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Sample records for condom failure examining

  1. Feasibility of local condom production examined.

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    Despite Africa being the world region worst affected by the HIV/AIDS pandemic, there is only 1 condom manufacturer on the continent, in Johannesburg. Hundreds of millions of condoms are donated and imported annually. For example, 500 million units were donated in 1996, of which 212 million came from the US Agency for International Development. A recently released study commissioned by the European Union's HIV/AIDS Program for Developing Countries determined that it would be technically viable to manufacture condoms in not only South Africa, but also in Mauritius, Cote d'Ivoire, and Kenya. All that is required is a factory, work force, water, and electricity, with the raw materials to be imported from Malaysia or Thailand regardless of where the factory is located. The financial returns of such an operation would depend upon the cost of labor, the type of factory and its output, and market demand. Benefits would include employment creation, potential exports, and foreign exchange savings. A typical condom plant, operating 24 hours a day with 2 production lines, can produce 160 million condom units per year. However, should such a factory be built and put into operation, managers must ensure that any condoms produced are of high quality.

  2. Feasibility of local condom production examined.

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    Despite Africa being the world region worst affected by the HIV/AIDS pandemic, there is only 1 condom manufacturer on the continent, in Johannesburg. Hundreds of millions of condoms are donated and imported annually. For example, 500 million units were donated in 1996, of which 212 million came from the US Agency for International Development. A recently released study commissioned by the European Union's HIV/AIDS Program for Developing Countries determined that it would be technically viable to manufacture condoms in not only South Africa, but also in Mauritius, Cote d'Ivoire, and Kenya. All that is required is a factory, work force, water, and electricity, with the raw materials to be imported from Malaysia or Thailand regardless of where the factory is located. The financial returns of such an operation would depend upon the cost of labor, the type of factory and its output, and market demand. Benefits would include employment creation, potential exports, and foreign exchange savings. A typical condom plant, operating 24 hours a day with 2 production lines, can produce 160 million condom units per year. However, should such a factory be built and put into operation, managers must ensure that any condoms produced are of high quality. PMID:12295121

  3. Condom

    MedlinePlus

    ... sizes, textures, and colors. How Much Does It Cost? Condoms are the least expensive and most available ... control — other than abstinence, of course. Male condoms cost about $0.50 to $1 each and are ...

  4. Factors Contributing to the Failure to Use Condoms among Students in Zambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mbulo, Lazarous; Newman, Ian M.; Shell, Duane F.

    2007-01-01

    This study explored factors that may predict condom use among college and high school students in Zambia. Using the Social Cognitive Theory, this study examined the relationship of drinking behaviors, alcohol-sexual expectations, education level, and religion to condom use among 961 students. The results of the study show that condom use was low…

  5. Prostate-specific antigen as a biomarker of condom failure: comparison of three laboratory assays and self-reported condom use problems in a randomized trial of female condom performance☆, ☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Terri; Warner, Lee; Macaluso, Maurizio; Frezieres, Ron; Snead, Margaret; Wraxall, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Background Prostate-specific antigen (PSA), a biomarker for semen exposure, may provide a more objective measure of condom failure than subject self-reports. Methods for measuring PSA vary and their comparability with respect to assessing condom performance has not been adequately evaluated. This study compared results from three different PSA assays of vaginal samples collected by subjects in a randomized clinical trial which compared the performance of female condoms. Study Design We selected 30 pairs of pre- and post-coital vaginal samples from subjects who reported condom functionality problems or whose original PSA assay was positive. Samples were retested using three different PSA assays [quantitative enzyme-linked immunoassay (EIA), rocket immune-electrophoresis (RIE) and chromatographic immunoassay (CIA)]. We compared the proportion of condom uses where the post-coital PSA result indicated semen exposure for each of the three assays. Results Despite varying levels of sensitivity, the results from all three assays were remarkably consistent. Self-reported condom failures did not correlate well with positive PSA results, suggesting that exclusive reliance on either PSA or user self-report may be inadequate for assessing condom functionality. Conclusion In combination with user self-report of condom failure, PSA testing provides a reliable, objective marker of condom functionality. Studies based on PSA testing may improve on conventional contraceptive clinical trials by offering a more direct assessment of a condom product's ability to prevent semen exposure. PMID:22386229

  6. An intervention study examining the effects of condom wrapper graphics and scent on condom use in the Botswana Defence Force.

    PubMed

    Tran, Bonnie Robin; Thomas, Anne Goldzier; Vaida, Florin; Ditsela, Mooketsi; Phetogo, Robert; Kelapile, David; Haubrich, Richard; Chambers, Christina; Shaffer, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Free condoms provided by the government are often not used by Botswana Defence Force (BDF) personnel due to a perceived unpleasant scent and unattractive wrapper. Formative work with the BDF found that scented condoms and military-inspired (camouflage) wrapper graphics were appealing to personnel. A non-randomized intervention study was implemented to determine whether condom wrapper graphics and scent improved condom use in the BDF. Four military sites were selected for participation. Two sites in the south received the intervention condom wrapped in a generic wrapper and two sites in the north received the intervention condom wrapped in a military-inspired wrapper; intervention condoms were either scented or unscented. Two hundred and eleven male soldiers who ever had sex, aged 18-30 years, and stationed at one of the selected sites consented to participate. Sexual activity and condom use were measured pre- and post-intervention using sexual behavior diaries. A condom use rate (CUR; frequency of protected sex divided by the total frequency of sex) was computed for each participant. Mean CURs significantly increased over time (85.7% baseline vs. 94.5% post-intervention). Adjusted odds of condom use over time were higher among participants who received the intervention condom packaged in the military wrapper compared with the generic wrapper. Adjusted odds of condom use were also higher for participants who reported using scented vs. unscented condoms. Providing scented condoms and condoms packaged in a military-inspired wrapper may help increase condom use and reduce HIV infection among military personnel.

  7. Condoms - male

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rubbers; Male condoms; Contraceptive - condom; Contraception - condom; Barrier method - condom ... infections.) Latex rubber Polyurethane Condoms are the only method of birth control for men that are not ...

  8. Failure to Use and Sustain Male Condom Usage: Lessons Learned from a Prospective Study among Men Attending STI Clinic in Pune, India

    PubMed Central

    Sahay, Seema; Deshpande, Swapna; Bembalkar, Shilpa; Kharat, Mahesh; Parkhe, Aparna; Brahme, Radhika G.; Paranjape, Ramesh; Bollinger, Robert C.; Mehendale, Sanjay M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Sustained or consistent use of condoms by men remains a challenge. A study was carried out to identify factors associated with failure to use condoms consistently by men attending STD clinics in Pune, India. Method Among 14137 STI clinic attendees, 8360 HIV sero-negative men were enrolled in a cohort study. The changes in condom usage behavior were studied among 1284 men who returned for first scheduled quarterly follow up, 309 reported consistent condom use at the time of enrollment in the cohort. Data pertaining to heterosexual men practicing high risk behavior were analyzed to identify factors associated with change in condom use behavior using logistic regression model. Demographic, behavioral and biological factors observed to be associated with condom use were fitted in five Cox proportional hazards models to calculate hazard ratios and their 95% confidence intervals to identify independent predictors of failure to sustain condom use behavior. Results The univariate analysis showed that men who were 30 years or older in age (p = 0.002) and those who did not have contact female sex worker (FSW) were more likely to fail to sustain consistent condom use. However both these factors did not show significant association in multivariable analysis. Marital status and contact with Hijra (eunuch) in lifetime were associated with failure to change in their condom use behavior [AOR 0.33 (CI 0.13–0.82; p = 0.017)]. During the follow up of 2 years, 61 events (15.5 per 100 person years, 95% CI 12.3–19.5 years) of ‘failure of condom use’ were recorded despite counseling. Older age, contact with non CSW partner and presence of genital ulcer disease / discharge syndrome were significant predictors of failure to sustain condom use. Discussion Married monogamous older men, who report contact with sex worker and present with genital ulcer disease are at risk of failure to use condom after first exposure to voluntary HIV counseling and testing. This is a

  9. Understanding Failure of Condom Use Intention among Adolescents: Completing an Intensive Preventive Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauman, Laurie J.; Karasz, Alison; Hamilton, Adaoha

    2007-01-01

    Although interventions based on cognitive theories can reduce rates of unsafe sexual behavior in adolescents, effect sizes remain small. This study was a qualitative investigation of inner-city adolescents' intentions to use condoms following participation in an intensive safer sex program. In-depth interviews with 26 adolescents were analyzed…

  10. Examining Delay Discounting of Condom-Protected Sex Among Men Who Have Sex with Men Using Crowdsourcing Technology.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Evan S; Johnson, Patrick S; Johnson, Matthew W

    2015-09-01

    Some men who have sex with men (MSM) have unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) in situations that put them at risk for HIV infection despite having the knowledge and skills to avoid these risks. The present study examined the potential role of delay discounting in sexual HIV risk behavior among MSM. Participants (n = 108) completed the Sexual Discounting Task and a questionnaire regarding UAI and other variables associated with HIV risk (e.g., age, socioeconomic status, substance use, psychiatric problems). MSM discounted the value of condom-protected anal intercourse in a manner that was orderly, hyperbolic, and sensitive to partner characteristics that likely influence realworld decisions about using condoms. Steeper discounting was associated with UAI, and other factors related to sexual HIV risk among MSM, including young age, socioeconomic disadvantage, substance use, sex under the influence of substances, and depression). Delay discounting is likely a critical, but underappreciated facet of HIV risk among MSM.

  11. Female condoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... male condom. Protects against pregnancy and STIs. CONS Friction of the condom may reduce clitoral stimulation and ... and a male condom at the same time. Friction between them can cause them to bunch up ...

  12. Beneficial but not sufficient: effects of condom packaging instructions on condom use skills.

    PubMed

    Lindemann, Dana F; Harbke, Colin R; Huntoon, Alishia

    2012-01-01

    Among those who are sexually active, condom use is the only method of protection against HIV/AIDS. Poor condom skills may lead to condom use failures, which can lead to risk of exposure. Despite the wide availability of condom use instructional leaflets, it is unclear whether these instructions sufficiently teach condom use skills. Ninety-two male and 113 female undergraduates were randomly assigned to a control condition (read non-condom instructions) or a treatment condition (read condom instructions). Participants completed self-report measures related to condom use and performed a condom demonstration task. Participants who read the condom instructions did not perform significantly better on the demonstration task, F (1, 203) = 2.90, P = 0.09, η(2) = 0.014. At the item level, those who read the condom instructions better performed two of the seven condom use steps correctly. These data suggest that condom packaging instructions do not effectively teach condom use skills.

  13. Beneficial but not sufficient: effects of condom packaging instructions on condom use skills

    PubMed Central

    Lindemann, Dana F; Harbke, Colin R; Huntoon, Alishia

    2012-01-01

    Among those who are sexually active, condom use is the only method of protection against HIV/AIDS. Poor condom skills may lead to condom use failures, which can lead to risk of exposure. Despite the wide availability of condom use instructional leaflets, it is unclear whether these instructions sufficiently teach condom use skills. Ninety-two male and 113 female undergraduates were randomly assigned to a control condition (read non-condom instructions) or a treatment condition (read condom instructions). Participants completed self-report measures related to condom use and performed a condom demonstration task. Participants who read the condom instructions did not perform significantly better on the demonstration task, F (1, 203) = 2.90, P = 0.09, η2 = 0.014. At the item level, those who read the condom instructions better performed two of the seven condom use steps correctly. These data suggest that condom packaging instructions do not effectively teach condom use skills. PMID:22334800

  14. Female condoms.

    PubMed

    Bounds, W

    1997-06-01

    Early versions of a female condom were available in the 1920s and 1960s, but they were little used and soon forgotten. It took the arrival of AIDS, and the urgent need for a wider range of female-controlled barrier techniques, to rekindle scientific interest in this method. In the 1980s, three groups in Europe and the USA began development of new female condom designs, comprising 'Femidom (Reality)', the 'Bikini Condom', and 'Women's Choice'. Apart from differences in their physical design, Femidom differs from the others in that it is made of a polyurethane membrane, which has several advantages over latex. Of the three, Femidom is the most advanced in terms of development and clinical testing, and it is the only one to have reached the marketing stage. Laboratory studies and clinical trials suggest that its contraceptive efficacy is similar to that documented for the male condom, though a direct comparison is not possible because no comparative clinical trials have, as yet, been undertaken. Reported 'typical-use' pregnancy rates range from 12.4 to 22.2% at 6 months of use in the USA and Latin America, respectively, while a study in the UK observed a rate of 15% at 12 months. As with all barrier methods, most failures appear to be associated with poor compliance or incorrect use. 'Perfect-use' pregnancy rates were substantially lower, indicating that Femidom can be very effective, if used consistently and correctly. Evidence for Femidom's effectiveness to protect against transmission of sexual disease-causing organisms, including HIV, is still very limited and based largely on laboratory studies. Whilst, in theory, the condom should confer reliable protection, its efficacy in clinical use will depend upon correct and consistent use and upon the product's ability to maintain an effective physical barrier throughout penetrative intercourse. In this respect, the results of recent and ongoing clinical studies are expected with much interest. How valuable Femidom will

  15. Plastic condom developed.

    PubMed

    1992-01-01

    A prototype plastic condom that is expected to be at least as strong as latex, less likely to fail, and more comfortable to use has been designed by researchers at North Carolina-based Family Health International (FHI). The National Institutes of Health has granted the nonprofit medical research organization $1.3 million to conduct tests that will include clinical trials involving volunteer couples to examine the condom/s safety, efficacy in preventing pregnancy, and acceptability among users. Researchers hope the tests, expected to take about 4 years, will show that the plastic condom can be stored for years without weakening, whereas latex loses strength with time. In addition, FHI claims the plastic condom can be used with any kind of lubricant, while Latex is limited to water-based or silicone lubricants. Latex condoms lose up to 90% of their strength when used with oil-based lubricants such as hand lotion, according to studies.

  16. Action-specific Cognitions of Planned and Preparatory Behaviors of Condom Use among Dutch Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kok, Gerjo

    2008-01-01

    Many adolescents fail to use condoms, even when they are motivated to do so. An important reason for their failure to use condoms is that they do not prepare themselves for potential sexual encounters. The present study examined the circumstances under which Dutch adolescents were likely to prepare themselves for condom use (buying and carrying). In a sample of 399 secondary school students, including students with and without sexual experience, it was found that intended condom use was not sufficient to ensure that adolescents plan and prepare for condom use. It was found that having the goal of condom use did not necessarily result in preparatory behavior, such as condom buying and condom carrying. The data showed that action-specific social-cognitive factors of preparatory behavior explained preparatory behavior, beyond the decision to use condoms. This suggests that interventions aimed at promoting condom use should focus not only on condom use itself, but should also motivate and encourage adolescents to buy and carry condoms. PMID:18193348

  17. Examining the applicability of the IMB model in predicting condom use among sexually active secondary school students in Mbarara, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Ybarra, Michele L; Korchmaros, Josephine; Kiwanuka, Julius; Bangsberg, David R; Bull, Sheana

    2013-03-01

    The applicability of the IMB model in predicting condom use was tested among 390 sexually active secondary school students in Mbarara, Uganda. Adolescents across five secondary schools completed a self-report survey about their health and sexual experiences. Based upon results from structural equation modeling, the IMB model partially predicts condom use. Condom use was directly predicted by HIV prevention information and behavioral skills regarding having and using condoms. It was indirectly predicted (through behavioral skills regarding having and using condoms) by behavioral intentions regarding using condoms and talking to one's partner about safer sex. Aspects of one's first sexual experience (i.e., age at first sex, having discussed using condoms with first sex partner, willingness at first sex) were strongly influential in predicting current condom use; this was especially true for discussing condoms with one's first sex partner. Findings highlight the importance of providing clear and comprehensive condom use training in HIV prevention programs aimed at Ugandan adolescents. They also underscore the importance of targeting abstinent youth before they become sexually active to positively affect their HIV preventive behavior at their first sexual experience.

  18. Condom Semiotics: Meaning and Condom Use in Rural Malawi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tavory, Iddo; Swidler, Ann

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the widespread resistance to condom use in sub-Saharan Africa by describing the major semiotic axes that organize how people talk about condoms and condom use. These axes include the "sweetness" of sex, trust and love between sexual partners, and assessments of risk and danger. Using data from rural Malawi, we show that…

  19. Condoms used but sex not well protected.

    PubMed

    Lau, J T F; Zhou, H; Su, X Y; Feng, T J; Hong, F C; Tsui, H Y; Ma, Y L; Wang, Z; Walden, D

    2014-10-01

    Condom use is often equated to safer sex. The prevalence of condom use during sex work among female sex workers (FSW) in China is high. Condom use, however, co-exists with condom failure and improper use and hence risk of HIV transmission. In a cross-sectional study, we interviewed 195 FSW in Shenzhen, China. The prevalence of condom use in the last episode of sex work was 97.4 %, However, respectively 53.8 and 86.2 % had experienced at least one condition of condom failure that may lead to genital contact (wearing condoms after penetration, condom breakage/slippage, condoms removed by clients) and at least one condition of improper condom use (not removing air from the tip of the condom, not pulling it down to the root of penis and not choosing good quality condoms). Factors of individual level (e.g. never choosing high quality condoms for sex work), inter-personal level (e.g. agreement to have unprotected sex if fond of clients or paid more) and environmental/structural level (e.g. non-availability of condoms) were associated with various types of condom failure and improper use. Although HIV prevention interventions have increased prevalence of condom use among FSW, the risk of HIV transmission may still be high as "unsafe" sex due to condom failure and improper use is prevalent. Interventions promoting safer sex need to address such issues and take socio-ecological factors into account. Condom use during sex work is not equivalent to well protected sex as the protective effects could be compromised by frequent condom failure and improper use.

  20. Condom rating.

    PubMed

    Vazquez, E

    1999-01-01

    Consumer Reports reveals that out of 30 different non-polyurethane condoms that underwent airburst testing, only Trojan Plus 2 Spermicidal and Durex Pure Protection Spermicidally Lubricated failed. Condoms labeled as "extra strength" performed no better than those labeled as "thin," and vending machine condoms performed as well as others. Condoms are also less effective for anal sex than vaginal intercourse, and expiration dates should be checked. PMID:11366798

  1. Condom negotiation strategies as a mediator of the relationship between self-efficacy and condom use.

    PubMed

    French, Sabine Elizabeth; Holland, Kathryn J

    2013-01-01

    College students are a group at high risk of sexually transmitted infections due to inconsistent condom use and engaging in other risky sexual behaviors. This study examined whether condom use self-efficacy predicted the use of condom negotiation strategies (i.e., condom influence strategies) and whether condom influence strategies mediated the relationship between condom use self-efficacy and condom use within this population, as well as whether gender moderated the mediation model. Results showed a strong relationship between condom use self-efficacy and condom influence strategies. Additionally, condom influence strategies completely mediated the relationship between condom use self-efficacy and condom use. Although condom use self-efficacy was related to condom use, the ability to use condom negotiation strategies was the most important factor predicting condom use. The mediation model held across genders, except for the condom influence strategy withholding sex, where it was not significant for men. For women, condom use self-efficacy promoted the use of a very assertive negotiation strategy, withholding sex, and was consequently related to increased condom use. Overall, using assertive condom negotiation strategies (e.g., withholding sex and direct request) were found to be the most important aspects of increasing condom use for both women and men. Implications and suggestions for prevention programming are discussed. PMID:22126308

  2. Plastic condoms.

    PubMed

    1968-01-01

    Only simple equipment, simple technology and low initial capital investment are needed in their manufacture. The condoms can be made by people who were previously unskilled or only semi-skilled workers. Plastic condoms differ from those made of latex rubber in that the nature of the plastic film allows unlimited shelf-life. Also, the plastic has a higher degree of lubricity than latex rubber; if there is a demand for extra lubrication in a particular market, this can be provided. Because the plastic is inert, these condoms need not be packaged in hermetically sealed containers. All these attributes make it possible to put these condoms on the distributors' shelves in developing countries competitively with rubber condoms. The shape of the plastic condom is based on that of the lamb caecum, which has long been used as luxury-type condom. The plastic condom is made from plastic film (ethylene ethyl acrilate) of 0.001 inch (0.0254 mm.) thickness. In addition, a rubber ring is provided and sealed into the base of the condom for retention during coitus. The advantage of the plastic condom design and the equipment on which it is made is that production can be carried out either in labour-intensive economy or with varying degrees of mechanization and automation. The uniform, finished condom if made using previously untrained workers. Training of workers can be done in a matter of hours on the two machines which are needed to produce and test the condoms. The plastic film is provided on a double wound roll, and condom blanks are prepared by means of a heat-sealing die on the stamping machine. The rubber rings are united to the condom blanks on an assembly machine, which consists of a mandrel and heat-sealing equipment to seal the rubber ring to the base of the condom. Built into the assembly machine is a simple air-testing apparatus that can detect the smallest pinhole flaw in a condom. The manufacturing process is completed by unravelling the condom from the assembly

  3. Optical testing of condoms.

    PubMed

    Smith, S R; Lowrance, J L; Tessarotto, L A

    1999-01-01

    Condoms provide one of the most important means of preventing pregnancy and the spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted diseases. Pinhole defects may lead to the passage of sperm or viruses through the condom wall. Embedded particles, which may become dislodged in handling or use, may represent latent pinhole defects. Thin regions in the condom wall may lead to breakage in use. Testing for such defects in regulatory laboratories, or in the factories as part of production screening or quality assurance efforts, is a major tool for ensuring condom reliability. A new optical method for testing condoms is presented, sensitive to pinholes, thin regions, and embedded particles. The method could supplement or replace the existing, less powerful, electrical test techniques in either regulatory testing laboratories or in the factory. The optical techniques presented provide quantitative data on the condoms tested, rather than just accept/reject decisions. They thus support detailed monitoring of production or lot characteristics that is generally not possible with existing electrical techniques. The ability of the optical techniques to separately test for and identify not only pinholes, but also thin regions and embedded particles, which are not separately tested for with the electrical technologies, is an especially important new capability. Further, the new optical techniques allow the locations of defects found to be precisely marked, making possible a microscopic examination of defects useful in studying their structure and possible causes. The optical technique is also totally nondestructive, in that it does not alter the defects whose structures are of interest. Initial results are reported on the testing of latex condoms purchased in retail stores. Condoms identified optically as being potentially defective were subjected to industry standard leak and burst testing. Results of the various tests are summarized. The data suggest that

  4. Acceptability of male condom: An Indian scenario

    PubMed Central

    Donta, Balaiah; Begum, Shahina; Naik, D.D.

    2014-01-01

    The National Family Planning Programme of India had introduced condom as one of the family planning methods in the late1960s. Condom was promoted as a family planning method through social marketing since its inception. With the increasing prevalence and incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV/AIDS, condom was also promoted as a dual method for protection against both unintended pregnancies as well as sexually transmitted infections. Despite efforts at various levels, the overall use of condom among couples in India is low. Here we present literature review of studies to understand the condom acceptability among couples in India. Specifically, the paper assesses research and programmes that have been carried out to increase the use of condom among couples; determinants of condom use; reason for not using condom; and perception versus experience of condom failure. The reported problems related to condom use included non acceptance by partner, perceived ineffectiveness, less comfort, lack of sexual satisfaction, husband's alcohol use, depression, and anxiety, and not available at that instant. The role of media in the promotion of condom use was indicated as an important way to increase awareness and use. Multiple strategies would help in acceptance of male condom. PMID:25673537

  5. Acceptability of male condom: an Indian scenario.

    PubMed

    Donta, Balaiah; Begum, Shahina; Naik, D D

    2014-11-01

    The National Family Planning Programme of India had introduced condom as one of the family planning methods in the late 1960s. Condom was promoted as a family planning method through social marketing since its inception. With the increasing prevalence and incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV/AIDS, condom was also promoted as a dual method for protection against both unintended pregnancies as well as sexually transmitted infections. Despite efforts at various levels, the overall use of condom among couples in India is low. Here we present literature review of studies to understand the condom acceptability among couples in India. Specifically, the paper assesses research and programmes that have been carried out to increase the use of condom among couples; determinants of condom use; reason for not using condom; and perception versus experience of condom failure. The reported problems related to condom use included non acceptance by partner, perceived ineffectiveness, less comfort, lack of sexual satisfaction, husband's alcohol use, depression, and anxiety, and not available at that instant. The role of media in the promotion of condom use was indicated as an important way to increase awareness and use. Multiple strategies would help in acceptance of male condom.

  6. Acceptability of male condom: an Indian scenario.

    PubMed

    Donta, Balaiah; Begum, Shahina; Naik, D D

    2014-11-01

    The National Family Planning Programme of India had introduced condom as one of the family planning methods in the late 1960s. Condom was promoted as a family planning method through social marketing since its inception. With the increasing prevalence and incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV/AIDS, condom was also promoted as a dual method for protection against both unintended pregnancies as well as sexually transmitted infections. Despite efforts at various levels, the overall use of condom among couples in India is low. Here we present literature review of studies to understand the condom acceptability among couples in India. Specifically, the paper assesses research and programmes that have been carried out to increase the use of condom among couples; determinants of condom use; reason for not using condom; and perception versus experience of condom failure. The reported problems related to condom use included non acceptance by partner, perceived ineffectiveness, less comfort, lack of sexual satisfaction, husband's alcohol use, depression, and anxiety, and not available at that instant. The role of media in the promotion of condom use was indicated as an important way to increase awareness and use. Multiple strategies would help in acceptance of male condom. PMID:25673537

  7. Outdated condoms.

    PubMed

    1999-06-25

    Prosecutors in four California jurisdictions filed a suit against the Rite Aid drug store chain for violating State health and safety codes by selling condoms past their expiration dates. The products have expiration dates because they may lose their effectiveness over time. The suit asks for monetary damages and an injunction barring the chain from continuing to sell merchandise outdated merchandise. PMID:11367292

  8. 8 CFR 335.6 - Failure to appear for examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ON APPLICATION FOR NATURALIZATION § 335.6 Failure to appear for examination. (a) An applicant for naturalization shall be deemed to have abandoned his or her application if he or she fails to appear for the... eligibility for naturalization. (c) If the applicant does not request reopening of an administratively...

  9. 8 CFR 335.6 - Failure to appear for examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ON APPLICATION FOR NATURALIZATION § 335.6 Failure to appear for examination. (a) An applicant for naturalization shall be deemed to have abandoned his or her application if he or she fails to appear for the... the date of filing of the application for purposes of determining eligibility for naturalization....

  10. 8 CFR 335.6 - Failure to appear for examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ON APPLICATION FOR NATURALIZATION § 335.6 Failure to appear for examination. (a) An applicant for naturalization shall be deemed to have abandoned his or her application if he or she fails to appear for the... the date of filing of the application for purposes of determining eligibility for naturalization....

  11. 8 CFR 335.6 - Failure to appear for examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ON APPLICATION FOR NATURALIZATION § 335.6 Failure to appear for examination. (a) An applicant for naturalization shall be deemed to have abandoned his or her application if he or she fails to appear for the... eligibility for naturalization. (c) If the applicant does not request reopening of an administratively...

  12. 8 CFR 335.6 - Failure to appear for examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ON APPLICATION FOR NATURALIZATION § 335.6 Failure to appear for examination. (a) An applicant for naturalization shall be deemed to have abandoned his or her application if he or she fails to appear for the... the date of filing of the application for purposes of determining eligibility for naturalization....

  13. Contraceptive failure in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Duolao

    2002-09-01

    This study examines patterns and differentials of contraceptive failure rates by method and characteristics of users, using the Chinese Two-per-Thousand Fertility Survey data. The results show that contraceptive failure rates for modern methods including sterilization are some of the highest in the world. The first year failure rates are 4.2% for male sterilization, 0.7% for female sterilization, 10.3% for IUD, 14.5% for pill, and 19.0% for condom. There are also some differentials in contraceptive failure rates by users' sociodemographic and fertility characteristics. Contraceptive failure rate declines with women's age for all reversible methods. Rural women have higher sterilization, IUD, and condom contraceptive failure rates than urban women. Women with two or more children have a higher failure rate for sterilization methods but have lower failure rates for other methods.

  14. A Qualitative Examination of Men’s Condom Use Attitudes and Resistance: “It’s Just a Part of the Game”

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Schraufnagel, Trevor J.; Kajumulo, Kelly F.; Gilmore, Amanda K.; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the variability in young heterosexual men’s perceptions of the advantages and disadvantages of condom use in their casual sexual relationships. Because men who perceive greater disadvantages of condom use may be more likely to resist using them, we also explored the tactics that men employ to avoid using condoms. Semi-structured focus groups were conducted with single men who have sex with women (n = 60), aged 21 to 35, all of whom reported using condoms inconsistently. Transcripts were analyzed using a framework analysis approach. As expected, participants reported advantages and disadvantages to condom use that pertained to the likelihood and quality of sex, physical sensations during intercourse, and the risk of STIs and unwanted pregnancies. Within each of these topics, however, participants’ appraisals of the relative pros and cons of condom use varied considerably. Additionally, participants reported that men use a wide range of condom use resistance tactics - including seduction, deception, and condom sabotage – and that the use of these tactics is viewed as normative behavior for men their age. These findings suggest that the effectiveness of sexual health prevention efforts could be enhanced by increasing young men’s motivations to use condoms and by targeting social norms regarding condom use resistance. Additionally, the issue of men’s condom use resistance clearly merits increased empirical investigation and intervention attention. PMID:23912776

  15. Alcohol intoxication and condom use self-efficacy effects on women's condom use intentions.

    PubMed

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Masters, N Tatiana; Eakins, Danielle; Danube, Cinnamon L; George, William H; Norris, Jeanette; Heiman, Julia R

    2014-01-01

    Although research has consistently demonstrated that condom use self-efficacy significantly predicts condom use, there has been little investigation of whether acute alcohol intoxication moderates this relationship. Because alcohol intoxication is often associated with increased sexual risk taking, further examination of such moderating effects is warranted. Using a community sample of young heterosexual women (n=436) with a history of heavy episodic drinking, this alcohol administration experiment examined the effects of intoxication and condom use self-efficacy on women's condom negotiation and future condom use intentions. After a questionnaire session, alcohol condition (control, .10% target peak BAL) was experimentally manipulated between subjects. Participants then read and responded to a hypothetical risky sexual decision-making scenario. SEM analyses revealed that alcohol intoxication directly decreased women's intentions to use condoms in the future. Women with greater condom use self-efficacy had stronger intentions to engage in condom negotiation; however, this effect was moderated by intoxication. Specifically, the association between condom use self-efficacy and condom negotiation intentions was stronger for intoxicated women than for sober women. These novel findings regarding the synergistic effects of alcohol intoxication and condom use self-efficacy support continued prevention efforts aimed at strengthening women's condom use self-efficacy, which may reduce even those sexual risk decisions made during states of intoxication. PMID:24129265

  16. Understanding heterosexual condom use among homeless men.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Joan S; Wenzel, Suzanne L; Golinelli, Daniela; Kennedy, David P; Ewing, Brett; Wertheimer, Samuel

    2013-06-01

    This study uses an event-based approach to examine individual, relationship, and contextual correlates of heterosexual condom use among homeless men. Structured interviews were conducted with a predominantly African American sample of 305 men recruited from meal lines in the Skid Row area of Los Angeles. Men reported on their most recent heterosexual event involving vaginal or anal intercourse. Adjusting for demographic characteristics only, condom use was more likely when men had higher condom use self-efficacy, greater HIV knowledge, or talked to their partner about condoms prior to sex. Condom use was less likely when men held more negative attitudes towards condoms, the partner was considered to be a primary/serious partner, hard drug use preceded sex, or sex occurred in a public setting. Condom attitudes, self-efficacy, partner type, and communication were the strongest predictors of condom use in a multivariate model that included all of the above-mentioned factors. Associations of unprotected sex with hard drug use prior to sex and having sex in public settings could be accounted for by lower condom self-efficacy and/or less positive condom attitudes among men having sex under these conditions. Results suggest that it may be promising to adapt existing, evidence-based IMB interventions for delivery in non-traditional settings that are frequented by men experiencing homelessness to achieve HIV risk reduction and thus reduce a significant point of disparity for the largely African American population of homeless men. PMID:22392155

  17. Kids and Condoms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington-Lueker, Donna

    1991-01-01

    Faced with an alarming number of adolescents at risk for developing AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases, school systems are tackling the controversial issue of making condoms available in schools. Three Canadian districts have installed condom machines. (MLF)

  18. Use of the "NYC Condom" among people who use drugs.

    PubMed

    Des Jarlais, Don C; McKnight, Courtney; Arasteh, Kamyar; Feelemyer, Jonathan; Perlman, David; Hagan, Holly; Cooper, Hannah L F

    2014-06-01

    We assessed awareness and use of the "NYC Condom" among persons who use heroin and cocaine in New York City. The NYC Condom distribution program is the largest free condom distribution program in the USA, with over 30 million condoms distributed per year. It includes a condom social marketing program for a specific brand, the NYC Condom with its own packaging and advertising. People who use heroin and cocaine are at relatively high risk for HIV infection and are an important target population for the program. In order to assess awareness of the NYC Condom, structured interviews and blood testing for HIV, HSV-2, and sexually transmitted infections (STI) were conducted among entrants to the Beth Israel Medical Center drug detoxification and methadone treatment programs. Participants were asked about drug use, sexual risk behaviors, and awareness and use of the NYC Condom. Univariate and multivariable regression analyses were conducted to examine the associations between use of NYC Condoms and consistent condom use with primary and casual sexual partners. A total of 970 subjects were recruited between February 2011 and December 2012. Subjects were primarily African-American and Hispanic, with a mean age of 43. Fifty-five percent of subjects reported being sexually active with primary sexual partners, and 25 % reported being sexually active with a casual partner for the 6 months prior to the interview. Sixty-five percent of subjects had heard of the NYC Condom, 48 % of those who had heard of the condom had used it, and 58 % of those who had ever used it were currently using it (in the previous 6 months). In multivariable regression analyses, current use of NYC Condoms was strongly associated with consistent condom use with primary sexual partners (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 3.99, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.85-8.58) and consistent condom use with casual sexual partners (AOR = 4.48, 95 % CI 1.49-13.42). In terms of market share, 38 % of subjects consistently using

  19. Condom use errors and problems in a national sample of young Croatian adults.

    PubMed

    Baćak, Valerio; Stulhofer, Aleksandar

    2012-08-01

    In this study, we examined the correlates of condom use errors and problems in a population-based study conducted in 2010 among young Croatian adults aged 18-25 years. Out of a total sample of 1,005 participants, 679 reported condom use in the preceding year. The analyses focused on four outcomes: condom breakage, condom slippage, condom-related erection loss, and delayed condom application. Eighteen percent of participants experienced breakage, 13% reported slippage, 17% reported erection loss, and 34% applied a condom after intercourse started. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the correlates of these condom use errors and problems. Condom breakage was less likely to be reported by women and older participants. The odds of breakage were increased for participants who reported being under the influence of drugs during sex and who reported other condom use errors and problems in the past year. Condom slippage was more likely to occur among younger participants and those who reported condom breakage and delayed condom application. Condom-related erection loss was positively associated with a higher number of sexual partners in the preceding year, condom breakage, and a higher score on the Anti-Erotic Obstacles to Condom Use Scale. Odds of delayed condom application were increased for participants who experienced condom breakage and for those who consumed alcohol before sex in the past year. Having used a condom at first sex significantly reduced the odds of applying a condom after intercourse started. In comparison to non-habitual condom users, habitual users were found less likely to report any of the assessed condom use errors and problems. Improving condom use skills remains an important task in Croatia, which is currently hampered by the absence of evidence-based sex education in schools. PMID:21882054

  20. Examination of pump failure data in the nuclear power industry

    SciTech Connect

    Casada, D.

    1996-12-01

    There are several elements that are critical to any program which is used to optimize the availability and reliability of process equipment. Perhaps the most important elements are routine monitoring and predictive maintenance elements. In order to optimize equipment monitoring and predictive maintenance, it is necessary to fundamentally and thoroughly understand the principal failure modes for the equipment and the effectiveness of alternative monitoring methods. While these observations are general in nature, they are certainly true for the {open_quotes}heart{close_quotes} of fluid systems - pumps. In recent years, particularly within the last decade, the capabilities and ease of use of previously existing pump diagnostic technologies, such as vibration monitoring and oil analysis, have improved dramatically. Newer technologies, such as thermal imaging, have been found effective at detecting certain undesirable or degraded conditions, such as misalignment and overheated bearings or packing. The ASME Code and NRC regulatory requirements have been, like essentially all similar code and regulatory bodies, conservative in their adoption or endorsement of newer technologies. The requirements prescribed by the Code and endorsed by the NRC have, in their essence, changed only minimally over more than a dozen years. As a follow-on to studies of check valve failure experience in the nuclear industry that have proven useful in identifying the effectiveness of alternative monitoring methods, a study of nuclear industry pump failure data has been conducted. The results of this study, conducted for the NRC by Oak Ridge National Laboratory, are presented. The historical effectiveness of both regulatory required and voluntarily implemented pump monitoring programs are shown. The distribution of pump failures by application, affected area, and level of significance are indicated. Apparent strengths and weaknesses of alternative monitoring methods are discussed.

  1. Condom use increasing.

    PubMed

    Finger, W R

    1998-01-01

    Condom use is central to the prevention of AIDS among people at risk for contracting HIV. As such, condom use is increasing dramatically even though many men say that they do not like using them. Condom sales through social marketing campaigns have increased dramatically in some countries, where tens of millions of condoms are sold annually. For example, during the period 1991-96, annual social marketing sales increased about five-fold in Ethiopia to 21 million, and nine-fold in Brazil to 27 million. These sales reflect the success of condom social marketing campaigns in making condoms accessible and largely affordable. There is also a greater general awareness of AIDS than there used to be, and communication campaigns have shown that condoms are an effective solution. More condoms still need to be used in the ongoing struggle against HIV/AIDS. The author discusses the factors which affect the limited acceptance of condoms, condom use outside of marriage, social marketing, and family planning programs. PMID:12293530

  2. Adolescent sexual risk: factors predicting condom use across the stages of change.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Cynthia; Hadley, Wendy; Brown, Larry K; Houck, Christopher D; Peters, April; Tolou-Shams, Marina

    2008-11-01

    This study examined factors associated with high-risk adolescents' movement toward or away from adopting consistent condom use behavior using the Transtheoretical Model Stages of Change. Participants drawn from the inactive comparison condition of a randomized HIV prevention trial (Project SHIELD) responded to items assessing pros and cons of condom use, peer norms, condom communication, and perceived invulnerability to HIV. Participants were categorized based on their condom use behavior using the Transtheoretical Model. Multiple logistic regressions found that progression to consistent condom use was predicted by continuing to perceive more advantages to condom use, reporting greater condom use communication with partners, and less perceived invulnerability to HIV. Movement away from adopting consistent condom use was predicted by a decrease in perceived advantages to condom use, increased perceived condom disadvantages, and fewer condom discussions. Future interventions may be tailored to enhance these factors that were found to change over time. PMID:18427971

  3. Condom Use: Slippage, Breakage, and Steps for Proper Use among Adolescents in Alternative School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyle, Karin K.; Franks, Heather M.; Glassman, Jill R.; Stanoff, Nicole M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: School-based human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted infection (STI), and pregnancy prevention programs often focus on consistent and correct condom use. Research on adolescents' experience using condoms, including condom slippage/breakage, is limited. This exploratory study examines proper condom use and the…

  4. Condom Use in Heavy Drinking College Students: The Importance of Always Using Condoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Certain, Heather E.; Harahan, Brian J.; Saewyc, Elizabeth M.; Fleming, Michael F.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined whether alcohol use decreased condom use. Participants: The subjects were heavy-drinking students on 5 different college campuses. Methods: A face-to-face interview, administered between November of 2004 and February of 2007, gathered information about condom use, alcohol use, and other behaviors. Multivariate…

  5. Influence of Sex Education on Condom Knowledge and Condom Use Skills Among Texas College Students.

    PubMed

    Clifton, Jessica; Penrose, Lindsay; Prien, Sam; Farooqi, Naghma

    2015-10-01

    Condoms have proven effective when used correctly; however, few studies have examined the relationship between a student's previous sex education and his or her general condom knowledge and ability to use a condom correctly. Educational systems in Texas provide a myriad of types of sexual education to their student populations. The objective of the present study was to compare the type of previous sex education with the condom knowledge and condom use skills among students attending college. Participants were recruited at health fairs conducted at a major Texas university during October 2010 and March 2011. Students were first asked to complete a computerized questionnaire and then participated in a condom demonstration. Of 180 students who completed both the questionnaire and the condom demonstration, 67% failed to apply the condom correctly. Further, the results were equally poor regardless of previous sex education format. The results of this study suggest that none of the current training mechanisms provide adequate information to ensure the proper use of condoms by college students and that alternatives need to be considered to protect the health and well-being of this important segment of the state's population.

  6. Time to talk condoms.

    PubMed

    Piotrow, P T; Rinehart, W

    1991-09-01

    A great deal of avoided if political and religious leaders, educators, health care providers and the mass media would band together in an effort to promote condom use. Condoms use protects against unwanted pregnancies, STDs and AIDS. Yet, public discussions on condom use are rate. In the US, political leaders avoid mentioning the topic, and television networks severely restrict the airing of public service announcements for condoms. Worldwide, an estimated 100 billion acts of sexual intercourse take place every year. A recent report indicates that it would take a modest 13 billion condoms a year to protect everyone who is at risk of contracting AIDS and other STDs, and risk of having an unwanted pregnancy. Currently, worldwide production of condoms stands at about 6 billion a year. Furthermore, condom makers have the capacity to increase production by some 2 billion, and could add new capacity in about 2 years. Many believe that marketing condoms is a difficult enterprise, since men often report that condoms reduce pleasure, cause embarrassment, or are not available when needed. The challenge for markets, then, is to create demand. This is especially true in the US, where prime-time advertising and the use of popular entertainment, such as soap operas, could promote condoms as both safe and satisfying. In the developing world, the challenge is to make condoms widely available and affordable. Some changes have taken place since 1981, when AIDS first came into the spotlight. In the US, people now discuss the topic of STDs more openly. But an all-out effort to promote condom use has not yet begun. PMID:12284290

  7. Condom Fact Sheet in Brief

    MedlinePlus

    ... HIV) transmission. However, condom use cannot provide absolute protection against any STD. The most reliable ways to ... properties of condoms, and the anatomic coverage or protection provided by condoms. Laboratory studies have shown that ...

  8. Condom promotion and use: family planning versus HIV protection.

    PubMed

    Mundigo, A I

    1989-12-01

    Condoms have been used since the 16th century as a prophylactic agent against sexually transmitted diseases. With regards to family planning, condoms are used for spacing and prevention of pregnancy. However, after the invention of more reliable contraceptives, condoms lost their popularity as a contraceptive agent, only to regain it in the wake of the AIDS epidemic. The main concern in using condoms has always been the high failure rate, which tends to be a complicated issue given that it's efficacy is affected by the motivation and characteristic of the user. Irrespective of the numerous advantages of the condom, at present there is little incentive to use them on a routine basis. Reasons for this objection include the fact that condoms not only interfere with sex, but are unnatural and leave the man very unsatisfied. Promoting condoms in developing countries is both a cultural and political issue, stemming from the misleading preconception of the man's role in family planning. For instance, condoms are infamous for their use in illicit sex, and as such cannot be used on a relatively respectable individual. The challenge in condom promotion is the creation of a new image based on family planning, reliability aspects of condoms, noninterference with pleasure concept and the added value of protection against STD's.

  9. Examining Productive Failure, Productive Success, Unproductive Failure, and Unproductive Success in Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapur, Manu

    2016-01-01

    Learning and performance are not always commensurable. Conditions that maximize performance in the initial learning may not maximize learning in the longer term. I exploit this incommensurability to theoretically and empirically interrogate four possibilities for design: productive success, productive failure, unproductive success, and…

  10. Application of the transtheoretical model to identify aspects influencing condom use among Korean college students.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Young Mi; Yeun, Eun Ja; Kim, Hee Young; Youn, Mi Sun; Cho, Ju Yeon; Lee, Hee Joo

    2008-12-01

    Increasing condom use requires an understanding of the influencing factors. Previous research has used psychosocial theories such as the social cognitive theory and health belief to explain AIDS risk factors and condom use. However, it is still difficult to effectively predict the multidimensional factors associated with condom use. The present study utilizes the transtheoretical model to investigate condom use among college students by examining stages of change for condom use and measuring decisional balance and self-efficacy for each stage. The aim was to identify the variables affecting condom use so as to provide scientific data that would aid the development of effective strategies for increasing condom use.

  11. Cultural Factors and Program Implications: HIV/AIDS Interventions and Condom Use among Latinos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeakley, Anna M.; Gant, Larry M.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the failure to use condoms among U.S. Latino populations and identifies six "myths" related to traditional cultural values and gender roles, and associations between condoms and prostitution, infidelity, and disease, that prevent condom use in these populations. Suggests ways that programs can address these myths in HIV prevention…

  12. Differences in correlates of condom use between young adults and adults attending sexually transmitted infection clinics.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Amanda R; Blood, Emily A; Crosby, Richard A; Shrier, Lydia A

    2015-07-01

    Despite developmental differences between young adults and adults, studies of condom use have not typically considered young adults as a distinct age group. This study sought to examine how condom use and its correlates differed between high-risk young adults and adults. Sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic patients (n = 763) reported STI history, contraception, negative condom attitudes, fear of partner reaction to condom use and risky behaviours. Past 3-month condom use was examined as unprotected vaginal sex (UVS) acts, proportional condom use and consistent condom use. Regression models tested associations of age group and potential correlates with each condom use outcome. Interaction models tested whether associations differed by age group. Proportional condom use was greater in young adults than adults (mean 0.55 vs. 0.47); UVS and consistent condom use were similar between age groups. Young adults with a recent STI reported less condom use, whereas for older adults, a distant STI was associated with less condom use, compared to others in their age groups. Negative condom attitudes were more strongly linked to UVS acts for younger versus older adults. STI prevention efforts for younger adults may be improved by intensifying counselling about condom use immediately following STI diagnosis and targeting negative condom attitudes.

  13. Female condom uptake and acceptability in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Napierala, Sue; Kang, Mi-Suk; Chipato, Tsungai; Padian, Nancy; van der Straten, Ariane

    2008-04-01

    As the first phase of a two-phase prospective cohort study to assess the acceptability of the diaphragm as a potential HIV/STI prevention method, we conducted a 2-month prospective study and examined the effect of a male and female condom intervention on female condom (FC) use among 379 sexually active women in Harare, Zimbabwe. Reported use of FC increased from 1.1% at baseline to 70.6% at 2-month follow-up. Predictors of FC uptake immediately following the intervention included interest in using FC, liking FC better than male condoms, and believing one could use them more consistently than male condoms. Women reported 28.8% of sex acts protected by FC in the 2 weeks prior to last study visit. Though FC may not be the preferred method for the majority of women, with access, proper education, and promotion they may be a valuable option for some Zimbabwean women. PMID:18433318

  14. Condom negotiation strategy use and effectiveness among college students.

    PubMed

    Holland, Kathryn J; French, Sabine Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    College students may engage in risky sexual behaviors, such as inconsistent condom use, which increase their risk of sexually transmitted infections. This study examined the association between six condom influence strategies (CIS) and reported condom use among a diverse group of college students. Differences in CIS and condom use were examined by gender, race or ethnicity, and relationship status (casual, monogamous, or no current relationship). The study also used a cluster analysis to investigate how the CIS were used relative to one another, and how patterns of CIS use were related to condom use. Results showed interesting differences in CIS use by gender, race or ethnicity, and relationship status. Four patterns of CIS usage emerged, and results suggested that using all CIS frequently and using more assertive CIS may be particularly important for increased condom use. Men reported more condom use than women overall, but results indicated that using CIS were especially vital for increasing condom use for women. Surprisingly, there were no differences in condom use found for race or ethnicity and relationship type. Programs aimed at increasing students' condom use could benefit from promoting and practicing CIS, and recognizing potential differences among demographic groups. PMID:21732866

  15. 8 CFR 335.7 - Failure to prosecute application after initial examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... NATIONALITY REGULATIONS EXAMINATION ON APPLICATION FOR NATURALIZATION § 335.7 Failure to prosecute application after initial examination. An applicant for naturalization who has appeared for the examination on his... naturalization. The Service shall deliver notice of all such requests for appearance or supporting evidence,...

  16. 8 CFR 335.7 - Failure to prosecute application after initial examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... NATIONALITY REGULATIONS EXAMINATION ON APPLICATION FOR NATURALIZATION § 335.7 Failure to prosecute application after initial examination. An applicant for naturalization who has appeared for the examination on his... naturalization. The Service shall deliver notice of all such requests for appearance or supporting evidence,...

  17. Factors associated with parent support for condom education and availability.

    PubMed

    AugsJoost, Brett; Jerman, Petra; Deardorff, Julianna; Harley, Kim; Constantine, Norman A

    2014-04-01

    Expanding condom-related knowledge and skills and reducing barriers to condom use have the potential to help reduce pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections among youth. These goals are sometimes addressed through condom education and availability (CEA) programs as part of sexuality education in school. Parents are a key constituency in efforts to implement such programs. A representative statewide sample of households with children (N = 1,093) in California was employed to examine parent support for CEA and the potential influences of demographics (gender, age, and Hispanic ethnicity), sociodemographics (education, religious affiliation, religious service attendance, and political ideology), and condom-related beliefs (belief in condom effectiveness and belief that teens who use condoms during sex are being responsible) on parent support for CEA. The parents in our sample reported a high level of support for CEA (M = 3.23 on a 4-point scale) and believing in a high level of condom effectiveness (M = 3.36 on a 4-point scale). In addition, 84% of the parents agreed that teens who use condoms during sex are being responsible. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that parents who were younger, Hispanic, with a lower educational attainment, without a religious affiliation, less religiously observant, and politically liberal were more supportive of CEA. After controlling for these demographic and sociodemographic factors, condom effectiveness and responsibility beliefs each added independently to the predictability of parent support for CEA. These findings suggest that parent education related to condom effectiveness could help increase support for school-based CEA programs.

  18. An assessment of burst strength distribution data for monitoring quality of condom stocks in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Free, M J; Hutchings, J; Lubis, F; Natakusumah, R

    1986-03-01

    Laboratory tests were conducted on condoms to examine the changes that occur over time in indicators of condom burst strength, and to determine the relationship between laboratory-assessed condom burst strength and breakage during use in a developing country setting. Three groups of unaged condoms purchased directly from the manufacturer were used: one group exposed to UV light for 10 hours; one group exposed for five hours; and one group unexposed. A sample of each of these groups was tested according to ISO condom air burst test protocols. The remaining condoms were individually packaged in coded polyethylene bags for shipment to the developing country study site. Also used in the study was a group of condoms that had been aged for over 40 months under field conditions in a tropical climate; a sample from this group was tested by the ISO air burst test protocol and the remainder distributed to the study site. One-hundred-thirty Indonesian urban males participated in the double-blind study. Volunteers were not relying on the condom for contraceptive purposes. Each volunteer was given one individually packaged untreated condom, one condom from each treatment group, and four condoms aged in the field. Study participants were instructed to return all used condoms. Each condom that was returned after use was examined for breakage, and the unbroken condoms were subjected to an air inflation test to determine volume and pressure at burst. A comparison of the air burst volume data for a sample of unused and used condoms from the same treatment group indicates that most of the condoms that broke during use had air burst volumes below 11 liters. Therefore, a significant downward shift in the burst strength distribution as measured in the laboratory is likely to result in an increased breakage rate during use. A Condom Deterioration Index calculated from regular periodic testing of stored condom stocks is a convenient and sensitive means of monitoring trends in the

  19. Promoting the female condom.

    PubMed

    Cornman, H

    1997-01-01

    AIDS is spreading most rapidly among women, who often cannot negotiate the use of a male condom with reluctant partners. Recent findings from 6 countries, however, indicate that women can draw upon peer support to help them negotiate female condom use with reluctant partners. These findings come from Family Health International's (FHI) AIDS Control and Prevention (AIDSCAP) Project's introduction of the female condom to women through peer support groups in Kenya and Brazil, and the Joint UN Program on HIV/AIDS' (UNAIDS) coordinated studies in Costa Rica, Indonesia, Mexico, and Senegal on sexual negotiation, women's empowerment, and the female condom, also using group education sessions. The US Agency for International Development recently committed $100,000 toward the purchase of 150,000 female condoms for operations research and familiarization in countries where officials have not been exposed to the method. More than 130 participants from 19 countries attended FHI's May 1-2, 1997, conference on the female condom convened in Arlington, Virginia. PMID:12292734

  20. Condoms: Past, present, and future

    PubMed Central

    Marfatia, Y. S.; Pandya, Ipsa; Mehta, Kajal

    2015-01-01

    Though many methods of prevention of STI/HIV are available, condoms remain of utmost importance. They have gone a long way from the oiled silk paper used by the Chinese and the hard sheaths made of tortoise- shell used by the Japanese to the latex condoms of today. The breakthrough came when the rubber vulcanization process was invented by Charles Goodyear and eventually the first rubber condom was made. The condom offers maximum protection( more than 90%) against HIV, Hepatitis B virus and N.Gonorrhoea. They also offer protection in scenarios when alternate sexual practices are adapted. The female condom in the only female driven contraceptive method available today. Graphene and Nano lubricated condoms are new in the market and others in futuristic approach may include wearable technology/Technology driven condom and invisible Condoms. Both Correct and Consistent use of condoms needs to be promoted for HIV/STI prevention. PMID:26692603

  1. Condoms: Past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Marfatia, Y S; Pandya, Ipsa; Mehta, Kajal

    2015-01-01

    Though many methods of prevention of STI/HIV are available, condoms remain of utmost importance. They have gone a long way from the oiled silk paper used by the Chinese and the hard sheaths made of tortoise- shell used by the Japanese to the latex condoms of today. The breakthrough came when the rubber vulcanization process was invented by Charles Goodyear and eventually the first rubber condom was made. The condom offers maximum protection( more than 90%) against HIV, Hepatitis B virus and N.Gonorrhoea. They also offer protection in scenarios when alternate sexual practices are adapted. The female condom in the only female driven contraceptive method available today. Graphene and Nano lubricated condoms are new in the market and others in futuristic approach may include wearable technology/Technology driven condom and invisible Condoms. Both Correct and Consistent use of condoms needs to be promoted for HIV/STI prevention. PMID:26692603

  2. The Role of Young Adults' Pleasure Attitudes in Shaping Condom Use.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Jenny A; Wang, Yu

    2015-07-01

    Condoms can help young adults protect themselves from sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancy. We examined young people's attitudes about whether condoms reduced pleasure and how these attitudes shape condom practices. We used a nationally representative sample of 2328 heterosexually active, unmarried 15- to 24-year-old young adults to document multivariate associations with condom nonuse at the last sexual episode. For both young men and women, pleasure-related attitudes were more strongly associated with lack of condom use than all sociodemographic or sexual history factors. Research and interventions should consistently assess and address young people's attitudes about how condoms affect pleasure. PMID:25973832

  3. Condom use within marriage: a neglected HIV intervention.

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Mohamed M.; Cleland, John; Shah, Iqbal H.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the contraceptive effectiveness of condoms versus oral contraceptive pills and estimate the reproductive consequences of a major shift from pill to condom use. METHODS: Secondary analysis was performed on nationally representative cross-sectional surveys of women in 16 developing countries. FINDINGS: In the 16 countries, the median per cent of married couples currently using condoms was 2%, compared with 13% for the pill. Condom users reported a higher 12-month failure and higher method-related discontinuation rates than pill users (9% and 44% vs 6% and 30%, respectively). Condom users were more likely to report subsequent abortion following failure (21% vs 14%), and also more likely to switch rapidly to another method (76% vs 58%). The reproductive consequences, in terms of abortion and unwanted births, of a hypothetical reversal of the relative prevalence of condom and pill were estimated to be minor. The main reason for this unexpected result is that the majority of abortions and unwanted births arise from non-use of any contraceptive method. CONCLUSION: A massive shift from the more effective oral contraceptive pills to the less effective condom would not jeopardize policy goals of reducing abortions and unwanted births. However, such a shift would potentially have an added benefit of preventing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections, especially in countries with generalized HIV epidemics. PMID:15112006

  4. Condom availability in high risk places and condom use: a study at district level in Kenya, Tanzania and Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A number of studies from countries with severe HIV epidemics have found gaps in condom availability, even in places where there is a substantial potential for HIV transmission. Although reported condom use has increased in many African countries, there are often big differences by socioeconomic background. The aim of this study was to assess equity aspects of condom availability and uptake in three African districts to evaluate whether condom programmes are given sufficient priority. Methods Data on condom availability and use was examined in one district in Kenya, one in Tanzania and one in Zambia. The study was based on a triangulation of data collection methods in the three study districts: surveys in venues where people meet new sexual partners, population-based surveys and focus group discussions. The data was collected within an overall study on priority setting in health systems. Results At the time of the survey, condoms were observed in less than half of the high risk venues in two of the three districts and in 60% in the third district. Rural respondents in the population-based surveys perceived condoms to be less available and tended to be less likely to report condom use than urban respondents. Although focus group participants reported that condoms were largely available in their district, they expressed concerns related to the accessibility of free condoms. Conclusion As late as thirty years into the HIV epidemic there are still important gaps in the availability of condoms in places where people meet new sexual partners in these three African districts. Considering that previous studies have found that improved condom availability and accessibility in high risk places have a potential to increase condom use among people with multiple partners, the present study findings indicate that substantial further efforts should be made to secure that condoms are easily accessible in places where sexual relationships are initiated. Although condom

  5. Condom Distribution in the Public Schools: Is Parental Consent Required?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjorklun, Eugene C.

    1994-01-01

    Examines whether school districts have the duty to require parental consent or notification before students can participate in programs of condom distribution. Analyzes "Alfonso," decided initially as not requiring parental consent, and reversed by the appellate court in 1993. Advises schools to approach condom distribution programs with caution…

  6. Attitudes about condoms and condom use among college students.

    PubMed

    Beckman, L J; Harvey, S M; Tiersky, L A

    1996-05-01

    The authors assessed the relationships of ethnicity, gender, previous condom use, and intended condom use to perceived attributes of the condom and the contraceptive pill in a multiethnic sample of 197 college students. Factors that appeared to underlie attitudes toward the condom and the Pill included prevention of health problems, peer acceptance, sexual pleasure and spontaneity, convenience, embarrassment, and effectiveness in preventing HIV and sexually transmitted diseases. African American participants viewed the condom more positively than did students from other ethnic groups and were more likely to use condoms than White participants were. The African Americans appeared to know less about the characteristics of the Pill and were less likely to use it than were the White respondents. Only 60% of the persons in the student sample had used condoms in the last 6 months, and less than one half definitely intended to use condoms in the next month. Those who had used a condom at their most recent intercourse and those who intended to use a condom in the next month viewed the condom more favorably than others did. Intended condom use was associated with a perception of oral contraceptives as a less convenient method of birth control.

  7. Kids and condoms.

    PubMed

    Harrington-lueker, D

    1991-05-01

    The proposal of the school chancellor in New York City to dispense condoms to the city's 261,000 high school students met with protests from parents and religious groups that espouse abstinence and postponement of sexual activity. In Philadelphia there was a tumultuous meeting of the school board and AIDS prevention advocates. The promotion of condoms for AIDS prevention has become controversial, some claiming that it promotes promiscuity. In February 1991, there were 167,803 AIDS cases reported to the Centers for Disease Control of which 659 cases involved patients aged 13-19, an increase of 173 from the previous year. 1/5 of AIDS victims are in their 20s, and many more teenagers could be infected because of the long incubation period. In New York City 30% of cases are in the 20-29 age group with blacks, Hispanics, runaways, and teen prostitutes disproportionately affected. 37% of teen cases occur in areas outside of major cities. Gonorrhea, syphilis, chlamydia, and herpes have also increased to epidemic levels. There are 35 million people aged 10-19 whose number will increase by 10% in the 1990s, and they are facing a high risk of HIV infection. 53% of girls aged 15-19 were sexually active in 1988 increasing from 47% in 1982. 58% reported 2 or more sexual partners during that year, and few of them used condoms on a regular basis. Frank sex education programs have been adopted extensively, but behavior modification is the main issue. Some schools have provided condoms directly to students after parental consent. The school board of San Francisco faces a decision on providing condoms to students (85% from ethnic minorities) via a clinic or vending machines in restrooms. The recommendations of a Philadelphia task force also awaits school board action. In Los Angeles and Brookline, Massachusetts, a similar decision is pending. In Canada, condom vending machines have been installed in high schools in British Columbia, Ottawa, and Toronto. PMID:12318167

  8. Allergic reactions to rubber condoms.

    PubMed

    Rademaker, M; Forsyth, A

    1989-06-01

    With the increased use of condoms, contact dermatitis to rubber is being seen more often. To develop a rubber condom suitable for use by rubber sensitive people, a "hypoallergenic" condom, which is washed in ammonia to reduce the residues of rubber accelerators, has been manufactured. Fifty patients allergic to various rubber accelerators were patch tested with an ordinary condom and the new washed condom. Fifty patients undergoing routine patch test investigation who were not allergic to rubber were also tested as controls. Twenty two of the rubber sensitive patients had a positive reaction to the new rubber condom compared with four of the control patients. Washing rubber condoms in ammonia does not appear to reduce the residues of rubber accelerators sufficiently for their use by rubber sensitive people. A non-allergenic condom is required.

  9. Perceptions about HIV and Condoms and Consistent Condom Use among Male Clients of Commercial Sex Workers in the Philippines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regan, Rotrease; Morisky, Donald E.

    2013-01-01

    Because consistent condom use is an effective strategy in the prevention of sexually transmitted infections and HIV transmission, it is important to examine social cognitive influences of consistent condom use not only among female sex workers (FSWs) but also among their male clients, for whom less is known. Because little is known about how HIV…

  10. Perceptions about HIV and condoms and consistent condom use among male clients of commercial sex workers in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Regan, Rotrease; Morisky, Donald E

    2013-04-01

    Because consistent condom use is an effective strategy in the prevention of sexually transmitted infections and HIV transmission, it is important to examine social cognitive influences of consistent condom use not only among female sex workers (FSWs) but also among their male clients, for whom less is known. Because little is known about how HIV knowledge and condom attitudes affect condom use among male clients of FSWs in the Philippines, the main objective was to determine what characteristics (age, education, HIV knowledge, marital status) as well as attributes taken from protection motivation theory (perceived vulnerability, perceived severity, response efficacy) are significantly associated with consistent condom use among male clients of FSWs. Logistic regression analyses showed that the odds of using condoms consistently with an FSW are 13% higher for those with more years of education (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.13; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03, 1.23), higher versus lower perception of severity of HIV/AIDS (AOR = 1.97; 95% CI = 1.04, 3.73), and had a higher score for response efficacy of condoms (AOR = 1.14; 95% CI = 1.03, 1.27). Future HIV/AIDS prevention interventions that address condom use among male clients should promote educational attainment and focus on awareness of the enduring negative health consequences of acquiring HIV/AIDS, as well as cultivate positive attitudes toward the efficacy of condom use, using creative social marketing strategies. PMID:22773598

  11. Influencing a Partner to Use a Condom: A College Student Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBro, Sherrine Chapman; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examines the strategies college students use to convince new sexual partners to use a condom. Research of 393 students reveals that, to encourage condom use, men mostly employed seduction, whereas females withheld sex. To avoid using condoms, men were more likely than women to employ seduction, reward, and information. (GLR)

  12. Depression Vulnerable and Nonvulnerable Smokers after a Failure Experience: Examining Cognitive Self-Regulation and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Walter D.; Beevers, Christopher G.; Mermelstein, Robin J.

