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Sample records for conductive bacterial nanowires

  1. Electrical conductivity measurements of bacterial nanowires from Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruthupandy, Muthusamy; Anand, Muthusamy; Maduraiveeran, Govindhan; Sait Hameedha Beevi, Akbar; Jeeva Priya, Radhakrishnan

    2015-12-01

    The extracellular appendages of bacteria (flagella) that transfer electrons to electrodes are called bacterial nanowires. This study focuses on the isolation and separation of nanowires that are attached via Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterial culture. The size and roughness of separated nanowires were measured using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively. The obtained bacterial nanowires indicated a clear image of bacterial nanowires measuring 16 nm in diameter. The formation of bacterial nanowires was confirmed by microscopic studies (AFM and TEM) and the conductivity nature of bacterial nanowire was investigated by electrochemical techniques. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), which are nondestructive voltammetry techniques, suggest that bacterial nanowires could be the source of electrons—which may be used in various applications, for example, microbial fuel cells, biosensors, organic solar cells, and bioelectronic devices. Routine analysis of electron transfer between bacterial nanowires and the electrode was performed, providing insight into the extracellular electron transfer (EET) to the electrode. CV revealed the catalytic electron transferability of bacterial nanowires and electrodes and showed excellent redox activities. CV and EIS studies showed that bacterial nanowires can charge the surface by producing and storing sufficient electrons, behave as a capacitor, and have features consistent with EET. Finally, electrochemical studies confirmed the development of bacterial nanowires with EET. This study suggests that bacterial nanowires can be used to fabricate biomolecular sensors and nanoelectronic devices.

  2. Investigation on the electrical conductivity of ZnO nanoparticles-decorated bacterial nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruthupandy, Muthuchamy; Anand, Muthusamy; Maduraiveeran, Govindhan; Suresh, Santhanakrishnan; Sait Hameedha Beevi, Akbar; Jeeva Priya, Radhakrishnan

    2016-12-01

    Electrical conductivity of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs)-decorated bacterial nanowires is investigated in the present work. The ZnO NPs are prepared through a simple precipitation method and characterized by UV-vis spectrophotometer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The SEM analysis discloses that the prepared ZnO NPs are spherical in shape with an average particle size of 3.5 nm. The ZnO NPs are decorated on the surface of bacterial nanowires and the same are characterized by AFM and HRTEM. The electrochemical performance of the bare bacterial nanowires and ZnO NPs-decorated bacterial nanowires is analyzed by cyclic voltammetry and linear sweep voltammetry, whereas their electrical conductivity is measured by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results of the electrochemical investigations indicate that the ZnO NPs coating on the surface of bacterial nanowires improve the electrical conductivity of the bacterial nanowires.

  3. Electrically conductive bacterial nanowires produced by Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1 and other microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Gorby, Yuri A; Yanina, Svetlana; McLean, Jeffrey S; Rosso, Kevin M; Moyles, Dianne; Dohnalkova, Alice; Beveridge, Terry J; Chang, In Seop; Kim, Byung Hong; Kim, Kyung Shik; Culley, David E; Reed, Samantha B; Romine, Margaret F; Saffarini, Daad A; Hill, Eric A; Shi, Liang; Elias, Dwayne A; Kennedy, David W; Pinchuk, Grigoriy; Watanabe, Kazuya; Ishii, Shun'ichi; Logan, Bruce; Nealson, Kenneth H; Fredrickson, Jim K

    2006-07-25

    Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 produced electrically conductive pilus-like appendages called bacterial nanowires in direct response to electron-acceptor limitation. Mutants deficient in genes for c-type decaheme cytochromes MtrC and OmcA, and those that lacked a functional Type II secretion pathway displayed nanowires that were poorly conductive. These mutants were also deficient in their ability to reduce hydrous ferric oxide and in their ability to generate current in a microbial fuel cell. Nanowires produced by the oxygenic phototrophic cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC6803 and the thermophilic, fermentative bacterium Pelotomaculum thermopropionicum reveal that electrically conductive appendages are not exclusive to dissimilatory metal-reducing bacteria and may, in fact, represent a common bacterial strategy for efficient electron transfer and energy distribution.

  4. Electrically conductive bacterial nanowires produced by Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1 and other microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Gorby, Yuri A.; Yanina, Svetlana; McLean, Jeffrey S.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Moyles, Dianne; Dohnalkova, Alice; Beveridge, Terry J.; Chang, In Seop; Kim, Byung Hong; Kim, Kyung Shik; Culley, David E.; Reed, Samantha B.; Romine, Margaret F.; Saffarini, Daad A.; Hill, Eric A.; Shi, Liang; Elias, Dwayne A.; Kennedy, David W.; Pinchuk, Grigoriy; Watanabe, Kazuya; Ishii, Shun’ichi; Logan, Bruce; Nealson, Kenneth H.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2006-01-01

    Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 produced electrically conductive pilus-like appendages called bacterial nanowires in direct response to electron-acceptor limitation. Mutants deficient in genes for c-type decaheme cytochromes MtrC and OmcA, and those that lacked a functional Type II secretion pathway displayed nanowires that were poorly conductive. These mutants were also deficient in their ability to reduce hydrous ferric oxide and in their ability to generate current in a microbial fuel cell. Nanowires produced by the oxygenic phototrophic cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC6803 and the thermophilic, fermentative bacterium Pelotomaculum thermopropionicum reveal that electrically conductive appendages are not exclusive to dissimilatory metal-reducing bacteria and may, in fact, represent a common bacterial strategy for efficient electron transfer and energy distribution. PMID:16849424

  5. Structure of the Type IVa Major Pilin from the Electrically Conductive Bacterial Nanowires of Geobacter sulfurreducens

    SciTech Connect

    Reardon, Patrick N.; Mueller, Karl T.

    2013-10-11

    Several species of bacteria are capable of reducing insoluble metal oxides as well as other extracellular electron acceptors. These bacteria play a critical role in the cycling of minerals in subsurface environments, sediments, and groundwater. In some species of bacteria, such as Geobacter sulfurreducens, the transport of electrons is facilitated by filamentous fibers that are referred to as bacterial nanowires. These nanowires belong to the type IVa family of pilin proteins and are mainly comprised of one subunit protein, PilA. Here, we report the high resolution solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structure of the PilA protein from G. sulfurreducens determined in detergent micelles. The protein is over 85% α-helical and exhibits similar architecture to the N-terminal regions of other non-conductive type IVa pilins. The detergent micelle interacts with the first 21 amino acids of the protein, indicating that this region likely associates with the bacterial inner membrane prior to fiber formation. A model of the G. sulfurreducens pilus fiber is proposed based on docking of this structure into the fiber model of the type IVa pilin from Neisseria gonorrhoeae. This model provides insight into the organization of aromatic amino acids that are important for electrical conduction.

  6. Structure of the type IVa major pilin from the electrically conductive bacterial nanowires of Geobacter sulfurreducens.

    PubMed

    Reardon, Patrick N; Mueller, Karl T

    2013-10-11

    Several species of δ proteobacteria are capable of reducing insoluble metal oxides as well as other extracellular electron acceptors. These bacteria play a critical role in the cycling of minerals in subsurface environments, sediments, and groundwater. In some species of bacteria such as Geobacter sulfurreducens, the transport of electrons is proposed to be facilitated by filamentous fibers that are referred to as bacterial nanowires. These nanowires are polymeric assemblies of proteins belonging to the type IVa family of pilin proteins and are mainly comprised of one subunit protein, PilA. Here, we report the high resolution solution NMR structure of the PilA protein from G. sulfurreducens determined in detergent micelles. The protein is >85% α-helical and exhibits similar architecture to the N-terminal regions of other non-conductive type IVa pilins. The detergent micelle interacts with the first 21 amino acids of the protein, indicating that this region likely associates with the bacterial inner membrane prior to fiber formation. A model of the G. sulfurreducens pilus fiber is proposed based on docking of this structure into the fiber model of the type IVa pilin from Neisseria gonorrhoeae. This model provides insight into the organization of aromatic amino acids that are important for electrical conduction.

  7. Bacterial Nanowires: Is the Subsurface Hardwired?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorby, Y. A.; Davis, C. A.; Atekwana, E.

    2006-05-01

    Bacteria, ranging from oxygenic photosynthetic cyanobacteria to heterotrophic sulfate reducing bacteria, produce electrically-conductive appendages referred to as bacterial nanowires. Dissimilatory metal reducing bacteria, including Shewanella oneidensis and Geobacter sulfurreducens, produce electrically conductive nanowires in direct response to electron acceptor limitation and facilitate electron transfer to solid phase iron oxides. Nanowires produced by S. oneidensis strain MR-1, which served as our primary model organism, are functionalized by decaheme cytochromes MtrC and OmcA that are distributed along the length of the nanowires. Mutants deficient in MtrC and OmcA produce nanowires that were poorly conductive. These mutants also differ from wild type cells in their ability to reduce solid phase iron oxides, to produce electrical current in a mediator less microbial fuel cell, and to form complex biofilms at air liquid interfaces. Recent results obtained using direct cell counts and low frequency electrical measurements demonstrate that microbial growth correlated with real and imaginary electrical conductivity response in uncoated silica sand columns. Direct observation of packing material with environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) revealed a fine network of extracellular structures that were morphologically similar to nanowires observed in metal reducing bacteria. No such structures were observed in control columns. We hypothesize that microbial nanowires may in part be responsible for the electrical response observed in the biostimulated columns.

  8. Ultralight Conductive Silver Nanowire Aerogels.

    PubMed

    Qian, Fang; Lan, Pui Ching; Freyman, Megan C; Chen, Wen; Kou, Tianyi; Olson, Tammy Y; Zhu, Cheng; Worsley, Marcus A; Duoss, Eric B; Spadaccini, Christopher M; Baumann, Ted; Han, T Yong-Jin

    2017-09-13

    Low-density metal foams have many potential applications in electronics, energy storage, catalytic supports, fuel cells, sensors, and medical devices. Here, we report a new method for fabricating ultralight, conductive silver aerogel monoliths with predictable densities using silver nanowires. Silver nanowire building blocks were prepared by polyol synthesis and purified by selective precipitation. Silver aerogels were produced by freeze-casting nanowire aqueous suspensions followed by thermal sintering to weld the nanowire junctions. As-prepared silver aerogels have unique anisotropic microporous structures, with density precisely controlled by the nanowire concentration, down to 4.8 mg/cm(3) and an electrical conductivity up to 51 000 S/m. Mechanical studies show that silver nanowire aerogels exhibit "elastic stiffening" behavior with a Young's modulus up to 16 800 Pa.

  9. Ultralight Conductive Silver Nanowire Aerogels

    DOE PAGES

    Qian, Fang; Lan, Pui Ching; Freyman, Megan C.; ...

    2017-09-05

    Low-density metal foams have many potential applications in electronics, energy storage, catalytic supports, fuel cells, sensors, and medical devices. Here in this work, we report a new method for fabricating ultralight, conductive silver aerogel monoliths with predictable densities using silver nanowires. Silver nanowire building blocks were prepared by polyol synthesis and purified by selective precipitation. Silver aerogels were produced by freeze-casting nanowire aqueous suspensions followed by thermal sintering to weld the nanowire junctions. As-prepared silver aerogels have unique anisotropic microporous structures, with density precisely controlled by the nanowire concentration, down to 4.8 mg/cm3 and an electrical conductivity up to 51more » 000 S/m. Lastly, mechanical studies show that silver nanowire aerogels exhibit “elastic stiffening” behavior with a Young’s modulus up to 16 800 Pa.« less

  10. Electrical transport along bacterial nanowires from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1

    PubMed Central

    El-Naggar, Mohamed Y.; Wanger, Greg; Leung, Kar Man; Yuzvinsky, Thomas D.; Southam, Gordon; Yang, Jun; Lau, Woon Ming; Nealson, Kenneth H.; Gorby, Yuri A.

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial nanowires are extracellular appendages that have been suggested as pathways for electron transport in phylogenetically diverse microorganisms, including dissimilatory metal-reducing bacteria and photosynthetic cyanobacteria. However, there has been no evidence presented to demonstrate electron transport along the length of bacterial nanowires. Here we report electron transport measurements along individually addressed bacterial nanowires derived from electron-acceptor–limited cultures of the dissimilatory metal-reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. Transport along the bacterial nanowires was independently evaluated by two techniques: (i) nanofabricated electrodes patterned on top of individual nanowires, and (ii) conducting probe atomic force microscopy at various points along a single nanowire bridging a metallic electrode and the conductive atomic force microscopy tip. The S. oneidensis MR-1 nanowires were found to be electrically conductive along micrometer-length scales with electron transport rates up to 109/s at 100 mV of applied bias and a measured resistivity on the order of 1 Ω·cm. Mutants deficient in genes for c-type decaheme cytochromes MtrC and OmcA produce appendages that are morphologically consistent with bacterial nanowires, but were found to be nonconductive. The measurements reported here allow for bacterial nanowires to serve as a viable microbial strategy for extracellular electron transport. PMID:20937892

  11. Conducting polyaniline nanowire electrode junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaikwad, Sumedh; Bodkhe, Gajanan; Deshmukh, Megha; Patil, Harshada; Rushi, Arti; Shirsat, Mahendra D.; Koinkar, Pankaj; Kim, Yun-Hae; Mulchandani, Ashok

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, a synthesis of conducting polyaniline nanowires electrode junction (CPNEJ) has been reported. Conducting polyaniline nanowires electrode junction on Si/SiO2 substrate (having 3 μm gap between two gold microelectrodes) is prepared. Polyaniline nanowires with diameter (ca. 140 nm to 160 nm) were synthesized by one step electrochemical polymerization using galvanostatic (constant current) technique to bridge this gap. The surface morphology of CPNEJ was studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The synthesized CPNEJ is an excellent platform for biosensor applications.

  12. Conductive Nanowires Templated by Molecular Brushes.

    PubMed

    Raguzin, Ivan; Stamm, Manfred; Ionov, Leonid

    2015-10-21

    In this paper, we report the fabrication of conductive nanowires using polymer bottle brushes as templates. In our approach, we synthesized poly(2-dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate methyl iodide quaternary salt brushes by two-step atom transfer radical polymerization, loaded them with palladium salt, and reduced them in order to form metallic nanowires with average lengths and widths of 300 and 20 nm, respectively. The obtained nanowires were deposited between conductive gold pads and were connected to them by sputtering of additional pads to form an electric circuit. We connected the nanowires in an electric circuit and demonstrated that the conductivity of these nanowires is around 100 S·m(-1).

  13. Bacterial Nanowires Facilitate Extracellular Electron Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorby, Y.

    2005-12-01

    Dissimilatory metal reducing bacteria, including Shewanella oneidensis and Geobacter sulfurreducens, produce electrically conductive nanowires that facilitate electron transfer to solid phase iron oxides. Nanowires produced by S. oneidensis strain MR-1 are functionalized by decaheme cytochromes MtrC and OmcA that are distributed along the length of the nanowires, as confirmed by immunolocalization experiments using peptide specific antibodies. Mutants lacking MtrC and OmcA produce nanowires that were poorly conductive, are unable to reduce solid phase iron oxides, and do not produce electric current in microbial fuel cells. Although less completely characterized, nanowires are also produced by organisms throughout a broad metabolic spectrum, from sulfate reducing bacteria to oxygenic, phototrophic cyanobacteria. Our research suggests that electrically conductive nanowires may be common throughout the microbial world and may serve as structures for efficient electron transfer and energy dissemination in complex communities such as microbial mats and biofilms.

  14. Conducting nanowires in insulating ceramics.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Atsutomo; Matsunaga, Katsuyuki; Tohma, Jun; Yamamoto, Takahisa; Ikuhara, Yuichi

    2003-07-01

    Low-dimensional structures, such as microclusters, quantum dots and one- or two-dimensional (1D or 2D) quantum wires, are of scientific and technological interest due to their unusual physical properties, which are quite different from those in the bulk. Here we present a successful method for fabricating conducting nanowire bundles inside an insulating ceramic single crystal by using unidirectional dislocations. A high density of dislocations (10(9) cm(-2)) was introduced by activating a primary slip system in sapphire (alpha-Al2O3 single crystal) using a two-stage deformation technique. Plate specimens cut out from the deformed sapphire were then annealed to straighten the dislocations. Finally, the plates on which metallic Ti was evaporated were heat-treated to diffuse Ti atoms inside sapphire. As a result of this process, Ti atoms segregated along the unidirectional dislocations within about 5 nm diameter, forming unidirectional Ti-enriched nanowires, which exhibit excellent electrical conductivity. This simple technique could potentially to be applied to any crystal, and may give special properties to commonly used materials.

  15. Radiation Fluence dependent variation in Electrical conductivity of Cu nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Gehlawat, Devender; Chauhan, R. P.; Sonkawade, R. G.

    2011-07-15

    Electrical conductivity of Cu nanowires varies with diameter of nanowires. However, keeping the diameter of nanowires constant, a variation in their electrical conductivity is observed after they irradiated with gamma rays and neutrons. On the basis of I-V characteristics drawn at room temperature, decrease in the conductivity of Cu nanowires is observed, as compared to that of pristine nanowires.

  16. Predicting the thermal conductivity of crystalline nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mingo, Natalio; Yang, Liu; Li, D.; Majumdar, A.

    2003-03-01

    We present quantitative calculations of the lattice thermal conductivity vs. temperature of Si nanowires, yielding good agreement with experimental measurements by Li et al.[1]. Our calculation method is predictive, since no experimental data from the nanowires are needed as input for the theoretical curves. The formalism is based on a transmission function approach, and makes use of the full phonon dispersion relations of the material [2]. Using the same method we also calculate curves for Ge nanowires, for which experiments have not yet been performed. In the talk we will explain the formalism of our Full Dispersions Transmission Function approach (FDTF). The traditional methods of Callaway and Holland [3] will also be discussed and compared with our FDTF method. Predictions with the latter method are considerably better than those using the traditional methods. In principle, the FDTF approach can be employed to calculate lattice thermal conductivity curves for nanowires of different materials. It may therefore constitute a very useful piece in the theoretical modeling of new thermoelectric materials based on nanowires. [1] D. Li et al., submitted. [2] N. Mingo et al., to be submitted. [3] M. Asen-Palmer et al., Phys. Rev. B 56, 9431 (1997).

  17. Isotropical conductive adhesives filled with silver nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Y.; Xia, Y. P.; Zhang, G. Q.; Wu, H. P.; Tao, G. L.

    2009-07-01

    In this study, a solution-phase method was demonstrated to generate silver (Ag) nanowires with diameters in the range of 30~50nm and lengths of up to ~50μm, which was proceed by reducing silver nitrate with ethylene glycol in the presence of poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP). Fundamental material characterizations including X-ray diffraction transmission electro microscopy (TEM) and scanning electro microscopy (SEM) were conducted on these Ag nanowires. A novel kind of isotropical conductive adhesives (ICA) was prepared by using these Ag nanowires as conductive filler. Electrical property including bulk resistivity and mechanical property including shear strength were investigated and compared with that of conventional ICA filled with micrometer-sized Ag particles or nanometer-sized Ag particles. The average diameter of these Ag particles is about 1μm and 100 nm respectively. The results shown that ICA filled Ag nanowires exhibited higher conductivity, higher shear strength and low percolation threshold value than traditional ICA. Possible conductive mechanism was discussed based on theory calculation.

  18. Thermal conductivity in porous silicon nanowire arrays.

    PubMed

    Weisse, Jeffrey M; Marconnet, Amy M; Kim, Dong Rip; Rao, Pratap M; Panzer, Matthew A; Goodson, Kenneth E; Zheng, Xiaolin

    2012-10-06

    The nanoscale features in silicon nanowires (SiNWs) can suppress phonon propagation and strongly reduce their thermal conductivities compared to the bulk value. This work measures the thermal conductivity along the axial direction of SiNW arrays with varying nanowire diameters, doping concentrations, surface roughness, and internal porosities using nanosecond transient thermoreflectance. For SiNWs with diameters larger than the phonon mean free path, porosity substantially reduces the thermal conductivity, yielding thermal conductivities as low as 1 W/m/K in highly porous SiNWs. However, when the SiNW diameter is below the phonon mean free path, both the internal porosity and the diameter significantly contribute to phonon scattering and lead to reduced thermal conductivity of the SiNWs.

  19. Thermal conductivity in porous silicon nanowire arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisse, Jeffrey M.; Marconnet, Amy M.; Kim, Dong Rip; Rao, Pratap M.; Panzer, Matthew A.; Goodson, Kenneth E.; Zheng, Xiaolin

    2012-10-01

    The nanoscale features in silicon nanowires (SiNWs) can suppress phonon propagation and strongly reduce their thermal conductivities compared to the bulk value. This work measures the thermal conductivity along the axial direction of SiNW arrays with varying nanowire diameters, doping concentrations, surface roughness, and internal porosities using nanosecond transient thermoreflectance. For SiNWs with diameters larger than the phonon mean free path, porosity substantially reduces the thermal conductivity, yielding thermal conductivities as low as 1 W/m/K in highly porous SiNWs. However, when the SiNW diameter is below the phonon mean free path, both the internal porosity and the diameter significantly contribute to phonon scattering and lead to reduced thermal conductivity of the SiNWs.

  20. Conductivity of Nanowire Arrays under Random and Ordered Orientation Configurations

    PubMed Central

    Jagota, Milind; Tansu, Nelson

    2015-01-01

    A computational model was developed to analyze electrical conductivity of random metal nanowire networks. It was demonstrated for the first time through use of this model that a performance gain in random metal nanowire networks can be achieved by slightly restricting nanowire orientation. It was furthermore shown that heavily ordered configurations do not outperform configurations with some degree of randomness; randomness in the case of metal nanowire orientations acts to increase conductivity. PMID:25976936

  1. The effect of nanowire length and diameter on the properties of transparent, conducting nanowire films.

    PubMed

    Bergin, Stephen M; Chen, Yu-Hui; Rathmell, Aaron R; Charbonneau, Patrick; Li, Zhi-Yuan; Wiley, Benjamin J

    2012-03-21

    This article describes how the dimensions of nanowires affect the transmittance and sheet resistance of a random nanowire network. Silver nanowires with independently controlled lengths and diameters were synthesized with a gram-scale polyol synthesis by controlling the reaction temperature and time. Characterization of films composed of nanowires of different lengths but the same diameter enabled the quantification of the effect of length on the conductance and transmittance of silver nanowire films. Finite-difference time-domain calculations were used to determine the effect of nanowire diameter, overlap, and hole size on the transmittance of a nanowire network. For individual nanowires with diameters greater than 50 nm, increasing diameter increases the electrical conductance to optical extinction ratio, but the opposite is true for nanowires with diameters less than this size. Calculations and experimental data show that for a random network of nanowires, decreasing nanowire diameter increases the number density of nanowires at a given transmittance, leading to improved connectivity and conductivity at high transmittance (>90%). This information will facilitate the design of transparent, conducting nanowire films for flexible displays, organic light emitting diodes and thin-film solar cells.

  2. Conducting Polyaniline Nanowire and Its Applications in Chemiresistive Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Song, Edward; Choi, Jin-Woo

    2013-01-01

    One dimensional polyaniline nanowire is an electrically conducting polymer that can be used as an active layer for sensors whose conductivity change can be used to detect chemical or biological species. In this review, the basic properties of polyaniline nanowires including chemical structures, redox chemistry, and method of synthesis are discussed. A comprehensive literature survey on chemiresistive/conductometric sensors based on polyaniline nanowires is presented and recent developments in polyaniline nanowire-based sensors are summarized. Finally, the current limitations and the future prospect of polyaniline nanowires are discussed. PMID:28348347

  3. Electrically Conductive Metal Nanowire Polymer Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xiaoxiong

    This thesis investigates electrically conductive polymer nanocomposites formulated with metal nanowires for electrostatic discharge and electromagnetic interference shielding. Copper nanowires (CuNWs) of an average length of 1.98 mum and diameter of 25 +/- 4 nm were synthesized. The oxidation reaction of the CuNWs in air can be divided into two stages at weight of 111.2% on TGA curves. The isoconversional activation energies determined by Starink method were used to fit the different master plots. Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (JMA) equation gave the best fit. The surface atoms of the CuNWs are the sites for the random nucleation and the crystallite strain in the CuNWs is the driving force for the growth of nuclei mechanism during the oxidation process. To improve the anti-oxidation properties of the CuNWs, silver was coated onto the surface of the CuNWs in Ag-amine solution. The prepared silver coated CuNWs (AgCuNWs) with silver content of 66.52 wt. %, diameter of 28--33 nm exhibited improved anti-oxidation behavior. The electrical resistivity of the AgCuNW/low density polyethylene (LDPE) nanocomposites is lower than that of the CuNW/LDPE nanocomposites with the same volume percentage of fillers. The nanocomposites formulated with CuNWs and polyethylenes (PEs) were compared to study the different interaction between the CuNWs and the different types of PE matrices. The electrical conductivity of the different PE matrices filled with the same concentrations of CuNWs correlated well with the level of the CuNW dispersion. The intermolecular force and entanglement resulting from the different macromolecular structures such as molecular weight and branching played an important role in the dispersion, electrical properties and rheological behaviour of the CuNW/PE nanocomposites. Ferromagnetic polycrystalline nickel nanowires (NiNWs) were synthesized with uniform diameter of ca. 38 nm and an average length of 2.68 mum. The NiNW linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE

  4. Electrically conductive and optically active porous silicon nanowires.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yongquan; Liao, Lei; Li, Yujing; Zhang, Hua; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2009-12-01

    We report the synthesis of vertical silicon nanowire array through a two-step metal-assisted chemical etching of highly doped n-type silicon (100) wafers in a solution of hydrofluoric acid and hydrogen peroxide. The morphology of the as-grown silicon nanowires is tunable from solid nonporous nanowires, nonporous/nanoporous core/shell nanowires, to entirely nanoporous nanowires by controlling the hydrogen peroxide concentration in the etching solution. The porous silicon nanowires retain the single crystalline structure and crystallographic orientation of the starting silicon wafer and are electrically conductive and optically active with visible photoluminescence. The combination of electronic and optical properties in the porous silicon nanowires may provide a platform for novel optoelectronic devices for energy harvesting, conversion, and biosensing.

  5. Impacts of atomistic coating on thermal conductivity of germanium nanowires.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Zhang, Gang; Li, Baowen

    2012-06-13

    By using nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, we demonstrated that thermal conductivity of germanium nanowires can be reduced more than 25% at room temperature by atomistic coating. There is a critical coating thickness beyond which thermal conductivity of the coated nanowire is larger than that of the host nanowire. The diameter-dependent critical coating thickness and minimum thermal conductivity are explored. Moreover, we found that interface roughness can induce further reduction of thermal conductivity in coated nanowires. From the vibrational eigenmode analysis, it is found that coating induces localization for low-frequency phonons, while interface roughness localizes the high-frequency phonons. Our results provide an available approach to tune thermal conductivity of nanowires by atomic layer coating.

  6. Composition, Reactivity, and Regulations of Extracellular Metal-Reducing Structures (Bacterial Nanowires) Produced by Dissimilatory Metal Reducing Bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Scholten, Johannes

    2006-06-01

    This research proposal seeks to describe the composition and function of electrically conductive appendages known as bacterial nanowires. This project targets bacterial nanowires produced by dissimilatory metal reducing bacteria Shewanella and Geobacter. Specifically, this project will investigate the role of these structures in the reductive transformation of iron oxides as solid phase electron acceptors, as well as uranium as a dissolved electron acceptor that forms nanocrystalline particles of uraninite upon reduction.

  7. Current distribution in conducting nanowire networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ankush; Vidhyadhiraja, N. S.; Kulkarni, Giridhar U.

    2017-07-01

    Conducting nanowire networks find diverse applications in solar cells, touch-screens, transparent heaters, sensors, and various related transparent conducting electrode (TCE) devices. The performances of these devices depend on effective resistance, transmittance, and local current distribution in these networks. Although, there have been rigorous studies addressing resistance and transmittance in TCE, not much attention is paid on studying the distribution of current. Present work addresses this compelling issue of understanding current distribution in TCE networks using analytical as well as Monte-Carlo approaches. We quantified the current carrying backbone region against isolated and dangling regions as a function of wire density (ranging from percolation threshold to many multiples of threshold) and compared the wired connectivity with those obtained from template-based methods. Further, the current distribution in the obtained backbone is studied using Kirchhoff's law, which reveals that a significant fraction of the backbone (which is believed to be an active current component) may not be active for end-to-end current transport due to the formation of intervening circular loops. The study shows that conducting wire based networks possess hot spots (extremely high current carrying regions) which can be potential sources of failure. The fraction of these hot spots is found to decrease with increase in wire density, while they are completely absent in template based networks. Thus, the present work discusses unexplored issues related to current distribution in conducting networks, which are necessary to choose the optimum network for best TCE applications.

  8. Synthesis of Oxidation-Resistant Cupronickel Nanowires for Transparent Conducting Nanowire Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Rathmall, Aaron; Nguyen, Minh; Wiley, Benjamin J

    2012-01-01

    Nanowires of copper can be coated from liquids to create flexible, transparent conducting films that can potentially replace the dominant transparent conductor, indium tin oxide, in displays, solar cells, organic light-emitting diodes, and electrochromic windows. One issue with these nanowire films is that copper is prone to oxidation. It was hypothesized that the resistance to oxidation could be improved by coating copper nanowires with nickel. This work demonstrates a method for synthesizing copper nanowires with nickel shells as well as the properties of cupronickel nanowires in transparent conducting films. Time- and temperature-dependent sheet resistance measurements indicate that the sheet resistance of copper and silver nanowire films will double after 3 and 36 months at room temperature, respectively. In contrast, the sheet resistance of cupronickel nanowires containing 20 mol % nickel will double in about 400 years. Coating copper nanowires to a ratio of 2:1 Cu:Ni gave them a neutral gray color, making them more suitable for use in displays and electrochromic windows. These properties, and the fact that copper and nickel are 1000 times more abundant than indium or silver, make cupronickel nanowires a promising alternative for the sustainable, efficient production of transparent conductors.

  9. Synthesis of oxidation-resistant cupronickel nanowires for transparent conducting nanowire networks.

    PubMed

    Rathmell, Aaron R; Nguyen, Minh; Chi, Miaofang; Wiley, Benjamin J

    2012-06-13

    Nanowires of copper can be coated from liquids to create flexible, transparent conducting films that can potentially replace the dominant transparent conductor, indium tin oxide, in displays, solar cells, organic light-emitting diodes, and electrochromic windows. One issue with these nanowire films is that copper is prone to oxidation. It was hypothesized that the resistance to oxidation could be improved by coating copper nanowires with nickel. This work demonstrates a method for synthesizing copper nanowires with nickel shells as well as the properties of cupronickel nanowires in transparent conducting films. Time- and temperature-dependent sheet resistance measurements indicate that the sheet resistance of copper and silver nanowire films will double after 3 and 36 months at room temperature, respectively. In contrast, the sheet resistance of cupronickel nanowires containing 20 mol % nickel will double in about 400 years. Coating copper nanowires to a ratio of 2:1 Cu:Ni gave them a neutral gray color, making them more suitable for use in displays and electrochromic windows. These properties, and the fact that copper and nickel are 1000 times more abundant than indium or silver, make cupronickel nanowires a promising alternative for the sustainable, efficient production of transparent conductors.

  10. Phonon thermal conductivity of a nanowire attached to leads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hershfield, Selman; Muttalib, Khandker

    2015-03-01

    There is experimental evidence as well as theoretical proposals that nanowires can be made to have high thermoelectric efficiency by tuning the electronic properties; however, there is always a phonon contribution to the heat transport which reduces the thermoelectric efficiency. In the harmonic approximation we compute the transmission of phonons through a nanowire coupled to large leads. There is a finite thermal conductivity because of the restriction provided by the nanowire. The nanowire reduces the thermal transport because of the mismatch between the leads and wire modes. We examine the effect of disorder in three places: in the wire, in the leads near the wire, and in the leads far way from the wire. In some cases disorder can increase the thermal conduction because of enhanced mode coupling. We will discuss the implications of our results for thermoelectric nanowire devices.

  11. Interpretation of optical conductivity of zinc oxide nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Choudhary, K. K.; Kaurav, N.

    2015-07-31

    The frequency dependent optical response of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanowires is theoretically analyzed within the two component schemes: one is the motion of coherent Drude electrons within the ZnO nanowire and the other is incoherent motion of electrons from one nanowire to other. The model has only one free parameter, the relaxation rate. The frequency dependent relaxation rates are expressed in terms of memory functions. The coherent Drude carriers form a sharp peak at zero frequency and a long tail at higher frequencies, i.e. in the infrared region. However, the hopping of carriers from one nanowire to other (incoherent motion of electrons) yields a peak value in the optical conductivity around mid infrared region. It is found that both the Drude and hopping carriers will contribute to the optical process of conduction in ZnO nanowire.

  12. Ultralow thermal conductivity in Electrolessly Etched (EE) Silicon Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hippalgaonkar, Kedar; Chen, Renkun; Budaev, Bair; Tang, Jinyao; Andrews, Sean; Murphy, Padraig; Mukerjee, Subroto; Moore, Joel; Yang, Peidong; Majumdar, Arun

    2009-03-01

    EE process produces single-crystalline Silicon nanowires with rough walls. We use suspended structures to directly compute the heat transfer through single nanowires. Nanowires with diameters less than the mean free path of phonons impede transport by boundary scattering. The roughness acts as a secondary scattering mechanism to further reduce phonon transport. By controlling the amount of roughness it is possible to push limits to the extent that nanowire conductance close to quanta of thermal conductance,πkB^2 T / πkB^2 T 6 . - 6 is observed. Traditionally, the lower limit of conductivity is amorphous Silicon at 1 W/mK at room temperature. The measured conductivity of our nanostructures challenges even this amorphous limit pointing towards previously unstudied mechanisms of thermal resistance. We measure thermal conductivity of ˜150nm diameter EE wires to be ˜1 W/mK.

  13. Observation of Conductance Quantization in InSb Nanowire Networks.

    PubMed

    Fadaly, Elham M T; Zhang, Hao; Conesa-Boj, Sonia; Car, Diana; Gül, Önder; Plissard, Sébastien R; Op Het Veld, Roy L M; Kölling, Sebastian; Kouwenhoven, Leo P; Bakkers, Erik P A M

    2017-07-14

    Majorana zero modes (MZMs) are prime candidates for robust topological quantum bits, holding a great promise for quantum computing. Semiconducting nanowires with strong spin orbit coupling offer a promising platform to harness one-dimensional electron transport for Majorana physics. Demonstrating the topological nature of MZMs relies on braiding, accomplished by moving MZMs around each other in a certain sequence. Most of the proposed Majorana braiding circuits require nanowire networks with minimal disorder. Here, the electronic transport across a junction between two merged InSb nanowires is studied to investigate how disordered these nanowire networks are. Conductance quantization plateaus are observed in most of the contact pairs of the epitaxial InSb nanowire networks: the hallmark of ballistic transport behavior.

  14. Microwave synthesis of electrically conductive gold nanowires on DNA scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Subrata; Liang, Hong

    2008-09-02

    Biological molecules, in particular DNA, have shown great potential to be used as interconnects of nanodevices and computational elements. In this research, we synthesized electrically conductive gold nanowires for the first time exploiting an electroless and microwave heating method for 120-180 s. Our results indicate that DNA serves as a reducing and nonspecific capping agent for the growth of nanowires. The current voltage ( I- V) characteristics of the Au nanowires are continuous, exhibiting Ohmic behavior having low contact resistance with the gold electrodes. The nanowires have a diameter of 10-15 nm in solution and of 20-30 nm in immobilized DNA with resistivity comparable to pure metals. The method is highly selective with deposition confined to the DNA itself. The nanowires we fabricated can be used as building blocks for functional nanodevices, sensors, and optoelectronics.

  15. Enhanced Photoresponse of Conductive Polymer Nanowires Embedded with Au Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junchang; Zhong, Liubiao; Sun, Yinghui; Li, Anran; Huang, Jing; Meng, Fanben; Chandran, Bevita K; Li, Shuzhou; Jiang, Lin; Chen, Xiaodong

    2016-04-20

    A conductive polymer nanowire embedded with a 1D Au nanoparticle chain with defined size, shape, and interparticle distance is fabricated which demonstrates enhanced photoresponse behavior. The precise and controllable positioning of 1D Au nanoparticle chain in the conductive polymer nanowire plays a critical role in modulating the photoresponse behavior by excitation light wavelength or power due to the coupled-plasmon effect of 1D Au nanoparticle chain.

  16. Indirect measurement of thermal conductivity in silicon nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Pennelli, Giovanni Nannini, Andrea; Macucci, Massimo

    2014-02-28

    We report indirect measurements of thermal conductivity in silicon nanostructures. We have exploited a measurement technique based on the Joule self-heating of silicon nanowires. A standard model for the electron mobility has been used to determine the temperature through the accurate measurement of the nanowire resistance. We have applied this technique to devices fabricated with a top-down process that yields nanowires together with large silicon areas used both as electrical and as thermal contacts. As there is crystalline continuity between the nanowires and the large contact areas, our thermal conductivity measurements are not affected by any temperature drop due to the contact thermal resistance. Our results confirm the observed reduction of thermal conductivity in nanostructures and are comparable with those previously reported in the literature, achieved with more complex measurement techniques.

  17. Silver nanowire catalysts on carbon nanotubes-incorporated bacterial cellulose membrane electrodes for oxygen reduction reaction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bona; Choi, Youngeun; Cho, Se Youn; Yun, Young Soo; Jin, Hyoung-Joon

    2013-11-01

    Silver nanowires have unique electrical, thermal and optical properties, which support their potential application in numerous fields including catalysis, electronics, optoelectronics, sensing, and surface-enhanced spectroscopy. Especially, their application such as catalysts for alkaline fuel cells (AFCs) have attracted much interest because of their superior electrical conductivity over that of any metal and their lower cost compared to Pt. In this study, multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)-incorporated bacterial cellulose (BC) membrane electrode with silver nanowire catalyst was prepared. First, acid-treated MWCNTs were incorporated into BC membranes and then freeze-dried after solvent exchange to tert-butanol in order to maintain the 3D-network macroporous structure. Second, silver nanowires synthesized by polyol process were introduced onto the surface of the MWCNTs-incorporated BC membrane through easy vacuum filtration. Finally, thermal treatment was carried out to confirm the effect of the PVP on the silver nanowire catalysts toward oxygen reduction reaction. The electrode with thermally treated silver nanowire had great electrocatalytic activity compared with non-treated one. These results suggest that the MWCNTs-incorporated BC electrode with silver nanowire catalysts after thermal treatment could be potentially used in cathodes of AFCs.

  18. Thermal conductivity of silicon nanowire arrays with controlled roughness

    SciTech Connect

    Feser, JP; Sadhu, JS; Azeredo, BP; Hsu, KH; Ma, J; Kim, J; Seong, M; Fang, NX; Li, XL; Ferreira, PM; Sinha, S; Cahill, DG

    2012-12-01

    A two-step metal assisted chemical etching technique is used to systematically vary the sidewall roughness of Si nanowires in vertically aligned arrays. The thermal conductivities of nanowire arrays are studied using time domain thermoreflectance and compared to their high-resolution transmission electron microscopy determined roughness. The thermal conductivity of nanowires with small roughness is close to a theoretical prediction based on an upper limit of the mean-free-paths of phonons given by the nanowire diameter. The thermal conductivity of nanowires with large roughness is found to be significantly below this prediction. Raman spectroscopy reveals that nanowires with large roughness also display significant broadening of the one-phonon peak; the broadening correlates well with the reduction in thermal conductivity. The origin of this broadening is not yet understood, as it is inconsistent with phonon confinement models, but could derive from microstructural changes that affect both the optical phonons observed in Raman scattering and the acoustic phonons that are important for heat conduction. (C) 2012 American Institute of Physics. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4767456

  19. Rolling silver nanowire electrodes: simultaneously addressing adhesion, roughness, and conductivity.

    PubMed

    Hauger, Tate C; Al-Rafia, S M Ibrahim; Buriak, Jillian M

    2013-12-11

    Silver nanowire mesh electrodes represent a possible mass-manufacturable route toward transparent and flexible electrodes for plastic-based electronics such as organic photovoltaics (OPVs), organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs), and others. Here we describe a route that is based upon spray-coated silver nanowire meshes on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) sheets that are treated with a straightforward combination of heat and pressure to generate electrodes that have low sheet resistance, good optical transmission, that are topologically flat, and adhere well to the PET substrate. The silver nanowire meshes were prepared by spray-coating a solution of silver nanowires onto PET, in air at slightly elevated temperatures. The as-prepared silver nanowire electrodes are highly resistive due to the poor contact between the individual silver nanowires. Light pressure applied with a stainless steel rod, rolled over the as-sprayed silver nanowire meshes on PET with a speed of 10 cm s(-1) and a pressure of 50 psi, results in silver nanowire mesh arrays with sheet resistances of less than 20 Ω/□. Bending of these rolled nanowire meshes on PET with different radii of curvature, from 50 to 0.625 mm, showed no degradation of the conductivity of the electrodes, as shown by the constant sheet resistance before and after bending. Repeated bending (100 times) around a rod with a radius of curvature of 1 mm also showed no increase in the sheet resistance, demonstrating good adherence and no signs of delamination of the nanowire mesh array. The diffuse and direct transmittance of the silver nanowires (both rolled and as-sprayed) was measured for wavelengths from 350 to 1200 nm, and the diffuse transmission was similar to that of the PET substrate; the direct transmission decreases by about 7-8%. The silver nanowires were then incorporated into OPV devices with the following architecture: transparent electrode/PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:PC61BM/LiF/Al. While slightly lower in efficiency than the

  20. Ultrathin hetero-nanowire-based flexible electronics with tunable conductivity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian-Wei; Huang, Wei-Ran; Gong, Ming; Zhang, Meng; Wang, Jin-Long; Zheng, Jing; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2013-11-06

    Flexible hetero-nanowire electronics: A simple solution process has been developed for the first time to fabricate macroscopic flexible, ordered Au-Te hetero-nanowire film electronics with tunable resistance from MΩ to Ω at room temperature (see the Figure). Nanowire films with an electrical conductivity as low as 10,000 S cm(-1) and a sheet resistance of 15Ω sq(-1) can generate reliable interconnections for light-emitting diode (LED) arrays. The Au-Te hetero-nanowire films remain conductive after bending 6000 times with a maximum bending radius of 2.0 mm without any obvious degradation. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Manipulating connectivity and electrical conductivity in metallic nanowire networks.

    PubMed

    Nirmalraj, Peter N; Bellew, Allen T; Bell, Alan P; Fairfield, Jessamyn A; McCarthy, Eoin K; O'Kelly, Curtis; Pereira, Luiz F C; Sorel, Sophie; Morosan, Diana; Coleman, Jonathan N; Ferreira, Mauro S; Boland, John J

    2012-11-14

    Connectivity in metallic nanowire networks with resistive junctions is manipulated by applying an electric field to create materials with tunable electrical conductivity. In situ electron microscope and electrical measurements visualize the activation and evolution of connectivity within these networks. Modeling nanowire networks, having a distribution of junction breakdown voltages, reveals universal scaling behavior applicable to all network materials. We demonstrate how local connectivity within these networks can be programmed and discuss material and device applications.

  2. Strain and thermal conductivity in ultrathin suspended silicon nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Daniel; Sigg, Hans; Spolenak, Ralph; Ekinci, Yasin

    2017-09-01

    We report on the uniaxial strain and thermal conductivity of well-ordered, suspended silicon nanowire arrays between 10 to 20 nm width and 22 nm half-pitch, fabricated by extreme-ultraviolet (UV) interference lithography. Laser-power-dependent Raman spectroscopy showed that nanowires connected monolithically to the bulk had a consistent strain of ˜0.1 % , whereas nanowires clamped by metal exhibited variability and high strain of up to 2.3%, having implications in strain engineering of nanowires. The thermal conductivity at room temperature was measured to be ˜1 W /m K for smooth nanowires and ˜0.1 W /m K for rougher ones, similar to results by other investigators. We found no modification of the bulk properties in terms of intrinsic scattering, and therefore, the decrease in thermal conductivity is mainly due to boundary scattering. Different types of surface roughness, such as constrictions and line-edge roughness, may play roles in the scattering of phonons of different wavelengths. Such low thermal conductivities would allow for very efficient thermal energy harvesting, approaching and passing values achieved by state-of-the-art thermoelectric materials.

  3. Conducting polymer nanowire arrays for high performance supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai; Wu, Haiping; Meng, Yuena; Wei, Zhixiang

    2014-01-15

    This Review provides a brief summary of the most recent research developments in the fabrication and application of one-dimensional ordered conducting polymers nanostructure (especially nanowire arrays) and their composites as electrodes for supercapacitors. By controlling the nucleation and growth process of polymerization, aligned conducting polymer nanowire arrays and their composites with nano-carbon materials can be prepared by employing in situ chemical polymerization or electrochemical polymerization without a template. This kind of nanostructure (such as polypyrrole and polyaniline nanowire arrays) possesses high capacitance, superior rate capability ascribed to large electrochemical surface, and an optimal ion diffusion path in the ordered nanowire structure, which is proved to be an ideal electrode material for high performance supercapacitors. Furthermore, flexible, micro-scale, threadlike, and multifunctional supercapacitors are introduced based on conducting polyaniline nanowire arrays and their composites. These prototypes of supercapacitors utilize the high flexibility, good processability, and large capacitance of conducting polymers, which efficiently extend the usage of supercapacitors in various situations, and even for a complicated integration system of different electronic devices.

  4. Sintering Behavior and Effect of Silver Nanowires on the Electrical Conductivity of Electrically Conductive Adhesives.

    PubMed

    Xie, H; Xiong, N N; Wang, Y H; Zhao, Y Z; Li, J Z

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, two kinds of silver nanowires with a 160 nm average diameter ranging from 30 to 90 µm length and a 450 nm average diameter up to 100 µm length were successfully synthesized by a polyol process with FeCl3 and Na₂S as reaction inhibitor, respectively. The experimental results indicate that the morphologies and sintering behaviors of both of silver nanowires are impacted by glutaric acid and sintering temperature. The isotropically conductive adhesives (ICAs) filled with micro-sized silver flakes and silver nanowires as hybrid fillers were fabricated and the electrical properties were investigated based on the fraction of the silver nanowires of the total of silver fillers and the curing temperature, etc. The in situ monitoring the variation in electrical resistance of the ICAs explores that silver nanowires have influence on the curing behavior of the ICAs. Silver nanowires synthesized with Na2S as reaction inhibitor and treated with glutaric acid can significantly improve the electrical conductivity of the ICAs in the case of the low loading of silver fillers in the appropriate proportion range of the weight ratio of micro-sized silver flakes and silver nanowires, primarily as a result of connecting effect. When the loading of silver fillers in the ICAs is high, the electrical conductivity is also enhanced slightly in the case of the proper fraction of silver nanowires of the total of silver fillers. The effect of the curing temperature on the electrical conductivity relates to the fraction of silver nanowires and the total loading of silver fillers. The electrical conductivity of the ICAs filled with micro-sized silver flakes and silver nanowires synthesized with FeCl₃ as reaction inhibitor is greatly damaged, indicating that the size of silver nanowires also is one of main factor to impact the electrical conductivity of the ICAs doped with silver nanowires. The electrical property of the ICAs filled with micro-sized silver flakes and silver

  5. Persistent ion beam induced conductivity in zinc oxide nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Johannes, Andreas; Niepelt, Raphael; Gnauck, Martin; Ronning, Carsten

    2011-12-19

    We report persistently increased conduction in ZnO nanowires irradiated by ion beam with various ion energies and species. This effect is shown to be related to the already known persistent photo conduction in ZnO and dubbed persistent ion beam induced conduction. Both effects show similar excitation efficiency, decay rates, and chemical sensitivity. Persistent ion beam induced conduction will potentially allow countable (i.e., single dopant) implantation in ZnO nanostructures and other materials showing persistent photo conduction.

  6. Persistent ion beam induced conductivity in zinc oxide nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johannes, Andreas; Niepelt, Raphael; Gnauck, Martin; Ronning, Carsten

    2011-12-01

    We report persistently increased conduction in ZnO nanowires irradiated by ion beam with various ion energies and species. This effect is shown to be related to the already known persistent photo conduction in ZnO and dubbed persistent ion beam induced conduction. Both effects show similar excitation efficiency, decay rates, and chemical sensitivity. Persistent ion beam induced conduction will potentially allow countable (i.e., single dopant) implantation in ZnO nanostructures and other materials showing persistent photo conduction.

  7. Conductance of a proximitized nanowire in the Coulomb blockade regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Heck, B.; Lutchyn, R. M.; Glazman, L. I.

    2016-06-01

    We identify the leading processes of electron transport across finite-length segments of proximitized nanowires and build a quantitative theory of their two-terminal conductance. In the presence of spin-orbit interaction, a nanowire can be tuned across the topological transition point by an applied magnetic field. Due to a finite segment length, electron transport is controlled by the Coulomb blockade. Upon increasing of the field, the shape and magnitude of the Coulomb blockade peaks in the linear conductance are defined, respectively, by Andreev reflection, single-electron tunneling, and resonant tunneling through the Majorana modes emerging after the topological transition. Our theory provides the framework for the analysis of experiments with proximitized nanowires [such as reported in S. M. Albrecht et al., Nature (London) 531, 206 (2016), 10.1038/nature17162] and identifies the signatures of the topological transition in the two-terminal conductance.

  8. Copper Nanowires as Fully Transparent Conductive Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Huizhang; Lin, Na; Chen, Yuanzhi; Wang, Zhenwei; Xie, Qingshui; Zheng, Tongchang; Gao, Na; Li, Shuping; Kang, Junyong; Cai, Duanjun; Peng, Dong-Liang

    2013-01-01

    In pondering of new promising transparent conductors to replace the cost rising tin-doped indium oxide (ITO), metal nanowires have been widely concerned. Herein, we demonstrate an approach for successful synthesis of long and fine Cu nanowires (NWs) through a novel catalytic scheme involving nickel ions. Such Cu NWs in high aspect ratio (diameter of 16.2 ± 2 nm and length up to 40 μm) provide long distance for electron transport and, meanwhile, large space for light transmission. Transparent electrodes fabricated using the Cu NW ink achieve a low sheet resistance of 1.4 Ohm/sq at 14% transmittance and a high transparency of 93.1% at 51.5 Ohm/sq. The flexibility and stability were tested with 100-timebending by 180°and no resistance change occurred. Ohmic contact was achieved to the p- and n-GaN on blue light emitting diode chip and bright electroluminescence from the front face confirmed the excellent transparency. PMID:23900572

  9. Copper nanowires as fully transparent conductive electrodes.

    PubMed

    Guo, Huizhang; Lin, Na; Chen, Yuanzhi; Wang, Zhenwei; Xie, Qingshui; Zheng, Tongchang; Gao, Na; Li, Shuping; Kang, Junyong; Cai, Duanjun; Peng, Dong-Liang

    2013-01-01

    In pondering of new promising transparent conductors to replace the cost rising tin-doped indium oxide (ITO), metal nanowires have been widely concerned. Herein, we demonstrate an approach for successful synthesis of long and fine Cu nanowires (NWs) through a novel catalytic scheme involving nickel ions. Such Cu NWs in high aspect ratio (diameter of 16.2 ± 2 nm and length up to 40 μm) provide long distance for electron transport and, meanwhile, large space for light transmission. Transparent electrodes fabricated using the Cu NW ink achieve a low sheet resistance of 1.4 Ohm/sq at 14% transmittance and a high transparency of 93.1% at 51.5 Ohm/sq. The flexibility and stability were tested with 100-timebending by 180°and no resistance change occurred. Ohmic contact was achieved to the p- and n-GaN on blue light emitting diode chip and bright electroluminescence from the front face confirmed the excellent transparency.

