the predictive value of the theory of planned behavior in university students in South Africa (N = 251) and the United States (N = 160) who completed an anonymous self-administered questionnaire. Multiple regression analyses revealed that condom use and intention were significantly predicted by positive condom attitude,…

  13. The relevance of cultural factors in predicting condom-use intentions among immigrants from the Netherlands Antilles.

    PubMed

    Kocken, Pl; van Dorst, Ag; Schaalma, H

    2006-04-01

    A study into the relevance of cultural factors in predicting condom-use intentions among Antillean migrants in the Netherlands is described in this article. The association between the intention to use condoms with a new sexual partner and a perceived taboo on discussing sex, beliefs about sex education and machismo beliefs on gender and power relationships is addressed. The study was conducted among 346 Dutch Antilleans from a random sample of an Antillean population aged 15-50 years. The response rate was 37.8%. The results showed that condom-use intentions were primarily determined by perceived subjective norms, the perceived taboo on discussing sex, machismo attitudes, gender, age and educational background. Moreover, the respondent's opinion regarding machismo was an effect modificator for the association between condom-use intentions and subjective social norm. It is concluded that, in predicting condom-use intentions, factors specific to the culture of a population contribute significantly to the determinants drawn from the general social-cognition models. It is recommended that future research should use measurement instruments that are adapted to culture-specific beliefs, and should explore the influence of cultural factors on actual condom use. Moreover, interventions promoting condom use among migrant populations should target the cultural correlates of condom use.

  14. Factor Structure of the Condoms Barriers Scale with a Sample of Men at High Risk for HIV

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Suzanne R.; Calsyn, Donald A.; Ball, Samuel A.

    2009-01-01

    This study assesses the psychometric properties of the Condom Barriers Scale (CBS), an instrument originally designed to measure women's perceptions and attitudes regarding male condom use, with a sample of men at high risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Participants include 590 male patients in drug abuse treatment involved in a…

  15. Condom use behaviours among 18–24 year-old urban African American males: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    KENNEDY, S. B.; NOLEN, S.; APPLEWHITE, J.; WAITERS, E.; VANDERHOFF, J.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot project was to develop, administer and assess a brief male-focused and behavioural-driven condom promotion programme for young adult African American males in an urban setting. To achieve the aims of this study, linkages with local community centres were initially fostered and both quantitative and qualitative research methods were employed. Based on relevant tenets of the social cognitive theory and the stages of change model, a series of focus groups were conducted among the target population, recruited from non-traditional urban settings, to identify and further explore their perceived condom use barriers and facilitators in order to support programme development. Specifically, the topical items addressed those young men’s perceptions of sexuality and condom use within three broad contexts: general sexual behaviours, condom use behaviours, and the relationship between condoms and substance use. The focus group discussions were audiotaped and the transcribed data summarized and analysed based on those thematic topics. The findings revealed that significant myths, misconceptions and knowledge gaps exist regarding HIV/STD-related prevention, condom promotion and substance use. The findings imply that there is a critical need to develop target group suitable condom promotion programmes in order to successfully promote, foster and sustain condom use among high-risk populations. PMID:17852001