    2008-01-01

    The present study extended previous tests of cognitive priming theories of depression by examining cognitive self-regulatory, motivational, and affective functioning of depression-vulnerable and nonvulnerable individuals after a failure experience. Participants were enrolled in a clinic-based smoking cessation program that consisted of seven group…

  13. Inappropriate lubricant use with condoms by homosexual men.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, D J

    1992-01-01

    Use of condoms has been advocated as an important method of reducing the risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission among high-risk groups such as homosexual and bisexual men, prostitutes, intravenous drug users, adolescents, and hemophiliacs. Despite risk-reduction education campaigns directed to gay men since the early 1980s, evidence shows continued deficits in condom-use skills and knowledge among gay men. Because most failures in the use of condoms are attributed to errors in use, increasing knowledge and skills in condom use is important in preventing HIV infection. Two groups of homosexual and bisexual men were sampled, those entering a risk-reduction education program and participants in a Gay Pride event. They were surveyed on their current sex practices and their efforts to reduce their risk of HIV infection. They were asked about their numbers of sex partners, specific sexual behaviors, use of condoms, types of condoms used, and lubricants used for genital-anal sex. The characteristics of those surveyed were similar to those of respondents in other studies of risk reduction among gay men. The use of an oil-based lubricant with condoms has been shown to weaken latex and to increase the likelihood of condom breakage, which use of water-based lubricants does not. Among respondents who reported having genital-anal sex, 60 percent reported use of an oil-based lubricant with a condom at least once during the year before the survey. Gay men in sexually exclusive relationships engaged in less consistent use of condoms for receptive genital-anal sex than did single gay men.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1641445

  14. Nigeria using more condoms.

    PubMed

    1997-09-01

    Marie Stopes International says a project it supports in Nigeria is making good progress in its efforts to promote the use of condoms to protect against STDs and for contraception. The program, which uses social marketing methods, is headed by Stewart Parkinson from the UK. His previous experience has been in the private sector; he has worked in sales, marketing, and advertising for companies like Coca Cola, Budweiser, Securicor, and Mates. "Social marketing," he says, "is simply getting people to buy a product". He sees no clash with more conventional health education practitioners, believing that the two approaches can complement each other. "Much of the work simply involves pointing out the benefits of condoms," says Parkinson. "You can convert large numbers of people to the idea in a short space of time if you get the message right]" Nevertheless, as he points out, the conversion rate usually drops after that. "At first the take-up is from middle-income people, who already have a latent demand for condoms. The poor are harder to reach." He says Nigeria is a very suitable country for a private sector approach to condom promotion, as there is no functioning public sector. He recently paid a visit to Zimbabwe, where the public sector is strong, and agrees that different approaches may be suitable there. The scheme provided 85% of the 65 million condoms used in Nigeria last year. Stewart Parkinson says, "It's working out at only US$5 to provide protection for one couple per year--a very cheap intervention]" PMID:12321241

  15. Influence of independent and proximate variables on condom use in selected states in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Akinyemi, A I; Aransiola, J O; Banjo, O; Bamiwuye, O; Fadeyibi, O; Adewuyi, A

    2010-12-01

    The study examined the influence of individual and proximate factors in determining condom use. Current use of condom and condom use during last sex were used as proxies for consistent condom use. Data on 3,797 sexually active respondents of reproductive age were analyzed from the 2007 USAID-COMPASS midline evaluation on basic family planning and reproductive health outcomes in five Nigerian states. About 9% of respondents were current users, while 11% used a condom during last sex. Younger and more educated respondents were more likely to report condom use. Of the 23 variables, four were statistically significant (p < 0.05) in predicting current use for females, and five for males; six were statistically significant in predicting condom use during last sex for females and seven for males. The paper concluded that understanding the determinants and predictors of condom use is critical to improving family planning and reproductive health indicators in Nigeria.

  16. Superthin plastic condom gets thicker.

    PubMed

    1997-04-01

    Following an investigation of the Avanti condom, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) allowed the manufacturer to replace the original thin polyurethane condom with a thicker version. London International Group made the switch in May 1996 but has not changed the packaging except to add a sticker on recent boxes that alerts customers that the condom is only approved for latex-sensitive users. Avanti was introduced in 1994 as a thinner, stronger, and more sensitive alternative to latex condoms. However, expectations that the product would revolutionize the condom market were not met, in part because of safety concerns. Although Avanti was approved by the FDA in 1991, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) ordered the company to develop a thicker condom, after further studies showed that its breakage rate was four times higher than that of latex condoms. The FDA allowed the thin version to be sold, however, because it was the only latex-free, HIV-impermeable condom available. Labeling on the condom noted that it was recommended only for latex-sensitive customers. Avanti grew in popularity until customers began complaining of frequent breakage. The thinner condom was then discontinued and replaced with the thicker version. FDA official Lillian Yin said a recall of the thinner condom was not necessary. PMID:11364143

  17. Consistency of condom use among users of injectable contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Sangi-Haghpeykar, H; Poindexter, A N; Bateman, L

    1997-01-01

    Use of condoms for protection against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) was examined over a nine-month period among 536 women from 17 clinics in southeastern Texas who had selected the injectable depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) as a contraceptive. Among women who were using condoms prior to receiving DMPA, nearly half said they never or rarely did so after initiating DMPA use; only 18% of all women in the study used condoms consistently while relying on DMPA. Factors associated with consistent condom use were being black (odds ratio of 2.0), being unmarried (odds ratio of 2.2), having a history of STD infection (odds ratio of 1.8), having previously used condoms (odds ratio of 2.7) and having no interest in future childbearing (odds ratio of 1.8). Our data suggest that the majority of users of injectables may not be protected from exposure to the human immunodeficiency virus and other STDs.

  18. Men, women and the trouble with condoms: problems associated with condom use by migrant workers in rural Zambia.

    PubMed

    Bond, V; Dover, P

    1997-01-01

    Understanding cultural attitudes to condoms is of the utmost importance in promoting their use as a means of protection against HIV transmission. This article examines condom use in relation to what people see as the purpose of sex, what good sex entails and how this relates to ideas of being a proper woman or man. It seems that the underlying and pervasive ideal is that sex is essentially a procreative act, since an emphasis on male potency and male and female fertility often overrides anxieties about contracting HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases. Hence condom use is usually only negotiated within some short-term relationships and then not consistently. Whilst both men and women have negative attitudes to condoms, women because of their economic and ideological dependence on men are in a much weaker position to negotiate condom use. PMID:10169656

  19. Condom brands, perceptions of condom efficacy and HIV prevention among university students in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mulwo, Abraham Kiprop; Tomaselli, Keyan G; Dalrymple, Lynn

    2009-09-01

    University students form an important constituency in interventions against HIV and AIDS. The majority of university students are between ages 18 and 30 years, which, according to recent surveys, is the age category at the highest risk of HIV infection. Even though there is currently no comprehensive statistical data on the HIV prevalence at South African institutions of higher learning, a number of studies have noted increasing AIDS-related deaths and sicknesses among students. This highlights the need for effective intervention against HIV infections within this community. Condom use remains the most effective intervention against HIV infection within sexually active populations. This paper examines perceptions of public-sector condoms and their impact on condom use among university students, based on the findings of research conducted at three universities in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa. Study findings indicate that public-sector condoms are perceived as ineffective, smelly and even 'infectious' and are widely seen to be of lower status as compared to the commercial brands. These perceptions were found to influence condom use as some students preferred to engage in unprotected sex rather than use public-sector condoms. The paper highlights the need for communication programmes to demystify the misconceptions surrounding public-sector condoms and to provide reassurance of the quality of such condoms. PMID:25864546

  20. Femidom -- a woman's condom.

    PubMed

    Kamungulu, P

    1994-01-01

    FEMIDOM is a polyurethane sheath approximately 17 cm long manufactured by the Chartex company in the United Kingdom for intravaginal application as a device to protect against unwanted pregnancy and the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases. Its effectiveness can be favorably compared with that of the male condom. Unlike traditional erection-dependent, penis-applied condoms, FEMIDOM may be inserted into the vagina by the woman prior to coitus with or without the knowledge and cooperation of the male sex partner. FEMIDOM is therefore a device which allows women to protect themselves against sexually transmitted diseases. Described as successful by Dr. Elizabeth Musaba of the University Teaching Hospital, it is being given freely to HIV-discordant couples. Many couples have reported their satisfaction with the method. At about US$3 each, however, FEMIDOMs are far more expensive than traditional condoms. Some women have also complained that FEMIDOM is ugly, messy, hard to insert, unfamiliar, and too big. Men had mixed feelings about them. Dr. Musaba, however, counters that the device has been carefully designed to fit women of all ages and sizes. Users of FEMIDOM simply must grow accustomed to the method. She also notes that FEMIDOM conforms to the body temperature of the user, and that used devices should be burned or buried instead of flushed in waterborne toilets; the sewage system may become obstructed. Finally, since each FEMIDOM may be used only once, researchers are investigating the feasibility of cleaning them for reuse. PMID:12287981

  1. The female condom: STD protection in the hands of women.

    PubMed

    Gollub, E L

    1993-01-01

    In 1993, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the female condom Reality. It provides better protection against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) than does the male condom. The polyurethane sheath is more resistant to tears and covers the vagina, cervix, and vulva. Since it does not depend on erection of the penis, the female condom protects women from STDs/HIV that can be transmitted through the pre-ejaculate. In light of the AIDS epidemic, FDA approved the female condom based on its contraceptive effectiveness rather than on its ability to protect against STDs. Annual contraceptive failure rates for Reality range 5-21%, which match those of other barrier methods for women and men. Incorrect or inconsistent use affects its contraceptive effectiveness. The female condom prevents passage of virus particles as small as the hepatitis B virus which is smaller than HIV. In a study, all women who correctly and consistently used Reality were protected from Trichomonas vaginalis, while sporadic users were not protected. Currently, less than 20% of US couples use male condoms, indicating a need for women to have options to protect their reproductive and genital health. The female condom provides women such an option since women are in total control of its use. Women with partners who do not want to use a male condom maintain that Reality will revolutionize sexual dynamics. Its visibility does not help women with violent partners, however. Educational efforts about all methods that can be used without men's knowledge need to reach these women. Family planning providers need to shed the old concept of women as incompetent users and set up counseling programs that promote women's methods. They should accept and provide the female condom. Basic sexual education and constant provider support and encouragement are crucial.

  2. Condom use behaviours and correlates of use in the Botswana Defence Force.

    PubMed

    Tran, Bonnie Robin; Thomas, Anne Goldzier; Ditsela, Mooketsi; Vaida, Florin; Phetogo, Robert; Kelapile, David; Chambers, Christina; Haubrich, Richard; Shaffer, Richard

    2013-11-01

    Preventing HIV infection is a priority for militaries. HIV prevention research is needed to monitor existing programme, identify areas for modification, and develop new interventions. Correct and consistent condom use is highly effective against HIV. However, use among soldiers is lower than ideal. This study describes condom use behaviours and examines correlates of use in the Botswana Defence Force (BDF). Analyses were based on 211 male BDF personnel, aged 18-30, who completed a cross-sectional survey that collected baseline data for an intervention study. Results showed that 51% of participants reported always using condoms, 35% used condoms most times, and 14% used condoms occasionally/never. Condom use varied by partner type and was typically higher with casual partners in comparison to regular partners. After adjustment for age and marital status, factors associated with lower condom use included excessive alcohol use, perception that using condoms reduce sexual pleasure, and having a trusted partner. However, higher levels of HIV knowledge and reports of being circumcised were protective against lower condom use. HIV interventions aimed at increasing condom use in the BDF should address condom perceptions, alcohol abuse, and issues of trust. Innovative ways to increase condom use in this population should also be explored.

  3. Correlates of condom use among sexually experienced secondary-school male students in Nairobi, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Yotebieng, M; Halpern, C T; Mitchell, E M H; Adimora, A A

    2009-03-01

    This study aimed to examine perceptual factors associated with condom use, and the relationship between condom use and the timing of sexual debut among male secondary school students in Nairobi, Kenya. Data are from the TeenWeb study, a school-based project that used the World Wide Web to assess the health needs of secondary school students, and tested the web's utility as a teaching and research modality. Analyses are based on 214 sexually experienced males aged 14 - 20 years who completed web-based questionnaires about their sexual attitudes and behaviour. Results indicate that students did not see themselves as susceptible to HIV/AIDS and believed condom effectiveness in preventing HIV to be low. Consequently, only a marginal association was found between agreeing that buying condoms is embarrassing and condom use at first sexual intercourse. However, contrary to expectation, agreeing that condoms often break (almost half of participants) was associated with a higher likelihood of condom use at first sex. Each year of delay in sexual debut increased the likelihood of using a condom at first sex by 1.44 times. In turn, having used a condom at first sex increased the likelihood of using one at the most recent sex by 4.81 times, and elevated general condom use ('most or all the time') by 8.76 times. Interventions to increase awareness about the role of condoms in preventing HIV, delay sexual initiation, and teach proper condom use among secondary-school students in Nairobi are needed.

  4. Brief report on the effect of providing single versus assorted brand name condoms to hospital patients: a descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    Williams, James L; Christensen, Carol J; Cagle, Henry H; Homan, Chriss E

    2001-01-01

    Objectives This study examined condom acquisition by persons in a hospital setting when single versus assorted brand name condoms were provided. Methods Condom receptacles were placed in exam rooms of two clinics. During Phase 1, a single brand name was provided; for Phase 2, assorted brand names were added. Number of condoms taken was recorded for each phase. Results For one clinic there was nearly a two-fold increase in number of condoms taken (Phase 1 to Phase 2); for the second clinic there was negligible difference in number of condoms taken. Conclusions The provision of assorted brand name condoms, over a single brand name, can serve to increase condom acquisition. Locations of condoms and target population characteristics are related factors. PMID:11446904

  5. Individual, Interpersonal, and Structural Power: Associations With Condom Use in a Sample of Young Adult Latinos.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Lynissa R; Harvey, S Marie; Warren, Jocelyn T

    2016-01-01

    Interviews were conducted with 480 sexually active Latino young adults from four rural counties in Oregon. We examined relationships between three levels of power (individual, interpersonal, and structural) and consistent condom use. Condom use self-efficacy and sexual decision-making, examples of individual and interpersonal measures of power, respectively, were associated with increased odds of consistent condom use among both men and women. Among men only, increasing relationship control, an interpersonal measure of power, was associated with lower odds of consistent condom use. Among women only, increasing medical mistrust, a structural measure of power, was associated with increased odds of consistent condom use.

  6. Self-reported penis size and experiences with condoms among gay and bisexual men.

    PubMed

    Grov, Christian; Wells, Brooke E; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2013-02-01

    As researchers and community-based providers continue to encourage latex condom use as a chief strategy to prevent HIV transmission among men who have sex with men, research is needed to better explore the intersecting associations among penis size (length and circumference), condom feel, ease of finding condoms, recent experience of condom failure (breakage and slippage), and unprotected anal sex. Data were taken from a 2010 community-based survey of self-identified gay and bisexual men in New York City (n = 463). More than half (51.4 %) reported penile length as 6-8 in. long (15-20 cm) and 31.5 % reported penile circumference as 4-6 in. around (10-15 cm). Variation in self-reported penile dimensions was significantly associated with men's attitudes toward the typical/average condom, difficulty finding condoms that fit, and the experience of condom breakage. Men who had engaged in recent unprotected insertive anal intercourse reported significantly higher values for both penile length and circumference, and these men were significantly more likely to report that the average/typical condom was "too tight." Most men had measured their length (86.2 %) and/or circumference (68.9 %), suggesting that penile measurement might be a common and acceptable practice among gay and bisexual men. As HIV and STI prevention providers continue to serve as leading distributers of free condoms, these findings further highlight the need for condom availability to be in a variety of sizes. Improving condom fit and attitudes toward condoms may also improve condom use and minimize condom slippage and breakage.

  7. The Condom Conundrum: Apply Peer Pressure, Not Latex, against Casual Sex.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delattre, Edwin J.

    1992-01-01

    If saving lives were our only moral concern, distributing condoms in schools is not the best way to proceed. Abstinence has greater life-saving power than any piece of latex. School condom distribution promotes casual, promiscuous sex, ignores this contraceptive's failure rate, and runs counter to sound educational policy. Deferred gratification…

  8. Condoms and Coca-Cola.

    PubMed

    Townsend, S

    1992-01-01

    Social marketing entails promoting the appropriate and quality product to be sold in the right places at the right price. Even though mass media advertisement of condoms is forbid in Zaire, condoms have been effectively promoted and sold in the country using alternate approaches. 8 million units of the condom, Prudence, were sold in 1990, and Prudence has become the generic name for condoms in the Zaire. Noting that Coca-Cola, beer, and cigarettes may be purchased virtually ubiquitously, commercial outlets and local traders were enlisted to sell condoms at reduced prices on the market. Reduced price sales are possible since donor and government agencies provide the condoms to wholesalers and merchants free of charge. The successful social marketing of condoms expands condom availability to a greater segment of a country's population while recovering some public sector costs and shifting health care away from the public sector. Condoms are especially promoted to high risk groups such as commercial sex workers and their clients in Zaire. Similar programs have been inspired in 10 African countries including Cameroon and Burundi, as well as in Brazil, Haiti, and India. Prevention programs in Latin America and Asia will benefit from these program experiences in Africa. In closing, the article notes the need for an adequate and predictable commodity supply in attaining effective social marketing. Marked program success may, however, lead to sustainability problems. PMID:12284777

  9. Condoms and Coca-Cola.

    PubMed

    Townsend, S

    1992-01-01

    Social marketing entails promoting the appropriate and quality product to be sold in the right places at the right price. Even though mass media advertisement of condoms is forbid in Zaire, condoms have been effectively promoted and sold in the country using alternate approaches. 8 million units of the condom, Prudence, were sold in 1990, and Prudence has become the generic name for condoms in the Zaire. Noting that Coca-Cola, beer, and cigarettes may be purchased virtually ubiquitously, commercial outlets and local traders were enlisted to sell condoms at reduced prices on the market. Reduced price sales are possible since donor and government agencies provide the condoms to wholesalers and merchants free of charge. The successful social marketing of condoms expands condom availability to a greater segment of a country's population while recovering some public sector costs and shifting health care away from the public sector. Condoms are especially promoted to high risk groups such as commercial sex workers and their clients in Zaire. Similar programs have been inspired in 10 African countries including Cameroon and Burundi, as well as in Brazil, Haiti, and India. Prevention programs in Latin America and Asia will benefit from these program experiences in Africa. In closing, the article notes the need for an adequate and predictable commodity supply in attaining effective social marketing. Marked program success may, however, lead to sustainability problems.

  10. Examination of cadmium safety rod thermal test specimens and failure mechanism evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, J.K.; Peacock, H.B.; Iyer, N.C.

    1992-01-01

    The reactor safety rods may be subjected to high temperatures due to gamma heating after the core coolant level has dropped during the ECS phase of a hypothetical LOCA event. Accordingly, an experimental cadmium safety rod testing subtask was established as part of a task to address the response of reactor core components to this accident. Companion reports describe the experiments and a structural evaluation (finite element analysis) of the safety rod. This report deals primarily with the examination of the test specimens, evaluation of possible failure mechanisms, and confirmatory separate effects experiments. It is concluded that the failures observed in the cadmium safety rod thermal tests which occurred at low temperature (T < 600{degrees}C) with slow thermal ramp rates (slow cladding strain rates) resulted from localized dissolution of the stainless steel cladding by the cadmium/aluminum solution and subsequent ductility exhaustion and rupture. The slow thermal ramp rate is believed to be the root cause for the failures; specifically, the slow ramp rate led to localized cladding shear deformation which ruptured the protective oxide film on the cladding inner surface and allowed dissolution to initiate. The test results and proposed failure mechanism support the conclusion that the rods would not fail below 500{degrees}C even at slow ramp rates. The safety rod thermal test specimen failures which occurred at high temperature (T > 800{degrees}C) with fast thermal ramp rates are concluded to be mechanical in nature without significant environmental degradation. Based on these tests, tasks were initiated to design and manufacture B{sub 4}C safety rods to replace the cadmium safety rods. The B{sub 4}C safety rods have been manufactured at this time and it is currently planned to charge them to the reactor in the near future. 60 refs.

  11. Examination of the damage and failure response of tantalum and copper under varied shock loading conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Bronkhorst, Curt A; Dennis - Koller, Darcie; Cerreta, Ellen K; Gray Ill, George T; Bourne, Neil

    2010-12-16

    A number of plate impact experiments have been conducted on high purity polycrystalline tantalum and copper samples using graded flyer plate configurations to alter the loading profile. These experiments are designed in a way so that a broad range of damage regimes are probed. The results show that the nucleation of damage primarily occurs at the grain boundaries of the materials. This affords us the opportunity to propose a porosity damage nucleation criterion which begins to account for the length scales of the microstructure (grain size distribution) and the mechanical response of the grain boundary regions (failure stress distribution). This is done in the context of a G-T-N type model for the ductile damage and failure response of both the materials examined. The role of micro-inertial effects on the porosity growth process is also considered.

  12. Summary of Post Irradiation Examination Results of the AFIP-6 Failure

    SciTech Connect

    Adam Robinson; Daniel M. Wachs; Francine Rice; Danielle Perez

    2011-10-01

    The AFIP-6 test assembly was irradiated for one cycle in the Advanced Test Reactor at Idaho National Laboratory. The experiment was designed to test two monolithic fuel plates at power and burn-ups which bounded the operating conditions of both ATR and HFIR driver fuel. Both plates contain a solid U-Mo fuel foil with a zirconium diffusion barrier between 6061-aluminum cladding plates bonded by hot isostatic pressing. The experiment was designed with an orifice to restrict the coolant flow in order to obtain prototypic coolant temperature conditions. While these coolant temperatures were obtained, flow restriction resulted in low heat transfer coefficients and the failure of the fuel plates. The results from the post irradiation examinations and some observations of the failure mechanisms are outlined herein.

  13. The Condom Conundrum: Condom Availability Promotes Health, Saves Lives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Margaret Pruitt

    1992-01-01

    Most adults would agree that the AIDS threat has reached crisis proportions and that strong measures are required to control the spread of HIV among adolescents. Although abstinence offers the best protection, teens exposed to risks must protect themselves with knowledge, skills, and access to latex condoms. High school condom distribution is…

  14. Facilitating condom use with clients during commercial sex in Nevada's legal brothels.

    PubMed Central

    Albert, A E; Warner, D L; Hatcher, R A

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined condom use in legal Nevada brothels. METHODS: Forty female prostitutes in two brothels were interviewed about client resistance to condoms and techniques for facilitating condom use. RESULTS: Of 3290 clients in the previous month, 2.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.2%,3.4%) were reluctant to use condoms. Of these individuals, 72% ultimately used condoms, while 12% chose nonpenetrative sex without condoms. The remaining 16% left the brothels without services. Condom use rates were markedly lower with nonpaying sex partners (lowers) than with clients. CONCLUSIONS: Brothel prostitutes may be at greater risk for acquiring HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases from lovers than from clients. PMID:9551009

  15. College Students and Condom Attitude: Validation of the Multi-Factor Attitude toward Condoms Scale (MFACS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollub, Ariane V.; Reece, Michael; Herbenick, Debby; Hensel, Devon J.; Middlestadt, Susan E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Sexually transmitted infections and the human immunodeficiency virus incidence rates remain high among college-aged individuals. This study examined the validity and reliability of the Multi-Factor Attitude toward Condoms Scale (MFACS). Participants: Participants were recruited from a large midwestern university during February and…

  16. The story of the condom.

    PubMed

    Khan, Fahd; Mukhtar, Saheel; Dickinson, Ian K; Sriprasad, Seshadri

    2013-01-01

    Condoms have been a subject of curiosity throughout history. The idea of safer sex has been explored in ancient and modern history, and has been used to prevent venereal diseases. We conducted a historical and medical review of condoms using primary and secondary sources as well as using the RSM library and the internet. These resources show that the first use of a condom was that of King Minos of Crete. Pasiphae, his wife, employed a goat's bladder in the vagina so that King Minos would not be able to harm her as his semen was said to contain "scorpions and serpents" that killed his mistresses. To Egyptians, condom-like glans caps were dyed in different colours to distinguish between different classes of people and to protect themselves against bilharzia. The Ancient Romans used the bladders of animals to protect the woman; they were worn not to prevent pregnancy but to prevent contraction of venereal diseases. Charles Goodyear, the inventor, utilized vulcanization, the process of transforming rubber into malleable structures, to produce latex condoms. The greater use of condoms all over the world in the 20(th) and 21(st) centuries has been related to HIV. This account of the use of condoms demonstrates how a primitive idea turned into an object that is used globally with a forecast estimated at 18 billion condoms to be used in 2015 alone. PMID:23671357

  17. The story of the condom

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Fahd; Mukhtar, Saheel; Dickinson, Ian K.; Sriprasad, Seshadri

    2013-01-01

    Condoms have been a subject of curiosity throughout history. The idea of safer sex has been explored in ancient and modern history, and has been used to prevent venereal diseases. We conducted a historical and medical review of condoms using primary and secondary sources as well as using the RSM library and the internet. These resources show that the first use of a condom was that of King Minos of Crete. Pasiphae, his wife, employed a goat's bladder in the vagina so that King Minos would not be able to harm her as his semen was said to contain “scorpions and serpents” that killed his mistresses. To Egyptians, condom-like glans caps were dyed in different colours to distinguish between different classes of people and to protect themselves against bilharzia. The Ancient Romans used the bladders of animals to protect the woman; they were worn not to prevent pregnancy but to prevent contraction of venereal diseases. Charles Goodyear, the inventor, utilized vulcanization, the process of transforming rubber into malleable structures, to produce latex condoms. The greater use of condoms all over the world in the 20th and 21st centuries has been related to HIV. This account of the use of condoms demonstrates how a primitive idea turned into an object that is used globally with a forecast estimated at 18 billion condoms to be used in 2015 alone. PMID:23671357

  18. AIDS knowledge, condom attitudes, and risk-taking sexual behavior of substance-abusing juvenile offenders on probation or parole.

    PubMed

    Robertson, A; Levin, M L

    1999-10-01

    AIDS knowledge, condom attitudes, and sexual behavior were examined in a sample of 193 substance-abusing juvenile offenders on probation or parole. The majority of these youths reported being sexually active, and many admitted to early onset of sexual activity as well as unsafe sexual practices. Potential predictors of condom use by these juveniles were examined including age, condom use at first sexual experience, number of sexual partners in the last 6 months, locus of control, AIDS knowledge, condom attitudes, perceived risk for AIDS, self-efficacy for avoiding HIV, condom use by peers, delinquency risk, race, and gender. General attitudes toward condoms and the reported use of a condom at first sexual intercourse experience were the only statistically significant predictors of subsequent condom use. The relevance of these findings to the development of AIDS prevention programs for juvenile offenders is discussed.

  19. Condom characteristics: the perceptions and preferences of men in the United States.

    PubMed

    Grady, W R; Klepinger, D H; Billy, J O; Tanfer, K

    1993-01-01

    Perceptions regarding the consequences of condom use, as well as preferred characteristics of condoms, are examined in a nationally representative sample of 3,321 men aged 20-39. The psychological and interpersonal effect most often cited is that using a condom "shows that you are a concerned and caring person." This is particularly the case among black men and men who are young and have low educational attainments. However, the same men usually agree that using a condom sends unwanted messages to one's partner--for example, that doing so "makes your partner think that you have AIDS" and "shows that you think that your partner has AIDS." In contrast, white men and those who are highly educated tend to cite embarrassment when buying condoms as a frequent consequence of condom use. The device-related consequences cited most often, particularly among black, unmarried, young and poorly educated men, are that using a condom results in reduced sensation, that one must be careful during sex or the condom may break and that one must withdraw quickly after sex or the condom may come off. When purchasing condoms, most men look for those that are easy to put on, have the right amount of lubrication and stay on; these preferences are particularly prevalent among black men. Few men identify color, ribbing and partner's preference for condom type as important. PMID:8285937

  20. Hemodynamic assessment in heart failure: role of physical examination and noninvasive methods.

    PubMed

    Almeida Junior, Gustavo Luiz; Xavier, Sérgio Salles; Garcia, Marcelo Iorio; Clausell, Nadine

    2012-01-01

    Among the cardiovascular diseases, heart failure (HF) has a high rate of hospitalization, morbidity and mortality, consuming vast resources of the public health system in Brazil and other countries. The correct determination of the filling pressures of the left ventricle by noninvasive or invasive assessment is critical to the proper treatment of patients with decompensated chronic HF, considering that congestion is the main determinant of symptoms and hospitalization. Physical examination has shown to be inadequate to predict the hemodynamic pattern. Several studies have suggested that agreement on physical findings by different physicians is small and that, ultimately, adaptive physiological alterations in chronic HF mask important aspects of the physical examination. As the clinical assessment fails to predict hemodynamic aspects and because the use of Swan-Ganz catheter is not routinely recommended for this purpose in patients with HF, noninvasive hemodynamic assessment methods, such as BNP, echocardiography and cardiographic bioimpedance, are being increasingly used. The present study intends to carry out, for the clinician, a review of the role of each of these tools when defining the hemodynamic status of patients with decompensated heart failure, aiming at a more rational and individualized treatment.

  1. AIDS Knowledge, Condom Attitudes, and Risk-Taking Sexual Behavior of Substance-Abusing Juvenile Offenders on Probation or Parole.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Angela; Levin, Martin L.

    1999-01-01

    Examined AIDS knowledge, condom attitudes, and sexual risk taking behavior among 193 juvenile offenders on probation or parole who were substance abusers. Surveys indicated that most youths were sexually active. Many reported unsafe sexual practices. General attitudes toward condoms and reported use of condoms at first sexual intercourse were the…

  2. Association installs condom machine.

    PubMed

    1994-08-01

    On the occasion of World Population Day (11 July), India installed its first condom vending machine. The machine was inaugurated by Mr. Eruch Lala, an official of the Family Planning Association of India, as part of the association's campaign to help the country curb its rapid population growth rate and stem the spread of AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome). Each condom, called sangam ("union" in English) costs Rupees 2 (about 6.5 US cents). The machine is located at a textile mill in Bombay. The Association said it would install at least 60 such machines in Bombay over the coming months. "A psychological advantage of the machine is that the user need not personally meet the dispenser and can collect a condom without any embarrassment," Mr. Lala said. "The machine is expected to promote efforts at curbing population growth and prevent the spread of AIDS," he said. In a separate report, AIDS has been found to be racing through India just eight years after the first case was detected. Prostitutes, drug addicts and untested blood supplies are the conduits. More than half of the prostitutes in cities such as Bombay have HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), which causes AIDS. The truck drivers and itinerant workers they serve carry it to their own villages, according to the report by Mr. Thomas Wagner writing for the Associated Press. There are 43 million cases of sexually transmitted diseases reported each year in the country, according to the report. The HIV virus has been reported in all 25 states of India. Although the AIDS pandemic came to India later than most large countries, the National AIDS Control Organization estimates there are 1.62 million cases in the population, up 60% from 1993, according to the report. "AIDS is no longer just a problem of high-risk groups; it has spread to every area of India," Dr. P.R. Das Gupta of the national AIDS agency said in an interview. "So many people are migrating from their villages in search of jobs that this

  3. Condom availability in schools: the need for improved program evaluations.

    PubMed Central

    Stryker, J; Samuels, S E; Smith, M D

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This article examines the impact of contentious local debates on the design and implementation of school-based condom availability programs. METHODS. Information about condom availability in schools was reviewed by 50 leading educators and health officials at a 1992 forum held in Menlo Park, Calif. RESULTS. Few existing condom availability programs were designed to yield definitive data on sexual risk-taking behavior or other measures of program effectiveness. CONCLUSIONS. In the debate over school-based condom availability programs, as in many aspects of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention programs, scientific, moral, and political concerns overlap. Behavioral research into the potential effectiveness of such programs can help inform debates about fundamental values concerning sexual decision making and privacy, family integrity and parental autonomy, and public health. PMID:7998627

  4. Predicting condom use attitudes, norms, and control beliefs in Hispanic problem behavior youth: the effects of family functioning and parent-adolescent communication about sex on condom use.

    PubMed

    Malcolm, Shandey; Huang, Shi; Cordova, David; Freitas, Derek; Arzon, Margaret; Jimenez, Giselle Leon; Pantin, Hilda; Prado, Guillermo

    2013-08-01

    Hispanic problem behavior youth are at an increased risk of engaging in HIV risk behaviors, including low condom use. However, relatively little research has examined factors that affect condom use in this population. Although research indicates that family processes, such as higher levels of family functioning and open parent-adolescent communication about sex, and condom use attitudes, norms, and control beliefs as depicted by the theory of planned behavior have an effect on condom use behaviors, the combination of the two factors has received minimal attention. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of family functioning on condom use intentions and behaviors through communication about sex and condom use attitudes, parental norms, and control beliefs. A cross-sectional study of 171 predominately male (73.1%) sexually active Hispanic problem behavior adolescents (mean age = 14.88 years) was conducted. Structural equation modeling was used to test the study hypothesis. Findings largely support the overall model and suggest that family functioning had an indirect effect on condom use intention and behavior through communication about sex, condom use attitudes, and control beliefs. Family functioning, however, did not have an indirect effect on condom use intention and behavior through communication about sex and parental norms. Implications for prevention science and future research are discussed.

  5. Predicting condom use attitudes, norms, and control beliefs in Hispanic problem behavior youth: the effects of family functioning and parent-adolescent communication about sex on condom use.

    PubMed

    Malcolm, Shandey; Huang, Shi; Cordova, David; Freitas, Derek; Arzon, Margaret; Jimenez, Giselle Leon; Pantin, Hilda; Prado, Guillermo

    2013-08-01

    Hispanic problem behavior youth are at an increased risk of engaging in HIV risk behaviors, including low condom use. However, relatively little research has examined factors that affect condom use in this population. Although research indicates that family processes, such as higher levels of family functioning and open parent-adolescent communication about sex, and condom use attitudes, norms, and control beliefs as depicted by the theory of planned behavior have an effect on condom use behaviors, the combination of the two factors has received minimal attention. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of family functioning on condom use intentions and behaviors through communication about sex and condom use attitudes, parental norms, and control beliefs. A cross-sectional study of 171 predominately male (73.1%) sexually active Hispanic problem behavior adolescents (mean age = 14.88 years) was conducted. Structural equation modeling was used to test the study hypothesis. Findings largely support the overall model and suggest that family functioning had an indirect effect on condom use intention and behavior through communication about sex, condom use attitudes, and control beliefs. Family functioning, however, did not have an indirect effect on condom use intention and behavior through communication about sex and parental norms. Implications for prevention science and future research are discussed. PMID:22561377

  6. Predicting Condom Use Attitudes, Norms, and Control Beliefs in Hispanic Problem Behavior Youth: The Effects of Family Functioning and Parent–Adolescent Communication About Sex on Condom Use

    PubMed Central

    Malcolm, Shandey; Huang, Shi; Cordova, David; Freitas, Derek; Arzon, Margaret; Jimenez, Giselle Leon; Pantin, Hilda; Prado, Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    Hispanic problem behavior youth are at an increased risk of engaging in HIV risk behaviors, including low condom use. However, relatively little research has examined factors that affect condom use in this population. Although research indicates that family processes, such as higher levels of family functioning and open parent–adolescent communication about sex, and condom use attitudes, norms, and control beliefs as depicted by the theory of planned behavior have an effect on condom use behaviors, the combination of the two factors has received minimal attention. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of family functioning on condom use intentions and behaviors through communication about sex and condom use attitudes, parental norms, and control beliefs. A cross-sectional study of 171 predominately male (73.1%) sexually active Hispanic problem behavior adolescents (mean age = 14.88 years) was conducted. Structural equation modeling was used to test the study hypothesis. Findings largely support the overall model and suggest that family functioning had an indirect effect on condom use intention and behavior through communication about sex, condom use attitudes, and control beliefs. Family functioning, however, did not have an indirect effect on condom use intention and behavior through communication about sex and parental norms. Implications for prevention science and future research are discussed. PMID:22561377

  7. Condom ads promote illicit sex.

    PubMed

    Kippley, J F

    1994-01-01

    Written in 1987, this opinion was republished in the wake of US President Bill Clinton's AIDS prevention media campaign promoting condom use which began January 1994, targeted at young adults aged 18-25. The author staunchly opposes condom use even though he admits that people do not consider abstinence from sex to be a serious option for the prevention of HIV/STD infection. He believes that there is no moral use of sex with a condom and that condoms have always been a sign of immorality, be it prostitution, adultery, fornication, or marital contraception. Likewise, the author laments the success enjoyed by Planned Parenthood in achieving the social acceptance of marital contraception and sex outside of marriage. The complete social acceptance of homosexual activity, however, remains to be achieved. Magazines, newspapers, and television receive income in exchange for publishing or airing advertisements. Finding offensive advertisements which promote the use of condoms against HIV infection, the author recommends writing letters of complaint to the responsible media sources. If the television stations or publications in question continue to advertise condoms to the public, stop watching them or end one's subscriptions to the particular printed media. Such action taken collectively among many individuals will reduce product sales and income, and potentially sway corporate policy against condom ads. PMID:12345946

  8. Condom ads promote illicit sex.

    PubMed

    Kippley, J F

    1994-01-01

    Written in 1987, this opinion was republished in the wake of US President Bill Clinton's AIDS prevention media campaign promoting condom use which began January 1994, targeted at young adults aged 18-25. The author staunchly opposes condom use even though he admits that people do not consider abstinence from sex to be a serious option for the prevention of HIV/STD infection. He believes that there is no moral use of sex with a condom and that condoms have always been a sign of immorality, be it prostitution, adultery, fornication, or marital contraception. Likewise, the author laments the success enjoyed by Planned Parenthood in achieving the social acceptance of marital contraception and sex outside of marriage. The complete social acceptance of homosexual activity, however, remains to be achieved. Magazines, newspapers, and television receive income in exchange for publishing or airing advertisements. Finding offensive advertisements which promote the use of condoms against HIV infection, the author recommends writing letters of complaint to the responsible media sources. If the television stations or publications in question continue to advertise condoms to the public, stop watching them or end one's subscriptions to the particular printed media. Such action taken collectively among many individuals will reduce product sales and income, and potentially sway corporate policy against condom ads.

  9. 21 CFR 884.5330 - Female condom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Female condom. 884.5330 Section 884.5330 Food and... condom. (a) Identification. A female condom is a sheath-like device that lines the vaginal wall and is..., 2011, for any female condom that was in commercial distribution before May 28, 1976, or that has, on...

  10. 21 CFR 884.5330 - Female condom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Female condom. 884.5330 Section 884.5330 Food and... condom. (a) Identification. A female condom is a sheath-like device that lines the vaginal wall and is..., 2011, for any female condom that was in commercial distribution before May 28, 1976, or that has, on...

  11. 21 CFR 884.5330 - Female condom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Female condom. 884.5330 Section 884.5330 Food and... condom. (a) Identification. A female condom is a sheath-like device that lines the vaginal wall and is..., 2011, for any female condom that was in commercial distribution before May 28, 1976, or that has, on...

  12. Sri Lanka drops leading condom.

    PubMed

    1984-01-01

    Sri Lanka's Family Planning Association has stopped selling its Preethi Regular condom, the backbone of its social marketing program for nearly a decade. Last year nearly 7 times as many Preethi condoms were sold as all other brands combined. The decision was reported to be caused by budget constraints following the International Planned Parenthood Federation's (IPPF) new policy of limiting the number of Preethi Regular condoms supplied to Sri Lanka. IPPF's Asian Regional Officer reported that the Preethi condom is a costly product, and that as many as needed of a US Agency for International Development (USAID) supplied product will be sent to Sri Lanka. The Contraceptive Retail Sales (CRS) program has devised a new sales strategy, based partly on the introduction of a high-priced condom to fill the gap left by the discontinuation of the Preethi Regular. The new Preethi Gold condom is expected to help the project become more financially self-reliant while taing advantage of Preethi's marketplace popularity. Preethi Gold is manufactured by the Malaysia Rubber Company and costs the project US $4.85/gross. It is sold for US $.14 for 3, about 3 times the price of a Preethi Regular. The project is also pushing the Panther condom, donated to IPPF by USAID. 2 Panther condoms sell for about 3.6U, about the cost of Preethi Regulars. The project also sells Moonbeam, Rough Rider, and Stimula condoms, the latter 2 at full commercial prices. A smooth transfer of demand from Preethi to Panther had been desired, but by the end of 1983 some retailers were hesitating to make the product switch because some Preethi Regulars were still available. Total condom sales in 1983 were down by nearly 590,000 from the approximately 6,860,000 sold in 1982. Total condom sales for the 1st quarter of 1984 were slightly over 1,218,000 pieces, compared to about 1,547,000 for the same quarter in 1983, a decline of 21%. The Family Planning Association is gearing up to reverse the downward trend

  13. Sri Lanka drops leading condom.

    PubMed

    1984-01-01

    Sri Lanka's Family Planning Association has stopped selling its Preethi Regular condom, the backbone of its social marketing program for nearly a decade. Last year nearly 7 times as many Preethi condoms were sold as all other brands combined. The decision was reported to be caused by budget constraints following the International Planned Parenthood Federation's (IPPF) new policy of limiting the number of Preethi Regular condoms supplied to Sri Lanka. IPPF's Asian Regional Officer reported that the Preethi condom is a costly product, and that as many as needed of a US Agency for International Development (USAID) supplied product will be sent to Sri Lanka. The Contraceptive Retail Sales (CRS) program has devised a new sales strategy, based partly on the introduction of a high-priced condom to fill the gap left by the discontinuation of the Preethi Regular. The new Preethi Gold condom is expected to help the project become more financially self-reliant while taing advantage of Preethi's marketplace popularity. Preethi Gold is manufactured by the Malaysia Rubber Company and costs the project US $4.85/gross. It is sold for US $.14 for 3, about 3 times the price of a Preethi Regular. The project is also pushing the Panther condom, donated to IPPF by USAID. 2 Panther condoms sell for about 3.6U, about the cost of Preethi Regulars. The project also sells Moonbeam, Rough Rider, and Stimula condoms, the latter 2 at full commercial prices. A smooth transfer of demand from Preethi to Panther had been desired, but by the end of 1983 some retailers were hesitating to make the product switch because some Preethi Regulars were still available. Total condom sales in 1983 were down by nearly 590,000 from the approximately 6,860,000 sold in 1982. Total condom sales for the 1st quarter of 1984 were slightly over 1,218,000 pieces, compared to about 1,547,000 for the same quarter in 1983, a decline of 21%. The Family Planning Association is gearing up to reverse the downward trend

  14. Application of condoms on male clients by female sex workers in Yerevan, Armenia: prevalence and correlates.

    PubMed

    Darbinyan, Nelli; Lang, Delia L; Diclemente, Ralph J; Joseph, Jesse B; Markosyan, Karine

    2011-09-01

    This study sought to assess the prevalence of consistent condom application on male clients by female sex workers (FSWs) in Armenia and its association with demographic, psychosocial and behavioural factors. In this cross-sectional study, 120 street-based FSWs aged 20-52 completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire. The primary outcome measure was consistent application of condoms by FSWs on their male clients. A total of 21.7% of participants reported consistently applying condoms on clients. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that higher condom use self-efficacy (Adjusted Odds Ratio, AOR=1.1; p=0.01), lower perceived condom use barriers (AOR=0.9; p=0.04) and not using douching as a method to prevent STI/HIV (AOR=4.8; p=0.04) significantly predicted consistent condom application. Higher HIV/AIDS knowledge was a marginally significant predictor of condom application (AOR=1.3; p=0.05). Future interventions should address these modifiable factors to encourage FSWs to apply condoms on clients themselves, which may reduce condom failure and exposure to HIV transmission.

  15. Stages of Consistent Condom Use, Partner Intimacy, Condom Use Attitude, and Self-Efficacy in African-American Crack Cocaine Users

    PubMed Central

    Pallonen, Unto E.; Timpson, Sandra C.; Ross, Michael W.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined how condom use attitude, self-efficacy, and partner intimacy related to five stages of consistent condom use. Interview data were collected from sexually active, heterosexual, African-American crack cocaine smokers (N = 366). Dependent measures assessed both the participants’ own responses and their perceptions about their last sex partner’s own personal condom use attitude and participants’ condom use self-efficacy expectations. Partner intimacy was assessed both as a continuous attitudinal and as a discrete relationship measure. Less than 10% were classified as consistent condom users. Two thirds of inconsistent users were in the Precontemplation (PC) stage. The contemplation (C) and preparation (P) stages were equal among the remainder of the inconsistent condom users. Higher partner intimacy reduced modestly readiness for consistent condom use. The stage but not the intimacy group was related to the condom use attitudes and self-efficacy measures. Last partners’ perceived own negative attitudes were significantly related to the stages of consistent condom use and was especially low in the action (A) and maintenance (M) stages. Participants’ own negative attitudes were unrelated to the stages. Of the self-efficacy measures, both participants’ performance and situational condom use self-efficacies increased significantly after the PC stage and were highest in the P, A, and M stages. However, situational self-efficacy accounted for most of performance self-efficacy variance. In sum, consistent condom use was rare. A partner’s attitudes and the participants’ own situational self-efficacy expectations, rather than intimacy, determined the readiness to adopt consistent condom use. PMID:18574684

  16. Predicting Condom Use Attitudes, Norms, and Control Beliefs in Hispanic Problem Behavior Youth: The Effects of Family Functioning and Parent-Adolescent Communication about Sex on Condom Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malcolm, Shandey; Huang, Shi; Cordova, David; Freitas, Derek; Arzon, Margaret; Jimenez, Giselle Leon; Pantin, Hilda; Prado, Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    Hispanic problem behavior youth are at an increased risk of engaging in HIV risk behaviors, including low condom use. However, relatively little research has examined factors that affect condom use in this population. Although research indicates that family processes, such as higher levels of family functioning and open parent-adolescent…

  17. Assertive communication in condom negotiation: Insights from late adolescent couples’ subjective ratings of self and partner

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Amy; Leonard, Noelle R.; Ritchie, Amanda S.; Gwadz, Marya V.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Assertive communication has been associated with higher levels of condom use among youth using self-report survey methodology. The purpose of this study was to examine the subjective ratings of assertiveness among young, romantically-involved couples in the context of a condom negotiation task. Methods Using an innovative video-recall procedure, 32 couples (64 youth) engaged in a videotaped condom negotiation task and then rated self and partners’ level of assertiveness. Both individual ratings of assertiveness and couple-level assertiveness were assessed using dyadic hierarchical linear modeling. Results Individuals’ assertiveness was positively associated with condom use. Unexpectedly, the overall level of assertiveness in couples showed a curvilinear association with condom use. Very high and very low assertiveness was associated with lower condom use, while moderate levels of assertiveness were associated with higher condom use. Conclusions Moderate levels of assertiveness during condom negotiation may facilitate condom use in young couples. Increasing condom use among romantic partners may require developing interventions that strengthen youths’ ability to engage in assertive communication strategies that balance emotional intimacy with self-advocacy. PMID:25937470

  18. The promotion of condom use in non-regular sexual partnerships in urban Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Agha, S; Karlyn, A; Meekers, D

    2001-06-01

    This study uses data from a representative sample of sexually active adults in urban Mozambique to examine the effectiveness of the JeitO condom social marketing (CSM) project in increasing condom use among men and women at risk of contracting HIV. More specifically, this study tests the hypothesis that exposure to programme interventions (communications and access) increases condom use with non-regular partners. Exposure to the CSM programme is high, and multivariate analyses show that exposure to CSM advertising and communications and knowledge of a condom source are associated with higher reports of condom use with non-regular partners. Analyses of regional differences in condom use show that knowledge and use of condoms with non-regular partners are higher than the national average in all four provinces where the CSM project has been operating for longer (18 months vs. 6 months). Multivariate analyses show that the above-average level of condom use in the capital, Maputo, can be attributed to the higher socioeconomic status of this population, but the above-average level of condom use among men and women in Sofala and Manica provinces is due, in part, to their high level of exposure to the CSM programme. These findings indicate that the JeitO CSM project's behaviour-change communications and condom distribution are effective in encouraging safer sex practices among persons engaged in sex with non-regular partners.

  19. "Do You Know What You're Doing?" College Students' Experiences with Male Condoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarber, William L.; Graham, Cynthia A.; Sanders, Stephanie A.; Crosby, Richard A.; Butler, Scott M.; Hartzell, Rose M.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Although quantitative assessment of male condom use errors and problems has received increased research attention, few studies have qualitatively examined this sexual health behavior. Purpose: This study examined problems of male condom use as experienced by college men and women at a large, public Midwestern university. Methods:…

  20. Measuring condom use among sex workers in the Dominican Republic.

    PubMed

    Weir, S S; Fox, L J; DeMoya, A; Gomez, B; Guerrero, E; Hassig, S E

    1998-04-01

    The purpose of this paper is to assess the internal consistency of self-reported condom use among sex workers in Puerto Plata and Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. We examined the responses to questions about condom use among 4 cross-sectional samples of sex workers. We compared measures based on: (1) questions using always-to-never scales; (2) questions about use with the past 5 clients; and (3) questions about use in the past week obtained from a retrospective coital log. In each sample, more women reported 'always' using condoms with clients than with each of the past 5 clients. In 3 of the 4 samples, only about half of the women who reported 'always' using condoms used condoms with the most recent 5 clients and with all clients in the past week. Internal consistency was significantly higher when the comparison was limited to use with the most recent 5 clients and use in the past week. Self-reported measures of condom use can be difficult to interpret. Assessing the internal consistency of several measures of use provides insight into the strengths and weaknesses of each measure.

  1. Japan, Indonesia to investigate condom plant feasibility.

    PubMed

    1981-04-01

    The Japanese government has begun investigations on the possibility of constructing a condom manufacturing plant in Indonesia in response to a request by the Indonesian government. Indonesia, which hopes to reduce its birthrate as of 1971 by 1/2 by 1990, asked for Japanese assistance in building a condom plant based on the expectation that demand for this contraceptive method, although quite low at present, will increase rapidly in the near future with stepped-up motivation campaigns. As a 1st step in the investigation, the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) sent a study team of family planning experts headed by Family Planning Federation of Japan Chairman Dr. Hidebumi Kubo and including JOICFP International Division Director MR. Tameyoshi Katagiri to Indonesia from March 15-24. During its visit, the JICA team held discussions with representatives of BKKBN (the National Family Planning Coordinating Board) including its Chairman and Minister of Health Dr. Suwardjono and reached agreement on the scope and schedule of work toward determining the feasibility of building and operating a condom plant in Indonesia. In defining the scope of work and the schedule, the JICA team and the BKKBN representatives decided on specific issues to be investigated in the feasibility study to be carried out by JICA and scheduled to be completed by the end of October of this year. To be included in the feasibility study are: estimation of future domestic demand for condoms, examination of the domestic supply of latex capacity, chemicals and packaging materials, and collection of information on infrastructure relating to water, energy, transportation, etc. Actual data collection for the study is expected to begin in late May or early June. Dr. Kubo and Mr. Katagiri, upon returning to Japan, reported great enthusiasm for the project in Indonesia and expressed the hope that the plant construction will be feasible so that the country's family planning program can be given a boost

  2. The impact of the work environment on condom use among female bar workers in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Morisky, Donald E; Peña, Melanie; Tiglao, Teodora V; Liu, Kenn Y

    2002-08-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine how condom use is affected by specific aspects of the work environment: (1) social-structural and environmental influences and constraints, (2) mandatory condom use policy, and (3) the level of social influence and reinforcement between manager and employee. A total of 1,340 bar workers and 308 nonestablishment freelance workers comprise the study group. In establishments where a condom use policy exists, female bar workers were 2.6 times more likely to consistently use condoms during sexual intercourse compared with establishments that do not have such a policy in place. The results suggest a need for the development of comprehensive educational policies in all entertainment establishments, including regular meetings with employees, reinforcing attendance at the Social Hygiene Clinic, promoting AIDS awareness, making condoms available in the workplace, and mandating 100% condom use behavior among all employees.

  3. Body dissatisfaction and condom use self-efficacy: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Blashill, Aaron J; Safren, Steven A

    2015-01-01

    The consistent use of condoms is the most effective behavior for reducing the acquisition of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and condom use self-efficacy has been shown to be a key construct related to condom use. However, the examination of modifiable psychosocial and behavioral correlates of condom use self-efficacy is lacking. Recent investigations have highlighted the association of body dissatisfaction with condom use self-efficacy, and the current study conducted a meta-analysis on all available data addressing this relationship. Eleven individual effect-size parameters from nine studies yielded a total sample of 2495 men and women participants. A random-effects model revealed an average effect-size of r=-.25, Cohen's d=-0.52, which is moderate in strength. As body dissatisfaction increases, ones' self-efficacy regarding the use of condoms diminishes. Integrating interventions to decrease body dissatisfaction and sexual risk behaviors may prove to be an effective strategy to decrease STIs.

  4. Stages of change and decisional balance for condom use with a romantic partner.

    PubMed

    Prat, F; Planes, M; Gras, M E; Sullman, M J M

    2012-11-01

    This article examines the relationship between decisional balance and stages of change for consistent condom use with a current romantic heterosexual partner. The sample consisted of 619 undergraduate students (35.1% males; mean of age = 20.31). The results show that the pros and cons of using condoms were significantly related to the stages of change for condom use, but that the pros were more strongly related. Therefore, campaigns for preventing the transmission of the HIV virus and other sexually transmitted diseases should attempt to maximize the perceived advantages of condom use, rather than refuting the cons. PMID:22311882

  5. Effects of condom social marketing on condom use in developing countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis, 1990–2010

    PubMed Central

    Denison, Julie; Kennedy, Caitlin; Tedrow, Virginia; O'Reilly, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To examine the relationship between condom social marketing programmes and condom use. Methods Standard systematic review and meta-analysis methods were followed. The review included studies of interventions in which condoms were sold, in which a local brand name(s) was developed for condoms, and in which condoms were marketed through a promotional campaign to increase sales. A definition of intervention was developed and standard inclusion criteria were followed in selecting studies. Data were extracted from each eligible study, and a meta-analysis of the results was carried out. Findings Six studies with a combined sample size of 23 048 met the inclusion criteria. One was conducted in India and five in sub-Saharan Africa. All studies were cross-sectional or serial cross-sectional. Three studies had a comparison group, although all lacked equivalence in sociodemographic characteristics across study arms. All studies randomly selected participants for assessments, although none randomly assigned participants to intervention arms. The random-effects pooled odds ratio for condom use was 2.01 (95% confidence interval, CI: 1.42–2.84) for the most recent sexual encounter and 2.10 (95% CI: 1.51–2.91) for a composite of all condom use outcomes. Tests for heterogeneity yielded significant results for both meta-analyses. Conclusion The evidence base for the effect of condom social marketing on condom use is small because few rigorous studies have been conducted. Meta-analyses showed a positive and statistically significant effect on increasing condom use, and all individual studies showed positive trends. The cumulative effect of condom social marketing over multiple years could be substantial. We strongly encourage more evaluations of these programmes with study designs of high rigour. PMID:22893745

  6. Closing the condom KAP gap.

    PubMed

    Roberto, E L

    1977-01-01

    A number of program strategies have been suggested to close the gap between knowledge and awareness of family planning, and its practice. Most focus on the interim between awareness and usage. This article presents data to support the argument that the problem lies in the awareness stage. Its assumption is that the quality of the awareness is important. As opposed to the survey method of determining awareness, the author proposes the "Focus Group Discussion." As illustration, he presents results of a study using this method, on awareness about condoms, undertaken as part of a Population Center Foundation Condom Distribution Project, in 1975. Its purpose was to identify the more important attitudes toward condoms among married couples, the factors which motivate the couples to use or reject them, and the meanings associated with condoms and how these influence the time, manner, and reasons for rejecting or accepting them. 4 group discussions were carried out, with 8 or 10 married male and female respondents, age 18-35, with at least 2 children, of middle and lower class, and all having at least heard of condoms. Discussions were taped and subjected to content analysis. The 7 major findings are: 1) Quality of awareness depends on experience with use. 2) Experience with use does not guarantee positive quality awareness -- some regular users were still ignorant of some aspects of condom use. 3) Respondents perceive positive aspects of condoms, which should be reinforced. 4) Most of the negative qualities perceived by respondents were imaginary, but can be combatted by the positive statements of users. 5) Filipino men respond to their wives' reactions and project an image of sexual prowess, both possibly damaging to the reputation of condoms; communicators and educators must address the wives equally with their husbands. 6) Buying condoms is embarrassing: studies are needed on how this can be overcome at the places of purchase. 7) Brand awareness is low: only 3 or 4 out

  7. Condom distribution in the schools.

    PubMed

    English, A

    1993-11-01

    The issue of condom availability has become a target for those who oppose adolescent sexual activity ad who would like to restrict adolescents' access to information and services. The author is an advocate for the legal rights of children and youth, and, as such, discusses a few issues which can support or facilitate the establishment of responsible programs to make condoms available in schools. Specifically, she discusses the ethical implications of requiring parental consent for condom availability; the legal considerations related to parental consent requirements; the need to remember that legal issues are often a smokescreen for something else; and the importance of viewing legal issues related to condom availability programs in the broader context of other legal issues related to adolescent health, teenage pregnancy, and HIV. The author concludes by positing that the answers are in strategy, not law. Any strategies to improve condom availability or improve adolescents' access to health care should, however, include finding ways to use the law to benefit youth. Moreover, where laws are concerned, one must search for the most expansive interpretations of existing laws and try to change them when they present real obstacles.

  8. Condom ads slated for TV.

    PubMed

    1987-02-20

    3 CBS-owned television stations and NBC's New York television station announced yesterday that they would begin accepting condom advertising. In addition, the ABC network announced it will begin running a 30-second public service message with Dr. C. Everett Koop, the US surgeon general, saying that condoms are the best protection against sexual transmission of AIDS. CBS said it will allow the 4 television stations and 18 radio stations it owns to accept condom advertising based on the attitudes of the local viewing or listening community. WCBS-TV in New York, WCAU-TV in Philadelphia and KCBS-TV in Los Angeles said they would accept such ads. CBS also owns a television station in Chicago. WCAU will air condom ads after 11 p.m. only, beginning probably next week, said Paul Webb, a station spokesman. "We recognize the legitimate sensitivities of some members of the community in regard to this issue," said Steve Cohen, the WCAU general manager. "However, it is the judgment of this station that the importance of providing information about the AIDS epidemic and means of prevention is an overriding consideration." NBC's New York television station, WNBC, announced that it will accept condom advertising and public service announcements. PMID:12269166

  9. Associations of sexually transmitted infections with condom problems among young men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    Mustanski, Brian; Ryan, Daniel T; Garofalo, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Background Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) are disproportionately infected with STIs. Condom use is the most widely available means of preventing the transmission of STIs, but effectiveness depends on correct use. Condom errors, such as using an oil-based lubricant, have been associated with condom failures, such as breakage. Little research has been done on the impact of condom problems on the likelihood of contracting an STI. Methods Data came from Crew 450, a longitudinal study of HIV risk among YMSM (N = 450). All self-report data were collected using computer-assisted self-interview (CASI) technology and clinical testing was done for gonorrhea, Chlamydia, and HIV. Results Nearly all participants made at least one error, with high rates of using oil based lubricant and incomplete use. No differences were found in rates of condom problems during anal sex with a man versus vaginal sex with a woman. Black YMSM reported significantly higher use of oil based lubricants than White and Hispanic YMSM, an error significantly associated with HIV status (AOR = 2.60; 95% CI: 1.04 – 6.51). Participants who reported a condom failure were significantly more likely to have a STI (AOR=3.27; 95% CI: 1.31 – 8.12). Conclusions YMSM report high rates of condom problems, and condom failures were significantly associated with STIs after controlling for unprotected sex. Educational programs are needed to enhance correct condom use among YMSM. Further research is needed on the role of oil based lubricants in explaining racial disparities in STIs and HIV. PMID:24922101

  10. Two programs designed to support condom use.

    PubMed

    1999-04-01

    Two programs that were described during the 1999 National Symposium on Overcoming Barriers to Condom Use have been successful in making condoms an accepted norm in their communities. In the first, condom use among Northern Illinois University (NIU) students has risen from 30% in 1989 to 61% by 1997, while rates of STD infection have fallen by 50%. Program coordinators think the success is due to a combined effort to increase condom availability and make condom use a social norm. Condom use is promoted in advertisements in the student newspaper proclaiming that typical NIU students use condoms for protection from sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Condoms are not distributed on the campus but are made available at several locations on a free-choice basis along with printed health education material. During a 1996 campus survey, a significant positive correlation was found between students' perception of the condom use of other students and their own condom use. In the second program, ABCD Health Service in Boston distributes condoms at no charge through hair salons serving Hispanic women, barber shops, and auto body shops. The program currently distributes more than 11,000 condoms in this manner each month. ABCD health educators also make presentations in beauty salons and to community groups. They are now using state funds to train community women to host "Safety Net" home-based informational parties, where participants play games that convey safer sex messages and receive condoms as party favors. PMID:12295067

  11. African-American women who always use condoms: attitudes, knowledge about AIDS, and sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Hinkle, Y A; Johnson, E H; Gilbert, D; Jackson, L; Lollis, C M

    1992-01-01

    Given the alarming increase in the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including AIDS, among African-American women, it is apparent that many people are engaging in sexual intercourse without using condoms. The current study examined the interrelationships among attitudes about condom use, knowledge about AIDS, sexual behavior, and drug use among 121 adult African-American women who varied in their intentions to use condoms: 21 (17%) were classified as Steady Users, 75 (62%) did not use condoms but they had High Intentions to, while 25 (21%) did not use condoms and had Low Intentions to use them. Results indicate that the three groups did not differ in their overall knowledge about AIDS or their attitudes toward using condoms as contraceptives. Significant group differences were noted for other scales that assessed attitudes about condoms. Attitudes about the use of condoms were very similar for the Steady Users and the women in the High Intentions group. However, these two groups were significantly (p < .01) different in their belief that condoms are uncomfortable and interrupt sex. Women with Low Intentions to use condoms had significantly (p < .05) more intense angry reactions regarding the negotiation of condom use and significantly more negative attitudes about the use of condoms than women in the other groups. The three groups were not differentiated by drug use, previous treatment for STDs, or their perceived risk for being exposed to AIDS. The present study is cross-sectional in nature and future research using better methodology is needed to establish causal relationships. PMID:1430737

  12. HIV Prevention and Social Desirability: Husband-Wife Discrepancies in Reports of Condom Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordero-Coma, Julia; Breen, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Greater use of condoms within marriage would help limit the spread of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. Using data from the Malawi Diffusion and Ideational Change Project (MDICP), the authors examined the influence that the fidelity norm and the traditional association between marriage and reproduction have on condom use with a spouse. The sample…

  13. Condom and Other Contraceptive Use among a Random Sample of Female Adolescents: A Snapshot in Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimley, Diane M.; Lee, Patricia A.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the sexual practices of 235 females aged 15 to 19 years and their readiness to use specific contraceptive methods. Results indicate that, despite the availability of newer contraceptive methods, most sexually active adolescents were least resistant to using condoms, perceiving the male condom as an acceptable preventative both for…

  14. Attitudes, Knowledge, and Behavior Regarding Condom Use in Urban Black Adolescent Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Michele D.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined male adolescent behavior, attitudes, and knowledge concerning condom use. Findings from 241 sexually active black adolescent males revealed that factors associated with condom use included higher grade level, having 2 or more sexual partners in past 6 months, communication about contraception with sexual partner, desire for sexually…

  15. Sexual Relationship Power, Intimate Partner Violence, and Condom Use among Minority Urban Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teitelman, Anne M.; Ratcliffe, Sarah J.; Morales-Aleman, Mercedes M.; Sullivan, Cris M.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the association between sexual relationship power, intimate partner violence, and condom use among African American and Hispanic urban girls. In this sample of 56 sexually active girls, 50% did not use condoms consistently and therefore were at higher risk for acquiring HIV or sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Teens who…

  16. Moderating Effects of Gender on Alcohol Use: Implications for Condom Use at First Intercourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dye, Claire; Upchurch, Dawn M.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined whether the effects of level of alcohol consumption on condom use at first sex depend on adolescents' gender, utilizing data from Wave I of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Compared to girls who did not consume any alcohol, inebriated girls were significantly less likely to use a condom at…

  17. Correlates of Condom Use among Male High School Students in Nairobi, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabiru, Caroline W.; Orpinas, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    Background: Correct and consistent condom use is an effective strategy to reduce the risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). This study examines sociodemographic, behavioral, and psychosocial characteristics of 3 groups of adolescent males: consistent, sporadic, and non-condom users. Methods: The sample consisted of 931 sexually…

  18. Methamphetamine use, attitudes about condoms, and sexual risk behavior among HIV-positive men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Nadine; Mausbach, Brent T; Ulibarri, Monica D; Semple, Shirley J; Patterson, Thomas L

    2011-04-01

    This study examined attitudes about condoms as a moderator of the relationship between methamphetamine use and sexual risk behavior in a sample of 297 HIV-positive, methamphetamine-using men who have sex with men (MSM). To test for a moderating effect of attitudes towards condoms, an interaction term was included in multiple regression analysis along with age, income, negative condom attitudes, frequency of methamphetamine use, and Beck depression score. A post hoc analysis was conducted to determine the relations between methamphetamine use and unprotected sex for persons with more vs. less negative attitudes toward condoms. These analyses indicated that when individuals had more negative attitudes toward condoms, the relation between methamphetamine frequency and unprotected sex was significant, while among participants with less negative attitudes toward condoms, no significant association was found. Addressing methamphetamine-using MSM's attitudes about condoms can serve as a form of harm reduction for those who are not yet ready or willing to discontinue methamphetamine use.