  10. Ionic conductivity enhancement of polymer electrolytes with ceramic nanowire fillers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Liu, Nian; Sun, Jie; Hsu, Po-Chun; Li, Yuzhang; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Cui, Yi

    2015-04-08

    Solid-state electrolytes provide substantial improvements to safety and electrochemical stability in lithium-ion batteries when compared with conventional liquid electrolytes, which makes them a promising alternative technology for next-generation high-energy batteries. Currently, the low mobility of lithium ions in solid electrolytes limits their practical application. The ongoing research over the past few decades on dispersing of ceramic nanoparticles into polymer matrix has been proved effective to enhance ionic conductivity although it is challenging to form the efficiency networks of ionic conduction with nanoparticles. In this work, we first report that ceramic nanowire fillers can facilitate formation of such ionic conduction networks in polymer-based solid electrolyte to enhance its ionic conductivity by three orders of magnitude. Polyacrylonitrile-LiClO4 incorporated with 15 wt % Li0.33La0.557TiO3 nanowire composite electrolyte exhibits an unprecedented ionic conductivity of 2.4 × 10(-4) S cm(-1) at room temperature, which is attributed to the fast ion transport on the surfaces of ceramic nanowires acting as conductive network in the polymer matrix. In addition, the ceramic-nanowire filled composite polymer electrolyte shows an enlarged electrochemical stability window in comparison to the one without fillers. The discovery in the present work paves the way for the design of solid ion electrolytes with superior performance.

  11. Magnetic and conductive magnetite nanowires by DNA-templating.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Hasan Daw A; Watson, Scott M D; Horrocks, Benjamin R; Houlton, Andrew

    2012-09-28

    The synthesis of nanowires made of magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)) phase iron oxide was achieved using DNA as a template to direct formation of the metal oxide and confine its growth in two dimensions. This simple solution-based approach involves initial association of Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) to the DNA "template" molecules, and subsequent co-precipitation of the Fe(3)O(4) material, upon increasing the solution pH, to give the final metal oxide nanowires. Analysis of the DNA-templated material, using a combination of FTIR, XRD, XPS, and Raman spectroscopy, confirmed the iron oxide formed to be the Fe(3)O(4) crystal phase. Investigation of the structural character of the nanowires, carried out by AFM, revealed the metal oxide to form regular coatings of nanometre-scale thickness around the DNA templates. Statistical analysis showed the size distribution of the nanowires to follow a trimodal model, with the modal diameter values identified as 5-6 nm, 14-15 nm, and 23-24 nm. Additional scanning probe microscopy techniques (SCM, MFM) were also used to verify that the nanowire structures are electrically conducting and exhibit magnetic behaviour. Such properties, coupled with the small dimensions of these materials, make them potentially good candidates for application in a host of future nanoscale device technologies.

  12. Improved Lithium Ionic Conductivity in Composite Polymer Electrolytes with Oxide-Ion Conducting Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Lin, Dingchang; Sun, Jie; Zhou, Guangmin; Cui, Yi

    2016-12-27

    Solid Li-ion electrolytes used in all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are being considered to replace conventional liquid electrolytes that have leakage, flammability, and poor chemical stability issues, which represents one major challenge and opportunity for next-generation high-energy-density batteries. However, the low mobility of lithium ions in solid electrolytes limits their practical applications. Here, we report a solid composite polymer electrolyte with Y2O3-doped ZrO2 (YSZ) nanowires that are enriched with positive-charged oxygen vacancies. The morphologies and ionic conductivities have been studied systemically according to concentration of Y2O3 dopant in the nanowires. In comparison to the conventional filler-free electrolyte with a conductivity of 3.62 × 10(-7) S cm(-1), the composite polymer electrolytes with the YSZ nanowires show much higher ionic conductivity. It indicates that incorporation of 7 mol % of Y2O3-doped ZrO2 nanowires results in the highest ionic conductivity of 1.07 × 10(-5) S cm(-1) at 30 °C. This conductivity enhancement originates from the positive-charged oxygen vacancies on the surfaces of the nanowires that could associate with anions and then release more Li ions. Our work demonstrates a composite polymer electrolyte with oxygen-ion conductive nanowires that could address the challenges of all-solid-state LIBs.

  13. A review of the electrical properties of semiconductor nanowires: insights gained from terahertz conductivity spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joyce, Hannah J.; Boland, Jessica L.; Davies, Christopher L.; Baig, Sarwat A.; Johnston, Michael B.

    2016-10-01

    Accurately measuring and controlling the electrical properties of semiconductor nanowires is of paramount importance in the development of novel nanowire-based devices. In light of this, terahertz (THz) conductivity spectroscopy has emerged as an ideal non-contact technique for probing nanowire electrical conductivity and is showing tremendous value in the targeted development of nanowire devices. THz spectroscopic measurements of nanowires enable charge carrier lifetimes, mobilities, dopant concentrations and surface recombination velocities to be measured with high accuracy and high throughput in a contact-free fashion. This review spans seminal and recent studies of the electronic properties of nanowires using THz spectroscopy. A didactic description of THz time-domain spectroscopy, optical pump–THz probe spectroscopy, and their application to nanowires is included. We review a variety of technologically important nanowire materials, including GaAs, InAs, InP, GaN and InN nanowires, Si and Ge nanowires, ZnO nanowires, nanowire heterostructures, doped nanowires and modulation-doped nanowires. Finally, we discuss how THz measurements are guiding the development of nanowire-based devices, with the example of single-nanowire photoconductive THz receivers.

  14. Thermal Conductivity of ZnO Single Nanowire.

    PubMed

    Yuldashev, Sh U; Yalishev, V Sh; Cho, H D; Kang, T W

    2016-02-01

    The thermal conductivity of a single ZnO nanowire with diameter of ~150 nm was measured using a four-point-probe 3omega method over a temperature range of 140-300 K. The measured ther- mal conductivity of ZnO nanowire is strongly reduced compared to bulk ZnO crystal due to the enhanced phonon-boundary and impurity (isotope) scattering. The maximum of the thermal conductivity is shifted to a higher temperature than that of bulk counterpart. Temperature dependent measurements show that beyond the low-temperature maximum, the thermal conductivity decreases with temperature as T(-1.5) indicating strong impurity (isotope) scattering at intermediate and high temperatures.

  15. Conductance of a superconducting Coulomb-blockaded Majorana nanowire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Ching-Kai; Sau, Jay D.; Das Sarma, S.

    2017-08-01

    In the presence of an applied magnetic field introducing Zeeman spin splitting, a superconducting (SC) proximitized one-dimensional (1D) nanowire with spin-orbit coupling can pass through a topological quantum phase transition developing zero-energy topological Majorana bound states (MBSs) on the wire ends. One of the promising experimental platforms in this context is a Coulomb-blockaded island, where by measuring the two-terminal conductance one can in principle investigate the MBS properties. Here, we theoretically study the tunneling transport of a single electron across the superconducting Coulomb-blockaded nanowire at finite temperature in order to obtain the generic conductance equation. By considering all possible scenarios where only MBSs are present at the ends of the nanowire, we compute the nanowire conductance as a function of the magnetic field, the temperature, and the gate voltage. In the simplest 1D topological SC model, the oscillations of the conductance peak spacings (OCPSs) arising from the Majorana overlap from the two wire ends manifest an increasing oscillation amplitude with increasing magnetic field (in disagreement with a recent experimental observation). We develop a generalized finite-temperature master-equation theory including not only multiple subbands in the nanowire, but also the possibility of ordinary Andreev bound states in the nontopological regime. Inclusion of all four effects (temperature, multiple subbands, Andreev bound states, and MBSs) provides a complete picture of the tunneling transport properties of the Coulomb-blockaded nanowire. Based on this complete theory, we indeed obtain OCPSs whose amplitudes decrease with increasing magnetic field in qualitative agreement with recent experimental results, but this happens only for rather high temperatures with multisubband occupancy and the simultaneous presence of both Andreev bound states and MBSs in the system. Thus, the experimentally observed OCPSs manifesting

  16. Thermal conductivity modeling of core-shell and tubular nanowires.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ronggui; Chen, Gang; Dresselhaus, Mildred S

    2005-06-01

    The heteroepitaxial growth of crystalline core-shell nanostructures of a variety of materials has become possible in recent years, allowing the realization of various novel nanoscale electronic and optoelectronic devices. The increased surface or interface area will decrease the thermal conductivity of such nanostructures and impose challenges for the thermal management of such devices. In the meantime, the decreased thermal conductivity might benefit the thermoelectric conversion efficiency. In this paper, we present modeling results on the lattice thermal conductivity of core-shell and tubular nanowires along the wire axis direction using the phonon Boltzmann equation. We report the dependence of the thermal conductivity on the surface conditions and the core-shell geometry for silicon core-germanium shell and tubular silicon nanowires at room temperature. The results show that the effective thermal conductivity changes not only with the composition of the constituents but also with the radius of the nanowires and nanopores due to the nature of the ballistic phonon transport. The results in this work have implications for the design and operation of a variety of nanoelectronic devices, optoelectronic devices, and thermoelectric materials and devices.

  17. Theoretic analysis on electric conductance of nano-wire transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, N.-C.; Chiang, Y.-R.; Hsu, S.-L.

    2010-01-01

    By employing the commercial software nanoMos and Vienna ab Initio Simulation Package ( VASP), the performance of nano-wire field-effect transistors is investigated. In this paper, the Density-Gradient Model (DG Model) is used to describe the carrier transport behavior of the nano-wire transistor under quantum effects. The analysis of the drain current with respect to channel length, body dielectric constant and gate contact work function is presented. In addition, Fermi energy and DOS (Density of State) are introduced to explore the relative stability of carrier transport and electrical conductance for the silicon crystal with dopants. Finally, how the roughness of the surface of the silicon-based crystal is affected by dopants and their allocation can be illuminated by a few broken bonds between atoms near the skin of the crystal.

  18. Tunable metallic-like conductivity in microbial nanowire networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malvankar, Nikhil S.; Vargas, Madeline; Nevin, Kelly P.; Franks, Ashley E.; Leang, Ching; Kim, Byoung-Chan; Inoue, Kengo; Mester, Tünde; Covalla, Sean F.; Johnson, Jessica P.; Rotello, Vincent M.; Tuominen, Mark T.; Lovley, Derek R.

    2011-09-01

    Electronic nanostructures made from natural amino acids are attractive because of their relatively low cost, facile processing and absence of toxicity. However, most materials derived from natural amino acids are electronically insulating. Here, we report metallic-like conductivity in films of the bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens and also in pilin nanofilaments (known as microbial nanowires) extracted from these bacteria. These materials have electronic conductivities of ~5 mS cm-1, which are comparable to those of synthetic metallic nanostructures. They can also conduct over distances on the centimetre scale, which is thousands of times the size of a bacterium. Moreover, the conductivity of the biofilm can be tuned by regulating gene expression, and also by varying the gate voltage in a transistor configuration. The conductivity of the nanofilaments has a temperature dependence similar to that of a disordered metal, and the conductivity could be increased by processing.

  19. Thermal Conductivity Suppression in Nanostructured Silicon and Germanium Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özden, Ayberk; Kandemir, Ali; Ay, Feridun; Perkgöz, Nihan Kosku; Sevik, Cem

    2016-03-01

    The inherent low lattice thermal conductivity (TC) of semiconductor nanowires (s-NW) due to one-dimensional phonon confinement might provide a solution for the long-lasting figure-of-merit problem for highly efficient thermoelectric (TE) applications. Standalone diameter modulation or alloying of s-NW serve as a toolkit for TC control, but realizing the full potential of nanowires requires new atomic-scale designs, growth, characterization, and understanding of the physical mechanisms behind the structure-property (TC) relationship. Before undertaking time-consuming and expensive experimental work, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations serve as an excellent probe to investigate new designs and understand how nanostructures affect thermal transport properties through their capability to capture various phenomena such as phonon boundary scattering, phonon coherence resonance, and phonon backscattering. On the other hand, because different research groups use different structural and MD parameters in their simulations, it is rather difficult to make comparisons between different nanostructures and select appropriate ones for potential TE applications. Therefore, in this work, we systematically investigated pristine, core-shell (C-S), holey (H-N), superlattice (SL), sawtooth (ST), and superlattice sawtooth (SL-ST) nanowires with identical structural parameters. Specifically, we aim to compare the relative TC reduction achieved by these nanostructures with respect to pristine nanowires in order to propose the best structural design with the lowest lattice TC, using Green-Kubo method-based equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations at 300 K. Our results show that the TC can be minimized by changing specific parameters such as the core diameter and monolayer separation for C-S, H-N, and ST structures. In the case of SL structures, the TC is found to be independent of these parameters. However, surface roughness in the form of a ST morphology provides a TC value below 2 W

  20. Thermal conductivity of silicon nanowires embedded on thermoelectric platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, JinYong; Cho, Kyoungah; Yoon, Dae Sung; Kim, Sangsig

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we propose a simple method for obtaining the thermal conductivity of silicon nanowires (SiNWs) embedded on a thermoelectric platform. The approximation of the heat flux in SiNWs with temperature differences enables the determination of thermal conductivity. Using this method, the thermal conductivities of our n- and p-type SiNWs are found to be 18.06  ±  0.12 and 20.29  ±  0.77 W m-1 · K-1, respectively. The atomic weight of arsenic ions in the n-type SiNWs is responsible for a lower thermal conductivity than that of boron ions in the p-type SiNWs. Our results demonstrate that this simple method is capable of measuring the thermal conductivity of thermoelectric nanomaterials embedded on thermoelectric devices.

  1. Local electric conductive property of Si nanowire models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Yuji; Senami, Masato; Tachibana, Akitomo

    2012-12-01

    Local electric conductive properties of Si nanowire models are investigated by using two local electric conductivity tensors, {{σ }limits^{leftrArr }}_{ext}(r) and {{σ }limits^{leftrArr }}_{int}(r), defined in Rigged QED. It is emphasized that {{σ }limits^{leftrArr }}_{int}(r) is defined as the response of electric current to the actual electric field at a specific point and does not have corresponding macroscopic physical quantity. For the Si nanowire models, there are regions which show complicated response of electric current density to electric field, in particular, opposite and rotational ones. Local conductivities are considered to be available for the study of a negative differential resistance (NDR), which may be related to this opposite response. It is found that {{σ }limits^{leftrArr }}_{int}(r) shows quite different pattern from {{σ }limits^{leftrArr }}_{ext}(r), local electric conductivity defined for the external electric field. The effects of impurities are also studied by using the model including a Ge atom, in terms of the local response to electric field. It is found that the difference from the pristine model is found mainly around the Ge atom.

  2. Tunable conductance of magnetic nanowires with structured domain walls.

    PubMed

    Dugaev, V K; Berakdar, J; Barnaś, J

    2006-02-03

    We show that in a magnetic nanowire with double magnetic domain walls, quantum interference results in spin-split quasistationary states localized mainly between the domain walls. Spin-flip-assisted transmission through the domain structure increases strongly when these size-quantized states are tuned on resonance with the Fermi energy, e.g., upon varying the distance between the domain walls which results in resonance-type peaks of the wire conductance. This novel phenomenon is shown to be utilizable to manipulate the spin density in the domain vicinity. The domain wall parameters are readily controllable, and the predicted effect is hence exploitable in spintronic devices.

  3. Effects of alkali treatments on Ag nanowire transparent conductive films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sunho; Kang, Jun-gu; Eom, Tae-yil; Moon, Bongjin; Lee, Hoo-Jeong

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we employ various alkali materials (alkali metals with different base strengths, and ammonia gas and solution) to improve the conductivity of silver nanowire (Ag NW)-networked films. The alkali treatment appears to remove the surface oxide and improve the conductivity. When applied with TiO2 nanoparticles, the treatment appears more effective as the alkalis gather around wire junctions and help them weld to each other via heat emitted from the reduction reaction. The ammonia solution treatment is found to be quick and aggressive, damaging the wires severely in the case of excessive treatment. On the other hand, the ammonia gas treatment seems much less aggressive and does not damage the wires even after a long exposure. The results of this study highlight the effectiveness of the alkali treatment in improving of the conductivity of Ag NW-networked transparent conductive films.

  4. Conductance through a helical state in an Indium antimonide nanowire.

    PubMed

    Kammhuber, J; Cassidy, M C; Pei, F; Nowak, M P; Vuik, A; Gül, Ö; Car, D; Plissard, S R; Bakkers, E P A M; Wimmer, M; Kouwenhoven, L P

    2017-09-07

    The motion of an electron and its spin are generally not coupled. However in a one-dimensional material with strong spin-orbit interaction (SOI) a helical state may emerge at finite magnetic fields, where electrons of opposite spin will have opposite momentum. The existence of this helical state has applications for spin filtering and cooper pair splitter devices and is an essential ingredient for realizing topologically protected quantum computing using Majorana zero modes. Here, we report measurements of a quantum point contact in an indium antimonide nanowire. At magnetic fields exceeding 3 T, the 2 e (2)/h conductance plateau shows a re-entrant feature toward 1 e (2)/h which increases linearly in width with magnetic field. Rotating the magnetic field clearly attributes this experimental signature to SOI and by comparing our observations with a numerical model we extract a spin-orbit energy of approximately 6.5 meV, which is stronger than the spin-orbit energy obtained by other methods.Indium antimonide nanowires have large spin-orbit coupling, which can give rise to helical states that are an important part of proposals for topological quantum computing. Here the authors measure conductance through the helical states and extract a larger spin-orbit energy than obtained before.

  5. Helicity induced thermal conductivity reduction in superlattice nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varshney, Vikas; Roy, Ajit K.; Lee, Jonghoon; Dudis, Douglas S.; Farmer, Barry L.

    2012-12-01

    In this study, we have performed non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) simulations to investigate thermal transport properties of 'model' bi-component helical nanowires. The results indicate that significant reduction in thermal conductivity, similar to that of flat superlattice nanostructures, can be achieved using a helical geometric configuration. The reduction is attributed to a plethora of transmissive and reflective phonon scattering events resulting from the steady alteration of phonon propagating direction that emerges from the continuous rotation of the helical interface. We also show that increasing the relative mass ratio of the two components lowers the phonon energy transmission at the interface (differences in vibrational frequency spectrum), thereby relatively 'easing' the phonon energy propagation along the helical pathway. While the proposed mechanisms result in a reduced lattice thermal conductivity, the continuous nature of the bi-component nanowire would not be expected to significantly reduce its electrical counterpart, as often occurs in superlattice/alloy nanostructures. Hence, we believe that the helical configuration of atomic arrangement should be a very attractive, general approach for improved thermoelectric material assemblies independent of the specific chemical composition.

  6. Strain- and defect-mediated thermal conductivity in silicon nanowires.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Kathryn F; Piccione, Brian; Zanjani, Mehdi B; Lukes, Jennifer R; Gianola, Daniel S

    2014-07-09

    The unique thermal transport of insulating nanostructures is attributed to the convergence of material length scales with the mean free paths of quantized lattice vibrations known as phonons, enabling promising next-generation thermal transistors, thermal barriers, and thermoelectrics. Apart from size, strain and defects are also known to drastically affect heat transport when introduced in an otherwise undisturbed crystalline lattice. Here we report the first experimental measurements of the effect of both spatially uniform strain and point defects on thermal conductivity of an individual suspended nanowire using in situ Raman piezothermography. Our results show that whereas phononic transport in undoped Si nanowires with diameters in the range of 170-180 nm is largely unaffected by uniform elastic tensile strain, another means of disturbing a pristine lattice, namely, point defects introduced via ion bombardment, can reduce the thermal conductivity by over 70%. In addition to discerning surface- and core-governed pathways for controlling thermal transport in phonon-dominated insulators and semiconductors, we expect our novel approach to have broad applicability to a wide class of functional one- and two-dimensional nanomaterials.

  7. Monte Carlo Simulation of Thermal Conductivity in Randomly Distributed Nanowire Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, W.; Yang, R.

    2007-03-01

    In this paper, we investigated the thermal conductivity of composites made of two types of randomly stacked nanowires with high contrast ratio of bulk thermal conductivity. Thermal conductivity predictions based on solving the phonon Boltzmann transport equation by using the Monte Carlo method are presented for different contrast ratios of thermal conductivity, sizes of nanowires and the volumetric fractions in the composites. For composites made of nanowires with high contrast ratio thermal conductivity, the thermal conductivity of the nanocomposites increase dramatically when the volumetric fraction of high thermal conductivity nanowire is higher than the geometry percolation threshold, although existing correlations in percolation theory do not fit the results due to the phonon interface scattering. On the other hand, when the the size of nanowires is small and the volumetric fraction of high thermal conductivity nanowire is less than percolation threshold, the thermal conductivity of the nanocomposites decreases with increasing the volumetric fraction of the high thermal conductivity nanowires. The results of this study may help the development of nanoscale thermoelectric materials in which the figure of merit is optimized by choosing appropriate nanowire size, property contrast and composition. RY acknowledges the funding support for this work by DoD/AFOSR MURI grant FA9550-06-1-0326. The simulation was conducted on a 24-node cluster supported by Intel Corporation and managed by Prof. Gang Chen and Mr. Lu Hu at MIT.

  8. Resistance of Single Ag Nanowire Junctions and Their Role in the Conductivity of Nanowire Networks.

    PubMed

    Bellew, Allen T; Manning, Hugh G; Gomes da Rocha, Claudia; Ferreira, Mauro S; Boland, John J

    2015-11-24

    Networks of silver nanowires appear set to replace expensive indium tin oxide as the transparent conducting electrode material in next generation devices. The success of this approach depends on optimizing the material conductivity, which until now has largely focused on minimizing the junction resistance between wires. However, there have been no detailed reports on what the junction resistance is, nor is there a known benchmark for the minimum attainable sheet resistance of an optimized network. In this paper, we present junction resistance measurements of individual silver nanowire junctions, producing for the first time a distribution of junction resistance values and conclusively demonstrating that the junction contribution to the overall resistance can be reduced beyond that of the wires through standard processing techniques. We find that this distribution shows the presence of a small percentage (6%) of high-resistance junctions, and we show how these may impact the performance of network-based materials. Finally, through combining experiment with a rigorous model, we demonstrate the important role played by the network skeleton and the specific connectivity of the network in determining network performance.

  9. Highly transparent, conductive, flexible resin films embedded with silver nanowires.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yaqiu; Xi, Jun; Wu, Zhaoxin; Dong, Hua; Zhao, Zhixu; Jiao, Bo; Hou, Xun

    2015-05-05

    In this article, a low sheet resistance and highly transparent silver nanowire (AgNW) resin composite film was demonstrated, which was prepared by a simple and efficacious two-step spin-coating method. By burying the AgNWs below the surface of the transparent resin matrix which was cured at 150 °C in air, we achieved a uniform, highly transparent, conductive, flexible film. Compared to the reported transparent electrodes, this composite transparent and conductive film showed 10 Ω/□ sheet resistance and nearly 90% mean optical transmittance over the UV-visible range simultaneously. Undergoing hundreds of cycles of tensile and compression folding, the composite film slightly increased its sheet resistance by less than 5%, displaying good electromechanical flexibility. These characteristics of the composite AgNW-resin films were expected to be used in applications of flexible optoelectronics.

  10. Valence state of Ti in conductive nanowires in sapphire

    SciTech Connect

    Mizoguchi, Teruyasu; Nakamura, Atsutomo; Matsunaga, Katsuyuki; Ikuhara, Yuichi; Sakurai, Masaki; Tanaka, Isao; Yamamoto, Takahisa

    2004-10-15

    In order to reveal the valence state of Ti in conductive nanowires in sapphire, near-edge x-ray-absorption fine structures (NEXAFS) were observed. From experimental and theoretical studies on NEXAFS of reference compounds including rutile, anatase, and Ti{sub 2}O{sub 3}, it was found that the valence state of Ti can be identified by regarding the positions of the spectral onset and the shoulder in the main peak of Ti-K NEXAFS. The valence states of Ti doped Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} polycrystalline specimens which were annealed at oxidized and reduced atmospheres were determined to be +4 and +3, respectively. The solubility limit of Ti in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} polycrystal was found to be between 1000 ppm to 1.0% at the both atmospheres. The spectrum from Ti nanowires in sapphire has a lot of similarities to the reduced specimen, the valence state was therefore concluded to be +3.

  11. Quantized Conductance in InSb nanowires at zero magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammhuber, Jakob; Cassidy, Maja; Zhang, Hao; Gül, Önder; Pei, Fei; de Moor, Michiel; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Car, Diana; Bakkers, Erik; Kouwenhoven, Leo

    We present measurements of InSb nanowires in the ballistic transport regime. In 1D materials such as nanowires, electron scattering has an increased chance of back-reflection, obscuring the observation of quantized conductance at low magnetic fields. By improving the contacts to the nanowire as well as its dielectric environment backscattering events are minimized and conductance quantization is observable at zero magnetic field with high device yield. We study the evolution of individual sub-bands in an external magnetic field, observing a degeneracy between the 2nd and 3rd sub-band when the magnetic field is orientated perpendicular to the nanowire axis.

  12. Final Scientific Report: Bacterial Nanowires and Extracellular Electron Transfer to Heavy Metals and Radionuclides by Bacterial Isolates from DOE Field Research Centers

    SciTech Connect

    Nealson, Kenneth

    2016-12-20

    This proposal involved the study of bacteria capable of transferring electrons from the bacterial cells to electron acceptors located outside the cell. These could be either insoluble minerals that were transformed into soluble products upon the addition of electrons, or they could be soluble salts like uranium or chromium, that become insoluble upon the addition of electrons. This process is called extracellular electron transport or EET, and can be done directly by cellular contact, or via conductive appendages called bacterial nanowires. In this work we examined a number of different bacteria for their ability to perform EET, and also looked at their ability to produce conductive nanowires that can be used for EET at a distance away from the EET-capable cells. In the work, new bacteria were isolated, new abilities of EET were examined, and many new methods were developed, and carefully described in the literature. These studies set the stage for future work dealing with the bioremediation of toxic metals like uranium and chromium. They also point out that EET (and conductive nanowires) are far more common that had been appreciated, and may be involved with energy transfer not only in sediments, but in symbioses between different bacteria, and in symbiosis/pathogenesis between bacteria and higher organisms.

  13. Growth of gallium nitride and indium nitride nanowires on conductive and flexible carbon cloth substrates.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi; Ling, Yichuan; Wang, Gongming; Lu, Xihong; Tong, Yexiang; Li, Yat

    2013-03-07

    We report a general strategy for synthesis of gallium nitride (GaN) and indium nitride (InN) nanowires on conductive and flexible carbon cloth substrates. GaN and InN nanowires were prepared via a nanocluster-mediated growth method using a home built chemical vapor deposition (CVD) system with Ga and In metals as group III precursors and ammonia as a group V precursor. Electron microscopy studies reveal that the group III-nitride nanowires are single crystalline wurtzite structures. The morphology, density and growth mechanism of these nanowires are determined by the growth temperature. Importantly, a photoelectrode fabricated by contacting the GaN nanowires through a carbon cloth substrate shows pronounced photoactivity for photoelectrochemical water oxidation. The ability to synthesize group III-nitride nanowires on conductive and flexible substrates should open up new opportunities for nanoscale photonic, electronic and electrochemical devices.

  14. Influence of magnetic domain walls and magnetic field on the thermal conductivity of magnetic nanowires.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hao-Ting; Lai, Mei-Feng; Hou, Yun-Fang; Wei, Zung-Hang

    2015-05-13

    We investigated the influence of magnetic domain walls and magnetic fields on the thermal conductivity of suspended magnetic nanowires. The thermal conductivity of the nanowires was obtained using steady-state Joule heating to measure the change in resistance caused by spontaneous heating. The results showed that the thermal conductivity coefficients of straight and wavy magnetic nanowires decreased with an increase in the magnetic domain wall number, implying that the scattering between magnons and domain walls hindered the heat transport process. In addition, we proved that the magnetic field considerably reduced the thermal conductivity of a magnetic nanowire. The influence of magnetic domain walls and magnetic fields on the thermal conductivity of polycrystalline magnetic nanowires can be attributed to the scattering of long-wavelength spin waves mediated by intergrain exchange coupling.

  15. Temperature Dependence of Electrical and Thermal Conduction in Single Silver Nanowire

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-02

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: In this work, the thermal and electrical transport in an individual silver nanowire is characterized down to 35 K for in...resistivity increases by around 4 folds from that of bulk silver. The Debye temperature (151 K) of the silver nanowire is found 36% lower than that (235 K) of...public release; distribution is unlimited. Temperature Dependence of Electrical and Thermal Conduction in Single Silver Nanowire The views, opinions

  16. Evidence for High Conductivity in the Pili of Geobacter sulfurreducens: ``Nano-wires'' in a Prokaryotic Electron Transport Chain?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, Kevin D.; Reguera, Gemma; Mehta, Teena; Nicoll, Julie S.; Wang, Xinyu; Tuominen, Mark T.; Lovley, Derek R.

    2006-03-01

    We discuss results of Conducting-Probe Atomic Force Microscopy (CP-AFM) applied to the nanoscopic filamentary pili of the prokaryote Geobacter sulfurreducens. (G. Reguera, et al., Nature 435, 1038, 2005) The apparently high cross-axis conductivity of this bacterial membrane protein complex, along with evidence of its necessity for respiratory reduction of insoluble Fe(III) deposits in nature, points to the possibility of a novel role for the pili protein complex in the electron transport chain of a prokaryote: as a kind of ``nano-wire'' for conduction of electrons to Fe(III) oxides. CP-AFM and in vivo genetic engineering experiments supporting the ``nano-wire'' hypothesis are presented.

  17. Co-percolation to tune conductive behaviour in dynamical metallic nanowire networks.

    PubMed

    Fairfield, J A; Rocha, C G; O'Callaghan, C; Ferreira, M S; Boland, J J

    2016-11-03

    Nanowire networks act as self-healing smart materials, whose sheet resistance can be tuned via an externally applied voltage stimulus. This memristive response occurs due to modification of junction resistances to form a connectivity path across the lowest barrier junctions in the network. While most network studies have been performed on expensive noble metal nanowires like silver, networks of inexpensive nickel nanowires with a nickel oxide coating can also demonstrate resistive switching, a common feature of metal oxides with filamentary conduction. However, networks made from solely nickel nanowires have high operation voltages which prohibit large-scale material applications. Here we show, using both experiment and simulation, that a heterogeneous network of nickel and silver nanowires allows optimization of the activation voltage, as well as tuning of the conduction behavior to be either resistive switching, memristive, or a combination of both. Small percentages of silver nanowires, below the percolation threshold, induce these changes in electrical behaviour, even for low area coverage and hence very transparent films. Silver nanowires act as current concentrators, amplifying conductivity locally as shown in our computational dynamical activation framework for networks of junctions. These results demonstrate that a heterogeneous nanowire network can act as a cost-effective adaptive material with minimal use of noble metal nanowires, without losing memristive behaviour that is essential for smart sensing and neuromorphic applications.

  18. Thermal Conduction in Vertically Aligned Copper Nanowire Arrays and Composites.

    PubMed

    Barako, Michael T; Roy-Panzer, Shilpi; English, Timothy S; Kodama, Takashi; Asheghi, Mehdi; Kenny, Thomas W; Goodson, Kenneth E

    2015-09-02

    The ability to efficiently and reliably transfer heat between sources and sinks is often a bottleneck in the thermal management of modern energy conversion technologies ranging from microelectronics to thermoelectric power generation. These interfaces contribute parasitic thermal resistances that reduce device performance and are subjected to thermomechanical stresses that degrade device lifetime. Dense arrays of vertically aligned metal nanowires (NWs) offer the unique combination of thermal conductance from the constituent metal and mechanical compliance from the high aspect ratio geometry to increase interfacial heat transfer and device reliability. In the present work, we synthesize copper NW arrays directly onto substrates via templated electrodeposition and extend this technique through the use of a sacrificial overplating layer to achieve improved uniformity. Furthermore, we infiltrate the array with an organic phase change material and demonstrate the preservation of thermal properties. We use the 3ω method to measure the axial thermal conductivity of freestanding copper NW arrays to be as high as 70 W m(-1) K(-1), which is more than an order of magnitude larger than most commercial interface materials and enhanced-conductivity nanocomposites reported in the literature. These arrays are highly anisotropic, and the lateral thermal conductivity is found to be only 1-2 W m(-1) K(-1). We use these measured properties to elucidate the governing array-scale transport mechanisms, which include the effects of morphology and energy carrier scattering from size effects and grain boundaries.

  19. Effects of lithium insertion on thermal conductivity of silicon nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wen; Zhang, Gang; Li, Baowen

    2015-04-01

    Recently, silicon nanowires (SiNWs) have been applied as high-performance Li battery anodes, since they can overcome the pulverization and mechanical fracture during lithiation. Although thermal stability is one of the most important parameters that determine safety of Li batteries, thermal conductivity of SiNWs with Li insertion remains unclear. In this letter, using molecular dynamics simulations, we study room temperature thermal conductivity of SiNWs with Li insertion. It is found that compared with the pristine SiNW, there is as much as 60% reduction in thermal conductivity with 10% concentration of inserted Li atoms, while under the same impurity concentration the reduction in thermal conductivity of the mass-disordered SiNW is only 30%. With lattice dynamics calculations and normal mode decomposition, it is revealed that the phonon lifetimes in SiNWs decrease greatly due to strong scattering of phonons by vibrational modes of Li atoms, especially for those high frequency phonons. The observed strong phonon scattering phenomenon in Li-inserted SiNWs is similar to the phonon rattling effect. Our study serves as an exploration of thermal properties of SiNWs as Li battery anodes or weakly coupled with impurity atoms.

  20. Effects of lithium insertion on thermal conductivity of silicon nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Wen; Zhang, Gang; Li, Baowen

    2015-04-27

    Recently, silicon nanowires (SiNWs) have been applied as high-performance Li battery anodes, since they can overcome the pulverization and mechanical fracture during lithiation. Although thermal stability is one of the most important parameters that determine safety of Li batteries, thermal conductivity of SiNWs with Li insertion remains unclear. In this letter, using molecular dynamics simulations, we study room temperature thermal conductivity of SiNWs with Li insertion. It is found that compared with the pristine SiNW, there is as much as 60% reduction in thermal conductivity with 10% concentration of inserted Li atoms, while under the same impurity concentration the reduction in thermal conductivity of the mass-disordered SiNW is only 30%. With lattice dynamics calculations and normal mode decomposition, it is revealed that the phonon lifetimes in SiNWs decrease greatly due to strong scattering of phonons by vibrational modes of Li atoms, especially for those high frequency phonons. The observed strong phonon scattering phenomenon in Li-inserted SiNWs is similar to the phonon rattling effect. Our study serves as an exploration of thermal properties of SiNWs as Li battery anodes or weakly coupled with impurity atoms.

  1. Electric conductivity-tunable transparent flexible nanowire-filled polymer composites: orientation control of nanowires in a magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Takayuki; Aoki, Nobuyuki; Ochiai, Yuichi; Hoshino, Katsuyoshi

    2011-07-01

    Cobalt compound nanowires were dispersed in a transparent nonconductive polymer film by merely stirring, and the film's transparency and electrical conductivity were examined. This composite film is a unique system in which the average length of the nanowires exceeds the film's thickness. Even in such a system, a percolation threshold existed for the electric conductivity in the direction of the film thickness, and the value was 0.18 vol%. The electric conductivity value changed from ∼1 × 10(-12) S/cm to ∼1 × 10(-3) S/cm when the volume fraction exceeded the threshold. The electric conductivity apparently followed the percolation model until the volume fraction of the nanowires was about 0.45 vol %. The visible light transmission and electric conductivity of the composite film of about 1 vol % nanowires were 92% and 5 × 10(-3) S/cm, respectively. Moreover, the electric conductivity in the direction parallel to the film surface did not depend on the amount of the dispersed nanowires, and its value was about 1 × 10(-14) S/cm. Even in a weak magnetic field of about 100 mT, the nanowires were aligned in a vertical and parallel direction to the film surface, and the electric conductivity of each aligned composite film was 2.0 × 10(-2) S/cm and 2.1 × 10(-12) S/cm. The relation between the average wire length and the electric conductivity was examined, and the effect of the magnetic alignment on that relation was also examined.

  2. Hybrid Ag nanowire transparent conductive electrodes with randomly oriented and grid-patterned Ag nanowire networks.

    PubMed

    Ha, Bonhee; Jo, Sungjin

    2017-09-14

    To improve the electrical properties of silver nanowire (Ag NW) transparent conductive electrodes (TCEs), the density of Ag NW networks should be increased, to increase the number of percolation paths. However, because of the inverse relationship between optical transmittance and electrical resistivity, the optical properties of Ag NW TCEs deteriorate with increasing density of the Ag NW network. In this study, a hybrid Ag NW electrode composed of randomly oriented and grid-patterned Ag NW networks is demonstrated. The hybrid Ag NW electrodes exhibit significantly improved sheet resistances and slightly decreased transmittances compared to randomly oriented Ag NW networks. Hybrid Ag NW TCEs show excellent mechanical flexibilities and durabilities in bending tests with a 5 mm radius of curvature. Moreover, flexible transparent film heaters (TFHs) based on the hybrid Ag NW electrodes show elevated maximum temperatures relative to TFHs based on randomly oriented Ag NW electrodes, when operated at the same input voltages.

  3. Probing the low thermal conductivity of single-crystalline porous Si nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yunshan; Lina Yang Collaboration; Lingyu Kong Collaboration; Baowen Li Collaboration; John T L Thong Collaboration; Kedar Hippalgaonkar Collaboration

    Pore-like structures provide a novel way to reduce the thermal conductivity of silicon nanowires, compared to both smooth-surface VLS nanowires and rough EE nanowires. Because of enhanced phonon scattering with interface and decrease in phonon transport path, the porous nanostructures show reduction in thermal conductance by few orders of magnitude. It proves to be extremely challenging to evaluate porosity accurately in an experimental manner and further understand its effect on thermal transport. In this study, we use the newly developed electron-beam based micro-electrothermal device technique to study the porosity dependent thermal conductivity of mesoporous silicon nanowires that have single-crystalline scaffolding. Based on the Casino simulation, the power absorbed by the nanowire, coming from the loss of travelling electron energy, has a linear relationship with it cross section. The relationship has been verified experimentally as well. Monte Carlo simulation is carried out to theoretically predict the thermal conductivity of silicon nanowires with a specific value of porosity. These single-crystalline porous silicon nanowires show extremely low thermal conductivity, even below the amorphous limit. These structures together with our experimental techniques provide a particularly intriguing platform to understand the phonon transport in nanoscale and aid the performance improvement in future nanowires-based devices.

  4. Conductive-probe atomic force microscopy characterization of silicon nanowire

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The electrical conduction properties of lateral and vertical silicon nanowires (SiNWs) were investigated using a conductive-probe atomic force microscopy (AFM). Horizontal SiNWs, which were synthesized by the in-plane solid-liquid-solid technique, are randomly deployed into an undoped hydrogenated amorphous silicon layer. Local current mapping shows that the wires have internal microstructures. The local current-voltage measurements on these horizontal wires reveal a power law behavior indicating several transport regimes based on space-charge limited conduction which can be assisted by traps in the high-bias regime (> 1 V). Vertical phosphorus-doped SiNWs were grown by chemical vapor deposition using a gold catalyst-driving vapor-liquid-solid process on higly n-type silicon substrates. The effect of phosphorus doping on the local contact resistance between the AFM tip and the SiNW was put in evidence, and the SiNWs resistivity was estimated. PMID:21711623

  5. Silver Nanowire Networks as Flexible, Transparent, Conducting Films: Extremely High DC to Optical Conductivity Ratios.

    PubMed

    De, Sukanta; Higgins, Thomas M; Lyons, Philip E; Doherty, Evelyn M; Nirmalraj, Peter N; Blau, Werner J; Boland, John J; Coleman, Jonathan N

    2009-07-28

    We have used aqueous dispersions of silver nanowires to prepare thin, flexible, transparent, conducting films. The nanowires are of length and diameter close to 6.5 μm and 85 nm, respectively. At low thickness, the films consist of networks but appear to become bulk-like for mean film thicknesses above ∼160 nm. These films can be very transparent with optical transmittance reaching as high as 92% for low thickness. The transmittance (550 nm) decreases with increasing thickness, consistent with an optical conductivity of 6472 S/m. The films are also very uniform; the transmittance varies spatially by typically <2%. The sheet resistance decreases with increasing thickness, falling below 1 Ω/◻ for thicknesses above 300 nm. The DC conductivity increases from 2 × 10(5) S/m for very thin films before saturating at 5 × 10(6) S/m for thicker films. Similarly, the ratio of DC to optical conductivity increases with increasing thickness from 25 for the thinnest films, saturating at ∼500 for thicknesses above ∼160 nm. We believe this is the highest conductivity ratio ever observed for nanostructured films and is matched only by doped metal oxide films. These nanowire films are electromechanically very robust, with all but the thinnest films showing no change in sheet resistance when flexed over >1000 cycles. Such results make these films ideal as replacements for indium tin oxide as transparent electrodes. We have prepared films with optical transmittance and sheet resistance of 85% and 13 Ω/◻, respectively. This is very close to that displayed by commercially available indium tin oxide.

  6. Conductive Polymer Nanowire Gas Sensor Fabricated by Nanoscale Soft Lithography.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ning; Jiang, Yang; Qu, Hemi; Duan, Xuexin

    2017-10-02

    Resistive devices composed of one dimensional nanostructures are promising candidate for next generation gas sensors. However, the large-scale fabrication of nanowires is still a challenge, restricting the commercialization of such type of devices. Here, we reported a highly efficient and facile approach to fabricate poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) nanowire chemiresistive type of gas sensor by nanoscale soft lithography. Well-defined sub-100 nm nanowires are fabricated on silicon substrate which facilitates the device integration. The nanowire chemiresistive gas sensor is demonstrated for NH3 and NO2 detection at room-temperature and shows a limit of detection at ppb level which is compatible with nanoscale PEDOT:PSS gas sensors fabricated with conventional lithography technique. In comparison with PEDOT:PSS thin film gas sensor, the nanowire gas sensor exhibits a higher sensitivity and much faster response to gas molecules. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  7. DNA origami metallized site specifically to form electrically conductive nanowires.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Anthony C; Liu, Jianfei; Pound, Elisabeth; Uprety, Bibek; Woolley, Adam T; Davis, Robert C; Harb, John N

    2012-09-06

    DNA origami is a promising tool for use as a template in the design and fabrication of nanoscale structures. The ability to engineer selected staple strands on a DNA origami structure provides a high density of addressable locations across the structure. Here we report a method using site-specific attachment of gold nanoparticles to modified staple strands and subsequent metallization to fabricate conductive wires from DNA origami templates. We have modified DNA origami structures by lengthening each staple strand in select regions with a 10-base nucleotide sequence and have attached DNA-modified gold nanoparticles to the lengthened staple strands via complementary base-pairing. The high density of extended staple strands allowed the gold nanoparticles to pack tightly in the modified regions of the DNA origami, where the measured median gap size between neighboring particles was 4.1 nm. Gold metallization processes were optimized so that the attached gold nanoparticles grew until gaps between particles were filled and uniform continuous nanowires were formed. Finally, electron beam lithography was used to pattern electrodes in order to measure the electrical conductivity of metallized DNA origami, which showed an average resistance of 2.4 kΩ per metallized structure.

  8. Ultralow thermal conductivity of silicon nanowire arrays by molecular dynamics simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ting; Xiong, Xue; Liu, Meng; Cheng, Guoan; Zheng, Ruiting; Xu, Ju; Wei, Lei

    2017-02-01

    We investigate the thermal conductivities of silicon nanowires (SiNWs) and their arrays based on molecular dynamics simulations. It is found that diminishing diameter, roughing surface and doping impurity of SiNWs can reduce their thermal conductivities by two or three orders of magnitude compared with that of bulk silicon crystals due to the strong phonon boundary and phonon impurity scattering. The simulated thermal conductivities of SiNW arrays demonstrate that arraying nanowires can further lower the thermal conductivity owing to the laterally-coupled effect, and the thermal conductivity of arrays decreases notably with the increased nanowire volume fraction, resulting in an ultralow thermal conductivity for the doped SiNW arrays with rough surfaces, which provides theoretical guidance of thermal management for semiconductor nanowire based microelectronic and thermoelectric devices.

  9. Conductance fluctuations and disorder induced ν =0 quantum Hall plateau in topological insulator nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xypakis, Emmanouil; Bardarson, Jens H.

    2017-01-01

    Clean topological insulators exposed to a magnetic field develop Landau levels accompanied by a nonzero Hall conductivity for the infinite slab geometry. In this work we consider the case of disordered topological insulator nanowires and find, in contrast, that a zero Hall plateau emerges within a broad energy window close to the Dirac point. We numerically calculate the conductance and its distribution for a statistical ensemble of disordered nanowires, and use the conductance fluctuations to study the dependence of the insulating phase on system parameters, such as the nanowire length, disorder strength, and the magnetic field.

  10. The effect of the modulation shape in the ballistic thermal conductance of modulated nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Zianni, Xanthippi

    2012-09-15

    We report on calculations of the ballistic thermal conductance of nanowires with modulated width along their length. We discuss the effect of the shape of the modulation in the thermal conductance of the nanowires. The ballistic thermal conductance is determined by the phonon transmission coefficient. It is shown that the thermal conductance of the modulated wires is lower than that of the corresponding straight wires. The phonon conductance decreases with increasing number of modulating periods and saturates to the infinite superlattice value. It decreases below this value when the modulation profile is non-periodic. It is shown that the thermal conductance can be tuned by changing the shape of the modulation profile. This behavior could lead to structures of nanowires with enhanced thermoelectric efficiency. - Graphical abstract: The thermal conductance versus temperature for straight nanowires and for wires modulated periodically by arrays of identical dots and non-periodically by arrays of non-identical dots. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The thermal conductance of modulated nanowires can be tuned by changing the shape of the modulation profile. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A dramatic decrease of the thermal conductance of modulated nanowires is found when the modulation profile is non-periodic. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Very low thermal conductance can be achieved in modulated wires that have shown efficient electron thermoelectric behavior.

  11. Solid State Electron Transfer via Bacterial Nanowires: Contributions Toward a Mechanistic Understanding of Geophysical Response of Biostimulated Subsurface

    SciTech Connect

    Estella Atekwana

    2012-05-08

    The degradation of organic matter by microorganisms provides a source of electrical potential or so-called 'self potential' (SP) that can be measured by using a voltmeter. During this process electrons are being produced as a waste-product and bacterial cells have to dispose of these to allow for the complete biodegradation of organic matter. Especially in anaerobic microbial communities, exo-cellular electron transfer is the most important driving force behind this process and organisms have developed different, but also similar, ways to transfer electrons to other microorganisms. Recently, it has been postulated that direct electron transfer from cell-to-cell is actually done by 'hard-wired' microorganisms. This shuttling of electrons is most likely done by certain c-type cytochromes that form the functional part of electrically conductive nanowires. In this study we investigated if nanowires can explain the geoelectrical (self potential and spectral induced polarization) signals observed at some biostimulated environments such as DOE sites. The objectives of our project are to: (1) investigate any temporal changes in the geophysical signatures (Self Potential (SP) and Induced Polarization (IP)) associated with nanowires of the bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, wild type and mtrc/omcA deletion mutant, (2) demonstrate that mutant strains of bacteria that produce nonconductive nanowires do not contribute to geoelectrical responses. We accomplished the following: (1) Provided training to students and a postdoctoral fellow that worked on the project, (2) Conducted several SP & IP measurements correlating the distribution of nanowires and SIP/SP signals in partial fulfillment of object No. 1 and 2. On the following we will report and discuss the results of our last experiment with some emphasis on the source mechanisms of both SP and IP associated with Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, wild type in sand columns.

  12. Metal-conductive polymer hybrid nanostructures: preparation and electrical properties of palladium-polyimidazole nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Hinai, Mariam; Hassanien, Reda; Watson, Scott M. D.; Wright, Nicholas G.; Houlton, Andrew; Horrocks, Benjamin R.

    2016-03-01

    A simple, convenient method for the formation of hybrid metal/conductive polymer nanostructures is described. Polyimidazole (PIm) has been templated on λ-DNA via oxidative polymerisation of imidazole using FeCl3 to produce conductive PIm/DNA nanowires. The PIm/DNA nanowires were decorated with Pd (Pd/PIm/DNA) by electroless reduction of {{{{PdCl}}}4}2- with NaBH4 in the presence of PIm/DNA; the choice of imidazole was motivated by the potential Pd(II) binding site at the pyridinic N atom. The formation of PIm/DNA and the presence of metallic Pd on Pd/PIm/DNA nanowires were verified by FTIR, UV-vis and XPS spectroscopy techniques. AFM studies show that the nanowires have diameters in the range 5-45 nm with a slightly greater mean diameter (17.1 ± 0.75 nm) for the Pd-decorated nanowires than the PIm/DNA nanowires (14.5 ± 0.89 nm). After incubation for 24 h in the polymerisation solution, the PIm/DNA nanowires show a smooth, uniform morphology, which is retained after decoration with Pd. Using a combination of scanned conductance microscopy, conductive AFM and two-terminal measurements we show that both types of nanowire are conductive and that it is possible to discriminate different possible mechanisms of transport. The conductivity of the Pd/PIm/DNA nanowires, (0.1-1.4 S cm-1), is comparable to the PIm/DNA nanowires (0.37 ± 0.029 S cm-1). In addition, the conductance of Pd/PIm/DNA nanowires exhibits Arrhenius behaviour (E a = 0.43 ± 0.02 eV) as a function of temperature in contrast to simple Pd/DNA nanowires. These results indicate that although the Pd crystallites on Pd/PIm/DNA nanowires decorate the PIm polymer, the major current pathway is through the polymer rather than the Pd.

  13. Metal-conductive polymer hybrid nanostructures: preparation and electrical properties of palladium-polyimidazole nanowires.

    PubMed

    Al-Hinai, Mariam; Hassanien, Reda; Watson, Scott M D; Wright, Nicholas G; Houlton, Andrew; Horrocks, Benjamin R

    2016-03-04

    A simple, convenient method for the formation of hybrid metal/conductive polymer nanostructures is described. Polyimidazole (PIm) has been templated on λ-DNA via oxidative polymerisation of imidazole using FeCl3 to produce conductive PIm/DNA nanowires. The PIm/DNA nanowires were decorated with Pd (Pd/PIm/DNA) by electroless reduction of PdCl4(-2) with NaBH4 in the presence of PIm/DNA; the choice of imidazole was motivated by the potential Pd(II) binding site at the pyridinic N atom. The formation of PIm/DNA and the presence of metallic Pd on Pd/PIm/DNA nanowires were verified by FTIR, UV-vis and XPS spectroscopy techniques. AFM studies show that the nanowires have diameters in the range 5-45 nm with a slightly greater mean diameter (17.1 ± 0.75 nm) for the Pd-decorated nanowires than the PIm/DNA nanowires (14.5 ± 0.89 nm). After incubation for 24 h in the polymerisation solution, the PIm/DNA nanowires show a smooth, uniform morphology, which is retained after decoration with Pd. Using a combination of scanned conductance microscopy, conductive AFM and two-terminal measurements we show that both types of nanowire are conductive and that it is possible to discriminate different possible mechanisms of transport. The conductivity of the Pd/PIm/DNA nanowires, (0.1-1.4 S cm(-1)), is comparable to the PIm/DNA nanowires (0.37 ± 0.029 S cm(-1)). In addition, the conductance of Pd/PIm/DNA nanowires exhibits Arrhenius behaviour (E(a )= 0.43 ± 0.02 eV) as a function of temperature in contrast to simple Pd/DNA nanowires. These results indicate that although the Pd crystallites on Pd/PIm/DNA nanowires decorate the PIm polymer, the major current pathway is through the polymer rather than the Pd.

