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Sample records for condom failure examining

  1. Condom Failure: Examining the Objective and Cultural Meanings Expressed in Interviews With African American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Sznitman, Sharon R.; Horner, Jennifer; Salazar, Laura F.; Romer, Daniel; Vanable, Peter A.; Carey, Michael P.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Valois, Robert F.; Stanton, Bonita F.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the meaning and context of self-reported “condom failure” among sexually active African American adolescents. Semistructured interviews regarding methods of protection from pregnancy and sexually transmitted disease (STD) with 124 youth (ages 14–19 years) were content analyzed. The findings suggested three meanings of condom failure. First, condom failure represents a legitimate and important risk related to sexual activity. Second, it can serve as an excuse repertoire for adolescents who engaged in unprotected sex and later experienced either pregnancy or a STD. Third, it may serve as an explanation for males who deceive their partners into having unprotected sex. The findings are discussed with regard to their implications for HIV or STD prevention and research. PMID:19148828

  2. The female condom learning curve: patterns of female condom failure over 20 uses.

    PubMed

    Beksinska, Mags; Smit, Jenni; Greener, Ross; Piaggio, Gilda; Joanis, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Male and female condom (FC) functional performance failure declines with user experience. With the recent availability of a wider range of FCs, it is important to know if women with experience in using one type of FC are more proficient in using another type, even if the FC design is quite different. A randomized, noninferiority crossover clinical trial assessed the function of four FCs (FC2, Woman's Condom, Cupid and VA w.o.w) among 300 women in Durban, South Africa. FC functional failure (breakage, slippage, invagination and misdirection) by condom type and use period was investigated in women using five FCs of each type (20 FC uses in total). Of the 5364 condoms used during intercourse by 272 women, 200 clinical failures occurred in 195 condoms (190 condoms had one failure, and 5 had two failures). Total clinical failure was comparable across FC types. Of the 195 condoms in which failures occurred, the number of failures in the first condom use period was 103 (7.7%), decreasing to 43 events (3.2%) in the second, 33 (2.5%) in the third and 16 (1.2%) in the fourth. Only 2 failures were reported in the 20th use of an FC compared to 29 in the first use, irrespective of condom type. FC failure rates decreased markedly after use of the first five condoms regardless of FC type and continued to fall across the next three use periods. FC failure rates decrease over 20 uses, regardless of FC condom type used. The decrease is higher at the beginning of use, indicating that improvement is greatest after the first five uses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessing reported condom use among female sex workers in southern India through examination of condom availability.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Janet; Moses, Stephen; Blanchard, James F; Rajaram, S; Ramesh, B M; Verma, Supriya; Alary, Michel

    2010-02-01

    A key indicator of success of HIV prevention programmes is the number of female sex worker (FSW) sex acts protected by condoms. This measure usually relies on FSW reports, which may be biased. We examined condom availability data in five Karnataka districts to estimate the proportion of FSW sex acts potentially protected by condoms. Financial, programme, population, condom and contraceptive data were obtained from governmental and non-governmental sources, surveys and HIV prevention programmes. Sexual behaviour data were obtained from general population and FSW surveys. We examined four scenarios in a sensitivity analysis, each one assuming different proportions of available condoms that might have been used by sex workers. Possible condom use rates for all FSW sex acts ranged from 3%-36% in 2004 to 56%-96% in 2008. The two most realistic scenarios that discounted the number of private sector condoms that might have been bought for sex acts other than with FSWs showed that 16-24% of FSW sex acts could have been protected by condoms in 2004 rising to 77-85% in 2008. These data suggest that condom availability in these Karnataka districts in 2004 was low in relation to the number of FSW sex acts, but rose substantially over the ensuing 4 years. Condom availability data can be useful for triangulation with other available data, such as self-reported condom use, to provide a range of possibilities regarding the number of FSW sex acts protected by condoms.

  4. Feasibility of local condom production examined.

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    Despite Africa being the world region worst affected by the HIV/AIDS pandemic, there is only 1 condom manufacturer on the continent, in Johannesburg. Hundreds of millions of condoms are donated and imported annually. For example, 500 million units were donated in 1996, of which 212 million came from the US Agency for International Development. A recently released study commissioned by the European Union's HIV/AIDS Program for Developing Countries determined that it would be technically viable to manufacture condoms in not only South Africa, but also in Mauritius, Cote d'Ivoire, and Kenya. All that is required is a factory, work force, water, and electricity, with the raw materials to be imported from Malaysia or Thailand regardless of where the factory is located. The financial returns of such an operation would depend upon the cost of labor, the type of factory and its output, and market demand. Benefits would include employment creation, potential exports, and foreign exchange savings. A typical condom plant, operating 24 hours a day with 2 production lines, can produce 160 million condom units per year. However, should such a factory be built and put into operation, managers must ensure that any condoms produced are of high quality.

  5. Condom

    MedlinePlus

    ... sizes, textures, and colors. How Much Does It Cost? Condoms are the least expensive and most available ... control — other than abstinence, of course. Male condoms cost about $0.50 to $1 each and are ...

  6. How often do condoms fail? : A cross-sectional study exploring incomplete use of condoms, condom failures, and other condom problems among Black and White MSM in the Southern U.S

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Romieu, Alfonso C.; Siegler, Aaron; Sullivan, Patrick S.; Crosby, Richard; Rosenberg, Eli S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Compare the occurrence of risk-inducing condom events (condom failures and incomplete use) and the frequency of their antecedents (condom errors, fit/feel problems, and erection problems) between Black and White MSM, and determine the associations between risk-inducing condom events and their antecedents. Methods We studied cross-sectional data of 475 MSM who indicated using a condom as an insertive partner in the previous 6 months enrolled in a cohort study in Atlanta, GA. Results Nearly 40% of Black MSM reported breakage or incomplete use, and they were more likely to report breakage, early removal, and delayed application of a condom than White MSM. Only 31% and 54% of MSM reported correct condom use and suboptimal fit/feel of a condom respectively. The use of oil-based lubricants and suboptimal fit/feel were associated with higher odds of reporting breakage (P = 0.009). Suboptimal fit/feel was also associated with higher odds of incomplete use of condoms (P <0.0001). Conclusions Incomplete use of condoms and condom failures were especially common among Black MSM. Our findings indicate that condoms likely offered them less protection against HIV/STI when compared to White MSM. More interventions are needed, particularly addressing the use of oil-based lubricants and suboptimal fit/feel of condoms. PMID:25080511

  7. Condom

    MedlinePlus

    ... sheath (usually made of latex, a type of rubber) that is worn on the penis. A female ... the vagina. The male condom, sometimes called a "rubber" or "prophylactic," is far more commonly used. How ...

  8. How often do condoms fail? A cross-sectional study exploring incomplete use of condoms, condom failures and other condom problems among black and white MSM in southern U.S.A.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Romieu, Alfonso C; Siegler, Aaron J; Sullivan, Patrick S; Crosby, Richard; Rosenberg, Eli S

    2014-12-01

    To compare the occurrence of risk-inducing condom events (condom failures and incomplete use) and the frequency of their antecedents (condom errors, fit/feel problems and erection problems) between black and white men who have sex with men (MSM), and determine the associations between risk-inducing condom events and their antecedents. We studied cross-sectional data of 475 MSM who indicated using a condom as an insertive partner in the previous 6 months enrolled in a cohort study in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. Nearly 40% of black MSM reported breakage or incomplete use, and they were more likely to report breakage, early removal and delayed application of a condom than white MSM. Only 31% and 54% of MSM reported correct condom use and suboptimal fit/feel of a condom, respectively. The use of oil-based lubricants and suboptimal fit/feel were associated with higher odds of reporting breakage (p=0.009). Suboptimal fit/feel was also associated with higher odds of incomplete use of condoms (p<0.0001). Incomplete use of condoms and condom failures were especially common among black MSM. Our findings indicate that condoms likely offered them less protection against HIV/sexually transmitted infection when compared with white MSM. More interventions are needed, particularly addressing the use of oil-based lubricants and suboptimal fit/feel of condoms. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. Practice makes perfect: reduction in female condom failures and user problems with short-term experience in a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Beksinska, Mags; Smit, Jenni; Joanis, Carol; Hart, Catherine

    2012-08-01

    Female condom (FC) failure (breakage, slippage, invagination and misdirection) declines with user experience. Participants in FC performance trials are commonly novice users, and failure rates may be inflated related to inexperience. This was a randomized, crossover study assessing preference, safety, acceptability and function of three new FCs (WC, FC2 and V-Amour) among 170 women in Durban, South Africa. FC failure by condom type use period was investigated in women using five FCs of each type. Of the 2411 condoms used during intercourse, 96 failures (breakage, slippage, invagination and misdirection) occurred in 86 condoms (77 condoms had one failure, 8 condoms had two failures, and 1 condom had three failures). Total clinical failure was comparable across FC types. The number of failures in the first condom use period was 58 (7.0%), and this decreased to 21 events (2.6%) in the second and, finally, 17 (2.1%) in the last condom use period. No failures were reported in the last use of the FC in the final condom use period. FC failure rates decreased markedly after use of the first five condoms, regardless of FC type, and stabilized in the second and third use periods. Consideration should be given to the number of condoms used in trials to ensure that failure rates are not inflated by limiting the numbers of condoms used by novice users. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Factors Contributing to the Failure to Use Condoms among Students in Zambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mbulo, Lazarous; Newman, Ian M.; Shell, Duane F.

    2007-01-01

    This study explored factors that may predict condom use among college and high school students in Zambia. Using the Social Cognitive Theory, this study examined the relationship of drinking behaviors, alcohol-sexual expectations, education level, and religion to condom use among 961 students. The results of the study show that condom use was low…

  11. Prostate-specific antigen as a biomarker of condom failure: comparison of three laboratory assays and self-reported condom use problems in a randomized trial of female condom performance.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Terri; Warner, Lee; Macaluso, Maurizio; Frezieres, Ron; Snead, Margaret; Wraxall, Brian

    2012-07-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA), a biomarker for semen exposure, may provide a more objective measure of condom failure than subject self-reports. Methods for measuring PSA vary and their comparability with respect to assessing condom performance has not been adequately evaluated. This study compared results from three different PSA assays of vaginal samples collected by subjects in a randomized clinical trial which compared the performance of female condoms. We selected 30 pairs of pre- and post-coital vaginal samples from subjects who reported condom functionality problems or whose original PSA assay was positive. Samples were retested using three different PSA assays [quantitative enzyme-linked immunoassay (EIA), rocket immune-electrophoresis (RIE) and chromatographic immunoassay (CIA)]. We compared the proportion of condom uses where the post-coital PSA result indicated semen exposure for each of the three assays. Despite varying levels of sensitivity, the results from all three assays were remarkably consistent. Self-reported condom failures did not correlate well with positive PSA results, suggesting that exclusive reliance on either PSA or user self-report may be inadequate for assessing condom functionality. In combination with user self-report of condom failure, PSA testing provides a reliable, objective marker of condom functionality. Studies based on PSA testing may improve on conventional contraceptive clinical trials by offering a more direct assessment of a condom product's ability to prevent semen exposure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Attitudes toward condoms and condom use: a review.

    PubMed

    Ross, M W

    1992-01-01

    The following topics are reviewed: condom use, attitudes toward condoms, reasons for failure to use condoms, personality and attitudes toward condoms, attitudes toward condoms and behavior, and changing attitudes toward condoms. The use of condoms varies across cultures. Prevention which emphasizes group subjective norms, personality, and interpersonal and situational barriers may influence condom use; intervention studies have not yet fully tested this hypothesis, however. What is known is that attitudes and use of condoms can be changed. Negative attitudes toward condom use include the perception of impaired pleasure, lack of availability at the appropriate time, coitus interruptus, and unnaturalness or unreliability. Positive perceptions may counterbalance the negative attitudes. In several military studies, it was found that lack of availability, perceived lack of risk, and influence of alcohol were the major reasons for failure to use. In many studies the reduction of pleasure is a dominant theme. Pharmacies were the preferred place of purchase. Among college students, condoms were viewed as minimizing a health risk but associated use with there being something wrong with their partner. A Dutch study found a reduced belief in the efficacy of condoms as a contraceptive but increased trust in the protection against AIDS. In a pre- and posttest of attitudes toward condom use among heterosexual couples, the findings were that attitudes could be modified and that information needs to relate to the context of sexual activity and sensorimotor arousal. The condom film with sexually explicit activity and instructions on condom placement was successful in generating a significant increase in positive attitudes toward condoms. Examining link between attitudes and behavior, however, is a necessary next step.

  13. Accounting for failures may improve precision: evidence supporting improved validity of self-reported condom use.

    PubMed

    Crosby, Richard; Salazar, Laura F; DiClemente, Ralph J; Yarber, William L; Caliendo, Angela M; Staples-Horne, Michelle

    2005-08-01

    To determine whether a measure of unprotected vaginal sex that is adjusted for condom failures would produce improved accuracy in predicting biologically confirmed STDs (chlamydia and gonorrhea) among female teens. Self-reported measures were collected using audio-computer-assisted self-interviewing. DNA amplification for the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae was conducted. The unadjusted measure of unprotected vaginal sex was not significantly associated with biologically confirmed prevalence of STDs (prevalence ratio [PR] = 1.51; 95% CI = 0.71-3.21; P = 0.28). Alternatively, the adjusted measure achieved significance (PR = 3.59; 95% CI = 1.13-11.38; P = 0.014). More than one quarter (25.6%) of teens using condoms inconsistently and/or incorrectly tested positive for an STD compared to 7.1% among those reporting the consistent and correct use of condoms. Findings demonstrate that studies of condom effectiveness should use an adjusted measure of condom use to achieve precision and rigor.

  14. An intervention study examining the effects of condom wrapper graphics and scent on condom use in the Botswana Defence Force.

    PubMed

    Tran, Bonnie Robin; Thomas, Anne Goldzier; Vaida, Florin; Ditsela, Mooketsi; Phetogo, Robert; Kelapile, David; Haubrich, Richard; Chambers, Christina; Shaffer, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Free condoms provided by the government are often not used by Botswana Defence Force (BDF) personnel due to a perceived unpleasant scent and unattractive wrapper. Formative work with the BDF found that scented condoms and military-inspired (camouflage) wrapper graphics were appealing to personnel. A non-randomized intervention study was implemented to determine whether condom wrapper graphics and scent improved condom use in the BDF. Four military sites were selected for participation. Two sites in the south received the intervention condom wrapped in a generic wrapper and two sites in the north received the intervention condom wrapped in a military-inspired wrapper; intervention condoms were either scented or unscented. Two hundred and eleven male soldiers who ever had sex, aged 18-30 years, and stationed at one of the selected sites consented to participate. Sexual activity and condom use were measured pre- and post-intervention using sexual behavior diaries. A condom use rate (CUR; frequency of protected sex divided by the total frequency of sex) was computed for each participant. Mean CURs significantly increased over time (85.7% baseline vs. 94.5% post-intervention). Adjusted odds of condom use over time were higher among participants who received the intervention condom packaged in the military wrapper compared with the generic wrapper. Adjusted odds of condom use were also higher for participants who reported using scented vs. unscented condoms. Providing scented condoms and condoms packaged in a military-inspired wrapper may help increase condom use and reduce HIV infection among military personnel.

  15. Female Condom

    MedlinePlus

    ... Staff The female condom is a birth control (contraceptive) device that acts as a barrier to keep ... more times a week, you've had previous contraceptive failure with vaginal barrier methods, or you're ...

  16. Condom negotiation strategies and actual condom use among Latino youth.

    PubMed

    Tschann, Jeanne M; Flores, Elena; de Groat, Cynthia L; Deardorff, Julianna; Wibbelsman, Charles J

    2010-09-01

    To examine which condom negotiation strategies are effective in obtaining or avoiding condom use among Latino youth. Interviews were conducted with 694 Latino youth, 61% female, aged 16-22. Participants reported on their condom negotiation strategies, perceptions of whether their sexual partner wanted to use condoms, and actual condom use. Three strategies to obtain condom use (risk information, direct verbal/nonverbal communication, insist) and four strategies to avoid condom use (emotional coercion, ignore condom use, dislike condoms, seduction) were examined. Data were analyzed using multiple linear regression, and included youth (n = 574) who reported wanting to use or avoid condoms. Almost 60% of participants reported wanting to use condoms, and nearly all of these used some strategy to obtain condom use. Young men who wanted to use condoms were more likely to do so, compared with young women. Risk information and direct verbal/nonverbal communication were effective strategies to obtain condom use, even among youth who perceived their sexual partners as not wanting to use condoms. Ignoring condom use was an effective condom avoidance strategy, even when youth thought their partners wanted to use condoms. Unexpectedly, young men who expressed dislike of condoms had higher rates of condom use than young men not using this condom avoidance strategy. This research identified condom negotiation strategies that are effective among Latino youth, even when they believe their partners do not want to use condoms. Health care providers could encourage Latino youth to use such condom negotiation strategies.

  17. Condom Negotiation Strategies and Actual Condom Use among Latino Youth

    PubMed Central

    Tschann, Jeanne M.; Flores, Elena; de Groat, Cynthia L.; Deardorff, Julianna; Wibbelsman, Charles J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To examine which condom negotiation strategies are effective in obtaining or avoiding condom use among Latino youth. Method Interviews were conducted with 694 Latino youth, 61% female, ages 16–22. Participants reported on their condom negotiation strategies, perceptions of whether their sexual partner wanted to use condoms, and actual condom use. Three strategies to obtain condom use (risk information, direct verbal/nonverbal communication, insist) and four strategies to avoid condom use (emotional coercion, ignore condom use, dislike condoms, seduction) were examined. Data were analyzed using multiple linear regression, and included youth (n = 574) who reported wanting to use or avoid condoms. Results Almost 60% of participants reported wanting to use condoms, and nearly all of these used some strategy to obtain condom use. Young men who wanted to use condoms were more likely to do so, compared to young women. Risk information and direct verbal/nonverbal communication were effective strategies to obtain condom use, even among youth who perceived their sexual partners as not wanting to use condoms. Ignoring condom use was an effective condom avoidance strategy, even when youth thought their partners wanted to use condoms. Unexpectedly, young men who expressed dislike of condoms had higher rates of condom use than young men not using this condom avoidance strategy. Conclusions This research identified condom negotiation strategies that are effective among Latino youth, even when they believe their partners do not want to use condoms. Health care providers could encourage Latino youth to use such condom negotiation strategies. PMID:20708564

  18. A qualitative examination of men's condom use attitudes and resistance: "it's just part of the game".

    PubMed

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Schraufnagel, Trevor J; Kajumulo, Kelly F; Gilmore, Amanda K; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the variability in young heterosexual men's perceptions of the advantages and disadvantages of condom use in their casual sexual relationships. Because men who perceive greater disadvantages of condom use may be more likely to resist using them, we also explored the tactics that men employ to avoid using condoms. Semi-structured focus groups were conducted with single men who have sex with women (n = 60), aged 21-35 years, all of whom reported using condoms inconsistently. Transcripts were analyzed using a framework analysis approach. As expected, participants reported advantages and disadvantages to condom use that pertained to the likelihood and quality of sex, physical sensations during intercourse, and the risk of sexually transmitted infections and unwanted pregnancies. Within each of these topics, however, participants' appraisals of the relative pros and cons of condom use varied considerably. Additionally, participants reported that men use a wide range of condom use resistance tactics, including seduction, deception, and condom sabotage, and that the use of these tactics was viewed as normative behavior for men their age. These findings suggest that the effectiveness of sexual health prevention efforts could be enhanced by increasing young men's motivations to use condoms and by targeting social norms regarding condom use resistance. Additionally, the issue of men's condom use resistance clearly merits increased empirical investigation and intervention attention.

  19. Condoms - male

    MedlinePlus

    Prophylactics; Rubbers; Male condoms; Contraceptive - condom; Contraception - condom; Barrier method - condom ... rubber Polyurethane Condoms are the only method of birth control for men that are not permanent. They can ...

  20. Always, Never, or Sometimes: Examining Variation in Condom-Use Decision Making Among Black Adolescent Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, LaRon E.; Morrison-Beedy, Dianne; Kearney, Margaret H.; Dozier, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Our purpose in this study was to describe Black adolescent mothers’ decisions regarding condom use and non-use with their male sex partners, including their children’s fathers. Research on partner type and condom use has been insufficiently focused on understanding the specific influence that the biological father of the baby has on condom use among adolescent mothers. We conducted five focus groups and three interviews with 31 predominantly African-American mothers. We found that their decisions to use condoms always, never, or sometimes were based on partner type and on emotional and relationship factors. The “baby daddy” was the only partner with whom they never used condoms. HIV/STI prevention interventions for adolescent mothers must address risk taking with their children’s biological fathers. PMID:21633960

  1. Always, never, or sometimes: examining variation in condom-use decision making among Black adolescent mothers.

    PubMed

    Nelson, LaRon E; Morrison-Beedy, Dianne; Kearney, Margaret H; Dozier, Ann

    2011-08-01

    Our purpose in this study was to describe Black adolescent mothers' decisions regarding condom use and non-use with their male sex partners, including their children's fathers. Research on partner type and condom use has been insufficiently focused on understanding the specific influence that the biological father of the baby has on condom use among adolescent mothers. We conducted five focus groups and three interviews with 31 predominantly African-American mothers. We found that their decisions to use condoms always, never, or sometimes were based on partner type and on emotional and relationship factors. The "baby daddy" was the only partner with whom they never used condoms. HIV/STI prevention interventions for adolescent mothers must address risk taking with their children's biological fathers.

  2. Female condoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... women; Contraception - female condom; Family planning - female condom; Birth control - female condom ... care provider or pharmacy for information about emergency contraception (Plan B) if the condom tears or the ...

  3. Understanding Failure of Condom Use Intention among Adolescents: Completing an Intensive Preventive Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauman, Laurie J.; Karasz, Alison; Hamilton, Adaoha

    2007-01-01

    Although interventions based on cognitive theories can reduce rates of unsafe sexual behavior in adolescents, effect sizes remain small. This study was a qualitative investigation of inner-city adolescents' intentions to use condoms following participation in an intensive safer sex program. In-depth interviews with 26 adolescents were analyzed…

  4. Examining Delay Discounting of Condom-Protected Sex Among Men Who Have Sex with Men Using Crowdsourcing Technology.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Evan S; Johnson, Patrick S; Johnson, Matthew W

    2015-09-01

    Some men who have sex with men (MSM) have unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) in situations that put them at risk for HIV infection despite having the knowledge and skills to avoid these risks. The present study examined the potential role of delay discounting in sexual HIV risk behavior among MSM. Participants (n = 108) completed the Sexual Discounting Task and a questionnaire regarding UAI and other variables associated with HIV risk (e.g., age, socioeconomic status, substance use, psychiatric problems). MSM discounted the value of condom-protected anal intercourse in a manner that was orderly, hyperbolic, and sensitive to partner characteristics that likely influence realworld decisions about using condoms. Steeper discounting was associated with UAI, and other factors related to sexual HIV risk among MSM, including young age, socioeconomic disadvantage, substance use, sex under the influence of substances, and depression). Delay discounting is likely a critical, but underappreciated facet of HIV risk among MSM.

  5. Female condoms.

    PubMed

    Bounds, W

    1997-06-01

    Early versions of a female condom were available in the 1920s and 1960s, but they were little used and soon forgotten. It took the arrival of AIDS, and the urgent need for a wider range of female-controlled barrier techniques, to rekindle scientific interest in this method. In the 1980s, three groups in Europe and the USA began development of new female condom designs, comprising 'Femidom (Reality)', the 'Bikini Condom', and 'Women's Choice'. Apart from differences in their physical design, Femidom differs from the others in that it is made of a polyurethane membrane, which has several advantages over latex. Of the three, Femidom is the most advanced in terms of development and clinical testing, and it is the only one to have reached the marketing stage. Laboratory studies and clinical trials suggest that its contraceptive efficacy is similar to that documented for the male condom, though a direct comparison is not possible because no comparative clinical trials have, as yet, been undertaken. Reported 'typical-use' pregnancy rates range from 12.4 to 22.2% at 6 months of use in the USA and Latin America, respectively, while a study in the UK observed a rate of 15% at 12 months. As with all barrier methods, most failures appear to be associated with poor compliance or incorrect use. 'Perfect-use' pregnancy rates were substantially lower, indicating that Femidom can be very effective, if used consistently and correctly. Evidence for Femidom's effectiveness to protect against transmission of sexual disease-causing organisms, including HIV, is still very limited and based largely on laboratory studies. Whilst, in theory, the condom should confer reliable protection, its efficacy in clinical use will depend upon correct and consistent use and upon the product's ability to maintain an effective physical barrier throughout penetrative intercourse. In this respect, the results of recent and ongoing clinical studies are expected with much interest. How valuable Femidom will

  6. Action-specific Cognitions of Planned and Preparatory Behaviors of Condom Use among Dutch Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kok, Gerjo

    2008-01-01

    Many adolescents fail to use condoms, even when they are motivated to do so. An important reason for their failure to use condoms is that they do not prepare themselves for potential sexual encounters. The present study examined the circumstances under which Dutch adolescents were likely to prepare themselves for condom use (buying and carrying). In a sample of 399 secondary school students, including students with and without sexual experience, it was found that intended condom use was not sufficient to ensure that adolescents plan and prepare for condom use. It was found that having the goal of condom use did not necessarily result in preparatory behavior, such as condom buying and condom carrying. The data showed that action-specific social-cognitive factors of preparatory behavior explained preparatory behavior, beyond the decision to use condoms. This suggests that interventions aimed at promoting condom use should focus not only on condom use itself, but should also motivate and encourage adolescents to buy and carry condoms. PMID:18193348

  7. Condom rating.

    PubMed

    Vazquez, E

    1999-01-01

    Consumer Reports reveals that out of 30 different non-polyurethane condoms that underwent airburst testing, only Trojan Plus 2 Spermicidal and Durex Pure Protection Spermicidally Lubricated failed. Condoms labeled as "extra strength" performed no better than those labeled as "thin," and vending machine condoms performed as well as others. Condoms are also less effective for anal sex than vaginal intercourse, and expiration dates should be checked.

  8. Examining the applicability of the IMB model in predicting condom use among sexually active secondary school students in Mbarara, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Ybarra, Michele L.; Korchmaros, Josephine; Kiwanuka, Julius; Bangsberg, David R.; Bull, Sheana

    2012-01-01

    We tested the applicability of the IMB model in predicting condom use among sexually active secondary school students in Mbarara, Uganda. Three hundred and ninety adolescents across five secondary schools completed a self-report survey about their health and sexual experiences. Based upon results from structural equation modeling, the IMB model partially predicts condom use. Condom use was directly predicted by HIV prevention information and behavioral skills regarding having and using condoms. It was indirectly predicted (through behavioral skills regarding having and using condoms) by behavioral intentions regarding using condoms and talking to one‘s partner about safer sex. Aspects of one‘s first sexual experience (i.e., age at first sex, having discussed using condoms with first sex partner, willingness at first sex) are hugely influential of current condom use; this is especially true for discussing condoms with one‘s first partner. Findings highlight the importance of providing clear and comprehensive condom use training in HIV prevention programs aimed at Ugandan adolescents. They also underscore the importance of targeting abstinent youth before they become sexually active to positively affect their HIV preventive behavior at their first sexual experience. PMID:22350827

  9. Condoms used but sex not well protected.

    PubMed

    Lau, J T F; Zhou, H; Su, X Y; Feng, T J; Hong, F C; Tsui, H Y; Ma, Y L; Wang, Z; Walden, D

    2014-10-01

    Condom use is often equated to safer sex. The prevalence of condom use during sex work among female sex workers (FSW) in China is high. Condom use, however, co-exists with condom failure and improper use and hence risk of HIV transmission. In a cross-sectional study, we interviewed 195 FSW in Shenzhen, China. The prevalence of condom use in the last episode of sex work was 97.4 %, However, respectively 53.8 and 86.2 % had experienced at least one condition of condom failure that may lead to genital contact (wearing condoms after penetration, condom breakage/slippage, condoms removed by clients) and at least one condition of improper condom use (not removing air from the tip of the condom, not pulling it down to the root of penis and not choosing good quality condoms). Factors of individual level (e.g. never choosing high quality condoms for sex work), inter-personal level (e.g. agreement to have unprotected sex if fond of clients or paid more) and environmental/structural level (e.g. non-availability of condoms) were associated with various types of condom failure and improper use. Although HIV prevention interventions have increased prevalence of condom use among FSW, the risk of HIV transmission may still be high as "unsafe" sex due to condom failure and improper use is prevalent. Interventions promoting safer sex need to address such issues and take socio-ecological factors into account. Condom use during sex work is not equivalent to well protected sex as the protective effects could be compromised by frequent condom failure and improper use.

  10. Condom Semiotics: Meaning and Condom Use in Rural Malawi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tavory, Iddo; Swidler, Ann

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the widespread resistance to condom use in sub-Saharan Africa by describing the major semiotic axes that organize how people talk about condoms and condom use. These axes include the "sweetness" of sex, trust and love between sexual partners, and assessments of risk and danger. Using data from rural Malawi, we show…

  11. Condom Semiotics: Meaning and Condom Use in Rural Malawi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tavory, Iddo; Swidler, Ann

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the widespread resistance to condom use in sub-Saharan Africa by describing the major semiotic axes that organize how people talk about condoms and condom use. These axes include the "sweetness" of sex, trust and love between sexual partners, and assessments of risk and danger. Using data from rural Malawi, we show…

  12. Condom negotiation strategies as a mediator of the relationship between self-efficacy and condom use.

    PubMed

    French, Sabine Elizabeth; Holland, Kathryn J

    2013-01-01

    College students are a group at high risk of sexually transmitted infections due to inconsistent condom use and engaging in other risky sexual behaviors. This study examined whether condom use self-efficacy predicted the use of condom negotiation strategies (i.e., condom influence strategies) and whether condom influence strategies mediated the relationship between condom use self-efficacy and condom use within this population, as well as whether gender moderated the mediation model. Results showed a strong relationship between condom use self-efficacy and condom influence strategies. Additionally, condom influence strategies completely mediated the relationship between condom use self-efficacy and condom use. Although condom use self-efficacy was related to condom use, the ability to use condom negotiation strategies was the most important factor predicting condom use. The mediation model held across genders, except for the condom influence strategy withholding sex, where it was not significant for men. For women, condom use self-efficacy promoted the use of a very assertive negotiation strategy, withholding sex, and was consequently related to increased condom use. Overall, using assertive condom negotiation strategies (e.g., withholding sex and direct request) were found to be the most important aspects of increasing condom use for both women and men. Implications and suggestions for prevention programming are discussed.

  13. Counseling patients on proper use of condoms.

    PubMed

    Vinson, R P; Epperly, T D

    1991-06-01

    The best condoms are made of latex, are lubricated and coated with a spermicide, and have a reservoir tip. Condoms can protect against conception and sexually transmitted diseases, including acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. When condoms are used properly and in combination with vaginal spermicidal foam, the contraceptive failure rate is as low as 1 percent. Failure is more often due to user error than product defect. Recommendations for the proper use of condoms are presented.

  14. Where does treatment optimism fit in? Examining factors associated with consistent condom use among people receiving antiretroviral treatment in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hanif, Homaira; Bastos, Francisco I; Malta, Monica; Bertoni, Neilane; Winch, Peter J; Kerrigan, Deanna

    2014-10-01

    In the era of highly active antiretrovirals, people living with HIV (PLWH) have resumed sexual activity in the context of longer and healthier lives, and thus the chances of transmitting the HIV virus, as well as the potential to be re-infected also increase. HIV treatment optimism has been found to be associated with sexual risk behaviors among PLWH in different settings. A cross sectional survey was conducted to examine the relationship between treatment optimism, safer sex burnout and consistent condom use as well as variables associated with treatment optimism in a sample of PLWH on antiretrovirals (ARVs) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (n = 604). Seventy-two percent of participants always used a condom in the last 6 months. Homosexual, bisexual, transexual persons were less likely to use condoms consistently than heterosexuals (AOR .58 CI .42-.78). Those who were treatment optimistic (AOR .46 CI .25-.88) were more likely not use a condom consistently in the past 6 months, as were participants who reported safer sex burnout (AOR .58 CI .36-.90). Sexual orientation, safer sex burnout, and lower education levels were significantly associated with higher treatment optimism in multivariate analysis. Study findings highlight the need to address psychosocial factors such as treatment optimism and safer sex burnout associated with lower consistent condom use among PLWH in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  15. Plastic condoms.

    PubMed

    1968-01-01

    Only simple equipment, simple technology and low initial capital investment are needed in their manufacture. The condoms can be made by people who were previously unskilled or only semi-skilled workers. Plastic condoms differ from those made of latex rubber in that the nature of the plastic film allows unlimited shelf-life. Also, the plastic has a higher degree of lubricity than latex rubber; if there is a demand for extra lubrication in a particular market, this can be provided. Because the plastic is inert, these condoms need not be packaged in hermetically sealed containers. All these attributes make it possible to put these condoms on the distributors' shelves in developing countries competitively with rubber condoms. The shape of the plastic condom is based on that of the lamb caecum, which has long been used as luxury-type condom. The plastic condom is made from plastic film (ethylene ethyl acrilate) of 0.001 inch (0.0254 mm.) thickness. In addition, a rubber ring is provided and sealed into the base of the condom for retention during coitus. The advantage of the plastic condom design and the equipment on which it is made is that production can be carried out either in labour-intensive economy or with varying degrees of mechanization and automation. The uniform, finished condom if made using previously untrained workers. Training of workers can be done in a matter of hours on the two machines which are needed to produce and test the condoms. The plastic film is provided on a double wound roll, and condom blanks are prepared by means of a heat-sealing die on the stamping machine. The rubber rings are united to the condom blanks on an assembly machine, which consists of a mandrel and heat-sealing equipment to seal the rubber ring to the base of the condom. Built into the assembly machine is a simple air-testing apparatus that can detect the smallest pinhole flaw in a condom. The manufacturing process is completed by unravelling the condom from the assembly

  16. Choosing condoms.

    PubMed

    Billow, J A

    1992-09-01

    Condoms for men are currently the most effective of the nonprescription contraceptive methods. They are readily available, simple to use, and relatively inexpensive, and they are not associated with major adverse effects. If used both properly and consistently, condoms can significantly reduce the risk of transmission of HIV and other STDs. The protection offered by the latex condom may be increased by the concurrent use of a vaginal foam or cream containing nonoxynol 9. The practicing pharmacist should know about the variety of condoms available, be able to explain their correct use to maximize effectiveness, and compare condom use with other types of contraceptives. The practitioner should be available to answer patrons' questions and provide counseling on contraceptives and "safe sex" practices.

  17. Condom-use errors and problems: a neglected aspect of studies assessing condom effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Crosby, Richard; Sanders, Stephanie; Yarber, William L; Graham, Cynthia A

    2003-05-01

    To assess and compare condom-use errors and problems among condom-using university males and females. A convenience sample of 260 undergraduates was utilized. Males (n=118) and females (n=142) reported using condoms in the past 3 months for at least one episode of sex (penis in the mouth, vagina, or rectum) with a partner of the other sex. A questionnaire assessed 15 errors and problems associated with condom use that could be observed or experienced by females as well as males. About 44% reported lack of condom availability. Errors that could contribute to failure included using sharp instruments to open condom packages (11%), storing condoms in wallets (19%), and not using a new condom when switching from one form of sex to another (83%). Thirty-eight percent reported that condoms were applied after sex had begun, and nearly 14% indicated they removed condoms before sex was concluded. Problems included loss of erection during condom application (15%) or during sex (10%). About 28% reported that condoms had either slipped off or broken. Nearly 19% perceived, at least once, that their condom problems necessitated the use of a new condom. Few differences were observed in errors and problems between males and females. Findings suggest that condom-use errors and problems may be quite common and that assessment of errors and problems do not necessarily need to be gender specific. Findings also suggest that correcting "user failure" may represent an important challenge in the practice of preventive medicine.

  18. The shame of failure: examining the link between fear of failure and shame.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Holly A; Elliot, Andrew J

    2005-02-01

    The present research was designed to examine hypotheses derived from the proposition that shame is the core of fear of failure. Study 1 was conducted in a naturalistic setting and demonstrated that individuals high in fear of failure reported greater shame upon a perceived failure experience than those low in fear of failure. These findings were obtained controlling for other negative emotions. Study 2 was conducted in a controlled laboratory setting and demonstrated that high fear of failure individuals reported greater shame, overgeneralization, and closeness to their mother (controlling for baseline levels of these variables) than those low in fear of failure. Those high in fear of failure also reported that they would be less likely to tell their mother and father about their failure experience and would be more likely to tell their mother and father about their success experience. The implications of these findings for acquiring a deeper understanding of fear of failure are discussed.

  19. Optical testing of condoms.

    PubMed

    Smith, S R; Lowrance, J L; Tessarotto, L A

    1999-01-01

    Condoms provide one of the most important means of preventing pregnancy and the spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted diseases. Pinhole defects may lead to the passage of sperm or viruses through the condom wall. Embedded particles, which may become dislodged in handling or use, may represent latent pinhole defects. Thin regions in the condom wall may lead to breakage in use. Testing for such defects in regulatory laboratories, or in the factories as part of production screening or quality assurance efforts, is a major tool for ensuring condom reliability. A new optical method for testing condoms is presented, sensitive to pinholes, thin regions, and embedded particles. The method could supplement or replace the existing, less powerful, electrical test techniques in either regulatory testing laboratories or in the factory. The optical techniques presented provide quantitative data on the condoms tested, rather than just accept/reject decisions. They thus support detailed monitoring of production or lot characteristics that is generally not possible with existing electrical techniques. The ability of the optical techniques to separately test for and identify not only pinholes, but also thin regions and embedded particles, which are not separately tested for with the electrical technologies, is an especially important new capability. Further, the new optical techniques allow the locations of defects found to be precisely marked, making possible a microscopic examination of defects useful in studying their structure and possible causes. The optical technique is also totally nondestructive, in that it does not alter the defects whose structures are of interest. Initial results are reported on the testing of latex condoms purchased in retail stores. Condoms identified optically as being potentially defective were subjected to industry standard leak and burst testing. Results of the various tests are summarized. The data suggest that

  20. Acceptability of male condom: an Indian scenario.

    PubMed

    Donta, Balaiah; Begum, Shahina; Naik, D D

    2014-11-01

    The National Family Planning Programme of India had introduced condom as one of the family planning methods in the late 1960s. Condom was promoted as a family planning method through social marketing since its inception. With the increasing prevalence and incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV/AIDS, condom was also promoted as a dual method for protection against both unintended pregnancies as well as sexually transmitted infections. Despite efforts at various levels, the overall use of condom among couples in India is low. Here we present literature review of studies to understand the condom acceptability among couples in India. Specifically, the paper assesses research and programmes that have been carried out to increase the use of condom among couples; determinants of condom use; reason for not using condom; and perception versus experience of condom failure. The reported problems related to condom use included non acceptance by partner, perceived ineffectiveness, less comfort, lack of sexual satisfaction, husband's alcohol use, depression, and anxiety, and not available at that instant. The role of media in the promotion of condom use was indicated as an important way to increase awareness and use. Multiple strategies would help in acceptance of male condom.

  1. Acceptability of male condom: An Indian scenario

    PubMed Central

    Donta, Balaiah; Begum, Shahina; Naik, D.D.

    2014-01-01

    The National Family Planning Programme of India had introduced condom as one of the family planning methods in the late1960s. Condom was promoted as a family planning method through social marketing since its inception. With the increasing prevalence and incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV/AIDS, condom was also promoted as a dual method for protection against both unintended pregnancies as well as sexually transmitted infections. Despite efforts at various levels, the overall use of condom among couples in India is low. Here we present literature review of studies to understand the condom acceptability among couples in India. Specifically, the paper assesses research and programmes that have been carried out to increase the use of condom among couples; determinants of condom use; reason for not using condom; and perception versus experience of condom failure. The reported problems related to condom use included non acceptance by partner, perceived ineffectiveness, less comfort, lack of sexual satisfaction, husband's alcohol use, depression, and anxiety, and not available at that instant. The role of media in the promotion of condom use was indicated as an important way to increase awareness and use. Multiple strategies would help in acceptance of male condom. PMID:25673537

  2. Examining the Theory of Planned Behavior Applied to Condom Use: The Effect-Indicator vs. Causal-Indicator Models

    PubMed Central

    Carmack, Chakema C.; Lewis-Moss, Rhonda K.

    2010-01-01

    The authors investigated whether a causal-indicator model or an effect-indicator model of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) is more suitable for predicting behavioral intention and for which behaviors. No previous studies have evaluated this question using the same sample and same behavior. In this study, African American adolescents ages 12–17 participating in risk reduction classes were assessed on their initial attitudes, norms, perceived control, and intention regarding condom use. Second-order structural equation modeling indicated that the effect-indicator model exhibited superior fit above the causal-indicator model. Furthermore, modeling the behavioral antecedents in a causal way may not be as accurate due to the underlying uni-dimensional nature of attitudes, subjective norms, and control. The TPB was not disconfirmed as a suitable model for African American adolescents’ regarding condom use. Prevention programs may benefit by focusing on adolescent behavior change with regard to the global components in order to influence more specific concepts of these social cognitions. Editors’ Strategic Implications: Despite limitations including correlational data, this study yields implications for prevention programming and, more broadly, an important theoretical elaboration on effect-indicator and causal-indicator models of the TPB. PMID:19949867

  3. Safety and acceptability of a baggy latex condom.

    PubMed

    Macaluso, M; Blackwell, R; Carr, B; Meinzen-Derr, J; Montgomery, M; Roark, M; Lynch, M; Stringer, E M

    2000-03-01

    A total of 104 couples participated in a randomized crossover trial to compare a new baggy condom with a straight-shaft condom produced by the same manufacturer. Participants completed a coital log after using each condom. All couples used five condoms of each type. Among 102 couples who did not report major deviations from the protocol, the breakage rate was eight of 510 (1.6%) for the baggy condom, and six of 510 (1.2%) for the standard condom (rate difference, RD = 0. 4%, 95% confidence interval of the RD, CI = -1.0%; +1.8%). Slippage was reported in 50 baggy condom logs and in 58 standard condom logs; the slippage rate was 50 of 510 (9.8%) for the baggy condom, and 58 of 510 (11.4%) for the standard condom (RD = -1.6%, 95% CI = -5.4%; +2.2%). Slippage was most often partial (<1 inch) and may not indicate condom failure. Severe slippage rates were 11 of 510 (2.2%) for the baggy condom, and 18 of 510 (3.5%) for the standard condom (RD = -1.4%, 95% CI = -3.4%; +0.7%). The findings support the conclusion that the two condoms are equivalent with respect to breakage and slippage. The participants appeared to prefer the baggy condom, suggesting that the new product may be more acceptable to the public than the traditional straight-shaft condoms, and may be easier to use consistently over long time periods.

  4. A Qualitative Examination of Men’s Condom Use Attitudes and Resistance: “It’s Just a Part of the Game”

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Schraufnagel, Trevor J.; Kajumulo, Kelly F.; Gilmore, Amanda K.; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the variability in young heterosexual men’s perceptions of the advantages and disadvantages of condom use in their casual sexual relationships. Because men who perceive greater disadvantages of condom use may be more likely to resist using them, we also explored the tactics that men employ to avoid using condoms. Semi-structured focus groups were conducted with single men who have sex with women (n = 60), aged 21 to 35, all of whom reported using condoms inconsistently. Transcripts were analyzed using a framework analysis approach. As expected, participants reported advantages and disadvantages to condom use that pertained to the likelihood and quality of sex, physical sensations during intercourse, and the risk of STIs and unwanted pregnancies. Within each of these topics, however, participants’ appraisals of the relative pros and cons of condom use varied considerably. Additionally, participants reported that men use a wide range of condom use resistance tactics - including seduction, deception, and condom sabotage – and that the use of these tactics is viewed as normative behavior for men their age. These findings suggest that the effectiveness of sexual health prevention efforts could be enhanced by increasing young men’s motivations to use condoms and by targeting social norms regarding condom use resistance. Additionally, the issue of men’s condom use resistance clearly merits increased empirical investigation and intervention attention. PMID:23912776

  5. Performance of the woman's condom among couples in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Zirong, Huang; Junqing, Wu; Coffey, Patricia S; Kilbourne-Brook, Maggie; Yufeng, Zhang; Wang, Caiyan; Hongxin, Zhao; Bin, Wen; Yuyan, Li; Hongbo, Pei

    2012-06-01

    The Woman's Condom, a second-generation female condom, is poised for introduction in China. This single-arm couples' use study was conducted in China in 2010 to assess performance and safety of the Woman's Condom and feasibility of mobile phone technology to record adherence data. Sixty couples were enrolled in this study, and 59 couples completed all four of the condom uses, resulting in 234 condom uses. Two condoms were opened but not used. Total breakage was 0.85% (two non-clinical breakages). Misdirection (2%), invagination (0.85%) and slippage (1%) were consistent with data on condom failure from other studies. Total clinical failure was 4%. Fifteen mild and no serious adverse events were reported during the study. This study has shown that in China, the Woman's Condom performs well. Mobile phones cannot yet replace the use of a coital log and questionnaire. Further work on effectiveness is required.

  6. Condoms in the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Sarah E., Ed.; Smith, Mark D., Ed.

    This book contains six papers on condom availability programs in the public schools. "Executive Summary" (Stryker, Samuels, and Smith) looks at the consequences of unprotected sex, adolescent condom use, condom promotion and availability, the role of schools, sex education in schools, how school condom programs work, distribution mechanisms,…

  7. Do phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors protect against condom-associated erection loss and condom slippage?

    PubMed

    Sanders, Stephanie A; Milhausen, Robin R; Crosby, Richard A; Graham, Cynthia A; Yarber, William L

    2009-05-01

    Some physicians prescribe phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5i) for men who experience condom-associated erection difficulties with a view to increasing condom use and reducing risk of sexually transmitted infections. To examine whether the prevalence of erection-related condom problems differs between men using and not using PDE5i at the last condom-protected penile-vaginal (PVI) or penile-anal intercourse. Seven hundred-five men who had used a male condom during the past 3 months for PVI were selected from a sample recruited through advertisement to an electronic mailing list for a large, internet-based, sexual-enhancement product company. An internet-based questionnaire posted in 2006 assessed condom-use errors and problems. Men who did and did not use PDE5i during the last time a condom was used were compared on: (i) erection loss while applying a condom; (ii) erection loss during sex while using a condom; (iii) condom slipped off during sex; (iv) delayed condom application (penetration of the vagina or anus prior to application of the male condom); (v) early condom removal (condom taken off and intercourse continued without it); (vi) "problem with the way the condom fit"; (vii) "problem with the way the condom felt"; and (viii) condom breakage. Controlling for age, marital status (yes/no), and having children (yes/no), PDE5i users, compared with nonusers, were: (i) three times more likely to report erection loss during sex while using a condom (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 3.21, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.40-7.39, P = 0.006); (ii) almost five times more likely to report the condom slipped off during sex (AOR = 4.75, 95% CI = 1.68-13.44, P = 0.003); and (iii) more than twice as likely to remove condoms before sex was over (AOR = 2.46, 95% CI = 1.09-5.56, P = 0.03). Physicians prescribing PDE5i may want to evaluate whether men are experiencing condom-associated erection difficulties and, if they are, consider titrating dosages and/or making referrals

  8. Condom negotiation: findings and future directions.

    PubMed

    Peasant, Courtney; Parra, Gilbert R; Okwumabua, Theresa M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review was to summarize factors associated with condom negotiation among heterosexual men. Literature searches were conducted using multiple databases spanning several disciplines. Studies examining psychological, demographic, relational, communication, and environmental factors related to condom negotiation are described, and a three-dimensional framework of condom negotiation is proposed. This framework of condom negotiation may aid researchers in operationalizing this construct, organizing this literature, and facilitating measurement development. We used this three-dimensional framework to articulate the influence of gender, ethnicity, relationship type, partner characteristics, trauma history, post-traumatic stress, and alcohol use on condom negotiation. Areas for future research are outlined. More research is needed to understand how these factors interact to influence condom negotiation, as well as the interaction between gender and the identified factors.

  9. What teenagers and young adults have to say about condoms and using condoms.

    PubMed

    Patient, D R; Orr, N M

    2000-01-01

    This study examined the perceptions of teenagers and young adults on condoms and condom use. By using two focus group sessions, 88 teenagers and young adults from South Africa were interviewed about their attitudes towards using condoms. The findings indicated that issues of image outweigh issues of risks in these groups. In obtaining condoms, these young adults did not trust free condoms and usually preferred anonymous points of purchase such as vending machines, which were also accessible at sites where they gathered for entertainment and socializing. In addition, the types of condoms available in the market were found to be unsuitable for these groups. Complaints on the color and size were noted, as well as the label of using condoms as boring and clinical. Lastly, to overcome the antipathy of using condoms, the paper suggests the following: development of black condoms, change of clinic and pharmacy staff attitude towards condom purchase, accessible distribution of condoms, and presentation of the product in such a way that it focuses on the fun aspect and less upon the clinical aspects.

  10. Comparative crossover study of the PATH Woman's Condom and the FC Female Condom.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Jill L; Barnhart, Kurt; Creinin, Mitch D; Poindexter, Alfred; Wheeless, Angie; Kilbourne-Brook, Maggie; Mauck, Christine K; Weiner, Debra H; Callahan, Marianne M

    2008-12-01

    Only one female condom [FC1 Female Condom (FC1)] is currently marketed, but it is poorly utilized, perhaps due to difficulty with insertion, discomfort and suboptimal functional performance during intercourse. The Program for Appropriate Technology in Health (PATH) Woman's Condom (WC) was developed in an effort to overcome these obstacles. This was a randomized crossover study to evaluate the functional performance, safety and acceptability of the FC1 and WC. Seventy-five couples were assigned to one of two condom use sequences (WC/FC1 or FC1/WC) at three centers. Four condoms of the first type were used by couples in four acts of intercourse at home over a 2-4-week period. After a follow-up visit, these procedures were repeated with the second assigned condom type. In a substudy of participants (n=25), a colposcopy was performed prior and subsequent to the first condom use of each of the two condom types. Condom performance was evaluated by calculating measures of function from questionnaires completed by the couple after each condom use. Safety was evaluated by reported urogenital symptoms with a given condom during or immediately following condom use and colposcopic signs of genital irritation in the substudy. Acceptability of each given condom type was measured by questionnaire. Total condom failure (slippage, breakage, etc., divided by the number of female condoms opened) was 31% for the WC and 42% for the FC1. Total clinical failure (slippage, breakage, etc., divided by the number of female condoms used) was 17% for the WC and 24% for the FC1. The proportion of condom failures was 10.9 percentage points less, and the proportion of clinical failure 6.7 percentage points less, when couples used the WC compared to the FC1 [90% CI: -18.5 to -3.3 and -12.6 to -0.8, respectively). Fewer women reported symptoms of urogenital irritation when using the WC vs. the FC1 either overall or when analyzing each use of the condom [woman as unit: -20 percentage points (90% CI

  11. First plastic condom for men becomes available next year.

    PubMed

    1993-10-01

    A new male condom made of polyurethane will be marketed in 1994 for those who do not like latex condoms according to officials at London International U.S. Holdings in New York City, the manufacturing firm. The company makes well-known latex condoms, including Ramses, Sheik, Durex, Hatu, and London. Company officials expect it will be more acceptable to men because it is more comfortable to those who have objections to using latex condoms. The major objections include odor and decreased sensitivity. The new plastic condom will probably cost more than latex condoms but less than natural skin condoms. The condom will be made from a new material called Duron and it received clearance from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for market several years ago. In company-conducted tests, the new condom's failure rate was no different than for top-quality latex condoms. Because the new material is thinner and stronger than latex, it can be made to fit looser than a latex condom. The new condom will be slightly bigger than its latex counterpart. Polyurethane will not cause problems for those allergic to latex, and it will not break down when used with oil-based lubricants. The new material is expected to last longer than latex, but for safety it probably should be treated like a latex condom in terms of heat exposure. A new plastic condom is being studied at Family Health International (FHI), a nonprofit medical research organization located in Durham, NC. In June 1992, the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, MD, awarded FHI $1.3 million to develop and test over a 4-year period a condom made of soft, thin plastic. FHI has developed several prototypes and is evaluating them in ongoing clinical trials. Another nonlatex condom, called Tactylon, is still awaiting FDA approval. The FDA has called for several tests to rule out cancer risk from the product and to clarify any shelf-life hazards.

  12. Contraceptive effectiveness of a polyurethane condom and a latex condom: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Markus J; Dominik, Rosalie; Rountree, R Wesley; Nanda, Kavita; Dorflinger, Laneta J

    2003-03-01

    To compare the contraceptive effectivenesses of a polyurethane condom and a standard latex condom. Secondary outcomes of interest were safety, functionality, discontinuation, and acceptability. We randomized 901 couples to use either the polyurethane condom or a standard latex condom as their only form of contraception. We tested for pregnancy at enrollment and at every scheduled follow-up visit (weeks 4, 10, 16, 22, and 30). The 6-month typical-use pregnancy probabilities were 9.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] 5.9, 12.2) for the polyurethane group and 5.4% (95% CI 2.9, 7.8) for the latex group; the hazard ratio was 1.7 (95% CI 1.1, 2.7), and we failed to reject the null hypothesis of our test of noninferiority. Females in the polyurethane group reported fewer genital irritations (hazard ratio 0.6; 95% CI 0.5, 0.8; P <.01), whereas males in both groups reported the same number of genital irritations (hazard ratio 1.0; 95% CI 0.7, 1.5; P =.94). Total clinical failures (breakage and slippage) were 8.4% for the polyurethane condom and 3.2% for the latex condom (difference 5.3%, 90% CI 2.8, 7.7). The risk of discontinuation did not differ between groups. Participants judged both condoms favorably in terms of the four primary acceptability outcomes (willingness to purchase, willingness to recommend, confidence in method, and general comfort). The polyurethane condom was not shown to be as effective as the latex comparator condom for pregnancy prevention. However, the risk of pregnancy in the polyurethane group falls in the range of other barrier methods. For people with latex sensitivity or who find latex condoms unacceptable, this polyurethane condom represents one of several synthetic male condom alternatives currently available on the US market.

  13. Perceptions of Sexual Intent: The Impact of Condom Possession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hynie, Michaela; Schuller, Regina A.; Couperthwaite, Lisa

    2003-01-01

    This study examined whether knowing that a victim of a sexual assault was carrying a condom influenced perceptions of her sexual intention and subsequent judgments of the sexual assault. Participants (N = 165) read a vignette describing a date that culminated in an alleged sexual assault. Condom possession (carrying a condom, not carrying a…

  14. Condom Availability in Schools: A Guide for Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Margaret Pruitt; And Others

    This guide for condom availability programs provides information on how to build support for school-based condom availability programs. Chapter One explains why such a program is important. It examines behaviors and risks of sexually active adolescents, presents strategies for risk reduction, and discusses condom availability and use. Chapter Two…

  15. Condoms -- if you care.

    PubMed

    Paalman, M

    1992-01-01

    All barrier methods except the IUD offer some protection against both unwanted pregnancy and disease. Male and female condoms, however, are the most reliable barrier methods. While they occasionally leak, tear, or slip off and may not protect against syphilis, herpes, and genital warts if lesions are located on a body site not covered by the condom, condoms do reduce the risk of HIV transmission. Condom use to prevent HIV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases should not be promoted in isolation, but should be part of a national prevention and control strategy incorporating other elements such as information, blood safety, clean injection equipment, surveillance, counseling, and care and treatment. A well- developed condom promotion plan will be sensitive to policy, psychosocial, behavioral, and programmatic issues. Condom promoters and users should not ignore the reality that condoms interfere with love-making and contrast directly with the desired and expected carefree notion of the process. While acknowledging the negative aspects of condom use, the positive side of condoms can nonetheless be stressed. Just as car safety belts reduce the risk of adverse consequence in case of a crash, condoms should be worn as protection during sexual intercourse; once on, sex may be had with far less worry of pregnancy and disease. Finally, steps need to be taken to create social conditions in which people are comfortable discussing sexuality and past experiences with peers and prospective sex partners. Marketing professionals also need to be called upon to help make condom use a desirable social norm.

  16. The role of attitudes and self-efficacy in predicting condom use and purchase intentions.

    PubMed

    Gabler, Joanna; Kropp, Fredric; Silvera, David H; Lavack, Anne M

    2004-01-01

    This study examines the condom purchasing and use habits of 256 college students in Norway and English-speaking Canada, and develops a structural equation model to explain condom purchase and use. In the model, intention to purchase condoms is influenced by self-efficacy in condom purchasing, as well as by intention to use condoms. Intention to use condoms is influenced by having a positive attitude toward condom usage and by self-efficacy in persuading a partner to use condoms. The implications for health promotion and social marketing campaigns are discussed.

  17. Condoms becoming more popular.

    PubMed

    Manuel, J

    1993-05-01

    Social marketing is a strategy which addresses a public health problem with private-sector marketing and sales techniques. In condom social marketing programs, condoms are often offered for sale to the public at low prices. 350 million condoms were sold to populations in developing countries through such programs in 1992, and another 650 million were distributed free through public clinics. The major donors of these condoms are the US Agency for International Development, the World Health Organization, the UN Population Fund, the International Planned Parenthood Federation, the World Bank, and the European Community. This marketing approach has promoted condom use as prevention against HIV transmission and has dramatically increased the number of condoms distributed and used throughout much of Africa, Latin America, and Asia. Donors are now concerned that they will not be able to provide condoms in sufficient quantities to keep pace with rapidly rising demand. Findings in selected countries, however, suggest that people seem willing to buy condoms which are well promoted and distributed. Increasing demand for condoms may therefore be readily met through greater dependence upon social marketing programs and condom sales. Researchers generally agree that a social marketing program must change for 100 condoms no more than 1% of a country's GNP in order to sell an amount of condoms equal to at least half of the adult male population. Higher prices may be charged for condoms in countries with relatively high per-capita incomes. Since prices charged tend to be too low to cover all promotional, packaging, distribution, and logistical management costs, most condom distribution programs will have to be subsidized on an ongoing basis.

  18. Sub-Saharan African university students' beliefs about condoms, condom-use intention, and subsequent condom use: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Heeren, G Anita; Jemmott, John B; Mandeya, Andrew; Tyler, Joanne C

    2009-04-01

    Whether certain behavioral beliefs, normative beliefs, and control beliefs predict the intention to use condoms and subsequent condom use was examined among 320 undergraduates at a university in South Africa who completed confidential questionnaires on two occasions separated by 3 months. Participants' mean age was 23.4 years, 47.8% were women, 48.9% were South Africans, and 51.1% were from other sub-Saharan African countries. Multiple regression revealed that condom-use intention was predicted by hedonistic behavioral beliefs, normative beliefs regarding sexual partners and peers, and control beliefs regarding condom-use technical skill and impulse control. Logistic regression revealed that baseline condom-use intention predicted consistent condom use and condom use during most recent intercourse at 3-month follow-up. HIV/STI risk-reduction interventions for undergraduates in South Africa should target their condom-use hedonistic beliefs, normative beliefs regarding partners and peers, and control beliefs regarding technical skill and impulse control.

  19. Use of the "NYC Condom" among people who use drugs.

    PubMed

    Des Jarlais, Don C; McKnight, Courtney; Arasteh, Kamyar; Feelemyer, Jonathan; Perlman, David; Hagan, Holly; Cooper, Hannah L F

    2014-06-01

    We assessed awareness and use of the "NYC Condom" among persons who use heroin and cocaine in New York City. The NYC Condom distribution program is the largest free condom distribution program in the USA, with over 30 million condoms distributed per year. It includes a condom social marketing program for a specific brand, the NYC Condom with its own packaging and advertising. People who use heroin and cocaine are at relatively high risk for HIV infection and are an important target population for the program. In order to assess awareness of the NYC Condom, structured interviews and blood testing for HIV, HSV-2, and sexually transmitted infections (STI) were conducted among entrants to the Beth Israel Medical Center drug detoxification and methadone treatment programs. Participants were asked about drug use, sexual risk behaviors, and awareness and use of the NYC Condom. Univariate and multivariable regression analyses were conducted to examine the associations between use of NYC Condoms and consistent condom use with primary and casual sexual partners. A total of 970 subjects were recruited between February 2011 and December 2012. Subjects were primarily African-American and Hispanic, with a mean age of 43. Fifty-five percent of subjects reported being sexually active with primary sexual partners, and 25 % reported being sexually active with a casual partner for the 6 months prior to the interview. Sixty-five percent of subjects had heard of the NYC Condom, 48 % of those who had heard of the condom had used it, and 58 % of those who had ever used it were currently using it (in the previous 6 months). In multivariable regression analyses, current use of NYC Condoms was strongly associated with consistent condom use with primary sexual partners (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 3.99, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.85-8.58) and consistent condom use with casual sexual partners (AOR = 4.48, 95 % CI 1.49-13.42). In terms of market share, 38 % of subjects consistently using

  20. Should condoms be free?

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    In Tanzania, the debate about whether condoms should be free is particularly significant because condoms were unheard of 5 years ago and are the least population form of contraception. A nongovernmental organization (NGO) is selling condoms which they promote as "fun." Sales blossomed after an advertising campaign was televised during the soccer World Cup. The new prevailing attitude seems to be that if a man can afford sex, he can afford to buy a condom. In fact, one NGO which distributed free condoms found that their supply at a local guest house was always depleted. Their pleasure with this success was diminished when they learned that people were selling their condoms across the border in Uganda.

  1. The Development of a New Condom Use Expectancy Scale for At-Risk Adults

    PubMed Central

    Nydegger, Liesl A.; Ames, Susan L.; Stacy, Alan W.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Engaging in risky sexual behavior increases transmission of HIV. Objective The present study used previously elicited salient outcomes of condom use to examine the factor structure and test the predictive utility of a condom use expectancy scale. Methods Participants were drug offenders from court ordered drug diversion programs in Southern California. The condom use expectancy scale consisted of three factors: positive condom outcome items, negative condom outcome items, and safe sex items. Results The factor analysis confirmed the three-factor structure. Positive condom use expectancies were a significant predictor of both condom use and intentions to use condoms, and negative condom use expectancies predicted non-use of condoms. Conclusion Understanding conditions of condom use can aid public health researchers and practitioners to better identify those in need of HIV prevention and how to target those needs. PMID:26363449

  2. Time to talk condoms.

    PubMed

    Piotrow, P T; Rinehart, W

    1991-09-01

    A great deal of avoided if political and religious leaders, educators, health care providers and the mass media would band together in an effort to promote condom use. Condoms use protects against unwanted pregnancies, STDs and AIDS. Yet, public discussions on condom use are rate. In the US, political leaders avoid mentioning the topic, and television networks severely restrict the airing of public service announcements for condoms. Worldwide, an estimated 100 billion acts of sexual intercourse take place every year. A recent report indicates that it would take a modest 13 billion condoms a year to protect everyone who is at risk of contracting AIDS and other STDs, and risk of having an unwanted pregnancy. Currently, worldwide production of condoms stands at about 6 billion a year. Furthermore, condom makers have the capacity to increase production by some 2 billion, and could add new capacity in about 2 years. Many believe that marketing condoms is a difficult enterprise, since men often report that condoms reduce pleasure, cause embarrassment, or are not available when needed. The challenge for markets, then, is to create demand. This is especially true in the US, where prime-time advertising and the use of popular entertainment, such as soap operas, could promote condoms as both safe and satisfying. In the developing world, the challenge is to make condoms widely available and affordable. Some changes have taken place since 1981, when AIDS first came into the spotlight. In the US, people now discuss the topic of STDs more openly. But an all-out effort to promote condom use has not yet begun.