  19. Changes in Condom Use Over Time Among Female Sex Workers and Their Male Noncommercial Partners and Clients.

    PubMed

    Tracas, Ashley; Bazzi, Angela Robertson; Artamonova, Irina; Rangel, M Gudelia; Staines, Hugo; Ulibarri, Monica D

    2016-08-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) often report inconsistent condom use with clients and noncommercial male partners, yet changes in condom use with various partner types during participation in observation studies remains underexplored. This longitudinal study of 214 FSWs and their male, noncommercial partners in the Mexico-U.S. border region, where HIV prevalence among FSWs continues to be high, utilized negative binomial regressions to examine changes in condom use with intimate partners and clients (regular and nonregular) over 24 months. Condom use decreased over time among couples in Ciudad Juarez, but there was no change in condom use among couples in Tijuana. FSWs' condom use with regular and nonregular clients significantly increased over time, which is consistent with previous research finding behavioral changes when participating in observational studies. Findings suggest the need for continued efforts to promote condom use among FSWs and their noncommercial male partners in addition to clients. PMID:27427926

  20. Condoms become the norm in the sexual culture of college students in Durban, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Maharaj, Pranitha; Cleland, John

    2006-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the factors contributing to the increase in condom use among college students in Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, and some of the barriers to consistent condom use. The data were drawn from six focus group discussions with male and female students aged 18-24 in three public tertiary education institutions, supplemented by a survey of 3,000 students aged 17-24. Condoms had become "part of sex" and highly acceptable to the great majority, and were easily accessible. They were primarily being used for preventing pregnancy; many students liked not having to go to a health facility for supplies. Less than half of male and only a third of female students thought male partners had greater influence over the decision whether a condom was used. If a woman requested condoms, men and women agreed the man must comply. Some men were suspicious of women who agreed to have unprotected sex. Almost 75% of sexually active students surveyed reported condom use at last sexual intercourse, but consistent condom use, reported by only a quarter, remains the main challenge. It may be more effective to promote condoms for contraception among sexually active young people than for HIV prevention. Condoms have become the most commonly used contraceptive method among students, and this trend should be reinforced.

  1. Main partner's resistance to condoms and HIV protection among disadvantaged, minority women.

    PubMed

    Perrino, Tatiana; Fernandez, M Isabel; Bowen, G Stephen; Arheart, Kristopher

    2005-01-01

    From a study of high-risk minority women, we examined data for a subgroup of 201 women who participated in a "male condom- focused" HIV prevention intervention, and who reported having attempted to convince their main partner to use condoms in the 3 months following intervention. Factors related to consistent condom use with a main partner post-intervention were not living with the partner, fewer sexual encounters, and no recent sexual encounter in which either partner was under the influence of drugs. At 3 months following intervention, factors related to women's future intentions to use condoms consistently with a main partner were no recent sex while either partner was under the influence of drugs, and the woman's desire to use condoms consistently with the partner. Main partner's resistance to condoms was unrelated to consistent condom use or future intentions to use condoms consistently. Findings identify barriers to consistent condom use within primary relationships, a critical yet challenging focal point for HIV prevention interventions.

  2. Diagnosis of patients with chronic heart failure in primary care: usefulness of history, examination, and investigations.

    PubMed Central

    Khunti, K; Baker, R; Grimshaw, G

    2000-01-01

    Chronic heart failure is a common clinical syndrome that may have different causes. Its incidence and prevalence are predicted to rise substantially over the next 10 years. There are therefore major consequences for resource provision, especially in primary care, where most patients are managed. Chronic heart failure is a serious condition with high morbidity and mortality. There is good evidence to show that treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors in patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction improves symptoms and signs, slows progression of heart failure, reduces hospitalisation rates, and improves survival. Despite this evidence, primary care studies show that patients with heart failure are incorrectly diagnosed and inadequately treated. Most patients present in general practice, and because effective treatment relies on a correct diagnosis, this is a key step in the appropriate management of heart failure. The aim of this paper is to review the evidence about the usefulness of signs, symptoms, and investigations in diagnosing heart failure in primary care. To identify relevant studies for this review, four strategies were used: a MEDLINE search from 1993 to January 1998 using the diagnosis search filter; a MEDLINE search from 1993 to January 1998 using the guideline search filter to locate published heart failure guidelines; a search for review articles in the Cochrane Library; and a check of references in the studies identified. The search terms included MeSH terms and the keywords 'heart failure' and 'diagnosis'. All searches were limited to humans and English language articles. Studies were included in this review on the basis of quality and relevance to primary care. The review shows that symptoms and signs are important because they alert clinicians to the possibility of heart failure as a diagnosis. However, they are not sufficiently specific for confirming left ventricular systolic dysfunction. From the evidence available

  3. The Effectiveness of a Female Condom Intervention on Women's Use of Condoms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardwick, Deborah

    2002-01-01

    Evaluated a female condom promotion intervention for socioeconomically disadvantaged women at high risk for sexually transmitted diseases and HIV who had never used female condoms. Pre- and postintervention surveys indicated that providing education and counseling, along with unlimited quantities of male condoms, female condoms, and water-based…

  4. A consumer's guide to the condom comeback.

    PubMed

    Castleman, M

    1980-01-01

    By 1970 the potentially serious health risks associated with oral contraceptive (OC) and IUD use started to scare women and men into using barrier methods, condom and diaphragm, which worked effectively and caused no side effects. Condom sales rose dramatically 1975 and have risen 10% year since. Currently, condoms are America's 2nd most popular temporaty contraceptive, after OCs. US pill sales have declined 25% since 1975. If recent sales trends continue, condoms will be more widely used tha OCs by 1985. Contrary to myth, condoms are an effective birth control method. Many men who speak negatively of condoms have never used them. Some, who tried them years ago in the back seat of the family car, rejected them before they were accustomed to them. It takes time to feel at ease with a condom. Condoms are free of side effects and are the only contraceptive that prevents the spread of venereal disease. Drawbacks include: they dull ensitivity; they interrupt; they are embarrassing to buy; and they break. Precautions to prevent most breakage include; open the wrapper carefully before becoming too aroused; make sure the woman is fully lubricated before insertion; store condoms in a cool place; never use a condom whose wrapper has come unsealed; and buy condoms with "receptacle tips." Other suggestioons are: comparison shop; do not buy colored condoms or "textured surface" condoms; after ejaculation, hold the condom on to prevent leaving it, and the ejaculate, inside the vagina; and use each condom only once. If a condom breaks or comes off, immediate insertion of foam can prevent sperm migration. Also the woman should neither douche nor use the morning after pill, which contains the carcinogen diethylstilbestrol.

  5. [Global prevention of HIV infection. Steady sexual relations mean safe protection. Use of condoms is like Russian roulette].

    PubMed

    Bendtsen, P; Hofvander, Y

    1990-11-21

    As the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) spreads, information campaigns have generally emphasized the importance of stable partner relationships and the use of condoms as defenses against infection. Until recently the condom was seen by the public mainly as a contraceptive, rather than as a protection. Although knowledge about condoms is practically universal among European men, only a minority (27% in Sweden, 12% in France) use them regularly, while in Japan, over 2/3 of the men report use. In the Third World, the discrepancy is even greater; despite intensive educational campaigns in Uganda, only 22% of urban men and 11% of rural men have ever used a condom. An intact condom is an effective barrier against HIV but in surveys in several countries, around 30% of homosexual men report having experienced failures in condoms during anal sex. Data on the failure rate in vaginal sex is less consistent but seems to lie in the 1-5% range. This failure rate is low enough to have a significant effect on the incidence of transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases. In Germany, for instance, a study found no HIV-positives among 448 prostitutes who used condoms in nearly 100% of intercourse. Public health educational strategy should put strong emphasis on condoms as a practical measure. Modification of high-risk behavior and stable relationships, however, are the only sure defense against HIV.

  6. Condom negotiation across different relationship types by young women engaged in sex work in Phnom Penh, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Maher, Lisa; Mooney-Somers, Julie; Phlong, Pisith; Couture, Marie-Claude; Kien, Serey Phal; Stein, Ellen; Bates, Anna Juong; Sansothy, Neth; Page, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    Cambodia's 100% Condom Use Programme is credited with an increase in consistent condom use in commercial sexual interactions and a decrease in HIV prevalence among female sex workers (FSWs). There has been little improvement in condom use between FSWs and non-commercial partners, prompting calls for more innovative approaches to increasing condom use in these relationships. To understand why condoms are used or not used in sexual interactions involving FSWs, we examined condom negotiation across different types of relationships. We conducted 33 in-depth interviews with young (15 to 29 years) women engaged in sex work in Phnom Penh. There was an important interplay between the meanings of condom use and the meanings of women's relationships. Commercial relationships were characterised as inherently risky and necessitated condom use. Despite a similar lack of sexual fidelity, sweetheart relationships were rarely construed as risky and typically did not involve condom use. Husbands and wives constructed their sexual interactions with each other differently, making agreement on condom use difficult. The lack of improvement in condom use in FSWs' non-commercial sexual relationships needs to be understood in relation to both sex work and the broader Cambodian sexual culture within which these relationships are embedded. PMID:23432108

  7. Barriers to Condom Use among High Risk Men Who Have Sex with Men in Uganda: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Musinguzi, Geofrey; Bastiaens, Hilde; Matovu, Joseph K. B.; Nuwaha, Fred; Mujisha, Geoffrey; Kiguli, Juliet; Arinaitwe, Jim; Van Geertruyden, Jean-Pierre; Wanyenze, Rhoda K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Unprotected sexual intercourse is a major risk factor for HIV transmission. Men who have sex with men (MSM) face challenges in accessing HIV prevention services, including condoms. However, there is limited in-depth assessment and documentation of the barriers to condom use among MSM in sub-Saharan Africa. In this paper, we examine the barriers to condom use among MSM in Uganda. Methods The data for this study were extracted from a larger qualitative study conducted among 85 self-identified adult (>18 years) MSM in 11 districts in Uganda between July and December 2013. Data on sexual behaviours and access and barriers to condom use were collected using semi-structured interviews. All interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. This paper presents an analysis of data for 33 MSM who did not use condoms at last sex, with a focus on barriers to condom use. Analysis was conducted using the content analysis approach. Results Six major barriers to condom use were identified: Difficulties with using condoms, access challenges, lack of knowledge and misinformation about condom use, partner and relationship related issues, financial incentives and socio-economic vulnerability, and alcohol consumption. Conclusion The findings suggest that several reasons account for lack of condom use among high-risk MSM. The findings are valuable to inform interventions needed to increase condom use among MSM. PMID:26172374

  8. 21 CFR 884.5330 - Female condom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Female condom. 884.5330 Section 884.5330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... condom. (a) Identification. A female condom is a sheath-like device that lines the vaginal wall and...

  9. 21 CFR 884.5330 - Female condom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Female condom. 884.5330 Section 884.5330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... condom. (a) Identification. A female condom is a sheath-like device that lines the vaginal wall and...

  10. Predictors of Condom Use Among Mexican Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Carmen; Villarruel, Antonia M.; Zhou, Yan; Gallegos, Esther

    2012-01-01

    Mexican adolescents continue to be at increased risk for HIV infection due to inconsistent condom use. The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of condom use intentions and condom use among Mexican adolescents who participated in a randomized control trial designed to test a sexual-risk reduction intervention. Data from sexually active adolescents 17 to 21 years (n = 157) of age who were assigned to the control group were analyzed 48 months post intervention. Regression analysis showed that positive attitudes toward condoms, subjective norms, and control beliefs significantly explained intention to use condoms (R2 = .75, p < .001). Attitudes toward condoms (β = .67, p < .001), technical skills (β = .13, p = .01), and condom use self-efficacy (β = .24, p < .001) were significant predictors of condom use intention. Compared to those who inconsistently used condoms, adolescents who used condoms consistently had greater intention to use condoms and greater impulse control. Findings suggest that attitudes and control beliefs should be further explored with Mexican adolescents in order to support consistent condom use. PMID:20949835

  11. Differences in condom behaviors and beliefs among female drug users recruited from two cities.

    PubMed

    Wood, M M; Tortu, S; Rhodes, F; Deren, S

    1998-01-01

    This paper examines predictors of condom cognitions and condom use for vaginal sex within women's main and paying partnerships. The sample consisted of active injection drug and crack-using women recruited from two cities with disparate HIV rates. A total of 338 drug-using women who reported vaginal sex with a main and/or paying partner in the prior 30 days were recruited for this study. Recruitment site was a significant predictor for several of the variables examined, for both main and paying partners. Ethnicity and prior HIV test result were also significant predictors, but only for main sex partners. Findings support previous research and suggest that the factors which predict condom beliefs, intention, and behaviors are different for main versus paying partners. Interventions designed to increase condom use must recognize that cognitive factors associated with condom use may vary by partner type, ethnicity, and recruitment site, particularly when important contextual variables, such as local seroprevalence, vary.

  12. [Electrophysiological examinations (ABR and DPOAE) of hearing organ in hemodialysed patients suffering from chronic renal failure].

    PubMed

    Gierek, Tatiana; Markowski, Jarosław; Kokot, Franciszek; Paluch, Jarosław; Wiecek, Andrzej; Klimek, Dariusz

    2002-01-01

    Deterioration of function of hearing organ is one of the most important clinical problem in uremic patients with chronic renal failure. The present study aimed to assess the function of hearing organ using the brainstem auditory evoked responses (ABR), impedance audiometry and distortion product otoacoustic emission cochlear function (DPOAE) in 31 haemodialysed patients with chronic renal failure (16 females and 15 males, mean age 43.0 years). The control group consisted of 15 healthy subjects. The latency of the waves I, III, V and I-V interpeak in evoked response audiometry were significantly longer in the patients with CRF (chronic renal failure) compared to the control group. Measurement of DPOAE showed decrease of DPOAE level in patients suffering from CRF. A influence of single hemodialysis and treatment of hemodialysis by 6 months on ABR latencies and DPOAE values were not observed. PMID:12094644

  13. Determinants of condom breakage among female sex workers in Karnataka, India

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Condoms are effective in preventing the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, when properly used. However, recent data from surveys of female sex workers (FSWs) in Karnataka in south India, suggest that condom breakage rates may be quite high. It is important therefore to quantify condom breakage rates, and examine what factors might precipitate condom breakage, so that programmers can identify those at risk, and develop appropriate interventions. Methods We explored determinants of reported condom breakage in the previous month among 1,928 female sex workers in four districts of Karnataka using data from cross-sectional surveys undertaken from July 2008 to February 2009. Using stepwise multivariate logistic regression, we examined the possible determinants of condom breakage, controlling for several independent variables including the district and client load. Results Overall, 11.4% of FSWs reported at least one condom break in the previous month. FSWs were much more likely to report breakage if under 20 years of age (AOR 3.43, p = 0.005); if divorced/ separated/widowed (AOR 1.52, p = 0.012); if they were regular alcohol users (AOR 1.63, p = 0.005); if they mostly entertained clients in lodges/rented rooms (AOR 2.99, p = 0.029) or brothels (AOR 4.77, p = 0.003), compared to street based sex workers; if they had ever had anal sex (AOR 2.03, p = 0.006); if the sex worker herself (as opposed to the client) applied the condom at last use (AOR 1.90, p < 0.001); if they were inconsistent condom users (AOR 2.77, p < 0.001); and if they had never seen a condom demonstration (AOR 2.37, p < 0.001). Conclusions The reported incidence of condom breakage was high in this study, and this is a major concern for HIV/STI prevention programs, for which condom use is a key prevention tool. Younger and more marginalized female sex workers were most vulnerable to condom breakage. Special effort is therefore required to seek out such women and to

  14. "Condoms are the standard, right?": Exploratory study of the reasons for using condoms by Black American emerging adult women.

    PubMed

    Longmire-Avital, Buffie; Oberle, Virginia

    2016-01-01

    Condoms are considered a highly effective form of sexually transmitted infection prevention for heterosexual sex. Black American women (BAW) have been and are at elevated risk for heterosexual exposure to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) because they have been and continue to be less likely to negotiate condom use with a partner that supports them financially. However, BAW who have made tremendous educational gains may still encounter challenges regarding the distribution of power that can affect condom use and negotiation. The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the reasons that highly educated, emerging, adult BAW reported for using condoms. One hundred twenty-seven emerging adult BAW (ages 18-29 years) completed a mixed-methods online survey during the spring of 2013 (January-May). Approximately 80% of the women were in college or college graduates. They had a high rate of previous HIV testing (68.5%). Through the use of an interpretive paradigm and grounded theory, three themes emerged regarding the reasons that the participants in this sample used condoms as their primary form of protection: (1) the reliable "standard," (2) pregnancy prevention, and (3) cost effective and "easily accessible." Findings are discussed in terms of their public health significance for this seemingly lower-risk population.

  15. "Condoms are the standard, right?": Exploratory study of the reasons for using condoms by Black American emerging adult women.

    PubMed

    Longmire-Avital, Buffie; Oberle, Virginia

    2016-01-01

    Condoms are considered a highly effective form of sexually transmitted infection prevention for heterosexual sex. Black American women (BAW) have been and are at elevated risk for heterosexual exposure to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) because they have been and continue to be less likely to negotiate condom use with a partner that supports them financially. However, BAW who have made tremendous educational gains may still encounter challenges regarding the distribution of power that can affect condom use and negotiation. The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the reasons that highly educated, emerging, adult BAW reported for using condoms. One hundred twenty-seven emerging adult BAW (ages 18-29 years) completed a mixed-methods online survey during the spring of 2013 (January-May). Approximately 80% of the women were in college or college graduates. They had a high rate of previous HIV testing (68.5%). Through the use of an interpretive paradigm and grounded theory, three themes emerged regarding the reasons that the participants in this sample used condoms as their primary form of protection: (1) the reliable "standard," (2) pregnancy prevention, and (3) cost effective and "easily accessible." Findings are discussed in terms of their public health significance for this seemingly lower-risk population. PMID:26327468

  16. Examining the Causes of Memory Strength Variability: Recollection, Attention Failure, or Encoding Variability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koen, Joshua D.; Aly, Mariam; Wang, Wei-Chun; Yonelinas, Andrew P.

    2013-01-01

    A prominent finding in recognition memory is that studied items are associated with more variability in memory strength than new items. Here, we test 3 competing theories for why this occurs--the "encoding variability," "attention failure", and "recollection" accounts. Distinguishing among these theories is critical…

  17. Coping with Achievement-Related Failure: An Examination of Conversations between Friends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altermatt, Ellen Rydell; Broady, Elizabeth F.

    2009-01-01

    Prior research has identified ways in which parents and teachers contribute to learned helpless responses to failure, but little is known about the role that interactions with peers might play. In this study, the conversations of fourth- through sixth- grade children and their friends were observed after children experienced an achievement-related…

  18. Social marketing: making condoms available to communities. An interview with Duncan Earle.

    PubMed

    1994-05-01

    This document presents an interview in which AIDSCAP private-sector officer Duncan Earle discusses how condom social marketing contributes to AIDS prevention efforts. Condom social marketing uses commercial marketing techniques to promote condom use by making them more accessible and affordable. Thus, condoms are sold where people can purchase them without embarrassment (often by street hawkers) or where they may be needed in impulsive situations (in bars, hotels, and nightclubs). Social marketing relies on such marketing techniques as identifying wholesalers, assisting wholesalers with sales, creating point-of-purchase advertising, and developing attractive packaging. Prices are based on rough formulas derived from per capita gross national product and the prices people are willing to pay for such products as matches, cigarettes, candy, and aspirin. Quality is assured if the condoms are obtained through the US Agency for International Development's procurement system. Samples of condoms obtained from other sources are submitted for quality testing. The success of social marketing programs can be determined by examining sales and resupply. Cost effectiveness is determined by the cost of delivering 100 condoms (1 couple-year of protection). While social marketing would be more cost effective without expenditures on advertising, it would be less effective overall. Some barriers that must be overcome to market condoms include laws outlawing the sale or advertising of condoms, duties and customs' surcharges on imported condoms (which, in some cases, increase the cost 33%), and religious objections to contraception. As well as selling condoms, social marketing programs educate people about AIDS using any kind of media available.

  19. Effectiveness of condoms in preventing HIV transmission.

    PubMed

    Pinkerton, S D; Abramson, P R

    1997-05-01

    The consistent use of latex condoms continues to be advocated for primary prevention of HIV infection despite limited quantitative evidence regarding the effectiveness of condoms in blocking the sexual transmission of HIV. Although recent meta-analyses of condom effectiveness suggest that condoms are 60 to 70% effective when used for HIV prophylaxis, these studies do not isolate consistent condom use, and therefore provide only a lower bound on the true effectiveness of correct and consistent condom use. A reexamination of HIV seroconversion studies suggests that condoms are 90 to 95% effective when used consistently, i.e. consistent condom users are 10 to 20 times less likely to become infected when exposed to the virus than are inconsistent or non-users. Similar results are obtained utilizing model-based estimation techniques, which indicate that condoms decrease the per-contact probability of male-to-female transmission of HIV by about 95%. Though imperfect, condoms provide substantial protection against HIV infection. Condom promotion therefore remains an important international priority in the fight against AIDS.

  20. The Philippines: HIV/AIDS, condoms, and human rights.

    PubMed

    2004-08-01

    Influential leaders are increasingly attacking condoms through HIV-prevention programs that focus on sexual abstinence and marital fidelity. In May 2004 Human Rights Watch (HRW) released a report that examines the impact of these policies in the Philippines, the largest Roman Catholic country in Asia and a major recipient of US HIV/AIDS funding. PMID:15540338

  1. Correlates of condom use among female sex workers in The Gambia: results of a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Grosso, Ashley L; Lei, Esther L; Ketende, Sosthenes C; Peitzmeier, Sarah; Mason, Krystal; Ceesay, Nuha; Diouf, Daouda; Drame, Fatou Maria; Loum, Jaegan; Papworth, Erin; Baral, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This study examined correlates of condom use among 248 female sex workers (FSW) in The Gambia. Methods. Between July and August 2011, FSW in The Gambia who were older than 16 years of age, the age of consent in The Gambia, were recruited for the study using venue-based sampling and snowball sampling, beginning with seeds who were established clients with the Network of AIDS Services Organizations. To be eligible, FSW must have reported selling sex for money, favors, or goods in the past 12 months. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to determine associations and the relative odds of the independent variables with condom use. Four different condom use dependent variables were used: consistent condom use in the past six months during vaginal or anal sex with all clients and partners; consistent condom use in the past month during vaginal sex with new clients; consistent condom use in the past month during vaginal sex with nonpaying partners (including boyfriends, husbands, or casual sexual partners); and condom use at last vaginal or anal sex with a nonpaying partner. Results. Many FSW (67.34%, n = 167) reported it was not at all difficult to negotiate condom use with clients in all applicable situations, and these FSW were more likely to report consistent condom use with all clients and partners in the past 6 months (aOR 3.47, 95% CI [1.70-7.07]) compared to those perceiving any difficulty in condom negotiation. In addition, FSW were more likely to report using condoms in the past month with new clients (aOR 8.04, 95% CI [2.11-30.65]) and in the past month with nonpaying partners (aOR 2.93, 95% CI [1.09-7.89]) if they had been tested for HIV in the past year. Women who bought all their condoms were less likely than those who received all of their condoms for free (aOR 0.38, 95% CI [0.15-0.97]) to have used a condom at last vaginal or anal sex with a nonpaying partner. Conclusions. HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI

  2. Correlates of condom use among female sex workers in The Gambia: results of a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Esther L.; Ketende, Sosthenes C.; Peitzmeier, Sarah; Mason, Krystal; Ceesay, Nuha; Diouf, Daouda; Drame, Fatou Maria; Loum, Jaegan; Papworth, Erin; Baral, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This study examined correlates of condom use among 248 female sex workers (FSW) in The Gambia. Methods. Between July and August 2011, FSW in The Gambia who were older than 16 years of age, the age of consent in The Gambia, were recruited for the study using venue-based sampling and snowball sampling, beginning with seeds who were established clients with the Network of AIDS Services Organizations. To be eligible, FSW must have reported selling sex for money, favors, or goods in the past 12 months. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to determine associations and the relative odds of the independent variables with condom use. Four different condom use dependent variables were used: consistent condom use in the past six months during vaginal or anal sex with all clients and partners; consistent condom use in the past month during vaginal sex with new clients; consistent condom use in the past month during vaginal sex with nonpaying partners (including boyfriends, husbands, or casual sexual partners); and condom use at last vaginal or anal sex with a nonpaying partner. Results. Many FSW (67.34%, n = 167) reported it was not at all difficult to negotiate condom use with clients in all applicable situations, and these FSW were more likely to report consistent condom use with all clients and partners in the past 6 months (aOR 3.47, 95% CI [1.70–7.07]) compared to those perceiving any difficulty in condom negotiation. In addition, FSW were more likely to report using condoms in the past month with new clients (aOR 8.04, 95% CI [2.11–30.65]) and in the past month with nonpaying partners (aOR 2.93, 95% CI [1.09–7.89]) if they had been tested for HIV in the past year. Women who bought all their condoms were less likely than those who received all of their condoms for free (aOR 0.38, 95% CI [0.15–0.97]) to have used a condom at last vaginal or anal sex with a nonpaying partner. Conclusions. HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI

  3. AIDS and the marketing of condoms.

    PubMed

    Boone, L E; Kurtz, D L

    1988-01-01

    The condom market has undergone unprecedented change in the 1980's and will continue to see its markets, advertising strategies, and sales grow and change in ways never before imagined. In the past, condoms were viewed as unmentionable products that were marketed only at men between 18 and 35 and sold only in gas station restrooms and bus stations. But today women account for and estimated 40-50% of condom sales and after a Supreme Court ruling in 1977, condoms are now sold in front of the counter, not behind it. Further, the AIDS epidemic which has afflicted 40,000 U.S. citizens between 19811 and 1988 has served as an impetus to growth and diversification of the condom market. The new legitimacy of the condom combined with new entries into the market by other manufacturers has resulted in growth and segmentation in the condom market.

  4. Condom Use at Last Sex as a Proxy for Other Measures of Condom Use: Is It Good Enough?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Younge, Sinead N.; Salazar, Laura F.; Crosby, Richard F.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Wingood, Gina M.; Rose, Eve

    2008-01-01

    Condom use at last sex is a widely used indicator in sexual behavior research; however, there is little empirical research validating this indicator. This study examined whether a single-event recall period (the last time coitus occurred) was consistent with longer recall periods (14 days and 60 days) for a sample of African American adolescent…

  5. The catastrophic failures of plants hydraulic network examined trough an model system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bienaimé, Diane; Marmottant, Philippe; Brodribb, Tim

    2015-11-01

    Plants live a dangerous game: they have to facilitate water transport in their xylem conduits while minimizing the consequence of hydraulic failure. Indeed, as water flows under negative pressure inside these conduits, cavitation bubbles can spontaneously occur. The failure dynamics of this hydraulic network is poorly studied, while it has important ecological and bioengineering implications. Here, by using dark-field transmission microscopy, we were able to directly visualize the spreading of cavitation bubbles within leaves, where the xylem conduits form a 2D and transparent network. We observe the surprising fact that the probability of cavitation increases in larger veins, where the majority of water flows. Next, in order to understand the physical mechanism of nucleation and propagation, we built artificial networks of channels made in hydrogel, where evaporation generates negative pressures. We find the hydraulic failure follows two stages: first a sudden bubble nucleation relaxing to the elastic stored of the system, and then a slow expansion driven by the flow of water in the surrounding medium. Channel constrictions slow the propagation of the bubble, similarly to the small valves that connect plants conduits. P.M. acknowledges support from the University of Tasmania for a visiting scholar grant.

  6. Theories of Reasoned Action and Planned Behavior as Models of Condom Use: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Albarracín, Dolores; Johnson, Blair T.; Fishbein, Martin; Muellerleile, Paige A.

    2013-01-01

    To examine how well the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior predict condom use, the authors synthesized 96 data sets (N = 22,594) containing associations between the models’ key variables. Consistent with the theory of reasoned action’s predictions, (a) condom use was related to intentions (weighted mean r. = .45), (b) intentions were based on attitudes (r. = .58) and subjective norms (r. = .39), and (c) attitudes were associated with behavioral beliefs (r. = .56) and norms were associated with normative beliefs (r. = .46). Consistent with the theory of planned behavior’s predictions, perceived behavioral control was related to condom use intentions (r. = .45) and condom use (r. = .25), but in contrast to the theory, it did not contribute significantly to condom use. The strength of these associations, however, was influenced by the consideration of past behavior. Implications of these results for HIV prevention efforts are discussed. PMID:11271752

  7. Theories of reasoned action and planned behavior as models of condom use: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Albarracín, D; Johnson, B T; Fishbein, M; Muellerleile, P A

    2001-01-01

    To examine how well the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior predict condom use, the authors synthesized 96 data sets (N = 22,594) containing associations between the models' key variables. Consistent with the theory of reasoned action's predictions, (a) condom use was related to intentions (weighted mean r. = .45), (b) intentions were based on attitudes (r. = .58) and subjective norms (r. = .39), and (c) attitudes were associated with behavioral beliefs (r. = .56) and norms were associated with normative beliefs (r. = .46). Consistent with the theory of planned behavior's predictions, perceived behavioral control was related to condom use intentions (r. = .45) and condom use (r. = .25), but in contrast to the theory, it did not contribute significantly to condom use. The strength of these associations, however, was influenced by the consideration of past behavior. Implications of these results for HIV prevention efforts are discussed.

  8. Theories of reasoned action and planned behavior as models of condom use: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Albarracín, D; Johnson, B T; Fishbein, M; Muellerleile, P A

    2001-01-01

    To examine how well the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior predict condom use, the authors synthesized 96 data sets (N = 22,594) containing associations between the models' key variables. Consistent with the theory of reasoned action's predictions, (a) condom use was related to intentions (weighted mean r. = .45), (b) intentions were based on attitudes (r. = .58) and subjective norms (r. = .39), and (c) attitudes were associated with behavioral beliefs (r. = .56) and norms were associated with normative beliefs (r. = .46). Consistent with the theory of planned behavior's predictions, perceived behavioral control was related to condom use intentions (r. = .45) and condom use (r. = .25), but in contrast to the theory, it did not contribute significantly to condom use. The strength of these associations, however, was influenced by the consideration of past behavior. Implications of these results for HIV prevention efforts are discussed. PMID:11271752

  9. “It’s a Different Condom, Let’s See How It Works”: Young Men’s Reactions to and Experiences of Female Condom Use During an Intervention Trial in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Masvawure, Tsitsi B.; Mantell, Joanne E.; Mabude, Zonke; Ngoloyi, Claudia; Milford, Cecilia; Beksinska, Mags; Smit, Jennifer A.

    2013-01-01

    Although male partner cooperation is often essential for successful use of the female condom, only a few studies have directly assessed men’s experiences of using the device. We examined barriers to and facilitators of female condom use via qualitative in-depth interviews with 38 young men (18 to 28 years) in South Africa whose partners, all university students, were enrolled in a female condom intervention trial. In all, 21 men used the female condom; the remaining 17 did not attempt use. The main facilitators to female condom use were convenience of use for men, curiosity to see how female condoms compared to male condoms, enhanced sexual sensation, and perceptions of better safety and comfort of the device compared to male condoms. The main barriers were men’s limited familiarity with the device, insertion difficulties, and men’s concerns about loss of control over sexual encounters. We recommend that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention and condom promotion programs around the world target men directly for education on female condoms and that they also work with couples jointly around issues of safer-sex communication and negotiation. PMID:24053638

  10. Individual, interpersonal, and community predictors of consistent condom use among Taiwanese university students.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya-Chien

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the predictive value of individual, interpersonal, and community factors for consistent condom use among university students in Taiwan. The analytic sample for this cross-sectional study comprised 105 sexually active students, a subgroup of the respondents in a survey on university students in mid-Taiwan, with a mean age of 21, and 51.4% being female. The outcome variable was assessed as the proportion of times a condom was used in sex with steady sex partners. Risky sex appeared less related to having multiple sex partners (8.57%) than with inconsistent condom use (71.4%). Hierarchical regression analysis showed that 47.4% of variance in the outcome variable could be explained by AIDS knowledge, class adjustment, perception of good friends' condom use, and discussion of condom use with good friends. This study found that predictors across different levels may work in combination to influence students' condom use. Enhancing HIV/AIDS knowledge, improving class adjustment, facilitating peer norm of condom use may work in combination to increase students' condom use. PMID:26477524

  11. Individual, interpersonal, and community predictors of consistent condom use among Taiwanese university students.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya-Chien

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the predictive value of individual, interpersonal, and community factors for consistent condom use among university students in Taiwan. The analytic sample for this cross-sectional study comprised 105 sexually active students, a subgroup of the respondents in a survey on university students in mid-Taiwan, with a mean age of 21, and 51.4% being female. The outcome variable was assessed as the proportion of times a condom was used in sex with steady sex partners. Risky sex appeared less related to having multiple sex partners (8.57%) than with inconsistent condom use (71.4%). Hierarchical regression analysis showed that 47.4% of variance in the outcome variable could be explained by AIDS knowledge, class adjustment, perception of good friends' condom use, and discussion of condom use with good friends. This study found that predictors across different levels may work in combination to influence students' condom use. Enhancing HIV/AIDS knowledge, improving class adjustment, facilitating peer norm of condom use may work in combination to increase students' condom use.

  12. Predicting increased condom use with main partners: potential approaches to intervention.

    PubMed

    Bowen, A M

    1996-01-01

    HIV/AIDS risk reduction interventions have been based on 5 psychological models: Transtheoretical Model of Change, AIDS Risk Reduction Model, Social Cognitive Theory, Theory of Reasoned Action, and Theory of Planned Behavior. This longitudinal study examined changes in condom use as a function of variables from these theories. Risk assessment, "stages of change," and condom use questionnaires were administered to 78 crack smokers or intravenous drug users with a main partner recruited from 2 US towns. Networks of subjects were randomly assigned to a standard intervention (2 educational sessions including basic information about HIV and its prevention as well as demonstrations and practice of correct condom use and cleaning of drug injecting equipment) or an enhanced program (2 additional sessions in which participants set individual risk reduction goals and identified barriers to change). Logistic regression analysis indicated that changes in condom use after 6 months were not predicted by age, gender, ethnicity, type of drug use, perceived HIV risk, or intervention group. Having multiple sex partners significantly predicted increased condom use. The 2 strongest predictors of increased condom use were self-reported assertiveness and the stage of change. High assertiveness at intake (odds ratio, 4.97) and a plan to start using condoms in the next 6 months (odds ratio, 15.49) were significant predictors of an increase in condom use at 6-month follow-up. Proposed is a model that combines Theory of Planned Behavior and Social Cognitive Theory and conceptualizes assertiveness as the mediator between intention and behavior change.

  13. Predictors of African American adolescents' condom use and HIV risk behavior.

    PubMed

    Reitman, D; St Lawrence, J S; Jefferson, K W; Alleyne, E; Brasfield, T L; Shirley, A

    1996-12-01

    This study evaluated predictors of risky and safer behavior in a sample of low-income African American adolescents, assessed their perceptions of the risk associated with their sexual behavior, and examined differences between adolescents who used condoms consistently, inconsistently, or engaged only in unprotected intercourse. African American adolescents (N = 312) completed measures related to AIDS knowledge, frequency of condom use, attitudes toward condoms, and sexual behavior over the preceding 2 months. Multiple regression analyses for the sexually active youths (N = 114) revealed that lower self-efficacy, higher perceived risk, and male gender were associated with high-risk behavior. Positive attitudes toward condoms and younger age had the strongest association with condom use. Consistent condom users were more knowledgeable and held more positive attitudes toward condoms, and nonusers were older. Regardless of their behavior, the adolescents generally did not perceive themselves to be a risk for HIV infection. The findings suggest that precautionary practices (condom use) and high-risk behavior (unprotected sex with multiple partners) may have different correlates. In addition, the data indicate that theoretical models developed with homosexual male populations may also be generalizable to African American adolescents' sexual behavior.

  14. The NYC Condom: Use and Acceptability of New York City's Branded Condom

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Ryan C.; Wilson, Juliet; Bernstein, Kyle T.; Grosskopf, Nicholas; Murrill, Christopher; Cutler, Blayne; Sweeney, Monica

    2009-01-01

    We assessed awareness and experience with the NYC Condom via surveys at 7 public events targeting priority condom distribution populations during 2007. Most respondents (76%) were aware of NYC Condoms. Of those that had obtained them, 69% had used them. Most (80%) wanted alternative condoms offered for free: 22% wanted ultra-thin, 18% extra-strength, and 14% larger-size. Six months after the NYC Condom launch, we found high levels of awareness and use. Because many wanted alternative condoms, the Department of Health and Mental Hygiene began distributing the 3 most-requested alternatives. PMID:19834001

  15. Condom Use During Commercial Sex Among Male Clients of Female Sex Workers in Sichuan China: A Social Cognitive Theory Analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi; Yang, Cui; Latkin, Carl A; Luan, Rongsheng; Nelson, Kenrad E

    2016-10-01

    There has been little theory-based research focusing on condom use among male clients of female sex workers (CFSW) in China. The current study applied social cognitive theory to condom use behaviors of CFSW in China. Face-to-face structured interviews were conducted among 584 CFSW recruited through snowball sampling. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were applied to examine factors associated with consistent condom use. A minority (30.65 %) of respondents reported using condoms consistently with FSW, and 7 of 12 social cognitive dimensions/subdimensions were found to be significantly influential. The most significant factors were self-efficacy [adjusted prevalence ratio (APR) = 2.11, 95 %, CI = 1.74-2.43] and personal pleasure reduction (APR = 0.3, 95 % CI = 0.15-0.6). HIV-related knowledge, perceived HIV susceptibility, condom cost, condom efficacy, and embarrassment of carrying condoms were not associated with consistent condom uses with FSW. Findings from the current study suggest future prevention programs should target sex venues, and condom access should ensure both quantity and quality. Peer education should focus on knowledge education and peer norms, and knowledge education should include information on HIV infection severity and how to increase pleasure with condom use.

  16. Condoms in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Maticka-Tyndale, Eleanor

    2012-03-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is the region with the world's highest rates of HIV and other sexually transmissible infections (STIs), yet numerous studies show that condom use is generally rare. This suggests a need for a better understanding of how condoms fit within sexual practices and relationships in SSA. This paper seeks to address this need by reviewing research published between the late 1980s and 2011 on use and factors influencing use of male condoms in SSA. What is evident from this research is that condom use involves complex social and interpersonal dynamics, with structural and cultural conditions exerting an influence through framing social cognitions and setting boundaries on autonomy that make the apparently irrational choice of eschewing condoms a rational decision. The influences of poverty; relationships with parents, peers and partners; limited, insufficient or absent information especially in rural areas and among men who have sex with men; gender and sexual norms, and the dynamics of gendered power; and beliefs and attitudes about HIV, condoms and sexuality all have been shown to work against condom use for a large proportion of Africa's people. However, promising results are shown in trends towards increased condom use among single women in numerous countries, increasing acceptance and use of condoms among some university students, successes in producing potentially sustainable condom use resulting from select interventions, and resistance to succumbing to the dominant gender-power dynamics and structural-cultural impediments that women in groups have mobilised.

  17. Reasons to have confidence in condoms.

    PubMed

    Mcneill, E T

    1998-01-01

    When used regularly and correctly, latex condoms are highly reliable and effective in preventing pregnancy and sexually transmitted disease. However, condoms are not being used as much as they should be, mainly because of negative perceptions among both users and health care providers. The following reasons are presented and discussed as to why people should have more confidence in latex condoms: when used correctly, condoms are highly reliable and effective in preventing pregnancy and sexually transmitted disease; latex condoms provide an impermeable mechanical barrier to bacteria, viruses, and sperm; most users do not break condoms, and a proportion of breakage is preventable; modern condoms are manufactured with considerable precision; use of the proper lubricant improves condom use; condoms in intact foil packages last at least 5 years; and quality control and post-production quality assurance help to ensure the manufacture of a reliable product. While it remains to be determined how accurately the test standards predict results during human use, a combination of tests can provide data upon the quality of condoms in the field.

  18. Examination of a Rock Failure Criterion Based on Circumferential Tensile Strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, , Y.; Kiyama, , T.; Ishijima, Y.; Kodama, J.

    Uniaxial compression, triaxial compression and Brazialian tests were conducted on several kinds of rock, with particular attention directed to the principal tensile strain. In this paper we aim to clarify the effects of the experimental environment-such as confining pressure, loading rate, water content and anisotropy-on the critical tensile strain, i.e., the measured principal tensile strain at peak load.It was determined that the chain-type extensometer is a most suitable method for measuring the critical tensile strain in uniaxial compression tests. It is also shown that the paper-based strain gage, whose effective length is less than or equal to a tenth of the specimen's diameter and glued on with a rubber-type adhesive, can be effectively used in the Brazilian tests.The effect of confining pressure PC on the critical tensile strain ɛTC in the brittle failure region was between -0.02 × 10-10 Pa-1 and 0.77 × 10-10 Pa-1. This pressure sensitivity is small compared to the critical tensile strain values of around -0.5 × 10-2. The strain rate sensitivities ∂ɛTC/∂{log(d|ɛ|/dt)} were observed in the same way as the strength constants in other failure criteria. They were found to be from -0.10 × 10-3 to -0.52 × 10-3 per order of magnitude in strain rate in the triaxial tests. The average magnitude of the critical tensile strain ɛTC increased due to the presence of water by 4% to 20% for some rocks, and decreased by 22% for sandstone. It can at least be said that the critical tensile strain is less sensitive to water content than the uniaxial compressive strength under the experimental conditions reported here. An obvious anisotropy was observed in the P-wave velocity and in the uniaxial compressive strength of Pombetsu sandstone. It was not observed, however, in the critical tensile strain, although the data do show some variation.A "tensile strain criterion" was proposed, based on the above experimental results. This criterion signifies that stress begins

  19. Female condom skill and attitude: results from a NIDA Clinical Trials Network gender-specific HIV risk reduction study.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Aimee N C; Tross, Susan; Hu, Mei-Chen; Pavlicova, Martina; Kenney, Jennifer; Nunes, Edward V

    2011-08-01

    The female condom is effective in reducing unprotected sexual acts; however, it remains underutilized in the United States. This study examined whether a five-session HIV prevention intervention (Safer Sex Skills Building [SSB]), including presentation, discussion, and practice with female condoms, improved female condom skills and attitude among women in outpatient substance abuse treatment. Mixed-effects modeling was used to test the effect of SSB on skills and attitude over 3- and 6-month posttreatment among 515 randomized women. SSB was significantly associated with increases in skills and attitude, and the female condom demonstration session was primarily responsible for skills improvement. Attitude was a partial mediator of the intervention effect in reducing unprotected sex. Findings emphasize the utility of integrating female condom messages targeting proximal behavioral outcomes into HIV prevention. The study supports the use of female condom skill instruction via brief, hands-on exercises, as well as further research to enhance attitudinal change to reduce sexual risk.

  20. The effects of partner insistence of condom usage on perceptions of the partner, the relationship, and the experience.

    PubMed

    Hocking, J E; Turk, D; Ellinger, A

    1999-06-01

    The present study examined the effects of an individual insisting on condom usage on how he or she is viewed by their partner. Participants were led through a realistic role-play scenario in which, after dating a new partner for "a while", they engaged in sexual intercourse. Results were such that after first time sex, participants indicated feeling more responsible, less at-risk, and less worried when a condom was used than when no condom was used. Participants evaluated their partner as more responsible, more caring, and less likely to have a sexually transmitted disease when a condom was used. Further, when a condom was used, the relationship was evaluated as enhanced, closer, more intimate, and more likely to be long lasting. The insistence of condom use by the participant's partner also resulted in less guilt and regret regarding the sexual experience itself. These results generally held true for both male and female participants.

  1. Perceived social approval and condom use with casual partners among youth in urban Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background HIV prevention programs targeting youth often emphasize the role of peers, and assume that youths will model their behavior after their peers'. We challenge this view; we argue that adopting a given behavior requires social approval, and that youths do not necessarily turn to peers for such approval. This study analyzes survey data on youths in urban Cameroon to 1) identify which type of persons youths look to for social approval, and 2) establish how important social approval by these persons is for condom use among youths. Methods We analyzed data from three survey waves (2000, 2002, and 2003) of a reproductive health survey conducted among urban Cameroonian youth (aged 15-24). Only respondents who reported having at least one casual partner in the past year were retained for the analysis. Bivariate analyses and structural equation modeling were used to examine relationships among perceived social approval, attitudes towards condoms and condom use. Results The data show that only 3% of youths named their friends as people whose opinion they valued, while 93% mentioned family members. The perceived approval of condom use by these persons had a significant positive effect on the frequency of condom use among youths. The frequency of condom use was also affected by the respondents' attitudes toward condom use, the range of persons with whom they discussed reproductive health matters, whether they were enrolled in school, socioeconomic status, their self-efficacy, perceived severity of AIDS, risk perception and sexual risk behavior. The perceived social approval of condom use and the respondents' own condom attitudes were correlated. Conclusions Our analysis demonstrates that perceived social approval facilitates the adoption of condom use among urban Cameroonian youth. However, youths tend to value the opinions of family members much more than the opinions of their peers. These results suggest that interventions targeting youths should not focus

  2. Gender Differences and Condom-Associated Embarrassment in the Acquisition of Purchased versus Free Condoms among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Brandy; Ickes, Melinda J.; Mark, Kristen P.

    2016-01-01

    Condoms are not used consistently among sexually active college students, indicating a need to understand condom acquisition patterns. This study describes purchased and free acquisition of condoms, factors influencing purchased condom acquisition, and condom-associated embarrassment among college students. A random sample of students at a public…

  3. Minority College Women's Views on Condom Negotiation.

    PubMed

    McLaurin-Jones, TyWanda; Lashley, Maudry-Beverly; Marshall, Vanessa

    2015-12-22

    This study utilized quantitative and qualitative methods to (1) investigate the relationship between frequency of condom use and negotiation strategies and (2) evaluate experiences with condom negotiations among sexually active, heterosexual, African American college women. One hundred female students from a Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) completed a questionnaire that included the Condom Influence Strategies Scale (CIS) and participated in a focus group. An ANOVA was conducted to compare differences between never, inconsistent, and consistent condom users. Consistent condom users scored higher than never users on the "withholding sex" subscale of the CIS (4.88 vs. 3.55; p < 0.001) as well as endorsed items more strongly on the "direct request" subscale of the CIS (4.63 vs. 3.82, p < 0.05) than never users. A thematic analysis of open discussions identified overarching themes. Similarly, refusing sex and/or having direct communications with partner emerged as primary strategies. Threats to negotiation included deciding the "right timing" of discussion and having a previous history of sexual intercourse without a condom with their partner. Other key concepts that contribute to condom negotiation are the views that condoms are a male's responsibility and stigma of women who carry condoms.

  4. Minority College Women's Views on Condom Negotiation.

    PubMed

    McLaurin-Jones, TyWanda; Lashley, Maudry-Beverly; Marshall, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    This study utilized quantitative and qualitative methods to (1) investigate the relationship between frequency of condom use and negotiation strategies and (2) evaluate experiences with condom negotiations among sexually active, heterosexual, African American college women. One hundred female students from a Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) completed a questionnaire that included the Condom Influence Strategies Scale (CIS) and participated in a focus group. An ANOVA was conducted to compare differences between never, inconsistent, and consistent condom users. Consistent condom users scored higher than never users on the "withholding sex" subscale of the CIS (4.88 vs. 3.55; p < 0.001) as well as endorsed items more strongly on the "direct request" subscale of the CIS (4.63 vs. 3.82, p < 0.05) than never users. A thematic analysis of open discussions identified overarching themes. Similarly, refusing sex and/or having direct communications with partner emerged as primary strategies. Threats to negotiation included deciding the "right timing" of discussion and having a previous history of sexual intercourse without a condom with their partner. Other key concepts that contribute to condom negotiation are the views that condoms are a male's responsibility and stigma of women who carry condoms. PMID:26703642

  5. Increased condom use needed to fight AIDS.

    PubMed

    Worldwide, at least 33 million people are infected with HIV, another 14 million have died, and approximately 16,000 people are newly infected each day, 60% of whom are women. An estimated 6-9 billion condoms are currently used throughout the world each year. However, a report from the Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health has determined that the level of condom use must be increased to 24 billion units annually in order to check the spread of HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases. An estimated 71% of total condom need is among sexually active unmarried men, while the rest of the need is among married men who have extramarital affairs and by married couples. Condoms should be made accessible to all at subsidized prices and provided not only through health clinics and retail shops, but also in hotels, bars, grocery stores, and vending machines. New efforts are needed to make condoms more accessible, including lowering their cost, effectively promoting their use, and overcoming the many social and personal obstacles to their use, especially in developing countries where the impact of AIDS is the most severe. Special programs should target specific groups, including youth, unmarried men, and prostitutes, while condom promotion should also aim to improve the image of condoms by portraying them as fun, reliable, and important. Finally, political and religious leaders should speak out in favor of condom use, while the mass media should openly discuss condoms.

  6. Increased condom use needed to fight AIDS.

    PubMed

    Worldwide, at least 33 million people are infected with HIV, another 14 million have died, and approximately 16,000 people are newly infected each day, 60% of whom are women. An estimated 6-9 billion condoms are currently used throughout the world each year. However, a report from the Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health has determined that the level of condom use must be increased to 24 billion units annually in order to check the spread of HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases. An estimated 71% of total condom need is among sexually active unmarried men, while the rest of the need is among married men who have extramarital affairs and by married couples. Condoms should be made accessible to all at subsidized prices and provided not only through health clinics and retail shops, but also in hotels, bars, grocery stores, and vending machines. New efforts are needed to make condoms more accessible, including lowering their cost, effectively promoting their use, and overcoming the many social and personal obstacles to their use, especially in developing countries where the impact of AIDS is the most severe. Special programs should target specific groups, including youth, unmarried men, and prostitutes, while condom promotion should also aim to improve the image of condoms by portraying them as fun, reliable, and important. Finally, political and religious leaders should speak out in favor of condom use, while the mass media should openly discuss condoms. PMID:12295207

  7. Sex Work Venue and Condom Use among Female Sex Workers in Senggigi, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Safika, Iko; Levy, Judith A.; Johnson, Timothy P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the structural influence of sex work venues on condom use among female sex workers in the Senggigi area of Lombok, Indonesia. A cross-sectional design employing ethnographic observation, structured interviews and hierarchical linear modeling was used to examine condom use among female sex workers who solicited clients at three types of sex work venues: freelance, brothels, and entertainment places (karaoke bars and massage parlours). The sample consisted of 115 women “nested” within 16 sex work venues drawn from the three venue types. Rate (39%) of condom use varied across sex work venues. Perceived management style, HIV/AIDS-related policies, and risk-reduction services differed by venue, but this variation did not explain differences in condom use. At the individual level, higher condom use was associated with female sex workers having ever been married. At the client level, condoms were more likely to be used with foreign rather than domestic/local Indonesian clients. Low rates of condom use among Indonesian female sex workers during commercial sex suggests the need for increased HIV prevention efforts that acknowledge sex worker characteristics and relationships with clients that place them at risk. Future research into the effects of social context on HIV risk should also be considered. PMID:23472595

  8. Condom use around the globe: how can we fulfil the prevention potential of male condoms?

    PubMed

    Warner, Lee; Gallo, Maria F; Macaluso, Maurizio

    2012-03-01

    Despite a global epidemic of sexually transmissible infections and the availability and endorsement of condoms as an effective intervention, the overall use of condoms remains low. This review explores various challenges and opportunities to fully realizing the prevention potential for condoms.

  9. AIDS public service announcements: effects of fear and repetition on predictors of condom use.

    PubMed

    Treise, D; Weigold, M F

    2001-01-01

    An experiment examined the effects of varying levels of fear and message repetition in a radio public service announcement (PSA) on attitudes toward and intentions to use condoms. Predictions were derived from the Theory of Reasoned Action and Fazio's accessibility model. Results suggest that repetition and fear have important effects on intentions to use condoms and attitudes toward using condoms, even after accounting for inputs specified by the Theory of Reasoned Action In addition, frequency affected the relative weights of attitudinal versus normative effects on intentions, suggesting that PSAs may be able to affect attitudes and intentions through spontaneous attitude activation as described by Fazio (1990). PMID:11968298

  10. Identifying Students at Risk for Failure on the Licensing Examination for Registered Nurses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Susan J.; Orr, Scott P.

    A method was developed for identifying students who may be at high risk for failing the State Board Licensing Examination (SBE) for registered nurses. The subjects used in developing prediction equations included 50 students who graduated from the nursing program at Saint Joseph's College (SJC) in North Windham (Maine) during the years 1983-84.…

  11. Four Radical Panaceas for Reversing Mass Failure in Certificate English Language Examinations in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasasi, Khabyr Alowonle; Amadi, Gloria U.

    2015-01-01

    Given the present-day perspectives of Nigerians to the imperatives of qualitative education in the lives of youths, quite a lot of Nigerians have strongly bemoaned and condemned the recurrent woeful performances of students in Certificate examinations. Many research works have therefore concerned themselves with solving the problems of mass…

  12. Socioeconomic factors influencing the failure to measure the blood pressure of children during clinical examinations.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jaewhan; Philips, Peter

    2011-10-01

    The authors measured the percentage of children aged 6 through 17 whose blood pressure (BP) was not measured during recent nonemergency clinical examination and assessed the relative importance of health, ability-to-pay, language, and race-ethnic factors in determining whether BP was measured. Using a pooled dataset from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) for 2006 and 2007, the authors calculated the percentage of children whose BP was not measured using a sample of children aged 6 through 17 and constructed a logistic regression model to estimate the relative importance of health, economic, and social factors in the examiner's decision to measure BP. A total of 28.9% of children did not have their BP measured. Within this unmeasured group, 31% had a family history of hypertension, 9% had a family history of diabetes, and 5% had a body mass index ≥32 kg/m2 . The logistic regression model of examiners' decisions indicates that social and economic factors strongly compete with health factors in determining which children not to measure. While examiners place many children at risk for hypertension in the measured pool, they also place many at-risk children in the unmeasured pool for economic and social reasons.

  13. Prevalence of condom use and associated factors among Chinese female undergraduate students in Wuhan, China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Lijun; Chen, Rucheng; Huang, Danqin; Wu, Haocheng; Yan, Hong; Li, Shiyue; Braun, Kathryn L

    2013-01-01

    With the increasing prevalence of premarital sex among college students in China, our aim was to examine prevalence and determinants of condom use among sexually active female undergraduates at 16 university campuses in Wuhan. Questionnaires were distributed to 5076 unmarried female undergraduates, recruited using randomized cluster sampling by type of university and student major and grade, and anonymously completed questionnaires were received from 4769 (94% of enrollees). The complex samples logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with condom use, yielding odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Of 4769 female students, 863 (18.1%) reported ever having sexual intercourse. Of these, 19.8% used a condom in their first sexual encounter, and these students were more likely to age 20 or older at first intercourse, and less likely to live in countryside during middle school period, and majoring in the arts. Fully 30% of those having intercourse reported never or seldom or sometimes using condoms in the past 12 months. Students using condoms consistently in the past 12 months were more likely majoring in science and technology, to believe that condoms are the safest way to prevent STD and unwanted pregnancy, and to have used a condom at first intercourse; they were less likely to live in countryside during middle school period, and to report multiple sexual partners since initiating sexual behavior. These results suggested that a larger subset of Chinese female undergraduates is engaged in unprotected, premarital sex, and interventions provided for them should stress the importance of delaying sexual initiation, using condoms from the very first sexual encounter, and consistently using condoms after initiating sex. PMID:23005581

  14. To use or not to use: a stage-based approach to understanding condom use among homeless youth.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Joan S; Ober, Allison; Ryan, Gery; Golinelli, Daniela; Ewing, Brett; Wenzel, Suzanne L

    2014-01-01

    This study used a stage-based approach to understand condom use behavior in a representative sample of 309 sexually active homeless youth recruited from shelters, drop-in centers, and street sites in Los Angeles County. Focusing on the youth's most recent sexual event, the three stages of condom use examined were: (1) whether the partners decided prior to the event about using condoms; (2) whether a condom was available at the event; and (3) whether a condom was used at the event. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify attitudinal, relationship, and contextual correlates of each of these three stages. Deciding ahead of time about condom use was associated with being Hispanic, level of education, condom attitudes, and various relationship characteristics (e.g., partner type, monogamy, relationship abuse), with the nature of these associations varying depending on the type of decision (i.e., deciding to use, deciding to not use). Condom availability was more likely to be reported by males, if the event was described as being special in some way, or if the event lacked privacy. Condom use was more likely among youth with more positive condom attitudes and among youth who decide ahead of time to use a condom, but less likely among those in monogamous relationships or when hard drugs were used prior to sex. Whether sexual intercourse is protected or unprotected is the end result of a series of decisions and actions by sexual partners. Results from this study illustrate how condom use can be better understood by unpacking the stages and identifying influential factors at each stage. Each stage may, in and of itself, be an important target for intervention with homeless youth.

  15. Predictors of Condom-use among Young Never-married Males in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Feyisetan, Oluwadaisi Isaac; Akpan, Toyin

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the factors that influence condom-use among young never-married males in Nigeria. Such information can help improve the design of a prevention programme for young never-married, especially, males to reduce their vulnerability to sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV/AIDS transmission. Data were derived from the 2003 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS). Analysis of data was restricted to 827 males aged 15-24 years, who had never married or lived together with a woman. Both descriptive and analytical methods were used for assessing the net effects of socioeconomic factors on condom-use. The analysis used logistic regression models for determining the predictors of sexual behaviour and condom-use among young never-married males in Nigeria. About 43% of the study population was sexually experienced, and the use of a condom remained low. One in five reported the use of a condom at sexual debut. Level of education, place of residence in childhood, urban/rural region, religious affiliation, economic status index, and exposure to mass media were associated with sexual experience and use of protective measures. Economic status index and mass-media exposure were associated with the use of a condom by the respondents during their last sex encounter. About two-fifths (43%) of the young unmarried Nigerian men were sexually experienced but the condom-use remained low, thus making this sub-group of Nigerian population highly vulnerable to STIs, including HIV/AIDS. PMID:21766563

  16. Sexual communication and condom use among Chinese men who have sex with men in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zhiwen; Li, Xiaoming; Liu, Yingjie; Li, Shuming; Jiang, Shulin

    2013-01-01

    This study collected cross-sectional data from 307 young Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM) to explore the characteristics of sexual communications, including target of communication (stable partners, casual partners), topics of communication (condom use, HIV/STDs prevention, and sexual history), and the associations between sexual communication characteristics and condom use. A variety of measures were employed to assess respondents' condom use with different sexual partners over different recall periods. Chi-square tests were employed to examine the relationships between sexual communication characteristics and condom use. This study found that sexual communications with regular partners about topics, such as condom use, HIV/STDs prevention, and current and past sexual relationship were associated with condom use with regular partners. Respondents who had sexual communications with both regular and casual partners were more likely to use condoms with their regular partners. The findings in the current study provided empirical evidence for the importance of frequent sexual communication between Chinese MSM and their sex partners.