  14. Atomistic Simulation of the Size and Orientation Dependences of Thermal Conductivity in GaN Nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhiguo; Zu, Xiaotao; Gao, Fei; Weber, William J.; Crocombette, J.-P.

    2007-04-16

    The thermal conductivity of GaN nanowires has been determined computationally, by applying nonequilibrium atomistic simulation methods using the Stillinger-Weber [Phys. Rev. B 31, 5262 (1985)] potentials. The simulation results show that the thermal conductivity of the GaN nanowires is smaller than that of a bulk crystal and increases with increasing diameter. Surface scattering of phonons and the high surface to volume ratios of the nanowires are primarily responsible for the reduced thermal conductivity and its size dependence behavior. The thermal conductivity is also found to decrease with increasing temperature, which is due to phonon-phonon interactions at high temperatures. The thermal conductivity also exhibits a dependence on axial orientation of the nanowires.

  15. Extraordinarily high conductivity of flexible adhesive films by hybrids of silver nanoparticle-nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhammed Ajmal, C.; Mol Menamparambath, Mini; Ryeol Choi, Hyouk; Baik, Seunghyun

    2016-06-01

    Highly conductive flexible adhesive (CFA) film was developed using micro-sized silver flakes (primary fillers), hybrids of silver nanoparticle-nanowires (secondary fillers) and nitrile butadiene rubber. The hybrids of silver nanoparticle-nanowires were synthesized by decorating silver nanowires with silver nanoparticle clusters using bifunctional cysteamine as a linker. The dispersion in ethanol was excellent for several months. Silver nanowires constructed electrical networks between the micro-scale silver flakes. The low-temperature surface sintering of silver nanoparticles enabled effective joining of silver nanowires to silver flakes. The hybrids of silver nanoparticle-nanowires provided a greater maximum conductivity (54 390 S cm-1) than pure silver nanowires, pure multiwalled carbon nanotubes, and multiwalled carbon nanotubes decorated with silver nanoparticles in nitrile butadiene rubber matrix. The resistance change was smallest upon bending when the hybrids of silver nanoparticle-nanowires were employed. The adhesion of the film on polyethylene terephthalate substrate was excellent. Light emitting diodes were successfully wired to the CFA circuit patterned by the screen printing method for application demonstration.

  16. Stable and Controllable Synthesis of Silver Nanowires for Transparent Conducting Film.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bitao; Yan, Hengqing; Chen, Shanyong; Guan, Youwei; Wu, Guoguo; Jin, Rong; Li, Lu

    2017-12-01

    Silver nanowires without particles are synthesized by a solvothermal method at temperature 150 °C. Silver nanowires are prepared via a reducing agent of glycerol and a capping agent of polyvinylpyrrolidone (M w  ≈ 1,300,000). Both of them can improve the purity of the as-prepared silver nanowires. With controllable shapes and sizes, silver nanowires are grown continuously up to 10-20 μm in length with 40-50 nm in diameter. To improve the yield of silver nanowires, the different concentrations of AgNO3 synthesis silver nanowires are discussed. The characterizations of the synthesized silver nanowires are analyzed by UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscope (AFM), and silver nanowires are pumped on the cellulose membrane and heated stress on the PET. Then, the cellulose membrane is dissolved by the steam of acetone to prepare flexible transparent conducting thin film, which is detected 89.9 of transmittance and 58 Ω/□. Additionally, there is a close loop connected by the thin film, a blue LED, a pair of batteries, and a number of wires, to determinate directly the film if conductive or not.

  17. Extraordinarily high conductivity of flexible adhesive films by hybrids of silver nanoparticle-nanowires.

    PubMed

    Ajmal, C Muhammed; Menamparambath, Mini Mol; Choi, Hyouk Ryeol; Baik, Seunghyun

    2016-06-03

    Highly conductive flexible adhesive (CFA) film was developed using micro-sized silver flakes (primary fillers), hybrids of silver nanoparticle-nanowires (secondary fillers) and nitrile butadiene rubber. The hybrids of silver nanoparticle-nanowires were synthesized by decorating silver nanowires with silver nanoparticle clusters using bifunctional cysteamine as a linker. The dispersion in ethanol was excellent for several months. Silver nanowires constructed electrical networks between the micro-scale silver flakes. The low-temperature surface sintering of silver nanoparticles enabled effective joining of silver nanowires to silver flakes. The hybrids of silver nanoparticle-nanowires provided a greater maximum conductivity (54 390 S cm(-1)) than pure silver nanowires, pure multiwalled carbon nanotubes, and multiwalled carbon nanotubes decorated with silver nanoparticles in nitrile butadiene rubber matrix. The resistance change was smallest upon bending when the hybrids of silver nanoparticle-nanowires were employed. The adhesion of the film on polyethylene terephthalate substrate was excellent. Light emitting diodes were successfully wired to the CFA circuit patterned by the screen printing method for application demonstration.

  18. Conducting polymer nanowires for control of local protein concentration in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Joshua D.; Thourson, Scott B.; Panta, Krishna R.; Flanders, Bret N.; Payne, Christine K.

    2017-05-01

    Interfacing devices with cells and tissues requires new nanoscale tools that are both flexible and electrically active. We demonstrate the use of PEDOT:PSS conducting polymer nanowires for the local control of protein concentration in water and biological media. We use fluorescence microscopy to compare the localization of serum albumin in response to electric fields generated by narrow (760 nm) and wide (1.5 µm) nanowires. We show that proteins in deionized water can be manipulated over a surprisingly large micron length scale and that this distance is a function of nanowire diameter. In addition, white noise can be introduced during the electrochemical synthesis of the nanowire to induce branches into the nanowire allowing a single device to control multiple nanowires. An analysis of growth speed and current density suggests that branching is due to the Mullins-Sekerka instability, ultimately controlled by the roughness of the nanowire surface. These small, flexible, conductive, and biologically compatible PEDOT:PSS nanowires provide a new tool for the electrical control of biological systems.

  19. Surface states and conductivity of silicon nano-wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar Bhaskar, Umesh; Pardoen, Thomas; Passi, Vikram; Raskin, Jean-Pierre

    2013-04-01

    The transport characteristics of low dimensional semiconductors like silicon nano-wires (SiNWs) rarely conform to expectations from geometry and dopant density, exhibiting significant variations as a function of different surface terminations/conditions. The association of these mechanisms with surface states and their exact influence on practical SiNW devices still remains largely unclear. Herein, we report on the influence of surface state charge distributions on SiNW transport characteristics. For this study, p-type SiNW devices with widths of 50, 100, and 2000 nm are fabricated from 25, 50, and 200 nm-thick SOI wafers. A ˜five order difference in effective carrier concentration was observed in the initial SiNWs characteristics, when comparing SiNWs fabricated with and without a thermal oxide. The removal of the surface oxide by a hydrogen fluoride (HF) treatment results in a SiNW conductance drop up to ˜six orders of magnitude. This effect is from a surface depletion of holes in the SiNW induced by positive surface charges deposited as a result of the HF treatment. However, it is observed that this charge density is transient and is dissipated with the re-growth of an oxide layer. In summary, the SiNW conductance is shown to vary by several orders of magnitude, while comparing its characteristics for the three most studied surface conditions: with a native oxide, thermal oxide and HF induced H-terminations. These results emphasize the necessity to interpret the transport characteristics of SiNWs with respect to its surface condition, during future investigations pertaining to the physical properties of SiNWs, like its piezo-resistance. As a sequel, prospects for efficiently sensing an elementary reduction/oxidation chemical process by monitoring the variation of SiNW surface potential, or in practice the SiNW conductance, is demonstrated.

  20. Conductance Quantization at Zero Magnetic Field in InSb Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammhuber, Jakob; Cassidy, Maja C.; Zhang, Hao; Gül, Önder; Pei, Fei; de Moor, Michiel W. A.; Nijholt, Bas; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Car, Diana; Plissard, Sébastien R.; Bakkers, Erik P. A. M.; Kouwenhoven, Leo P.

    2016-06-01

    Ballistic electron transport is a key requirement for existence of a topological phase transition in proximitized InSb nanowires. However, measurements of quantized conductance as direct evidence of ballistic transport have so far been obscured due to the increased chance of backscattering in one dimensional nanowires. We show that by improving the nanowire-metal interface as well as the dielectric environment we can consistently achieve conductance quantization at zero magnetic field. Additionally, studying the sub-band evolution in a rotating magnetic field reveals an orbital degeneracy between the second and third sub-bands for perpendicular fields above 1T.

  1. Conductance Quantization at Zero Magnetic Field in InSb Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Kammhuber, Jakob; Cassidy, Maja C; Zhang, Hao; Gül, Önder; Pei, Fei; de Moor, Michiel W A; Nijholt, Bas; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Car, Diana; Plissard, Sébastien R; Bakkers, Erik P A M; Kouwenhoven, Leo P

    2016-06-08

    Ballistic electron transport is a key requirement for existence of a topological phase transition in proximitized InSb nanowires. However, measurements of quantized conductance as direct evidence of ballistic transport have so far been obscured due to the increased chance of backscattering in one-dimensional nanowires. We show that by improving the nanowire-metal interface as well as the dielectric environment we can consistently achieve conductance quantization at zero magnetic field. Additionally we study the contribution of orbital effects to the sub-band dispersion for different orientation of the magnetic field, observing a near-degeneracy between the second and third sub-bands.

  2. Highly conductive indium nanowires deposited on silicon by dip-pen nanolithography

    SciTech Connect

    Kozhukhov, Anton; Volodin, Vladimir; Klimenko, Anatoliy; Shcheglov, Dmitriy; Karnaeva, Natalya; Latyshev, Alexander

    2015-04-14

    In this paper, we developed a new dip-pen nanolithography (DPN) method. Using this method, we fabricated conductive nanowires with diameters of 30–50 nm on silicon substrates. To accomplish this, indium was transferred from an atomic force microscopy tip to the surface by applying a potential difference between the tip and substrate. The fabricated indium nanowires were several micrometers in length. Unlike thermal DPN, our DPN method hardly oxidized the indium, producing nanowires with conductivities from 5.7 × 10{sup −3} to 4 × 10{sup −2} Ω cm.

  3. Fabrication of Conducting Polymer Nanowires using Blockcopolymer Nano-Porous Templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    in Lee, Jeong; Anthony, Phillip; Kim, Jin Kon; Ryu, Jae Woong

    2007-03-01

    Nanoporous templates have been used for the fabrication of nanostructured materials that have their potential applications in electronics, optics, magnetism, and energy storage. Here, we showed that nanoporous templates based on polystyrene-block- poly(methyl methacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA) were used for the preparation of high density nanowire arrays of polypyrrole (PPy), poly(3,4-ethlenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), poly(3- hexyltiophene) (P3HT). We found that these conducting polymer nanowires showed much higher conductivity compared with conducting polymer films. This is because of the chain orientation of conducting polymer nanowires during the growing process inside the confined nanohole. The chain orientation of nanowires along the nanoporous template direction was characterized by HR-TEM, XRD and GI-WAXS.

  4. Ion beam-induced variation in electrical conductivity of Ag nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, R. P.; Gehlawat, Devender; Kaur, Amandeep; Rana, Pallavi

    2013-08-01

    The art of fabricating nanostructures within the pores of template leads to the production of true replica of pore geometry. Thus, nanostructures of desirable shape and dimensions can be synthesized using the ion-based etched-track technology. In the present study, silver nanowires were synthesized by using the track-etched polycarbonate membrane as the template in an aqueous medium containing AgNO3 as the precursor. Free-standing silver nanowires were irradiated with different fluences of Li3+ ion beam and a detailed investigation of I-V characteristics of pristine and irradiated Ag nanowires was made. Variation in electrical conductivity of silver nanowires at different fluences was also observed. X-ray diffraction pattern confirmed the polycrystalline nature of Ag nanowires with cubic geometry with face-centered lattice.

  5. Chirality-Discriminated Conductivity of Metal-Amino Acid Biocoordination Polymer Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jianzhong; Wu, Yijin; Deng, Ke; He, Meng; He, Liangcan; Cao, Jing; Zhang, Xugang; Liu, Yaling; Li, Shunxing; Tang, Zhiyong

    2016-09-27

    Biocoordination polymer (BCP) nanowires are successfully constructed through self-assembly of chiral cysteine amino acids and Cd cations in solution. The varied chirality of cysteine is explored to demonstrate the difference of BCP nanowires in both morphology and structure. More interestingly and surprisingly, the electrical property measurement reveals that, although all Cd(II)/cysteine BCP nanowires behave as semiconductors, the conductivity of the Cd(II)/dl-cysteine nanowires is 4 times higher than that of the Cd(II)/l-cysteine or Cd(II)/d-cysteine ones. The origin of such chirality-discriminated characteristics registered in BCP nanowires is further elucidated by theoretical calculation. These findings demonstrate that the morphology, structure, and property of BCP nanostructures could be tuned by the chirality of the bridging ligands, which will shed light on the comprehension of chirality transcription as well as construction of chirality-regulated functional materials.

  6. Coffee ring effect resulted conductive nanowire patterns by evaporating colloidal suspension droplets without sintering process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaofeng; Seong, Baekhoon; Yudistira, Hadi Teguh; Byun, Doyoung

    2015-11-01

    Drying colloidal suspensions containing non-volatile solute will form a ring like pattern, which is called ``coffee ring effect.'' Here, we present the coffee ring effect with silver nanowires dispersing into DI water, resulting in a highly dense-packed nanowire ring patterns. The effect of nanowire length, concentration, droplet size, and substrate temperature were investigated. With shorter nanowires, a distinct ring could be obtained. Meanwhile, the concentration of the colloidal suspension was found to affect the ring width. The droplet size and nanowire length played a significant role in affecting the occurrence of the coffee ring effect. When smaller droplets (i.e., less than 150 μm) containing long nanowires (~ 20 μm), the coffee ring effect was suppressed. While smaller droplets containing short nanowires (~ 1 μm), the coffee ring effect was not affected. By increasing the temperature of the substrate, multi-ring pattern was formed inside the original ring. The resistivity of the semi-circle of the nanowire ring was measured, and had a minimum value of 1.32 × 10-6 Ωm without any sintering process. These findings could be exploited to basic study of ring stain effect as well as the practical use, such as evaporative lithography and ink-jet printing for conductive film and display. This research was supported by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) (Grant number: 2014-023284).

  7. Scanning thermal microscopy with heat conductive nanowire probes.

    PubMed

    Timofeeva, Maria; Bolshakov, Alexey; Tovee, Peter D; Zeze, Dagou A; Dubrovskii, Vladimir G; Kolosov, Oleg V

    2016-03-01

    Scanning thermal microscopy (SThM), which enables measurement of thermal transport and temperature distribution in devices and materials with nanoscale resolution is rapidly becoming a key approach in resolving heat dissipation problems in modern processors and assisting development of new thermoelectric materials. In SThM, the self-heating thermal sensor contacts the sample allowing studying of the temperature distribution and heat transport in nanoscaled materials and devices. The main factors that limit the resolution and sensitivities of SThM measurements are the low efficiency of thermal coupling and the lateral dimensions of the probed area of the surface studied. The thermal conductivity of the sample plays a key role in the sensitivity of SThM measurements. During the SThM measurements of the areas with higher thermal conductivity the heat flux via SThM probe is increased compared to the areas with lower thermal conductivity. For optimal SThM measurements of interfaces between low and high thermal conductivity materials, well defined nanoscale probes with high thermal conductivity at the probe apex are required to achieve a higher quality of the probe-sample thermal contact while preserving the lateral resolution of the system. In this paper, we consider a SThM approach that can help address these complex problems by using high thermal conductivity nanowires (NW) attached to a tip apex. We propose analytical models of such NW-SThM probes and analyse the influence of the contact resistance between the SThM probe and the sample studied. The latter becomes particularly important when both tip and sample surface have high thermal conductivities. These models were complemented by finite element analysis simulations and experimental tests using prototype probe where a multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) is exploited as an excellent example of a high thermal conductivity NW. These results elucidate critical relationships between the performance of the SThM probe on

  8. Composition, Reactivity and Regulation of Extracellular Metal-Reducing Structures (Bacterial Nanowires) Produced by Dissimilatory Metal - Reducing Bacteria.

    SciTech Connect

    Beveridge, Terrance J; Whitfield, Christopher

    2013-03-06

    This is the final technical report for the project. There were two objectives in the proposal. The first was to describe the composition and function of electrically conductive appendages, known as bacterial nanowires, which resemble pili but are longer and are electrically conductive. They were first identified on the dissimilatory metal-reducing bacteria (DMRB), Shewanella and Geobacter. Specifically, this project investigated the role of these structures in: (i) the reductive transformation of iron oxides as solid phase electron acceptors; (ii) the use of as uranium as a dissolved electron acceptor to form nanocrystalline particles of uraninite upon reduction. The Beveridge group investigated these processes using advanced cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryoTEM) to visualize the points of connection between the distal ends of nanowires and the effect they have on solid phase Fe minerals. At the same time, immuno-electron microscopy was applied in an attempt to identify where metal reductases and cytochromes are located on the cell surface, or in the nanowires. The second objective was to define the surface physicochemistry of Shewanella spp. in an attempt to decipher how weak bonding (electrostatics and hydrophobicity) affects the adherence of the bacteria to Fe oxides. This bonding could be dictated by the chemistry of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), or the presence/absence of capsular polysaccharide.

  9. Cell number per spheroid and electrical conductivity of nanowires influence the function of silicon nanowired human cardiac spheroids.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yu; Richards, Dylan; Coyle, Robert C; Yao, Jenny; Xu, Ruoyu; Gou, Wenyu; Wang, Hongjun; Menick, Donald R; Tian, Bozhi; Mei, Ying

    2017-03-15

    Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) provide an unlimited cell source to treat cardiovascular diseases, the leading cause of death worldwide. However, current hiPSC-CMs retain an immature phenotype that leads to difficulties for integration with adult myocardium after transplantation. To address this, we recently utilized electrically conductive silicon nanowires (e-SiNWs) to facilitate self-assembly of hiPSC-CMs to form nanowired hiPSC cardiac spheroids. Our previous results showed addition of e-SiNWs effectively enhanced the functions of the cardiac spheroids and improved the cellular maturation of hiPSC-CMs. Here, we examined two important factors that can affect functions of the nanowired hiPSC cardiac spheroids: (1) cell number per spheroid (i.e., size of the spheroids), and (2) the electrical conductivity of the e-SiNWs. To examine the first factor, we prepared hiPSC cardiac spheroids with four different sizes by varying cell number per spheroid (∼0.5k, ∼1k, ∼3k, ∼7k cells/spheroid). Spheroids with ∼3k cells/spheroid was found to maximize the beneficial effects of the 3D spheroid microenvironment. This result was explained with a semi-quantitative theory that considers two competing factors: 1) the improved 3D cell-cell adhesion, and 2) the reduced oxygen supply to the center of spheroids with the increase of cell number. Also, the critical role of electrical conductivity of silicon nanowires has been confirmed in improving tissue function of hiPSC cardiac spheroids. These results lay down a solid foundation to develop suitable nanowired hiPSC cardiac spheroids as an innovative cell delivery system to treat cardiovascular diseases.

  10. Atmospheric-Pressure Processed Silver Nanowire (Ag-NW)/ZnO Composite Transparent Conducting Contacts

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, John D.; Aggarwal, Shruti; van Hest, Maikel F. A. M.; Ginley, David S.

    2015-06-14

    Composite transparent contacts (TCs) based on metal nanowires and metal oxide matrix materials hold great promise for high performance transparent contacts for photovoltaics and opto-electronic technologies with the potential of all-atmospheric pressure processing. The metal nanowire mesh can provide both electrical conductivity and mechanical robustness against bending while the matrix material can both control the electrical interface and protect the metal nanowires. Here, we demonstrate all atmospheric pressure processed Ag-NW/ZnO composite TCs that are 90% transparent in the visible with sheet resistance Rs ~= 10 Ohms/sq. In addition, the composite TCs have higher infrared transmission than conventional TCO films with the same sheet resistance.

  11. Modulation of thermal conductivity in kinked silicon nanowires: phonon interchanging and pinching effects.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jin-Wu; Yang, Nuo; Wang, Bing-Shen; Rabczuk, Timon

    2013-04-10

    We perform molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the reduction of the thermal conductivity by kinks in silicon nanowires. The reduction percentage can be as high as 70% at room temperature. The temperature dependence of the reduction is also calculated. By calculating phonon polarization vectors, two mechanisms are found to be responsible for the reduced thermal conductivity: (1) the interchanging effect between the longitudinal and transverse phonon modes and (2) the pinching effect, that is, a new type of localization, for the twisting and transverse phonon modes in the kinked silicon nanowires. Our work demonstrates that the phonon interchanging and pinching effects, induced by kinking, are brand-new and effective ways in modulating heat transfer in nanowires, which enables the kinked silicon nanowires to be a promising candidate for thermoelectric materials.

  12. Highly stretchable and highly conductive metal electrode by very long metal nanowire percolation network.

    PubMed

    Lee, Phillip; Lee, Jinhwan; Lee, Hyungman; Yeo, Junyeob; Hong, Sukjoon; Nam, Koo Hyun; Lee, Dongjin; Lee, Seung Seob; Ko, Seung Hwan

    2012-07-03

    A highly stretchable metal electrode is developed via the solution-processing of very long (>100 μm) metallic nanowires and subsequent percolation network formation via low-temperature nanowelding. The stretchable metal electrode from very long metal nanowires demonstrated high electrical conductivity (~9 ohm sq(-1) ) and mechanical compliance (strain > 460%) at the same time. This method is expected to overcome the performance limitation of the current stretchable electronics such as graphene, carbon nanotubes, and buckled nanoribbons.

  13. Temperature Dependence of Electrical and Thermal Conduction in Single Silver Nanowire

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Zhe; Liu, Longju; Xu, Shen; Lu, Meng; Wang, Xinwei

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the thermal and electrical transport in an individual silver nanowire is characterized down to 35 K for in-depth understanding of the strong structural defect induced electron scattering. The results indicate that, at room temperature, the electrical resistivity increases by around 4 folds from that of bulk silver. The Debye temperature (151 K) of the silver nanowire is found 36% lower than that (235 K) of bulk silver, confirming strong phonon softening. At room temperature, the thermal conductivity is reduced by 55% from that of bulk silver. This reduction becomes larger as the temperature goes down. To explain the opposite trends of thermal conductivity (κ) ~ temperature (T) of silver nanowire and bulk silver, a unified thermal resistivity () is used to elucidate the electron scattering mechanism. A large residual Θ is observed for silver nanowire while that of the bulk silver is almost zero. The same ~T trend proposes that the silver nanowire and bulk silver share the similar phonon-electron scattering mechanism for thermal transport. Due to phonon-assisted electron energy transfer across grain boundaries, the Lorenz number of the silver nanowire is found much larger than that of bulk silver and decreases with decreasing temperature. PMID:26035288

  14. Temperature dependence of electrical and thermal conduction in single silver nanowire.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhe; Liu, Longju; Xu, Shen; Lu, Meng; Wang, Xinwei

    2015-06-02

    In this work, the thermal and electrical transport in an individual silver nanowire is characterized down to 35 K for in-depth understanding of the strong structural defect induced electron scattering. The results indicate that, at room temperature, the electrical resistivity increases by around 4 folds from that of bulk silver. The Debye temperature (151 K) of the silver nanowire is found 36% lower than that (235 K) of bulk silver, confirming strong phonon softening. At room temperature, the thermal conductivity is reduced by 55% from that of bulk silver. This reduction becomes larger as the temperature goes down. To explain the opposite trends of thermal conductivity (κ) ~ temperature (T) of silver nanowire and bulk silver, a unified thermal resistivity (Θ ~ T/k ) is used to elucidate the electron scattering mechanism. A large residual Θ is observed for silver nanowire while that of the bulk silver is almost zero. The same Θ ~ T trend proposes that the silver nanowire and bulk silver share the similar phonon-electron scattering mechanism for thermal transport. Due to phonon-assisted electron energy transfer across grain boundaries, the Lorenz number of the silver nanowire is found much larger than that of bulk silver and decreases with decreasing temperature.

  15. Silver Nanowire Transparent Conductive Films with High Uniformity Fabricated via a Dynamic Heating Method.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yonggao; Chen, Chao; Jia, Dan; Li, Shuxin; Ji, Shulin; Ye, Changhui

    2016-04-20

    The uniformity of the sheet resistance of transparent conductive films is one of the most important quality factors for touch panel applications. However, the uniformity of silver nanowire transparent conductive films is far inferior to that of indium-doped tin oxide (ITO). Herein, we report a dynamic heating method using infrared light to achieve silver nanowire transparent conductive films with high uniformity. This method can overcome the coffee ring effect during the drying process and suppress the aggregation of silver nanowires in the film. A nonuniformity factor of the sheet resistance of the as-prepared silver nanowire transparent conductive films could be as low as 6.7% at an average sheet resistance of 35 Ω/sq and a light transmittance of 95% (at 550 nm), comparable to that of high-quality ITO film in the market. In addition, a mechanical study shows that the sheet resistance of the films has little change after 5000 bending cycles, and the film could be used in touch panels for human-machine interactive input. The highly uniform and mechanically stable silver nanowire transparent conductive films meet the requirement for many significant applications and could play a key role in the display market in a near future.

  16. Interfacial Engineering of Silicon Carbide Nanowire/Cellulose Microcrystal Paper toward High Thermal Conductivity.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yimin; Zeng, Xiaoliang; Pan, Guiran; Sun, Jiajia; Hu, Jiantao; Huang, Yun; Sun, Rong; Xu, Jian-Bin; Wong, Ching-Ping

    2016-11-16

    Polymer composites with high thermal conductivity have attracted much attention, along with the rapid development of electronic devices toward higher speed and better performance. However, high interfacial thermal resistance between fillers and matrix or between fillers and fillers has been one of the primary bottlenecks for the effective thermal conduction in polymer composites. Herein, we report on engineering interfacial structure of silicon carbide nanowire/cellulose microcrystal paper by generating silver nanostructures. We show that silver nanoparticle-deposited silicon carbide nanowires as fillers can effectively enhance the thermal conductivity of the matrix. The in-plane thermal conductivity of the resultant composite paper reaches as high as 34.0 W/m K, which is one order magnitude higher than that of conventional polymer composites. Fitting the measured thermal conductivity with theoretical models qualitatively demonstrates that silver nanoparticles bring the lower interfacial thermal resistances both at silicon carbide nanowire/cellulose microcrystal and silicon carbide nanowire/silicon carbide nanowire interfaces. This interfacial engineering approach provides a powerful tool for sophisticated fabrication of high-performance thermal-management materials.

  17. Prospects for nanowire-doped polycrystalline graphene films for ultratransparent, highly conductive electrodes.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Changwook; Nair, Pradeep; Khan, Mohammad; Lundstrom, Mark; Alam, Muhammad A

    2011-11-09

    Traditional transparent conducting materials such as ITO are expensive, brittle, and inflexible. Although alternatives like networks of carbon nanotubes, polycrystalline graphene, and metallic nanowires have been proposed, the transparency-conductivity trade-off of these materials makes them inappropriate for broad range of applications. In this paper, we show that the conductivity of polycrystalline graphene is limited by high resistance grain boundaries. We demonstrate that a composite based on polycrystalline graphene and a subpercolating network of metallic nanowires offers a simple and effective route to reduced resistance while maintaining high transmittance. This new approach of "percolation-doping by nanowires" has the potential to beat the transparency-conductivity constraints of existing materials and may be suitable for broad applications in photovoltaics, flexible electronics, and displays.

  18. Study of Thermal Conductivity of Si Nanowires with micro-Raman Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bingqing; Murphy, Kathryn F.; Gianola, Daniel S.; Cheng, X. M.

    2013-03-01

    Nanowires have played an increasingly important role in thermoelectric technology due to their high figure of merit ZT resulting from the reduced thermal conductivity, K, and good electrical conductivity. In this work, we report the measurement of K of individual silicon nanowires (SiNWs) by mapping Raman temperature profiles along the testing nanowires using a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) device and a micro-Raman system with a 530 nm laser beam. Thermal conductivity was measured as a function of uniaxial tensile stress applied to the SiNWs, which was varied from 0 to 1.2 GPa. The measured K results for the unstrained nanowires agree well with the predictions based on diffuse phonon boundary scattering. The dependence of SiNWs' thermal conductivity on engineering stress can provide significant information for nanowires fabrication. The work at University of Pennsylvania is supported by the Department of Energy, Basic Energy Sciences, through an Early Career Award (DE-SC0008135). The work at Bryn Mawr College is supported by NSF Career Award (DMR- 1053854).

  19. UV light emitting transparent conducting tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) nanowires.

    PubMed

    Gao, J; Chen, R; Li, D H; Jiang, L; Ye, J C; Ma, X C; Chen, X D; Xiong, Q H; Sun, H D; Wu, T

    2011-05-13

    Multifunctional single crystalline tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) nanowires with tuned Sn doping levels are synthesized via a vapor transport method. The Sn concentration in the nanowires can reach 6.4 at.% at a synthesis temperature of 840 °C, significantly exceeding the Sn solubility in ITO bulks grown at comparable temperatures, which we attribute to the unique feature of the vapor-liquid-solid growth. As a promising transparent conducting oxide nanomaterial, layers of these ITO nanowires exhibit a sheet resistance as low as 6.4 Ω/[Symbol: see text] and measurements on individual nanowires give a resistivity of 2.4 × 10(-4) Ω cm with an electron density up to 2.6 × 10(20) cm(-3), while the optical transmittance in the visible regime can reach ∼ 80%. Under the ultraviolet excitation the ITO nanowire samples emit blue light, which can be ascribed to transitions related to defect levels. Furthermore, a room temperature ultraviolet light emission is observed in these ITO nanowires for the first time, and the exciton-related radiative process is identified by using temperature-dependent photoluminescence measurements.

  20. On the dependence of the thermal conductivity of width-modulated nanowires on the number of modulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zianni, Xanthippi; Termentzidis, Konstantinos; Lacroix, David

    2017-01-01

    Our previous Monte Carlo simulations on the thermal conductivity of width-modulated nanowires indicated two distinct dependences of the decrease of the thermal conductivity κ relative to that of the non-modulated nanowire: (i) in the case of multiple constrictions κ scales with the nanowire transmissivity, (ii) in the case of a single constriction κ is determined by the ballistic constriction resistance. Here, we report on the transition between the two regimes. We discuss the thermal conductivity of width modulated nanowires as a function of the number of modulations. Phenomenology has been derived to interpret the MC simulations.

  1. Formation of ultralong copper nanowires by hydrothermal growth for transparent conducting applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balela, Mary Donnabelle L.; Tan, Michael

    2017-07-01

    Transparent conducting electrodes are key components of optoelectronic devices, such as touch screens, organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) and solar cells. Recent market surveys have shown that the demands for these devices are rapidly growing at a tremendous rate. Semiconducting oxides, in particular indium tin oxide (ITO) are the material of choice for transparent conducting electrodes. However, these conventional oxides are typically brittle, which limits their applicability in flexible electronics. Metal nanowires, e.g. copper (Cu) nanowires, are considered as the best candidate as substitute for ITO due to their excellent mechanical and electrical properties. In this paper, ultralong copper (Cu) nanowires with were successfully prepared by hydrothermal growth at 50-80°C for 1 h. Ethylenediamine was employed as the structure-directing agents, while hydrazine was used as the reductant. In situ mixed potential measurement was also carried out to monitor Cu deposition. Higher temperature shifted the mixed potential negatively, leading to thicker Cu nanowires. Transparent conducting electrode, with a sheet resistance of 197 Ω sq-1 at an optical transmittance of around 61 %, was fabricated with the Cu nanowire ink.

  2. Ultrathin transparent conductive polyimide foil embedding silver nanowires.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Dhriti Sundar; Chen, Tong Lai; Mkhitaryan, Vahagn; Pruneri, Valerio

    2014-12-10

    Metallic nanowires are among the most promising transparent conductor (TC) alternatives to widely used indium tin oxide (ITO) because of their excellent trade-off between electrical and optical properties, together with their mechanical flexibility. However, they tend to suffer from relatively large surface roughness, instability against oxidation, and poor adhesion to the substrate. Embedding in a suitable material can overcome these shortcomings. Here we propose and demonstrate a new TC comprising silver nanowires (AgNWs) in an ultrathin polyimide foil that presents an optical transmission in the visible larger than ITO (>90%), while maintaining similar electrical sheet resistance (15 ohm/sq). The polyimide protects the Ag against environmental agents such as oxygen and water and, thanks to its deformability and very small thickness (5 μm), provides an ideal mechanical support to the NW's network, in this way ensuring extreme flexibility (bending radius as small as at least 1 mm) and straightforwardly removing any adhesion issue. The initial AgNWs' roughness is also reduced by a factor of about 15, reaching RMS values as low as 2.4 nm, suitable for the majority of applications. All these properties together with the simple fabrication technique based on all-solution processing put the developed TC in a competitive position as a lightweight, mechanically flexible and inexpensive substrate for consumer electronic and optoelectronic devices.

  3. Rheological behavior of silver nanowire conductive inks during screen printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemmati, Shohreh; Barkey, Dale P.; Gupta, Nivedita

    2016-08-01

    The rheological behavior of silver nanowire (AgNW) suspensions adapted for screen printing inks was investigated. Aqueous silver nanowire inks consisting of AgNW (length of 30 μm, and diameter of 40 and 90 nm), dispersant and binder were formulated. The effect of AgNW content on the rheological behavior of the ink and the build-up of ink structure after screen printing were examined as they depend on applied shear and temperature. Rheological measurements under conditions that mimic the screen printing process were done to assess viscoelastic properties induced by flow alignment of the wires and the subsequent recovery of the low shear structure. The Stretched Exponential model (SEmo) was used to model the recovery process after screen printing to obtain the characteristic time of the recovery or build-up process. The characteristic time was determined at several temperatures to obtain the activation energy of recovery. The domination of Brownian motion or non-Brownian motion behavior can be characterized by a Peclet number, which is the ratio of shear rate to the rotational diffusion coefficient. The Peclet number and the dimensionless concentration of wires were used to assess the recovery mechanism. The steady viscosity at low and high shear rates was also treated by an activation energy analysis.

  4. Redox-exchange induced heterogeneous RuO2-conductive polymer nanowires.

    PubMed

    Gui, Zhe; Duay, Jonathon; Hu, Junkai; Lee, Sang Bok

    2014-06-28

    A redox exchange mechanism between potassium perruthenate (KRuO4) and the functional groups of selected polymers is used here to induce RuO2 into and onto conductive polymer nanowires by simply soaking the polymer nanowire arrays in KRuO4 solution. Conductive polymer nanowire arrays of polypyrrole (PPY) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) were studied in this work. SEM and TEM results show that the RuO2 material was distributed differently in the PPY and PEDOT nanowire matrices. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to confirm the dispersion and formation of RuO2 materials in these polymer nanowires. Cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge experiments were used to characterize their electrochemical performance. RuO2-polymer samples prepared with a 6 min soaking time in 10 mM KRuO4 solution show a high specific capacitance of 371 F g(-1) and 500 F g(-1) for PEDOT-based and PPY-based composite nanowires, respectively. This is attributed to the high exposure area of the conductive RuO2 and the good conductivity of the polymer matrix. This work demonstrates a simple method to synthesize heterogeneous polymer based-materials through the redox reaction between conductive polymers and high oxidation state transition metal oxide ions. Different heterogeneous nanocomposites were obtained depending on the polymer properties, and high energy storage performance of the metal oxides can be achieved within these heterogeneous nanostructures.

  5. Electrical characterization of HgTe nanowires using conductive atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Gundersen, P.; Kongshaug, K. O.; Selvig, E.; Haakenaasen, R.

    2010-12-01

    Self-organized HgTe nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) have been characterized using conductive atomic force microscopy. As HgTe will degrade or evaporate at normal baking temperatures for electron beam lithography (EBL) resists, an alternative method was developed. Using low temperature optical lithography processes, large Au contacts were deposited on a sample covered with randomly oriented, lateral HgTe nanowires. Nanowires partly covered by the large electrodes were identified with a scanning electron microscope and then localized in the atomic force microscope (AFM). The conductive tip of the AFM was then used as a movable electrode to measure current-voltage curves at several locations on HgTe nanowires. The measurements revealed that polycrystalline nanowires had diffusive electron transport, with resistivities two orders of magnitude larger than that of an MBE-grown HgTe film. The difference can be explained by scattering at the rough surface walls and at the grain boundaries in the wires. The method can be a solution when EBL is not available or requires too high temperature, or when measurements at several positions along a wire are required.

  6. Current-driven nanowire formation on surfaces of crystalline conducting substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ashish; Dasgupta, Dwaipayan; Dimitrakopoulos, Christos; Maroudas, Dimitrios

    2016-05-01

    The formation and precise manipulation of nanoscale features by controlling macroscopic forces is essential to advancing nanotechnology. Toward this end, we report here a theoretical study on formation of nanowires with precisely controlled widths, starting from single-layer conducting islands on crystalline conducting substrates under the controlled action of macroscopic forcing provided by an externally applied electric field that drives island edge electromigration. Numerical simulations based on an experimentally validated model and supported by linear stability theory show that large-size islands undergo a current-induced fingering instability, leading to nanowire formation after finger growth. Depending on the substrate surface crystallographic orientation, necking instabilities after fingering lead to the formation of multiple parallel nanowires per island. In all cases, the axis of the formed nanowires is aligned with the direction of the externally applied electric field. The nanowires have constant widths, on the order of 10 nm, which can be tuned by controlling the externally applied electric field strength. Our findings have important implications for developing future lithography-free nanofabrication and nanoelectronic patterning techniques.

  7. Enhancing ionic conductivity in composite polymer electrolytes with well-aligned ceramic nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Lee, Seok Woo; Lin, Dingchang; Shi, Feifei; Wang, Shuang; Sendek, Austin D.; Cui, Yi

    2017-04-01

    In contrast to conventional organic liquid electrolytes that have leakage, flammability and chemical stability issues, solid electrolytes are widely considered as a promising candidate for the development of next-generation safe lithium-ion batteries. In solid polymer electrolytes that contain polymers and lithium salts, inorganic nanoparticles are often used as fillers to improve electrochemical performance, structure stability, and mechanical strength. However, such composite polymer electrolytes generally have low ionic conductivity. Here we report that a composite polymer electrolyte with well-aligned inorganic Li+-conductive nanowires exhibits an ionic conductivity of 6.05 × 10-5 S cm-1 at 30 ∘C, which is one order of magnitude higher than previous polymer electrolytes with randomly aligned nanowires. The large conductivity enhancement is ascribed to a fast ion-conducting pathway without crossing junctions on the surfaces of the aligned nanowires. Moreover, the long-term structural stability of the polymer electrolyte is also improved by the use of nanowires.

  8. Leakage current conduction in metal gate junctionless nanowire transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oproglidis, T. A.; Karatsori, T. A.; Barraud, S.; Ghibaudo, G.; Dimitriadis, C. A.

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, the experimental off-state drain leakage current behavior is systematically explored in n- and p-channel junctionless nanowire transistors with HfSiON/TiN/p+-polysilicon gate stack. The analysis of the drain leakage current is based on experimental data of the gate leakage current. It has been shown that the off-state drain leakage current in n-channel devices is negligible, whereas in p-channel devices it is significant and dramatically increases with drain voltage. The overall results indicate that the off-state drain leakage current in p-channel devices is mainly due to trap-assisted Fowler-Nordheim tunneling of electrons through the gate oxide of electrons from the metal gate to the silicon layer near the drain region.

  9. Hybrid solar cells with conducting polymers and vertically aligned silicon nanowire arrays: The effect of silicon conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Sungho; Hoon Jeong, Jae; Kun Lyu, Hong; Jeong, Seonju; Hyoung Sim, Jun; Hyun Kim, Wook; Soo Han, Yoon; Kim, Youngkyoo

    2012-08-01

    Organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells, based on vertically aligned n-type silicon nanowires (n-Si NWs) and p-type conducting polymers (PEDOT:PSS), were investigated as a function of Si conductivity. The n-Si NWs were easily prepared from the n-Si wafer by employing a silver nanodot-mediated micro-electrochemical redox reaction. This investigation shows that the photocurrent-to-voltage characteristics of the n-Si NW/PEDOT:PSS cells clearly exhibit a stable rectifying diode behavior. The increase in current density and fill factor using high conductive silicon is attributed to an improved charge transport towards the electrodes achieved by lowering the device's series resistance. Our results also show that the surface area of the nanowire that can form heterojunction domains significantly influences the device performance.

  10. Experimental phase diagram of zero-bias conductance peaks in superconductor/semiconductor nanowire devices.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Yu, Peng; Stenger, John; Hocevar, Moïra; Car, Diana; Plissard, Sébastien R; Bakkers, Erik P A M; Stanescu, Tudor D; Frolov, Sergey M

    2017-09-01

    Topological superconductivity is an exotic state of matter characterized by spinless p-wave Cooper pairing of electrons and by Majorana zero modes at the edges. The first signature of topological superconductivity is a robust zero-bias peak in tunneling conductance. We perform tunneling experiments on semiconductor nanowires (InSb) coupled to superconductors (NbTiN) and establish the zero-bias peak phase in the space of gate voltage and external magnetic field. Our findings are consistent with calculations for a finite-length topological nanowire and provide means for Majorana manipulation as required for braiding and topological quantum bits.

  11. High frequency electromagnetic detection by nonlinear conduction modulation in graphene nanowire diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winters, M.; Thorsell, M.; Strupiński, W.; Rorsman, N.

    2015-10-01

    We present graphene nanowires implemented as dispersion free self switched microwave diode detectors. The microwave properties of the detectors are investigated using vector corrected large signal measurements in order to determine the detector responsivity and noise equivalent power (NEP) as a function of frequency, input power, and device geometry. We identify two distinct conductance nonlinearities which generate detector responsivity: an edge effect nonlinearity near zero bias due to lateral gating of the nanowire structures, and a velocity saturation nonlinearity which generates current compression at high power levels. The scaling study shows that detector responsivity obeys an exponential scaling law with respect to nanowire width, and a peak responsivity (NEP) of 250 V/W (50 pW/ √{ Hz } ) is observed in detectors of the smallest width. The results are promising as the devices exhibit responsivities which are comparable to state of the art self switched detectors in semiconductor technologies.

  12. Electrical conduction mechanism of an individual polypyrrole nanowire at low temperatures.

    PubMed

    Yu, Gui-Feng; Pan, Wei; Yu, Miao; Han, Wen-Peng; Zhang, Jun-Cheng; Zhang, Hong-Di; Long, Yun-Ze

    2015-01-30

    Conducting polypyrrole (PPY) nanowires doped with p-toluene sulfonamide (PTSA) were synthesized by a template-free self-assembly method. Electrical transport characteristics, i.e. current-voltage (I-V) behavior, of an individual PPY/PTSA nanowire have been explored in a wide temperature range from 300 down to 40 K. The fitting results of I-V curves indicated that the electrical conduction mechanism can be explained by the space-charge-limited current (SCLC) theory from 300 down to 100 K. In this temperature range, traps play an important role for this non-crystalline system. The corresponding trap energy and trap concentration have also been calculated based on the SCLC theory. Interestingly, there is no trap at 160 K, different from other temperatures. The obtained carrier mobility for the polymer nanowires is 0.964 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) on the basis of trap free SCLC theory. In the temperature range of 80-40 K, little current can flow through the nanowire especially at lower voltages, however, the current follows the equation I ∞ (V/Vt-1)(ζ) at higher bias, which could be attributed to Coulomb blockade effect. Additionally, the differential conductance dI/dV curves also show some clear Coulomb oscillations.

  13. Interface bond relaxation on the thermal conductivity of Si/Ge core-shell nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Weifeng; He, Yan; Ouyang, Gang; Sun, Changqing

    2016-01-15

    The thermal conductivity of Si/Ge core-shell nanowires (CSNWs) is investigated on the basis of atomic-bond-relaxation consideration and continuum mechanics. An analytical model is developed to clarify the interface bond relaxation of Si/Ge CSNWs. It is found that the thermal conductivity of Si core can be modulated through covering with Ge epitaxial layers. The change of thermal conductivity in Si/Ge CSNWs should be attributed to the surface relaxation and interface mismatch between inner Si nanowire and outer Ge epitaxial layer. Our results are in well agreement with the experimental measurements and simulations, suggesting that the presented method provides a fundamental insight of the thermal conductivity of CSNWs from the atomistic origin.

  14. Suppressed phase transition and giant ionic conductivity in La2Mo2O9 nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Pan, Wei; Luo, Jian; Godfrey, Andy; Ou, Gang; Wu, Hui; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Improving the ionic conductivity of solid electrolytes at low temperatures represents a major challenge and an opportunity for enabling a variety of solid-state ionic devices for energy conversion and storage, as well as for environmental protection. Here we report a giant ionic conductivity of 0.20 Scm−1, achieved at 500 °C, in the La2Mo2O9 nanowires with a bamboo-wire morphology, corresponding to a 1000-fold enhancement in conductivity over conventional bulk material. Stabilization of the high-temperature phase is observed to account for about a 10-fold increase in the conductivity. We further demonstrate that fast surface conduction in ∼3 nm thick, partially ordered, surface ‘amorphous' films, under strain on the curved surfaces of the nanowires (as a non-autonomous surface phase or complexion), contributes to an enhancement of the conductivity by another two orders of magnitude. Exemplified here by the study of the La2Mo2O9 nanowires, new possibilities for improvement of conductivity and for miniaturization of solid-state ionic devices by the careful use of one-dimensional nanomaterials can be envisioned. PMID:26380943

  15. Suppressed phase transition and giant ionic conductivity in La2Mo2O9 nanowires.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Pan, Wei; Luo, Jian; Godfrey, Andy; Ou, Gang; Wu, Hui; Zhang, Wei

    2015-09-18

    Improving the ionic conductivity of solid electrolytes at low temperatures represents a major challenge and an opportunity for enabling a variety of solid-state ionic devices for energy conversion and storage, as well as for environmental protection. Here we report a giant ionic conductivity of 0.20 Scm(-1), achieved at 500 °C, in the La2Mo2O9 nanowires with a bamboo-wire morphology, corresponding to a 1000-fold enhancement in conductivity over conventional bulk material. Stabilization of the high-temperature phase is observed to account for about a 10-fold increase in the conductivity. We further demonstrate that fast surface conduction in ∼3 nm thick, partially ordered, surface 'amorphous' films, under strain on the curved surfaces of the nanowires (as a non-autonomous surface phase or complexion), contributes to an enhancement of the conductivity by another two orders of magnitude. Exemplified here by the study of the La2Mo2O9 nanowires, new possibilities for improvement of conductivity and for miniaturization of solid-state ionic devices by the careful use of one-dimensional nanomaterials can be envisioned.

  16. Gallium ion implantation greatly reduces thermal conductivity and enhances electronic one of ZnO nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, Minggang; Cheng, Zhaofang; Han, Jinyun; Zhang, Shengli; Zheng, Minrui; Sow, Chorng-Haur; Thong, John T. L.; Li, Baowen

    2014-05-15

    The electrical and thermal conductivities are measured for individual zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires with and without gallium ion (Ga{sup +}) implantation at room temperature. Our results show that Ga{sup +} implantation enhances electrical conductivity by one order of magnitude from 1.01 × 10{sup 3} Ω{sup −1}m{sup −1} to 1.46 × 10{sup 4} Ω{sup −1}m{sup −1} and reduces its thermal conductivity by one order of magnitude from 12.7 Wm{sup −1}K{sup −1} to 1.22 Wm{sup −1}K{sup −1} for ZnO nanowires of 100 nm in diameter. The measured thermal conductivities are in good agreement with those in theoretical simulation. The increase of electrical conductivity origins in electron donor doping by Ga{sup +} implantation and the decrease of thermal conductivity is due to the longitudinal and transverse acoustic phonons scattering by Ga{sup +} point scattering. For pristine ZnO nanowires, the thermal conductivity decreases only two times when its diameter reduces from 100 nm to 46 nm. Therefore, Ga{sup +}-implantation may be a more effective method than diameter reduction in improving thermoelectric performance.

  17. Thermal conductivity of a single Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 single-crystalline nanowire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Liang; Jin, Chiming; Xu, Sichao; Yang, Jiyong; Du, Haifeng; Li, Guanghai

    2014-10-01

    Single-crystalline Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 nanowires were fabricated by a template-assisted pulsed electrodeposition technique; the thermal conductivity of a single Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 nanowire of different diameters was characterized through a self-heating 3 ω method. The temperature-dependent resistance measurements prove the semiconductor behavior of the nanowires. The extremely low thermal conductivity of the nanowires was found compared with the corresponding bulk, and the Umklapp peaks shift to a higher temperature as the decreasing nanowire’s diameter decreases, which qualitatively agrees with the theoretical calculations based on the Callaway model. The boundary scattering plays an important role in the reduction of the thermal conductivity and in the shift of the Umklapp peak of the Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 nanowires.

  18. Performance enhancement of metal nanowire transparent conducting electrodes by mesoscale metal wires.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Po-Chun; Wang, Shuang; Wu, Hui; Narasimhan, Vijay K; Kong, Desheng; Ryoung Lee, Hye; Cui, Yi

    2013-01-01

    For transparent conducting electrodes in optoelectronic devices, electrical sheet resistance and optical transmittance are two of the main criteria. Recently, metal nanowires have been demonstrated to be a promising type of transparent conducting electrode because of low sheet resistance and high transmittance. Here we incorporate a mesoscale metal wire (1-5 μm in diameter) into metal nanowire transparent conducting electrodes and demonstrate at least a one order of magnitude reduction in sheet resistance at a given transmittance. We realize experimentally a hybrid of mesoscale and nanoscale metal nanowires with high performance, including a sheet resistance of 0.36 Ω sq(-1) and transmittance of 92%. In addition, the mesoscale metal wires are applied to a wide range of transparent conducting electrodes including conducting polymers and oxides with improvement up to several orders of magnitude. The metal mesowires can be synthesized by electrospinning methods and their general applicability opens up opportunities for many transparent conducting electrode applications.