  3. Condom Use in Heavy Drinking College Students: The Importance of Always Using Condoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Certain, Heather E.; Harahan, Brian J.; Saewyc, Elizabeth M.; Fleming, Michael F.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined whether alcohol use decreased condom use. Participants: The subjects were heavy-drinking students on 5 different college campuses. Methods: A face-to-face interview, administered between November of 2004 and February of 2007, gathered information about condom use, alcohol use, and other behaviors. Multivariate…

  4. Condom Use in Heavy Drinking College Students: The Importance of Always Using Condoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Certain, Heather E.; Harahan, Brian J.; Saewyc, Elizabeth M.; Fleming, Michael F.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined whether alcohol use decreased condom use. Participants: The subjects were heavy-drinking students on 5 different college campuses. Methods: A face-to-face interview, administered between November of 2004 and February of 2007, gathered information about condom use, alcohol use, and other behaviors. Multivariate…

  5. Influence of Sex Education on Condom Knowledge and Condom Use Skills Among Texas College Students.

    PubMed

    Clifton, Jessica; Penrose, Lindsay; Prien, Sam; Farooqi, Naghma

    2015-10-01

    Condoms have proven effective when used correctly; however, few studies have examined the relationship between a student's previous sex education and his or her general condom knowledge and ability to use a condom correctly. Educational systems in Texas provide a myriad of types of sexual education to their student populations. The objective of the present study was to compare the type of previous sex education with the condom knowledge and condom use skills among students attending college. Participants were recruited at health fairs conducted at a major Texas university during October 2010 and March 2011. Students were first asked to complete a computerized questionnaire and then participated in a condom demonstration. Of 180 students who completed both the questionnaire and the condom demonstration, 67% failed to apply the condom correctly. Further, the results were equally poor regardless of previous sex education format. The results of this study suggest that none of the current training mechanisms provide adequate information to ensure the proper use of condoms by college students and that alternatives need to be considered to protect the health and well-being of this important segment of the state's population.

  6. The Use of Drinking and Condom-Related Protective Strategies in Association to Condom Use and Sex-Related Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, Amanda K.; Granato, Hollie F.; Lewis, Melissa A.

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 40% of American college students engage in heavy drinking, and heavy drinking is associated with sexual risk behaviors. It is imperative to gain a better understanding of the relationship between alcohol and sexual risk behaviors for prevention efforts. We examined the use of drinking and condom-related protective behavioral strategies (PBS) in relation to drinking and condom-use outcomes in 436 college students. Drinking PBS are related to drinking and negative-related drinking consequences. Furthermore, condom-related PBS are related to condom use; however, it is unclear if drinking PBS are related to condom use, particularly condom use when drinking. It was hypothesized that the use of drinking PBS would be related to less alcohol-related sexual activity, that the use of condom-related PBS would be related to greater condom use and condom use while drinking, and that drinking PBS would be related to greater condom use, especially condom use when drinking. We found that condom-related PBS were associated with condom behavior and drinking PBS were related to drinking behavior, but we did not find support for a relationship between drinking PBS and condom use. This suggests that condom-related PBS may be a more effective target for increasing condom use than drinking PBS alone. PMID:22420842

  7. Condom Use: Slippage, Breakage, and Steps for Proper Use among Adolescents in Alternative School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyle, Karin K.; Franks, Heather M.; Glassman, Jill R.; Stanoff, Nicole M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: School-based human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted infection (STI), and pregnancy prevention programs often focus on consistent and correct condom use. Research on adolescents' experience using condoms, including condom slippage/breakage, is limited. This exploratory study examines proper condom use and the…

  8. Condom Use: Slippage, Breakage, and Steps for Proper Use among Adolescents in Alternative School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyle, Karin K.; Franks, Heather M.; Glassman, Jill R.; Stanoff, Nicole M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: School-based human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted infection (STI), and pregnancy prevention programs often focus on consistent and correct condom use. Research on adolescents' experience using condoms, including condom slippage/breakage, is limited. This exploratory study examines proper condom use and the…

  9. Condoms, Culture, and Conviction: The Effect of Acculturation and Religiosity on Latina Condom Use during First Sex with New Partners.

    PubMed

    Smith, Scott James

    2017-04-03

    Latinas in the United States are less likely than their non-Hispanic peers to use condoms. Previous research has identified acculturation and religiosity as two key determinants of Latina condom use, but results are inconsistent, impairing the translation of findings to practice. The current study examines these constructs together and addresses methodological concerns noted in the literature. Structural equation modeling performed on a nationally representative sample of Latinas indicated that intrinsic religiosity increased condom use whereas acculturation decreased condom use. Extrinsic religiosity indirectly increased condom use via intrinsic religiosity. Implications for practice and policy are discussed.

  10. Examination of pump failure data in the nuclear power industry

    SciTech Connect

    Casada, D.

    1996-12-01

    There are several elements that are critical to any program which is used to optimize the availability and reliability of process equipment. Perhaps the most important elements are routine monitoring and predictive maintenance elements. In order to optimize equipment monitoring and predictive maintenance, it is necessary to fundamentally and thoroughly understand the principal failure modes for the equipment and the effectiveness of alternative monitoring methods. While these observations are general in nature, they are certainly true for the {open_quotes}heart{close_quotes} of fluid systems - pumps. In recent years, particularly within the last decade, the capabilities and ease of use of previously existing pump diagnostic technologies, such as vibration monitoring and oil analysis, have improved dramatically. Newer technologies, such as thermal imaging, have been found effective at detecting certain undesirable or degraded conditions, such as misalignment and overheated bearings or packing. The ASME Code and NRC regulatory requirements have been, like essentially all similar code and regulatory bodies, conservative in their adoption or endorsement of newer technologies. The requirements prescribed by the Code and endorsed by the NRC have, in their essence, changed only minimally over more than a dozen years. As a follow-on to studies of check valve failure experience in the nuclear industry that have proven useful in identifying the effectiveness of alternative monitoring methods, a study of nuclear industry pump failure data has been conducted. The results of this study, conducted for the NRC by Oak Ridge National Laboratory, are presented. The historical effectiveness of both regulatory required and voluntarily implemented pump monitoring programs are shown. The distribution of pump failures by application, affected area, and level of significance are indicated. Apparent strengths and weaknesses of alternative monitoring methods are discussed.

  11. Examining the Relationships Between Religiosity, Spirituality, Internalized Homonegativity, and Condom Use Among African American Men Who Have Sex With Men in the Deep South.

    PubMed

    Smallwood, Stacy W; Spencer, S Melinda; Ingram, Lucy Annang; Thrasher, Jim F; Thompson-Robinson, Melva V

    2017-03-01

    The Sexual Health in Faith Traditions Study evaluated the relationships between religiosity, spirituality, internalized homonegativity, and sexual risk behaviors among a sample of African American men who have sex with men living in the Deep South. Participants were recruited primarily from Black Gay Pride celebrations to complete a self-administered, paper-and-pencil survey. Structural equation modeling was used to determine relationships between key constructs and condom use for insertive ( n = 285) and receptive ( n = 263) anal intercourse in the past 3 months. Almost half of respondents reported using condoms "every time" when engaging in insertive (48.3%) or receptive (45.1%) anal intercourse. Religiosity and spirituality were differentially associated with dimensions of internalized homonegativity. While no significant direct relationships were reported between either religiosity or spirituality and condom use, dimensions of internalized homonegativity mediated significant indirect relationships. Findings suggest that religiosity and spirituality influence African American men who have sex with men's internalized homonegativity and, subsequently, engagement in safer sex behaviors.

  12. Condom availability for adolescents.

    PubMed

    1996-06-01

    Although abstinence should be stressed as the certain way to prevent STDs and pregnancy, sexually active teens, male and female, must nonetheless be taught to use condoms properly, effectively, and consistently. The latex condom should be made widely available to young people. Ideally, young persons should have access to education and counseling when contraception is dispensed. However, condoms should be made easily available without any requirement for education. Condoms should be available not only through families, medical facilities, and commercial channels, but also through other appropriate and informed persons, without cost if possible, at sites where adolescents congregate. These sites may include schools, clubs, and other youth-serving agencies. A clear message from the medical community supporting condom use will enhance compliance.

  13. Cultural Factors and Program Implications: HIV/AIDS Interventions and Condom Use among Latinos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeakley, Anna M.; Gant, Larry M.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the failure to use condoms among U.S. Latino populations and identifies six "myths" related to traditional cultural values and gender roles, and associations between condoms and prostitution, infidelity, and disease, that prevent condom use in these populations. Suggests ways that programs can address these myths in HIV…

  14. Intention to use the female condom following a mass-marketing campaign in Lusaka, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Agha, S

    2001-02-01

    This report examines intention to use the female condom among men and women in Lusaka, Zambia, who were exposed to mass-marketing of the female condom. The study used data from a representative sample of consumers at outlets that sell or distribute the female condom and the male condom. In spite of a high level of awareness of the female condom, use of this method in the last year was considerably lower than use of the male condom. Intention to use the female condom in the future was highest among respondents who had used only the female condom in the last year. The female condom is likely to be most important for persons who are unable or unwilling to use the male condom.

  15. A Daily Diary Analysis of Condom Breakage and Slippage During Vaginal Sex or Anal Sex Among Adolescent Women.

    PubMed

    Hensel, Devon J; Selby, Sarah; Tanner, Amanda E; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2016-09-01

    Adolescent women are disproportionately impacted by the adverse outcomes associated with sexual activity, including sexually transmitted infections (STI). Condoms as a means of prevention relies on use that is free of usage failure, including breakage and/or slippage. This study examined the daily prevalence of and predictors of condom breakage and/or slippage during vaginal sex and during anal sex among adolescent women. Adolescent women (N = 387; 14 to 17 years) were recruited from primary care clinics for a longitudinal cohort study of STIs and sexual behavior. Data were daily partner-specific sexual diaries. Random intercept mixed-effects logistic regression was used to estimate the fixed effect of each predictor on condom breakage/slippage during vaginal or during anal sex (Stata, 13.0), adjusting model coefficients for the correlation between repeated within-participant diary entries. Condom slippage and/or breakage varied across sexual behaviors and was associated with individual-specific (eg, age and sexual interest) and partner-specific factors (eg, negativity). Recent behavioral factors (eg, experiencing slippage and/or breakage in the past week) were the strongest predictors of current condom slippage and/or breakage during vaginal or anal sex. Factors associated with young women's condom breakage/slippage during vaginal or during anal sex should be integrated as part of STI prevention efforts and should be assessed as part of ongoing routine clinical care.

  16. Clinical breakage, slippage and acceptability of a new commercial polyurethane condom: a randomized, controlled study.

    PubMed

    Potter, W D; de Villemeur, Maxence

    2003-07-01

    Although latex remains the primary material for male condoms, a number of condoms made from synthetic materials have appeared in commercial markets in recent years. Published data on the safety and efficacy of these condoms is still limited, but nevertheless synthetic condoms do offer the user a wider choice and may encourage greater use of condoms for contraception and sexual transmitted infection prophylaxis. This paper reports on a study carried out in the Paris region of France on a new, commercial polyurethane condom marketed in Japan as Sagami Original and in Europe as Protex Original. A standard latex condom complying with the European standard for condoms (EN 600:1996) from the same manufacturer was used as the control in the study. The clinical breakage rate for the polyurethane condom was 0.6% (95% confidence interval 0.2-1.4%) compared to 1.3% (95% confidence interval 0.6-2.2%) for the latex condom. The difference was not statistically significant (chi(2) = 1.9, p = 0.168). Clinically significant slippage (complete slippage of the condom off the penis) was 1.1% (95% confidence interval 0.5-1.9%) for the polyurethane condom, compared to 0.5% (95% confidence interval 0.2-1.2%) for the latex; a difference that again was not statistically significant (chi(2) = 1.783, p = 0.182). The polyurethane condom was therefore equivalent to the latex condom in terms of clinical failure rate.

  17. Examining Productive Failure, Productive Success, Unproductive Failure, and Unproductive Success in Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapur, Manu

    2016-01-01

    Learning and performance are not always commensurable. Conditions that maximize performance in the initial learning may not maximize learning in the longer term. I exploit this incommensurability to theoretically and empirically interrogate four possibilities for design: productive success, productive failure, unproductive success, and…

  18. Examining Productive Failure, Productive Success, Unproductive Failure, and Unproductive Success in Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapur, Manu

    2016-01-01

    Learning and performance are not always commensurable. Conditions that maximize performance in the initial learning may not maximize learning in the longer term. I exploit this incommensurability to theoretically and empirically interrogate four possibilities for design: productive success, productive failure, unproductive success, and…

  19. Condom negotiation strategy use and effectiveness among college students.

    PubMed

    Holland, Kathryn J; French, Sabine Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    College students may engage in risky sexual behaviors, such as inconsistent condom use, which increase their risk of sexually transmitted infections. This study examined the association between six condom influence strategies (CIS) and reported condom use among a diverse group of college students. Differences in CIS and condom use were examined by gender, race or ethnicity, and relationship status (casual, monogamous, or no current relationship). The study also used a cluster analysis to investigate how the CIS were used relative to one another, and how patterns of CIS use were related to condom use. Results showed interesting differences in CIS use by gender, race or ethnicity, and relationship status. Four patterns of CIS usage emerged, and results suggested that using all CIS frequently and using more assertive CIS may be particularly important for increased condom use. Men reported more condom use than women overall, but results indicated that using CIS were especially vital for increasing condom use for women. Surprisingly, there were no differences in condom use found for race or ethnicity and relationship type. Programs aimed at increasing students' condom use could benefit from promoting and practicing CIS, and recognizing potential differences among demographic groups.

  20. Differences in correlates of condom use between young adults and adults attending sexually transmitted infection clinics.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Amanda R; Blood, Emily A; Crosby, Richard A; Shrier, Lydia A

    2015-07-01

    Despite developmental differences between young adults and adults, studies of condom use have not typically considered young adults as a distinct age group. This study sought to examine how condom use and its correlates differed between high-risk young adults and adults. Sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic patients (n = 763) reported STI history, contraception, negative condom attitudes, fear of partner reaction to condom use and risky behaviours. Past 3-month condom use was examined as unprotected vaginal sex (UVS) acts, proportional condom use and consistent condom use. Regression models tested associations of age group and potential correlates with each condom use outcome. Interaction models tested whether associations differed by age group. Proportional condom use was greater in young adults than adults (mean 0.55 vs. 0.47); UVS and consistent condom use were similar between age groups. Young adults with a recent STI reported less condom use, whereas for older adults, a distant STI was associated with less condom use, compared to others in their age groups. Negative condom attitudes were more strongly linked to UVS acts for younger versus older adults. STI prevention efforts for younger adults may be improved by intensifying counselling about condom use immediately following STI diagnosis and targeting negative condom attitudes.

  1. Condom-murder.

    PubMed

    Murty, O P

    2009-01-01

    Condom-murder is term used to describe a homicide where a person has been killed due to his recreational sexual behaviour and the killing has strong links with the recovered condom/contraceptive material on the scene or was in personal possession of victim. It can provide immediate clue about perpetrator. We present six cases of a similar nature. Four males and two females had condoms in their vicinity at crime scene. All incidents occurred at different timings and different places but there was striking similarity in method of killing. In four cases hands were tied on the back in three cases; similarly legs were also tied in three cases. In three cases strong electric cords were used. The presence of condoms give clue for investigation, possibility of DNA identification, about type of sexual behaviour as recreational and commercial method in these cases.

  2. Methodologies for examining problem solving success and failure.

    PubMed

    DeCaro, Marci S; Wieth, Mareike; Beilock, Sian L

    2007-05-01

    When designing research to examine the variables underlying creative thinking and problem solving success, one must not only consider (a) the demands of the task being performed, but (b) the characteristics of the individual performing the task and (c) the constraints of the skill execution environment. In the current paper we describe methodologies that allow one to effectively study creative thinking by capturing interactions among the individual, task, and problem solving situation. In doing so, we demonstrate that the relation between executive functioning and problem solving success is not always as straightforward as one might initially believe.

  3. Factors associated with parent support for condom education and availability.

    PubMed

    AugsJoost, Brett; Jerman, Petra; Deardorff, Julianna; Harley, Kim; Constantine, Norman A

    2014-04-01

    Expanding condom-related knowledge and skills and reducing barriers to condom use have the potential to help reduce pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections among youth. These goals are sometimes addressed through condom education and availability (CEA) programs as part of sexuality education in school. Parents are a key constituency in efforts to implement such programs. A representative statewide sample of households with children (N = 1,093) in California was employed to examine parent support for CEA and the potential influences of demographics (gender, age, and Hispanic ethnicity), sociodemographics (education, religious affiliation, religious service attendance, and political ideology), and condom-related beliefs (belief in condom effectiveness and belief that teens who use condoms during sex are being responsible) on parent support for CEA. The parents in our sample reported a high level of support for CEA (M = 3.23 on a 4-point scale) and believing in a high level of condom effectiveness (M = 3.36 on a 4-point scale). In addition, 84% of the parents agreed that teens who use condoms during sex are being responsible. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that parents who were younger, Hispanic, with a lower educational attainment, without a religious affiliation, less religiously observant, and politically liberal were more supportive of CEA. After controlling for these demographic and sociodemographic factors, condom effectiveness and responsibility beliefs each added independently to the predictability of parent support for CEA. These findings suggest that parent education related to condom effectiveness could help increase support for school-based CEA programs.

  4. [Evidence of risk factors for condom breakage among French military personnel stationed overseas].

    PubMed

    Deparis, X; Migliani, R; Merlin, M

    1999-01-01

    The French Army Medical Service has been distributing free condoms to overseas personnel since 1989. An epidemiologic study conducted in Cambodia showed that the rate of condom failure during protected sex was 16.3 p. 100. In view this high failure rate, a study to evaluate safety guidelines for condom use was deemed necessary. This report describes the results of an inquiry designed to identify risk factors for condom breakage. The study population included 124 servicemen stationed overseas who consulted an army physician following condom failure. An anonymous questionnaire was completed by the physician with the informed consent of the patient. Data was analyzed by multiple correspondence analysis. Anogenital intercourse and alcohol abuse were the main risk factors for condom failure. Oral sex before penetration, carrying the condom in the pocket, and improper application by the sex partner were also risk factors for failure. The major finding of this study was that 64 of the 124 (51.6 p. 100) denied any sexual activity or improper handling that might have led to condom breakage. Although condoms are still indispensable for prevention sexually transmitted diseases, the results of this study show that they do not provide absolute protection. Health care officials should inform the public as to the risk factors for breakage of latex condoms.

  5. Elements of condom use decision-making among MSM in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Siegler, Aaron J.; de Voux, Alex; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Sullivan, Patrick S.; Baral, Stefan D.; Winskell, Kate; Kose, Zamakayise; Wirtz, Andrea L.; Stephenson, Rob

    2014-01-01

    South African men who have sex with men (MSM) are at increased risk for HIV infection, and male condoms are fundamental to HIV prevention programs. We explored condom use experiences through in-depth interviews with 34 MSM in Cape Town and Port Elizabeth, South Africa. For data analysis, we generated a codebook and used the constant comparison method. Condom use reinforcing elements included use of alternative sexual strategies, having a high level of self-worth that was linked to protective behaviors, and use of ready-made condom negotiation scripts. Elements inhibiting condom use included perceiving substantial declines in sexual pleasure/performance, experiences of condom failure (possibly related to petroleum-based lubricant), and being in trusted relationships. Our findings suggest nuanced HIV prevention approaches such as bolstering condom negotiation skills based on successful tactics already in use. Further research is needed to address how to mitigate perceptions and experiences that condoms negatively impact sexual pleasure and performance. PMID:24935692

  6. Condoms: Past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Marfatia, Y S; Pandya, Ipsa; Mehta, Kajal

    2015-01-01

    Though many methods of prevention of STI/HIV are available, condoms remain of utmost importance. They have gone a long way from the oiled silk paper used by the Chinese and the hard sheaths made of tortoise- shell used by the Japanese to the latex condoms of today. The breakthrough came when the rubber vulcanization process was invented by Charles Goodyear and eventually the first rubber condom was made. The condom offers maximum protection( more than 90%) against HIV, Hepatitis B virus and N.Gonorrhoea. They also offer protection in scenarios when alternate sexual practices are adapted. The female condom in the only female driven contraceptive method available today. Graphene and Nano lubricated condoms are new in the market and others in futuristic approach may include wearable technology/Technology driven condom and invisible Condoms. Both Correct and Consistent use of condoms needs to be promoted for HIV/STI prevention.

  7. Condoms: Past, present, and future

    PubMed Central

    Marfatia, Y. S.; Pandya, Ipsa; Mehta, Kajal

    2015-01-01

    Though many methods of prevention of STI/HIV are available, condoms remain of utmost importance. They have gone a long way from the oiled silk paper used by the Chinese and the hard sheaths made of tortoise- shell used by the Japanese to the latex condoms of today. The breakthrough came when the rubber vulcanization process was invented by Charles Goodyear and eventually the first rubber condom was made. The condom offers maximum protection( more than 90%) against HIV, Hepatitis B virus and N.Gonorrhoea. They also offer protection in scenarios when alternate sexual practices are adapted. The female condom in the only female driven contraceptive method available today. Graphene and Nano lubricated condoms are new in the market and others in futuristic approach may include wearable technology/Technology driven condom and invisible Condoms. Both Correct and Consistent use of condoms needs to be promoted for HIV/STI prevention. PMID:26692603

  8. Condom Use Self-Efficacy among Younger Rural Adolescents: The Influence of Parent-Teen Communication, and Knowledge of and Attitudes toward Condoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritchwood, Tiarney D.; Penn, Dolly; Peasant, Courtney; Albritton, Tashuna; Corbie-Smith, Giselle

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the role of condom use knowledge and attitudes, and parent-teen communication about sex and relationship quality on reports of condom use self-efficacy among rural, African American youth. Participants were 465 North Carolinian youth (10-14 years). Results indicated that greater condom use self-efficacy was predicted by greater…

  9. Condom Use Self-Efficacy among Younger Rural Adolescents: The Influence of Parent-Teen Communication, and Knowledge of and Attitudes toward Condoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritchwood, Tiarney D.; Penn, Dolly; Peasant, Courtney; Albritton, Tashuna; Corbie-Smith, Giselle

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the role of condom use knowledge and attitudes, and parent-teen communication about sex and relationship quality on reports of condom use self-efficacy among rural, African American youth. Participants were 465 North Carolinian youth (10-14 years). Results indicated that greater condom use self-efficacy was predicted by greater…

  10. Correlates of condom coupon redemption among urban sexually transmitted disease clinic patients.

    PubMed

    Witte, S; el-Bassel, N; Krishnan, S; Schilling, R; Bidassie, B

    1999-01-01

    This study expands upon coupon distribution strategies used to measure male condom acquisition in HIV/AIDS prevention by incorporating both female and male condoms and examining factors related to coupon redemption among urban STD clinic patients.

  11. Condom attitudes and behaviors among injection drug users participating in California syringe exchange programs.

    PubMed

    Bogart, Laura M; Kral, Alex H; Scott, Andrea; Anderson, Rachel; Flynn, Neil; Gilbert, Mary Lou; Bluthenthal, Ricky N

    2005-12-01

    This study examined condom attitudes, preferences, barriers, and use among a sample of 550 injection drug using clients of syringe exchange programs in California. In multivariate analyses, positive attitudes toward condoms were significantly associated with consistent condom use for vaginal, anal, and oral sex in the past six months, beyond the effects of confounding socio-demographic and HIV risk variables. Participants commonly cited partner-related barriers to condom use, such as reluctance to use condoms with steady partners (34%). Almost a quarter of the sample cited dislike of condoms (e.g., because of pleasure reduction). In addition, a third of respondents stated specific preferences regarding condom brands, sensitivity, sizes, and textures. Interventions that increase awareness about positive aspects of condom use and sexual risk from steady partners may be successful in increasing condom use among injection drug users.

  12. Condom testing: part 2.

    PubMed

    Kestelman, P

    1974-01-01

    Various government standards required for testing condoms to be sold are described. A minimum tensile strength of 200 kg/sq cm and a minimum elongation at breaking of 600 to 700% are required by some countries. Bursting volume by U.S. standards is over 1 cubic foot before and after aging. To test for holes condoms are filled with water and rolled on absorbent paper. Mean thickness by U.S. standards must be between .004 and .002 cm with no reading exceeding .009 cm. The weight of each of 20 condoms per batch must not exceed 1.7 gm. A minimum length of 16 cm is required. Minimum width standards vary from 4.4 cm to 4.9 cm and maximum from 5.4 to 5.6 cm. Dates of manufacture and time of expiration of guarantee are required by some countries. Instructions for use may be required. No laboratory test has been devised to predict the chance of a condom bursting in practice. Faulty handling or lubication may be the cause. A supplementary spermicide would reduce the risk of pregnanc y or of infection should the condom burst.

  13. Efficacy of the simultaneous use of condoms and spermicides.

    PubMed

    Kestelman, P; Trussell, J

    1991-01-01

    The topic of this paper is the demonstration of the combined effectiveness of condom and spermicide use. It is reasoned that 2 methods, which separately provide only moderate efficacy, act together independently and the probability of both failing is the product of the 2 probabilities of failure. Spermicides have a typical user failure rate of 21% and condoms 12%; combined, the 1st year probability of failure among typical users is 2.5%. Under perfect use, where there is correct use for every act of intercourse, the assumption of independence is very likely, and efficacy would be a high as steroidal implants. In addition to highly efficacious protection from pregnancy, there is protection form HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STD). Spermicides referred to are rubber compatible, not oil based, and conform to the IPPF Agreed Test for Total Spermicidal Power. Condoms are defined as good quality which resist breakage and conform to the International Condom Standard, 1990. It is also advised that, in the event of condom breakage without spermicide, genitalia be washed immediately with soap and water to minimize risk. Also, proper douching that directs liquid sideways, not toward the cervix, should further reduce risk, It is underscored that contraceptive efficacy is not an effectiveness rate, but a failure rate. Effectiveness is the proportionate reduction in the risk of conception per cycle or infection per coitus caused by use of a method. The per cycle probability of conception is fecundability. The model described for combined use and STD use; it is based on the assumption that 1) the probability of conception and effectiveness and thus the per cycle probability of failure for the method is constant over time, and 2) there are 13 cycles per year. What is ignored is that failure rates decline among typical users with duration of use, so that life table procedures are not necessary. The annual probability of failure during perfect use of condoms and

  14. Talking to Your Partner about Condoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... latex, use polyurethane condoms instead.) If you use lubricants with condoms, always use water-based ones. Shortening, lotion, petroleum jelly, or baby oil can break down the condom. Open the condom ...

  15. Condom use within marriage: a neglected HIV intervention.

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Mohamed M.; Cleland, John; Shah, Iqbal H.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the contraceptive effectiveness of condoms versus oral contraceptive pills and estimate the reproductive consequences of a major shift from pill to condom use. METHODS: Secondary analysis was performed on nationally representative cross-sectional surveys of women in 16 developing countries. FINDINGS: In the 16 countries, the median per cent of married couples currently using condoms was 2%, compared with 13% for the pill. Condom users reported a higher 12-month failure and higher method-related discontinuation rates than pill users (9% and 44% vs 6% and 30%, respectively). Condom users were more likely to report subsequent abortion following failure (21% vs 14%), and also more likely to switch rapidly to another method (76% vs 58%). The reproductive consequences, in terms of abortion and unwanted births, of a hypothetical reversal of the relative prevalence of condom and pill were estimated to be minor. The main reason for this unexpected result is that the majority of abortions and unwanted births arise from non-use of any contraceptive method. CONCLUSION: A massive shift from the more effective oral contraceptive pills to the less effective condom would not jeopardize policy goals of reducing abortions and unwanted births. However, such a shift would potentially have an added benefit of preventing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections, especially in countries with generalized HIV epidemics. PMID:15112006

  16. Explaining inconsistencies between data on condom use and condom sales

    PubMed Central

    Meekers, Dominique; Van Rossem, Ronan

    2005-01-01

    Background Several HIV prevention programs use data on condom sales and survey-based data on condom prevalence to monitor progress. However, such indicators are not always consistent. This paper aims to explain these inconsistencies and to assess whether the number of sex acts and the number of condoms used can be estimated from survey data. This would be useful for program managers, as it would enable estimation of the number of condoms needed for different target groups. Methods We use data from six Demographic and Health Surveys to estimate the total annual number of sex acts and number of condoms used. Estimates of the number of sex acts are based on self-reported coital frequency, the proportion reporting intercourse the previous day, and survival methods. Estimates of the number of condoms used are based on self-reported frequency of use, the proportion reporting condom use the previous day and in last intercourse. The estimated number of condoms used is then compared with reported data on condom sales and distribution. Results Analysis of data on the annual number of condoms sold and distributed to the trade reveals very erratic patterns, which reflect stock-ups at various levels in the distribution chain. Consequently, condom sales data are a very poor indicator of the level of condom use. Estimates of both the number of sexual acts and the number of condoms used vary enormously based on the estimation method used. For several surveys, the highest estimate of the annual number of condoms used is tenfold that of the lowest estimate. Conclusions Condom sales to the trade are a poor indicator of levels of condom use, and are therefore insufficient to monitor HIV prevention programs. While survey data on condom prevalence allow more detailed monitoring, converting such data to an estimated number of sex acts and condoms used is not straightforward. The estimation methods yield widely different results, and it is impossible to determine which method is most

  17. Condom availability in high risk places and condom use: a study at district level in Kenya, Tanzania and Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A number of studies from countries with severe HIV epidemics have found gaps in condom availability, even in places where there is a substantial potential for HIV transmission. Although reported condom use has increased in many African countries, there are often big differences by socioeconomic background. The aim of this study was to assess equity aspects of condom availability and uptake in three African districts to evaluate whether condom programmes are given sufficient priority. Methods Data on condom availability and use was examined in one district in Kenya, one in Tanzania and one in Zambia. The study was based on a triangulation of data collection methods in the three study districts: surveys in venues where people meet new sexual partners, population-based surveys and focus group discussions. The data was collected within an overall study on priority setting in health systems. Results At the time of the survey, condoms were observed in less than half of the high risk venues in two of the three districts and in 60% in the third district. Rural respondents in the population-based surveys perceived condoms to be less available and tended to be less likely to report condom use than urban respondents. Although focus group participants reported that condoms were largely available in their district, they expressed concerns related to the accessibility of free condoms. Conclusion As late as thirty years into the HIV epidemic there are still important gaps in the availability of condoms in places where people meet new sexual partners in these three African districts. Considering that previous studies have found that improved condom availability and accessibility in high risk places have a potential to increase condom use among people with multiple partners, the present study findings indicate that substantial further efforts should be made to secure that condoms are easily accessible in places where sexual relationships are initiated. Although condom

  18. Safety, functionality and acceptability of a prototype polyurethane condom.

    PubMed

    Farr, G; Katz, V; Spivey, S K; Amatya, R; Warren, M; Oliver, R

    1997-12-01

    Male condoms made from synthetic materials offer an alternative to latex condoms that may be more acceptable to users, thereby potentially resulting in more protected acts of intercourse. A prospective, noncomparative clinical study was conducted to evaluate the safety of using certain polyurethane materials to make condoms. Fifty-one healthy, contracepting, mutually monogamous couples were recruited between June 30 and November 24, 1993 to use a prototype roll-on polyurethane condom developed by Family Health International. Couples were to use the condoms for 10 consecutive acts of vaginal intercourse over a 4-week period. Baseline and postexposure genital examinations, including colposcopy for female participants, were performed. Fifty couples completed the study requirements and 517 acts of intercourse occurred using the condoms. Two adverse events were reported: irritation of introitus in a female participant and a small irritated erythematous lesion on a male participant's penis. Neither event was considered to be serious and both were resolved without treatment. Breakage and slippage rates were similar to those reported for latex condoms. These results suggest that polyurethane condoms represent a safe, functional and acceptable alternative to latex condoms.

  19. Patterns of use of the female condom after one year of mass marketing.

    PubMed

    Agha, S

    2001-02-01

    The female condom is an effective new contraceptive method that can reduce HIV transmission. This study examines use of the female condom after 1 year of its mass marketing and compares this with use of the male condom. It is based on exit interviews conducted among a random sample of male and female customers visiting outlets that sell the female condom. Compared with reported use of the male condom, which was five to eight times as high in nonmarital as in marital partnerships, reported use of the female condom varied less by partnership type (it was twice as high in nonmarital compared with marital partnerships). In marital and regular partnerships, use of the female and the male condom increased with socioeconomic status (SES). In casual partnerships, use of the male condom increased with SES, but use of the female condom was higher for those with lower SES. Men reported higher levels of male condom use than women, but there were no gender differences in use of the female condom. These findings suggest that the largest contribution to HIV protection through use of the female condom may be within marital partnerships and among low SES men and women who engage in casual sex. The absence of gender differentials in use of the female condom suggests that women are able to exert greater control over the use of the female condom than they are over the use of the male condom. However, the overall low levels of female condom use among relatively affluent persons at outlets that sell the female condom indicate that the introduction of the female condom will be resource intensive.

  20. Condoms--a new look.

    PubMed

    Harvey, P D

    1972-10-01

    There are many advantages to the condom, a contraceptive which is holding its own in the US market. This is the case although the product is not advertised as much as foam and is hardly promoted at all by physicians. With a major promotional effort on the part of manufacturers and family planning programs there might be a considerable increase in condom use. This could be important particularly in the prevention of premarital pregnancies and venereal disease among younger teenagers. Increased promotion would necessitate changes in current state laws which now restrict the sale, advertising, or display of condoms. Despite its advantages, the "sensation" objection is unquestionably valid, and more research is required into the potential extended use-effectiveness of thinner, more sensitive condoms compared with the thicker products which are freer from minor defects. Most of the world's condoms are manufactured in the US, the UK, and Japan. The Japanese are the world's most innovative and imaginative manufacturers and promoters of condoms. Thus, the Japanese condoms tend to dominate most markets in which they are freely allowed. In selecting condoms for use in a family planning program, or for other efforts by family planning professionals to promote condom use, the selection of brands can be critical. The basic variations in American condoms include differences in the material from which they are made, their shape, whether or not they are lubricated, their color, and their size. American manufactured condoms are made either of animal membrane or latex rubber. There are 2 basic variations in common shape in the US: the reservoir end; and the preshaped condom. Condoms are available dry and lubricated. Most users prefer lubricated brands. The 2 types of lubricants are moist and silicone. The role of color has been very little investigated. Evidence from other countries suggests a strong preference for condoms in color rather than plain white or transparent condoms

  1. Errors and Predictors of Confidence in Condom Use amongst Young Australians Attending a Music Festival

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Karina M.; Youlden, Daniel J.; John-Leader, Franklin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To determine the confidence and ability to use condoms correctly and consistently and the predictors of confidence in young Australians attending a festival. Methods. 288 young people aged 18 to 29 attending a mixed-genre music festival completed a survey measuring demographics, self-reported confidence using condoms, ability to use condoms, and issues experienced when using condoms in the past 12 months. Results. Self-reported confidence using condoms was high (77%). Multivariate analyses showed confidence was associated with being male (P < 0.001) and having had five or more lifetime sexual partners (P = 0.038). Reading packet instructions was associated with increased condom use confidence (P = 0.011). Amongst participants who had used a condom in the last year, 37% had experienced the condom breaking and 48% had experienced the condom slipping off during intercourse and 51% when withdrawing the penis after sex. Conclusion. This population of young people are experiencing high rates of condom failures and are using them inconsistently or incorrectly, demonstrating the need to improve attitudes, behaviour, and knowledge about correct and consistent condom usage. There is a need to empower young Australians, particularly females, with knowledge and confidence in order to improve condom use self-efficacy. PMID:27957381

  2. Perceptions about HIV and Condoms and Consistent Condom Use among Male Clients of Commercial Sex Workers in the Philippines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regan, Rotrease; Morisky, Donald E.

    2013-01-01

    Because consistent condom use is an effective strategy in the prevention of sexually transmitted infections and HIV transmission, it is important to examine social cognitive influences of consistent condom use not only among female sex workers (FSWs) but also among their male clients, for whom less is known. Because little is known about how HIV…

  3. Perceptions about HIV and Condoms and Consistent Condom Use among Male Clients of Commercial Sex Workers in the Philippines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regan, Rotrease; Morisky, Donald E.

    2013-01-01

    Because consistent condom use is an effective strategy in the prevention of sexually transmitted infections and HIV transmission, it is important to examine social cognitive influences of consistent condom use not only among female sex workers (FSWs) but also among their male clients, for whom less is known. Because little is known about how HIV…

  4. Improving condom use intentions and behavior by changing perceived partner norms: an evaluation of condom promotion videos for college students.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Catherine A; Yopyk, Darren J A

    2007-07-01

    To examine the effectiveness of 2 condom promotion videotapes on self-efficacy, intentions, and behavior. Two hundred twenty college students completed social-cognitive and behavioral measures and were then randomly assigned to receive one of two 30-min condom promotion videotapes (male or female student presenters) or to a wait-list control condition. Participants who watched 1 of the videotapes completed immediate posttest measures, and 85% of participants completed a 4-month follow-up. Self-efficacy for condom use, intentions to use condoms, use of condom during last sex, and consistent condom use over the last month. Participants who received either video reported greater self-efficacy to refuse to have unprotected sex and intentions than controls at follow-up. Individuals who received either video were more likely than controls to report using a condom during last sex with a regular partner, and those who watched the female presenter were more likely to report consistent condom use. Participants benefited in terms of self-efficacy and intentions from receiving either video, but both men and women benefited more in terms of condom use behavior from receiving the female video. Future research is needed to determine whether opposite-sex speaker videos could be beneficial with a larger (and more sexually active) sample and whether these effects are maintained over time. Copyright 2007 APA.

  5. Perceptions about HIV and condoms and consistent condom use among male clients of commercial sex workers in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Regan, Rotrease; Morisky, Donald E

    2013-04-01

    Because consistent condom use is an effective strategy in the prevention of sexually transmitted infections and HIV transmission, it is important to examine social cognitive influences of consistent condom use not only among female sex workers (FSWs) but also among their male clients, for whom less is known. Because little is known about how HIV knowledge and condom attitudes affect condom use among male clients of FSWs in the Philippines, the main objective was to determine what characteristics (age, education, HIV knowledge, marital status) as well as attributes taken from protection motivation theory (perceived vulnerability, perceived severity, response efficacy) are significantly associated with consistent condom use among male clients of FSWs. Logistic regression analyses showed that the odds of using condoms consistently with an FSW are 13% higher for those with more years of education (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.13; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03, 1.23), higher versus lower perception of severity of HIV/AIDS (AOR = 1.97; 95% CI = 1.04, 3.73), and had a higher score for response efficacy of condoms (AOR = 1.14; 95% CI = 1.03, 1.27). Future HIV/AIDS prevention interventions that address condom use among male clients should promote educational attainment and focus on awareness of the enduring negative health consequences of acquiring HIV/AIDS, as well as cultivate positive attitudes toward the efficacy of condom use, using creative social marketing strategies.

  6. The Effects of Condom Availability on College Women's Sexual Discounting.

    PubMed

    Lemley, Shea M; Jarmolowicz, David P; Parkhurst, Daniel; Celio, Mark A

    2017-09-14

    College students commonly engage in risky sexual behaviors, such as casual sexual encounters and inconsistent condom use. Discounting paradigms that examine how individuals devalue rewards due to their delay or uncertainty have been used to improve our understanding of behavioral problems, including sexual risk. The current study assessed relations between college women's sexual partners discounting and risky sexual behavior. In this study, college women (N = 42) completed two sexual partners delay discounting tasks that assessed how choices among hypothetical sexual partners changed across a parametric range of delays in two conditions: condom availability and condom unavailability. Participants also completed two sexual partners probability discounting tasks that assessed partner choices across a parametric range of probabilities in condom availability and unavailability conditions. Additionally, participants reported risky sexual behavior on the Sexual Risk Survey (SRS). Participants discounted delayed partners more steeply in the condom availability condition, but those differences were significant only for those women with three or fewer lifetime sexual partners. There were no consistent differences in discounting rate across condom availability conditions for probability discounting. Sexual partners discounting measures correlated with risky sexual behaviors as measured by the SRS, but a greater number of significant relations were observed with the condoms-unavailable delay discounting task. These findings suggest the importance of examining the interaction of inconsistent condom use and multiple partners in examinations of sexual decision-making.

  7. Nigeria using more condoms.

    PubMed

    1997-09-01

    Marie Stopes International says a project it supports in Nigeria is making good progress in its efforts to promote the use of condoms to protect against STDs and for contraception. The program, which uses social marketing methods, is headed by Stewart Parkinson from the UK. His previous experience has been in the private sector; he has worked in sales, marketing, and advertising for companies like Coca Cola, Budweiser, Securicor, and Mates. "Social marketing," he says, "is simply getting people to buy a product". He sees no clash with more conventional health education practitioners, believing that the two approaches can complement each other. "Much of the work simply involves pointing out the benefits of condoms," says Parkinson. "You can convert large numbers of people to the idea in a short space of time if you get the message right]" Nevertheless, as he points out, the conversion rate usually drops after that. "At first the take-up is from middle-income people, who already have a latent demand for condoms. The poor are harder to reach." He says Nigeria is a very suitable country for a private sector approach to condom promotion, as there is no functioning public sector. He recently paid a visit to Zimbabwe, where the public sector is strong, and agrees that different approaches may be suitable there. The scheme provided 85% of the 65 million condoms used in Nigeria last year. Stewart Parkinson says, "It's working out at only US$5 to provide protection for one couple per year--a very cheap intervention]"

  8. Influencing a Partner to Use a Condom: A College Student Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBro, Sherrine Chapman; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examines the strategies college students use to convince new sexual partners to use a condom. Research of 393 students reveals that, to encourage condom use, men mostly employed seduction, whereas females withheld sex. To avoid using condoms, men were more likely than women to employ seduction, reward, and information. (GLR)

  9. Do condoms cause rape and mayhem? The long-term effects of condoms in New South Wales' prisons.

    PubMed

    Yap, Lorraine; Butler, Tony; Richters, Juliet; Kirkwood, Kristie; Grant, Luke; Saxby, Max; Ropp, Frederick; Donovan, Basil

    2007-06-01

    Concerns raised by opponents to condom provision in prisons have not been objectively examined and the issue continues to be debated. The long-term effects of the introduction of condoms and dental dams into New South Wales (NSW) prisons in 1996 was examined, focusing on particular concerns raised by politicians, prison officers, prison nurses and prisoners. These groups were worried that (a) condoms would encourage prisoners to have sex, (b) condoms would lead to an increase in sexual assaults in prisons, (c) prisoners would use condoms to hide and store drugs and other contraband and (d) prisoners would use condoms as weapons. Data sources included the NSW Inmate Health Survey (IHS) from 1996 and 2001 and official reports from the NSW Department of Corrective Services. The 1996 IHS involved 657 men and 132 women randomly selected from all prisons, with a 90% response rate. The 2001 survey involved 747 men and 167 women inmates, with an 85% response rate. There was a decrease in reports of both consensual male-to-male sex and male sexual assaults 5 years after the introduction of condoms into prisons in 1996. The contents of condom kits were often used for concealing contraband items and for other purposes, but this was not associated with an increase in drug injecting in prison. Only three incidents of a condom being used in assaults on prison officers were recorded between 1996 and 2005; none was serious. There exists no evidence of serious adverse consequences of distributing condoms and dental dams to prisoners in NSW. Condoms are an important public health measure in the fight against HIV and sexually transmitted diseases; they should be made freely available to prisoners as they are to other high-risk groups in the community.

  10. Condoms and seat belts: the parallels and the lessons.

    PubMed

    Richens, J; Imrie, J; Copas, A

    2000-01-29

    This paper investigates the relation between behavior adaptation and safety benefits of seat belts and whether condom promotion can be undermined by unintended changes in sexual risk perception and behavior. The comparison between 13 countries that passed seat belt laws and 4 countries without such laws shows a significant number of deaths among countries with seat belt laws. It has been suggested that drivers who wear seat belts feel safer and drive faster and more carelessly compared to those without seat belts. A model of individual risk management, postulating that every individual is comfortable with a certain level of risk and aims to balance the rewards of risk-taking against perceived hazards was developed to describe the behavior. This increase in seat belt use was then paralleled with condom use since the rise of HIV, with 3 ways in which a large increase in condom use could fail to affect transmission: 1) it appeals to risk-averse individuals who contribute little to epidemic transmission; 2) increased use of condom increases the number of transmission caused by condom failure; and 3) the increased use of condoms reflect the change in the decision of individuals from one partner to maintaining higher rates of partners and reliance on condoms. This paper, in conclusion, emphasizes the need for program development and implementation in response to this sexual behavior, particularly among developing countries.

  11. The prognostic value of the physical examination in patients with chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Rame, J Eduardo; Dries, Daniel L; Drazner, Mark H

    2003-01-01

    The importance placed on the physical examination in the assessment of patients with cardiovascular disorders appears to be declining, perhaps in part due to a paucity of data showing its value in the modern era. To determine whether the physical examination provides important prognostic information in patients with chronic heart failure, the authors performed a post-hoc analysis of 2479 participants from the Studies of Left Ventricular Dysfunction (SOLVD) treatment trial. The presence of elevated jugular venous pressure and a third heart sound at baseline were each associated with subsequent heart failure hospitalization, the composite end point of death or heart failure hospitalization, and pump-failure death, independently of many other markers of disease severity. The subgroup of patients with at least one of these two physical examination findings was at increased risk for all-cause mortality. The authors believe that additional studies assessing the prognostic value of the physical examination should be conducted and, if favorable, likely would lead to a renewed interest in the physical examination.

  12. Determinants of condom use among young people in urban Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Meekers, Dominique; Klein, Megan

    2002-12-01

    To reduce the prevalence of reproductive health problems among adolescents, governmental and nongovernmental organizations in Cameroon are implementing youth-oriented reproductive health programs. To facilitate the design of effective programs to increase condom use, this study examines survey data on the determinants of having ever used condoms and on current condom use with regular and casual partners among unmarried young people in urban Cameroon. While most adolescents have tried condoms at least once, use remains inconsistent. Parental support, personal risk perception, and self-efficacy are found to be associated with higher levels of condom use. Youth-oriented programs seeking to increase the number of new condom users among the young should promote parental support for condom use and enhance young people's perceptions of personal risk. Programs that work to convince the young that their sexual history can put them at risk of HIV infection and that dispel the myth that HIV risk with regular partners is low may serve to increase personal risk perception. Finally, communications programs should aim to increase adolescents' self-efficacy, particularly in terms of their perceived ability to convince partners to use condoms and to use them correctly.

  13. An empirical study of ordinal condom use measures.

    PubMed

    Cecil, Heather; Pinkerton, Steven D; Bogart, Laura M; Pavlovic, Jelena; Kimball, Allison M

    2005-11-01

    Accurate condom use assessment is critical in sexually transmitted infection-prevention research. Ordinal condom use frequency measures may be problematic due to subjective interpretation by respondents. To assess this potential bias, we examined the ordinal condom use labels (e.g., "never," "rarely," etc.) assigned by college students to 17 scenarios that described how frequently a hypothetical couple used condoms. Scenarios varied by condom use frequency (0% to 100%) and by whether frequency was described by stating the number of protected acts out of 20 total acts of intercourse, out of 100 total acts, or as a proportion of acts that were protected. There was substantial interpersonal variability in the labels assigned by participants in all 17 scenarios and inconsistent use of the "never" and "always" labels to characterize 0% and 100% condom use, respectively. The assigned labels varied as a function of the number of total acts (20 vs. 100) and whether condom use was expressed as a count or a percentage, which suggests that participants did not convert the number of protected acts to an equivalent proportion. These results call into question both the reliability and validity of ordinal condom use measures.

  14. Condom use among female sex workers in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Bukenya, Justine; Vandepitte, Judith; Kwikiriza, Maureen; Weiss, Helen A; Hayes, Richard; Grosskurth, Heiner

    2013-01-01

    Consistent condom use can prevent HIV infection, yet levels of condom use are low in many settings. This paper examines determinants of inconsistent condom use among 905 women enrolled in a high-risk cohort in Kampala, Uganda, who reported sexual intercourse with paying clients in the last month. Among these, 40% participants reported using condoms inconsistently with paying clients in the past month. The most common reason for inconsistent condom use was client preference. Factors independently associated with inconsistent condom use included: sex work not being the sole source of income [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.54; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.13-2.09], sexual debut before 14 years (aOR = 1.46; 95% CI: 1.09-1.96), daily consumption of alcohol (aOR = 1.90; 95% CI: 1.26-2.88) and being currently pregnant (aOR = 2.11; 95% CI: 1.25-3.57). Being currently married (aOR = 0.36; 95% CI: 0.18-0.73) and a higher number of sexual partners per month (p-trend = 0.001) were associated with a lower risk of inconsistent condom use. Targeted programmes should be developed to promote consistent condom use in high-risk women, alongside interventions to reduce alcohol use.

  15. Depression Vulnerable and Nonvulnerable Smokers after a Failure Experience: Examining Cognitive Self-Regulation and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Walter D.; Beevers, Christopher G.; Mermelstein, Robin J.

    2008-01-01

    The present study extended previous tests of cognitive priming theories of depression by examining cognitive self-regulatory, motivational, and affective functioning of depression-vulnerable and nonvulnerable individuals after a failure experience. Participants were enrolled in a clinic-based smoking cessation program that consisted of seven group…

  16. Latex condom breakage and slippage in a controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, M J; Waugh, M S

    1997-07-01

    Although millions of couples rely on male latex condoms to protect against unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, their use is limited in part by questions about their performance. Rates of condom breakage and slippage, two measures of performance, vary broadly across studies. This variation in part reflects study variability and limitations, including sample size, reliance on subjects' memory, user populations, and products evaluated. In an effort to define condom performance in a group of monogamous couples typical of those using condoms for contraception, we conducted a clinical trial of a single brand of lubricated condoms (Durex Ramses). A total of 4637 attempts to use the condom were evaluated. Six breaks occurred before intercourse (nonclinical breaks), and 10 condoms broke during intercourse or were only noted to have broken upon withdrawal (clinical breaks), resulting in a nonclinical breakage rate of 0.13% (95% confidence interval, 0.05-0.28%), clinical breakage rate of 0.28% (0.15-0.48%), and a total breakage rate of 0.41% (0.25-0.64%). The rate of complete slippage was 0.63% (0.42-0.90%), and total failure (clinical breaks plus complete slips) was 1.04% (0.76-1.37%). These rates are lower than those in other studies with the exception of one, a prospective investigation in a population of female prostitutes. Results indicate that condoms can, in experienced, motivated populations, provide excellent performance and suggest that their efficacy at preventing pregnancy may equal that of the most reliable forms of contraception. Because this study involved a single condom brand, these results may not be generalizable to other brands.

  17. Inconsistent condom use among Ugandan university students from a gender perspective: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Mehra, Devika; Östergren, Per-Olof; Ekman, Björn; Agardh, Anette

    2014-01-01

    Background Feminization of the HIV/AIDS epidemic has been a prominent phenomenon in sub-Saharan Africa. Inconsistent condom use among young people is one of the major risk factors in the continued propagation of the epidemic. Therefore, it is of importance to increase knowledge of gender aspects of condom use among young people. Objective To investigate whether gender differences regarding individual and social factors determine the association between condom efficacy and inconsistent condom use with a new sex partner, among Ugandan university students. Design In 2010, 1954 Ugandan students participated in a cross-sectional survey, conducted at Mbarara University of Science and Technology in southwestern Uganda. A self-administered questionnaire assessed socio-demographic factors, alcohol consumption, sexual behaviors (including condom use and condom efficacy), and peer norms. The data were stratified by sex and examined by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results A total of 1,179 (60.3%) students reported having had their sexual debut. Of these, 231 (37.4%) males and 209 (49.2%) females reported inconsistent condom use with a new sex partner. Students with low condom efficacy had a higher risk of inconsistent condom use with a new sex partner, even after adjusting for the potential confounders. A synergistic effect was observed between being a female and low condom efficacy with inconsistent condom use. Conclusion The association between inconsistent condom use and low condom efficacy was found among both males and females, but females were found to be at a higher risk of inconsistent condom use compared to their male counterparts. Therefore, gender power relations should be addressed in policies and interventions aiming at increasing condom use among young people in sub-Saharan settings. Programs could be designed with intervention strategies that focus on interactive and participatory educational activities and youth-friendly counseling of young people

  18. Self-efficacy and intent to use condoms among entering college freshmen.

    PubMed

    Joffe, A; Radius, S M

    1993-06-01

    We examined self-efficacy theory's ability to explain adolescents' intent to use condoms. In this study, 673 males and 404 females (mean age, 17.8 years) about to begin college, completed health surveys measuring self-efficacy regarding condom use. Perceived self-efficacy differed by gender and sexual experience. Regression analysis demonstrated that frequency of past condom use, perceived ability to talk with new partner about condoms and to enjoy sex using condoms explained 16% of sexually active males' intent to use condoms (p < 0.05). For sexually active females, explanators included frequency of past use and perceived ability to enjoy sex with condoms (R2 = 29.8%, p < 0.05). For never sexually active males, perceived ability to convince partner to use condoms and to buy condoms explained 16.1% of intent (p < 0.05); among never sexually active females, only perceived ability to convince partner to use condoms was significant (R2 = 6.2%, p < 0.05). Efforts to increase condom use should enhance perceptions of ability to negotiate aspects of condom use.

  19. Condom use behaviours and correlates of use in the Botswana Defence Force.

    PubMed

    Tran, Bonnie Robin; Thomas, Anne Goldzier; Ditsela, Mooketsi; Vaida, Florin; Phetogo, Robert; Kelapile, David; Chambers, Christina; Haubrich, Richard; Shaffer, Richard

    2013-11-01

    Preventing HIV infection is a priority for militaries. HIV prevention research is needed to monitor existing programme, identify areas for modification, and develop new interventions. Correct and consistent condom use is highly effective against HIV. However, use among soldiers is lower than ideal. This study describes condom use behaviours and examines correlates of use in the Botswana Defence Force (BDF). Analyses were based on 211 male BDF personnel, aged 18-30, who completed a cross-sectional survey that collected baseline data for an intervention study. Results showed that 51% of participants reported always using condoms, 35% used condoms most times, and 14% used condoms occasionally/never. Condom use varied by partner type and was typically higher with casual partners in comparison to regular partners. After adjustment for age and marital status, factors associated with lower condom use included excessive alcohol use, perception that using condoms reduce sexual pleasure, and having a trusted partner. However, higher levels of HIV knowledge and reports of being circumcised were protective against lower condom use. HIV interventions aimed at increasing condom use in the BDF should address condom perceptions, alcohol abuse, and issues of trust. Innovative ways to increase condom use in this population should also be explored.

  20. Condoms and Coca-Cola.

    PubMed

    Townsend, S

    1992-01-01

    Social marketing entails promoting the appropriate and quality product to be sold in the right places at the right price. Even though mass media advertisement of condoms is forbid in Zaire, condoms have been effectively promoted and sold in the country using alternate approaches. 8 million units of the condom, Prudence, were sold in 1990, and Prudence has become the generic name for condoms in the Zaire. Noting that Coca-Cola, beer, and cigarettes may be purchased virtually ubiquitously, commercial outlets and local traders were enlisted to sell condoms at reduced prices on the market. Reduced price sales are possible since donor and government agencies provide the condoms to wholesalers and merchants free of charge. The successful social marketing of condoms expands condom availability to a greater segment of a country's population while recovering some public sector costs and shifting health care away from the public sector. Condoms are especially promoted to high risk groups such as commercial sex workers and their clients in Zaire. Similar programs have been inspired in 10 African countries including Cameroon and Burundi, as well as in Brazil, Haiti, and India. Prevention programs in Latin America and Asia will benefit from these program experiences in Africa. In closing, the article notes the need for an adequate and predictable commodity supply in attaining effective social marketing. Marked program success may, however, lead to sustainability problems.

  1. Sexual Pleasure and Condom Use

    PubMed Central

    Pinkerton, Steven D.; Bogart, Laura M.; Cecil, Heather; Abramson, Paul R.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether sexually-experienced individuals’ pleasure ratings for protected and unprotected vaginal intercourse would be related to actual condom use. College participants (80 women and 35 men, M age = 22.29 years) who reported engaging in vaginal intercourse in the past 3 months completed a questionnaire that assessed their perceptions of the pleasurability of unprotected and condom-protected vaginal intercourse and their own sexual behaviors. Both women and men rated unprotected vaginal intercourse as more pleasurable than protected vaginal intercourse. However, men’s pleasure ratings for unprotected vaginal intercourse were higher than women’s. Furthermore, men and women’s pleasure ratings for condom-protected intercourse were correlated with their actual condom use behaviors. Men’s “pleasure decrement” scores indicated a significantly greater reduction in pleasure ratings between unprotected and protected intercourse than women’s scores. Men who perceived a larger decrease in pleasure between unprotected and protected intercourse were less likely to have used condoms in the past 3 months than those who perceived a smaller decrease in pleasure. The results provide evidence that many people believe that condoms reduce sexual pleasure and that men, in particular, who believe that condoms decrease pleasure are less likely to use them. Condom promotion campaigns should work to emphasize the pleasure-enhancing aspects of condom use. PMID:17909960

  2. Self-reported penis size and experiences with condoms among gay and bisexual men.

    PubMed

    Grov, Christian; Wells, Brooke E; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2013-02-01

    As researchers and community-based providers continue to encourage latex condom use as a chief strategy to prevent HIV transmission among men who have sex with men, research is needed to better explore the intersecting associations among penis size (length and circumference), condom feel, ease of finding condoms, recent experience of condom failure (breakage and slippage), and unprotected anal sex. Data were taken from a 2010 community-based survey of self-identified gay and bisexual men in New York City (n = 463). More than half (51.4 %) reported penile length as 6-8 in. long (15-20 cm) and 31.5 % reported penile circumference as 4-6 in. around (10-15 cm). Variation in self-reported penile dimensions was significantly associated with men's attitudes toward the typical/average condom, difficulty finding condoms that fit, and the experience of condom breakage. Men who had engaged in recent unprotected insertive anal intercourse reported significantly higher values for both penile length and circumference, and these men were significantly more likely to report that the average/typical condom was "too tight." Most men had measured their length (86.2 %) and/or circumference (68.9 %), suggesting that penile measurement might be a common and acceptable practice among gay and bisexual men. As HIV and STI prevention providers continue to serve as leading distributers of free condoms, these findings further highlight the need for condom availability to be in a variety of sizes. Improving condom fit and attitudes toward condoms may also improve condom use and minimize condom slippage and breakage.

  3. Individual, Interpersonal, and Structural Power: Associations With Condom Use in a Sample of Young Adult Latinos.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Lynissa R; Harvey, S Marie; Warren, Jocelyn T

    2016-01-01

    Interviews were conducted with 480 sexually active Latino young adults from four rural counties in Oregon. We examined relationships between three levels of power (individual, interpersonal, and structural) and consistent condom use. Condom use self-efficacy and sexual decision-making, examples of individual and interpersonal measures of power, respectively, were associated with increased odds of consistent condom use among both men and women. Among men only, increasing relationship control, an interpersonal measure of power, was associated with lower odds of consistent condom use. Among women only, increasing medical mistrust, a structural measure of power, was associated with increased odds of consistent condom use.

  4. The Condom Conundrum: Apply Peer Pressure, Not Latex, against Casual Sex.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delattre, Edwin J.

    1992-01-01

    If saving lives were our only moral concern, distributing condoms in schools is not the best way to proceed. Abstinence has greater life-saving power than any piece of latex. School condom distribution promotes casual, promiscuous sex, ignores this contraceptive's failure rate, and runs counter to sound educational policy. Deferred gratification…

  5. The Condom Conundrum: Apply Peer Pressure, Not Latex, against Casual Sex.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delattre, Edwin J.

    1992-01-01

    If saving lives were our only moral concern, distributing condoms in schools is not the best way to proceed. Abstinence has greater life-saving power than any piece of latex. School condom distribution promotes casual, promiscuous sex, ignores this contraceptive's failure rate, and runs counter to sound educational policy. Deferred gratification…

  6. Latino Youths’ Sexual Values and Condom Negotiation Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Deardorff, Julianna; Tschann, Jeanne M.; Flores, Elena; de Groat, Cynthia L.; Steinberg, Julia R.; Ozer, Emily J.

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT Young Latinos in the United States are at high risk for STDs and are less likely than other youth to use condoms. To our knowledge, no studies have examined the relationship between sexual values and condom negotiation strategies among young Latinos. METHODS Cross-sectional data collected in 2003–2006 from 571 Latino women and men aged 16–22 in the San Francisco Bay Area were used to examine associations between sexual values (e.g., considering sexual talk disrespectful or female virginity important) and use of strategies to engender or avoid condom use. Linear regression analyses were used to identify such associations while adjusting for potential covariates and gender interactions. RESULTS Among women, sexual comfort and comfort with sexual communication were positively associated with frequency of direct communication to foster condom use; the importance of premarital virginity and levels of sexual self-acceptance was positively associated with expressing dislike of condoms to avoid using them; and levels of sexual self-acceptance were negatively associated with expressing dislike of condoms to avoid using them. Moreover, the degrees to which women considered sexual talk disrespectful and female virginity important were positively associated with the frequency with which they shared risk information as a condom use strategy. Among both sexes, the importance that respondents placed on premarital female virginity was negatively associated with use of direct communication strategies. CONCLUSION Researchers designing interventions to influence Latino youths’ sexual decision making and behaviors should consider including program components that address sexual values. PMID:24165307

  7. Inappropriate lubricant use with condoms by homosexual men.

    PubMed

    Martin, D J

    1992-01-01

    Use of condoms has been advocated as an important method of reducing the risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission among high-risk groups such as homosexual and bisexual men, prostitutes, intravenous drug users, adolescents, and hemophiliacs. Despite risk-reduction education campaigns directed to gay men since the early 1980s, evidence shows continued deficits in condom-use skills and knowledge among gay men. Because most failures in the use of condoms are attributed to errors in use, increasing knowledge and skills in condom use is important in preventing HIV infection. Two groups of homosexual and bisexual men were sampled, those entering a risk-reduction education program and participants in a Gay Pride event. They were surveyed on their current sex practices and their efforts to reduce their risk of HIV infection. They were asked about their numbers of sex partners, specific sexual behaviors, use of condoms, types of condoms used, and lubricants used for genital-anal sex. The characteristics of those surveyed were similar to those of respondents in other studies of risk reduction among gay men. The use of an oil-based lubricant with condoms has been shown to weaken latex and to increase the likelihood of condom breakage, which use of water-based lubricants does not. Among respondents who reported having genital-anal sex, 60 percent reported use of an oil-based lubricant with a condom at least once during the year before the survey. Gay men in sexually exclusive relationships engaged in less consistent use of condoms for receptive genital-anal sex than did single gay men. The duration of their relationship with a partner was unrelated to the consistency of risk reducing behaviors practiced by men in sexually exclusive relationships. Gay Pride participants engaged in sexual behavior that was relatively more risky for HIV transmission than did the other group. Gay Pride participants used condoms less consistently for genital-anal sex than did the

  8. The Condom Conundrum: Condom Availability Promotes Health, Saves Lives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Margaret Pruitt

    1992-01-01

    Most adults would agree that the AIDS threat has reached crisis proportions and that strong measures are required to control the spread of HIV among adolescents. Although abstinence offers the best protection, teens exposed to risks must protect themselves with knowledge, skills, and access to latex condoms. High school condom distribution is…

  9. The Condom Conundrum: Condom Availability Promotes Health, Saves Lives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Margaret Pruitt

    1992-01-01

    Most adults would agree that the AIDS threat has reached crisis proportions and that strong measures are required to control the spread of HIV among adolescents. Although abstinence offers the best protection, teens exposed to risks must protect themselves with knowledge, skills, and access to latex condoms. High school condom distribution is…

  10. Improving the effectiveness of condom advertising: a research note.

    PubMed

    Alden, D L; Crowley, A E

    1995-01-01

    A limited number of studies have examined ways that health promotion messages about condoms can be improved, leading to increased purchase and use. This study tests alternative message structures as a potential avenue to improving condom advertising. As hypothesized, two-sided messages (positive and negative information about the product category) result in more positive attitudes toward the advertisement and the brand than do one-sided messages (positive information only about the product category). The study's implications for health care marketers interested in developing more effective advertising for condoms and other health care products are discussed.