  17. Women's beliefs concerning condom acquisition and use.

    PubMed

    Libbus, K

    1995-10-01

    Condoms are a time-honored and reliable method of protection against pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. However, their use, and thus their effectiveness, is determined by individual behavior. The purpose of this paper is to report attitudes and salient beliefs related to condom use in a sample of adult women. The study used Ajzen and Fishbein's Theory of Planned Behavior to identify modal, salient beliefs regarding condom acquisition and use as intentional behaviors. The study sample consisted of 58 community women who reported using condoms for contraceptive purposes within the last five years. In face-to-face, audiotaped interviews, open-ended questions were used to solicit beliefs regarding condom acquisition and use. All subject narratives were content-analyzed for recurrent themes. Women cited accessibility and effectiveness in preventing pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases as both advantages and as factors contributing to the ease of acquisition and use. Disadvantages and factors that might deter condom acquisition and use included embarrassment, objections by male partner, and effect on spontaneity. Overall, subjects exhibited accurate knowledge regarding the benefits of condom acquisition and use. However, it is possible that expressed negative beliefs could take precedence in decision-making and reduce the probability of consistent condom use. PMID:7479543

  18. From awareness to adoption: the effect of AIDS education and condom social marketing on condom use in Tanzania (1993-1996).

    PubMed

    Eloundou-Enyegue, Parfait M; Meekers, Dominique; Calvès, Anne Emmanuèle

    2005-05-01

    This paper uses retrospective event-history data covering a four-year period to examine the timing of exposure to HIV/AIDS education and social marketing condom promotion campaigns, relative to the timing of changes in sexual risk behaviour in Tanzania. Analysis of the event-history data shows that the process of exposure to AIDS education messages and exposure to brand advertising for Salama brand condoms was very different. While exposure to AIDS education was early and gradual, exposure to Salama brand condoms started later, but was much more rapid. After one year of advertising, over half of the target population had been reached by the Salama advertising campaign, mostly through newspapers, radio and television. During the study period, condom use increased from 15% at the beginning of 1993 to 42% at the end of 1996. Increases in condom use were driven both by men who became sexually active, and by men who were not yet protected, or not fully protected. The results further show that it is uncommon for men who adopted condom use to return to more risky behaviour, which suggests that behaviour change in the study population is permanent. PMID:15906883

  19. The effect of exposure to a condom script on attitudes toward condoms.

    PubMed

    Kyes, K B; Brown, I S; Pollack, R H

    1991-01-01

    The effect of reading an erotic script that described condom placement on attitudes toward condom use was investigated in 102 male and 108 female US university students. It was hypothesized that, when integrated into an erotic script, condom use would become viewed as a pleasurable activity rather than just a means of avoiding pregnancy or disease. Controls received identical scripts except that the use of condoms was omitted or received no stories. Subjects who read the erotic accounts exhibited a positive change from pretest to posttest in attitudes toward condom use, but there was no difference in this outcome between condom story and no-condom erotic story conditions. In women, but not men, a high level of arousal induced by the script was associated with negative attitudes toward condoms, suggesting that males and females may require different reading materials. Given the finding, at least in women, of an inverse relationship between explicit eroticism/sexual arousal and condom attitude scores, a 2nd experiment involving less explicit stories written by college students was conducted. Here, 100 men and 100 women students received erotic stories that either featured or did not include condom use. Again, males who read stories incorporating condom placement held more positive attitudes toward condom use than same-sex controls, but women were not affected by the manipulation. For women, a positive attitude toward condom use was associated only with history of sexual activity. Helpful would be the preparation of erotic scripts that appeal to both sexes given the demonstrated effectiveness of this social learning technique with the male subjects in both experiments.

  20. Protective Parenting, Relationship Power Equity, and Condom Use Among Rural African American Emerging Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Kogan, Steven M.; Simons, Leslie G.; Chen, Yifu; Burwell, Stephanie; Brody, Gene H.

    2012-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections disproportionately affect African Americans, particularly young women. The influence of a set of interrelated protective parenting processes—instrumental and emotional support, sexual risk communication, and encouragement of goals for employment or education—on emerging adult women was examined. Parenting was hypothesized to affect consistent condom use through its association with women’s reports of power equity in their intimate relationships. Hypotheses were tested with 135 sexually active women 18 to 21 years of age living in rural southern communities. Structural equation modeling indicated that (a) parenting processes predicted women’s self-reported relationship power equity and consistent condom use, and (b) relationship power equity predicted consistent condom use. Limited support emerged for a mediational role of relationship power equity in explaining the influence of parenting on consistent condom use. Parental involvement and young women’s establishment of personal control in their intimate relationships are important goals for sexual risk reduction programs. PMID:23729949

  1. 21 CFR 801.435 - User labeling for latex condoms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false User labeling for latex condoms. 801.435 Section... latex condoms. (a) This section applies to the subset of condoms as identified in § 884.5300 of this chapter, and condoms with spermicidal lubricant as identified in § 884.5310 of this chapter,...

  2. 21 CFR 801.435 - User labeling for latex condoms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false User labeling for latex condoms. 801.435 Section... latex condoms. (a) This section applies to the subset of condoms as identified in § 884.5300 of this chapter, and condoms with spermicidal lubricant as identified in § 884.5310 of this chapter,...

  3. 21 CFR 884.5310 - Condom with spermicidal lubricant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Condom with spermicidal lubricant. 884.5310... Devices § 884.5310 Condom with spermicidal lubricant. (a) Identification. A condom with spermicidal... that contains a spermicidal agent, nonoxynol-9. This condom is used for contraceptive and...

  4. 21 CFR 884.5310 - Condom with spermicidal lubricant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Condom with spermicidal lubricant. 884.5310... Devices § 884.5310 Condom with spermicidal lubricant. (a) Identification. A condom with spermicidal... that contains a spermicidal agent, nonoxynol-9. This condom is used for contraceptive and...

  5. 21 CFR 884.5310 - Condom with spermicidal lubricant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Condom with spermicidal lubricant. 884.5310... Devices § 884.5310 Condom with spermicidal lubricant. (a) Identification. A condom with spermicidal... that contains a spermicidal agent, nonoxynol-9. This condom is used for contraceptive and...

  6. 21 CFR 884.5310 - Condom with spermicidal lubricant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Condom with spermicidal lubricant. 884.5310... Devices § 884.5310 Condom with spermicidal lubricant. (a) Identification. A condom with spermicidal... that contains a spermicidal agent, nonoxynol-9. This condom is used for contraceptive and...

  7. 21 CFR 801.435 - User labeling for latex condoms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false User labeling for latex condoms. 801.435 Section... latex condoms. (a) This section applies to the subset of condoms as identified in § 884.5300 of this chapter, and condoms with spermicidal lubricant as identified in § 884.5310 of this chapter,...

  8. 21 CFR 884.5310 - Condom with spermicidal lubricant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Condom with spermicidal lubricant. 884.5310... Devices § 884.5310 Condom with spermicidal lubricant. (a) Identification. A condom with spermicidal... that contains a spermicidal agent, nonoxynol-9. This condom is used for contraceptive and...

  9. Condom use for preventing STI/HIV and unintended pregnancy among young men in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Bankole, Akinrinola; Singh, Susheela; Hussain, Rubina; Oestreicher, Gabrielle

    2009-03-01

    The condom is the only known method that provides simultaneous protection against unplanned pregnancy and some sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV, among sexually active people. Using data from the Demographic and Health Surveys from 18 Sub-Saharan African countries, this study examined condom use and reasons for using the method at last intercourse among sexually active young men aged 15 to 29. Most young men were aware of the condom (73%-98%), but its use at last intercourse was quite variable, ranging from 6% in Madagascar to 74% in Namibia. In 10 countries, more young men reportedly used condoms for preventing STIs alone than they did for preventing pregnancy alone. In 6 countries, at least one third of the users used the method for both purposes. Use of the condom at last intercourse was associated with union status, education, residence, and exposure to television in at least two thirds of the countries.

  10. Is cost a structural barrier preventing men who have sex with men accessing condoms? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ubrihien, Ashley; Davies, Stephen C; Driscoll, Tim

    2016-11-01

    A systematic review was undertaken to determine whether cost is a structural barrier preventing men who have sex with men (MSM) accessing condoms. Studies were examined from a range of countries where condoms have been distributed free to particular populations and also those where condoms were available at a cost to the individual. The study inclusion criteria were: published between January 1990 and September 2014 inclusive; published in any language, discussed cost as a barrier to condom use, discussed cost barriers to MSM accessing condoms and included a measure of outcome. Articles were systematically extracted from MEDLINE, Embase, PyschINFO and Informat using the five search terms; Male Homosexuality, Access, Cost, Cost and Cost analysis, Condoms. Sixty-four articles were initially identified and 11 included in the final review. The included studies used cost-utility analysis, qualitative, cross-sectional, cohort or randomised control trial design. Large-scale free distribution programmes and smaller targeted programmes showed positive correlations in reducing the burden of disease from HIV and other sexually transmitted infections through eliminating the issue of cost. Decreasing the cost of condoms, and providing them for no cost, appears to increase their utilisation amongst MSM and possibly reduce the burden from HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. Inequality and stigma remain important barriers to MSM accessing and using condoms particularly in the developing world.

  11. Is cost a structural barrier preventing men who have sex with men accessing condoms? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ubrihien, Ashley; Davies, Stephen C; Driscoll, Tim

    2016-11-01

    A systematic review was undertaken to determine whether cost is a structural barrier preventing men who have sex with men (MSM) accessing condoms. Studies were examined from a range of countries where condoms have been distributed free to particular populations and also those where condoms were available at a cost to the individual. The study inclusion criteria were: published between January 1990 and September 2014 inclusive; published in any language, discussed cost as a barrier to condom use, discussed cost barriers to MSM accessing condoms and included a measure of outcome. Articles were systematically extracted from MEDLINE, Embase, PyschINFO and Informat using the five search terms; Male Homosexuality, Access, Cost, Cost and Cost analysis, Condoms. Sixty-four articles were initially identified and 11 included in the final review. The included studies used cost-utility analysis, qualitative, cross-sectional, cohort or randomised control trial design. Large-scale free distribution programmes and smaller targeted programmes showed positive correlations in reducing the burden of disease from HIV and other sexually transmitted infections through eliminating the issue of cost. Decreasing the cost of condoms, and providing them for no cost, appears to increase their utilisation amongst MSM and possibly reduce the burden from HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. Inequality and stigma remain important barriers to MSM accessing and using condoms particularly in the developing world. PMID:27240970

  12. 21 CFR 884.5300 - Condom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...: Labeling for Natural Rubber Latex Condoms Classified Under 21 CFR 884.5300” will serve as the special... transmitted infections). The device may also be used to collect semen to aid in the diagnosis of...

  13. 21 CFR 884.5300 - Condom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...: Labeling for Natural Rubber Latex Condoms Classified Under 21 CFR 884.5300” will serve as the special... transmitted infections). The device may also be used to collect semen to aid in the diagnosis of...

  14. 21 CFR 884.5300 - Condom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...: Labeling for Natural Rubber Latex Condoms Classified Under 21 CFR 884.5300” will serve as the special... transmitted infections). The device may also be used to collect semen to aid in the diagnosis of...

  15. 21 CFR 884.5300 - Condom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...: Labeling for Natural Rubber Latex Condoms Classified Under 21 CFR 884.5300” will serve as the special... transmitted infections). The device may also be used to collect semen to aid in the diagnosis of...

  16. 21 CFR 884.5300 - Condom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...: Labeling for Natural Rubber Latex Condoms Classified Under 21 CFR 884.5300” will serve as the special... transmitted infections). The device may also be used to collect semen to aid in the diagnosis of...

  17. The Role of Condom Use Self-Efficacy on Intended and Actual Condom Use Among University Students in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Oppong Asante, Kwaku; Osafo, Joseph; Doku, Paul N

    2016-02-01

    Little attention has been paid to the dimensions that help to predict and understand condom use among university students within an African context. A cross-sectional study involving 518 university students in Accra, Ghana was conducted to determine how the Condom Use self-Efficacy Scale-Ghana (CUSES-G) can predict both actual condom use and future condom use. Of all the participants, 84% were sexually active but less than half of the sample (48%) reported to have used condom during their last sexual intercourse. A hierarchical regression analysis showed that components of the Condom Use Self-Efficacy Scale (CUESE-G) such as appropriation, assertiveness, pleasure and intoxication, and STDs predicted condom use and condom use intentions. Behavioural change campaigns targeting university students should encourage condom use self-efficacy, as this would strengthen condom use, which is economically cheap and practically effective means of preventing STIs including HIV. PMID:26233713

  18. Condom Use and Intimacy among Tajik Male Migrants and their Regular Female Partners in Moscow

    PubMed Central

    Polutnik, Chloe; Jonbekov, Jonbek; Shoakova, Farzona; Bahromov, Mahbat; Weine, Stevan

    2014-01-01

    This study examined condom use and intimacy among Tajik male migrants and their regular female partners in Moscow, Russia. This study included a survey of 400 Tajik male labour migrants; and longitudinal ethnographic interviews with 30 of the surveyed male migrants and 30 of their regular female partners. 351 (88%) of the surveyed male migrants reported having a regular female partner in Moscow. Findings demonstrated that the migrants’ and regular partners’ intentions to use condoms diminished with increased intimacy, yet each party perceived intimacy differently. Migrants’ intimacy with regular partners was determined by their familiarity and perceived sexual cleanliness of their partner. Migrants believed that Muslim women were cleaner than Orthodox Christian women and reported using condoms more frequently with Orthodox Christian regular partners. Regular partners reported determining intimacy based on the perceived commitment of the male migrant. When perceived commitment faced a crisis, intimacy declined, and regular partners renegotiated condom use. The association between intimacy and condom use suggests that HIV prevention programmes should aim to help male migrants and female regular partners to dissociate their approaches to condom use from their perceptions of intimacy. PMID:25033817

  19. Do Alcohol and Marijuana Use Decrease the Probability of Condom Use for College Women?

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Jennifer L.; Fielder, Robyn L.; Carey, Kate B.; Carey, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol and marijuana use are thought to increase sexual risk taking, but event-level studies conflict in their findings and often depend on reports from a limited number of people or on a limited number of sexual events per person. With event-level data from 1856 sexual intercourse events provided by 297 college women (Mage = 18 years; 71% White), we used multilevel modeling to examine associations between alcohol and marijuana use and condom use as well as interactions involving sexual partner type and alcohol-sexual risk expectancies. Controlling for alternative contraception use, partner type, regular levels of substance use, impulsivity and sensation-seeking, and demographics, women were no more or less likely to use condoms during events involving drinking or heavy episodic drinking (HED) than during those without drinking. However, for drinking events, there was a negative association between number of drinks consumed and condom use; additionally, women with stronger alcohol-sexual risk expectancies were marginally less likely to use condoms when drinking. Although there was no main effect of marijuana use on condom use, these data suggest that marijuana use with established romantic partners may increase risk of unprotected sex. Intervention efforts should target expectancies and emphasize the dose-response relationship of drinks to condom use. PMID:24164105

  20. Relationships Between Marijuana Dependence and Condom Use Intentions and Behavior Among Justice-Involved Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell Hooper, Ann E.; Thayer, Rachel E.; Magnan, Renee E.; Bryan, Angela D.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the relationships among marijuana dependence, a theoretical model of condom use intentions, and subsequent condom use behavior in justice-involved adolescents. Participants completed baseline measures of prior sexual and substance use behavior. Of the original 720 participants, 649 (90.13 %) completed follow-up measures 6 months later. There were high levels of marijuana use (58.7 % met criteria for dependence) and risky sexual behavior among participants. Baseline model constructs were associated with condom use intentions, and intentions were a significant predictor of condom use at follow-up. Marijuana dependence did not significantly influence the relationships between model constructs, nor did it moderate the relationship of model constructs with subsequent condom use. Findings suggest that the theoretical model of condom use intentions is equally valid regardless of marijuana dependence status, suggesting that interventions to reduce sexual risk behavior among both marijuana dependent and non-dependent justice-involved adolescents can be appropriately based on the model. PMID:23370834

  1. Moderating effects of gender on alcohol use: implications for condom use at first intercourse.

    PubMed

    Dye, Claire; Upchurch, Dawn M

    2006-03-01

    This study examined whether the effects of level of alcohol consumption on condom use at first sex depend on adolescents' gender, utilizing data from Wave I of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Compared to girls who did not consume any alcohol, inebriated girls were significantly less likely to use a condom at first intercourse (odds ratio = 0.41, p condom use were having a young age at first sex, being Asian American, and living in a stepfamily with one's biological father; mother's education was positively associated with condom use. Adjusted predicted probabilities showed that girls who had first sex younger than 14 years and who were inebriated had the lowest probability of using a condom (p = .384). The results support the hypothesis that alcohol use during sex has a negative effect on condom use at first sex, moderated by gender. Adolescent reproductive health programs that also include alcohol education may prove useful. PMID:16475987

  2. Biological validation of self-reported condom use among sex workers in Guinea.

    PubMed

    Aho, Joséphine; Koushik, Anita; Diakité, Soumaïla Laye; Loua, Kovana Marcel; Nguyen, Vinh-Kim; Rashed, Sélim

    2010-12-01

    Self-reported condom use may be prone to social desirability bias. Our aim was to assess the validity of self-reported condom use in a population of female sex workers using prostate specific antigen (PSA) as a gold standard biomarker of recent unprotected vaginal intercourse. We collected data on 223 sex-workers in Conakry, Guinea in order to assess the sensitivity and specificity of self-reported condom use as well as to examine the predictors of discordance between self-report and PSA presence. PSA was detected in 38.4% of samples. Sensitivity of self-reported condom use was 14.6% and its specificity was 94.7%. Self-perceived high risk of HIV infection was the only significant independent predictor of misreported condom use. PSA could be useful to validate self-reported condom use in surveys and to allow a better understanding of factors associated with social desirability in sexual behaviour reporting. PMID:19680799

  3. Body dissatisfaction and condom use self-efficacy: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Blashill, Aaron J; Safren, Steven A

    2015-01-01

    The consistent use of condoms is the most effective behavior for reducing the acquisition of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and condom use self-efficacy has been shown to be a key construct related to condom use. However, the examination of modifiable psychosocial and behavioral correlates of condom use self-efficacy is lacking. Recent investigations have highlighted the association of body dissatisfaction with condom use self-efficacy, and the current study conducted a meta-analysis on all available data addressing this relationship. Eleven individual effect-size parameters from nine studies yielded a total sample of 2495 men and women participants. A random-effects model revealed an average effect-size of r=-.25, Cohen's d=-0.52, which is moderate in strength. As body dissatisfaction increases, ones' self-efficacy regarding the use of condoms diminishes. Integrating interventions to decrease body dissatisfaction and sexual risk behaviors may prove to be an effective strategy to decrease STIs. PMID:25462884

  4. Condom use and intimacy among Tajik male migrants and their regular female partners in Moscow.

    PubMed

    Zabrocki, Christopher; Polutnik, Chloe; Jonbekov, Jonbek; Shoakova, Farzona; Bahromov, Mahbat; Weine, Stevan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined condom use and intimacy among Tajik male migrants and their regular female partners in Moscow, Russia. This study included a survey of 400 Tajik male labour migrants and longitudinal ethnographic interviews with 30 of the surveyed male migrants and 30 of their regular female partners. of the surveyed male migrants, 351 (88%) reported having a regular female partner in Moscow. Findings demonstrated that the migrants' and regular partners' intentions to use condoms diminished with increased intimacy, yet each party perceived intimacy differently. Migrants' intimacy with regular partners was determined by their familiarity and the perceived sexual cleanliness of their partner. Migrants believed that Muslim women were cleaner than Orthodox Christian women and reported using condoms more frequently with Orthodox Christian regular partners. Regular partners reported determining intimacy based on the perceived commitment of the male migrant. When perceived commitment faced a crisis, intimacy declined and regular partners renegotiated condom use. The association between intimacy and condom use suggests that HIV-prevention programmes should aim to help male migrants and female regular partners to dissociate their approaches to condom use from their perceptions of intimacy.

  5. Condoms, HIV and the Roman Catholic Church.

    PubMed

    Benagiano, Giuseppe; Carrara, Sabina; Filippi, Valentina; Brosens, Ivo

    2011-06-01

    For decades, the Roman Catholic Church opposed use of condoms to prevent spread of sexually transmitted infections (STI) because of their contraceptive effect. In 2009, Pope Benedict XVI said that widespread use of condoms could worsen the situation, a position rejected as 'unscientific'. Recently, however the Pontiff stated that because the Church considers acts of prostitution and homosexuality to be gravely immoral and disordered, in such specific cases use of a condom might become an initial step in the direction of a moralization leading to an assumption of responsibility and a new awareness of the meaning of sexuality. In doing so, he reaffirmed his belief that condoms cannot solve the problem of STI spread, stressing the Church's position that modern societies no longer see sexuality as an 'expression of love, but only as a sort of drug that people administer to themselves'. The new Papal position has been widely applauded, but made conservative Catholics unhappy. A dialogue with the Church now seems possible: Does concentrating on condoms hinder the effectiveness of other strategies? What are the respective roles of condoms and other approaches to prevent infection spread? Does a special situation exist in Africa requiring specific and focused interventions?

  6. Pharmacies, communication, and condoms. Research report: Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pick De Weiss, S

    1995-01-01

    The Institute Mexicano de Investigacion de Familia y Poblacion, A.C. (IMIFAP) tested the effectiveness of a training course and educational materials that were designed to increase the awareness and knowledge of pharmacy employees concerning acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and its prevention, and to promote condoms. 174 employees participated in workshops that included information on transmission and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and AIDS, and condom usage. Pre- and post-session tests were performed to ascertain the short-term retention of information; the long-term effect was assessed via incognito shopper visits and monitoring of condom sales. Short, intensive training, when reinforced by posters, pamphlets, and video, significantly increased knowledge of AIDS (symptoms, transmission, and prevention) and correct condom usage. Awareness of risk behaviors and groups at risk for AIDS improved. Printed materials alone did not have a substantial impact on knowledge or sales of condoms, and increased knowledge alone did not increase information disseminated. After 6 months there was a significantly higher rise in condom sales (16%) in the course-plus-materials group. This group also took a greater initiative in providing information to clients. In spite of these positive results, knowledge and initiative are still unsatisfactory, especially when the role of pharmacies in general health care and the suspected prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases and human immunodeficiency virus in Mexico are considered. PMID:12319333

  7. Condoms, HIV and the Roman Catholic Church.

    PubMed

    Benagiano, Giuseppe; Carrara, Sabina; Filippi, Valentina; Brosens, Ivo

    2011-06-01

    For decades, the Roman Catholic Church opposed use of condoms to prevent spread of sexually transmitted infections (STI) because of their contraceptive effect. In 2009, Pope Benedict XVI said that widespread use of condoms could worsen the situation, a position rejected as 'unscientific'. Recently, however the Pontiff stated that because the Church considers acts of prostitution and homosexuality to be gravely immoral and disordered, in such specific cases use of a condom might become an initial step in the direction of a moralization leading to an assumption of responsibility and a new awareness of the meaning of sexuality. In doing so, he reaffirmed his belief that condoms cannot solve the problem of STI spread, stressing the Church's position that modern societies no longer see sexuality as an 'expression of love, but only as a sort of drug that people administer to themselves'. The new Papal position has been widely applauded, but made conservative Catholics unhappy. A dialogue with the Church now seems possible: Does concentrating on condoms hinder the effectiveness of other strategies? What are the respective roles of condoms and other approaches to prevent infection spread? Does a special situation exist in Africa requiring specific and focused interventions? PMID:21507723

  8. Condom Negotiations among Female Sex Workers in the Philippines: Environmental Influences

    PubMed Central

    Urada, Lianne A.; Morisky, Donald E.; Pimentel-Simbulan, Nymia; Silverman, Jay G.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Social and structural influences of condom negotiation among female sex workers (FSWs) remain understudied. This study assesses environmental and individual factors associated with condom negotiation among FSWs at high risk for acquiring HIV in a large urban setting of Metro Manila, Philippines. Methods Female bar/spa workers (N = 498), aged 18 and over, underwent interview-led surveys examining their sexual health practices in the context of their risk environments. Data were collected from April 2009-January 2010 from 54 venues. Multiple logistic regressions were conducted to assess socio-behavioral factors (e.g., age, education, length of time employed as an entertainer, and alcohol/drug use) and socio-structural factors (e.g., venue-level peer/manager support, condom rule/availability, and sex trafficking) associated with condom negotiation, adjusting for individuals nested within venues. Results Of 142 FSWs who traded sex in the previous 6 months (included in the analysis), 24% did not typically negotiate condom use with venue patrons. Factors in the physical environment - trafficked/coerced into work (AOR = 12.92, 95% CI = 3.34–49.90), economic environment - sex without a condom to make more money (AOR = 1.52, 95% CI 1.01–2.30), policy environment - sex without a condom because none was available (AOR = 2.58, 95% CI = 1.49–4.48), and individual risk - substance use (AOR = 2.36, 95% CI = 1.28–4.35) were independently associated with FSWs' lack of condom negotiation with venue patrons. Conclusions Factors in the physical, economic, and policy environments, over individual (excepting substance use) and social level factors, were significantly associated with these FSWs' condom negotiations in the Philippines. Drawing upon Rhodes' risk environment framework, these results highlight the need for policies that support safer sex negotiations among sex workers in the context of their risk environments. Interventions

  9. Condom use among female sex workers and their non-commercial partners: Effects of a sexual risk intervention in two Mexican cities

    PubMed Central

    Ulibarri, Monica D.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Lozada, Remedios; Staines-Orozco, Hugo S.; Abramovitz, Daniela; Semple, Shirley; Martínez, Gustavo A.; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether a brief behavioral intervention promoting condom use among female sex workers (FSWs) and their clients had the added benefit of increasing condom use among FSWs and their steady, non-commercial partners (e.g., husbands, boyfriends). Participants were 362 FSWs, aged ≥ 18, living in Tijuana or Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, who received a behavioral intervention to promote condom use with clients. Repeated measures negative binomial regression was used to assess FSWs' condom use with steady partners versus clients across time. Results showed that FSWs engaged in unprotected sex with steady partners more than with their clients, and that the intervention changed FSWs' condom use with clients but not their steady partners. HIV prevention interventions for FSWs should promote consistent condom use across partner type. Targeting couples rather than individuals may also be necessary. PMID:22581944

  10. Everywhere you go, everyone is saying condom, condom. But are they being used consistently? Reflections of South African male students about male and female condom use.

    PubMed

    Mantell, Joanne E; Smit, Jennifer A; Beksinska, Mags; Scorgie, Fiona; Milford, Cecilia; Balch, Erin; Mabude, Zonke; Smith, Emily; Adams-Skinner, Jessica; Exner, Theresa M; Hoffman, Susie; Stein, Zena A

    2011-10-01

    Young men in South Africa can play a critical role in preventing new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections, yet are seldom targeted for HIV prevention. While reported condom use at last sex has increased considerably among young people, consistent condom use remains a challenge. In this study, 74 male higher education students gave their perspectives on male and female condoms in 10 focus group discussions. All believed that condoms should be used when wanting to prevent conception and protect against HIV, although many indicated that consistent condom use was seldom attained, if at all. Three possible situations for not using condoms were noted: (i) when sex happens in the heat of the moment and condoms are unavailable, (ii) when sexual partnerships have matured and (iii) when female partners implicitly accept unprotected sex. Men viewed it as their responsibility to have male condoms available, but attitudes about whose decision it was to initiate condom use were mixed. Almost all sexually active men had male condom experience; however, very few had used female condoms. Prevention initiatives should challenge traditional gendered norms that underpin poor condom uptake and continued use and build on the apparent shifts in these norms that are allowing women greater sexual agency.

  11. Personal and partner measures in stages of consistent condom use among African American heterosexual crack cocaine smokers

    PubMed Central

    PALLONEN, U. E.; WILLIAMS, M. L.; TIMPSON, S. C.; BOWEN, A.; ROSS, M. W.

    2010-01-01

    Participants’ personal condom use measures and those of their last sex partner’s were examined in five stages of change for consistent condom use among 449 urban sexually active, heterosexual, African–American crack smokers. The measures included participants’ personal and their last sex partner’s perceived responsibility, personal and perceived negative attitudes, and participants’ self-efficacy to use condoms. The relationships between the measures and the stages were examined using analyses of variance and multivariate logistic regression. Over 90% of participants did not use condoms, consistently. Two-thirds of the inconsistent users were in the precontemplation stage. The rest were equally divided between the contemplation and preparation stages. Personal responsibility outperformed other measures in initial intention to become a regular condom user; partner’s perceived responsibility dominated continued intention and actual consistent condom use. Negative attitudes and self-efficacies had strong relationships to the stages of consistent condom use in univariate analyses but these relationships became substantially weaker when the responsibility, attitude, and self-efficacy concepts were entered simultaneously into multivariate analyses. PMID:18293131

  12. Egypt's fundamentalists say condoms immoral.

    PubMed

    Soliman, S

    1995-06-01

    The first AIDS case in Egypt was reported almost 10 years ago, yet Egypt still does not have reliable statistics on the HIV/AIDS epidemic (officially, 513 HIV infections and 88 AIDS cases; more likely, 3000 and 10,000, respectively). HIV/AIDS bears a stigma. The government claims that every HIV-infected Egyptian acquired the infection through a blood transfusion while in the Gulf or through sexual intercourse in Europe. Cultural, social, and religious norms that discourage promiscuity may explain the low HIV/AIDS rate but these same taboos put women at risk by making it difficult for them to protect themselves. Islamic fundamentalist women reinforce the Islamic principle of forbidding sex education. They consider AIDS a plague of immoral Western society. They refuse to accept the fact that many men do not practice safer sex. These women consider condoms immoral. They think God will curse women who refuse to have sexual intercourse at their husbands' bidding. Many nongovernmental organizations consider an intensive education program as the only means to avert disaster. Egypt has yet to implement its model AIDS program. All hospitals in Cairo and some hospitals in rural areas have equipment to test for HIV. Surveillance systems have been limited to high risk groups. In Egypt, it is mandatory to test foreigners for HIV. Prisoners, prostitutes, homosexuals, and blood donors are tested randomly without their consent. Positive results are often reported to authorities before the persons learn their HIV status. A campaign for widespread sex education is the only action recommended so far. It includes a mass media component and community meetings and conferences. An Egyptian physician has found an anti-viral drug that stimulates the immune system, but his work does not receive much coverage outside Egypt. Egyptians need to tackle their cultural taboos about discussion of sex to curb the HIV/AIDS epidemic.

  13. Can women 'refuse' condoms? Dilemmas of condom negotiation among men living with HIV in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mfecane, Sakhumzi

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes challenges that men living with HIV experience in negotiating condom use with sexual partners. After testing HIV-positive, the men in this study attended support groups of people living with HIV. Here they were taught to behave 'responsibly' by adopting safer sex measures. However, some men faced strong resistance from women concerning condom use, particularly from women with whom they had been sexually involved prior to testing HIV-positive. This paper explores the reasoning behind the rejection of condoms by women, focusing specifically on the nature of relationships, disclosure of HIV status and gender power dynamics. Analysis of the findings, which are taken from an ethnographic study conducted over 14 months, indicates that efforts to initiate condom use allowed women to challenge men's authority in sexual affairs and assert their own (limited) agency - albeit by demanding unprotected sex. However, women's rejection of condoms occurred in a knowledge vacuum about their own HIV risk because male partners had failed to disclose their HIV status prior to initiating condoms. Interventions need to encourage men to disclose their HIV status before they initiate condom use with their sexual partners. Furthermore men need to encourage their partners to be open about their sexual needs.

  14. Prevalence and correlates of female condom use and interest among injection drug-using female sex workers in two Mexico-US border cities.

    PubMed

    Stockman, Jamila K; Morris, Meghan D; Martinez, Gustavo; Lozada, Remedios; Patterson, Thomas L; Ulibarri, Monica D; Vera, Alicia; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2012-10-01

    Little is known about female condom use among female sex workers who inject drugs (FSW-IDUs) in Northern Mexico, where HIV/STI prevalence is high. We examined the prevalence and correlates of female condom use and interest in female condom use among FSW-IDUs aged >18 years in Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico enrolled in a behavioral intervention designed to reduce high-risk sexual and injection behaviors. Of 621 FSW-IDUs, 8 % reported ever using female condoms, and 67.2 % expressed interest in trying female condoms. Factors independently associated with female condom use were having had a client become angry at the suggestion of using condoms and having engaged in unprotected vaginal sex with non-regular clients. Factors independently associated with interest in using female condoms were lifetime physical abuse and lifetime sexual abuse. Increasing the availability of female condoms and providing education on their use in the context of drug use and violence is recommended.

  15. Prevalence and Correlates of Female Condom Use and Interest Among Injection Drug-Using Female Sex Workers in Two Mexico–US Border Cities

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Meghan D.; Martinez, Gustavo; Lozada, Remedios; Patterson, Thomas L.; Ulibarri, Monica D.; Vera, Alicia; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about female condom use among female sex workers who inject drugs (FSW-IDUs) in Northern Mexico, where HIV/STI prevalence is high. We examined the prevalence and correlates of female condom use and interest in female condom use among FSW-IDUs aged ≥18 years in Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico enrolled in a behavioral intervention designed to reduce high-risk sexual and injection behaviors. Of 621 FSW-IDUs, 8 % reported ever using female condoms, and 67.2 % expressed interest in trying female condoms. Factors independently associated with female condom use were having had a client become angry at the suggestion of using condoms and having engaged in unprotected vaginal sex with non-regular clients. Factors independently associated with interest in using female condoms were lifetime physical abuse and lifetime sexual abuse. Increasing the availability of female condoms and providing education on their use in the context of drug use and violence is recommended. PMID:22711225

  16. Determinants of condom use intentions of university students in Ghana: an application of the theory of reasoned action.

    PubMed

    Bosompra, K

    2001-04-01

    The study examined the applicability of the Theory of Reasoned Action to the study of condom use intentions of students at a university in southern Ghana. The data supported the model, explaining 33% of the variance in students' condom use intentions. Subjective norms and the perceived disadvantages of condom use were significant determinants of intention, with the former being more important. Respondents who intended to use condoms consistently ("intenders") and those with no such intentions ("non-intenders") were equally motivated to comply with the wishes of their significant referents (sexual partners, close friends, parents and medical doctors). The critical difference was that "intenders" consistently held a stronger belief than "non-intenders" that their significant referents approved of condom use. Significantly, whereas "intenders" believed that their sexual partners would approve of condom use, the "non-intenders" held the contrary belief that their partners would disapprove of such behavior. This suggests that AIDS education interventions targeting a similar audience like the university students in this study should shift their foci away from individuals alone and instead, focus simultaneously on individuals, their sexual partners and their broader social networks in order to enhance perceptions of peer acceptance of condom use. PMID:11266049

  17. Determinants of condom use intentions of university students in Ghana: an application of the theory of reasoned action.

    PubMed

    Bosompra, K

    2001-04-01

    The study examined the applicability of the Theory of Reasoned Action to the study of condom use intentions of students at a university in southern Ghana. The data supported the model, explaining 33% of the variance in students' condom use intentions. Subjective norms and the perceived disadvantages of condom use were significant determinants of intention, with the former being more important. Respondents who intended to use condoms consistently ("intenders") and those with no such intentions ("non-intenders") were equally motivated to comply with the wishes of their significant referents (sexual partners, close friends, parents and medical doctors). The critical difference was that "intenders" consistently held a stronger belief than "non-intenders" that their significant referents approved of condom use. Significantly, whereas "intenders" believed that their sexual partners would approve of condom use, the "non-intenders" held the contrary belief that their partners would disapprove of such behavior. This suggests that AIDS education interventions targeting a similar audience like the university students in this study should shift their foci away from individuals alone and instead, focus simultaneously on individuals, their sexual partners and their broader social networks in order to enhance perceptions of peer acceptance of condom use.

  18. Altered surface character of stretched condom latex.

    PubMed

    Jay, G D; Drummond, E; Lane, B

    1992-02-01

    A new type of imperfection in condom latex, present during moderate stretching, was observed by low magnification scanning electron microscopy. The normally smooth surface of relaxed natural latex was transformed into an accordion-like arrangement of ripples in addition to tears. A corollary experiment with Alcian blue dye placed into both stretched and unstretched condoms leaked no dye. These surface features are consistent with latex acting as a molecular barrier. The tears may represent areas of lowered mechanical resistance and raise questions concerning quality control.

  19. HIV infection and the meaning of condoms.

    PubMed

    Pivnick, A

    1993-12-01

    Present day meanings associated with condom use among drug-using women and their long term sexual partners include: loss of male protection; violations of constructions of intimacy, fidelity, conjugal bonding, and female identity; illness; and death. Efforts to change condom use patterns must be based on increased vocational, educational, and social opportunities for women. HIV prevention efforts might profit from the design of safer sex interventions informed by the above meanings; intensified mass media campaigns; and a re-contextualization of attitudes, behaviors, and beliefs.

  20. Public Policy Failure and Fiasco in Education: Perspectives on the British Examinations Crises of 2000-2002 and Other Episodes since 1975

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, William

    2007-01-01

    In recent years there has been a re-appraisal within political science of the characteristics of various kinds of public policy failure. At the same time, the political significance of education has grown in most liberal democracies. The present paper examines public policy in British education since the mid-1970s and asks: What goes wrong in…

  1. Factors Associated with Parent Support for Condom Education and Availability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AugsJoost, Brett; Jerman, Petra; Deardorff, Julianna; Harley, Kim; Constantine, Norman A.

    2014-01-01

    Expanding condom-related knowledge and skills and reducing barriers to condom use have the potential to help reduce pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections among youth. These goals are sometimes addressed through condom education and availability (CEA) programs as part of sexuality education in school. Parents are a key constituency in…

  2. Prototypical Images in Condom Scripts among AIDS-Bereaved Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reich, Warren A.; Rubin, Rachel M.

    2007-01-01

    Twenty-five HIV-negative late adolescents (13 women and 12 men) who had lost a parent to AIDS generated vignettes in which the characters were deciding whether to use a condom (condom scripts). Two clinically trained judges rated the interpersonal tone of the condom scripts on 17 semantic differential scales. Three other clinically trained raters…

  3. Prevalence and Contexts of Inconsistent Condom Use Among Heterosexual Men and Women Living with HIV in India: Implications for Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Chakrapani, Venkatesan; Newman, Peter A.; Shunmugam, Murali

    2010-01-01

    Abstract This investigation examined sexual behaviors among heterosexual persons living with HIV (PLHIV) in India. Study participants (mostly married) were interviewed during August to November 2006 in five Indian states using a quantitative survey (n = 100 men and 100 women), eight focus groups (n = 58 participants), and in-depth interviews (n = 31). One third of men and one fourth of women reported inconsistent condom use with regular sexual partners. Facilitators of condom use with regular partners included a feeling of personal responsibility to protect the health of the partner, desire to prevent acquisition and/or transmission of sexually transmitted infections, and the belief that condoms are needed for antiretroviral therapy to be effective. Barriers to consistent condom use with regular partners included the belief that condoms are unnecessary in HIV-positive seroconcordant relationships; lack of sexual satisfaction with condoms; the desire to have a child; husband's alcohol use, depression, and anxiety; fear that disclosure of HIV status will bring marital discord and family shame; and inadequate counseling by health care providers. Positive prevention programs should include counseling about benefits of safer sex in HIV-positive seroconcordant relationships, counseling about integrating condom use with sexual satisfaction and intimacy, condom use self-efficacy and negotiation skills-building, family planning counseling, mental health and alcohol dependence treatment, and counseling and skills-building about disclosure. Health care providers must be trained to provide these services. Furthermore, efforts are needed to promote tolerance for family planning choices made by couples and to counter the stigma associated with HIV/AIDS and condoms in the broader society. PMID:20095889

  4. Prevalence and contexts of inconsistent condom use among heterosexual men and women living with HIV in India: implications for prevention.

    PubMed

    Chakrapani, Venkatesan; Newman, Peter A; Shunmugam, Murali; Dubrow, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This investigation examined sexual behaviors among heterosexual persons living with HIV (PLHIV) in India. Study participants (mostly married) were interviewed during August to November 2006 in five Indian states using a quantitative survey (n = 100 men and 100 women), eight focus groups (n = 58 participants), and in-depth interviews (n = 31). One third of men and one fourth of women reported inconsistent condom use with regular sexual partners. Facilitators of condom use with regular partners included a feeling of personal responsibility to protect the health of the partner, desire to prevent acquisition and/or transmission of sexually transmitted infections, and the belief that condoms are needed for antiretroviral therapy to be effective. Barriers to consistent condom use with regular partners included the belief that condoms are unnecessary in HIV-positive seroconcordant relationships; lack of sexual satisfaction with condoms; the desire to have a child; husband's alcohol use, depression, and anxiety; fear that disclosure of HIV status will bring marital discord and family shame; and inadequate counseling by health care providers. Positive prevention programs should include counseling about benefits of safer sex in HIV-positive seroconcordant relationships, counseling about integrating condom use with sexual satisfaction and intimacy, condom use self-efficacy and negotiation skills-building, family planning counseling, mental health and alcohol dependence treatment, and counseling and skills-building about disclosure. Health care providers must be trained to provide these services. Furthermore, efforts are needed to promote tolerance for family planning choices made by couples and to counter the stigma associated with HIV/AIDS and condoms in the broader society.

  5. Everyday exposure to benevolent sexism and condom use among college women.

    PubMed

    Fitz, Caroline C; Zucker, Alyssa N

    2015-01-01

    Understanding factors related to condom use is critical in reducing the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), especially for women, who are disproportionately affected by many STIs. Extant work has shown that perceived sexism is one such factor associated with lower levels of condom use among women, but has yet to explore whether benevolent sexism in particular-a subtle form of sexism that often goes unnoticed and increases cognitions and behaviors consistent with traditional female gender roles (e.g., sexual submissiveness)-relates negatively to this safer-sex practice. The present research tested this possibility and, in addition, examined whether relational sex motives, which reflect a desire to engage in sex as a means to foster partners' sexual satisfaction, mediated the relation between benevolent sexism and condom use. During the spring of 2011, female college students (N = 158) reported how often they experienced benevolent sexism in their daily lives and, 2 weeks later, their relational sex motives and condom use. Supporting hypotheses results indicated that greater exposure to benevolent sexism was associated significantly with lower condom use, and that relational sex motives mediated this relationship. We discuss implications for women's well-being, including ways to promote safer sex in the face of sexism.

  6. Why do men often not use condoms in their relationships with casual sexual partners in Uganda?

    PubMed

    Rutakumwa, Rwamahe; Mbonye, Martin; Kiwanuka, Thadeus; Bagiire, Daniel; Seeley, Janet

    2015-01-01

    With a focus on Uganda, this paper examines men's condom use in sexual relationships with casual partners and what this might tell us about men's vulnerability to HIV-infection. We carried out repeat interviews with 31 men attending a clinic serving women at high risk for HIV infection and their partners in Kampala. We found that the experience of condom-less sex in the men's youth, itself the outcome of a restrictive home environment, was perceived as influencing later unsafe sexual behaviour. Peer pressure encouraged men to have multiple partners. Alcohol negatively affected condom use. Men often opted not to use a condom with women they thought looked healthy, particularly if they had had sex with the same woman before. Some men who were HIV-positive said they saw little point in using condoms since they were already infected. A concerted effort is required to reach men, like those in our study, to halt HIV and the transmission of other sexually transmitted infections.

  7. Depression, Abuse, Relationship Power and Condom Use by Pregnant and Postpartum Women with Substance Abuse History.

    PubMed

    Dévieux, Jessy G; Jean-Gilles, Michèle; Rosenberg, Rhonda; Beck-Sagué, Consuelo; Attonito, Jennifer M; Saxena, Anshul; Stein, Judith A

    2016-02-01

    Substance-abusing pregnant and postpartum women are less likely to maintain consistent condom use and drug and alcohol abstinence, which is particularly concerning in high HIV-prevalence areas. Data from 224 pregnant and postpartum women in substance abuse treatment were analyzed to examine effects of history of substance use, child abuse, and mental health problems on current substance use and condom-use barriers. Mediators were depression, relationship power and social support. Most participants (72.9 %) evidenced current depression. Less social support (-0.17, p < 0.05) and relationship power (-0.48, p < 0.001), and greater depression (-0.16, p < 0.05) predicted more condom-use barriers. History of mental health problems predicted condom-use barriers, mediated by recent depression and relationship power (0.15, p < 0.001). These findings suggest depression and diminished relationship power limit highest-risk women's ability to negotiate condom use and abstain from substance use, increasing their risk of acute HIV infection and vertical transmission.

  8. Sociodemographic, behavioral, and clinical correlates of inconsistent condom use in HIV-serodiscordant heterosexual couples.

    PubMed

    Buchacz, K; van der Straten, A; Saul, J; Shiboski, S C; Gomez, C A; Padian, N

    2001-11-01

    We examined sociodemographic, behavioral, and clinical characteristics associated with inconsistent condom use in a cross-sectional analysis of 145 sexually active HIV-serodiscordant heterosexual couples who participated in the California Partners Study II. All couples were aware of their HIV-serodiscordant status. Forty-five percent of couples reported having had unprotected vaginal or anal sex in the previous 6 months. In the multivariate couple-level analyses, factors independently associated with inconsistent (i.e., <100%) condom use in the previous 6 months included lower educational level, unemployment, African-American ethnicity, and practice of anal sex by the couple. Injection drug use was associated with inconsistent condom use among couples with younger HIV-infected partners. In addition, couples with HIV-infected partners who had higher CD4 cell counts and couples in which the HIV-infected male partner ever had sex with a man were more likely to use condoms inconsistently. Consistency of condom use did not depend on the gender of the HIV-infected partner or duration of sexual relationship. The findings suggest that many HIV-serodiscordant heterosexual couples remain at high risk of HIV transmission and may benefit not only from behavioral interventions but also from structural interventions aimed at improving their social and economic conditions. PMID:11694839

  9. Condom Use among Latino College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurman, Tilly; Borzekowski, Dina L.G.

    2004-01-01

    Recent reports indicate that Latinos, the largest racial/ethnic minority group in the United States, are disproportionately affected by HIV and AIDS. College health professionals, therefore, should understand current sexual behaviors and risk factors among Latino youth. The authors assessed students' condom use at their most recent sexual…

  10. Condom Access: Associations with Consistent Condom Use among Female Sex Workers in Two Northern Border Cities of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Fátima A.; Pollini, Robin A.; Zúñiga, María Luisa; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Lozada, Remedios; Martínez, Gustavo A.; Valles-Medina, Ana M.; Sirotin, Nicole; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2011-01-01

    To determine whether condom access is associated with consistent condom use among FSWs in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, between 2004 and 2006 we administered a questionnaire to 924 FSWs who reported unprotected sex with a client in the past two months. Of these women, 43% reported consistent (“often” or “always”) condom use; 74% said condoms were available; and 38% reported having access to free condoms. In a logistic regression, factors positively associated with consistent condom use were condom availability (AdjOR = 2.00; 95% CI: 1.32–3.03), condom affordability (AdjOR = 1.72; 95% CI: 1.25–2.38) and self–efficacy (AdjOR = 2.16; 95% CI: 1.54–3.04). Factors inversely associated with consistent condom use included poor financial status (AdjOR = 0.65; 95% CI: 0.47–0.90), methamphetamine use (AdjOR = 0.58; 95% CI: 0.40–0.83), alcohol use (AdjOR = 0.68; 95% CI: 0.49–0.96), and recent injection drug use (AdjOR = 0.62; 95% CI: 0.39–0.97). While increased condom availability may improve condom use among FSWs in general, interventions to broaden condom use among lower-income and drug-using FSWs are critically needed. PMID:20973665

  11. The context of condom use among young adults in the Philippines: Implications for HIV prevention

    PubMed Central

    Lucea, Marguerite B.; Hindin, Michelle J.; Gultiano, Socorro; Kub, Joan; Rose, Linda

    2012-01-01

    We examine current perceptions and constraints surrounding condom use among young adults in the Philippines to garner a deeper contextual understanding of this aspect of HIV prevention within Filipino society. Through thematic analysis of focus group data, we found three broad themes, all of which included societal and individual barriers to using condoms. The findings may provide insight for similar settings that have strong religious influences on society. To strengthen HIV prevention efforts in such settings, we suggest that the development of strategies to address these constraints in the cultural setting and promote sexual health of young adults is essential. PMID:23394323

  12. A nationally representative survey of healthcare provider counselling and provision of the female condom in South Africa and Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Kelsey; Blanchard, Kelly; Chipato, Tsungai; Nhemachena, Taazadza; Blum, Maya; Stratton, Laura; Morar, Neetha; Ramjee, Gita; Harper, Cynthia C

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Female condoms are the only female-initiated HIV and pregnancy prevention technology currently available. We examined female condom counselling and provision among providers in South Africa and Zimbabwe, high HIV-prevalence countries. Design A cross-sectional study using a nationally representative survey. Setting All facilities that provide family planning or HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) services. Participants National probability sample of 1444 nurses and physicians who provide family planning or HIV/STI services. Primary and secondary outcome measures Female condom practices with different female patients, including adolescents, married women, women using hormonal contraception and by HIV status. Using multivariable logistic analysis, we measured variations in condom counselling by provider characteristics. Results Most providers reported offering female condoms (88%; 1239/1415), but perceived a need for novel female barrier methods for HIV/STI prevention (85%; 1191/1396). By patient type, providers reported less frequent female condom counselling of adolescents (55%; 775/1411), women using hormonal contraception (65%; 909/1409) and married women (66%; 931/1416), compared to unmarried (74%; 1043/1414) or HIV-positive women (82%; 1161/1415). Multivariable results showed providers in South Africa were less likely to counsel women on female condoms than in Zimbabwe (OR=0.48, 95% CI 0.35 to 0.68, p≤0.001). However, South African providers were more likely to counsel women on male condoms (OR=2.39, 95% CI 1.57 to 3.65, p≤0.001). Nurses counselled patients on female condoms more frequently than physicians (OR=5.41, 95% CI 3.26 to 8.98, p≤0.001). HIV training, family planning training, location (urban vs rural) and facility type (hospital vs clinic) were not associated with greater condom counselling. Conclusions Female condoms were integrated into provider counselling and care, although providers reported a need for new female

  13. Predictors of Condom Use Behaviors Based on the Health Belief Model (HBM) among Female Sex Workers: A Cross-Sectional Study in Hubei Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jinzhu; Song, Fujian; Ren, Shuhua; Wang, Yan; Wang, Liang; Liu, Wei; Wan, Ying; Xu, Hong; Zhou, Tao; Hu, Tian; Bazzano, Lydia; Sun, Yi

    2012-01-01

    Background HIV infection related to commercial sexual contact is a serious public health issue in China. The objectives of the present study are to explore the predictors of condom use among female sex workers (FSWs) in China and examine the relationship between Health Belief Model (HBM) constructs. Methodology/Principal Findings A cross-sectional study was conducted in two cities (Wuhan and Suizhou) in Hubei Province, China, between July 2009 and June 2010. A total of 427 FSWs were recruited through mediators from the ‘low-tier’ entertainment establishments. Data were obtained by self-administered questionnaires. Structural equation models were constructed to examine the association. We collected 363 valid questionnaires. Within the context of HBM, perceived severity of HIV mediated through perceived benefits of condom use had a weak effect on condom use (r = 0.07). Perceived benefits and perceived barriers were proximate determinants of condom use (r = 0.23 and r = −0.62, respectively). Self-efficacy had a direct effect on perceived severity, perceived benefits, and perceived barriers, which was indirectly associated with condom use behaviors (r = 0.36). Conclusions/Significance The HBM provides a useful framework for investigating predictors of condom use behaviors among FSWs. Future HIV prevention interventions should focus on increasing perceived benefits of condom use, reducing barriers to condoms use, and improving self-efficacy among FSWs. PMID:23185355

  14. ‘It's Not What You Said, It's How You Said It’: Perceptions of Condom Proposers by Gender and Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Heather; Bryan, Angela D.

    2010-01-01

    We examined effects of proposer gender and condom negotiation strategy on perceptions of condom proposers in undergraduates in the southwestern regions of the US. Using a video manipulation (N=150), a female proposer was evaluated no more harshly than a male proposer, and was evaluated more positively in some ways. In a vignette manipulation (N=193) a female proposer using an Eroticization negotiation strategy (compared to Refusal of sex or Explanation of consequences) was seen as more exciting and likely to engage in sex. Surprisingly, women were harsher judges than men of a female condom proposer using an Eroticization strategy. Greater attention should be paid to the nature of condom negotiation within the framework of the sexual script. PMID:20544008

  15. 'It's Not What You Said, It's How You Said It': Perceptions of Condom Proposers by Gender and Strategy.

    PubMed

    Broaddus, Michelle R; Morris, Heather; Bryan, Angela D

    2010-05-01

    We examined effects of proposer gender and condom negotiation strategy on perceptions of condom proposers in undergraduates in the southwestern regions of the US. Using a video manipulation (N=150), a female proposer was evaluated no more harshly than a male proposer, and was evaluated more positively in some ways. In a vignette manipulation (N=193) a female proposer using an Eroticization negotiation strategy (compared to Refusal of sex or Explanation of consequences) was seen as more exciting and likely to engage in sex. Surprisingly, women were harsher judges than men of a female condom proposer using an Eroticization strategy. Greater attention should be paid to the nature of condom negotiation within the framework of the sexual script.

  16. Reasons for Non-use of Condoms among Men-who-have-Sex-with-Men: A Comparison of Receptive and Insertive Role-in-Sex and Online and Offline Meeting Venue

    PubMed Central

    Ostergren, Jenny E.; Rosser, B.R. Simon; Horvath, Keith J.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined reasons for non-use of condoms among an online survey sample of 462 non-condom using MSM to 1) identify major domains, themes and categories encompassing reasons for non-use of condoms, and 2) examine whether reasons varied by role-in-sex (insertive or receptive) and meeting venue (online or offline). A thematic analysis was completed on participant responses to an open-ended question about reasons for non-condom use. Preference for not using condoms and contextual factors were the top two reasons given for not using condoms, followed by a reasoned judgment based on risk assessment, relationship status and interpersonal communication. No major differences were found between men who reported non-condom use at last receptive and insertive anal intercourse. By contrast when meeting online, men were more likely to report reasons for non-condom use that corresponded to individual preference and mutual agreement not to use condoms. When meeting offline, men were more likely to cite reasons related to context and relationships. In developing HIV prevention interventions for this population, researchers should address both venues separately, as reasons why men engage in non-use of condoms appear to differ. PMID:20967649

  17. Reasons for non-use of condoms among men who have sex with men: a comparison of receptive and insertive role in sex and online and offline meeting venue.

    PubMed

    Ostergren, Jenny E; Rosser, B R Simon; Horvath, Keith J

    2011-02-01

    This study examined reasons for non-use of condoms among an online survey sample of 462 non-condom using men who have sex with men to: (1) identify major domains, themes and categories encompassing reasons for non-use of condoms and (2) examine whether reasons varied by role-in-sex (insertive or receptive) and meeting venue (online or offline). A thematic analysis was completed on participant responses to an open-ended question about reasons for non-condom use. Preference for not using condoms and contextual factors were the top two reasons given for not using condoms, followed by a reasoned judgment based on risk assessment, relationship status and interpersonal communication. No major differences were found between men who reported non-condom use at last receptive and insertive anal intercourse. By contrast when meeting online, men were more likely to report reasons for non-condom use that corresponded to individual preference and mutual agreement not to use condoms. When meeting offline, men were more likely to cite reasons related to context and relationships. In developing HIV-prevention interventions for this population, researchers should address both venues separately, as reasons why men engage in non-use of condoms appear to differ.

  18. The Frequency and Determinants of Liver Stiffness Measurement Failure: A Retrospective Study of “Real-Life” 38,464 Examinations

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ping; Li, Fan; Li, Bing; Zang, Hong; Niu, Xiaoxia; Li, Zhongbin; Xin, Shaojie; Chen, Guofeng

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the frequency and determinants of liver stiffness measurement (LSM) failure by means of FibroScan in “real-life” Chinese patients. Methods A total of 38,464 “real-life” Chinese patients in 302 military hospital of China through the whole year of 2013, including asymptomatic carrier, chronic hepatitis B, chronic hepatitis C, liver cirrhosis (LC), alcoholic liver disease, autoimmune liver disease, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and other, were enrolled, their clinical and biological parameters were retrospectively investigated. Liver fibrosis was evaluated by FibroScan detection. S probe (for children with height less than 1.20 m) and M probe (for adults) were used. LSM failure defined as zero valid shots (unsuccessful LSM), or the ratio of the interquartile range to the median of 10 measurements (IQR/M) greater than 0.30 plus median LSM greater or equal to 7.1 kPa (unreliable LSM). Results LSM failure occurred in 3.34% of all examinations (1286 patients out of 38,464), among them, there were 958 cases (2.49%) with unsuccessful LSM, and 328 patients (0.85%) with unreliable LSM. Statistical analyses showed that LSM failure was independently associated with body mass index (BMI) greater than 30 kg/m2, female sex, age greater than 50 years, intercostal spaces (IS) less than 9 mm, decompensated liver cirrhosis and HCC patients. There were no significant differences among other diseases. By changing another skilled operator, success was achieved on 301 cases out of 1286, which reduced the failure rate to 2.56%, the decrease was significant (P<0.0001). Conclusions The principal reasons of LSM failure are ascites, obesity and narrow of IS. The failure rates of HCC, decompensated LC, elder or female patients are higher. These results emphasize the need for adequate operator training, technological improvements and optimal criteria for specific patient subpopulations. PMID:25122123

  19. Condoms "contain worms" and "cause HIV" in Tanzania: Negative Condom Beliefs Scale development and implications for HIV prevention.

    PubMed

    Siegler, Aaron J; Mbwambo, Jessie K; McCarty, Frances A; DiClemente, Ralph J

    2012-11-01

    Condom promotion remains a key component of HIV prevention programs, complimenting recent successes in biomedical HIV prevention. Although condom use has increased in much of East Africa, it remains substantially below optimal levels. Negative rumors about condoms have been documented in East Africa, yet the prevalence and effects of belief in the negative rumors have not been explored. This study evaluated levels of belief in negative rumors about condoms, developed a Negative Condom Beliefs Scale, and assessed its accuracy in predicting willingness to use condoms. A cross-sectional, cluster survey (n = 370) was conducted representing adults in two rural districts in Northern Tanzania in 2008. Item agreement ranged from 35 to 53% for the following rumors regarding condoms: causing cancer, having holes, containing HIV, having worms, and the worms causing HIV. Items loaded on a single latent factor and had high internal consistency and convergent validity. In a multivariate model, negative condom score (AOR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.6, 0.8) was the strongest single predictor of willingness to use condoms, followed by greater perceived anonymity in acquiring condoms (AOR = 4.36, 95% CI = 2.2, 8.6) and higher condom self-efficacy (AOR = 4.24, 95% CI = 2.0, 8.9). Our findings indicate high levels of subscription to negative beliefs about condoms, with two out of three respondents affirming belief in at least one negative condom rumor. This study highlights the relation between condom rumor beliefs and willingness to use condoms, and indicates avenues for future research and means for improving the design of HIV prevention programs.

  20. NYC condom use and satisfaction and demand for alternative condom products in New York City sexually transmitted disease clinics.

    PubMed

    Burke, Ryan C; Wilson, Juliet; Kowalski, Alexis; Murrill, Christopher; Cutler, Blayne; Sweeney, Monica; Begier, Elizabeth M

    2011-08-01

    In 2007, via a high-profile media campaign, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (NYC DOHMH) introduced the "NYC Condom," the first specially packaged condom unique to a municipality. We conducted a survey to measure NYC Condom awareness of and experience with NYC Condoms and demand for alternative male condoms to be distributed by the DOHMH. Trained interviewers administered short, in-person surveys at five DOHMH-operated sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics in Spring 2008. We systematically sampled eligible patients: NYC residents aged ≥18 years waiting to see a physician. We approached 539; 532 agreed to be screened (98.7% response rate); 462 completed the survey and provided NYC zip codes. Most respondents were male (56%), non-Hispanic black (64%), aged 18-24 years (43%) or 25-44 years (45%), employed (65%), and had a high school degree/general equivalency diploma or less (53%). Of those surveyed, 86% were aware of the NYC Condom, and 81% of those who obtained the condoms used them. NYC Condom users were more likely to have four or more sexual partners in the past 12 months (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0-3.8), use condoms frequently (AOR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.3-3.6), and name an alternative condom for distribution (AOR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.3-3.9). The most frequently requested condom types respondents wanted DOHMH to provide were larger size (28%), ultra thin/extra sensitive (21%), and extra strength (16%). We found high rates of NYC Condom use. NYC Condom users reported more sexual partners than others, suggesting the condom initiative successfully reached higher-risk persons within the STD clinic population. Study results document the condom social marketing campaign's success.

  1. Condom Use among Heterosexual Immigrant Latino Men in the Southeastern United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knipper, Emily; Rhodes, Scott D.; Lindstrom, Kristen; Bloom, Fred R.; Leichliter, Jami S.; Montano, Jaime

    2007-01-01

    Latinos in the United States have been disproportionately affected by the intersecting epidemics of HIV and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). We examined correlates of condom use among adult heterosexual Latino men who are members of a large multicounty soccer league in rural North Carolina. Of 222 participants, the mean (plus or minus SD) age…

  2. Determinants of Condom Use Intentions and Behavior among Turkish Youth: A Theoretically Based Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozakinci, Gozde; Weinman, John A.

    2006-01-01

    The assumptions of two social cognition models, the Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen, 1991) and the Health Belief Model (Rosenstock, 1974) are examined in 2 samples of Turkish university students: sexually active and sexually inactive. For sexually inactive participants, perceived benefits of condom use and self-efficacy beliefs regarding condom…

  3. Sexual Coercion, Verbal Aggression, and Condom Use Consistency among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fair, Cynthia D.; Vanyur, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The relationship between condom use and 2 less visible categories of intimate partner violence (IPV), sexual coercion and verbal aggression, was examined among college students. Methods: In March 2007 a random cross-sectional sample of undergraduates from the southeast region of the United States was taken to collect information about…

  4. Relational Commitment and Threats to Relationship Maintenance Goals: Influences on Condom Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umphrey, Laura; Sherblom, John

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined the effects of relational commitment (high commitment versus low commitment) and relationship maintenance goals (high threat versus low threat) on decisions to request the use of a condom. Methods: The authors conducted a 2-part study using a survey of responses to hypothetical scenarios and decisions in actual…

  5. Demographic Correlates of Constant Condom Use among Sex Workers in Tangail, Dhaka, Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eva, Nilufar Akter; Munakata, Tsunetsugu; Onuoha, Francis N.