  19. Ultra-low Thermal Conductivity in Si/Ge Hierarchical Superlattice Nanowire

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Xin; Wang, Lili; Yang, Xueming; Zhang, Pu; To, Albert C.; Luo, Tengfei

    2015-01-01

    Due to interfacial phonon scattering and nanoscale size effect, silicon/germanium (Si/Ge) superlattice nanowire (SNW) can have very low thermal conductivity, which is very attractive for thermoelectrics. In this paper, we demonstrate using molecular dynamics simulations that the already low thermal conductivity of Si/Ge SNW can be further reduced by introducing hierarchical structure to form Si/Ge hierarchical superlattice nanowire (H-SNW). The structural hierarchy introduces defects to disrupt the periodicity of regular SNW and scatters coherent phonons, which are the key contributors to thermal transport in regular SNW. Our simulation results show that periodically arranged defects in Si/Ge H-SNW lead to a ~38% reduction of the already low thermal conductivity of regular Si/Ge SNW. By randomizing the arrangement of defects and imposing additional surface complexities to enhance phonon scattering, further reduction in thermal conductivity can be achieved. Compared to pure Si nanowire, the thermal conductivity reduction of Si/Ge H-SNW can be as large as ~95%. It is concluded that the hierarchical structuring is an effective way of reducing thermal conductivity significantly in SNW, which can be a promising path for improving the efficiency of Si/Ge-based SNW thermoelectrics. PMID:26568511

  20. Ultra-low Thermal Conductivity in Si/Ge Hierarchical Superlattice Nanowire.

    PubMed

    Mu, Xin; Wang, Lili; Yang, Xueming; Zhang, Pu; To, Albert C; Luo, Tengfei

    2015-11-16

    Due to interfacial phonon scattering and nanoscale size effect, silicon/germanium (Si/Ge) superlattice nanowire (SNW) can have very low thermal conductivity, which is very attractive for thermoelectrics. In this paper, we demonstrate using molecular dynamics simulations that the already low thermal conductivity of Si/Ge SNW can be further reduced by introducing hierarchical structure to form Si/Ge hierarchical superlattice nanowire (H-SNW). The structural hierarchy introduces defects to disrupt the periodicity of regular SNW and scatters coherent phonons, which are the key contributors to thermal transport in regular SNW. Our simulation results show that periodically arranged defects in Si/Ge H-SNW lead to a ~38% reduction of the already low thermal conductivity of regular Si/Ge SNW. By randomizing the arrangement of defects and imposing additional surface complexities to enhance phonon scattering, further reduction in thermal conductivity can be achieved. Compared to pure Si nanowire, the thermal conductivity reduction of Si/Ge H-SNW can be as large as ~95%. It is concluded that the hierarchical structuring is an effective way of reducing thermal conductivity significantly in SNW, which can be a promising path for improving the efficiency of Si/Ge-based SNW thermoelectrics.

  1. Tuning the Electronic Conductivity in Hydrothermally Grown Rutile TiO₂ Nanowires: Effect of Heat Treatment in Different Environments.

    PubMed

    Folger, Alena; Kalb, Julian; Schmidt-Mende, Lukas; Scheu, Christina

    2017-09-23

    Hydrothermally grown rutile TiO₂ nanowires are intrinsically full of lattice defects, especially oxygen vacancies. These vacancies have a significant influence on the structural and electronic properties of the nanowires. In this study, we report a post-growth heat treatment in different environments that allows control of the distribution of these defects inside the nanowire, and thus gives direct access to tuning of the properties of rutile TiO₂ nanowires. A detailed transmission electron microscopy study is used to analyze the structural changes inside the nanowires which are correlated to the measured optical and electrical properties. The highly defective as-grown nanowire arrays have a white appearance and show typical semiconducting properties with n-type conductivity, which is related to the high density of oxygen vacancies. Heat treatment in air atmosphere leads to a vacancy condensation and results in nanowires which possess insulating properties, whereas heat treatment in N₂ atmosphere leads to nanowire arrays that appear black and show almost metal-like conductivity. We link this high conductivity to a TiO2-x shell which forms during the annealing process due to the slightly reducing N₂ environment.

  2. Photoinduced conductivity of a porphyrin-gold composite nanowire

    SciTech Connect

    Kilina, Svletana; Balatsky, Alexander; Kilin, Dmitri S; Prezhdo, Oleg; Tsemekhman, Kiril

    2009-01-01

    Negatively charged phosphine groups on the backbone of DNA are known to attract gold nanoclusters from a colloid, assembling the clusters at fixed intervals. Bridging these intervals with porphyrin-dye linkers forms an infinite conducting chain, a quantum wire whose carrier mobility can be enhanced by photoexcitation. The resulting nanoassembly can be used as a gate: a wire with a controllable conductivity. The electronic structure of the porphyrin-gold wire is studied here by density functional theory, and the conductivity of the system is determined as a function of the photoexcitation energy. Photoexcitations of the dye are found to enhance the wire conductivity by orders of magnitude.

  3. Mask-free, vacuum-free fabrication of high-conductivity metallic nanowire by spatially shaped ultrafast laser (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Andong; Li, Xiaowei; Qu, Lianti; Lu, Yongfeng; Jiang, Lan

    2017-03-01

    Metal nanowire fabrication has drawn tremendous attention in recent years due to its wide application in electronics, optoelectronics, and plasmonics. However, conventional laser fabrication technologies are limited by diffraction limit thus the fabrication resolution cannot meet the increasingly high demand of modern devices. Herein we report on a novel method for high-resolution high-quality metal nanowire fabrication by using Hermite-Gaussian beam to ablate metal thin film. The nanowire is formed due to the intensity valley in the center of the laser beam while the surrounding film is ablated. Arbitrary nanowire can be generated on the substrate by dynamically adjusting the orientation of the intensity valley. This method shows obvious advantages compared to conventional methods. First, the minimum nanowire has a width of 60 nm (≍1/13 of the laser wavelength), which is much smaller than the diffraction limit. The high resolution is achieved by combining the ultrashort nature of the femtosecond laser and the low thermal conductivity of the thin film. In addition, the fabricated nanowires have good inside qualities. No inner nanopores and particle intervals are generated inside the nanowire, thus endowing the nanowire with good electronic characteristics: the conductivity of the nanowires is as high as 1.2×107 S/m (≍1/4 of buck material), and the maximum current density is up to 1.66×108 A/m2. Last, the nanowire has a good adhesion to the substrates, which can withstand ultrasonic bath for a long time. These advantages make our method a good approach for high-resolution high-quality nanowire fabrication as a complementary method to conventional lithography methods.

  4. Hybrid metal–organic chalcogenide nanowires with electrically conductive inorganic core through diamondoid-directed assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Hao; Hohman, J. Nathan; Li, Fei Hua; Jia, Chunjing; Solis-Ibarra, Diego; Wu, Bin; Dahl, Jeremy E. P.; Carlson, Robert M. K.; Tkachenko, Boryslav A.; Fokin, Andrey A.; Schreiner, Peter R.; Vailionis, Arturas; Kim, Taeho Roy; Devereaux, Thomas P.; Shen, Zhi -Xun; Melosh, Nicholas A.

    2016-12-26

    Controlling inorganic structure and dimensionality through structure-directing agents is a versatile approach for new materials synthesis that has been used extensively for metal–organic frameworks and coordination polymers. However, the lack of ‘solid’ inorganic cores requires charge transport through single-atom chains and/or organic groups, limiting their electronic properties. Here, we report that strongly interacting diamondoid structure-directing agents guide the growth of hybrid metal–organic chalcogenide nanowires with solid inorganic cores having three-atom cross-sections, representing the smallest possible nanowires. The strong van der Waals attraction between diamondoids overcomes steric repulsion leading to a cis configuration at the active growth front, enabling face-on addition of precursors for nanowire elongation. These nanowires have band-like electronic properties, low effective carrier masses and three orders-of-magnitude conductivity modulation by hole doping. Furthermore, this discovery highlights a previously unexplored regime of structure-directing agents compared with traditional surfactant, block copolymer or metal–organic framework linkers.

  5. Hybrid metal-organic chalcogenide nanowires with electrically conductive inorganic core through diamondoid-directed assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Hao; Hohman, J. Nathan; Li, Fei Hua; Jia, Chunjing; Solis-Ibarra, Diego; Wu, Bin; Dahl, Jeremy E. P.; Carlson, Robert M. K.; Tkachenko, Boryslav A.; Fokin, Andrey A.; Schreiner, Peter R.; Vailionis, Arturas; Kim, Taeho Roy; Devereaux, Thomas P.; Shen, Zhi-Xun; Melosh, Nicholas A.

    2016-12-01

    Controlling inorganic structure and dimensionality through structure-directing agents is a versatile approach for new materials synthesis that has been used extensively for metal-organic frameworks and coordination polymers. However, the lack of `solid’ inorganic cores requires charge transport through single-atom chains and/or organic groups, limiting their electronic properties. Here, we report that strongly interacting diamondoid structure-directing agents guide the growth of hybrid metal-organic chalcogenide nanowires with solid inorganic cores having three-atom cross-sections, representing the smallest possible nanowires. The strong van der Waals attraction between diamondoids overcomes steric repulsion leading to a cis configuration at the active growth front, enabling face-on addition of precursors for nanowire elongation. These nanowires have band-like electronic properties, low effective carrier masses and three orders-of-magnitude conductivity modulation by hole doping. This discovery highlights a previously unexplored regime of structure-directing agents compared with traditional surfactant, block copolymer or metal-organic framework linkers.

  6. Hybrid metal-organic chalcogenide nanowires with electrically conductive inorganic core through diamondoid-directed assembly.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hao; Hohman, J Nathan; Li, Fei Hua; Jia, Chunjing; Solis-Ibarra, Diego; Wu, Bin; Dahl, Jeremy E P; Carlson, Robert M K; Tkachenko, Boryslav A; Fokin, Andrey A; Schreiner, Peter R; Vailionis, Arturas; Kim, Taeho Roy; Devereaux, Thomas P; Shen, Zhi-Xun; Melosh, Nicholas A

    2017-03-01

    Controlling inorganic structure and dimensionality through structure-directing agents is a versatile approach for new materials synthesis that has been used extensively for metal-organic frameworks and coordination polymers. However, the lack of 'solid' inorganic cores requires charge transport through single-atom chains and/or organic groups, limiting their electronic properties. Here, we report that strongly interacting diamondoid structure-directing agents guide the growth of hybrid metal-organic chalcogenide nanowires with solid inorganic cores having three-atom cross-sections, representing the smallest possible nanowires. The strong van der Waals attraction between diamondoids overcomes steric repulsion leading to a cis configuration at the active growth front, enabling face-on addition of precursors for nanowire elongation. These nanowires have band-like electronic properties, low effective carrier masses and three orders-of-magnitude conductivity modulation by hole doping. This discovery highlights a previously unexplored regime of structure-directing agents compared with traditional surfactant, block copolymer or metal-organic framework linkers.

  7. Hybrid metal–organic chalcogenide nanowires with electrically conductive inorganic core through diamondoid-directed assembly

    DOE PAGES

    Yan, Hao; Hohman, J. Nathan; Li, Fei Hua; ...

    2016-12-26

    Controlling inorganic structure and dimensionality through structure-directing agents is a versatile approach for new materials synthesis that has been used extensively for metal–organic frameworks and coordination polymers. However, the lack of ‘solid’ inorganic cores requires charge transport through single-atom chains and/or organic groups, limiting their electronic properties. Here, we report that strongly interacting diamondoid structure-directing agents guide the growth of hybrid metal–organic chalcogenide nanowires with solid inorganic cores having three-atom cross-sections, representing the smallest possible nanowires. The strong van der Waals attraction between diamondoids overcomes steric repulsion leading to a cis configuration at the active growth front, enabling face-on additionmore » of precursors for nanowire elongation. These nanowires have band-like electronic properties, low effective carrier masses and three orders-of-magnitude conductivity modulation by hole doping. Furthermore, this discovery highlights a previously unexplored regime of structure-directing agents compared with traditional surfactant, block copolymer or metal–organic framework linkers.« less

  8. Hybrid metal-organic chalcogenide nanowires with electrically conductive inorganic core through diamondoid-directed assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Hao; Hohman, J. Nathan; Li, Fei Hua; Jia, Chunjing; Solis-Ibarra, Diego; Wu, Bin; Dahl, Jeremy E. P.; Carlson, Robert M. K.; Tkachenko, Boryslav A.; Fokin, Andrey A.; Schreiner, Peter R.; Vailionis, Arturas; Kim, Taeho Roy; Devereaux, Thomas P.; Shen, Zhi-Xun; Melosh, Nicholas A.

    2017-03-01

    Controlling inorganic structure and dimensionality through structure-directing agents is a versatile approach for new materials synthesis that has been used extensively for metal-organic frameworks and coordination polymers. However, the lack of `solid’ inorganic cores requires charge transport through single-atom chains and/or organic groups, limiting their electronic properties. Here, we report that strongly interacting diamondoid structure-directing agents guide the growth of hybrid metal-organic chalcogenide nanowires with solid inorganic cores having three-atom cross-sections, representing the smallest possible nanowires. The strong van der Waals attraction between diamondoids overcomes steric repulsion leading to a cis configuration at the active growth front, enabling face-on addition of precursors for nanowire elongation. These nanowires have band-like electronic properties, low effective carrier masses and three orders-of-magnitude conductivity modulation by hole doping. This discovery highlights a previously unexplored regime of structure-directing agents compared with traditional surfactant, block copolymer or metal-organic framework linkers.

  9. Significant thermal conductivity reduction of silicon nanowire forests through discrete surface doping of germanium

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Ying; Hong, Guo; Raja, Shyamprasad N.; Zimmermann, Severin; Poulikakos, Dimos; Tiwari, Manish K.

    2015-03-02

    Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) are promising materials for the realization of highly-efficient and cost effective thermoelectric devices. Reduction of the thermal conductivity of such materials is a necessary and viable pathway to achieve sufficiently high thermoelectric efficiencies, which are inversely proportional to the thermal conductivity. In this article, vertically aligned forests of SiNW and germanium (Ge)-doped SiNW with diameters around 100 nm have been fabricated, and their thermal conductivity has been measured. The results show that discrete surface doping of Ge on SiNW arrays can lead to 23% reduction in thermal conductivity at room temperature compared to uncoated SiNWs. Such reduction can be further enhanced to 44% following a thermal annealing step. By analyzing the binding energy changes of Ge-3d and Si-2p using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, we demonstrate that surface doped Ge interacts strongly with Si, enhancing phonon scattering at the Si-Ge interface as has also been shown in non-equilibrium molecular dynamics studies of single nanowires. Overall, our results suggest a viable pathway to improve the energy conversion efficiency of nanowire-forest thermoelectric nanomaterials.

  10. Kondo-like zero-bias conductance anomaly in a three-dimensional topological insulator nanowire

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Sungjae; Zhong, Ruidan; Schneeloch, John A.; Gu, Genda; Mason, Nadya

    2016-02-25

    Zero-bias anomalies in topological nanowires have recently captured significant attention, as they are possible signatures of Majorana modes. Yet there are many other possible origins of zero-bias peaks in nanowires—for example, weak localization, Andreev bound states, or the Kondo effect. Here, we discuss observations of differential-conductance peaks at zero-bias voltage in non-superconducting electronic transport through a 3D topological insulator (Bi1.33Sb0.67)Se3 nanowire. The zero-bias conductance peaks show logarithmic temperature dependence and often linear splitting with magnetic fields, both of which are signatures of the Kondo effect in quantum dots. As a result, we characterize the zero-bias peaks and discuss their origin.

  11. Kondo-like zero-bias conductance anomaly in a three-dimensional topological insulator nanowire

    DOE PAGES

    Cho, Sungjae; Zhong, Ruidan; Schneeloch, John A.; ...

    2016-02-25

    Zero-bias anomalies in topological nanowires have recently captured significant attention, as they are possible signatures of Majorana modes. Yet there are many other possible origins of zero-bias peaks in nanowires—for example, weak localization, Andreev bound states, or the Kondo effect. Here, we discuss observations of differential-conductance peaks at zero-bias voltage in non-superconducting electronic transport through a 3D topological insulator (Bi1.33Sb0.67)Se3 nanowire. The zero-bias conductance peaks show logarithmic temperature dependence and often linear splitting with magnetic fields, both of which are signatures of the Kondo effect in quantum dots. As a result, we characterize the zero-bias peaks and discuss their origin.

  12. On correlation between zero bias conductance peaks and topological invariants in semiconductor Rashba nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nag, Amit; Sau, Jay

    The observed zero bias peak in tunneling conductance experiments on semiconductor Rashba nanowire is a signature of presence of Majorana zero modes. Characteristics of zero bias conductance peak (ZBCP) namely, height, width and peak splitting, are a function of microscopic parameters. Zero modes have finite splitting as a result of finiteness of the nanowire rendering the ground state only approximately topological i.e. zero modes are only approximately Majoranas. We calculate the scattering matrix topological invariant to quantify the quality of approximate Majorana modes and study its relation to observed characteristics of ZBCP. Furthermore we study the effect of dephasing on the topological invariant. Finally, we draw connection between the characteristics of the ZBCP and probability of observing non-Abelian statistics in proposed future experiments involving braiding of Majorana modes. Work is done in collaboration with Sankar Das Sarma and supported by LPS-MPO-CMTC, Microsoft Q, Univ. of Maryland startup grants and JQI-NSF-PFC.

  13. Kondo-like zero-bias conductance anomaly in a three-dimensional topological insulator nanowire

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sungjae; Zhong, Ruidan; Schneeloch, John A.; Gu, Genda; Mason, Nadya

    2016-01-01

    Zero-bias anomalies in topological nanowires have recently captured significant attention, as they are possible signatures of Majorana modes. Yet there are many other possible origins of zero-bias peaks in nanowires—for example, weak localization, Andreev bound states, or the Kondo effect. Here, we discuss observations of differential-conductance peaks at zero-bias voltage in non-superconducting electronic transport through a 3D topological insulator (Bi1.33Sb0.67)Se3 nanowire. The zero-bias conductance peaks show logarithmic temperature dependence and often linear splitting with magnetic fields, both of which are signatures of the Kondo effect in quantum dots. We characterize the zero-bias peaks and discuss their origin. PMID:26911258

  14. Conductance oscillations of core-shell nanowires in transversal magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manolescu, Andrei; Nemnes, George Alexandru; Sitek, Anna; Rosdahl, Tomas Orn; Erlingsson, Sigurdur Ingi; Gudmundsson, Vidar

    2016-05-01

    We analyze theoretically electronic transport through a core-shell nanowire in the presence of a transversal magnetic field. We calculate the conductance for a variable coupling between the nanowire and the attached leads and show how the snaking states, which are low-energy states localized along the lines of the vanishing radial component of the magnetic field, manifest their existence. In the strong-coupling regime they induce flux periodic, Aharonov-Bohm-like, conductance oscillations, which, by decreasing the coupling to the leads, evolve into well-resolved peaks. The flux periodic oscillations arise due to interference of the snaking states, which is a consequence of backscattering at either the contacts with leads or magnetic or potential barriers in the wire.

  15. Atomistic calculation of the thermal conductance of large scale bulk-nanowire junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Duchemin, Ivan; Donadio, Davide

    2011-09-15

    We have developed a stable and efficient kernel method to compute thermal transport in open systems, based on the scattering-matrix approach. This method is applied to compute the thermal conductance of a junction between bulk silicon and silicon nanowires with diameter up to 10 nm. We have found that beyond a threshold diameter of 7 nm, transmission spectra and contact conductances scale with the cross section of the contact surface, whereas deviations from this general trend are observed in thinner wires. This result allows us to predict the thermal resistance of bulk-nanowire interfaces with larger cross sections than those tractable with atomistic simulations, and indicate the characteristic size beyond which atomistic systems can in principle be treated accurately by mean-field theories. Our calculations also elucidate how dimensionality reduction and shape affect interfacial heat transport.

  16. Kondo-like zero-bias conductance anomaly in a three-dimensional topological insulator nanowire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Sungjae; Zhong, Ruidan; Schneeloch, John A.; Gu, Genda; Mason, Nadya

    2016-02-01

    Zero-bias anomalies in topological nanowires have recently captured significant attention, as they are possible signatures of Majorana modes. Yet there are many other possible origins of zero-bias peaks in nanowires—for example, weak localization, Andreev bound states, or the Kondo effect. Here, we discuss observations of differential-conductance peaks at zero-bias voltage in non-superconducting electronic transport through a 3D topological insulator (Bi1.33Sb0.67)Se3 nanowire. The zero-bias conductance peaks show logarithmic temperature dependence and often linear splitting with magnetic fields, both of which are signatures of the Kondo effect in quantum dots. We characterize the zero-bias peaks and discuss their origin.

  17. Enhanced ionic conductivity of AgI nanowires/AAO composites fabricated by a simple approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Li-Feng; Lee, Seung-Woo; Li, Jing-Bo; Alexe, Marin; Rao, Guang-Hui; Zhou, Wei-Ya; Lee, Jae-Jong; Lee, Woo; Gösele, Ulrich

    2008-12-01

    AgI nanowires/anodic aluminum oxide (AgI NWs/AAO) composites have been fabricated by a simple approach, which involves the thermal melting of AgI powders on the surface of the AAO membrane, followed by the infiltration of the molten AgI inside the nanochannels. As-prepared AgI nanowires have corrugated outer surfaces and are polycrystalline according to scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations. X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows that a considerable amount of 7H polytype AgI exists in the composites, which is supposed to arise from the interfacial interactions between the embedded AgI and the alumina. AC conductivity measurements for the AgI nanowires/AAO composites exhibit a notable conductivity enhancement by three orders of magnitude at room temperature compared with that of pristine bulk AgI. Furthermore, a large conductivity hysteresis and abnormal conductivity transitions were observed in the temperature-dependent conductivity measurements, from which an ionic conductivity as high as 8.0 × 102 Ω-1 cm-1 was obtained at around 70 °C upon cooling. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) result demonstrates a similar phase transition behavior as that found in the AC conductivity measurements. The enhanced ionic conductivity, as well as the abnormal phase transitions, can be explained in terms of the existence of the highly conducting 7H polytype AgI and the formation of well-defined conduction paths in the composites.

  18. Conduction channels of an InAs-Al nanowire Josephson weak link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goffman, M. F.; Urbina, C.; Pothier, H.; Nygård, J.; Marcus, C. M.; Krogstrup, P.

    2017-09-01

    We present a quantitative characterization of an electrically tunable Josephson junction defined in an InAs nanowire proximitized by an epitaxially-grown superconducting Al shell. The gate-dependence of the number of conduction channels and of the set of transmission coefficients are extracted from the highly nonlinear current–voltage characteristics. Although the transmissions evolve non-monotonically, the number of independent channels can be tuned, and configurations with a single quasi-ballistic channel achieved.

  19. Structural Basis for Metallic-Like Conductivity in Microbial Nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Malvankar, Nikhil S.; Vargas, Madeline; Nevin, Kelly; Tremblay, Pier-Luc; Evans-Lutterodt, Kenneth; Nykypanchuk, Dmytro; Martz, Eric; Tuominen, Mark T.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Direct measurement of multiple physical properties of Geobacter sulfurreducens pili have demonstrated that they possess metallic-like conductivity, but several studies have suggested that metallic-like conductivity is unlikely based on the structures of the G. sulfurreducens pilus predicted from homology models. In order to further evaluate this discrepancy, pili were examined with synchrotron X-ray microdiffraction and rocking-curve X-ray diffraction. Both techniques revealed a periodic 3.2-Å spacing in conductive, wild-type G. sulfurreducens pili that was missing in the nonconductive pili of strain Aro5, which lack key aromatic acids required for conductivity. The intensity of the 3.2-Å peak increased 100-fold when the pH was shifted from 10.5 to 2, corresponding with a previously reported 100-fold increase in pilus conductivity with this pH change. These results suggest a clear structure-function correlation for metallic-like conductivity that can be attributed to overlapping π-orbitals of aromatic amino acids. A homology model of the G. sulfurreducens pilus was constructed with a Pseudomonas aeruginosa pilus model as a template as an alternative to previous models, which were based on a Neisseria gonorrhoeae pilus structure. This alternative model predicted that aromatic amino acids in G. sulfurreducens pili are packed within 3 to 4 Å, consistent with the experimental results. Thus, the predictions of homology modeling are highly sensitive to assumptions inherent in the model construction. The experimental results reported here further support the concept that the pili of G. sulfurreducens represent a novel class of electronically functional proteins in which aromatic amino acids promote long-distance electron transport. PMID:25736881

  20. Structural Basis for Metallic-Like Conductivity in Microbial Nanowires

    DOE PAGES

    Malvankar, Nikhil S.; Vargas, Madeline; Nevin, Kelly; ...

    2015-03-03

    Direct measurement of multiple physical properties of Geobacter sulfurreducens pili have demonstrated that they possess metallic-like conductivity, but several studies have suggested that metallic-like conductivity is unlikely based on the structures of the G. sulfurreducens pilus predicted from homology models. In order to further evaluate this discrepancy, pili were examined with synchrotron X-ray microdiffraction and rocking-curve X-ray diffraction. Both techniques revealed a periodic 3.2-Å spacing in conductive, wild-type G. sulfurreducens pili that was missing in the nonconductive pili of strain Aro5, which lack key aromatic acids required for conductivity. The intensity of the 3.2-Å peak increased 100-fold when the pHmore » was shifted from 10.5 to 2, corresponding with a previously reported 100-fold increase in pilus conductivity with this pH change. These results suggest a clear structure-function correlation for metallic-like conductivity that can be attributed to overlapping π-orbitals of aromatic amino acids. A homology model of the G. sulfurreducens pilus was constructed with a Pseudomonas aeruginosa pilus model as a template as an alternative to previous models, which were based on a Neisseria gonorrhoeae pilus structure. This alternative model predicted that aromatic amino acids in G. sulfurreducens pili are packed within 3 to 4 Å, consistent with the experimental results. Thus, the predictions of homology modeling are highly sensitive to assumptions inherent in the model construction. Finally, the experimental results reported here further support the concept that the pili of G. sulfurreducens represent a novel class of electronically functional proteins in which aromatic amino acids promote long-distance electron transport.« less

  1. Structural Basis for Metallic-Like Conductivity in Microbial Nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Malvankar, Nikhil S.; Vargas, Madeline; Nevin, Kelly; Tremblay, Pier-Luc; Evans-Lutterodt, Kenneth; Nykypanchuk, Dmytro; Martz, Eric; Tuominen, Mark T.; Lovley, Derek R.

    2015-03-03

    Direct measurement of multiple physical properties of Geobacter sulfurreducens pili have demonstrated that they possess metallic-like conductivity, but several studies have suggested that metallic-like conductivity is unlikely based on the structures of the G. sulfurreducens pilus predicted from homology models. In order to further evaluate this discrepancy, pili were examined with synchrotron X-ray microdiffraction and rocking-curve X-ray diffraction. Both techniques revealed a periodic 3.2-Å spacing in conductive, wild-type G. sulfurreducens pili that was missing in the nonconductive pili of strain Aro5, which lack key aromatic acids required for conductivity. The intensity of the 3.2-Å peak increased 100-fold when the pH was shifted from 10.5 to 2, corresponding with a previously reported 100-fold increase in pilus conductivity with this pH change. These results suggest a clear structure-function correlation for metallic-like conductivity that can be attributed to overlapping π-orbitals of aromatic amino acids. A homology model of the G. sulfurreducens pilus was constructed with a Pseudomonas aeruginosa pilus model as a template as an alternative to previous models, which were based on a Neisseria gonorrhoeae pilus structure. This alternative model predicted that aromatic amino acids in G. sulfurreducens pili are packed within 3 to 4 Å, consistent with the experimental results. Thus, the predictions of homology modeling are highly sensitive to assumptions inherent in the model construction. Finally, the experimental results reported here further support the concept that the pili of G. sulfurreducens represent a novel class of electronically functional proteins in which aromatic amino acids promote long-distance electron transport.

  2. Current imaging and electromigration-induced splitting of GaN nanowires as revealed by conductive atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Li, Chun; Bando, Yoshio; Golberg, Dmitri

    2010-04-27

    Current images of electromigration-induced common vapor-liquid-solid-grown GaN nanowires were obtained using a conductive atomic force microscope. Structural characterization indicated that these wurtzite (ZW) [0110] nanowires contained longitudinal zinc blende (ZB) defects as stacking faults. The current was attributed to tunneling current through the Schottky barrier between the AFM tip and a nanowire, which was dominated by the local nanowire surface work function. Due to the electromigration induced by large current densities around the defects, the axial splitting process of the nanowires was directly observed under continuous current scanning. The electromigration was likely enhanced by non-uniformly distributed electrostatic pressure around the axial ZW/ZB domain interfaces.

  3. Effective passivation of Ag nanowire-based flexible transparent conducting electrode by TiO2 nanoshell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dong Geon; Lee, Dongjun; Yoo, Jin Sun; Lee, Sangwook; Jung, Hyun Suk

    2016-08-01

    Silver nanowire-based flexible transparent electrodes have critical problem, in spite of their excellent electrical and optical properties, that the electrical conductance and transparency degrade within several days in air because of oxidation of silver. To prevent the degradation of the silver nanowire, we encapsulated Ag-NWs with thin TiO2 barrier. Bar-coated silver nanowires on flexible polymer substrate were laminated at 120 °C, followed by atomic layer deposition of TiO2 nanoshell. With 20 nm of TiO2 nanoshells on silver nanowires, the transparent electrode keeps its electrical and optical properties over 2 months. Moreover, the TiO2-encapsulated silver nanowire-based transparent electrodes exhibit excellent bending durability.

  4. Self-templated synthesis and thermal conductivity investigation for ultrathin perovskite oxide nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Gautam G.; Zhang, Genqiang; Qiu, Bo; Susoreny, Joseph A.; Ruan, Xiulin; Wu, Yue

    2011-10-01

    The large thermal conductivity of bulk complex metal oxides such as SrTiO3, NaCo2O4, and Ca3Co4O9 has set a barrier for the improvement of thermoelectric figure of merit and the applications of these materials in high temperature (>=1000 K) thermoelectric energy harvesting and solid-state cooling. Here, we present a self-templated synthesis approach to grow ultrathin SrTiO3 nanowires with an average diameter of 6 nm in large quantity. The thermal conductivity of the bulk pellet made by compressing nanowire powder using spark plasma sintering shows a 64% reduction in thermal conductivity at 1000 K, which agrees well with theoretical modeling.The large thermal conductivity of bulk complex metal oxides such as SrTiO3, NaCo2O4, and Ca3Co4O9 has set a barrier for the improvement of thermoelectric figure of merit and the applications of these materials in high temperature (>=1000 K) thermoelectric energy harvesting and solid-state cooling. Here, we present a self-templated synthesis approach to grow ultrathin SrTiO3 nanowires with an average diameter of 6 nm in large quantity. The thermal conductivity of the bulk pellet made by compressing nanowire powder using spark plasma sintering shows a 64% reduction in thermal conductivity at 1000 K, which agrees well with theoretical modeling. Y. Wu thanks the support from the Purdue University new faculty startup grant, Kick Grant from Birck Nanotechnology Center, DuPont Young Faculty Award, Midwest Institute for Nanoelectronics Discovery (MIND), and NSF/DOE Thermoelectric Partnership (Award Number 1048616). Y. Wu acknowledges the help from Dr Douglas Dudis and Charles Cooke at Wright-Patterson Air Force Research Lab on the spark plasma sintering of nanowire powder. X.L. Ruan and B. Qiu acknowledge the partial support of Air Force Office of Scientific Research (Grant Number FA9550-11-1-0057).

  5. Preparation and dielectric properties of SiC nanowires self-sacrificially templated by carbonated bacterial cellulose

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, Lixia; Ma, Yongjun; Dai, Bo; Zhou, Yong; Liu, Jinsong; Pei, Chonghua

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► A new material – CBC is introduced as a template to prepare SiC nanowires. ► SiC nanowires are synthesized by the infiltration process of reactive vapor Si. ► The highest ε″ of β-SiC nanowires is obtained at 1400 °C. -- Abstract: SiC nanowires were synthesized by the infiltration process of reactive vapor Si in Ar atmosphere at 1350–1450 °C, using carbonated bacterial cellulose (CBC) as carbon template and a reactant. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM (HRTEM), and vector network analyzer were employed to characterize the samples. The diameter of the resulting β-SiC nanowires changes with calcination temperatures, specifically, 35–60 nm for 1350 °C, 40–80 nm for 1400 °C, and 30–60 nm for 1450 °C. The β-SiC nanowires obtained at 1400 °C possess the highest ε″ of complex permittivity.

  6. Effective medium theory for the conductivity of disordered metallic nanowire networks.

    PubMed

    O'Callaghan, Colin; Gomes da Rocha, Claudia; Manning, Hugh G; Boland, John J; Ferreira, Mauro S

    2016-10-05

    Motivated by numerous technological applications, there is current interest in the study of the conductive properties of networks made of randomly dispersed nanowires. The sheet resistance of such networks is normally calculated by numerically evaluating the conductance of a system of resistors but due to disorder and with so many variables to account for, calculations of this type are computationally demanding and may lack mathematical transparency. Here we establish the equivalence between the sheet resistance of disordered networks and that of a regular ordered network. Rather than through a fitting scheme, we provide a recipe to find the effective medium network that captures how the resistance of a nanowire network depends on several different parameters such as wire density, electrode size and electrode separation. Furthermore, the effective medium approach provides a simple way to distinguish the sheet resistance contribution of the junctions from that of the nanowires themselves. The contrast between these two contributions determines the potential to optimize the network performance for a particular application.

  7. Transparent conducting electrodes based on thin, ultra-long copper nanowires and graphene nano-composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zhaozhao; Mankowski, Trent S.; Balakrishnan, Kaushik; Shikoh, Ali Sehpar; Touati, Farid; Benammar, Mohieddine A.; Mansuripur, Masud; Falco, Charles M.

    2014-10-01

    High aspect-ratio ultra-long (> 70 μm) and thin (< 50 nm) copper nanowires (Cu-NW) were synthesized in large quantities using a solution-based approach. The nanowires, along with reduced graphene-oxide sheets, were coated onto glass as well as plastic substrates, thus producing transparent conducting electrodes. Our fabricated transparent electrodes achieved high optical transmittance and low sheet resistance, comparable to those of existing Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) electrodes. Furthermore, our electrodes show no notable loss of performance under high temperature and high humidity conditions. Adaptations of such nano-materials into smooth and ultrathin films lead to potential alternatives for the conventional tin-doped indium oxide, with applications in a wide range of solar cells, flexible displays, and other opto-electronic devices.

  8. Enhanced lithium ion conductivity in lithium lanthanum titanate solid electrolyte nanowires prepared by electrospinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ting; Li, Ying; Chan, Candace K.

    2015-08-01

    Solid electrolytes have great potential to address the safety issues of Li-ion batteries, but better synthesis methods are still required for ceramics such as lithium lanthanum titanate (LLTO) since current techniques require high-temperature calcination for long times. Here we report a new approach that utilizes electrospinning to prepare phase-pure polycrystalline LLTO nanowires with well-crystallized tetragonal structure after only 3 h calcination at 1000 °C. Pellets prepared from the electrospun LLTO nanowires had higher density, less void space, and higher Li+ conductivity compared to those comprised of LLTO prepared with conventional sol-gel methods. This work demonstrates the potential that electrospinning can provide towards improving the properties of sol-gel derived ceramics.

  9. Biaxially stretchable silver nanowire conductive film embedded in a taro leaf-templated PDMS surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chunhui; Jiu, Jinting; Araki, Teppei; Koga, Hirotaka; Sekitani, Tsuyoshi; Wang, Hao; Suganuma, Katsuaki

    2017-01-01

    A biaxially wave-shaped polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surface was developed simply by using a taro leaf as the template. The resulting leaf-templated PDMS (L-PDMS) possesses a micro-sized curved interface structure, which is greatly beneficial for the exact embedding of a silver nanowire (AgNW) network conductive film covering the L-PDMS surface. The intrinsically curved AgNW/L-PDMS film surface, without any dangling nanowire, could prevent the fracture of AgNWs due to stretching stress even after cyclic stretching. More importantly, it also exhibited a biaxial stretchability, which showed ultra-stable resistance after continuous stretching for 100 cycles each in X- and Y-directions. This biaxially stretchable AgNW/L-PDMS film could extend the application fields in stretchable electronics.

  10. Visualizing One-Dimensional Electronic States and their Scattering in Semi-conducting Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beidenkopf, Haim; Reiner, Jonathan; Norris, Andrew; Nayak, Abhay Kumar; Avraham, Nurit; Shtrikman, Hadas

    One-dimensional electronic systems constitute a fascinating playground for the emergence of exotic electronic effects and phases, within and beyond the Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid paradigm. More recently topological superconductivity and Majorana modes were added to that long list of phenomena. We report scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy measurements conducted on pristine, epitaxialy grown InAs nanowires. We resolve the 1D electronic band structure manifested both via Van-Hove singularities in the local density-of-states, as well as by the quasi-particle interference patterns, induced by scattering from surface impurities. By studying the scattering of the one-dimensional electronic states off various scatterers, including crystallographic defects and the nanowire end, we identify new one-dimensional relaxation regimes and yet unexplored effects of interactions. Some of these may bear implications on the topological superconducting state and Majorana modes therein. The authors acknowledge support from the Israeli Science Foundation (ISF).

  11. An Affordable Wet Chemical Route to Grow Conducting Hybrid Graphite-Diamond Nanowires: Demonstration by A Single Nanowire Device.

    PubMed

    Shellaiah, Muthaiah; Chen, Tin Hao; Simon, Turibius; Li, Liang-Chen; Sun, Kien Wen; Ko, Fu-Hsiang

    2017-09-11

    We report an affordable wet chemical route for the reproducible hybrid graphite-diamond nanowires (G-DNWs) growth from cysteamine functionalized diamond nanoparticles (ND-Cys) via pH induced self-assembly, which has been visualized through SEM and TEM images. Interestingly, the mechanistic aspects behind that self-assembly directed G-DNWs formation was discussed in details. Notably, above self-assembly was validated by AFM and TEM data. Further interrogations by XRD and Raman data were revealed the possible graphite sheath wrapping over DNWs. Moreover, the HR-TEM studies also verified the coexistence of less perfect sp(2) graphite layer wrapped over the sp(3) diamond carbon and the impurity channels as well. Very importantly, conductivity of hybrid G-DNWs was verified via fabrication of a single G-DNW. Wherein, the better conductivity of G-DNW portion L2 was found as 2.4 ± 1.92 × 10(-6) mS/cm and revealed its effective applicability in near future. In addition to note, temperature dependent carrier transport mechanisms and activation energy calculations were reported in details in this work. Ultimately, to demonstrate the importance of our conductivity measurements, the possible mechanism behind the electrical transport and the comparative account on electrical resistivities of carbon based materials were provided.

  12. Temperature dependent conduction and UV induced metal-to-insulator transition in ZnO nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, P.-C.; Lu, Jia Grace

    2008-05-26

    Thin ZnO nanowires with diameters of less than 50 nm are configured as field effect transistors and studied for their transport mechanisms at different temperatures under UV illumination and gate modulation. The conductivity exhibits two regimes: at T>50 K, thermally activated transport dominates with activation energy around 30-60 meV attributed to the shallow donor states and at T<50 K, three dimensional variable range hopping reveals in the conduction. In addition, UV irradiation leads to a metal-to-insulator transition at {approx}210 K. Furthermore, electrostatic gating results in a band bending giving rise to a change in the activation energy.

  13. Parallel measurement of conductive and convective thermal transport of micro/nanowires based on Raman mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Man; Li, Changzheng; Wang, Jianmei; Xiao, Xiangheng; Yue, Yanan

    2015-06-01

    Heat conduction and convection are coupled effects in thermal transport of low-dimensional materials especially at micro/nanoscale. However, the parallel measurement is a challenge due to the limitation of characterization pathways. In this work, we report a method to study conductive and convective thermal transport of micro/nanowires simultaneously by using steady-state Joule-heating and Raman mapping. To examine this method, the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) fiber (36 μm in diameter) is characterized and its temperature dependence of thermal properties including thermal conductivity and convection coefficient in ambient air is studied. Preliminary results show that thermal conductivity of the CNTs fiber increases from 26 W/m K to 34 W/m K and convection coefficient decreases from 1143 W/m2 K to 1039 W/m2 K with temperature ranging from 312 to 444 K. The convective heat dissipation to the air could be as high as 60% of the total Joule heating power. Uncertainty analysis is performed to reveal that fitting errors can be further reduced by increasing sampling points along the fiber. This method features a fast/convenient way for parallel measurement of both heat conduction and convection of micro/nanowires which is beneficial to comprehensively understanding the coupled effect of micro/nanoscale heat conduction and convection.

  14. Flexibility and non-destructive conductivity measurements of Ag nanowire based transparent conductive films via terahertz time domain spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Gyujeong; Balci, Soner; Güngördü, M Zeki; Maleski, Alex; Waters, Joseph; Lee, Sunjong; Choi, Sangjun; Kim, Kyoungkook; Cho, Soohaeng; Kim, Seongsin M

    2017-02-20

    Highly stable and flexible transparent electrodes are fabricated based on silver nanowires (AgNWs) on both polyethylene-terephthalate (PET) and polyimide (PI) substrates. Terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) was utilized to probe AgNW films while bended with a radius 5 mm to discover conductivity of bended films which was further analyzed through Drude-Smith model. AgNW films experience little degradation in conductivity (<3%) before, after, and during 1000 bending cycles. Highly stable AgNW flexible electrodes have broad applications in flexible optoelectronic and electronic devices. THz-TDS is an effective technique to investigate the electrical properties of the bended and flattened conducting films in a nondestructive manner.

  15. Large scale, highly conductive and patterned transparent films of silver nanowires on arbitrary substrates and their application in touch screens.

    PubMed

    Madaria, Anuj R; Kumar, Akshay; Zhou, Chongwu

    2011-06-17

    The application of silver nanowire films as transparent conductive electrodes has shown promising results recently. In this paper, we demonstrate the application of a simple spray coating technique to obtain large scale, highly uniform and conductive silver nanowire films on arbitrary substrates. We also integrated a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-assisted contact transfer technique with spray coating, which allowed us to obtain large scale high quality patterned films of silver nanowires. The transparency and conductivity of the films was controlled by the volume of the dispersion used in spraying and the substrate area. We note that the optoelectrical property, σ(DC)/σ(Op), for various films fabricated was in the range 75-350, which is extremely high for transparent thin film compared to other candidate alternatives to doped metal oxide film. Using this method, we obtain silver nanowire films on a flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate with a transparency of 85% and sheet resistance of 33 Ω/sq, which is comparable to that of tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) on flexible substrates. In-depth analysis of the film shows a high performance using another commonly used figure-of-merit, Φ(TE). Also, Ag nanowire film/PET shows good mechanical flexibility and the application of such a conductive silver nanowire film as an electrode in a touch panel has been demonstrated.

  16. Silver nanowires decorated with silver nanoparticles for low-haze flexible transparent conductive films.

    PubMed

    Menamparambath, Mini Mol; Ajmal, C Muhammed; Kim, Kwang Hee; Yang, Daejin; Roh, Jongwook; Park, Hyeon Cheol; Kwak, Chan; Choi, Jae-Young; Baik, Seunghyun

    2015-11-17

    Silver nanowires have attracted much attention for use in flexible transparent conductive films (TCFs) due to their low sheet resistance and flexibility. However, the haze was too high for replacing indium-tin-oxide in high-quality display devices. Herein, we report flexible TCFs, which were prepared using a scalable bar-coating method, with a low sheet resistance (24.1 Ω/sq at 96.4% transmittance) and a haze (1.04%) that is comparable to that of indium-tin-oxide TCFs. To decrease the haze and maintain a low sheet resistance, small diameter silver nanowires (~20 nm) were functionalized with low-temperature surface-sintering silver nanoparticles (~5 nm) using bifunctional cysteamine. The silver nanowire-nanoparticle ink stability was excellent. The sheet resistance of the TCFs was decreased by 29.5% (from 34.2 to 24.1 Ω/sq) due to the functionalization at a low curing temperature of 85 °C. The TCFs were highly flexible and maintained their stability for more than 2 months and 10,000 bending cycles after coating with a protective layer.

  17. Silver nanowires decorated with silver nanoparticles for low-haze flexible transparent conductive films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mol Menamparambath, Mini; Muhammed Ajmal, C.; Hee Kim, Kwang; Yang, Daejin; Roh, Jongwook; Cheol Park, Hyeon; Kwak, Chan; Choi, Jae-Young; Baik, Seunghyun

    2015-11-01

    Silver nanowires have attracted much attention for use in flexible transparent conductive films (TCFs) due to their low sheet resistance and flexibility. However, the haze was too high for replacing indium-tin-oxide in high-quality display devices. Herein, we report flexible TCFs, which were prepared using a scalable bar-coating method, with a low sheet resistance (24.1 Ω/sq at 96.4% transmittance) and a haze (1.04%) that is comparable to that of indium-tin-oxide TCFs. To decrease the haze and maintain a low sheet resistance, small diameter silver nanowires (~20 nm) were functionalized with low-temperature surface-sintering silver nanoparticles (~5 nm) using bifunctional cysteamine. The silver nanowire-nanoparticle ink stability was excellent. The sheet resistance of the TCFs was decreased by 29.5% (from 34.2 to 24.1 Ω/sq) due to the functionalization at a low curing temperature of 85 °C. The TCFs were highly flexible and maintained their stability for more than 2 months and 10,000 bending cycles after coating with a protective layer.

  18. Silver nanowires decorated with silver nanoparticles for low-haze flexible transparent conductive films

    PubMed Central

    Mol Menamparambath, Mini; Muhammed Ajmal, C.; Hee Kim, Kwang; Yang, Daejin; Roh, Jongwook; Cheol Park, Hyeon; Kwak, Chan; Choi, Jae-Young; Baik, Seunghyun

    2015-01-01

    Silver nanowires have attracted much attention for use in flexible transparent conductive films (TCFs) due to their low sheet resistance and flexibility. However, the haze was too high for replacing indium-tin-oxide in high-quality display devices. Herein, we report flexible TCFs, which were prepared using a scalable bar-coating method, with a low sheet resistance (24.1 Ω/sq at 96.4% transmittance) and a haze (1.04%) that is comparable to that of indium-tin-oxide TCFs. To decrease the haze and maintain a low sheet resistance, small diameter silver nanowires (~20 nm) were functionalized with low-temperature surface-sintering silver nanoparticles (~5 nm) using bifunctional cysteamine. The silver nanowire-nanoparticle ink stability was excellent. The sheet resistance of the TCFs was decreased by 29.5% (from 34.2 to 24.1 Ω/sq) due to the functionalization at a low curing temperature of 85 °C. The TCFs were highly flexible and maintained their stability for more than 2 months and 10,000 bending cycles after coating with a protective layer. PMID:26575970

  19. Enhanced thermal conductivity of epoxy composites filled with silicon carbide nanowires.

    PubMed

    Shen, Dianyu; Zhan, Zhaolin; Liu, Zhiduo; Cao, Yong; Zhou, Li; Liu, Yuanli; Dai, Wen; Nishimura, Kazuhito; Li, Chaoyang; Lin, Cheng-Te; Jiang, Nan; Yu, Jinhong

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we report a facile approach to fabricate epoxy composite incorporated with silicon carbide nanowires (SiC NWs). The thermal conductivity of epoxy/SiC NWs composites was thoroughly investigated. The thermal conductivity of epoxy/SiC NWs composites with 3.0 wt% filler reached 0.449 Wm(-1) K(-1), approximately a 106% enhancement as compared to neat epoxy. In contrast, the same mass fraction of silicon carbide micron particles (SiC MPs) incorporated into epoxy matrix showed less improvement on thermal conduction properties. This is attributed to the formation of effective heat conduction pathways among SiC NWs as well as a strong interaction between the nanowires and epoxy matrix. In addition, the thermal properties of epoxy/SiC NWs composites were also improved. These results demonstrate that we developed a novel approach to enhance the thermal conductivity of the polymer composites which meet the requirement for the rapid development of the electronic devices.

  20. Electrical conduction and metal-insulator transition of indium nanowires on Si(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatta, Shinichiro; Noma, Takashi; Okuyama, Hiroshi; Aruga, Tetsuya

    2017-05-01

    We have studied the metal-insulator (MI) transition of indium nanowires on the Si(111) surface by electrical conductivity measurements with a four-point probe. Upon cooling, the sheet conductivity of the high-temperature (4 ×1 ) phase, which is known to have metallic electron bands, exhibited a gradual decrease in quantitative agreement with the Mott's variable range hopping conduction. Upon further cooling, the conductivity exhibited a sharp drop at 120 K, indicating the transition into the insulating (8 ×2 ) phase. The conductivity upon heating from 65 K did not trace the curve during cooling but showed a thermal hysteresis with a width of 8 K. The observation of the hysteresis agrees with the previous electron diffraction experiments, showing that the MI transition is first order. It was further found that, instead of the superheating behavior usually observed in first-order transitions, the transition upon heating starts below Tc, while the supercooling is always observed. This indicates a specific heterogeneous nucleation process only during heating. It is suggested that this is due to the destabilization of the nanowires near the domain boundaries. This is corroborated by the significant decrease of the transition temperature observed on a substrate with a high step density.

  1. Mask-Free Patterning of High-Conductivity Metal Nanowires in Open Air by Spatially Modulated Femtosecond Laser Pulses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Andong; Jiang, Lan; Li, Xiaowei; Liu, Yang; Dong, Xianzi; Qu, Liangti; Duan, Xuanming; Lu, Yongfeng

    2015-10-28

    A novel high-resolution nanowire fabrication method is developed by thin-film patterning using a spatially modulated femtosecond laser pulse. Deep subwavelength (≈1/13 of the laser wavelength) and high conductivity (≈1/4 of the bulk gold) nanowires are fabricated in the open air without using masks, which offers a single-step arbitrary direct patterning approach for electronics, plasmonics, and optoelectronics nanodevices.

  2. Impact of preferential indium nucleation on electrical conductivity of vapor-liquid-solid grown indium-tin oxide nanowires.

    PubMed

    Meng, Gang; Yanagida, Takeshi; Nagashima, Kazuki; Yoshida, Hideto; Kanai, Masaki; Klamchuen, Annop; Zhuge, Fuwei; He, Yong; Rahong, Sakon; Fang, Xiaodong; Takeda, Seiji; Kawai, Tomoji

    2013-05-08

    Highly conductive and transparent indium-tin oxide (ITO) single-crystalline nanowires, formed by the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) method, hold great promise for various nanoscale device applications. However, increasing an electrical conductivity of VLS grown ITO nanowires is still a challenging issue due to the intrinsic difficulty in controlling complex material transports of the VLS process. Here, we demonstrate a crucial role of preferential indium nucleation on the electrical conductivity of VLS grown ITO nanowires using gold catalysts. In spite of the fact that the vapor pressure of tin is lower than that of indium, we found that the indium concentration within the nanowires was always higher than the nominal composition. The VLS growth of ITO through gold catalysts significantly differs from ITO film formations due to the emergence of preferential indium nucleation only at a liquid-solid interface. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the averaged resistivity of ITO nanowires can be decreased down to 2.1 × 10(-4) Ω cm, which is the lowest compared with values previously reported, via intentionally increasing the tin concentration within the nanowires.