  11. The story of the condom.

    PubMed

    Khan, Fahd; Mukhtar, Saheel; Dickinson, Ian K; Sriprasad, Seshadri

    2013-01-01

    Condoms have been a subject of curiosity throughout history. The idea of safer sex has been explored in ancient and modern history, and has been used to prevent venereal diseases. We conducted a historical and medical review of condoms using primary and secondary sources as well as using the RSM library and the internet. These resources show that the first use of a condom was that of King Minos of Crete. Pasiphae, his wife, employed a goat's bladder in the vagina so that King Minos would not be able to harm her as his semen was said to contain "scorpions and serpents" that killed his mistresses. To Egyptians, condom-like glans caps were dyed in different colours to distinguish between different classes of people and to protect themselves against bilharzia. The Ancient Romans used the bladders of animals to protect the woman; they were worn not to prevent pregnancy but to prevent contraction of venereal diseases. Charles Goodyear, the inventor, utilized vulcanization, the process of transforming rubber into malleable structures, to produce latex condoms. The greater use of condoms all over the world in the 20(th) and 21(st) centuries has been related to HIV. This account of the use of condoms demonstrates how a primitive idea turned into an object that is used globally with a forecast estimated at 18 billion condoms to be used in 2015 alone.

  12. The story of the condom

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Fahd; Mukhtar, Saheel; Dickinson, Ian K.; Sriprasad, Seshadri

    2013-01-01

    Condoms have been a subject of curiosity throughout history. The idea of safer sex has been explored in ancient and modern history, and has been used to prevent venereal diseases. We conducted a historical and medical review of condoms using primary and secondary sources as well as using the RSM library and the internet. These resources show that the first use of a condom was that of King Minos of Crete. Pasiphae, his wife, employed a goat's bladder in the vagina so that King Minos would not be able to harm her as his semen was said to contain “scorpions and serpents” that killed his mistresses. To Egyptians, condom-like glans caps were dyed in different colours to distinguish between different classes of people and to protect themselves against bilharzia. The Ancient Romans used the bladders of animals to protect the woman; they were worn not to prevent pregnancy but to prevent contraction of venereal diseases. Charles Goodyear, the inventor, utilized vulcanization, the process of transforming rubber into malleable structures, to produce latex condoms. The greater use of condoms all over the world in the 20th and 21st centuries has been related to HIV. This account of the use of condoms demonstrates how a primitive idea turned into an object that is used globally with a forecast estimated at 18 billion condoms to be used in 2015 alone. PMID:23671357

  13. Receipt and use of free condoms among US men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Khosropour, Christine; Sullivan, Patrick S

    2013-01-01

    Despite large public investments in condom distribution programs for HIV prevention among men who have sex with men (MSM), few evaluations have documented the reach of condom distribution programs or whether free condoms distributed to MSM are actually used. Among MSM recruited from social networking and dating websites, we examined the proportion who reported acquiring and using free condoms, and associations between select characteristics and reported acquisition and use of free condoms. We used baseline data from a prospective, online cohort of U.S. MSM. Participants reported acquiring free condoms in the 12 months before interview and, for those who acquired condoms and had anal intercourse, use of the free condoms they acquired. We used multivariable log binomial regression models to describe factors associated with self-reported acquisition and use of condoms. Of the 2,893 men in the analytic sample, 1,701 (59%) reported acquiring free condoms in the past year. Acquisition of free condoms was higher for men who were younger, more educated, recently tested for HIV, and had higher numbers of sex partners. Seventy-three percent of men who acquired free condoms reported using them; use was higher for men who were black, had been recently tested for HIV, and reported greater numbers of sex partners. Most MSM in our online sample reported receiving free condoms, and most who acquired free condoms reported using them. These data suggest that condom distribution programs have reasonable reach and utility as part of a comprehensive package of HIV prevention interventions for U.S. MSM.

  14. [Female condom or male condom: offer a choice!].

    PubMed

    Prudhomme, M; Boucher, J; Delberghe, P; Christman, H; Leroux, M-C

    2005-11-01

    As in the entire Ile-de-France, the Val-de-Marne is facing an increase in female contamination by HIV, a clear increase in STI and furthermore the number of legal abortions is still high. Various recent studies have emphasized the decrease in condom use since 1998. Can the possibility of proposing another condom, more specifically controlled by women, boost condom use? The conseil général (local government authority) thus initiated a study in the general population, from January 1st 2001 to December 31st 2001, in order to study the criteria of acceptability of the female condom (FC). Although the women coming to consultation had no specific requests a quarter finally tested the female condom during sexual intercourse. Among them 4 out of 10 are ready to use it again. Curiosity was the primary motivation of those who accepted to test the female condom (77 %). Women who were more at ease with their sexuality were twice more likely to test the female condom. Three main advantages were put forward by the women who tested the FC: the strength of the FC, the fact that insertion was possible prior to the sexual act and the possibility of postponing removal, the latter being considered a supplementary advantage. The disadvantages most frequently cited before use were its appearance and difficult insertion process. The frequency of utilisation of the FC was multiplied by three when women practised putting the condom in place in a non-sexual context. However, even when they recognized one or several disadvantages women accepted to test it. In addition, whenever a woman finds at least one advantage before use she is twice more likely to test it. This is where counselling by professionals in charge of presenting the FC becomes a deciding factor. The chance of using at least one sort of condom is increased when a choice of condoms is available. When both male and female condoms are available, the responsibility for prevention is better balanced within the couple: each partner

  15. Whose intentions predict? Power over condom use within heterosexual dyads.

    PubMed

    VanderDrift, Laura E; Agnew, Christopher R; Harvey, S Marie; Warren, Jocelyn T

    2013-10-01

    According to major theories of behavioral prediction, the most proximal psychological predictor of an individual's behavior is that individual's intention. With respect to interdependent behaviors such as condom use, however, relationship dynamics influence individuals' power to make decisions and to act. The current study examines how relationship dynamics impact 3 condom use relevant outcomes: (a) the individual forming his or her own intention to use condoms, (b) the couple forming their joint intention to use condoms, and (c) actual condom use behavior. We conducted a 2-wave longitudinal study of young heterosexual adult couples at high risk for HIV infection involving the collection of both individual- and couple-derived data. Results demonstrate the importance of both person (e.g., biological sex and dispositional dominance) and relational (e.g., relational power and amount of interest in the relationship, operationalized as commitment and perceived alternatives to the relationship) factors in predicting condom use intentions and behavior. Individuals who are lower in dispositional dominance are likely to incorporate their partner's intentions into their own individual intentions; the intentions of individuals who have less interest in the relationship are more highly predictive of the couple's joint intention; and the intentions of men and individuals higher in relationship power are more likely to exert a direct influence on condom use. These findings have implications for improving the health of high-risk individuals, including suggesting situations in which individuals are highly influenced by their partners' intentions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Sexual Communication and Condom Use among Chinese MSM in Beijing

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Zhiwen; Li, Xiaoming; Liu, Yingjie; Jiang, Shulin

    2012-01-01

    This study collected cross-sectional data from 307 young Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM) to explore the characteristics of sexual communications, including target of communication (stable partners, casual partners), topics of communication (condom use, HIV/ STDs prevention, and sexual history), and the associations between sexual communication characteristics and condom use. A variety of measures were employed to assess respondents’ condom use with different sexual partners over different recall periods. Chi-square tests were employed to examine the relationships between sexual communication characteristics and condom use. This study found that sexual communications with regular partners about topics such as condom use, HIV/STDs prevention, and current and past sexual relationship were associated with condom use with regular partners. Respondents who had sexual communications with both regular and casual partners were more likely to use condoms with their regular partners. The findings in the current study provided empirical evidence for the importance of frequent sexual communication between Chinese MSM and their sex partners. PMID:22676447

  17. College Students and Condom Attitude: Validation of the Multi-Factor Attitude toward Condoms Scale (MFACS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollub, Ariane V.; Reece, Michael; Herbenick, Debby; Hensel, Devon J.; Middlestadt, Susan E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Sexually transmitted infections and the human immunodeficiency virus incidence rates remain high among college-aged individuals. This study examined the validity and reliability of the Multi-Factor Attitude toward Condoms Scale (MFACS). Participants: Participants were recruited from a large midwestern university during February and…

  18. College Students and Condom Attitude: Validation of the Multi-Factor Attitude toward Condoms Scale (MFACS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollub, Ariane V.; Reece, Michael; Herbenick, Debby; Hensel, Devon J.; Middlestadt, Susan E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Sexually transmitted infections and the human immunodeficiency virus incidence rates remain high among college-aged individuals. This study examined the validity and reliability of the Multi-Factor Attitude toward Condoms Scale (MFACS). Participants: Participants were recruited from a large midwestern university during February and…

  19. Dual Incarceration and Condom Use in Committed Relationships.

    PubMed

    Groves, Allison K; Zhan, WeiHai; Del Río-González, Ana Maria; Rosenberg, Alana; Blankenship, Kim M

    2017-02-13

    Incarceration fractures relationship ties and has been associated with unprotected sex. Relationships where both individuals have a history of incarceration (dual incarceration) may face even greater disruption and involve more unprotected sex than relationships where only one individual has been incarcerated. We sought to determine whether dual incarceration is associated with condom use, and whether this association varies by relationship type. Data come from 499 sexual partnerships reported by 210 individuals with a history of incarceration. We used generalized estimating equations to examine whether dual incarceration was associated with condom use after controlling for individual and relationship characteristics. Interaction terms between dual incarceration and relationship commitment were also examined. Among currently committed relationships, dual incarceration was associated with inconsistent condom use (AOR: 4.33; 95% CI 1.02, 18.45). Dual incarceration did not affect condom use in never committed relationships. Reducing incarcerations may positively impact committed relationships and subsequently decrease HIV-related risk.

  20. "It's a different condom, let's see how it works": young men's reactions to and experiences of female condom use during an intervention trial in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Masvawure, Tsitsi B; Mantell, Joanne E; Mabude, Zonke; Ngoloyi, Claudia; Milford, Cecilia; Beksinska, Mags; Smit, Jennifer A

    2014-01-01

    Although male partner cooperation is often essential for successful use of the female condom, only a few studies have directly assessed men's experiences of using the device. We examined barriers to and facilitators of female condom use via qualitative in-depth interviews with 38 young men (18 to 28 years) in South Africa whose partners, all university students, were enrolled in a female condom intervention trial. In all, 21 men used the female condom; the remaining 17 did not attempt use. The main facilitators to female condom use were convenience of use for men, curiosity to see how female condoms compared to male condoms, enhanced sexual sensation, and perceptions of better safety and comfort of the device compared to male condoms. The main barriers were men's limited familiarity with the device, insertion difficulties, and men's concerns about loss of control over sexual encounters. We recommend that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention and condom promotion programs around the world target men directly for education on female condoms and that they also work with couples jointly around issues of safer-sex communication and negotiation.

  1. Stage of behavior change for condom use: the influence of partner type, relationship and pregnancy factors.

    PubMed

    Santelli, J S; Kouzis, A C; Hoover, D R; Polacsek, M; Burwell, L G; Celentano, D D

    1996-01-01

    A theoretical model was used to examine the influence of relationship factors, pregnancy intentions, contraceptive behavior and other psychosocial characteristics on stages of behavior change in condom use among heterosexual black women of reproductive age. Data from an inner-city street survey compared women who were not contemplating condom use, women who were attempting to use condoms or had used them consistently for short periods of time, and those who had achieved long-term consistent use. Women's relationship with their main partner appears to be an important factor in understanding their use of condoms both with main partners and with other partners. For condom use with the main partner, factors such as emotional closeness and partner support were significant predictors of the likelihood that women would be attempting to use condoms rather than not contemplating use. Cohabitation and the belief that condom use builds trust were significant predictors of long-term consistent condom use. Having a regular or main partner was strongly associated with intentions to use condoms with other partners. Women who wanted to become pregnant were much less likely to intend to use condoms with their main partner, and women using oral contraceptives were less likely to be long-term consistent condom users.

  2. AIDS knowledge, condom attitudes, and risk-taking sexual behavior of substance-abusing juvenile offenders on probation or parole.

    PubMed

    Robertson, A; Levin, M L

    1999-10-01

    AIDS knowledge, condom attitudes, and sexual behavior were examined in a sample of 193 substance-abusing juvenile offenders on probation or parole. The majority of these youths reported being sexually active, and many admitted to early onset of sexual activity as well as unsafe sexual practices. Potential predictors of condom use by these juveniles were examined including age, condom use at first sexual experience, number of sexual partners in the last 6 months, locus of control, AIDS knowledge, condom attitudes, perceived risk for AIDS, self-efficacy for avoiding HIV, condom use by peers, delinquency risk, race, and gender. General attitudes toward condoms and the reported use of a condom at first sexual intercourse experience were the only statistically significant predictors of subsequent condom use. The relevance of these findings to the development of AIDS prevention programs for juvenile offenders is discussed.

  3. Gender and Ethnic-Group Differences in Causal Attributions for Success and Failure in Mathematics and Language Examinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birenbaum, Menucha; Kraemer, Roberta

    1995-01-01

    Examines gender and ethnic differences among Jewish and Arab high school students in Israel with respect to their causal attributions for success and failure in mathematics and language examinations. Results from 333 ninth graders show larger effects of ethnicity than of gender, with effects more pronounced in success than in failure attributions.…

  4. Examination of the damage and failure response of tantalum and copper under varied shock loading conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Bronkhorst, Curt A; Dennis - Koller, Darcie; Cerreta, Ellen K; Gray Ill, George T; Bourne, Neil

    2010-12-16

    A number of plate impact experiments have been conducted on high purity polycrystalline tantalum and copper samples using graded flyer plate configurations to alter the loading profile. These experiments are designed in a way so that a broad range of damage regimes are probed. The results show that the nucleation of damage primarily occurs at the grain boundaries of the materials. This affords us the opportunity to propose a porosity damage nucleation criterion which begins to account for the length scales of the microstructure (grain size distribution) and the mechanical response of the grain boundary regions (failure stress distribution). This is done in the context of a G-T-N type model for the ductile damage and failure response of both the materials examined. The role of micro-inertial effects on the porosity growth process is also considered.

  5. Summary of Post Irradiation Examination Results of the AFIP-6 Failure

    SciTech Connect

    Adam Robinson; Daniel M. Wachs; Francine Rice; Danielle Perez

    2011-10-01

    The AFIP-6 test assembly was irradiated for one cycle in the Advanced Test Reactor at Idaho National Laboratory. The experiment was designed to test two monolithic fuel plates at power and burn-ups which bounded the operating conditions of both ATR and HFIR driver fuel. Both plates contain a solid U-Mo fuel foil with a zirconium diffusion barrier between 6061-aluminum cladding plates bonded by hot isostatic pressing. The experiment was designed with an orifice to restrict the coolant flow in order to obtain prototypic coolant temperature conditions. While these coolant temperatures were obtained, flow restriction resulted in low heat transfer coefficients and the failure of the fuel plates. The results from the post irradiation examinations and some observations of the failure mechanisms are outlined herein.

  6. Depression vulnerable and nonvulnerable smokers after a failure experience: examining cognitive self-regulation and motivation.

    PubMed

    Scott, Walter D; Beevers, Christopher G; Mermelstein, Robin J

    2008-07-01

    The present study extended previous tests of cognitive priming theories of depression by examining cognitive self-regulatory, motivational, and affective functioning of depression-vulnerable and nonvulnerable individuals after a failure experience. Participants were enrolled in a clinic-based smoking cessation program that consisted of seven group meetings. Major findings show that compared to the nonvulnerable group, depression-vulnerable individuals were less motivated to quit and experienced more negative affect, but only after a failure to quit smoking. However, after controlling for actual smoking rate, depression-vulnerable individuals did not evaluate their success any more negatively, nor did they indicate lower self-efficacy for quitting. Results are discussed in terms of cognitive self-regulatory and affect temperament models of motivation and depression.

  7. Condom ads promote illicit sex.

    PubMed

    Kippley, J F

    1994-01-01

    Written in 1987, this opinion was republished in the wake of US President Bill Clinton's AIDS prevention media campaign promoting condom use which began January 1994, targeted at young adults aged 18-25. The author staunchly opposes condom use even though he admits that people do not consider abstinence from sex to be a serious option for the prevention of HIV/STD infection. He believes that there is no moral use of sex with a condom and that condoms have always been a sign of immorality, be it prostitution, adultery, fornication, or marital contraception. Likewise, the author laments the success enjoyed by Planned Parenthood in achieving the social acceptance of marital contraception and sex outside of marriage. The complete social acceptance of homosexual activity, however, remains to be achieved. Magazines, newspapers, and television receive income in exchange for publishing or airing advertisements. Finding offensive advertisements which promote the use of condoms against HIV infection, the author recommends writing letters of complaint to the responsible media sources. If the television stations or publications in question continue to advertise condoms to the public, stop watching them or end one's subscriptions to the particular printed media. Such action taken collectively among many individuals will reduce product sales and income, and potentially sway corporate policy against condom ads.

  8. Condom Use Self-Efficacy Among Younger Rural Adolescents: The Influence of Parent-Teen Communication, and Knowledge of and Attitudes Toward Condoms.

    PubMed

    Ritchwood, Tiarney D; Penn, Dolly; Peasant, Courtney; Albritton, Tashuna; Corbie-Smith, Giselle

    2017-02-01

    This study examines the role of condom use knowledge and attitudes, and parent-teen communication about sex and relationship quality on reports of condom use self-efficacy among rural, African American youth. Participants were 465 North Carolinian youth (10-14 years). Results indicated that greater condom use self-efficacy was predicted by greater knowledge of condom use (β = .206; p < .001), more favorable attitudes toward condom use (β = -.20; p < .0001) and parent-teen communication about sex (β = .13; p < .05), and actual parent-teen communication about sex and dating (β = .14; p < .05). There was low agreement between parents and youth on measures related to parent-teen communication about sex. Findings call for interventions targeting improvement of condom use knowledge among early adolescents, as well as parent-teen communication about sex. In addition, given the low parent-teen agreement regarding sexual communication, parent-teen sexual communication is an important point of intervention.

  9. Another condom uproar in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Musoke, D

    1991-11-01

    A campaign to promote safe sex through the use of condoms has sparked a heated controversy in Uganda, as influential religious leaders have come out in opposition to a practice which they fear will lead to sexual promiscuity. The campaign, backed by the Ugandan government, is designed to halt the rapidly spreading AIDS epidemic. With 20,000 AIDS cases as of June 1991, Uganda leads all African countries in the number of reported cases. Additionally, it is estimated that some 7 million of the country's 17 million inhabitants are HIV-positive. This alarming situation forced President Yoweri Museveni to reverse his stance and come out in favor of the condom campaign. The campaign is being launched by the Ugandan pharmaceutical firm Armtrades Ltd with financial and technical support from USAID and the Ugandan government. The condom campaign, however, has aroused strong opposition from the religious community. Angered by advertisements advising Ugandans to "love carefully" by wearing condoms, Catholic Archbishop Emmanuel Wamala urged his followers in August to reject condoms, calling then an insult to the dignity of man. Following Wamala's lead, other top churchmen came out in opposition to the condom campaign at a recent AIDS prevention leadership conference. One of the clergymen present at the conference told Health Minister James Makumbi that the condom campaign will make young people indulge in uncontrolled sexual immorality. Moslem clerics have also stated their opposition to condoms, fearing sexual promiscuity. But the religious community itself has come under criticism for their opposition to condoms. Stressing that lives are at stake, the popular weekly Topic recently cautioned churchmen that this is not the time to engage in academic and moralistic debates.

  10. Sri Lanka drops leading condom.

    PubMed

    1984-01-01

    Sri Lanka's Family Planning Association has stopped selling its Preethi Regular condom, the backbone of its social marketing program for nearly a decade. Last year nearly 7 times as many Preethi condoms were sold as all other brands combined. The decision was reported to be caused by budget constraints following the International Planned Parenthood Federation's (IPPF) new policy of limiting the number of Preethi Regular condoms supplied to Sri Lanka. IPPF's Asian Regional Officer reported that the Preethi condom is a costly product, and that as many as needed of a US Agency for International Development (USAID) supplied product will be sent to Sri Lanka. The Contraceptive Retail Sales (CRS) program has devised a new sales strategy, based partly on the introduction of a high-priced condom to fill the gap left by the discontinuation of the Preethi Regular. The new Preethi Gold condom is expected to help the project become more financially self-reliant while taing advantage of Preethi's marketplace popularity. Preethi Gold is manufactured by the Malaysia Rubber Company and costs the project US $4.85/gross. It is sold for US $.14 for 3, about 3 times the price of a Preethi Regular. The project is also pushing the Panther condom, donated to IPPF by USAID. 2 Panther condoms sell for about 3.6U, about the cost of Preethi Regulars. The project also sells Moonbeam, Rough Rider, and Stimula condoms, the latter 2 at full commercial prices. A smooth transfer of demand from Preethi to Panther had been desired, but by the end of 1983 some retailers were hesitating to make the product switch because some Preethi Regulars were still available. Total condom sales in 1983 were down by nearly 590,000 from the approximately 6,860,000 sold in 1982. Total condom sales for the 1st quarter of 1984 were slightly over 1,218,000 pieces, compared to about 1,547,000 for the same quarter in 1983, a decline of 21%. The Family Planning Association is gearing up to reverse the downward trend

  11. Condom use and fertility among divorced and separated women.

    PubMed

    Marion, L N; Cox, C L

    1996-01-01

    Sexually active divorced and separated women constitute a significant population at risk for sexually transmitted diseases. With components of the Interaction Model of Client Health Behavior (IMCHB) used as the conceptual framework, a convenience sample (N=254) of women--mostly educated, White, and in their 30s (20 to 49 years)--was examined relative to condom use and individual and social context characteristics. To explore the effect of fertility on condom use, the sample was divided into fertile and infertile subsamples. The IMCHB explained 49% of the variance in infrequent condom use by the fertile women (n=93) and 21% of the variance in less frequent condom use by the infertile women (n=161).

  12. Microstructural examination of high temperature creep failure of Zircaloy-2 cladding in irradiated PHWR fuel pins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Prerna; Sah, D. N.; Kumar, Sunil; Anantharaman, S.

    2012-10-01

    Cladding samples taken from the ballooned region of the irradiated Zircaloy-2 cladded PHWR fuel pins which failed during isothermal heating tests carried out at 800-900 °C were examined using optical and scanning electron microscopy. The examination of samples from the fuel pin tested at 900 °C showed an intergranular mode of failure in the cladding due to formation of cracks, cavities and zirconium hydride precipitates on the grain boundaries in the cladding material. A thin hard α-Zr(O) layer was observed on outer surface due to dissolution of the oxide layer formed during reactor operation. Grain boundary sliding was identified to be the main mode of creep deformation of Zircaloy-2 at 900 °C. Examination of the cladding tested at 800 °C showed absence of cracks or cavities in the deformed material and no localisation of hydrides was observed at the grain boundaries. The failure of the cladding occurred after necking followed by extensive wall thinning of the cladding tube.

  13. 21 CFR 884.5330 - Female condom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Female condom. 884.5330 Section 884.5330 Food and... condom. (a) Identification. A female condom is a sheath-like device that lines the vaginal wall and is..., 2011, for any female condom that was in commercial distribution before May 28, 1976, or that has, on...

  14. 21 CFR 884.5330 - Female condom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Female condom. 884.5330 Section 884.5330 Food and... condom. (a) Identification. A female condom is a sheath-like device that lines the vaginal wall and is..., 2011, for any female condom that was in commercial distribution before May 28, 1976, or that has, on...

  15. 21 CFR 884.5330 - Female condom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Female condom. 884.5330 Section 884.5330 Food and... condom. (a) Identification. A female condom is a sheath-like device that lines the vaginal wall and is..., 2011, for any female condom that was in commercial distribution before May 28, 1976, or that has, on...

  16. Predicting condom use attitudes, norms, and control beliefs in Hispanic problem behavior youth: the effects of family functioning and parent-adolescent communication about sex on condom use.

    PubMed

    Malcolm, Shandey; Huang, Shi; Cordova, David; Freitas, Derek; Arzon, Margaret; Jimenez, Giselle Leon; Pantin, Hilda; Prado, Guillermo

    2013-08-01

    Hispanic problem behavior youth are at an increased risk of engaging in HIV risk behaviors, including low condom use. However, relatively little research has examined factors that affect condom use in this population. Although research indicates that family processes, such as higher levels of family functioning and open parent-adolescent communication about sex, and condom use attitudes, norms, and control beliefs as depicted by the theory of planned behavior have an effect on condom use behaviors, the combination of the two factors has received minimal attention. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of family functioning on condom use intentions and behaviors through communication about sex and condom use attitudes, parental norms, and control beliefs. A cross-sectional study of 171 predominately male (73.1%) sexually active Hispanic problem behavior adolescents (mean age = 14.88 years) was conducted. Structural equation modeling was used to test the study hypothesis. Findings largely support the overall model and suggest that family functioning had an indirect effect on condom use intention and behavior through communication about sex, condom use attitudes, and control beliefs. Family functioning, however, did not have an indirect effect on condom use intention and behavior through communication about sex and parental norms. Implications for prevention science and future research are discussed.

  17. Proficiency in condom use among migrant workers.

    PubMed

    Rubens, Muni; McCoy, H Virginia; Shehadeh, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Consistent and correct use of condoms is important to prevent the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases. We evaluated condom use skills on an 11-point scale in which participants were observed placing a condom on a penile model. Participants were 375 sexually active African American and Hispanic migrant workers. For analysis, subjects were divided into skilled and unskilled groups by a median split of the condom use skills score. Sexual risk behaviors were analyzed between condom use skilled and unskilled groups and level of condom use skills between African Americans and Hispanics. African Americans showed better skills in using condoms, and participants in the condom-use skilled group used condoms more frequently. Finally, a logistic regression was conducted to find predictors of condom use skills. Significant predictors were ethnicity, language, and assistance-related social support (obtaining advice from people who could provide tangible assistance).

  18. The First Condom Machine in a US Jail: The Challenge of Harm Reduction in a Law and Order Environment

    PubMed Central

    Harawa, Nina; Grinstead Reznick, Olga

    2010-01-01

    Most US jails and prisons do not provide condoms to prisoners because of concerns about possible negative consequences. Since 1989, the jail system of San Francisco, California, has provided condoms to male prisoners through 1-on-1 counseling sessions. Given the limitations of this approach, we installed, stocked, and monitored a free condom-dispensing machine in a jail to examine the feasibility of this method of providing condoms to jail prisoners. After the machine was installed, we observed increases in prisoners' awareness of programmatic access to condoms and in their likelihood of having obtained condoms. Particularly large increases in condom uptake were reported among those in high-risk groups. Sexual activity did not increase, custody operations were not impeded, and staff acceptance of condom access for prisoners increased. PMID:20395583

  19. The first condom machine in a US jail: the challenge of harm reduction in a law and order environment.

    PubMed

    Sylla, Mary; Harawa, Nina; Grinstead Reznick, Olga

    2010-06-01

    Most US jails and prisons do not provide condoms to prisoners because of concerns about possible negative consequences. Since 1989, the jail system of San Francisco, California, has provided condoms to male prisoners through 1-on-1 counseling sessions. Given the limitations of this approach, we installed, stocked, and monitored a free condom-dispensing machine in a jail to examine the feasibility of this method of providing condoms to jail prisoners. After the machine was installed, we observed increases in prisoners' awareness of programmatic access to condoms and in their likelihood of having obtained condoms. Particularly large increases in condom uptake were reported among those in high-risk groups. Sexual activity did not increase, custody operations were not impeded, and staff acceptance of condom access for prisoners increased.

  20. Application of condoms on male clients by female sex workers in Yerevan, Armenia: prevalence and correlates.

    PubMed

    Darbinyan, Nelli; Lang, Delia L; Diclemente, Ralph J; Joseph, Jesse B; Markosyan, Karine

    2011-09-01

    This study sought to assess the prevalence of consistent condom application on male clients by female sex workers (FSWs) in Armenia and its association with demographic, psychosocial and behavioural factors. In this cross-sectional study, 120 street-based FSWs aged 20-52 completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire. The primary outcome measure was consistent application of condoms by FSWs on their male clients. A total of 21.7% of participants reported consistently applying condoms on clients. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that higher condom use self-efficacy (Adjusted Odds Ratio, AOR=1.1; p=0.01), lower perceived condom use barriers (AOR=0.9; p=0.04) and not using douching as a method to prevent STI/HIV (AOR=4.8; p=0.04) significantly predicted consistent condom application. Higher HIV/AIDS knowledge was a marginally significant predictor of condom application (AOR=1.3; p=0.05). Future interventions should address these modifiable factors to encourage FSWs to apply condoms on clients themselves, which may reduce condom failure and exposure to HIV transmission.

  1. Condom Misuse Among Adjudicated Girls: Associations with Laboratory - Confirmed Chlamydia and Gonorrhea

    PubMed Central

    Crosby, Richard; Salazar, Laura F.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Yarber, William L.; Caliendo, Angela M.; Staples-Horne, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To identify the prevalence of condom use errors among detained female teens and to test two inter-related hypotheses concerning condom failure. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 134 female teens recruited within eight detention facilities. Measures were collected using audio-computer assisted self-interviewing. Assessment for the presence of C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae was also conducted. Results Five forms of condom use errors/problems were common: not discussing condom use with the partner (34.3%), not having a condom when one was desired (48.5%), starting sex before application (21.6%), removing condoms before sex concludes (26.9%), and breakage (32.8%). Significant, associations were found between condom errors/problems and drug/alcohol use. Errors/problems with condom use were significantly higher among teens diagnosed with an STD (P=.039 for an index measure; P=.022 for a single-item measure). Conclusions Findings suggest that detained female teens may have experienced multiple condom use error and problems thereby increasing their vulnerability to STD acquisition. PMID:18082855

  2. Hemodynamic assessment in heart failure: role of physical examination and noninvasive methods.

    PubMed

    Almeida Junior, Gustavo Luiz; Xavier, Sérgio Salles; Garcia, Marcelo Iorio; Clausell, Nadine

    2012-01-01

    Among the cardiovascular diseases, heart failure (HF) has a high rate of hospitalization, morbidity and mortality, consuming vast resources of the public health system in Brazil and other countries. The correct determination of the filling pressures of the left ventricle by noninvasive or invasive assessment is critical to the proper treatment of patients with decompensated chronic HF, considering that congestion is the main determinant of symptoms and hospitalization. Physical examination has shown to be inadequate to predict the hemodynamic pattern. Several studies have suggested that agreement on physical findings by different physicians is small and that, ultimately, adaptive physiological alterations in chronic HF mask important aspects of the physical examination. As the clinical assessment fails to predict hemodynamic aspects and because the use of Swan-Ganz catheter is not routinely recommended for this purpose in patients with HF, noninvasive hemodynamic assessment methods, such as BNP, echocardiography and cardiographic bioimpedance, are being increasingly used. The present study intends to carry out, for the clinician, a review of the role of each of these tools when defining the hemodynamic status of patients with decompensated heart failure, aiming at a more rational and individualized treatment.

  3. Problems with condoms may be reduced for men taking ample time to apply them.

    PubMed

    Crosby, Richard A; Graham, Cynthia A; Yarber, William L; Sanders, Stephanie A

    2010-03-01

    One potentially important antecedent of experiencing problems with condom use during penile-vaginal sex is the amount of time that men (and perhaps women) allow for condom application. To examine whether men reporting that ample time was available to apply a male condom (the last time a condom was used for penile-vaginal sex) were also less likely to report problems with condom use such as breakage, slippage and erection difficulties during that sexual event. A convenience sample of men (n = 440) was recruited via advertisements in newspapers (two urban and one small town) and a blog on the website of a condom sales company. Men completed a questionnaire posted on the website of The Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender, and Reproduction. Inclusion criteria were that participants were: at least 18 years old; used condoms for penile-vaginal intercourse in the past 3 months; and able to read English. In controlled, event-specific analyses, men reporting that they did not have sufficient time for condom application were ~three times more likely to report breakage and approximately 2.4 times more likely to report slippage. In addition, men who reported that they lacked time for condom application were approximately 2.4 times more likely to experience any of nine sexual problems, 3.4 times more likely to report difficulty with erection, 2.1 times more likely to report reduced sexual pleasure, 2.2 times more likely to report reduced sexual pleasure of their female partner and 2.6 times more likely to report that the condom irritated their partner's vagina. This is the first study using an event-specific analysis to examine the effect of not having enough time for condom application on condom breakage, slippage and several outcomes related to sexual pleasure. Sexually transmissible infections and pregnancy prevention messages should include recommendations to men to take their time applying condoms.

  4. Gender differences in determinants of condom use among HIV clients in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Walusaga, Happy Annet; Kyohangirwe, Rossette; Wagner, Glenn J

    2012-11-01

    Little research has examined gender differences in reporting of condom use, which is the goal of our analysis. A baseline study was conducted in two urban clinics and we examined data from sexually active clients entering HIV care who enrolled in a prospective longitudinal cohort study. The primary outcome was consistent condom use and determinant variables were demographics, physical health and immune status, economic well-being, relationship characteristics, psychosocial functioning, and self-efficacy. Of 280 participants, 129 were males and 151 females, and 41.7% had at least some secondary education; 60.7% did not always use condoms. Nearly half (48.1%) of men reported always using condoms compared to 31.8% of females. In bivariate analyses, men who consistently use condoms were more likely to be working, have a primary partner who was HIV negative, to have disclosed their HIV status to their primary partner, and to have higher general self-efficacy and condom use self-efficacy compared to men who did not always use condoms. Higher general self-efficacy and condom use self-efficacy were the only variables associated with reported consistent condom use among women. In regression analysis, working in the last 7 days, general self efficacy, and condom use self-efficacy were associated with consistent condom use among men. These findings reveal low rates of consistent condom use among people living with HIV, and a gender difference with men more likely to report consistent condom use. These data suggest the need for gender sensitive prevention programs and strategies, including programs that can provide women with greater control and self-efficacy regarding use of protective methods.

  5. Gender Differences in Determinants of Condom Use Among HIV Clients in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Kyohangirwe, Rossette; Wagner, Glenn J.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Little research has examined gender differences in reporting of condom use, which is the goal of our analysis. A baseline study was conducted in two urban clinics and we examined data from sexually active clients entering HIV care who enrolled in a prospective longitudinal cohort study. The primary outcome was consistent condom use and determinant variables were demographics, physical health and immune status, economic well-being, relationship characteristics, psychosocial functioning, and self-efficacy. Of 280 participants, 129 were males and 151 females, and 41.7% had at least some secondary education; 60.7% did not always use condoms. Nearly half (48.1%) of men reported always using condoms compared to 31.8% of females. In bivariate analyses, men who consistently use condoms were more likely to be working, have a primary partner who was HIV negative, to have disclosed their HIV status to their primary partner, and to have higher general self-efficacy and condom use self-efficacy compared to men who did not always use condoms. Higher general self-efficacy and condom use self-efficacy were the only variables associated with reported consistent condom use among women. In regression analysis, working in the last 7 days, general self efficacy, and condom use self-efficacy were associated with consistent condom use among men. These findings reveal low rates of consistent condom use among people living with HIV, and a gender difference with men more likely to report consistent condom use. These data suggest the need for gender sensitive prevention programs and strategies, including programs that can provide women with greater control and self-efficacy regarding use of protective methods. PMID:23066699

  6. Factors associated with failure in breeding soundness examination of Western USA rams.

    PubMed

    Van Metre, David C; Rao, Sangeeta; Kimberling, Cleon V; Morley, Paul S

    2012-06-01

    Breeding-soundness examination (BSE) and eradication of Brucella ovis infection in rams are critical components of flock-health programs. The aims of this retrospective, cross-sectional study were to describe the results of BSE in a large sample of rams in the Western USA and to determine the association between BSE outcome and the semen collection method (penis manually extended vs. retained in the preputial cavity), ram body-condition score (BCS), the presence of ulcerative posthitis, and the size of the flock of origin. We evaluated the first BSE in a given year for rams from Colorado, Wyoming, and Utah, USA, from 2000 through 2007. Breeding-soundness examination consisted of physical examination, scrotal circumference and BCS measurement, semen collection by electroejaculation, and microscopic examination of semen motility, morphology, and leukocyte concentration. We assigned a reason for failure to each failed BSE and used multivariable logistic and Poisson regressions to measure associations between ram and flock variables and the risk or reason for failure on BSE. A non-random, owner-selected subset of rams was tested for antibodies to B. ovis by serum indirect ELISA (iELISA). The Rogan-Gladen corrected B. ovis seroprevalence was measured. Of the 14,667 BSEs performed on 11,804 rams, 29.0% were classified as "failed;" the most common reason for failure was substandard semen parameters (43.8%). Breeding-soundness examinations were more likely to have been categorized as failure for inflammatory causes when performed on rams from medium-sized flocks (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.1, 2.3) and large flocks (OR 1.4; 95% CI 1.0, 1.9) (P=0.02), suggesting that larger flocks are at higher risk of contagious diseases. The adjusted seroprevalence of B. ovis antibodies among tested rams in this study was 10.0%. Of 233 rams seropositive to B. ovis, 125 (53.6%) were subclinical, a finding that supports the importance of this test in ram BSE. We found that emaciation in rams was

  7. Predicting Condom Use Attitudes, Norms, and Control Beliefs in Hispanic Problem Behavior Youth: The Effects of Family Functioning and Parent-Adolescent Communication about Sex on Condom Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malcolm, Shandey; Huang, Shi; Cordova, David; Freitas, Derek; Arzon, Margaret; Jimenez, Giselle Leon; Pantin, Hilda; Prado, Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    Hispanic problem behavior youth are at an increased risk of engaging in HIV risk behaviors, including low condom use. However, relatively little research has examined factors that affect condom use in this population. Although research indicates that family processes, such as higher levels of family functioning and open parent-adolescent…

  8. Predicting Condom Use Attitudes, Norms, and Control Beliefs in Hispanic Problem Behavior Youth: The Effects of Family Functioning and Parent-Adolescent Communication about Sex on Condom Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malcolm, Shandey; Huang, Shi; Cordova, David; Freitas, Derek; Arzon, Margaret; Jimenez, Giselle Leon; Pantin, Hilda; Prado, Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    Hispanic problem behavior youth are at an increased risk of engaging in HIV risk behaviors, including low condom use. However, relatively little research has examined factors that affect condom use in this population. Although research indicates that family processes, such as higher levels of family functioning and open parent-adolescent…

  9. Assertive Communication in Condom Negotiation: Insights From Late Adolescent Couples' Subjective Ratings of Self and Partner.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Amy; Leonard, Noelle R; Ritchie, Amanda S; Gwadz, Marya V

    2015-07-01

    Assertive communication has been associated with higher levels of condom use among youth using self-report survey methodology. The purpose of this study was to examine the subjective ratings of assertiveness among young, romantically involved couples in the context of a condom negotiation task. Using an innovative video-recall procedure, 32 couples (64 youth) engaged in a videotaped condom negotiation task and then rated self and partners' level of assertiveness. Both individual ratings of assertiveness and couple-level assertiveness were assessed using dyadic hierarchical linear modeling. Individuals' assertiveness was positively associated with condom use. Unexpectedly, the overall level of assertiveness in couples showed a curvilinear association with condom use. Very high and very low assertiveness was associated with lower condom use, whereas moderate levels of assertiveness were associated with higher condom use. Moderate levels of assertiveness during condom negotiation may facilitate condom use in young couples. Increasing condom use among romantic partners may require developing interventions that strengthen youths' ability to engage in assertive communication strategies that balance emotional intimacy with self-advocacy. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Assertive communication in condom negotiation: Insights from late adolescent couples’ subjective ratings of self and partner

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Amy; Leonard, Noelle R.; Ritchie, Amanda S.; Gwadz, Marya V.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Assertive communication has been associated with higher levels of condom use among youth using self-report survey methodology. The purpose of this study was to examine the subjective ratings of assertiveness among young, romantically-involved couples in the context of a condom negotiation task. Methods Using an innovative video-recall procedure, 32 couples (64 youth) engaged in a videotaped condom negotiation task and then rated self and partners’ level of assertiveness. Both individual ratings of assertiveness and couple-level assertiveness were assessed using dyadic hierarchical linear modeling. Results Individuals’ assertiveness was positively associated with condom use. Unexpectedly, the overall level of assertiveness in couples showed a curvilinear association with condom use. Very high and very low assertiveness was associated with lower condom use, while moderate levels of assertiveness were associated with higher condom use. Conclusions Moderate levels of assertiveness during condom negotiation may facilitate condom use in young couples. Increasing condom use among romantic partners may require developing interventions that strengthen youths’ ability to engage in assertive communication strategies that balance emotional intimacy with self-advocacy. PMID:25937470

  11. Condom provision and education in Minnesota public schools: a telephone survey of parents.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Marla E; Bernat, Debra H; Bearinger, Linda H; Resnick, Michael D

    2009-09-01

    Increasing correct and consistent condom use among sexually active adolescents continues to be a critical public health goal, with schools serving as key agents for achieving this goal through sexuality education and condom use provision. This research aims to describe the views of parents regarding school-based condom distribution and education programs, and examines how these views differ across demographic groups. Parents of school-age children in Minnesota were surveyed in telephone interviews (N = 1605; 63% participation) regarding their beliefs about condom availability and education. Chi-square tests of significance were used to detect differences in agreement with each statement for 10 demographic and personal characteristics. A majority of respondents held supportive views about condom availability and education programs. Strongest support centered on statements in the survey about teenagers needing information about condoms (86%) and showing actual condoms during classroom lessons (77%). Approximately two thirds of the parents agreed that school-based instruction about condoms should be "allowed" at the high school level (65%), and one fifth (21%) believed that this type of education should be "required." Support for condom availability and education programs differed significantly according to certain personal characteristics, with less supportive views from self-identified Born Again Christians and politically conservative parents. Public discourse regarding school-based sexuality education should include the viewpoints of parents of school-aged children as key stakeholders. Parents' perspectives provide unique and critical insights that school administrators and educators should consider as they develop educational and programmatic offerings regarding condoms.

  12. The Causal Effects of Relational Security and Insecurity on Condom Use Attitudes and Acquisition Behavior.

    PubMed

    Sakaluk, John Kitchener; Gillath, Omri

    2016-02-01

    Research on attachment and condom use has been limited to correlational studies of self-report measures, yielding inconsistent results. Here, we examined the causal effects of attachment priming on self-reported condom use attitudes and an observational measure of condom acquisition behavior. In three experiments, participants were exposed to one of three attachment primes (security, anxiety, or avoidance) or a control prime. For Study 1, participants in the security and anxiety conditions preferred condom non-use to a greater extent, compared to participants in the avoidance condition. This effect was replicated in Study 2, and was mediated by perceptions of sexual health threat. In Study 3, the effect of security priming on condom acquisition behavior was eliminated through the use of a framing manipulation, though the effect of primed attachment on condom use attitudes was not significant. A meta-analysis, however, revealed that the predicted effects of attachment priming were consistent across the three studies, supporting the role of attachment in evaluations of condom use. Priming attachment security or anxiety leads participants to perceive their sexual partners as less of a sexual health threat, resulting in a devaluation of condom use. Primed security also reduced condom acquisition behavior, though this negative effect eliminated by framing condoms as protecting a partner's sexual health. Overall, these studies suggest that relational factors, such as attachment, require greater consideration when studying sexual health and designing interventions.

  13. Japan, Indonesia to investigate condom plant feasibility.

    PubMed

    1981-04-01

    The Japanese government has begun investigations on the possibility of constructing a condom manufacturing plant in Indonesia in response to a request by the Indonesian government. Indonesia, which hopes to reduce its birthrate as of 1971 by 1/2 by 1990, asked for Japanese assistance in building a condom plant based on the expectation that demand for this contraceptive method, although quite low at present, will increase rapidly in the near future with stepped-up motivation campaigns. As a 1st step in the investigation, the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) sent a study team of family planning experts headed by Family Planning Federation of Japan Chairman Dr. Hidebumi Kubo and including JOICFP International Division Director MR. Tameyoshi Katagiri to Indonesia from March 15-24. During its visit, the JICA team held discussions with representatives of BKKBN (the National Family Planning Coordinating Board) including its Chairman and Minister of Health Dr. Suwardjono and reached agreement on the scope and schedule of work toward determining the feasibility of building and operating a condom plant in Indonesia. In defining the scope of work and the schedule, the JICA team and the BKKBN representatives decided on specific issues to be investigated in the feasibility study to be carried out by JICA and scheduled to be completed by the end of October of this year. To be included in the feasibility study are: estimation of future domestic demand for condoms, examination of the domestic supply of latex capacity, chemicals and packaging materials, and collection of information on infrastructure relating to water, energy, transportation, etc. Actual data collection for the study is expected to begin in late May or early June. Dr. Kubo and Mr. Katagiri, upon returning to Japan, reported great enthusiasm for the project in Indonesia and expressed the hope that the plant construction will be feasible so that the country's family planning program can be given a boost

  14. "Do You Know What You're Doing?" College Students' Experiences with Male Condoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarber, William L.; Graham, Cynthia A.; Sanders, Stephanie A.; Crosby, Richard A.; Butler, Scott M.; Hartzell, Rose M.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Although quantitative assessment of male condom use errors and problems has received increased research attention, few studies have qualitatively examined this sexual health behavior. Purpose: This study examined problems of male condom use as experienced by college men and women at a large, public Midwestern university. Methods:…

  15. Factors Associated with Condom Use among Male College Students in Wuhan, China

    PubMed Central

    Long, Lu; Yuan, Ting; Wang, Min; Xu, Chuan; Yin, Jieyun; Xiong, Chengliang; Wei, Sheng; Nie, Shaofa

    2012-01-01

    Background Using condoms consistently could prevent unintended pregnancy among young people. This study highlights multiple domains of influence on condom use among male college students in China, including knowledge, attitudes, health services utility on condom use and reproductive health information sources. Methodology/Principal Findings To identify factors associated with condom use in Chinese male college students, we examined a sample of 870 sexually experienced male students in seven colleges in Wuhan, China, 2009. 535 (61.5%) of 870 male students reported condom use during their most recent sexual encounter. Male students with steady partners were more likely to use condoms than students with casual partners (adjusted OR = 3.11, 95%CI 2.30–4.20). And positive attitudes toward contraceptive responsibility were associated with greater odds of condom use (adjusted OR = 1.40, 95%CI 1.02–1.92). Only 54(6.2%) and 83(9.5%) of respondents reported that free condoms and reproductive health counseling were available at the student health center. Providing free condoms and reproductive health counseling at the student health central were associated with increased condom use among college students (both P<0.05). In addition, students who gained reproductive health information mainly through websites, television and radio programs were more likely to use condoms than through school education (all P<0.05). Conclusions Improving attitudes of male students toward contraceptive responsibility, providing proper reproductive health information through mass media and making free condoms and reproductive health counseling available in school may help increase condom use among college students in China. PMID:23272167

  16. The impact of the work environment on condom use among female bar workers in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Morisky, Donald E; Peña, Melanie; Tiglao, Teodora V; Liu, Kenn Y

    2002-08-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine how condom use is affected by specific aspects of the work environment: (1) social-structural and environmental influences and constraints, (2) mandatory condom use policy, and (3) the level of social influence and reinforcement between manager and employee. A total of 1,340 bar workers and 308 nonestablishment freelance workers comprise the study group. In establishments where a condom use policy exists, female bar workers were 2.6 times more likely to consistently use condoms during sexual intercourse compared with establishments that do not have such a policy in place. The results suggest a need for the development of comprehensive educational policies in all entertainment establishments, including regular meetings with employees, reinforcing attendance at the Social Hygiene Clinic, promoting AIDS awareness, making condoms available in the workplace, and mandating 100% condom use behavior among all employees.

  17. The association between characteristics of dating relationships and condom use among heterosexual young adults.

    PubMed

    Civic, D

    1999-08-01

    Although there is some evidence that relationship-level factors influence sexual behavior, they have received far less attention than individual-level factors as potential correlates of condom use. This study surveyed 210 undergraduate men and women to examine the association between relationship characteristics and condom use. Higher levels of love, longer relationships and more serious and committed relationships were individually associated with less condom use. In a multiple logistic regression model controlling for HIV/sexually transmitted disease (STD) risk perception and contraceptive method, relationship length was the only relationship factor that independently predicted condom use (OR = .91; 95% CI = .84-.99). Use of a hormonal contraceptive method was negatively associated with condom use in the multivariate model (OR = .12; 95% CI = .06-.27), and mediated the association between relationship factors and condom use. Study results suggest that HIV/STD prevention interventions may be improved by addressing relationship characteristics, particularly the length of a dating relationship.

  18. Correlates of condom use among female prostitutes and tourist clients in Bali, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, L; Ford, K; Fajans, P; Wirawan, D N

    1997-04-01

    This study examines the commercial sex activity of both tourist client and local prostitute groups in the host country of Indonesia. The study provides a profile of social and behavioural characteristics of foreign tourist men and Indonesian women engaging in commercial sex, using cross-sectional data gathered in the tourist resort town of Kuta, Bali. Univariate statistical analysis and multiple logistic regression are used to assess psychosocial and other factors associated with consistent condom use in commercial sex encounters, drawing from the Health Belief model and social cognitive theory. Results from both respondent groups indicate that condom use is high between tourist clients and female Indonesian sex workers, although not 100% consistent. Beliefs about condom efficacy and effects on pleasure, as well as susceptibility to STD infection were related to condom use for female sex workers. Beliefs about condoms being too much trouble, and self-efficacy were related to condom use for tourist clients.

  19. Sibling teenage pregnancy and clinic-referred girls’ condom use: The protective role of maternal monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Sara; Javdani, Shabnam; Rodriguez, Erin; Emerson, Erin; Donenberg, Geri

    2016-01-01

    Younger sisters of teenage parents have elevated rates of engaging in unprotected sex. This may result from changes in parenting behavior after a sibling becomes pregnant or impregnates a partner, and be particularly pronounced for girls seeking mental health treatment. The current study examines condom use over time in 211 African-American girls recruited from outpatient psychiatric clinics. Findings indicate that having a sibling with a teenage pregnancy history predicts less consistent condom use two years later. After accounting for earlier condom use and mental health problems, maternal monitoring moderates condom use such that for girls with a sibling with a pregnancy history, more vigilant maternal monitoring is associated with increased condom use, while for girls with no sibling pregnancy history, maternal monitoring is unrelated to adolescents’ condom use two years later. Findings suggest that targeted interventions to increase maternal monitoring of high-risk teens may be beneficial for girls with a sibling history of teenage pregnancy. PMID:27172111

  20. Pocket-sized ultrasound examination of fluid imbalance in patients with heart failure: a pilot and feasibility study of heart failure nurses without prior experience of ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Mikael; Alehagen, Urban; Johansson, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Detecting fluid imbalance in patients with chronic heart failure can be challenging. Use of a pocket-sized ultrasound device (PSUD) in addition to physical examination can be helpful to assess this important information. To evaluate the feasibility for nurses without prior experience of ultrasonography to examine fluid imbalance by the use of a PSUD on heart failure patients. Four heart failure nurses and an expert cardiologist participated. The nurses underwent a four-hour PSUD training programme. One hundred and four heart failure outpatients were included. The examinations obtained information of pulmonary congestion, pleural effusion and the diameter of the vena cava inferior. Examinations took nine minutes on average. In 28% and 14% of the patients, pulmonary congestion and pleural effusion respectively were found by the nurses. The sensitivities and specificities for nurses' findings were 79% and 91%, and, 88% and 93% respectively. The inter-operator agreement between the nurses and the cardiologist reached a substantial level (kappa values: 0.71 and 0.66). The inter-operator agreement for vena cava inferior reached a fair level (kappa value=0.39). Bland-Altman plots of the level of agreement revealed a mean difference of vena cava inferior diameter of 0.11 cm, while the 95% lower and upper limits ranged from -0.78 cm to 1.00 cm. After brief training, heart failure nurses can reliably identify pulmonary congestion and pleural effusion with a PSUD. Assessment of vena cava inferior was less valid. PSUD readings, when added to the history and a physical examination, can improve nurse assessment of fluid status in patients with heart failure. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  1. Closing the condom KAP gap.

    PubMed

    Roberto, E L

    1977-01-01

    A number of program strategies have been suggested to close the gap between knowledge and awareness of family planning, and its practice. Most focus on the interim between awareness and usage. This article presents data to support the argument that the problem lies in the awareness stage. Its assumption is that the quality of the awareness is important. As opposed to the survey method of determining awareness, the author proposes the "Focus Group Discussion." As illustration, he presents results of a study using this method, on awareness about condoms, undertaken as part of a Population Center Foundation Condom Distribution Project, in 1975. Its purpose was to identify the more important attitudes toward condoms among married couples, the factors which motivate the couples to use or reject them, and the meanings associated with condoms and how these influence the time, manner, and reasons for rejecting or accepting them. 4 group discussions were carried out, with 8 or 10 married male and female respondents, age 18-35, with at least 2 children, of middle and lower class, and all having at least heard of condoms. Discussions were taped and subjected to content analysis. The 7 major findings are: 1) Quality of awareness depends on experience with use. 2) Experience with use does not guarantee positive quality awareness -- some regular users were still ignorant of some aspects of condom use. 3) Respondents perceive positive aspects of condoms, which should be reinforced. 4) Most of the negative qualities perceived by respondents were imaginary, but can be combatted by the positive statements of users. 5) Filipino men respond to their wives' reactions and project an image of sexual prowess, both possibly damaging to the reputation of condoms; communicators and educators must address the wives equally with their husbands. 6) Buying condoms is embarrassing: studies are needed on how this can be overcome at the places of purchase. 7) Brand awareness is low: only 3 or 4 out

  2. Using condoms in the age of AIDS: a phenomenological study with marketing implications.

    PubMed

    Hill, R P; Stephens, D L

    1990-03-01

    The authors examine respondents' potential reactions to the suggestion of condom usage by and to their sex partner. Results indicate that when a sex partner suggests condom use, individuals may react with a feeling of shared responsibility and/or look favorably upon the suggesting partner. In contrast, persons who suggest condom usage may be questioning their partner's past and envisioning a short-term relationship. The effects of individual-difference variables on feelings about condom usage are described and implications for marketing are delineated.

  3. Condom ads slated for TV.

    PubMed

    1987-02-20

    3 CBS-owned television stations and NBC's New York television station announced yesterday that they would begin accepting condom advertising. In addition, the ABC network announced it will begin running a 30-second public service message with Dr. C. Everett Koop, the US surgeon general, saying that condoms are the best protection against sexual transmission of AIDS. CBS said it will allow the 4 television stations and 18 radio stations it owns to accept condom advertising based on the attitudes of the local viewing or listening community. WCBS-TV in New York, WCAU-TV in Philadelphia and KCBS-TV in Los Angeles said they would accept such ads. CBS also owns a television station in Chicago. WCAU will air condom ads after 11 p.m. only, beginning probably next week, said Paul Webb, a station spokesman. "We recognize the legitimate sensitivities of some members of the community in regard to this issue," said Steve Cohen, the WCAU general manager. "However, it is the judgment of this station that the importance of providing information about the AIDS epidemic and means of prevention is an overriding consideration." NBC's New York television station, WNBC, announced that it will accept condom advertising and public service announcements. full text

  4. Barriers to condom purchasing: Effects of product positioning on reactions to condoms.

    PubMed

    Scott-Sheldon, Lori A J; Glasford, Demis E; Marsh, Kerry L; Lust, Sarah A

    2006-12-01

    Correct and consistent condom use has been promoted as a method to prevent sexually transmitted infections including HIV. Yet research has repeatedly shown that people fail to use condoms consistently. One influence on the pervasive lack of condom use that has received relatively little attention is the context in which consumers are exposed to condoms (i.e., how condoms are displayed in retail settings). In this paper we present two studies explored variations in condom shelf placement and its effects on people's condom attitudes and acquisition. Study 1 explored the shelf placement of condoms in 59 retail outlets in Connecticut, USA and found that condoms were typically located in areas of high visibility (e.g., next to the pharmacy counter) and on shelves adjacent to feminine hygiene and disease treatment products. In Study 2, 120 heterosexual undergraduate students at the University of Connecticut were randomly assigned to evaluate condoms adjacent to sensual, positive, neutral, or negative products and found that overall men reported more positive attitudes and acquired more condoms when exposed to condoms in a sensual context compared to women in the same condition. Among women, condom attitudes were more positive in the context of neutral products; condom acquisition was strongest for women exposed to condoms in the positive aisles. These results suggest a gender-specific approach to condom promotion. Implications of these studies for HIV prevention, public health, and condom marketing strategies are discussed.

  5. Latino youths' sexual values and condom negotiation strategies.

    PubMed

    Deardorff, Julianna; Tschann, Jeanne M; Flores, Elena; de Groat, Cynthia L; Steinberg, Julia R; Ozer, Emily J

    2013-12-01

    Young Latinos in the United States are at high risk for STDs and are less likely than other youth to use condoms. To our knowledge, no studies have examined the relationship between sexual values and condom negotiation strategies among young Latinos. Cross-sectional data collected in 2003-2006 from 571 Latino women and men aged 16-22 in the San Francisco Bay Area were used to examine associations between sexual values (e.g., considering sexual talk disrespectful or female virginity important) and use of strategies to engender or avoid condom use. Linear regression analyses were used to identify such associations while adjusting for potential covariates and gender interactions. Among women, sexual comfort and comfort with sexual communication were positively associated with frequency of direct communication to foster condom use; the importance of female premarital virginity and levels of sexual self-acceptance were positively associated with expressing dislike of condoms to avoid using them; and levels of sexual self-acceptance were negatively associated with expressing dislike of condoms to avoid using them. Moreover, the degrees to which women considered sexual talk disrespectful and female virginity important were positively associated with the frequency with which they shared risk information as a condom use strategy. Among both sexes, the importance that respondents placed on premarital female virginity was negatively associated with use of direct communication strategies. Researchers designing interventions to influence Latino youths' sexual decision making and behaviors should consider including program components that address sexual values. Copyright © 2013 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  6. Effects of condom social marketing on condom use in developing countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis, 1990-2010.

    PubMed

    Sweat, Michael D; Denison, Julie; Kennedy, Caitlin; Tedrow, Virginia; O'Reilly, Kevin

    2012-08-01

    To examine the relationship between condom social marketing programmes and condom use. Standard systematic review and meta-analysis methods were followed. The review included studies of interventions in which condoms were sold, in which a local brand name(s) was developed for condoms, and in which condoms were marketed through a promotional campaign to increase sales. A definition of intervention was developed and standard inclusion criteria were followed in selecting studies. Data were extracted from each eligible study, and a meta-analysis of the results was carried out. Six studies with a combined sample size of 23,048 met the inclusion criteria. One was conducted in India and five in sub-Saharan Africa. All studies were cross-sectional or serial cross-sectional. Three studies had a comparison group, although all lacked equivalence in sociodemographic characteristics across study arms. All studies randomly selected participants for assessments, although none randomly assigned participants to intervention arms. The random-effects pooled odds ratio for condom use was 2.01 (95% confidence interval, CI: 1.42-2.84) for the most recent sexual encounter and 2.10 (95% CI: 1.51-2.91) for a composite of all condom use outcomes. Tests for heterogeneity yielded significant results for both meta-analyses. The evidence base for the effect of condom social marketing on condom use is small because few rigorous studies have been conducted. Meta-analyses showed a positive and statistically significant effect on increasing condom use, and all individual studies showed positive trends. The cumulative effect of condom social marketing over multiple years could be substantial. We strongly encourage more evaluations of these programmes with study designs of high rigour.

  7. Effects of condom social marketing on condom use in developing countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis, 1990–2010

    PubMed Central

    Denison, Julie; Kennedy, Caitlin; Tedrow, Virginia; O'Reilly, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To examine the relationship between condom social marketing programmes and condom use. Methods Standard systematic review and meta-analysis methods were followed. The review included studies of interventions in which condoms were sold, in which a local brand name(s) was developed for condoms, and in which condoms were marketed through a promotional campaign to increase sales. A definition of intervention was developed and standard inclusion criteria were followed in selecting studies. Data were extracted from each eligible study, and a meta-analysis of the results was carried out. Findings Six studies with a combined sample size of 23 048 met the inclusion criteria. One was conducted in India and five in sub-Saharan Africa. All studies were cross-sectional or serial cross-sectional. Three studies had a comparison group, although all lacked equivalence in sociodemographic characteristics across study arms. All studies randomly selected participants for assessments, although none randomly assigned participants to intervention arms. The random-effects pooled odds ratio for condom use was 2.01 (95% confidence interval, CI: 1.42–2.84) for the most recent sexual encounter and 2.10 (95% CI: 1.51–2.91) for a composite of all condom use outcomes. Tests for heterogeneity yielded significant results for both meta-analyses. Conclusion The evidence base for the effect of condom social marketing on condom use is small because few rigorous studies have been conducted. Meta-analyses showed a positive and statistically significant effect on increasing condom use, and all individual studies showed positive trends. The cumulative effect of condom social marketing over multiple years could be substantial. We strongly encourage more evaluations of these programmes with study designs of high rigour. PMID:22893745

  8. Two programs designed to support condom use.

    PubMed

    1999-04-01

    Two programs that were described during the 1999 National Symposium on Overcoming Barriers to Condom Use have been successful in making condoms an accepted norm in their communities. In the first, condom use among Northern Illinois University (NIU) students has risen from 30% in 1989 to 61% by 1997, while rates of STD infection have fallen by 50%. Program coordinators think the success is due to a combined effort to increase condom availability and make condom use a social norm. Condom use is promoted in advertisements in the student newspaper proclaiming that typical NIU students use condoms for protection from sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Condoms are not distributed on the campus but are made available at several locations on a free-choice basis along with printed health education material. During a 1996 campus survey, a significant positive correlation was found between students' perception of the condom use of other students and their own condom use. In the second program, ABCD Health Service in Boston distributes condoms at no charge through hair salons serving Hispanic women, barber shops, and auto body shops. The program currently distributes more than 11,000 condoms in this manner each month. ABCD health educators also make presentations in beauty salons and to community groups. They are now using state funds to train community women to host "Safety Net" home-based informational parties, where participants play games that convey safer sex messages and receive condoms as party favors.

  9. Associations of sexually transmitted infections with condom problems among young men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    Mustanski, Brian; Ryan, Daniel T; Garofalo, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Background Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) are disproportionately infected with STIs. Condom use is the most widely available means of preventing the transmission of STIs, but effectiveness depends on correct use. Condom errors, such as using an oil-based lubricant, have been associated with condom failures, such as breakage. Little research has been done on the impact of condom problems on the likelihood of contracting an STI. Methods Data came from Crew 450, a longitudinal study of HIV risk among YMSM (N = 450). All self-report data were collected using computer-assisted self-interview (CASI) technology and clinical testing was done for gonorrhea, Chlamydia, and HIV. Results Nearly all participants made at least one error, with high rates of using oil based lubricant and incomplete use. No differences were found in rates of condom problems during anal sex with a man versus vaginal sex with a woman. Black YMSM reported significantly higher use of oil based lubricants than White and Hispanic YMSM, an error significantly associated with HIV status (AOR = 2.60; 95% CI: 1.04 – 6.51). Participants who reported a condom failure were significantly more likely to have a STI (AOR=3.27; 95% CI: 1.31 – 8.12). Conclusions YMSM report high rates of condom problems, and condom failures were significantly associated with STIs after controlling for unprotected sex. Educational programs are needed to enhance correct condom use among YMSM. Further research is needed on the role of oil based lubricants in explaining racial disparities in STIs and HIV. PMID:24922101

  10. Associations of sexually transmitted infections with condom problems among young men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Mustanski, Brian; Ryan, Daniel T; Garofalo, Robert

    2014-07-01

    Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) are disproportionately infected with sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Condom use is the most widely available means of preventing the transmission of STIs, but effectiveness depends on correct use. Condom errors such as using an oil-based lubricant have been associated with condom failures such as breakage. Little research has been done on the impact of condom problems on the likelihood of contracting an STI. Data came from Crew 450, a longitudinal study of HIV risk among YMSM (N = 450). All self-report data were collected using computer-assisted self-interview technology, and clinical testing was done for gonorrhea, chlamydia, and HIV. Nearly all participants made at least 1 error, with high rates of using oil-based lubricant and incomplete use. No differences were found in rates of condom problems during anal sex with a man versus vaginal sex with a woman. Black YMSM reported significantly higher use of oil-based lubricants than white and Hispanic YMSM, an error significantly associated with HIV status (adjusted odds ratio, 2.60; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-6.51). Participants who reported a condom failure were significantly more likely to have an STI (adjusted odds ratio, 3.27; 95% confidence interval, 1.31-8.12). Young men who have sex with men report high rates of condom problems, and condom failures were significantly associated with STIs after controlling for unprotected sex. Educational programs are needed to enhance correct condom use among YMSM. Further research is needed on the role of oil-based lubricants in explaining racial disparities in STIs and HIV.