  16. Factors Associated with Inconsistent Condom Use in Adolescents with Negative or Unknown HIV status in Northwest Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Lee; Kouya, Francine; Kwalar, Rene; Pilapil, Mariecel; Saito, Kohta; Palmer, Nancy; Posada, Roberto; Tih, Pius Muffih; Welty, Thomas; Jao, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association between utilization of HIV testing and condom use amongst Cameroonian youth/adolescents who are not known to be HIV-infected. Background Worldwide, HIV is spreading most quickly amongst youth/adolescents. Between 44% and 82% of sexually active youth in Cameroon report inconsistent condom use. Data regarding utilization of HIV testing and condom use is lacking. Methods A cross-sectional survey was administered to 431 youth ages 12-26 years in Cameroon from September to December 2011. Data on socio-demographics, sexual risk behaviors, self-reported HIV status, and condom use were collected. We compared rates of inconsistent condom use between those known HIV negative who utilized testing (HIV-N) versus those with unknown status due to unutilized testing (HIV-U). Inconsistent condom use was defined as responding “never,” “sometimes,” or “usually,” while consistent condom use was defined as responding “always” to questions regarding frequency of condom use. Generalized Estimating Equations were applied to assess the association between HIV testing and inconsistent condom use adjusting for other confounders. Results Of 414 eligible respondents, 205 were HIV-U and 209 HIV-N. HIV-U subjects were younger (mean age =16.4 vs. 17.9, p<0.001) and more likely to report living in an urban area (p=0.002) than HIV-N subjects. Seventy-two percent (137/191) of sexually active youth reported inconsistent condom use. After adjusting for potential confounders, HIV-U status [Odds Ratio (OR) =3.97, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) =1.68-6.01] was associated with inconsistent condom use. Similarly, female gender (OR=3.2, 95% CI=1.29-7.89) was associated with inconsistent condom use, while older age at sexual debut was associated with a decreased risk for inconsistent condom use (OR=0.67, 95% CI=0.56-0.81). Conclusion Cameroonian adolescents report high rates of inconsistent condom use which we found to be associated with self

  17. A qualitative study of obstacles to diaphragm and condom use in an HIV prevention trial in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Kacanek, Deborah; Dennis, Amanda; Sahin-Hodoglugil, Nuriye Nalan; Montgomery, Elizabeth T; Morar, Neetha; Mtetwa, Sibongile; Nkala, Busi; Phillip, Jessica; Watadzaushe, Connie; van der Straten, Ariane

    2012-02-01

    Consistent condom use and the substitution of condoms with potential HIV prevention methods of lower or unknown effectiveness are important concerns in the development of new prevention technologies. This qualitative study explored obstacles to consistent condom use with the diaphragm in MIRA, an HIV prevention trial in South Africa and Zimbabwe. We conducted 26 focus group discussions (FGDs) with 206 women and 7 FGDs and 10 in-depth interviews with 41 male partners of intervention-arm women. The belief that the diaphragm/gel prevented HIV, women's difficulties negotiating condom use, and men's unawareness that using the products together was recommended were obstacles to consistent condom use with the diaphragm/gel. Concerns about protection from HIV and pregnancy, recognition that the diaphragm was not yet proven to prevent HIV or sexually transmitted infections, and the trial context were facilitators. Understanding selective study product use in HIV prevention trials may inform improved adherence counseling and male involvement strategies.

  18. Self-determination and gender–power relations as predictors of condom use self-efficacy among South African women

    PubMed Central

    Ruiter, Robert AC; van den Borne, Bart; Reddy, Priscilla S

    2015-01-01

    This article identifies correlates of condom use self-efficacy using concepts from self-determination theory and gender–power measures. A cross-section of Xhosa-speaking women (n = 238) from Eastern Cape, South Africa, was used to conduct bivariate correlations and multivariate linear regression analyses. Gender equality beliefs and HIV knowledge were positively associated with condom use self-efficacy generally and in risky situations. Condom use self-efficacy generally was also positively associated with power balance attitudes, negative beliefs about intimate partner violence, and positive growth perspective, while the association with hopeless personal perspective was negative. Surprisingly, lack of social support was positively associated with condom use self-efficacy in risky situations. The predictors of condom use self-efficacy identified in this study that may serve as change objectives for future sexual health promotion interventions. PMID:28070366

  19. Heart failure

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Heart failure occurs in 3% to 4% of adults aged over 65 years, usually as a consequence of coronary artery disease or hypertension, and causes breathlessness, effort intolerance, fluid retention, and increased mortality. The 5-year mortality in people with systolic heart failure ranges from 25% to 75%, often owing to sudden death following ventricular arrhythmia. Risks of cardiovascular events are increased in people with left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) or heart failure. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of multidisciplinary interventions for heart failure? What are the effects of exercise in people with heart failure? What are the effects of drug treatments for heart failure? What are the effects of devices for treatment of heart failure? What are the effects of coronary revascularisation for treatment of heart failure? What are the effects of drug treatments in people at high risk of heart failure? What are the effects of treatments for diastolic heart failure? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to August 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 80 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: aldosterone receptor antagonists, amiodarone, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, anticoagulation, antiplatelet agents, beta-blockers, calcium