  3. Composites Formed from Thermoresponsive Polymers and Conductive Nanowires for Transient Electronic Systems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Bellan, Leon M

    2017-07-05

    The disintegration of transient electronic systems after a preprogrammed time or a particular stimulus (e.g., water, light, or temperature) is fundamentally linked to the properties and behavior of the materials used for their construction. Herein, we demonstrate that polymers exhibiting lower critical solution temperature (LCST) behavior can work as thermoresponsive substrates for circuitry and that these materials can be coupled with conductive nanowires to form a transient electronics platform with unique, irreversible temperature-responsive behavior. The transient systems formed from composites of LCST polymers and conductive nanowires exhibit stable electrical performance in solution (Tsolution > LCST) for over 24 h until a cooling stimulus triggers a rapid (within 5 min) and gigantic (3-4 orders of magnitude) transition in electrical conductance due to polymer dissolution. Using a parylene mask, we are able to fabricate thermoresponsive electrical components, such as conductive traces and parallel-plate capacitors, demonstrating the versatility of this material and patterning technique. With this unique stimulus-responsive transient system and polymers with LCSTs above room temperature (e.g., poly(N-isopropylacrylamide), methyl cellulose), we have developed a platform in which a circuit requires a source of heat to remain viable and is destroyed and vanishes once this heat source is lost.

  4. Copper Nanowires and Their Applications for Flexible, Transparent Conducting Films: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Vu Binh; Lee, Daeho

    2016-01-01

    Cu nanowires (NWs) are attracting considerable attention as alternatives to Ag NWs for next-generation transparent conductors, replacing indium tin oxide (ITO) and micro metal grids. Cu NWs hold great promise for low-cost fabrication via a solution-processed route and show preponderant optical, electrical, and mechanical properties. In this study, we report a summary of recent advances in research on Cu NWs, covering the optoelectronic properties, synthesis routes, deposition methods to fabricate flexible transparent conducting films, and their potential applications. This review also examines the approaches on protecting Cu NWs from oxidation in air environments. PMID:28344304

  5. Nanojunctions in conducting polypyrrole single nanowire made by focused electron beam: Charge transport characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Koo, Min Ho; Hong, Young Ki; Park, Dong Hyuk; Jo, Seong Gi; Joo, Jinsoo

    2011-07-15

    A focused electron (E)-beam with various doses was irradiated on the intended positions of conducting polypyrrole (PPy) single nanowire (NW) to fabricate nanojunctions. The current-voltage characteristics and their temperature dependence of the PPy single NW with nanojunctions were measured and analyzed. By increasing the E-beam dose and the number of nanojunctions, the current level of the single NW was dramatically decreased, and the conductance gap became more severe as the temperature decreased. The charge transport behavior varied from three-dimensional variable range hopping to fluctuation induced tunneling models, depending on the dose of focused E-beam. From micro-Raman spectra, the focused E-beam irradiation induced the de-doped states and conformational modification of polymer chains in the nanojunctions. The results suggest that the nanojunctions made by focused E-beam acted as a quasi-potential barrier for charge conduction in the conducting PPy single NW.

  6. Anisotropic heat conduction in silicon nanowire network revealed by Raman scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaiev, Mykola; Didukh, Oles; Nychyporuk, Tetyana; Timoshenko, Victor; Lysenko, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Anisotropic nanomaterials possess interesting thermal transport properties because they allow orientation of heat fluxes along preferential directions due to a high ratio (up to three orders of magnitude) between their in-plane and cross-plane thermal conductivities. Among different techniques allowing thermal conductivity evaluation, micro-Raman scattering is known to be one of the most efficient contactless measurement approaches. In this letter, an experimental approach based on Raman scattering measurements with variable laser spot sizes is reported. Correlation between experimental and calculated thermal resistances of one-dimensional nanocrystalline solids allows a simultaneous estimation of their in-plane and cross-plane thermal conductivities. In particular, our measurement approach is illustrated to be applied for anisotropic thermal conductivity evaluation of silicon nanowire arrays.

  7. Engineering the thermal conductivity along an individual silicon nanowire by selective helium ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yunshan; Liu, Dan; Chen, Jie; Zhu, Liyan; Belianinov, Alex; Ovchinnikova, Olga S.; Unocic, Raymond R.; Burch, Matthew J.; Kim, Songkil; Hao, Hanfang; Pickard, Daniel S.; Li, Baowen; Thong, John T. L.

    2017-06-01

    The ability to engineer the thermal conductivity of materials allows us to control the flow of heat and derive novel functionalities such as thermal rectification, thermal switching and thermal cloaking. While this could be achieved by making use of composites and metamaterials at bulk length-scales, engineering the thermal conductivity at micro- and nano-scale dimensions is considerably more challenging. In this work, we show that the local thermal conductivity along a single Si nanowire can be tuned to a desired value (between crystalline and amorphous limits) with high spatial resolution through selective helium ion irradiation with a well-controlled dose. The underlying mechanism is understood through molecular dynamics simulations and quantitative phonon-defect scattering rate analysis, where the behaviour of thermal conductivity with dose is attributed to the accumulation and agglomeration of scattering centres at lower doses. Beyond a threshold dose, a crystalline-amorphous transition was observed.

  8. Engineering the thermal conductivity along an individual silicon nanowire by selective helium ion irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yunshan; Liu, Dan; Chen, Jie; Zhu, Liyan; Belianinov, Alex; Ovchinnikova, Olga S.; Unocic, Raymond R.; Burch, Matthew J.; Kim, Songkil; Hao, Hanfang; Pickard, Daniel S.; Li, Baowen; Thong, John T. L.

    2017-01-01

    The ability to engineer the thermal conductivity of materials allows us to control the flow of heat and derive novel functionalities such as thermal rectification, thermal switching and thermal cloaking. While this could be achieved by making use of composites and metamaterials at bulk length-scales, engineering the thermal conductivity at micro- and nano-scale dimensions is considerably more challenging. In this work, we show that the local thermal conductivity along a single Si nanowire can be tuned to a desired value (between crystalline and amorphous limits) with high spatial resolution through selective helium ion irradiation with a well-controlled dose. The underlying mechanism is understood through molecular dynamics simulations and quantitative phonon-defect scattering rate analysis, where the behaviour of thermal conductivity with dose is attributed to the accumulation and agglomeration of scattering centres at lower doses. Beyond a threshold dose, a crystalline-amorphous transition was observed. PMID:28653663

  9. Engineering the thermal conductivity along an individual silicon nanowire by selective helium ion irradiation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yunshan; Liu, Dan; Chen, Jie; Zhu, Liyan; Belianinov, Alex; Ovchinnikova, Olga S; Unocic, Raymond R; Burch, Matthew J; Kim, Songkil; Hao, Hanfang; Pickard, Daniel S; Li, Baowen; Thong, John T L

    2017-06-27

    The ability to engineer the thermal conductivity of materials allows us to control the flow of heat and derive novel functionalities such as thermal rectification, thermal switching and thermal cloaking. While this could be achieved by making use of composites and metamaterials at bulk length-scales, engineering the thermal conductivity at micro- and nano-scale dimensions is considerably more challenging. In this work, we show that the local thermal conductivity along a single Si nanowire can be tuned to a desired value (between crystalline and amorphous limits) with high spatial resolution through selective helium ion irradiation with a well-controlled dose. The underlying mechanism is understood through molecular dynamics simulations and quantitative phonon-defect scattering rate analysis, where the behaviour of thermal conductivity with dose is attributed to the accumulation and agglomeration of scattering centres at lower doses. Beyond a threshold dose, a crystalline-amorphous transition was observed.

  10. Polar surface effects on the thermal conductivity of ZnO nanowires: a shell-like surface reconstruction-induced preserving mechanism.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jin-Wu; Park, Harold S; Rabczuk, Timon

    2013-11-21

    We perform molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to investigate the effect of polar surfaces on the thermal transport in zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires. We find that the thermal conductivity of nanowires with free polar (0001) surfaces is much higher than that of nanowires that have been stabilized with reduced charges on the polar (0001) surfaces, and also hexagonal nanowires without any transverse polar surface, where the reduced charge model has been proposed as a promising stabilization mechanism for the (0001) polar surfaces of ZnO nanowires. From normal mode analysis, we show that the higher thermal conductivity is due to the shell-like reconstruction that occurs for the free polar surfaces. This shell-like reconstruction suppresses twisting motion in the nanowires such that the bending phonon modes are not scattered by the other phonon modes, and this leads to substantially higher thermal conductivity of the ZnO nanowires with free polar surfaces. Furthermore, the auto-correlation function of the normal mode coordinate is utilized to extract the phonon lifetime, which leads to a concise explanation for the higher thermal conductivity of ZnO nanowires with free polar surfaces. Our work demonstrates that ZnO nanowires without polar surfaces, which exhibit low thermal conductivity, are more promising candidates for thermoelectric applications than nanowires with polar surfaces (and also high thermal conductivity).

  11. Gate-controlled ballistic conductance of magnetic nanowires with double point contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallahi, V.

    2017-08-01

    Controlling the conductance and current flow through nanostructured magnetic point contacts is a key challenge for future spintronic devices. This could be achieved by exploiting the Rashba spin-orbit coupling effect induced by an external gate in the middle of two pinned domain walls at the point contacts. Here, I investigate the electrical conductance of a half-metallic diluted magnetic semiconductor nanowire with a double point contact exploitable in switching devices controlled by lateral gate voltage. The coherent quantum interference between forward- and backward-scattered waves in the spin quantum well formed by the double point contact leads to quasibound states with finite lifetimes. The energetic position of these quasibound states could be adjusted by the lateral gate voltage so that the incident energy coincides with one of the quasibound energy levels in the spin quantum well. Conductance calculations in the presence of an applied electric field perpendicular to the nanowire surface exhibit typical resonant tunneling behavior, where the nanostructure switches to the low-resistance ON state by tuning the Rashba coupling strength in the range of a few tens of meV nm. This study paves the way for utilizing the gate-controlled Rashba spin-orbit coupling effect to design and develop practical spintronic devices.

  12. Regulation of Gene Expression in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 during Electron Acceptor Limitation and Bacterial Nanowire Formation.

    PubMed

    Barchinger, Sarah E; Pirbadian, Sahand; Sambles, Christine; Baker, Carol S; Leung, Kar Man; Burroughs, Nigel J; El-Naggar, Mohamed Y; Golbeck, John H

    2016-09-01

    the outer membrane called bacterial nanowires. These bacterial nanowires link the cell's respiratory chain to external surfaces, including oxidized metals important in bioremediation, and explain why S. oneidensis can be utilized as a component of microbial fuel cells, a form of renewable energy. In this work, we use differential gene expression analysis to focus on which genes function to produce the nanowires and promote extracellular electron transfer during oxygen limitation. Among the genes that are expressed at high levels are those encoding cytochrome proteins necessary for electron transfer. Shewanella coordinates the increased expression of regulators, metabolic pathways, and transport pathways to ensure that cytochromes efficiently transfer electrons along the nanowires. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Regulation of Gene Expression in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 during Electron Acceptor Limitation and Bacterial Nanowire Formation

    PubMed Central

    Barchinger, Sarah E.; Pirbadian, Sahand; Baker, Carol S.; Leung, Kar Man; Burroughs, Nigel J.; El-Naggar, Mohamed Y.

    2016-01-01

    using extensions of the outer membrane called bacterial nanowires. These bacterial nanowires link the cell's respiratory chain to external surfaces, including oxidized metals important in bioremediation, and explain why S. oneidensis can be utilized as a component of microbial fuel cells, a form of renewable energy. In this work, we use differential gene expression analysis to focus on which genes function to produce the nanowires and promote extracellular electron transfer during oxygen limitation. Among the genes that are expressed at high levels are those encoding cytochrome proteins necessary for electron transfer. Shewanella coordinates the increased expression of regulators, metabolic pathways, and transport pathways to ensure that cytochromes efficiently transfer electrons along the nanowires. PMID:27342561

  14. Great Thermal Conductivity Enhancement of Silicone Composite with Ultra-Long Copper Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liye; Yin, Junshan; Yu, Wei; Wang, Mingzhu; Xie, Huaqing

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, ultra-long copper nanowires (CuNWs) were successfully synthesized at a large scale by hydrothermal reduction of divalent copper ion using oleylamine and oleic acid as dual ligands. The characteristic of CuNWs is hard and linear, which is clearly different from graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) and multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The thermal properties and models of silicone composites with three nanomaterials have been mainly researched. The maximum of thermal conductivity enhancement is up to 215% with only 1.0 vol.% CuNW loading, which is much higher than GNPs and MWCNTs. It is due to the ultra-long CuNWs with a length of more than 100 μm, which facilitates the formation of effective thermal-conductive networks, resulting in great enhancement of thermal conductivity.

  15. Assembly of Ultrathin Gold Nanowires into Honeycomb Macroporous Pattern Films with High Transparency and Conductivity.

    PubMed

    He, Ying; Chen, Yuan; Xu, Qingchi; Xu, Jun; Weng, Jian

    2017-03-01

    Because of its promising properties, honeycomb macroporous pattern (HMP) film has attracted increasing attention. It has been realized in many artificial nanomaterials, but the formation of these HMPs was attributed to templates or polymer/supermolecule/surfactant assistant assembly. Pure metal HMP film has been difficult to produce using a convenient colloidal template-free method. In this report, a unique template-free approach for preparation of Au HMP film with high transparency and conductivity is presented. Ultrathin Au nanowires, considered a linear polymer analogue, are directly assembled into HMP film on various substrates using a traditional static breath figure method. Subsequent chemical cross-linking and oxygen plasma treatment greatly enhance the stability and conductivity of the HMP film. The resulting HMP film exhibits great potential as an ideal candidate for transparent flexible conductive nanodevices.

  16. Bismuth nanowires with very low lattice thermal conductivity as revealed by the 3ω method.

    PubMed

    Holtzman, A; Shapira, E; Selzer, Y

    2012-12-14

    Thermoelectric materials transform temperature gradients to voltages and vise versa. Despite their many advantages, devices based on thermoelectric materials are used today only in a few applications, due to their low efficiency, which is described by the figure of merit ZT. Theoretical studies predict that scaling down these materials to the nanometric scale should enhance their efficiency partially due to a decrease in their lattice thermal conductivity. In this work we determine for the first time the lattice thermal conductivity of 40 nm bismuth (Bi) nanowires (NWs), i.e. NWs with a diameter comparable to the Fermi wavelength of charge carriers in this material. We find a surprisingly low lattice thermal conductivity of 0.13 ± 0.05 W K(-1) m(-1) at 77 K. A quantitative argument, which takes into account several unique properties of Bi, is given to explain this unusual finding.

  17. Preparation and Properties of Silver Nanowire-Based Transparent Conductive Composite Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Ji-Li; Zhang, Hua-Yu; Wang, Hai-Jun

    2016-06-01

    Silver nanowire-based transparent conductive composite films with different structures were successfully prepared using various methods, including liquid polyol, magnetron sputtering and spin coating. The experimental results revealed that the optical transmittance of all different structural composite films decreased slightly (1-3%) compared to pure films. However, the electrical conductivity of all composite films had a great improvement. Under the condition that the optical transmittance was greater than 78% over the wavelength range of 400-800 nm, the AgNW/PVA/AgNW film became a conductor, while the AZO/AgNW/AZO film and the ITO/AgNW/ITO film showed 88.9% and 94% reductions, respectively, for the sheet resistance compared with pure films. In addition, applying a suitable mechanical pressure can improve the conductivity of AgNW-based composite films.

  18. Monte Carlo simulation of single-crystalline PbSe nanowire thermal conductivity using first-principle phonon properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Lei; Mei, Riguo; Zhao, Xuxin; Sun, Hongyuan

    2017-09-01

    Prior experimental studies showed that nanowires are promising structures for improving the thermoelectric performance of practical thermoelectric materials due to the strongly induced phonon-boundary scattering. However, few studies examined the impact of phonon-boundary scattering on the thermal conductivity of thermoelectric nanowires from a first-principle approach. In this work, we systematically study the role of phonon-boundary scattering with different boundary specularities on the thermal conductivity of PbSe nanowires by rigorously solving the full phonon Boltzmann transport equation without any adjustable parameters. We observe significant thermal conductivity reduction for rough PbSe nanowires with diameters less than a few hundred nanometers. The reduction reaches ∼40% for 10 nm thick, rough PbSe nanowires at room temperature. The diameter-dependent thermal conductivities are found to contain important information about the phonon mean free path distribution from a standard reconstruction algorithm. The simulation results are important for fundamental understanding of nanoscale thermal transport in thermoelectric materials and will guide the future design of thermoelectric devices to achieve better energy conversion efficiency.

  19. Spray-Deposited Large-Area Copper Nanowire Transparent Conductive Electrodes and Their Uses for Touch Screen Applications.

    PubMed

    Chu, Hsun-Chen; Chang, Yen-Chen; Lin, Yow; Chang, Shu-Hao; Chang, Wei-Chung; Li, Guo-An; Tuan, Hsing-Yu

    2016-05-25

    Large-area conducting transparent conducting electrodes (TCEs) were prepared by a fast, scalable, and low-cost spray deposition of copper nanowire (CuNW) dispersions. Thin, long, and pure copper nanowires were obtained via the seed-mediated growth in an organic solvent-based synthesis. The mean length and diameter of nanowires are, respectively, 37.7 μm and 46 nm, corresponding to a high-mean-aspect ratio of 790. These wires were spray-deposited onto a glass substrate to form a nanowire conducting network which function as a TCE. CuNW TCEs exhibit high-transparency and high-conductivity since their relatively long lengths are advantageous in lowering in the sheet resistance. For example, a 2 × 2 cm(2) transparent nanowire electrode exhibits transmittance of T = 90% with a sheet resistance as low as 52.7 Ω sq(-1). Large-area sizes (>50 cm(2)) of CuNW TCEs were also prepared by the spray coating method and assembled as resistive touch screens that can be integrated with a variety of devices, including LED lighting array, a computer, electric motors, and audio electronic devices, showing the capability to make diverse sizes and functionalities of CuNW TCEs by the reported method.

  20. The Conductive Silver Nanowires Fabricated by Two-beam Laser Direct Writing on the Flexible Sheet.

    PubMed

    He, Gui-Cang; Zheng, Mei-Ling; Dong, Xian-Zi; Jin, Feng; Liu, Jie; Duan, Xuan-Ming; Zhao, Zhen-Sheng

    2017-02-02

    Flexible electrically conductive nanowires are now a key component in the fields of flexible devices. The achievement of metal nanowire with good flexibility, conductivity, compact and smooth morphology is recognized as one critical milestone for the flexible devices. In this study, a two-beam laser direct writing system is designed to fabricate AgNW on PET sheet. The minimum width of the AgNW fabricated by this method is 187 ± 34 nm with the height of 84 ± 4 nm. We have investigated the electrical resistance under different voltages and the applicable voltage per meter range is determined to be less than 7.5 × 10(3) V/m for the fabricated AgNW. The flexibility of the AgNW is very excellent, since the resistance only increases 6.63% even after the stretched bending of 2000 times at such a small bending radius of 1.0 mm. The proposed two-beam laser direct writing is an efficient method to fabricate AgNW on the flexible sheet, which could be applied in flexible micro/nano devices.

  1. The Conductive Silver Nanowires Fabricated by Two-beam Laser Direct Writing on the Flexible Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Gui-Cang; Zheng, Mei-Ling; Dong, Xian-Zi; Jin, Feng; Liu, Jie; Duan, Xuan-Ming; Zhao, Zhen-Sheng

    2017-02-01

    Flexible electrically conductive nanowires are now a key component in the fields of flexible devices. The achievement of metal nanowire with good flexibility, conductivity, compact and smooth morphology is recognized as one critical milestone for the flexible devices. In this study, a two-beam laser direct writing system is designed to fabricate AgNW on PET sheet. The minimum width of the AgNW fabricated by this method is 187 ± 34 nm with the height of 84 ± 4 nm. We have investigated the electrical resistance under different voltages and the applicable voltage per meter range is determined to be less than 7.5 × 103 V/m for the fabricated AgNW. The flexibility of the AgNW is very excellent, since the resistance only increases 6.63% even after the stretched bending of 2000 times at such a small bending radius of 1.0 mm. The proposed two–beam laser direct writing is an efficient method to fabricate AgNW on the flexible sheet, which could be applied in flexible micro/nano devices.

  2. Welded-Ag-nanowires/FTO conducting film with high transmittance and its application in transparent supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Zhensong; Yang, Xiaopeng; Liu, Feng; Duan, Guangbin; Cao, Bingqiang

    2017-03-01

    Silver nanowires (AgNW) with a small diameter were synthesized by a facile and novel polyol reduction method. Ag nanowires ink was then spun on the surface of F-doped SnO2 (FTO) to form the AgNW/FTO conducting film. Welding treatment of the AgNW/FTO conducting film not only increased the optical transmittance from 71.9 % to 79.3 % at 550 nm and decreased the sheet resistance from 11.4 ohm sq-1 to 9.8 ohm sq-1, but also improved the adhesivity of AgNW network on FTO substrate. Furthermore, MnO2 nanosheets were directly deposited on welded-AgNW/FTO (wAF) substrate to prepare a transparent MnO2/weled-AgNW/FTO (MwAF) composite electrode. The MwAF electrode displayed excellent electrochemical performance, including high specific capacitance (375 F g-1 at 5 mV s-1) and superior cycle stability (173.3 % of the initial capacitance after 20000 GCD cycles).

  3. The Conductive Silver Nanowires Fabricated by Two-beam Laser Direct Writing on the Flexible Sheet

    PubMed Central

    He, Gui-Cang; Zheng, Mei-Ling; Dong, Xian-Zi; Jin, Feng; Liu, Jie; Duan, Xuan-Ming; Zhao, Zhen-Sheng

    2017-01-01

    Flexible electrically conductive nanowires are now a key component in the fields of flexible devices. The achievement of metal nanowire with good flexibility, conductivity, compact and smooth morphology is recognized as one critical milestone for the flexible devices. In this study, a two-beam laser direct writing system is designed to fabricate AgNW on PET sheet. The minimum width of the AgNW fabricated by this method is 187 ± 34 nm with the height of 84 ± 4 nm. We have investigated the electrical resistance under different voltages and the applicable voltage per meter range is determined to be less than 7.5 × 103 V/m for the fabricated AgNW. The flexibility of the AgNW is very excellent, since the resistance only increases 6.63% even after the stretched bending of 2000 times at such a small bending radius of 1.0 mm. The proposed two–beam laser direct writing is an efficient method to fabricate AgNW on the flexible sheet, which could be applied in flexible micro/nano devices. PMID:28150712

  4. Intrinsic nanotwin effect on thermal boundary conductance in bulk and single-nanowire twinning superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, Aaron; Tran, Chan; Sansoz, Frederic

    2016-05-01

    Coherent twin boundaries form periodic lamellar twinning in a wide variety of semiconductor nanowires, and they are often viewed as near-perfect interfaces with reduced phonon and electron scattering behaviors. Such unique characteristics are of practical interest for high-performance thermoelectrics and optoelectronics; however, insufficient understanding of twin-size effects on thermal boundary resistance poses significant limitations for potential applications. Here, using atomistic simulations and ab initio calculations, we report direct computational observations showing a crossover from diffuse interface scattering to superlatticelike behavior for thermal transport across nanoscale twin boundaries present in prototypical bulk and nanowire Si examples. Intrinsic interface scattering is identified for twin periods ≥22.6 nm, but it also vanishes below this size to be replaced by ultrahigh Kapitza thermal conductances. Detailed analysis of vibrational modes shows that modeling twin boundaries as atomically thin 6 H -Si layers, rather than phonon scattering interfaces, provides an accurate description of effective cross-plane and in-plane thermal conductivities in twinning superlattices, as a function of the twin period thickness.

  5. A novel nano-configuration for thermoelectrics: helicity induced thermal conductivity reduction in nanowires.

    PubMed

    Varshney, Vikas; Roy, Ajit K; Dudis, Douglas S; Lee, Jonghoon; Farmer, Barry L

    2012-08-21

    In this article, we propose a novel helical nano-configuration towards the designing of high ZT thermoelectric materials. Non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) simulations for 'model' bi-component nanowires indicate that a significant reduction in thermal conductivity, similar to that of flat superlattice nanostructures, can be achieved using a helical geometric configuration. The reduction is attributed to a plethora of transmissive and reflective phonon scattering events resulting from the steady alteration of phonon propagating direction that emerges from the continuous rotation of the helical interface. We also show that increasing the relative mass ratio of the two components lowers the phonon energy transmission at the interface due to differences in vibrational frequency spectra, thereby relatively 'easing' the phonon energy propagation along the helical pathway. While the proposed mechanisms result in a reduced lattice thermal conductivity, the continuous nature of the bi-component nanowire would not be expected to significantly reduce its electrical counterpart, as often occurs in superlattice/alloy nanostructures. Hence, we postulate that the helical configuration of atomic arrangement provides an attractive and general framework for improved thermoelectric material assemblies independent of the specific chemical composition.

  6. Predicting low-thermal-conductivity Si-Ge nanowires with a modified cluster expansion method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristensen, Jesper; Zabaras, Nicholas J.

    2015-02-01

    We introduce the cluster-expansion ghost-lattice method, which extends the applicability of existing cluster-expansion software, to cluster expand structures of arbitrary finite and infinite geometries in a fast, unique, and transferable way. The ghost site that is introduced zeroes the cluster function of any cluster which includes it. This enables the use of bulk clusters grouped by bulk symmetries in nonbulk systems and distinguishes the cluster-expansion ghost-lattice method from a regular ternary cluster expansion with an inactive vacuum atom type. Even though the method does not treat surface terms, it can be used as an efficient way to obtain the bulk term in D. Lerch et al. [Modell. Simul. Mater. Sci. Eng. 17, 055003 (2009), 10.1088/0965-0393/17/5/055003]. We use the method to learn the thermal conductivity of Si-Ge nanowires, oriented along the [111] direction on a diamond lattice, versus their configuration of Si and Ge atoms. Once learned, the ghost-lattice cluster-expansion method is shown to be able to predict the lowest-thermal-conductivity nanowire configuration, in agreement with the configuration found in M. Chan et al. [Phys. Rev. B 81, 174303 (2010), 10.1103/PhysRevB.81.174303].

  7. Effect of molecular adsorption on the electrical conductance of single au nanowires fabricated by electron-beam lithography and focused ion beam etching.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ping; Zhang, Jingying; Lin, Hsin-Yu; Bohn, Paul W

    2010-11-22

    Metal nanowires are one of the potential candidates for nanostructured sensing elements used in future portable devices for chemical detection; however, the optimal methods for fabrication have yet to be fully explored. Two routes to nanowire fabrication, electron-beam lithography (EBL) and focused ion beam (FIB) etching, are studied, and their electrical and chemical sensing properties are compared. Although nanowires fabricated by both techniques exhibit ohmic conductance, I-V characterization indicates that nanowires fabricated by FIB etching exhibit abnormally high resistivity. In addition, the resistivity of nanowires fabricated by FIB etching shows very low sensitivity toward molecular adsorption, while those fabricated by EBL exhibit sensitive resistance change upon exposure to solution-phase adsorbates. The mean grain sizes of nanowires prepared by FIB etching are much smaller than those fabricated by EBL, so their resistance is dominated by grain-boundary scattering. As a result, these nanowires are much less sensitive to molecular adsorption, which mediates nanowire conduction through surface scattering. The much reduced mean grain sizes of these nanowires correlate with Ga ion damage caused during the ion milling process. Thus, even though the nanowires prepared by FIB etching can be smaller than their EBL counterparts, their reduced sensitivity to adsorption suggests that nanowires produced by EBL are preferred for chemical and biochemical sensing applications.

  8. Metal Nanowires: Synthesis, Processing, and Structure-Property Relationships in the Context of Flexible Transparent Conducting Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathmell, Aaron R.

    The demand for flat-panel televisions, e-readers, smart-phones, and touch-screens has been increasing over the past few years and will continue to increase for the foreseeable future. Each of these devices contains a transparent conductor, which is usually indium tin oxide (ITO) because of its high transparency and low sheet resistance. ITO films, however, are brittle, expensive, and difficult to deposit, and because of these problems, alternative transparent electrodes are being studied. One cheap and flexible alternative to ITO is films of randomly oriented copper nanowires. We have developed a synthesis to make long, thin, and well-dispersed copper nanowires that can be suspended in an ink and coated onto a substrate to make flexible transparent films. These films are then made conductive by annealing in a hydrogen atmosphere or by a solution processing technique that can be done in air at room temperature. The resulting flexible transparent conducting films display transparencies and sheet resistance values comparable to ITO. Since it is well known that copper oxidizes, we also developed a synthesis to coat the copper nanowires with a layer of nickel in solution. Our measurements indicated that copper nanowires would double their sheet resistance in 3 months, but the sheet resistance of cupronickel nanowire films containing 20 mole% nickel will double in about 400 years. The addition of nickel to the copper nanowires also gave the film a more neutral grey appearance. The nickel coating can also be applied to the copper nanowires after the film is formed via an electroless plating method. To further optimize the properties of our transparent conductors we developed a framework to understand how the dimensions and area coverage of the nanowires affect the overall film properties. To quantify the effect of length on the sheet resistance and transmittance, wires with different lengths but the same diameter were synthesized to make transparent conducting films and

  9. Conduction Band Offset and Polarization Effects in InAs Nanowire Polytype Junctions.

    PubMed

    Chen, I-Ju; Lehmann, Sebastian; Nilsson, Malin; Kivisaari, Pyry; Linke, Heiner; Dick, Kimberly A; Thelander, Claes

    2017-02-08

    Although zinc-blende (ZB) and wurtzite (WZ) structures differ only in the atomic stacking sequence, mixing of crystal phases can strongly affect the electronic properties, a problem particularly common to bottom up-grown nanostructures. A lack of understanding of the nature of electronic transport at crystal phase junctions thus severely limits our ability to develop functional nanowire devices. In this work we investigated electron transport in InAs nanowires with designed mixing of crystal structures, ZB/WZ/ZB, by temperature-dependent electrical measurements. The WZ inclusion gives rise to an energy barrier in the conduction band. Interpreting the experimental result in terms of thermionic emission and using a drift-diffusion model, we extracted values for the WZ/ZB band offset, 135 ± 10 meV, and interface sheet polarization charge density on the order of 10(-3) C/m(2). The extracted polarization charge density is 1-2 orders of magnitude smaller than previous experimental results, but in good agreement with first principle calculation of spontaneous polarization in WZ InAs. When the WZ length is reduced below 20 nm, an effective barrier lowering is observed, indicating the increasing importance of tunneling transport. Finally, we found that band-bending at ZB/WZ junctions can lead to bound electron states within an enclosed WZ segment of sufficient length, evidenced by our observation of Coulomb blockade at low temperature. These findings provide critical input for modeling and designing the electronic properties of novel functional devices, such as nanowire transistors, where crystal polytypes are commonly found.

  10. How to infer non-Abelian statistics and topological visibility from tunneling conductance properties of realistic Majorana nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das Sarma, S.; Nag, Amit; Sau, Jay D.

    2016-07-01

    We consider a simple conceptual question with respect to Majorana zero modes in semiconductor nanowires: can the measured nonideal values of the zero-bias-conductance-peak in the tunneling experiments be used as a characteristic to predict the underlying topological nature of the proximity induced nanowire superconductivity? In particular, we define and calculate the topological visibility, which is a variation of the topological invariant associated with the scattering matrix of the system as well as the zero-bias-conductance-peak heights in the tunneling measurements, in the presence of dissipative broadening, using precisely the same realistic nanowire parameters to connect the topological invariants with the zero-bias tunneling conductance values. This dissipative broadening is present in both (the existing) tunneling measurements and also (any future) braiding experiments as an inevitable consequence of a finite braiding time. The connection between the topological visibility and the conductance allows us to obtain the visibility of realistic braiding experiments in nanowires, and to conclude that the current experimentally accessible systems with nonideal zero-bias conductance peaks may indeed manifest (with rather low visibility) non-Abelian statistics for the Majorana zero modes. In general, we find that a large (small) superconducting gap (Majorana peak splitting) is essential for the manifestation of the non-Abelian braiding statistics, and in particular, a zero-bias conductance value of around half the ideal quantized Majorana value should be sufficient for the manifestation of non-Abelian statistics in experimental nanowires. Our work also establishes that as a matter of principle the topological transition associated with the emergence of Majorana zero modes in finite nanowires is always a crossover (akin to a quantum phase transition at finite temperature) requiring the presence of dissipative broadening (which must be larger than the Majorana energy

  11. Enhanced stability performance of nickel nanowire with 3D conducting network for planar sodium-nickel chloride batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Tian; Zhang, Sanpei; Ao, Xin; Wu, Xiangwei; Yang, Jianhua; Wen, Zhaoyin

    2017-08-01

    High temperature sodium batteries with inorganic electrolytes are attracting increasing attention due to their high thermal stability, reliability, long-cycle life and safety. Despite the intensive investigation of Na-NiCl2 batteries during last decades, designing a stable conducting network in the cathode is still challenging but desirable. In this work, a new cathode structure composed of Ni nanowires with an effective electron conducting network is proposed for planar sodium-nickel chloride batteries. During the first stage of charge, Ni nanowires reacted with Cl ion to form NiCl2 on the surface and the excessive Ni nanowires inside can serve as conducting framework to facilitate the fast electron transport. As expected, the metal nanowires show a high specific capacity of 130 mA h g-1 (∼14 mAh cm-2) at 0.05 C after 100 cycles. Meanwhile, the batteries show stable cycling performance at 0.05 C with a high cut-off energy density of 360 W h kg-1, much higher than the traditional tubular sodium-nickel chloride batteries (∼100 Wh kg-1). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of the cathode after long cycling reveal the ultra-slow growth of Ni particles, confirming the excellent stability of the prepared nanowires cathode.

  12. Structural basis underlying the metallic-like conductivity of microbial nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malvankar, Nikhil; Vargas, Madeline; Tuominen, Mark; Lovley, Derek

    2014-03-01

    Microbial nanowires are electrically conductive proteinaceous pili nanofilaments secreted by Geobacter sulfurreducens. In contrast to current biochemical understanding that proteins are insulators, G. sulfurreducens pili show organic metallic-like conductivity. Pili also enable direct exchange of electrons among Geobacter co-cultures. Site-directed mutagenesis studies revealed that aromatic amino acids confer conductivity to pili. In order to develop a structural understanding of the pili to probe the conduction mechanism at a molecular level, we employed three complementary structural methods - X-ray microdiffraction using synchrotron radiation, rocking curve X-ray diffraction, and electron diffraction. Studies performed with all these three methods revealed a 3.2 Å periodic spacing in wild-type G. sulfurreducens pili, expected for metal-like conductivity and a lack of such spacing in genetically modified non-conductive pili. Notably, both the peak intensity and the conductivity increased 100-fold with lowering the pH from pH 10.5 to pH 2, demonstrating a structure-function correlation in pili. We also reconstructed the three dimensional tertiary structure of pili with homology modeling, which further suggested the 3.2 Å spacing among aromatics associated with metal-like conductivity. Funded by Office of Naval Research, DOE Genomic Sciences and NSF-NSEC Center for Hierarchical Manufacturing grant no. CMMI-1025020.

  13. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of the Thermal Conductivities of Group IV Bulk Materials and Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, John; Williamson, Andrew; Galli, Giulia

    2006-03-01

    We present the results of equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of the thermal conductivities of bulk C, Si, Ge, and SiC using the Green-Kubo formalism. We use an empirical interatomic potential developed by Tersoff [1] and investigate the effects of modifications to this potential suggested by Porter et al [2]. We also investigate the effects of choosing a symmetric versus nonsymmetric definition of the local heat. A generalization of this approach to study the dependence of the thermal conductivity of SiGe nanowires on their size and composition will also be presented. [1] J. Tersoff, PRB 39 (8), 5566-5568 [2] L. Porter, J. Li, S. Yip, J. Nuc. Matl. 246 (1997) 53-59 This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Dept. of Energy at the University of California/Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract no. W-7405-Eng-48.

  14. Thermal conductivity of hexagonal Si and hexagonal Si nanowires from first-principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raya-Moreno, Martí; Aramberri, Hugo; Seijas-Bellido, Juan Antonio; Cartoixà, Xavier; Rurali, Riccardo

    2017-07-01

    We calculate the thermal conductivity, κ, of the recently synthesized hexagonal diamond (lonsdaleite) Si using first-principles calculations and solving the Boltzmann Transport Equation. We find values of κ which are around 40% lower than in the common cubic diamond polytype of Si. The trend is similar for [111] Si nanowires, with reductions of the thermal conductivity that are even larger than in the bulk in some diameter range. The Raman active modes are identified, and the role of mid-frequency optical phonons that arise as a consequence of the reduced symmetry of the hexagonal lattice is discussed. We also show briefly that popular classic potentials used in molecular dynamics might not be suited to describe hexagonal polytypes, discussing the case of the Tersoff potential.

  15. Novel Synthesis, Coating, and Networking of Curved Copper Nanowires for Flexible Transparent Conductive Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Yin, Zhenxing; Song, Seung Keun; You, Duck-Jae; Ko, Yeongun; Cho, Sanghun; Yoo, Jeeyoung; Park, Si Yun; Piao, Yuanzhe; Chang, Suk Tai; Kim, Youn Sang

    2015-09-16

    In this work, a whole manufacturing process of the curved copper nanowires (CCNs) based flexible transparent conductive electrode (FTCE) is reported with all solution processes, including synthesis, coating, and networking. The CCNs with high purity and good quality are designed and synthesized by a binary polyol coreduction method. In this reaction, volume ratio and reaction time are the significant factors for the successful synthesis. These nanowires have an average 50 nm in width and 25-40 μm range in length with curved structure and high softness. Furthermore, a meniscus-dragging deposition (MDD) method is used to uniformly coat the well-dispersed CCNs on the glass or polyethylene terephthalate substrate with a simple process. The optoelectrical property of the CCNs thin films is precisely controlled by applying the MDD method. The FTCE is fabricated by networking of CCNs using solvent-dipped annealing method with vacuum-free, transfer-free, and low-temperature conditions. To remove the natural oxide layer, the CCNs thin films are reduced by glycerol or NaBH4 solution at low temperature. As a highly robust FTCE, the CCNs thin film exhibits excellent optoelectrical performance (T = 86.62%, R(s) = 99.14 Ω ◻(-1)), flexibility, and durability (R/R(0) < 1.05 at 2000 bending, 5 mm of bending radius). © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. DNA nanotubes self-assembled from triple-crossover tiles as templates for conductive nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dage; Park, Sung Ha; Reif, John H.; LaBean, Thomas H.

    2004-01-01

    DNA-based nanotechnology is currently being developed as a general assembly method for nanopatterned materials that may find use in electronics, sensors, medicine, and many other fields. Here we present results on the construction and characterization of DNA nanotubes, a self-assembling superstructure composed of DNA tiles. Triple-crossover tiles modified with thiol-containing double-stranded DNA stems projected out of the tile plane were used as the basic building blocks. Triple-crossover nanotubes display a constant diameter of ≈25 nm and have been observed with lengths up to 20 μm. We present high-resolution images of the constructs, experimental evidence of their tube-like nature as well as data on metallization of the nanotubes to form nanowires, and electrical conductivity measurements through the nanowires. DNA nanotubes represent a potential breakthrough in the self-assembly of nanometer-scale circuits for electronics layout because they can be targeted to connect at specific locations on larger-scale structures and can subsequently be metallized to form nanometer-scale wires. The dimensions of these nanotubes are also perfectly suited for applications involving interconnection of molecular-scale devices with macroscale components fabricated by conventional photolithographic methods. PMID:14709674

  17. Anisotropic Electroless Deposition on DNA Origami Templates To Form Small Diameter Conductive Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Uprety, Bibek; Westover, Tyler; Stoddard, Michael; Brinkerhoff, Kamron; Jensen, John; Davis, Robert C; Woolley, Adam T; Harb, John N

    2017-01-24

    An improved method for the metallization of DNA origami is examined in this work. DNA origami, a simple and robust method for creating a wide variety of nanostructured shapes and patterns, provides an enabling template for bottom-up fabrication of next-generation nanodevices. Selective metallization of these DNA templates is needed to make nanoelectronic devices. Here, we demonstrate a metallization process that uses gold nanorod seeds followed by anisotropic plating to provide improved morphology and greater control of the final metallized width of the structure. In our approach, gold nanorods are attached to an origami template to create a seed layer. Electroless gold deposition is then used to fill the gaps between seeds in order to create continuous, conductive nanowires. Importantly, growth during electroless deposition occurs preferentially in the length direction at a rate that is approximately 4 times the growth rate in the width direction, which enables fabrication of narrow, continuous wires. The electrical properties of 49 nanowires with widths ranging from 13 to 29 nm were characterized, and resistivity values as low as 8.9 × 10(-7) Ω·m were measured. The anisotropic metallization process presented here represents important progress toward the creation of nanoelectronic devices by molecularly directed placement of functional components onto self-assembled biological templates.

  18. Realizing field-dependent conduction in ZnO nanowires without annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke-Govey, C. P.; Castanet, U.; Warring, H.; Nau, A.; Ruck, B. J.; Majimel, J.; Plank, N. O. V.

    2017-03-01

    We report on the low-temperature fabrication of field-effect transistors by bridging pre-patterned electrodes using ZnO nanowires grown in situ, which operate without requiring post-growth processing or annealing. The devices show good performance using as-grown nanowires, with on–off ratios of 105 and threshold voltages of 2 V. Electron microscopy shows the field-dependent nanowires hierarchically nucleate from larger ZnO nanorods, and both are oriented along a common c-axis. A high nanowire surface-to-volume ratio allows depleting electron traps on the nanowire surface to compensate intrinsic electron donors present throughout the nanowire bulk. This eliminates the need to reduce the electron concentration through high-temperature annealing, making the nanowires naturally field-dependent in their as-grown state.

  19. Realizing field-dependent conduction in ZnO nanowires without annealing.

    PubMed

    Burke-Govey, C P; Castanet, U; Warring, H; Nau, A; Ruck, B J; Majimel, J; Plank, N O V

    2017-03-24

    We report on the low-temperature fabrication of field-effect transistors by bridging pre-patterned electrodes using ZnO nanowires grown in situ, which operate without requiring post-growth processing or annealing. The devices show good performance using as-grown nanowires, with on-off ratios of 10(5) and threshold voltages of 2 V. Electron microscopy shows the field-dependent nanowires hierarchically nucleate from larger ZnO nanorods, and both are oriented along a common c-axis. A high nanowire surface-to-volume ratio allows depleting electron traps on the nanowire surface to compensate intrinsic electron donors present throughout the nanowire bulk. This eliminates the need to reduce the electron concentration through high-temperature annealing, making the nanowires naturally field-dependent in their as-grown state.

  20. Electrodeposition of vertically standing Ag nanoplates and nanowires on transparent conductive electrode using porous anodic aluminum oxide template

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jue; Pan, Shanlin

    2017-10-01

    We report fabricating vertically standing Ag nanoplates and nanowires on a transparent conductive substrate of indium tin oxides (ITO) with the assistance of a porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template. Two-dimensional Ag nanoplates can be electrodeposited onto an AAO covered ITO surface without using an adhesion layer. Ag nanoplates obtained using AAO templates have 3 × {222} superlattice fringes, different from the 3 × {422} superlattice fringes reported in the previous study. Ag nanowires can be electrodeposited onto ITO which is initially covered with an AAO template through a conductive polymer poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS). The coverage, diameter, and thickness of Ag nanoplates are strongly dependent on the electrodeposition time. These Ag nanoplates and nanowires are used for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and the influence of their shape, size, and coverage on SERS enhancement is studied.

  1. TiO2 nanocrystals shell layer on highly conducting indium tin oxide nanowire for photovoltaic devices.

    PubMed

    Han, Hyun Soo; Kim, Ju Seong; Kim, Dong Hoe; Han, Gil Sang; Jung, Hyun Suk; Noh, Jun Hong; Hong, Kug Sun

    2013-04-21

    We demonstrated a highly efficient conducting indium tin oxide (ITO) core-TiO2 nanocrystals shell nanowire array for a photoelectrode in dye-sensitized solar cells with regard to light harvest and charge collection. The TiO2 shell layer, consisting of anatase nanocrystals of ~2 nm, were successfully formed on a single crystalline ITO nanowire prepared via a vapor transport method using repetitive TiCl4 aqueous solution treatments at 50 °C. We found that the nanocrystal size and number of Cl(-) ions remaining on the formed shell layer critically influence the dye loading properties. Moreover, these factors can be controlled by means of a post-annealing process. We also found that the dye loading and the back electron transport from the conductive ITO nanowire to the electrolyte mainly determine the final cell performance. The proposed double-shell layer structure consisting of dense and porous layers showed significantly improved cell performance.

  2. Size-dependent photoconductivity and dark conductivity of m-axial GaN nanowires with small critical diameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hsin-Yi; Chen, Reui-San; Chang, Fu-Chieh; Chen, Li-Chyong; Chen, Kuei-Hsien; Yang, Ying-Jay

    2009-10-01

    The size effects on both the photoconductivity and dark conductivity have been observed in m-axial GaN nanowires grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). For these nanowires with diameters at 50-130 nm, the products of carrier lifetime (τ) and mobility (μ) derived from the photocurrent measurements are typically at (2-8)×10-1 cm2/V, which are over two orders of magnitude higher than the maximal reported values [τμ=(1-5)×10-4 cm2/V] for their thin film counterparts. A significant decrease of τμ value at diameter below the critical values (dcrt) at 30-40 nm is observed. Similar size dependence is also found from the dark conductivity study. The temperature-dependent measurements further indicate two different thermal activation mechanisms in GaN nanowires with sizes above and below the dcrt. These results suggest a surface-dominant transport property in GaN nanowires both in dark and under light illumination due to the presence of surface depletion and band bending. Probable reasons leading to the smaller dcrt of the CVD-grown m-axial GaN nanowires, compared to the c-axial ones grown by molecular beam epitaxy are discussed as well.

  3. A novel 3D sandwich structure of hybrid graphite nanosheets and silver nanowires as fillers for improved thermal conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Xiao; Zhou, Yongcun; Liu, Feng

    2017-01-01

    We explored a novel 3D sandwich structure of fillers in the polymer matrix to enhance thermal conductivity. A variety of fillers in the polymer matrix play a significant role in the physical properties of the composite. Fillers containing particle and line structures are popular, and enhance the thermal and electrical conductivities. Therefore, filler-based matrix network improves conductivity. We propose a sandwich structure consisting of hybrid graphite nanosheets (two dimensions), and silver nanowires (AgNWs) (one dimension), to create a 3D sandwich structure of polyimide matrix with improved thermal conductivity. Surface treatment of graphite and silver nanowires were conducted to reduce the dielectric constant of the composite. We designed the filler of 20 wt% resulting in a high thermal conductivity of 3.21 W m-1 K-1 with 15% C@SiO2 and 5% AgNWs@SiO2 filler loading. The novel combination and structure markedly enhanced the thermal conductivity of the composite.

  4. Copper Nanowires as Conductive Ink for Low-Cost Draw-On Electronics.

    PubMed

    Jason, Naveen Noah; Shen, Wei; Cheng, Wenlong

    2015-08-05

    This work tackles the complicated problem of clump formation and entanglement of high aspect ratio copper nanowires, due to which a well dispersed solution for use as a true ink for drawable electronics has not been made until now. Through rheology studies even a hard to use material like copper nanowires was tailored to be made into a highly efficient conductive ink with only 2 vol % or 18.28 wt % loading which is far lower than existing nanoparticle based inks. This versatile ink can be applied onto various substrates such as paper, PET, PDMS and latex. By using the ink in a roller ball pen, a bending sensor device was simply drawn on paper, which demonstrated detection of various degrees of convex bending and was highly durable as shown in the 10,000 bending cycling test. A highly sensitive strain sensor which has a maximum gauge factor of 54.38 was also fabricated by simply painting the ink onto latex rubber strip using a paintbrush. Finally a complex conductive pattern depicting the Sydney Opera House was painted on paper to demonstrate the versatility and robustness of the ink. The use of Cu NWs is highly economical in terms of the conductive filler loading in the ink and the cost of copper itself as compared to other metal NPs, CNT, and graphene-based inks. The demonstrated e-ink, devices, and facile device fabrication methods push the field one step closer to truly creating cheap and highly reliable skin like devices "on the fly".

  5. Highly conductive and flexible silver nanowire-based microelectrodes on biocompatible hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Yumi; Lee, Hyungjin; Lee, Donghwa; Lee, Youngu

    2014-01-01

    We successfully fabricated silver nanowire (AgNW)-based microelectrodes on various substrates such as a glass and polydimethylsiloxane by using a photolithographic process for the first time. The AgNW-based microelectrodes exhibited excellent electrical conductivity and mechanical flexibility. We also demonstrated the direct transfer process of AgNW-based microelectrodes from a glass to a biocompatible polyacrylamide-based hydrogel. The AgNW-based microelectrodes on the biocompatible hydrogel showed excellent electrical performance. Furthermore, they showed great mechanical flexibility as well as superior stability under wet conditions. We anticipate that the AgNW-based microelectrodes on biocompatible hydrogel substrates can be a promising platform for realization of practical bioelectronics devices.

  6. Disorder-free localization around the conduction band edge of crossing and kinked silicon nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Keleş, Ümit; Çakan, Aslı; Bulutay, Ceyhun

    2015-02-14

    We explore ballistic regime quantum transport characteristics of oxide-embedded crossing and kinked silicon nanowires (NWs) within a large-scale empirical pseudopotential electronic structure framework, coupled to the Kubo-Greenwood transport analysis. A real-space wave function study is undertaken and the outcomes are interpreted together with the findings of ballistic transport calculations. This reveals that ballistic transport edge lies tens to hundreds of millielectron volts above the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital, with a substantial number of localized states appearing in between, as well as above the former. We show that these localized states are not due to the oxide interface, but rather core silicon-derived. They manifest the wave nature of electrons brought to foreground by the reflections originating from NW junctions and bends. Hence, we show that the crossings and kinks of even ultraclean Si NWs possess a conduction band tail without a recourse to atomistic disorder.

  7. Disorder-free localization around the conduction band edge of crossing and kinked silicon nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keleş, Ümit; ćakan, Aslı; Bulutay, Ceyhun

    2015-02-01

    We explore ballistic regime quantum transport characteristics of oxide-embedded crossing and kinked silicon nanowires (NWs) within a large-scale empirical pseudopotential electronic structure framework, coupled to the Kubo-Greenwood transport analysis. A real-space wave function study is undertaken and the outcomes are interpreted together with the findings of ballistic transport calculations. This reveals that ballistic transport edge lies tens to hundreds of millielectron volts above the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital, with a substantial number of localized states appearing in between, as well as above the former. We show that these localized states are not due to the oxide interface, but rather core silicon-derived. They manifest the wave nature of electrons brought to foreground by the reflections originating from NW junctions and bends. Hence, we show that the crossings and kinks of even ultraclean Si NWs possess a conduction band tail without a recourse to atomistic disorder.

  8. Preparation of conductive gold nanowires in confined environment of gold-filled polymer nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Mitschang, Fabian; Langner, Markus; Vieker, Henning; Beyer, André; Greiner, Andreas

    2015-02-01

    Continuous conductive gold nanofibers are prepared via the "tubes by fiber templates" process. First, poly(l-lactide) (PLLA)-stabilized gold nanoparticles (AuNP) with over 60 wt% gold are synthesized and characterized, including gel permeation chromatography coupled with a diode array detector. Subsequent electrospinning of these AuNP with template PLLA results in composite nanofibers featuring a high gold content of 57 wt%. Highly homogeneous gold nanowires are obtained after chemical vapor deposition of 345 nm of poly(p-xylylene) (PPX) onto the composite fibers followed by pyrolysis of the polymers at 1050 °C. The corresponding heat-induced transition from continuous gold-loaded polymer tubes to smooth gold nanofibers is studied by transmission electron microscopy and helium ion microscopy using both secondary electrons and Rutherford backscattered ions.