  11. Project offers counseling and condoms to Philadelphia students.

    PubMed

    Donovan, P

    1993-01-01

    Philadelphia's program of condom distribution in grades 9-12 by health and social service providers is described in terms its operation and the background to its development. The project was a by-product of a 66 member school board task force examination of issues relating to the high rates of teenage pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The 1991 task force report suggested condom distribution through vending machines in bathrooms, the establishment of school based clinics, existing school based clinics, or school personnel. After public hearings on the task force report, the board voted 6-3 to allow distribution of condoms in high school, and to design a pilot educationally based program in participating schools with the cooperation of health professionals. Parents could prohibit their children from receiving condoms at school. The board worked with the Family Planning Council and the Philadelphia health department in developing a program for the 1991-92 school year. Special centers were developed within the schools for counseling, health information, and condom distribution, which would be staffed by health educators, nurses, and social workers. 9 high schools were selected for the pilot "drop in centers." Students could see a counselor immediately before or after school or during lunch periods. Students would receive condoms after counselling. During the first 4-5 months of operation, 3000 visits by students at 8 centers were recorded; condoms were obtained from 66% of the visits. Only 14 students were denied condoms because of parental objections. More than 60% of those given condoms were male, and almost 60% were 9th and 10th graders. An example of the problems encountered was school personnel making judgmental remarks to students going to a center. Condoms and educational materials were supplied by the health department with funding from Centers for Disease Control. The Family Planning Council manages the program, and medical colleges and 3

  12. Prophylactic Procurement of University Students in Southern Ethiopia: Stigma and the Value of Condom Machines on Campus

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Christopher J.; Alano, Abraham

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Risky sexual behavior among Ethiopian university students, especially females, is a major contributor to young adult morbidity and mortality. Ambaw et al. found that female university students in Ethiopia may fear the humiliation associated with procuring condoms. A study in Thailand suggests condom machines may provide comfortable condom procurement, but the relevance to a high-risk African context is unknown. The objective of this study was to examine if the installation of condom machines in Ethiopia predicts changes in student condom uptake and use, as well as changes in procurement related stigma. Methods Students at a large urban university in Southern Ethiopia completed self reported surveys in 2010 (N  = 2,155 surveys) and again in 2011 (N =  2,000), six months after the installation of condom machines. Mann-Whitney and Chi-square tests were conducted to evaluate significant changes in student sexual behavior, as well as condom procurement and associated stigma over the subsequent one year period. Results After installing condom machines, the average number of trips made to procure condoms on-campus significantly increased 101% for sexually active females and significantly decreased 36% for sexually active males. Additionally, reports of condom use during last sexual intercourse showed a non-significant 4.3% increase for females and a significant 9.0% increase for males. During this time, comfort procuring condoms and ability to convince sexual partners to use condoms were significantly higher for sexually active male students. There was no evidence that the condom machines led to an increase in promiscuity. Conclusions The results suggest that condom machines may be associated with more condom procurement among vulnerable female students in Ethiopia and could be an important component of a comprehensive university health policy. PMID:23565272

  13. Prophylactic procurement of university students in Southern Ethiopia: stigma and the value of condom machines on campus.

    PubMed

    Wells, Christopher J; Alano, Abraham

    2013-01-01

    Risky sexual behavior among Ethiopian university students, especially females, is a major contributor to young adult morbidity and mortality. Ambaw et al. found that female university students in Ethiopia may fear the humiliation associated with procuring condoms. A study in Thailand suggests condom machines may provide comfortable condom procurement, but the relevance to a high-risk African context is unknown. The objective of this study was to examine if the installation of condom machines in Ethiopia predicts changes in student condom uptake and use, as well as changes in procurement related stigma. Students at a large urban university in Southern Ethiopia completed self reported surveys in 2010 (N  = 2,155 surveys) and again in 2011 (N =  2,000), six months after the installation of condom machines. Mann-Whitney and Chi-square tests were conducted to evaluate significant changes in student sexual behavior, as well as condom procurement and associated stigma over the subsequent one year period. After installing condom machines, the average number of trips made to procure condoms on-campus significantly increased 101% for sexually active females and significantly decreased 36% for sexually active males. Additionally, reports of condom use during last sexual intercourse showed a non-significant 4.3% increase for females and a significant 9.0% increase for males. During this time, comfort procuring condoms and ability to convince sexual partners to use condoms were significantly higher for sexually active male students. There was no evidence that the condom machines led to an increase in promiscuity. The results suggest that condom machines may be associated with more condom procurement among vulnerable female students in Ethiopia and could be an important component of a comprehensive university health policy.

  14. The acceptability of the female condom: perspectives of family planning providers in New York City, South Africa, and Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Mantell, J E; Hoffman, S; Weiss, E; Adeokun, L; Delano, G; Jagha, T; Exner, T M; Stein, Z A; Karim, Q A; Scheepers, E; Atkins, K; Weiss, E

    2001-12-01

    This article seeks to fill the gap in female condom acceptability research by examining family planning (FP) providers' attitudes and experiences regarding the female condom in three countries (South Africa, the US, and Nigeria) to highlight providers' potential integral role in the introduction of the female condom. The case studies used data drawn from three independent projects, each of which was designed to study or to change FP providers' attitudes and practices in relation to the female condom. The case study for New York City used data from semistructured interviews with providers in one FP consortium in which no special female condom training had been undertaken. The data from South Africa were drawn from transcripts and observations of a female condom training program and from interviews conducted in preparation for the training. The Nigerian study used observations of client visits before and after providers were trained concerning the female condom. In New York City, providers were skeptical about the contraceptive efficacy of the female condom, with only 8 of 22 providers (36%) reporting they would recommend it as a primary contraceptive. In South Africa, providers who had practiced insertion of the female condom as part of their training expressed concern about its physical appearance and effects on sexual pleasure. However, they also saw the female condom as a tool to empower clients to increase their capacity for self-protection. Structured observations of providers' counseling interactions with clients following training indicated that Nigerian providers discussed the female condom with clients in 80% of the visits observed. Despite the lack of a uniform methodology, the three case studies illuminate various dimensions of FP providers' perceptions of the acceptability of the female condom. FP providers must be viewed as a critical factor in female condom acceptability, uptake, and continued use. Designing training programs and other interventions

  15. The Effectiveness of a Female Condom Intervention on Women's Use of Condoms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardwick, Deborah

    2002-01-01

    Evaluated a female condom promotion intervention for socioeconomically disadvantaged women at high risk for sexually transmitted diseases and HIV who had never used female condoms. Pre- and postintervention surveys indicated that providing education and counseling, along with unlimited quantities of male condoms, female condoms, and water-based…

  16. The Effectiveness of a Female Condom Intervention on Women's Use of Condoms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardwick, Deborah

    2002-01-01

    Evaluated a female condom promotion intervention for socioeconomically disadvantaged women at high risk for sexually transmitted diseases and HIV who had never used female condoms. Pre- and postintervention surveys indicated that providing education and counseling, along with unlimited quantities of male condoms, female condoms, and water-based…

  17. Moderating Effects of Gender on Alcohol Use: Implications for Condom Use at First Intercourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dye, Claire; Upchurch, Dawn M.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined whether the effects of level of alcohol consumption on condom use at first sex depend on adolescents' gender, utilizing data from Wave I of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Compared to girls who did not consume any alcohol, inebriated girls were significantly less likely to use a condom at…

  18. Predicting Intentions to Use Condoms Using Gender, Sexual Experience, and the Theory of Planned Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, Daniel; Goggin, Kathy; Gerkovich, Mary; Metcalf, Kimberly; Kennedy, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    This study examined condom use intentions among a large diverse group of African American adolescents and provides useful information to assist in the development of effective HIV prevention interventions. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), we explored which constructs are important in shaping intentions to use condoms for younger versus…

  19. Condom and Other Contraceptive Use among a Random Sample of Female Adolescents: A Snapshot in Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimley, Diane M.; Lee, Patricia A.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the sexual practices of 235 females aged 15 to 19 years and their readiness to use specific contraceptive methods. Results indicate that, despite the availability of newer contraceptive methods, most sexually active adolescents were least resistant to using condoms, perceiving the male condom as an acceptable preventative both for…

  20. HIV Prevention and Social Desirability: Husband-Wife Discrepancies in Reports of Condom Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordero-Coma, Julia; Breen, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Greater use of condoms within marriage would help limit the spread of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. Using data from the Malawi Diffusion and Ideational Change Project (MDICP), the authors examined the influence that the fidelity norm and the traditional association between marriage and reproduction have on condom use with a spouse. The sample…

  1. Condom Use in College: Students' Self-Protection against HIV. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dekin, Bonnie J.; And Others

    This study examined condom use by college students and factors associated with consistent condom use. It is based on a survey of 212 sexually active residential students at a major eastern doctoral granting institution conducted in the spring of 1994. The survey found that a substantial number of sexually active students were engaging in behaviors…

  2. HIV Prevention and Social Desirability: Husband-Wife Discrepancies in Reports of Condom Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordero-Coma, Julia; Breen, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Greater use of condoms within marriage would help limit the spread of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. Using data from the Malawi Diffusion and Ideational Change Project (MDICP), the authors examined the influence that the fidelity norm and the traditional association between marriage and reproduction have on condom use with a spouse. The sample…

  3. Correlates of Condom Use among Male High School Students in Nairobi, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabiru, Caroline W.; Orpinas, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    Background: Correct and consistent condom use is an effective strategy to reduce the risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). This study examines sociodemographic, behavioral, and psychosocial characteristics of 3 groups of adolescent males: consistent, sporadic, and non-condom users. Methods: The sample consisted of 931 sexually…

  4. Sexual Relationship Power, Intimate Partner Violence, and Condom Use among Minority Urban Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teitelman, Anne M.; Ratcliffe, Sarah J.; Morales-Aleman, Mercedes M.; Sullivan, Cris M.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the association between sexual relationship power, intimate partner violence, and condom use among African American and Hispanic urban girls. In this sample of 56 sexually active girls, 50% did not use condoms consistently and therefore were at higher risk for acquiring HIV or sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Teens who…

  5. Condom and Other Contraceptive Use among a Random Sample of Female Adolescents: A Snapshot in Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimley, Diane M.; Lee, Patricia A.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the sexual practices of 235 females aged 15 to 19 years and their readiness to use specific contraceptive methods. Results indicate that, despite the availability of newer contraceptive methods, most sexually active adolescents were least resistant to using condoms, perceiving the male condom as an acceptable preventative both for…

  6. Moderating Effects of Gender on Alcohol Use: Implications for Condom Use at First Intercourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dye, Claire; Upchurch, Dawn M.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined whether the effects of level of alcohol consumption on condom use at first sex depend on adolescents' gender, utilizing data from Wave I of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Compared to girls who did not consume any alcohol, inebriated girls were significantly less likely to use a condom at…

  7. Sexual Relationship Power, Intimate Partner Violence, and Condom Use among Minority Urban Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teitelman, Anne M.; Ratcliffe, Sarah J.; Morales-Aleman, Mercedes M.; Sullivan, Cris M.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the association between sexual relationship power, intimate partner violence, and condom use among African American and Hispanic urban girls. In this sample of 56 sexually active girls, 50% did not use condoms consistently and therefore were at higher risk for acquiring HIV or sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Teens who…

  8. Validating the effects of social desirability on self-reported condom use behavior among commercial sex workers.

    PubMed

    Morisky, Donald E; Ang, Alfonso; Sneed, Carl D

    2002-10-01

    Most studies on the transmission of HIV depend upon self-reports of risky behaviors. This study examines if there is social desirability bias with respect to self-reported condom use behavior, assesses the reliability of a self-reported condom use scale, and validates the self-reported findings with clinical sexually transmitted infection (STI) diagnosis for commercial sex workers (N = 1,383) in the Philippines. The reliability of the condom use scale is .81, and results from confirmatory factor analysis indicate that the data fit the model well. Sex workers who reported using condoms consistently had significantly lower rates of sexually transmitted infections compared to those who never used a condom (t = 7.79, p < .01). It was concluded that no social desirability bias existed with the self-reported condom use scale. Furthermore, the condom use measure was found to have a high level of concurrent validity with STI outcomes.

  9. Is women's self-efficacy in negotiating sexual decisionmaking associated with condom use in marital relationships in Vietnam?

    PubMed

    Do, Mai; Fu, Hongyun

    2011-12-01

    Traditional Vietnamese culture places women in a subordinate position, rendering them disadvantaged in the negotiation of sexual and contraceptive decisionmaking. Drawing on data from 4,632 married women surveyed in the 2005 Vietnam Population and AIDS Indicator Survey, this study examines the relationship between women's sociodemographic characteristics, their self-efficacy in negotiating sexual activity and condom use, and their consistency and recency of condom use. Results from our structural equation models indicate that women's self-efficacy is significantly correlated with both condom use at last sex and consistent condom use in the past 12 months. Knowledge that condom use can prevent HIV also strongly predicts consistent use. Having a son is related to women's self-efficacy but not to condom use outcomes. This study suggests that the availability of condoms for disease prevention should continue to be widely promoted, and that efforts should be made to assist women in asserting their need for protection from HIV infection.

  10. CHANGES IN CONDOM USE OVER TIME AMONG FEMALE SEX WORKERS AND THEIR MALE NONCOMMERCIAL PARTNERS AND CLIENTS

    PubMed Central

    Tracas, Ashley; Bazzi, Angela Robertson; Artamonova, Irina; Rangel, M. Gudelia; Staines, Hugo; Ulibarri, Monica D.

    2017-01-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) often report inconsistent condom use with clients and noncommercial male partners, yet changes in condom use with various partner types during participation in observation studies remains underexplored. This longitudinal study of 214 FSWs and their male, noncommercial partners in the Mexico-U.S. border region, where HIV prevalence among FSWs continues to be high, utilized negative binomial regressions to examine changes in condom use with intimate partners and clients (regular and nonregular) over 24 months. Condom use decreased over time among couples in Ciudad Juarez, but there was no change in condom use among couples in Tijuana. FSWs’ condom use with regular and nonregular clients significantly increased over time, which is consistent with previous research finding behavioral changes when participating in observational studies. Findings suggest the need for continued efforts to promote condom use among FSWs and their noncommercial male partners in addition to clients. PMID:27427926

  11. Silences, gestures, and words: nonverbal and verbal communication about HIV/AIDS and condom use in black heterosexual relationships.

    PubMed

    Bowleg, Lisa; Valera, Pamela; Teti, Michelle; Tschann, Jeanne M

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study examined how 27 Black men and women, ages 22 to 50 years, in heterosexual relationships communicated verbally and nonverbally about HIV/AIDS and condom use before first time sex. Although most interviewees reported no HIV/AIDS communication, most noted communication about condom use. Verbal condom communication focused typically on requests and declarations, whereas nonverbal communication centered on the presentation of condoms. Women were more likely to communicate about condoms verbally, whereas men were more likely to do so nonverbally. Interviewees who communicated about condom use were more likely than those who did not to report first-time condom use. We discuss these findings and their implications within the context of relationship and sociocultural factors relevant to HIV/AIDS in Black communities.

  12. Methamphetamine use, attitudes about condoms, and sexual risk behavior among HIV-positive men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Nadine; Mausbach, Brent T; Ulibarri, Monica D; Semple, Shirley J; Patterson, Thomas L

    2011-04-01

    This study examined attitudes about condoms as a moderator of the relationship between methamphetamine use and sexual risk behavior in a sample of 297 HIV-positive, methamphetamine-using men who have sex with men (MSM). To test for a moderating effect of attitudes towards condoms, an interaction term was included in multiple regression analysis along with age, income, negative condom attitudes, frequency of methamphetamine use, and Beck depression score. A post hoc analysis was conducted to determine the relations between methamphetamine use and unprotected sex for persons with more vs. less negative attitudes toward condoms. These analyses indicated that when individuals had more negative attitudes toward condoms, the relation between methamphetamine frequency and unprotected sex was significant, while among participants with less negative attitudes toward condoms, no significant association was found. Addressing methamphetamine-using MSM's attitudes about condoms can serve as a form of harm reduction for those who are not yet ready or willing to discontinue methamphetamine use.

  13. Changes in Condom Use Over Time Among Female Sex Workers and Their Male Noncommercial Partners and Clients.

    PubMed

    Tracas, Ashley; Bazzi, Angela Robertson; Artamonova, Irina; Rangel, M Gudelia; Staines, Hugo; Ulibarri, Monica D

    2016-08-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) often report inconsistent condom use with clients and noncommercial male partners, yet changes in condom use with various partner types during participation in observation studies remains underexplored. This longitudinal study of 214 FSWs and their male, noncommercial partners in the Mexico-U.S. border region, where HIV prevalence among FSWs continues to be high, utilized negative binomial regressions to examine changes in condom use with intimate partners and clients (regular and nonregular) over 24 months. Condom use decreased over time among couples in Ciudad Juarez, but there was no change in condom use among couples in Tijuana. FSWs' condom use with regular and nonregular clients significantly increased over time, which is consistent with previous research finding behavioral changes when participating in observational studies. Findings suggest the need for continued efforts to promote condom use among FSWs and their noncommercial male partners in addition to clients.

  14. Lights, camera, condoms! Assessing college men's attitudes toward condom use in pornography.

    PubMed

    Kraus, Shane W; Rosenberg, Harold

    2016-01-01

    Investigate male college students' attitudes toward actors' use of condoms in pornography. Two hundred thirteen undergraduate males attending a large, state-supported midwestern university in the fall semester, 2012. Using a Web-based procedure, participants completed questionnaires assessing their pornography use, sexual history characteristics, and their attitudes toward condom use by adult performers. Factor analysis of the 11-item condom use attitudes questionnaire supported 2 distinct subscales: Condom Supportive Attitudes and Condom Critical Attitudes. Although participants typically agreed with statements supportive of condom use and generally disagreed with statements critical of condom use in pornography, gay men had significantly higher condom supportive subscale scores than did heterosexual men. Neither subscale was correlated with weekly viewing of pornography. Although some producers of adult films argue that actors wearing condoms will displease many viewers, current findings suggest that young men express support for use of condoms by pornographic film actors.

  15. Predictors of Condom Use Among Mexican Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Carmen; Villarruel, Antonia M.; Zhou, Yan; Gallegos, Esther

    2012-01-01

    Mexican adolescents continue to be at increased risk for HIV infection due to inconsistent condom use. The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of condom use intentions and condom use among Mexican adolescents who participated in a randomized control trial designed to test a sexual-risk reduction intervention. Data from sexually active adolescents 17 to 21 years (n = 157) of age who were assigned to the control group were analyzed 48 months post intervention. Regression analysis showed that positive attitudes toward condoms, subjective norms, and control beliefs significantly explained intention to use condoms (R2 = .75, p < .001). Attitudes toward condoms (β = .67, p < .001), technical skills (β = .13, p = .01), and condom use self-efficacy (β = .24, p < .001) were significant predictors of condom use intention. Compared to those who inconsistently used condoms, adolescents who used condoms consistently had greater intention to use condoms and greater impulse control. Findings suggest that attitudes and control beliefs should be further explored with Mexican adolescents in order to support consistent condom use. PMID:20949835

  16. 21 CFR 884.5300 - Condom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Condom. 884.5300 Section 884.5300 Food and Drugs... OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Therapeutic Devices § 884.5300 Condom. (a) Identification. A condom is a sheath which completely covers the penis with a closely fitting membrane....

  17. 21 CFR 884.5300 - Condom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Condom. 884.5300 Section 884.5300 Food and Drugs... OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Therapeutic Devices § 884.5300 Condom. (a) Identification. A condom is a sheath which completely covers the penis with a closely fitting membrane....

  18. 21 CFR 884.5330 - Female condom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Female condom. 884.5330 Section 884.5330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... condom. (a) Identification. A female condom is a sheath-like device that lines the vaginal wall and...

  19. Coefficient of failure: a methodology for examining longitudinal beta-cell function in Type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Wallace, T M; Matthews, D R

    2002-06-01

    We describe a new method, the determination of the coefficient of failure, which allows the assessment of beta-cell failure from any index of glycaemia. Previous methods using glycaemic thresholds and calculating time-to-failure have systematic deficiencies relating to bias, reproducibility and statistical power. Analyses using threshold methodologies and conventional survival analysis have an intrinsic disadvantage in that they use categorical data and thus make no allowance for near-failure, or progression towards failure. In contrast, the coefficient of failure includes all data in the analysis and takes into account improvement of glycaemia as well as deterioration of glycaemia. We describe the use of a 'coefficient of failure' defined as the slope of the least-squares regression line of a glycaemic index vs. time calculated for each individual patient on constant monotherapy. We exemplify the method using HbA1c levels from data from patients on chlorpropamide (n = 64) or glibenclamide (n = 65) monotherapy in the Oxford cohort of the UKPDS. Chlorpropamide-treated patients showed a mean coefficient of failure of 0.34 HbA(1c)%/year (0.44%/year sd) and glibenclamide-treated patients 0.50 HbA(1c)%/year (0.50%/year sd) (P = 0.046; unpaired two-tailed t-test). Kolmogorov-Smirnov testing demonstrated that the coefficients did not differ significantly from a normal distribution (chlorpropamide P = 0.12; glibenclamide P = 0.13). The coefficient of failure gives an estimate of beta-cell failure using any index of glycaemia. The coefficient is not constrained by predetermined glycaemic thresholds for failure and it allows the rate of decline in beta-cell function to be determined on any therapy or combination of therapies.

  20. Condom negotiation across different relationship types by young women engaged in sex work in Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Maher, Lisa; Mooney-Somers, Julie; Phlong, Pisith; Couture, Marie-Claude; Kien, Serey Phal; Stein, Ellen; Bates, Anna Juong; Sansothy, Neth; Page, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    Cambodia's 100% Condom Use Programme is credited with an increase in consistent condom use in commercial sexual interactions and a decrease in HIV prevalence among female sex workers (FSWs). There has been little improvement in condom use between FSWs and non-commercial partners, prompting calls for more innovative approaches to increasing condom use in these relationships. To understand why condoms are used or not used in sexual interactions involving FSWs, we examined condom negotiation across different types of relationships. We conducted 33 in-depth interviews with young (15 to 29 years) women engaged in sex work in Phnom Penh. There was an important interplay between the meanings of condom use and the meanings of women's relationships. Commercial relationships were characterised as inherently risky and necessitated condom use. Despite a similar lack of sexual fidelity, sweetheart relationships were rarely construed as risky and typically did not involve condom use. Husbands and wives constructed their sexual interactions with each other differently, making agreement on condom use difficult. The lack of improvement in condom use in FSWs' non-commercial sexual relationships needs to be understood in relation to both sex work and the broader Cambodian sexual culture within which these relationships are embedded.

  1. Barriers to Condom Use among High Risk Men Who Have Sex with Men in Uganda: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Musinguzi, Geofrey; Bastiaens, Hilde; Matovu, Joseph K. B.; Nuwaha, Fred; Mujisha, Geoffrey; Kiguli, Juliet; Arinaitwe, Jim; Van Geertruyden, Jean-Pierre; Wanyenze, Rhoda K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Unprotected sexual intercourse is a major risk factor for HIV transmission. Men who have sex with men (MSM) face challenges in accessing HIV prevention services, including condoms. However, there is limited in-depth assessment and documentation of the barriers to condom use among MSM in sub-Saharan Africa. In this paper, we examine the barriers to condom use among MSM in Uganda. Methods The data for this study were extracted from a larger qualitative study conducted among 85 self-identified adult (>18 years) MSM in 11 districts in Uganda between July and December 2013. Data on sexual behaviours and access and barriers to condom use were collected using semi-structured interviews. All interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. This paper presents an analysis of data for 33 MSM who did not use condoms at last sex, with a focus on barriers to condom use. Analysis was conducted using the content analysis approach. Results Six major barriers to condom use were identified: Difficulties with using condoms, access challenges, lack of knowledge and misinformation about condom use, partner and relationship related issues, financial incentives and socio-economic vulnerability, and alcohol consumption. Conclusion The findings suggest that several reasons account for lack of condom use among high-risk MSM. The findings are valuable to inform interventions needed to increase condom use among MSM. PMID:26172374

  2. Barriers to Condom Use among High Risk Men Who Have Sex with Men in Uganda: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Musinguzi, Geofrey; Bastiaens, Hilde; Matovu, Joseph K B; Nuwaha, Fred; Mujisha, Geoffrey; Kiguli, Juliet; Arinaitwe, Jim; Van Geertruyden, Jean-Pierre; Wanyenze, Rhoda K

    2015-01-01

    Unprotected sexual intercourse is a major risk factor for HIV transmission. Men who have sex with men (MSM) face challenges in accessing HIV prevention services, including condoms. However, there is limited in-depth assessment and documentation of the barriers to condom use among MSM in sub-Saharan Africa. In this paper, we examine the barriers to condom use among MSM in Uganda. The data for this study were extracted from a larger qualitative study conducted among 85 self-identified adult (>18 years) MSM in 11 districts in Uganda between July and December 2013. Data on sexual behaviours and access and barriers to condom use were collected using semi-structured interviews. All interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. This paper presents an analysis of data for 33 MSM who did not use condoms at last sex, with a focus on barriers to condom use. Analysis was conducted using the content analysis approach. Six major barriers to condom use were identified: Difficulties with using condoms, access challenges, lack of knowledge and misinformation about condom use, partner and relationship related issues, financial incentives and socio-economic vulnerability, and alcohol consumption. The findings suggest that several reasons account for lack of condom use among high-risk MSM. The findings are valuable to inform interventions needed to increase condom use among MSM.

  3. Condom negotiation across different relationship types by young women engaged in sex work in Phnom Penh, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Maher, Lisa; Mooney-Somers, Julie; Phlong, Pisith; Couture, Marie-Claude; Kien, Serey Phal; Stein, Ellen; Bates, Anna Juong; Sansothy, Neth; Page, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    Cambodia's 100% Condom Use Programme is credited with an increase in consistent condom use in commercial sexual interactions and a decrease in HIV prevalence among female sex workers (FSWs). There has been little improvement in condom use between FSWs and non-commercial partners, prompting calls for more innovative approaches to increasing condom use in these relationships. To understand why condoms are used or not used in sexual interactions involving FSWs, we examined condom negotiation across different types of relationships. We conducted 33 in-depth interviews with young (15 to 29 years) women engaged in sex work in Phnom Penh. There was an important interplay between the meanings of condom use and the meanings of women's relationships. Commercial relationships were characterised as inherently risky and necessitated condom use. Despite a similar lack of sexual fidelity, sweetheart relationships were rarely construed as risky and typically did not involve condom use. Husbands and wives constructed their sexual interactions with each other differently, making agreement on condom use difficult. The lack of improvement in condom use in FSWs' non-commercial sexual relationships needs to be understood in relation to both sex work and the broader Cambodian sexual culture within which these relationships are embedded. PMID:23432108

  4. The diagnostic value of physical examination and additional testing in primary care patients with suspected heart failure.

    PubMed

    Kelder, Johannes C; Cramer, Maarten J; van Wijngaarden, Jan; van Tooren, Rob; Mosterd, Arend; Moons, Karel G M; Lammers, Jan W; Cowie, Martin R; Grobbee, Diederick E; Hoes, Arno W

    2011-12-20

    Early diagnosis of nonacute heart failure is crucial because prompt initiation of evidence-based treatment can prevent or slow down further progression. To diagnose new-onset heart failure in primary care is challenging. This is a cross-sectional diagnostic accuracy study with external validation. Seven hundred twenty-one consecutive patients suspected of new-onset heart failure underwent standardized diagnostic work-up including chest x-ray, spirometry, ECG, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) measurement, and echocardiography in specially equipped outpatient diagnostic heart failure clinics. The presence of heart failure was determined by an outcome panel using the initial clinical data and 6-month follow-up data, blinded to biomarker data. Of the 721 patients, 207 (28.7%) had heart failure. The combination of 3 items from history (age, coronary artery disease, and loop diuretic use) plus 6 from physical examination (pulse rate and regularity, displaced apex beat, rales, heart murmur, and increased jugular vein pressure) showed independent diagnostic value (c-statistic 0.83). NT-proBNP was the most powerful supplementary diagnostic test, increasing the c-statistic to 0.86 and resulting in net reclassification improvement of 69% (P<0.0001). A simplified diagnostic rule was applied to 2 external validation datasets, resulting in c- statistics of 0.95 and 0.88, confirming the results. In this study, we estimated the quantitative diagnostic contribution of elements of the history and physical examination in the diagnosis of heart failure in primary care outpatients, which may help to improve clinical decision making. The largest additional quantitative diagnostic contribution to those elements was provided by measurement of NT-proBNP. For daily practice, a diagnostic rule was derived that may be useful to quantify the probability of heart failure in patients with new symptoms suggestive of heart failure.

  5. Exploring Factors Associated with Nonchange in Condom Use Behavior following Participation in an STI/HIV Prevention Intervention for African-American Adolescent Females

    PubMed Central

    Sales, Jessica M.; Brown, Jennifer L.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Rose, Eve

    2012-01-01

    To enhance future STI/HIV prevention efforts, this study examined factors associated with adolescents' failure to improve their condom use behaviors after participating in an STI/HIV prevention intervention. African-American adolescent females (N = 205; M age = 17.9) in an STI/HIV prevention intervention trial completed ACASI interviews and provided self-collected vaginal swabs to assess two prevalent STIs at baseline and 6 months after intervention. Analyses compared those who increased condom use after intervention (change group) to those whose condom use did not increase (nonchange group). 43.4% did not increase their condom use after the intervention and were more likely to have an STI at followup (χ 2 = 4.64, P = .03). In a multivariate logistic regression model, the nonchange group was more likely to have (a) higher sensation seeking (AOR = .91, P = .023), (b) a boyfriend (AOR = .32, P = .046), and/or (c) a physical abuse history (AOR = .56, P = .057). There were also differences in the extent to which psychosocial mediators changed between the two groups. Findings highlight the need to tailor STI/HIV interventions to adolescents with a greater degree of sensation seeking and address key relationship characteristics and trauma histories to bolster intervention efficacy. PMID:22690331

  6. Condoms hitch lift with truckers.

    PubMed

    Kilimwiko, L

    1991-09-01

    This article reports on the efforts being made in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania and other road stops in central Tanzania to provide condoms to long-haul drivers and the women who serve on-the-road-companionship. The Truck Driver's AIDS Intervention Project (TDAIP) in collaboration with the African Medical Research Foundation (AMREF) and Tanzania's National AIDS Control Program (NACP) are working to protect these 2 at risk populations. Along the 1000 km Tanzania/Zambia highway, gasoline pump attendants offer drivers condoms. Prostitutes at these stops also offer condoms. There are meter long stickers with "condoms prevent AIDs" available. The message from the NACP regional office is that those at risk, such as truck drivers, are unlikely to attend rallies, or hear radio message when behind the wheel. Research has shown that men are more receptive to messages given in a work setting. Barmaids at 5 of the most frequented truckstops have been trained as peer health educators. Their job is to sensitize the men to the dangers of AIDs. An operating example is given of the barmaid serving drinks, and when approached, replies with the messages of how protection can be accomplished. One partner only is recommended, and if this is not possible, then one should avoid assuming "labda huyu hana ukimwi" (hopefully this one is AIDs free). There is no safe sex. The peer educators are trained in AIDs prevention and communication skills, and are paid a monthly wage. 725,000 condoms and 250,000 pieces of educational literature were distributed by TDAIP at these 5 truckstops in the 1st 6 months of 1990. Several drawbacks to this effort have occurred. It is difficult to sustain the distribution system outside a medical setting, and it is difficult to effectively monitor and support peer educators spread out across the country. One barmaid observed that those seeking condoms were primarily from outside Tanzania: Zambia, Malawi, Zaire, Rwanda, and Burundi, where better information about the

  7. What really works? An exploratory study of condom negotiation strategies.

    PubMed

    Lam, Amy G; Mak, Amy; Lindsay, Patricia D; Russell, Stephen T

    2004-04-01

    Verbal-direct strategies are assumed to be the most effective strategies in negotiating condom use. Both cultural and gender differences in communication styles suggest that individuals may negotiate condoms in ways that are not exclusively verbal and direct. This study examined the use of other forms of condom negotiations by developing an exploratory scale that distinguished strategies on how verbal and direct they were (i.e., verbal-direct, verbal-indirect, nonverbal-direct, nonverbal-indirect). The study compared the use of negotiation strategies among Asian and White American students at a northern California university. Results indicated that although direct strategies (verbal and nonverbal) were more frequently used, condom users also employed indirect strategies (verbal and nonverbal) to negotiate condom use. Moreover, Asians used verbal-indirect strategies more than Whites. Women used nonverbal-indirect strategies more than men. HIV preventions seeking to be culturally sensitive to Asians and women may benefit from incorporating these strategies into their interventions.

  8. Perceptions of a campus-wide condom distribution programme: An exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Diane B; Noar, Seth M; Widman, Laura; Willoughby, Jessica Fitts; Sanchez, Diana M; Garrett, Kyla P

    2016-01-01

    Objective Condom distribution programmes are an important means of preventing sexually transmitted infections (STIs); yet little research has examined their perceived and actual impact on college campuses. Design Quantitative, cross-sectional study. Setting Large public university in the Southeastern USA. Method Approximately 2 months after a campus-wide condom distribution programme began, we utilised intercept surveys with 355 students (68% women; 43% racial/ethnic minorities) to examine their perceptions of the availability, accessibility and acceptability of condoms, and their perceptions and use of the newly installed condom dispensers. Results Students perceived condoms to be available and accessible on campus after implementation of the condom dispensers. Students had heard about the dispensers from other people (36%), through social media (18%) and the campus newspaper (15%). Most students (71%) had seen the dispensers. Almost one in four students (23%) had taken a condom from the dispensers; among those who were sexually active during the 2months that the dispensers were available, 33% had used them. More than one-third of students (37%) – and 53% of sexually active students – indicated intentions to use the dispensers in the next 6months. Multiple regression analysis controlling for age, gender and race revealed that prior condom use, attitudes about the dispensers and comfort with the dispensers were significant predictors of sexually active students’ intentions to use the dispensers (p<.001). Conclusion Overall, results indicate that over a short time period, this condom distribution programme was successful in reaching students and providing free condoms. Implications for implementing condom distribution programmes on college campuses as well as future directions for research are discussed. PMID:27917002

  9. Ultrastructural examination of failed molar retreatment with secondary apical periodontitis: an examination of endodontic biofilms in an endodontic retreatment failure.

    PubMed

    Carr, Gary B; Schwartz, Richard S; Schaudinn, Christoph; Gorur, Amita; Costerton, J William

    2009-09-01

    A light and electron microscope examination of the resected root tip of a failing endodontically re-treated lower molar was examined. The tooth had been initially treated 10 years ago and then re-treated 2 years ago. The resected root tip was sectioned axially, and thin sections were examined through the entire length of the specimen. Thin sections were examined with a transmission electron microscope. The thin sections were randomly chosen along the isthmus areas between the mesiobuccal and mesiolingual canals. Our findings suggest that a complex, variable, multispecies biofilm was present the entire length of the specimen.

  10. Prognostic value of the physical examination in patients with heart failure and atrial fibrillation: insights from the AF-CHF trial (atrial fibrillation and chronic heart failure).

    PubMed

    Caldentey, Guillem; Khairy, Paul; Roy, Denis; Leduc, Hugues; Talajic, Mario; Racine, Normand; White, Michel; O'Meara, Eileen; Guertin, Marie-Claude; Rouleau, Jean L; Ducharme, Anique

    2014-02-01

    This study sought to assess the prognostic value of physical examination in a modern treated heart failure population. The physical examination is the cornerstone of the evaluation and monitoring of patients with heart failure. Yet, the prognostic value of congestive signs (i.e., peripheral edema, jugular venous distension, a third heart sound, and pulmonary rales) has not been assessed in the current era. A post-hoc analysis was conducted on all 1,376 patients, 81% male, mean age 67 ± 11 years, with symptomatic left ventricular systolic dysfunction enrolled in the AF-CHF (Atrial Fibrillation and Congestive Heart Failure) trial. The prognostic value of baseline physical examination findings was assessed in univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses. Peripheral edema was observed in 425 (30.9%), jugular venous distension in 297 (21.6%), a third heart sound in 207 (15.0%), and pulmonary rales in 178 (12.9%) patients. Death from cardiovascular causes occurred in 357 (25.9%) patients over a mean follow-up of 37 ± 19 months. All 4 physical examination findings were associated with cardiovascular mortality in univariate analyses (all p values <0.01). In multivariate analyses, taking all 4 signs as potential covariates, only rales (hazard ratio 1.41; 95% confidence interval: 1.07 to 1.86; p = 0.013) and peripheral edema (hazard ratio: 1.25; 95% confidence interval: 1.00 to 1.57; p = 0.048) were associated with cardiovascular mortality, independent of other variables. In the modern era, congestive signs on the physical examination (i.e., peripheral edema, jugular venous distension, a third heart sound, and pulmonary rales) continue to provide important prognostic information in patients with congestive heart failure. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Condoms: still the most popular contraceptive.

    PubMed

    Silverstone, T

    1997-01-01

    Condoms can be used as a barrier contraceptive and/or to protect against many sexually-transmitted diseases. They are easy to buy and use and free from medical risk. Carefully used, and used in conjunction with a spermicide, condoms have similar reliability to IUDs, progesterone-only pills and the diaphragm. The condom must be put on before the penis touches the vaginal area. The penis should not touch the vaginal area after the condom has been taken off. Oil-based products, eg baby oil, massage oil, lipstick, petroleum jelly, suntan oil, can damage the condom. If a lubricant is required, use one that is water-based.

  12. Differences in condom behaviors and beliefs among female drug users recruited from two cities.

    PubMed

    Wood, M M; Tortu, S; Rhodes, F; Deren, S

    1998-01-01

    This paper examines predictors of condom cognitions and condom use for vaginal sex within women's main and paying partnerships. The sample consisted of active injection drug and crack-using women recruited from two cities with disparate HIV rates. A total of 338 drug-using women who reported vaginal sex with a main and/or paying partner in the prior 30 days were recruited for this study. Recruitment site was a significant predictor for several of the variables examined, for both main and paying partners. Ethnicity and prior HIV test result were also significant predictors, but only for main sex partners. Findings support previous research and suggest that the factors which predict condom beliefs, intention, and behaviors are different for main versus paying partners. Interventions designed to increase condom use must recognize that cognitive factors associated with condom use may vary by partner type, ethnicity, and recruitment site, particularly when important contextual variables, such as local seroprevalence, vary.

  13. A randomized noninferiority crossover controlled trial of the functional performance and safety of new female condoms: an evaluation of the Velvet, Cupid2, and FC2.

    PubMed

    Beksinska, Mags; Greener, Ross; Kleinschmidt, Immo; Pillay, Lavanya; Maphumulo, Virginia; Smit, Jennifer

    2015-09-01

    New designs of female condoms have been developed to lower cost and/or improve acceptability. To secure regulatory approvals, clinical studies are required to verify performance. We aimed to assess the functional performance and safety of two new female condom types - Velvet and Cupid2 female condom - against the existing FC2 female condom. This was a three-period crossover, randomized noninferiority clinical trial with 300 women randomized to condom-type order in one South African site. Primary end points were total clinical failure and total female condom failure. Noninferiority of component modes, clinical breakage, nonclinical breakage, slippage, misdirection and invagination were also determined. Safety data were also assessed for each female condom. Participants were asked to use five of each female condom type and to collect information on use in a condom diary at home and were interviewed after use of each type. Frequencies and percentages were calculated by condom type for each failure mode, and differences in performance of the three female condoms using FC2 as reference, with 95% confidence intervals, were estimated using generalized estimating equation models. A total of 282 (94%) participants completed follow-up, using at least one condom of each type. Total clinical failure (clinical breakage, invagination, misdirection, slippage) was <5% for all female condoms: FC2 (4.50%), Cupid2 (4.79%) and Velvet (3.93%). Noninferiority was demonstrated for all condom failure modes for the two new female condoms with respect to FC2, within the margin of 3% difference in mean failure, at the 5% significance level. Noninferiority for the two new female condoms was demonstrated with respect to the marketed FC2. These data are used to support manufacturer dossiers for World Health Organization (WHO)/United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) prequalification. Data from this study have been submitted to WHO/UNFPA and will contribute to the prequalification submission

  14. Women's Autonomy and Attitudes toward Condom Use: A Multicountry Analysis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Bonita B; Small, Eusebius; Mengo, Cecilia; Ude, Paula

    2017-01-01

    Autonomy gives women the ability to negotiate safe sex and make decisions on their health. This study explores the gender stratification framework to understand the intertwined nature of HIV and women's autonomy using the nationally representative Demographic Health Survey. It examines women's autonomy and attitudes toward condom use for prevention of HIV/AIDS in four culturally diverse countries. Findings from the logistic regression indicate that labor force participation, individual autonomy, and decision making significantly increased the odds of always using a condom during sex in all countries. Promoting prevention policies highlighting women's autonomy may contribute in reducing the spread of HIV infection.

  15. Determinants of condom breakage among female sex workers in Karnataka, India

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Condoms are effective in preventing the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, when properly used. However, recent data from surveys of female sex workers (FSWs) in Karnataka in south India, suggest that condom breakage rates may be quite high. It is important therefore to quantify condom breakage rates, and examine what factors might precipitate condom breakage, so that programmers can identify those at risk, and develop appropriate interventions. Methods We explored determinants of reported condom breakage in the previous month among 1,928 female sex workers in four districts of Karnataka using data from cross-sectional surveys undertaken from July 2008 to February 2009. Using stepwise multivariate logistic regression, we examined the possible determinants of condom breakage, controlling for several independent variables including the district and client load. Results Overall, 11.4% of FSWs reported at least one condom break in the previous month. FSWs were much more likely to report breakage if under 20 years of age (AOR 3.43, p = 0.005); if divorced/ separated/widowed (AOR 1.52, p = 0.012); if they were regular alcohol users (AOR 1.63, p = 0.005); if they mostly entertained clients in lodges/rented rooms (AOR 2.99, p = 0.029) or brothels (AOR 4.77, p = 0.003), compared to street based sex workers; if they had ever had anal sex (AOR 2.03, p = 0.006); if the sex worker herself (as opposed to the client) applied the condom at last use (AOR 1.90, p < 0.001); if they were inconsistent condom users (AOR 2.77, p < 0.001); and if they had never seen a condom demonstration (AOR 2.37, p < 0.001). Conclusions The reported incidence of condom breakage was high in this study, and this is a major concern for HIV/STI prevention programs, for which condom use is a key prevention tool. Younger and more marginalized female sex workers were most vulnerable to condom breakage. Special effort is therefore required to seek out such women and to

  16. "Condoms are the standard, right?": Exploratory study of the reasons for using condoms by Black American emerging adult women.

    PubMed

    Longmire-Avital, Buffie; Oberle, Virginia

    2016-01-01

    Condoms are considered a highly effective form of sexually transmitted infection prevention for heterosexual sex. Black American women (BAW) have been and are at elevated risk for heterosexual exposure to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) because they have been and continue to be less likely to negotiate condom use with a partner that supports them financially. However, BAW who have made tremendous educational gains may still encounter challenges regarding the distribution of power that can affect condom use and negotiation. The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the reasons that highly educated, emerging, adult BAW reported for using condoms. One hundred twenty-seven emerging adult BAW (ages 18-29 years) completed a mixed-methods online survey during the spring of 2013 (January-May). Approximately 80% of the women were in college or college graduates. They had a high rate of previous HIV testing (68.5%). Through the use of an interpretive paradigm and grounded theory, three themes emerged regarding the reasons that the participants in this sample used condoms as their primary form of protection: (1) the reliable "standard," (2) pregnancy prevention, and (3) cost effective and "easily accessible." Findings are discussed in terms of their public health significance for this seemingly lower-risk population.

  17. [Survey on examinations for diagnosis of bone marrow failure in Japan: a report from the Japanese National Research Group on Idiopathic Bone Marrow Failure Syndromes].

    PubMed

    Araseki, Kayano; Matsuda, Akira; Tohyama, Kaoru; Ishikawa, Takayuki; Kawabata, Hiroshi; Miyazaki, Yasushi; Nakao, Shinji; Tomonaga, Masao; Takaori-Kondo, Akifumi; Kurokawa, Mineo; Omine, Mitsuhiro; Ozawa, Keiya

    2012-07-01

    Using a registration sheet of a prospective registration system for aplastic anemia (AA)/myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), by the National Research Group on Idiopathic Bone Marrow Failure Syndromes, Japan, we carried out a survey on examinations for diagnosis of bone marrow failure. Bone marrow trephine biopsy was performed in 66 of 105 cases (63%) [Original diagnosis: AA 51 cases (80%), MDS 12 (32%), undiagnosable 3 (75%)]. Bone marrow aspiration was performed in all cases, and aspiration was performed at least twice in 36 cases (34%). The first-line anatomic site for bone marrow aspiration was the posterior iliac crest (62%). Cytogenetic examination was performed in 93%. The concordance rate between the original and the central review diagnosis was 93% among the studied cases: AA, Idiopathic cytopenia of undetermined significance (ICUS) and MDS in total. Flow cytometry analysis to detect paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH)-type blood cells was performed in 32%.

  18. AIDS and the marketing of condoms.

    PubMed

    Boone, L E; Kurtz, D L

    1988-01-01

    The condom market has undergone unprecedented change in the 1980's and will continue to see its markets, advertising strategies, and sales grow and change in ways never before imagined. In the past, condoms were viewed as unmentionable products that were marketed only at men between 18 and 35 and sold only in gas station restrooms and bus stations. But today women account for and estimated 40-50% of condom sales and after a Supreme Court ruling in 1977, condoms are now sold in front of the counter, not behind it. Further, the AIDS epidemic which has afflicted 40,000 U.S. citizens between 19811 and 1988 has served as an impetus to growth and diversification of the condom market. The new legitimacy of the condom combined with new entries into the market by other manufacturers has resulted in growth and segmentation in the condom market.

  19. Social marketing: making condoms available to communities. An interview with Duncan Earle.

    PubMed

    1994-05-01

    This document presents an interview in which AIDSCAP private-sector officer Duncan Earle discusses how condom social marketing contributes to AIDS prevention efforts. Condom social marketing uses commercial marketing techniques to promote condom use by making them more accessible and affordable. Thus, condoms are sold where people can purchase them without embarrassment (often by street hawkers) or where they may be needed in impulsive situations (in bars, hotels, and nightclubs). Social marketing relies on such marketing techniques as identifying wholesalers, assisting wholesalers with sales, creating point-of-purchase advertising, and developing attractive packaging. Prices are based on rough formulas derived from per capita gross national product and the prices people are willing to pay for such products as matches, cigarettes, candy, and aspirin. Quality is assured if the condoms are obtained through the US Agency for International Development's procurement system. Samples of condoms obtained from other sources are submitted for quality testing. The success of social marketing programs can be determined by examining sales and resupply. Cost effectiveness is determined by the cost of delivering 100 condoms (1 couple-year of protection). While social marketing would be more cost effective without expenditures on advertising, it would be less effective overall. Some barriers that must be overcome to market condoms include laws outlawing the sale or advertising of condoms, duties and customs' surcharges on imported condoms (which, in some cases, increase the cost 33%), and religious objections to contraception. As well as selling condoms, social marketing programs educate people about AIDS using any kind of media available.

  20. Correlates of condom use among female sex workers in The Gambia: results of a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Grosso, Ashley L; Lei, Esther L; Ketende, Sosthenes C; Peitzmeier, Sarah; Mason, Krystal; Ceesay, Nuha; Diouf, Daouda; Drame, Fatou Maria; Loum, Jaegan; Papworth, Erin; Baral, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This study examined correlates of condom use among 248 female sex workers (FSW) in The Gambia. Methods. Between July and August 2011, FSW in The Gambia who were older than 16 years of age, the age of consent in The Gambia, were recruited for the study using venue-based sampling and snowball sampling, beginning with seeds who were established clients with the Network of AIDS Services Organizations. To be eligible, FSW must have reported selling sex for money, favors, or goods in the past 12 months. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to determine associations and the relative odds of the independent variables with condom use. Four different condom use dependent variables were used: consistent condom use in the past six months during vaginal or anal sex with all clients and partners; consistent condom use in the past month during vaginal sex with new clients; consistent condom use in the past month during vaginal sex with nonpaying partners (including boyfriends, husbands, or casual sexual partners); and condom use at last vaginal or anal sex with a nonpaying partner. Results. Many FSW (67.34%, n = 167) reported it was not at all difficult to negotiate condom use with clients in all applicable situations, and these FSW were more likely to report consistent condom use with all clients and partners in the past 6 months (aOR 3.47, 95% CI [1.70-7.07]) compared to those perceiving any difficulty in condom negotiation. In addition, FSW were more likely to report using condoms in the past month with new clients (aOR 8.04, 95% CI [2.11-30.65]) and in the past month with nonpaying partners (aOR 2.93, 95% CI [1.09-7.89]) if they had been tested for HIV in the past year. Women who bought all their condoms were less likely than those who received all of their condoms for free (aOR 0.38, 95% CI [0.15-0.97]) to have used a condom at last vaginal or anal sex with a nonpaying partner. Conclusions. HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI

  1. Correlates of condom use among female sex workers in The Gambia: results of a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Esther L.; Ketende, Sosthenes C.; Peitzmeier, Sarah; Mason, Krystal; Ceesay, Nuha; Diouf, Daouda; Drame, Fatou Maria; Loum, Jaegan; Papworth, Erin; Baral, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This study examined correlates of condom use among 248 female sex workers (FSW) in The Gambia. Methods. Between July and August 2011, FSW in The Gambia who were older than 16 years of age, the age of consent in The Gambia, were recruited for the study using venue-based sampling and snowball sampling, beginning with seeds who were established clients with the Network of AIDS Services Organizations. To be eligible, FSW must have reported selling sex for money, favors, or goods in the past 12 months. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to determine associations and the relative odds of the independent variables with condom use. Four different condom use dependent variables were used: consistent condom use in the past six months during vaginal or anal sex with all clients and partners; consistent condom use in the past month during vaginal sex with new clients; consistent condom use in the past month during vaginal sex with nonpaying partners (including boyfriends, husbands, or casual sexual partners); and condom use at last vaginal or anal sex with a nonpaying partner. Results. Many FSW (67.34%, n = 167) reported it was not at all difficult to negotiate condom use with clients in all applicable situations, and these FSW were more likely to report consistent condom use with all clients and partners in the past 6 months (aOR 3.47, 95% CI [1.70–7.07]) compared to those perceiving any difficulty in condom negotiation. In addition, FSW were more likely to report using condoms in the past month with new clients (aOR 8.04, 95% CI [2.11–30.65]) and in the past month with nonpaying partners (aOR 2.93, 95% CI [1.09–7.89]) if they had been tested for HIV in the past year. Women who bought all their condoms were less likely than those who received all of their condoms for free (aOR 0.38, 95% CI [0.15–0.97]) to have used a condom at last vaginal or anal sex with a nonpaying partner. Conclusions. HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI

  2. Condom Use at Last Sex as a Proxy for Other Measures of Condom Use: Is It Good Enough?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Younge, Sinead N.; Salazar, Laura F.; Crosby, Richard F.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Wingood, Gina M.; Rose, Eve

    2008-01-01

    Condom use at last sex is a widely used indicator in sexual behavior research; however, there is little empirical research validating this indicator. This study examined whether a single-event recall period (the last time coitus occurred) was consistent with longer recall periods (14 days and 60 days) for a sample of African American adolescent…

  3. The NYC Condom: Use and Acceptability of New York City's Branded Condom

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Ryan C.; Wilson, Juliet; Bernstein, Kyle T.; Grosskopf, Nicholas; Murrill, Christopher; Cutler, Blayne; Sweeney, Monica

    2009-01-01

    We assessed awareness and experience with the NYC Condom via surveys at 7 public events targeting priority condom distribution populations during 2007. Most respondents (76%) were aware of NYC Condoms. Of those that had obtained them, 69% had used them. Most (80%) wanted alternative condoms offered for free: 22% wanted ultra-thin, 18% extra-strength, and 14% larger-size. Six months after the NYC Condom launch, we found high levels of awareness and use. Because many wanted alternative condoms, the Department of Health and Mental Hygiene began distributing the 3 most-requested alternatives. PMID:19834001

  4. Technical Failure of MR Elastography Examinations of the Liver: Experience from a Large Single-Center Study.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Mathilde; Corcuera-Solano, Idoia; Lo, Grace; Esses, Steven; Liao, Joseph; Besa, Cecilia; Chen, Nelson; Abraham, Ginu; Fung, Maggie; Babb, James S; Ehman, Richard L; Taouli, Bachir

    2017-08-01

    Purpose To assess the determinants of technical failure of magnetic resonance (MR) elastography of the liver in a large single-center study. Materials and Methods This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board. Seven hundred eighty-one MR elastography examinations performed in 691 consecutive patients (mean age, 58 years; male patients, 434 [62.8%]) in a single center between June 2013 and August 2014 were retrospectively evaluated. MR elastography was performed at 3.0 T (n = 443) or 1.5 T (n = 338) by using a gradient-recalled-echo pulse sequence. MR elastography and anatomic image analysis were performed by two observers. Additional observers measured liver T2* and fat fraction. Technical failure was defined as no pixel value with a confidence index higher than 95% and/or no apparent shear waves imaged. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess potential predictive factors of technical failure of MR elastography. Results The technical failure rate of MR elastography at 1.5 T was 3.5% (12 of 338), while it was higher, 15.3% (68 of 443), at 3.0 T. On the basis of univariate analysis, body mass index, liver iron deposition, massive ascites, use of 3.0 T, presence of cirrhosis, and alcoholic liver disease were all significantly associated with failure of MR elastography (P < .004); but on the basis of multivariable analysis, only body mass index, liver iron deposition, massive ascites, and use of 3.0 T were significantly associated with failure of MR elastography (P < .004). Conclusion The technical failure rate of MR elastography with a gradient-recalled-echo pulse sequence was low at 1.5 T but substantially higher at 3.0 T. Massive ascites, iron deposition, and high body mass index were additional independent factors associated with failure of MR elastography of the liver with a two-dimensional gradient-recalled-echo pulse sequence. (©) RSNA, 2017.

  5. Kenyan female sex workers' use of female-controlled nonbarrier modern contraception: do they use condoms less consistently?

    PubMed

    Yam, Eileen A; Okal, Jerry; Musyoki, Helgar; Muraguri, Nicholas; Tun, Waimar; Sheehy, Meredith; Geibel, Scott

    2016-03-01

    To examine whether nonbarrier modern contraceptive use is associated with less consistent condom use among Kenyan female sex workers (FSWs). Researchers recruited 579 FSWs using respondent-driven sampling. We conducted multivariate logistic regression to examine the association between consistent condom use and female-controlled nonbarrier modern contraceptive use. A total of 98.8% reported using male condoms in the past month, and 64.6% reported using female-controlled nonbarrier modern contraception. In multivariate analysis, female-controlled nonbarrier modern contraceptive use was not associated with decreased condom use with clients or nonpaying partners. Consistency of condom use is not compromised when FSWs use available female-controlled nonbarrier modern contraception. FSWs should be encouraged to use condoms consistently, whether or not other methods are used simultaneously. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Acceptability of female condom use among women exchanging street sex in New York City.

    PubMed

    Witte, S S; el-Bassel, N; Wada, T; Gray, O; Wallace, J

    1999-03-01

    Greater access to alternative female-initiated barrier methods, such as the female condom, is needed among women exchanging street sex. This study describes knowledge of and experience with the female condom among 101 women exchanging sex for money and drugs on the streets of New York City, and examines the acceptability of female condom use as an alternative barrier method for HIV/STD prevention among this population. Female condom use among this sample of sex workers was found to be related to having a regular sexual partner, living with someone who is a drug or alcohol abuser, not being homeless, using alcohol or intravenous heroin, having heard of the device, and having discussed the device with other women or with a regular sexual partner. Despite decreased acceptability post-use, most sex workers indicated an intention for future female condom use.

  7. Theories of reasoned action and planned behavior as models of condom use: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Albarracín, D; Johnson, B T; Fishbein, M; Muellerleile, P A

    2001-01-01

    To examine how well the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior predict condom use, the authors synthesized 96 data sets (N = 22,594) containing associations between the models' key variables. Consistent with the theory of reasoned action's predictions, (a) condom use was related to intentions (weighted mean r. = .45), (b) intentions were based on attitudes (r. = .58) and subjective norms (r. = .39), and (c) attitudes were associated with behavioral beliefs (r. = .56) and norms were associated with normative beliefs (r. = .46). Consistent with the theory of planned behavior's predictions, perceived behavioral control was related to condom use intentions (r. = .45) and condom use (r. = .25), but in contrast to the theory, it did not contribute significantly to condom use. The strength of these associations, however, was influenced by the consideration of past behavior. Implications of these results for HIV prevention efforts are discussed.

  8. Theories of Reasoned Action and Planned Behavior as Models of Condom Use: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Albarracín, Dolores; Johnson, Blair T.; Fishbein, Martin; Muellerleile, Paige A.

    2013-01-01

    To examine how well the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior predict condom use, the authors synthesized 96 data sets (N = 22,594) containing associations between the models’ key variables. Consistent with the theory of reasoned action’s predictions, (a) condom use was related to intentions (weighted mean r. = .45), (b) intentions were based on attitudes (r. = .58) and subjective norms (r. = .39), and (c) attitudes were associated with behavioral beliefs (r. = .56) and norms were associated with normative beliefs (r. = .46). Consistent with the theory of planned behavior’s predictions, perceived behavioral control was related to condom use intentions (r. = .45) and condom use (r. = .25), but in contrast to the theory, it did not contribute significantly to condom use. The strength of these associations, however, was influenced by the consideration of past behavior. Implications of these results for HIV prevention efforts are discussed. PMID:11271752

  9. “It’s a Different Condom, Let’s See How It Works”: Young Men’s Reactions to and Experiences of Female Condom Use During an Intervention Trial in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Masvawure, Tsitsi B.; Mantell, Joanne E.; Mabude, Zonke; Ngoloyi, Claudia; Milford, Cecilia; Beksinska, Mags; Smit, Jennifer A.

    2013-01-01

    Although male partner cooperation is often essential for successful use of the female condom, only a few studies have directly assessed men’s experiences of using the device. We examined barriers to and facilitators of female condom use via qualitative in-depth interviews with 38 young men (18 to 28 years) in South Africa whose partners, all university students, were enrolled in a female condom intervention trial. In all, 21 men used the female condom; the remaining 17 did not attempt use. The main facilitators to female condom use were convenience of use for men, curiosity to see how female condoms compared to male condoms, enhanced sexual sensation, and perceptions of better safety and comfort of the device compared to male condoms. The main barriers were men’s limited familiarity with the device, insertion difficulties, and men’s concerns about loss of control over sexual encounters. We recommend that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention and condom promotion programs around the world target men directly for education on female condoms and that they also work with couples jointly around issues of safer-sex communication and negotiation. PMID:24053638

  10. Condoms in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Maticka-Tyndale, Eleanor

    2012-03-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is the region with the world's highest rates of HIV and other sexually transmissible infections (STIs), yet numerous studies show that condom use is generally rare. This suggests a need for a better understanding of how condoms fit within sexual practices and relationships in SSA. This paper seeks to address this need by reviewing research published between the late 1980s and 2011 on use and factors influencing use of male condoms in SSA. What is evident from this research is that condom use involves complex social and interpersonal dynamics, with structural and cultural conditions exerting an influence through framing social cognitions and setting boundaries on autonomy that make the apparently irrational choice of eschewing condoms a rational decision. The influences of poverty; relationships with parents, peers and partners; limited, insufficient or absent information especially in rural areas and among men who have sex with men; gender and sexual norms, and the dynamics of gendered power; and beliefs and attitudes about HIV, condoms and sexuality all have been shown to work against condom use for a large proportion of Africa's people. However, promising results are shown in trends towards increased condom use among single women in numerous countries, increasing acceptance and use of condoms among some university students, successes in producing potentially sustainable condom use resulting from select interventions, and resistance to succumbing to the dominant gender-power dynamics and structural-cultural impediments that women in groups have mobilised.

  11. Aboriginal women's stories of sexually transmissible infection transmission and condom use in remote central Australia.

    PubMed

    Stark, Astrid M; Hope, Alex

    2007-12-01

    Sexually transmissible infection (STI) rates are persistently high in central Australia, creating conditions for a potential HIV pandemic in the area. There is a shortage of qualitative research examining the underlying factors affecting STI transmission in this region. The present study investigates Aboriginal women's current levels of knowledge regarding STI and their transmission, perception of risk for STI, patterns of condom use, access to condoms and experiences of condom negotiation with their partners. It also explores the sociocultural context of their sexual health. The present study used qualitative methods with a semistructured questionnaire. Twenty-four women aged 18-35 years from one remote central-Australian Aboriginal community were recruited. The results revealed poor understandings of STI transmission, limited access to condoms and low levels of condom use despite a high perception of risk to STI. They also identified specific issues facing these women regarding the sociocultural context of their condom use, their access to condoms and the transmission of STI. The perceived effects of alcohol abuse, infidelity, sexual assault and shame on the acquisition of STI were significant issues for the women. This research has identified an urgent need for further qualitative research into the sociocultural factors that facilitate the spread of STI among Aboriginal people of remote central Australia. Implications include the need to increase their knowledge regarding STI and STI transmission, to increase women's access to condoms and to incorporate the teaching of skills to deal with sexual assault and violence into sexual-health education.

  12. Patterns of condom acquisition by condom-using men in the United States.

    PubMed

    Reece, Michael; Mark, Kristen; Schick, Vanessa; Herbenick, Debra; Dodge, Brian

    2010-07-01

    Condom-distribution programs have striven to make condoms more accessible to sexually active individuals, particularly adolescents and populations disproportionately affected by HIV and other STIs. Despite such programs, little is known about where condom-using men in the United States acquire their condoms. The purpose of this study was to document condom-access trends among a large sample of sexually active condom-using men in the United States. Data were collected from 1,832 men from all 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia by using an Internet-based survey in which men provided details regarding the source of condoms that they had used within the past 30 days. Men reported acquiring their condoms from a variety of sources, including free condom-distribution programs (56.7%) and from venues where they had purchased condoms for themselves (75.7%). Bivariate analyses indicated that participants who reported using free condoms tended to be younger, self-identified as not heterosexual, or not currently in a monogamous relationship. Further, results indicated that those participants who accessed only free condoms did not differ from those who used only purchased condoms, indicating that perhaps efforts to make condoms more accessible through public health distribution campaigns are reaching a more general population of condom-using men than expected. Findings illustrate the importance of continuing free condom-distribution efforts but also suggest benefits of facilitating linkages between public health and a community's retail venues to increase access to the growing diversity of condoms in the marketplace.