    2007-01-01

    Consistent condom use, particularly by promiscuous individuals, is a major safeguard against sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV/AIDS. This study examines some demographic factors that may affect such use among Bangladeshi female commercial sex workers at a brothel in Tangail (n = 196; mean age = 23.44 years), and the streets of Dhaka (n…

  6. Sexual issues and condom use among injecting drug users.

    PubMed

    White, D; Phillips, K; Mulleady, G; Cupitt, C

    1993-01-01

    Recent surveys of injecting drug users reveal that their injecting behaviours have changed in the light of HIV, but their sexual behaviours have not and, in particular, they remain reluctant to use condoms to reduce the risks of sexual transmission. In an attempt to explore this issue further the present study assessed the behaviours and attitudes of injecting drug users to sexual issues, including condom use. Condom use was low. Obstacles to their use included for some a desire to conceive, for many a belief in their infertility, a perceived invulnerability to HIV infection through their sexual behaviour patterns, a dislike of condoms and difficulty in negotiating condom use with partners. The lifestyle of drug users may also have an influence on condom use. Many drug users funded their habit through illegal activities including prostitution, theft and fraud. The association between these and other factors and condom use are explored.

  7. Hispanic adults' beliefs, attitudes, and intentions regarding the female condom.

    PubMed

    Bogart, L M; Cecil, H; Pinkerton, S D

    2000-04-01

    The present study used the theory of planned behavior (TPB) (Ajzen, 1985) augmented by AIDS knowledge to investigate factors influencing intentions of Hispanic adults to use the female condom. A total of 146 persons (75 women and 71 men; mean age, 27 years) recruited from community-based organizations completed an anonymous survey regarding intentions to use the female condom with their main sex partner. The TPB model had greater predictive utility for women's, than for men's, female condom use intentions. For men, attitudes and norms did not predict female condom use intentions, but greater AIDS knowledge was related to lower intentions to use the female condom, above and beyond the TPB constructs. Perceived behavioral control, operationalized as self-efficacy, significantly increased the predictive utility of the TPB model for women's female condom use intentions but not for men's. Behavior change strategies to increase female condom use are discussed in light of these findings. PMID:10833679

  8. Consistent condom use among Thai heterosexual adult males in Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Janepanish, Poolsuk; Dancy, Barbara L; Park, Chang

    2011-04-01

    Thai heterosexual males between 20 and 39 years old are at increased risk for HIV infection. Consistent condom use is effective against HIV transmission, but little is known about determinants of consistent condom use for these males. The purpose of this study is to explore determinants of consistent condom use for this population. The determinants of interest are age, educational level, marital status, income, and concepts from the theory of planned behavior: attitude toward condom use, subjective norm about consistent condom use, perceived behavioral control (PBC) of consistent condom use, and intention to use condoms consistently. We used a cross-sectional descriptive research design with a convenience sample of 400 heterosexual Thai males between 20 and 39 years. Our sample had a mean age of 28.71 years (SD = 6.33). During the last three months, 39.5% reported using condoms consistently, 23% reported using condoms inconsistently, and 37.5% reported never using condoms. The results from the regression analyses revealed that marital status, income, subjective norm about consistent condom use, PBC of consistent condom use, and intention to use condoms consistently were determinants of consistent condom use. Also the effect of subjective norm about consistent condom use and PBC of consistent condom use on consistent condom use was mediated by intention to use condoms consistently. These results suggest that interventions to increase consistent condom use should focus on enhancing intention to use condoms consistently by promoting subjective norm about consistent condom use and PBC of consistent condom use.

  9. Malaysian made condoms sold locally as well as exported.

    PubMed

    1979-01-01

    Malaysia, famous for its natural rubber, is also producing condoms made from local rubber. About 40,000 gross of condoms a month are being produced by a factory with about 30 female workers. 30-40% of the production is exported to Europe, Middle East, Asia, Japan, Singapore and South America. The size of the condoms conform to international standards, 49 mm and 52 mm. As there is a greater demand for the 52 mm. condoms overseas, the company produces more of this than the 49 mm. condoms. In April 1975, the Standard Institution and Industrial Research of Malaysia gave its quality control approval to a condom which can hold 5 gallons of water and with thickness varying from 0.03 mm, 0.06 mm. and 0.05-0.07 mm. A 10% tax/piece and a 5% surtax are imposed on imported condoms to protect the local industry from foreign competition. Local condoms are sold tax-free. Pink and black colored condoms appear to be popular among consumers. Although complaints are few, 1 in 10,000 users may suffer from allergic problems because of the silicone oil treatment of the condoms. Another local condom factory which uses Malaysian rubber for condom manufacture is located in Klang, approximately 24 miles from Kuala Lumpur; the factory has 25 workers producing 12,000 gross of lubricated and non-lubricated condoms for local consumption only. There is increasing evidence that condoms are increasing in popularity in Malaysia and that the average consumer is now being more selective in choosing contraceptive methods.

  10. "The young ones are the condom generation": condom use amongst out-of-school adolescents in rural southwest Uganda.

    PubMed

    Nobelius, Ann-Maree; Kalina, Bessie; Pool, Robert; Whitworth, Jimmy; Chesters, Janice; Power, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on factors influencing condom use among out-of-school adolescents in rural southwest Uganda. Despite an abundance of negative discourses and myths about condoms in the community, these adolescents believe condoms protect them from sexually transmitted infections, HIV, and premarital pregnancies. Girls want partners to use condoms, but most lack the confidence to insist. Girls aged 13 to 14 reported the least difficulty asking for condoms; older girls attributed this to coming-of-age in the era of AIDS when condom use is the norm. Boys under 16 years want to use condoms, but lack confidence in application skills. Boys over 17 years always use condoms with casual partners, but only occasionally for pregnancy prevention with steady partners. Girls need skills training to improve confidence in negotiating condom use. Younger boys require training to improve confidence in skills with condom application. These findings are compared with studies conducted with in-school adolescents in the same study area. Health promotions that provide this skills training and focus on the need to think of the health of future family would be most effective for out-of-school adolescents. This study shows that it is self-confidence, rather than years of schooling, that has the greatest impact on condom use in this cohort. PMID:21516591

  11. Informing school sex education using the stages of change construct: sexual behaviour and attitudes towards sexual activity and condom use of children aged 13-16 in England.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Louise M; Evers, Kerry E; Wareing, Hilary; Dunn, Orla M; Newby, Kate; Paiva, Andrea; Johnson, Janet L

    2007-01-01

    A survey of 3820 school children in England aged 13-16 years examined sexual activity using the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) Stages of Change. A quarter (26%) of teens were sexually experienced, 44.8 per cent did not use contraception and 48.9 per cent did not use condoms, every time. Past history of condom and contraceptive use, and partner willingness to use condoms were the best predictors of being in Action or Maintenance stage for condom use. Of virgins, 19.82 per cent were in Contemplation or Preparation stages for intercourse, and 85.4 per cent would use condoms every time. Sex education should be tailored to Stage, and signposting to sexual health and contraception services.

  12. Factors predictive of adolescents' intentions to use birth control pills, condoms, and birth control pills in combination with condoms.

    PubMed

    Craig, D M; Wade, K E; Allison, K R; Irving, H M; Williams, J I; Hlibka, C M

    2000-01-01

    Using the Theory of Planned Behaviour (Ajzen, 1988) as a conceptual framework, 705 secondary school students were surveyed to identify their intentions to use birth control pills, condoms, and birth control pills in combination with condoms. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that the theory explained between 23.5% and 45.8% of the variance in intentions. Variables external to the model such as past use, age, and ethnicity exhibited some independent effects. Attitudes were consistently predictive of intentions to use condoms, pills, and condoms in combination with pills for both male and female students. However, there were differences by gender in the degree to which subjective norms and perceived behavioural control predicted intentions. The findings suggest that programs should focus on: creation of positive attitudes regarding birth control pills and condoms; targeting important social influences, particularly regarding males' use of condoms; and developing strategies to increase students' control over the use of condoms.

  13. Factors predictive of adolescents' intentions to use birth control pills, condoms, and birth control pills in combination with condoms.

    PubMed

    Craig, D M; Wade, K E; Allison, K R; Irving, H M; Williams, J I; Hlibka, C M

    2000-01-01

    Using the Theory of Planned Behaviour (Ajzen, 1988) as a conceptual framework, 705 secondary school students were surveyed to identify their intentions to use birth control pills, condoms, and birth control pills in combination with condoms. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that the theory explained between 23.5% and 45.8% of the variance in intentions. Variables external to the model such as past use, age, and ethnicity exhibited some independent effects. Attitudes were consistently predictive of intentions to use condoms, pills, and condoms in combination with pills for both male and female students. However, there were differences by gender in the degree to which subjective norms and perceived behavioural control predicted intentions. The findings suggest that programs should focus on: creation of positive attitudes regarding birth control pills and condoms; targeting important social influences, particularly regarding males' use of condoms; and developing strategies to increase students' control over the use of condoms. PMID:11089290

  14. Determinants of intention to use condoms among clients of female sex workers in Haiti.

    PubMed

    Couture, Marie-Claude; Soto, Julio C; Akom, Edit; Joseph, Gerard; Zunzunegui, Maria-Victoria

    2010-02-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted to examine factors influencing intention of condom use among 378 clients of female sex workers (FSWs) visiting commercial sex sites in St-Marc and Gonaives, Haiti. Mean age of the study participants was 24 years. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic characteristics, behaviors, and the theory of planned behavior (TPB) constructs. Seventy-four percentage of clients reported having used condoms with a FSW the last time they had had sexual intercourse. The majority (81.7%) firmly intended to use condoms during the next sexual encounter with a FSW. Multivariate logistic models revealed that subjective norms (odds ratio (OR)=1.75; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06-2.88), perceived behavioral control (OR=1.34; 95% CI: 1.09-1.63) and attitudes (OR=1.23; 95% CI: 1.04-1.44) were predictors of intention to use condoms, with norms being more important. Clients having used condoms the last time they had a sexual intercourse with a FSW, were more likely to have the intention to use them in the future (OR=3.17; 95% CI: 1.65-6.10), indicating an adopted behavior. Lastly, having had a previous sexually transmitted infection was associated with intention, suggesting that a negative experience can influence a future behavior. In conclusion, intention to use condoms among the clients of Haitian FSWs was well predicted by TPB constructs. Our findings provide evidence for designing interventions targeted at reducing risky sex behaviors in this population.

  15. Television station acceptance of AIDS prevention PSAs and condom advertisements.

    PubMed

    Abernethy, A M; Wicks, J L

    1998-01-01

    AIDS is a fatal, though preventable disease with more than 56,000 new cases reported in 1996 alone. Condom advertisements and AIDS public service announcements (AIDS PSAs) can help prevent the spread of AIDS, but these AIDS PSAs often contain controversial subject matter and are thus rejected for broadcast by television stations. It is for this reason why a large-scale national mail survey was conducted. The survey, which examined the impact of personal ethical considerations of television station management on AIDS acceptance decisions in the US, was based on five hypothetical questions. It used questionnaires mailed to television station managers. Responses were received from 364 stations, yielding a 40.63% response rate. Significant results were found related to the impact of personal ethical concerns of television managers on AIDS acceptance decision. Most stations were unlikely to accept condom or safe sex advertisements but were more likely to accept generic AIDS messages. These findings pose a dilemma for public health officials, which include the high cost of television advertisements and the difficulty in choosing a creative execution type. The most effective approach would be to appeal to sales managers to run the advertisements since they are important for the community and serve the public interest. PMID:12295801

  16. Television station acceptance of AIDS prevention PSAs and condom advertisements.

    PubMed

    Abernethy, A M; Wicks, J L

    1998-01-01

    AIDS is a fatal, though preventable disease with more than 56,000 new cases reported in 1996 alone. Condom advertisements and AIDS public service announcements (AIDS PSAs) can help prevent the spread of AIDS, but these AIDS PSAs often contain controversial subject matter and are thus rejected for broadcast by television stations. It is for this reason why a large-scale national mail survey was conducted. The survey, which examined the impact of personal ethical considerations of television station management on AIDS acceptance decisions in the US, was based on five hypothetical questions. It used questionnaires mailed to television station managers. Responses were received from 364 stations, yielding a 40.63% response rate. Significant results were found related to the impact of personal ethical concerns of television managers on AIDS acceptance decision. Most stations were unlikely to accept condom or safe sex advertisements but were more likely to accept generic AIDS messages. These findings pose a dilemma for public health officials, which include the high cost of television advertisements and the difficulty in choosing a creative execution type. The most effective approach would be to appeal to sales managers to run the advertisements since they are important for the community and serve the public interest.

  17. Beliefs that Condoms Reduce Sexual Pleasure—Gender Differences in Correlates Among Heterosexual HIV-Positive Injection Drug Users (IDUs)

    PubMed Central

    Purcell, David W.; Latka, Mary H.; Metsch, Lisa R.; Gomez, Cynthia A.; Latkin, Carl A.

    2007-01-01

    Studies consistently find that negative condom beliefs or attitudes are significantly associated with less condom use in various populations, including HIV-positive injection drug users (IDUs). As part of efforts to reduce sexual risk among HIV-positive IDUs, one of the goals of HIV interventions should be the promotion of positive condom beliefs. In this paper we sought to identify the correlates of negative condom beliefs and examined whether such correlates varied by gender, using a subsample (those with an opposite-sex main partner; n = 348) of baseline data collected as part of a randomized controlled study of HIV-positive IDUs. In multivariate analyses, we found more significant correlates for women than for men. With men, perception that their sex partner is not supportive of condom use (negative partner norm) was the only significant correlate (Beta = −0.30; p < 0.01; R2 = 0.18). Among women, negative partner norm (Beta = −0.18; p < 0.05); having less knowledge about HIV, STD, and hepatitis (Beta = −0.16; p < 0.05); lower self-efficacy for using a condom (Beta = −0.40; p < 0.01); and more episodes of partner violence (Beta = 0.15; p < 0.05) were significantly associated with negative condom beliefs (R2 = 0.36). These findings suggest important gender-specific factors to consider in interventions that seek to promote positive condom beliefs among HIV-positive IDUs. PMID:17447147

  18. Geospatial analysis of condom availability and accessibility in urban Malawi.

    PubMed

    Shacham, Enbal; Thornton, Rebecca; Godlonton, Susan; Murphy, Ryan; Gilliland, Jake

    2016-01-01

    Prevalence of HIV in sub-Saharan African countries persists at alarming rates. There are currently four promoted methods to prevent HIV infection: adherence to antiretroviral therapy, male circumcision, pre-exposure prophylaxis and use of condoms. This study aimed to assess the availability and accessibility of one of the prevention efforts, condoms, in Kawale, Lilongwe, Malawi. A total of 220 potential condom-selling establishments were surveyed in 2012. Data were collected with store owners or staff and locations were geocoded to assess store density. Descriptive analyses were conducted. Of those audited, 96 stores sold condoms, 13 of which distributed free condoms. The stores were most often small shops and located in markets or trading centres. Condoms were most often found at the back of the store in an open space. There were approximately 1.2 stores per ¼ mile; 44% of the businesses in the study region carried condoms. This one method of prevention exhibited multiple barriers in this region: few stores sold condoms, high costs, condom locations within stores and limited availability. The limited accessibility is likely to influence social norms surrounding condom use. Future research should incorporate assessing norms and addressing barriers to uptake of HIV prevention efforts.

  19. Geospatial analysis of condom availability and accessibility in urban Malawi.

    PubMed

    Shacham, Enbal; Thornton, Rebecca; Godlonton, Susan; Murphy, Ryan; Gilliland, Jake

    2016-01-01

    Prevalence of HIV in sub-Saharan African countries persists at alarming rates. There are currently four promoted methods to prevent HIV infection: adherence to antiretroviral therapy, male circumcision, pre-exposure prophylaxis and use of condoms. This study aimed to assess the availability and accessibility of one of the prevention efforts, condoms, in Kawale, Lilongwe, Malawi. A total of 220 potential condom-selling establishments were surveyed in 2012. Data were collected with store owners or staff and locations were geocoded to assess store density. Descriptive analyses were conducted. Of those audited, 96 stores sold condoms, 13 of which distributed free condoms. The stores were most often small shops and located in markets or trading centres. Condoms were most often found at the back of the store in an open space. There were approximately 1.2 stores per ¼ mile; 44% of the businesses in the study region carried condoms. This one method of prevention exhibited multiple barriers in this region: few stores sold condoms, high costs, condom locations within stores and limited availability. The limited accessibility is likely to influence social norms surrounding condom use. Future research should incorporate assessing norms and addressing barriers to uptake of HIV prevention efforts. PMID:25681262

  20. Female Condom Skill and Attitude: Results from a NIDA Clinical Trials Network Gender-specific HIV Risk Reduction Study

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Aimee N. C.; Tross, Susan; Hu, Mei-Chen; Pavlicova, Martina; Kenney, Jennifer; Nunes, Edward V.

    2011-01-01

    The female condom is effective in reducing unprotected sexual acts; however it remains underutilized in the U.S. This study examined whether a 5-session HIV prevention intervention (Safer Sex Skills Building (SSB)), including presentation, discussion, and practice with female condoms, improved female condom skills and attitude among women in outpatient substance abuse treatment. Mixed-effects modeling was used to test the effect of SSB on skills and attitude over 3- and 6-month post treatment among 515 randomized women. SSB was significantly associated with increases in skills and attitude, and the female condom demonstration session was primarily responsible for skills improvement. Attitude was a partial mediator of the intervention effect in reducing unprotected sex. Findings emphasize the utility of integrating female condom messages targeting proximal behavioral outcomes into HIV prevention. The study supports the use of female condom skill instruction via brief, hands-on exercises, as well as further research to enhance attitudinal change to reduce sexual risk. PMID:21861607

  1. Social and Structural Factors Associated with Consistent Condom Use Among Female Entertainment Workers Trading Sex in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Morisky, Donald E.; Hernandez, Laufred I.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examined socio-structural factors of consistent condom use among female entertainment workers at high risk for acquiring HIV in Metro Manila, Quezon City, Philippines. Entertainers, aged 18 and over, from 25 establishments (spa/saunas, night clubs, karaoke bars), who traded sex during the previous 6 months, underwent cross-sectional surveys. The 143 entertainers (42% not always using condoms, 58% always using condoms) had median age (23), duration in sex work (7 months), education (9 years), and 29% were married/had live-in boyfriends. In a logistic multiple regression model, social-structural vs. individual factors were associated with inconsistent condom use: being forced/deceived into sex work, less manager contact, less STI/HIV prevention knowledge acquired from medical personnel/professionals, not following a co-workers’ condom use advice, and an interaction between establishment type and alcohol use with establishment guests. Interventions should consider the effects of physical (force/deception into work), social (peer, manager influence), and policy (STI/HIV prevention knowledge acquired from medical personnel/professionals) environments on consistent condom use. PMID:22223297

  2. Social and structural factors associated with consistent condom use among female entertainment workers trading sex in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Urada, Lianne A; Morisky, Donald E; Hernandez, Laufred I; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2013-02-01

    This paper examined socio-structural factors of consistent condom use among female entertainment workers at high risk for acquiring HIV in Metro Manila, Quezon City, Philippines. Entertainers, aged 18 and over, from 25 establishments (spa/saunas, night clubs, karaoke bars), who traded sex during the previous 6 months, underwent cross-sectional surveys. The 143 entertainers (42% not always using condoms, 58% always using condoms) had median age (23), duration in sex work (7 months), education (9 years), and 29% were married/had live-in boyfriends. In a logistic multiple regression model, social-structural vs. individual factors were associated with inconsistent condom use: being forced/deceived into sex work, less manager contact, less STI/HIV prevention knowledge acquired from medical personnel/professionals, not following a co-workers' condom use advice, and an interaction between establishment type and alcohol use with establishment guests. Interventions should consider the effects of physical (force/deception into work), social (peer, manager influence), and policy (STI/HIV prevention knowledge acquired from medical personnel/professionals) environments on consistent condom use.

  3. Building a (UN) condom manufacturing plant for social marketing projects.

    PubMed

    Yonese, T

    1994-12-01

    At the 10th International Conference on AIDS held in Yokohama, Japan, August 7-12, 1994, reports revealed that the social marketing of condoms has become popular and successful in developing countries. The nongovernmental organization distribution approach is very useful in providing condoms to new users, whose numbers have been increasing since the condom was identified as effective in preventing sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV. The rapid establishment of semi-commercial outlets even in remote areas enabled many people to obtain condoms more easily than from the government program and at a cheaper price. The social marketing concept has a clear advantage: condoms can be distributed with little government budget disbursement, and the project is based on self-reliance. Meanwhile, the additional free supply programs by many governments of developing countries are reportedly not functioning efficiently, since often large quantities of condoms, donated by agencies for family planning and STD programs, pile up in warehouses and do not reach those who need them. Moreover, the demand for condoms is limited because of the lack of effective campaigns to encourage their use. Quality condoms can be procured at lower costs if a special manufacturing plant could be built that produces condoms exclusively for the social marketing free supply program. Such a condom plant could be built in a developing country where good quality latex, the material used for condoms, is available. The unit production cost of condoms at the proposed plant would be lower compared to costs in developed countries because personnel expenses in latex-producing countries such as Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia, India, and Sri Lanka, are cheaper, and the price of latex itself is lower. Mass production is possible because the demand for condoms for the social marketing projects is expected to grow even more. PMID:12319132

  4. Brand equity and willingness to pay for condoms in zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Zimbabwe suffers from one of the greatest burdens of HIV/AIDS in the world that has been compounded by social and economic instability in the past decade. However, from 2001 to 2009 HIV prevalence among 15-49 year olds declined from 26% to approximately 14%. Behavior change and condom use may in part explain this decline. PSI-Zimbabwe socially markets the Protector Plus (P+) branded line of condoms. When Zimbabwe converted to a dollar-based economy in 2009, the price of condoms was greatly increased and new marketing efforts were undertaken. This paper evaluates the role of condom marketing, a multi-dimensional scale of brand peceptions (brand equity), and price in condom use behavior. Methods We randomly sampled sexually active men age 15-49 from 3 groups - current P+ users, former users, and free condom users. We compared their brand equity and willingness to pay based on survey results. We estimated multivariable logistic regression models to compare the 3 groups. Results We found that the brand equity scale was positive correlated with willingness to pay and with condom use. Former users also indicated a high willingness to pay for condoms. We found differences in brand equity between the 3 groups, with current P+ users having the highest P+ brand equity. As observed in previous studies, higher brand equity was associated with more of the targeted health behavior, in this case and more consistent condom use. Conclusions Zimbabwe men have highly positive brand perceptions of P+. There is an opportunity to grow the total condom market in Zimbabwe by increasing brand equity across user groups. Some former users may resume using condoms through more effective marketing. Some free users may be willing to pay for condoms. Achieving these objectives will expand the total condom market and reduce HIV risk behaviors. PMID:22029874

  5. Building a (UN) condom manufacturing plant for social marketing projects.

    PubMed

    Yonese, T

    1994-12-01

    At the 10th International Conference on AIDS held in Yokohama, Japan, August 7-12, 1994, reports revealed that the social marketing of condoms has become popular and successful in developing countries. The nongovernmental organization distribution approach is very useful in providing condoms to new users, whose numbers have been increasing since the condom was identified as effective in preventing sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV. The rapid establishment of semi-commercial outlets even in remote areas enabled many people to obtain condoms more easily than from the government program and at a cheaper price. The social marketing concept has a clear advantage: condoms can be distributed with little government budget disbursement, and the project is based on self-reliance. Meanwhile, the additional free supply programs by many governments of developing countries are reportedly not functioning efficiently, since often large quantities of condoms, donated by agencies for family planning and STD programs, pile up in warehouses and do not reach those who need them. Moreover, the demand for condoms is limited because of the lack of effective campaigns to encourage their use. Quality condoms can be procured at lower costs if a special manufacturing plant could be built that produces condoms exclusively for the social marketing free supply program. Such a condom plant could be built in a developing country where good quality latex, the material used for condoms, is available. The unit production cost of condoms at the proposed plant would be lower compared to costs in developed countries because personnel expenses in latex-producing countries such as Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia, India, and Sri Lanka, are cheaper, and the price of latex itself is lower. Mass production is possible because the demand for condoms for the social marketing projects is expected to grow even more.

  6. High-Stakes Tests: Comparative Study Examining the Impact on the Achievement Gap that Causes Minority Students Continued Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor-Smith, Carol J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this comparative qualitative study examined the impact of the achievement gap on the lack of highly qualified teachers instructing African American students consistently from K-12th grades and its effects on high-stakes testing. In addition, the study examined teacher perceptions that could also be contributing factors of the…

  7. Everywhere You Go, Everyone Is Saying Condom, Condom. but Are They Being Used Consistently? Reflections of South African Male Students about Male and Female Condom Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mantell, Joanne E.; Smit, Jennifer A.; Beksinska, Mags; Scorgie, Fiona; Milford, Cecilia; Balch, Erin; Mabude, Zonke; Smith, Emily; Adams-Skinner, Jessica; Exner, Theresa M.; Hoffman, Susie; Stein, Zena A.

    2011-01-01

    Young men in South Africa can play a critical role in preventing new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections, yet are seldom targeted for HIV prevention. While reported condom use at last sex has increased considerably among young people, consistent condom use remains a challenge. In this study, 74 male higher education students gave their…

  8. Failure-to-register laws and public safety: an examination of risk factors and sex offense recidivism.

    PubMed

    Levenson, Jill S; Sandler, Jeffrey C; Freeman, Naomi J

    2012-12-01

    The goals of this study were to describe the characteristics of a sample of sex offenders charged with failure to register (FTR) in New York State, compare the FTR and non-FTR groups on relevant risk factors, identify risk factors associated with failing to register, and investigate the relationship between registration noncompliance and both general and sexual rearrest. FTR offenders were found to be younger, more likely to be a minority race, and have more extensive and varied prior criminal histories as well as a record of supervision violations. Results also indicated that FTR was more strongly correlated with nonsexual recidivism (r = .44) than sexual recidivism (r = .09). FTR contributed to the likelihood of sexual recidivism for rapists of adult victims, but not for sex offenders with child victims, and occurred in combination with a history of prior sexual crimes and versatility in criminal offending.

  9. Cover up or cool it? Sexual intercourse during therapy for bacterial sexually transmitted infections--a discussion of evidence for efficacy of condom use preventing transmission during an acute bacterial STI.

    PubMed

    Lee, John D; Clarke, Janette

    2004-05-01

    Effective treatment of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as gonorrhoea and chlamydia needs sexual behaviour modification, in addition to antibiotics, to protect the index patient and their sexual partner from re-infection during treatment. This may mean advice to avoid sex, or to use condoms for intercourse, until all current sexual partners have completed treatment. This article discusses the effectiveness of condoms as re-infection protection during therapy of gonorrhoea and chlamydial infection. Indirect evidence from studies on primary prevention indicates that, although physically, condoms are impermeable to STI pathogens, the risk of failure depends on the experience of the user and the frequency of use. Health care workers may over-estimate the protective value of condoms in this situation. Patients should be made aware of the risk of infection present, even in experienced condom users, if they choose to continue protected sexual intercourse during therapy for acute bacterial STIs.

  10. Cum hastis sic clypeatis: the turbulent history of the condom.

    PubMed

    Valdiserri, R O

    1988-04-01

    The recommendation of the surgeon general of the US Public Health Service that individuals use the condom to prevent the risks of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and transmission has been poorly received. Many oppose it on the basis of the perception that condoms would promote continued sexual activity when the solution to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is to discourage such activity. Others raise questions about the efficacy of condoms in preventing HIV infection. Further, many advertisers are unwilling to promote a product about which they perceive disapproval on the part of large segments of the public. On the basis of the dire consequences of HIV infection and the absence of any effective treatment, it is difficult to rationalize this resistance. A historical analysis of condom use as a means of preventing sexually transmitted infections offers some insights into this apparent paradox. The 1st published description of the condom as an aid to the prevention of venereal infection appeared in "De Morbo Gallico," published in 1564. The use of "a small linen cloth made to fit the glans" was advised as a protection against syphilis. Condoms were advertised during the 18th century, usually by handbill. The medical community's reluctance to promote condoms as prophylactics was due to the fact that 18th century condoms were far inferior to modern varieties. Yet, beyond the issue of efficacy, other factors shaped medical thinking about condom use to prevent sexually transmitted infections. Most significant was the prominent association between condoms and sexual encounters outside marriage. Most 18th century references to condoms describe their utilization in the context of prostitution. The association of condoms with sexual intemperance, along with concerns about their efficacy, helped to support the idea that abstinence was the only acceptable prophylaxis for sexually transmitted disease. It was the exigencies of World War II that brought

  11. Non-use of condoms by prostitute women.

    PubMed

    Cusick, L

    1998-04-01

    Ethnographic research among Glasgow female prostitutes working in street, sauna, flat, escort agency and "sugar daddy" sectors investigated prostitutes' accounts of the occasions in which condoms were not used for penetrative sexual encounters. Such occasions were a minority of commercial sex encounters and a majority of private sex encounters. Although prostitutes saw condom use as inappropriate in private sexual relationships this was not, as has been suggested, an aid to relationship interpretation as either private or commercial. Condoms in commercial sex were seen as routine tools of the trade, and hence emerged as emblems of prostitution. These emblematic qualities were found in turn to produce both challenges to condom use from customers and opportunities for prostitutes to manipulate customer relations by judicious suspension of condom application. Both norms of gendered role-play and prostitute status were highlighted as threatening condom use in some situations, while prostitute status could also be used as the basis of rational argument for condom use in others. Relational issues such as familiarity or a desire to communicate trust were at the forefront in explanations of condom non-use. Perceptions of physical power and the authority to permit or withhold sexual service or profit were determining influences crucial in condom use negotiation.

  12. Female condom acceptability among sex workers in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Madrigal, J; Schifter, J; Feldblum, P J

    1998-04-01

    This study measured short-term female condom acceptability among 51 female sex workers in San José, Costa Rica. Each woman was trained in use of the female condom and was asked to use the device if clients refused to use male condoms during a 2-week study period (male condoms were also distributed). Two follow-up visits with short interviews were scheduled, including questions on general reaction to the female condom by the participants and their clients, ease and comfort of use, and preferences for male or female devices. At the first follow-up visit, 51% of the women reported they "liked the female condom very much" and 45% reported they "liked it somewhat." Similar results were reported after the second follow-up phase. Sixty-seven percent of the participants preferred the female condom over the male condom, and, according to the the women, over half of their clients liked the female condom "very much" or "somewhat." The most common problems during the first phase were difficulty to insert (61%) and discomfort (43%). However, during the second study phase a reduction in these problems (22% and 25%, respectively) and other use-related problems were noted. Although this new method is not yet available throughout Costa Rica, these results should encourage sexually transmitted diseases and HIV service organizations to make this method accessible to women.

  13. Effectiveness of condoms in preventing sexually transmitted infections.

    PubMed

    Holmes, King K; Levine, Ruth; Weaver, Marcia

    2004-06-01

    In June 2000, the United States National Institutes of Health (NIH) organized a review of the scientific evidence on the effectiveness of condoms in preventing sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The review concluded that condoms were effective in protecting against transmission of HIV to women and men and in reducing the risk of men becoming infected with gonorrhoea. Evidence for the effectiveness of condoms in preventing other STIs was considered to be insufficient. We review the findings of prospective studies published after June 2000 that evaluated the effectiveness of condoms in preventing STIs. We searched Medline for publications in English and included other articles, reports, and abstracts of which we were aware. These prospective studies, published since June 2000, show that condom use is associated with statistically significant protection of men and women against several other types of STIs, including chlamydial infection, gonorrhoea, herpes simplex virus type 2, and syphilis. Condoms may also be associated with protecting women against trichomoniasis. While no published prospective study has found protection against genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, two studies reported that condom use was associated with higher rates of regression of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and clearance of cervical HPV infection in women and with regression of HPV-associated penile lesions in men. Research findings available since the NIH review add considerably to the evidence of the effectiveness of condoms against STIs. Although condoms are not 100% effective, partial protection can substantially reduce the spread of STIs within populations.

  14. A condom sense approach to AIDS prevention: a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Salem, A

    1992-10-01

    Condoms have come a long way since their use in ancient Egypt three millennia ago. Their benefit is well established for the prevention of both contraception and STDs. Although AIDS has revitalized the condom, we must remember that condoms do not prevent the spread of HIV infection, people do. Everyone must take personal responsibility to avoid high risk behavior (e.g.; IV drug use, promiscuous sex, casual sex, etc). If one does engage in high risk sexual behavior, he/she should at least use condom sense.

  15. Implementation of condom social marketing in Louisiana, 1993 to 1996.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, D A; Farley, T A; Bedimo-Etame, J R; Scribner, R; Ward, W; Kendall, C; Rice, J

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This article describes the implementation and impact of the first statewide condom social marketing intervention in the United States. METHODS: A statewide social marketing program made condoms freely available in 93 public health clinics, 39 community mental health centers, 29 substance abuse treatment sites, and more than 1000 businesses in neighborhoods with high rates of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and HIV. Surveys about condom use were conducted annually. RESULTS: Between 1994 and 1996, more than 33 million condoms were distributed without significant opposition. Over time, self-reported condom use at the last sexual encounter increased among African American women (from 28% in 1994 to 36% in 1996), particularly African American women with 2 or more sex partners (from 30% to 48%). Condom use at the last sexual encounter increased among African American men (from 40% in 1994 to an average of 54% in 1996). The number of reported sex partners did not increase. CONCLUSIONS: Condom social marketing can be successfully implemented in the United States. The widespread availability of free condoms is associated with increased condom use, particularly among persons at high risk for STDs and HIV. PMID:9949750

  16. Non-use of condoms by prostitute women.

    PubMed

    Cusick, L

    1998-04-01

    Ethnographic research among Glasgow female prostitutes working in street, sauna, flat, escort agency and "sugar daddy" sectors investigated prostitutes' accounts of the occasions in which condoms were not used for penetrative sexual encounters. Such occasions were a minority of commercial sex encounters and a majority of private sex encounters. Although prostitutes saw condom use as inappropriate in private sexual relationships this was not, as has been suggested, an aid to relationship interpretation as either private or commercial. Condoms in commercial sex were seen as routine tools of the trade, and hence emerged as emblems of prostitution. These emblematic qualities were found in turn to produce both challenges to condom use from customers and opportunities for prostitutes to manipulate customer relations by judicious suspension of condom application. Both norms of gendered role-play and prostitute status were highlighted as threatening condom use in some situations, while prostitute status could also be used as the basis of rational argument for condom use in others. Relational issues such as familiarity or a desire to communicate trust were at the forefront in explanations of condom non-use. Perceptions of physical power and the authority to permit or withhold sexual service or profit were determining influences crucial in condom use negotiation. PMID:9625898

  17. Minority College Women’s Views on Condom Negotiation

    PubMed Central

    McLaurin-Jones, TyWanda; Lashley, Maudry-Beverly; Marshall, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    This study utilized quantitative and qualitative methods to (1) investigate the relationship between frequency of condom use and negotiation strategies and (2) evaluate experiences with condom negotiations among sexually active, heterosexual, African American college women. One hundred female students from a Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) completed a questionnaire that included the Condom Influence Strategies Scale (CIS) and participated in a focus group. An ANOVA was conducted to compare differences between never, inconsistent, and consistent condom users. Consistent condom users scored higher than never users on the “withholding sex” subscale of the CIS (4.88 vs. 3.55; p < 0.001) as well as endorsed items more strongly on the “direct request” subscale of the CIS (4.63 vs. 3.82, p < 0.05) than never users. A thematic analysis of open discussions identified overarching themes. Similarly, refusing sex and/or having direct communications with partner emerged as primary strategies. Threats to negotiation included deciding the “right timing” of discussion and having a previous history of sexual intercourse without a condom with their partner. Other key concepts that contribute to condom negotiation are the views that condoms are a male’s responsibility and stigma of women who carry condoms. PMID:26703642

  18. Study shows condom use does not promote promiscuity.

    PubMed

    1997-06-27

    Researchers from Switzerland's Lausanne University Institute of Social and Preventative Medicine report the results of a media and school-based prevention education program that promoted condom use, sexual abstinence, and marital fidelity. Findings indicated that condom usage has increased dramatically and people are engaging in no more sex now than when the campaign began. The findings should reassure those who fear that widespread condom education will increase sexual activity and promiscuity. These findings are consistent with studies on condom use and sexual behavior in Germany and other European nations.

  19. The theory of reasoned action and cooperative behaviour: it takes two to use a condom.

    PubMed

    Kashima, Y; Gallois, C; McCamish, M

    1993-09-01

    The applicability of the Theories of Reasoned Action and Planned Behaviour to the cooperative behaviour of condom use were examined. Seventy-one male and 78 female students, all sexually active unmarried heterosexuals aged 17 to 21 years, gave information about their intentions for the next sexual encounter, as well as their attitude, subjective norm, expectancy-value attitude and subjective norm (including normative beliefs for their sexual partner), and their past behaviour with respect to condom use. After their next sexual encounter, they completed a questionnaire on their actual condom use. Results indicated that when behavioural conditions including the availability of a condom and an agreement with the partner to use it were satisfied, intention interacted with past behaviour to predict actual behaviour. These results imply that intentions which are consistent with past behaviour are stable enough to be carried out in the face of the interpersonal dynamics of a sexual encounter. Further, normative belief for the sexual partner had a direct influence on attitudes, subjective norm and intention. Neither the Theory of Reasoned Action nor the Theory of Planned Behaviour can fully explain these results, which point to the need for further theoretical inquiry into the dynamics of cooperative behaviour.

  20. HIV risk behavior, street outreach, and condom use in eight high-risk populations.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J E; Cheney, R; Clatts, M; Faruque, S; Kipke, M; Long, A; Mills, S; Toomey, K; Wiebel, W

    1996-06-01

    In this paper we examine risk behavior, exposure to street outreach, and condom use in samples of injecting drug users (IDUs) and high-risk youth. We used systematic sampling methods to produce representative samples of injecting drug users IDUs (five sites) and high-risk youth (three sites). The populations surveyed engaged in high levels of sexual risk behavior: 20% to 46% reported two or more sex partners in the last month. The majority (62% to 97%) knew someone infected with HIV. Condom use rates approached national health promotion goals for nonsteady partners but not for steady or main partners. Having a condom at time of interview was the most consistent predictor of condom use at last intercourse. Many of the respondents have been in contact with street outreach programs and many acknowledged some personal risk for HIV infection. However, most of the injecting drug users and high-risk youth interviewed (and their sex partners) were still at risk through unprotected sex.

  1. Anabolic-androgenic steroids and condom use: potential mechanisms in adolescent males.

    PubMed

    Blashill, Aaron J; Gordon, Janna R; Safren, Steven A

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has revealed a significant bivariate relationship between anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) use and reduced condom use among adolescent boys. However, to date, no known studies have explored the psychological mechanisms that may explain this relationship. Thus, the current study sought to examine two possible mediators in the association between AAS and condom use: depressive symptoms and substance use. Data were extracted from a nationally representative sample of U.S. adolescents. Participants were 3,780 U.S. high school boys who responded to self-report items assessing a number of health behaviors, including symptoms of depression, substance use, AAS use, and use of condoms during their most recent act of intercourse. Both depression and substance use were significant mediators in the relationship between AAS and condom use. However, when these effects were contrasted, the indirect effect of substance use was significantly stronger in magnitude than the effect of depression. Although AAS use was associated with sexual risk behaviors among adolescent boys, significant variance in this relationship was accounted for by elevated levels of depression and substance use, with substance use demonstrating a particularly salient pathway.

  2. Violence, condom breakage and HIV infection among female sex workers in Benin, West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Tounkara, Fatoumata K.; Diabaté, Souleymane; Guédou, Fernand A.; Ahoussinou, Clément; Kintin, Frédéric; Zannou, Djimon M.; Kpatchavi, Adolphe; Bédard, Emmanuelle; Bietra, Raphaël; Alary, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between violence, condom breakage and HIV prevalence among female sex workers (FSWs). Methods Data were obtained from the 2012 cross-sectional integrated biological and behavioural survey conducted in Benin. Multivariable log-binomial regression was used to estimate the adjusted prevalence ratios (APRs) of HIV infection and condom breakage in relation to violence towards FSWs. A score was created to examine the relationship between the number of violence types reported and HIV infection. Results Among the 981 women who provided a blood sample, HIV prevalence was 20.4%. During the last month, 17.2%, 13.5% and 33.5% of them had experienced physical, sexual and psychological violence, respectively. In addition, 15.9% reported at least one condom breakage during the previous week. There was a significant association between all types of violence and HIV prevalence. The APRs of HIV were 1.45 (95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 1.05 – 2.00), 1.42 (95%CI: 1.02 – 1.98), and 1.41 (95%CI: 1.08 – 1.41) among those who had ever experienced physical, sexual and psychological violence, respectively. HIV prevalence increased with the violence score (p=0.002, test for trend), and physical and sexual violence were independently associated with condom breakage (p values 0.010 and 0.003, respectively). Conclusion The results show that violence is associated with a higher HIV prevalence among FSWs and that condom breakage is a potential mediator for this association. Longitudinal studies designed to analyse this relationship and specific interventions integrated to current HIV prevention strategies are needed to reduce the burden of violence among FSWs. PMID:24722385

  3. Contextualizing condom use: intimacy interference, stigma, and unprotected sex.

    PubMed

    Starks, Tyrel J; Payton, Gregory; Golub, Sarit A; Weinberger, Corina L; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2014-06-01

    Intimate relationships have received increasing attention as a context for HIV transmission. We examined the relationships among perceptions that condoms interfere with intimacy, gay-related stigma, and unprotected/protected anal intercourse. Participants included 245 single-identified men who have sex with men. Intimacy Interference was positively associated with number of unprotected anal intercourse acts, and this effect was stronger among participants who reported high levels of gay-related stigma. In contrast, Intimacy Interference was negatively associated with number of protected anal intercourse acts, and gay-related stigma was positively associated with this outcome with no evidence of interaction effects. The findings are explained in the context of rejection sensitivity theory, and implications for public health and clinical intervention are discussed.

  4. Contextualizing condom use: intimacy interference, stigma, and unprotected sex.

    PubMed

    Starks, Tyrel J; Payton, Gregory; Golub, Sarit A; Weinberger, Corina L; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2014-06-01

    Intimate relationships have received increasing attention as a context for HIV transmission. We examined the relationships among perceptions that condoms interfere with intimacy, gay-related stigma, and unprotected/protected anal intercourse. Participants included 245 single-identified men who have sex with men. Intimacy Interference was positively associated with number of unprotected anal intercourse acts, and this effect was stronger among participants who reported high levels of gay-related stigma. In contrast, Intimacy Interference was negatively associated with number of protected anal intercourse acts, and gay-related stigma was positively associated with this outcome with no evidence of interaction effects. The findings are explained in the context of rejection sensitivity theory, and implications for public health and clinical intervention are discussed. PMID:23520349

  5. Examining the relationship between exercise tolerance and isoproterenol-based cardiac reserve in murine models of heart failure.

    PubMed

    Richards, Daniel A; Bao, Weike; Rambo, Mary V; Burgert, Mark; Jucker, Beat M; Lenhard, Stephen C

    2013-05-01

    The loss of cardiac reserve is, in part, responsible for exercise intolerance in late-stage heart failure (HF). Exercise tolerance testing (ETT) has been performed in mouse models of HF; however, treadmill performance and at-rest cardiac indexes determined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) rarely correlate. The present study adopted a stress-MRI technique for comparison with ETT in HF models, using isoproterenol (ISO) to evoke cardiac reserve responses. Male C57BL/6J mice were randomly subjected to myocardial infarction (MI), transverse aortic constriction (TAC), or sham surgery under general anesthesia. Mice underwent serial ETT on a graded treadmill with follow-up ISO stress-MRI. TAC mice showed consistent exercise intolerance, with a 16.2% reduction in peak oxygen consumption vs. sham at 15-wk postsurgery (WPS). MI and sham mice had similar peak oxygen consumption from 7 WPS onward. Time to a respiratory exchange ratio of 1.0 correlated with ETT distance (r = 0.64; P < 0.001). The change in ejection fraction under ISO stress was reduced in HF mice at 4 WPS [10.1 ± 3.9% change (Δ) and 8.9 ± 3.5%Δ in MI and TAC, respectively, compared with 32.0 ± 3.5%Δ in sham; P < 0.001]. However, cardiac reserve differences between surgery groups were not observed at 16 WPS in terms of ejection fraction or cardiac output. In addition, ETT did not correlate with cardiac indexes under ISO stress. In conclusion, ISO stress was unable to reflect consistent differences in ETT between HF and healthy mice, suggesting cardiac-specific indexes are not the sole factors in defining exercise intolerance in mouse HF models.

  6. Lights, Camera, Condoms! Assessing College Men's Attitudes toward Condom Use in Pornography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraus, Shane W.; Rosenberg, Harold

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Investigate male college students' attitudes toward actors' use of condoms in pornography. Participants: Two hundred thirteen undergraduate males attending a large, state-supported midwestern university in the fall semester, 2012. Methods: Using a Web-based procedure, participants completed questionnaires assessing their pornography…

  7. Aid cutoff threatens condom program in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Barron, T

    1991-01-01

    The Pressler Amendment, a law prohibiting US assistance to any country that does not sign the UN Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty, is forcing USAID to shut down its highly successful Social Marketing of Contraceptives (SMC) program in Pakistan. Adopted in 1985, the amendment calls for an end of funding for projects in Pakistan as of fiscal year 1991, since the country has refused to sign the treaty. Only previously committed funds have kept SMC running, but it may soon have a close shop. The cutoff comes at an especially inopportune time--just when SMC had begun to make an impact. Introduced 5 years ago, Sathi condoms (the project's main product) account for 2/3 of all condoms used in Pakistan. Sales jumped from 30 million in 1978 to 74 million last year. SMC administrators explain that the country has a vast potential for social marketing. But because of the cutoff in aid, the program will exhaust its supply of condoms by March 1992. The end of the SMC program will mean a serious setback for Pakistan, which already has the 2nd largest population in southern Asia, and which has double the fertility of the most populous country in the region, India. Only 7% of the women in Pakistan rely on a modern method of contraception, compared to 42% in India and 26% in Bangladesh. USAID officials explain that the organization is working with the Pakistani government to find ways to continue funding the program after US funds run out. They add that this development will provide Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif an opportunity to demonstrate his stated commitment to curb population growth.

  8. Condom vending machines in Canada's secondary schools.

    PubMed

    Kerr, D L

    1990-03-01

    A case study of 1 of the 3 school boards approving in 1989 installation of condom machines is presented: The Lisgar Collegiate Institute, Ottawa, Canada. The school is characterized as having 1000 college preparatory students from middle and upper middle class homes and university educated parents. The project was student initiated and involved 1) meeting with communication consultants to determine feasibility, 2) conducting an informal peer consultation to seek out interest and support, 3) meeting with public health officials to gain support and ideas, and 4) conducting research. Condom machine installation (2) was only 1 component; a pilot sexuality education program was included as well. The student proposal was presented and rejected by the principal and the Superintendent of Student Services. Students then lobbied the school board trustees. 2 students lobbies each school board member. Letters of support were obtained from parents' advisory groups, parents, the student council, and other influential people. The media provided coverage in a popular morning television show. The student proposal was submitted to the Board of Education's Education Committee in June 1989; students were assisted by teachers and the Parents Advisory Committee. The school board approved. In the fall of 1989, sexuality awareness week was designated as October 30-November 3. Parents were asked for comments on the designated program, but only 50 contributed in a supportive way. During this week lunch-hour displays and videos, peer-facilitated discussion groups, informal talks by experts, and student theater presentations were sponsored activities. Following this event, the school board arranged for the installment of machines in the men's and women's washrooms near where social events were held and in toilet cubicles in order to provide privacy, as requested by students. The individual cost is US$1/condom. Evaluation is planned. Students have been amused by the amount of public response

  9. Condom vending machines in Canada's secondary schools.

    PubMed

    Kerr, D L

    1990-03-01

    A case study of 1 of the 3 school boards approving in 1989 installation of condom machines is presented: The Lisgar Collegiate Institute, Ottawa, Canada. The school is characterized as having 1000 college preparatory students from middle and upper middle class homes and university educated parents. The project was student initiated and involved 1) meeting with communication consultants to determine feasibility, 2) conducting an informal peer consultation to seek out interest and support, 3) meeting with public health officials to gain support and ideas, and 4) conducting research. Condom machine installation (2) was only 1 component; a pilot sexuality education program was included as well. The student proposal was presented and rejected by the principal and the Superintendent of Student Services. Students then lobbied the school board trustees. 2 students lobbies each school board member. Letters of support were obtained from parents' advisory groups, parents, the student council, and other influential people. The media provided coverage in a popular morning television show. The student proposal was submitted to the Board of Education's Education Committee in June 1989; students were assisted by teachers and the Parents Advisory Committee. The school board approved. In the fall of 1989, sexuality awareness week was designated as October 30-November 3. Parents were asked for comments on the designated program, but only 50 contributed in a supportive way. During this week lunch-hour displays and videos, peer-facilitated discussion groups, informal talks by experts, and student theater presentations were sponsored activities. Following this event, the school board arranged for the installment of machines in the men's and women's washrooms near where social events were held and in toilet cubicles in order to provide privacy, as requested by students. The individual cost is US$1/condom. Evaluation is planned. Students have been amused by the amount of public response

  10. Social marketing campaign swaps condoms for bottle tops.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    PSI, a non-profit organization based in the United States, uses private sector condom marketing programs to provide condoms to developing countries at low cost to help stem the spread of AIDS. PSI started promoting condoms in the CAR in November 1991. 150,000 Prudence brand condoms were sold in the 1st month. The price for a pack of 4 was far below that charged by private pharmacies. PSI turned to a collaborative venture with Societe Centrafricaine des Boissons (SCB), a local drinks manufacturer. In a joint campaign in April 1992, 4 packs of condoms were exchanged for 5 tops from SCB bottles. At markets and bars promotional items were given away during condom demonstration contests. SCB bought all the condoms from PSI and financed all the publicity. Similar promotion launched the improved Prudence Plus condom in December. Cumulative sales of Prudence and Plus condoms in the CAR now exceed 1 million. Another marketing idea was to commission a textile company called UCATEX to design a fabric based on the Prudence logo. 1600 lengths of cotton cloth were printed and sold. There was also Operation Taxi Bus. PSI's team broadcast twice on the taxi association's weekly radio show about AIDS prevention, the importance of condoms, and the Prudence brand. Then, every morning for a week, PSI promoters put stickers on as many taxis as possible. Every driver agreeing to display a sticker was entitled to receive 2 packets of Prudence for personal use. The 450 taxis with stickers now in a city of 500,000 are an effective promotion network. In order to prevent a gap in supply before PSI receives its long-term funding from a US donor, The World Health Organization recently bought 500,000 Prudence condoms for PSI to distribute.

  11. Testicular failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... LH . Your doctor may also order a semen analysis to examine the number of healthy sperm you are producing. Sometimes, an ultrasound of the testes will be ordered. Testicular failure and low testosterone level may be hard to ...

  12. The Pleasure Principle: The Effect of Perceived Pleasure Loss Associated with Condoms on Unprotected Anal Intercourse Among Immigrant Latino Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Reisen, Carol A.; Zea, Maria Cecilia; Poppen, Paul J.; Bianchi, Fernanda T.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Sexual pleasure has been identified as an important consideration in decision-making surrounding condom use. We examined the impact of perceived pleasure loss associated with condom use on recent history of insertive and receptive unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) among Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) living in the United States. A total of 482 Dominican, Colombian, and Brazilian immigrant MSM were surveyed regarding sexual attitudes and practices via computer-assisted self-interviewing technology with audio enhancement (ACASI). Participants rated the pleasure they derived from protected and unprotected anal intercourse in each position (insertive and receptive) and also reported their HIV status, relationship status, and recent sexual history. Men who had engaged in both positions, with and without condoms (n=268), perceived a greater pleasure loss associated with condoms during anal intercourse in the insertive versus receptive position. Logistic regression analyses controlling for HIV status, relationship status, and age revealed that men who perceived greater pleasure loss from condoms were more likely to have engaged in UAI over the past 3 months (n[insertive]=297; n[receptive]=284). Findings indicate that the pleasure loss associated with condoms may be a key deterrent for their use in either sex position among Latino MSM. Therefore, pleasure needs to be prioritized in the development of condoms and other sexual safety measures as well as in the promotion of their use. PMID:22663165

  13. The pleasure principle: the effect of perceived pleasure loss associated with condoms on unprotected anal intercourse among immigrant Latino men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, Sarah K; Reisen, Carol A; Zea, Maria Cecilia; Poppen, Paul J; Bianchi, Fernanda T

    2012-07-01

    Sexual pleasure has been identified as an important consideration in decision-making surrounding condom use. We examined the impact of perceived pleasure loss associated with condom use on recent history of insertive and receptive unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) among Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) living in the United States. A total of 482 Dominican, Colombian, and Brazilian immigrant MSM were surveyed regarding sexual attitudes and practices via computer-assisted self-interviewing technology with audio enhancement (ACASI). Participants rated the pleasure they derived from protected and unprotected anal intercourse in each position (insertive and receptive) and also reported their HIV status, relationship status, and recent sexual history. Men who had engaged in both positions, with and without condoms (n=268), perceived a greater pleasure loss associated with condoms during anal intercourse in the insertive versus receptive position. Logistic regression analyses controlling for HIV status, relationship status, and age revealed that men who perceived greater pleasure loss from condoms were more likely to have engaged in UAI over the past 3 months (n[insertive]=297; n[receptive]=284). Findings indicate that the pleasure loss associated with condoms may be a key deterrent for their use in either sex position among Latino MSM. Therefore, pleasure needs to be prioritized in the development of condoms and other sexual safety measures as well as in the promotion of their use.

  14. The Effects of Alcohol on Intentions To Use Condoms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Tara K.; And Others

    This study addressed the hypothesis that intentions to use condoms are affected by alcohol intoxication. Recruited for this research were 54 male students, who indicated on a pretest that they were sexually active, usually used condoms, and were social drinkers. Subjects were divided into groups of two or three and then randomly assigned to the…

  15. Men's Alcohol Intoxication and Condom Use during Sexual Assault Perpetration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Kiekel, Preston A.; Schraufnagel, Trevor J.; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H.; Kajumulo, Kelly F.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the association between alcohol consumption and condom use during penetrative sexual assault acts perpetrated by young adult men. Men aged 21 to 35 who reported inconsistent condom use and heavy episodic drinking (N = 225) completed a questionnaire assessing their perpetration of sexual assault since the age of 15, their consumption of…

  16. [Contraception and protection against STDs. CERPOD measures use of the Protector condom in Mali].

    PubMed

    Konate, M K

    1993-08-01

    In April 1993, a technical assistance contract to measure general condom use, particularly use of the brand name Protector, which has been marketed in Mali since March 1992, was made between the Center of Studies and Research on Population for Development (CERPOD) and the Popular Pharmacy of Mali. In June-July 1991, the SOMARC project and the Malian Institute for Applied Research in Development conducted a baseline survey to determine the condom use rate in Mali before Protector was introduced on the Malian market, so the social marketing project for contraception could be evaluated. It examined knowledge, use, and achievable target level and determined the characteristics of users of the Protector condom. It revealed that more than 90% of both men and women believed birth spacing was a good idea. Men approved of birth spacing for cost-saving reasons, while women approved birth spacing because it allowed mothers time to recuperate between births. Another earlier study in 1987 in Bamako found that 78% of the women already favored birth spacing. 90% of the men in the main cities in Mali knew about condoms. 63% of these men had used them in the past, mainly to prevent sexually transmitted diseases. 30% used them consistently. One hoped that this number was going to grow, since 80% of the men said that they would use condoms in the future. The evaluation of the 1991 social marketing campaign will end in August 1993 and will measure whether it was successful or not. In November 1992, CERPOD followed the framework of a recent baseline survey for an IEC (information, education, and communication) family planning program, operated jointly by the Malian Association for the Protection and Promotion of the Family and Population Communication Services, to measure the effect of the brand name Protector. CERPOD's survey results will be compared with those of the 1993 survey.

  17. Sexual health and use of condoms among local and international sex workers in Sydney.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, C C; Berry, G; Rohrsheim, R; Donovan, B

    1996-02-01

    This study analyzes data on all female sex workers who attended the Sydney Sexual Health Center for a first visit for a sexually transmitted disease (STD) screening during June 1, 1991, and May 31, 1993. International sex workers were identified as women who do not speak English at home and were born outside Australia. Diseases were confirmed clinically, by specimen or culture or by antibody or serological tests. Results apply to 91 local and 123 international prostitutes. 47% of international prostitutes and 34% of local prostitutes were aged 21-25 years. Most international sex workers spoke Thai or a Chinese dialect. 10% of local prostitutes were born in Asia. 90% of international prostitutes were born in Thailand, Malaysia, or China. Local prostitutes were better educated. 7% of the local prostitutes and none of the international sex workers had a history of injectable drug use. Local prostitutes tended to use condoms for birth control, and international prostitutes tended to use oral contraceptives. One international prostitute tested HIV positive. 1 in 7 international prostitutes had gonorrhea and the same proportion had chlamydia. Viral STDs (chronic hepatitis B, HIV infection, and genital warts) were more prevalent, but uncommon among international prostitutes. More international prostitutes had multiple STDs. 79 international sex workers and only 9 local sex workers had an STD. 47% of international sex workers and only 10% of local sex workers had worked overseas as a prostitute in the preceding 12 months. Over half of local sex workers and only 8% of international sex workers consistently used condoms. Failure to use condoms was associated with being an international sex worker. Inconsistent use of condoms among local prostitutes was related to increased age.

  18. Carter-Wallace debuts new polyurethane condom in U.S.

    PubMed

    1999-07-01

    Condom users in the US will have a choice in male polyurethane condoms when Carter-Wallace of Cranbury, New Jersey, introduces its first polyurethane condom, the Trojan Supra Microsheer, in July 1999. The Trojan condom joins the Durex Avanti from the London International Group of London, England, as the only nonlatex synthetic male condoms available in the US. The sole female condom, Reality, from the Female Health Co. of Chicago, is also made of polyurethane. The condom is manufactured through a dipping process of an aliphatic polyurethane material, which results in a condom that has higher tensile strength and break force than a latex condom. Furthermore, condoms manufactured from polyurethane and other plastics enhance sensitivity, do not cause allergic reactions, and are compatible with oil-based lubricants. Sensicon Corporation and Mayer Laboratories are also planning to introduce nonlatex condoms in the country. PMID:12295380

  19. The effects of safer-sex stories on college students' attitudes toward condoms.

    PubMed

    Wright, S S; Kyes, K B

    1996-01-01

    Social learning theory predicts that reading non-erotic stories involving condom use will be as effective as reading erotic stories with condom use in producing positive attitudes toward condoms. Werner's orthogenetic principle, however, predicts that reading erotic condom stories will be most effective because of the link created between sexual arousal and cognitive information about condoms. 168 male and 149 female undergraduates enrolled in Introductory Psychology at a small, private, southern university participated in a study to test the validity of these two theories. The students read one of the following types of stories: erotic with condom placement described, erotic without condom use, or non-erotic with a model for discussing condoms. The men and women who read the non-erotic stories were most positive about condoms and reported the strongest intentions to use condoms in the future. These findings suggest that erotica is not necessary to produce positive attitudes toward condoms.

  20. Condom Use Negotiation in Heterosexual African-American Adults: Responses to Types of Social Power-Based Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Otto-Salaj, Laura L.; Reed, Barbara; Brondino, Michael J.; Gore-Felton, Cheryl; Kelly, Jeffrey A.; Stevenson, L. Yvonne

    2009-01-01

    Little research has been performed on how people respond to different strategies to negotiate condom use in sexual situations, and whether certain strategies tend to be perceived as more or less effective in condom use negotiation. This study examined gender differences and preferences in the use of and response to six different styles of condom use negotiation with a hypothetical sexual partner of the opposite gender. Participants were 51 heterosexually-active African-American men and women between the ages of 18 and 35, attending an inner-city community center. Study participants completed a semi-structured qualitative interview in which they were presented with six negotiation strategies —coercive, reward, legitimate, expert, referent, and informational--based on Raven’s 1992 Power/Interaction Model of Interpersonal Influence. Results showed that women participants responded best to referent, reward, and legitimate strategies, and worst to informational tactics. Men participants responded best to reward strategies, and worst to coercion to use condoms. Further, responses given by a subset of both women—and, to a greater extent, men--indicated that use of negotiation tactics involving coercion to use condoms may result in negative or angry reactions. Finally, response to strategies may vary with the value of the relationship as viewed by the target of negotiation. Implications for HIV prevention programs and media campaigns are discussed. PMID:18569536

  1. HPV type concordance in sexual couples determines the effect of condoms on regression of flat penile lesions.

    PubMed

    Bleeker, M C G; Berkhof, J; Hogewoning, C J A; Voorhorst, F J; van den Brule, A J C; Starink, T M; Snijders, P J F; Meijer, C J L M

    2005-04-25

    We earlier demonstrated, in a randomised clinical trial, that the regression time of flat penile lesions in male sexual partners of women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) was shorter in men who used condoms compared to those who did not. To further evaluate this finding, we examined whether the effect of condom use on the regression of flat penile lesions depends on the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) type concordance in sexual couples, as determined in cervical and penile scrapes by GP5+/6+ PCR testing. A Cox model with time-dependent covariates showed a beneficial effect of condoms on regression of flat penile lesions in concordant couples (hazard ratio 2.63, 95% CI 1.07-6.48) but not in those who were nonconcordant. When both partners harboured different HPV types, no effect of condoms was found (hazard ratio 0.90, 95% CI 0.27-2.96). Delayed regression of flat penile lesions was associated with either stable lesions or with new penile lesions developing at sites surrounding pre-existing lesions suggesting reinfection of the penile epithelium. We conclude that condom use blocks sexual HPV transmission by preventing reinfection and development of new penile lesions in men who are susceptible to the same type as present in the female partner.

  2. Modelling condom use: Does the theory of planned behaviour explain condom use in a low risk, community sample?

    PubMed

    Thomas, Joanna; Shiels, Chris; Gabbay, Mark B

    2014-01-01

    To date, most condom research has focused on young or high-risk groups, with little evidence about influences on condom use amongst lower-risk community samples. These groups are not risk free and may still wish to negotiate safer sex; yet the considerations involved could be different from those in higher-risk groups. Our research addresses this gap: We report a cross-sectional questionnaire study enquiring about recent condom use and future use intentions in community settings. Our sample (n = 311) purposively included couples in established relationships, known to be condom users. Items included demographics, sexual history and social-cognitive variables taken from the theory of planned behaviour. The strongest association with condom use/use intentions amongst our respondents was sexual partner's perceived willingness to use them. This applied across both univariate and multivariate analyses. Whilst most social-cognitive variables (attitudes; self-efficacy and peer social norms) were significant in univariate analyses, this was not supported in multivariate regression. Of the social-cognitive variables, only "condom-related attitudes" were retained in the model explaining recent condom use, whilst none of them entered the model explaining future use intentions. Further analysis showed that attitudes concerning pleasure, identity stigma and condom effectiveness were most salient for this cohort. Our results suggest that, in community samples, the decision to use a condom involves different considerations from those highlighted in previous research. Explanatory models for established couples should embrace interpersonal perspectives, emphasising couple-factors rather than individual beliefs. Messages to this cohort could usefully focus on negotiation skills, condom advantages (other than disease prevention) and reducing the stigma associated with use.