  9. Isolating Majorana fermions with finite Kitaev nanowires and temperature: Universality of the zero-bias conductance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campo, V. L.; Ricco, L. S.; Seridonio, A. C.

    2017-07-01

    The zero-bias peak (ZBP) is understood as the definite signature of a Majorana bound state (MBS) when attached to a semi-infinite Kitaev nanowire (KNW) nearby zero temperature. However, such characteristics concerning the realization of the KNW constitute a profound experimental challenge. We explore theoretically a QD connected to a topological KNW of finite size at nonzero temperatures and show that overlapped MBSs of the wire edges can become effectively decoupled from each other and the characteristic ZBP can be fully recovered if one tunes the system into the leaked Majorana fermion fixed point. At very low temperatures, the MBSs become strongly coupled. We derive universal features of the conductance as a function of the temperature and the relevant crossover temperatures. Our findings offer additional guides to identify signatures of MBSs in solid state setups.

  10. Employment of gold-coated silver nanowires as transparent conductive electrode for organic light emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sunho; Kim, Bongsung; Im, Inseob; Kim, Dongjae; Lee, Haeseong; Nam, Jaewook; Chung, Ho Kyoon; Lee, Hoo-Jeong; Cho, Sung Min

    2017-08-01

    This study proposes a simple method of Au coating on silver nanowires (Ag NWs) transparent conductive films as the anode of organic light emitting diodes (OLED) to increase the work function of the film and thus enhance hole transport. We carefully engineer the process conditions (pretreatment, solution concentrations, and coating number) of the coating using a diluted HAuCl4 solution on the Ag NWs film to minimize etching damage on Ag NWs accompanying the galvanic replacement reaction. Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy and Kelvin probe force microscopy show work function increase of Ag NWs upon Au coating. OLED devices based on Au-coated Ag NWs show a lower turn-on voltage and higher luminance, compared with pristine Ag NWs device. Although the Ag NWs device displays poor efficiencies in the low luminance range due to a high leakage, some of the Au-coated Ag NWs devices showed efficiencies higher than those of the ITO device in a high luminance.

  11. Employment of gold-coated silver nanowires as transparent conductive electrode for organic light emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunho; Kim, Bongsung; Im, Inseob; Kim, Dongjae; Lee, Haeseong; Nam, Jaewook; Kyoon Chung, Ho; Lee, Hoo-Jeong; Min Cho, Sung

    2017-08-25

    This study proposes a simple method of Au coating on silver nanowires (Ag NWs) transparent conductive films as the anode of organic light emitting diodes (OLED) to increase the work function of the film and thus enhance hole transport. We carefully engineer the process conditions (pretreatment, solution concentrations, and coating number) of the coating using a diluted HAuCl4 solution on the Ag NWs film to minimize etching damage on Ag NWs accompanying the galvanic replacement reaction. Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy and Kelvin probe force microscopy show work function increase of Ag NWs upon Au coating. OLED devices based on Au-coated Ag NWs show a lower turn-on voltage and higher luminance, compared with pristine Ag NWs device. Although the Ag NWs device displays poor efficiencies in the low luminance range due to a high leakage, some of the Au-coated Ag NWs devices showed efficiencies higher than those of the ITO device in a high luminance.

  12. Luminance behavior of lithium-doped ZnO nanowires with p-type conduction characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ko, Won Bae; Lee, Jun Seok; Lee, Sang Hyo; Cha, Seung Nam; Sohn, Jung Inn; Kim, Jong Min; Park, Young Jun; Kim, Hyun Jung; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2013-09-01

    The present study describes the room-temperature cathodeluminescence (CL) and temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) properties of p-type lithium (Li)-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires (NWs) grown by hydrothermal doping and post-annealing processes. A ZnO thin film was used as a seed layer in NW growth. The emission wavelengths and intensities of undoped ZnO NWs and p-type Li-doped ZnO NWs were analyzed for comparison. CL and PL observations of post-annealed p-type Li-doped ZnO NWs clearly exhibited a dominant sharp band-edge emission. Finally, a n-type ZnO thin film/p-type annealed Li-doped ZnO NW homojunction diode was prepared to confirm the p-type conduction of annealed Li-doped ZnO NWs as well as the structural properties measured by transmission electron microscopy.

  13. Effects of silver nanowire concentration on resistivity and flexibility in hybrid conducting films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izumi, Konami; Ochiai, Yuto; Shiokawa, Daisuke; Yoshida, Yasunori; Kumaki, Daisuke; Tokito, Shizuo

    2017-05-01

    Silver nanowires (AgNWs) are attracting much attention for their potential use in flexible or stretchable conducting film applications and in printed and wearable electronics devices. In this study, we fabricated flexible hybrid conducting films using different concentrations of composite silver ink prepared by mixing AgNW and silver nanoparticle (AgNP) materials, which we synthesized, for flexible interconnects and electrodes. These films had low resistivities at low sintering temperatures. Furthermore, they were also stable to tensile bending in comparison with a pure AgNP film. We found that there is an optimum concentration of AgNWs in the composite silver ink for the hybrid conducting film to have a lower resistivity even with sintering below 100 °C. We also found that the reason why hybrid conducting films are stable to repeated tensile bending is that AgNWs maintain functional conducting paths by making bridges that compensate for cracks between AgNPs during film bending.

  14. Enhanced electrical and thermal conduction in graphene-encapsulated copper nanowires.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Ruchit; Chugh, Sunny; Chen, Zhihong

    2015-03-11

    Highly conductive copper nanowires (CuNWs) are essential for efficient data transfer and heat conduction in wide ranging applications like high-performance semiconductor chips and transparent conductors. However, size scaling of CuNWs causes severe reduction in electrical and thermal conductivity due to substantial inelastic surface scattering of electrons. Here we report a novel scalable technique for low-temperature deposition of graphene around CuNWs and observe strong enhancement of electrical and thermal conductivity for graphene-encapsulated CuNWs compared to uncoated CuNWs. Fitting the experimental data with the theoretical model for conductivity of CuNWs reveals significant reduction in surface scattering of electrons at the oxide-free CuNW surfaces, translating into 15% faster data transfer and 27% lower peak temperature compared to the same CuNW without the graphene coating. Our results provide compelling evidence for improved speed and thermal management by adapting the Cu-graphene hybrid technology in future ultrascaled silicon chips and air-stable flexible electronic applications.

  15. Enhancement of the electrical properties of silver nanowire transparent conductive electrodes by atomic layer deposition coating with zinc oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Anh-Tuan; Nguyen, Xuan-Quang; Tran, Duc-Huy; Phan, Vu Ngoc; Duong, Thanh-Tung; Nguyen, Duy-Cuong

    2016-08-01

    Transparent conductive electrodes for applications in optoelectronic devices such as solar cells and light-emitting diodes are important components and require low sheet resistance and high transmittance. Herein, we report an enhancement of the electrical properties of silver (Ag) nanowire networks by coating with zinc oxide using the atomic layer deposition technique. A strong decrease in the sheet resistance of Ag nanowires, namely from 20-40 Ω/□ to 7-15 Ω/□, was observed after coating with ZnO. Ag nanowire electrodes coated with 200-cycle ZnO by atomic layer deposition show the best quality, with a sheet resistance of 11 Ω/□ and transmittance of 75%.

  16. Enhancement of the electrical properties of silver nanowire transparent conductive electrodes by atomic layer deposition coating with zinc oxide.

    PubMed

    Pham, Anh-Tuan; Nguyen, Xuan-Quang; Tran, Duc-Huy; Ngoc Phan, Vu; Duong, Thanh-Tung; Nguyen, Duy-Cuong

    2016-08-19

    Transparent conductive electrodes for applications in optoelectronic devices such as solar cells and light-emitting diodes are important components and require low sheet resistance and high transmittance. Herein, we report an enhancement of the electrical properties of silver (Ag) nanowire networks by coating with zinc oxide using the atomic layer deposition technique. A strong decrease in the sheet resistance of Ag nanowires, namely from 20-40 Ω/□ to 7-15 Ω/□, was observed after coating with ZnO. Ag nanowire electrodes coated with 200-cycle ZnO by atomic layer deposition show the best quality, with a sheet resistance of 11 Ω/□ and transmittance of 75%.

  17. Transparent-conducting-oxide nanowire arrays for efficient photoelectrochemical energy conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sangwook; Park, Sangbaek; Han, Gill Sang; Kim, Dong Hoe; Noh, Jun Hong; Cho, In Sun; Jung, Hyun Suk; Hong, Kug Sun

    2014-07-01

    We report one dimensional (1-D) transparent-conducting-oxide arrays coated with light-absorbing semiconductors to simultaneously maximize light harvesting and charge collection in a photoelectrochemical (PEC) system. Tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) nanowire (NW) arrays are prepared on ITO thin-film substrates as the transparent-conducting-oxide, and TiO2 or CdSe/CdS/TiO2 thin layers were coated on the ITO NW arrays as the solar light-absorbing layers. The optimal PEC performance, 0.85% under 100 mW cm-2 of light illumination, is obtained from ~30 μm-long ITO NW, which is covered with ~20 nm-thick TiO2 nanoshell. We finally demonstrate that the ITO NW-based photoelectrode is also compatible with one of the most efficient visible-light sensitizers, the CdS/CdSe quantum dot. Our approach using the transparent conducting 1-D array has wide potential to improve the PEC performances of conventional semiconducting materials through liberation from the poor charge transport.We report one dimensional (1-D) transparent-conducting-oxide arrays coated with light-absorbing semiconductors to simultaneously maximize light harvesting and charge collection in a photoelectrochemical (PEC) system. Tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) nanowire (NW) arrays are prepared on ITO thin-film substrates as the transparent-conducting-oxide, and TiO2 or CdSe/CdS/TiO2 thin layers were coated on the ITO NW arrays as the solar light-absorbing layers. The optimal PEC performance, 0.85% under 100 mW cm-2 of light illumination, is obtained from ~30 μm-long ITO NW, which is covered with ~20 nm-thick TiO2 nanoshell. We finally demonstrate that the ITO NW-based photoelectrode is also compatible with one of the most efficient visible-light sensitizers, the CdS/CdSe quantum dot. Our approach using the transparent conducting 1-D array has wide potential to improve the PEC performances of conventional semiconducting materials through liberation from the poor charge transport. Electronic supplementary information

  18. Silver Nanowire-IZO-Conducting Polymer Hybrids for Flexible and Transparent Conductive Electrodes for Organic Light-Emitting Diodes

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Ho Jun; Kim, Se Jung; Hwang, Ju Hyun; Shim, Yong Sub; Jung, Sun-Gyu; Park, Young Wook; Ju, Byeong-Kwon

    2016-01-01

    Solution-processed silver nanowire (AgNW) has been considered as a promising material for next-generation flexible transparent conductive electrodes. However, despite the advantages of AgNWs, some of their intrinsic drawbacks, such as large surface roughness and poor interconnection between wires, limit their practical application in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Herein, we report a high-performance AgNW-based hybrid electrode composed of indium-doped zinc oxide (IZO) and poly (3,4-ethylenediowythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) [PEDOT:PSS]. The IZO layer protects the underlying AgNWs from oxidation and corrosion and tightly fuses the wires together and to the substrate. The PEDOT:PSS effectively reduces surface roughness and increases the hybrid films’ transmittance. The fabricated electrodes exhibited a low sheet resistance of 5.9 Ωsq−1 with high transmittance of 86% at 550 nm. The optical, electrical, and mechanical properties of the AgNW-based hybrid films were investigated in detail to determine the structure-property relations, and whether optical or electrical properties could be controlled with variation in each layer’s thickness to satisfy different requirements for different applications. Flexible OLEDs (f-OLEDs) were successfully fabricated on the hybrid electrodes to prove their applicability; their performance was even better than those on commercial indium doped tin oxide (ITO) electrodes. PMID:27703182

  19. Silver Nanowire-IZO-Conducting Polymer Hybrids for Flexible and Transparent Conductive Electrodes for Organic Light-Emitting Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Ho Jun; Kim, Se Jung; Hwang, Ju Hyun; Shim, Yong Sub; Jung, Sun-Gyu; Park, Young Wook; Ju, Byeong-Kwon

    2016-10-01

    Solution-processed silver nanowire (AgNW) has been considered as a promising material for next-generation flexible transparent conductive electrodes. However, despite the advantages of AgNWs, some of their intrinsic drawbacks, such as large surface roughness and poor interconnection between wires, limit their practical application in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Herein, we report a high-performance AgNW-based hybrid electrode composed of indium-doped zinc oxide (IZO) and poly (3,4-ethylenediowythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) [PEDOT:PSS]. The IZO layer protects the underlying AgNWs from oxidation and corrosion and tightly fuses the wires together and to the substrate. The PEDOT:PSS effectively reduces surface roughness and increases the hybrid films’ transmittance. The fabricated electrodes exhibited a low sheet resistance of 5.9 Ωsq‑1 with high transmittance of 86% at 550 nm. The optical, electrical, and mechanical properties of the AgNW-based hybrid films were investigated in detail to determine the structure-property relations, and whether optical or electrical properties could be controlled with variation in each layer’s thickness to satisfy different requirements for different applications. Flexible OLEDs (f-OLEDs) were successfully fabricated on the hybrid electrodes to prove their applicability; their performance was even better than those on commercial indium doped tin oxide (ITO) electrodes.

  20. Silver Nanowire-Conducting Polymer-ITO Hybrids for Flexible and Transparent Conductive Electrodes with Excellent Durability.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Ji Hoon; Kim, Yunkyung; Han, Mi Kyoung; Choi, Seonghwa; Song, Ki Yong; Chung, Kwang Choon; Kim, Ji Man; Kwak, Jeonghun

    2015-07-29

    Solution-processed silver nanowire (AgNW) films have attracted attention as transparent and conductive electrodes for flexible optoelectronic devices and touch screens, to replace sputtered indium-tin-oxide (ITO) films. However, the mechanical flexibility, environmental durability, and the optical (such as transparency and a haze) and electrical properties of the AgNW films should be improved for their practical application. In this work, high-performance and roll-to-roll processed AgNW-based hybrid electrodes comprising poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) ( PSS) and/or ITO are introduced. The optical and electrical properties of the AgNW films combined with PSS, ITO, or both of them were systematically examined. Among the films, the AgNW-PEDOT:PSS-ITO hybrid film exhibits a high transmittance (88%) and a low sheet resistance (44 Ω sq(-1)) with a small haze (1.9%). Moreover, the hybrid films show excellent durability to a variety of environmental stresses. By virtues of the high performance and durability, it is believed that the AgNW-PEDOT:PSS-ITO hybrid electrodes are highly suitable for practical use.

  1. Doping controlled roughness and defined mesoporosity in chemically etched silicon nanowires with tunable conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McSweeney, W.; Lotty, O.; Mogili, N. V. V.; Glynn, C.; Geaney, H.; Tanner, D.; Holmes, J. D.; O'Dwyer, C.

    2013-07-01

    By using Si(100) with different dopant type (n++-type (As) or p-type (B)), we show how metal-assisted chemically etched (MACE) nanowires (NWs) can form with rough outer surfaces around a solid NW core for p-type NWs, and a unique, defined mesoporous structure for highly doped n-type NWs. We used high resolution electron microscopy techniques to define the characteristic roughening and mesoporous structure within the NWs and how such structures can form due to a judicious choice of carrier concentration and dopant type. The n-type NWs have a mesoporosity that is defined by equidistant pores in all directions, and the inter-pore distance is correlated to the effective depletion region width at the reduction potential of the catalyst at the silicon surface in a HF electrolyte. Clumping in n-type MACE Si NWs is also shown to be characteristic of mesoporous NWs when etched as high density NW layers, due to low rigidity (high porosity). Electrical transport investigations show that the etched nanowires exhibit tunable conductance changes, where the largest resistance increase is found for highly mesoporous n-type Si NWs, in spite of their very high electronic carrier concentration. This understanding can be adapted to any low-dimensional semiconducting system capable of selective etching through electroless, and possibly electrochemical, means. The process points to a method of multiscale nanostructuring NWs, from surface roughening of NWs with controllable lengths to defined mesoporosity formation, and may be applicable to applications where high surface area, electrical connectivity, tunable surface structure, and internal porosity are required.

  2. Electrically conductive nano graphite-filled bacterial cellulose composites.

    PubMed

    Erbas Kiziltas, Esra; Kiziltas, Alper; Rhodes, Kevin; Emanetoglu, Nuri W; Blumentritt, Melanie; Gardner, Douglas J

    2016-01-20

    A unique three dimensional (3D) porous structured bacterial cellulose (BC) can act as a supporting material to deposit the nanofillers in order to create advanced BC-based functional nanomaterials for various technological applications. In this study, novel nanocomposites comprised of BC with exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets (xGnP) incorporated into the BC matrix were prepared using a simple particle impregnation strategy to enhance the thermal properties and electrical conductivity of the BC. The flake-shaped xGnP particles were well dispersed and formed a continuous network throughout the BC matrix. The temperature at 10% weight loss, thermal stability and residual ash content of the nanocomposites increased at higher xGnP loadings. The electrical conductivity of the composites increased with increasing xGnP loading (attaining values 0.75 S/cm with the addition of 2 wt.% of xGnP). The enhanced conductive and thermal properties of the BC-xGnP nanocomposites will broaden applications (biosensors, tissue engineering, etc.) of BC and xGnP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Nickel nanowires mesh fabricated by ion beam irradiation-induced nanoscale welding for transparent conducting electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honey, S.; Ahmad, I.; Madhuku, M.; Naseem, S.; Maaza, M.; Kennedy, J. V.

    2017-07-01

    In this report, random nickel nanowires (Ni-NWs) meshes are fabricated by ions beam irradiation-induced nanoscale welding of NWs on intersecting positions. Ni-NWs are exposed to beam of 50 KeV Argon (Ar+) ions at various fluencies in the range ~1015 ions cm-2 to 1016 ions cm-2 at room temperature. Ni-NWs are welded due to accumulation of Ar+ ions beam irradiation-induced sputtered atoms on crossing positions. Ar+ ions irradiated Ni-NWs meshes are optically transparent and optical transparency is enhanced with increase in beam fluence of Ar+ ions. Ar+ ions beam irradiation-induced welded and optically transparent mesh is then exposed to 2.75 MeV hydrogen (H+) ions at fluencies 1  ×  1015 ions cm-2, 3  ×  1015 ions cm-2 and 1  ×  1016 ions cm-2 at room temperature. MeV H+ ions irradiation-induced local heat cause melting and fusion of NWs on intersecting points and eventually lead to reduce contact resistance between Ni-NWs. Electrical conductivity is enhanced with increase in beam fluence of H+ ions. These welded highly transparent and electrically conductive Ni-NWs meshes can be employed as transparent conducting electrodes in optoelectronic devices.

  4. Large-Scale Stretchable Semiembedded Copper Nanowire Transparent Conductive Films by an Electrospinning Template.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xia; Hu, Xiaotian; Wang, Qingxia; Xiong, Jian; Yang, Hanjun; Meng, Xiangchuan; Tan, Licheng; Chen, Lie; Chen, Yiwang

    2017-08-09

    With recent emergence of wearable electronic devices, flexible and stretchable transparent electrodes are the core components to realize innovative devices. The copper nanowire (CuNW) network is commonly chosen because of its high conductivity and transparency. However, the junction resistances and low aspect ratios still limit its further stretchable performance. Herein, a large-scale stretchable semiembedded CuNW transparent conductive film (TCF) was fabricated by electrolessly depositing Cu on the electrospun poly(4-vinylpyridine) polymer template semiembedded in polydimethylsiloxane. Compared with traditional CuNWs, which are as-coated on the flexible substrate, the semiembedded CuNW TCFs showed low sheet resistance (15.6 Ω·sq(-1) at ∼82% transmittance) as well as outstanding stretchability and mechanical stability. The light-emitting diode connected the stretchable semiembedded CuNW TCFs in the electric circuit still lighted up even after stretching with 25% strain. Moreover, this semiembedded CuNW TCF was successfully applied in polymer solar cells as a stretchable conductive electrode, which yielded a power conversion efficiency of 4.6% with 0.1 cm(2) effective area. The large-scale stretchable CuNW TCFs show potential for the development of wearable electronic devices.

  5. Exploration of the Electrical Conductivity of Double-Network Silver Nanowires/Polyimide Porous Low-Density Compressible Sponges.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shaohua; Reich, Steffen; Uch, Bianca; Hu, Pin; Agarwal, Seema; Greiner, Andreas

    2017-10-04

    Stress-responsive, highly flexible, and breathable nanocomposite sponges show an electrical conductivity from 1.7 to 166.6 S/cm depending on the applied stress. Key for the responsive electrical conductivity of the sponges is the change of percolation of the silver nanowires. These sponges made of short electrospun fibers and silver nanowires could be applied without any amplifier for the operation of automobile bulbs and as an efficient Joule heater. The time required for electric heating (current on) and cooling is very short. Interestingly, the maximum temperature reached by electric heating depends on the compression status. The higher the compression status, the lower is the maximum temperature, which is in accordance with the understanding of Joule heaters. It is noteworthy that these sponges are thermally, chemically, and mechanically very stable. These conductive sponges will open a new area for novel conductive devices with relevance for real-world applications.

  6. Electrospinning of Ceramic Solid Electrolyte Nanowires for Lithium-Ion Batteries with Enhanced Ionic Conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ting

    Solid electrolytes have great potential to address the safety issues of Li-ion batteries, but better synthesis methods are still required for ceramics electrolytes such as lithium lanthanum titanate (LLTO) and lithium lanthanum zirconate (LLZO). Pellets made from ceramic nanopowders using conventional sintering can be porous due to the agglomeration of nanoparticles (NPs). Electrospinning is a simple and versatile technique for preparing oxide ceramic nanowires (NWs) and was used to prepare electrospun LLTO and LLZO NWs. Pellets prepared from the electrospun LLTO NWs had higher density, less void space, and higher Li+ conductivity compared to those comprised of LLTO prepared with conventional sol-gel methods, which demonstrated the potential that electrospinning can provide towards improving the properties of sol-gel derived ceramics. Cubic phase LLZO was stabilized at room temperature in the form of electrospun NWs without extrinsic dopants. Bulk LLZO with tetragonal structure was transformed to the cubic phase using particle size reduction via ball milling. Heating conditions that promoted particle coalescence and grain growth induced a transformation from the cubic to tetragonal phase in both types of nanostructured LLZO. Composite polymer solid electrolyte was fabricated using LLZO NWs as the filler and showed an improved ionic conductivity at room temperature. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies show that LLZO NWs partially modify the polymer matrix and create preferential pathways for Li+ conduction through the modified polymer regions. Doping did not have significant effect on improving the overall conductivity as the interfaces played a predominant role. By comparing fillers with different morphologies and intrinsic conductivities, it was found that both NW morphology and high intrinsic conductivity are desired.

  7. Electrodeposition of vertically standing Ag nanoplates and nanowires on transparent conductive electrode using porous anodic aluminum oxide membrane.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jue; Pan, Shanlin

    2017-08-14

    We report fabricating vertically standing Ag nanoplates and nanowires on top of a transparent conductive substrate of indium tin oxides (ITO) with the assistance of porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane. Two-dimensional Ag nanoplates are electrodeposited onto ITO surface which is covered with an AAO membrane without using an adhesion layer. Ag nanoplates obtained using AAO membranes majorly present 3×{222} superlattice fringes, different from the 3×{422} superlattice fringes reported in the previous study. Ag nanowires can be electrodeposited onto ITO which is initially modified with a conductive polymer poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) followed by grafting AAO membrane to remove the gap. The coverage, diameter, and thickness of Ag nanoplates are strongly dependent on the electrodeposition time and the diameter of Ag nanowires is determined by the pore size of AAO membranes. These Ag nanoplates and nanowires are studied for applications in surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and the influence of their shape, size, and coverage on SERS enhancement is explored. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  8. Carbon Nanotube/Cu Nanowires/Epoxy Composite Mats with Improved Thermal and Electrical Conductivity.

    PubMed

    Xing, Yajuan; Cao, Wei; Li, Wei; Chen, Hongyuan; Wang, Miao; Wei, Hanxing; Hu, Dongmei; Chen, Minghai; Li, Qingwen

    2015-04-01

    Polymer composites with carbon nanofillers have been regarded as a promising candidate for electronic package materials. The challenge for such materials is to increase the electrical and thermal conductivity of the composites. Herein, we reported an epoxy composite film with high thermal and electrical conductivity that were prepared by loading high volume fraction of well-dispersed multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs, around 50 nm in diameter, 1-10 µm in length) and copper nanowires (Cu NWs, 60-70 nm in diameter, 1-5 µm in length) in epoxy matrix. The MWCNT-Cu NW hybrid mats were prepared by a vacuum filtration method with an optimum Cu NW content of 50 wt%. The hybrid mats was then impregnated by epoxy solution to prepare epoxy composite films. The epoxy was modified by the toughening agent to make the composite films tough and flexible. The loading fraction of MWCNTs and Cu NWs was tuned by controlling the viscosity of epoxy solution. A remarkable synergetic effect between the MWCNTs and Cu NWs in improving the electrical and thermal conductivity of epoxy composites was demonstrated. The results showed that the electrical conductivity of nanocomposites with 42.5 wt% epoxy was 1500 S/m, and the thermal conductivity was 2.83 W/m K, which was 10.1 times of the neat epoxy. Its thermal resistance was as low as 1% of the pure epoxy. And the mechanical properties of composites were also investigated. These robust and flexible nanocomposites showed prospective applications as thermal interface materials (TIMs) in the electronic industry.

  9. Nanoscale Chemical and Electrical Stabilities of Graphene-covered Silver Nanowire Networks for Transparent Conducting Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seong Heon; Choi, Woon Ih; Kim, Kwang Hee; Yang, Dae Jin; Heo, Sung; Yun, Dong-Jin

    2016-01-01

    The hybrid structure of Ag nanowires (AgNWs) covered with graphene (Gr) shows synergetic effects on the performance of transparent conducting electrodes (TCEs). However, these effects have been mainly observed via large-scale characterization, and precise analysis at the nanoscale level remains inadequate. Here, we present the nanoscale verification and visualization of the improved chemical and electrical stabilities of Gr-covered AgNW networks using conductive atomic force microscopy (C-AFM), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) combined with the gas cluster ion beam (GCIB) sputtering technique. Specifically by transferring island Gr on top of the AgNW network, we were able to create samples in which both covered and uncovered AgNWs are simultaneously accessible to various surface-characterization techniques. Furthermore, our ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulation elucidated the specific mechanistic pathway and a strong propensity for AgNW sulfidation, even in the presence of ambient oxidant gases. PMID:27620453

  10. Carbon Nanotube Networks Reinforced by Silver Nanowires with Improved Optical Transparency and Conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martine, Patricia; Fakhimi, Azin; Lin, Ling; Jurewicz, Izabela; Dalton, Alan; Zakhidov, Anvar A.; Baughman, Ray H.

    2015-03-01

    We have fabricated highly transparent and conductive free-standing nanocomposite thin film electrodes by adding silver nanowires (AgNWs) to dry-spun Multiwall Carbon Nanotube (MWNT) aerogels. This nanocomposite exhibits desirable properties such as high optical transmittance, excellent flexibility and enhanced electrical conductivity. The incorporation of the AgNWs to the MWNT aerogels was accomplished by using a spray coating method. The optical transparency and sheet resistance of the nanocomposite was tuned by adjusting the concentration of AgNWs, back pressure and nozzle distance of the spray gun to the MWNT aerogel during deposition. As the solvent evaporated, the aerogel MWNT bundles densified via surface tension which caused the MWNT bundles to collapse. This adjustable process was responsible in forming well defined apertures that increased the nanocomposite's transmittance up to 90 percent. Via AgNWs percolation and random interconnections between separate MWNT bundles in the aerogel matrix, the sheet resistance decreased from 1 K ohm/sq to less than 100 ohm/sq. Alan G. MacDiarmid NanoTech Institute

  11. Tunable Band Gap and Conductivity Type of ZnSe/Si Core-Shell Nanowire Heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yijie; Xing, Huaizhong; Fang, Yanbian; Huang, Yan; Lu, Aijiang; Chen, Xiaoshuang

    2014-10-31

    The electronic properties of zincblende ZnSe/Si core-shell nanowires (NWs) with a diameter of 1.1-2.8 nm are calculated by means of the first principle calculation. Band gaps of both ZnSe-core/Si-shell and Si-core/ZnSe-shell NWs are much smaller than those of pure ZnSe or Si NWs. Band alignment analysis reveals that the small band gaps of ZnSe/Si core-shell NWs are caused by the interface state. Fixing the ZnSe core size and enlarging the Si shell would turn the NWs from intrinsic to p-type, then to metallic. However, Fixing the Si core and enlarging the ZnSe shell would not change the band gap significantly. The partial charge distribution diagram shows that the conduction band maximum (CBM) is confined in Si, while the valence band maximum (VBM) is mainly distributed around the interface. Our findings also show that the band gap and conductivity type of ZnSe/Si core-shell NWs can be tuned by the concentration and diameter of the core-shell material, respectively.

  12. Tunable Band Gap and Conductivity Type of ZnSe/Si Core-Shell Nanowire Heterostructures

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Yijie; Xing, Huaizhong; Fang, Yanbian; Huang, Yan; Lu, Aijiang; Chen, Xiaoshuang

    2014-01-01

    The electronic properties of zincblende ZnSe/Si core-shell nanowires (NWs) with a diameter of 1.1–2.8 nm are calculated by means of the first principle calculation. Band gaps of both ZnSe-core/Si-shell and Si-core/ZnSe-shell NWs are much smaller than those of pure ZnSe or Si NWs. Band alignment analysis reveals that the small band gaps of ZnSe/Si core-shell NWs are caused by the interface state. Fixing the ZnSe core size and enlarging the Si shell would turn the NWs from intrinsic to p-type, then to metallic. However, Fixing the Si core and enlarging the ZnSe shell would not change the band gap significantly. The partial charge distribution diagram shows that the conduction band maximum (CBM) is confined in Si, while the valence band maximum (VBM) is mainly distributed around the interface. Our findings also show that the band gap and conductivity type of ZnSe/Si core-shell NWs can be tuned by the concentration and diameter of the core-shell material, respectively. PMID:28788245

  13. Self-aligned nanoforest in silicon nanowire for sensitive conductance modulation.

    PubMed

    Seol, Myeong-Lok; Ahn, Jae-Hyuk; Choi, Ji-Min; Choi, Sung-Jin; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2012-11-14

    A self-aligned and localized nanoforest structure is constructed in a top-down fabricated silicon nanowire (SiNW). The surface-to-volume ratio (SVR) of the SiNW is enhanced due to the local nanoforest formation. The conductance modulation property of the SiNWs, which is an important characteristic in sensor and charge transfer based applications, can be largely enhanced. For the selective modification of the channel region, localized Joule-heating and subsequent metal-assisted chemical etching (mac-etch) are employed. The nanoforest is formed only in the channel region without misalignment due to the self-aligned process of Joule-heating. The modified SiNW is applied to a porphyrin-silicon hybrid device to verify the enhanced conductance modulation. The charge transfer efficiency between the porphyrin and the SiNW, which is caused by external optical excitation, is clearly increased compared to the initial SiNW. The effect of the local nanoforest formation is enhanced when longer etching times and larger widths are used.

  14. Continuous Patterning of Copper Nanowire-Based Transparent Conducting Electrodes for Use in Flexible Electronic Applications.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Zhaoyang; Lee, Hyungjin; Kang, Dongwoo; Kwon, Sin; Choi, Young-Man; Kim, Inhyuk; Kim, Kwang-Young; Lee, Youngu; Woo, Kyoohee; Moon, Jooho

    2016-08-23

    Simple, low-cost and scalable patterning methods for Cu nanowire (NW)-based flexible transparent conducting electrodes (FTCEs) are essential for the widespread use of Cu NW FTCEs in numerous flexible optoelectronic devices, wearable devices, and electronic skins. In this paper, continuous patterning for Cu NW FTCEs via a combination of selective intense pulsed light (IPL) and roll-to-roll (R2R) wiping process was explored. The development of continuous R2R patterning could be achieved because there was significant difference in adhesion properties between NWs and substrates depending on whether Cu NW coated area was irradiated by IPL or not. Using a custom-built, R2R-based wiping apparatus, it was confirmed that nonirradiated NWs could be clearly removed out without any damage on irradiated NWs strongly adhered to the substrate, resulting in continuous production of low-cost Cu NW FTCE patterns. In addition, the variations in microscale pattern size by varying IPL process parameters/the mask aperture sizes were investigated, and possible factors affecting on developed pattern size were meticulously examined. Finally, the successful implementation of the patterned Cu NW FTCEs into a phosphorescent organic light-emitting diode (PhOLED) and a flexible transparent conductive heater (TCH) were demonstrated, verifying the applicability of the patterned FTCEs. It is believed that our study is the key step toward realizing the practical use of NW FTCEs in various flexible electronic devices.

  15. Silver nanowire-graphene hybrid transparent conductive electrodes for highly efficient inverted organic solar cells.

    PubMed

    Ye, Neng; Yan, Jielin; Xie, Shuang; Kong, Yuhan; Liang, Tao; Chen, Hongzheng; Xu, Mingsheng

    2017-07-28

    Silver nanowires (AgNWs) and graphene are both promising candidates as a transparent conductive electrode (TCE) to replace expensive and fragile indium tin oxide (ITO) TCE. A synergistically optimized performance is expected when the advantages of AgNWs and graphene are combined. In this paper, the AgNW-graphene hybrid electrode is constructed by depositing a graphene layer on top of the network of AgNWs. Compared with the pristine AgNWs electrode, the AgNW-graphene TCE exhibits reduced sheet resistance, lower surface roughness, excellent long-term stability, and corrosion resistance in corrosive liquids. The graphene layer covering the AgNWs provides additional conduction pathways for electron transport and collection by the electrode. Benefiting from these advantages of the hybrid electrodes, we achieve a power conversion efficiency of 8.12% of inverted organic solar cells using PTB7:PC71BM as the active layer, which is compared to that of the solar cells based on standard ITO TCE but about 10% higher than that based on AgNWs TCE.

  16. Silver nanowire-graphene hybrid transparent conductive electrodes for highly efficient inverted organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Neng; Yan, Jielin; Xie, Shuang; Kong, Yuhan; Liang, Tao; Chen, Hongzheng; Xu, Mingsheng

    2017-07-01

    Silver nanowires (AgNWs) and graphene are both promising candidates as a transparent conductive electrode (TCE) to replace expensive and fragile indium tin oxide (ITO) TCE. A synergistically optimized performance is expected when the advantages of AgNWs and graphene are combined. In this paper, the AgNW-graphene hybrid electrode is constructed by depositing a graphene layer on top of the network of AgNWs. Compared with the pristine AgNWs electrode, the AgNW-graphene TCE exhibits reduced sheet resistance, lower surface roughness, excellent long-term stability, and corrosion resistance in corrosive liquids. The graphene layer covering the AgNWs provides additional conduction pathways for electron transport and collection by the electrode. Benefiting from these advantages of the hybrid electrodes, we achieve a power conversion efficiency of 8.12% of inverted organic solar cells using PTB7:PC71BM as the active layer, which is compared to that of the solar cells based on standard ITO TCE but about 10% higher than that based on AgNWs TCE.

  17. Novel method of ordering silver nanowires for synthesizing flexible films and their conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Silin; Liu, Haitao; Huang, Zhaohui; Fang, Minghao; Liu, Yan-gai; Wu, Xiaowen; He, Can

    2016-11-01

    In this research, ordered silver nanowires (NWs) were transferred to flexible, freestanding nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) thin film. Silver NWs were synthesized via a solution chemistry method and arranged by a novel assemble method at the oil-water-air, three phase interface. The transparent nanopaper was made of NFC through vacuum suction filtrated method. Then the arranged Ag NWs were transferred to the surface of the nanopaper using a relatively simple method to form a compound, nanopaper/Ag NWs. X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and transmission electron microscope were taken to characterize the phase and the morphology of the as-prepared products. Characterization of the as-synthesized nanopaper/Ag NWs indicated that they were compounded physically and the Ag NWs were well crystalline. The as-synthesized nanopaper showed well translucency. The nanopaper/Ag NWs showed excellent flexibility and conductivity. The as-synthesized products have the potential application in flexible conductor. This study may provide an effective strategy to design and construct nano-metallic materials with multitudinous features and potential applications in electric devices sensors, flexible devices and conductive materials.

  18. Rheology of cellulose nanofibrils/silver nanowires suspension for the production of transparent and conductive electrodes by screen printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoeng, Fanny; Denneulin, Aurore; Reverdy-Bruas, Nadège; Krosnicki, Guillaume; Bras, Julien

    2017-02-01

    With the aim of processing silver nanowires-based electrodes using screen printing process, this study proposes to evaluate the suitability of cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) as a thickening agent for providing a high viscosity silver nanowires screen printing ink. Rheology of CNF suspension has been specifically investigated according to screen printing process requirements using both rotational and oscillating rheology. It has been found that CNF indeed act as a thickener and stabilizer for the silver nanowires suspension. However, the solid dominant visco-elastic behavior of the CNF suspension was not suitable for screen printing and leads to defects within the printed film. CNF visco-elastic properties were modified by adding hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC) to the suspension. Homogeneous transparent conductive layers have been obtained when using CNF-HPMC as a matrix for silver nanowires. The screen printed layers were characterized and performances of Rsh = 12 ± 5 Ω□-1 and T%500nm = 74,8% were achieved without any additional post-treatment to the film.

  19. Thermal conductivity of bulk and nanowire Mg₂SixSn1–x alloys from first principles

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Wu; Lindsay, L.; Broido, D. A.; ...

    2012-11-29

    The lattice thermal conductivity (κ) of the thermoelectric materials, Mg₂Si, Mg₂Sn, and their alloys, are calculated for bulk and nanowires, without adjustable parameters. We find good agreement with bulk experimental results. For large nanowire diameters, size effects are stronger for the alloy than for the pure compounds. For example, in 200 nm diameter nanowires κ is lower than its bulk value by 30%, 20%, and 20% for Mg₂Si₀.₆Sn₀.₄, Mg₂Si, and Mg₂Sn, respectively. For nanowires less than 20 nm thick, the relative decrease surpasses 50%, and it becomes larger in the pure compounds than in the alloy. At room temperature, κmore » of Mg₂SixSn1–x is less sensitive to nanostructuring size effects than SixGe1–x, but more sensitive than PbTexSe1–x. This suggests that further improvement of Mg₂SixSn1–x as a nontoxic thermoelectric may be possible.« less

  20. Effect of Ag nanowire addition into nanoparticle paste on the conductivity of Ag patterns printed by gravure offset method.

    PubMed

    Ok, Ki-Hun; Lee, Chan-Jae; Kwak, Min-Gi; Choi, Duck-Kyun; Kim, Kwang-Seok; Jung, Seung-Boo; Kim, Jong-Woong

    2014-11-01

    This paper focuses on the effect of Ag nanowire addition into a commercial Ag nanopaste and the printability evaluation of the mixed paste by the gravure offset printing methodology. Ag nanowires were synthesized by a modified polyol method, and a small amount of them was added into a commercial metallic paste based on Ag nanoparticles of 50 nm in diameter. Two annealing temperatures were selected for comparison, and electrical conductivity was measured by four point probe method. As a result, the hybrid mixture could be printed by the gravure offset method for patterning fine lines up to 15 μm width with sharp edges and scarce spreading. The addition of the Ag nanowires was significantly efficient for enhancement of electrical conductivity of the printed lines annealed at a low temperature (150 degrees C), while the effect was somewhat diluted in case of high temperature annealing (200 degrees C). The experimental results were discussed with the conduction mechanism in the printed conductive circuits with a schematic description of the electron flows in the printed lines.

  1. Metallic Conductive Nanowires Elaborated by PVD Metal Deposition on Suspended DNA Bundles.

    PubMed

    Brun, Christophe; Elchinger, Pierre-Henri; Nonglaton, Guillaume; Tidiane-Diagne, Cheikh; Tiron, Raluca; Thuaire, Aurélie; Gasparutto, Didier; Baillin, Xavier

    2017-09-01

    Metallic conductive nanowires (NWs) with DNA bundle core are achieved, thanks to an original process relying on double-stranded DNA alignment and physical vapor deposition (PVD) metallization steps involving a silicon substrate. First, bundles of DNA are suspended with a repeatable process between 2 µm high parallel electrodes with separating gaps ranging from 800 nm to 2 µm. The process consists in the drop deposition of a DNA lambda-phage solution on the electrodes followed by a naturally evaporation step. The deposition process is controlled by the DNA concentration within the buffer solution, the drop volume, and the electrode hydrophobicity. The suspended bundles are finally metallized with various thicknesses of titanium and gold by a PVD e-beam evaporation process. The achieved NWs have a width ranging from a few nanometers up to 100 nm. The electrical behavior of the achieved 60 and 80 nm width metallic NWs is shown to be Ohmic and their intrinsic resistance is estimated according to different geometrical models of the NW section area. For the 80 nm width NWs, a resistance of about few ohms is established, opening exploration fields for applications in microelectronics. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Reduced haze of transparent conductive films by smaller diameter silver nanowires.

    PubMed

    Menamparambath, Mini Mol; Yang, Kihyuk; Kim, Hyeong Hoon; Bae, Oh Seung; Jeong, Mun Seok; Choi, Jae-Young; Baik, Seunghyun

    2016-11-18

    Silver nanowires (Ag NWs) have received considerable attention for flexible transparent conductive films (TCFs) since they provide a relatively low sheet resistance at a high transmittance. However, the diffuse light scattering, haze, has been regarded as a hurdle to achieve clarity of films. Here we revisit the Mie scattering theory to calculate the extinction and scattering coefficients of Ag NWs which were employed to estimate haze of TCFs. The theory predicted a decrease in haze with a decrease in Ag NW diameter which was supported by experimental investigations carried out using Ag NWs with 5 different diameters (17.6, 19.9, 22.5, 24.3, and 29.6 nm). Overall, excellent properties of TCFs (haze = 0.21%-1.8%, transmittance = 95.33%-98.45%, sheet resistance = 20.87-81.76 Ω sq(-1)) were obtained. Ag NWs with a diameter of 17.6 nm provided minimum haze values at equivalent sheet resistances (e.g., haze = 0.21%, transmittance = 98.45%, sheet resistance = 77.36 Ω sq(-1)) compared with ones with lager diameters and the controls in literatures. This work investigated the interdependence between haze and NW diameter and might provide a design guide for flexible Ag NW TCFs.

  3. Improved Flexible Transparent Conductive Electrodes based on Silver Nanowire Networks by a Simple Sunlight Illumination Approach.

    PubMed

    Kou, Pengfei; Yang, Liu; Chang, Cheng; He, Sailing

    2017-02-07

    Silver nanowire (Ag NW) networks have attracted wide attention as transparent electrodes for emerging flexible optoelectronics. However, the sheet resistance is greatly limited by large wire-to-wire contact resistances. Here, we propose a simple sunlight illumination approach to remarkably improve their electrical conductivity without any significant degradation of the light transmittance. Because the power density is extremely low (0.1 W/cm(2), 1-Sun), only slight welding between Ag NWs has been observed. Despite this, a sheet resistance of <20 Ω/sq and transmittance of ~87% at wavelength of 550 nm as well as excellent mechanical flexibility have still been achieved for Ag NW networks after sunlight illumination for 1 hour or longer, which are significant upgrades over those of ITO. Slight plasmonic welding together with the associated self-limiting effect has been investigated by numerical simulations and further verified experimentally through varied solar concentrations. Due to the reduced resistance, high-performance transparent film heaters as well as efficient defrosters have been demonstrated, which are superior to the previously-reported Ag NW based film heaters. Since the sunlight is environmentally friendly and easily available, sophisticated or expensive facilities are not necessary. Our findings are particularly meaningful and show enormous potential for outdoor applications.

  4. Reduced haze of transparent conductive films by smaller diameter silver nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mol Menamparambath, Mini; Yang, Kihyuk; Kim, Hyeong Hoon; Bae, Oh Seung; Jeong, Mun Seok; Choi, Jae-Young; Baik, Seunghyun

    2016-11-01

    Silver nanowires (Ag NWs) have received considerable attention for flexible transparent conductive films (TCFs) since they provide a relatively low sheet resistance at a high transmittance. However, the diffuse light scattering, haze, has been regarded as a hurdle to achieve clarity of films. Here we revisit the Mie scattering theory to calculate the extinction and scattering coefficients of Ag NWs which were employed to estimate haze of TCFs. The theory predicted a decrease in haze with a decrease in Ag NW diameter which was supported by experimental investigations carried out using Ag NWs with 5 different diameters (17.6, 19.9, 22.5, 24.3, and 29.6 nm). Overall, excellent properties of TCFs (haze = 0.21%-1.8%, transmittance = 95.33%-98.45%, sheet resistance = 20.87-81.76 Ω sq-1) were obtained. Ag NWs with a diameter of 17.6 nm provided minimum haze values at equivalent sheet resistances (e.g., haze = 0.21%, transmittance = 98.45%, sheet resistance = 77.36 Ω sq-1) compared with ones with lager diameters and the controls in literatures. This work investigated the interdependence between haze and NW diameter and might provide a design guide for flexible Ag NW TCFs.

  5. Improved Flexible Transparent Conductive Electrodes based on Silver Nanowire Networks by a Simple Sunlight Illumination Approach

    PubMed Central

    Kou, Pengfei; Yang, Liu; Chang, Cheng; He, Sailing

    2017-01-01

    Silver nanowire (Ag NW) networks have attracted wide attention as transparent electrodes for emerging flexible optoelectronics. However, the sheet resistance is greatly limited by large wire-to-wire contact resistances. Here, we propose a simple sunlight illumination approach to remarkably improve their electrical conductivity without any significant degradation of the light transmittance. Because the power density is extremely low (0.1 W/cm2, 1-Sun), only slight welding between Ag NWs has been observed. Despite this, a sheet resistance of <20 Ω/sq and transmittance of ~87% at wavelength of 550 nm as well as excellent mechanical flexibility have still been achieved for Ag NW networks after sunlight illumination for 1 hour or longer, which are significant upgrades over those of ITO. Slight plasmonic welding together with the associated self-limiting effect has been investigated by numerical simulations and further verified experimentally through varied solar concentrations. Due to the reduced resistance, high-performance transparent film heaters as well as efficient defrosters have been demonstrated, which are superior to the previously-reported Ag NW based film heaters. Since the sunlight is environmentally friendly and easily available, sophisticated or expensive facilities are not necessary. Our findings are particularly meaningful and show enormous potential for outdoor applications. PMID:28169343

  6. Ultra-high aspect ratio copper nanowires as transparent conductive electrodes for dye sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zhaozhao; Mankowski, Trent; Shikoh, Ali Sehpar; Touati, Farid; Benammar, Mohieddine A.; Mansuripur, Masud; Falco, Charles M.

    2016-09-01

    We report the synthesis of ultra-high aspect ratio copper nanowires (CuNW) and fabrication of CuNW-based transparent conductive electrodes (TCE) with high optical transmittance (>80%) and excellent sheet resistance (Rs <30 Ω/sq). These CuNW TCEs are subsequently hybridized with aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin-film coatings, or platinum thin film coatings, or nickel thin-film coatings. Our hybrid transparent electrodes can replace indium tin oxide (ITO) films in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) as either anodes or cathodes. We highlight the challenges of integrating bare CuNWs into DSSCs, and demonstrate that hybridization renders the solar cell integrations feasible. The CuNW/AZO-based DSSCs have reasonably good open-circuit voltage (Voc = 720 mV) and short-circuit current-density (Jsc = 0.96 mA/cm2), which are comparable to what is obtained with an ITO-based DSSC fabricated with a similar process. Our CuNW-Ni based DSSCs exhibit a good open-circuit voltage (Voc = 782 mV) and a decent short-circuit current (Jsc = 3.96 mA/cm2), with roughly 1.5% optical-to-electrical conversion efficiency.

  7. Improved Flexible Transparent Conductive Electrodes based on Silver Nanowire Networks by a Simple Sunlight Illumination Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kou, Pengfei; Yang, Liu; Chang, Cheng; He, Sailing

    2017-02-01

    Silver nanowire (Ag NW) networks have attracted wide attention as transparent electrodes for emerging flexible optoelectronics. However, the sheet resistance is greatly limited by large wire-to-wire contact resistances. Here, we propose a simple sunlight illumination approach to remarkably improve their electrical conductivity without any significant degradation of the light transmittance. Because the power density is extremely low (0.1 W/cm2, 1-Sun), only slight welding between Ag NWs has been observed. Despite this, a sheet resistance of <20 Ω/sq and transmittance of ~87% at wavelength of 550 nm as well as excellent mechanical flexibility have still been achieved for Ag NW networks after sunlight illumination for 1 hour or longer, which are significant upgrades over those of ITO. Slight plasmonic welding together with the associated self-limiting effect has been investigated by numerical simulations and further verified experimentally through varied solar concentrations. Due to the reduced resistance, high-performance transparent film heaters as well as efficient defrosters have been demonstrated, which are superior to the previously-reported Ag NW based film heaters. Since the sunlight is environmentally friendly and easily available, sophisticated or expensive facilities are not necessary. Our findings are particularly meaningful and show enormous potential for outdoor applications.

  8. Silver nanowires for transparent conductive electrode to GaN-based light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Gyu-Jae; Lee, Jae-Hwan; Han, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Sung-Nam; Jin, Won-Yong; Kang, Jae-Wook

    2015-01-19

    Transparent, conductive, and uniform Ag nanowires (NWs) were introduced to improve the optical performance of GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) by a spin-coating technique. The Ag NWs acted as a current spreading layer, exhibiting high transmittance and low sheet resistance, and ultimately leading to high performance GaN-based LEDs with an ultra large size of 5 × 5 mm{sup 2}. Compared to the transmittance of conventional LEDs without Ag NWs, the relative transmittance of LEDs with Ag NWs was approximately 90% of the overall wavelength region. However, the electroluminescence (EL) intensity of LED with Ag NWs was much higher than that of conventional LEDs without Ag NWs for injection current above 45 mA. In addition, the EL full width at half maximum of LEDs with Ag NWs was much lower than that of conventional LEDs without Ag NWs. Based on these results, we believe that the enhanced optical performance of ultra large LEDs was due to an increase in the current spreading effect.

  9. Copper nanowire-graphene core-shell nanostructure for highly stable transparent conducting electrodes.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Yumi; Jeong, Youngjun; Lee, Donghwa; Lee, Youngu

    2015-03-24

    A copper nanowire-graphene (CuNW-G) core-shell nanostructure was successfully synthesized using a low-temperature plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition process at temperatures as low as 400 °C for the first time. The CuNW-G core-shell nanostructure was systematically characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. A transparent conducting electrode (TCE) based on the CuNW-G core-shell nanostructure exhibited excellent optical and electrical properties compared to a conventional indium tin oxide TCE. Moreover, it showed remarkable thermal oxidation and chemical stability because of the tight encapsulation of the CuNW with gas-impermeable graphene shells. The potential suitability of CuNW-G TCE was demonstrated by fabricating bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells. We anticipate that the CuNW-G core-shell nanostructure can be used as an alternative to conventional TCE materials for emerging optoelectronic devices such as flexible solar cells, displays, and touch panels.