  13. Sex workers' accounts of condom use: implications for condom production, promotion and health policy.

    PubMed

    Free, Caroline; Roberts, Ian; McGuire, Megan

    2007-04-01

    To explore sex workers' accounts of condom use and their recommendations about how condoms might be improved. In-depth interviews were conducted with 22 female sex workers in sex work premises in London, UK and Amsterdam, The Netherlands. The consistent and effective use of condoms was dependent upon client selection, sex worker control of the condom, communication skills and on condom- and sex-related skills. The design of facilities, the way the encounter was structured and alarm call systems were key to generating an environment in which sex worker control of the interaction was feasible. A wide range of practices used for 'safer sex', including the use of simulated vaginal sex, skills in fitting the condom in a sexually arousing way, checking the condom placement during intercourse and holding onto the condom during withdrawal, were described but awareness of such practices was piecemeal. Several sex workers said that particular care is needed when using condoms in men with a small penis and pointed out to the authors that a smaller condom would be useful. The sex workers told us about the importance of environmental factors and a range of sex- and condom-related skills in 'safer sex'. Environmental 'safety' features could be addressed through a licensing system for sex work premises. Communication, condom- and sex-related skills should be more broadly disseminated through health promotion initiatives with sex workers. The issue of condom fit deserves further attention.

  14. The effect of condoms on penile vibrotactile sensitivity thresholds in young, heterosexual men

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Brandon J.; Janssen, Erick; Kvam, Peter; Amick, Erick E.; Sanders, Stephanie A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Investigating the ways in which barrier methods such as condoms may affect penile sensory thresholds has potential relevance to the development of interventions in men who experience negative effects of condoms on sexual response and sensation. A quantitative, psychophysiological investigation examining the degree to which sensations are altered by condoms has, to date, not been conducted. Aim The objective of this study was to examine penile vibrotactile sensitivity thresholds in both flaccid and erect penises with and without a condom, while comparing men who do and those who do not report condom-associated erection problems (CAEP). Methods Penile vibrotactile sensitivity thresholds were assessed among a total of 141 young, heterosexual men using biothesiometry. An incremental two-step staircase method was used and repeated three times for each of four conditions. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated for all vibratory assessments. Penile vibratory thresholds were compared using a mixed-model Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Main Outcome Measures Penile vibrotactile sensitivity thresholds with and without a condom, erectile function measured by International Index of Erectile Function Questionnaire (IIEF), and self-reported degree of erection. Results Significant main effects of condoms (yes/no) and erection (yes/no) were found. No main or interaction effects of CAEP were found. Condoms were associated with higher penile vibrotactile sensitivity thresholds (F(1, 124)=17.11, p<.001). Penile vibrotactile thresholds were higher with an erect than with a flaccid penis (F(1, 124)=4.21, p=.042). Conclusion The current study demonstrates the feasibility of measuring penile vibratory thresholds with and without a condom in both erect and flaccid experimental conditions. As might be expected, condoms increased penile vibrotactile sensitivity thresholds. Interestingly, erections were associated with the highest thresholds. Thus, this study

  15. The effect of condoms on penile vibrotactile sensitivity thresholds in young, heterosexual men.

    PubMed

    Hill, Brandon J; Janssen, Erick; Kvam, Peter; Amick, Erick E; Sanders, Stephanie A

    2014-01-01

    Investigating the ways in which barrier methods such as condoms may affect penile sensory thresholds has potential relevance to the development of interventions in men who experience negative effects of condoms on sexual response and sensation. A quantitative, psychophysiological investigation examining the degree to which sensations are altered by condoms has, to date, not been conducted. The objective of this study was to examine penile vibrotactile sensitivity thresholds in both flaccid and erect penises with and without a condom while comparing men who do and those who do not report condom-associated erection problems (CAEP). Penile vibrotactile sensitivity thresholds were assessed among a total of 141 young, heterosexual men using biothesiometry. An incremental two-step staircase method was used and repeated three times for each of four conditions. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated for all vibratory assessments. Penile vibratory thresholds were compared using a mixed-model analysis of variance. Penile vibrotactile sensitivity thresholds with and without a condom, erectile function measured by International Index of Erectile Function Questionnaire, and self-reported degree of erection. Significant main effects of condoms (yes/no) and erection (yes/no) were found. No main or interaction effects of CAEP were found. Condoms were associated with higher penile vibrotactile sensitivity thresholds (F[1,124] = 17.11, P < 0.001). Penile vibrotactile thresholds were higher with an erect penis than with a flaccid penis (F[1,124] = 4.21, P = 0.042). The current study demonstrates the feasibility of measuring penile vibratory thresholds with and without a condom in both erect and flaccid experimental conditions. As might be expected, condoms increased penile vibrotactile sensitivity thresholds. Interestingly, erections were associated with the highest thresholds. Thus, this study was the first to document that erect penises are less

  16. Peer norms and consistent condom use with female sex workers among male clients in Sichuan province, China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Cui; Latkin, Carl; Luan, Rongsheng; Nelson, Kenrad

    2010-01-01

    Despite their crucial role in HIV infection and transmission, commercial sex male clients (CSMCs) are rarely studied. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between peer norms and consistent condom use with female sex workers (FSWs) among CSMCs in Sichuan province, China. Male clients with peers who had paid for sex (n=562) were recruited by local health workers through snowball sampling. Measures of peer norms included 1) descriptive norms which were evaluated by perceptions of peer’s condom attitudes and behaviors with FSWs; 2) injunctive norms which were assessed by the perceived peer approval of using condoms with FSWs; and 3) communication of HIV-related topics with peers. The outcome was consistent condom use with FSWs. Results of multivariate logistic regression models revealed that consistent condom use with FSWs was significantly more likely among male clients who perceived more pro-condom descriptive and injunctive norms among their peer groups. In addition, the pattern of commercial sex visits moderated the relations between peer norms and consistent condom use with FSWs. More peer approval of condom use and more HIV-related communication were significantly associated with consistent condom use among clients who visited FSWs with friends but not among those who visited FSWs alone. The findings suggest that social activities surrounding commercial sex visits may provide an entry point for HIV prevention intervention with men who patronize FSWs and that such efforts should tap into existing dynamics of social interaction to promote pro-condom norms. PMID:20541859

  17. Diagnostic utility of handheld ultrasonography as an extension of the physical examination of patients with heart failure.

    PubMed

    López-Palmero, S; Bolivar-Herrera, N; López-Lloret, G; Merchán-Ortega, G; Macancela-Quiñones, J J; López-Martínez, G

    2015-05-01

    Conventional echocardiography is the technique of choice for assessing left ventricular function and the presence of structural heart disease in patients with heart failure. The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic performance of handheld ultrasonography performed by a medical internist on patients with a clinical diagnosis of heart failure. Cross-sectional observational study of 212 patients diagnosed with heart failure in a hospital center. A medical internist with basic training in echocardiography performed an examination using handheld ultrasonography and semiquantitatively assessed several variables. The patients' left ventricular systolic function was assessed, along with the cavity dimensions, significant valvular heart disease, pericardial effusion and the diameter of the inferior vena cava. The examination using handheld ultrasonography was conducted in less than 6minutes. The agreement between the diagnoses of the medical internist and the expert echocardiographist was very good (k>0.81) for the diameter, hypertrophy and left ventricular systolic function, valvular regurgitation, pericardial effusion and diameter of the inferior vena cava. Handheld echocardiography performed by a medical internist, as an extension of the physical examination of patients with heart failure, is a valid and safe test that helps increase the diagnostic performance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  18. Examining the Causes of Memory Strength Variability: Recollection, Attention Failure, or Encoding Variability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koen, Joshua D.; Aly, Mariam; Wang, Wei-Chun; Yonelinas, Andrew P.

    2013-01-01

    A prominent finding in recognition memory is that studied items are associated with more variability in memory strength than new items. Here, we test 3 competing theories for why this occurs--the "encoding variability," "attention failure", and "recollection" accounts. Distinguishing among these theories is critical…

  19. [Examination of safety improvement by failure record analysis that uses reliability engineering].

    PubMed

    Kato, Kyoichi; Sato, Hisaya; Abe, Yoshihisa; Ishimori, Yoshiyuki; Hirano, Hiroshi; Higashimura, Kyoji; Amauchi, Hiroshi; Yanakita, Takashi; Kikuchi, Kei; Nakazawa, Yasuo

    2010-08-20

    How the maintenance checks of the medical treatment system, including start of work check and the ending check, was effective for preventive maintenance and the safety improvement was verified. In this research, date on the failure of devices in multiple facilities was collected, and the data of the trouble repair record was analyzed by the technique of reliability engineering. An analysis of data on the system (8 general systems, 6 Angio systems, 11 CT systems, 8 MRI systems, 8 RI systems, and the radiation therapy system 9) used in eight hospitals was performed. The data collection period assumed nine months from April to December 2008. Seven items were analyzed. (1) Mean time between failures (MTBF) (2) Mean time to repair (MTTR) (3) Mean down time (MDT) (4) Number found by check in morning (5) Failure generation time according to modality. The classification of the breakdowns per device, the incidence, and the tendency could be understood by introducing reliability engineering. Analysis, evaluation, and feedback on the failure generation history are useful to keep downtime to a minimum and to ensure safety.

  20. Coping with Achievement-Related Failure: An Examination of Conversations between Friends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altermatt, Ellen Rydell; Broady, Elizabeth F.

    2009-01-01

    Prior research has identified ways in which parents and teachers contribute to learned helpless responses to failure, but little is known about the role that interactions with peers might play. In this study, the conversations of fourth- through sixth- grade children and their friends were observed after children experienced an achievement-related…

  1. The frequency and determinants of liver stiffness measurement failure: a retrospective study of "real-life" 38,464 examinations.

    PubMed

    Ji, Dong; Shao, Qing; Han, Ping; Li, Fan; Li, Bing; Zang, Hong; Niu, Xiaoxia; Li, Zhongbin; Xin, Shaojie; Chen, Guofeng

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the frequency and determinants of liver stiffness measurement (LSM) failure by means of FibroScan in "real-life" Chinese patients. A total of 38,464 "real-life" Chinese patients in 302 military hospital of China through the whole year of 2013, including asymptomatic carrier, chronic hepatitis B, chronic hepatitis C, liver cirrhosis (LC), alcoholic liver disease, autoimmune liver disease, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and other, were enrolled, their clinical and biological parameters were retrospectively investigated. Liver fibrosis was evaluated by FibroScan detection. S probe (for children with height less than 1.20 m) and M probe (for adults) were used. LSM failure defined as zero valid shots (unsuccessful LSM), or the ratio of the interquartile range to the median of 10 measurements (IQR/M) greater than 0.30 plus median LSM greater or equal to 7.1 kPa (unreliable LSM). LSM failure occurred in 3.34% of all examinations (1286 patients out of 38,464), among them, there were 958 cases (2.49%) with unsuccessful LSM, and 328 patients (0.85%) with unreliable LSM. Statistical analyses showed that LSM failure was independently associated with body mass index (BMI) greater than 30 kg/m(2), female sex, age greater than 50 years, intercostal spaces (IS) less than 9 mm, decompensated liver cirrhosis and HCC patients. There were no significant differences among other diseases. By changing another skilled operator, success was achieved on 301 cases out of 1286, which reduced the failure rate to 2.56%, the decrease was significant (P<0.0001). The principal reasons of LSM failure are ascites, obesity and narrow of IS. The failure rates of HCC, decompensated LC, elder or female patients are higher. These results emphasize the need for adequate operator training, technological improvements and optimal criteria for specific patient subpopulations.

  2. Randomized crossover trial comparing the eZ.on plastic condom and a latex condom.

    PubMed

    Cook, L; Nanda, K; Taylor, D

    2001-01-01

    This randomized crossover trial compared the breakage and slippage rates, safety, and acceptability of the recently developed polyurethane bi-directional eZ.on condom with a marketed latex condom. Three hundred sixty couples were asked to use 4 eZ.on condoms and 4 latex condoms. Like several other non-latex condoms tested to date, the eZ.on condom had a higher clinical breakage rate than its latex comparator, while the slippage rates were similar. The clinical breakage rate for the eZ.on condom was 5.6%, compared with 0.9% for the latex condom (difference = 4.76%, with upper 95% confidence bound on the difference = 6.26%). Thus, based on an a priori definition of a 2% clinically acceptable difference, the study failed to conclude equivalence relative to clinical breakage. The complete slippage rate for eZ.on was 1.6%; compared to 0.7% for latex (difference = 0.87%, with upper 95% confidence bound = 1.55%). Thus, based on an a priori definition of a 2% difference we concluded equivalence relative to complete slippage. The safety profile of the eZ.on condom was good and similar to the latex condom. The eZ.on was also found to be easier to don and remove than the latex condom. Although no overall preference existed for either condom, nearly 30%women and men strongly preferred the eZ.on condom to the latex condom. The eZ.on condom may be an acceptable alternative for couples unable or unwilling to use latex condoms.

  3. Special report: the truth about condoms. Will your clients want the plastic condom?

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    A recently developed polyurethane condom, Avanti, is available in the Western US market and should be available nationwide by April 1995. The plastic condoms are as strong as latex condoms, yet more sensitive due to their comparatively looser fit and the better ability of polyurethane to transmit body heat. They have no odor, are colorless, nonallergenic, do not break down over time, and can be used with any lubricant. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), however, is not sure whether plastic condoms for men will block the transmission of HIV. Labeling on Avanti packages will alert potential users to this FDA concern. Another nonlatex condom, Tactylon, is awaiting FDA approval, but may never make it to market because of the manufacturer's fears that the restrictive labeling demanded by the FDA will hurt consumer demand. Family Health International (FHI) is working on two designs for plastic condoms. One condom is unrolled onto the penis in similar fashion to standard latex condoms, while the second condom is designed to be pulled onto the penis like a sock is pulled onto a foot. 70% of 137 couples in one FHI study rated the experimental condom between average and excellent in comfort and ease of use. All seven couples in a second study reported that the new condom was easy to put on and the material was sensitive and comfortable. Although findings from these recent studies suggest that consumers will like the new condoms, past experience with condoms and first impressions of the new condom will be very important in consumer acceptance. The polyurethane condoms will probably be more expensive to consumers than latex condoms.

  4. Correlates of condom-associated erection problems in young, heterosexual men: condom fit, self-efficacy, perceptions, and motivations.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Stephanie A; Hill, Brandon J; Crosby, Richard A; Janssen, Erick

    2014-01-01

    Questionnaire data from 479 heterosexual men 18-24 years old were analyzed for correlates of CAEP during application (CAEP-Application) and CAEP during penile-vaginal intercourse (CAEP-PVI). Potential correlates were self-efficacy (condom application, product selection, and maintaining arousal), condom perceptions (condom worry/distraction, negative condom perceptions, concerns about application speed), condom fit, and motivation to use condoms. We conclude that (1) experiencing CAEP may become a repeating cycle, both affecting and being affected by, worry and distraction related to losing erections and maintaining arousal while using a condom (2) poorly fitting condoms may contribute to CAEP, and (3) CAEP may decrease motivation to use condoms.

  5. Minority College Women's Views on Condom Negotiation.

    PubMed

    McLaurin-Jones, TyWanda; Lashley, Maudry-Beverly; Marshall, Vanessa

    2015-12-22

    This study utilized quantitative and qualitative methods to (1) investigate the relationship between frequency of condom use and negotiation strategies and (2) evaluate experiences with condom negotiations among sexually active, heterosexual, African American college women. One hundred female students from a Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) completed a questionnaire that included the Condom Influence Strategies Scale (CIS) and participated in a focus group. An ANOVA was conducted to compare differences between never, inconsistent, and consistent condom users. Consistent condom users scored higher than never users on the "withholding sex" subscale of the CIS (4.88 vs. 3.55; p < 0.001) as well as endorsed items more strongly on the "direct request" subscale of the CIS (4.63 vs. 3.82, p < 0.05) than never users. A thematic analysis of open discussions identified overarching themes. Similarly, refusing sex and/or having direct communications with partner emerged as primary strategies. Threats to negotiation included deciding the "right timing" of discussion and having a previous history of sexual intercourse without a condom with their partner. Other key concepts that contribute to condom negotiation are the views that condoms are a male's responsibility and stigma of women who carry condoms.

  6. The female condom: frequently asked questions.

    PubMed

    1995-09-01

    Frequently asked questions about the female condom include questions about its effectiveness as a contraceptive, which is as high as the other barrier methods and can approach 95% with perfect use. Its effectiveness in preventing transmission of sexually transmitted diseases and HIV infection is speculative but promising because the condom material is impermeable to the causative agents. The female condom is safe to use except by people who are sensitive to polyurethane or silicone. The condom is made in one size and has a closed inner ring and an open outer ring (which remains outside of the vagina during use). The condoms are prelubricated, and additional water-based lubrication can be used. The accepted shelf life of the female condom in the US is two years, but this may be extended. The female condom is impervious to normal changes in temperature, altitude, and humidity; however, it can be ripped by a sharp object such as a fingernail or jewelry. The female condom can be used with other nonbarrier methods but should not be used in conjunction with a male condom or in the presence of a tampon. Pregnant or menstruating women and women of any age can safely use the device, and it can be inserted several hours prior to use. Studies have shown that many women like the device and would recommend it to others.

  7. Rubber soul: the condom makes a comeback.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, R

    1986-03-04

    The condom serves a metaphor for sex in the age of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)--a passage between celibacy and danger. Although perhaps not the contraceptive method of choice under more normal conditions, the condom can significantly reduce the risk of AIDS contagion and enhance people's chances of staying alive. Despite the negative image the condom gained in the sexual revolution, when women were expected to take responsibility for contraception, condom sales are currently soaring. The San Francisco AIDS Foundation is about to produce its own condom under the brand name Play Safe and gay publications are endeavoring to eroticize the device. Used carefully, condoms can be highly effective; however, some studies have recorded a 4-10% pregnancy rate among couples who use them carelessly. Public health experts are now advising all sexually active individuals who have sexual relations with a new partner to use condoms. Preventive efforts have been hindered by bans on condom advertising and the prohibition of pictorial representations of the anogenital area in safe sex literature. The effectiveness of condoms in anal sex is unmeasured but can be increased by use of a water-based lubricant containing Nonoxynol-9.

  8. Female condom skill and attitude: results from a NIDA Clinical Trials Network gender-specific HIV risk reduction study.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Aimee N C; Tross, Susan; Hu, Mei-Chen; Pavlicova, Martina; Kenney, Jennifer; Nunes, Edward V

    2011-08-01

    The female condom is effective in reducing unprotected sexual acts; however, it remains underutilized in the United States. This study examined whether a five-session HIV prevention intervention (Safer Sex Skills Building [SSB]), including presentation, discussion, and practice with female condoms, improved female condom skills and attitude among women in outpatient substance abuse treatment. Mixed-effects modeling was used to test the effect of SSB on skills and attitude over 3- and 6-month posttreatment among 515 randomized women. SSB was significantly associated with increases in skills and attitude, and the female condom demonstration session was primarily responsible for skills improvement. Attitude was a partial mediator of the intervention effect in reducing unprotected sex. Findings emphasize the utility of integrating female condom messages targeting proximal behavioral outcomes into HIV prevention. The study supports the use of female condom skill instruction via brief, hands-on exercises, as well as further research to enhance attitudinal change to reduce sexual risk.

  9. Perceived social approval and condom use with casual partners among youth in urban Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background HIV prevention programs targeting youth often emphasize the role of peers, and assume that youths will model their behavior after their peers'. We challenge this view; we argue that adopting a given behavior requires social approval, and that youths do not necessarily turn to peers for such approval. This study analyzes survey data on youths in urban Cameroon to 1) identify which type of persons youths look to for social approval, and 2) establish how important social approval by these persons is for condom use among youths. Methods We analyzed data from three survey waves (2000, 2002, and 2003) of a reproductive health survey conducted among urban Cameroonian youth (aged 15-24). Only respondents who reported having at least one casual partner in the past year were retained for the analysis. Bivariate analyses and structural equation modeling were used to examine relationships among perceived social approval, attitudes towards condoms and condom use. Results The data show that only 3% of youths named their friends as people whose opinion they valued, while 93% mentioned family members. The perceived approval of condom use by these persons had a significant positive effect on the frequency of condom use among youths. The frequency of condom use was also affected by the respondents' attitudes toward condom use, the range of persons with whom they discussed reproductive health matters, whether they were enrolled in school, socioeconomic status, their self-efficacy, perceived severity of AIDS, risk perception and sexual risk behavior. The perceived social approval of condom use and the respondents' own condom attitudes were correlated. Conclusions Our analysis demonstrates that perceived social approval facilitates the adoption of condom use among urban Cameroonian youth. However, youths tend to value the opinions of family members much more than the opinions of their peers. These results suggest that interventions targeting youths should not focus

  10. The catastrophic failures of plants hydraulic network examined trough an model system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bienaimé, Diane; Marmottant, Philippe; Brodribb, Tim

    2015-11-01

    Plants live a dangerous game: they have to facilitate water transport in their xylem conduits while minimizing the consequence of hydraulic failure. Indeed, as water flows under negative pressure inside these conduits, cavitation bubbles can spontaneously occur. The failure dynamics of this hydraulic network is poorly studied, while it has important ecological and bioengineering implications. Here, by using dark-field transmission microscopy, we were able to directly visualize the spreading of cavitation bubbles within leaves, where the xylem conduits form a 2D and transparent network. We observe the surprising fact that the probability of cavitation increases in larger veins, where the majority of water flows. Next, in order to understand the physical mechanism of nucleation and propagation, we built artificial networks of channels made in hydrogel, where evaporation generates negative pressures. We find the hydraulic failure follows two stages: first a sudden bubble nucleation relaxing to the elastic stored of the system, and then a slow expansion driven by the flow of water in the surrounding medium. Channel constrictions slow the propagation of the bubble, similarly to the small valves that connect plants conduits. P.M. acknowledges support from the University of Tasmania for a visiting scholar grant.

  11. Gender Differences and Condom-Associated Embarrassment in the Acquisition of Purchased versus Free Condoms among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Brandy; Ickes, Melinda J.; Mark, Kristen P.

    2016-01-01

    Condoms are not used consistently among sexually active college students, indicating a need to understand condom acquisition patterns. This study describes purchased and free acquisition of condoms, factors influencing purchased condom acquisition, and condom-associated embarrassment among college students. A random sample of students at a public…

  12. Gender Differences and Condom-Associated Embarrassment in the Acquisition of Purchased versus Free Condoms among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Brandy; Ickes, Melinda J.; Mark, Kristen P.

    2016-01-01

    Condoms are not used consistently among sexually active college students, indicating a need to understand condom acquisition patterns. This study describes purchased and free acquisition of condoms, factors influencing purchased condom acquisition, and condom-associated embarrassment among college students. A random sample of students at a public…

  13. Condom use around the globe: how can we fulfil the prevention potential of male condoms?

    PubMed

    Warner, Lee; Gallo, Maria F; Macaluso, Maurizio

    2012-03-01

    Despite a global epidemic of sexually transmissible infections and the availability and endorsement of condoms as an effective intervention, the overall use of condoms remains low. This review explores various challenges and opportunities to fully realizing the prevention potential for condoms.

  14. Sex Work Venue and Condom Use among Female Sex Workers in Senggigi, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Safika, Iko; Levy, Judith A.; Johnson, Timothy P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the structural influence of sex work venues on condom use among female sex workers in the Senggigi area of Lombok, Indonesia. A cross-sectional design employing ethnographic observation, structured interviews and hierarchical linear modeling was used to examine condom use among female sex workers who solicited clients at three types of sex work venues: freelance, brothels, and entertainment places (karaoke bars and massage parlours). The sample consisted of 115 women “nested” within 16 sex work venues drawn from the three venue types. Rate (39%) of condom use varied across sex work venues. Perceived management style, HIV/AIDS-related policies, and risk-reduction services differed by venue, but this variation did not explain differences in condom use. At the individual level, higher condom use was associated with female sex workers having ever been married. At the client level, condoms were more likely to be used with foreign rather than domestic/local Indonesian clients. Low rates of condom use among Indonesian female sex workers during commercial sex suggests the need for increased HIV prevention efforts that acknowledge sex worker characteristics and relationships with clients that place them at risk. Future research into the effects of social context on HIV risk should also be considered. PMID:23472595

  15. Sex work venue and condom use among female sex workers in Senggigi, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Safika, Iko; Levy, Judith A; Johnson, Timothy P

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the structural influence of sex work venues on condom use among female sex workers in the Senggigi area of Lombok, Indonesia. A cross-sectional design employing ethnographic observation, structured interviews and hierarchical linear modelling was used to examine condom use among female sex workers who solicited clients at three types of sex work venues: (1) freelance locations, (2) brothels and (3) entertainment places (karaoke bars and massage parlours). The sample consisted of 115 women 'nested' within 16 sex work venues drawn from the three venue types. Rate (39%) of condom use varied across sex work venues. Perceived management style, HIV/AIDS-related policies and risk-reduction services differed by venue, but this variation did not explain differences in condom use. At the individual level, higher condom use was associated with female sex workers having ever been married. At the client level, condoms were more likely to be used with foreign rather than domestic/local Indonesian clients. Low rates of condom use among Indonesian female sex workers during commercial sex suggests the need for increased HIV-prevention efforts that acknowledge sex worker characteristics and relationships with clients that place them at risk. Future research into the effects of social context on HIV risk should also be considered.

  16. The marketing of the condom.

    PubMed

    Lagman, J T

    1975-12-01

    The Commercial Contraceptive Marketing Program was developed by the Population Center Foundation in the Philippines to increase participatio n of private commercial firms in promotion and distribution of nonclinical contraceptives. The program was started to eliminate ignorance concerning contraceptive methods, to increase contraceptive acceptance, and to decrease dropouts from the program. It is hoped that all 200,000 sari-sari stores in the Philippines will eventually become involved in marketing contraceptives. This will free government personnel for the work of extending family planning services to the rural areas. The history of the development of a plan for commercial marketing of condoms in the Philippines is discussed.

  17. AIDS public service announcements: effects of fear and repetition on predictors of condom use.

    PubMed

    Treise, D; Weigold, M F

    2001-01-01

    An experiment examined the effects of varying levels of fear and message repetition in a radio public service announcement (PSA) on attitudes toward and intentions to use condoms. Predictions were derived from the Theory of Reasoned Action and Fazio's accessibility model. Results suggest that repetition and fear have important effects on intentions to use condoms and attitudes toward using condoms, even after accounting for inputs specified by the Theory of Reasoned Action In addition, frequency affected the relative weights of attitudinal versus normative effects on intentions, suggesting that PSAs may be able to affect attitudes and intentions through spontaneous attitude activation as described by Fazio (1990).

  18. Reddy female condom: functional performance of a 90-mm shaft length in two clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Mauck, Christine; Joshi, Smita; Schwartz, Jill; Callahan, Marianne; Walsh, Terri

    2011-05-01

    We report on the functional performance, safety and acceptability of the 90-mm Reddy female condom in two clinical trials, one in Los Angeles, CA, and one in Pune, Maharashtra, India. Both studies used a Phase I, crossover design involving 25 couples. Each couple used three condoms of each of two shaft lengths: in Los Angeles, shaft lengths of 150 and 90 mm were used; in Pune, shaft lengths of 120 and 90 mm were used. This paper focuses on the 90-mm condom since it is commercially available. The primary endpoint of each study was invagination, defined as the outer frame of the condom being pushed into the vagina during intercourse. Secondary functionality endpoints included nonclinical breakage, clinical breakage, penile misdirection and complete slippage. Invagination occurred in 26.9% of uses in Los Angeles vs. 6.8% of uses in Pune. Penile misdirection and complete slippage were reported only in Pune during 4.0% and 9.5% of uses, respectively. There were two clinical breaks in Pune and none in Los Angeles. Total clinical failure was 26.9% in Los Angeles and 23.0% in Pune. Two clinical studies of the 90-mm Reddy female condom suggest that its functional performance is inferior to other female condoms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Spectroscopic imaging based approach for condom identification in condom contaminated fingermarks.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Robert; Wolstenholme, Rosalind; Ferguson, Leesa Susanne; Sammon, Chris; Mader, Kerstin; Claude, Emmanuelle; Blackledge, Robert D; Clench, Malcolm R; Francese, Simona

    2013-05-07

    Sexual offenders are increasingly reported to use condoms while committing the crime, mainly to prevent the transfer of DNA evidence. Although condoms are often removed from the crime scene, vaginal swabs can be taken from the victim to prove the presence of condom lubricants and therefore evidence of corpus delicti. However, late reporting to the police and the tendency of the victim to wash immediately after the crime, may compromise the detection of condom lubricants. Recently we showed that Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionisation MS Imaging (MALDI MSI) of condom contaminated fingermarks enables images of the fingermark ridge pattern to be obtained simultaneously with the detection of the condom lubricant for two condom brands, thus becoming a potential alternative way to link the assailant to the crime. Building on the value of this information, it would be advantageous to identify the condom brand used during the sexual assault. Here we show the development of a multidisciplinary spectroscopic approach, including MALDI MSI, MS/MS, Raman microscopy and ATR-FTIR spectroscopy, applied to a range of condom brands/types. The techniques have complementary features and provide complementary information to retrieve a "condom brand spectroscopic fingerprint". Unique spectroscopic profiles would greatly aid in the screening and identification of the condom, thus adding intelligence to the case under investigation.

  20. Uganda: condoms provoke an AIDS storm.

    PubMed

    Tebere, R

    1991-03-01

    An advertisement in the Uganda weekly Topic printed in 1990 is the center of the controversy over whether promoting condom use to prevent AIDS is really promoting immorality and promiscuity. The ad states: "The bible may save your soul but this condom will save you life." Critics have called the ad blasphemy for showing a condom package alongside the Bible; claimed the condom fools people into thinking they are safe from AIDS; and blamed the practice of supplying condoms for the moral decadence that is destroying the country. In contrast the national AIDS Control Program (ACP) believes that supplying university students, who may be the group at highest risk, with condoms, is wise because they at lest know how to use them properly. A spokesman for the ACP said that the condom is one of the limited options that exist to fight the life-threatening epidemic. Present Museven changed his views to November 1990 from a policy of encouraging abstinence and monogamy, to promoting condoms. This change in government policy coincided with the report of 17,422 cases of AIDS, and the estimate that 1.3 million people in Uganda are infected with HIV.

  1. 21 CFR 884.5300 - Condom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... (b) Classification. (1) Class II (special controls) for condoms made of materials other than natural rubber latex, including natural membrane (skin) or synthetic. (2) Class II (special controls) for natural...: Labeling for Natural Rubber Latex Condoms Classified Under 21 CFR 884.5300” will serve as the...

  2. 21 CFR 884.5330 - Female condom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Therapeutic Devices § 884.5330 Female condom. (a) Identification. A female condom is a sheath-like device that lines the vaginal wall and is...

  3. Women's beliefs concerning condom acquisition and use.

    PubMed

    Libbus, K

    1995-10-01

    Condoms are a time-honored and reliable method of protection against pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. However, their use, and thus their effectiveness, is determined by individual behavior. The purpose of this paper is to report attitudes and salient beliefs related to condom use in a sample of adult women. The study used Ajzen and Fishbein's Theory of Planned Behavior to identify modal, salient beliefs regarding condom acquisition and use as intentional behaviors. The study sample consisted of 58 community women who reported using condoms for contraceptive purposes within the last five years. In face-to-face, audiotaped interviews, open-ended questions were used to solicit beliefs regarding condom acquisition and use. All subject narratives were content-analyzed for recurrent themes. Women cited accessibility and effectiveness in preventing pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases as both advantages and as factors contributing to the ease of acquisition and use. Disadvantages and factors that might deter condom acquisition and use included embarrassment, objections by male partner, and effect on spontaneity. Overall, subjects exhibited accurate knowledge regarding the benefits of condom acquisition and use. However, it is possible that expressed negative beliefs could take precedence in decision-making and reduce the probability of consistent condom use.

  4. Condom negotiation and use among female sex workers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Bui, Thanh Cong; Markham, Christine M; Tran, Ly T H; Beasley, R Palmer; Ross, Michael W

    2013-02-01

    We examined condom-use negotiation strategies and condom use among 81 female sex workers (FSWs) in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Percentages of FSWs who did not negotiate condom use or could not describe a negotiation strategy with native clients, foreign clients, and non-paying partners were 15.0, 29.0 and 67.6 %, respectively. The most common negotiation strategy used was "provision of risk information" for native clients (43.8 %) and non-paying partners (26.5 %), and "direct request" for foreign clients (39.5 %). About half could not describe more than one negotiation strategy. Consistent condom use was high with native clients (98.8 %), yet comparatively lower with foreign clients (86.9 %) and non-paying partners (26.5 %). FSWs who did not negotiate or did not know how to negotiate condom use were less likely to report condom use with non-paying regular partners. Future interventions should enhance condom negotiation strategies between FSWs and all partner types.

  5. Influence of the parent-adolescent relationship on condom use among South Korean male college students.

    PubMed

    Cha, Eun Seok; Kim, Kevin H; Doswell, Willa M

    2007-12-01

    This study examined the mediating role of condom self-efficacy between the parent-adolescent relationship and the intention to use condoms with a submodel based on the Theory of Planned Behavior. Male students aged 18-25 years (n = 176) were recruited from a university in Seoul, South Korea, using a flyer and self-referral in 2004. A sample of 170 male students was retained for the final data analyses as six subjects had incomplete data on more than one instrument. Condom self-efficacy completely mediated the prediction of intention to use condoms by the quality of the mother-son relationship. However, condom self-efficacy did not mediate the relationship between the quality of the father-son relationship and the intention to use condoms. Only an indirect effect between the quality of the father-son relationship and the intention to use condoms existed. The suggested sex education programs should develop culture-specific, theory-based, and family-based interventions in order to reduce risky sexual behavior among South Korean adolescents.

  6. Men’s Alcohol Intoxication and Condom Use during Sexual Assault Perpetration

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Kiekel, Preston A.; Schraufnagel, Trevor J.; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H.; Kajumulo, Kelly F.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the association between alcohol consumption and condom use during penetrative sexual assault acts perpetrated by young adult men. Men aged 21–35 who reported inconsistent condom use and heavy episodic drinking (N = 225) completed a questionnaire assessing their perpetration of sexual assault since the age of 15, their consumption of alcohol prior to these acts, and their use of condoms during acts involving penetration. Descriptive statistics and, Pearson's chi-square tests were used to examine the simultaneous use of alcohol and condom non-use during penetrative sexual assault acts. Over one-third of the respondents reported at least one penetrative sexual assault perpetration 35.6% (n = 79). Condoms were not used in 70.0% of penetrative sexual assaults. When they had consumed alcohol, perpetrators were significantly less likely to use condoms. The sexual assaults reported by this sample typically consisted of perpetrator alcohol consumption and the non-use of condoms. Programs targeting sexual health and assault risk reduction would be enhanced by addressing this interplay of alcohol, violence, and risk. PMID:22491222

  7. Sexual communication and condom use among Chinese men who have sex with men in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zhiwen; Li, Xiaoming; Liu, Yingjie; Li, Shuming; Jiang, Shulin

    2013-01-01

    This study collected cross-sectional data from 307 young Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM) to explore the characteristics of sexual communications, including target of communication (stable partners, casual partners), topics of communication (condom use, HIV/STDs prevention, and sexual history), and the associations between sexual communication characteristics and condom use. A variety of measures were employed to assess respondents' condom use with different sexual partners over different recall periods. Chi-square tests were employed to examine the relationships between sexual communication characteristics and condom use. This study found that sexual communications with regular partners about topics, such as condom use, HIV/STDs prevention, and current and past sexual relationship were associated with condom use with regular partners. Respondents who had sexual communications with both regular and casual partners were more likely to use condoms with their regular partners. The findings in the current study provided empirical evidence for the importance of frequent sexual communication between Chinese MSM and their sex partners.

  8. Consistent condom use reduces the genital human papillomavirus burden among high-risk men: the HPV infection in men study.

    PubMed

    Pierce Campbell, Christine M; Lin, Hui-Yi; Fulp, William; Papenfuss, Mary R; Salmerón, Jorge J; Quiterio, Manuel M; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Villa, Luisa L; Giuliano, Anna R

    2013-08-01

    Data supporting the efficacy of condoms against human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in males are limited. Therefore, we examined the effect of consistent condom use on genital HPV acquisition and duration of infection. A prospective analysis was conducted within the HPV Infection in Men Study, a multinational HPV cohort study. Men who were recently sexually active (n = 3323) were stratified on the basis of sexual risk behaviors and partnerships. Using Cox proportional hazards regression, type-specific incidence of HPV infection and clearance were modeled for each risk group to assess independent associations with condom use. The risk of HPV acquisition was 2-fold lower among men with no steady sex partner who always used condoms, compared with those who never used condoms (hazard ratio, 0.54), after adjustment for country, age, race, education duration, smoking, alcohol, and number of recent sex partners. The probability of clearing an oncogenic HPV infection was 30% higher among nonmonogamous men who always used condoms with nonsteady sex partners, compared with men who never used condoms (hazard ratio, 1.29), after adjustment for country, age, race, education duration, marital status, smoking, alcohol, and number of recent sex partners. No protective effects of condom use were observed among monogamous men. Condoms should be promoted in combination with HPV vaccination to prevent HPV infection in men.

  9. Introducing and negotiating the use of female condoms in sexual relationships: qualitative interviews with women attending a family planning clinic.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyung-Hee; Wojcicki, Janet; Valencia-Garcia, Dellanira

    2004-09-01

    Safe sex skills training often teach women to be assertive in condom use negotiations. However, it has been suggested that assertiveness training may be inappropriate for women who lack power in their sexual relationship. Our qualitative study of 62 women attending a family planning clinic explored various communication styles they used to introduce and negotiate female condom use in their sexual relationships. We further examined how different introduction and negotiation styles were related to actual use of the device. The device was introduced using a direct, semidirect, indirect, or nonverbal communication approach. Use of the female condom was negotiated by avoiding sex, using humor, discussing the possibility of using the condom, or being argumentative with partners. The outcome of introducing and negotiating female condom use was often mediated by other factors including partner characteristics, relationship power dynamics, situational context, and use of additional discourse strategies (e.g., describing the female condom as a sexual toy or taking the opportunity to educated partners about the female condom). Less direct approaches appeared to be as effective in facilitating use of the female condom as more direct approaches. Female condom introduction and negotiation styles that continued to engage their partners by using additional discourse strategies led to more frequent use of the device. Implications of our findings for HIV risk reduction program development are discussed.

  10. Systematic assessment of condom use measurement in evaluation of HIV prevention interventions: need for standardization of measures

    PubMed Central

    Fonner, Virginia A.; Kennedy, Caitlin E.; O’Reilly, Kevin R.; Sweat, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    When evaluating HIV prevention interventions, condom use is a common outcome measure used to assess changes in HIV-related behaviors; however, no widely accepted standards exist for its measurement. Using systematic review data on HIV prevention interventions conducted in low- and middle-income countries, we examined trends in condom use measurement since 1990. We abstracted data from standardized forms on six dimensions of condom use: partner type, temporal period, measurement scale, consistency, controlling for abstinence, and type of sex. Of 215 studies reviewed, 109 studies (51%) measured condom use as a primary outcome. Outcomes were stratified by partner type in 47 studies (43%). Assessing condom use at last sex was the most common measurement. Consistency of condom use was assessed in 47 studies (43%). Developing and utilizing standards for condom use measurement would increase comparability of findings across studies and benefit HIV prevention research. Recommendations include measuring condom use at last sex, frequency of condom use, and number of protected sex acts in studies evaluating the efficacy of behavioral interventions on sexual risk behavior. PMID:24197972

  11. Estimates of contraceptive failure from the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth

    PubMed Central

    Kost, Kathryn; Singh, Susheela; Vaughan, Barbara; Trussell, James; Bankole, Akinrinola

    2010-01-01

    Background In 2001, the U.S. government’s Healthy People 2010 initiative set a goal of reducing contraceptive failure during the first year of use from 13% in 1995 to 7% by 2010. We provide updated estimates of contraceptive failure for the most commonly used reversible methods in the United States, as well as an assessment of changes in failure rates from 1995 to 2002. Study design Estimates are obtained using the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG), a nationally representative sample of U.S. women containing information on their characteristics, pregnancies, and contraceptive use. We also use the 2001 Abortion Patient Survey to correct for underreporting of abortion in the NSFG. We measure trends in contraceptive failure between 1995 and 2002, provide new estimates for several population subgroups, examine changes in subgroup differences since 1995, and identify socioeconomic characteristics associated with elevated risks of failure for three commonly used reversible contraceptive methods in the U.S.: the pill, male condom and withdrawal. Results In 2002, 12.4% of all episodes of contraceptive use ended with a failure within 12 months after initiation of use. Injectable and oral contraceptives remain the most effective reversible methods used by women in the U.S., with probabilities of failure during the first 12 months of use of 7% and 9%, respectively. The probabilities of failure for withdrawal (18%) and the condom (17%) are similar. Reliance on fertility-awareness-based methods results in the highest probability of failure (25%). Population subgroups experience different probabilities of failure, but the characteristics of users that may predict elevated risks are not the same for all methods. Conclusion There was no clear improvement in contraceptive effectiveness between 1995 and 2002. Failure rates remain high for users of the condom, withdrawal and fertility-awareness methods, but for all methods, the risk of failure is greatly affected by

  12. Sexual behavior, psychosocial and knowledge differences between consistent, inconsistent and non-users of condoms: a study of female bar and hotel workers in Moshi, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Tassiopoulos, Katherine K; Seage, George R; Sam, Noel E; Ao, Trong T H; Masenga, Elisante J; Hughes, Michael D; Kapiga, Saidi H

    2006-07-01

    Understanding psychosocial, sexual behavior and knowledge differences between never, inconsistent and consistent condom users can improve interventions to increase condom use in resource-poor countries, but they have not been adequately studied. We examined these differences in a cohort of 961 female hotel and bar workers in Moshi, Tanzania. Forty-nine percent of women reported no condom use; 39% reported inconsistent use, and 12% reported consistent use. Women with multiple sexual partners in the past five years were less likely to be consistent rather than inconsistent users as were women who had ever exchanged sex for gifts or money. Inconsistent users had higher condom knowledge and higher perceived acceptability of condom use than did never users, but they did not differ from consistent users by these factors. There are important differences between women by level of condom use. These findings can help inform interventions to increase condom use.

  13. From awareness to adoption: the effect of AIDS education and condom social marketing on condom use in Tanzania (1993-1996).

    PubMed

    Eloundou-Enyegue, Parfait M; Meekers, Dominique; Calvès, Anne Emmanuèle

    2005-05-01

    This paper uses retrospective event-history data covering a four-year period to examine the timing of exposure to HIV/AIDS education and social marketing condom promotion campaigns, relative to the timing of changes in sexual risk behaviour in Tanzania. Analysis of the event-history data shows that the process of exposure to AIDS education messages and exposure to brand advertising for Salama brand condoms was very different. While exposure to AIDS education was early and gradual, exposure to Salama brand condoms started later, but was much more rapid. After one year of advertising, over half of the target population had been reached by the Salama advertising campaign, mostly through newspapers, radio and television. During the study period, condom use increased from 15% at the beginning of 1993 to 42% at the end of 1996. Increases in condom use were driven both by men who became sexually active, and by men who were not yet protected, or not fully protected. The results further show that it is uncommon for men who adopted condom use to return to more risky behaviour, which suggests that behaviour change in the study population is permanent.

  14. Three new female condoms: which do South-African women prefer?

    PubMed

    Joanis, Carol; Beksinska, Mags; Hart, Catherine; Tweedy, Katie; Linda, Jabu; Smit, Jenni

    2011-03-01

    The widespread distribution of female condoms (FCs) in developing countries has been hindered by high unit cost, making new less expensive devices a priority for donor agencies. Randomized, crossover study assessing product preference, safety, acceptability and function of three new FCs (PATH Woman's Condom, FC2 and V-Amour) among 170 women in Durban, South Africa. A subsequent "simulated market" study provided participants with free choice of FCs and assessed condom uptake over 3 months. Of the 160 women who used at least one FC of each type, 47.5% preferred the PATH Woman's Condom (WC), 35.6% preferred FC2 and 16.3% preferred V-Amour (p<.001). Women rated the WC better than FC2 and V-Amour for appearance, ease of use and overall fit and better than V-Amour for feel. WC was rated worse than FC2 and V-Amour for lubrication volume. The simulated market demonstrated similar preferences. Total clinical failure rates (i.e., the types of failures that could result in pregnancy or STI) were low (<4%), regardless of condom type. Three new FC types functioned similarly and were generally acceptable. Most participants preferred WC and FC2 over V-Amour, and WC was preferred over FC2 in several acceptability measures. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Advise condom users to follow 10-part patient instructions.

    PubMed

    Reese, M; Hatcher, R A

    1984-09-01

    This article outlines 10 rules for condom users: 1) use condoms at every intercourse, 2) use spermicidal condoms, 3) out the condom on the penis before the penis is inserted into the vagina, 4) do not use petroleum products such as Vaseline for additional lubrication, 5) use a backup method of contraception to increase the effectiveness of condoms, 6) after intercourse hold onto the rim part of the condom to avoid spillage of semen as the penis is withdrawn, 7) check to make sure the condom is intact before throwing the condom away, 8) do not reuse condoms, 9) use each condom definitely only once if it is being used as protection against sexually transmissible diseases, and 10) store condoms in a cool and dry place to avoid deterioration of the rubber.

  16. Patterns of Caribbean Masculinities and Condom Compliance Among Males in Grenada.

    PubMed

    Hegamin-Younger, Cecilia; Jeremiah, Rohan; Bilbro, Nicole

    2014-07-01

    The construction of Caribbean male identities based on ideas of masculinity has raised widespread concerns across the island states, and in a region with such high rates of teenage pregnancy (18%), stigmatizing safe sex, contraception, and HIV/AIDS prevalence can only exacerbate the problem. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which males use condoms and to explore the association of condom use with their concern with acquiring and transmission of sexually transmitted infections.

  17. Adolescent Sexual Health Communication and Condom Use: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Widman, Laura; Noar, Seth M.; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Francis, Diane

    2014-01-01

    Objective Condom use is critical for the health of sexually active adolescents, and yet many adolescents fail to use condoms consistently. One interpersonal factor that may be key to condom use is sexual communication between sexual partners; however, the association between communication and condom use has varied considerably in prior studies of youth. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to synthesize the growing body of research linking adolescents’ sexual communication to condom use, and to examine several moderators of this association. Methods A total of 41 independent effect sizes from 34 studies with 15,046 adolescent participants (Mage=16.8, age range=12–23) were meta-analyzed. Results Results revealed a weighted mean effect size of the sexual communication-condom use relationship of r = .24, which was statistically heterogeneous (Q=618.86, p<.001, I2 =93.54). Effect sizes did not differ significantly by gender, age, recruitment setting, country of study, or condom measurement timeframe; however, communication topic and communication format were statistically significant moderators (p<.001). Larger effect sizes were found for communication about condom use (r = .34) than communication about sexual history (r = .15) or general safer sex topics (r = .14). Effect sizes were also larger for communication behavior formats (r = .27) and self-efficacy formats (r = .28), than for fear/concern (r = .18), future intention (r = .15), or communication comfort (r = −.15) formats. Conclusions Results highlight the urgency of emphasizing communication skills, particularly about condom use, in HIV/STI prevention work for youth. Implications for the future study of sexual communication are discussed. PMID:25133828

  18. Use of emergency contraceptive pills and condoms by college students: a survey.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hee Sun; Moneyham, Linda

    2008-05-01

    This study examined the intentions, knowledge, and attitudes of college students regarding the use of emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) and condoms. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted at 16 Korean colleges. Data were collected from March 15 to June 10, 2006 from a convenience sample of 1046 college students using a survey questionnaire. The survey included measures of demographic variables, intention to use ECPs (one item) and condoms (one item), knowledge about ECPs (12 items), and attitudes toward using ECPs (12 items) and condoms (16 items). All items except knowledge were rated on a 5-point Likert-type response format, with higher scores indicating greater intentions, more positive attitudes, and greater knowledge. Of the 1046 participants, 76.3% had heard of ECPs and 13.2% of the sexually active participants (n=190) had used them. Participants showed a general lack of knowledge about ECPs and misconceptions about their safety. The intentions of using ECPs and condoms were positively correlated with each other and with attitude such that the more positive the attitude, the greater their intention to use both ECPs and condoms. There were significant gender differences on many of the variables, in that female students had higher knowledge about ECPs, intention of using ECPs and condoms, and more positive attitude toward condoms than male students who had more positive attitudes toward ECPs. Females had more concerns about the safety of ECPs than males. The findings suggest that college students must be better informed about ECPs, and reassured about their safety. Additionally, promoting ECPs would not negatively affect condom use. Efforts are needed to disseminate up-to-date information to the general public and to develop educational and awareness programs to empower young people to make informed decisions about the use of ECPs and condoms.

  19. Performance and safety of the second-generation female condom (FC2) versus the Woman's, the VA worn-of-women, and the Cupid female condoms: a randomised controlled non-inferiority crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Beksinska, Mags E; Piaggio, Gilda; Smit, Jennifer A; Wu, Junqing; Zhang, Yufeng; Pienaar, Jacqueline; Greener, Ross; Zhou, Ying; Joanis, Carol

    2013-09-01

    New designs of female condom have been developed to reduce costs and improve acceptability. To secure regulatory approvals, clinical studies are needed to verify performance. We aimed to assess the functional performance and safety of three new condom types-the Woman's Condom, the VA worn-of-women (wow) Condom Feminine, and the Cupid female condom-against the existing second-generation female condom (FC2). We did a randomised controlled, non-inferiority, four-period crossover trial at three sites in Shanghai, China, and one site in Durban, South Africa, between May 1, 2011, and Jan 31, 2012. Participants aged 18-45 years who were sexually active, monogamous, not pregnant, and not sex workers, were eligible for inclusion if they were literate, had no known allergies to the study products; used a reliable, non-barrier method of contraception, and had no visible or reported sexually transmitted infections. We used a computer-generated randomisation sequence with a Williams square design of size four to assign patients (1:1:1:1) to the FC2 control device, or the Woman's, VA wow, or Cupid condoms, with 12 potential allocations. Randomisation was stratified by site. Participants were not masked to condom type, but allocation was concealed from study investigators. The primary non-inferiority endpoints were total clinical failure and total female condom failure, with a non-inferiority margin of 3%. Women were asked to use five of each condom type and were interviewed after use of each type. We also assessed safety data for each type. We did both per-protocol and intention-to-treat analyses. We calculated frequencies and percentages for each failure event and estimated differences in performance with a generalised estimating equation model. This study is registered, number DOH-27-0113-4271. 616 women were assessed for eligibility, of whom 600 were randomly assigned to condom-type order (30, 120, and 150 women in the three sites in China, and 300 women in the site in South

  20. Condom type may influence sexual behavior and ejaculation and complicate the assessment of condom functionality.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Lisa; Gallo, Maria F; Jamieson, Denise J; Macaluso, Maurizio

    2012-10-01

    Studies that evaluate condom effectiveness are affected by factors related to how the condom was used, and these factors may not be consistent between different types of condoms. Also, subjective assessments of the sexual act may be unreliable. We performed a secondary data analysis of a randomized crossover trial of male and female condoms among 108 couples. Self-reported duration and activeness of coital acts were significantly different for uses of the male condom compared to uses of the female condom. Fewer individuals reported ejaculation occurring with the female condom. Reliability of self-reports of ejaculation compared to a biological marker of semen detected inside the used male and female condoms was not strong. We found that sexual behaviors appear to differ by the type of condom used for the coital act. Studies should consider sexual behavior when evaluating condom effectiveness. Furthermore, studies would be strengthened by the use of a biological marker of semen to determine whether ejaculation, and therefore a true risk of exposure, occurred. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The effect of exposure to a condom script on attitudes toward condoms.

    PubMed

    Kyes, K B; Brown, I S; Pollack, R H

    1991-01-01

    The effect of reading an erotic script that described condom placement on attitudes toward condom use was investigated in 102 male and 108 female US university students. It was hypothesized that, when integrated into an erotic script, condom use would become viewed as a pleasurable activity rather than just a means of avoiding pregnancy or disease. Controls received identical scripts except that the use of condoms was omitted or received no stories. Subjects who read the erotic accounts exhibited a positive change from pretest to posttest in attitudes toward condom use, but there was no difference in this outcome between condom story and no-condom erotic story conditions. In women, but not men, a high level of arousal induced by the script was associated with negative attitudes toward condoms, suggesting that males and females may require different reading materials. Given the finding, at least in women, of an inverse relationship between explicit eroticism/sexual arousal and condom attitude scores, a 2nd experiment involving less explicit stories written by college students was conducted. Here, 100 men and 100 women students received erotic stories that either featured or did not include condom use. Again, males who read stories incorporating condom placement held more positive attitudes toward condom use than same-sex controls, but women were not affected by the manipulation. For women, a positive attitude toward condom use was associated only with history of sexual activity. Helpful would be the preparation of erotic scripts that appeal to both sexes given the demonstrated effectiveness of this social learning technique with the male subjects in both experiments.

  2. Four Radical Panaceas for Reversing Mass Failure in Certificate English Language Examinations in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasasi, Khabyr Alowonle; Amadi, Gloria U.

    2015-01-01

    Given the present-day perspectives of Nigerians to the imperatives of qualitative education in the lives of youths, quite a lot of Nigerians have strongly bemoaned and condemned the recurrent woeful performances of students in Certificate examinations. Many research works have therefore concerned themselves with solving the problems of mass…

  3. Identifying Students at Risk for Failure on the Licensing Examination for Registered Nurses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Susan J.; Orr, Scott P.

    A method was developed for identifying students who may be at high risk for failing the State Board Licensing Examination (SBE) for registered nurses. The subjects used in developing prediction equations included 50 students who graduated from the nursing program at Saint Joseph's College (SJC) in North Windham (Maine) during the years 1983-84.…

  4. Female condom importance acknowledged in HIV prevention.

    PubMed

    1996-12-09

    The Female Health Co. (FHC), London, United Kingdom, has signed a three-year agreement with the Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) to provide a global public sector price for the female condom to 193 affiliated countries. An adjunct education and social marketing program, supported by UNAIDS, will be launched. High rates of acceptance have been shown previously when the female condom has been introduced with an effective educational approach. Negotiations between FHC and UNAIDS began in September 1996; 80 of 193 countries, upon inquiry, have already identified a requirement for over 7 million female condoms in 1997. UNAIDS estimates that nearly 50% of new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections are in women; the female condom is the only woman-controlled product providing protection against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Studies have indicated that the number of unprotected sex acts decreases when the female condom is available. Dr. Peter Piot (UNAIDS) states that the female condom is important in those cultures and situations where women have limited control over sexual decisions. Dr. Mary Ann Leeper (FHC) states that the company is committed to making the female condom available in developing countries.

  5. Changes in Condom Use During the First Year of HIV Treatment in Uganda and the Relationship to Depression

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Glenn J.; Ghosh-Dastidar, Bonnie; Slaughter, Mary Ellen; Akena, Dickens; Nakasujja, Noeline; Musisi, Seggane

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We examined the effect of antiretroviral therapy (ART), and the predictive role of depression, on condom use with primary partners. Methods Data from three studies in Uganda were combined into a sample of 750 patients with a primary sex partner, with 502 starting ART and 248 entering HIV care, and followed for 12 months. Random-effects logistic regression models were used to examine the impact of ART, and the influence of baseline level and change in depression, on condom use with primary partners. Results At Month 12, 61% ART and 67% non-ART patients were consistent condom users, compared to 44% and 41% at baseline, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that consistent condom use increased similarly for ART and non-ART patients, and that Minor Depression at baseline and increased depression over time predicted inconsistent condom use. Conclusions Improved depression diagnosis and treatment could benefit HIV prevention. PMID:24504978

  6. Comparative evaluation of three Tactylon(TM) condoms and a latex condom during vaginal intercourse: breakage and slippage.

    PubMed

    Callahan, M; Mauck, C; Taylor, D; Frezieres, R; Walsh, T; Martens, M

    2000-03-01

    This study compared breakage and slippage rates of three male condom styles made of Tactylon(TM), a synthetic elastomer, to those of a marketed latex condom during vaginal intercourse. Safety and acceptability outcomes were also assessed. This two-center, prospective, crossover study enrolled 443 couples. Each couple was randomly assigned to use three condoms of each type in one of 24 use sequences. Couples completed questionnaires after using each condom, all of one condom type, and all four condom types. The percentage and standard error (SE, in parentheses) of latex condoms with clinical breakage was 0.86% (0.295). Percentages for Tactylon condoms were not equivalent to the latex study condom, ranging from 3.50% to 4.17%. The percentage and SE of latex condoms with complete slippage was 1.11% (0.328). Percentages for Tactylon condoms were equivalent to those for latex, ranging from 0.70% to 1.31%. The Low-Modulus Tactylon condom was the most preferred. Fewer medical events were reported with the Tactylon condoms than with the latex condom. It was concluded that Tactylon condoms were equivalent to the latex condom in terms of slippage but not breakage. However, safety and acceptability seemed to be better for Tactylon condoms. This may improve consistency of use and may attract new users.

  7. Toxicological evaluation of nitrosamines in condoms.

    PubMed

    Proksch, E

    2001-11-01

    Volatile N-nitrosamines have been found in rubber products including gloves, balloons, toys, baby bottle teats, soothers, and condoms. N-Nitrosamines are potent carcinogens, and therefore, European legislation has limited the release of N-nitrosamines and N-nitrosatable compounds in teats and soothers to 0.01-0.1 mg/kg rubber, respectively. Previously, endogenous nitrosamine formation in the vagina has been suggested as a cause of cervical cancer. It was speculated that exogenous N-nitrosamines and N-nitrosatable compounds from condoms may also lead to genital cancer. Therefore, we reviewed the literature and calculated the risk for the induction of tumors by nitrosamines from condoms. In vitro Biaudet et al. (1997) found up to 88 ng nitrosatable compounds migrating from condoms to cervical mucous within 24 hrs. During sexual intercourse about 0.6 ng may migrate in the female genital mucous membranes because of the short contact to the condom, e.g. 10 min. Comparable amounts of nitrosamines may also migrate in the penile skin. Estimating 1500 contacts to condoms during lifetime (50 condoms/year for 30 years) this may result in the adsorption of up to 0.9 microgram nitrosamines in total. Animal studies in Syrian hamsters showed the induction of local and/or systemic tumors, in particular liver tumors, after topical application of nitrosamines to the skin or mucous membrane at a total dose of about 1 g. This dose exceeds the dose to be expected from contact with condoms by more than 1 million. Also, epidemiological studies do not support a role for condoms in the induction of cancer. The incidence of cervical cancer and liver tumors is high in developing countries, where condoms are seldom used. In addition, humans are regularly exposed to nitrosamines from food and tobacco smoke at a dose which is 1,000 to 10,000 fold higher than expected from condom use. In summary, the risk for the induction of tumors from nitrosamines in condoms is very low.

  8. Sexual relationship power, intimate partner violence, and condom use among minority urban girls.

    PubMed

    Teitelman, Anne M; Ratcliffe, Sarah J; Morales-Aleman, Mercedes M; Sullivan, Cris M

    2008-12-01

    This study examined the association between sexual relationship power, intimate partner violence, and condom use among African American and Hispanic urban girls. In this sample of 56 sexually active girls, 50% did not use condoms consistently and therefore were at higher risk for acquiring HIV or sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Teens who experienced more intimate partner violence had a significantly higher likelihood of inconsistent condom use and therefore a greater risk for HIV/STDs. Girls' sense of sexual control in their relationships was not directly associated with inconsistent condom use but was inversely related to verbal and emotional abuse. Interventions aimed at reducing HIV/STD risk for adolescent girls need to address patterns of dominance and control in adolescent relationships as well as multiple forms of partner violence. This suggests the need for multilevel intervention approaches that promote girls' agency and multiple ways to keep girls safe from perpetrators of partner abuse.

  9. Between tradition and change: condom use with primary sexual partners among Mexican migrants.

    PubMed

    Caballero-Hoyos, Ramiro; Torres-Lopez, Teresa; Pineda-Lucatero, Alicia; Navarro-Nuñez, Carlos; Fosados, Raquel; Valente, Thomas W

    2008-07-01

    The frequency of male Mexico-US migration has been associated with increased HIV risk for sexual partners awaiting their return in Mexico. This study examined the association between sexual partner characteristics and condom use among a sample of 354 male migrants from two Mexican municipalities. Migrants were interviewed about their past year's sex practices. Results indicated that migrants were more likely to use condoms with their non-spousal partners, partners with less education than the migrant, and partners with higher employment status. Condom use was greater among younger migrants and residents of the more densely populated municipality. Findings suggest the coexistence of a traditional cultural orientation that does not support condom use and another one that does provided the sex partner is formally employed. Prevention programs must strengthen the structural conditions fostering greater equality between the sexes and adapt their approaches for different population density, age and partner types.

  10. 21 CFR 884.5310 - Condom with spermicidal lubricant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Condom with spermicidal lubricant. 884.5310... Devices § 884.5310 Condom with spermicidal lubricant. (a) Identification. A condom with spermicidal... that contains a spermicidal agent, nonoxynol-9. This condom is used for contraceptive and...

  11. 21 CFR 884.5310 - Condom with spermicidal lubricant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Condom with spermicidal lubricant. 884.5310... Devices § 884.5310 Condom with spermicidal lubricant. (a) Identification. A condom with spermicidal... that contains a spermicidal agent, nonoxynol-9. This condom is used for contraceptive and...

  12. 21 CFR 884.5310 - Condom with spermicidal lubricant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Condom with spermicidal lubricant. 884.5310... Devices § 884.5310 Condom with spermicidal lubricant. (a) Identification. A condom with spermicidal... that contains a spermicidal agent, nonoxynol-9. This condom is used for contraceptive and...

  13. 21 CFR 884.5310 - Condom with spermicidal lubricant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Condom with spermicidal lubricant. 884.5310... Devices § 884.5310 Condom with spermicidal lubricant. (a) Identification. A condom with spermicidal... that contains a spermicidal agent, nonoxynol-9. This condom is used for contraceptive and...

  14. Assessing a thematic condom advertising campaign on condom use in urban Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Agha, Sohail; Beaudoin, Christopher E

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to assess communication processes involving a thematic condom advertising campaign in Pakistan in 2009. To evaluate the social marketing campaign for Touch condoms, the authors conducted a nationally representative survey of 1,606 men married to women aged 15-49 years. About 15% of urban married men were aware of Touch advertising. After controlling for a range of other variables including daily television viewership, confirmed awareness of Touch advertising was associated with a higher level of belief in the effectiveness of condoms, reduced embarrassment in negotiating condom use, reduced embarrassment in purchasing condoms, increased discussion of family planning, and increased use of condoms and other contraceptive methods. The findings have implications for the further development and dissemination of contraceptive advertising in Pakistan, as well as the broader construction of scientific knowledge on how advertising can influence contraceptive and other critical health behaviors in other contexts.

  15. Associations between rushed condom application and condom use errors and problems.

    PubMed

    Crosby, Richard; Graham, Cynthia; Milhausen, Robin; Sanders, Stephanie; Yarber, William; Shrier, Lydia A

    2015-06-01

    To determine whether any of four condom use errors/problems occurred more frequently when condom application was 'rushed' among a clinic-based sample from three US states. A convenience sample (n=512) completed daily electronic assessments including questions about condom use being rushed and also assessed condom breakage, slippage, leakage and incomplete use. Of 8856 events, 6.5% (n=574) occurred when application was rushed. When events involved rushed condom application, the estimated odds of breakage and slippage were almost doubled (estimated OR (EOR)=1.90 and EOR=1.86). Rushed application increased the odds of not using condoms throughout sex (EOR=1.33) and nearly tripled the odds of leakage (EOR=2.96). With one exception, all tests for interactions between gender and rushed application and between age and rushed application were not significant (p values>0.10). This event-level analysis suggests that women and men who perceive that condom application was rushed are more likely to experience errors/problems during the sexual event that substantially compromise the protective value of condoms against disease and pregnancy. Educational efforts emphasising the need to allow ample time for condom application may benefit this population. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. As AID condom prices climb, so do calls for more condom sources.