  3. Modelling condom use: Does the theory of planned behaviour explain condom use in a low risk, community sample?

    PubMed

    Thomas, Joanna; Shiels, Chris; Gabbay, Mark B

    2014-01-01

    To date, most condom research has focused on young or high-risk groups, with little evidence about influences on condom use amongst lower-risk community samples. These groups are not risk free and may still wish to negotiate safer sex; yet the considerations involved could be different from those in higher-risk groups. Our research addresses this gap: We report a cross-sectional questionnaire study enquiring about recent condom use and future use intentions in community settings. Our sample (n = 311) purposively included couples in established relationships, known to be condom users. Items included demographics, sexual history and social-cognitive variables taken from the theory of planned behaviour. The strongest association with condom use/use intentions amongst our respondents was sexual partner's perceived willingness to use them. This applied across both univariate and multivariate analyses. Whilst most social-cognitive variables (attitudes; self-efficacy and peer social norms) were significant in univariate analyses, this was not supported in multivariate regression. Of the social-cognitive variables, only "condom-related attitudes" were retained in the model explaining recent condom use, whilst none of them entered the model explaining future use intentions. Further analysis showed that attitudes concerning pleasure, identity stigma and condom effectiveness were most salient for this cohort. Our results suggest that, in community samples, the decision to use a condom involves different considerations from those highlighted in previous research. Explanatory models for established couples should embrace interpersonal perspectives, emphasising couple-factors rather than individual beliefs. Messages to this cohort could usefully focus on negotiation skills, condom advantages (other than disease prevention) and reducing the stigma associated with use. PMID:23909581

  4. Using the theory of reasoned action (TRA) to understand the decision to use condoms in an STD clinic population.

    PubMed

    Baker, S A; Morrison, D M; Carter, W B; Verdon, M S

    1996-11-01

    The theory of reasoned action (TRA) provides useful information when designing health education interventions. In this study, 703 heterosexual STD clinic clients responded to a TRA-based survey. With steady partners, social norms and attitudes toward condom use were significant predictors of intention for both men and women. The interaction of attitude and norm increased prediction for men (R = .64, p < 0.001) and women (R = .70, p < 0.001). With casual partners, attitude was a predictor for men and social norm was a predictor for women. Prior use of condoms increased prediction for men (R = .38, p < 0.001) and women (R = .47, p < 0.001). Findings suggest that, in addition to traditional TRA model variables, the relationship between sexual partners and the individual's prior experience with condom use should be incorporated into attempts to understand this complex, dyadic behavior. Examining specific outcome and normative beliefs also provides important information for intervention design.

  5. Condom use negotiation in heterosexual African American adults: responses to types of social power-based strategies.

    PubMed

    Otto-Salaj, Laura; Reed, Barbara; Brondino, Michael J; Gore-Felton, Cheryl; Kelly, Jeffrey A; Stevenson, L Yvonne

    2008-01-01

    This study examined gender differences and preferences in the use of and response to six different styles of condom use negotiation with a hypothetical sexual partner of the opposite gender. Participants were 51 heterosexually active African American adults attending an inner-city community center. Participants completed a semistructured qualitative interview in which they were presented with six negotiation strategies based on Raven's 1992 Power/Interaction Model of Interpersonal Influence. Results showed that female participants responded best to referent, reward, and legitimate strategies, and worst to informational tactics. Male participants responded best to reward strategies, and worst to coercion to use condoms. Further, responses given by a subset of participants indicated that use of negotiation tactics involving coercion to use condoms may result in negative or angry reactions. Response to strategies may vary with the value of the relationship as viewed by the target of negotiation. Implications for HIV prevention efforts are discussed.

  6. Using the theory of reasoned action (TRA) to understand the decision to use condoms in an STD clinic population.

    PubMed

    Baker, S A; Morrison, D M; Carter, W B; Verdon, M S

    1996-11-01

    The theory of reasoned action (TRA) provides useful information when designing health education interventions. In this study, 703 heterosexual STD clinic clients responded to a TRA-based survey. With steady partners, social norms and attitudes toward condom use were significant predictors of intention for both men and women. The interaction of attitude and norm increased prediction for men (R = .64, p < 0.001) and women (R = .70, p < 0.001). With casual partners, attitude was a predictor for men and social norm was a predictor for women. Prior use of condoms increased prediction for men (R = .38, p < 0.001) and women (R = .47, p < 0.001). Findings suggest that, in addition to traditional TRA model variables, the relationship between sexual partners and the individual's prior experience with condom use should be incorporated into attempts to understand this complex, dyadic behavior. Examining specific outcome and normative beliefs also provides important information for intervention design. PMID:8910029

  7. How does Intimate Partner Violence Affect Condom and Oral Contraceptive Use in the United States? A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Bergmann, Julie N.; Stockman, Jamila K.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Intimate partner violence (IPV) is estimated to affect 25% of adult women in the US alone. IPV directly impacts women’s ability to use contraception, resulting in many of unintended pregnancies and STIs. This review examines the relationship between IPV and condom and oral contraceptive use within the United States at two levels: the female victim’s perspective on barriers to condom and oral contraceptive use, in conjunction with experiencing IPV (Aim 1) and the male perpetrator’s perspective regarding condom and oral contraceptive use (Aim 2). STUDY DESIGN We systematically reviewed and synthesized all publications meeting the study criteria published since 1997. We aimed to categorize the results by emerging themes related to each study aim. RESULTS We identified 42 studies that met our inclusion criteria. We found 37 studies that addressed Aim 1. Within this we identified three themes: violence resulting in reduced condom or oral contraceptive use (n=15); condom or oral contraceptive use negotiation (n=15); which we further categorized as IPV due to condom or oral contraceptive request, perceived violence (or fear) of IPV resulting in decreased condom or oral contraceptive use, and sexual relationship power imbalances decreasing the ability to use condoms or oral contraceptives; and reproductive coercion (n=7). We found 5 studies that addressed Aim 2. Most studies were cross-sectional, limiting the ability to determine causality between IPV and condom or oral contraceptive use; however, most studies did find a positive relationship between IPV and decreased condom or oral contraceptive use. CONCLUSIONS Quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods research has demonstrated the linkages between female IPV victimization/male IPV perpetration and condom or oral contraceptive use. However, additional qualitative and longitudinal research is needed to improve the understanding of dynamics in relationships with IPV and determine causality between IPV

  8. Social marketing of condoms in India.

    PubMed

    Thapa, S; Prasad, C V; Rao, P H; Severy, L J; Rao, S R

    1994-01-01

    Contraceptive social marketing is a way of supplying contraceptives to consumers who cannot afford to buy them at full market price, yet are not reached by the free public distribution program. The process involves supplying a subsidized product through existing commercial distribution networks, using the mass media and other retail marketing techniques to commercially advertise the products. India was the first country to introduce this concept to its family planning program. India's social marketing program is also the largest in the world. Over the past 25 years, total condom sales in India have expanded under the program from less than 10 million per year to more than one billion. The authors present an overview of India's social marketing initiative, describe the firms participating in the program, and summarize the lessons learned from the social marketing experience. Problems and prospects, and experiences and implications are discussed. PMID:12159235

  9. [Permeability to phi chi 174 bacteriophages in polyolephin membrane condoms].

    PubMed

    Sierra, Oscar Eugenio; Gaona de Hernández, María Antonia; Rey, Gloria Janneth

    2005-12-01

    Membranes used for the manufacture of condoms eventually can develop tiny pores, thereby decreasing dramatically their effectiveness as a physical barrier against the transmission of infectious agents. A technique was designed that was based on the ability of bacteriophage viruses to trespass membranes and to infect certain bacteria species, and then developing lysis plaques in the colonies of the host bacteria. The effectiveness of 60 polyolefin condoms in preventing the diffusion of the bacteriophage phi chi 174(ATCC13706-B1), 27 nm diameter, was compared to 20 latex condoms. Physiological conditions such as pressure, pH, superficial tension, length, time of exposure and viral titre were simulated. A pressurization system was designed, in which compressed air was injected simultaneously to ten condoms. Four of the 60 polyolefin condoms and one of the 20 latex condoms were permeable to the virus. Therefore, at least 93% of the condoms evaluated were able to contain the virus. The difference in permeability between the two types of membranes was not statistically significant (P = 0.79).

  10. Predictors of condom use among peer social networks of men who have sex with men in Ghana, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Nelson, LaRon E; Wilton, Leo; Agyarko-Poku, Thomas; Zhang, Nanhua; Zou, Yuanshu; Aluoch, Marilyn; Apea, Vanessa; Hanson, Samuel Owiredu; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw

    2015-01-01

    Ghanaian men who have sex with men (MSM) have high rates of HIV infection. A first step in designing culturally relevant prevention interventions for MSM in Ghana is to understand the influence that peer social networks have on their attitudes and behaviors. We aimed to examine whether, in a sample of Ghanaian MSM, mean scores on psychosocial variables theorized to influence HIV/STI risk differed between peer social networks and to examine whether these variables were associated with condom use. We conducted a formative, cross-sectional survey with 22 peer social networks of MSM (n = 137) in Ghana. We assessed basic psychological-needs satisfaction, HIV/STI knowledge, sense of community, HIV and gender non-conformity stigmas, gender equitable norms, sexual behavior and condom use. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance, generalized estimating equations, and Wilcoxon two sample tests. All models were adjusted for age and income, ethnicity, education, housing and community of residence. Mean scores for all psychosocial variables differed significantly by social network. Men who reported experiencing more autonomy support by their healthcare providers had higher odds of condom use for anal (AOR = 3.29, p<0.01), oral (AOR = 5.06, p<0.01) and vaginal (AOR = 1.8, p<0.05) sex. Those with a stronger sense of community also had higher odds of condom use for anal sex (AOR = 1.26, p<0.001). Compared to networks with low prevalence of consistent condom users, networks with higher prevalence of consistent condom users had higher STD and HIV knowledge, had norms that were more supportive of gender equity, and experienced more autonomy support in their healthcare encounters. Healthcare providers and peer social networks can have an important influence on safer-sex behaviors in Ghanaian MSM. More research with Ghanaian MSM is needed that considers knowledge, attitudes, and norms of their social networks in the development and implementation of culturally relevant HIV

  11. Exploring Gender Differences in the Relationship between HIV/STD Testing and Condom Use among Undergraduate College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bontempi, Jean Breny; Mugno, Raymond; Bulmer, Sandra M.; Danvers, Karina; Vancour, Michele L.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Rates of HIV/AIDS, and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), are increasing among university students. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine gender differences in the relationship between condom use and (1) HIV/STD testing behaviors, (2) STD treatment behaviors and, (3) alcohol use behaviors. Methods: A survey was…

  12. Condom Use Trajectories in Adolescence and the Transition to Adulthood: The Role of Mother and Father Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pingel, Emily S.; Bauermeister, Jose A.; Elkington, Katherine S.; Fergus, Stevenson; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Zimmerman, Marc A.

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have investigated how mother and father support differ on predicting youths' sexual risk behavior. We therefore examined the influence of parental support on condom use trajectories and its correlates in a predominantly African-American sample (N = 627; 53% female participants; M = 14.86 years [SD = 0.64]) from adolescence to young…

  13. Sociocultural and Behavioral Contexts of Condom Use in Heterosexual Married Couples in India: Challenges to the HIV Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhattacharya, Gauri

    2004-01-01

    This article examines sociocultural expectations of sexual behavior and the reasons why not using condoms may be logical to married heterosexual couples in India. Married women who report monogamous sexual relationships with their husbands are a high-risk group for HIV infection in India. Based on the public health model and a population-based…

  14. Impact of Beliefs about HIV Treatment and Peer Condom Norms on Risky Sexual Behavior among Gay and Bisexual Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, John L.; Bakeman, Roger

    2006-01-01

    The association between perceptions about condom use among one's peers, beliefs about new HIV treatments, and HIV sexual risk behavior was examined in a large urban sample ( N = 454) of gay and bisexual men in the Southeast. Results partially confirmed the hypothesis that men who endorsed new HIV treatment beliefs would report lower norms for…

  15. Safer Sex in a Digital World: A Web-Based Motivational Enhancement Intervention to Increase Condom Use among College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starosta, Amy J.; Cranston, Emma; Earleywine, Mitch

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study is a randomized trial of a Web-based intervention to increase condom use among college women. Participants: From October 2012 to March 2013, N = 422 completed baseline questionnaires and intervention procedures. n = 216 completed 3-month follow-up. Methods: Participants completed a decisional balance exercise examining their…

  16. Condom use and attitudes among heterosexual college students.

    PubMed

    Myers, T; Clement, C

    1994-01-01

    The responses of a self-selected sample of Canadian college students draw attention to the salience of gender-based analysis in studies of sexual behavior and condom use. Respondents included 249 male and 237 female heterosexuals (mean age 22.6 and 21.9 years, respectively) who approached free condom distribution displays at 4 college campuses in Toronto and agreed to complete a brief questionnaire. Overall, 69% of students stated they were currently involved in a relationship; however, 65% of females compared to only 47% of males reported having just 1 sexual partner in the past year. 83% of students had used a condom at some point in their life and 69% reported condom use on at least 1 occasion in the past year. All respondents acknowledge at least 1 episode of sexual intercourse where a condom was not used. The most frequent reason for nonuse, among both males and females, was involvement in a steady relationship. However, males were significantly more likely than females to claim they did not use condoms for the following other reasons: did not have a condom, sex was so exciting, partner did not want to use a condom, and drugs or alcohol were involved. Males reported significantly higher rates of condom use than females during vaginal intercourse, oral sex, and anal intercourse. On the other hand, females had more positive attitudes toward condoms and were more conscientious in their proper use. There were significant gender differences on 6 of 10 attitude questions, with females disagreeing more strongly than males with the following statements: condoms are a turnoff, safe sex is boring, long-term lovers can have any type of sex without risk, drug or alcohol use makes it hard to practice safe sex, and it is hard to have safe sex with a very attractive partner. In terms of specific condom use guidelines intended to prevent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission, females were significantly more likely than males to be aware of or adhere to the following

  17. The relationship between gender role conflict and condom use among black MSM.

    PubMed

    Malebranche, David J; Gvetadze, Roman; Millett, Gregorio A; Sutton, Madeline Y

    2012-10-01

    Gender role conflict may influence condom use among black MSM. We examined relationships between the Gender Role Conflict Scale (GRCS), social/demographic variables and condom use among 456 black MSM. Higher total GRCS scores did not predict unprotected insertive anal intercourse (UIAI) or unprotected receptive anal intercourse (URAI) with men, but were associated with unprotected vaginal or anal intercourse (UVI/UAI) with women among bisexually active participants (n = 69). Higher perceived HIV risk reduced the likelihood of both UIAI and URAI with men. Internet recruitment venues, sexual discrimination experiences, higher numbers of sex partners and UVI/UAI with women all increased the likelihood of UIAI with men, while education (college/technical school or college degree) was associated with URAI with men. Future sexual health interventions for black MSM should emphasize broader social/demographic and alternative gender role variables with male sexual partners, while traditional GRCS variables may prove useful among those with female sexual partners.

  18. Predicting Intended Condom Use among Tanzanian Students using the Theory of Planned Behaviour.

    PubMed

    Lugoe, W; Rise, J

    1999-07-01

    This study examined whether perceived behavioural control predicted the intention to use condoms at next sexual intercourse above the components of the theory of reasoned action, as well as the sufficiency of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) as a theory of intention among Tanzanian adolescents. Five hundred and twenty-eight students who were sexually active, from seven secondary schools in Arusha, Northern Tanzania, completed a questionnaire designed to measure the components of the TPB. Behavioural intentions were significantly predictable from attitudes (.11), subjective norms (.22) and perceived behavioural control (.48). The inclusion of past behaviour into the regression equation increased R(2) only marginally (2 percent) but significantly, suggesting that the TPB provides a fairly accurate explanation of intention to use condoms among Tanzanian adolescents. The implications of this finding in relation to theoretical and practical issues are discussed.

  19. Progress and challenges to male and female condom use in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Beksinska, Mags E; Smit, Jennifer A; Mantell, Joanne E

    2012-03-01

    South Africa has responded to the sexually transmissible infection and HIV epidemic with a rapid expansion of its national-level public sector condom program. Male condoms are available widely at no cost in the public sector, with expanded access via social marketing and the private sector. The female condom program is one of the largest and best established globally. National surveys show progressive increases in rates of condom use at last sex. However, inconsistent and incorrect condom use and the likelihood that condoms are discontinued in longer-term partnerships are some of the challenges impeding the condom program's successes in the fight against sexually transmissible infections and HIV. This article reviews the current condom program, related guidelines and policies, and the existing data on male and female condom use, including distribution and uptake. We discuss the main challenges to condom use, including both user and service-related issues and finally how these challenges could be addressed.

  20. Study of characteristics of condom-acceptors using condom as first choice and alternative method of contraception in 1981-1987 at the NPFDB, GHKL.

    PubMed

    Low Boon Song

    1990-06-01

    Factors influencing condom acceptance were studied and compared in 2 groups of condom-acceptors--those using condoms as a 1st method of contraception and those using condoms as an alternative method of contraception. Data was obtained by reviewing the condom-acceptor cards during 1981-1987 at the General Hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 208 cards for the 1st group and 230 for the 2nd group were included in the study. Statistical analysis was conducted to determine characteristics influencing condom-use. AGe of wife, duration of marriage, number of living children, wife's level of education and socioeconomic status were identified as factors influencing condom acceptance. No significant difference was observed between the 2 group concerning their purpose of contraception. Age of wife had a significant influence on the use of condoms as contraception. Age of wife had a significant influence on the use of condoms as contraception; 74.5% of group 1 users were 31 years and 56.5% of group 2 users were 30 years. A very significant relationship also exist between condom use and duration of marriage and number of living children; condom-acceptors using condoms as the 1st method of contraception did so within 9 years of marriage (85.6%) and practiced condom use when they had 2 of children (73.6%) while those who used condoms subsequently were married 10 years (46.5%) and did so after having 3 or children (57.8%). Significant differences were observed between groups in higher socioeconomic status and higher level of education. With 7 or more years of education, a significant proportion of condom-acceptors used condoms as a 1st method of contraception as compared with those who used it as a subsequent method of contraception. For the higher socioeconomic, a significant number of acceptors used condoms as a 1st method of contraception.

  1. The Impact of Condom Use Negotiation Self-Efficacy and Partnership Patterns on Consistent Condom Use Among College-Educated Women.

    PubMed

    Nesoff, Elizabeth D; Dunkle, Kristin; Lang, Delia

    2016-02-01

    This study sought to explore the impact of condom negotiation self-efficacy, interpersonal factors, and sensational factors on condom use behavior among a population of college-educated women with different patterns and types of sexual partner. We administered an online questionnaire capturing sexual behavior, partnership patterns, perceived benefits of and barriers to condom use, and condom use negotiation self-efficacy. A total of 433 women completed the online survey. Perceived sensual, erotic, and interpersonal benefits and barriers to condom use, along with negotiation self-efficacy, were found to be significantly associated with consistent condom use. When compared to respondents reporting only main partners, respondents reporting only casual partners were more likely to use condoms while respondents reporting both main and casual partners were least likely to use condoms. Previous negative experiences with condoms were significantly associated with decreased condom use, while history of sexually transmitted infection diagnosis was not consistently associated with condom use. This study supports the importance of negotiation self-efficacy in promoting condom use; however, building women's self-efficacy is not enough for effective condom use promotion among women. The impact of interpersonal, sensual and erotic factors, as well as the context of different partnership patterns, must be considered in future interventions.

  2. The Impact of Condom Use Negotiation Self-Efficacy and Partnership Patterns on Consistent Condom Use Among College-Educated Women.

    PubMed

    Nesoff, Elizabeth D; Dunkle, Kristin; Lang, Delia

    2016-02-01

    This study sought to explore the impact of condom negotiation self-efficacy, interpersonal factors, and sensational factors on condom use behavior among a population of college-educated women with different patterns and types of sexual partner. We administered an online questionnaire capturing sexual behavior, partnership patterns, perceived benefits of and barriers to condom use, and condom use negotiation self-efficacy. A total of 433 women completed the online survey. Perceived sensual, erotic, and interpersonal benefits and barriers to condom use, along with negotiation self-efficacy, were found to be significantly associated with consistent condom use. When compared to respondents reporting only main partners, respondents reporting only casual partners were more likely to use condoms while respondents reporting both main and casual partners were least likely to use condoms. Previous negative experiences with condoms were significantly associated with decreased condom use, while history of sexually transmitted infection diagnosis was not consistently associated with condom use. This study supports the importance of negotiation self-efficacy in promoting condom use; however, building women's self-efficacy is not enough for effective condom use promotion among women. The impact of interpersonal, sensual and erotic factors, as well as the context of different partnership patterns, must be considered in future interventions. PMID:26194206

  3. Making sense of condoms: social representations in young people’s HIV-related narratives from six African countries

    PubMed Central

    Winskell, Kate; Obyerodhyambo, Oby; Stephenson, Rob

    2011-01-01

    Condoms are an essential component of comprehensive efforts to control the HIV epidemic, both for those who know their status and for those who do not. Although young people account for almost half of all new HIV infections, reported condom use among them remains low in many sub-Saharan African countries. In order to inform education and communication efforts to increase condom use, we examined social representations of condoms among young people aged 10–24 in six African countries/regions with diverse HIV prevalence rates: Swaziland, Namibia, Kenya, South-East Nigeria, Burkina Faso, and Senegal. We used a unique data source, namely 11,354 creative ideas contributed from these countries to a continent-wide scriptwriting contest, held from 1st February to 15th April 2005, on the theme of HIV/AIDS. We stratified each country sample by the sex, age (10–14, 15–19, 20–24), and urban/rural location of the author and randomly selected up to 10 narratives for each of the 12 resulting strata, netting a total sample of 586 texts for the six countries. We analyzed the narratives qualitatively using thematic data analysis and narrative-based methodologies. Differences were observed across settings in the prominence accorded to condoms, the assessment of their effectiveness, and certain barriers to and facilitators of their use. Moralization emerged as a key impediment to positive representations of condoms, while humour was an appealing means to normalize them. The social representations in the narratives identify communication needs in and across settings and provide youth-focused ideas and perspectives to inform future intervention efforts. PMID:21388731

  4. Making sense of condoms: social representations in young people's HIV-related narratives from six African countries.

    PubMed

    Winskell, Kate; Obyerodhyambo, Oby; Stephenson, Rob

    2011-03-01

    Condoms are an essential component of comprehensive efforts to control the HIV epidemic, both for those who know their status and for those who do not. Although young people account for almost half of all new HIV infections, reported condom use among them remains low in many sub-Saharan African countries. In order to inform education and communication efforts to increase condom use, we examined social representations of condoms among young people aged 10-24 in six African countries/regions with diverse HIV prevalence rates: Swaziland, Namibia, Kenya, South-East Nigeria, Burkina Faso, and Senegal. We used a unique data source, namely 11,354 creative ideas contributed from these countries to a continent-wide scriptwriting contest, held from 1(st) February to 15(th) April 2005, on the theme of HIV/AIDS. We stratified each country sample by the sex, age (10-14, 15-19, 20-24), and urban/rural location of the author and randomly selected up to 10 narratives for each of the 12 resulting strata, netting a total sample of 586 texts for the six countries. We analyzed the narratives qualitatively using thematic data analysis and narrative-based methodologies. Differences were observed across settings in the prominence accorded to condoms, the assessment of their effectiveness, and certain barriers to and facilitators of their use. Moralization emerged as a key impediment to positive representations of condoms, while humour was an appealing means to normalize them. The social representations in the narratives identify communication needs in and across settings and provide youth-focused ideas and perspectives to inform future intervention efforts.

  5. Condom use and the popular press in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Renne, E P

    1993-04-01

    The increased acceptability and use of condoms by men in southwestern Nigeria is reflected in joking references to condoms in the comic-style popular press. Yet these references display an ambivalence about condoms that is mirrored in survey data and in interviews regarding condom use by rural Ekiti Yoruba men. This ambivalence, which is often couched in terms of health, has implications for the acceptance of government-sponsored HIV/AIDS-related educational programs. Because of the irreverence of comic-style newspapers and the 'unofficial' nature of their authority which coincides with popular attitudes about health programs, they have a credibility that could be useful in educating adolescents about sexually-transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS. PMID:10148797

  6. Mineral oil lubricants cause rapid deterioration of latex condoms.

    PubMed

    Voeller, B; Coulson, A H; Bernstein, G S; Nakamura, R M

    1989-01-01

    As little as sixty seconds' exposure of commercial latex condoms to mineral oil, a common component of hand lotions and other lubricants used during sexual intercourse, caused approximately 90% decrease in the strength of the condoms, as measured by their burst volumes in the standard ISO (International Standards Organization) Air Burst Test. Burst pressures were also reduced, although less dramatically. Lubricants such as Vaseline Intensive Care and Johnson's Baby Oil, each containing mineral oil, also affected condom integrity. Five min. exposure of condoms to glycerol, a frequent component of hand lotions and 'personal lubricants', did not significantly affect burst volume or pressure. Aqueous nonoxynol-9 spermicide did not affect either burst index. The implications of these results for contraception and protection from sexually transmitted diseases, including AIDS, are discussed.

  7. Condom sales boom as Rwanda and Haiti struggle to rebuild.

    PubMed

    Dadian, M J

    1997-06-01

    Condom social marketing (CSM) programs have been extremely successful in Rwanda and Haiti despite political and economic chaos. Hundreds of small sales outlets have been established throughout Rwanda for CSM. Using commercial marketing techniques, affordable pricing, and existing retail networks to promote, distribute, and sell condoms, the AIDS Control and Prevention (AIDSCAP) Project's nonprofit CSM programs have created enormous demand for condoms even in places where resistance to them used to be extremely strong. Overcoming cultural barriers to condom use is one of the great challenges facing CSM programs throughout the world. Cooperation amid chaos, violent civil conflict in Rwanda, and partnerships with communities, nongovernmental organizations, and other community-based organizations are discussed. PMID:12321030

  8. Condom use and the popular press in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Renne, E P

    1993-04-01

    The increased acceptability and use of condoms by men in southwestern Nigeria is reflected in joking references to condoms in the comic-style popular press. Yet these references display an ambivalence about condoms that is mirrored in survey data and in interviews regarding condom use by rural Ekiti Yoruba men. This ambivalence, which is often couched in terms of health, has implications for the acceptance of government-sponsored HIV/AIDS-related educational programs. Because of the irreverence of comic-style newspapers and the 'unofficial' nature of their authority which coincides with popular attitudes about health programs, they have a credibility that could be useful in educating adolescents about sexually-transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS.

  9. Condom use errors among sexually unfaithful and consensually nonmonogamous individuals.

    PubMed

    Conley, Terri D; Moors, Amy C; Ziegler, Ali; Matsick, Jes L; Rubin, Jennifer D

    2013-11-01

    This research involved comparisons of the condom use behaviours of people who are in monogamous relationships but who have engaged in extradyadic sex (i.e. committed infidelity) to those who are in consensually nonmonogamous (CNM) relationships. Consensual nonmonogamy is the practice of openly having multiple sexual or romantic partners simultaneously, with the full knowledge and consent of all participating partners. Participants in CNM relationships used condoms more correctly in their last instance of intercourse than those who were committing infidelity.

  10. Predictors of intention to use condoms among Chinese college students.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ruiling; McAleese, Willis J; Appleby, Karen M; Guo, Jianhui; Zhang, Wei; Huang, Yi; Peterson, Teri

    2014-08-01

    China is experiencing one of the fastest growing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemics in the world. Condom use is consistently low among Chinese college students. The purpose of this study was to identify the predictors that determine the intention to use condoms among Chinese college students applying the theory of planned behavior (TPB). A non-probability convenience sample of 433 participants was drawn from three universities in Central, Eastern, and Southwestern China, respectively. An anonymous written questionnaire was self-administered. Data were collected and analyzed descriptively and statistically using Predictive Analytical Software 19.0. Multiple linear regression was performed to identify the predictors among 402 participants with non-missing data. Eighteen percent (78/433) of the participants reported being sexually active in the past 6 months. The percentage of times these individuals reported using condoms during intercourse was 38.19%. Intention to use condoms was statistically significantly (R(2) = 50.4%) predicted by attitudes (β = 0.213), subjective norms (β = 0.259), and perceived behavior control (PBC) (β = 0.332). All predictors were statistically significant at the 0.001 level (p < 0.001). PBC was the strongest predictor of intention to use condoms. The study findings indicated that the TPB could be used as a framework to determine the predictors of intention to use condoms among the Chinese college students. It is recommended that the HIV education programs should increase the intention to use condoms through promoting positive attitudes, subjective norms and PBC of condom use in Chinese college students.

  11. Predictors of intention to use condoms among Chinese college students.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ruiling; McAleese, Willis J; Appleby, Karen M; Guo, Jianhui; Zhang, Wei; Huang, Yi; Peterson, Teri

    2014-08-01

    China is experiencing one of the fastest growing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemics in the world. Condom use is consistently low among Chinese college students. The purpose of this study was to identify the predictors that determine the intention to use condoms among Chinese college students applying the theory of planned behavior (TPB). A non-probability convenience sample of 433 participants was drawn from three universities in Central, Eastern, and Southwestern China, respectively. An anonymous written questionnaire was self-administered. Data were collected and analyzed descriptively and statistically using Predictive Analytical Software 19.0. Multiple linear regression was performed to identify the predictors among 402 participants with non-missing data. Eighteen percent (78/433) of the participants reported being sexually active in the past 6 months. The percentage of times these individuals reported using condoms during intercourse was 38.19%. Intention to use condoms was statistically significantly (R(2) = 50.4%) predicted by attitudes (β = 0.213), subjective norms (β = 0.259), and perceived behavior control (PBC) (β = 0.332). All predictors were statistically significant at the 0.001 level (p < 0.001). PBC was the strongest predictor of intention to use condoms. The study findings indicated that the TPB could be used as a framework to determine the predictors of intention to use condoms among the Chinese college students. It is recommended that the HIV education programs should increase the intention to use condoms through promoting positive attitudes, subjective norms and PBC of condom use in Chinese college students. PMID:24390740

  12. Contextual influence on condom use in commercial sex venues: A multi-level analysis among female sex workers and gatekeepers in Guangxi, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yiyun; Li, Xiaoming; Shen, Zhiyong; Zhou, Yuejiao; Tang, Zhenzhu; Huedo-Medina, Tania B

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to assess the influence of commercial sex venues on consistent condom use among female sex workers (FSWs) and to examine associations between individual and venue level factors and consistent condom use with clients. Analysis was based on a sample of 637 FSWs and 123 gatekeepers from 51 venues in Guangxi, China. Multi-level logistic regression using Bayesian simulation via Markov Chain Monte Carlo was applied to investigate whether FSWs' individual propensity to use condom with clients was statistically dependent on the venue of working. Multi-level modeling revealed considerable variability across venues in the likelihood of consistent condom use with clients among FSWs. Characteristics at both individual and venue levels helped to explain the observed variation. Certain venue-level factors exerted their influence on condom use over and above the effect of individual-level characteristics. The contextual influence exerted on condom use behaviors among FSWs may imply a potential to harness the path to individual behaviors from a higher and more dominant level, and shed light on the design of more effective sexual risk reduction intervention among venue-based FSWs. PMID:26004452

  13. Contextual Influence on Condom Use in Commercial Sex Venues: a Multi-level Analysis among Female Sex Workers and Gatekeepers in Guangxi, China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yiyun; Li, Xiaoming; Shen, Zhiyong; Zhou, Yuejiao; Tang, Zhenzhu; Huedo-Medina, Tania B.

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to assess the influence of commercial sex venues on consistent condom use among female sex workers (FSWs) and to examine associations between individual and venue level factors and consistent condom use with clients. Analysis was based on a sample of 637 FSWs and 123 gatekeepers from 51 venues in Guangxi, China. Multi-level logistic regression using Bayesian simulation via Markov Chain Monte Carlo was applied to investigate whether FSWs’ individual propensity to use condom with clients was statistically dependent on the venue of working. Multi-level modeling revealed considerable variability across venues in the likelihood of consistent condom use with clients among FSWs. Characteristics at both individual and venue levels helped to explain the observed variation. Certain venue-level factors exerted their influence on condom use over and above the effect of individual-level characteristics. The contextual influence exerted on condom use behaviors among FSWs may imply a potential to harness the path to individual behaviors from a higher and more dominant level, and shed light on the design of more effective sexual risk reduction intervention among venue-based FSWs. PMID:26004452

  14. The catch 22 of condoms in US correctional facilities

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Joseph D; Chang, Suzanne W; Tulsky, Jacqueline P

    2007-01-01

    Background Despite the high prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV infection in US correctional settings, most jails and prisons in the United States prevent inmates from using condoms to prevent STIs/HIV. Discussion This article makes the following arguments to justify a scalable and feasible next step in the prevention of HIV/STIs among inmates: condoms are a basic and essential part of HIV/STI prevention, HIV/STI transmission occurs in the context of corrections, and several model programs show the feasibility of condom distribution in prisons. A lower end estimate for HIV incidence among incarcerated applied to 2,000,000 new inmates annually results in thousands of new HIV infections acquired each year in corrections that could be prevented with condoms in corrections facilities. Programs from parts of the United States, Canada, and much of Europe show how programs distributing condoms in correctional facilities can be safe and effective. Summary Public health and corrections officials must work together to ensure that condoms and broader sexual disease prevention programs are integrated into US jail and prison health systems. PMID:17949507

  15. Heart Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Heart Failure What is Heart Failure? In heart failure, the heart cannot pump enough ... failure often experience tiredness and shortness of breath. Heart Failure is Serious Heart failure is a serious and ...

  16. Effects of HealthWise South Africa on Condom Use Self-efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Edward A.; Flisher, Alan J.; Caldwell, Linda L.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examines the impact of the HealthWise South Africa prevention intervention on condom use self-efficacy. Students from the Cape Town area were assessed at the beginning and end of each school year, beginning in the 8th grade and ending in the 11th. The intervention was delivered in 12 lessons during the 8th grade and 6 lessons during the 9th grade. Using three-level multiphase mixed-effects models, we found that HealthWise had a statistically significant positive effect on condom use self-efficacy, although effects differed for boys and girls. HealthWise had an effect during the first phase of the intervention (8th grade) for girls and during the second phase (9th grade) for boys. We speculate that the gender differences occur because the 8th grade lessons of the intervention taught skills such as discussion, decision making, and negotiation, which may be more salient to girls, and a 9th grade lesson explicitly focused on condom use within the context of sexual relationships, which may have been more salient to boys. PMID:21271356

  17. Applying the Theory of Reasoned Action to condom use among sex workers.

    PubMed

    Sneed, C D; Morisky, D E

    1998-01-01

    This study assessed the relationship between constructs from the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) on condom use in a sample of 1394 Filipino female sex workers. Path analysis for observed variables was used to examine the relationship between attitudes, norms and behavioral intentions on behaviors within the context of condom use during vaginal sex. Results indicate that the direct paths between attitudes toward the behavior and subjective norms were small in comparison to the direct paths between these two constructs and behavioral intentions. This supports the findings of the TRA, which states that behaviors are influenced by attitudes toward the behavior and subjective norms as mediated through intentions to perform the behavior. In addition, it was illustrated that the participation of the managers in the intervention will more than likely influence the success of the intervention. These findings exemplify the need to develop HIV preventative interventions that are sample specific. In conclusion, condom attitudes and policies of managers who employ commercial sex workers are very important for reducing risky sexual practice among their workers.

  18. A comparison of the determinants of safe injecting and condom use among injecting drug users.

    PubMed

    Myers, T; Millson, M; Rigby, J; Ennis, M; Rankin, J; Mindell, W; Strathdee, S

    1995-02-01

    A sample of 582 injecting drug users were interviewed as part of an evaluation of an AIDS prevention programme for drug users. This paper examines the biographic and predispositional determinants of five HIV preventive behaviours--equipment sharing (not receiving and not giving) and and condom use (with regular partners, casual partners and sex clients). A two-stage sequential approach was adopted for a logistic regression analysis. Initially, to model each of the five preventive behaviours, biographical and drug use variables were entered. In a second set of models, behavioural predisposition factors were included. Age, drug use and prison experience correlate with variables in both models, although not consistently in the same direction. While a predisposition to reject sharing correlates with safer rejecting and condom use, the predisposition to safer sex only correlates with condom use. Needle exchange programmes that only target the individual would seem to be inadequate. To enhance targeted interventions changes in public and agency policy that create a social environment conductive to behaviour change are required.

  19. The condom controversy: should latex prophylactics be part of everyday life?

    PubMed

    1994-01-19

    In the Philippines, the Catholic Church opposes condom use and the government's promotion of condom use, yet people can easily buy condoms. In the conservative southern Philippines, both church-going men and women buy condoms from stress near churches. Condom use is being promoted throughout Asia as a means to protect against sexually transmitted diseases and AIDS. Some people object to the openness of public health advocates when they discuss condom use and quality because they believe that the advocates are sending an underlying message that casual sex is acceptable. They call for promotion of sexual abstinence. An Indonesian official suggests a condom red line to mark areas where sex workers operate; anyone entering a red line district would have to have a condom. No advertisements for condoms exist in Malaysia, but condom are readily available at most convenience stores. Most of the 601 HIV-positive people in Japan became infected via contaminated blood products. Condoms have been the primary method of birth control in Japan for many years. At least 27 condom boutiques operate in Japan, resulting in a changed condom image. Condoms sold in Japan must meet strict standards. In a recent condom quality survey in Hong Kong, 66% of 34 model condoms did not pass. They leaked, stretched insufficiently, or had no expiration date or instructions. A marketing director notes that condoms assume value when people spend money for them, while free condoms have little value and are often used as balloons. An advertising agency in India promotes enjoyment while past ads made people feel sleazy. In Malaysia, like in other parts of Asia, it is difficult for women, even educated, professional women, to negotiate safe sex. The Philippines uses this motto--We Follow the ABC's: A for Abstinence, B for Be Faithful, and C for Condoms. PMID:12288297

  20. The condom controversy: should latex prophylactics be part of everyday life?

    PubMed

    1994-01-19

    In the Philippines, the Catholic Church opposes condom use and the government's promotion of condom use, yet people can easily buy condoms. In the conservative southern Philippines, both church-going men and women buy condoms from stress near churches. Condom use is being promoted throughout Asia as a means to protect against sexually transmitted diseases and AIDS. Some people object to the openness of public health advocates when they discuss condom use and quality because they believe that the advocates are sending an underlying message that casual sex is acceptable. They call for promotion of sexual abstinence. An Indonesian official suggests a condom red line to mark areas where sex workers operate; anyone entering a red line district would have to have a condom. No advertisements for condoms exist in Malaysia, but condom are readily available at most convenience stores. Most of the 601 HIV-positive people in Japan became infected via contaminated blood products. Condoms have been the primary method of birth control in Japan for many years. At least 27 condom boutiques operate in Japan, resulting in a changed condom image. Condoms sold in Japan must meet strict standards. In a recent condom quality survey in Hong Kong, 66% of 34 model condoms did not pass. They leaked, stretched insufficiently, or had no expiration date or instructions. A marketing director notes that condoms assume value when people spend money for them, while free condoms have little value and are often used as balloons. An advertising agency in India promotes enjoyment while past ads made people feel sleazy. In Malaysia, like in other parts of Asia, it is difficult for women, even educated, professional women, to negotiate safe sex. The Philippines uses this motto--We Follow the ABC's: A for Abstinence, B for Be Faithful, and C for Condoms.

  1. Examining the potential for gender bias in the prediction of symptom validity test failure by MMPI-2 symptom validity scale scores.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tayla T C; Graham, John R; Sellbom, Martin; Gervais, Roger O

    2012-09-01

    Using a sample of individuals undergoing medico-legal evaluations (690 men, 519 women), the present study extended past research on potential gender biases for scores of the Symptom Validity (FBS) scale of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 by examining score- and item-level differences between men and women and determining the extent to which FBS scores were able to correctly identify men and women who were divided into credible responders (n = 837) and noncredible responders (n = 372) on the basis of performance on symptom validity tests. Results indicated that women had slightly higher raw FBS scores than men (d = .29), and significant differences between men and women in item endorsement were demonstrated for 14 FBS items. Step-down hierarchical logistic regression procedures indicated predictive bias (χ²Δ = 23.72, p < .001). Follow-up analyses indicated intercept bias (χ²Δ = 23.51, p < .001) but not slope bias (χ²Δ = 0.22, p = .64). However, using the test publisher's recommended FBS cutoff scores (Ben-Porath, Graham, & Tellegen, 2009), classification accuracies were similar for women and men (T > 80, h = -.02; T > 100, h = -.22, respectively). On the basis of these results, we conclude there is no evidence of clinically meaningful bias in predictions of symptom validity test failure made using FBS scores for men and women. PMID:22309000

  2. Longitudinal Trends in Sexual Behaviors Without a Condom Among Sexual Minority Youth: The P18 Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Kapadia, Farzana; Bub, Kristen; Barton, Staci; Stults, Christopher B; Halkitis, Perry N

    2015-12-01

    Given the heightened risk for HIV and other STIs among young men who have sex with men (YMSM) as well as the racial/ethnic disparities in HIV/STI risk, an understanding of longitudinal trends in sexual behaviors is warranted as YMSM emerge into adulthood. Drawing from an ongoing prospective cohort study, the present analysis employed latent growth curve modeling to examine trends in distinct types of sexual activity without condoms over time in sample of YMSM and examine differences by race/ethnicity and perceived familial socioeconomic status (SES). Overall, White and Mixed race YMSM reported more instances of oral sex without condoms as compared to other racial/ethnic groups with rates of decline over time noted in Black YMSM. White YMSM also reported more receptive and insertive anal sex acts without a condom than Black YMSM. Declines over time in both types of anal sex acts without condoms among Black men were noted when compared to White men, while increases over time were noted for mixed race YMSM for condomless insertive anal sex. The effects for race/ethnicity were attenuated with the inclusion of perceived familial SES in these models. These findings build on previous cross sectional studies showing less frequent sex without condoms among Black YMSM despite higher rates of HIV incidence in emerging adulthood, as well as the importance of considering economic conditions in such models. Efforts to understand racial/ethnic disparities in HIV/STIs among YMSM must move beyond examination of individual-level sexual behaviors and consider both race/ethnicity and socioeconomic conditions in order to evaluate how these factors shape the sexual behaviors of YMSM. PMID:26319222

  3. Women may underestimate their partners' desires to use condoms: possible implications for behaviour.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Gaynor L; Barber, Bonnie L

    2010-01-01

    Australian young adults reported how often they wanted to use condoms in both romantic (n = 667) and casual relationship (n = 152) contexts and how often they thought their partners wanted to use condoms. Young adults wanted to use condoms more often than they perceived their partners to in both casual and romantic relationship contexts. Gender interactions showed that this pattern was especially strong among young women. Women seemed to underestimate the frequency at which their male partners wanted to use condoms. Furthermore, both the participants' condom use desires and perceptions of their partners' condom use desires predicted condom use behavior. Results suggest that gendered expectations may play a part in how often individuals perceive their partners to want to use condoms, which, in effect, may determine condom use behavior.

  4. Introducing diaphragms into the mix: what happens to male condom use patterns?

    PubMed

    Posner, Samuel F; van der Straten, Ariane; Kang, Mi-Suk; Padian, Nancy; Chipato, Tsungai

    2005-12-01

    The objective of this analysis was to assess the effect of introducing the diaphragm on condom use patterns. Participants included one hundred eighty-nine women attending family planning clinics in Harare, Zimbabwe who reported less than 100% condom use. The proportion of acts where at least one method was used significantly increased over using follow-up; male condom use remained stable. A diaphragm was used with 50% to 54% of acts; male condoms were also used about 50% of the time. The proportion of acts where a female condom was used decreased. Women who used both male and female condoms were more likely to use diaphragms than those who reported not using female condoms. Introducing the diaphragm increased the overall proportion of protected acts. The proportion of acts where a male condom was used did not change. Female condoms use declined because concurrent use with the diaphragm is not possible. PMID:16235134

  5. “… But Then He Became My Sipa”: The Implications of Relationship Fluidity for Condom Use Among Women Sex Workers in Antananarivo, Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    Hindin, Michelle J.; Nathanson, Constance A.; Rakotoarison, Paul Ghislain; Razafintsalama, Violette

    2009-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that sex workers use condoms less consistently with regular (i.e., nonpaying) partners than with clients. Few studies have examined the extent to which these 2 categories are mutually exclusive. In an ethnographic study of women's sex work in Antananarivo, Madagascar, we examined how the meaning of women sex workers’ sexual relationships could shift among 3 different forms of sex work. Condom use was less likely in forms in which the distinction between client and lover (sipa in Malagasy) was fluid. For many sex workers, therefore, relationships they understood to be intimate imparted the greatest health vulnerability. It is important to examine the influence of the meaning of sexual relationships on condom use for HIV prevention. Policy implications for HIV prevention work with sex workers are considered. PMID:19299685

  6. Spermiotoxicity of commercial condoms made from polyurethane, polyisoprene and latex, using domestic ruminants as an experimental animal model.

    PubMed

    Pradiee, J; O'Brien, E; Esteso, M C; Castaño, C; Toledano-Díaz, A; López-Sebastián, A; Santiago-Moreno, J

    2016-05-01

    The use of condoms could provide a means of collecting high-quality spermatozoa from different species under physiological ejaculation conditions. However, certain condom materials may affect sperm functionality. This study examined the spermiotoxicity of different commercial condom materials towards ram and goat spermatozoa. Sperm samples were diluted in Tyrode's medium and placed in contact with a piece of condom material (polyurethane, polyisoprene or latex) and incubated for 30 or 90 min. Contact time in the polyisoprene and latex treatments affected some sperm variables; no such effects were seen, however, in the polyurethane treatments. For ram spermatozoa in contact with polyisoprene, the percentage of dead spermatozoa with a damaged acrosome increased at 90 min, while for spermatozoa in contact with latex, the percentage of live spermatozoa with an intact acrosome decreased. For goat spermatozoa in contact with both polyisoprene and latex, the percentage of dead spermatozoa with a damaged acrosome increased at 90 min, while for spermatozoa in contact with polyisoprene, the percentage of live spermatozoa with an intact acrosome decreased. In conclusion, latex and polyisoprene contain components that affect sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity and acrosome function. Polyurethane does not seem to reduce the quality of semen.

  7. 'Don't know' and 'didn't think of it': condom use at first intercourse by Latino adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sneed, C D; Morisky, D E; Rotheram-Borus, M J; Ebin, V; Malotte, C K; Lyde, M; Gill, J K

    2001-06-01

    We examined the specific reasons Latino adolescents did or did not use condoms at first intercourse and their specific reasons for their perceived risk for contracting HIV. Latino adolescents (n = 618), ages 11-19, completed a face-to-face interview that included information on demographics (sex, age, family-status (lives with both natural parents versus other family structure) and country of birth) and sexual behaviour. The respondents cited 'don't know' (25.9%), 'not available' (25.9%) and 'didn't think of it' (23.5%) as the most frequent reasons for not using condoms at first intercourse. Anyone can get it (41.8%), unknown knowledge of partner's serostatus (24.7%) and unprotected sex (23.8%) were the top three reasons for perceiving oneself as being at risk for contracting HIV. Sexually active adolescents were more likely to perceive themselves at risk for contracting HIV than adolescents that had not had sex. Males were significantly more likely to report using condoms for protection at first intercourse than females. The remaining demographic factors were not significantly related to use of condoms at first intercourse nor to perceived risk for contracting HIV.

  8. Attitudes Towards PrEP and Anticipated Condom Use Among Concordant HIV-Negative and HIV-Discordant Male Couples.

    PubMed

    Hoff, Colleen C; Chakravarty, Deepalika; Bircher, Anja E; Campbell, Chadwick K; Grisham, Kirk; Neilands, Torsten B; Wilson, Patrick A; Dworkin, Shari

    2015-07-01

    Since the July 2012 approval by the FDA of emtricitabine/ tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (Truvada) for use as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) against HIV, its feasibility and acceptability has been under study. HIV-discordant couples are likely targets for PrEP but little is known about how this new prevention tool impacts relationships. We examined, among gay male couples, the acceptability of individual and partner use of PrEP and intentions to use condoms with primary and outside partners in the context of PrEP use. Data are from two independent samples of couples recruited in the San Francisco bay area and New York City-a qualitative one (N=48 couples) between March and November, 2011, and a quantitative one (N=171 couples) between June, 2012 and May, 2013. Data were categorized by couple HIV status and general linear models; chi-square tests of independence were used to examine condom-use intentions with primary and outside partners, by sexual risk profile, and race. Almost half of the HIV-negative couples felt PrEP was a good HIV prevention strategy for themselves and their partner. Over half reported that they would not change their current condom use if they or their partner were taking PrEP. However, approximately 30% of HIV-negative couples reported that they would stop using condoms or use them less with primary and outside partners if they were on PrEP or if their partner was on PrEP. A large percentage of couples view PrEP positively. However, to ensure safety for both partners, future programing must consider those who intend not to use condoms while on PrEP.

  9. Attitudes Towards PrEP and Anticipated Condom Use Among Concordant HIV-Negative and HIV-Discordant Male Couples.

    PubMed

    Hoff, Colleen C; Chakravarty, Deepalika; Bircher, Anja E; Campbell, Chadwick K; Grisham, Kirk; Neilands, Torsten B; Wilson, Patrick A; Dworkin, Shari

    2015-07-01

    Since the July 2012 approval by the FDA of emtricitabine/ tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (Truvada) for use as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) against HIV, its feasibility and acceptability has been under study. HIV-discordant couples are likely targets for PrEP but little is known about how this new prevention tool impacts relationships. We examined, among gay male couples, the acceptability of individual and partner use of PrEP and intentions to use condoms with primary and outside partners in the context of PrEP use. Data are from two independent samples of couples recruited in the San Francisco bay area and New York City-a qualitative one (N=48 couples) between March and November, 2011, and a quantitative one (N=171 couples) between June, 2012 and May, 2013. Data were categorized by couple HIV status and general linear models; chi-square tests of independence were used to examine condom-use intentions with primary and outside partners, by sexual risk profile, and race. Almost half of the HIV-negative couples felt PrEP was a good HIV prevention strategy for themselves and their partner. Over half reported that they would not change their current condom use if they or their partner were taking PrEP. However, approximately 30% of HIV-negative couples reported that they would stop using condoms or use them less with primary and outside partners if they were on PrEP or if their partner was on PrEP. A large percentage of couples view PrEP positively. However, to ensure safety for both partners, future programing must consider those who intend not to use condoms while on PrEP. PMID:26057304

  10. Attitudes Towards PrEP and Anticipated Condom Use Among Concordant HIV-Negative and HIV-Discordant Male Couples

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarty, Deepalika; Bircher, Anja E.; Campbell, Chadwick K.; Grisham, Kirk; Neilands, Torsten B.; Wilson, Patrick A.; Dworkin, Shari

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Since the July 2012 approval by the FDA of emtricitabine/ tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (Truvada) for use as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) against HIV, its feasibility and acceptability has been under study. HIV-discordant couples are likely targets for PrEP but little is known about how this new prevention tool impacts relationships. We examined, among gay male couples, the acceptability of individual and partner use of PrEP and intentions to use condoms with primary and outside partners in the context of PrEP use. Data are from two independent samples of couples recruited in the San Francisco bay area and New York City—a qualitative one (N=48 couples) between March and November, 2011, and a quantitative one (N=171 couples) between June, 2012 and May, 2013. Data were categorized by couple HIV status and general linear models; chi-square tests of independence were used to examine condom-use intentions with primary and outside partners, by sexual risk profile, and race. Almost half of the HIV-negative couples felt PrEP was a good HIV prevention strategy for themselves and their partner. Over half reported that they would not change their current condom use if they or their partner were taking PrEP. However, approximately 30% of HIV-negative couples reported that they would stop using condoms or use them less with primary and outside partners if they were on PrEP or if their partner was on PrEP. A large percentage of couples view PrEP positively. However, to ensure safety for both partners, future programing must consider those who intend not to use condoms while on PrEP. PMID:26057304

  11. [Current status of the female condom in Africa].

    PubMed

    Deniaud, F

    1997-01-01

    The female condom was developed in the 1980s. It is a contraceptive device used by women that protects against both pregnancy and sexually-transmitted diseases (STDs) including HIV infection. Two studies have investigated the contraceptive effectiveness of the female condom, and it was found to be as effective as other barrier methods. It has been shown to be effective against STD and HIV transmission in vitro but there is only limited evidence of its efficacy in vivo. No serious local side effects or allergies have been reported and the female condom can be used with any type of lubricant, spermicidal cream or foam. The female condom is the only device other than the male condom that has been shown to prevent HIV transmission. The female condom has been marketed in 13 countries since the summer of 1996. Most of these countries are industrialized and the selling price in these countries is too high for developing countries. Sub-Saharan Africa has very high prevalence rates for HIV infection, at least 30% of the general population in Eastern and Central regions. The epidemic is also spreading fast in some parts of the Western region. In Ivory Coast for example, 12 to 15% of pregnant women are infected. African women are subordinate to men in many aspects of their lives, politically, educationally, socially and sexually. This sexual inequality makes them highly vulnerable to STDs, including HIV, and unwanted pregnancies. This paper reviews 10 of the 15 studies carried out in sub-Saharan African countries between 1990 and 1996 and compiled by the World Health Organization. Recruitment methods, education of subjects, methodology and assessment of acceptability differed between studies. Despite these limitations, most studies concluded that the women who participated in the trials generally found the female condom acceptable. Acceptability was established quicker among prostitutes than among other women and men found the female condom less acceptable than did women

  12. Karet KB and jamu: an integrated approach to condom marketing.

    PubMed

    Piet, D L; Hendrata, L

    1974-01-01

    The development of an out-of-clinic method for marketing condoms in Indonesia is described. A jamu company (jamu referes to any herbal medicant, many of which are related to sexual activity, whose use is firmly integrated into the Indonesian way of life) was contracted by the private, non-profit Prosperous Indonesia Foundation (YIS) to distribute condoms as a jamu item. The condoms are donated to YIS by the U.S. Agency for International Development, and are retailed at 20 rupees for a package of 3, with a profit of 4 rupees for the retailer. Mobile promotional/sales units are the most effective means for selling the devices. The approach appeals to the cultural and sexual character of the people. The media is used extensively to promote condoms and family planning. Although it is too early to assess the impact of the program, it is anticipated that this novel approach will spread the use of condoms to all areas of Indonesia.

  13. The female condom: the international denial of a strong potential.

    PubMed

    Peters, Anny; Jansen, Willy; van Driel, Francien

    2010-05-01

    The female condom has received surprisingly little serious attention since its introduction in 1984. Given the numbers of women with HIV globally, international support for women's reproductive and sexual health and rights and the empowerment of women, and, not least, due to the demand expressed by users, one would have expected the female condom to be widely accessible 16 years after it first appeared. This expectation has not materialised; instead, the female condom has been marginalised in the international response to HIV and AIDS. This paper asks why and analyses the views and actions of users, providers, national governments and international public policymakers, using an analytical framework specifically designed to evaluate access to new health technologies in poor countries. We argue that universal access to female condoms is not primarily hampered by obstacles on the users' side, as is often alleged, nor by unwilling governments in developing countries, but that acceptability of the female condom is problematic mainly at the international policy level. This view is based on an extensive review of the literature, interviews with representatives of UNAIDS, UNFPA and other organisations, and a series of observations made during the International AIDS Conference in Mexico in August 2008. PMID:20541090

  14. Social marketing of condoms: selling protection and changing behavior.

    PubMed

    Townsend, S

    1991-06-01

    Social marketing of condoms in Zaire began in 1987 and sales rose to 8 million in 1990, a notable change from the previous situation where about half a million condoms were distributed by government health clinics only. Social marketing is the use of for-profit sales and marketing techniques for public health problem.s When the Zaire National AIDS Committee initiated social marketing of condoms, with the assistance of Population Services International, they had the experience of successful Asian programs of the 1970s, and the political sanction resulting from the AIDS threat to back them up. Efforts were made to find just the right product name, "Prudence," logo, package, color and slogan by consumer research. Prudence implies responsible behavior, capturing both the AIDS and STD prevention and the family planning markets. Consumers like the package and associate it with quality, since most condoms sold before in Zaire had no special packaging. Distribution outlets include 7000 retail shops, groceries, pharmacies, hotel, social clubs, 300 bars and even Congo River barges which sex workers frequent. The price was set close to that of a pack of gum for 3, or that of a bottle of beer for a dozen. Promotion is limited by a government ban of advertising in mass media, so point of purchase materials, special offers and promotional items are being used. Prudence condoms are now being marketed in Cameroon and Burundi.

  15. Social marketing of condoms: selling protection and changing behavior.

    PubMed

    Townsend, S

    1991-06-01

    Social marketing of condoms in Zaire began in 1987 and sales rose to 8 million in 1990, a notable change from the previous situation where about half a million condoms were distributed by government health clinics only. Social marketing is the use of for-profit sales and marketing techniques for public health problem.s When the Zaire National AIDS Committee initiated social marketing of condoms, with the assistance of Population Services International, they had the experience of successful Asian programs of the 1970s, and the political sanction resulting from the AIDS threat to back them up. Efforts were made to find just the right product name, "Prudence," logo, package, color and slogan by consumer research. Prudence implies responsible behavior, capturing both the AIDS and STD prevention and the family planning markets. Consumers like the package and associate it with quality, since most condoms sold before in Zaire had no special packaging. Distribution outlets include 7000 retail shops, groceries, pharmacies, hotel, social clubs, 300 bars and even Congo River barges which sex workers frequent. The price was set close to that of a pack of gum for 3, or that of a bottle of beer for a dozen. Promotion is limited by a government ban of advertising in mass media, so point of purchase materials, special offers and promotional items are being used. Prudence condoms are now being marketed in Cameroon and Burundi. PMID:12316887

  16. Why schools should make condoms available to teenagers.

    PubMed

    Singer, A

    1994-10-01

    The controversy surrounding sex education and condom availability programs in schools in New York City and throughout the US continues because parents worry that such programs encourage teenagers to engage in sexual behavior. But the reality is that more and more teenagers are engaging in sexual behavior anyway. The Carnegie Council on Adolescent Development found the 17% of girls and 29% of boys engaged in sexual intercourse by the time they were 16 years old. Many parents are ready to blame sex education and condom availability programs for these figures; these parents issue calls for "chastity education." Opponents of sex education also believe that these programs violate the rights of parents to education their children about moral behavior and religious values. But the truth is that these programs do not preclude the right of a parents to teach a child anything. They simply prevent the use of the public schools to impose religious beliefs on students. Those who argue that the mandate of schools is only to teach academic subjects forget that public high schools are the best place for sex education and condom availability programs because the schools are full of teenagers and of adults who are trained and willing to counsel them. Few educators would argue that schools should not teach values, and sex education and condom availability programs provide an excellent way to help teenagers understand not only human sexuality, reproduction, and the spread of disease but also social relationships, the development of cultural norms, and the role of responsible citizens. At the same time that we encourage sexual abstinence among young people, we must also teach about sexual responsibility. Sexual responsibility today means using a condom to prevent pregnancy and disease. If teenagers are embarrassed in their efforts to acquire condoms, pregnancy and diseases will be the result, not abstinence. PMID:12287913

  17. Condom use and sexuality communication with adults: a study among high school students in South Africa and Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Fostering adolescents’ communication on sexuality issues with their parents and other significant adults is often assumed to be an important component of intervention programmes aimed at promoting healthy adolescent sexual practices. However, there are few studies describing the relationship between such communication and sexual practices, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. This study examined the relationships between adolescents’ communication with significant adults and their condom use in three sites in this region. Methods Data stem from a multi-site randomized controlled trial of a school-based HIV prevention intervention implemented in Cape Town and Mankweng, South Africa and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Only data from comparison schools were used. The design is therefore a prospective panel study with three waves of data collections. Data were collected in 2004 from 6,251 participants in 40 schools. Associations between adolescents’ communication with adults about sexuality issues and their use of condoms were analysed cross-sectionally using analysis of variance, as well as prospectively using multiple ordinal logistic regression analysis. Results Cross-sectional analyses showed that consistent condom users had significantly higher mean scores on communication (across topics and communication partners) than both occasional users and never-users, who had the lowest scores. After controlling for condom use at the first data collection occasion in each model as well as for possible confounders, communication scores significantly predicted consistent condom use prospectively in all three ordinal logistic regression models (Model R2 = .23 to .31). Conclusion The findings are consistent with the assertion that communication on sexuality issues between adolescents and significant adults results in safer sexual practices, as reflected by condom use, among in-school adolescents. The associations between communication variables and condom use might

  18. Behavioral training and AIDS risk reduction: overcoming barriers to condom use.

    PubMed

    Weisse, C S; Turbiasz, A A; Whitney, D J

    1995-02-01

    To assess the short- and long-term effects of an AIDS-prevention workshop on undergraduates' attitudes about condom use and AIDS, 31 participants and 31 controls were studied immediately after training sessions as well as three months later. The workshop was aimed at reducing embarrassment to purchase condoms, encouraging positive attitudes about condoms, and promoting knowledge about AIDS. To help students overcome their embarrassment over condom purchases, a behavioral intervention was included allowing students to make condom purchases at nearby drug stores. Results revealed that participants reported less embarrassment over condom purchases after training sessions and that this effect became even stronger over time. Knowledge about AIDS and positive attitudes about condoms also increased immediately after the workshop, but these changes did not persist. Results suggest that AIDS prevention workshops may lead to transient changes unless a specific skill (i.e., condom purchasing) is targeted via behavioral training.