  10. Silver Nanowire Transparent Conductive Electrodes for High-Efficiency III-Nitride Light-Emitting Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Munsik; Jin, Won-Yong; Jun Jeong, Hyeon; Jeong, Mun Seok; Kang, Jae-Wook; Kim, Hyunsoo

    2015-09-01

    Silver nanowires (AgNWs) have been successfully demonstrated to function as next-generation transparent conductive electrodes (TCEs) in organic semiconductor devices owing to their figures of merit, including high optical transmittance, low sheet resistance, flexibility, and low-cost processing. In this article, high-quality, solution-processed AgNWs with an excellent optical transmittance of 96.5% at 450 nm and a low sheet resistance of 11.7 Ω/sq were demonstrated as TCEs in inorganic III-nitride LEDs. The transmission line model applied to the AgNW contact to p-GaN showed that near ohmic contact with a specific contact resistance of ~10-3 Ωcm2 was obtained. The contact resistance had a strong bias-voltage (or current-density) dependence: namely, field-enhanced ohmic contact. LEDs fabricated with AgNW electrodes exhibited a 56% reduction in series resistance, 56.5% brighter output power, a 67.5% reduction in efficiency droop, and a approximately 30% longer current spreading length compared to LEDs fabricated with reference TCEs. In addition to the cost reduction, the observed improvements in device performance suggest that the AgNWs are promising for application as next-generation TCEs, to realise brighter, larger-area, cost-competitive inorganic III-nitride light emitters.

  11. Silver Nanowire Transparent Conductive Electrodes for High-Efficiency III-Nitride Light-Emitting Diodes.

    PubMed

    Oh, Munsik; Jin, Won-Yong; Jeong, Hyeon Jun; Jeong, Mun Seok; Kang, Jae-Wook; Kim, Hyunsoo

    2015-09-03

    Silver nanowires (AgNWs) have been successfully demonstrated to function as next-generation transparent conductive electrodes (TCEs) in organic semiconductor devices owing to their figures of merit, including high optical transmittance, low sheet resistance, flexibility, and low-cost processing. In this article, high-quality, solution-processed AgNWs with an excellent optical transmittance of 96.5% at 450 nm and a low sheet resistance of 11.7 Ω/sq were demonstrated as TCEs in inorganic III-nitride LEDs. The transmission line model applied to the AgNW contact to p-GaN showed that near ohmic contact with a specific contact resistance of ~10(-3) Ωcm(2) was obtained. The contact resistance had a strong bias-voltage (or current-density) dependence: namely, field-enhanced ohmic contact. LEDs fabricated with AgNW electrodes exhibited a 56% reduction in series resistance, 56.5% brighter output power, a 67.5% reduction in efficiency droop, and a approximately 30% longer current spreading length compared to LEDs fabricated with reference TCEs. In addition to the cost reduction, the observed improvements in device performance suggest that the AgNWs are promising for application as next-generation TCEs, to realise brighter, larger-area, cost-competitive inorganic III-nitride light emitters.

  12. Silver Nanowire Transparent Conductive Electrodes for High-Efficiency III-Nitride Light-Emitting Diodes

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Munsik; Jin, Won-Yong; Jun Jeong, Hyeon; Jeong, Mun Seok; Kang, Jae-Wook; Kim, Hyunsoo

    2015-01-01

    Silver nanowires (AgNWs) have been successfully demonstrated to function as next-generation transparent conductive electrodes (TCEs) in organic semiconductor devices owing to their figures of merit, including high optical transmittance, low sheet resistance, flexibility, and low-cost processing. In this article, high-quality, solution-processed AgNWs with an excellent optical transmittance of 96.5% at 450 nm and a low sheet resistance of 11.7 Ω/sq were demonstrated as TCEs in inorganic III-nitride LEDs. The transmission line model applied to the AgNW contact to p-GaN showed that near ohmic contact with a specific contact resistance of ~10−3 Ωcm2 was obtained. The contact resistance had a strong bias-voltage (or current-density) dependence: namely, field-enhanced ohmic contact. LEDs fabricated with AgNW electrodes exhibited a 56% reduction in series resistance, 56.5% brighter output power, a 67.5% reduction in efficiency droop, and a approximately 30% longer current spreading length compared to LEDs fabricated with reference TCEs. In addition to the cost reduction, the observed improvements in device performance suggest that the AgNWs are promising for application as next-generation TCEs, to realise brighter, larger-area, cost-competitive inorganic III-nitride light emitters. PMID:26333768

  13. Novel transparent conductor with enhanced conductivity: hybrid of silver nanowires and dual-doped graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, Hiesang; Woo, Yun Sung; Shin, Weonho; Yun, Dong-Jin; Lee, Taek; Kim, Felix Sunjoo; Hwang, Jinyoung

    2017-10-01

    We present hybrid transparent conducting films based on silver nanowires (Ag NWs) and doped graphene through novel dual co-doping method by applying various dopants (HNO3 or Au for p-doping and N2H4 for n-doping) on top and bottom sides of graphene. We systematically investigated the effect of dual-doping on their surface as well as electrical and optical properties of graphene and Ag NW/graphene hybrid films through the combination study with various dopant types (p/p, p/n, n/p, and n/n). We found that the p/p-type dual-doped (p-type dopant: HNO3) graphene and its hybrid formation with Ag NWs appeared to be the most effective in enhancing the electrical properties of conductor (doped graphene with ΔR/R0 = 84% and Ag NW/doped graphene hybrid with ΔR/R0 = 62%), demonstrating doped monolayer graphene with high optical transmittance (TT = 97.4%), and sheet resistance (Rs = 188 Ω/sq.). We also note that dual-doping improved such electrical properties without any significant debilitation of optical transparency of conductors (doped graphene with ΔTT = 0.1% and Ag NW/doped graphene hybrid with ΔTT = 0.4%). In addition, the enhanced conductivity of p-type dual-doped graphene allows a hybrid system to form co-percolating network in which Ag NWs can form a secondary conductive path at grain boundaries of polycrystalline graphene.

  14. Investigation of optimal silver nanowires film as conductive wires for LED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, I. C.; Yang, T. L.; Pan, C. T.; Chen, Y. C.; Hung, K. H.

    2015-03-01

    In the study, the Polyol reduction process was used to fabricate silver nanowires (AgNWs). In the experiment, the ratio of PVP/Ag, silver seed, AgNO3 and the amount of ethylene glycol (EG) were adopted to design orthogonal array with a constant temperature and heating time and the synthesis parameters of AgNWs were obtained. Therefore, the optimal AgNWs solution was obtained, followed by centrifuging to obtain AgNWs which were used to fabricate AgNWs film. The scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscope (FTIR), Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS) and four-point probe were used to measure the sheet resistant and transmittance of AgNWs film. Moreover, the AgNWs film was adopted to be the conductive wires of LED. From the experiment results, the synthesis parameter of 15ml EG, 0.01g AgCl, ratio 2 of PVP/Ag and 0.22g AgNO3 could be used to fabricate optimal AgNWs with 45nm average diameter, 5μm average length and aspect ratio of 110. The sheet resistance and transmittance of film fabricated by centrifuged AgNWs was 0.1252 Ω/sq and 70%, respectively. Furthermore, the luminance of LED with conductive wires made of AgNWs film was better than that made of commercial silver plastic. In the future, the AgNWs film can be broadly applied to the conductive films of touch electric products, LCD display and solar panels.

  15. Pressure-Induced Amorphization in Single-Crystal Ta2O5 Nanowires: A Kinetic Mechanism and Improved Electrical Conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xujie; Hu, Qingyang; Yang, Wenge; Bai, Ligang; Sheng, Howard; Wang, Lin; Huang, Fuqiang; Wen, Jianguo; Miller, Dean; Zhao, Yusheng

    2014-03-01

    Pressure-induced amorphization (PIA) in single-crystal Ta2O5 nanowires is observed at 19 GPa and the obtained amorphous Ta2O5 nanowires show significant improvement in electrical conductivity. The phase transition process is unveiled by monitoring structural evolution with in-situ synchrotron XRD, PDF, Raman spectroscopy and TEM. The first principles calculations reveal the phonon modes softening during compression at particular bonds, and the analysis on the electron localization function also shows bond strength weakening at the same positions. Based on the experimental and theoretical results, a kinetic PIA mechanism is proposed and demonstrated systematically that amorphization is initiated by the disruption of connectivity between polyhedra at the particular weak-bonding positions along the a-axis in the unit cell. The one-dimensional morphology is well preserved for the pressure-induced amorphous Ta2O5 and the electrical conductivity is improved by an order of magnitude compared to traditional amorphous forms.

  16. Parametric optimization of Nd-YVO4 laser for straight scribing on silver nanowire based conductive thin films by Taguchi method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Ho-Chiao; Lee, Wen-Fu

    2014-04-01

    This study presents parameter optimization of laser scribing on silver nanowire based conductive thin films and a high-precision Nd-YVO4 (wavelength, 532 nm) laser is used to perform scribing experiments to replace the traditional wet etching process. The laser beam is directly focused on conductive thin films and vaporizes the silver nanowire which is coated on the thin film; consequently it is a non-polluting processes. The main objective of this study is to perform laser scribing experiments to cut off the silver nanowire on the thin film without damaging the flexible PET (Polyethylene terephthalate) substrate.

  17. High carrier concentration ZnO nanowire arrays for binder-free conductive support of supercapacitors electrodes by Al doping.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xin; Sun, Yihui; Yan, Xiaoqin; Sun, Xu; Zhang, Guangjie; Zhang, Qian; Jiang, Yaru; Gao, Wenchao; Zhang, Yue

    2016-12-15

    Doping semiconductor nanowires (NWs) for altering their electrical and optical properties is a critical strategy for tailoring the performance of nanodevices. Here, we prepared in situ Al-doped ZnO nanowire arrays by using continuous flow injection (CFI) hydrothermal method to promote the conductivity. This reasonable method offers highly stable precursor concentration for doping that effectively avoid the appearance of the low conductivity ZnO nanosheets. Benefit from this, three orders of magnitude rise of the carrier concentration from 10(16)cm(-3) to 10(19)cm(-3) can be achieved compared with the common hydrothermal (CH) mothed in Mott-Schottky measurement. Possible effect of Al-doping was discussed by first-principle theory. On this basis, Al-doped ZnO nanowire arrays was developed as a binder-free conductive support for supercapacitor electrodes and high capacitance was triggered. It is owing to the dramatically decreased transfer resistance induced by the growing free-moving electrons and holes. Our results have a profound significance not merely in the controlled synthesis of other doping nanomaterials by co-precipitation method but also in the application of binder-free energy materials or other materials.

  18. Electron-beam irradiation induced conductivity in ZnS nanowires as revealed by in situ transmission electron microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Baodan; Bando, Yoshio; Wang, Mingsheng; Zhi, Chunyi; Fang, Xiaosheng; Tang, Chengchun; Mitome, Masanori; Golberg, Dmitri

    2009-08-01

    Electron transport variations in individual ZnS nanowires synthesized through a chemical vapor deposition process were in situ studied in transmission electron microscope under convergent electron-beam irradiation (EBI). It was found that the transport can dramatically be enhanced using proper irradiation conditions. The conductivity mechanism was revealed based on a detailed study of microstructure and composition evolutions under irradiation. EBI-induced Zn-rich domains' appearance and related O doping were mainly responsible for the conductivity improvements. First-principles theoretical calculations additionally indicated that the generation of midbands within a ZnS band gap might also contribute to the improved conductivity.

  19. Conducting properties of nearly depleted ZnO nanowire UV sensors fabricated by dielectrophoresis.

    PubMed

    García Núñez, C; García Marín, A; Nanterne, P; Piqueras, J; Kung, P; Pau, J L

    2013-10-18

    ZnO nanowires (NWs) with different radii (rNW) have been aligned between pre-patterned electrodes using dielectrophoresis (DEP) for the fabrication of high gain UV sensors. The DEP conditions (voltage amplitude and frequency) and electrode material, geometry and size were optimized to enhance the efficiency during the DEP process. To understand the alignment mechanism of the ZnO NWs, the dielectrophoretic force (FDEP) was analyzed as a function of the DEP conditions and NW dimensions. These studies showed that the DEP alignment process tends to trap NWs with a smaller radius. The effects of NW size on device performance were analyzed by means of I-V measurements in darkness and under illumination (200 nm < λ < 600 nm). In darkness, the NW resistance increases as rNW decreases due to the reduction of the conduction volume, until saturation is reached for rNW < 65 nm. On the other hand, the NW spectral photoresponse shows high values around 10(8) A W(-1) (measured at 5 V and λ < 370 nm) and follows a linear trend as a function of the NW cross section. In addition, the cut-off wavelength depends on rNW, presenting a clear blue-shift for NWs with a lower radius (rNW < 50 nm). Transient photoresponse studies show that NWs with lower radii have longer rise times and shorter decay times mainly due to surface trapping effects. Regardless of NW size, passivation of the surface using a dielectric capping layer of SiO2 reduces the dynamic range of the photoresponse due to a strong increase of the dark current.

  20. Electro-Conductive Polymeric Nanowire Templates Facilitates In Vitro C17.2 Neural Stem Cell Line Adhesion, Proliferation and Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Bechara, Samuel; Wadman, Lucas; Popat, Ketul C.

    2011-01-01

    Stem cells still remain one of the most exciting and lucrative options for treatment of variety of nervous system disorders and diseases. Although there are neural stem cells present in adults, the ability of both the peripheral and central nervous system for self-repair is limited at best. As such, there is a great need for a tissue engineering approach to solve nervous system disorders and diseases. In this study, we have developed electrically conductive surfaces with controlled arrays of high aspect ratio nanowires for the growth and maintenance of neural stem cells. The nanowire surfaces were fabricated from polycaprolactone using a novelnanotemplating technique, and were coated with an electrically conductive polymer, polypyrrole. The polypyrrole coated nanowire surfaces were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Additionally, the surface resistance of polypyrrole coated nanowire surfaces was measured. C17.2 neural stem cells were used to evaluate the efficacy of the polypyrrole coated nanowire surfaces to promote cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation. The results presented here indicate significantly higher cellular adhesion and proliferation on polypyrrole coated nanowire surfaces as compared to control surfaces. The differentiation potential of polypyrrole nanowire surfaces was also evaluated by immunostaining key neuronal markers that are expressed when NSCs differentiate into their respective neural lineages. PMID:21530693

  1. Effect of Surface Layer on Electromechanical Stability of Tweezers and Cantilevers Fabricated from Conductive Cylindrical Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keivani, Maryam; Koochi, Ali; Sedighi, Hamid M.; Abadyan, Mohamadreza; Farrokhabadi, Amin; Shahedin, Abed Moheb

    2016-12-01

    Herein, the impact of surface layer on the stability of nanoscale tweezers and cantilevers fabricated from nanowires with cylindrical cross section is studied. A modified continuum based on the Gurtin-Murdoch surface elasticity is applied for incorporating the presence of surface layer. Considering the cylindrical geometry of the nanowire, the presence of the Coulomb attraction and dispersion forces are incorporated in the derived formulations. Three different approaches, i.e. numerical differential quadrature method (DQM), an approximated homotopy perturbation method (HPM) and developing lumped parameter model (LPM) have been employed to solve the governing equations. The impact of surface layer on the instability of the system is demonstrated.

  2. Facile synthesis of SnO2 nanocrystals coated conducting polymer nanowires for enhanced lithium storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Zhijia; Zhang, Shichao; Jiang, Tao; Wu, Xiaomeng; Zhang, Lan; Fang, Hua

    2012-12-01

    SnO2 nanoparticles uniformly decorated polypyrrole (PPy) nanowires are synthesized by a facile two-step electrochemical reaction method: electropolymerization and electrodeposition. The nanostructured SnO2-PPy hybrids show porous reticular morphology and homogenous distributions. The reticular SnO2-PPy nanowires can increase the electrode/electrolyte interface and accommodate the volume variation of SnO2. When applied as anode materials for lithium ion batteries, the unique nanostructured hybrids deliver meaningfully improved Li+ storage performance with the first reversible capacity of 690 mAh g-1. This facile synthesis procedure can also be simply grafted to other inorganic-organic hybrid composites.

  3. Welding of silver nanowire networks via flash white light and UV-C irradiation for highly conductive and reliable transparent electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Wan-Ho; Kim, Sang-Ho; Kim, Hak-Sung

    2016-01-01

    In this work, silver nanowire inks with hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) binders were coated on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates and welded via flash white light and ultraviolet C (UV-C) irradiation to produce highly conductive transparent electrodes. The coated silver nanowire films were firmly welded and embedded into PET substrate successfully at room temperature and under ambient conditions using an in-house flash white light welding system and UV-C irradiation. The effects of light irradiation conditions (light energy, irradiation time, pulse duration, and pulse number) on the silver nanowire networks were studied and optimized. Bending fatigue tests were also conducted to characterize the reliability of the welded transparent conductive silver nanowire films. The surfaces of the welded silver nanowire films were analyzed via scanning electron microscopy (SEM), while the transmittance of the structures was measured using a spectrophotometer. From the results, a highly conductive and transparent silver nanowire film with excellent reliability could be achieved at room temperature under ambient conditions via the combined flash white light and UV-C irradiation welding process. PMID:27553755

  4. Welding of silver nanowire networks via flash white light and UV-C irradiation for highly conductive and reliable transparent electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Wan-Ho; Kim, Sang-Ho; Kim, Hak-Sung

    2016-08-01

    In this work, silver nanowire inks with hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) binders were coated on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates and welded via flash white light and ultraviolet C (UV-C) irradiation to produce highly conductive transparent electrodes. The coated silver nanowire films were firmly welded and embedded into PET substrate successfully at room temperature and under ambient conditions using an in-house flash white light welding system and UV-C irradiation. The effects of light irradiation conditions (light energy, irradiation time, pulse duration, and pulse number) on the silver nanowire networks were studied and optimized. Bending fatigue tests were also conducted to characterize the reliability of the welded transparent conductive silver nanowire films. The surfaces of the welded silver nanowire films were analyzed via scanning electron microscopy (SEM), while the transmittance of the structures was measured using a spectrophotometer. From the results, a highly conductive and transparent silver nanowire film with excellent reliability could be achieved at room temperature under ambient conditions via the combined flash white light and UV-C irradiation welding process.

  5. Very long Ag nanowire synthesis and its application in a highly transparent, conductive and flexible metal electrode touch panel.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jinhwan; Lee, Phillip; Lee, Hyungman; Lee, Dongjin; Lee, Seung Seob; Ko, Seung Hwan

    2012-10-21

    The future electronics will be soft, flexible and even stretchable to be more human friendly in the form of wearable computers. However, conventional electronic materials are usually brittle. Recently, carbon based materials are intensively investigated as a good candidate for flexible electronics but with limited mechanical and electrical performances. Metal is still the best material for electronics with great electrical properties but with poor transparency and mechanical performance. Here we present a simple approach to develop a synthesis method for very long metallic nanowires and apply them as new types of high performance flexible and transparent metal conductors as an alternative to carbon nanotubes, graphene and short nanowire based flexible transparent conductors and indium tin oxide based brittle transparent conductors. We found that very long metallic nanowire network conductors combined with a low temperature laser nano-welding process enabled superior transparent flexible conductors with high transmittance and high electrical conductivity. Further, we demonstrated highly flexible metal conductor LED circuits and transparent touch panels. The highly flexible and transparent metal conductors can be mounted on any non-planar surfaces and applied for various opto-electronics and ultimately for future wearable electronics.

  6. Enhancing the optical properties of silver nanowire transparent conducting electrodes by the modification of nanowire cross-section using ultra-violet illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, J.; Lee, H.; Woo, Y.

    2016-11-01

    Improvement in the haze and transmittance of the silver nanowire (Ag NW) based transparent conducting electrodes is achieved by illuminating UV light after the Ag NW network formation. The evidences from the experimental analyses and numerical calculations indicate that the enhancement of the optical properties is derived from the modification of the Ag NW cross-section from a pentagonal to a circular shape, as well as the removal of the polyvinylpyrrolidone capping layer on the Ag NW surface. The deformation of the Ag NW cross-section occurs due to heat generation induced by the UV light absorption in the Ag NW, and it provides thermal energy for recrystallization to the Ag atoms on the NW surface, specifically near the corners of the pentagon, resulting in an increase in the radius of the rounded corners.

  7. Thermal conductivity of ultrathin nano-crystalline diamond films determined by Raman thermography assisted by silicon nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anaya, Julian; Rossi, Stefano; Alomari, Mohammed; Kohn, Erhard; Tóth, Lajos; Pécz, Béla; Kuball, Martin

    2015-06-01

    The thermal transport in polycrystalline diamond films near its nucleation region is still not well understood. Here, a steady-state technique to determine the thermal transport within the nano-crystalline diamond present at their nucleation site has been demonstrated. Taking advantage of silicon nanowires as surface temperature nano-sensors, and using Raman Thermography, the in-plane and cross-plane components of the thermal conductivity of ultra-thin diamond layers and their thermal barrier to the Si substrate were determined. Both components of the thermal conductivity of the nano-crystalline diamond were found to be well below the values of polycrystalline bulk diamond, with a cross-plane thermal conductivity larger than the in-plane thermal conductivity. Also a depth dependence of the lateral thermal conductivity through the diamond layer was determined. The results impact the design and integration of diamond for thermal management of AlGaN/GaN high power transistors and also show the usefulness of the nanowires as accurate nano-thermometers.

  8. Enhancement of Interface Characteristics of Neural Probe Based on Graphene, ZnO Nanowires, and Conducting Polymer PEDOT.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Mingyu; Yang, Jae Hoon; Ahn, Yumi; Sim, Minkyung; Lee, Kyung Hwa; Kim, Kyungsoo; Lee, Taeju; Yoo, Seung-Jun; Kim, So Yeun; Moon, Cheil; Je, Minkyu; Choi, Ji-Woong; Lee, Youngu; Jang, Jae Eun

    2017-03-29

    In the growing field of brain-machine interface (BMI), the interface between electrodes and neural tissues plays an important role in the recording and stimulation of neural signals. To minimize tissue damage while retaining high sensitivity, a flexible and a smaller electrode with low impedance is required. However, it is a major challenge to reduce electrode size while retaining the conductive characteristics of the electrode. In addition, the mechanical mismatch between stiff electrodes and soft tissues creates damaging reactive tissue responses. Here, we demonstrate a neural probe structure based on graphene, ZnO nanowires, and conducting polymer that provides flexibility and low impedance performance. A hybrid Au and graphene structure was utilized to achieve both flexibility and good conductivity. Using ZnO nanowires to increase the effective surface area drastically decreased the impedance value and enhanced the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). A poly[3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene] (PEDOT) coating on the neural probe improved the electrical characteristics of the electrode while providing better biocompatibility. In vivo neural signal recordings showed that our neural probe can detect clearer signals.

  9. Core to shell switching of the conduction channel on SnO2 nanowire sensors.

    PubMed

    Holguín-Momaca, José Trinidad; Espinosa-Magaña, Francisco; Antúnez-Flores, Wilber; Olive-Méndez, Sion Federico

    2017-09-11

    A sensor based on random connections of single crystalline SnO<sub>2</sub> nanowires (NW) has been fabricated for ethanol detection. Crystal growth was achieved on r-cut sapphire substrates using the vapor-liquid-solid process and vapor transport technique. The NWs length of ~10 μm leads to the formation of several random node connections ensuring the electrical conduction between electrodes during sensing experiments. The samples were submitted to thermal treatments under a reducing atmosphere of H<sub>2</sub>/Ar, to generate oxygen vacancies at the surface of the NW. As a result, an impurity band of shallow donor electrons, located at 0.37 eV below conduction band, is formed and the switching of the conduction channel from the core to the surface of the NW takes place eliminating the potential barrier at each NW node. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  10. Mussel-Inspired Polydopamine-Functionalized Graphene as a Conductive Adhesion Promoter and Protective Layer for Silver Nanowire Transparent Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Miao, Jinlei; Liu, Haihui; Li, Wei; Zhang, Xingxiang

    2016-05-31

    For the scalable fabrication of transparent electrodes and optoelectronic devices, excellent adhesion between the conductive films and the substrates is essential. In this work, a novel mussel-inspired polydopamine-functionalized graphene/silver nanowire hybrid nanomaterial for transparent electrodes was fabricated in a facile manner. Graphene oxide (GO) was functionalized and reduced by polydopamine while remaining stable in water without precipitation. It is shown that the polydopamine-functionalized GO (PFGO) film adhered to the substrate much more easily and more uniformly than the GO film. The PFGO film had a sheet resistance of ∼3.46 × 10(8) Ω/sq and a transparency of 78.2%, with excellent thermal and chemical stability; these characteristics are appropriate for antistatic coatings. Further reduced PFGO (RPFGO) as a conductive adhesion promoter and protective layer for the Ag nanowire (AgNW) significantly enhanced the adhesion force between AgNW networks and the substrate. The RPFGO-AgNW electrode was found to have a sheet resistance of 63 Ω/sq and a transparency of 70.5%. Moreover, the long-term stability of the RPFGO-AgNW electrode was greatly enhanced via the effective protection of the AgNW by RPFGO. These solution-processed antistatic coatings and electrodes have tremendous potential in the applications of optoelectronic devices as a result of their low production cost and facile processing.

  11. Decrease in thermal conductivity in polymeric P3HT nanowires by size-reduction induced by crystal orientation: new approaches towards thermal transport engineering of organic materials.

    PubMed

    Rojo, Miguel Muñoz; Martín, Jaime; Grauby, Stéphane; Borca-Tasciuc, Theodorian; Dilhaire, Stefan; Martin-Gonzalez, Marisol

    2014-07-21

    To date, there is no experimental characterization of thermal conductivity of semiconductor polymeric individual nanowires embedded in a matrix. This work reports on scanning thermal microscopy measurements in a 3ω configuration to determine how the thermal conductivity of individual nanowires made of a model conjugated polymer (P3HT) is modified when decreasing their diameters. We observe a reduction of thermal conductivity, from λNW = 2.29 ± 0.15 W K(-1) m(-1) to λNW = 0.5 ± 0.24 W K(-1) m(-1), when the diameter of nanowires is reduced from 350 nm to 120 nm, which correlates with the polymer crystal orientation measured by WAXS. Through this work, the foundations for future polymer thermal transport engineering are presented.

  12. Paper-based silver-nanowire electronic circuits with outstanding electrical conductivity and extreme bending stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Gui-Wen; Xiao, Hong-Mei; Fu, Shao-Yun

    2014-07-01

    Here a facile, green and efficient printing-filtration-press (PFP) technique is reported for room-temperature (RT) mass-production of low-cost, environmentally friendly, high performance paper-based electronic circuits. The as-prepared silver nanowires (Ag-NWs) are uniformly deposited at RT on a pre-printed paper substrate to form high quality circuits via vacuum filtration and pressing. The PFP circuit exhibits more excellent electrical property and bending stability compared with other flexible circuits made by existing techniques. Furthermore, practical applications of the PFP circuits are demonstrated.Here a facile, green and efficient printing-filtration-press (PFP) technique is reported for room-temperature (RT) mass-production of low-cost, environmentally friendly, high performance paper-based electronic circuits. The as-prepared silver nanowires (Ag-NWs) are uniformly deposited at RT on a pre-printed paper substrate to form high quality circuits via vacuum filtration and pressing. The PFP circuit exhibits more excellent electrical property and bending stability compared with other flexible circuits made by existing techniques. Furthermore, practical applications of the PFP circuits are demonstrated. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Video of rolling tests; video of the PFP circuit used as flexible cable in a cell phone; video of the application of the circuit as a RFID tag; a detailed method for synthesizing silver nanowires; details of the PFP technique; folding tests for the circuits; air humidity test for the circuit. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr00846d

  13. Paper-based silver-nanowire electronic circuits with outstanding electrical conductivity and extreme bending stability.

    PubMed

    Huang, Gui-Wen; Xiao, Hong-Mei; Fu, Shao-Yun

    2014-08-07

    Here a facile, green and efficient printing-filtration-press (PFP) technique is reported for room-temperature (RT) mass-production of low-cost, environmentally friendly, high performance paper-based electronic circuits. The as-prepared silver nanowires (Ag-NWs) are uniformly deposited at RT on a pre-printed paper substrate to form high quality circuits via vacuum filtration and pressing. The PFP circuit exhibits more excellent electrical property and bending stability compared with other flexible circuits made by existing techniques. Furthermore, practical applications of the PFP circuits are demonstrated.

  14. A solution-processed molybdenum oxide treated silver nanowire network: a highly conductive transparent conducting electrode with superior mechanical and hole injection properties.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jung-Hao; Chiang, Kai-Ming; Kang, Hao-Wei; Chi, Wei-Jung; Chang, Jung-Hung; Wu, Chih-I; Lin, Hao-Wu

    2015-03-14

    We demonstrate the fabrication of solution-processed MoOx-treated (s-MoOx) silver nanowire (AgNW) transparent conductive electrodes (TCEs) utilizing low-temperature (sub-100 °C) processes. The s-MoOx aggregates around the AgNW and forms gauze-like MoOx thin films between the mesh, which can effectively lower the sheet resistance by more than two orders of magnitude. Notably, these s-MoOx-treated AgNW TCEs exhibit a combination of several promising characteristics, such as a high and broad transmittance across a wavelength range of 400 to 1000 nm, transmission of up to 96.8%, a low sheet resistance of 29.8 ohm sq(-1), a low haze value of 0.90%, better mechanical properties against bending and adhesion tests, and preferable gap states for efficient hole injection in optoelectronic applications. By utilizing these s-MoOx-treated AgNW TCEs as the anode in ITO-free organic light emitting diodes, promising performance of 29.2 lm W(-1) and 10.3% external quantum efficiency are demonstrated. The versatile, multi-functional s-MoOx treatment presented here paves the way for the use of low-temperature, solution-processed MoOx as both a nanowire linker and a hole injection interfacial layer for future flexible optoelectronic devices.

  15. Hybrid transparent conductive electrodes with copper nanowires embedded in a zinc oxide matrix and protected by reduced graphene oxide platelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zhaozhao; Mankowski, Trent; Balakrishnan, Kaushik; Shikoh, Ali Sehpar; Touati, Farid; Benammar, Mohieddine A.; Mansuripur, Masud; Falco, Charles M.

    2016-02-01

    Transparent conductive electrodes (TCE) were fabricated by combining three emerging nano-materials: copper nanowires (CuNWs), zinc oxide (ZnO) nano-particulate thin films, and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) platelets. Whereas CuNWs are responsible for essentially all of the electrical conductivity of our thin-film TCEs, the ZnO matrix embeds and strengthens the CuNW network in its adhesion to the substrate, while the rGO platelets provide a protective overcoat for the composite electrode, thereby improving its stability in hot and humid environments. Our CuNW/ZnO/rGO hybrid electrodes deposited on glass substrates have low sheet resistance (Rs ˜ 20 Ω/sq) and fairly high optical transmittance (T550 ˜ 79%). In addition, our hybrid TCEs are mechanically strong and able to withstand multiple scotch-tape peel tests. Finally, these TCEs can be fabricated on rigid glass as well as flexible plastic substrates.

  16. Silver nanowire based flexible electrodes with improved properties: High conductivity, transparency, adhesion and low haze

    SciTech Connect

    Kiran Kumar, A.B.V.; Wan Bae, Chang; Piao, Longhai Kim, Sang-Ho

    2013-08-01

    Graphical abstract: This graphical abstract illustrates the schematic representation of the main drawbacks and rectifications for AgNWs based transparent electrodes. - Highlights: • Films exhibited low sheet resistance and optical properties with R{sub s} ≤ 30 Ω/□ and T ≥ 90%. • We decreased haze to 2% by controlling AgNWs length, diameter, and concentration. • We achieved good adhesion for AgNWs on PET film. • There is no significant change in resistance in the bending angle from 0° to 180°, and on twisting. - Abstract: Recent work has been focusing on solution processable transparent electrodes for various applications including solar cells and displays. As well as, the research aims majorly at silver nanowires (AgNWs) to replace ITO. We enhance the transparent electrode performance as a function of optical and mechanical properties with low sheet resistance, by controlling the AgNWs accept ratios, ink composition, and processing conditions. The nanowire network of transparent films agrees with the 2D percolation law. The film transmittance values at 550 nm are coping with a reference ITO film. Sheet resistance and haze values are suitable for flexible electronic applications. We fabricate transparent flexible film using a low-cost processing technique.

  17. Electrically Tunable Metamaterials Based on Multimaterial Nanowires Incorporating Transparent Conductive Oxides.

    PubMed

    Salary, Mohammad Mahdi; Mosallaei, Hossein

    2017-08-30

    We present novel design approaches for metasurfaces and metamaterials with electrical tunability offering real-time manipulation of light and serving as multifunctional devices in near-infrared frequency regime (at the specific wavelength of 1.55 μm). For this purpose, we integrate indium-tin-oxide (ITO) as a tunable electro-optical material into multimaterial nanowires with metal-oxide-semiconductor and metal-insulator-metal configurations. In particular, an active metasurface operating in the transmission mode is designed which allows for modulation of the transmitted light phase over 280 degrees. This large phase modulation is afforded in the cost of low transmission efficiency. We demonstrate the use of such active metasurfaces for tunable bending and focusing in free-space. Moreover, we investigate the implementation of this material in deeply subwavelength multimaterial nanowires, which can yield strong variations in the effective refractive index by the virtue of internal homogenization enabling tunability of the performance in gradient refractive index metamaterials. In the theoretical modeling of these structures, we adopt a hierarchical multiscale approach by linking drift-diffusion transport model with the electromagnetic model which rigorously characterizes the electro-optical effects.

  18. Skin inspired fractal strain sensors using a copper nanowire and graphite microflake hybrid conductive network.

    PubMed

    Jason, Naveen N; Wang, Stephen J; Bhanushali, Sushrut; Cheng, Wenlong

    2016-09-22

    This work demonstrates a facile "paint-on" approach to fabricate highly stretchable and highly sensitive strain sensors by combining one-dimensional copper nanowire networks with two-dimensional graphite microflakes. This paint-on approach allows for the fabrication of electronic skin (e-skin) patches which can directly replicate with high fidelity the human skin surface they are on, regardless of the topological complexity. This leads to high accuracy for detecting biometric signals for applications in personalised wearable sensors. The copper nanowires contribute to high stretchability and the graphite flakes offer high sensitivity, and their hybrid coating offers the advantages of both. To understand the topological effects on the sensing performance, we utilized fractal shaped elastomeric substrates and systematically compared their stretchability and sensitivity. We could achieve a high stretchability of up to 600% and a maximum gauge factor of 3000. Our simple yet efficient paint-on approach enabled facile fine-tuning of sensitivity/stretchability simply by adjusting ratios of 1D vs. 2D materials in the hybrid coating, and the topological structural designs. This capability leads to a wide range of biomedical sensors demonstrated here, including pulse sensors, prosthetic hands, and a wireless ankle motion sensor.

  19. Direct Imaging of the Onset of Electrical Conduction in Silver Nanowire Networks by Infrared Thermography: Evidence of Geometrical Quantized Percolation.

    PubMed

    Sannicolo, Thomas; Muñoz-Rojas, David; Nguyen, Ngoc Duy; Moreau, Stéphane; Celle, Caroline; Simonato, Jean-Pierre; Bréchet, Yves; Bellet, Daniel

    2016-11-09

    Advancement in the science and technology of random metallic nanowire (MNW) networks is crucial for their appropriate integration in many applications including transparent electrodes for optoelectronics and transparent film heaters. We have recently highlighted the discontinuous activation of efficient percolating pathways (EPPs) for networks having densities slightly above the percolation threshold. Such networks exhibit abrupt drops of electrical resistance when thermal or electrical annealing is performed, which gives rise to a "geometrically quantized percolation". In this Letter, lock-in thermography (LiT) is used to provide visual evidence of geometrical quantized percolation: when low voltage is applied to the network, individual "illuminated pathways" can be detected, and new branches get highlighted as the voltage is incrementally increased. This experimental approach has allowed us to validate our original model and map the electrical and thermal distributions in silver nanowire (AgNW) networks. We also study the effects of electrode morphology and wire dimensions on quantized percolation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the network failure at high temperature can also be governed by a quantized increase of the electrical resistance, which corresponds to the discontinuous destruction of individual pathways (antipercolation). More generally, we demonstrate that LiT is a promising tool for the detection of conductive subclusters as well as hot spots in AgNW networks.

  20. Rapid Real-time Electrical Detection of Proteins Using Single Conducting Polymer Nanowire-Based Microfluidic Aptasensor

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jiyong; Luo, Xiliang; Lee, Innam; Hu, Yushi; Cui, Xinyan Tracy; Yun, Minhee

    2011-01-01

    Single polypyrrole (PPy) nanowire-based microfluidic aptasensors were fabricated using a one-step electrochemical deposition method. The successful incorporation of the aptamers into the PPy nanowire was confirmed by fluorescence microscopy image. The microfluidic aptasensor showed responses to IgE protein solutions in the range from 0.01 nM to 100 nM, and demonstrated excellent specificity and sensitivity with faster response and rapid stabilization times (~20 s). At the lowest examined IgE concentration of 0.01nM, the microfluidic aptasensor still exhibited ~0.32% change in the conductance. The functionality of this aptasensor was able to be regenerated using an acid treatment with no major change in sensitivity. In addition, the detection of cancer biomarker MUC1 was performed using another microfluidic aptasensor, which showed a very low detection limit of 2.66 nM MUC1 compared to commercially available MUC1 diagnosis assay (800 nM). PMID:21937215

  1. Nanowire-based detector

    DOEpatents

    Berggren, Karl K; Hu, Xiaolong; Masciarelli, Daniele

    2014-06-24

    Systems, articles, and methods are provided related to nanowire-based detectors, which can be used for light detection in, for example, single-photon detectors. In one aspect, a variety of detectors are provided, for example one including an electrically superconductive nanowire or nanowires constructed and arranged to interact with photons to produce a detectable signal. In another aspect, fabrication methods are provided, including techniques to precisely reproduce patterns in subsequently formed layers of material using a relatively small number of fabrication steps. By precisely reproducing patterns in multiple material layers, one can form electrically insulating materials and electrically conductive materials in shapes such that incoming photons are redirected toward a nearby electrically superconductive materials (e.g., electrically superconductive nanowire(s)). For example, one or more resonance structures (e.g., comprising an electrically insulating material), which can trap electromagnetic radiation within its boundaries, can be positioned proximate the nanowire(s). The resonance structure can include, at its boundaries, electrically conductive material positioned proximate the electrically superconductive nanowire such that light that would otherwise be transmitted through the sensor is redirected toward the nanowire(s) and detected. In addition, electrically conductive material can be positioned proximate the electrically superconductive nanowire (e.g. at the aperture of the resonant structure), such that light is directed by scattering from this structure into the nanowire.

  2. BioWires: Conductive DNA Nanowires in a Computationally-Optimized, Synthetic Biological Platform for Nanoelectronic Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vecchioni, Simon; Toomey, Emily; Capece, Mark C.; Rothschild, Lynn; Wind, Shalom

    2017-01-01

    DNA is an ideal template for a biological nanowire-it has a linear structure several atoms thick; it possesses addressable nucleobase geometry that can be precisely defined; and it is massively scalable into branched networks. Until now, the drawback of DNA as a conducting nanowire been, simply put, its low conductance. To address this deficiency, we extensively characterize a chemical variant of canonical DNA that exploits the affinity of natural cytosine bases for silver ions. We successfully construct chains of single silver ions inside double-stranded DNA, confirm the basic dC-Ag+-dC bond geometry and kinetics, and show length-tunability dependent on mismatch distribution, ion availability and enzyme activity. An analysis of the absorbance spectra of natural DNA and silver-binding, poly-cytosine DNA demonstrates the heightened thermostability of the ion chain and its resistance to aqueous stresses such as precipitation, dialysis and forced reduction. These chemically critical traits lend themselves to an increase in electrical conductivity of over an order of magnitude for 11-base silver-paired duplexes over natural strands when assayed by STM break junction. We further construct and implement a genetic pathway in the E. coli bacterium for the biosynthesis of highly ionizable DNA sequences. Toward future circuits, we construct a model of transcription network architectures to determine the most efficient and robust connectivity for cell-based fabrication, and we perform sequence optimization with a genetic algorithm to identify oligonucleotides robust to changes in the base-pairing energy landscape. We propose that this system will serve as a synthetic biological fabrication platform for more complex DNA nanotechnology and nanoelectronics with applications to deep space and low resource environments.

  3. Parity independence of the zero-bias conductance peak in a nanowire based topological superconductor-quantum dot hybrid device.

    PubMed

    Deng, M T; Yu, C L; Huang, G Y; Larsson, M; Caroff, P; Xu, H Q

    2014-12-01

    We explore the signatures of Majorana fermions in a nanowire based topological superconductor-quantum dot-topological superconductor hybrid device by charge transport measurements. At zero magnetic field, well-defined Coulomb diamonds and the Kondo effect are observed. Under the application of a finite, sufficiently strong magnetic field, a zero-bias conductance peak structure is observed. It is found that the zero-bias conductance peak is present in many consecutive Coulomb diamonds, irrespective of the even-odd parity of the quasi-particle occupation number in the quantum dot. In addition, we find that the zero-bias conductance peak is in most cases accompanied by two differential conductance peaks, forming a triple-peak structure, and the separation between the two side peaks in bias voltage shows oscillations closely correlated to the background Coulomb conductance oscillations of the device. The observed zero-bias conductance peak and the associated triple-peak structure are in line with Majorana fermion physics in such a hybrid topological system.

  4. Parity independence of the zero-bias conductance peak in a nanowire based topological superconductor-quantum dot hybrid device

    PubMed Central

    Deng, M. T.; Yu, C. L.; Huang, G. Y.; Larsson, M.; Caroff, P.; Xu, H. Q.

    2014-01-01

    We explore the signatures of Majorana fermions in a nanowire based topological superconductor-quantum dot-topological superconductor hybrid device by charge transport measurements. At zero magnetic field, well-defined Coulomb diamonds and the Kondo effect are observed. Under the application of a finite, sufficiently strong magnetic field, a zero-bias conductance peak structure is observed. It is found that the zero-bias conductance peak is present in many consecutive Coulomb diamonds, irrespective of the even-odd parity of the quasi-particle occupation number in the quantum dot. In addition, we find that the zero-bias conductance peak is in most cases accompanied by two differential conductance peaks, forming a triple-peak structure, and the separation between the two side peaks in bias voltage shows oscillations closely correlated to the background Coulomb conductance oscillations of the device. The observed zero-bias conductance peak and the associated triple-peak structure are in line with Majorana fermion physics in such a hybrid topological system. PMID:25434375

  5. Nanoscale current spreading analysis in solution-processed graphene oxide/silver nanowire transparent electrodes via conductive atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Joseph E.; Perumal, Ajay; Bradley, Donal D. C.; Stavrinou, Paul N.; Anthopoulos, Thomas D.

    2016-05-01

    We use conductive atomic force microscopy (CAFM) to study the origin of long-range conductivity in model transparent conductive electrodes composed of networks of reduced graphene oxide (rGOX) and silver nanowires (AgNWs), with nanoscale spatial resolution. Pristine networks of rGOX (1-3 monolayers-thick) and AgNWs exhibit sheet resistances of ˜100-1000 kΩ/□ and 100-900 Ω/□, respectively. When the materials are deposited sequentially to form bilayer rGOX/AgNW electrodes and thermally annealed at 200 °C, the sheet resistance reduces by up to 36% as compared to pristine AgNW networks. CAFM was used to analyze the current spreading in both systems in order to identify the nanoscale phenomena responsible for this effect. For rGOX networks, the low intra-flake conductivity and the inter-flake contact resistance is found to dominate the macroscopic sheet resistance, while for AgNW networks the latter is determined by the density of the inter-AgNW junctions and their associated resistance. In the case of the bilayer rGOX/AgNWs' networks, rGOX flakes are found to form conductive "bridges" between AgNWs. We show that these additional nanoscopic electrical connections are responsible for the enhanced macroscopic conductivity of the bilayer rGOX/AgNW electrodes. Finally, the critical role of thermal annealing on the formation of these nanoscopic connections is discussed.

  6. Highly conductive and stretchable Ag nanowire/carbon nanotube hybrid conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Ju Yeon; Kim, Kyun Kyu; Lee, Jongsoo; Kim, Ju Tae; Han, Chang-Soo

    2014-07-01

    Fabricating stretchable conductors through simple, cost-effective and scalable methods is a challenge. Here, we report on an approach used to develop nanowelded Ag nanowire/single-walled carbon nanotube (AgNW/SWCNT) hybrid films to be used as high-performance stretchable conductors. Plasmonic welding, which was done at the junctions of AgNWs in order to form hybrid AgNW/SWCNT conductors on an Ecoflex substrate, enabled excellent electrical and mechanical stability under large tensile strains of over 480% without the need to pre-strain. Furthermore, we demonstrate highly stretchable circuits that are used to power LED arrays. The LED arrays are formed using the plasmonic-welded AgNW/SWCNT/Ecoflex hybrid material, which demonstrates suitability for interconnector applications in flexible electronics.

  7. Zero percolation threshold in electric conductivity of aluminum nanowire network fabricated by chemical etching using an electrospun nanofiber mask

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azuma, Keisuke; Sakajiri, Koichi; Okabe, Takashi; Matsumoto, Hidetoshi; Kang, Sungmin; Watanabe, Junji; Tokita, Masatoshi

    2017-09-01

    We investigated the sheet resistance (R s) and transmittance (T) of seamless two-dimensional networks of 50-nm-thick aluminum (Al) nanowires (NWs) with widths (W) ranging from 380 to 1410 nm. The Al NWs were fabricated by wet-etching of Al metalized polyester films with using polystyrene (PS) nanofibers as the mask. The PS nanofibers were deposited by the electrospinning of a PS solution and adhered to the film by annealing. W and the area coverage (φ) were increased with increasing PS solution concentration and deposition time, respectively. With increasing φ from 3 to 34%, T and R s decreased from 99 to 75% and from 800 to 10 Ω/sq, respectively, and the network with W = 878 nm at φ = 0.21 attained values of T = 91% and R s = 31 Ω/sq. The conductivity increases with φ with an exponent of 2, demonstrating that seamless NW networks are characterized by the zero percolation threshold.

  8. AlGaInP LED with low-speed spin-coating silver nanowires as transparent conductive layer.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xia; Guo, Chun Wei; Wang, Cheng; Li, Chong; Sun, Xiao Ming

    2014-12-01

    The low-speed spin-coating method was developed to prepare uniform and interconnected silver nanowires (AgNWs) film with the transmittance of 95% and sheet resistance of 20Ω/sq on glass, which was comparable to ITO. The fitting value of σ dc/σ op of 299.3 was attributed to the spin-coating process. Advantages of this solution-processed AgNW film on AlGaInP light-emitting diodes (LEDs) as transparent conductive layer were explored. The optical output power enhanced 100%, and the wavelength redshift decreased from 12 to 3 nm, which indicated the AgNW films prepared by low-speed spin-coating possessed attractive features for large-scale TCL applications in optoelectronic devices.

  9. Fully solution-processed semitransparent organic solar cells with a silver nanowire cathode and a conducting polymer anode.

    PubMed

    Yim, Jong Hyuk; Joe, Sung-yoon; Pang, Christina; Lee, Kyung Moon; Jeong, Huiseong; Park, Ji-Yong; Ahn, Yeong Hwan; de Mello, John C; Lee, Soonil

    2014-03-25

    We report the fabrication of efficient indium-tin-oxide-free organic solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl):[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM). All layers of the devices from the lowermost silver nanowire cathode to the uppermost conducting polymer anode are deposited from solution and processed at plastic-compatible temperatures<200 °C. Owing to the absence of an opaque metal electrode, the devices are semitransparent with potential applications in power-generating windows and tandem-cells. The measured power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of 2.3 and 2.0% under cathode- and anode-side illumination, respectively, match previously reported PCE values for equivalent semitransparent organic solar cells using indium tin oxide.

  10. High-reproducibility, flexible conductive patterns fabricated with silver nanowire by drop or fit-to-flow method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Yu; Tao, Yuxiao; Wang, Liuyang; Wang, Biaobing; Yang, Zhenguo; Tai, Yanlong

    2013-03-01

    An unusual strategy was designed to fabricate conductive patterns with high reproducibility for flexible electronics by drop or fit-to-flow method. Silver nanowire (SNW) ink with surface tension of 36.9 mN/m and viscosity of 13.8 mPa s at 20°C was prepared and characterized using a field emission transmission electron microscope, X-ray diffractometer, thermogravimetric analyzer, scanning electron microscope, and four-point probe. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) pattern as template was fabricated by spin coating (500 rpm), baking at 80°C for 3 h, and laser cutting. The prepared SNW ink can flow along the trench of the PDMS pattern spontaneously, especially after plasma treatment with oxygen, and show a low resistivity of 12.9 μΩ cm after sintering at 125°C for 30 min. In addition, an antenna pattern was also prepared to prove the feasibility of the approach.

  11. High-reproducibility, flexible conductive patterns fabricated with silver nanowire by drop or fit-to-flow method

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    An unusual strategy was designed to fabricate conductive patterns with high reproducibility for flexible electronics by drop or fit-to-flow method. Silver nanowire (SNW) ink with surface tension of 36.9 mN/m and viscosity of 13.8 mPa s at 20°C was prepared and characterized using a field emission transmission electron microscope, X-ray diffractometer, thermogravimetric analyzer, scanning electron microscope, and four-point probe. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) pattern as template was fabricated by spin coating (500 rpm), baking at 80°C for 3 h, and laser cutting. The prepared SNW ink can flow along the trench of the PDMS pattern spontaneously, especially after plasma treatment with oxygen, and show a low resistivity of 12.9 μΩ cm after sintering at 125°C for 30 min. In addition, an antenna pattern was also prepared to prove the feasibility of the approach. PMID:23537333

  12. Nanowire Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couteau, C.; Larrue, A.; Wilhelm, C.; Soci, C.

    2015-05-01

    We review principles and trends in the use of semiconductor nanowires as gain media for stimulated emission and lasing. Semiconductor nanowires have recently been widely studied for use in integrated optoelectronic devices, such as light-emitting diodes (LEDs), solar cells, and transistors. Intensive research has also been conducted in the use of nanowires for subwavelength laser systems that take advantage of their quasione- dimensional (1D) nature, flexibility in material choice and combination, and intrinsic optoelectronic properties. First, we provide an overview on using quasi-1D nanowire systems to realize subwavelength lasers with efficient, directional, and low-threshold emission. We then describe the state of the art for nanowire lasers in terms of materials, geometry, andwavelength tunability.Next,we present the basics of lasing in semiconductor nanowires, define the key parameters for stimulated emission, and introduce the properties of nanowires. We then review advanced nanowire laser designs from the literature. Finally, we present interesting perspectives for low-threshold nanoscale light sources and optical interconnects. We intend to illustrate the potential of nanolasers inmany applications, such as nanophotonic devices that integrate electronics and photonics for next-generation optoelectronic devices. For instance, these building blocks for nanoscale photonics can be used for data storage and biomedical applications when coupled to on-chip characterization tools. These nanoscale monochromatic laser light sources promise breakthroughs in nanophotonics, as they can operate at room temperature, can potentially be electrically driven, and can yield a better understanding of intrinsic nanomaterial properties and surface-state effects in lowdimensional semiconductor systems.