    PubMed

    1992-01-01

    USAID is the world's largest distributer of condoms with over 800 million condoms distributed in 1990, the most recent year figures are available. However, this year's order is 300 million smaller because AID will no longer be supplying Bangladesh or Pakistan. This, combined with inflation has caused the price to rise 16% or from $4.51/100-$5.35/100. Bangladesh will not longer be supplied because the European Community will provide condoms as part of a new 5 year plan from the World Bank. Pakistan will no longer be supplied because US law forbids foreign aid to countries that refuse to sign the United Nations Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty. The UNFPA distributed 98.5 million condoms last year. The WHO Global Program on AIDS supplied 140 million in 1989 and 30 million in 1990. The International Planned Parenthood Federation distributed 15 million condoms in 1990. Unlike AID, the other organizations can buy their condoms from any manufacture that meets the new international condom standard set up with the help of the WHO. AID must buy condoms manufactured in the US in accordance with US law. AID does however get a much better price for IUDs, oral contraceptive and Norplant. As a result AID is trying to work with other organizations in an attempt to maximize the amount of contraceptives available world wide for family planning. Since other groups are not restricted by the same rules, they could provide condoms, while AID could use its price advantage to supply other methods.

  17. The influence of perceived behaviour control, attitude and empowerment on reported condom use and intention to use condoms among adolescents in rural Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kalolo, Albino; Kibusi, Stephen Matthew

    2015-11-13

    Despite the declining trends of Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), unsafe sexual behaviours among adolescents still represent a public health challenge. It is important to understand factors acting at different levels to influence sexual behaviour among adolescents. This study examined the influence of perceived behaviour control, subjective norms, attitudes and empowerment on intention to use condoms and reported use of condoms among adolescents in rural Tanzania. We used a questionnaire to collect data from 403 adolescents aged 14 through 19 years from nine randomly selected secondary schools in the Newala district located in the Southern part of Tanzania. The self-administered questionnaire collected information on sexual practices and factors such as attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behaviour control and empowerment. Binary logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with intention to use and reported use of condoms. Sexually active adolescents constituted 40.6 % of the sample, among them 49.7 % did not use a condom at last sexual intercourse and 49.8 % had multiple sex partners. Many (85 %) of sexually active respondents had their sexual debut between the ages of 14 to 17 years. Girls became sexually active earlier than boys. Perceived behaviour control predicted intentions to use condoms (AOR = 3.059, 95 % CI 1.324-7.065), thus demonstrating its importance in the decision to use a condom. Empowerment (odds ratio = 3.694, 95 % CI 1.295-10.535) and a positive attitude (AOR = 3.484, 95 % CI 1.132-10.72) predicted reported condom use, thus turning the decision to actions. Subjective norms had only indirect effects on intention and reported use of condoms. The findings suggest that unsafe sex practices are prevalent among school adolescents in rural areas of Tanzania. Perceived behaviour control and positive attitudes predict intensions to use condoms whereas empowerment

  18. Teaching Teens To Use Condoms Faithfully

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Teaching Teens To Use Condoms Faithfully Page Content Article ... female partner uses any of the three hormonal methods: the pill, Depo-Provera or Norplant. One of ...

  19. 21 CFR 884.5300 - Condom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... (b) Classification. (1) Class II (special controls) for condoms made of materials other than natural rubber latex, including natural membrane (skin) or synthetic. (2) Class II (special controls) for natural...

  20. 21 CFR 884.5300 - Condom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... (b) Classification. (1) Class II (special controls) for condoms made of materials other than natural rubber latex, including natural membrane (skin) or synthetic. (2) Class II (special controls) for natural...

  1. Talking to Your Partner about Condoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... at the top of your (or your partner's) penis. This gets rid of trapped air, which can ... Remove the condom immediately after ejaculation, before the penis softens. You or your partner should hold the ...

  2. Are Female Sex Workers Able to Negotiate Condom Use with Male Clients? The Case of Mobile FSWs in Four High HIV Prevalence States of India

    PubMed Central

    Bharat, Shalini; Mahapatra, Bidhubhusan; Roy, Suchismita; Saggurti, Niranjan

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Condom promotion among female sex workers (FSWs) is a key intervention in India’s National AIDS Control Program. However, there is limited understanding of how FSWs negotiate condom use with male clients, particularly in the context of their mobility for sex work. The objective of this study is to examine the factors associated with the mobile FSWs’ ability to refuse unsafe sex and successfully negotiate condom use with unwilling male clients. Methods Data for 5498 mobile FSWs from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 22 districts of four states in southern India were analyzed. Questions assessed FSWs’ ability to refuse clients unprotected sex, convince unwilling clients for condom use and negotiate condom use in a new location. Logistic regression models were constructed to examine the association between socio-demographics, economic vulnerability, sex work practice, and program exposure and condom negotiation ability. Results A majority of FSWs (60%) reported the ability to refuse clients for unprotected sex, but less than one-fifth reported the ability to successfully convince an unwilling client to use a condom or to negotiate condom use in a new site. Younger and older mobile FSWs compared to those who were in the middle age group, those with longer sex work experience, with an income source other than sex work, with program exposure and who purchased condoms for use, reported the ability to refuse unprotected sex, to successfully negotiate condom use with unwilling clients and to do so at new sites. Conclusion FSWs need to be empowered to not only refuse unprotected sex but also to be able to motivate and convince unwilling clients for condom use, including those in new locations. In addition to focusing on condom promotion, interventions must address the factors that impact FSWs’ ability to negotiate condom use. PMID:23840806

  3. The Role of Condom Use Self-Efficacy on Intended and Actual Condom Use Among University Students in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Oppong Asante, Kwaku; Osafo, Joseph; Doku, Paul N

    2016-02-01

    Little attention has been paid to the dimensions that help to predict and understand condom use among university students within an African context. A cross-sectional study involving 518 university students in Accra, Ghana was conducted to determine how the Condom Use self-Efficacy Scale-Ghana (CUSES-G) can predict both actual condom use and future condom use. Of all the participants, 84% were sexually active but less than half of the sample (48%) reported to have used condom during their last sexual intercourse. A hierarchical regression analysis showed that components of the Condom Use Self-Efficacy Scale (CUESE-G) such as appropriation, assertiveness, pleasure and intoxication, and STDs predicted condom use and condom use intentions. Behavioural change campaigns targeting university students should encourage condom use self-efficacy, as this would strengthen condom use, which is economically cheap and practically effective means of preventing STIs including HIV.

  4. Condoms, HIV and the Roman Catholic Church.

    PubMed

    Benagiano, Giuseppe; Carrara, Sabina; Filippi, Valentina; Brosens, Ivo

    2011-06-01

    For decades, the Roman Catholic Church opposed use of condoms to prevent spread of sexually transmitted infections (STI) because of their contraceptive effect. In 2009, Pope Benedict XVI said that widespread use of condoms could worsen the situation, a position rejected as 'unscientific'. Recently, however the Pontiff stated that because the Church considers acts of prostitution and homosexuality to be gravely immoral and disordered, in such specific cases use of a condom might become an initial step in the direction of a moralization leading to an assumption of responsibility and a new awareness of the meaning of sexuality. In doing so, he reaffirmed his belief that condoms cannot solve the problem of STI spread, stressing the Church's position that modern societies no longer see sexuality as an 'expression of love, but only as a sort of drug that people administer to themselves'. The new Papal position has been widely applauded, but made conservative Catholics unhappy. A dialogue with the Church now seems possible: Does concentrating on condoms hinder the effectiveness of other strategies? What are the respective roles of condoms and other approaches to prevent infection spread? Does a special situation exist in Africa requiring specific and focused interventions?

  5. Safe sex versus safe love? Relationship context and condom use among male adolescents in the favelas of Recife, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Juarez, Fatima; Martín, Teresa Castro

    2006-02-01

    This study examined the influence of the relationship context where adolescent sexual activity takes place on contraceptive decisions. The data were collected in a specially designed survey carried out in May 2000 on 1,438 adolescent males aged 13-19 residing in favelas (urban slum areas) of Recife, Brazil. A logistic regression analysis of condom use at last sexual intercourse and a multinomial logit analysis of contraceptive method choice were performed for 678 sexually active adolescents. Educational attainment, degree of knowledge of HIV transmission and prevention, and condom use at first sexual intercourse were found to be significantly associated with current condom use. Regarding the relationship context, the analysis revealed that adolescent males in steady relationships were less likely to use condoms, less likely to regard themselves at risk of HIV infection, and more concerned about pregnancy prevention than adolescents in casual relationships. Differentials in condom use by type of relationship, however, did not result from a higher rejection of contraception by steady partners but from their higher likelihood to rely on other contraceptive methods. Results suggest that prevention campaigns need to take into account the intimate context where adolescents assess potential health risks, and to address the divergent symbolic meanings condoms may have in different types of relationships. If an increase of condom use among stable sexual partners is pursued, public health campaigns might need to romanticize condom use as a sign of love and trust and place more emphasis on the benefits of dual protection.

  6. Is cost a structural barrier preventing men who have sex with men accessing condoms? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ubrihien, Ashley; Davies, Stephen C; Driscoll, Tim

    2016-11-01

    A systematic review was undertaken to determine whether cost is a structural barrier preventing men who have sex with men (MSM) accessing condoms. Studies were examined from a range of countries where condoms have been distributed free to particular populations and also those where condoms were available at a cost to the individual. The study inclusion criteria were: published between January 1990 and September 2014 inclusive; published in any language, discussed cost as a barrier to condom use, discussed cost barriers to MSM accessing condoms and included a measure of outcome. Articles were systematically extracted from MEDLINE, Embase, PyschINFO and Informat using the five search terms; Male Homosexuality, Access, Cost, Cost and Cost analysis, Condoms. Sixty-four articles were initially identified and 11 included in the final review. The included studies used cost-utility analysis, qualitative, cross-sectional, cohort or randomised control trial design. Large-scale free distribution programmes and smaller targeted programmes showed positive correlations in reducing the burden of disease from HIV and other sexually transmitted infections through eliminating the issue of cost. Decreasing the cost of condoms, and providing them for no cost, appears to increase their utilisation amongst MSM and possibly reduce the burden from HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. Inequality and stigma remain important barriers to MSM accessing and using condoms particularly in the developing world.

  7. Development and psychometric evaluation of a condom use self-efficacy measure in Spanish and English.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Brian E; Schaefer Solle, Natasha; Gattamorta, Karina; Villegas, Natalia; Cianelli, Rosina; Mitrani, Victoria B; Peragallo, Nilda

    2016-09-01

    Condom self-efficacy is an important construct for HIV/STI prevention and intervention. A psychometrically sound measure of the self-efficacy for using condoms that has been designed for Hispanic women to respond in Spanish or English is needed. The goal of this study was to develop and evaluate a brief self-report measure of condom use self-efficacy. We developed a 15-item measure of condom use self-efficacy based on expert knowledge of measurement and HIV/STI prevention with Hispanic women using a translation-back translation approach. Participants were 320 Hispanic women from the Southeastern US. Internal consistency of the full measure was 92. A short form of the instrument with a subset of five items also had acceptable internal consistency, alpha = .80, and was significantly correlated with the full scale, rs = .93, p < .001. A single latent factor explained 9-48% of the variation in these items. Evidence of construct validity of the short form was provided by correlations of the scale with two self-report measures of condom use: rs = .34** with condom use, rs = .37** with condom use during vaginal sex. Either the full measure or the five-item measure could be used in studies where condom use is an important behavioral outcome, such as evaluating prevention interventions, with Hispanic women. Future studies should examine the performance of this measure with other groups, including Hispanic men and members of other ethnic and language groups.

  8. Condom Use and Intimacy among Tajik Male Migrants and their Regular Female Partners in Moscow

    PubMed Central

    Polutnik, Chloe; Jonbekov, Jonbek; Shoakova, Farzona; Bahromov, Mahbat; Weine, Stevan

    2014-01-01

    This study examined condom use and intimacy among Tajik male migrants and their regular female partners in Moscow, Russia. This study included a survey of 400 Tajik male labour migrants; and longitudinal ethnographic interviews with 30 of the surveyed male migrants and 30 of their regular female partners. 351 (88%) of the surveyed male migrants reported having a regular female partner in Moscow. Findings demonstrated that the migrants’ and regular partners’ intentions to use condoms diminished with increased intimacy, yet each party perceived intimacy differently. Migrants’ intimacy with regular partners was determined by their familiarity and perceived sexual cleanliness of their partner. Migrants believed that Muslim women were cleaner than Orthodox Christian women and reported using condoms more frequently with Orthodox Christian regular partners. Regular partners reported determining intimacy based on the perceived commitment of the male migrant. When perceived commitment faced a crisis, intimacy declined, and regular partners renegotiated condom use. The association between intimacy and condom use suggests that HIV prevention programmes should aim to help male migrants and female regular partners to dissociate their approaches to condom use from their perceptions of intimacy. PMID:25033817

  9. Do Alcohol and Marijuana Use Decrease the Probability of Condom Use for College Women?

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Jennifer L.; Fielder, Robyn L.; Carey, Kate B.; Carey, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol and marijuana use are thought to increase sexual risk taking, but event-level studies conflict in their findings and often depend on reports from a limited number of people or on a limited number of sexual events per person. With event-level data from 1856 sexual intercourse events provided by 297 college women (Mage = 18 years; 71% White), we used multilevel modeling to examine associations between alcohol and marijuana use and condom use as well as interactions involving sexual partner type and alcohol-sexual risk expectancies. Controlling for alternative contraception use, partner type, regular levels of substance use, impulsivity and sensation-seeking, and demographics, women were no more or less likely to use condoms during events involving drinking or heavy episodic drinking (HED) than during those without drinking. However, for drinking events, there was a negative association between number of drinks consumed and condom use; additionally, women with stronger alcohol-sexual risk expectancies were marginally less likely to use condoms when drinking. Although there was no main effect of marijuana use on condom use, these data suggest that marijuana use with established romantic partners may increase risk of unprotected sex. Intervention efforts should target expectancies and emphasize the dose-response relationship of drinks to condom use. PMID:24164105

  10. Relationships Between Marijuana Dependence and Condom Use Intentions and Behavior Among Justice-Involved Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell Hooper, Ann E.; Thayer, Rachel E.; Magnan, Renee E.; Bryan, Angela D.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the relationships among marijuana dependence, a theoretical model of condom use intentions, and subsequent condom use behavior in justice-involved adolescents. Participants completed baseline measures of prior sexual and substance use behavior. Of the original 720 participants, 649 (90.13 %) completed follow-up measures 6 months later. There were high levels of marijuana use (58.7 % met criteria for dependence) and risky sexual behavior among participants. Baseline model constructs were associated with condom use intentions, and intentions were a significant predictor of condom use at follow-up. Marijuana dependence did not significantly influence the relationships between model constructs, nor did it moderate the relationship of model constructs with subsequent condom use. Findings suggest that the theoretical model of condom use intentions is equally valid regardless of marijuana dependence status, suggesting that interventions to reduce sexual risk behavior among both marijuana dependent and non-dependent justice-involved adolescents can be appropriately based on the model. PMID:23370834

  11. Types of adolescent sexual relationships and associated perceptions about condom use.

    PubMed

    Ellen, J M; Cahn, S; Eyre, S L; Boyer, C B

    1996-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the various types of adolescent sexual relationships and to examine the association between the type of sexual relationship and adolescents' perceptions about the consistency with which other adolescents use condoms. Adolescents attending a university-based adolescent medicine clinic completed a self-administered questionnaire. Subjects were asked to rate the importance of six qualities (caring about each other, length of time of relationship, ability to talk about anything, ability to talk about sex and condoms, doing things together, and attraction to partner's looks) for each of four different types of sexual relationships (steady, casual, friends, and "one-night stands"). Subjects were also asked to estimate the frequency with which adolescents use condoms with each type of sexual partner. Questionnaires were completed by 75 sexually experienced adolescents. The mean age of the sample was 16.6 years, and 41.3% were male. All qualities, except attraction to partner's looks, were rated more important for steady partners compared with the other partner types, and more important for sexual relationships with casual partners and friends than for "one-night stands" (p < .001). Sexually experienced subjects believed that condoms are used less frequently with steady partners and more frequently with "one-night stands" (p < .001). Interventions designed to increase the consistency with which adolescents use condoms should take into account the different types of sexual relationships, each with distinct expectancies about the consistency of condom use.

  12. Epidemiologic and behavioral characterization of knowledge of condom use and modeling among military personnel

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Laurens; Ogungbade, Gbadebo; Ward, Doriel D.; Ross, Michael W.; Ekong, Ernest; Essien, Ekere James

    2008-01-01

    How accurately condoms are being used vary across populations and knowledge of the factors determining its proper use remains unclear. Knowledge of such differentials and determinants would aid in evaluating the contributions of condom use to HIV epidemic reduction. Baseline data from the Situationally Focused Individual HIV/AIDS intervention to promote HIV protective behavior among 2,213 Nigerian Military Personnel were analyzed. Using composite score of the six steps for the knowledge of condom use and modeling as the outcome variable, we examined educational status as a predictor variable, modeling with unconditional univariable and multivariable logistic regression. In the unadjusted logistic regression model, compared to those with less than high school education, those with high school and some college education were two times more likely to demonstrate knowledge of condom use and modeling, prevalence odds ratio, 2.32, 95% Confidence Interval (CI)=1.60-3.37. However, the statistically significant association failed to persist after adjustment for the relevant covariates, prevalence odds ratio, 1.62, 95% CI=0.78-3.38. This study is indicative of low knowledge of condom use and modeling among the Nigerian military personnel; as well as a direct correlation between education attainment and knowledge of condom use and modeling. PMID:19122783

  13. Condom Negotiations among Female Sex Workers in the Philippines: Environmental Influences

    PubMed Central

    Urada, Lianne A.; Morisky, Donald E.; Pimentel-Simbulan, Nymia; Silverman, Jay G.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Social and structural influences of condom negotiation among female sex workers (FSWs) remain understudied. This study assesses environmental and individual factors associated with condom negotiation among FSWs at high risk for acquiring HIV in a large urban setting of Metro Manila, Philippines. Methods Female bar/spa workers (N = 498), aged 18 and over, underwent interview-led surveys examining their sexual health practices in the context of their risk environments. Data were collected from April 2009-January 2010 from 54 venues. Multiple logistic regressions were conducted to assess socio-behavioral factors (e.g., age, education, length of time employed as an entertainer, and alcohol/drug use) and socio-structural factors (e.g., venue-level peer/manager support, condom rule/availability, and sex trafficking) associated with condom negotiation, adjusting for individuals nested within venues. Results Of 142 FSWs who traded sex in the previous 6 months (included in the analysis), 24% did not typically negotiate condom use with venue patrons. Factors in the physical environment - trafficked/coerced into work (AOR = 12.92, 95% CI = 3.34–49.90), economic environment - sex without a condom to make more money (AOR = 1.52, 95% CI 1.01–2.30), policy environment - sex without a condom because none was available (AOR = 2.58, 95% CI = 1.49–4.48), and individual risk - substance use (AOR = 2.36, 95% CI = 1.28–4.35) were independently associated with FSWs' lack of condom negotiation with venue patrons. Conclusions Factors in the physical, economic, and policy environments, over individual (excepting substance use) and social level factors, were significantly associated with these FSWs' condom negotiations in the Philippines. Drawing upon Rhodes' risk environment framework, these results highlight the need for policies that support safer sex negotiations among sex workers in the context of their risk environments. Interventions

  14. Condom negotiations among female sex workers in the Philippines: environmental influences.

    PubMed

    Urada, Lianne A; Morisky, Donald E; Pimentel-Simbulan, Nymia; Silverman, Jay G; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2012-01-01

    Social and structural influences of condom negotiation among female sex workers (FSWs) remain understudied. This study assesses environmental and individual factors associated with condom negotiation among FSWs at high risk for acquiring HIV in a large urban setting of Metro Manila, Philippines. Female bar/spa workers (N = 498), aged 18 and over, underwent interview-led surveys examining their sexual health practices in the context of their risk environments. Data were collected from April 2009-January 2010 from 54 venues. Multiple logistic regressions were conducted to assess socio-behavioral factors (e.g., age, education, length of time employed as an entertainer, and alcohol/drug use) and socio-structural factors (e.g., venue-level peer/manager support, condom rule/availability, and sex trafficking) associated with condom negotiation, adjusting for individuals nested within venues. Of 142 FSWs who traded sex in the previous 6 months (included in the analysis), 24% did not typically negotiate condom use with venue patrons. Factors in the physical environment--trafficked/coerced into work (AOR = 12.92, 95% CI = 3.34-49.90), economic environment--sex without a condom to make more money (AOR = 1.52, 95% CI 1.01-2.30), policy environment--sex without a condom because none was available (AOR = 2.58, 95% CI = 1.49-4.48), and individual risk--substance use (AOR = 2.36, 95% CI = 1.28-4.35) were independently associated with FSWs' lack of condom negotiation with venue patrons. Factors in the physical, economic, and policy environments, over individual (excepting substance use) and social level factors, were significantly associated with these FSWs' condom negotiations in the Philippines. Drawing upon Rhodes' risk environment framework, these results highlight the need for policies that support safer sex negotiations among sex workers in the context of their risk environments. Interventions should reduce barriers to condom negotiation for

  15. Development of a scale for attitude toward condom use for migrant workers in India.

    PubMed

    Talukdar, Arunansu; Bal, Runa; Sanyal, Debasis; Roy, Krishnendu; Talukdar, Payel Sengupta

    2008-02-01

    The propaganda for the use of condoms remains one of the mainstay for prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission. In spite of the proven efficacy of condom, some moral, social and psychological obstacles are still prevalent, hindering the use of condoms. The study tried to construct a short condom-attitude scale for use among the migrant workers, a major bridge population in India. The study was conducted among the male migrant workers who were 18-49 years old, sexually active and had heard about condoms and were engaged in nonformal jobs. We recruited 234 and 280 candidates for Phase 1 and Phase 2 respectively. Ten items from the original 40-item Brown's ATC (attitude towards condom) scale were selected in Phase 1. After analysis of Phase 1 results, using principal component analysis six items were found appropriate for measuring attitude towards condom use. These six items were then administered in another group in Phase 2. Utilizing Pearson's correlations, scale items were examined in terms of their mean response scores and the correlation matrix between items. Cornbach's alpha and construct validity were also assessed for the entire sample. Study subjects were categorized as condom users and nonusers. The scale structure was explored by analyzing response scores with respect to the items, using principal component analysis followed by varimax rotation analysis. Principal component analysis revealed that the first factor accounted for 71% of the variance, with eigenvalue greater than one. Eigenvalues of the second factor was less than one. Application of screen test suggests only one factor was dominant. Mean score of six items among condom users was 20.45 and that among nonusers was 16.67, which was statistically significant (P<0.01). Cornbach's alpha coefficient was 0.92. This tailor-made attitude-toward-condom-use scale, targeted for most vulnerable people in India, can be included in any rapid survey for assessing the existing beliefs and

  16. Identification and Use of Frailty Indicators from Text to Examine Associations with Clinical Outcomes Among Patients with Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yijun; Mohanty, April F; Ahmed, Ali; Weir, Charlene R; Bray, Bruce E; Shah, Rashmee U; Redd, Douglas; Zeng-Treitler, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Frailty is an important health outcomes indicator and valuable for guiding healthcare decisions in older adults, but is rarely collected in a quantitative, systematic fashion in routine healthcare. Using a cohort of 12,000 Veterans with heart failure, we investigated the feasibility of topic modeling to identify frailty topics in clinical notes. Topics were generated through unsupervised learning and then manually reviewed by an expert. A total of 53 frailty topics were identified from 100,000 notes. We further examined associations of frailty with age-, sex-, and Charlson Comorbidity Index-adjusted 1-year hospitalizations and mortality (composite outcome) using logistic regression. Frailty (≤ 4 topics versus <4) was associated with twice the risk of the composite outcome, Odds Ratio: 2.2, 95% Confidence Interval: (2.0-2.4). This study demonstrates the feasibility of identifying frailty indicators from clinical notes and linking these to clinically relevant outcomes. Future work includes integrating frailty indicators into validated predictive tools.

  17. AIDS-related knowledge, condom usage among medical postgraduates.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Zhang, Kong-Lai

    2002-06-01

    To investigate the knowledge about safety/unsafety of sexual acts relating to HIV transmission, levels of embarrassment related to condom and condom usage among medical postgraduates. From August to December, 1998, a self-administered anonymous questionnaire was given to 271 new medical postgraduates from two medical colleges of Beijing and Hebei Province. There was a hazy understanding of the protective function of condom from AIDS among medical postgraduates. Only 14.4% medical postgraduates persisted in using condom, and 27.94% had never or almost never used it. The levels of embarrassment about condom were high. The median score was 3.55 +/- 0.98. Whether to use condom was related with the attitudes to condom, but not to AIDS. There was some misunderstanding about condom and inconsistent condom usage in medical postgraduates. So it is essential to strengthen the sexual health education among them.

  18. Everywhere you go, everyone is saying condom, condom. But are they being used consistently? Reflections of South African male students about male and female condom use.

    PubMed

    Mantell, Joanne E; Smit, Jennifer A; Beksinska, Mags; Scorgie, Fiona; Milford, Cecilia; Balch, Erin; Mabude, Zonke; Smith, Emily; Adams-Skinner, Jessica; Exner, Theresa M; Hoffman, Susie; Stein, Zena A

    2011-10-01

    Young men in South Africa can play a critical role in preventing new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections, yet are seldom targeted for HIV prevention. While reported condom use at last sex has increased considerably among young people, consistent condom use remains a challenge. In this study, 74 male higher education students gave their perspectives on male and female condoms in 10 focus group discussions. All believed that condoms should be used when wanting to prevent conception and protect against HIV, although many indicated that consistent condom use was seldom attained, if at all. Three possible situations for not using condoms were noted: (i) when sex happens in the heat of the moment and condoms are unavailable, (ii) when sexual partnerships have matured and (iii) when female partners implicitly accept unprotected sex. Men viewed it as their responsibility to have male condoms available, but attitudes about whose decision it was to initiate condom use were mixed. Almost all sexually active men had male condom experience; however, very few had used female condoms. Prevention initiatives should challenge traditional gendered norms that underpin poor condom uptake and continued use and build on the apparent shifts in these norms that are allowing women greater sexual agency.

  19. Would you like to use one condom or two?

    PubMed

    Sokal, D; Ankrah, E M

    1997-10-01

    Two factors have probably led to the widespread acceptance by the clients of prostitutes in Lamphun Province, Thailand, of using 2 condoms, one on top of the other, during sex. Two condoms are used in about half of all sex acts between prostitutes and their clients despite the absence of any official promotion of multiple condom use in the province. First, the women ask their clients not whether they want to use a condom, but whether they prefer to use one or two condoms. In so doing, the woman implies that her client understands the need for condom use and that most people use at least one condom. A similar tactic would be to ask the client whether he prefers a plain or colored condom, a male or female condom, or which of the two partners should apply the condom onto the penis. Second, there is a perception that double condom protection during sexual intercourse significantly reduces the risks of transmitting and contracting sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and HIV. Since, in absolute terms, there is only a small increase in the level of protection against STDs and HIV from using 2 condoms, no recommendation should be made to use 2 condoms rather than one. However, the use of 2 condoms should certainly be one of several options prostitutes propose to their clients.

  20. Relationship power, sexual decision making and condom use among women at risk for HIV/STDS.

    PubMed

    Harvey, S Marie; Bird, Sheryl Thorburn; Galavotti, Christine; Duncan, Ernestine A W; Greenberg, Donna

    2002-01-01

    This study examines the associations among relationship power, sexual decision-making dominance, and condom use within a sample of women at risk of HIV/STDs. Data from face-to-face interviews with 112 women were analyzed to (a) describe who women perceive as more powerful and who makes sexual decisions within their heterosexual relationships, (b) explore the association between relationship power and sexual decision-making dominance, and (c) examine the relationship of power and decision making regarding condom use to condom use behavior. Women were recruited from clinics and community locations in Atlanta, Los Angeles, Oklahoma City and Portland, OR. Participants were 18-25 years of age and were primarily Hispanic and African American. Over half (58.2%) reported that they share power with their partner, 25.5% said they have more power, and 16.4% reported that their partner has more power in their relationship. For the five domains of sexual decision-making examined, over half (50.5%-75.7%) of the women reported that they and their partners make decisions together. A higher percentage of women who perceived that they have more power or share power, as compared to those who perceived that their partners have more power, reported that "I/We" make decisions about birth control use, condom use, whether to have sex, and type of sexual activity. Relationship power was not associated with condom use. Condom use was, however, significantly higher among women who reported that they make decisions about using condoms alone or with their partner as compared to those who reported that their partner makes those decisions.

  1. Condom use among female sex workers and their non-commercial partners: Effects of a sexual risk intervention in two Mexican cities

    PubMed Central

    Ulibarri, Monica D.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Lozada, Remedios; Staines-Orozco, Hugo S.; Abramovitz, Daniela; Semple, Shirley; Martínez, Gustavo A.; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether a brief behavioral intervention promoting condom use among female sex workers (FSWs) and their clients had the added benefit of increasing condom use among FSWs and their steady, non-commercial partners (e.g., husbands, boyfriends). Participants were 362 FSWs, aged ≥ 18, living in Tijuana or Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, who received a behavioral intervention to promote condom use with clients. Repeated measures negative binomial regression was used to assess FSWs' condom use with steady partners versus clients across time. Results showed that FSWs engaged in unprotected sex with steady partners more than with their clients, and that the intervention changed FSWs' condom use with clients but not their steady partners. HIV prevention interventions for FSWs should promote consistent condom use across partner type. Targeting couples rather than individuals may also be necessary. PMID:22581944

  2. Emerging sociodemographic and lifestyle predictors of intention to use condom in human immunodeficiency virus intervention among uniformed services personnel.

    PubMed

    Essien, Ekere James; Ogungbade, Gbadebo O; Kamiru, Harrison N; Ekong, Ernest; Ward, Doriel; Holmes, Laurens

    2006-10-01

    Appropriate and consistent use of condom remains an effective approach to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) intervention. We analyzed the baseline data gathered for a situationally based HIV/AIDS intervention to assess the potential predictors of condom use among the Uniformed Services Personnel in Nigeria. Using condom purchase as a proxy for intention to use condom, we examined the distribution of the demographic and lifestyle characteristics, knowledge of HIV transmission mode, and knowledge of how to correctly use a condom. A univariable logistic regression was used to identify the potential predictors, followed by multivariable logistic regression modeling. The knowledge of how to correctly wear a condom was the most significant positive predictor of the intention to use a condom (adjusted prevalence odds ratio (APOR), 5.99 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.26, 19.79). The other main positive predictors of intent to use a condom were the knowledge of the mode of HIV transmission via blood, APOR 2.43 (95% CI, 1.01, 5.82), saliva (5. 87, 95% CI, 3.15, 10.94), and pre-ejaculatory fluid (APOR, 3.58, 95% CI, 1.67, 7.48). Male gender was also a significant positive predictor of the intent to use a condom (APOR, 2.55, (95% CI, 1.10, 5.97)). The results further indicated alcohol use (APOR, 0.32, 95%CI, 0.16, 0.61), marijuana use (APOR, 0.24, 95% CI, 0.11, 0.56), and the frequency of oral sexual behavior (APOR, 0.006, 95%CI, 0.002, 0.019) as negative predictors of the intent to use a condom. Therefore, these findings suggest that for an HIV/AIDS intervention to be effective in this population, it must incorporate these predictor variables into its design and conduct.

  3. Access to condoms for female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh.

    PubMed

    Kumar, G Anil; Dandona, Rakhi; Gutierrez, Juan Pablo; McPherson, Sam; Bertozzi, Stefano M; Dandona, Lalit

    2006-01-01

    Condoms are an essential part of comprehensive HIV prevention and care programmes. We report the accessibility of male condoms for female sex workers (FSWs) and the associated characteristics that may play a major role in determining access to condoms for FSWs. Confidential interviews of 6509 street- and home-based FSWs in 13 districts of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh provided data on the number of paying clients and various aspects of access to free condoms and purchase of condoms. Access to condoms was defined as having ever obtained condoms either through free distribution or through purchase. Multivariate analyses were done separately for street- and home-based FSWs to describe correlates of their access to condoms. The requirement of condoms was assessed based on the number of paying clients during the past 15 days. Data on condom access were available for 6465 (99.3%) FSWs. A total of 2850 (44.1%; 95% CI: 36.2%-52.0%) reported accessing free condoms ever and 2336 (36.1%; 95% CI: 30.6%-41.6%) had purchased condoms ever (not mutually exclusive). The primary sources for condoms were non-governmental organization facilities (73.8%) and pharmacies (79.7%) for free and purchased condoms, respectively. A total of 3510 (54.3%; 95% CI: 48.5%-60.1%) FSWs reported no access to free or purchased condoms during the past 15 days, and this no access was significantly higher for those > 30 years of age, with no schooling, street-based FSWs, and with no participation in a FSW support group (p < 0.001 for each in univariate analysis). Participation in a FSW support group was the main predictor of access to free condoms for both types of FSWs during the past 15 days with multivariate analysis. Condom requirements during the past 15 days were met for 67.5% of FSWs who had accessed only free condoms and for 33.8% of those who had accessed only purchased condoms. One-fourth of FSWs had never accessed condoms, and a little over half of those who had ever accessed reported no

  4. Condom Use Among Men Who Have Sex With Men and Male-to-Female Transgenders in Jakarta, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Safika, Iko; Johnson, Timothy P; Cho, Young Ik; Praptoraharjo, Ignatius

    2014-07-01

    This article examined differences in condom use during anal intercourse among men who have sex with men (MSM) and male-to-female transgender women in Jakarta, Indonesia. A cross-sectional design, structured interviews, and hierarchical linear modeling were used to examine condom use among MSM recruited from entertainment places (EPs; e.g., discotheques/dance clubs/karaoke bars), massage parlors (MPs), and among transgender women who congregated and/or sought sexual partners on streets/parks (S/P). The sample consisted of 91, 97, and 114 of MSM-EP, MSM-MP, and transgender-S/P, respectively. Respondents reported on 641 unique sexual partner encounters, which were "nested" within 302 respondents. Reported condom use was high, 66%, 84%, and 83% for MSM-EP, MSM-MP, and transgender-S/P, respectively, and varied across type of respondent. At the individual level, depressive symptoms and history of physical abuse during childhood and adulthood were associated with lower condom use (p < .05). By contrast, having a higher level of education was associated with more condom use (p < .05). At the partner level, condom use was associated with type of partners and the use of club drugs before sex. HIV-prevention efforts should take into account the multilevel determinants of condom use within these populations.

  5. POWER for reproductive health: results from a social marketing campaign promoting female and male condoms.

    PubMed

    Bull, Sheana S; Posner, Samuel F; Ortiz, Charlene; Beaty, Brenda; Benton, Kathryn; Lin, Lillian; Pals, Sherri L; Evans, Tom

    2008-07-01

    To evaluate effects of a 6-month social marketing campaign on awareness of, attitudes toward and use of female as well as male condoms for 15-25 year-old-women. Using a time-space sampling methodology, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of 3407 women at pre-campaign in 12 western U.S. neighborhoods on female and male condom awareness, attitudes, and use. Six of the 12 study neighborhoods were randomly selected to receive the POWER social marketing campaign designed to impact condom knowledge, attitudes, and use. The campaign was followed with another cross-sectional survey of 3,003 women in all 12 study neighborhoods on condom knowledge, attitudes, use and awareness of POWER materials. We compared pre-and post-campaign surveys to determine the efficacy of POWER and conducted post hoc analyses on post-campaign data to determine if exposure to POWER was related to higher levels of positive condom attitudes and norms and condom use. We found no differences between neighborhoods with and without the POWER campaign with regard to our primary outcomes. To diagnose reasons for this null effect, we examined outcomes post hoc examining the influence of POWER exposure. Post hoc analyses show some evidence that exposure to POWER was associated with condom use. In the context of the nested trial, this raises concerns that post test only evaluations are limited. Establishing the efficacy of a social marketing campaign is challenging. This group randomized trial showed a null effect. Social marketing campaigns may need to have more media channels and saturation before they can show behavioral effects. Using a nested design with randomization at the community level and probability sampling introduces rigor not commonly seen in evaluations of social marketing campaigns.

  6. The male polyurethane condom: a review of current knowledge.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, M J; Waugh, M S; Solomon, H M; Lyszkowski, A D

    1996-03-01

    Condoms are one of the oldest form of contraceptive and the best recognized form of protection against sexually transmitted diseases. Their use, however, is limited by both behavioral factors and device-related factors, including complaints about decreased sensitivity and sexual enjoyment. To address these limitations, a male condom made of polyurethane was developed. Polyurethane is a strong impermeable material with good heat transfer characteristics that is less susceptible to deterioration during storage than latex. Because little information is available comparing polyurethane and latex condoms in terms of consumer preferences as well as breakage and slippage, we reviewed four pre-marketing studies of polyurethane condoms, one of which included comparison to latex. No significant differences in slippage and breakage rates between latex and polyurethane condoms were reported in the study that included a latex comparator, and other studies of polyurethane condoms alone resulted in rates in the same range as published for latex condoms. Subjectively, consumers expressed significantly greater preference for the polyurethane condom over latex in regard to appearance, lack of smell, likelihood of slippage, comfort, sensitivity, natural look, natural feel, and overall. While additional testing is needed, these preliminary results suggest that the male polyurethane condom reviewed performed at least as well as latex condoms and is preferred by consumers. If preference translates to greater use, the male polyurethane condom may address important barriers that have been linked with inadequate condom use in the past. These results, however, may not be generalizable to other brands of polyurethane condom currently under development.

  7. Unwanted unprotected sex: condom coercion by male partners and self-silencing of condom negotiation among adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Teitelman, Anne M; Tennille, Julie; Bohinski, Julia M; Jemmott, Loretta S; Jemmott, John B

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study used the theory of reasoned action and the theory of gender and power to guide elicitation of partner-related impediments to condom use among 64 adolescent girls living in poor urban areas with high rates of HIV and partner abuse. About 53% indicated that they had experienced unwanted, unprotected vaginal sex and 25% indicated that they were unable to discuss condom use with a partner. Novel qualitative findings related to condom coercion, condom sabotage, and self-silencing of condom negotiation are discussed in the context of connecting partner abuse to interpersonal control over condom use. Implications for intervention design are discussed.

  8. Can women 'refuse' condoms? Dilemmas of condom negotiation among men living with HIV in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mfecane, Sakhumzi

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes challenges that men living with HIV experience in negotiating condom use with sexual partners. After testing HIV-positive, the men in this study attended support groups of people living with HIV. Here they were taught to behave 'responsibly' by adopting safer sex measures. However, some men faced strong resistance from women concerning condom use, particularly from women with whom they had been sexually involved prior to testing HIV-positive. This paper explores the reasoning behind the rejection of condoms by women, focusing specifically on the nature of relationships, disclosure of HIV status and gender power dynamics. Analysis of the findings, which are taken from an ethnographic study conducted over 14 months, indicates that efforts to initiate condom use allowed women to challenge men's authority in sexual affairs and assert their own (limited) agency - albeit by demanding unprotected sex. However, women's rejection of condoms occurred in a knowledge vacuum about their own HIV risk because male partners had failed to disclose their HIV status prior to initiating condoms. Interventions need to encourage men to disclose their HIV status before they initiate condom use with their sexual partners. Furthermore men need to encourage their partners to be open about their sexual needs.

  9. Altered surface character of stretched condom latex.

    PubMed

    Jay, G D; Drummond, E; Lane, B

    1992-02-01

    A new type of imperfection in condom latex, present during moderate stretching, was observed by low magnification scanning electron microscopy. The normally smooth surface of relaxed natural latex was transformed into an accordion-like arrangement of ripples in addition to tears. A corollary experiment with Alcian blue dye placed into both stretched and unstretched condoms leaked no dye. These surface features are consistent with latex acting as a molecular barrier. The tears may represent areas of lowered mechanical resistance and raise questions concerning quality control.

  10. Predictors of Condom Use Among Iranian Women at Risk of HIV.

    PubMed

    Lotfi, Razieh; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Salehifar, Delara; Dworkin, Shari L

    2016-02-01

    Sexual transmission of HIV/AIDS is increasing in Iran and is the main route of infection among women. In order to foster the development of future HIV prevention interventions for women, researchers need to understand the factors that influence sexual risk reduction behaviors in this group. The aim of this study was to explore the predictors of condom use among women at risk of HIV and develop a model of condom use in a sample of women at risk of HIV. We cross-sectionally examined predictors of condom use among 200 women at risk of HIV. Women were recruited from drop-in centers and voluntary counseling and testing centers in Tehran. Condom use among women at risk of HIV was examined using path analysis, and fit indices showed a good fit for the model. Condom use self-efficacy, social support, and less stereotypic gender roles influenced sexually protective behaviors of women at risk of HIV. Our results can provide a basis for future gender-specific intervention programs among women at risk of HIV. Researchers, practitioners, and organizations that play a central role in protecting the health of this population can make use of these results for the benefit of sexual and reproductive health programs.

  11. Condom distribution in jail to prevent HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Leibowitz, Arleen A; Harawa, Nina; Sylla, Mary; Hallstrom, Christopher C; Kerndt, Peter R

    2013-10-01

    To determine if a structural intervention of providing one condom a week to inmates in the Los Angeles County Men's Central Jail MSM unit reduces HIV transmissions and net social cost, we estimated numbers of new HIV infections (1) when condoms are available; and (2) when they are not. Input data came from a 2007 survey of inmates, the literature and intervention program records. Base case estimates showed that condom distribution averted 1/4 of HIV transmissions. We predict .8 new infections monthly among 69 HIV-negative, sexually active inmates without condom distribution, but .6 new infections with condom availability. The discounted future medical costs averted due to fewer HIV transmissions exceed program costs, so condom distribution in jail reduces total costs. Cost savings were sensitive to the proportion of anal sex acts protected by condoms, thus allowing inmates more than one condom per week could potentially increase the program's effectiveness.

  12. Latex rubber condoms: predicting and extending shelf life.

    PubMed

    Free, M J; Srisamang, V; Vail, J; Mercer, D; Kotz, R; Marlowe, D E

    1996-04-01

    Condoms from five manufacturers were subjected to controlled exposures of heat, humidity, and air and to different natural environments in five countries. Under aerobic conditions (condoms in permeable packages or unpackaged), stress properties declined. The relationship between rate of decline as a function of temperature was quadratic. Under oxygen-restricted conditions (foil-wrapped packages) at average storage temperatures of 30 degrees C and lower, strain properties declined with little or no significant change in stress properties. The effect is to cause condoms to become stiffer; high-breakage rates in use have been correlated with product stiffening. A new rationale for accelerated-aging tests to predict condom shelf stability is suggested, including a test to control the trend of condoms to stiffen. Silicone lubricant, impermeable packaging, and inclusion of antioxidants in the condom formulation can prevent or minimize aerobic breakdown of latex condoms. Specifying low-modulus condoms can prevent excessive stiffening.

  13. Condom breakage and slippage among men in the United States.

    PubMed

    Grady, W R; Tanfer, K

    1994-01-01

    Data on condom breakage and slippage from a nationally representative survey show that the average condom breakage rate experienced by 20-39-year-old men who have used a condom in the preceding six months was 2.7%, and that 1.9% of all condoms used during that time broke. Comparable condom slippage rates are 2.7% and 2.0%, respectively. Condom breakage and slippage appear to be 4-5 times higher among black men than among men of other races. Levels of breakage and slippage are also elevated among low-income men and those who used condoms relatively infrequently in the six months before the survey. The data also indicate that men who engage in high-risk sexual behavior, such as having multiple partners and engaging in anal intercourse, are more likely to experience condom breakage and slippage.

  14. Vulvovaginitis: promotion of condom use to prevent sexually transmitted disease.

    PubMed

    LeVasseur, J J

    1992-09-01

    Many studies have suggested that merely warning people about the dangers of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and urging the use of condoms as protection will not result in widespread use of condoms. Regular condom use appears to be grounded in knowledge of its effectiveness, perception of STD risk, and belief in a partner's acceptance. But these are not the only barriers to condom use. Negotiating condom use often comes at a sensitive stage in intimate relationships, when individuals prefer to avoid such discussions and simply to trust the powerful and compelling feelings of mutual attraction. This review will consider (1) the effectiveness of condoms in preventing STD transmission, (2) barriers to the use of condoms, and (3) recommended strategies to promote acceptance and use of condoms by heterosexual women.

  15. Words Can Hurt: The Effects of Physical and Psychological Partner Violence on Condom Negotiation and Condom Use among Young Women.

    PubMed

    Peasant, Courtney; Sullivan, Tami P; Ritchwood, Tiarney D; Parra, Gilbert R; Weiss, Nicole H; Meyer, Jaimie P; Murphy, James G

    2017-04-12

    Physical and psychological intimate partner violence (IPV) are prevalent on college campuses and may affect young women's condom use behavior. This study explored condom negotiation as a mediator of the relation of physical and psychological IPV to condom use among college women. A total of 235 heterosexual college women were recruited during September 2012-May 2013. Participants completed online questionnaires assessing lifetime history of IPV, frequency of condom negotiation, and use of condoms during the last 30 days. Specific forms of psychological IPV were related to less condom use. This association was mediated by condom negotiation, such that those who had experienced psychological IPV were less likely to negotiate condom use, and as a result, less likely to report using condoms in the past 30 days. Campus-based sexual health efforts should consider the relation of psychological IPV to condom negotiation and condom use and offer skills to promote condom negotiation among college women to increase condom use and reduce their risk of sexually transmitted infections.

  16. Correlates of delayed sexual intercourse and condom use among adolescents in Uganda: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Rijsdijk, Liesbeth E; Bos, Arjan E R; Lie, Rico; Ruiter, Robert A C; Leerlooijer, Joanne N; Kok, Gerjo

    2012-09-21

    Comprehensive sex education, including the promotion of consistent condom use, is still an important intervention strategy in tackling unplanned pregnancies, HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among Ugandan adolescents. This study examines predictors of the intention to use a condom and the intention to delay sexual intercourse among secondary school students (aged 12-20) in Uganda. A school-based sample was drawn from 48 secondary schools throughout Uganda. Participants (N = 1978) completed a survey in English measuring beliefs regarding pregnancy, STIs and HIV and AIDS, attitudes, social norms and self-efficacy towards condom use and abstinence/delay, intention to use a condom and intention to delay sexual intercourse. As secondary sexual abstinence is one of the recommended ways for preventing HIV, STIs and unplanned pregnancies among the sexually experienced, participants with and without previous sexual experience were compared. For adolescents without sexual experience (virgins), self-efficacy, perceived social norms and attitude towards condom use predicted the intention to use condoms. Among those with sexual experience (non-virgins), only perceived social norm was a significant predictor. The intention to delay sexual intercourse was, however, predicted similarly for both groups, with attitudes, perceived social norm and self-efficacy being significant predictors. This study has established relevant predictors of intentions of safe sex among young Ugandans and has shown that the intention to use condoms is motivated by different factors depending on previous sexual experience. A segmented approach to intervention development and implementation is thus recommended.

  17. Determinants of condom use intentions of university students in Ghana: an application of the theory of reasoned action.

    PubMed

    Bosompra, K

    2001-04-01

    The study examined the applicability of the Theory of Reasoned Action to the study of condom use intentions of students at a university in southern Ghana. The data supported the model, explaining 33% of the variance in students' condom use intentions. Subjective norms and the perceived disadvantages of condom use were significant determinants of intention, with the former being more important. Respondents who intended to use condoms consistently ("intenders") and those with no such intentions ("non-intenders") were equally motivated to comply with the wishes of their significant referents (sexual partners, close friends, parents and medical doctors). The critical difference was that "intenders" consistently held a stronger belief than "non-intenders" that their significant referents approved of condom use. Significantly, whereas "intenders" believed that their sexual partners would approve of condom use, the "non-intenders" held the contrary belief that their partners would disapprove of such behavior. This suggests that AIDS education interventions targeting a similar audience like the university students in this study should shift their foci away from individuals alone and instead, focus simultaneously on individuals, their sexual partners and their broader social networks in order to enhance perceptions of peer acceptance of condom use.

  18. It Takes Two: The Role of Partner Ethnicity and Age Characteristics on Condom Negotiations of Heterosexual Chinese and Filipina American College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Amy G.; Barnhart, James E.

    2006-01-01

    To date, limited attention is paid to how partners influence the condom negotiation process. This study examined whether partner ethnicity and age were associated with condom negotiations (i.e., verbal-direct, verbal-indirect, nonverbal-direct, nonverbal-indirect) in heterosexual Chinese and Filipina American college women. Results from 181 women…

  19. Prevalence and Correlates of Female Condom Use and Interest Among Injection Drug-Using Female Sex Workers in Two Mexico–US Border Cities

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Meghan D.; Martinez, Gustavo; Lozada, Remedios; Patterson, Thomas L.; Ulibarri, Monica D.; Vera, Alicia; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about female condom use among female sex workers who inject drugs (FSW-IDUs) in Northern Mexico, where HIV/STI prevalence is high. We examined the prevalence and correlates of female condom use and interest in female condom use among FSW-IDUs aged ≥18 years in Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico enrolled in a behavioral intervention designed to reduce high-risk sexual and injection behaviors. Of 621 FSW-IDUs, 8 % reported ever using female condoms, and 67.2 % expressed interest in trying female condoms. Factors independently associated with female condom use were having had a client become angry at the suggestion of using condoms and having engaged in unprotected vaginal sex with non-regular clients. Factors independently associated with interest in using female condoms were lifetime physical abuse and lifetime sexual abuse. Increasing the availability of female condoms and providing education on their use in the context of drug use and violence is recommended. PMID:22711225

  20. Prevalence and correlates of female condom use and interest among injection drug-using female sex workers in two Mexico-US border cities.

    PubMed

    Stockman, Jamila K; Morris, Meghan D; Martinez, Gustavo; Lozada, Remedios; Patterson, Thomas L; Ulibarri, Monica D; Vera, Alicia; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2012-10-01

    Little is known about female condom use among female sex workers who inject drugs (FSW-IDUs) in Northern Mexico, where HIV/STI prevalence is high. We examined the prevalence and correlates of female condom use and interest in female condom use among FSW-IDUs aged >18 years in Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico enrolled in a behavioral intervention designed to reduce high-risk sexual and injection behaviors. Of 621 FSW-IDUs, 8 % reported ever using female condoms, and 67.2 % expressed interest in trying female condoms. Factors independently associated with female condom use were having had a client become angry at the suggestion of using condoms and having engaged in unprotected vaginal sex with non-regular clients. Factors independently associated with interest in using female condoms were lifetime physical abuse and lifetime sexual abuse. Increasing the availability of female condoms and providing education on their use in the context of drug use and violence is recommended.

  1. Self-regulatory failure and the perpetration of adolescent dating violence: Examining an alcohol use by gene explanation.

    PubMed

    Foshee, Vangie A; Benefield, Thad S; Puvanesarajah, Samantha; Reyes, Heath Luz McNaughton; Haberstick, Brett C; Smolen, Andrew; Ennett, Susan T; Suchindran, Chirayath

    2015-03-01

    Studies report that alcohol use is related to partner violence, but for many, alcohol use does not culminate in violence against partners. Guided by a self-regulatory failure framework, we predicted that alcohol use would be more strongly associated with dating violence perpetration among adolescents with genotypes linked to impulsivity and emotional reactivity. The hypothesis was tested using random coefficient modeling of data from a multi-wave longitudinal study spanning grades 8-12 (ages 13-18) (n = 1,475). Analyses adjusted for multiple testing and race, and the potential for gene by environment correlation was examined. As predicted, alcohol use was more strongly associated with dating violence among adolescents who had a high rather than a low multilocus genetic profile composed of five genetic markers that influence dopamine signaling. Alcohol use was more strongly related to dating violence among boys with long rather than short 5-HTTLPR alleles, the opposite of the prediction. MAOA-uVNTR did not interact with alcohol, but it had a main effect on dating violence by boys in later grades in the expected direction: boys with more low activity alleles perpetrated more dating violence. Exploratory analyses found variation in findings by race. Our findings demonstrate the importance of incorporating genes into etiological studies of adolescent dating violence, which to date has not been done. Aggr. Behav. Aggr. Behav. 42:189-203, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Identification and Use of Frailty Indicators from Text to Examine Associations with Clinical Outcomes Among Patients with Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Yijun; Mohanty, April F.; Ahmed, Ali; Weir, Charlene R.; Bray, Bruce E.; Shah, Rashmee U.; Redd, Douglas; Zeng-Treitler, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Frailty is an important health outcomes indicator and valuable for guiding healthcare decisions in older adults, but is rarely collected in a quantitative, systematic fashion in routine healthcare. Using a cohort of 12,000 Veterans with heart failure, we investigated the feasibility of topic modeling to identify frailty topics in clinical notes. Topics were generated through unsupervised learning and then manually reviewed by an expert. A total of 53 frailty topics were identified from 100,000 notes. We further examined associations of frailty with age-, sex-, and Charlson Comorbidity Index-adjusted 1-year hospitalizations and mortality (composite outcome) using logistic regression. Frailty (≤ 4 topics versus <4) was associated with twice the risk of the composite outcome, Odds Ratio: 2.2, 95% Confidence Interval: (2.0-2.4). This study demonstrates the feasibility of identifying frailty indicators from clinical notes and linking these to clinically relevant outcomes. Future work includes integrating frailty indicators into validated predictive tools. PMID:28269908

  3. The long-term outcome of 755 consecutive constrained acetabular components in total hip arthroplasty examining the successes and failures.

    PubMed

    Berend, Keith R; Lombardi, Adolph V; Mallory, Thomas H; Adams, Joanne B; Russell, Jackie H; Groseth, Kari L

    2005-10-01

    Constrained acetabular components can treat or prevent instability after total hip arthroplasty (THA). We examine long-term results of 755 consecutive constrained THA in 720 patients (1986-1993; 62 primary, 59 conversion, 565 revision, 60 reimplantation, and 9 total femur). Eighty-three patients (88 THAs) were lost before 10-year follow-up, leaving 639 patients (667 THAs) available for study. Dislocation occurred in 117 hips (17.5%), in 37 (28.9%) of 128 constrained for recurrent dislocation, and 46 (28.2%) of 163 with dislocation history. Other reoperations were for aseptic loosening (51, 7.6% acetabular; 28, 4.2% stem; 16, 2.4% combined), infection (40, 6.0%), periprosthetic fracture (19, 2.8%), stem breakage (2, 0.3%), cup malposition (1, 0.1%), dissociated insert (1, 0.1%), dissociated femoral head (1, 0.1%), and impingement of 1 broken (0.1%) and 4 (0.6%) dissociated constraining rings. Although constrained acetabular components prevented recurrent dislocation in 71.1%, they should be used cautiously, with a 42.1% long-term failure rate observed in this series. Dislocation was common despite constraint with previous history as a significant risk.

  4. Gait failure.

    PubMed

    Sudarsky, L

    1987-11-01

    Gait failure is a common presentation in the Emergency Department, and one that may herald an acute neurologic episode. This article reviews the mechanisms of gait failure, some of their causes, and the appropriate examination techniques for determining possible diagnoses.

  5. Condom Use Trajectories in Adolescence and the Transition to Adulthood: The Role of Mother and Father Support

    PubMed Central

    Pingel, Emily S.; Bauermeister, José A.; Elkington, Katherine S.; Fergus, Stevenson; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Zimmerman, Marc A.

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have investigated how mother and father support differ on predicting youths' sexual risk behavior. We therefore examined the influence of parental support on condom use trajectories and its correlates in a predominantly African American sample [(N=627; 53% female; M = 14.86 years (SD=. 64)] from adolescence to young adulthood. We used hierarchical growth curve modeling to examine the relationship between condom use, substance use, psychological distress and parental support prospectively. We found that consistent condom use decreased over time and was associated negatively with psychological distress and substance use. Furthermore, both maternal and paternal support were associated with more condom use over time. We discuss the implications of our findings for HIV prevention programs. PMID:22639524

  6. Factors Associated with Parent Support for Condom Education and Availability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AugsJoost, Brett; Jerman, Petra; Deardorff, Julianna; Harley, Kim; Constantine, Norman A.

    2014-01-01

    Expanding condom-related knowledge and skills and reducing barriers to condom use have the potential to help reduce pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections among youth. These goals are sometimes addressed through condom education and availability (CEA) programs as part of sexuality education in school. Parents are a key constituency in…

  7. Factors Associated with Parent Support for Condom Education and Availability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AugsJoost, Brett; Jerman, Petra; Deardorff, Julianna; Harley, Kim; Constantine, Norman A.

    2014-01-01

    Expanding condom-related knowledge and skills and reducing barriers to condom use have the potential to help reduce pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections among youth. These goals are sometimes addressed through condom education and availability (CEA) programs as part of sexuality education in school. Parents are a key constituency in…

  8. 21 CFR 884.5310 - Condom with spermicidal lubricant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Therapeutic Devices § 884.5310 Condom with spermicidal lubricant. (a) Identification. A condom with spermicidal... that contains a spermicidal agent, nonoxynol-9. This condom is used for contraceptive and prophylactic...

  9. Prototypical Images in Condom Scripts among AIDS-Bereaved Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reich, Warren A.; Rubin, Rachel M.

    2007-01-01

    Twenty-five HIV-negative late adolescents (13 women and 12 men) who had lost a parent to AIDS generated vignettes in which the characters were deciding whether to use a condom (condom scripts). Two clinically trained judges rated the interpersonal tone of the condom scripts on 17 semantic differential scales. Three other clinically trained raters…

  10. Condom negotiation: experiences of sexually active young women.

    PubMed

    East, Leah; Jackson, Debra; O'Brien, Louise; Peters, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a report of a study of sexually active young women's experiences of negotiating condom use both before and after diagnosis of a sexually transmitted infection. The male condom is the most efficient method in preventing and reducing the transmission of sexually transmitted infections. However, condom use can be hindered by factors including societal norms and gender roles, which can create difficulties for women in initiating and negotiating condom use in heterosexual partnerships. A feminist narrative approach was used, and ten women's stories were collected via online interviews in 2007. None of the women initiated or negotiated use of the male condom for various reasons. Some relied on their male partners to initiate condom use, some were unable to practise safer sex due to the abuse and unequal gender dynamics that existed in their sexual relationships, and some thought that condom use was not necessary because of a belief that they were in safe and monogamous relationships. Even following diagnosis of a sexually transmitted infection, some women said that they were not empowered enough to initiate condom use with subsequent sexual partners, resulting in continued high-risk sexual behaviour. Successful condom promotion relies on the recognition of the gender factors that impede young women's condom negotiation and use. Strategies that overcome gender dynamics and empower women to negotiate condom use have the ability to promote condom use among this group. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Impact of a passive social marketing intervention in community pharmacies on oral contraceptive and condom sales: a quasi-experimental study.

    PubMed

    Farris, Karen B; Aquilino, Mary L; Batra, Peter; Marshall, Vince; Losch, Mary E

    2015-02-13

    Almost 50% of pregnancies in the United States are unwanted or mistimed. Notably, just over one-half of unintended pregnancies occurred when birth control was being used, suggesting inappropriate or poor use or contraceptive failure. About two-thirds of all women who are of reproductive age use contraceptives, and oral hormonal contraceptives remain the most common contraceptive method. Often, contraceptive products are obtained in community pharmacies. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a pharmacy-based intervention would impact sales of contraceptive products in pharmacies. This study was conducted in Iowa and used a quasi-experimental design including 55 community pharmacies (independent and grocery) in 12 counties as the intervention and 32 grocery pharmacies in 10 counties as a comparison group. The passive intervention was focused towards 18-30 year old women who visited community pharmacies and prompted those of childbearing age to "plan your pregnancy" and "consider using birth control". The intervention was delivered via educational tri-fold brochures, posters and 'shelf talkers.' Data sources for evaluation were contraceptive sales from intervention and comparison pharmacies, and a mixed negative binomial regression was used with study group*time interactions to examine the impact of the intervention on oral contraceptive and condom sales. Data from 2009 were considered baseline sales. From 2009 to 2011, condom sales decreased over time and oral contraceptives sales showed no change. Overall, the units sold were significantly higher in grocery pharmacies than in independent pharmacies for both contraceptive types. In the negative binomial regression for condoms, there was an overall significant interaction between the study group and time variables (p = 0.003), indicating an effect of the intervention, and there was a significant slowing in the drop of sales at time 3 in comparison with time 1 (p < 0.001). There was a statistically

  12. Change in condom and other barrier method use during and after an HIV prevention trial in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background We examined the use of male condoms and the diaphragm following completion of a clinical trial of the diaphragm's HIV prevention effectiveness. In the trial, called Methods for Improving Reproductive Health in Africa (MIRA), women were randomized to a diaphragm group (diaphragm, gel and condoms) or a condom-only control group. At trial exit, all women were offered the diaphragm and condoms. Methods Our sample consisted of 801 Zimbabwean MIRA participants who completed one post-trial visit (median lapse: nine months; range two to 20 months). We assessed condom, diaphragm and any barrier method use at last sex act at enrolment, final MIRA and post-trial visits. We used multivariable random effects logistic regression to examine changes in method use between these three time points. Results and discussion In the condom group, condom use decreased from 86% at the final trial visit to 67% post trial (AOR = 0.20; 95% CI: 0.12 to 0.33). In the diaphragm group, condom use was 61% at the final trial visit, and did not decrease significantly post trial (AOR = 0.77; 95% CI: 0.55 to 1.09), while diaphragm use decreased from 79% to 50% post trial (AOR = 0.18; 95% CI: 0.12 to 0.28). Condom use significantly decreased between the enrolment and post-trial visits in both groups. Use of any barrier method was similar in both groups: it significantly decreased between the final trial and the post-trial visits, but did not change between enrolment and the post-trial visits. Conclusions High condom use levels achieved during the trial were not sustained post trial in the condom group. Post-trial diaphragm use remained relatively high in the diaphragm group (given its unknown effectiveness), but was very low in the condom group. Introducing "new" methods for HIV prevention may require time and user skills before they get adopted. Our findings underscore the potential benefit of providing a mix of methods to women as it may encourage more protected acts. PMID:20955629

  13. Condom Use among Latino College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurman, Tilly; Borzekowski, Dina L.G.