  19. Condom use with primary partners among injecting drug users in Bangkok, Thailand and New York City, United States.

    PubMed

    Vanichseni, S; Des Jarlais, D C; Choopanya, K; Friedmann, P; Wenston, J; Sonchai, W; Sotheran, J L; Raktham, S; Carballo, M; Friedman, S R

    1993-06-01

    Trained interviewers spoke to 957 drug users attending a detoxification program, methadone maintenance program, or a research storefront in New York City in 1990-91 and to 601 drug users attending 17 drug use treatment clinics in Bangkok, Thailand, in the autumn of 1989 as part of a study to identify factors linked to the probability or failure of condom use with primary sexual partners among IV drug users. The participants also received HIV counseling and testing. IV drug users in New York City were more likely to be older (36.2 years vs. 30.1 years; p .001), female (25% vs. 5%; p .001), more ethnically diverse (p .001), and inject cocaine more often (33 injections/month vs. 0.5 injections/month) than those in Bangkok. 44% of drug users in New York City and 33% of those in Bangkok engaged in some unprotected penetrative intercourse with a primary heterosexual partner in the previous 6 months. Of drug users having penetrative sexual intercourse with a primary partner in the previous 6 months, 20% in New York City and 12% in Bangkok always used condoms (p .02). The strongest predictors of condom use among IV drug users from both countries were a previous positive HIV test and talking about AIDS with sexual partners (p = .001 for US; p = .0008 for Bangkok and p = .004 for US; p = .0596 for Bangkok, respectively). These findings indicated that unsafe sexual behavior with primary sexual partners among drug users is still a major source of HIV transmission in these 2 cities. Nevertheless, knowledge of HIV positive status and partner communication concerning AIDS are predictors of condom use shared by both groups. Thus, HIV/AIDS prevention programs should provide confidential HIV testing and counseling for drug users and should encourage frank discussions of AIDS between drug users and primary sexual partners. Peer support for risk reduction among drug users has the potential to facilitate such discussions. PMID:8363764

  20. Condom use with primary partners among injecting drug users in Bangkok, Thailand and New York City, United States.

    PubMed

    Vanichseni, S; Des Jarlais, D C; Choopanya, K; Friedmann, P; Wenston, J; Sonchai, W; Sotheran, J L; Raktham, S; Carballo, M; Friedman, S R

    1993-06-01

    Trained interviewers spoke to 957 drug users attending a detoxification program, methadone maintenance program, or a research storefront in New York City in 1990-91 and to 601 drug users attending 17 drug use treatment clinics in Bangkok, Thailand, in the autumn of 1989 as part of a study to identify factors linked to the probability or failure of condom use with primary sexual partners among IV drug users. The participants also received HIV counseling and testing. IV drug users in New York City were more likely to be older (36.2 years vs. 30.1 years; p .001), female (25% vs. 5%; p .001), more ethnically diverse (p .001), and inject cocaine more often (33 injections/month vs. 0.5 injections/month) than those in Bangkok. 44% of drug users in New York City and 33% of those in Bangkok engaged in some unprotected penetrative intercourse with a primary heterosexual partner in the previous 6 months. Of drug users having penetrative sexual intercourse with a primary partner in the previous 6 months, 20% in New York City and 12% in Bangkok always used condoms (p .02). The strongest predictors of condom use among IV drug users from both countries were a previous positive HIV test and talking about AIDS with sexual partners (p = .001 for US; p = .0008 for Bangkok and p = .004 for US; p = .0596 for Bangkok, respectively). These findings indicated that unsafe sexual behavior with primary sexual partners among drug users is still a major source of HIV transmission in these 2 cities. Nevertheless, knowledge of HIV positive status and partner communication concerning AIDS are predictors of condom use shared by both groups. Thus, HIV/AIDS prevention programs should provide confidential HIV testing and counseling for drug users and should encourage frank discussions of AIDS between drug users and primary sexual partners. Peer support for risk reduction among drug users has the potential to facilitate such discussions.

  1. Incorporating Communication into the Theory of Planned Behavior to Predict Condom Use Among African American Women.

    PubMed

    Guan, Mengfei; Coles, Valerie B; Samp, Jennifer A; Sales, Jessica McDermott; DiClemente, Ralph J; Monahan, Jennifer L

    2016-09-01

    The present research extends the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to investigate how communication-related variables influence condom use intention and behavior among African American women. According to the TPB, attitudes, subjective norms, and self-efficacy are associated with behavioral intent, which predicts behavior. For women, it was argued that condom negotiation self-efficacy was more important than condom use self-efficacy in predicting consistent condom use. Moreover, an important environmental factor that affects condom use for African American women is fear or worry when negotiating condom use because the sex partners might leave, threaten, or abuse them. Fears associated with negotiating condom use were predicted to be negatively associated with attitudes, subjective norms, and self-efficacy. African American women (N = 560; M age = 20.58) completed assessments of TPB variables at baseline and condom use 3 months later. Condom negotiation self-efficacy was a significant indicator of behavioral intent, while condom use self-efficacy was not. Fear of condom negotiation was negatively associated with all TPB components, which was in turn significantly associated with behavioral intent and condom use. Implications for the TPB, safer sex literature, and sexually transmitted infection prevention intervention design are discussed.

  2. Impact of an advertising campaign on condom use in urban Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Agha, Sohail; Meekers, Dominique

    2010-12-01

    This study describes an assessment of the impact on condom use in urban Pakistan of the second phase of an intensive condom advertising campaign conducted as part of a social marketing program. Between April and June 2009, advertisements for Touch condoms appeared on private television channels and on radio stations. To assess the impact of the campaign, a nationally representative panel survey of men married to women aged 15-49 was conducted, collecting information on behaviors related to condom use and recall of contraceptive advertisements. We employed conditional change regression analysis to determine whether awareness of the Touch ad at follow-up was associated with improved attitudes toward condoms and condom use. Respondents with confirmed awareness of the Touch campaign experienced significant improvements in indicators related to condom use, even after controlling for region, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, the values of the indicators at baseline, and exposure to the first phase of the campaign. They experienced increases in the following: perceived availability of condoms; discussion of family planning; approval of family planning; procurement of condoms; and ever use, current use, and consistent use of condoms with wife. The study indicates that condom advertising can be effective in increasing condom use in urban Pakistan. PMID:21465728

  3. Young Men's Aggressive Tactics to Avoid Condom Use: A Test of a Theoretical Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Logan-Greene, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Although research has demonstrated that men's aggression against women and inconsistent condom use are related phenomena, little is known about what factors increase risk for aggression to avoid condom use. The present article tests a theory-based model of condom avoidance through use of sexual aggression. Adult male participants (N = 289) were…

  4. Condom Discomfort and Associated Problems with Their Use among University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosby, Richard; Yarber, William L.; Sanders, Stephanie A.; Graham, Cynthia A.

    2005-01-01

    In addition to consistent use, condoms must be used correctly. The purpose of this study was to identify prevalence and types of condom-associated discomfort among university students, the outcomes of this discomfort, and the role of discomfort in condom breakage. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 206 students attending a private university…

  5. Incorporating Communication into the Theory of Planned Behavior to Predict Condom Use Among African American Women.

    PubMed

    Guan, Mengfei; Coles, Valerie B; Samp, Jennifer A; Sales, Jessica McDermott; DiClemente, Ralph J; Monahan, Jennifer L

    2016-09-01

    The present research extends the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to investigate how communication-related variables influence condom use intention and behavior among African American women. According to the TPB, attitudes, subjective norms, and self-efficacy are associated with behavioral intent, which predicts behavior. For women, it was argued that condom negotiation self-efficacy was more important than condom use self-efficacy in predicting consistent condom use. Moreover, an important environmental factor that affects condom use for African American women is fear or worry when negotiating condom use because the sex partners might leave, threaten, or abuse them. Fears associated with negotiating condom use were predicted to be negatively associated with attitudes, subjective norms, and self-efficacy. African American women (N = 560; M age = 20.58) completed assessments of TPB variables at baseline and condom use 3 months later. Condom negotiation self-efficacy was a significant indicator of behavioral intent, while condom use self-efficacy was not. Fear of condom negotiation was negatively associated with all TPB components, which was in turn significantly associated with behavioral intent and condom use. Implications for the TPB, safer sex literature, and sexually transmitted infection prevention intervention design are discussed. PMID:27565192

  6. Targeting condom distribution at high risk places increases condom utilization-evidence from an intervention study in Livingstone, Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The PLACE-method presumes that targeting HIV preventive activities at high risk places is effective in settings with major epidemics. Livingstone, Zambia, has a major HIV epidemic despite many preventive efforts in the city. A baseline survey conducted in 2005 in places where people meet new sexual partners found high partner turnover and unprotected sex to be common among guests. In addition, there were major gaps in on-site condom availability. This study aimed to assess the impact of a condom distribution and peer education intervention targeting places where people meet new sexual partners on condom use and sexual risk taking among people socializing there. Methods The 2005 baseline survey assessed the presence of HIV preventive activities and sexual risk taking in places where people meet new sexual partners in Livingstone. One township was selected for a non-randomised intervention study on condom distribution and peer education in high risk venues in 2009. The presence of HIV preventive activities in the venues during the intervention was monitored by an external person. The intervention was evaluated after one year with a follow-up survey in the intervention township and a comparison township. In addition, qualitative interviews and focus group discussions were conducted. Results Young people between 17-32 years of age were recruited as peer educators, and 40% were females. Out of 72 persons trained before the intervention, 38 quit, and another 11 had to be recruited. The percentage of venues where condoms were reported to always be available at least doubled in both townships, but was significantly higher in the intervention vs. the control venues in both surveys (84% vs. 33% in the follow-up). There was a reduction in reported sexual risk taking among guests socializing in the venues in both areas, but reporting of recent condom use increased more among people interviewed in the intervention (57% to 84%) than in the control community (55% to 68

  7. An Internet-Based Intervention (Condom-Him) to Increase Condom Use Among HIV-Positive Men Who Have Sex With Men: Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Côté, José; Godin, Gaston; Blais, Martin; Otis, Joanne; Guéhéneuc, Yann-Gaël; Fadel, Ghayas; Barton, Luisa; Fowler, Shawn

    2013-01-01

    Background In the recent years, the Internet has been used as a medium to find sexual partners and engage in risky sexual behavior. This has changed the way in which men having have sex with men (MSM) seek sexual partners and has increased the number of high-risk sexual encounters. Therefore, developers of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-prevention interventions have also started using the Internet as a viable medium to promote safe sexual behaviors. However, much of the efforts thus far have been aimed at HIV-negative rather than HIV-positive MSM. HIV-positive individuals continue to engage in risky sexual behaviors and thus constitute an important group in which HIV prevention strategies need to be addressed. Therefore, HIV prevention in HIV-positive MSM is a critical issue. Objective Condom-Him, an Internet-based intervention tailored to increase condom use among HIV-positive MSM, was developed with the aim of improving condom use, self-efficacy, and intentions to use condoms among these individuals. The acceptability and feasibility of this Internet-based intervention will be examined in a pilot study. Methods We will perform a randomized controlled parallel-group superiority trial. HIV-positive MSM who currently engage in unprotected anal sex will be recruited for the study. Participants will be randomly assigned using a one-to-one allocation ratio generated by the computer program. The researchers will be blinded to participant’s group assignment. Participants will be assigned either to use the Condom-Him intervention (experimental arm) or to view a list of websites containing HIV/AIDS related information (control arm). Self-administered questionnaires will be provided online before randomization (baseline) and two weeks after intervention (post-test). Results The study will include a total of 60 participants with 30 in each group. The results from this pilot study will provide further evidence for a larger study to examine the effectiveness of this

  8. Individual and interpersonal characteristics that influence male-dominated sexual decision-making and inconsistent condom use among married HIV serodiscordant couples in Gujarat, India: results from the positive Jeevan Saathi study.

    PubMed

    Patel, Shilpa N; Wingood, Gina M; Kosambiya, J K; McCarty, Frances; Windle, Michael; Yount, Kathryn; Hennink, Monique

    2014-10-01

    Approximately 40 % of new infections occur among married women. No studies have examined the factors that may contribute to HIV transmission among HIV-negative wives in HIV serodiscordant relationships in Gujarat, India. In 2010, a cross-sectional survey with 185 HIV serodiscordant, married couples (i.e. 185 HIV-positive husbands and their 185 HIV-negative wives) in Gujarat was conducted. Socio-demographic, individual, and interpersonal characteristics of HIV-positive husbands and their HIV negative wives were examined. The association of these characteristics with inconsistent condom use and male-dominated sexual decision-making, were examined using multivariate logistic regression analyses. Approximately 10 % of couples reported inconsistent condom use in the past 3 months and 20 % reported intimate partner violence (IPV). Reports of IPV were associated with a higher odds of inconsistent condom use among HIV-positive husbands (aOR = 6.281). Husbands who reported having received couples counseling had a lower odds of male-dominated decision making about condom use (aOR = 0.372). HIV-negative wives who reported sex communication had a lower odds of male-dominated decision making about condom use (aOR = 0.322) with their HIV-positive husbands. Although condom use is a traditional measure of risk behavior, other factors that facilitate risk, such as male-dominated sexual decision-making need to be considered in analyses of risk. PMID:24893852

  9. How to sell a condom? The impact of demand creation tools on male and female condom sales in resource limited settings.

    PubMed

    Terris-Prestholt, Fern; Windmeijer, Frank

    2016-07-01

    Despite condoms being cheap and effective in preventing HIV, there remains an 8billion shortfall in condom use in risky sex-acts. Social marketing organisations apply private sector marketing approaches to sell public health products. This paper investigates the impact of marketing tools, including promotion and pricing, on demand for male and female condoms in 52 countries between 1997 and 2009. A static model differentiates drivers of demand between products, while a dynamic panel data estimator estimates their short- and long-run impacts. Products are not equally affected: female condoms are not affected by advertising, but highly affected by interpersonal communication and HIV prevalence. Price and promotion have significant short- and long-run effects, with female condoms far more sensitive to price than male condoms. The design of optimal distribution strategies for new and existing HIV prevention technologies must consider both product and target population characteristics. PMID:27179197

  10. Female condom reuse in Lusaka, Zambia: evidence from 12 cases.

    PubMed

    Smith, J B; Nkhama, G; Trottier, D A

    2001-12-01

    Female condom reuse could address one of the principal barriers to use, namely, cost; however, the safety of reuse has not been established. Recent reports have provided information related to reuse safety under carefully specified research study conditions. Still, little is known about reuse outside a research study context, and there are outstanding questions related to feasibility of reuse among general populations. This study reports on naturally occurring reuse from a small, purposive sample of self-identified women who, prior to the study, had reused the female condom of their own volition without reuse instruction. Three types of reuse were identified. Most women attempted to clean devices between removal and reinsertion. A number of agents, including water (only), bath soap, laundry detergent, Dettol, and beer were used for cleaning. A number of agents were used for relubrication, including Reality((R)) lubricant, various kinds of cooking oil, and Vaseline((TM)). Perception of the strength and integrity of female condoms making them suitable for reuse were influenced by both provider advice and product packaging. Most participants reported no problems with reuse. Some women, faced with barriers to single use of a female condom or use of an acceptable alternative, will resort to reuse and rely on their own "common sense" notions to implement reuse. Providers and purveyors have opportunities to shape responses to reuse for the better, and the research community is obligated to provide a solid scientific base regarding reuse safety.

  11. Condom use and alcohol consumption in adolescents and youth

    PubMed Central

    Mola, Rachel; Pitangui, Ana Carolina Rodarti; Barbosa, Sháyra Anny Moura; Almeida, Layane Sá; de Sousa, Mayara Ruth Marinho; Pio, Wellypâmela Pauliny de Lima; de Araújo, Rodrigo Cappato

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To determine the association between not using the male condom and alcohol consumption in adolescents and schoolchildren. Methods An epidemiological study, with a cross-sectional, descriptive, and correlation design carried out from March to July 2014. The sample consisted of students in public primary and secondary education, aged between 12 and 24 years. The social and demographic survey and the Youth Risk Behavior Survey questionnaire were used. Results The study included 1,275 students, of these; 37.0% reported having had sexual relations. The prevalent age of sexual initiation was 14-16 years 55.7% and 65.6% used condom in the last sexual intercourse. Regarding the lack of condom use at the last intercourse, girls showed an association with drunkenness in the previous 30 days (2.19; 95%CI: 1.06-4.54). Conclusion In females, the non-use of condoms was associated with drunkenness in the previous 30 days. PMID:27462887

  12. 21 CFR 801.435 - User labeling for latex condoms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false User labeling for latex condoms. 801.435 Section 801.435 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... spermicidal stability testing is different from the expiration date based upon latex integrity testing,...

  13. 21 CFR 801.435 - User labeling for latex condoms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false User labeling for latex condoms. 801.435 Section 801.435 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... spermicidal stability testing is different from the expiration date based upon latex integrity testing,...

  14. Predictors of Condom Use in Latino Migrant Day Laborers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organista, Kurt C.; Ehrlich, Samantha F.

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on predictors of condom use with casual female sex partners on the part of Latino migrant day laborers in the San Francisco Bay Area. Results come from a secondary analysis of data from a cross-sectional survey using convenience sampling to interview 290 sexually active adult, male, migrant Latino day laborers. Regression…

  15. Female condom reuse in Lusaka, Zambia: evidence from 12 cases.

    PubMed

    Smith, J B; Nkhama, G; Trottier, D A

    2001-12-01

    Female condom reuse could address one of the principal barriers to use, namely, cost; however, the safety of reuse has not been established. Recent reports have provided information related to reuse safety under carefully specified research study conditions. Still, little is known about reuse outside a research study context, and there are outstanding questions related to feasibility of reuse among general populations. This study reports on naturally occurring reuse from a small, purposive sample of self-identified women who, prior to the study, had reused the female condom of their own volition without reuse instruction. Three types of reuse were identified. Most women attempted to clean devices between removal and reinsertion. A number of agents, including water (only), bath soap, laundry detergent, Dettol, and beer were used for cleaning. A number of agents were used for relubrication, including Reality((R)) lubricant, various kinds of cooking oil, and Vaseline((TM)). Perception of the strength and integrity of female condoms making them suitable for reuse were influenced by both provider advice and product packaging. Most participants reported no problems with reuse. Some women, faced with barriers to single use of a female condom or use of an acceptable alternative, will resort to reuse and rely on their own "common sense" notions to implement reuse. Providers and purveyors have opportunities to shape responses to reuse for the better, and the research community is obligated to provide a solid scientific base regarding reuse safety. PMID:11796810

  16. Bishop plays down report on condoms / AIDS in France.

    PubMed

    1996-02-26

    Individual bishops in France and other European countries have argued that condom use can save lives by preventing the spread of HIV. The French Bishops' Conference social commission published a 200-page report which in which agreement was expressed with widespread medical opinion that condom use is the sole and necessary barrier against the sexual spread of HIV. Extensive media coverage ensued and led to Bishop Albert Rouet, the bishop of Poitiers and chairman of the French Bishops' Conference, being interviewed by the Holy See's official radio. In the interview, Bishop Rouet distanced the Roman Catholic Church in France from the report, claiming that the media had exaggerated the issue and that his commission was not bound by the reference. The Vatican remains staunchly opposed to condom use against HIV infection and preaches abstinence outside of marriage and fidelity within marriage as the only true ways to avoid HIV infection. In 1995, the Vatican fired Jacques Gaillot, the former bishop of Evreux in Normandy, for his outspoken endorsement of condom use against HIV.

  17. High-risk adolescents and female condoms: knowledge, attitudes, and use patterns.

    PubMed

    Haignere, C S; Gold, R; Maskovsky, J; Ambrosini, J; Rogers, C L; Gollub, E

    2000-06-01

    The aim of this study was to explore data on high-risk male and female adolescents' attitudes towards the female condom as compared with the male condom. Exploratory survey research was utilized with convenience sample of 65 high-risk adolescents at an emergency homeless shelter. A peer-led intervention was conducted and pre- and post-test interviews explored barriers to female condom use. The intervention consisted of 15- to 30-minute small-group sessions, discussing the female condom's construction; purpose of the rings; its efficacy in preventing pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections; and how to lubricate, insert, and use it. Content and Chi-square analyses were utilized. 63% used the male condom as their primary contraceptive method; almost half (48%) said they always used a male condom, but 44% reported having sex without using one at least once in the 2 weeks prior to the pre-test. 95% had heard of the female condom (half had heard "good" things and 24% had heard "bad" things), but only 15% had ever used one. At post-test all respondents gave reasons they might use a female condom in the future, and 77% gave reasons why they might not. Most (73%) adolescents said they would still prefer the male condom to the female condom. The major potential barriers to adolescents' female condom use were not having a female condom available and/or females feeling uncomfortable inserting them. The female condom should be offered to adolescents as an additional choice rather than as a replacement for the male condom. Further research is needed to assure access to, availability of, and comfort with the female condom and male participation in its use.

  18. Inconsistent Condom Use among Iranian Male Drug Injectors

    PubMed Central

    Assari, Shervin; Yarmohmmadi Vasel, Mosaieb; Tavakoli, Mahmood; Sehat, Mahmoud; Jafari, Firoozeh; Narenjiha, Hooman; Rafiey, Hassan; Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated factors of inconsistent condom use among Iranian male injecting drug users (IDUs). Materials and Methods: Data came from the national Iranian behavioral survey of drug dependence, which sampled 7743 individuals with drug dependence, from medical centers, prisons, and streets in 29 provinces in Iran, in 2007. This study included all individuals who were male, IDUs, and were sexually active (n = 1131). The main outcome was inconsistent condom use which was assessed using a single item. A logistic regression was used to determine the association between socio-economic data, drug use data, and high risk injection behaviors with inconsistent condom use. Result: 83.3% of sexually active IDUs (n = 965) reported inconsistent condom use. Based on the logistic regression, likelihood of inconsistent condom use was higher among those with a history of syringe sharing [Odds Ratio (OR); 1.63, 95% Confidence Interval (CI); 1.13–2.34], but lower among those with higher education levels (OR; 0.34, 95% CI; 0.14–0.82), those who mostly inject at home (OR; 0.09, 95% CI; 0.02–0.47), and those with a history of treatment (OR; 0.54, 95% CI; 0.31–0.94). Conclusion: Because of the link between unsafe sex and risky injecting behaviors among Iranian IDUs, combined programs targeting both sexual and injection behavior may be more appropriate than programs that target sexual or injection behavior. The efficacy of combined programs should be, however, compared with traditional programs that only target sexual or injection behavior of IDUs. PMID:24772093

  19. Selling condoms to women: liberation plus legislation gives new life to the old rubber.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, S

    1985-10-01

    Liberation in combination with legislation gives new life to condoms, which now find their way into the purses, brief cases, and shopping carts of increasing numbers of women. The number of female buyers of condoms has risen from 15% in the mid-1970s to perhaps as high as 40% today, thanks to the increasing number of women who are dissatisfied with contraceptive alternatives and a condom industry that is playing to its growing female audience with new packaging and marketing methods. The condom has a distinct advantage in an age when women are more concerned and knowledgeable about their bodies than ever before. The condom has no side effects. The $200 million-a-year condom industry enjoys a current growth rate in sales of about 12%. This is not too bad for a product that has been termed "16th century technology." Currently, Youngs, Schmid, and approximately 4 dozen other US condom companies mold, dry, test, roll and pack nearly 1000 condoms a minute, 400-500 million condoms a year. The Japanese buy 612 million condoms a year. Fewer than 15% of all US couples use condoms, which account for a quarter of the $800 million-a-year contraceptive industry. The growth in condoms was steady until about 3 years ago when it really started to move. There are 3 reasons for the growth spurt. In 1977, the Supreme Court struck down some lingering blue-nosed state laws that regulated who could buy condoms (not minors), where and why they could be sold (only in pharmacies for "disease control" rather than for contraception), how they could be advertised to the public (not at all), and where they could be displayed (out of sight). At the same time, a number of female contraceptive methods considerably trendier and more sophisticated than condoms fell into public, if not medical, disrepute. Finally, venereal diseases have grown in number to fill a category called sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) that includes more than 30 ailments. Condoms are the only contraceptives that also are

  20. Predictors of Condom Use among Peer Social Networks of Men Who Have Sex with Men in Ghana, West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, LaRon E.; Wilton, Leo; Agyarko-Poku, Thomas; Zhang, Nanhua; Zou, Yuanshu; Aluoch, Marilyn; Apea, Vanessa; Hanson, Samuel Owiredu; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw

    2015-01-01

    Ghanaian men who have sex with men (MSM) have high rates of HIV infection. A first step in designing culturally relevant prevention interventions for MSM in Ghana is to understand the influence that peer social networks have on their attitudes and behaviors. We aimed to examine whether, in a sample of Ghanaian MSM, mean scores on psychosocial variables theorized to influence HIV/STI risk differed between peer social networks and to examine whether these variables were associated with condom use. We conducted a formative, cross-sectional survey with 22 peer social networks of MSM (n = 137) in Ghana. We assessed basic psychological-needs satisfaction, HIV/STI knowledge, sense of community, HIV and gender non-conformity stigmas, gender equitable norms, sexual behavior and condom use. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance, generalized estimating equations, and Wilcoxon two sample tests. All models were adjusted for age and income, ethnicity, education, housing and community of residence. Mean scores for all psychosocial variables differed significantly by social network. Men who reported experiencing more autonomy support by their healthcare providers had higher odds of condom use for anal (AOR = 3.29, p<0.01), oral (AOR = 5.06, p<0.01) and vaginal (AOR = 1.8, p<0.05) sex. Those with a stronger sense of community also had higher odds of condom use for anal sex (AOR = 1.26, p<0.001). Compared to networks with low prevalence of consistent condom users, networks with higher prevalence of consistent condom users had higher STD and HIV knowledge, had norms that were more supportive of gender equity, and experienced more autonomy support in their healthcare encounters. Healthcare providers and peer social networks can have an important influence on safer-sex behaviors in Ghanaian MSM. More research with Ghanaian MSM is needed that considers knowledge, attitudes, and norms of their social networks in the development and implementation of culturally relevant HIV

  1. Incorrect condom use and frequent breakage among female sex workers and their clients.

    PubMed

    Mukenge-Tshibaka, Léonard; Alary, Michel; Geraldo, Nassirou; Lowndes, Catherine M

    2005-05-01

    Our objective was to assess if female sex workers (FSWs) and their potential male clients in Cotonou, Benin, know how to use male condoms correctly. From April to June 2000, 314 FSWs and 208 men were interviewed, and asked to demonstrate on a wooden penis how they usually use male condoms. In all, 27.6% of both women and men tore the condom envelope on the notch; 89.3% of the women versus 75.4% of the men easily found the correct side; 17.3% of the women versus 28.3% of the men held the top of the condom to avoid air entering; 91.4% of the women versus 75.6% of the men correctly unrolled the condom. Taking all the four criteria together, only approximately 11% of participants performed a correct condom use demonstration. FSWs frequently reported condom breakage, which was significantly associated with incorrect condom demonstration (P = 0.04). Correct condom use is suboptimal in these heavy consumers of male condoms in Benin. Condom breakage is frequent and is associated with incorrect use.

  2. Condom Advertising and AIDS. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Health and the Environment of the Committee on Energy and Commerce. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Energy and Commerce.

    This document present witnesses' testimonies from the Congressional hearing called to examine condom advertising and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Opening statements are included by Congressmen Henry Waxman, William Dannemeyer, and Jim Bates. C. Everett Koop, United States Surgeon General, and Gary Noble, AIDS coordinator for the…

  3. Effects of a Health Behavior Change Model-Based HIV/STI Prevention Intervention on Condom Use among Heterosexual Couples: A Randomized Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, S. Marie; Kraft, Joan Marie; West, Stephen G.; Taylor, Aaron B.; Pappas-DeLuca, Katina A.; Beckman, Linda J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines an intervention for heterosexual couples to prevent human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted infections. It also evaluates the effect of the intervention, which is based on current models of health behavior change, on intermediate outcomes (individual and relationship factors) and consistency of condom use. Eligible…

  4. Racial/Ethnic Differences in HIV-Related Knowledge among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men and Their Association with Condom Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garofalo, Robert; Gayles, Travis; Bottone, Paul Devine; Ryan, Dan; Kuhns, Lisa M.; Mustanski, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Objective: HIV disproportionately affects young men who have sex with men, and knowledge about HIV transmission is one factor that may play a role in high rate of infections for this population. This study examined racial/ethnic differences in HIV knowledge among young men who have sex with men in the USA and their correlation to condom usage…

  5. Determinants of female and male condom use among immigrant women of Central American descent.

    PubMed

    Salabarría-Peña, Yamir; Lee, Jerry W; Montgomery, Susanna B; Hopp, Helen W; Muralles, Arnulfo A

    2003-06-01

    This study was designed to determine factors that influence female and male condom use among Central American women, applying the theory of planned behavior. A cross-sectional design was employed and a sample of 175 Central American women, 18-50 years old, was recruited from a community-based clinic in Los Angeles County. Participants in this study were interviewed face-to-face. Attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control explained 41% and 45% of the variation in the intention to use male and female condoms, respectively. Respondents' friends and mothers influenced their subjective norms. Beliefs regarding sexual sensation and sexually transmitted infection/pregnancy prevention affected respondents' attitudes toward condoms. Trust issues were also a major factor affecting attitudes toward female condoms. Condom use and sex negotiation skills predicted control over condoms. Results of this study can be used to design HIV/AIDS prevention programs that help women feel control over condom use and their sexual behavior.

  6. Developing a scale for measuring the barriers to condom use in Nigeria.

    PubMed Central

    Sunmola, A. M.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the development of a scale for measuring the barriers to condom use in Nigeria and to evaluate its content, feasibility, reliability, and validity. METHODS: The scale consists of 22 items and is structured on three dimensions: condom sexual satisfaction; condom health hazard; and condom sexual interest. It was evaluated on a sample of 786 students attending the University of Ibadan, Nigeria. FINDINGS: The scale appears to be easy to use, and is acceptable and reliable. CONCLUSION: The scale appears suitable for obtaining estimates of personal experiences of sexual and reproductive condom use. Further, it may be employed for assessing factors that hinder condom use in sexual relationships and is useful for determining the predisposition of individuals to use condoms in future sexual encounters. PMID:11693974

  7. A negative association between condom availability and incidence of urethral discharge in a closed Malawian community.

    PubMed

    Metcalfe, David

    2007-08-01

    Condom promotion in sub-Saharan Africa has been accused by some conservative groups of encouraging promiscuity. This study explored the relationship between condom availability and sexually transmitted infection (STI) incidence in a closed Malawian community. An audit of clinic records charted the changing availability of condoms and the concurrent incidence of patients presenting with STI-associated urethral discharge (UD). When condoms first became available, their distribution steadily increased and the UD incidence declined. During a three-month period of unavailability, this previously uninterrupted decline was reversed and UD incidence increased. Once condoms again became available, UD incidence resumed its decline. This association was found to be statistically significant (Spearman's correlation coefficient, -0.499; P = 0.035). In a small community largely isolated from neighbouring towns, condom distribution appeared to negatively correlate with the number of patients presenting with UD. This may challenge the local belief that condoms have a damaging effect on sexual health in Malawi.

  8. Psychosocial factors associated with condom use among African-American drug abusers in treatment.

    PubMed

    Malow, R M; Corrigan, S A; Cunningham, S C; West, J A; Pena, J M

    1993-01-01

    Although strategies for decreasing injection drug use have met with moderate success, efforts to decrease high-risk sexual behaviors have been less successful. Because condom use reduces HIV transmission, it is critically important to identify the attitudinal, emotional, and behavioral factors associated with using condoms. This study evaluated the relationship between condom use and various psychological and behavioral variables among heterosexual, African-American, cocaine-dependent men within the context of the AIDS Risk Reduction Model (ARRM). Subjects who used condoms (n = 52) reported significantly higher levels of self-efficacy, condom use skills, and sexual communication with partners than non-users (n = 84). However, the groups did not differ in perceived susceptibility, anxiety concerning HIV transmission, response efficacy, or knowledge regarding HIV. These findings suggest that future interventions focus on enhancing self-efficacy and condom use skills, as well as eroticizing condom use.

  9. Distal and Proximal Influences on Men's Intentions to Resist Condoms: Alcohol, Sexual Aggression History, Impulsivity, and Social-Cognitive Factors.

    PubMed

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Danube, Cinnamon L; Neilson, Elizabeth C; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H; Kajumulo, Kelly F

    2016-01-01

    Recent scientific evidence demonstrates that many young men commonly resist condom use with their female sex partners and that both alcohol intoxication and a history of sexual aggression may increase the risk of condom use resistance (CUR). Using a community sample of heterosexual male non-problem drinkers with elevated sexual risk (N = 311), this alcohol administration study examined the direct and indirect effects of intoxication and sexual aggression history on men's CUR intentions through a sexual risk analogue. State impulsivity, CUR-related attitudes, and CUR-related self-efficacy were assessed as mediators. Results demonstrated that alcohol intoxication directly increased CUR intentions, and sexual aggression history both directly and indirectly increased CUR intentions. These findings highlight the importance of addressing both alcohol use and sexual aggression in risky sex prevention programs, as well as indicate the continued worth of research regarding the intersection of men's alcohol use, sexual aggression, and sexual risk behaviors, especially CUR.

  10. Distal and Proximal Influences on Men's Intentions to Resist Condoms: Alcohol, Sexual Aggression History, Impulsivity, and Social-Cognitive Factors.

    PubMed

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Danube, Cinnamon L; Neilson, Elizabeth C; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H; Kajumulo, Kelly F

    2016-01-01

    Recent scientific evidence demonstrates that many young men commonly resist condom use with their female sex partners and that both alcohol intoxication and a history of sexual aggression may increase the risk of condom use resistance (CUR). Using a community sample of heterosexual male non-problem drinkers with elevated sexual risk (N = 311), this alcohol administration study examined the direct and indirect effects of intoxication and sexual aggression history on men's CUR intentions through a sexual risk analogue. State impulsivity, CUR-related attitudes, and CUR-related self-efficacy were assessed as mediators. Results demonstrated that alcohol intoxication directly increased CUR intentions, and sexual aggression history both directly and indirectly increased CUR intentions. These findings highlight the importance of addressing both alcohol use and sexual aggression in risky sex prevention programs, as well as indicate the continued worth of research regarding the intersection of men's alcohol use, sexual aggression, and sexual risk behaviors, especially CUR. PMID:26156881

  11. Predictors of consistent condom use based on the Information-Motivation-Behavior Skill (IMB) model among senior high school students in three coastal cities in China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background High prevalence of risky sexual behaviors and lack of information, skills and preventive support mean that, adolescents face high risks of HIV/AIDS. This study applied the information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) model to examine the predictors of consistent condom use among senior high school students from three coastal cities in China and clarify the relationships between the model constructs. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess HIV/AIDS related information, motivation, behavioral skills and preventive behaviors among senior high school students in three coastal cities in China. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was used to assess the IMB model. Results Of the 12313 participants, 4.5% (95% CI: 4.2–5.0) reported having had premarital sex and among them 25.0% (95% CI: 21.2–29.1) reported having used a condom in their sexual debut. Only about one–ninth of participants reported consistent condom use. The final IMB model provided acceptable fit to the data (CFI = 0.981, RMSEA = 0.014). Consistent condom use was significantly predicted by motivation (β = 0.175, P < 0.01) and behavioral skills (β = 0.778, P < 0.01). Information indirectly predicted consistent condom use, and was mediated by behavioral skills (β = 0.269, P < 0.05). Conclusions The results highlight the importance of conducting HIV/AIDS preventive health promotion among senior high school students in China. The IMB model could predict consistent condom use and suggests that future interventions should focus on improving motivation and behavioral skills. PMID:23734860

  12. The Condom Divide: Disenfranchisement of Malawi Women by Church and State

    PubMed Central

    Rankin, Sally H.; Lindgren, Teri; Kools, Susan M.; Schell, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    Objective To examine the impact of two mitigating social institutions, religious organizations and the state, on Malawi women's vulnerability to HIV. Design In-depth interviews with a purposive sample of 40 central leaders from 5 faith based organizations (FBOs) in Malawi were recorded and transcribed as part of an on-going larger study. Qualitative description was used to identify themes and categories. Setting Primarily urban and peri-urban areas of south-central Malawi. Participants A minimum of 6 leaders from each FBO were interviewed; the mean age of the primarily male (68%) participants was 44 years (range 26−74). Results Analysis of religious leaders' messages about HIV produced an overarching theme, the condom divide, which conceptualized the divergence between FBOs and the state's prevention messages related to HIV prevention strategies. Conclusion Faith based organizations have “demonized” state messages about condoms as promoting sin. The FBOs' insistence on abstinence and faithfulness leaves women with few options to protect themselves. As socially conscious citizens of the world, nurses can increase the responsiveness to the disparate levels of suffering and death in countries like Malawi. PMID:18811780

  13. "No party hat, no party": successful condom use in sex work in Mexico and the Dominican Republic.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Sandra G; Yam, Eileen A; Firestone, Michelle

    2006-11-01

    Sex workers and their clients are particularly vulnerable to HIV/STI transmission. Most research on condom use has focused on barriers preventing use; less is known about attitudes, motivations and strategies employed by those who feel positively about condoms and who use them successfully. For this qualitative study, we conducted focus group discussions with sex workers (14), both female and transvestite, in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, and female sex workers (17) and male clients (11) in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, who identified themselves as successful condom users in a condom use questionnaire. Discussions explored definitions of successful condom use, motivations and strategies for condom use and messages for future condom promotion. Sex workers defined successful condom use as being in agreement with their clients and partners about using condoms, protecting themselves from disease and unwanted pregnancy, and feeling good about using condoms. Condoms were seen to be hygienic, offer protection and provide a sense of security and peace of mind. Specific strategies included always having condoms on hand, stressing the positive aspects of condoms and eroticising condom use. Future educational messages should emphasise condom use to protect loved ones, increase security and pleasure during sex, and demonstrate respect for both sex workers, clients and partners. PMID:17101422

  14. The Impact of Condom Use Negotiation Self-Efficacy and Partnership Patterns on Consistent Condom Use among College-Educated Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesoff, Elizabeth D.; Dunkle, Kristin; Lang, Delia

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to explore the impact of condom negotiation self-efficacy, interpersonal factors, and sensational factors on condom use behavior among a population of college-educated women with different patterns and types of sexual partner. We administered an online questionnaire capturing sexual behavior, partnership patterns, perceived…

  15. Parental support and condom use among transgender female youth

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Erin C.; Iverson, Ellen; Garofalo, Robert; Belzer, Marvin

    2011-01-01

    Evidence suggests that transgender female youth (TFY), much like their adult transgender female peers, are at high risk for HIV. Yet little attention has been given to important developmental experiences of TFY that may impact HIV risk for this youth population. The overall purpose of this study was to explore HIV risk in TFY. A re-occurring theme from the qualitative data was the importance of parents. To better understand the impact of parents on HIV risk among TFY, in-depth individual interview data from 21 TFY in Los Angeles and Chicago were analyzed, suggesting a potential link between HIV-related risk behavior and parental support. Youth with parental support in this sample reported regular condom use, while those without such support reported inconsistent condom use. Implications for the unique research and interventions needs of TFY related to parental support and sexual risk behaviors are discussed. PMID:22079675

  16. Condom use among female commercial sex workers in Nevada's legal brothels.

    PubMed Central

    Albert, A E; Warner, D L; Hatcher, R A; Trussell, J; Bennett, C

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The purpose of this study was to evaluate condom use and the incidence of breakage and slippage during vaginal intercourse among female prostitutes in legal Nevada brothels, where use of condoms is required by law. METHODS. Forty-one licensed prostitutes in three brothels were enrolled in a prospective trial in August 1993. Used condoms were collected to verify reported breaks visually. Retrospective breakage and slippage rates were obtained in a standardized interview. RESULTS. Condoms were used for every act of vaginal intercourse with a brothel client during the study period, as well as in the previous year. In the prospective study phase, condoms were used in 353 acts of vaginal intercourse with clients. No condoms broke, and none fell off the penis during intercourse. Only twice (0.6%) did condoms completely fall off during withdrawal. Twelve times (3.4%) during intercourse and 15 times (4.3%) during withdrawal, condoms slipped down the penis but did not fall off. CONCLUSIONS. These findings, among the lowest breakage and slippage rates published, suggest that regular condom use may lead to condom mastery and the development of techniques to reduce the likelihood of breakage and slippage. PMID:7485663

  17. Coverage and representation of condoms in conjunction with HIV/AIDS in the Kenyan Daily Nation Newspaper from 1989-2003: a qualitative content analysis to inform health promotion.

    PubMed

    McMorrow, Shannon L; Lagerwey, Mary D; Ford, Leigh A

    HIV/AIDS has been a pressing problem in the East African country of Kenya for over 20 years. Promotion of condom use is one prevention strategy embraced in global health prevention of HIV, but use remains relatively low in Kenya. In order to better understand the socio-historic context of discourses about condoms in Kenya, this study explored how condoms were covered and represented in the Kenyan Daily Nation newspaper from 1989-2003. Qualitative content analysis was conducted for 91 items from the Daily Nation including articles, letters to the editor, columns, opinion and editorial pieces, advertisements, and cartoons. These items were systematically examined for the manner and content of manifest and latent references to condoms. Researchers found four major themes, "controversy and confusion," "we need to do more: condoms might help," "not for Kenyans or from Kenyans," and "stigmatized associations." Findings provide needed insight into the socio-cultural context surrounding condoms in Kenya that is often lacking within health promotion and HIV prevention programs.

  18. Efficacy of a combined contraceptive regimen consisting of condoms and emergency contraception pills

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To evaluate and compare the effectiveness of the combined regimen (consisting of condoms and emergency contraception pills (ECP)) and using condoms only for the purpose of preventing pregnancy. Methods One-thousand-five-hundred-and-sixty-two (1,562) couples as volunteers enrolled at nine centers in Shanghai. Eight-hundred-and-twelve (812) were randomized to use male condoms and ECP (i.e., Levonorgestrel) as a back-up to condoms (the intervention group) and 750 to use male condoms only(the control group), according to their working unit. Participants were visited at admission and at the end of 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. The cumulative life table rates were calculated for pregnancy and other reasons for discontinuation. Result The gross cumulative life table rates showed that the cumulative discontinuation rates for all reasons during the year of follow-up in the condoms plus emergency contraception group and the condoms only group were 7.76 ± 0.94 and 6.61 ± 0.91, respectively, per 100 women (χ2 = 0.41, p = 0.5227). The cumulative gross pregnancy rate of the condoms plus emergency contraception group and the condoms only group were 2.17 ± 0.52 and 1.25 ± 0.41, respectively, per 100 women (χ2 = 1.93, p = 0.1645). The Pearl Index in the condoms plus emergency contraception group and the condoms only group were 2.21% and 1.26%, respectively. Conclusion Male condoms remain a highly effective contraceptive method for a period of one year while consistently and correctly used. In addition, the lowest pregnancy rate followed from perfect use condom. PMID:24725355

  19. A stochastic model of AIDS and condom use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalal, Nirav; Greenhalgh, David; Mao, Xuerong

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we introduce stochasticity into a model of AIDS and condom use via the technique of parameter perturbation which is standard in stochastic population modelling. We show that the model established in this paper possesses non-negative solutions as desired in any population dynamics. We also carry out a detailed analysis on asymptotic stability both in probability one and in pth moment. Our results reveal that a certain type of stochastic perturbation may help to stabilise the underlying system.

  20. AIDS update. Condom availability in New York City schools.

    PubMed

    Kerr, D L

    1991-08-01

    Despite strong protests from a minority group of critics, the New York City Board of Education adopted a measure February 27, 1991, approving universal availability of condoms in city high schools to students without the need for parental consent. This expanded HIV education program allows the system's 261,000 students in 120 public high schools to procure condoms from any of 17 clinics and any teacher or staff member volunteering for the program. While a few, small U.S. school districts have implemented such programs in efforts to curb the incidence of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases infections, and unwanted pregnancies, this move by New York city's enormous school district could set the trend for similar action by other large school systems. The Centers for Disease Control document 691 cases of AIDS in youths aged 13-19, and 7,303 among those aged 20-24. More than 20% of U.S. AIDS cases are among those aged 20-29. Given the long incubation period for HIV, many if not most of these case probably stem from HIV infection during the teenage years. New York City accounts for 20% of all reported AIDS cases among youths aged 13-21, placing New York teens at disproportionate risk for infection. The number of infected adolescents doubles every 14 months. More than adults, these youths are likely to have contracted HIV through heterosexual contact instead of through IV-drug use or homosexual intercourse. Making condoms readily and confidentially available to adolescents, youths vulnerable to HIV infection will no longer fail to procure them due to embarrassment, fear of resistance from store clerks, and cost. The Youth News Service reveals youths to have been most supportive of the new program for several months, and anxious for its implementation. A random poll of adults found support for condom distribution in high schools and junior high schools to be 64% and 47%, respectively. PMID:1956177

  1. AIDS update. Condom availability in New York City schools.

    PubMed

    Kerr, D L

    1991-08-01

    Despite strong protests from a minority group of critics, the New York City Board of Education adopted a measure February 27, 1991, approving universal availability of condoms in city high schools to students without the need for parental consent. This expanded HIV education program allows the system's 261,000 students in 120 public high schools to procure condoms from any of 17 clinics and any teacher or staff member volunteering for the program. While a few, small U.S. school districts have implemented such programs in efforts to curb the incidence of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases infections, and unwanted pregnancies, this move by New York city's enormous school district could set the trend for similar action by other large school systems. The Centers for Disease Control document 691 cases of AIDS in youths aged 13-19, and 7,303 among those aged 20-24. More than 20% of U.S. AIDS cases are among those aged 20-29. Given the long incubation period for HIV, many if not most of these case probably stem from HIV infection during the teenage years. New York City accounts for 20% of all reported AIDS cases among youths aged 13-21, placing New York teens at disproportionate risk for infection. The number of infected adolescents doubles every 14 months. More than adults, these youths are likely to have contracted HIV through heterosexual contact instead of through IV-drug use or homosexual intercourse. Making condoms readily and confidentially available to adolescents, youths vulnerable to HIV infection will no longer fail to procure them due to embarrassment, fear of resistance from store clerks, and cost. The Youth News Service reveals youths to have been most supportive of the new program for several months, and anxious for its implementation. A random poll of adults found support for condom distribution in high schools and junior high schools to be 64% and 47%, respectively.

  2. Kidney Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... if You Have Kidney Disease Kidney Failure Expand Dialysis Kidney Transplant Preparing for Kidney Failure Treatment Choosing Not to Treat with Dialysis or Transplant Paying for Kidney Failure Treatment Contact ...

  3. Teaching Condom Use Skills: Practice is Superior to Observation

    PubMed Central

    Calsyn, Donald A.; Hatch-Maillette, Mary A.; Doyle, Suzanne R.; Cousins, Sarah; Chen, TeChieh; Godinez, Melinda

    2010-01-01

    Men exposed to a condom skills practice exercise were hypothesized to perform better on condom skills measures than those exposed only to a demonstration or to no intervention. As part of a larger NIDA Clinical Trials Network HIV Prevention protocol men in substance abuse treatment were administered male and female condom use skills measures (MCUS, FCUS) at pre-intervention, two weeks, 3 months and 6 months post-intervention. The MCUS and FCUS scores were compared for three intervention exposure groups (demonstration only [DO, n=149], demonstration plus practice [D+P; n=112], attended no sessions [NS, n=139]) across the 4 assessment time points using a mixed effects linear regression model. There is a statistically significant intervention group-by-time effect (p<.0001) for both the MCUS and FCUS. Post hoc, pairwise linear trends across time indicated that for both the MCUS and the FCUS the D+P group is significantly superior to the DO group and the NS group. PMID:21038177

  4. A placebo-controlled study examining the effect of allopurinol on heart rate variability and dysrhythmia counts in chronic heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Shehab, Abdullah M A; Butler, Robert; MacFadyen, Robert J; Struthers, Allan D

    2001-01-01

    Aims Allopurinol improves endothelial function in chronic heart failure by reducing oxidative stress. We wished to explore if such an effect would attenuate autonomic dysfunction in CHF in line with many other effective therapies in CHF. Methods We performed a prospective, randomized, double-blind cross-over study in 16 patients with NYHA Class II-IV chronic heart failure (mean age 67 ± 10 years, 13 male, comparing allopurinol (2 months) at a daily dose of 300 mg (if creatinine < 150 µmol l−1) or 100 mg (if creatinine > 150 µmol l−1) with matched placebo. Mean heart rate and dysrhythmia counts were recorded from 24 h Holter tapes at monthly intervals for 6 months. We assessed autonomic function using standard time domain heart rate variability parameters (HRV): SDNN, SDANN, SDNN index, rMSSD and TI. Results Allopurinol had no significant effect on heart rate variability compared with placebo; the results are expressed as a difference in means ± s.d. with 95% confidence interval (CI) between allopurinol and placebo: SDNN mean=6.5 ± 4.8 ms, P = 0.18 and 95% CI (−3.7, 17); TI mean=−2.1 ± 1.4, P = 0.16 and 95% CI (−5.2, 0.8); SDANN mean=−2.8 ± 7 ms, P = 0.68 and 95% CI (−18, 12); SDNNi mean=2 ± 6.6, P = 0.7 and 95% CI (−12, 16); RMSSD mean=−0.9 ± 2, P = 0.68 and 95% CI (−5.6, 3.7). For mean heart rate the corresponding results were 0.9 ± 1.4, P = 0.5 and 95% CI (−2, 3.8). Log 24 h ventricular ectopic counts (VEC) were 0.032 ± 0.37, P = 0.7 and 95% CI (−0.1, 0.2). Patient compliance with study medication was good since allopurinol showed its expected effect of reducing plasma uric acid (P < 0.001). Conclusions Allopurinol at doses, which are known to reduce oxidative stress appear to have no significant effect on resting autonomic tone, as indicated by time domain heart rate variability or on dysrhythmia count in stable heart failure patients. PMID:11318768

  5. Is pornography consumption associated with condom use and intoxication during hookups?

    PubMed

    Braithwaite, Scott R; Givens, Anneli; Brown, Jacob; Fincham, Frank

    2015-01-01

    In order to examine whether pornography consumption is associated with risky sexual behaviour among emerging adults, we examined two large samples of those who reported hooking up in the past 12 months (combined n =  1216). Pornography use was associated with a higher likelihood of having a penetrative hookup; a higher incidence of intoxication during hookups for men (but a lower incidence of intoxication during hookups for women); increasing levels of intoxication during hookups for men but decreasing levels of intoxication for women; and a higher likelihood of being in the riskiest category of having a penetrative hookup, without a condom, while intoxicated. For each of these outcomes, our point estimates for Study 2 fell within the 95% confidence intervals from Study 1. Controlling for trait self-control, binge drinking frequency, broader problematic patterns of alcohol use, openness to experience, and attitudes toward casual sex did not change the pattern of results. Implications for interventions to reduce sexual risk are discussed.

  6. An epidemiological study of urban and rural children in Pakistan: examining the relationship between delayed psychomotor development, low birth weight and postnatal growth failure

    PubMed Central

    Avan, Bilal I.; Raza, Syed A.; Kirkwood, Betty R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Low birth weight is known to be associated with postnatal growth failure. It is not yet established that both conditions are determinants of psychomotor development. The study investigated whether or not low birth weight leads to delayed psychomotor development of a child, and whether it can be mitigated by adequate postnatal growth. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2002 in 15 rural and 11 urban communities of Sindh province, Pakistan. Assessment of 1234 children less than 3 years of age included Bayley's Scale of Infant Development II, socioeconomic questionnaire and anthropometry; WHO standards were used to calculate z-scores of height-for-age, weight-for-height and weight-for-age. The underlying study hypotheses were tested through multiple regression modelling. Results Out of 1219 children, 283 (23.2%) had delayed psychomotor development and 639 (52.4%) were undernourished according to the composite index of anthropometric failure. Strong negative associations with the psychomotor development index were detected between stunting and being underweight, with a larger magnitude of effect for stunting (p<0.001). The strong relationship persisted even when the analysis was restricted to non-malnourished children. The psychomotor index increased by 2.07 points with every unit increase in height-for-age z-score. Conclusions The relationship between low birth weight and psychomotor development appears to be mediated largely by postnatal growth and nutritional status. This association suggests that among undernourished children there is significant likelihood of a group that is developmentally delayed. It is important to emphasize developmental needs in programmes that target underprivileged children. PMID:25354850

  7. Crack smokers' intention to use condoms with loved partners: intervention development using the theory of reasoned action, condom beliefs, and processes of change.

    PubMed

    Bowen, A M; Williams, M; McCoy, H V; McCoy, C B

    2001-10-01

    Prevalence rates of HIV infection acquired through heterosexual contacts have risen steadily since 1982. Crack cocaine smokers are at particular risk of HIV infection due to heterosexual exposure. HIV risk reduction interventions seeking to increase condom use among drug users have met with minimal success, and there is a need for interventions to be strongly grounded in psychosocial models of behaviour change. This study presents the results of an investigation of predictors of intention to use condoms and related therapy processes among heterosexual drug users. Data were analyzed from 586 crack smokers recruited in Washington, DC, Miami, Florida, and Collier County, Florida who reported having both primary and casual sex partners. Participants responded to items derived from the theory of reasoned action, the theory of planned behaviour and the transtheoretical model of change. Condom use beliefs and therapy processes used to initiate and maintain condom use were assessed. Outcome expectancies and normative beliefs were the strongest predictors of intention to use condoms with a primary sexual partner. In turn, beliefs that condoms inhibit sexual romance and decrease sexual pleasure strongly predicted outcome expectancies. Therapy processes found to be associated with these constructs included: self-liberation, counter conditioning and stimulus control/reinforcement. Results suggest that HIV risk reduction interventions using a group format and targeting condom beliefs related to sexual romance and pleasure will decrease negative outcome expectancies about condom use. Also, reinforcing attempts to use condoms with intimate partners should increase positive outcome expectancies and intention to initiate or maintain condoms with a primary sexual partner.

  8. Predictors of condom use behaviour among male street labourers in urban Vietnam using a modified Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model.

    PubMed

    Van Huy, Nguyen; P Dunne, Michael; Debattista, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    HIV risk in vulnerable groups such as itinerant male street labourers is often examined via a focus on individual determinants. This study provides a test of a modified Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model to predict condom use behaviour among male street workers in urban Vietnam. In a cross-sectional survey using a social mapping technique, 450 male street labourers from 13 districts of Hanoi, Vietnam were recruited and interviewed. Collected data were first examined for completeness; structural equation modelling was then employed to test the model fit. Condoms were used inconsistently by many of these men, and usage varied in relation to a number of factors. A modified IMB model had a better fit than the original IMB model in predicting condom use behaviour. This modified model accounted for 49% of the variance, versus 10% by the original version. In the modified model, the influence of psychosocial factors was moderately high, whilst the influence of HIV prevention information, motivation and perceived behavioural skills was moderately low, explaining in part the limited level of condom use behaviour. This study provides insights into social factors that should be taken into account in public health planning to promote safer sexual behaviour among Asian male street labourers.

  9. Individual and Partner-Level Factors Associated with Condom Non-Use Among African American STI Clinic Attendees in the Deep South: An Event-Level Analysis.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Brandon D L; Perez-Brumer, Amaya G; MacCarthy, Sarah; Mena, Leandro; Chan, Philip A; Towey, Caitlin; Barnett, Nancy; Parker, Sharon; Barnes, Arti; Brinkley-Rubinstein, Lauren; Rose, Jennifer S; Nunn, Amy S

    2016-06-01

    The US HIV/AIDS epidemic is concentrated in the Deep South, yet factors contributing to HIV transmission are not fully understood. We examined relationships between substance use, sexual partnership characteristics, and condom non-use in an African American sample of STI clinic attendees in Jackson, Mississippi. We assessed condom non-use at last intercourse with up to three recent sexual partners reported by participants between January and June 2011. Participant- and partner-level correlates of condom non-use were examined using generalized estimating equations. The 1295 participants reported 2880 intercourse events, of which 1490 (51.7 %) involved condom non-use. Older age, lower educational attainment, reporting financial or material dependence on a sex partner, sex with a primary partner, and higher frequency of sex were associated with increased odds of condomless sex. HIV prevention efforts in the South should address underlying socioeconomic disparities and structural determinants that result in partner dependency and sexual risk behavior. PMID:26683032

  10. Condom use with various types of sex partners by money boys in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shusen; Chen, Lin; Li, Li; Zhao, Jin; Cai, Wende; Rou, Keming; Wu, Zunyou; Detels, Roger

    2012-04-01

    Money boys (MBs) who typically sell sex to males have not yet been extensively studied in China. In this 2009 study, 28 venue-based MBs were interviewed. We analyzed their condom use behaviors with various partners, including male and female clients, male and female casual partners, other MBs and female sex workers, and boyfriends and girlfriends. All participants were aware of the need for using condoms; however, usage with different partner types varied. The longer a relationship with a partner, the less frequent was condom use. A major reason for not using condoms was that they or their partners did not like the loss of sensation due to condom use. Other factors included sexual orientation, age, duration in commercial sex, concerns about HIV/AIDS, attractiveness of partners, and support of "mommies" (brothel supervisors). Both individual- and venue-level interventions are needed to promote condom use, and mommies need to be included in intervention strategies.

  11. A Qualitative Study of Barriers to Consistent Condom Use among HIV-1 Serodiscordant Couples in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Ngure, Kenneth; Mugo, Nelly; Celum, Connie; Baeten, Jared M.; Morris, Martina; Olungah, Owuor; Olenja, Joyce; Tamooh, Harrison; Shell-Duncan, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    This study explored barriers to consistent condom use among heterosexual HIV-1 serodiscordant couples who were aware of the HIV-1 serodiscordant status and had been informed about condom use as a risk reduction strategy. We conducted 28 in-depth interviews and 9 focus group discussions among purposively-selected heterosexual HIV-1 serodiscordant couples from Thika and Nairobi districts in Kenya. We analyzed the transcribed data with a grounded theory approach. The most common barriers to consistent condom use included male partners’ reluctance to use condoms regardless of HIV-1 status coupled with female partners’ inability to negotiate condom use, misconceptions about HIV-1 serodiscordance, and desire for children. Specific areas of focus should include development of skills for women to effectively negotiate condom use, ongoing information on HIV-1 serodiscordance and education on safer conception practices that minimize risk of HIV-1 transmission. PMID:22085306

  12. The prediction of condom use intention among South African university students.

    PubMed

    Mashegoane, S; Moalusi, K P; Peltzer, K; Ngoepe, M A

    2004-10-01

    A questionnaire was administered to 294 sexually active, unmarried undergraduate students to investigate the role of social norms in the prediction of the intention to use condoms. Components of social cognitive theory and the theory of reasoned action and planned behaviour were integrated with those of the Health Belief Model to predict future intention to use condoms with a new partner. Logistic regression analyses of selected risky sexual behaviours on the intention to use condoms showed that, among males, attitudes towards using condoms and the Health Belief Model component of perceived barriers predicted the intention to use condoms. The Health Belief Model component of perceived benefits could not be interpreted. Attitudes, subjective norms and perceived self-efficacy were associated with female students' intention to use condoms. Implications for strategies of HIV/AIDS prevention are discussed.

  13. Interaction between 5-HTTLPR Polymorphism and Abuse History on Adolescent African-American Females’ Condom Use Behavior Following Participation in an HIV Prevention Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Sales, Jessica M.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Brody, Gene H.; Philibert, Robert A.; Rose, Eve

    2013-01-01

    Not everyone exposed to an efficacious HIV intervention will reduce sexual risk behaviors, yet little is known about factors associated with “failure to change” high risk sexual behaviors post-intervention. History of abuse and polymorphisms in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTT) may be associated with non-change. The current study sought to identify genetic, life history, and psychosocial factors associated with adolescents’ failure to change condom use behaviors post-participation in an HIV prevention intervention. A sub-set of participants from a clinic-based sample of adolescent African-American females (N = 254) enrolled in a randomized trial of an HIV-prevention was utilized for the current study. 44.1% did not increase their condom use from baseline levels 6 months after participating in the STI/HIV prevention intervention. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, an interaction between abuse and 5-HTTLPR group was significantly associated with non-change status, along with partner communication frequency scores at follow-up. Follow-up tests found that having a history of abuse was significantly associated with greater odds of non-change in condom use post-intervention for only those with the s allele. For those with ll allele, participants with higher partner communication frequency scores were at decreased odds of non-change in condom use post-intervention. Thus, STI/HIV interventions for adolescent females may consider providing a more in-depth discussion and instruction on how to manage and overcome fear or anxiety related to being assertive in sexual decisions or sexual situations. Doing so may improve the efficacy of STI/HIV prevention programs for adolescent women who have experienced abuse in their lifetime. PMID:23479192

  14. Interaction between 5-HTTLPR polymorphism and abuse history on adolescent African-American females' condom use behavior following participation in an HIV prevention intervention.

    PubMed

    Sales, Jessica M; DiClemente, Ralph J; Brody, Gene H; Philibert, Robert A; Rose, Eve

    2014-06-01

    Not everyone exposed to an efficacious human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) intervention will reduce sexual risk behaviors, yet little is known about factors associated with "failure to change" high-risk sexual behaviors post-intervention. History of abuse and polymorphisms in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTT) may be associated with non-change. The current study sought to identify genetic, life history, and psychosocial factors associated with adolescents' failure to change condom use behaviors post-participation in an HIV prevention intervention. A sub-set of participants from a clinic-based sample of adolescent African-American females (N = 254) enrolled in a randomized trial of an HIV-prevention was utilized for the current study. Forty-four percent did not increase their condom use from baseline levels 6 months after participating in the sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV prevention intervention. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, an interaction between abuse and 5-HTTLPR group was significantly associated with non-change status, along with partner communication frequency scores at follow-up. Follow-up tests found that having a history of abuse was significantly associated with greater odds of non-change in condom use post-intervention for only those with the s allele. For those with ll allele, participants with higher partner communication frequency scores were at decreased odds of non-change in condom use post-intervention. Thus, STI/HIV interventions for adolescent females may consider providing a more in-depth discussion and instruction on how to manage and overcome fear or anxiety related to being assertive in sexual decisions or sexual situations. Doing so may improve the efficacy of STI/HIV prevention programs for adolescent women who have experienced abuse in their lifetime. PMID:23479192

  15. The effect of marriage and HIV risks on condom use acceptability in rural Malawi.

    PubMed

    Anglewicz, Philip; Clark, Shelley

    2013-11-01

    A large and increasing proportion of HIV transmissions in sub-Saharan Africa occur within marriage. Condom use within marriage could, therefore, be an important prevention strategy, but there is considerable debate about whether married couples would be willing to use condoms. This paper contributes to this debate by identifying key factors that affect the acceptability of condom use within marriage and actual condom use among men and women in rural Malawi, using three waves of longitudinal data from 2004, 2006 and 2008. Specifically, we focused on the effect of (1) entry into first marriage, (2) respondent's HIV status, HIV perceptions, and risk behaviors, and (3) spouse's HIV characteristics on condom use acceptability within marriage and actual condom use with a spouse or steady partner. Using fixed-effects regression, we found that getting married coincides with a pronounced attitudinal shift regarding the acceptability of condom use within marriage that cannot be explained by differences in fertility status or selection into marriage. In addition, we found that, for women, perceived HIV status of the respondent and spouse generally had greater influence than actual HIV status on the acceptability of condom use within marriage and actual condom use with a spouse or steady partner, even after HIV status is known; while actual HIV status and HIV risk behaviors are generally more important among men. Although condom use within marriage remained low, these findings suggest that attitudes about and use of condoms are susceptible to change and that both marital status and perceptions of risk are important influences on condom use.