  20. Using social and behavior change communication to increase HIV testing and condom use: the Malawi BRIDGE Project.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Michelle R; Rimal, Rajiv N; Carrasco, Maria; Fajobi, OlaOluwa; Soko, Anthony; Limaye, Rupali; Mkandawire, Glory

    2014-01-01

    While overall HIV prevalence in Malawi has decreased, it is still high in the southern region of the country. Behavioral prevention activities are crucial to continue the reduction in HIV prevalence. Behavior change is influenced by many factors. Previous work indicates knowledge about HIV transmission, self-efficacy to protect oneself from exposure, and accurate risk perception of one's susceptibility all impact sexual behavior. The current study looks at the effects of a behavior change communication program in Malawi called the BRIDGE II Project on psychosocial and behavioral variables. The program sought to address barriers to individual action and confront societal norms related to sexual risk behavior through a mix of community-based activities and mass media messages delivered through local radio stations. Using cohort data (n = 594), we examined the effect of BRIDGE exposure on three variables that affect HIV behaviors: knowledge, self-efficacy, and risk perception, as well as two behavioral outcomes: HIV testing and condom use at last sex. Data were collected at baseline and for a midterm evaluation. Regression analyses showed exposure to BRIDGE was significantly associated with knowledge level (β = 0.20, p < .001) and self-efficacy (β = 0.35, p < .001) at midterm when controlling for baseline scores, but not risk perception. Psychosocial variables did not show a significant relationship to either behavioral outcome. However, program exposure was a significant predictor of both HIV testing in the past year (odds ratio [OR] = 1.40, p < .001) and condom use at last sex (OR = 1.26, p < .05). This study suggests such a communication intervention may play an important role in not only affecting HIV-related behaviors themselves, but also critical factors that affect HIV behaviors, including knowledge and self-efficacy. It is recommended that communication efforts around HIV risk reduction be increased.

  1. An actual use comparison of condoms meeting Australian and Swiss standards: results of a double-blind crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Benton, K W; Jolley, D; Smith, A M; Gerofi, J; Moodie, R

    1997-07-01

    The performance of condoms in actual use has been poorly researched in the past, especially in comparing condoms that met different quality control standards as indicated by laboratory testing. The present study used a double-blind crossover design to compare the performance of 2 types of condoms in actual use; one that met the Australian and International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standards for condom quality and one that met the more stringent Swiss Quality Seal requirements. Ninety-two men recruited from Metropolitan Melbourne completed a self-report diary sheet after each condom was used which assessed the performance of the condom and the conditions under which it was used. From a total of 1917 condom uses, there was an overall breakage risk of 2.7%. The breakage risk ratio (Australian/ISO:Swiss) for all types of use was 1.16 (95% confidence interval 0.68-1.99). When subanalyses by method of entry were performed, the condoms meeting the Swiss standard appeared to fare better than the Australian/ ISO standards for anal sex (RR = 4.84, 95% CI 1.07-21.8, P = 0.022), while the opposite was the case for vaginal sex (RR = 0.74, 95% CI 0.35-1.53, P = 0.41). The result for anal use was statistically significant at the 5% level, despite being based on fewer condom trials than that for vaginal use, but this result needs to be replicated. Although the participants appeared representative of the general male population in Melbourne in the age bracket 18-46 years, there was a significant history of condom usage reported. This may have influenced the risk of breakage.

  2. Patterns of condom use among students at historically Black colleges and universities: implications for HIV prevention efforts among college-age young adults.