    2004-01-01

    Recent reports indicate that Latinos, the largest racial/ethnic minority group in the United States, are disproportionately affected by HIV and AIDS. College health professionals, therefore, should understand current sexual behaviors and risk factors among Latino youth. The authors assessed students' condom use at their most recent sexual…

  14. The female condom: tool for women's empowerment.

    PubMed Central

    Gollub, E L

    2000-01-01

    International and US experience with the female condom has shown that the device empowers diverse populations of women, helping them negotiate protection with their partners, promoting healthy behaviors, and increasing self-efficacy and sexual confidence and autonomy. This commentary reflects on some approaches that have been taken to study empowerment and makes several observations on the political and scientific initiatives needed to capitalize on this empowerment potential. Women's interest in the female condom indicates a need for more women's barrier methods to be made available. For some women, cultural proscriptions against touching the genitals may create initial hesitancy in trying these methods. But the disposition of regulatory agencies and the attitudes of health care providers has unfortunately exaggerated this reticence, thereby effectively reducing access to these methods. Also, lack of important detail in clinical studies restricts our capacity to introduce the female condom, or similar methods, under optimal conditions. Future trials should prioritize community-based designs and address a range of other critical health and social issues for women. Women's need for HIV/AIDS prevention technologies remains an urgent priority. Both political and scientific efforts are needed to realize the public health potential embodied in the female condom. PMID:10983187

  15. Prevalence and Contexts of Inconsistent Condom Use Among Heterosexual Men and Women Living with HIV in India: Implications for Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Chakrapani, Venkatesan; Newman, Peter A.; Shunmugam, Murali

    2010-01-01

    Abstract This investigation examined sexual behaviors among heterosexual persons living with HIV (PLHIV) in India. Study participants (mostly married) were interviewed during August to November 2006 in five Indian states using a quantitative survey (n = 100 men and 100 women), eight focus groups (n = 58 participants), and in-depth interviews (n = 31). One third of men and one fourth of women reported inconsistent condom use with regular sexual partners. Facilitators of condom use with regular partners included a feeling of personal responsibility to protect the health of the partner, desire to prevent acquisition and/or transmission of sexually transmitted infections, and the belief that condoms are needed for antiretroviral therapy to be effective. Barriers to consistent condom use with regular partners included the belief that condoms are unnecessary in HIV-positive seroconcordant relationships; lack of sexual satisfaction with condoms; the desire to have a child; husband's alcohol use, depression, and anxiety; fear that disclosure of HIV status will bring marital discord and family shame; and inadequate counseling by health care providers. Positive prevention programs should include counseling about benefits of safer sex in HIV-positive seroconcordant relationships, counseling about integrating condom use with sexual satisfaction and intimacy, condom use self-efficacy and negotiation skills-building, family planning counseling, mental health and alcohol dependence treatment, and counseling and skills-building about disclosure. Health care providers must be trained to provide these services. Furthermore, efforts are needed to promote tolerance for family planning choices made by couples and to counter the stigma associated with HIV/AIDS and condoms in the broader society. PMID:20095889

  16. Sex with sweethearts: Exploring factors associated with inconsistent condom use among unmarried female entertainment workers in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Yi, Siyan; Tuot, Sovannary; Chhoun, Pheak; Pal, Khuondyla; Ngin, Chanrith; Chhim, Kolab; Brody, Carinne

    2017-01-05

    Despite the success in promoting condom use in commercial relationships, condom use with regular, noncommercial partners remains low among key populations in Cambodia. This study explores factors associated inconsistent condom use with sweethearts among unmarried sexually active female entertainment workers (FEWs). In 2014, the probability proportional to size sampling method was used to randomly select 204 FEWs from entertainment venues in Phnom Penh and Siem Reap for face-to-face interviews. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine independent determinants of inconsistent condom use. Of total, 31.4% of the respondents reported consistent condom use with sweethearts in the past three months. After adjustment, respondents who reported inconsistent condom use with sweethearts remained significantly less likely to report having received any form of sexual and reproductive health education (AOR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.22-0.99), but more likely to report having been tested for HIV in the past six months (AOR = 2.19, 95% CI = 1.03-4.65). They were significantly more likely to report having used higher amount of alcohol in the past three months (AOR = 1.29, 95% CI = 1.01-1.99) and currently using a contraceptive method other than condoms such as pills (AOR = 4.46, 95% CI = 1.34-10.52) or other methods (AOR = 9.75, 95% CI = 2.07-9.86). The rate of consistent condom use in romantic relationships among unmarried FEWs in this study is considerably low. The importance of consistent condom use with regular, non-commercial partners should be emphasized in the education sessions and materials, particularly for FEWs who use non-barrier contraceptive methods.

  17. Depression, Abuse, Relationship Power and Condom Use by Pregnant and Postpartum Women with Substance Abuse History.

    PubMed

    Dévieux, Jessy G; Jean-Gilles, Michèle; Rosenberg, Rhonda; Beck-Sagué, Consuelo; Attonito, Jennifer M; Saxena, Anshul; Stein, Judith A

    2016-02-01

    Substance-abusing pregnant and postpartum women are less likely to maintain consistent condom use and drug and alcohol abstinence, which is particularly concerning in high HIV-prevalence areas. Data from 224 pregnant and postpartum women in substance abuse treatment were analyzed to examine effects of history of substance use, child abuse, and mental health problems on current substance use and condom-use barriers. Mediators were depression, relationship power and social support. Most participants (72.9 %) evidenced current depression. Less social support (-0.17, p < 0.05) and relationship power (-0.48, p < 0.001), and greater depression (-0.16, p < 0.05) predicted more condom-use barriers. History of mental health problems predicted condom-use barriers, mediated by recent depression and relationship power (0.15, p < 0.001). These findings suggest depression and diminished relationship power limit highest-risk women's ability to negotiate condom use and abstain from substance use, increasing their risk of acute HIV infection and vertical transmission.

  18. Women's condom use assertiveness and sexual risk-taking: effects of alcohol intoxication and adult victimization.

    PubMed

    Stoner, Susan A; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H; Morrison, Diane M; Zawacki, Tina; Davis, Kelly Cue; Hessler, Danielle M

    2008-09-01

    This experiment examined relationships among adulthood victimization, sexual assertiveness, alcohol intoxication, and sexual risk-taking in female social drinkers (N=161). Women completed measures of sexual assault and intimate partner violence history and sexual assertiveness before random assignment to 1 of 4 beverage conditions: control, placebo, low dose (.04%), or high dose (.08%). After drinking, women read a second-person story involving a sexual encounter with a new partner. As protagonist of the story, each woman rated her likelihood of condom insistence and unprotected sex. Victimization history and self-reported sexual assertiveness were negatively related. The less sexually assertive a woman was, the less she intended to insist on condom use, regardless of intoxication. By reducing the perceived health consequences of unprotected sex, intoxication indirectly decreased condom insistence and increased unprotected sex. Findings extend previous work by elucidating possible mechanisms of the relationship between alcohol and unprotected sex - perceived health consequences and situational condom insistence - and support the value of sexual assertiveness training to enhance condom insistence, especially since the latter relationship was robust to intoxication.

  19. Why do men often not use condoms in their relationships with casual sexual partners in Uganda?

    PubMed

    Rutakumwa, Rwamahe; Mbonye, Martin; Kiwanuka, Thadeus; Bagiire, Daniel; Seeley, Janet

    2015-01-01

    With a focus on Uganda, this paper examines men's condom use in sexual relationships with casual partners and what this might tell us about men's vulnerability to HIV-infection. We carried out repeat interviews with 31 men attending a clinic serving women at high risk for HIV infection and their partners in Kampala. We found that the experience of condom-less sex in the men's youth, itself the outcome of a restrictive home environment, was perceived as influencing later unsafe sexual behaviour. Peer pressure encouraged men to have multiple partners. Alcohol negatively affected condom use. Men often opted not to use a condom with women they thought looked healthy, particularly if they had had sex with the same woman before. Some men who were HIV-positive said they saw little point in using condoms since they were already infected. A concerted effort is required to reach men, like those in our study, to halt HIV and the transmission of other sexually transmitted infections.

  20. Teenage partners' communication about sexual risk and condom use: the importance of parent-teenager discussions.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, D J; Miller, K S; May, D C; Levin, M L

    1999-01-01

    Teenagers' communication with their partners about sex and their use of condoms may be influenced by the discussions teenagers have with their parents about sex. However, little is known about the process of parent-teenager communication on this topic. Understanding both what parents discuss with their children and how they discuss it may lead to a greater understanding of teenagers' sexual behavior. Interviews were conducted with 372 sexually active black and Hispanic youth aged 14-17 from Alabama, New York and Puerto Rico. Regression analyses were used to examine parent-teenager discussions about sexuality and about sexual risk, and parental communication skills as predictors of teenagers' discussions about sexual risk with a partner and teenagers' condom use. Parent-teenager discussions about sexuality and sexual risk were associated with an increased likelihood of teenager-partner discussions about sexual risk and of teenagers' condom use, but only if parents were open, skilled and comfortable in having those discussions. Teenagers' communication with their partner about sexual risk also was associated with greater condom use, but the relationship between parent-teenager communication and teenagers' condom use was independent of this association. The influence on teenagers of parent-teenager discussions about sexuality and sexual risk depends on both what parents say and how they say it. Programs that foster parent-teenager communication about sexuality and sexual risk must emphasize both of these aspects.

  1. Use of birth control pills, condoms, and withdrawal among U.S. high school students.

    PubMed

    Everett, S A; Warren, C W; Santelli, J S; Kann, L; Collins, J L; Kolbe, L J

    2000-08-01

    To examine the use of contraception at last sexual intercourse among currently sexually active adolescents. We analyzed data from national school-based Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (YRBS) conducted in 1991, 1993, 1995, and 1997. The YRBS is a self-administered, anonymous survey which uses a national probability sample of U.S. students in public and private schools from grades 9 through 12. From 1991 to 1997, condom use significantly increased (from 46% to 57%), birth control pill use decreased (from 21% to 17%), and use of withdrawal significantly decreased (from 18% to 13%). In 1997, although more students were using condoms, 13% reported using withdrawal and 15% reported using no method to prevent pregnancy at last sexual intercourse. In 1997, condom use among females was significantly lower in the 9th grade than in the 12th grade (p <.001), whereas birth control pill use was higher (p <.001) and use of withdrawal remained stable. Among males, condom use and withdrawal use remained stable from 9th to 12th grade, whereas birth control pill use by their partner increased (p <.001). Inadequate contraceptive use among sexually active adolescents continues to be a major public health problem in the United States. For young people who will not remain sexually abstinent, families, health care providers, schools, and other influential societal institutions should promote the correct and continued use of condoms as essential protection against sexually transmitted diseases and human immunodeficiency virus infection.

  2. Everyday exposure to benevolent sexism and condom use among college women.

    PubMed

    Fitz, Caroline C; Zucker, Alyssa N

    2015-01-01

    Understanding factors related to condom use is critical in reducing the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), especially for women, who are disproportionately affected by many STIs. Extant work has shown that perceived sexism is one such factor associated with lower levels of condom use among women, but has yet to explore whether benevolent sexism in particular-a subtle form of sexism that often goes unnoticed and increases cognitions and behaviors consistent with traditional female gender roles (e.g., sexual submissiveness)-relates negatively to this safer-sex practice. The present research tested this possibility and, in addition, examined whether relational sex motives, which reflect a desire to engage in sex as a means to foster partners' sexual satisfaction, mediated the relation between benevolent sexism and condom use. During the spring of 2011, female college students (N = 158) reported how often they experienced benevolent sexism in their daily lives and, 2 weeks later, their relational sex motives and condom use. Supporting hypotheses results indicated that greater exposure to benevolent sexism was associated significantly with lower condom use, and that relational sex motives mediated this relationship. We discuss implications for women's well-being, including ways to promote safer sex in the face of sexism.

  3. Condom Access: Associations with Consistent Condom Use among Female Sex Workers in Two Northern Border Cities of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Fátima A.; Pollini, Robin A.; Zúñiga, María Luisa; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Lozada, Remedios; Martínez, Gustavo A.; Valles-Medina, Ana M.; Sirotin, Nicole; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2011-01-01

    To determine whether condom access is associated with consistent condom use among FSWs in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, between 2004 and 2006 we administered a questionnaire to 924 FSWs who reported unprotected sex with a client in the past two months. Of these women, 43% reported consistent (“often” or “always”) condom use; 74% said condoms were available; and 38% reported having access to free condoms. In a logistic regression, factors positively associated with consistent condom use were condom availability (AdjOR = 2.00; 95% CI: 1.32–3.03), condom affordability (AdjOR = 1.72; 95% CI: 1.25–2.38) and self–efficacy (AdjOR = 2.16; 95% CI: 1.54–3.04). Factors inversely associated with consistent condom use included poor financial status (AdjOR = 0.65; 95% CI: 0.47–0.90), methamphetamine use (AdjOR = 0.58; 95% CI: 0.40–0.83), alcohol use (AdjOR = 0.68; 95% CI: 0.49–0.96), and recent injection drug use (AdjOR = 0.62; 95% CI: 0.39–0.97). While increased condom availability may improve condom use among FSWs in general, interventions to broaden condom use among lower-income and drug-using FSWs are critically needed. PMID:20973665

  4. Relationship-Specific Condom Attitudes Predict Condom Use among STD Clinic Patients with both Primary and Non-Primary Partners

    PubMed Central

    Senn, Theresa E.; Scott-Sheldon, Lori A. J.; Carey, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    Although condom use differs by partner type (i.e., primary vs. non-primary partner), attitudes towards condom use are typically measured without consideration of partner type. This study investigated the predictive utility of condom attitudes measured separately by partner type. Participants were 270 patients (37% women, 72% Black) recruited from a publicly-funded STD clinic who reported having both primary and non-primary partners. They completed a computerized survey assessing relationship-specific condom attitudes by partner type, condom attitudes related to pleasure and respect, and condom use with primary and non-primary partners. Participants reported more positive relationship-specific condom attitudes with a non-primary vs. primary partner. When considering pleasure-related, respect-related, and relationship-specific condom attitudes simultaneously, only relationship-specific condom attitudes predicted unprotected sex, with both primary and non-primary partners. In general, pleasure and respect-related condom attitudes did not predict unprotected sex; however, pleasure-related attitudes predicted unprotected sex with a non-primary partner for men. Future research should assess relationship-specific condom attitudes. Sexual risk reduction interventions that address interpersonal consequences of condom use in both primary and non-primary relationships should be a priority. PMID:24567031

  5. Sexual Activity and Condom Use among Israeli Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Shilo, Guy; Mor, Zohar

    2015-08-01

    In Israel, as in other industrialized countries, the age of sexual debut among adolescents has declined, and the rate of sexually transmitted infections (STI) has risen, but the motivations and attitudes of Israeli adolescents toward carrying condoms have yet to be studied. The aims of this study were to establish the associations (if any) between demographic characteristics and the knowledge held by Jewish Israeli adolescents about HIV transmission, their attitudes toward condom use and sexual experience, and to explore their recommendations to increase condom use. The method used was an analysis of sexual experience and practices, attitudes toward condom carrying and condom use among a national representative sample of Jewish adolescents aged 15-18. Two dichotomized measures were assessed: (i) sexual experience (defined as having had previous consensual oral/vaginal/anal sex); and (ii) the practice of carrying a condom on a regular basis. Of all 410 participants, 14.6% carried condoms, 18.3% had sexual experience, and 70.7% of those used condoms. Those who thought condoms to be protective against HIV, and those who thought they are difficult to wear, were more likely to have sexual experience. The perception of condom use as important, and the perception that condoms are difficult to wear, were predictors of condom carrying. The participants' knowledge of the risk of HIV in vaginal intercourse was deficient. Participants did not consider school sex education to be effective in promoting condom use, and recommended the use of graphic, deterrent personal accounts told by youths to encourage wider use of condoms. Health educators should consider the barriers cited by adolescents and the deterrent techniques they recommend when planning interventions to encourage condom use. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  6. Habitual condom use across partner type and sexual position among younger gay and bisexual men: findings from New Zealand HIV behavioural surveillance 2006–2011

    PubMed Central

    Lachowsky, N J; Dewey, C E; Dickson, N P; Saxton, P J W; Hughes, A J; Milhausen, R R; Summerlee, A J S

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Our objectives were to investigate demographic and behavioural factors associated with condom use and to examine how habitual condom use was across partner types and sexual positions among younger men who have sex with men (YMSM), aged 16–29, surveyed in New Zealand. Methods We analysed the 2006–2011 national HIV behavioural surveillance data from YMSM who reported anal intercourse in four scenarios of partner type and sexual position: casual insertive, casual receptive, regular insertive and regular receptive. For each, respondents’ condom use was classified as frequent (always/almost always) or otherwise, with associated factors identified with multivariate mixed-effect logistic regression. Habitual condom use across scenarios was examined using a latent variable technique that estimated the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Results Frequent condom use was reported for 63.6% of 5153 scenarios reported from 2412 YMSM. Frequent use increased from boyfriend to fuckbuddy to casual partners. Infrequent use was associated with online recruitment, Pacific ethnicity, less education, HIV positivity, sex with women, having ≥20 sexual partners versus 1 and reporting insertive and receptive sexual positions. Frequent condom use was associated with having two to five sexual partners versus one and shorter regular partnerships. The ICC=0.865 indicated highly habitual patterns of use; habitual infrequent condom use was most prevalent with regular partners (53.3%) and habitual frequent condom use was most prevalent with casual partners (70.2%) and for either sexual position (50.5% and 49.1%). Conclusions Habitual condom use among YMSM highlights the value of early, engaging and sustained condom promotion. Public health should provide better and more compelling condom education, training and promotion for YMSM. PMID:25605969

  7. Associations of a Sexually Transmitted Disease Diagnosis During a Relationship with Condom Use and Psychosocial Outcomes: (Short) Windows of Opportunity

    PubMed Central

    Magriples, Urania; Niccolai, Linda M.; Gordon, Derrick M.; Divney, Anna A.; Kershaw, Trace S.

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have examined whether and how receiving an sexually transmitted disease (STD) diagnosis while in a romantic relationship relates to condom use and psychosocial sexual outcomes. Using dyadic data, we examined associations of a personal or a partner’s STD diagnosis during a relationship with condom use, monogamy intentions, condom intentions and attitudes, and STD susceptibility and communication. Because beliefs about how the STD was acquired may shape associations with behavior and cognitions, gender and suspecting that one’s partner had other sexual partners (i.e., partner concurrency) were examined as moderators. Participants were 592 individuals in 296 couples expecting a baby; 108 individuals had been diagnosed with an STD during the relationship. Personal STD diagnosis was unrelated to outcomes or was associated with increased risk. A partner’s diagnosis related to more positive condom intentions and attitudes. Among men who suspected concurrency, both a personal and a partner’s STD diagnosis were associated with less condom use. Receiving the STD diagnosis during pregnancy was associated with greater susceptibility and marginally greater condom use. Results suggest potential benefits of enhancing communication and encouraging joint risk reduction counseling among couples, engaging men more fully in preventive efforts, and capitalizing on the short window during which risk reduction occurs. PMID:23321987

  8. Incomplete use of condoms: the importance of sexual arousal.

    PubMed

    Graham, Cynthia A; Crosby, Richard A; Milhausen, Robin R; Sanders, Stephanie A; Yarber, William L

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify associations between incomplete condom use (not using condoms from start to finish of sex) and sexual arousal variables. A convenience sample of heterosexual men (n = 761) completed a web-based questionnaire. Men who scored higher on sexual arousability were more likely to put a condom on after sex had begun (AOR = 1.58). Men who reported difficulty reaching orgasm were more likely to report removing condoms before sex was over (AOR = 2.08). These findings suggest that sexual arousal may be an important, and under-studied, factor associated with incomplete use of condoms.

  9. Non-latex versus latex male condoms for contraception.

    PubMed

    Gallo, M F; Grimes, D A; Lopez, L M; Schulz, K F

    2006-01-25

    The male condom, which consists of a thin sheath placed over the glans and shaft of the penis, is designed to prevent pregnancy by providing a physical barrier against the deposition of semen into the vagina during intercourse. Beginning in the 1990s, nonlatex male condoms made of polyurethane film or synthetic elastomers were developed as alternative male barrier methods for individuals with allergies, sensitivities or preferences that prevented the consistent use of condoms made of latex. The review sought to evaluate nonlatex male condoms in comparison with latex condoms in terms of contraceptive efficacy, breakage and slippage, safety, and user preferences. We searched computerized databases for randomized controlled trials of nonlatex condoms. We also wrote to the manufacturers of nonlatex condoms and known investigators in an attempt to locate any other trials not identified in our search. The review included all randomized controlled trials identified in the literature search that evaluated a male nonlatex condom made of polyurethane film or synthetic elastomers in comparison with a latex condom. We evaluated all titles and abstracts located in the literature searches for inclusion. Two authors independently extracted data from the identified studies. We analyzed data with RevMan. The Peto odds ratio (Peto OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated for each outcome of contraceptive efficacy, condom breakage and slippage, discontinuation of use, safety, and user preference. Contraceptive efficacy, early discontinuation, and safety outcomes were also measured with survival analysis techniques. While the eZ.on condom did not protect against pregnancy as well as its latex comparison condom, no differences were found in the typical-use efficacy between the Avanti and the Standard Tactylon and their latex counterparts. The nonlatex condoms had significantly higher rates of clinical breakage than their latex comparison condoms: the Peto OR for clinical

  10. The context of condom use among young adults in the Philippines: Implications for HIV prevention

    PubMed Central

    Lucea, Marguerite B.; Hindin, Michelle J.; Gultiano, Socorro; Kub, Joan; Rose, Linda

    2012-01-01

    We examine current perceptions and constraints surrounding condom use among young adults in the Philippines to garner a deeper contextual understanding of this aspect of HIV prevention within Filipino society. Through thematic analysis of focus group data, we found three broad themes, all of which included societal and individual barriers to using condoms. The findings may provide insight for similar settings that have strong religious influences on society. To strengthen HIV prevention efforts in such settings, we suggest that the development of strategies to address these constraints in the cultural setting and promote sexual health of young adults is essential. PMID:23394323

  11. NYC condom use and satisfaction and demand for alternative condom products in New York City sexually transmitted disease clinics.

    PubMed

    Burke, Ryan C; Wilson, Juliet; Kowalski, Alexis; Murrill, Christopher; Cutler, Blayne; Sweeney, Monica; Begier, Elizabeth M

    2011-08-01

    In 2007, via a high-profile media campaign, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (NYC DOHMH) introduced the "NYC Condom," the first specially packaged condom unique to a municipality. We conducted a survey to measure NYC Condom awareness of and experience with NYC Condoms and demand for alternative male condoms to be distributed by the DOHMH. Trained interviewers administered short, in-person surveys at five DOHMH-operated sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics in Spring 2008. We systematically sampled eligible patients: NYC residents aged ≥18 years waiting to see a physician. We approached 539; 532 agreed to be screened (98.7% response rate); 462 completed the survey and provided NYC zip codes. Most respondents were male (56%), non-Hispanic black (64%), aged 18-24 years (43%) or 25-44 years (45%), employed (65%), and had a high school degree/general equivalency diploma or less (53%). Of those surveyed, 86% were aware of the NYC Condom, and 81% of those who obtained the condoms used them. NYC Condom users were more likely to have four or more sexual partners in the past 12 months (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0-3.8), use condoms frequently (AOR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.3-3.6), and name an alternative condom for distribution (AOR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.3-3.9). The most frequently requested condom types respondents wanted DOHMH to provide were larger size (28%), ultra thin/extra sensitive (21%), and extra strength (16%). We found high rates of NYC Condom use. NYC Condom users reported more sexual partners than others, suggesting the condom initiative successfully reached higher-risk persons within the STD clinic population. Study results document the condom social marketing campaign's success.

  12. Condoms "contain worms" and "cause HIV" in Tanzania: Negative Condom Beliefs Scale development and implications for HIV prevention.

    PubMed

    Siegler, Aaron J; Mbwambo, Jessie K; McCarty, Frances A; DiClemente, Ralph J

    2012-11-01

    Condom promotion remains a key component of HIV prevention programs, complimenting recent successes in biomedical HIV prevention. Although condom use has increased in much of East Africa, it remains substantially below optimal levels. Negative rumors about condoms have been documented in East Africa, yet the prevalence and effects of belief in the negative rumors have not been explored. This study evaluated levels of belief in negative rumors about condoms, developed a Negative Condom Beliefs Scale, and assessed its accuracy in predicting willingness to use condoms. A cross-sectional, cluster survey (n = 370) was conducted representing adults in two rural districts in Northern Tanzania in 2008. Item agreement ranged from 35 to 53% for the following rumors regarding condoms: causing cancer, having holes, containing HIV, having worms, and the worms causing HIV. Items loaded on a single latent factor and had high internal consistency and convergent validity. In a multivariate model, negative condom score (AOR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.6, 0.8) was the strongest single predictor of willingness to use condoms, followed by greater perceived anonymity in acquiring condoms (AOR = 4.36, 95% CI = 2.2, 8.6) and higher condom self-efficacy (AOR = 4.24, 95% CI = 2.0, 8.9). Our findings indicate high levels of subscription to negative beliefs about condoms, with two out of three respondents affirming belief in at least one negative condom rumor. This study highlights the relation between condom rumor beliefs and willingness to use condoms, and indicates avenues for future research and means for improving the design of HIV prevention programs.

  13. Hispanic adults' beliefs, attitudes, and intentions regarding the female condom.

    PubMed

    Bogart, L M; Cecil, H; Pinkerton, S D

    2000-04-01

    The present study used the theory of planned behavior (TPB) (Ajzen, 1985) augmented by AIDS knowledge to investigate factors influencing intentions of Hispanic adults to use the female condom. A total of 146 persons (75 women and 71 men; mean age, 27 years) recruited from community-based organizations completed an anonymous survey regarding intentions to use the female condom with their main sex partner. The TPB model had greater predictive utility for women's, than for men's, female condom use intentions. For men, attitudes and norms did not predict female condom use intentions, but greater AIDS knowledge was related to lower intentions to use the female condom, above and beyond the TPB constructs. Perceived behavioral control, operationalized as self-efficacy, significantly increased the predictive utility of the TPB model for women's female condom use intentions but not for men's. Behavior change strategies to increase female condom use are discussed in light of these findings.

  14. Predictors of Condom Use Behaviors Based on the Health Belief Model (HBM) among Female Sex Workers: A Cross-Sectional Study in Hubei Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jinzhu; Song, Fujian; Ren, Shuhua; Wang, Yan; Wang, Liang; Liu, Wei; Wan, Ying; Xu, Hong; Zhou, Tao; Hu, Tian; Bazzano, Lydia; Sun, Yi

    2012-01-01

    Background HIV infection related to commercial sexual contact is a serious public health issue in China. The objectives of the present study are to explore the predictors of condom use among female sex workers (FSWs) in China and examine the relationship between Health Belief Model (HBM) constructs. Methodology/Principal Findings A cross-sectional study was conducted in two cities (Wuhan and Suizhou) in Hubei Province, China, between July 2009 and June 2010. A total of 427 FSWs were recruited through mediators from the ‘low-tier’ entertainment establishments. Data were obtained by self-administered questionnaires. Structural equation models were constructed to examine the association. We collected 363 valid questionnaires. Within the context of HBM, perceived severity of HIV mediated through perceived benefits of condom use had a weak effect on condom use (r = 0.07). Perceived benefits and perceived barriers were proximate determinants of condom use (r = 0.23 and r = −0.62, respectively). Self-efficacy had a direct effect on perceived severity, perceived benefits, and perceived barriers, which was indirectly associated with condom use behaviors (r = 0.36). Conclusions/Significance The HBM provides a useful framework for investigating predictors of condom use behaviors among FSWs. Future HIV prevention interventions should focus on increasing perceived benefits of condom use, reducing barriers to condoms use, and improving self-efficacy among FSWs. PMID:23185355

  15. 'It's Not What You Said, It's How You Said It': Perceptions of Condom Proposers by Gender and Strategy.

    PubMed

    Broaddus, Michelle R; Morris, Heather; Bryan, Angela D

    2010-05-01

    We examined effects of proposer gender and condom negotiation strategy on perceptions of condom proposers in undergraduates in the southwestern regions of the US. Using a video manipulation (N=150), a female proposer was evaluated no more harshly than a male proposer, and was evaluated more positively in some ways. In a vignette manipulation (N=193) a female proposer using an Eroticization negotiation strategy (compared to Refusal of sex or Explanation of consequences) was seen as more exciting and likely to engage in sex. Surprisingly, women were harsher judges than men of a female condom proposer using an Eroticization strategy. Greater attention should be paid to the nature of condom negotiation within the framework of the sexual script.

  16. ‘It's Not What You Said, It's How You Said It’: Perceptions of Condom Proposers by Gender and Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Heather; Bryan, Angela D.

    2010-01-01

    We examined effects of proposer gender and condom negotiation strategy on perceptions of condom proposers in undergraduates in the southwestern regions of the US. Using a video manipulation (N=150), a female proposer was evaluated no more harshly than a male proposer, and was evaluated more positively in some ways. In a vignette manipulation (N=193) a female proposer using an Eroticization negotiation strategy (compared to Refusal of sex or Explanation of consequences) was seen as more exciting and likely to engage in sex. Surprisingly, women were harsher judges than men of a female condom proposer using an Eroticization strategy. Greater attention should be paid to the nature of condom negotiation within the framework of the sexual script. PMID:20544008

  17. The effects of an abusive primary partner on the condom use and sexual negotiation practices of African-American women.

    PubMed Central

    Wingood, G M; DiClemente, R J

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined the consequences of having a physically abusive primary partner on the condom use and sexual negotiation practices of young African-American women. METHODS: Interviews were conducted with 165 sexually active African-American women aged 18 through 29 in San Francisco, Calif. RESULTS: Women in abusive relationships were less likely than others to use condoms and were more likely to experience verbal abuse, emotional abuse, or threats of physical abuse when they discussed condoms. They were more fearful of asking their partners to use condoms, worried more about acquiring the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and felt more isolated than did women not in abusive relationships. CONCLUSIONS: HIV prevention programs for women should address domestic violence prevention strategies. PMID:9224187

  18. Substance Use, Sexual Intercourse, and Condom Nonuse among Depressed Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Shrier, Lydia A.; Walls, Courtney; Lops, Christopher; Kendall, Ashley D.; Blood, Emily A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To examine daily- and event-level associations of substance use with occurrence of sex and condom nonuse among depressed youth. Methods Depressed, sexually active outpatients age 15–22 reported alcohol use, marijuana use, and sex on a personal digital assistant for 2 weeks. If they reported sex, participants indicated partner type and condom use. Data were analyzed for participants who reported both substance use and sex events (N=39) using generalized estimating equations. Daily-level models compared the likelihood of sex and of condom nonuse between days on which participants did or did not use substances. Event-level models examined the likelihood of sex in the 2, 6, and 12 hours following substance use and the likelihood of condom nonuse if substances were used in the preceding 2, 6, and 12 hours. Results Participants reported 307 sex events (180 unprotected) and 391 substance use events on 572 days. Substance use was associated with increased odds of sex on the same day, but not after adjusting for weekend. Depressed youth were less likely to have sex within 2 hours following substance use and more likely to have sex within 12 hours after marijuana use. There was no main effect of substance use on condom nonuse; however, there was a significant interaction such that on weekdays, condom nonuse was less likely when substances were used within 6 hours before sex. Conclusions The findings from this small, predominantly female sample suggest that contextual factors, not intoxication, influence associations of substance use with sexual behavior in depressed youth. PMID:22325132

  19. Malaysian made condoms sold locally as well as exported.

    PubMed

    1979-01-01

    Malaysia, famous for its natural rubber, is also producing condoms made from local rubber. About 40,000 gross of condoms a month are being produced by a factory with about 30 female workers. 30-40% of the production is exported to Europe, Middle East, Asia, Japan, Singapore and South America. The size of the condoms conform to international standards, 49 mm and 52 mm. As there is a greater demand for the 52 mm. condoms overseas, the company produces more of this than the 49 mm. condoms. In April 1975, the Standard Institution and Industrial Research of Malaysia gave its quality control approval to a condom which can hold 5 gallons of water and with thickness varying from 0.03 mm, 0.06 mm. and 0.05-0.07 mm. A 10% tax/piece and a 5% surtax are imposed on imported condoms to protect the local industry from foreign competition. Local condoms are sold tax-free. Pink and black colored condoms appear to be popular among consumers. Although complaints are few, 1 in 10,000 users may suffer from allergic problems because of the silicone oil treatment of the condoms. Another local condom factory which uses Malaysian rubber for condom manufacture is located in Klang, approximately 24 miles from Kuala Lumpur; the factory has 25 workers producing 12,000 gross of lubricated and non-lubricated condoms for local consumption only. There is increasing evidence that condoms are increasing in popularity in Malaysia and that the average consumer is now being more selective in choosing contraceptive methods.

  20. Consistent condom use among Thai heterosexual adult males in Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Janepanish, Poolsuk; Dancy, Barbara L; Park, Chang

    2011-04-01

    Thai heterosexual males between 20 and 39 years old are at increased risk for HIV infection. Consistent condom use is effective against HIV transmission, but little is known about determinants of consistent condom use for these males. The purpose of this study is to explore determinants of consistent condom use for this population. The determinants of interest are age, educational level, marital status, income, and concepts from the theory of planned behavior: attitude toward condom use, subjective norm about consistent condom use, perceived behavioral control (PBC) of consistent condom use, and intention to use condoms consistently. We used a cross-sectional descriptive research design with a convenience sample of 400 heterosexual Thai males between 20 and 39 years. Our sample had a mean age of 28.71 years (SD = 6.33). During the last three months, 39.5% reported using condoms consistently, 23% reported using condoms inconsistently, and 37.5% reported never using condoms. The results from the regression analyses revealed that marital status, income, subjective norm about consistent condom use, PBC of consistent condom use, and intention to use condoms consistently were determinants of consistent condom use. Also the effect of subjective norm about consistent condom use and PBC of consistent condom use on consistent condom use was mediated by intention to use condoms consistently. These results suggest that interventions to increase consistent condom use should focus on enhancing intention to use condoms consistently by promoting subjective norm about consistent condom use and PBC of consistent condom use.

  1. Determinants of Condom Use Intentions and Behavior among Turkish Youth: A Theoretically Based Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozakinci, Gozde; Weinman, John A.

    2006-01-01

    The assumptions of two social cognition models, the Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen, 1991) and the Health Belief Model (Rosenstock, 1974) are examined in 2 samples of Turkish university students: sexually active and sexually inactive. For sexually inactive participants, perceived benefits of condom use and self-efficacy beliefs regarding condom…

  2. Condom Use among Heterosexual Immigrant Latino Men in the Southeastern United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knipper, Emily; Rhodes, Scott D.; Lindstrom, Kristen; Bloom, Fred R.; Leichliter, Jami S.; Montano, Jaime

    2007-01-01

    Latinos in the United States have been disproportionately affected by the intersecting epidemics of HIV and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). We examined correlates of condom use among adult heterosexual Latino men who are members of a large multicounty soccer league in rural North Carolina. Of 222 participants, the mean (plus or minus SD) age…

  3. Risk Assessment Heuristics: Cues and Intention to Use a Condom in Casual Sex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinaldi-Miles, Anna; Quick, Brian L.; McCloskey, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the relationship between three heuristic cues (consistency, liking and social proof) and condom use in casual sex relationships utilising the theory of planned behaviour. Participants: Totally, 388 US college students were surveyed. Method: Three vignettes for each cue primed students to project their willingness to…

  4. Determinants of Condom Use Intentions and Behavior among Turkish Youth: A Theoretically Based Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozakinci, Gozde; Weinman, John A.

    2006-01-01

    The assumptions of two social cognition models, the Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen, 1991) and the Health Belief Model (Rosenstock, 1974) are examined in 2 samples of Turkish university students: sexually active and sexually inactive. For sexually inactive participants, perceived benefits of condom use and self-efficacy beliefs regarding condom…

  5. Demographic Correlates of Constant Condom Use among Sex Workers in Tangail, Dhaka, Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eva, Nilufar Akter; Munakata, Tsunetsugu; Onuoha, Francis N.

    2007-01-01

    Consistent condom use, particularly by promiscuous individuals, is a major safeguard against sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV/AIDS. This study examines some demographic factors that may affect such use among Bangladeshi female commercial sex workers at a brothel in Tangail (n = 196; mean age = 23.44 years), and the streets of Dhaka (n…

  6. Perceptions of a Campus-Wide Condom Distribution Programme: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Diane B.; Noar, Seth M.; Widman, Laura; Willoughby, Jessica Fitts; Sanchez, Diana M.; Garrett, Kyla P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Condom distribution programmes are an important means of preventing sexually transmitted infections (STIs); yet little research has examined their perceived and actual impact on college campuses. Design: Quantitative, cross-sectional study. Setting: Large public university in the Southeastern USA. Method: Approximately 2 months after a…

  7. Sexual Coercion, Verbal Aggression, and Condom Use Consistency among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fair, Cynthia D.; Vanyur, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The relationship between condom use and 2 less visible categories of intimate partner violence (IPV), sexual coercion and verbal aggression, was examined among college students. Methods: In March 2007 a random cross-sectional sample of undergraduates from the southeast region of the United States was taken to collect information about…

  8. Relational Commitment and Threats to Relationship Maintenance Goals: Influences on Condom Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umphrey, Laura; Sherblom, John

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined the effects of relational commitment (high commitment versus low commitment) and relationship maintenance goals (high threat versus low threat) on decisions to request the use of a condom. Methods: The authors conducted a 2-part study using a survey of responses to hypothetical scenarios and decisions in actual…

  9. Demographic Correlates of Constant Condom Use among Sex Workers in Tangail, Dhaka, Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eva, Nilufar Akter; Munakata, Tsunetsugu; Onuoha, Francis N.

    2007-01-01

    Consistent condom use, particularly by promiscuous individuals, is a major safeguard against sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV/AIDS. This study examines some demographic factors that may affect such use among Bangladeshi female commercial sex workers at a brothel in Tangail (n = 196; mean age = 23.44 years), and the streets of Dhaka (n…

  10. Perceptions of a Campus-Wide Condom Distribution Programme: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Diane B.; Noar, Seth M.; Widman, Laura; Willoughby, Jessica Fitts; Sanchez, Diana M.; Garrett, Kyla P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Condom distribution programmes are an important means of preventing sexually transmitted infections (STIs); yet little research has examined their perceived and actual impact on college campuses. Design: Quantitative, cross-sectional study. Setting: Large public university in the Southeastern USA. Method: Approximately 2 months after a…

  11. Condom Use among Heterosexual Immigrant Latino Men in the Southeastern United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knipper, Emily; Rhodes, Scott D.; Lindstrom, Kristen; Bloom, Fred R.; Leichliter, Jami S.; Montano, Jaime

    2007-01-01

    Latinos in the United States have been disproportionately affected by the intersecting epidemics of HIV and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). We examined correlates of condom use among adult heterosexual Latino men who are members of a large multicounty soccer league in rural North Carolina. Of 222 participants, the mean (plus or minus SD) age…

  12. Sexual Coercion, Verbal Aggression, and Condom Use Consistency among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fair, Cynthia D.; Vanyur, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The relationship between condom use and 2 less visible categories of intimate partner violence (IPV), sexual coercion and verbal aggression, was examined among college students. Methods: In March 2007 a random cross-sectional sample of undergraduates from the southeast region of the United States was taken to collect information about…

  13. Public Policy Failure and Fiasco in Education: Perspectives on the British Examinations Crises of 2000-2002 and Other Episodes since 1975

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, William

    2007-01-01

    In recent years there has been a re-appraisal within political science of the characteristics of various kinds of public policy failure. At the same time, the political significance of education has grown in most liberal democracies. The present paper examines public policy in British education since the mid-1970s and asks: What goes wrong in…

  14. Reasons for Non-use of Condoms among Men-who-have-Sex-with-Men: A Comparison of Receptive and Insertive Role-in-Sex and Online and Offline Meeting Venue

    PubMed Central

    Ostergren, Jenny E.; Rosser, B.R. Simon; Horvath, Keith J.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined reasons for non-use of condoms among an online survey sample of 462 non-condom using MSM to 1) identify major domains, themes and categories encompassing reasons for non-use of condoms, and 2) examine whether reasons varied by role-in-sex (insertive or receptive) and meeting venue (online or offline). A thematic analysis was completed on participant responses to an open-ended question about reasons for non-condom use. Preference for not using condoms and contextual factors were the top two reasons given for not using condoms, followed by a reasoned judgment based on risk assessment, relationship status and interpersonal communication. No major differences were found between men who reported non-condom use at last receptive and insertive anal intercourse. By contrast when meeting online, men were more likely to report reasons for non-condom use that corresponded to individual preference and mutual agreement not to use condoms. When meeting offline, men were more likely to cite reasons related to context and relationships. In developing HIV prevention interventions for this population, researchers should address both venues separately, as reasons why men engage in non-use of condoms appear to differ. PMID:20967649

  15. Reasons for non-use of condoms among men who have sex with men: a comparison of receptive and insertive role in sex and online and offline meeting venue.

    PubMed

    Ostergren, Jenny E; Rosser, B R Simon; Horvath, Keith J

    2011-02-01

    This study examined reasons for non-use of condoms among an online survey sample of 462 non-condom using men who have sex with men to: (1) identify major domains, themes and categories encompassing reasons for non-use of condoms and (2) examine whether reasons varied by role-in-sex (insertive or receptive) and meeting venue (online or offline). A thematic analysis was completed on participant responses to an open-ended question about reasons for non-condom use. Preference for not using condoms and contextual factors were the top two reasons given for not using condoms, followed by a reasoned judgment based on risk assessment, relationship status and interpersonal communication. No major differences were found between men who reported non-condom use at last receptive and insertive anal intercourse. By contrast when meeting online, men were more likely to report reasons for non-condom use that corresponded to individual preference and mutual agreement not to use condoms. When meeting offline, men were more likely to cite reasons related to context and relationships. In developing HIV-prevention interventions for this population, researchers should address both venues separately, as reasons why men engage in non-use of condoms appear to differ.

  16. Factors predictive of adolescents' intentions to use birth control pills, condoms, and birth control pills in combination with condoms.

    PubMed

    Craig, D M; Wade, K E; Allison, K R; Irving, H M; Williams, J I; Hlibka, C M

    2000-01-01

    Using the Theory of Planned Behaviour (Ajzen, 1988) as a conceptual framework, 705 secondary school students were surveyed to identify their intentions to use birth control pills, condoms, and birth control pills in combination with condoms. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that the theory explained between 23.5% and 45.8% of the variance in intentions. Variables external to the model such as past use, age, and ethnicity exhibited some independent effects. Attitudes were consistently predictive of intentions to use condoms, pills, and condoms in combination with pills for both male and female students. However, there were differences by gender in the degree to which subjective norms and perceived behavioural control predicted intentions. The findings suggest that programs should focus on: creation of positive attitudes regarding birth control pills and condoms; targeting important social influences, particularly regarding males' use of condoms; and developing strategies to increase students' control over the use of condoms.

  17. The relationship between initial physical examination findings and failure on objective validity testing during neuropsychological evaluation after pediatric mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Provance, Aaron J; Terhune, E Bailey; Cooley, Christine; Carry, Patrick M; Connery, Amy K; Engelman, Glenn H; Kirkwood, Michael W

    2014-09-01

    The symptomatology after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is complex as symptoms are subjective and nonspecific. It is important to differentiate symptoms as neurologically based or caused by noninjury factors. Symptom exaggeration has been found to influence postinjury presentation, and objective validity tests are used to help differentiate these cases. This study examines how concussed patients seen for initial medical workup may present with noncredible effort during follow-up neuropsychological examination and identifies physical findings during evaluation that best predict noncredible performance. A portion of pediatric patients will demonstrate noncredible effort during neuropsychological testing after mTBI, predicted by failure of certain vestibular and cognitive tests during initial examination. Retrospective cohort. Level 4. Participants (n = 80) underwent evaluation by a sports medicine physician ≤3 months from injury, were subsequently seen for a neuropsychological examination, and completed the Medical Symptom Validity Test (MSVT). Variables included results of a mental status examination (orientation), serial 7s examination, Romberg test, and heel-to-toe walking test. The primary outcome variable of interest was pass/fail of the MSVT. Of the participants, 51% were male and 49% were female. Eighteen of 80 (23%) failed the MSVT. Based on univariable logistic regression analysis, the outcomes of the Romberg test (P = 0.0037) and heel-to-toe walking test(P = 0.0066) were identified as significant independent predictors of MSVT failure. In a multivariable model, outcome of Romberg test was the only significant predictor of MSVT failure. The probability of MSVT failure was 66.7% (95% CI, 33.3% to 88.9%) when a subject failed the Romberg test. A meaningful percentage of pediatric subjects present evidence of noncredible performance during neuropsychological examination after mTBI. Initial examination findings in some cases may represent symptom

  18. Role of condom negotiation on condom use among women of reproductive age in three districts in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background HIV/AIDS remains being a disease of great public health concern worldwide. In regions such as sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) where women are disproportionately infected with HIV, women are reportedly less likely capable of negotiating condom use. However, while knowledge of condom use for HIV prevention is extensive among men and women in many countries including Tanzania, evidence is limited about the role of condom negotiation on condom use among women in rural Tanzania. Methods Data originate from a cross-sectional survey of random households conducted in 2011 in Rufiji, Kilombero and Ulanga districts in Tanzania. The survey assessed health-seeking behaviour among women and children using a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. A total of 2,614 women who were sexually experienced and aged 15-49 years were extracted from the main database for the current analysis. Linkage between condom negotiation and condom use at the last sexual intercourse was assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Results Prevalence of condom use at the last sexual intercourse was 22.2% overall, ranging from12.2% among married women to 54.9% among unmarried (single) women. Majority of the women (73.4%) reported being confident to negotiate condom use, and these women were significantly more likely than those who were not confident to have used a condom at the last sexual intercourse (OR = 3.13, 95% CI 2.22-4.41). This effect was controlled for marital status, age, education, religion, number of sexual partners, household wealth and knowledge of HIV prevention by condom use. Conclusion Confidence to negotiate condom use is a significant predictor of actual condom use among women in rural Tanzania. Women, especially unmarried ones, those in multiple partnerships or anyone needing protection should be empowered with condom negotiation skills for increased use of condoms in order to enhance their sexual and reproductive health outcomes. PMID:23256530

  19. Role of condom negotiation on condom use among women of reproductive age in three districts in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Exavery, Amon; Kanté, Almamy M; Jackson, Elizabeth; Noronha, John; Sikustahili, Gloria; Tani, Kassimu; Mushi, Hildegalda P; Baynes, Colin; Ramsey, Kate; Hingora, Ahmed; Phillips, James F

    2012-12-20

    HIV/AIDS remains being a disease of great public health concern worldwide. In regions such as sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) where women are disproportionately infected with HIV, women are reportedly less likely capable of negotiating condom use. However, while knowledge of condom use for HIV prevention is extensive among men and women in many countries including Tanzania, evidence is limited about the role of condom negotiation on condom use among women in rural Tanzania. Data originate from a cross-sectional survey of random households conducted in 2011 in Rufiji, Kilombero and Ulanga districts in Tanzania. The survey assessed health-seeking behaviour among women and children using a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. A total of 2,614 women who were sexually experienced and aged 15-49 years were extracted from the main database for the current analysis. Linkage between condom negotiation and condom use at the last sexual intercourse was assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Prevalence of condom use at the last sexual intercourse was 22.2% overall, ranging from12.2% among married women to 54.9% among unmarried (single) women. Majority of the women (73.4%) reported being confident to negotiate condom use, and these women were significantly more likely than those who were not confident to have used a condom at the last sexual intercourse (OR = 3.13, 95% CI 2.22-4.41). This effect was controlled for marital status, age, education, religion, number of sexual partners, household wealth and knowledge of HIV prevention by condom use. Confidence to negotiate condom use is a significant predictor of actual condom use among women in rural Tanzania. Women, especially unmarried ones, those in multiple partnerships or anyone needing protection should be empowered with condom negotiation skills for increased use of condoms in order to enhance their sexual and reproductive health outcomes.

  20. Determinants of condom use among youth in Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Meekers, Dominique; Silva, Martha; Klein, Megan

    2006-05-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the key determinants of condom use with regular and casual partners among youth in Madagascar. Data stem from a reproductive health survey conducted in October-December 2000 among a representative sample of 2440 youth aged 15-24 living in Toamasina province. Following theoretical models of behaviour change, logistic regression was used to assess the effect of AIDS awareness,personal risk perception, condom access, perceived condom effectiveness,self-efficacy and social support on condom use. Among sexually experienced youth, only about four in ten males and two in ten females have ever used condoms. Fewer than 15% of youth used a condom in last intercourse with their regular partner. Whether youth will try condoms appears to depend largely on the perceived effectiveness of condoms for family planning, access to a nearby condom source, parental support for condom use, and patterns of risky sexual behaviour. Young males' likelihood of using a condom with a regular partner increases significantly if they perceive condoms to be effective for family planning (OR=11.4; p=0.019). For females, it increases with level of self-efficacy (OR=2 1; p=0.042) and having discussed HIV prevention with someone in the last year (OR=2.8; p=0.022). Among males,condom use with casual partners is significantly higher among those who perceive themselves to be at high risk of sexually transmitted infections(OR=2.3; p=0.014), who believe condoms are effective for family planning(OR=2.8; p=0.048), who have good access to condoms (OR=2.9; p=0.002)and who perceive their parents support condom use (OR=1-7; p=0.048). In conclusion, very few youth in Toamasina are using condoms, highlighting the need to continue and expand adolescent reproductive health interventions. In this low HIV prevalence setting, it is important for these programmes to emphasize that condoms are effective for both pregnancy prevention and STI/HIV prevention.

  1. Factors Associated With Condom Breakage During Anal Intercourse: A Cross-Sectional Study of Men Who Have Sex With Men Recruited in an Online Survey

    PubMed Central

    Khosropour, Christine M; Prater, Adam B; Rosenberg, Eli S; Siegler, Aaron J; Sullivan, Patrick S

    2016-01-01

    Background Within the United States, HIV affects men who have sex with men (MSM) disproportionally compared to the general population. In 2011, MSM represented nearly two-thirds of all new HIV infections while representing less than 2% of the US male population. Condoms continue to be the foundation of many HIV prevention programs; however, the failure rate of condoms during anal intercourse among MSM is estimated to be 0.5% to 8%, and condom breakages leave those affected at high risk for HIV transmission. Objective Estimate the frequency of condom breakage and associated demographic and behavioral factors during last act of anal intercourse using data from a national online HIV prevention survey of MSM. Methods From March 19 to April 16, 2009, data were collected on 9005 MSM through an online survey of US MSM recruited through a social networking site. Using multivariable logistic regression and controlling for several demographic and sexual risk behaviors, we estimated odds ratios of the association between condom breakage and several risk factors. Results In the study, 8063 participants reported having at least one male sexual partner in the last 12 months. The median age of participants was 21 years (range 18-65). More than two-thirds (68.2%, 5498/8063) reported anal intercourse during last sex and 16.90% (927/5498) reported using a condom during last anal intercourse act. Condom breakage was reported by 4.4% (28/635) participants who engaged in receptive anal intercourse and 3.5% (16/459) participants who engaged in insertive anal intercourse, with an overall failure rate of 4.0% (95% CI 3.2%-6.0%). Age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] per 5 years: 0.53 (95% CI 0.30-0.94), number of male sex partners (aOR per 5 sex partners: 1.03 (95% CI 1.00-1.08), and being high or buzzed during sex with a casual sex partner (aOR: 3.14, 95% CI 1.02-9.60) were associated with condom breakage. Conclusions Our results indicate condom breakage is an important problem for MSM that may

  2. Men's Intentions to Have Sex With a New Partner: Sexual and Emotional Responding, Alcohol, and Condoms.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, Amanda K; George, William H; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J; Granato, Hollie F; Davis, Kelly Cue; Norris, Jeanette; Heiman, Julia R

    2016-01-01

    Findings regarding the relation between alcohol and intentions to have sex have been mixed, and little research has examined the role of condom availability on intentions to have sex. Sexual and emotional responding may influence subsequent sexual decisions. Thus, a better understanding of sexual and emotional responding combined with situational factors such as condom presence could help explain the discrepancies in findings regarding alcohol's effect on intentions to have sex. The effects of alcohol and condom presence on men's intentions to have sex were examined using an experimental paradigm involving an alcohol administration study and a second-person eroticized scenario. The effects of sexual and emotional responding were also examined in relation to intentions to have sex. It was found that alcohol increased positive mood, which was associated with higher intentions to have sex. In addition, condom presence was directly associated with higher intentions to have sex. More sexual desire was related to increased likelihood of sexual intentions. These findings increase understanding of mechanisms underlying the relation between alcohol and intentions to have sex.

  3. Television station acceptance of AIDS prevention PSAs and condom advertisements.

    PubMed

    Abernethy, A M; Wicks, J L

    1998-01-01

    AIDS is a fatal, though preventable disease with more than 56,000 new cases reported in 1996 alone. Condom advertisements and AIDS public service announcements (AIDS PSAs) can help prevent the spread of AIDS, but these AIDS PSAs often contain controversial subject matter and are thus rejected for broadcast by television stations. It is for this reason why a large-scale national mail survey was conducted. The survey, which examined the impact of personal ethical considerations of television station management on AIDS acceptance decisions in the US, was based on five hypothetical questions. It used questionnaires mailed to television station managers. Responses were received from 364 stations, yielding a 40.63% response rate. Significant results were found related to the impact of personal ethical concerns of television managers on AIDS acceptance decision. Most stations were unlikely to accept condom or safe sex advertisements but were more likely to accept generic AIDS messages. These findings pose a dilemma for public health officials, which include the high cost of television advertisements and the difficulty in choosing a creative execution type. The most effective approach would be to appeal to sales managers to run the advertisements since they are important for the community and serve the public interest.

  4. Determinants of intention to use condoms among clients of female sex workers in Haiti.

    PubMed

    Couture, Marie-Claude; Soto, Julio C; Akom, Edit; Joseph, Gerard; Zunzunegui, Maria-Victoria

    2010-02-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted to examine factors influencing intention of condom use among 378 clients of female sex workers (FSWs) visiting commercial sex sites in St-Marc and Gonaives, Haiti. Mean age of the study participants was 24 years. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic characteristics, behaviors, and the theory of planned behavior (TPB) constructs. Seventy-four percentage of clients reported having used condoms with a FSW the last time they had had sexual intercourse. The majority (81.7%) firmly intended to use condoms during the next sexual encounter with a FSW. Multivariate logistic models revealed that subjective norms (odds ratio (OR)=1.75; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06-2.88), perceived behavioral control (OR=1.34; 95% CI: 1.09-1.63) and attitudes (OR=1.23; 95% CI: 1.04-1.44) were predictors of intention to use condoms, with norms being more important. Clients having used condoms the last time they had a sexual intercourse with a FSW, were more likely to have the intention to use them in the future (OR=3.17; 95% CI: 1.65-6.10), indicating an adopted behavior. Lastly, having had a previous sexually transmitted infection was associated with intention, suggesting that a negative experience can influence a future behavior. In conclusion, intention to use condoms among the clients of Haitian FSWs was well predicted by TPB constructs. Our findings provide evidence for designing interventions targeted at reducing risky sex behaviors in this population.

  5. Condom use before marriage and its correlates: evidence from India.

    PubMed

    Santhya, K G; Acharya, Rajib; Jejeebhoy, Shireen J

    2011-12-01

    Little evidence is available from India concerning young people's use of condoms in premarital relationships. Data from a subnationally representative study of Indian youth conducted in 2006-2008 were used to assess condom use in premarital relationships. Analyses used survey data from 2,408 married or unmarried youth aged 15-24 who had had premarital sex, and qualitative data from 271 such youth who completed in-depth interviews. Logistic regression was used to identify characteristics associated with four measures of condom use (ever-use, consistent use, use at first sex and use at last sex). Only 7% of young women and 27% of young men who had had premarital sex had ever used condoms. Among both sexes, discomfort with approaching a provider or pharmacist for condoms was inversely correlated with most measures of condom use (odds ratios, 0.5), while having peers who had had premarital sex was generally positively correlated (1.6-2.9). Females who had had premarital sex only with nonromantic partners were less likely than those with only romantic partners to have used a condom at last sex (0.2), while males were generally more likely to use condoms with nonromantic than romantic partners (1.5-1.6). Among men, education level, age at sexual initiation and neighborhood economic status were positively associated with use. Programs that encourage condom use are needed. Service delivery structures should be modified to enable youth to obtain condoms easily and privately.

  6. Geospatial analysis of condom availability and accessibility in urban Malawi.

    PubMed

    Shacham, Enbal; Thornton, Rebecca; Godlonton, Susan; Murphy, Ryan; Gilliland, Jake

    2016-01-01

    Prevalence of HIV in sub-Saharan African countries persists at alarming rates. There are currently four promoted methods to prevent HIV infection: adherence to antiretroviral therapy, male circumcision, pre-exposure prophylaxis and use of condoms. This study aimed to assess the availability and accessibility of one of the prevention efforts, condoms, in Kawale, Lilongwe, Malawi. A total of 220 potential condom-selling establishments were surveyed in 2012. Data were collected with store owners or staff and locations were geocoded to assess store density. Descriptive analyses were conducted. Of those audited, 96 stores sold condoms, 13 of which distributed free condoms. The stores were most often small shops and located in markets or trading centres. Condoms were most often found at the back of the store in an open space. There were approximately 1.2 stores per ¼ mile; 44% of the businesses in the study region carried condoms. This one method of prevention exhibited multiple barriers in this region: few stores sold condoms, high costs, condom locations within stores and limited availability. The limited accessibility is likely to influence social norms surrounding condom use. Future research should incorporate assessing norms and addressing barriers to uptake of HIV prevention efforts.

  7. Building a (UN) condom manufacturing plant for social marketing projects.

    PubMed

    Yonese, T

    1994-12-01

    At the 10th International Conference on AIDS held in Yokohama, Japan, August 7-12, 1994, reports revealed that the social marketing of condoms has become popular and successful in developing countries. The nongovernmental organization distribution approach is very useful in providing condoms to new users, whose numbers have been increasing since the condom was identified as effective in preventing sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV. The rapid establishment of semi-commercial outlets even in remote areas enabled many people to obtain condoms more easily than from the government program and at a cheaper price. The social marketing concept has a clear advantage: condoms can be distributed with little government budget disbursement, and the project is based on self-reliance. Meanwhile, the additional free supply programs by many governments of developing countries are reportedly not functioning efficiently, since often large quantities of condoms, donated by agencies for family planning and STD programs, pile up in warehouses and do not reach those who need them. Moreover, the demand for condoms is limited because of the lack of effective campaigns to encourage their use. Quality condoms can be procured at lower costs if a special manufacturing plant could be built that produces condoms exclusively for the social marketing free supply program. Such a condom plant could be built in a developing country where good quality latex, the material used for condoms, is available. The unit production cost of condoms at the proposed plant would be lower compared to costs in developed countries because personnel expenses in latex-producing countries such as Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia, India, and Sri Lanka, are cheaper, and the price of latex itself is lower. Mass production is possible because the demand for condoms for the social marketing projects is expected to grow even more.

  8. Brand equity and willingness to pay for condoms in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Evans, W Douglas; Taruberekera, Noah; Longfield, Kim; Snider, Jeremy

    2011-10-26

    Zimbabwe suffers from one of the greatest burdens of HIV/AIDS in the world that has been compounded by social and economic instability in the past decade. However, from 2001 to 2009 HIV prevalence among 15-49 year olds declined from 26% to approximately 14%. Behavior change and condom use may in part explain this decline.PSI-Zimbabwe socially markets the Protector Plus (P+) branded line of condoms. When Zimbabwe converted to a dollar-based economy in 2009, the price of condoms was greatly increased and new marketing efforts were undertaken. This paper evaluates the role of condom marketing, a multi-dimensional scale of brand peceptions (brand equity), and price in condom use behavior. We randomly sampled sexually active men age 15-49 from 3 groups - current P+ users, former users, and free condom users. We compared their brand equity and willingness to pay based on survey results. We estimated multivariable logistic regression models to compare the 3 groups. We found that the brand equity scale was positive correlated with willingness to pay and with condom use. Former users also indicated a high willingness to pay for condoms. We found differences in brand equity between the 3 groups, with current P+ users having the highest P+ brand equity. As observed in previous studies, higher brand equity was associated with more of the targeted health behavior, in this case and more consistent condom use. Zimbabwe men have highly positive brand perceptions of P+. There is an opportunity to grow the total condom market in Zimbabwe by increasing brand equity across user groups. Some former users may resume using condoms through more effective marketing. Some free users may be willing to pay for condoms. Achieving these objectives will expand the total condom market and reduce HIV risk behaviors.

  9. Brand equity and willingness to pay for condoms in zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Zimbabwe suffers from one of the greatest burdens of HIV/AIDS in the world that has been compounded by social and economic instability in the past decade. However, from 2001 to 2009 HIV prevalence among 15-49 year olds declined from 26% to approximately 14%. Behavior change and condom use may in part explain this decline. PSI-Zimbabwe socially markets the Protector Plus (P+) branded line of condoms. When Zimbabwe converted to a dollar-based economy in 2009, the price of condoms was greatly increased and new marketing efforts were undertaken. This paper evaluates the role of condom marketing, a multi-dimensional scale of brand peceptions (brand equity), and price in condom use behavior. Methods We randomly sampled sexually active men age 15-49 from 3 groups - current P+ users, former users, and free condom users. We compared their brand equity and willingness to pay based on survey results. We estimated multivariable logistic regression models to compare the 3 groups. Results We found that the brand equity scale was positive correlated with willingness to pay and with condom use. Former users also indicated a high willingness to pay for condoms. We found differences in brand equity between the 3 groups, with current P+ users having the highest P+ brand equity. As observed in previous studies, higher brand equity was associated with more of the targeted health behavior, in this case and more consistent condom use. Conclusions Zimbabwe men have highly positive brand perceptions of P+. There is an opportunity to grow the total condom market in Zimbabwe by increasing brand equity across user groups. Some former users may resume using condoms through more effective marketing. Some free users may be willing to pay for condoms. Achieving these objectives will expand the total condom market and reduce HIV risk behaviors. PMID:22029874

  10. Race inequality in epidural use and regional anesthesia failure in labor and birth: an examination of women's experience.

    PubMed

    Morris, Theresa; Schulman, Mia

    2014-12-01

    A known racial disparity in medical care is that white women receive epidurals more often in labor than do women from other racial and ethnic groups. Medical researchers have framed this disparity as due to some women's lack of access to anesthesia. Further, an unexamined racial disparity in medical care is that anesthesia failure in labor and birth may also have racial disparity. We explore the organizational processes that may lead to racial disparity an epidural use and regional anesthesia failure in labor and birth. We draw on semi-structured, in-depth interviews conducted with 83 women in June through December, 2010 the day after they gave birth at a New England tertiary care hospital. Among women who did not plan to have an epidural, women of color were more likely to face pressure to accept the epidural by hospital medical staff. Further, among women who received anesthesia (either during vaginal delivery or a C-section), women of color were more likely to experience failure in their pain medication and were less likely to have their pain and anxiety taken seriously by doctors. Overall we challenge the contention that access is the primary way women's epidural experiences are influenced by race and suggest an alternative lens through which to understand racial dynamics and epidural use and anesthesia failure in labor and birth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Determination of zinc dialkyldithiocarbamates in latex condoms.

    PubMed

    Depree, G J; Bledsoe, T A; Siegel, P D

    2004-02-01

    A simple high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) assay is developed for measuring zinc dialkyldithiocarbamate (DTC) levels in latex condoms. After extraction of 14 different brands of latex condoms in acetonitrile, aliquots of the extracts are subjected to a preliminary screening assay by treatment with cobalt chloride and measurement of UV absorption at 320 nm, which results in the identification of 6 DTC-containing samples. Prior to analysis by HPLC, zinc dimethyldithiocarbamate (ZDMC) or zinc diethyldithiocarbamate (ZDEC) is added to the extracts in order to block transmetalation reactions with the analytes of interest. A reversed-phase C(18) column, with gradient elution and UV detection at 260 nm, is used to measure the zinc DTCs. The limits of detection for ZDEC and zinc dibutyldithiocarbamate (ZDBC) are 5 and 10 micro g/mL. Levels of ZDBC and ZDEC range from not detectable to 3.31 and 1.79 mg/condom, respectively. Total protein and latex allergenic protein levels are determined and range from 98 to 776 and 0.01 to 14.04 micro g/unit, respectively, but are not related to the level of ZDBC or ZDEC. This methodology provides both screening and specific tools for the determination of unstable zinc DTC complexes in latex products.