  16. The Effect of Marriage and HIV Risks on Condom Use Acceptability in Rural Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Anglewicz, Philip; Clark, Shelley

    2013-01-01

    A large and increasing proportion of HIV transmissions in sub-Saharan Africa occur within marriage. Condom use within marriage could, therefore, be an important prevention strategy, but there is considerable debate about whether married couples would be willing to use condoms. This paper contributes to this debate by identifying key factors that affect the acceptability of condom use within marriage and actual condom use among men and women in rural Malawi, using three waves of longitudinal data from 2004, 2006 and 2008. Specifically, we focused on the effect of (1) entry into first marriage, (2) respondent’s HIV status, HIV perceptions, and risk behaviors, and (3) spouse’s HIV characteristics on condom use acceptability within marriage and actual condom use with a spouse or steady partner. Using fixed-effects regression, we found that getting married coincides with a pronounced attitudinal shift regarding the acceptability of condom use within marriage that cannot be explained by differences in fertility status or selection into marriage. In addition, we found that, for women, perceived HIV status of the respondent and spouse generally had greater influence than actual HIV status on the acceptability of condom use within marriage and actual condom use with a spouse or steady partner, even after HIV status is known; while actual HIV status and HIV risk behaviors are generally more important among men. Although condom use within marriage remained low, these findings suggest that attitudes about and use of condoms are susceptible to change and that both marital status and perceptions of risk are important influences on condom use. PMID:24161086

  17. HIV prevention and marriage: peer group effects on condom use acceptability in rural Kenya.

    PubMed

    Cordero Coma, Julia

    2014-09-01

    The twofold function of condom use - contraception and sexually transmitted disease protection - should be taken into account when understanding attitudes towards this practice. Emphasis on the interpretation of condom use as a protective practice conflicts with the norms of fidelity and trust, which regulate marriage. The alternative interpretation of condom use as a contraceptive method may be less problematic. This paper analyzes the extent to which the attitude of married men and women towards condom use with their spouses, and their actual use of condoms within marriage, are affected by their expectations about the dominant attitudes and behaviors in their peer group. I expect that a social consensus on understanding condom use as an HIV-preventive behavior will not make this practice more acceptable within marriage, while social acceptance of modern contraception and, more specifically, of the use of condoms for contraceptive purposes will. Two waves of a longitudinal survey from 1996 to 1999 in rural Kenya are analyzed using fixed-effects regression. Social support for each function of condom use is measured with indicators of the proportion of individuals in the peer group that use condoms for a particular purpose or have a positive attitude towards each of the uses, according to the respondent. The results support the hypothesis for men, but are inconclusive for women.

  18. Condom Use Determinants and Practices Among People Living with HIV in Kisii County, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Emmanuel, Wamalwa; Edward, Neyole; Moses, Poipoi; William, Ringera; Geoffrey, Otomu; Monicah, Bitok; Rosemary, Mbaluka

    2015-01-01

    The male condom remains the single, most efficient and available technology to reduce sexual transmission of HIV as well as sexually transmitted infections. This study sought to establish condom use determinants and practices among people living with HIV (PLHIVs) in Kisii County, Kenya. We interviewed 340 PLHIVs and 6 health workers. Although most PLHIVs had correct knowledge and approved condoms as effective for HIV prevention, consistent use and condom use at last sex were notably low especially among PLHIVs aged 18 – 24, those who depended on remittances from kin as main source of income, as well as during sex with secondary and casual partners. This study notes that knowledge on various benefits of using condoms is associated with enhanced condom use practices. Non-disclosure of HIV status to secondary and casual partners remains a key barrier to condom use among PLHIVs Our observations highlight the need to further promote condom use among specific PLHIVs socio-demographic groups who continue to exhibit low condom use rates. PMID:26668671

  19. Black males who always use condoms: their attitudes, knowledge about AIDS, and sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Johnson, E H; Hinkle, Y; Gilbert, D; Gant, L M

    1992-04-01

    One hundred six black males completed a questionnaire concerning attitudes and knowledge about the use of condoms and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Of the 106 males in the study, 27 (26%) reported that they "always" used condoms, 31 (29%) did not use condoms and had low intentions of using them, and 48 (45%) reported high intentions to use condoms. Results indicated that knowledge about AIDS was exceptionally high for black males in all three groups. Black males with low intentions to use condoms reported significantly more negative attitudes about the use of condoms (eg, using condoms is disgusting) and reacted with more intense anger when their partners asked about previous sexual contacts, when a partner refused sex without a condom, or when they perceived condoms as interfering with foreplay and sexual pleasure. A significantly larger percentage of low intenders were treated for gonorrhea, syphilis, herpes, and genital warts than males in the other groups. Drug use did not differentiate the three groups, although marijuana was used more often by males in the low-intender group. Finally, a larger percentage of black males in the low-intender group reported experiences with anal intercourse and sex with a prostitute, but considered themselves at lower risk for AIDS than did their high-intender or steady-user counterparts. PMID:1507249

  20. Condom Use Determinants and Practices Among People Living with HIV in Kisii County, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Emmanuel, Wamalwa; Edward, Neyole; Moses, Poipoi; William, Ringera; Geoffrey, Otomu; Monicah, Bitok; Rosemary, Mbaluka

    2015-01-01

    The male condom remains the single, most efficient and available technology to reduce sexual transmission of HIV as well as sexually transmitted infections. This study sought to establish condom use determinants and practices among people living with HIV (PLHIVs) in Kisii County, Kenya. We interviewed 340 PLHIVs and 6 health workers. Although most PLHIVs had correct knowledge and approved condoms as effective for HIV prevention, consistent use and condom use at last sex were notably low especially among PLHIVs aged 18 - 24, those who depended on remittances from kin as main source of income, as well as during sex with secondary and casual partners. This study notes that knowledge on various benefits of using condoms is associated with enhanced condom use practices. Non-disclosure of HIV status to secondary and casual partners remains a key barrier to condom use among PLHIVs Our observations highlight the need to further promote condom use among specific PLHIVs socio-demographic groups who continue to exhibit low condom use rates. PMID:26668671

  1. Predictors of consistent condom use among Portuguese women attending family planning clinics.

    PubMed

    Costa, Eleonora C V; Oliveira, Rosa; Ferreira, Domingos; Pereira, M Graça

    2016-01-01

    Women account for 30% of all AIDS cases reported to the Health Ministry in Portugal and most infections are acquired through unprotected heterosexual sex with infected partners. This study analyzed socio-demographic and psychosocial predictors of consistent condom use and the role of education as a moderator variable among Portuguese women attending family planning clinics. A cross-sectional study using interviewer-administered fully structured questionnaires was conducted among 767 sexually active women (ages 18-65). Logistic regression analyses were used to explore the association between consistent condom use and the predictor variables. Overall, 78.7% of the women were inconsistent condom users. The results showed that consistent condom use was predicted by marital status (being not married), having greater perceptions of condom negotiation self-efficacy, having preparatory safer sexual behaviors, and not using condoms only when practicing abstinence. Living with a partner and having lack of risk perception significantly predicted inconsistent condom use. Less educated women were less likely to use condoms even when they perceive being at risk. The full model explained 53% of the variance in consistent condom use. This study emphasizes the need for implementing effective prevention interventions in this population showing the importance of taking education into consideration. PMID:26277905

  2. Examining the Potential for Gender Bias in the Prediction of Symptom Validity Test Failure by MMPI-2 Symptom Validity Scale Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Tayla T. C.; Graham, John R.; Sellbom, Martin; Gervais, Roger O.

    2012-01-01

    Using a sample of individuals undergoing medico-legal evaluations (690 men, 519 women), the present study extended past research on potential gender biases for scores of the Symptom Validity (FBS) scale of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 by examining score- and item-level differences between men and women and determining the…

  3. Examining the Effects of Remote Monitoring Systems on Activation, Self-care, and Quality of Life in Older Patients With Chronic Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Evangelista, Lorraine S.; Lee, Jung-Ah; Moore, Alison A.; Motie, Marjan; Ghasemzadeh, Hassan; Sarrafzadeh, Majid; Mangione, Carol M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The use of remote monitoring systems (RMSs) in healthcare has grown exponentially and has improved the accessibility to and ability of patients to engage in treatment intensification. However, research describing the effects of RMSs on activation, self-care, and quality of life (QOL) in older patients with heart failure (HF) is limited. Objective The aim of this study was to compare the effects of a 3-month RMS intervention on activation, self-care, and QOL of older patients versus a reference group matched on age, gender, race, and functional status (ie, New York Heart Association classification) who received standard discharge instructions after an acute episode of HF exacerbation requiring hospitalization. Methods A total of 21 patients (mean age, 72.7 ± 8.9 years; range, 58–83 years; 52.4% women) provided consent and were trained to measure their weight, blood pressure, and heart rate at home with an RMS device and transmit this information every day for 3 months to a centralized information system. The system gathered all data and dispatched alerts when certain clinical conditions were met. Results The baseline sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of the 2 groups were comparable. Over time, participants in the RMS group showed greater improvements in activation, self-care, and QOL compared with their counterparts. Data showed moderately strong associations between increased activation, self-care, and QOL. Conclusion Our preliminary data show that the use of an RMS is feasible and effective in promoting activation, self-care, and QOL. A larger-scale randomized clinical trial is warranted to show that the RMS is a new and effective method for improving clinical management of older adults with chronic HF. PMID:24365871

  4. Mobile phones and sex work in South India: the emerging role of mobile phones in condom use by female sex workers in two Indian states.

    PubMed

    Navani-Vazirani, Sonia; Solomon, Davidson; Gopalakrishnan; Heylen, Elsa; Srikrishnan, Aylur Kailasom; Vasudevan, Canjeevaram K; Ekstrand, Maria L

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine female sex workers' solicitation of clients using mobile phones and the association between this and condom use with clients. Cross-sectional data were utilised to address the study's aim, drawing on data collected from female sex workers in Calicut, Kerala, and Chirala, Andhra Pradesh. Use of mobile phone solicitation was reported by 46.3% (n = 255) of Kerala participants and 78.7% (n = 464) of those in Andhra Pradesh. Kerala participants reporting exclusive solicitation using mobile phones demonstrated 1.67 times higher odds (95% CI: 1.01-2.79) of inconsistent condom use than those reporting non-use of mobile phones for solicitation. However, those reporting exclusive solicitation through mobile phones in Andhra Pradesh reported lower odds of inconsistent condom use (OR: 0.03; 95% CI: 0.01-0.26) than those not using mobile phones for solicitation. Findings indicate that solicitation of clients using mobile phones facilitates or hampers consistency in condom use with clients depending on the context, and how mobile phones are incorporated into solicitation practices. Variations in sex work environments, including economic dependence on sex work or lack thereof may partially account for the different effects found.

  5. Social Cohesion Among Sex Workers and Client Condom Refusal in a Canadian Setting: Implications for Structural and Community-Led Interventions.

    PubMed

    Argento, Elena; Duff, Putu; Bingham, Brittany; Chapman, Jules; Nguyen, Paul; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Shannon, Kate

    2016-06-01

    Community empowerment can be a powerful determinant of HIV risk among sex workers (SWs). This study modeled the impact of social cohesion on client condom refusal among SWs in Vancouver. Longitudinal data were drawn from a prospective cohort of SWs (2010-2013). Lippman and colleagues' Social Cohesion Scale measured SWs' connectedness (i.e., perception of mutual aid, trust, support). Multivariable logistic regression examined the independent effect of social cohesion on client condom refusal. Of 654 SWs, 22 % reported baseline client condom refusal and 34 % over 3 years. The baseline median social cohesion score was 24 (IQR 20-29, range 4-45). In the final confounding model, for every one-point increase in the social cohesion score, average odds of condom refusal decreased by 3 % (AOR 0.97; 95 % CI 0.95-0.99). Community empowerment can have a direct protective effect on HIV risk. These findings highlight the need for a legal framework that enables collectivization and SW-led efforts in the HIV response. PMID:26499335

  6. AIDS epidemic sparks campaign to encourage condom use.

    PubMed

    1985-12-01

    The acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is fueling a campaign that encourages use of the condom to combat the spread of sexually transmitted diseases. Condom use is being advocated even when one partner is practicing another form of contraception. The threat of AIDS has spread beyond the original risk groups -- homosexual and bisexual men, intravenous drug users, and transfusion recipients -- to include heterosexual men and women. Researchers from the Centers for Disease Control said at the recent conference, Current Issues in Reproductive Health, that clinicians should take the following steps to control the disease: encourage using condoms to protect against sexually transmitted diseases, even if the patient uses another form of contraception; take steps to prevent perinatal transmission of the AIDS virus, human T-lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III); develop ways to use serologic tests for identifying AIDS-infected women of childbearing age; if infection is identified in non-pregnant women, counsel them on the most effective birth control methods; and if infection is identified after a woman is pregnant, discuss the indications for abortion. Dr. Mary E. Guinan, associate director of the CDC's Division of Sexually Transmitted Diseases, said women are most likely at greater risk of heterosexual transmission of the AIDS virus than men. She says that she believes "this is because of semen deposition in women." The virus believed to cause AIDS, HTLV-III, is present in the semen of men with AIDS or HTLV-III infection. Homosexuals are already being advised to use condoms. Intensive education is required to convince patients to accept using condoms in addition to other contraceptive methods. They need to be made aware of the condoms' role in preventing disease transmission. Dr. Harold Jaffe, chief of the epidemiology section of the CDC's AIDS task force, reports that the CDC defines AIDS as an illness at least moderately indicative of an underlying cellular

  7. Use of spermicide and impact of prophylactic condom use among sex workers in Santa Fe de Bogota, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Farr, G; Acosta Castro, L A; DiSantostefano, R; Claassen, E; Olguin, F

    1996-01-01

    Some sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention programs recommend that prostitutes use spermicide as an alternative prophylaxis when a condom is refused. 199 female sex workers in Santa Fe de Bogota, Colombia, participated in a study to assess the effect of this recommendation upon condom use. Women were randomly assigned to use condoms only, use condoms and spermicides concurrently, or use spermicide when condom use was refused. They were instructed to return for follow-up every 2 weeks for 12 weeks. Women in the spermicide-as-a-backup group used a condom for an average of 78.1% of reported acts of intercourse, compared to an average of 94.5% among the condom-only users and 92.3% among the women instructed to use both condoms and spermicide. Women in the spermicide-as-a-backup group used either a condom or spermicide for an average of 96.9% of their acts of intercourse, but less than 5% used a condom for every act of intercourse. 50.7% of women in the condom-only group and 41.2% in the condom/spermicide group used a condom for every act of intercourse. There was a lower than expected incidence of STDs and other urogenital inflammations in all groups.

  8. Examination of a 15. 24-cm ball valve from the Morgantown Energy Technology Center Lock Hopper Valve Testing and Development Project: failure analysis report

    SciTech Connect

    Danyluk, S.; Diercks, D.; Dragel, G.M.

    1980-01-01

    A 15.24-cm ball valve failed while undergoing tests in simulated lock hopper service. The valve stem developed severe torsional deformation after 3134 cycles while handling limestone fines, and a replacement stem also exhibited deformation after an additional 124 cycles. The test was terminated at that point due to excessive valve leakage. Inspection of the valve at METC revealed large quantities of limestone fines packed between the valve ball and the body, and also revealed chipping of the chromium oxide coating around the valve stem slot. The valve seats, ball, and stem were sent to the Materials Science Division of Argonne National Laboratory for further examination. A visual examination at Argonne confirmed the general features seen at METC, and also revealed chipping of the coating on the overspray region of one of the valve seats. It was determined that the torque required to cause gross plastic deformation of the valve stem was well below that which the actuator was capable of applying in the valve test at METC. A microstructural examination of sections from each of the two valve seats indicated no significant debonding of the coating, and an independent analysis by the Linde Division of Union Carbide Corp. found the coating to meet the manufacturer's specifications. Variations in coating thickness on the valve ball of the order of 50% were observed using eddy-current techniques, but absolute values for the coating thicknesses were not obtained.Hardness readings on the valve-seat coating material were found to be slightly below the specified values, but the difference did not appear to be significant.

  9. Relationship between reported prior condom use and current self-perceived risk of acquiring HIV among mobile female sex workers in southern India

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background With the evolution of Health Belief Model, risk perception has been identified as one of several core components of public health interventions. While female sex workers (FSWs) in India continue to be at most risk of acquiring and transmitting HIV, little is known about their perception towards risk of acquiring HIV and how this perception depends upon their history of consistent condom use behavior with different type of partners. The objective of this study is to fill this gap in the literature by examining this relationship among mobile FSWs in southern India. Methods We analyzed data for 5,413 mobile FSWs from a cross-sectional behavioral survey conducted in 22 districts from four states in southern India. This survey assessed participants’ demographics, condom use in sex with different types of partners, continuation of sex while experiencing STI symptoms, alcohol use before having sex, and self-perceived risk of acquiring HIV. Descriptive analyses and multilevel logistic regression models were used to examine the associations between risky sexual behaviors and self-perceived risk of acquiring HIV; and to understand the geographical differences in HIV risk perception. Results Of the total mobile FSWs, only two-fifths (40%) perceived themselves to be at high risk of acquiring HIV; more so in the state of Andhra Pradesh (56%) and less in Maharashtra (17%). FSWs seem to assess their current risk of acquiring HIV primarily on the basis of their past condom use behavior with occasional clients and less on the basis of their past condom use behaviors with regular clients and non-paying partners. Prior inconsistent condom use with occasional clients was independently associated with current perception of high HIV risk (adjusted odds ratio [aOR)] = 2.1, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.7-2.6). In contrast, prior inconsistent condom use with non-paying partners was associated with current perception of low HIV risk (aOR= 0.7, 95% CI: 0.5-0.9). The

  10. Legal implications for failure to comply with advance directives: an examination of the incompetent individual's right to refuse life-sustaining medical treatment.

    PubMed

    Perry, Sherynn J

    2002-01-01

    Life-sustaining medical technology in the past century has created a growing body of case law and legislation recognizing the incompetent individual's right to make his or her own end-of-life decisions. This article focuses on California's leadership in the area of these specific end-of-life issues: specifically, exploring the right of an incompetent individual to refuse life-sustaining medical treatment. The article examines advance directives along with various judicial decision-making standards for incompetent individuals and explores the sociobehavioral and legal rationale for compliance with incompetent individual's rights to make end-of-life decisions. Finally this article concludes (i) that advance directives allow competent individuals to state the medical treatment they would prefer in the event they should later become incompetent and (ii) that when advance directives are properly executed in a detailed manner, under laws currently in effect in some jurisdictions, the preferences stated in the directive bind health care providers.

  11. [Examination of cause of failure to taxon-specific DNA was not detected from bifun (rice vermicelli) using processing model experiment].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kunihiko; Ishii, Rie; Matsumoto, Ryuji; Horie, Masakazu

    2010-01-01

    In the inspection of genetically modified rice, rice taxon-specific DNA could not be detected in processed rice food (bifun: rice vermicelli). The effects of using PCR the ratio of rice powder content and temperature of processing on the detection of taxon-specific DNA were examined by means of processing model experiments using cornstarch with 0, 2, 5, 10% rice powder by weight. Cornstarch and rice powder were blended with water and subjected to heating, steam-treatment, and autoclaving. The rice taxon-specific DNA was detectable in 2% rice powder following heat and steam treatments. After autoclaving, rice taxon-specific DNA was detected only in the 10% rice powder product. In the processing model experiment using rice powder, it was found that autoclaving caused severe DNA degradation.

  12. Respiratory Failure

    MedlinePlus

    Respiratory failure happens when not enough oxygen passes from your lungs into your blood. Your body's organs, ... brain, need oxygen-rich blood to work well. Respiratory failure also can happen if your lungs can' ...

  13. Presenting the female condom to men: a dyadic analysis of effect of the woman's approach.

    PubMed

    Penman-Aguilar, Ana; Hall, Jeffrey; Artz, Lynn; Crawford, Myra A; Peacock, Nadine; van Olphen, Juliana; Parker, Lutissa; Macaluso, Maurizio

    2002-01-01

    Although male partner resistance to female condom use has been reported, little is understood about circumstances under which partners will agree to female condom use. This study documents the experiences of couples who have worked together to achieve female condom use. As part of a prospective female condom efficacy study, female participants (age 18-34) received a behavioral intervention and an assortment of take-home items. Selected women and their partners were recruited for a qualitative interview focusing on their experience with the female condom. Interviews were transcribed, double-coded, and verified using a standard retrieval coding system. Twenty-six pairs of linked interviews were analyzed dyadically: 9 couples who used the female condom "consistently," 12 "experimenters," and 5 "non-users." Women who successfully promoted the female condom to their partners used multiple presentation strategies. Initial male partner reaction did not predict continued use beyond the first trial. In conclusion, employment of multiple strategies facilitates successful introduction of the female condom into a sexual partnership.

  14. Implementation and Evaluation of a Condom Availability Program on a College Campus: Lessons from the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastman-Mueller, Heather P.; Gomez-Scott, Jessica R.; Jung, Ae-Kyung; Oswalt, Sara B.; Hagglund, Kristofer

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention advocate access to condoms as a critical sexual health prevention strategy. The purpose of this article is to discuss the implementation and evaluation of a condom availability program using dispensing machines in residence halls at a Midwestern U.S. university. Undergraduate students (N = 337)…

  15. Contraceptive Attitudes and Intention to Use Condoms in Sexually Experienced and Inexperienced Adolescent Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pleck, Joseph H.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Assessed contraceptive attitudes and intention to use a condom at next intercourse among 1,880 adolescent males. Findings showed that about three-fifths of sexually experienced and inexperienced adolescent males intending to have sex in the next year reported an "almost certain chance" of condom use with a hypothetical future partner. (Author/PVV)

  16. One Size Fits All? Promoting Condom Use for Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention among Heterosexual Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Visser, Richard

    2005-01-01

    The aims of this exploratory qualitative study were to increase our understanding of heterosexual young adults knowledge and beliefs about sexually transmitted infections (STIs) other than HIV, to explore their beliefs about the factors that influence condom use for STI prevention, and to explore their ideas about how best to promote condom use…

  17. Reported Condom Use among Students Enrolled in a Personal Health and Wellness Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson,Yasenka; Johnson, Maureen; Hutchins, Matthew; Florence, Candace

    2013-01-01

    When used consistently and correctly every time, condoms can prevent against the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unplanned pregnancies. Condoms are a significant prevention method viable for all populations. This study was conducted among students (277) at a Midwestern University who were enrolled in a personal health and…

  18. The Condom Works in All Situations? Paradoxical Messages in Mainstream Sex Education in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolander, Eva

    2015-01-01

    The condom plays a vital part in safe sex, the ideal outcome of mainstream Swedish sex education. As researchers have pointed out, however, the condom is not a neutral object; rather, it plays a part in shaping, in different ways, both sexual practices and the idea of what sex is. This paper focuses on sex education television programmes produced…

  19. Are Written Instructions Enough? Efficacy of Male Condom Packaging Leaflets among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindemann, Dana F.; Harbke, Colin R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate whether or not written condom use instructions successfully inform correct condom use skills. Design: Between-subjects, two-group design. Setting: Public university located in rural Midwestern region of the United States. Method: Participants were randomly assigned to either a control condition (read physical exercise…

  20. The Responsiveness of the Demand for Condoms to the Local Prevalence of AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahituv, Avner; And Others

    1996-01-01

    National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 data show that use of condoms is related to the prevalence of AIDS in one's state of residence. A 1% increase in AIDS increases condom use significantly, up to 50% for groups most responsive to prevalence (men, urban residents, single). (SK)

  1. Structural impediments to condom access in a High HIV/STI-risk area.

    PubMed

    Rizkalla, Christine; Bauman, Laurie J; Avner, Jeffrey R

    2010-01-01

    As embarrassment is a known obstacle to condom acquisition, selling condoms from physically inaccessible places that require personnel assistance constitutes a barrier to access. This study investigates the extent of this barrier in the Bronx, a high HIV/STI prevalence county of New York. 75 of 320 listed Bronx pharmacies were sampled via computer randomization. Investigators coded condom placement and physical accessibility within these pharmacies and 140 surrounding stores. 91% of sites sold condoms. In 82%, condoms could not be accessed without assistance. Condoms were physically inaccessible in venues most encountered in the community: grocery stores versus pharmacies (OR=15; 95% CI, 5-48), independent versus chain pharmacies (OR=32; 95% CI, 6-235). They were physically inaccessible more in the lowest SES/highest HIV prevalence areas versus the highest SES/lowest HIV prevalence areas (OR = 4.3, 95% CI, 1.1-17). Findings can inform efforts to increase accessibility of condoms, distribute condoms in alternative settings, and prompt similar investigations in other high-risk communities.

  2. A Condom Distribution Program for Adolescents: The Findings of a Feasibility Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Charles B.; Cogswell, Betty E.

    This paper describes a family planning service for adolescent males in an inner-city area. The program utilized the distribution of free condoms through local commercial outlets (barber shops, grocery stores, pool hall, restaurant). The proprietors agreed to distribute condoms in the target area which included approximately 3,000 males aged 12-26…

  3. Survey of condom-related beliefs, behaviors, and perceived social norms in Mexican migrant laborers.

    PubMed

    Organista, K C; Balls Organista, P; García de Alba, J E; Castillo Morán, M A; Ureta Carrillo, L E

    1997-06-01

    This study reports findings from a survey of condom-related beliefs, behaviors, and perceived social norms in Mexican migrant laborers that live and work in the United States for extended periods of time. Snowball sampling was used to recruit 501 Mexican migrants from five "sending towns" in Jalisco, Mexico, with historically high rates of out-migration to the United States. Results showed that subjects reported few negative beliefs about condom use and high efficacy to use condoms in challenging sexual situations but social norms sanctioning condoms were limited. Results also revealed mixed knowledge of HIV transmission, poor knowledge of condom use, and higher condom use with occasional versus regular sex partners. Forty-four percent of male migrants reported sex with prostitutes while in the U.S., with married men reporting less condoms use with prostitutes than single men. It was concluded that condom promotion efforts with Mexican migrants should concentrate on men to encourage consistent use with occasional sex partners, including prostitutes. AIDS prevention education should be provided with sensitivity to the language needs, limited education, and extreme social and geographic marginality of this highly underresearched Latino population.

  4. Risk factors influencing non-use of condoms at sexual relations in populations under heightened risk.

    PubMed

    Medić, Alan; Dzelalija, Boris; Koźul, Karlo; Novosel, Iva Pem; Dijanić, Tomislav

    2014-09-01

    To determine risk factors for non-use of condoms when engaging in sexual intercourse among high-risk population groups for acquiring HIV/STIs. We collected the data obtained by interviews in the period from 2005 to 2011 in the Voluntary Counseling and Testing Center for HIV/AIDS at the Institute of Public Health of Zadar County. Four hundred ninety four respondents were divided into risk and control groups. The majority of the respondents in our population does not consistently use condoms, in the risk group as much as 89.9%, and in the control group 65.7% of them (p< 0.001). Persons consuming alcohol when having sexual relations use condoms about 5x less often compared to those not consuming alcohol at all (OR=5.00; CI=1.69-14.29). There are significant differences among women and men in the risk group regarding reasons for non-use of condoms. The main reason with women is "I trust mypartners" 33.7% while men "do not like having sex with condoms, 53.6% of them (p < 0.001). The main risk factors for non-use of condoms are alcohol consumption at sexual relations, non-use of condoms in a casual relationship. Having in mind the non-use of condoms among populations of high-risk groups of acquiring HIV there are significant differences among genders.

  5. Preparatory Behavior for Condom Use among Heterosexual Young Men: A Longitudinal Mediation Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carvalho, Telma; Alvarez, Maria-João; Barz, Milena; Schwarzer, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Motivation is not sufficient to actually use condoms, as self-regulatory processes are needed to translate motivation into action. Buying condoms and carrying them constitute preparatory behaviors that may serve as proximal predictors of action. Whether or not such preparatory behaviors operate as mediators between intention and action…

  6. Condom sales at public universities in California: implications for campus AIDS prevention.

    PubMed

    Richwald, G A; Friedland, J M; Morisky, D E

    1989-05-01

    Public health officials have called for increased use of condoms to protect Americans from sexually acquiring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. To investigate the availability of condoms for sale on college campuses, we asked student union directors and bookstore managers from all 28 public universities in California, with a combined enrollment of half a million students, to complete a detailed questionnaire in August and September 1987. Two thirds of the campuses reported having condoms for sale in either their bookstores or convenience stores; one third said condoms were available in the men's and women's restrooms in their student unions. On most campuses, sales were instituted in the past year in response to the AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) epidemic. However, very few campuses provided AIDS education at the point of sale, and condoms were not easily available outside of store hours. Respondents felt that the most important obstacles to increasing the distribution of condoms on campus included concern about presenting a negative image of the university and the low priority assigned to this issue by the university administration and others on campus. This study suggests that although condom availability has improved in the past year, the opportunity exists at most California public universities to increase the distribution of condoms and improve associated AIDS-related health education efforts.

  7. The condom is an 'intruder' in marriage: evidence from rural Malawi.

    PubMed

    Chimbiri, Agnes M

    2007-03-01

    This paper assesses the condom situation within marriage in Malawi with particular attention to people's perceptions about the compatibility of condoms and marriage by analyzing the Malawi Demographic and Health Surveys 1992 and 2000, and via semi-structured interviews with married men and women from three districts in rural Malawi. There are four striking findings. First, condom use is negligible inside marriage. Second, there is considerable talk about condoms, especially among male social network partners. Third, virtually all the discussion of condoms, by both men and women, is in the context of preventing STI/HIV-AIDS infection in extramarital partnerships. Lastly, and critical for this paper, is that initiating a discussion of condom use for preventing infection in marriage is like bringing an intruder into the domestic space. Thus, there is evidence that change in attitudes about condom use may be occurring, but only outside marriage. This evidence concurs with Malawian government policy that advocates for condom use in marriage only if either spouse has more than one sexual partner. The AIDS epidemic is therefore bringing sexual behavior change outside marriage and not within.

  8. Developing, Implementing, and Evaluating a Condom Promotion Program Targeting Sexually Active Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alstead, Mark; Campsmith, Michael; Halley, Carolyn Swope; Hartfield, Karen; Goldblum, Gary; Wood, Robert W.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the development, implementation, and evaluation of an HIV prevention program promoting condom use among sexually active adolescents. It mobilized target communities to guide program development and implementation; created a mass media campaign to promote correct condom use; and recruited public agencies and organizations to distribute…

  9. Correlates of Condom Use among Chinese College Students in Hunan Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiao, Zhiwen

    2012-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted to test an integrated model of condom use with a sample of 490 sexually active Chinese college students. A number of variables in the integrated model were predictors of condom use, explaining 33.4% of the variance in use. Partner communication was the strongest predictors (beta = 0.317, SE = 0.038, p less…

  10. Resisting the "Condom Every Time for Anal Sex" Health Education Message

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Jeffery; Neville, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Ensuring men who have sex with men (MSM) adopt and maintain condom use for anal sex is a challenging health education goal. In order to inform the development of social marketing practices to encourage safe-sex practices, the views of MSM about a key HIV health education message ("using a condom every time for anal sex") were sought.…

  11. Association of negotiation strategies with consistent use of male condoms by women receiving an HIV prevention intervention in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Ann; Moore, Janet S; Khumalo-Sakutukwa, Gertrude; Loeb, Lisa; Cobb, Daphne; Hruschka, Dan; Khan, Rizwana; Padian, Nancy

    2003-07-25

    One of the fundamental aspects of HIV counselling for women is condom negotiation strategy development. The present research sought to identify condom request strategies used by Zimbabwean women and to determine which were most effective in persuading male partners to use condoms. Of six types of strategies used by women after a prevention intervention, one was significantly associated with consistent condom use 2 months later. Implications for the development of counselling and testing protocols are discussed. PMID:12853758

  12. The reach and effect of radio communication campaigns on condom use in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Meekers, Dominique; Van Rossem, Ronan; Silva, Martha; Koleros, Andrew

    2007-06-01

    This study uses data from the 2004 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey to assess the reach of selected radio programs about family planning and health in Malawi and their effect on condom use and discussion of family planning. The results show that such radio programs in Malawi reach a broad audience: eight of the 12 programs were heard by at least half of the respondents, although women were less effectively reached than men. For both women and men, the radio programs were found to have a significant impact on family planning discussion with one's partner. The programs' effect on condom use was limited, however. A positive association was found with ever use of condoms, but no association was found with condom use at last intercourse. This limited impact suggests that such radio communication campaigns need to be informed by research identifying the specific constraints to current condom use in Malawi.

  13. The Impact of Intimate Partner Violence on Women's Condom Negotiation Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Swan, Holly; O'Connell, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    HIV prevention efforts promote the use of condoms to prevent the spread of HIV and other STDs. Thus, a woman's agency to practice healthy sexual behaviors necessarily involves negotiation with another person. This poses unique challenges for women who have limited power in relationships. The current study explores how the experience of intimate partner violence (IPV) impacts a woman's confidence in her ability to negotiate condom use with a sexual partner (i.e., condom use self-efficacy), using data from incarcerated females in three states, who were interviewed just prior to release back into the community. The direct effect of experiencing IPV as an adult, controlling for other risk factors, on condom use self-efficacy has not previously been empirically tested. Results show that IPV experiences among women significantly decreases their confidence in negotiating condom use with a partner, putting them at a higher risk of HIV infection than women who do not report having recently experienced IPV. PMID:21987514

  14. Condom use at last sexual relationship among adolescents of Santiago Island, Cape Verde, - West Africa

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objective To estimate factors associated with condom use at last sexual intercourse among adolescents. Methods Cross-sectional study of a representative sample of 368 sexually active adolescents aged 13–17 years from eight public high schools on Santiago Island, Cape Verde, 2007. The level of significance was 5.0% obtained from logistic regression, considering the association between condom use and socio-demographic, sexual and reproductive variables. Results The prevalence of condom use at last sexual intercourse was 94.9%. Factors associated with condom use at last sexual relationship were: non-Catholic religion (OR=0.68, 95%CI: 0.52; 0.88) and affective-sexual partnership before the interview (OR=5.15, 95%CI: 1.79; 14.80). Conclusions There was a high prevalence of condom use at last sexual intercourse of adolescents. PMID:23153259

  15. Men’s Condom Use Resistance: Alcohol Effects on Theory of Planned Behavior Constructs

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J.; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A.; Danube, Cinnamon L.; Morrison, Diane M.; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study is a novel investigation of 1) the utility of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to predict men’s condom use resistance (CUR; i.e., attempts to avoid condom use with a partner who wants to use one) and 2) the effects of alcohol on endorsement of TPB-CUR constructs. Methods Using an alcohol administration protocol, a between- and within-subjects experiment was conducted with a community sample of 312 young male non-problem drinkers who have sex with women. After assessing endorsement of TPB-CUR constructs (e.g., attitudes, norms, self-efficacy, control, and intentions) in a sober state, beverage condition was experimentally manipulated between subjects and endorsement of TPB-CUR constructs was reassessed. Results Analyses included repeated measures MANOVAs with beverage condition (no alcohol vs. alcohol) as the between-subjects factor and time (pre-beverage vs. post-beverage) as the within-subjects factor. Between-subjects, intoxicated participants reported significantly stronger CUR intentions, more favorable CUR attitudes and normative perceptions, and greater CUR self-efficacy than sober participants. There were significant within-subject changes for CUR intentions, attitudes, normative perceptions, and self-efficacy. Neither between- nor within-subjects effects were found for CUR control. An exploratory multi-group path analysis indicated that the relationships among the TPB-CUR constructs were similar for alcohol and no alcohol groups. Conclusions Findings indicated that alcohol intoxication increased men’s CUR intentions and self-efficacy and led to more positive CUR attitudes and norms, yet had no effect on CUR control. Future research should examine whether there are similar effects of intoxication on TPB constructs related to other sexual risk behaviors. PMID:26348499

  16. Influences of Situational Factors and Alcohol Expectancies on Sexual Desire and Arousal Among Heavy-Episodic Drinking Women: Acute Alcohol Intoxication and Condom Availability

    PubMed Central

    George, William H.; Nguyen, Hong V.; Heiman, Julia R.; Davis, Kelly Cue; Norris, Jeanette

    2013-01-01

    Although studies suggest that alcohol increases women’s sexual desire, no studies to our knowledge have examined the effects of acute alcohol intoxication on women’s sexual desire. The majority of research examining alcohol’s effects on sexual arousal in women suggests that alcohol increases self-reported arousal. In an alcohol administration study in which women projected themselves into an eroticized scenario depicting a consensual sexual encounter with a new male partner, we examined the effects of alcohol and condom condition on women’s sexual desire and arousal. The moderating effects of sex-related alcohol expectancies were also examined. Results revealed that alcohol intoxication was related to less desire to engage in sex with a new partner and condom presence was related to more desire. Alcohol interacted with sexual disinhibition alcohol expectancies, indicating that more expectancy endorsement was associated with greater sexual desire and self-reported arousal in the alcohol condition, but not the control condition. Condom condition had no effect on self-reported sexual arousal. The present research suggests that sexual desire merits research attention in non-clinical samples, and experimental methodology can provide valuable information about alcohol’s influence on women’s sexual desire, thus advancing our understanding of this relationship beyond cross-sectional correlations. The current findings also provide evidence that sex-related alcohol expectancies may play an important role in alcohol-involved sexual experiences including desire and arousal. PMID:23661324

  17. Sexual behavior, stages of condom use, and self-efficacy among college students in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tung, Wei-Chen; Cook, Daniel M; Lu, Minggen

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of this study were: (1) to assess sexual behaviors and condom use behaviors; (2) to compare sexual behaviors and condom use behaviors between gender groups; and (3) to explore differences in specific items of self-efficacy to practicing condom use by the transtheoretical model stages of readiness to change among college students in Taiwan. A survey of students at two universities yielded 996 valid responses. The survey questions collected reports of demographic information, sexual history, condom use in general, and likely condom use in specific situations in relation to self-efficacy. Only 27.8% (n=277) reported ever having had sex, of these only 31.4% used condoms every time (those in action and maintenance). Condom use among women was lower than among men with men 5.1 times more likely to use condoms to prevent sexually transmitted infections (OR=5.1, 95% CI: 2.14-12.16, p=0.0002). The stages of change model with reported attitudes (self-efficacy) toward condom use in specific situations. The Tukey-Kramer multiple comparisons showed that participants in the maintenance stage reported significantly higher scores than those in the pre-contemplation, contemplation, and preparation stages for all 10 self-efficacy items (p<0.0001). Circumstances that are the most challenging for condom adherence across the stages are: partner preference to forego use, situations involving alcohol and drug use, and perceived low-risk scenarios. College students in Taiwan would benefit from targeted interventions that link risky sex to alcohol, and that address the interpersonal pressure within relationships that compel women students to practice unsafe sex.

  18. Development of Condom-Use Self-Efficacy over 36 Months among Early Adolescents: A Mediation Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xinguang; Dinaj-Koci, Veronica; Brathwaite, Nanika; Cottrell, Lesley; Deveaux, Lynette; Gomez, Perry; Harris, Carole; Li, Xiaoming; Lunn, Sonja; Marshall, Sharon; Stanton, Bonita

    2012-01-01

    This research evaluates condom-use self-efficacy and its increase throughout adolescence. Documentation of the development of condom-use self-efficacy would be important for prevention efforts given the influence of self-efficacy on actual condom usage. This study assesses a hypothesized mediation mechanism of the development of self-efficacy…

  19. A Comprehensive Test of the Health Belief Model in the Prediction of Condom Use among African American College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winfield, Evelyn B.; Whaley, Arthur L.

    2002-01-01

    Tested an expanded version of the Health Belief Model (HBM) in predicting condom use among heterosexual African American college students. Overall, only the core HBM explained a significant amount of variance in condom use. Perceived barriers and gender significantly predicted condom use. Perceived barriers mediated the correlation between gender…

  20. Not to stigmatize but to humanize sexual lives of the transgender (hijra) in Bangladesh: condom chat in the AIDS era.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sharful Islam; Hussain, Mohammed Iftekher; Gourab, Gorkey; Parveen, Shaila; Bhuiyan, Mahbubul Islam; Sikder, Joya

    2008-01-01

    Despite condom interventions since year 2000 with the transgender (hijra) population, condom use remains low. Consequently, hijra suffer from higher rates of active syphilis, putting them under threat of HIV transmission. In an ethnographic study, 50 in-depth interviews with diverse groups of hijra along with 20 key-informants interviews with various stakeholders, and 13 focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted with comprehensive field observations. Findings indicate that most hijra understand the importance of condoms, but none use condoms consistently. Complex underlying reasons positioned beyond the individual's cognitive domain include: low self-confidence; economic hardships for mere survival; multiple transient partners; sexual desire, preferences, and eroticisms concerning anal sex; stigma associated with purchasing condoms; poor quality and interrupted supply of condoms and lubricants; limitation of fear-producing messages in favor of condoms; inadequate professional skills and motivational impetus of the outreach staff for condom promotion, and incompetent management with inadequate understanding about the dynamics of condom use. Imposing condoms by disregarding socio-cultural and socio-economic scripts of sexual relationships and eroticism of hijra-sexuality have challenged the effectiveness of current condom interventions. Interventions should not mechanize the process, rather they may humanize and eroticize sexual lives of the hijra. A paradigm shift is required where condoms enhance the dignity and quality of sexual lives of the hijra beyond the framework of disgrace, disease, and death.

  1. Not to stigmatize but to humanize sexual lives of the transgender (hijra) in Bangladesh: condom chat in the AIDS era.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sharful Islam; Hussain, Mohammed Iftekher; Gourab, Gorkey; Parveen, Shaila; Bhuiyan, Mahbubul Islam; Sikder, Joya

    2008-01-01

    Despite condom interventions since year 2000 with the transgender (hijra) population, condom use remains low. Consequently, hijra suffer from higher rates of active syphilis, putting them under threat of HIV transmission. In an ethnographic study, 50 in-depth interviews with diverse groups of hijra along with 20 key-informants interviews with various stakeholders, and 13 focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted with comprehensive field observations. Findings indicate that most hijra understand the importance of condoms, but none use condoms consistently. Complex underlying reasons positioned beyond the individual's cognitive domain include: low self-confidence; economic hardships for mere survival; multiple transient partners; sexual desire, preferences, and eroticisms concerning anal sex; stigma associated with purchasing condoms; poor quality and interrupted supply of condoms and lubricants; limitation of fear-producing messages in favor of condoms; inadequate professional skills and motivational impetus of the outreach staff for condom promotion, and incompetent management with inadequate understanding about the dynamics of condom use. Imposing condoms by disregarding socio-cultural and socio-economic scripts of sexual relationships and eroticism of hijra-sexuality have challenged the effectiveness of current condom interventions. Interventions should not mechanize the process, rather they may humanize and eroticize sexual lives of the hijra. A paradigm shift is required where condoms enhance the dignity and quality of sexual lives of the hijra beyond the framework of disgrace, disease, and death. PMID:19856745

  2. Predictors of Consistent Condom Use Among Chinese Female Sex Workers: An Application of the Protection Motivation Theory

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liying; Li, Xiaoming; Zhou, Yuejiao; Lin, Danhua; Su, Shaobing; Zhang, Chen; Stanton, Bonita

    2014-01-01

    We utilized the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) to assess predictors of intention and behavior of consistent condom use among Chinese female sex workers (FSWs). A self-administered questionnaire was used in a cross-sectional survey among 700 FSWs in Guangxi, China. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that extrinsic and intrinsic rewards, self-efficacy and response costs predicted consistent condom use intention and behavior among FSWs. STI/HIV prevention programs need to reduce FSWs’ perceptions of positive extrinsic rewards and intrinsic rewards for engaging in consistent condom use, reduce FSWs’ perception of response costs for using a condom, and increase condom use self-efficacy among FSWs. PMID:25061932

  3. Predictors of consistent condom use among Chinese female sex workers: an application of the protection motivation theory.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liying; Li, Xiaoming; Zhou, Yuejiao; Lin, Danhua; Su, Shaobing; Zhang, Chen; Stanton, Bonita

    2015-01-01

    We utilized Protection Motivation Theory to assess predictors of intention and behavior of consistent condom use among Chinese female sex workers (FSWs). A self-administered questionnaire was used in a cross-sectional survey among 700 FSWs in Guangxi, China. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that extrinsic and intrinsic rewards, self-efficacy, and response costs predicted consistent condom use intention and behavior among FSWs. Sexually transmitted infection/ HIV prevention programs need to reduce FSWs' perceptions of positive extrinsic rewards and intrinsic rewards for engaging in consistent condom use, reduce FSWs' perception of response costs for using a condom, and increase condom use self-efficacy among FSWs.

  4. Expanding safer sex options: introducing the female condom into national programmes.

    PubMed

    Warren, Mitchell; Philpott, Anne

    2003-05-01

    Although the female condom has been introduced into over 90 countries since 1997, it has only been accepted in sexual and reproductive health programmes as a mainstream method in a few. This paper describes introductory strategies developed by Ministries of Health and non-governmental organisations in Brazil, Ghana, Zimbabwe and South Africa, supported by UNAIDS, and the manufacturers of the female condom, which have significantly expanded the number of female condoms being used. These projects have several key similarities: a focus on training for providers and peer educators, face-to-face communication with potential users to equip them with information and skills, an identified target audience, a consistent supply, a long assessment period to gauge actual use beyond the initial novelty phase, and a mix of public and private sector distribution. Female condom programmes require the sanction, leadership and funding of governments and donors. However, the non-governmental and private sectors have also played a major role in programme implementation. To ensure successful introduction of the female condom, it is crucial to involve a range of decision-makers, programme managers, service providers, community leaders and women's and youth groups. The rising cost of inaction and unprotected sex in the spread of HIV and AIDS force us to recognise the high cost of not providing female condoms alongside male condoms in family planning and AIDS prevention programmes. PMID:12800710

  5. Condom use, risk perception, and HIV knowledge: a comparison across sexes in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Lammers, Judith; van Wijnbergen, Sweder JG; Willebrands, Daan

    2013-01-01

    Background This paper analyzes how different types of Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) knowledge influences condom use across the sexes. Methods The empirical work was based on a household survey conducted among 1979 households of a representative group of stallholders in Lagos, Nigeria in 2008. Condom use during last sexual intercourse was analyzed using a multivariate model corrected for clustering effects. The data included questions on socioeconomic characteristics, knowledge of the existence of HIV, HIV prevention, HIV stigma, intended pregnancy, and risk perceptions of engaging in unprotected sex. Results A large HIV knowledge gap between males and females was observed. Across the sexes, different types of knowledge are important in condom use. Low-risk perceptions of engaging in unprotected sex and not knowing that condoms prevent HIV infection appear to be the best predictors for risky sexual behavior among men. For females, stigma leads to lower condom use. Obviously, lack of knowledge on where condoms are available (9.4% and 29.1% of male and female respondents, respectively) reduced condom use in both males and females. Conclusion The results call for programmatic approaches to differentiate between males and females in the focus of HIV prevention campaigns. Moreover, the high predictive power of high-risk perceptions of engaging in unprotected sex (while correcting for other HIV knowledge indicators) calls for further exploration on how to influence these risk perceptions in HIV prevention programs. PMID:24187512

  6. Predictors of female condom use among women exchanging street sex in New York City.

    PubMed

    Witte, S S; Wada, T; El-Bassel, N; Gilbert, L; Wallace, J

    2000-02-01

    This study investigated the characteristics of street sex workers that influence the initial use of the female condom in New York City. Interviews, demonstration of proper female condom use and distribution of 10 female condoms were conducted among 113 female sex workers. Only 96 respondents were included in the study after a 2-week follow-up evaluation. Measure variables used in the study included sociodemographic characteristics, drug history, sexual risk behavior, and victimization, while dependent variables were female condom use for any reason and female condom use with commercial sexual partners. Results revealed that the 3 strongest variables associated with female condom use were the following: 1) living with anyone with a drug-alcohol problem; 2) having heard of the female condom; and 3) physical or sexual abuse by a commercial partner. This study emphasized the need to develop innovative programs that focus on street workers, with information promotion carried out in areas of sex work strolls which addresses the issues of accessibility and ease of use among sex workers.

  7. Does condom social marketing improve health outcomes and increase usage and equitable access?

    PubMed

    Knerr, Wendy

    2011-05-01

    Condom social marketing (CSM) has increased condom supplies, broadened commercial markets for condoms and introduced marketing innovations in developing countries. Yet rigorous and reliable evidence of the impact on condom usage and disease prevention is limited, as is evidence of the impact on equity of access to condoms for poor populations, women and people living with HIV. One strand of research on CSM reports mostly on output (e.g. sales and processes) and market growth; but these have been found to be highly unreliable measures of condom usage. Another strand of research reports primarily on changes in sexual behaviour, attitude or condom usage, using survey data. While random sampling is rare, these studies often use representative samples, which provide some measure of validity. There have been attempts to improve the reliability or results to good effect, but challenges remain for researchers, scholars and donors, including the need to supplement output data with measures of behaviour change, use rigorous designs which are built into programmes a priori, report on equity measures, report on potential harms of CSM programmes, and encourage external and systematic reviews.

  8. The private sector and condom distribution: we can do more. Opinion.

    PubMed

    Frank, R A

    1995-02-01

    The correct and consistent use of latex condoms is known to reduce HIV transmission. The social marketing of condoms through the private sector for AIDS prevention has been very successful in Africa, Latin America, and the Caribbean. Examples are given from Zaire and Cote d'Ivoire. One significant advantage of social marketing projects is that they can be sustained even in the context of severe and prolonged political instability. Population Services International together with DOBACO, a Haitian pharmaceutical distributor, launched Pante brand condoms in Haiti in November 1990 as part of a new condom social marketing AIDS prevention effort. Condom sales increased from 30,000 per month in 1992 to a high of 600,000 in January 1994. More than 8 million condoms have been sold. This highly successful program is now undertaking a new Women's Protection Initiative to promote condom use among women. Lessons learned from such contraceptive social marketing experiences are now being applied in the US. PMID:12347573

  9. Integration of five health behaviour models: common strengths and unique contributions to understanding condom use.

    PubMed

    Reid, Allecia E; Aiken, Leona S

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this research was to select from the health belief model (HBM), theories of reasoned action (TRA) and planned behaviour (TPB), information-motivation-behavioural skills model (IMB) and social cognitive theory (SCT) the strongest longitudinal predictors of women's condom use and to combine these constructs into a single integrated model of condom use. The integrated model was evaluated for prediction of condom use among young women who had steady versus casual partners. At Time 1, all constructs of the five models and condom use were assessed in an initial and a replication sample (n = 193, n = 161). Condom use reassessed 8 weeks later (Time 2) served as the main outcome. Information from IMB, perceived susceptibility, benefits, and barriers from HBM, self-efficacy and self-evaluative expectancies from SCT, and partner norm and attitudes from TPB served as indirect or direct predictors of condom use. All paths replicated across samples. Direct predictors of behaviour varied with relationship status: self-efficacy significantly predicted condom use for women with casual partners, while attitude and partner norm predicted for those with steady partners. Integrated psychosocial models, rich in constructs and relationships drawn from multiple theories of behaviour, may provide a more complete characterisation of health protective behaviour.

  10. Wanted: new condom suppliers for USAID (foreign companies need not apply).

    PubMed

    1992-01-01

    The US Agency for International Development (USAID) could have expanded its family planning service budget by 10% had it purchased condoms from foreign manufacturers. In 1991, USAID purchased more than 633 million condoms at 5.3 cents/condom, or $7.63/gross. The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), however, buy condoms from Korean manufacturers at an approximate cost of 1.7 cents/condom, or $2.50/gross. Had USAID followed suit, more than $22 million would have been saved to be better spent on expanding family planning and AIDS prevention programs in developing countries. The Australian company Ansell supplies 90% of USAID's condoms from its Alabama offices. Alabama Senator Howell Heflin and Ansell representatives have effectively lobbied to make sure that USAID adheres to a policy of buying only American-made products. While the Federal Procurement Act strongly encourages USAID to favor American products, federal law does not bar purchases of products manufactured overseas. USAID also pays considerably more for IUDs than other international agencies. UNFPA and IPPF agree with critics who say that USAID has a responsibility to purchase condoms from less expensive overseas suppliers. In so doing, USAID would maximize the use of American tax dollars while expanding the agency's mission in developing countries. The perceived need to protect a few dozen jobs in Alabama pales next to the potential of sparing hundreds of thousands of lives in Africa.

  11. Social-cognitive determinants of condom use in a cohort of young gay and bisexual men.

    PubMed

    Franssens, Dirk; Hospers, Harm J; Kok, Gerjo

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to identify relevant determinants of young gay and bisexual men's (YGBM) condom use when having anal sex with casual partners. Respondents (185 YGBM in the midst of their coming-out; mean age 18.9 years) completed an online questionnaire on social-cognitive determinants of condoms use derived from the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1991) at Wave 1. At six months follow-up (Wave 2) sexual behavior with casual partners was assessed. A total of 63 YGBM reported sex with a casual partner in the six months between Waves 1 and 2, of whom 49% (N=31) had anal sex. Of the YGBM who had anal sex, 42% (N=13) had unprotected anal sex. Condom use with casual partners was best predicted by the intention to always use condoms. Furthermore, attitude, descriptive and personal norms, and perceived control significantly predicted intention to always use condoms. Interventions, targeting YGBM, aiming to promote condom use with casual partners should focus on increasing attitudes and strengthening skills to negotiate and use condoms. PMID:20024726

  12. Condom-associated erection problems: behavioural responses and attributions in young, heterosexual men

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Brandon J.; Sanders, Stephanie A.; Crosby, Richard A.; Ingelhart, Kara N.; Janssen, Erick

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous studies have associated men who experience condom-associated erection problems (CAEP) with incomplete condom use and/or foregoing using condoms altogether. However, how men respond to CAEP and what they attribute CAEP to, remains unclear. Understanding young men's CAEP responses and attributions could help improve sexually transmissible infections (STI)/HIV prevention programs and interventions. Methods Behavioural responses to, and attributions for, CAEP during application (CAEP-Application) and/or during penile-vaginal intercourse (CAEP-PVI) were reported using an online questionnaire by 295 young, heterosexual men (aged 18–24 years) who were recruited via social media websites and university Listservs across major cities in the Midwestern USA. Results Behavioural responses to CAEP-Application included receiving oral or manual stimulation, stimulating a partner, self-stimulation, foregoing condom use and applying the condom after starting intercourse. Attributions for CAEP-Application included: distraction, fit and feel problems, application taking too long and having consumed too much alcohol. Behavioural responses to CAEP-PVI included increasing the intensity of intercourse, removing the condom to receive oral or manual stimulation and removing condom and continuing intercourse. Attributions for CAEP-PVI included: lack of sensation, taking too long to orgasm, not being ‘turned on’ enough, fit and feel problems and partner-related factors. Conclusions Men who report CAEP respond with both STI/HIV risk-reducing and potentially risk-increasing behaviours (e.g. forgoing condom use). Men attribute their experiences to a wide range of individual- and partner-level factors. Addressing men's CAEP behavioural responses and attributions may increase the efficacious value of condom programs and STI/HIV prevention interventions – particularly among men who experience CAEP. PMID:26166025

  13. Egocentric Network and Condom Use Among Mid-Age Female Sex Workers in China: A Multilevel Modeling Analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongjie

    2016-04-01

    The epidemics of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) have spread among older adults in the world, including China. This study addresses the deficiency of studies about the multiple contextual influences on condom use among mid-age female sex workers (FSWs) over 35 years old. A combination of an egocentric network design and multilevel modeling was used to investigate factors of condom use over mid-age FSWs (egos) particular relationships with sexual partners (alters). Of the 1245 mid-age FSWs interviewed, 73% (907) reported having at least one sexual partner who would provide social support to egos. This generated a total of 1300 ego-alter sex ties in egos' support networks. Condoms were consistently used among one-third of sex ties. At the ego level, condoms were more likely to be used consistently if egos received a middle school education or above, had stronger perceived behavioral control for condom use, or consistently used condoms with other sex clients who were not in their support networks. At the alter level, condoms were not consistently used over spousal ties compared to other ties. Condoms were less likely to be used among alters whom ego trusted and provided emotional support. Cross-level factors (egos' attitudes toward condom use and emotional support from alters) documented a significant positive interaction on consistent condom use. Given the low frequency of condom use, future interventions should focus on mid-age FSWs and their partners within and beyond their support networks. PMID:27028182

  14. HIV risk among young Ghanaians in high school: validation of a multidimensional attitude towards condom use scale

    PubMed Central

    Masa, Rainier D.; Chowa, Gina A.

    2014-01-01

    Condom use remains low among sexually active youth in sub-Saharan Africa. Theoretical and empirical evidence suggests that attitudes towards condom use are important predictors of actual condom use. However, few attempts have been made to systematically develop a valid scale that measures attitudes towards condom use among youth, particularly high school students in sub-Saharan Africa. Using the health belief model, we developed an instrument that measures such attitudes. We analysed survey data collected from 6252 Ghanaian junior high school students. We assessed construct validity using confirmatory factor analysis. Results indicate that attitudes towards condom use among young Ghanaians are best represented by a multidimensional construct. Young Ghanaians differentiate constructs related to perception of benefits and barriers to condom use, as well as perception of severity and susceptibility to HIV. This instrument offers a valid tool for assessing high school students' attitudes towards condom use and their HIV risk. PMID:25431514

  15. HIV vulnerability and condom use among migrant women factory workers in Puebla, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Tamil; Pelcastre, Blanca Estela

    2010-06-01

    International migration is associated with increased HIV vulnerability, but little is known about the vulnerability of internal migrants. This qualitative study explored perceptions of HIV and condom use among Mexican migrant female factory workers. Migration and male sexual infidelity contributed to increased HIV vulnerability and unprotected sex was ubiquitous. The dominant cultural discourse that dichotomizes "good" (monogamous) and "bad" (sexually stigmatized) women, and male partner's resistance, were barriers to condom use. Women's positive attitudes toward the dual protection (pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections) offered by condoms and sexual agency expressed by refusing unwanted sexual contact are resources for HIV prevention.

  16. Adapting and applying a multiple domain model of condom use to Chinese college students.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zhiwen; Palmgreen, Philip; Zimmerman, Rick; Noar, Seth

    2010-03-01

    This study adapts a multiple domain model (MDM) to explain condom use among a sample of sexually active Chinese college students. A cross-sectional survey was conducted and structural equation modeling was used to test the proposed model. Preparatory behaviors, theory of reasoned action (TRA)/theory of planned behavior variables, impulsivity, length of relationship, and alcohol use were significant direct predictors of condom use. The results suggest that MDM can provide a better understanding of heterosexual condom use among Chinese youth, and help in the design of HIV-preventive and safer sex interventions in China.

  17. Consistent Condom Use by Female Sex Workers in Kolkata, India: Testing Theories of Economic Insecurity, Behavior Change, Life Course Vulnerability and Empowerment.

    PubMed

    Fehrenbacher, Anne E; Chowdhury, Debasish; Ghose, Toorjo; Swendeman, Dallas

    2016-10-01

    Consistent condom use (CCU) is the primary HIV/STI prevention option available to sex workers globally but may be undermined by economic insecurity, life-course vulnerabilities, behavioral factors, disempowerment, or lack of effective interventions. This study examines predictors of CCU in a random household survey of brothel-based female sex workers (n = 200) in two neighborhoods served by Durbar (the Sonagachi Project) in Kolkata, India. Multivariate logistic regression analyses indicated that CCU was significantly associated with perceived HIV risk, community mobilization participation, working more days in sex work, and higher proportion of occasional clients to regular clients. Exploratory analyses stratifying by economic insecurity indicators (i.e., debt, savings, income, housing security) indicate that perceived HIV risk and community mobilization were only associated with CCU for economically secure FSW. Interventions with FSW must prioritize economic security and access to social protections as economic insecurity may undermine the efficacy of more direct condom use intervention strategies. PMID:27170035

  18. Open, Closed, or In Between: Relationship Configuration and Condom Use among Men Who Use the Internet to Seek Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Brady, Sonya S.; Iantaffi, Alex; Galos, Dylan L.; Simon Rosser, B. R.

    2012-01-01

    Nearly 70% of HIV+ MSM (men who have sex with men) are estimated to have contracted HIV from a main partner. We examine whether condom use varies by relationship configuration, including open relationships with and without cheating. 656 MSM in committed relationships were recruited through a sexually explicit social networking website. Of the 55% of MSM who had anal sex with a non-main partner in the past 90 days, two-thirds did not use a condom. Adjusting for covariates, MSM in relationships characterized as open with cheating versus monogamous were more likely to have unprotected anal sex with both main and non-main partners. MSM who perceived that their partner played around or cheated were more likely to have unprotected anal sex with a non-main partner. Prevention messages should attempt to reduce cheating and increase personal responsibility for protecting partners from HIV. Messages should be tailored to reflect open and monogamous relationships. PMID:23008123

  19. Consistent Condom Use by Female Sex Workers in Kolkata, India: Testing Theories of Economic Insecurity, Behavior Change, Life Course Vulnerability and Empowerment.

    PubMed

    Fehrenbacher, Anne E; Chowdhury, Debasish; Ghose, Toorjo; Swendeman, Dallas

    2016-10-01

    Consistent condom use (CCU) is the primary HIV/STI prevention option available to sex workers globally but may be undermined by economic insecurity, life-course vulnerabilities, behavioral factors, disempowerment, or lack of effective interventions. This study examines predictors of CCU in a random household survey of brothel-based female sex workers (n = 200) in two neighborhoods served by Durbar (the Sonagachi Project) in Kolkata, India. Multivariate logistic regression analyses indicated that CCU was significantly associated with perceived HIV risk, community mobilization participation, working more days in sex work, and higher proportion of occasional clients to regular clients. Exploratory analyses stratifying by economic insecurity indicators (i.e., debt, savings, income, housing security) indicate that perceived HIV risk and community mobilization were only associated with CCU for economically secure FSW. Interventions with FSW must prioritize economic security and access to social protections as economic insecurity may undermine the efficacy of more direct condom use intervention strategies.

  20. Determinants of Consistent Condom Use among College Students in China: Application of the Information-Motivation-Behavior Skills (IMB) Model

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhihao; Wei, Pingmin; Huang, Minghao; Liu, Yuan bao; Li, Lucy; Gong, Xiao; Chen, Juan; Li, Xiaoning

    2014-01-01

    Background Due to the increase incidents of premarital sex and the lack of reproductive health services, college students are at high risk of HIV/AIDS infections in China. This study was designed to examine the predictors of consistency of condom use among college students based on the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model and to describe the relationships between the model constructs. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess HIV/AIDS related information, motivation, behavioral skills and preventive behavior among college students in five colleges and universities in Nanjing, China. An anonymous questionnaire survey was conducted for data collection, and the structural equation model (SEM) was used to assess the IMB model. Results A total of 3183 participants completed this study. The average age was 19.90 years (SD = 1.43, range 16 to 25). 342 (10.7%) participants of them reported having had premarital sex, among whom 30.7% reported having had a consistent condom use, 13.7% with the experience of abortion (including the participants whose sex partner has the same experience), 32.7% of participants had experience of multiple sex partners. The final IMB model provided acceptable fit to the data (CFI = 0.992, RMSEA = 0.028). Preventive behavior was significantly predicted by behavioral skills (β = 0.754, P<0.001). Information (β = 0.138, P<0.001) and motivation (β = 0.363, P<0.001) were indirectly affected preventive behavior, and was mediated through behavioral skills. Conclusions The results of the study demonstrate the utility of the IMB model for consistent condom use among college students in China. The main influencing factor of preventive behavior among college students is behavioral skills. Both information and motivation could affect preventive behavior through behavioral skills. Further research could develop preventive interventions based on the IMB model to promote consistent condom use among