    PubMed

    El Bcheraoui, Charbel; Sutton, Madeline Y; Hardnett, Felicia P; Jones, Sandra B

    2013-01-01

    Over 1.1 million Americans are living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and African-American youth and young adults are disproportionately affected. Condoms are the most effective prevention tool, yet data regarding condom use patterns for African-American college youth are lacking. To inform and strengthen HIV prevention strategies with African-American college-age youth, we surveyed students attending 24 historically Black colleges and universities regarding condom use patterns. Students were administered anonymous questionnaires online to explore knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to condom use during last sexual intercourse (LSI). Among 824 sexually active respondents (51.8% female, median age 20 years, 90.6% heterosexuals), 526 (63.8%) reported condom use during LSI. Students who used condoms for disease prevention, whose mothers completed high school or had some college education or completed college were more likely to have used a condom during LSI. Spontaneity of sexual encounters, not feeling at risk of HIV, and partner-related perceptions were associated with condom non-use during LSI (p<0.05). Over a third of our college youth sample did not use a condom during LSI and may benefit from increased condom education efforts. These efforts should highlight condoms' effectiveness in protection from HIV. Future HIV education and prevention strategies with similar groups of young adults should explore the implications of maternal education, clarify perceptions of HIV risk, and consider strategies that increase consistent condom use to interrupt sexual transmission of HIV.

  3. Public Choice, Market Failure, and Government Failure in Principles Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fike, Rosemarie; Gwartney, James

    2015-01-01

    Public choice uses the tools of economics to analyze how the political process allocates resources and impacts economic activity. In this study, the authors examine twenty-three principles texts regarding coverage of public choice, market failure, and government failure. Approximately half the texts provide coverage of public choice and recognize…

  4. Decompensated heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Mangini, Sandrigo; Pires, Philippe Vieira; Braga, Fabiana Goulart Marcondes; Bacal, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Heart failure is a disease with high incidence and prevalence in the population. The costs with hospitalization for decompensated heart failure reach approximately 60% of the total cost with heart failure treatment, and mortality during hospitalization varies according to the studied population, and could achieve values of 10%. In patients with decompensated heart failure, history and physical examination are of great value for the diagnosis of the syndrome, and also can help the physician to identify the beginning of symptoms, and give information about etiology, causes and prognosis of the disease. The initial objective of decompensated heart failure treatment is the hemodynamic and symptomatic improvement preservation and/or improvement of renal function, prevention of myocardial damage, modulation of the neurohormonal and/or inflammatory activation and control of comorbidities that can cause or contribute to progression of the syndrome. According to the clinical-hemodynamic profile, it is possible to establish a rational for the treatment of decompensated heart failure, individualizing the proceedings to be held, leading to reduction in the period of hospitalization and consequently reducing overall mortality. PMID:24136770

  5. Make Program Failures Work for You.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, M. Jean; Mills, Helen H.

    1984-01-01

    Recreation program planners can learn from program failures. Failures should not be viewed as negative statements about personnel. Examining feelings in a supportive staff environment is suggested as a technique for developing competence. (DF)

  6. Condom Use among Sexually Active Rural High School Adolescents: Personal, Environmental, and Behavioral Predictors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haley, Tammy; Puskar, Kathryn; Terhorst, Lauren; Terry, Martha Ann; Charron-Prochownik, Denise

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents who engage in unprotected intercourse are at risk of pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection (STI). Although adolescents in rural areas participate in levels of sexual risk taking similar to that of nonrural youth, few data are available identifying factors that influence condom use among rural adolescents. The purpose of this…

  7. Condoms and Contexts: Profiles of Sexual Risk and Safety Among Young Heterosexually Active Men

    PubMed Central

    Masters, N. Tatiana; Casey, Erin; Beadnell, Blair; Morrison, Diane M.; Hoppe, Marilyn J.; Wells, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Heterosexual men’s sexual safety behavior is important to controlling the U.S. epidemic of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV. While sexual safety is often treated as a single behavior, such as condom use, it can also be conceptualized as resulting from multiple factors. Doing so can help us achieve more nuanced understandings of sexual risk and safety within partner-related contexts. We used Latent Class Analysis with data collected online from 18-25 year old heterosexually active U.S. men (n = 432) to empirically derive a typology of the patterns of sexual safety strategies they employ. Indicators were sexual risk reduction strategies used in the past year with the most recent female sex partner: Condom use, discussing sexual histories, STI testing, agreeing to be monogamous, and discussing birth control. We identified four subgroups: Risk Takers (12%), Condom Reliers (25%), Multistrategists (28%), and Relationship Reliers (35%). Partner-related context factors – number of past-year sex partners, relationship commitment, and sexual concurrency – predicted subgroup membership. Findings support tailoring STI prevention to men’s sexual risk-safety subgroups. Interventions should certainly continue to encourage condom use, but should also include information on how partner-related context factors and alternate sexual safety strategies can help men reduce risk for themselves and their partners. PMID:25256019