  12. The Frequency and Determinants of Liver Stiffness Measurement Failure: A Retrospective Study of “Real-Life” 38,464 Examinations

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ping; Li, Fan; Li, Bing; Zang, Hong; Niu, Xiaoxia; Li, Zhongbin; Xin, Shaojie; Chen, Guofeng

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the frequency and determinants of liver stiffness measurement (LSM) failure by means of FibroScan in “real-life” Chinese patients. Methods A total of 38,464 “real-life” Chinese patients in 302 military hospital of China through the whole year of 2013, including asymptomatic carrier, chronic hepatitis B, chronic hepatitis C, liver cirrhosis (LC), alcoholic liver disease, autoimmune liver disease, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and other, were enrolled, their clinical and biological parameters were retrospectively investigated. Liver fibrosis was evaluated by FibroScan detection. S probe (for children with height less than 1.20 m) and M probe (for adults) were used. LSM failure defined as zero valid shots (unsuccessful LSM), or the ratio of the interquartile range to the median of 10 measurements (IQR/M) greater than 0.30 plus median LSM greater or equal to 7.1 kPa (unreliable LSM). Results LSM failure occurred in 3.34% of all examinations (1286 patients out of 38,464), among them, there were 958 cases (2.49%) with unsuccessful LSM, and 328 patients (0.85%) with unreliable LSM. Statistical analyses showed that LSM failure was independently associated with body mass index (BMI) greater than 30 kg/m2, female sex, age greater than 50 years, intercostal spaces (IS) less than 9 mm, decompensated liver cirrhosis and HCC patients. There were no significant differences among other diseases. By changing another skilled operator, success was achieved on 301 cases out of 1286, which reduced the failure rate to 2.56%, the decrease was significant (P<0.0001). Conclusions The principal reasons of LSM failure are ascites, obesity and narrow of IS. The failure rates of HCC, decompensated LC, elder or female patients are higher. These results emphasize the need for adequate operator training, technological improvements and optimal criteria for specific patient subpopulations. PMID:25122123

  13. A Multilevel Analysis of Gatekeeper Characteristics and Consistent Condom Use Among Establishment-Based Female Sex Workers in Guangxi, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qing; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita; Fang, Xiaoyi; Zhao, Ran

    2010-01-01

    Background Multilevel analytical techniques are being applied in condom use research to ensure the validity of investigation on environmental/structural influences and clustered data from venue-based sampling. The literature contains reports of consistent associations between perceived gatekeeper support and condom use among entertainments establishment-based female sex workers (FSWs) in Guangxi, China. However, the clustering inherent in the data (FSWs being clustered within establishment) has not been accounted in most of the analyses. We used multilevel analyses to examine perceived features of gatekeepers and individual correlates of consistent condom use among FSWs and to validate the findings in the existing literature. Methods We analyzed cross-sectional data from 318 FSWs from 29 entertainment establishments in Guangxi, China in 2004, with a minimum of 5 FSWs per establishment. The Hierarchical Linear Models program with Laplace estimation was used to estimate the parameters in models containing random effects and binary outcomes. Results About 11.6% of women reported consistent condom use with clients. The intraclass correlation coefficient indicated 18.5% of the variance in condom use could be attributed to their similarity between FSWs within the same establishments. Women’s perceived gatekeeper support and education remained positively associated with condom use (P < 0.05), after controlling for other individual characteristics and clustering. Conclusions After adjusting for data clustering, perceived gatekeeper support remains associated with consistent condom use with clients among FSWs in China. The results imply that combined interventions to intervene both gatekeepers and individual FSW may effectively promote consistent condom use. PMID:20539262

  14. Sexual risk-taking at home and on holidays: the importance of context for the late application of condoms.

    PubMed

    Cousins, Gráinne; Layte, Richard; Ingham, Roger; McGee, Hannah

    2013-11-01

    Several studies have examined condom use during 'holiday' sex but have not considered condom errors in this context. This study aims to identify factors associated with late application of condoms during participants' most recent vaginal intercourse at home and away from home (holidays or short breaks). Participants aged 19-30 years from a national Irish survey were recontacted (n=388; 51% men; mean age: 23.9 years). Telephone interviews regarding participants' most recent sex at home (n=362) and away from home (n=178) were conducted. A higher proportion reported condom use away from home (79% v. 62%), with a lower prevalence of late application (14% v. 24%). Pregnancy prevention as the primary motive for condom use increased the odds of late application at home (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 4.56, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.10-9.90) and away (AOR: 3.97, 95% CI: 1.36-11.59). A weak desire to use a condom also increased the likelihood of late application at home (AOR: 2.40, 95% CI: 1.03-5.62) and away (AOR: 11.18, 95% CI: 2.84-43.98). Subgroup analysis of those reporting both sexual events suggests that young adults take greater sexual risks with casual partners at home compared to away. The findings suggest that young adults take greater sexual risks at home than when away. Regardless of location, young adults are most likely to report late application when they have a weak desire to use a condom and when they use condoms primarily to prevent pregnancy.

  15. Social and structural factors associated with consistent condom use among female entertainment workers trading sex in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Urada, Lianne A; Morisky, Donald E; Hernandez, Laufred I; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2013-02-01

    This paper examined socio-structural factors of consistent condom use among female entertainment workers at high risk for acquiring HIV in Metro Manila, Quezon City, Philippines. Entertainers, aged 18 and over, from 25 establishments (spa/saunas, night clubs, karaoke bars), who traded sex during the previous 6 months, underwent cross-sectional surveys. The 143 entertainers (42% not always using condoms, 58% always using condoms) had median age (23), duration in sex work (7 months), education (9 years), and 29% were married/had live-in boyfriends. In a logistic multiple regression model, social-structural vs. individual factors were associated with inconsistent condom use: being forced/deceived into sex work, less manager contact, less STI/HIV prevention knowledge acquired from medical personnel/professionals, not following a co-workers' condom use advice, and an interaction between establishment type and alcohol use with establishment guests. Interventions should consider the effects of physical (force/deception into work), social (peer, manager influence), and policy (STI/HIV prevention knowledge acquired from medical personnel/professionals) environments on consistent condom use.

  16. Social and Structural Factors Associated with Consistent Condom Use Among Female Entertainment Workers Trading Sex in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Morisky, Donald E.; Hernandez, Laufred I.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examined socio-structural factors of consistent condom use among female entertainment workers at high risk for acquiring HIV in Metro Manila, Quezon City, Philippines. Entertainers, aged 18 and over, from 25 establishments (spa/saunas, night clubs, karaoke bars), who traded sex during the previous 6 months, underwent cross-sectional surveys. The 143 entertainers (42% not always using condoms, 58% always using condoms) had median age (23), duration in sex work (7 months), education (9 years), and 29% were married/had live-in boyfriends. In a logistic multiple regression model, social-structural vs. individual factors were associated with inconsistent condom use: being forced/deceived into sex work, less manager contact, less STI/HIV prevention knowledge acquired from medical personnel/professionals, not following a co-workers’ condom use advice, and an interaction between establishment type and alcohol use with establishment guests. Interventions should consider the effects of physical (force/deception into work), social (peer, manager influence), and policy (STI/HIV prevention knowledge acquired from medical personnel/professionals) environments on consistent condom use. PMID:22223297

  17. Correlates of self-efficacy for condom use among male clients of female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Volkmann, Tyson; Wagner, Karla D; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Semple, Shirley J; Ompad, Danielle C; Chavarin, Claudia V; Patterson, Thomas L

    2014-05-01

    Male clients of female sex workers (FSWs) in Tijuana, Mexico engage in high levels of unprotected sex. While behavioral change theories posit that self-efficacy predicts condom use, correlates of self-efficacy for condom use remain largely unstudied. We examined these correlates among male clients of FSWs in Tijuana. Eligible male clients were at least 18 years of age, HIV-negative, lived in Tijuana or San Diego, reported unprotected sex with a Tijuana FSW at least once in the past 4 months, and agreed to be treated for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Participants completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire including demographics, substance use, psychosocial and psychosexual characteristics (e.g., outcome expectancies for negotiation of safer sex, social support, and sexual sensation seeking), and sexual behaviors. Participants also underwent HIV/STI testing. A stepwise hierarchical multiple regression analysis identified correlates of self-efficacy for condom use. Of 393 male clients, median age was 37 years. Participants were mostly Spanish-speaking and employed. Factors independently associated with higher self-efficacy for condom use were higher positive outcome expectancies for negotiation of safer sex, lower sexual sensation seeking scores, and higher social support scores. Both psychosocial and psychosexual factors may influence self-efficacy for condom use among male clients of FSWs. These factors represent central constructs in sociocognitive models that explain behavioral change and could be intervention targets for improving self-efficacy for condom use and, ultimately, safer sex behavior.

  18. Correlates of Self-efficacy for Condom Use among Male Clients of Female Sex Workers in Tijuana, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Volkmann, Tyson; Wagner, Karla D.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Semple, Shirley J.; Ompad, Danielle C.; Chavarin, Claudia V.; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2013-01-01

    Male clients of female sex workers (FSWs) in Tijuana, Mexico engage in high levels of unprotected sex. While behavioral change theories posit that self-efficacy predicts condom use, correlates of self-efficacy for condom use remain largely unstudied. We examined these correlates among male clients of FSWs in Tijuana. Eligible male clients were at least 18 years of age, HIV-negative, lived in Tijuana or San Diego, reported unprotected sex with a Tijuana FSW at least once in the past four months, and agreed to be treated for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Participants completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire including demographics, substance use, psychosocial and psychosexual characteristics (e.g., outcome expectancies for negotiation of safer sex, social support, and sexual sensation seeking), and sexual behaviors. Participants also underwent HIV/STI testing. A stepwise hierarchical multiple regression analysis identified correlates of self-efficacy for condom use. Of 393 male clients, median age was 37 years. Participants were mostly Spanish-speaking and employed. Factors independently associated with higher self-efficacy for condom use were higher positive outcome expectancies for negotiation of safer sex, lower sexual sensation seeking scores, and higher social support scores. Both psychosocial and psychosexual factors may influence self-efficacy for condom use among male clients of FSWs. These factors represent central constructs in sociocognitive models that explain behavioral change and could be intervention targets for improving self-efficacy for condom use and, ultimately, safer sex behavior. PMID:23842786

  19. Condom negotiation, HIV testing, and HIV risks among women from alcohol serving venues in Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Pitpitan, Eileen V; Kalichman, Seth C; Cain, Demetria; Eaton, Lisa A; Carey, Kate B; Carey, Michael P; Harel, Ofer; Simbayi, Leickness C; Mehlomakhulu, Vuyelwa; Mwaba, Kelvin

    2012-01-01

    Women in South Africa are at particularly high-risk for HIV infection and are dependent on their male partners' use of condoms for sexual risk reduction. However, many women are afraid to discuss condoms with male partners, placing them at higher risk of HIV infection. To examine the association between fear of condom negotiation with HIV testing and transmission risk behaviors, including alcohol use and sexual risks among South African women. Women (N = 1333) residing in a primarily Xhosa-speaking African township in Cape Town and attending informal alcohol-serving venues (shebeens) completed anonymous surveys. Logistic regression was used to test the hypothesis that fear of condom negotiation would be associated with increased risk for HIV. Compared to women who did not fear condom negotiation, those who did were significantly less likely to have been tested for HIV, were more likely to have experienced relationship abuse, and to report more alcohol use and more unprotected sex. For women in South Africa, fear of condom negotiation is related to higher risk of HIV. HIV prevention efforts, including targeted HIV counseling and testing, must directly address gender issues.

  20. Condom Negotiation, HIV Testing, and HIV Risks among Women from Alcohol Serving Venues in Cape Town, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Pitpitan, Eileen V.; Kalichman, Seth C.; Cain, Demetria; Eaton, Lisa A.; Carey, Kate B.; Carey, Michael P.; Harel, Ofer; Simbayi, Leickness C.; Mehlomakhulu, Vuyelwa; Mwaba, Kelvin

    2012-01-01

    Background Women in South Africa are at particularly high-risk for HIV infection and are dependent on their male partners' use of condoms for sexual risk reduction. However, many women are afraid to discuss condoms with male partners, placing them at higher risk of HIV infection. Purpose To examine the association between fear of condom negotiation with HIV testing and transmission risk behaviors, including alcohol use and sexual risks among South African women. Method Women (N = 1333) residing in a primarily Xhosa-speaking African township in Cape Town and attending informal alcohol-serving venues (shebeens) completed anonymous surveys. Logistic regression was used to test the hypothesis that fear of condom negotiation would be associated with increased risk for HIV. Results Compared to women who did not fear condom negotiation, those who did were significantly less likely to have been tested for HIV, were more likely to have experienced relationship abuse, and to report more alcohol use and more unprotected sex. Conclusions For women in South Africa, fear of condom negotiation is related to higher risk of HIV. HIV prevention efforts, including targeted HIV counseling and testing, must directly address gender issues. PMID:23056211

  1. Condom use with serious and casual heterosexual partners: findings from a community venue-based survey of young adults.

    PubMed

    Hock-Long, Linda; Henry-Moss, Dare; Carter, Marion; Hatfield-Timajchy, Kendra; Erickson, Pamela I; Cassidy, Amy; Macauda, Mark; Singer, Merrill; Chittams, Jesse

    2013-03-01

    Given the racial/ethnic disparities that characterize STI trends and recent increases in heterosexually transmitted HIV infection in the US, an understanding of factors underlying condom use among young adults in minority communities is vitally important. To this end, this paper presents findings from a community venue-based survey examining the influence of motivations, heuristics, and relationship factors on condom behaviors with serious and casual heterosexual partners in a sample of urban African American and Puerto Rican males and females ages 18-25 (n = 380). Condom use rates at time of last sex were considerably higher with casual partners (n = 87) than with serious (n = 313) partners, 77.9% vs. 38.7%. While dual pregnancy/STI prevention was the most frequently cited reason for use at last sex with casual partners, pregnancy prevention was the most frequently cited reason for use with serious partners. Bivariate conditional logistic regression analyses found two factors to be associated with condom use at last sex with casual partners: use at first sex with the partner and belief that neighborhood peers worried some/a lot about HIV. In contrast, such factors as condom heuristics (e.g., nonuse symbolizes trust), contraceptive status, and markers of emotional intimacy were associated with condom use with serious partners in both bivariate and multivariable analyses.

  2. Everywhere You Go, Everyone Is Saying Condom, Condom. but Are They Being Used Consistently? Reflections of South African Male Students about Male and Female Condom Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mantell, Joanne E.; Smit, Jennifer A.; Beksinska, Mags; Scorgie, Fiona; Milford, Cecilia; Balch, Erin; Mabude, Zonke; Smith, Emily; Adams-Skinner, Jessica; Exner, Theresa M.; Hoffman, Susie; Stein, Zena A.

    2011-01-01

    Young men in South Africa can play a critical role in preventing new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections, yet are seldom targeted for HIV prevention. While reported condom use at last sex has increased considerably among young people, consistent condom use remains a challenge. In this study, 74 male higher education students gave their…

  3. Everywhere You Go, Everyone Is Saying Condom, Condom. but Are They Being Used Consistently? Reflections of South African Male Students about Male and Female Condom Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mantell, Joanne E.; Smit, Jennifer A.; Beksinska, Mags; Scorgie, Fiona; Milford, Cecilia; Balch, Erin; Mabude, Zonke; Smith, Emily; Adams-Skinner, Jessica; Exner, Theresa M.; Hoffman, Susie; Stein, Zena A.

    2011-01-01

    Young men in South Africa can play a critical role in preventing new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections, yet are seldom targeted for HIV prevention. While reported condom use at last sex has increased considerably among young people, consistent condom use remains a challenge. In this study, 74 male higher education students gave their…

  4. Predicting the Intention to Use Condoms and Actual Condom Use Behaviour: A Three-Wave Longitudinal Study in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Teye-Kwadjo, Enoch; Kagee, Ashraf; Swart, Hermann

    2017-03-01

    Growing cross-sectional research shows that the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) is robust in predicting intentions to use condoms and condom use behaviour. Yet, little is known about the TPB's utility in explaining intentions to use condoms and condom use behaviour over time. This study used a longitudinal design and latent variable structural equation modelling to test the longitudinal relationships postulated by the TPB. School-going youths in Ghana provided data on attitudes, subjective norms, perceived control, intentions, and behaviour regarding condom use at three time points, spaced approximately three months apart. As predicted by the TPB, the results showed that attitudes were significantly positively associated with intentions to use condoms over time. Contrary to the TPB, subjective norms were not significantly associated with intentions to use condoms over time. Perceived control did not predict intentions to use condoms over time. Moreover, intentions to use condoms were not significantly associated with self-reported condom use over time. These results suggest that school-going youths in Ghana may benefit from sex education programmes that focus on within-subject attitude formation and activation. The theoretical and methodological implications of these results are discussed. © 2016 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  5. Exposure of natural rubber to personal lubricants--swelling and stress relaxation as potential indicators of reduced seal integrity of non-lubricated male condoms.

    PubMed

    Sarkar Das, Srilekha; Coburn, James C; Tack, Charles; Schwerin, Matthew R; Richardson, D Coleman

    2014-07-01

    Male condoms act as mechanical barriers to prevent passage of body fluids. For effective use of condoms the mechanical seal is also expected to remain intact under reasonable use conditions, including with personal lubricants. Absorption of low molecular weight lubricant components into the material of male condoms may initiate material changes leading to swelling and stress relaxation of the polymer network chains that could affect performance of the sealing function of the device. Swelling indicates both a rubber-solvent interaction and stress relaxation, the latter of which may indicate and/or result in a reduced seal pressure in the current context. Swelling and stress relaxation of natural rubber latex condoms were assessed in a laboratory model in the presence of silicone-, glycol-, and water-based lubricants. Within 15 minutes, significant swelling (≥6 %) and stress reduction (≥12 %) of condoms were observed with 2 out of 4 silicone-based lubricants tested, but neither was observed with glycol- or water-based lubricants tested. Under a given strain, reduction in stress was prominent during the swelling processes, but not after the process was complete. Lubricant induced swelling and stress relaxation may loosen the circumferential stress responsible for the mechanical seal. Swelling and stress relaxation behavior of latex condoms in the presence of personal lubricants may be useful tests to identify lubricant-rooted changes in condom-materials. For non-lubricated latex condoms, material characteristics--which are relevant to failure--may change in the presence of a few silicone-based personal lubricants. These changes may in turn induce a loss of condom seal during use, specifically at low strain conditions. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Coital frequency and condom use in monogamous and concurrent sexual relationships in Cape Town, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Delva, Wim; Meng, Fei; Beauclair, Roxanne; Deprez, Nele; Temmerman, Marleen; Welte, Alex; Hens, Niel

    2013-01-01

    Introduction A decreased frequency of unprotected sex during episodes of concurrent relationships may dramatically reduce the role of concurrency in accelerating the spread of HIV. Such a decrease could be the result of coital dilution – the reduction in per-partner coital frequency from additional partners – and/or increased condom use during concurrency. To study the effect of concurrency on the frequency of unprotected sex, we examined sexual behaviour data from three communities with high HIV prevalence around Cape Town, South Africa. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey from June 2011 to February 2012 using audio computer-assisted self-interviewing to reconstruct one-year sexual histories, with a focus on coital frequency and condom use. Participants were randomly sampled from a previous TB and HIV prevalence survey. Mixed effects logistic and Poisson regression models were fitted to data from 527 sexually active adults reporting on 1210 relationship episodes to evaluate the effect of concurrency status on consistent condom use and coital frequency. Results The median of the per-partner weekly average coital frequency was 2 (IQR: 1–3), and consistent condom use was reported for 36% of the relationship episodes. Neither per-partner coital frequency nor consistent condom use changed significantly during episodes of concurrency (aIRR=1.05; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.99–1.24 and aOR=1.01; 95% CI: 0.38–2.68, respectively). Being male, coloured, having a tertiary education, and having a relationship between 2 weeks and 9 months were associated with higher coital frequencies. Being coloured, and having a relationship lasting for more than 9 months, was associated with inconsistent condom use. Conclusions We found no evidence for coital dilution or for increased condom use during concurrent relationship episodes in three communities around Cape Town with high HIV prevalence. Given the low levels of self-reported consistent condom use, our

  7. Barriers to condom use among women attending planned parenthood clinics.

    PubMed

    Detzer, M J; Wendt, S J; Solomon, L J; Dorsch, E; Geller, B M; Friedman, J; Hauser, H; Flynn, B S; Dorwaldt, A L

    1995-01-01

    Assessed condom use, barriers to condom use, oral contraceptive use, partnership status and STD history in 457 15-30 year-old women attending four family planning clinics. Subjects were classified into three condom use groups: Non Users (37%); Current Users (33%); and Past Users (30%). Factor analysis revealed five barriers to condom use: Partner's Perception, Peer's Perception, Pleasure/Intimacy, Communication, and Low Perceived Need. Multivariate analyses revealed significant group differences on only two barrier factors: Pleasure/Intimacy and Low Perceived Need. Low Perceived Need accounted for 13.5% of the variance in condom use. Women with low perceived need to use condoms were more likely to use oral contraceptives.

  8. College students' reasons for nonuse of condoms within dating relationships.

    PubMed

    Civic, D

    2000-01-01

    Two hundred ten heterosexual undergraduates in dating relationships were surveyed about reasons for not using condoms every time for vaginal and anal sex and for increasing or decreasing condom use during their relationships. Half of the respondents reported consistent condom use in the first month of their relationships, while only 34% reported consistent condom use in the past month. Subjective assessments of partner safety and the belief that sufficient measures were being taken to avoid pregnancy were important reasons for condom nonuse. Study results suggest that interventions should emphasize the importance of objectively assessing HIV/STD risk before reducing condom use within relationships. Interventions also need to provide additional information on the riskiness of heterosexual anal sex.

  9. Predictors of Consistent Condom Use Among Young African American Women

    PubMed Central

    DiClemente, Ralph J.; Salazar, Laura F.; Wingood, Gina M.; McDermott-Sales, Jessica; Young, April M.; Rose, Eve

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the predictive value of selected factors to the consistent use of condoms among high-risk young African American women. A clinic-based, prospective, study of 242 young, African-American women (ages 15–21) was conducted. In multivariate analysis, consistent condom use was predicted by having greater perceptions of condom negotiation self-efficacy, lower fear of negotiating condom use, and having communicated with sex partners (during the recall period) about condom use. Relational variables were predictive of consistent condom use among young African American women. STD/HIV preventive interventions should target these factors, perhaps in dyad-level interventions. PMID:21796442

  10. Effectiveness of condoms in preventing sexually transmitted infections.

    PubMed

    Holmes, King K; Levine, Ruth; Weaver, Marcia

    2004-06-01

    In June 2000, the United States National Institutes of Health (NIH) organized a review of the scientific evidence on the effectiveness of condoms in preventing sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The review concluded that condoms were effective in protecting against transmission of HIV to women and men and in reducing the risk of men becoming infected with gonorrhoea. Evidence for the effectiveness of condoms in preventing other STIs was considered to be insufficient. We review the findings of prospective studies published after June 2000 that evaluated the effectiveness of condoms in preventing STIs. We searched Medline for publications in English and included other articles, reports, and abstracts of which we were aware. These prospective studies, published since June 2000, show that condom use is associated with statistically significant protection of men and women against several other types of STIs, including chlamydial infection, gonorrhoea, herpes simplex virus type 2, and syphilis. Condoms may also be associated with protecting women against trichomoniasis. While no published prospective study has found protection against genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, two studies reported that condom use was associated with higher rates of regression of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and clearance of cervical HPV infection in women and with regression of HPV-associated penile lesions in men. Research findings available since the NIH review add considerably to the evidence of the effectiveness of condoms against STIs. Although condoms are not 100% effective, partial protection can substantially reduce the spread of STIs within populations.

  11. Latex condom deterioration accelerated by environmental factors: I. Ozone.

    PubMed

    Clark, L J; Sherwin, R P; Baker, R F

    1989-03-01

    Commercial non-lubricated latex condoms were unpackaged and exposed in an environmental chamber to ozone levels (0.3 ppm) commonly present in urban smog conditions. Deterioration was observed by scanning electron microscopy after 18 hours exposure. Loss of mechanical strength was quantitated by measurement of the air pressures necessary to burst the condom and volumes at burst. After 24 hours exposure to ozone the latex surface was covered with craters and after 48 hours the pressure required to burst the condom was 44% that of control samples. Data suggest the need for study of the effectiveness of lubrication and packaging in protecting condoms from environmental factors which may accelerate deterioration.

  12. Are condom instructions readable? Results of a readability study.

    PubMed Central

    Richwald, G A; Wamsley, M A; Coulson, A H; Morisky, D E

    1988-01-01

    The use of condoms has assumed a central position in the current strategy to prevent sexual transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus. The effectiveness of condoms in disease prophylaxis is dependent, to a degree, on their correct use. Condom manufacturers routinely include information on condom use either printed on the actual package or in an enclosed package insert. With the use of three readability formulas, the reading grade level was determined for 14 different sets of instructions included with 25 brands of condoms manufactured by 7 domestic and 1 overseas manufacturer. The readability formulas, when applied to instructions for condom use, estimated that, conservatively, 8 of the 14 instructions required at least reading at the level of a high school graduate and none required less than a 10th grade level. Clearly written instructions and simple concepts could assist current and future condom users in the correct use of condoms and improve the effectiveness of condoms in the prevention of AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases. PMID:3136494

  13. Minority College Women’s Views on Condom Negotiation

    PubMed Central

    McLaurin-Jones, TyWanda; Lashley, Maudry-Beverly; Marshall, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    This study utilized quantitative and qualitative methods to (1) investigate the relationship between frequency of condom use and negotiation strategies and (2) evaluate experiences with condom negotiations among sexually active, heterosexual, African American college women. One hundred female students from a Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) completed a questionnaire that included the Condom Influence Strategies Scale (CIS) and participated in a focus group. An ANOVA was conducted to compare differences between never, inconsistent, and consistent condom users. Consistent condom users scored higher than never users on the “withholding sex” subscale of the CIS (4.88 vs. 3.55; p < 0.001) as well as endorsed items more strongly on the “direct request” subscale of the CIS (4.63 vs. 3.82, p < 0.05) than never users. A thematic analysis of open discussions identified overarching themes. Similarly, refusing sex and/or having direct communications with partner emerged as primary strategies. Threats to negotiation included deciding the “right timing” of discussion and having a previous history of sexual intercourse without a condom with their partner. Other key concepts that contribute to condom negotiation are the views that condoms are a male’s responsibility and stigma of women who carry condoms. PMID:26703642

  14. Fidelity Moderates the Association Between Negative Condom Attitudes and Outcome Behavior in an Evidence-Based Sexual Risk Reduction Intervention for Female Sex Workers.

    PubMed

    Pitpitan, Eileen V; Chavarin, Claudia V; Semple, Shirley J; Mendoza, Doroteo; Rodriguez, Carlos Magis; Staines, Hugo; Aarons, Gregory A; Patterson, Thomas L

    2017-06-01

    Intervention fidelity and participant-level variables, such as negative attitudes towards condoms, are important variables to consider in the successful implementation of evidence-based HIV prevention interventions. Mujer Segura is an intervention that has been shown to be efficacious at reducing condomless sex for female sex workers (FSWs) in Mexico [1]. We examined main effects of fidelity, negative condom attitudes, and their interaction on the effectiveness of the Mujer Segura intervention at reducing condomless sex at intervention follow-up. Of the FSWs recruited from 13 cities across Mexico, 528 participated in the Mujer Segura intervention. We measured negative condom attitudes at baseline (comprising of beliefs and outcome evaluations) and condomless sex with clients at baseline and 6-month follow-up. Fidelity was measured by a fidelity checklist completed by independent raters; the sum of potentially 43 total elements completed by the counselor constituted fidelity. Complete fidelity was found in only 15.1% (n = 73) of sessions. There was no significant main effect of intervention fidelity on condomless sex with clients at follow-up. There was a significant and positive main effect of negative condom attitudes and a significant two-way interaction. At lower levels of fidelity, negative condom attitudes predicted greater condomless sex acts, whereas at higher levels of fidelity, the effect of condom attitudes became weaker. The results also indicated that the interaction between negative condom attitudes and fidelity were driven primarily by negative condom beliefs, as opposed to negative condom outcome evaluations. Ensuring treatment fidelity in an HIV prevention intervention is particularly important when participants have negative attitudes towards condoms.

  15. Special report: the truth about condoms. Barriers to better condom "killing people"; regulatory, political hurdles stifle development.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    The condom industry in the US is dominated by Carter Wallace and the London International Group. They offer very little product differentiation. Ten years ago, however, two engineers in a small California laboratory began working on a nonlatex condom which would be both stronger and more sensitive than the traditional male latex condom. Their efforts resulted in the development of the polyurethane Avanti condom currently being marketed in thirteen states of the Western US. Made by London International Group plc in Cambridge, England, Avanti should be available nationwide as of April 1995. The public, however, has received only very little information about the product and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is concerned about the safety and efficacy of polyurethane/plastic condoms. Six other condom manufacturers are developing plastic condoms, with at least five such condoms awaiting FDA premarket clearance to be marketed. Recent delays in marketing Avanti are due to disagreements between the manufacturer and the FDA over labeling. Other delays have involved safety and efficacy concerns. Bob Kohmescher, public health analyst with the US Centers for Disease Control office of the assistant director of HIV/AIDS, notes that even his agency is moving slower than expected on the polyurethane condom and has not reached a consensus over how to describe them. In the effort to protect themselves, FDA officials have insisted upon labeling which recommends plastic condoms for use by only people who are allergic to latex. These labeling guidelines, finalized in November, are so restrictive that some manufacturers cannot take their products to market. Despite these current FDA obstacles to bringing a higher quality condom to the US market, industry experts and health officials hope that the polyurethane and other plastic condoms will expand the practice of safer sex, while providing an alternative method of barrier protection for the estimated 1-2 million American adults

  16. Condom vending machines in Canada's secondary schools.

    PubMed

    Kerr, D L

    1990-03-01

    A case study of 1 of the 3 school boards approving in 1989 installation of condom machines is presented: The Lisgar Collegiate Institute, Ottawa, Canada. The school is characterized as having 1000 college preparatory students from middle and upper middle class homes and university educated parents. The project was student initiated and involved 1) meeting with communication consultants to determine feasibility, 2) conducting an informal peer consultation to seek out interest and support, 3) meeting with public health officials to gain support and ideas, and 4) conducting research. Condom machine installation (2) was only 1 component; a pilot sexuality education program was included as well. The student proposal was presented and rejected by the principal and the Superintendent of Student Services. Students then lobbied the school board trustees. 2 students lobbies each school board member. Letters of support were obtained from parents' advisory groups, parents, the student council, and other influential people. The media provided coverage in a popular morning television show. The student proposal was submitted to the Board of Education's Education Committee in June 1989; students were assisted by teachers and the Parents Advisory Committee. The school board approved. In the fall of 1989, sexuality awareness week was designated as October 30-November 3. Parents were asked for comments on the designated program, but only 50 contributed in a supportive way. During this week lunch-hour displays and videos, peer-facilitated discussion groups, informal talks by experts, and student theater presentations were sponsored activities. Following this event, the school board arranged for the installment of machines in the men's and women's washrooms near where social events were held and in toilet cubicles in order to provide privacy, as requested by students. The individual cost is US$1/condom. Evaluation is planned. Students have been amused by the amount of public response

  17. Aid cutoff threatens condom program in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Barron, T

    1991-01-01

    The Pressler Amendment, a law prohibiting US assistance to any country that does not sign the UN Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty, is forcing USAID to shut down its highly successful Social Marketing of Contraceptives (SMC) program in Pakistan. Adopted in 1985, the amendment calls for an end of funding for projects in Pakistan as of fiscal year 1991, since the country has refused to sign the treaty. Only previously committed funds have kept SMC running, but it may soon have a close shop. The cutoff comes at an especially inopportune time--just when SMC had begun to make an impact. Introduced 5 years ago, Sathi condoms (the project's main product) account for 2/3 of all condoms used in Pakistan. Sales jumped from 30 million in 1978 to 74 million last year. SMC administrators explain that the country has a vast potential for social marketing. But because of the cutoff in aid, the program will exhaust its supply of condoms by March 1992. The end of the SMC program will mean a serious setback for Pakistan, which already has the 2nd largest population in southern Asia, and which has double the fertility of the most populous country in the region, India. Only 7% of the women in Pakistan rely on a modern method of contraception, compared to 42% in India and 26% in Bangladesh. USAID officials explain that the organization is working with the Pakistani government to find ways to continue funding the program after US funds run out. They add that this development will provide Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif an opportunity to demonstrate his stated commitment to curb population growth.

  18. Gender Differences in AIDS-Relevant Condom Attitudes and Condom Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sacco, William P.; And Others

    Many heterosexuals have not altered their sexual practices in response to the threat of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Knowledge of risk alone appears to have little effect on altering sexual behavior; more complex psychological factors seem to be involved. Condom use to prevent the spread of Human Immunodeficiency Virus is a unique…

  19. Lights, Camera, Condoms! Assessing College Men's Attitudes toward Condom Use in Pornography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraus, Shane W.; Rosenberg, Harold

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Investigate male college students' attitudes toward actors' use of condoms in pornography. Participants: Two hundred thirteen undergraduate males attending a large, state-supported midwestern university in the fall semester, 2012. Methods: Using a Web-based procedure, participants completed questionnaires assessing their pornography…

  20. Lights, Camera, Condoms! Assessing College Men's Attitudes toward Condom Use in Pornography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraus, Shane W.; Rosenberg, Harold

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Investigate male college students' attitudes toward actors' use of condoms in pornography. Participants: Two hundred thirteen undergraduate males attending a large, state-supported midwestern university in the fall semester, 2012. Methods: Using a Web-based procedure, participants completed questionnaires assessing their pornography…

  1. Condom use self-efficacy and HIV risk practices among men who use the internet to find male partners for unprotected sex.

    PubMed

    Klein, Hugh

    2014-05-01

    This research examines the levels of condom use self-efficacy in a population of men who have sex with men who are at great risk for contracting/transmitting HIV. It focuses on the relationship between condom use self-efficacy and risk involvement, and examines the factors associated with greater/lower levels of condom use self-efficacy. The data come from a national sample of men, randomly chosen, who used any of 16 websites specifically to identify other men with whom they could engage in unprotected sex. Data were collected between January 2008 and May 2009 from 332 men, via telephone interviews. Multivariate analyses and structural equation modeling were used to test a conceptual model based on syndemics theory. Overall levels of condom use self-efficacy were fairly high, and self-efficacy was related inversely to involvement in HIV risk practices. Six factors were found to be indicative of levels of condom use self-efficacy: the number of drug problems experienced, sexual role identity as a "bottom," not caring about the HIV serostatus of potential sex partners, experiencing childhood maltreatment, having confidence in HIV-related information provided in other men's online profiles, and level of HIV knowledge. Condom use self-efficacy plays an integral role in HIV risk practices among high-risk men who have sex with men. This is true despite the fact that, overall, condom use self-efficacy levels were fairly high in this population.

  2. Non-latex versus latex male condoms for contraception.

    PubMed

    Gallo, M F; Grimes, D A; Schulz, K F

    2003-01-01

    The male condom, which consists of a thin sheath placed over the glans and shaft of the penis, is designed to prevent pregnancy by providing a physical barrier against the deposition of semen into the vagina during intercourse. Beginning in the 1990s, nonlatex male condoms made of polyurethane film or synthetic elastomers were developed as alternative male barrier methods for individuals with allergies, sensitivities or preferences that prevented the consistent use of condoms made of latex. The review sought to evaluate nonlatex male condoms in comparison with latex condoms in terms of contraceptive efficacy, breakage, slippage, safety and user preferences. We searched the the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE using PubMed, EMBASE, Popline, and LILACS for randomized controlled trials of nonlatex condoms. The references of eligible publications were assessed for inclusion. We also wrote to the manufacturers of nonlatex condoms and known investigators in an attempt to locate any other published or unpublished trials not identified in our search. The review included all randomized controlled trials identified in the literature search that evaluated a male nonlatex condom made of polyurethane film or synthetic elastomers in comparison with a latex condom. We evaluated all titles and abstracts located in the literature searches for inclusion in the review. Two reviewers independently extracted data from the identified studies. We entered and analyzed data with RevMan 4.1. Peto odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for the outcomes contraceptive efficacy, condom breakage and slippage, discontinuation of use, safety and user preference. The number of condoms, men, or women was used as the denominator for the ORs. Contraceptive efficacy, early discontinuation, and safety outcomes were also measured with survival analysis techniques and entered into "Additional tables." While the eZ.on condom did not protect

  3. Prerequisites for effective condom promotion campaigns.

    PubMed

    Spencer, B

    1992-01-01

    Before delving ahead to promote the acceptance and use of condoms, planners should make sure the institutional environment for the process is as favorable as possible. This may include lobbying officials to abolish import duties, legislation, or codes of practice which prohibit advertising. It may also be necessary to provide professional education. The author highly recommends intersectoral collaboration in both the promotion of health and the marketing of products. The following basic marketing concepts are stressed and briefly discussed: ensure the appropriate good quality product; plan and maintain wide distribution; promote through whatever means possible; and fix the right price.

  4. Condom use and hip hop culture: the case of urban young men in New York City.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel A; Castellanos, Daniel H; Haliburton, Chanel S; del Aguila, Ernesto Vasquez; Weinstein, Hannah J; Parker, Richard G

    2008-06-01

    We explored how young men's perceptions of and participation in hip hop culture--urban social and artistic expressions, such as clothing style, breakdancing, graffiti, and rap music--and how contextual factors of the hip hop scene may be associated with their condom use, condom-use self-efficacy, and sense of community. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 95 African American and Latino men aged 15 to 25 years as part of a 4-year ethnographic study in New York City. Differences in young men's perceptions of and levels of affiliation with hip hop culture were not statistically associated with differences in their sense of community or condom-use self-efficacy. Frequency of participation in the hip hop nightclub scene was the strongest factor negatively associated with condom use. Popular discourses on young men's health risks often blame youths' cultures such as the hip hop culture for increased risk practices but do not critically examine how risk emerges in urban young men's lives and what aspects of youths' culture can be protective. Further research needs to focus on contextual factors of risk such as the role of hip hop nightlife on increased HIV risk.

  5. Anabolic-androgenic steroids and condom use: potential mechanisms in adolescent males.

    PubMed

    Blashill, Aaron J; Gordon, Janna R; Safren, Steven A

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has revealed a significant bivariate relationship between anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) use and reduced condom use among adolescent boys. However, to date, no known studies have explored the psychological mechanisms that may explain this relationship. Thus, the current study sought to examine two possible mediators in the association between AAS and condom use: depressive symptoms and substance use. Data were extracted from a nationally representative sample of U.S. adolescents. Participants were 3,780 U.S. high school boys who responded to self-report items assessing a number of health behaviors, including symptoms of depression, substance use, AAS use, and use of condoms during their most recent act of intercourse. Both depression and substance use were significant mediators in the relationship between AAS and condom use. However, when these effects were contrasted, the indirect effect of substance use was significantly stronger in magnitude than the effect of depression. Although AAS use was associated with sexual risk behaviors among adolescent boys, significant variance in this relationship was accounted for by elevated levels of depression and substance use, with substance use demonstrating a particularly salient pathway.

  6. Condom Use and Hip Hop Culture: The Case of Urban Young Men in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel A.; Castellanos, Daniel H.; Haliburton, Chanel S.; del Aguila, Ernesto Vasquez; Weinstein, Hannah J.; Parker, Richard G.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. We explored how young men’s perceptions of and participation in hip hop culture—urban social and artistic expressions, such as clothing style, breakdancing, graffiti, and rap music—and how contextual factors of the hip hop scene may be associated with their condom use, condom-use self-efficacy, and sense of community. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 95 African American and Latino men aged 15 to 25 years as part of a 4-year ethnographic study in New York City. Results. Differences in young men’s perceptions of and levels of affiliation with hip hop culture were not statistically associated with differences in their sense of community or condom-use self-efficacy. Frequency of participation in the hip hop nightclub scene was the strongest factor negatively associated with condom use. Conclusions. Popular discourses on young men’s health risks often blame youths’ cultures such as the hip hop culture for increased risk practices but do not critically examine how risk emerges in urban young men’s lives and what aspects of youths’ culture can be protective. Further research needs to focus on contextual factors of risk such as the role of hip hop nightlife on increased HIV risk. PMID:18445799

  7. HIV risk behavior, street outreach, and condom use in eight high-risk populations.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J E; Cheney, R; Clatts, M; Faruque, S; Kipke, M; Long, A; Mills, S; Toomey, K; Wiebel, W

    1996-06-01

    In this paper we examine risk behavior, exposure to street outreach, and condom use in samples of injecting drug users (IDUs) and high-risk youth. We used systematic sampling methods to produce representative samples of injecting drug users IDUs (five sites) and high-risk youth (three sites). The populations surveyed engaged in high levels of sexual risk behavior: 20% to 46% reported two or more sex partners in the last month. The majority (62% to 97%) knew someone infected with HIV. Condom use rates approached national health promotion goals for nonsteady partners but not for steady or main partners. Having a condom at time of interview was the most consistent predictor of condom use at last intercourse. Many of the respondents have been in contact with street outreach programs and many acknowledged some personal risk for HIV infection. However, most of the injecting drug users and high-risk youth interviewed (and their sex partners) were still at risk through unprotected sex.

  8. Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids and Condom Use: Potential Mechanisms in Adolescent Males

    PubMed Central

    Blashill, Aaron J.; Gordon, Janna R.; Safren, Steven A.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has revealed a significant bivariate relationship between anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) use and reduced condom use among adolescent boys. However, to date, no known studies have explored the psychological mechanisms that may explain this relationship. Thus, the current study sought to examine two possible mediators in the association between AAS and condom use—depressive symptoms and substance use. Data were extracted from a nationally representative sample of U.S. adolescents. Participants were 3,780 U.S. high school boys who responded to self-report items assessing a number of health behaviors, including symptoms of depression, substance use, AAS use, and use of condoms during their most recent act of intercourse. Both depression and substance use were significant mediators in the relationship between AAS and condom use. However, when these effects were contrasted, the indirect effect of substance use was significantly stronger in magnitude than the effect of depression. Although AAS use is associated with sexual risk behaviors among adolescent boys, significant variance in this relationship is accounted for by elevated levels of depression and substance use, with substance use demonstrating a particularly salient pathway. PMID:23718635

  9. Violence, condom breakage, and HIV infection among female sex workers in Benin, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Tounkara, Fatoumata K; Diabaté, Souleymane; Guédou, Fernand A; Ahoussinou, Clément; Kintin, Frédéric; Zannou, Djimon M; Kpatchavi, Adolphe; Bédard, Emmanuelle; Bietra, Raphaël; Alary, Michel

    2014-05-01

    To examine the relationship between violence, condom breakage, and HIV prevalence among female sex workers (FSWs). Data were obtained from the 2012 cross-sectional integrated biological and behavioral survey conducted in Benin. Multivariable log-binomial regression was used to estimate the adjusted prevalence ratios of HIV infection and condom breakage in relation to violence toward FSWs. A score was created to examine the relationship between the number of violence types reported and HIV infection. Among the 981 women who provided a blood sample, HIV prevalence was 20.4%. During the last month, 17.2%, 13.5%, and 33.5% of them had experienced physical, sexual, and psychological violence, respectively. In addition, 15.9% reported at least 1 condom breakage during the previous week. There was a significant association between all types of violence and HIV prevalence. The adjusted prevalence ratios of HIV were 1.45 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.05-2.00), 1.42 (95% CI, 1.02-1.98), and 1.41 (95% CI, 1.08-1.41) among those who had ever experienced physical, sexual, and psychological violence, respectively. HIV prevalence increased with the violence score (P = 0.002, test for trend), and physical and sexual violence were independently associated with condom breakage (P = 0.010 and P = 0.003, respectively). The results show that violence is associated with a higher HIV prevalence among FSWs and that condom breakage is a potential mediator for this association. Longitudinal studies designed to analyze this relationship and specific interventions integrated to current HIV prevention strategies are needed to reduce the burden of violence among FSWs.

  10. Violence, condom breakage and HIV infection among female sex workers in Benin, West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Tounkara, Fatoumata K.; Diabaté, Souleymane; Guédou, Fernand A.; Ahoussinou, Clément; Kintin, Frédéric; Zannou, Djimon M.; Kpatchavi, Adolphe; Bédard, Emmanuelle; Bietra, Raphaël; Alary, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between violence, condom breakage and HIV prevalence among female sex workers (FSWs). Methods Data were obtained from the 2012 cross-sectional integrated biological and behavioural survey conducted in Benin. Multivariable log-binomial regression was used to estimate the adjusted prevalence ratios (APRs) of HIV infection and condom breakage in relation to violence towards FSWs. A score was created to examine the relationship between the number of violence types reported and HIV infection. Results Among the 981 women who provided a blood sample, HIV prevalence was 20.4%. During the last month, 17.2%, 13.5% and 33.5% of them had experienced physical, sexual and psychological violence, respectively. In addition, 15.9% reported at least one condom breakage during the previous week. There was a significant association between all types of violence and HIV prevalence. The APRs of HIV were 1.45 (95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 1.05 – 2.00), 1.42 (95%CI: 1.02 – 1.98), and 1.41 (95%CI: 1.08 – 1.41) among those who had ever experienced physical, sexual and psychological violence, respectively. HIV prevalence increased with the violence score (p=0.002, test for trend), and physical and sexual violence were independently associated with condom breakage (p values 0.010 and 0.003, respectively). Conclusion The results show that violence is associated with a higher HIV prevalence among FSWs and that condom breakage is a potential mediator for this association. Longitudinal studies designed to analyse this relationship and specific interventions integrated to current HIV prevention strategies are needed to reduce the burden of violence among FSWs. PMID:24722385

  11. Condom use within non-commercial partnerships of female sex workers in southern India

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Although female sex workers (FSWs) report high levels of condom use with commercial sex clients, particularly after targeted HIV preventive interventions have been implemented, condom use is often low with non-commercial partners. There is limited understanding regarding the factors that influence condom use with FSWs’ non-commercial partners, and of how programs can be designed to increase condom use with these partners. The main objectives of this study were therefore to describe FSWs’ self-reported non-commercial partners, along with interpersonal factors characterizing their non-commercial partnerships, and to examine the factors associated with consistent condom use (CCU) within non-commercial partnerships. Methods This study used data collected from cross-sectional questionnaires administered to 988 FSWs in four districts in Karnataka state in 2006-07. We used bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analysis to examine the relationship between CCU (i.e., ‘always’ compared to ‘never’, ‘sometimes’ or ‘frequently’) with non-commercial partners of FSWs (including the respondents’ husband or main cohabiting partner [if not married] and their most recent non-paying partner [who is neither a husband nor the main cohabiting partner, and with whom the FSW had sex within the previous year]) and interpersonal factors describing these partnerships, as well as social and environmental factors. Weighting and survey methods were used to account for the cluster sampling design. Results Overall, 511 (51.8%) FSWs reported having a husband or cohabiting partner and 247 (23.7%) reported having a non-paying partner. CCU with these partners was low (22.6% and 40.3% respectively). In multivariable analysis, the odds of CCU with FSWs’ husband or cohabiting partner were 1.8-fold higher for FSWs whose partner knew she was a sex worker (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.84, 95% confidence intervals[CI]: 1.02-3.32) and almost 6-fold higher if the

  12. Condom use within non-commercial partnerships of female sex workers in southern India.

    PubMed

    Deering, Kathleen N; Bhattacharjee, Paranita; Bradley, Janet; Moses, Stephen S; Shannon, Kate; Shaw, Souradet Y; Washington, Reynold; Lowndes, Catherine M; Boily, Marie-Claude; Ramesh, Banadakoppa M; Rajaram, S; Gurav, Kaveri; Alary, Michel

    2011-12-29

    Although female sex workers (FSWs) report high levels of condom use with commercial sex clients, particularly after targeted HIV preventive interventions have been implemented, condom use is often low with non-commercial partners. There is limited understanding regarding the factors that influence condom use with FSWs' non-commercial partners, and of how programs can be designed to increase condom use with these partners. The main objectives of this study were therefore to describe FSWs' self-reported non-commercial partners, along with interpersonal factors characterizing their non-commercial partnerships, and to examine the factors associated with consistent condom use (CCU) within non-commercial partnerships. This study used data collected from cross-sectional questionnaires administered to 988 FSWs in four districts in Karnataka state in 2006-07. We used bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analysis to examine the relationship between CCU (i.e., 'always' compared to 'never', 'sometimes' or 'frequently') with non-commercial partners of FSWs (including the respondents' husband or main cohabiting partner [if not married] and their most recent non-paying partner [who is neither a husband nor the main cohabiting partner, and with whom the FSW had sex within the previous year]) and interpersonal factors describing these partnerships, as well as social and environmental factors. Weighting and survey methods were used to account for the cluster sampling design. Overall, 511 (51.8%) FSWs reported having a husband or cohabiting partner and 247 (23.7%) reported having a non-paying partner. CCU with these partners was low (22.6% and 40.3% respectively). In multivariable analysis, the odds of CCU with FSWs' husband or cohabiting partner were 1.8-fold higher for FSWs whose partner knew she was a sex worker (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.84, 95% confidence intervals[CI]: 1.02-3.32) and almost 6-fold higher if the FSW was unmarried (AOR: 5.73, 95%CI: 2.79-11.76]. CCU

  13. Trends and determinants of condom use in Uganda.

    PubMed

    De Coninck, Zaake; Marrone, Gaetano

    2012-09-01

    Condom use is an integral indicator of risky sexual behaviour and, as a result, is a potential predictor of future HIV infection rates. Consequently, documenting trends in condom use and exploring the factors associated with their utilisation are important for broadening the information base for the design of HIV intervention programmes. This paper aims to document Uganda's nationwide trends in condom use from 1995 to 2006 and seeks to understand some of the socio-demographic variables that may be associated with their use, using Uganda Demographic Health Surveys (UDHS). Data from the Uganda Demographic Health Surveys (UDHS) conducted in 1995, 2000/2001 and 2006 were analysed. Sociodemographic variables as well as 'Year of the survey' were selected to assess their interaction with condom use. Multivariate regression analyses were performed. Odds Ratios and Confidence Intervals were computed. Certain socio-demographic factors such as being male and living in an urban setting are significantly associated with an increased likelihood of using condoms than others. All results indicate a far greater increase in condom use between 1995 and 2000/2001 compared to the rate of increase in condom use from 2000/2001 to 2006. Policies need to address the lowered use of condoms amongst women and rural populations. The wane in increase in condom use between 2000/2001 and 2006 may be the result of interrupted distribution of condoms between 2004 and 2006. However, this may also be due to the large-scale influx of antiretrovirals (starting in 2004) which may be lowering the anxiety associated with the social construct of HIV/AIDS. Policy makers are urged to intensify condom use campaigns.

  14. Social marketing campaign swaps condoms for bottle tops.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    PSI, a non-profit organization based in the United States, uses private sector condom marketing programs to provide condoms to developing countries at low cost to help stem the spread of AIDS. PSI started promoting condoms in the CAR in November 1991. 150,000 Prudence brand condoms were sold in the 1st month. The price for a pack of 4 was far below that charged by private pharmacies. PSI turned to a collaborative venture with Societe Centrafricaine des Boissons (SCB), a local drinks manufacturer. In a joint campaign in April 1992, 4 packs of condoms were exchanged for 5 tops from SCB bottles. At markets and bars promotional items were given away during condom demonstration contests. SCB bought all the condoms from PSI and financed all the publicity. Similar promotion launched the improved Prudence Plus condom in December. Cumulative sales of Prudence and Plus condoms in the CAR now exceed 1 million. Another marketing idea was to commission a textile company called UCATEX to design a fabric based on the Prudence logo. 1600 lengths of cotton cloth were printed and sold. There was also Operation Taxi Bus. PSI's team broadcast twice on the taxi association's weekly radio show about AIDS prevention, the importance of condoms, and the Prudence brand. Then, every morning for a week, PSI promoters put stickers on as many taxis as possible. Every driver agreeing to display a sticker was entitled to receive 2 packets of Prudence for personal use. The 450 taxis with stickers now in a city of 500,000 are an effective promotion network. In order to prevent a gap in supply before PSI receives its long-term funding from a US donor, The World Health Organization recently bought 500,000 Prudence condoms for PSI to distribute.

  15. High-Stakes Tests: Comparative Study Examining the Impact on the Achievement Gap that Causes Minority Students Continued Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor-Smith, Carol J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this comparative qualitative study examined the impact of the achievement gap on the lack of highly qualified teachers instructing African American students consistently from K-12th grades and its effects on high-stakes testing. In addition, the study examined teacher perceptions that could also be contributing factors of the…

  16. Failure-to-register laws and public safety: an examination of risk factors and sex offense recidivism.

    PubMed

    Levenson, Jill S; Sandler, Jeffrey C; Freeman, Naomi J

    2012-12-01

    The goals of this study were to describe the characteristics of a sample of sex offenders charged with failure to register (FTR) in New York State, compare the FTR and non-FTR groups on relevant risk factors, identify risk factors associated with failing to register, and investigate the relationship between registration noncompliance and both general and sexual rearrest. FTR offenders were found to be younger, more likely to be a minority race, and have more extensive and varied prior criminal histories as well as a record of supervision violations. Results also indicated that FTR was more strongly correlated with nonsexual recidivism (r = .44) than sexual recidivism (r = .09). FTR contributed to the likelihood of sexual recidivism for rapists of adult victims, but not for sex offenders with child victims, and occurred in combination with a history of prior sexual crimes and versatility in criminal offending.

  17. The Prevalence of Renal Failure. Results from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults, 2008-2011 (DEGS1).

    PubMed

    Girndt, Matthias; Trocchi, Pietro; Scheidt-Nave, Christa; Markau, Silke; Stang, Andreas

    2016-02-12

    The prevalence of non-end stage renal failure among adults in Germany is unknown. Accurate figures would enable us to estimate the overall need for kidney replacement therapies and the unexploited potential for disease prevention. Renal failure is also an important cardiovascular risk factor. Until now, American prevalence figures have often been applied to Germany despite dissimilarities between the two populations. We analyzed data on renal function from the nationwide German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults, 2008-2011 (DEGS1), which was carried out by the Robert Koch Institute. The glomerular filtration rate was estimated (eGFR) from the serum creatinine and cystatin C levels (CKD-EPI formula) and a semiquantitative measure of albuminuria. Relationships between renal failure and its possible determinants were quantified with adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Roughly 2.3% (95% CI: [1.9; 2.6 ]) of persons aged 18-79 had an eGFR below 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. The prevalence rose with age. We extrapolated these figures conservatively to persons aged 80 and above, who were not included in the DEGS1, and arrived at a figure of at least 2 million persons in Germany with renal failure. 11.5% of the population have albuminuria of at least 30 mg/L. Diabetes mellitus (PR = 2.25, 95% CI: [1.59; 3.16]) and arterial hypertension (PR = 3.46, 95% CI: [1.95; 6.12]) are important determinants. This study provides the first representative estimate of the prevalence of renal failure in Germany. The condition is highly dependent on age but less prevalent than previously assumed on the basis of American prevalence figures.

  18. The Effects of Alcohol on Intentions To Use Condoms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Tara K.; And Others

    This study addressed the hypothesis that intentions to use condoms are affected by alcohol intoxication. Recruited for this research were 54 male students, who indicated on a pretest that they were sexually active, usually used condoms, and were social drinkers. Subjects were divided into groups of two or three and then randomly assigned to the…

  19. Men's Alcohol Intoxication and Condom Use during Sexual Assault Perpetration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Kiekel, Preston A.; Schraufnagel, Trevor J.; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H.; Kajumulo, Kelly F.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the association between alcohol consumption and condom use during penetrative sexual assault acts perpetrated by young adult men. Men aged 21 to 35 who reported inconsistent condom use and heavy episodic drinking (N = 225) completed a questionnaire assessing their perpetration of sexual assault since the age of 15, their consumption of…

  20. Men's Alcohol Intoxication and Condom Use during Sexual Assault Perpetration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Kiekel, Preston A.; Schraufnagel, Trevor J.; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H.; Kajumulo, Kelly F.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the association between alcohol consumption and condom use during penetrative sexual assault acts perpetrated by young adult men. Men aged 21 to 35 who reported inconsistent condom use and heavy episodic drinking (N = 225) completed a questionnaire assessing their perpetration of sexual assault since the age of 15, their consumption of…

  1. Acquiring allergen information from condom manufacturers: a questionnaire survey.

    PubMed

    Blyumin, Marianna L; Rouhani, Panta; Avashia, Nidhi J; Jacob, Sharon E

    2009-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis from condoms is a problem that carries significant morbidity and that has been increasingly reported due to the use of condoms to prevent sexually transmitted diseases as well as for birth control. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the process by which condom manufacturing companies divulge product allergen information to health care professionals. An interviewer-administered telephone questionnaire eliciting the staff member's knowledge of condom allergens was utilized. Eligible respondents were condom manufacturers' service staff over 18 years of age. Complete surveys were obtained regarding 36 (85.7%) of the 42 subtypes of condoms. Telephoning was the primary (75%) method of obtaining allergen information. The majority (63.9%) of the information was obtained within minutes to hours of the initial contact. Nearly two-thirds of the interviews evaluated the condom manufacturers' service staff as good and effective in their knowledge base and in providing product information. The study determined that the extent of knowledge, helpfulness, and effectiveness of the customer service personnel in relaying product allergen information to clinicians were generally good. The study additionally generated a reference table outlining the common allergens in major manufactured condoms.

  2. Prevalence of consistent condom use with various types of sex partners and associated factors among money boys in Changsha, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lian-Hong; Yan, Jin; Yang, Guo-Li; Long, Shuo; Yu, Yong; Wu, Xi-Lin

    2015-04-01

    Money boys with inconsistent condom use (less than 100% of the time) are at high risk of infection by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or sexually transmitted infection (STI), but relatively little research has examined their risk behaviors. We investigated the prevalence of consistent condom use (100% of the time) and associated factors among money boys. A cross-sectional study using a structured questionnaire was conducted among money boys in Changsha, China, between July 2012 and January 2013. Independent variables included socio-demographic data, substance abuse history, work characteristics, and self-reported HIV and STI history. Dependent variables included the consistent condom use with different types of sex partners. Among the participants, 82.4% used condoms consistently with male clients, 80.2% with male sex partners, and 77.1% with female sex partners in the past 3 months. A multiple stepwise logistic regression model identified four statistically significant factors associated with lower likelihoods of consistent condom use with male clients: age group, substance abuse, lack of an "employment" arrangement, and having no HIV test within the prior 6 months. In a similar model, only one factor associated significantly with lower likelihoods of consistent condom use with male sex partners was identified in multiple stepwise logistic regression analyses: having no HIV test within the prior six months. As for female sex partners, two significant variables were statistically significant in the multiple stepwise logistic regression analysis: having no HIV test within the prior 6 months and having STI history. Interventions which are linked with more realistic and acceptable HIV prevention methods are greatly warranted and should increase risk awareness and the behavior of consistent condom use in both commercial and personal relationship. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  3. Patterns of Oral Contraceptive Pill-taking and Condom Use among Adolescent Contraceptive Pill Users

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Jennifer L.; Shew, Marcia L.; Tu, Wanzhu; Ofner, Susan; Ott, Mary A.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Imperfect oral contraceptive pill (OCP) regimen adherence may impair contraceptive effectiveness. The purpose of this study was to describe daily adherence patterns of OCP use, to analyze OCP protection on an event level basis, and to examine pill-taking and condom use during method transitions. Methods Women (n = 123, ages 14–17 years) completed quarterly interviews to classify OCP method choice into four categories: stable, initiated, stopped, and discordant use. Within each OCP category, daily diaries were used to assess occurrence of coitus, condom use, and patterns of day-to-day OCP use (i.e., consecutive days of OCP use reported with no more than two consecutive days of nonuse). A coital event was OCP protected if pills were used on both the day of the coitus and the day preceding. Results There were 123 participants who reported at least some OCP use in 210 diary periods (average diary length = 75.5 days). Fifty-three participants categorized as stable users reported 87 diary periods: the average interval of consecutive OCP use in this group was 32.5 days. Among stable users, only 45% of coital events were associated with both OCP and condom use. Over one-fifth of coital events in all groups were protected by no method of contraception. Conclusion Dual use of OCP and barrier contraception remains an elusive goal. The time during OCP adoption or discontinuation is often unprotected by condoms. However, concurrent missed pills and condom nonuse increase pregnancy and infection risk even among stable OCP users. Understanding motivation for method usage may improve education and prevention techniques. PMID:16919800

  4. The pleasure principle: the effect of perceived pleasure loss associated with condoms on unprotected anal intercourse among immigrant Latino men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, Sarah K; Reisen, Carol A; Zea, Maria Cecilia; Poppen, Paul J; Bianchi, Fernanda T

    2012-07-01

    Sexual pleasure has been identified as an important consideration in decision-making surrounding condom use. We examined the impact of perceived pleasure loss associated with condom use on recent history of insertive and receptive unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) among Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) living in the United States. A total of 482 Dominican, Colombian, and Brazilian immigrant MSM were surveyed regarding sexual attitudes and practices via computer-assisted self-interviewing technology with audio enhancement (ACASI). Participants rated the pleasure they derived from protected and unprotected anal intercourse in each position (insertive and receptive) and also reported their HIV status, relationship status, and recent sexual history. Men who had engaged in both positions, with and without condoms (n=268), perceived a greater pleasure loss associated with condoms during anal intercourse in the insertive versus receptive position. Logistic regression analyses controlling for HIV status, relationship status, and age revealed that men who perceived greater pleasure loss from condoms were more likely to have engaged in UAI over the past 3 months (n[insertive]=297; n[receptive]=284). Findings indicate that the pleasure loss associated with condoms may be a key deterrent for their use in either sex position among Latino MSM. Therefore, pleasure needs to be prioritized in the development of condoms and other sexual safety measures as well as in the promotion of their use.

  5. The Pleasure Principle: The Effect of Perceived Pleasure Loss Associated with Condoms on Unprotected Anal Intercourse Among Immigrant Latino Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Reisen, Carol A.; Zea, Maria Cecilia; Poppen, Paul J.; Bianchi, Fernanda T.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Sexual pleasure has been identified as an important consideration in decision-making surrounding condom use. We examined the impact of perceived pleasure loss associated with condom use on recent history of insertive and receptive unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) among Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) living in the United States. A total of 482 Dominican, Colombian, and Brazilian immigrant MSM were surveyed regarding sexual attitudes and practices via computer-assisted self-interviewing technology with audio enhancement (ACASI). Participants rated the pleasure they derived from protected and unprotected anal intercourse in each position (insertive and receptive) and also reported their HIV status, relationship status, and recent sexual history. Men who had engaged in both positions, with and without condoms (n=268), perceived a greater pleasure loss associated with condoms during anal intercourse in the insertive versus receptive position. Logistic regression analyses controlling for HIV status, relationship status, and age revealed that men who perceived greater pleasure loss from condoms were more likely to have engaged in UAI over the past 3 months (n[insertive]=297; n[receptive]=284). Findings indicate that the pleasure loss associated with condoms may be a key deterrent for their use in either sex position among Latino MSM. Therefore, pleasure needs to be prioritized in the development of condoms and other sexual safety measures as well as in the promotion of their use. PMID:22663165

  6. Examining Older Adults’ Perceptions of Usability and Acceptability of Remote Monitoring Systems to Manage Chronic Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Evangelista, Lorraine S.; Moser, Debra K.; Lee, Jung-Ah; Moore, Alison A.; Ghasemzadeh, Hassan; Sarrafzadeh, Majid; Mangione, Carol M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility, usability, and acceptability of using remote monitoring systems (RMS) in monitoring health status (e.g., vital signs, symptom distress) in older adults (≥55) with chronic heart failure (HF). Method: Twenty-one patients (52.4% women, mean age 73.1 ± 9.3) were trained to measure and transmit health data with an RMS. Data transmissions were tracked for 12 weeks. Results: All participants initiated use of RMS within 1 week; 71%, 14%, and 14% of patients transmitted daily health data 100%, ≥75%, and <75% of the time, respectively, for 12 weeks. Overall usability and acceptability of the RMS were 4.08 ± 0.634 and 4.10 ± 0.563, respectively (when scored on a range of 1-5, where 1 = strongly disagree and 5 = strongly agree). Discussion: Findings show that an RMS-based intervention can be successfully implemented in a group of older patients with chronic HF. PMID:28138479

  7. Condom distribution in Bali: assuring supply meets demand.

    PubMed

    Merati, T P

    1994-01-01

    Hundreds of thousands of tourists visit Bali each year, many of whom pay to have sex with local residents. Kuta, one of Bali's major tourist resort towns, has manifested an higher demand for condoms than other studied areas in Indonesia. Such demand is laudable in the context of a growing HIV/AIDS epidemic, but demand must encounter supply to be worthwhile. The Citra Usadha Indonesia Foundation (YCUI) has been conducting outreach education in Kuta and other areas of Bali since February 1992. Over that time, outreach workers have found that street youths' and prostitutes' main sources for condoms, pharmacies, supermarkets, and YCUI outreach workers, are either closed or potentially unavailable at night, when most sexual transactions occur. Pharmacies and supermarkets close at 10 pm. YCUI therefore initiated a six-month condom distribution program in 1994 to encourage the approximately 150 street vendors working in Kuta to sell condoms. Street vendo