  8. An Intervention to Promote the Female Condom to Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artz, Lynn; Macaluso, Maurizio; Kelaghan, Joseph; Austin, Harland; Fleenor, Michael; Robey, Lawrence; Hook, III, Edward W.; Brill, Ilene

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a 1-hour behavioral intervention designed to promote female condoms and safer sex to women at a high risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The intervention includes a promotional videotape; a skills-oriented counseling session with a nurse clinician; assorted take-home items, including a videotape for men; and free…

  9. Condom Carnival: Feasibility of a Novel Group Intervention for Decreasing Sexual Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Mollie B.; Okwumabua, Theresa M.; Thurston, Idia B.

    2017-01-01

    Young people who engage in unprotected sex are at risk of negative consequences. The current study explored pre-post assessment data from 124, mostly Black, young people (M age = 19.6, SD = 2.8) attending an educational and vocational training programme who participated in the Condom Carnival, a novel, brief, interactive, peer-led, culturally…

  10. The Impact of Intimate Partner Violence on Women's Condom Negotiation Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swan, Holly; O'Connell, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    HIV prevention efforts promote the use of condoms to prevent the spread of HIV and other STDs. Thus, a woman's agency to practice healthy sexual behaviors necessarily involves negotiation with another person. This poses unique challenges for women who have limited power in relationships. The current study explores how the experience of intimate…

  11. Health Care Providers: A Missing Link in Understanding Acceptability of the Female Condom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mantell, Joanne E.; West, Brooke S.; Sue, Kimberly; Hoffman, Susie; Exner, Theresa M.; Kelvin, Elizabeth; Stein, Zena A.

    2011-01-01

    Health care providers can play a key role in influencing clients to initiate and maintain use of the female condom, an underused method for HIV/STI and pregnancy prevention. In 2001-2002, based on semistructured interviews with 78 health care providers from four types of settings in New York City, we found that most providers had seen the female…

  12. Gender Differences in Beliefs about Condom Use among Young, Heterosexual Australian Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Fiona J.; Newton, Joshua D.; Windisch, Lydia; Ewing, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate gender differences in beliefs about condom use among young, sexually active, heterosexual Australian adults. Design: Cross-sectional survey of 1,113 adults aged 18-26 years. Setting: Higher education institutions across New South Wales and Victoria, Australia. Method: Participants were recruited during higher-education…

  13. Condoms and Contexts: Profiles of Sexual Risk and Safety Among Young Heterosexually Active Men.

    PubMed

    Masters, N Tatiana; Casey, Erin; Beadnell, Blair; Morrison, Diane M; Hoppe, Marilyn J; Wells, Elizabeth A

    2015-01-01

    Heterosexual men's sexual safety behavior is important to controlling the U.S. epidemic of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). While sexual safety is often treated as a single behavior, such as condom use, it can also be conceptualized as resulting from multiple factors. Doing so can help us achieve more nuanced understandings of sexual risk and safety within partner-related contexts. We used latent class analysis with data collected online from 18- to 25-year-old heterosexually active U.S. men (n = 432) to empirically derive a typology of the patterns of sexual safety strategies they employed. Indicators were sexual risk-reduction strategies used in the past year with the most recent female sex partner: condom use, discussing sexual histories, STI testing, agreeing to be monogamous, and discussing birth control. We identified four subgroups: Risk Takers (12%), Condom Reliers (25%), Multistrategists (28%), and Relationship Reliers (35%). Partner-related context factors--number of past-year sex partners, relationship commitment, and sexual concurrency--predicted subgroup membership. Findings support tailoring STI prevention to men's sexual risk-safety subgroups. Interventions should certainly continue to encourage condom use but should also include information on how partner-related context factors and alternate sexual safety strategies can help men reduce risk for themselves and their partners.

  14. The Influence of Sexual Scripts and the "Better than Average" Effect on Condom Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Bailey, Lindsey L.; Moring, John; Angiola, Julie; Bowen, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Young adults attending college are especially susceptible to sexually transmitted infections (STIs) due to high rates of risky sexual behaviour. Many college students are aware of the disease risks involved in vaginal and anal intercourse with heterosexual partners; however, only 35% of sexually active students reported condom use. Data from this…

  15. The Influence of Predisposing, Enabling and Need Factors on Condom Use in Ivory Coast

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngamini Ngui, Andre

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to identify key determinants of condom use in Ivory Coast. Data stem from Ivory Coast Demographic Health Survey (DHS) conducted by ORC Macro in 2005 among a representative sample of 9,686 persons aged 15 - 49. Following the behavioral model, we use logistic regression to assess the effect of predisposing,…

  16. The Female Condom: Effectiveness and Convenience, Not "Female Control," Valued by U.S. Urban Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latka, Mary H.; Kapadia, Farzana; Fortin, Princess

    2008-01-01

    Data on adolescents' views regarding the female condom are limited. We conducted seven single-gender focus groups with 47 New York City boys and girls aged 15-20 years (72% African American; 43% ever on public assistance; 72% sexually active; 25% had either been pregnant or fathered a pregnancy). Conceptual mapping was performed by participants to…

  17. Implementation Intentions for Buying, Carrying, Discussing and Using Condoms: The Role of the Quality of Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Vet, Emely; Gebhardt, Winifred Anne; Sinnige, Judith; Van Puffelen, Anne; Van Lettow, Britt; de Wit, John B. F.

    2011-01-01

    Forming implementation intentions (i.e. action plans that specify when, where and how a person will act) could be effective in promoting condom use on a large scale. However, the technique implies that people are able to form high quality implementation plans that are likely to induce behaviour change. Young single females, aged 16-30 years old,…

  18. 'Snag bags': adapting condoms to community values in Native American communities.

    PubMed

    Gilley, Brian Joseph

    2006-01-01

    HIV/AIDS researchers working among Native Americans have consistently noted resistance to discussions of sexuality and the distribution of condoms. This resistance is inspired by long held values about shame and public discussions of sexuality. Also, American Indians have been reluctant to welcome public discussions of HIV/AIDS and sexuality from external entities, such as governmental agencies. As a result, Native peoples have some of the lowest documented condom use rates. However, innovations in culturally integrating condoms and safe sex messages into Native cultural ideals are proving beneficial. One such innovation is the snag bag, which incorporates popular Native sexual ideology while working within local ideals of shame to distribute condoms and safe sex materials to sexually active young people and adults. Using snag bags as an example, this research proposes that an effective approach to HIV prevention among Native peoples is not cultural sensitivity but cultural integration. That is, HIV prevention strategies must move beyond the empty promise of merely culturally-sensitizing ideas about disease cause. Instead of simply 'translating' HIV/AIDS programming into Native culture, prevention strategies must be integrated by Native peoples into their own disease theories and contemporary culture.

  19. You Did What? Using the AIDS/Condoms Advertising Controversy in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace-Whitaker, Virginia

    Convinced that students in a college advertising class could profit from a discussion about AIDS and condom advertising and hoping to design a related creative problem that would incorporate effective advertising principles, an instructor planned a class project that revolved around public service advertising and the AIDS issue. The students…

  20. A Study of Condom Using Behavior and Its Related Factors among College Students in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Yen Chin; Chu, Yuan-Hsiang; Lin, Helene H.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the current situations of condom using behavior and its related factors among college students in Taiwan. There were two phases in the study. In phase I, 50 students from one college in the eastern, southern, middle and northern parts of Taiwan were selected to form a focus group, and were interviewed…