  13. Correction: Decrease in thermal conductivity in polymeric P3HT nanowires by size-reduction induced by crystal orientation: new approaches towards thermal transport engineering of organic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojo, Miguel Muñoz; Martín, Jaime; Grauby, Stéphane; Borca-Tasciuc, Theodorian; Dilhaire, Stefan; Martin-Gonzalez, Marisol

    2015-02-01

    Correction for `Decrease in thermal conductivity in polymeric P3HT nanowires by size-reduction induced by crystal orientation: new approaches towards thermal transport engineering of organic materials' by Miguel Muñoz Rojo et al., Nanoscale, 2014, 6, 7858-7865.

  14. Nanowire structures and electrical devices

    DOEpatents

    Bezryadin, Alexey; Remeika, Mikas

    2010-07-06

    The present invention provides structures and devices comprising conductive segments and conductance constricting segments of a nanowire, such as metallic, superconducting or semiconducting nanowire. The present invention provides structures and devices comprising conductive nanowire segments and conductance constricting nanowire segments having accurately selected phases including crystalline and amorphous states, compositions, morphologies and physical dimensions, including selected cross sectional dimensions, shapes and lengths along the length of a nanowire. Further, the present invention provides methods of processing nanowires capable of patterning a nanowire to form a plurality of conductance constricting segments having selected positions along the length of a nanowire, including conductance constricting segments having reduced cross sectional dimensions and conductance constricting segments comprising one or more insulating materials such as metal oxides.

  15. The influence of surfaces on the transient terahertz conductivity and electron mobility of GaAs nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joyce, Hannah J.; Baig, Sarwat A.; Parkinson, Patrick; Davies, Christopher L.; Boland, Jessica L.; Tan, H. Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati; Herz, Laura M.; Johnston, Michael B.

    2017-06-01

    Bare unpassivated GaAs nanowires feature relatively high electron mobilities (400-2100 cm2 V-1 s-1) and ultrashort charge carrier lifetimes (1-5 ps) at room temperature. These two properties are highly desirable for high speed optoelectronic devices, including photoreceivers, modulators and switches operating at microwave and terahertz frequencies. When engineering these GaAs nanowire-based devices, it is important to have a quantitative understanding of how the charge carrier mobility and lifetime can be tuned. Here we use optical-pump-terahertz-probe spectroscopy to quantify how mobility and lifetime depend on the nanowire surfaces and on carrier density in unpassivated GaAs nanowires. We also present two alternative frameworks for the analysis of nanowire photoconductivity: one based on plasmon resonance and the other based on Maxwell-Garnett effective medium theory with the nanowires modelled as prolate ellipsoids. We find the electron mobility decreases significantly with decreasing nanowire diameter, as charge carriers experience increased scattering at nanowire surfaces. Reducing the diameter from 50 nm to 30 nm degrades the electron mobility by up to 47%. Photoconductivity dynamics were dominated by trapping at saturable states existing at the nanowire surface, and the trapping rate was highest for the nanowires of narrowest diameter. The maximum surface recombination velocity, which occurs in the limit of all traps being empty, was calculated as 1.3  ×  106 cm s-1. We note that when selecting the optimum nanowire diameter for an ultrafast device, there is a trade-off between achieving a short lifetime and a high carrier mobility. To achieve high speed GaAs nanowire devices featuring the highest charge carrier mobilities and shortest lifetimes, we recommend operating the devices at low charge carrier densities.

  16. A solution-processed molybdenum oxide treated silver nanowire network: a highly conductive transparent conducting electrode with superior mechanical and hole injection properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Jung-Hao; Chiang, Kai-Ming; Kang, Hao-Wei; Chi, Wei-Jung; Chang, Jung-Hung; Wu, Chih-I.; Lin, Hao-Wu

    2015-02-01

    We demonstrate the fabrication of solution-processed MoOx-treated (s-MoOx) silver nanowire (AgNW) transparent conductive electrodes (TCEs) utilizing low-temperature (sub-100 °C) processes. The s-MoOx aggregates around the AgNW and forms gauze-like MoOx thin films between the mesh, which can effectively lower the sheet resistance by more than two orders of magnitude. Notably, these s-MoOx-treated AgNW TCEs exhibit a combination of several promising characteristics, such as a high and broad transmittance across a wavelength range of 400 to 1000 nm, transmission of up to 96.8%, a low sheet resistance of 29.8 ohm sq-1, a low haze value of 0.90%, better mechanical properties against bending and adhesion tests, and preferable gap states for efficient hole injection in optoelectronic applications. By utilizing these s-MoOx-treated AgNW TCEs as the anode in ITO-free organic light emitting diodes, promising performance of 29.2 lm W-1 and 10.3% external quantum efficiency are demonstrated. The versatile, multi-functional s-MoOx treatment presented here paves the way for the use of low-temperature, solution-processed MoOx as both a nanowire linker and a hole injection interfacial layer for future flexible optoelectronic devices.We demonstrate the fabrication of solution-processed MoOx-treated (s-MoOx) silver nanowire (AgNW) transparent conductive electrodes (TCEs) utilizing low-temperature (sub-100 °C) processes. The s-MoOx aggregates around the AgNW and forms gauze-like MoOx thin films between the mesh, which can effectively lower the sheet resistance by more than two orders of magnitude. Notably, these s-MoOx-treated AgNW TCEs exhibit a combination of several promising characteristics, such as a high and broad transmittance across a wavelength range of 400 to 1000 nm, transmission of up to 96.8%, a low sheet resistance of 29.8 ohm sq-1, a low haze value of 0.90%, better mechanical properties against bending and adhesion tests, and preferable gap states for efficient hole

  17. Hydrothermal Fabrication of Silver Nanowires-Silver Nanoparticles-Graphene Nanosheets Composites in Enhancing Electrical Conductive Performance of Electrically Conductive Adhesives

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Hongru; Zeng, Jinfeng; Harrington, Steven; Ma, Lei; Ma, Mingze; Guo, Xuhong; Ma, Yanqing

    2016-01-01

    Silver nanowires-silver nanoparticles-graphene nanosheets (AgNWs-AgNPs-GN) hybrid nanomaterials were fabricated through a hydrothermal method by using glucose as a green reducing agent. The charge carriers of AgNWs-AgNPs-GN passed through defect regions in the GNs rapidly with the aid of the AgNW and AgNP building blocks, leading to high electrical conductivity of electrically conductive adhesives (ECA) filled with AgNWs-AgNPs-GN. The morphologies of synthesized AgNWs-AgNPs-GN hybrid nanomaterials were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). X-ray diffraction (XRD) and laser confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy were used to investigate the structure of AgNWs-AgNPs-GN. The resistance of cured ECAs was investigated by the four-probe method. The results indicated AgNWs-AgNPs-GN hybrid nanomaterials exhibited excellent electrical properties for decreasing the resistivity of electrically conductive adhesives (ECA). The resistivity of ECA was 3.01 × 10−4 Ω·cm when the content of the AgNWs-AgNPs-GN hybrid nanomaterial was 0.8 wt %. PMID:28335247

  18. Tunable emission and conductivity enhancement by tellurium doping in CdS nanowires for optoelectronic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamran, Muhammad Arshad; Nabi, Ghulam; Majid, Abdul; Iqbal, Muhammad Waqas; Alharbi, Thamer; Zhang, Yongyou; Zou, Bingsuo

    2017-02-01

    Improvement of the optical and electrical characteristics is essential to get advanced performance from one dimensional (1D) material. Here, we report the first synthesis of a single crystalline Te-doped CdS nanowires (NWs) by a chemical-vapor-deposition (CVD) method. Room temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectra showed that Te concentration plays an important role in tuning emission color from orange to infrared (IR). Decrease in bandgap and PL intensity with increase in Te concentration was observed as compared to undoped CdS NWs. Red and IR emissions were found at 736.5 and 881 nm for doping concentration >6.06%. To our best knowledge, IR emission band has been observed for the first time in CdS NWs. Red-shift of LO phonon mode and its overtone in Raman spectra, and lifetime of red and IR emissions are longer than bandgap of host indicating the doping effect of CdS NWs. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) of the Te-doped CdS NWs further confirms the presence of Te in the CdS NWs. Output characteristics confirm enhanced output current Ids with the increase in doping concentration. A possible growth mechanism was proposed. Doping technique offers to develop high-quality, a very stable, effective, and easily-applicable way to enhance the performance of one dimensional optoelectronic devices and solar cell applications.

  19. Nano-Welding of Ag Nanowires Using Rapid Thermal Annealing for Transparent Conductive Films.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jong Sik; Oh, Ji Soo; Shin, Jae Hee; Yeom, Geun Young; Kim, Kyong Nam

    2015-11-01

    Ag nanowire (NW) films obtained by the spraying the Ag NWs on the substrates were nano-welded by rapid thermal annealing (RTA) process and the effect of RTA process on the change of sheet resistance and optical transmittance of the Ag NW films was investigated. The increased number of Ag NW sprays on the substrate decreased the sheet resistance but also decreased the optical transmittance. By the annealing for 60 sec in a nitrogen environment to 225-250 degrees C, the sheet resistance of Ag NW film could be decreased to about 50%, even though it was accompanied by the slight decrease of optical transmittance less than 5%. The decrease of sheet resistance was related to the nano-welding of the Ag NW junctions and the slight decrease of optical transmittance was related local melting of the Ag NWs and spreading on the substrate surface. Through the nano-welding by RTA process, the Ag NW film with the sheet resistance of -20 Ω/sq. and the optical transmittance of 93% could be obtained.

  20. Correlation Between Heterogeneous Bacterial Attachment Rate Coefficients and Hydraulic Conductivity and Impacts on Field-Scale Bacterial Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Scheibe, Timothy D.

    2002-10-28

    In granular porous media, bacterial transport is often modeled using the advection-dispersion transport equation, modified to account for interactions between the bacteria and grain surfaces (attachment and detachment) using a linear kinetic reaction model. In this paper we examine the relationships among the parameters of the above model in the context of bacterial transport for bioaugmentation. In this context, we wish to quantify the distance to which significant concentrations of bacteria can be transported, as well as the uniformity with which they can be distributed within the subsurface. Because kinetic detachment rates (Kr) are typically much smaller than corresponding attachment rates (Kf), the attachment rate exerts primary control on the distance of bacterial transport. Hydraulic conductivity (K) also plays a significant role because of its direct relationship to the advective velocity and its typically high degree of spatial variability at field scales. Because Kf is related to the velocity, grain size, and porosity of the medium, as is K, we expect that there exists correlation between these two parameters. Previous investigators have assumed a form of correlation between Kf and ln(K) based in part on reparameterization of clean-bed filtration equations in terms of published relations between grain size, effective porosity, and ln(K). The hypotheses examined here are that (1) field-scale relationships between K and Kf can be developed by combining a number of theoretical and empirical results in the context of a heterogeneous aquifer flow model (following a similar approach to previous investigators with some extensions), and (2) correlation between K and Kf will enhance the distance of field-scale bacterial transport in granular aquifers. We test these hypotheses using detailed numerical models and observations of field-scale bacterial transport in a shallow sandy aquifer within the South Oyster Site near Oyster, Virginia, USA.

  1. Silver nanosheet-coated copper nanowire/epoxy resin nanocomposites with enhanced electrical conductivity and wear resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Ningning; Ma, Jingyi; Zhang, Yujuan; Yang, Guangbin; Zhang, Shengmao; Zhang, Pingyu

    2017-03-01

    Silver (Ag) nanosheet-coated Cu nanowires (denoted as Cu@AgNWs) were prepared with a facile transmetalation reaction method. The effect of reaction conditions on the morphology and microstructure of the as-prepared Cu@AgNWs was investigated, and the thermal stability of Cu@AgNWs was evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis. In the meantime, the as-prepared Cu@AgNWs were used as the nanofillers of epoxy resin (EP), and their effect on the electrical conductivity and wear resistance of the EP-matrix composites was examined. Results indicate that the as-prepared Cu@AgNWs consist of CuNW core and Ag nanosheet shell. The Ag nanosheet shell can well inhibit the oxidation of the CuNW core, thereby providing the as-prepared Cu@AgNWs with good thermal stability even at an elevated temperature of 230 °C. The reaction temperature, Cu/Ag molar ratio, Cu dispersion concentration, and the dropping speed of silver ammonia reagent are suggested to be 40 °C, 5:1, 1% (mass fraction), and poured directly, respectively. Resultant Cu@AgNWs exhibit desired morphology and performance and can effectively increase the electrical conductivity and wear resistance of EP. This could make it feasible for the Cu@AgNW-EP composite to be applied as an electrostatic conductive material.

  2. Fabrication of flexible silver nanowire conductive films and transmittance improvement based on moth-eye nanostructure array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chengpeng; Zhu, Yuwen; Yi, Peiyun; Peng, Linfa; Lai, Xinmin

    2017-07-01

    Transparent conductive electrodes (TCEs) are widely used in optoelectronic devices, such as touch screens, liquid-crystal displays and light-emitting diodes. To date, the material of the most commonly used TCEs was indium-tin oxide (ITO), which had several intrinsic drawbacks that limited its applications in the long term, including relatively high material cost and brittleness. Silver nanowire (AgNW), as one of the alternative materials for ITO TCEs, has already gained much attention all over the world. In this paper, we reported a facile method to greatly enhance the transmittance of the AgNW TCEs without reducing the electrical conductivity based on moth-eye nanostructures, and the moth-eye nanostructures were fabricated by using a roll-to-roll ultraviolet nanoimprint lithography process. Besides, the effects of mechanical pressure and bending on the moth-eye nanostructure layer were also investigated. In the research, the optical transmittance of the flexible AgNW TCEs was enhanced from 81.3% to 86.0% by attaching moth-eye nanostructures onto the other side of the flexible polyethylene terephthalate substrate while the electrical conductivity of the AgNW TCEs was not sacrificed. This research can provide a direction for the cost-effective fabrication of moth-eye nanostructures and the transmittance improvement of the flexible transparent electrodes.

  3. Observation of room-temperature ballistic thermal conduction persisting over 8.3 µm in SiGe nanowires.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Tzu-Kan; Chang, Hsu-Kai; Liou, Sz-Chian; Chu, Ming-Wen; Lee, Si-Chen; Chang, Chih-Wei

    2013-07-01

    In ballistic thermal conduction, the wave characteristics of phonons allow the transmission of energy without dissipation. However, the observation of ballistic heat transport at room temperature is challenging because of the short phonon mean free path. Here we show that ballistic thermal conduction persisting over 8.3 µm can be observed in SiGe nanowires with low thermal conductivity for a wide range of structural variations and alloy concentrations. We find that an unexpectedly low percentage (∼0.04%) of phonons carry out the heat conduction process in SiGe nanowires, and that the ballistic phonons display properties including non-additive thermal resistances in series, unconventional contact thermal resistance, and unusual robustness against external perturbations. These results, obtained in a model semiconductor, could enable wave-engineering of phonons and help to realize heat waveguides, terahertz phononic crystals and quantum phononic/thermoelectric devices ready to be integrated into existing silicon-based electronics.

  4. Nanoscale current spreading analysis in solution-processed graphene oxide/silver nanowire transparent electrodes via conductive atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, Joseph E.; Perumal, Ajay; Bradley, Donal D. C.; Stavrinou, Paul N.; Anthopoulos, Thomas D.

    2016-05-21

    We use conductive atomic force microscopy (CAFM) to study the origin of long-range conductivity in model transparent conductive electrodes composed of networks of reduced graphene oxide (rGO{sub X}) and silver nanowires (AgNWs), with nanoscale spatial resolution. Pristine networks of rGO{sub X} (1–3 monolayers-thick) and AgNWs exhibit sheet resistances of ∼100–1000 kΩ/□ and 100–900 Ω/□, respectively. When the materials are deposited sequentially to form bilayer rGO{sub X}/AgNW electrodes and thermally annealed at 200 °C, the sheet resistance reduces by up to 36% as compared to pristine AgNW networks. CAFM was used to analyze the current spreading in both systems in order to identify the nanoscale phenomena responsible for this effect. For rGO{sub X} networks, the low intra-flake conductivity and the inter-flake contact resistance is found to dominate the macroscopic sheet resistance, while for AgNW networks the latter is determined by the density of the inter-AgNW junctions and their associated resistance. In the case of the bilayer rGO{sub X}/AgNWs' networks, rGO{sub X} flakes are found to form conductive “bridges” between AgNWs. We show that these additional nanoscopic electrical connections are responsible for the enhanced macroscopic conductivity of the bilayer rGO{sub X}/AgNW electrodes. Finally, the critical role of thermal annealing on the formation of these nanoscopic connections is discussed.

  5. Ammonia plasma modification towards a rapid and low temperature approach for tuning electrical conductivity of ZnO nanowires on flexible substrates.

    PubMed

    Ong, Wei Li; Zhang, Chun; Ho, Ghim Wei

    2011-10-05

    Though the fabrication of ZnO nanostructures is economical and low temperature, the lack of a facile, reliable and low temperature methodology to tune its electrical conductivity has prevented it from competing with other semiconductors. Here, we carried out surface modification of ZnO nanowires using ammonia plasma with no heat treatment, and studied their electrical properties over an extended time frame of more than a year. The fabrication of flexible devices was demonstrated via various methods of transferring and aligning as-synthesized ZnO nanowires onto plastic substrates. Hall measurements of the plasma modified ZnO nanowires revealed p-type conductivity. The N1s peak was present in the X-ray photoelectron spectrum of the surface modified ZnO, showing the presence of ammonia complexes. Low temperature photoluminescence showed evidence of acceptor-bound exciton emission. The resulting electrical devices, a chemical sensor and p-n homojunction, show the tunable electrical response of the surface modified ZnO nanowires.

  6. Tuning Thermal and Electrical Conductivities in Structure-engineered Nanowires for High-efficiency Thermoelectric Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-30

    materials, which determines the efficiency of thermoelectric devices, because the three parameters such as Seebeck coefficient (S), electrical conductivity...predicted to be enhanced by size effects and quantum confinement effects providing the opportunities to control S, σ and κ independently. In...efficiency of thermoelectric devices, because the three parameters such as Seebeck coefficient (S), electrical conductivity (σ), and thermal conductivity

  7. Improved Performance by SiO2 Hollow Nanospheres for Silver Nanowire-Based Flexible Transparent Conductive Films.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liwen; Zhang, Longjiang; Qiu, Yejun; Ji, Yang; Liu, Ya; Liu, Hong; Li, Guangji; Guo, Qiuquan

    2016-10-12

    Flexible transparent conductive films (TCFs) have attracted tremendous interest thanks to the rapid development of portable/flexible/wearable electronics. TCFs on the basis of silver nanowires (AgNWs) with excellent performance are becoming an efficient alternative to replace the brittle transparent metal oxide. In this study, a promising method was developed by introducing SiO2 hollow nanospheres (SiO2-HNSs) into the film to significantly improve the performance of AgNW-based TCFs. Since SiO2-HNSs have opposite charges to AgNWs, the strong attraction had promoted a uniform distribution of AgNWs and made the distance between AgNWs closer, which could decrease the contact resistance greatly. The introduction of SiO2 layer remarkably enhanced the transmission of visible light and the conductivity. In addition, the TCFs constructed by AgNWs and SiO2-HNSs showed much higher thermal stability and adhesive force than those by only AgNWs. As an example, the transmission of AgNW/SiO2-HNS-coated poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) could increase about 14.3% in comparison to AgNW-coated PET. Typically, a AgNW/SiO2-HNS-based TCF with a sheet resistance of about 33 Ω/sq and transmittance of about 98.0% (excluding substrate) could be obtained with excellent flexibility, adhesion, and thermal stability. At last some devices were fabricated.

  8. Nonmonotonic Diameter Dependence of Thermal Conductivity of Extremely Thin Si Nanowires: Competition between Hydrodynamic Phonon Flow and Boundary Scattering.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yanguang; Zhang, Xiaoliang; Hu, Ming

    2017-02-08

    By carefully and systematically performing Green-Kubo equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, we report that the thermal conductivity (κ) of Si nanowires (NWs) does not diverge but converges and increases steeply when NW diameter (D) becomes extremely small (dκ/dD < 0), a long debate of one-dimensional heat conduction in history. The κ of the thinnest possible Si NWs reaches a superhigh level that is as large as more than 1 order of magnitude higher than its bulk counterpart. The abnormality is explained in terms of the dominant normal (N) process (energy and momentum conservation) of low frequency acoustic phonons that induces hydrodynamic phonon flow in the Si NWs without being scattered. With D increasing, the downward shift of optical phonons triggers strong Umklapp (U) scattering with acoustic phonons and attenuates the N process, leading to the regime of phonon boundary scattering (dκ/dD < 0). The two competing mechanisms result in nonmonotonic diameter dependence of κ with minima at critical diameter of 2-3 nm. Our results unambiguously demonstrate the converged κ and the clear trend of κ ∼ D for extremely thin Si NWs by fully elucidating the competition between the hydrodynamic phonon flow and phonon boundary scattering.

  9. Cl-doped ZnO nanowires with metallic conductivity and their application for high-performance photoelectrochemical electrodes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Seo, Jung-Hun; Li, Zhaodong; Kvit, Alexander V; Ma, Zhenqiang; Wang, Xudong

    2014-01-22

    Doping semiconductor nanowires (NWs) for altering their electrical and optical properties is a critical strategy for tailoring the performance of nanodevices. ZnO NWs grown by hydrothermal method are pervasively used in optoelectronic, photovoltaic, and piezoelectric energy-harvesting devices. We synthesized in situ Cl-doped ZnO NWs with metallic conductivity that would fit seamlessly with these devices and improve their performance. Possible Cl doping mechanisms were discussed. UV-visible absorption spectroscopy confirmed the visible light transparency of Cl-doped ZnO NWs. Cl-doped ZnO NW/TiO2 core/shell-structured photoelectrochemical (PEC) anode was fabricated to demonstrate the application potential of highly conductive ZnO NWs. Higher photocurrent density and overall PEC efficiency compared with the undoped ZnO NW-based device were achieved. The successful doping and low resistivity of ZnO could unlock the potential of ZnO NWs for applications in low-cost flexible transparent electrodes.

  10. Non-contact measurement of the electrical conductivity and coverage density of silver nanowires for transparent electrodes using Terahertz spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sung-Hyeon; Chung, Wan-Ho; Kim, Hak-Sung

    2017-02-01

    In this work, a terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) imaging technique was used for non-contact measurement of the conductivity and coverage density (D C) of silver nanowires (SNWs) as transparent electrodes. The reflection mode of THz-TDS with an incident angle of 30° was used, and the sheet resistance (R sh) of SNW films was measured using the four-point probe method. The correlations between the THz reflection ratio and R sh were studied by comparing the results of the four-point probe method and the measured THz reflection ratios. Also, the D C of SNWs was evaluated using THz waveforms with a general refractivity formula. This result matched well with a conventional approximation method using a scanning electron microscope image. Furthermore, defects in the SNWs could be easily detected using the THz-TDS imaging technique. The non-contact THz-TDS measurement method that we developed is expected to be a promising technique for non-contact measurement of the R sh and D C for transparent conductive electrodes.

  11. Electrical Characterization of Zn and ZnO Nanowires Grown on PEDOT:PSS Conductive Polymer Thin Films by Physical Vapor Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamberlin, Matthew; Constantin, Costel

    2011-10-01

    Physical vapor deposition (PVD) techniques offer tremendous possibilities for easy fabrication of nanostructure arrays for use in thin film electronics. In this study we examine inorganic/organic heterojunctions produced by growing conductive Zn and semiconductive ZnO nanowire arrays on organic conductive PEDOT:PSS polymer thin films using simple and cost-effective PVD methods. Understanding the electrical properties of these hybrid films are of particular interest for applications in organic electronics. However, traditional systems for measuring conductivity and resistivity of thin films by the Van Der Pauw method prove problematic when dealing with soft polymeric surfaces. We present here electrical studies of ZnO- and Zn-nanowire/PEDOT:PSS heterojunctions using a modified 2-point probe method constructed from inexpensive and easily available materials.

  12. Correlation Between Bacterial Attachment Rate Coefficients and Hydraulic Conductivity and its Effect on Field-Scale Bacterial Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Scheibe, Timothy D.; Dong, Hailiang; Xie, YuLong

    2007-06-01

    It has been widely observed in field experiments that the apparent rate of bacterial attachment, particularly as parameterized by the collision efficiency in filtration-based models, decreases with transport distance (i.e., exhibits scale-dependency). This effect has previously been attributed to microbial heterogeneity; that is, variability in cell-surface properties within a single monoclonal population. We demonstrate that this effect could also be interpreted as a field-scale manifestation of local-scale correlation between physical heterogeneity (hydraulic conductivity variability) and reaction heterogeneity (attachment rate coefficient variability). A field-scale model of bacterial transport developed for the South Oyster field research site located near Oyster, Virginia, and observations from field experiments performed at that site, are used as the basis for this study. Three-dimensional Monte Carlo simulations of bacterial transport were performed under four alternative scenarios: 1) homogeneous hydraulic conductivity (K) and attachment rate coefficient (Kf), 2) heterogeneous K, homogeneous Kf, 3) heterogeneous K and Kf with local correlation based on empirical and theoretical relationships, and 4) heterogeneous K and Kf without local correlation. The results of the 3D simulations were analyzed using 1D model approximations following conventional methods of field data analysis. An apparent decrease with transport distance of effective collision efficiency was observed only in the case where the local properties were both heterogeneous and correlated. This effect was observed despite the fact that the local collision efficiency was specified as a constant in the 3D model, and can therefore be interpreted as a scale effect associated with the local correlated heterogeneity as manifested at the field scale.

  13. Thermal conductivity of bulk and nanowire Mg₂SixSn1–x alloys from first principles

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Wu; Lindsay, L.; Broido, D. A.; Stewart, Derek A.; Mingo, Natalio

    2012-11-29

    The lattice thermal conductivity (κ) of the thermoelectric materials, Mg₂Si, Mg₂Sn, and their alloys, are calculated for bulk and nanowires, without adjustable parameters. We find good agreement with bulk experimental results. For large nanowire diameters, size effects are stronger for the alloy than for the pure compounds. For example, in 200 nm diameter nanowires κ is lower than its bulk value by 30%, 20%, and 20% for Mg₂Si₀.₆Sn₀.₄, Mg₂Si, and Mg₂Sn, respectively. For nanowires less than 20 nm thick, the relative decrease surpasses 50%, and it becomes larger in the pure compounds than in the alloy. At room temperature, κ of Mg₂SixSn1–x is less sensitive to nanostructuring size effects than SixGe1–x, but more sensitive than PbTexSe1–x. This suggests that further improvement of Mg₂SixSn1–x as a nontoxic thermoelectric may be possible.

  14. Quadrature conductivity: A quantitative indicator of bacterial abundance in porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Chi Zhang; Andre Revil; Yoshiko Fujita; Junko Munakata-Marr; George Redden

    2014-09-01

    ABSTRACT The abundance and growth stages of bacteria in subsurface porous media affect the concentrations and distributions of charged species within the solid-solution interfaces. Therefore, spectral induced polarization (SIP) measurements can be used to monitor changes in bacterial biomass and growth stage. Our goal was to gain a better understanding of the SIP response of bacteria present in a porous material. Bacterial cell surfaces possess an electric double layer and therefore become polarized in an electric field. We performed SIP measurements over the frequency range of 0.1–1 kHz on cell suspensions alone and cell suspensions mixed with sand at four pore water conductivities. We used Zymomonas mobilis at four different cell densities (in- cluding the background). The quadrature conductivity spectra exhibited two peaks, one around 0.05–0.10 Hz and the other around 1–10 Hz. Because SIP measurements on bacterial suspensions are typically made at frequencies greater than 1 Hz, these peaks have not been previously reported. In the bac-terial suspensions in growth medium, the quadrature conduc-tivity at peak I was linearly proportional to the density of the bacteria. For the case of the suspensions mixed with sands, we observed that peak II presented a smaller increase in the quadrature conductivity with the cell density. A comparison of the experiments with and without sand grains illustrated the effect of the porous medium on the overall quadrature con- ductivity response (decrease in the amplitude and shift of the peaks to the lower frequencies). Our results indicate that for a given porous medium, time-lapse SIP has potential for mon- itoring changes in bacterial abundance within porous media.

  15. The role of graphene formed on silver nanowire transparent conductive electrode in ultra-violet light emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Tae Hoon; Lee, Seula; Min, Kyung Hyun; Chandramohan, S.; Park, Ah Hyun; Lee, Gun Hee; Park, Min; Suh, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Myung Jong

    2016-07-01

    This paper reports a highly reliable transparent conductive electrode (TCE) that integrates silver nanowires (AgNWs) and high-quality graphene as a protecting layer. Graphene with minimized defects and large graphene domains has been successfully obtained through a facile two-step growth approach. Ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) were fabricated with AgNWs or hybrid electrodes where AgNWs were combined with two-step grown graphene (A-2GE) or conventional one-step grown graphene (A-1GE). The device performance and reliability of the UV-LEDs with three different electrodes were compared. The A-2GE offered high figure of merit owing to the excellent UV transmittance and reduced sheet resistance. As a consequence, the UV-LEDs made with A-2GE demonstrated reduced forward voltage, enhanced electroluminescence (EL) intensity, and alleviated efficiency droop. The effects of joule heating and UV light illumination on the electrode stability were also studied. The present findings prove superior performance of the A-2GE under high current injection and continuous operation of UV LED, compared to other electrodes. From our observation, the A-2GE would be a reliable TCE for high power UV-LEDs.

  16. The role of graphene formed on silver nanowire transparent conductive electrode in ultra-violet light emitting diodes

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Tae Hoon; Lee, Seula; Min, Kyung Hyun; Chandramohan, S.; Park, Ah Hyun; Lee, Gun Hee; Park, Min; Suh, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Myung Jong

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports a highly reliable transparent conductive electrode (TCE) that integrates silver nanowires (AgNWs) and high-quality graphene as a protecting layer. Graphene with minimized defects and large graphene domains has been successfully obtained through a facile two-step growth approach. Ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) were fabricated with AgNWs or hybrid electrodes where AgNWs were combined with two-step grown graphene (A-2GE) or conventional one-step grown graphene (A-1GE). The device performance and reliability of the UV-LEDs with three different electrodes were compared. The A-2GE offered high figure of merit owing to the excellent UV transmittance and reduced sheet resistance. As a consequence, the UV-LEDs made with A-2GE demonstrated reduced forward voltage, enhanced electroluminescence (EL) intensity, and alleviated efficiency droop. The effects of joule heating and UV light illumination on the electrode stability were also studied. The present findings prove superior performance of the A-2GE under high current injection and continuous operation of UV LED, compared to other electrodes. From our observation, the A-2GE would be a reliable TCE for high power UV-LEDs. PMID:27387274

  17. Gold nanoparticles and polyethylene glycols functionalized conducting polyaniline nanowires for ultrasensitive and low fouling immunosensing of alpha-fetoprotein.

    PubMed

    Hui, Ni; Sun, Xiaotian; Song, Zhiling; Niu, Shuyan; Luo, Xiliang

    2016-12-15

    An ultrasensitive biosensor for alpha-fetoprotein was developed based on electrochemically synthesized polyaniline (PANI) nanowires, which were functionalized with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and polyethylene glycols (PEG). The prepared PEG/AuNPs/PANI composite, combining the electrical conductivity of the AuNPs/PANI with the robust antifouling ability of PEG, offered an ideal substrate for the development of low fouling electrochemical biosensors. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), a well-known hepatocellular carcinoma biomarker, was used as a model analyte, and its antibody was immobilized on the PEG/AuNPs/PANI for the construction of the AFP immunosensor. Using the redox current of PANI as the sensing signal, in addition to the good biocompatibility of PEG/AuNPs and the anti-biofouling property of PEG, the developed immunosensor showed improved biosensing performances, such as wide linear range and ultralow detection limit (0.007pgmL(-1)). More importantly, it is label-free, reagentless and low fouling, making it capable of assaying AFP in real serum samples without suffering from significant interference or biofouling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The role of graphene formed on silver nanowire transparent conductive electrode in ultra-violet light emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Seo, Tae Hoon; Lee, Seula; Min, Kyung Hyun; Chandramohan, S; Park, Ah Hyun; Lee, Gun Hee; Park, Min; Suh, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Myung Jong

    2016-07-08

    This paper reports a highly reliable transparent conductive electrode (TCE) that integrates silver nanowires (AgNWs) and high-quality graphene as a protecting layer. Graphene with minimized defects and large graphene domains has been successfully obtained through a facile two-step growth approach. Ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) were fabricated with AgNWs or hybrid electrodes where AgNWs were combined with two-step grown graphene (A-2GE) or conventional one-step grown graphene (A-1GE). The device performance and reliability of the UV-LEDs with three different electrodes were compared. The A-2GE offered high figure of merit owing to the excellent UV transmittance and reduced sheet resistance. As a consequence, the UV-LEDs made with A-2GE demonstrated reduced forward voltage, enhanced electroluminescence (EL) intensity, and alleviated efficiency droop. The effects of joule heating and UV light illumination on the electrode stability were also studied. The present findings prove superior performance of the A-2GE under high current injection and continuous operation of UV LED, compared to other electrodes. From our observation, the A-2GE would be a reliable TCE for high power UV-LEDs.

  19. Effects of carbon dioxide on bacterial growth parameters in milk as measured by conductivity.

    PubMed

    Martin, J D; Werner, B G; Hotchkiss, J H

    2003-06-01

    Inhibition of bacterial growth by dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2) has been well established in many foods including dairy foods. However, the effects of dissolved CO2 on specific growth parameters such as length of lag phase, time to maximum growth rate, and numbers of organisms at the stationary phase have not been quantified for organisms of concern in milk. The effect of dissolved CO2 concentrations of 0.6 to 61.4 mM on specific bacterial growth parameters in raw or single organism inoculated sterile milk was determined at 15 degrees C by conductance. Commingled raw or sterile milks were amended to a final concentration of 0.5 mg/ml each of urea and arginine HCl. Sterile milks were inoculated singly with one of six different microorganisms to a final concentration of approximately 10(2) to 10(3) cfu/ml; raw milk was adjusted to a final indigenous bacterial population of approximately 10(3) cfu/ml. Conductivity of the milk was recorded every 60 s over 4 to 5 d in a circulating apparatus at 15 degrees C. Conductivity values were fit to Gompertz equations and growth parameters calculated. Conductance correlated with plate counts and was satisfactory for monitoring microbial growth. Data fit the Gompertz equation with high correlation (R2 = 0.96 to 1.00). In all cases, dissolved CO2 significantly inhibited growth of raw milk bacteria, influencing lag, exponential, and stationary growth phases as well as all tested monocultures.

  20. The effect of driven electron-phonon coupling on the electronic conductance of a polar nanowire

    SciTech Connect

    Mardaani, Mohammad Rabani, Hassan; Esmaili, Esmat; Shariati, Ashrafalsadat

    2015-08-07

    A semi-classical model is proposed to explore the effect of electron-phonon coupling on the coherent electronic transport of a polar chain which is confined between two rigid leads in the presence of an external electric field. To this end, we construct the model by means of Green's function technique within the nearest neighbor tight-binding and harmonic approximations. For a time-periodic electric field, the atomic displacements from the equilibrium positions are obtained precisely. The result is then used to compute the electronic transport properties of the chain within the Peierls-type model. The numerical results indicate that the conductance of the system shows interesting behavior in some special frequencies. For each special frequency, there is an electronic quasi-state in which the scattering of electrons by vibrating atoms reaches maximum. The system electronic conductance decreases dramatically at the strong electron-phonon couplings and low electron energies. In the presence of damping forces, the electron-phonon interaction has a less significant effect on the conductance.

  1. Highly conductive and ultrastretchable electric circuits from covered yarns and silver nanowires.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yin; Wang, Ranran; Sun, Jing; Gao, Lian

    2015-04-28

    Stretchable electronics, as a promising research frontier, has achieved progress in a variety of sophisticated applications. The realization of stretchable electronics frequently involves the demand for a stretchable conductor as an electrical circuit. However, it still remains a challenge to fabricate high-performance (working strain exceeding 200%) stretchable conductors. Here, we present for the first time a facile, cost-effective, and scalable method for manufacturing ultrastretchable composite fibers with a "twining spring" configuration: cotton fibers twining spirally around a polyurethane fiber. The composite fiber possesses a high conductivity up to 4018 S/cm, which remains as high as 688 S/cm at 500% tensile strain. In addition, the conductivity of the composite fiber (initial conductivity of 4018 S/cm) remains perfectly stable after 1000 bending events and levels off at 183 S/cm after 1000 cyclic stretching events of 200% strain. Stretchable LED arrays are integrated efficiently utilizing the composite fibers as a stretchable electric wiring system, demonstrating the potential applications in large-area stretchable electronics. The biocompatibility of the composite fiber is verified, opening up its prospects in the field of implantable devices. Our fabrication strategy is also versatile for the preparation of other specially functionalized composite fibers with superb stretchability.

  2. Highly stable and flexible silver nanowire-graphene hybrid transparent conducting electrodes for emerging optoelectronic devices.

    PubMed

    Lee, Donghwa; Lee, Hyungjin; Ahn, Yumi; Jeong, Youngjun; Lee, Dae-Young; Lee, Youngu

    2013-09-07

    A new AgNW-graphene hybrid transparent conducting electrode (TCE) was prepared by dry-transferring a chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-grown monolayer graphene onto a pristine AgNW TCE. The AgNW-graphene hybrid TCE exhibited excellent optical and electrical properties as well as mechanical flexibility. The AgNW-graphene hybrid TCE showed highly enhanced thermal oxidation and chemical stabilities because of the superior gas-barrier property of the graphene protection layer. Furthermore, the organic solar cells with the AgNW-graphene hybrid TCE showed excellent photovoltaic performance as well as superior long-term stability under ambient conditions.

  3. Composite Polymer Electrolytes with Li7La3Zr2O12 Garnet-Type Nanowires as Ceramic Fillers: Mechanism of Conductivity Enhancement and Role of Doping and Morphology.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ting; Zheng, Jin; Cheng, Qian; Hu, Yan-Yan; Chan, Candace K

    2017-07-05

    Composite polymer solid electrolytes (CPEs) containing ceramic fillers embedded inside a polymer-salt matrix show great improvements in Li(+) ionic conductivity compared to the polymer electrolyte alone. Lithium lanthanum zirconate (Li7La3Zr2O12, LLZO) with a garnet-type crystal structure is a promising solid Li(+) conductor. We show that by incorporating only 5 wt % of the ceramic filler comprising undoped, cubic-phase LLZO nanowires prepared by electrospinning, the room temperature ionic conductivity of a polyacrylonitrile-LiClO4-based composite is increased 3 orders of magnitude to 1.31 × 10(-4) S/cm. Al-doped and Ta-doped LLZO nanowires are also synthesized and utilized as fillers, but the conductivity enhancement is similar as for the undoped LLZO nanowires. Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies show that LLZO NWs partially modify the PAN polymer matrix and create preferential pathways for Li(+) conduction through the modified polymer regions. CPEs with LLZO nanoparticles and Al2O3 nanowire fillers are also studied to elucidate the role of filler type (active vs passive), LLZO composition (undoped vs doped), and morphology (nanowire vs nanoparticle) on the CPE conductivity. It is demonstrated that both intrinsic Li(+) conductivity and nanowire morphology are needed for optimal performance when using 5 wt % of the ceramic filler in the CPE.

  4. Highly flexible, transparent, conductive and antibacterial films made of spin-coated silver nanowires and a protective ZnO layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Youxin; Lan, Wei; Wang, Junya; Zhu, Ranran; Yang, Zhiwei; Ding, Delei; Tang, Guomei; Wang, Kairong; Su, Qing; Xie, Erqing

    2016-02-01

    We prepared highly flexible, transparent, conductive and antibacterial film by spin coating a silver nanowire suspension on a poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrate. The ZnO layer covered the conductive silver nanowire (AgNW) network to protect the metal nanowires from oxidization and enhance both wire-to-wire adhesion and wire-to-substrate adhesion. It is found that the number of AgNW coatings correlates with both the sheet resistance (Rs) and the transmittance of the AgNW/ZnO composite films. An excellent 92% optical transmittance in the visible range and a surface sheet resistance of only 9 Ω sq-1 has been achieved, respectively. Even after bending 1000 times (5 mm bending radius), we found no significant change in the sheet resistance or optical transmittance. The real-time sheet resistance measured as a function of bending radius also remains stable even at the smallest measured bending radius (1 mm). The AgNW/ZnO composite films also show antibacterial effects which could be useful for the fabrication of wearable electronic devices.

  5. Development of Hierarchical Polymer@Pd Nanowire-Network: Synthesis and Application as Highly Active Recyclable Catalyst and Printable Conductive Ink.

    PubMed

    Mir, Sajjad Husain; Ochiai, Bungo

    2016-06-01

    A facile one-pot approach for preparing hierarchical nanowire-networks of hollow polymer@Pd nanospheres is reported. First, polymer@Pd hollow nanospheres were produced through metal-complexation-induced phase separation with functionalized graft copolymers and subsequent self-assembly of PdNPs. The nanospheres hierarchically assembled into the nanowire-network upon drying. The Pd nanowire-network served as an active catalyst for Mizoroki-Heck and Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reactions. As low as 500 μmol % Pd was sufficient for quantitative reactions, and the origin of the high activity is ascribed to the highly active sites originating from high-index facets, kinks, and coalesced structures. The catalyst can be recycled via simple filtration and washing, maintaining its high activity owing to the micrometer-sized hierarchical structure of the nanomaterial. The polymer@Pd nanosphere also served as a printable conductive ink for a translucent grid pattern with excellent horizontal conductivity (7.5×10(5) S m(-1)).

  6. Record Low Thermal Conductivity of Polycrystalline Si Nanowire: Breaking the Casimir Limit by Severe Suppression of Propagons.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yanguang; Hu, Ming

    2016-10-12

    Thermoelectrics offer an attractive pathway for addressing an important niche in the globally growing landscape of energy demand. Nanoengineering existing low-dimensional thermoelectric materials pertaining to realizing fundamentally low thermal conductivity has emerged as an efficient route to achieve high energy conversion performance for advanced thermoelectrics. In this paper, by performing nonequilibrium and Green-Kubo equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations we report that the thermal conductivity of Si nanowires (NWs) in polycrystalline form can reach a record low value substantially below the Casimir limit, a theory of diffusive boundary limit that regards the direction-averaged mean free path is limited by the characteristic size of the nanostructures. The astonishingly low thermal conductivity of polycrystalline Si NW is 269 and 77 times lower with respect to that of bulk Si and pristine Si NW, respectively, and is even only about one-third of the value of the purely amorphous Si NW at room temperature. By examining the mode level phonon behaviors including phonon group velocities, lifetime, and so forth, we identify the mechanism of breaking the Casimir limit as the strong localization of the middle and high frequency phonon modes, which leads to a prominent decrease of effective mean free path of the heat carriers including both propagons and diffusons. The contribution of the propagons to the overall thermal transport is further quantitatively characterized and is found to be dramatically suppressed in polycrystalline Si NW form as compared with bulk Si, perfect Si NW, and pure amorphous Si NW. Consequently, the diffusons, which transport the heat through overlap with other vibrations, carry the majority of the heat in polycrystalline Si NWs. We also proposed approach of introducing "disorder" in the polycrystalline Si NWs that could eradicate the contribution of propagons to achieve an even lower thermal conductivity than that ever thought possible

  7. Composites of Polyindole nanowires within Silicate and Aluminosilicate hosts with distinct conductive properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juárez, J. M.; Gómez Costa, M. B.; Anunziata, O. A.

    2016-07-01

    Nanostructured silicate SBA-15 and aluminosilicate AlSBA-15 were synthesized in order to prepare polyindole composites. The Silica mesoporous materials were prepared by sol- gel method and alumination using post-synthesis technique and analysed by different methods (XRD, BET, TEM, and FTIR). Polyindole/host composites were prepared by in situ oxidative polymerization of pre-adsorbed indole, employing Cl3Fe as oxidant. TG, FTIR, BET, XRD, SEM and TEM were used to characterize the resulting composites. These studies show that the porous structures of the materials are preserved after polymerization, and polyindole is found within the porous channels. The composites have an electrical conductivity range between values higher than those of the pure chemically synthesized polyindole, close to those of the pure electrochemically synthesized polymer and lower than those of the pure chemically synthesized polymer, in the order of 10-8 S/cm.

  8. Modeling the electrical conduction in DNA nanowires: Charge transfer and lattice fluctuation theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behnia, S.; Fathizadeh, S.

    2015-02-01

    An analytical approach is proposed for the investigation of the conductivity properties of DNA. The charge mobility of DNA is studied based on an extended Peyrard-Bishop-Holstein model when the charge carrier is also subjected to an external electrical field. We have obtained the values of some of the system parameters, such as the electron-lattice coupling constant, by using the mean Lyapunov exponent method. On the other hand, the electrical current operator is calculated directly from the lattice operators. Also, we have studied Landauer resistance behavior with respect to the external field, which could serve as the interface between chaos theory tools and electronic concepts. We have examined the effect of two types of electrical fields (dc and ac) and variation of the field frequency on the current flowing through DNA. A study of the current-voltage (I -V ) characteristic diagram reveals regions with a (quasi-)Ohmic property and other regions with negative differential resistance (NDR). NDR is a phenomenon that has been observed experimentally in DNA at room temperature. We have tried to study the affected agents in charge transfer phenomena in DNA to better design nanostructures.

  9. Modeling the electrical conduction in DNA nanowires: charge transfer and lattice fluctuation theories.

    PubMed

    Behnia, S; Fathizadeh, S

    2015-02-01

    An analytical approach is proposed for the investigation of the conductivity properties of DNA. The charge mobility of DNA is studied based on an extended Peyrard-Bishop-Holstein model when the charge carrier is also subjected to an external electrical field. We have obtained the values of some of the system parameters, such as the electron-lattice coupling constant, by using the mean Lyapunov exponent method. On the other hand, the electrical current operator is calculated directly from the lattice operators. Also, we have studied Landauer resistance behavior with respect to the external field, which could serve as the interface between chaos theory tools and electronic concepts. We have examined the effect of two types of electrical fields (dc and ac) and variation of the field frequency on the current flowing through DNA. A study of the current-voltage (I-V) characteristic diagram reveals regions with a (quasi-)Ohmic property and other regions with negative differential resistance (NDR). NDR is a phenomenon that has been observed experimentally in DNA at room temperature. We have tried to study the affected agents in charge transfer phenomena in DNA to better design nanostructures.

  10. Large-scale synthesis of well-dispersed copper nanowires in an electric pressure cooker and their application in transparent and conductive networks.

    PubMed

    Li, Shenjie; Chen, Yanyan; Huang, Lijian; Pan, Daocheng

    2014-05-05

    We present a novel large-scale synthetic method for well-separated copper nanowires (CuNWs) in a commercial electric pressure cooker under mild reaction conditions. CuNWs (∼2.1 g) can be prepared in a batch with the cost of $4.20/g. Well-dispersed polyvinylpyrrolidone-capped CuNWs were obtained via a ligand-exchange method. The transparent and conductive CuNW networks with excellent electrical conductivity and high optical transmittance (30 Ω/□ at 86% transmittance, respectively) were fabricated by a spin-coating process.

  11. Observation of Aharonov-Bohm and Al'tshuler-Aronov-Spivak oscillations in the background of universal conductance fluctuations in silicon nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mtsuko, Davie; Aslan, Tahir; Ncube, Siphephile; Coleman, Christopher; Wamwangi, Daniel; Bhattacharyya, Somnath

    2016-02-01

    Magnetoresistance (MR) oscillations of multiple periodicities are recorded in singly connected silicon nanowires of diameter ≈50 \\text{nm} . At 100 K we observe oscillations of periodicity ≈1.78 \\text{T} and 0.444 T corresponding to h/e and h/4e Aharonov-Bohm (AB) oscillations, whereas at 10 K we record periodicities of 0.98 T, 0.49 T and 0.25 T corresponding to h/e, h/2e (Al'tshuler-Aronov-Spivak (AAS)) and h/4e oscillations. At 2.5 K we find magnetoresistance oscillations with multiple periodicities of 1.3 T, 0.52 T, and 0.325 T corresponding to AB and AAS oscillations. The h/2e and h/4e peaks can be attributed to the interference of time-reversed paths originating from the core orbits that scatter coherently on the surface of the nanowires multiple times. We also observed 20 mT and 60 mT oscillations of small amplitude superimposed on a quasi-periodic background which we attribute to the quantum interference of special surface states associated with skipping orbits that propagate quasi-ballistically. The aperiodic fluctuations in the MR at all temperatures are universal conductance fluctuations (UCF) originating from randomly spaced impurity scattering in the core of the nanowire.

  12. Controlled electrodeposition of bismuth nanocatalysts for the solution-liquid-solid synthesis of CdSe nanowires on transparent conductive substrates.

    PubMed

    Reim, Natalia; Littig, Alexander; Behn, Dino; Mews, Alf

    2013-12-11

    Semiconductor nanowires (NWs) composed of cadmium selenide (CdSe) have been directly grown on transparent conductive substrates via the solution-liquid-solid (SLS) approach using electrodeposited bismuth nanoparticles (Bi NPs) as catalyst. Bi NPs were fabricated on indium tin oxide (ITO) surfaces from a bismuth trichloride solution using potentiostatic double-pulse techniques. The size and density of electrodeposited Bi NPs were controlled by the pulse parameters. Since the NW diameter is governed by the dimension of the Bi catalyst, the electrodeposition is a reliable method to synthesize nanowires directly on substrates with a desired size and density. We show that the density can be adjusted from individual NWs on several square micrometer to very dense NW networks. The diameter can be controlled between thick nanowires above 100 nm to very thin NW of 7 nm in diameter, which is well below the respective exciton dimension. Hence, especially the thinnest NWs exhibit diameter-dependent photoluminescence energies as a result of quantum confinement effects in the radial dimension.

  13. Selective formation of tungsten nanowires

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We report on a process for fabricating self-aligned tungsten (W) nanowires with polycrystalline silicon core. Tungsten nanowires as thin as 10 nm were formed by utilizing polysilicon sidewall transfer technology followed by selective deposition of tungsten by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using WF6 as the precursor. With selective CVD, the process is self-limiting whereby the tungsten formation is confined to the polysilicon regions; hence, the nanowires are formed without the need for lithography or for additional processing. The fabricated tungsten nanowires were observed to be perfectly aligned, showing 100% selectivity to polysilicon and can be made to be electrically isolated from one another. The electrical conductivity of the nanowires was characterized to determine the effect of its physical dimensions. The conductivity for the tungsten nanowires were found to be 40% higher when compared to doped polysilicon nanowires of similar dimensions. PMID:21970543

  14. Selective formation of tungsten nanowires.

    PubMed

    Bien, Daniel Cs; Saman, Rahimah Mohd; Badaruddin, Siti Aishah Mohamad; Lee, Hing Wah

    2011-10-04

    We report on a process for fabricating self-aligned tungsten (W) nanowires with polycrystalline silicon core. Tungsten nanowires as thin as 10 nm were formed by utilizing polysilicon sidewall transfer technology followed by selective deposition of tungsten by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using WF6 as the precursor. With selective CVD, the process is self-limiting whereby the tungsten formation is confined to the polysilicon regions; hence, the nanowires are formed without the need for lithography or for additional processing. The fabricated tungsten nanowires were observed to be perfectly aligned, showing 100% selectivity to polysilicon and can be made to be electrically isolated from one another. The electrical conductivity of the nanowires was characterized to determine the effect of its physical dimensions. The conductivity for the tungsten nanowires were found to be 40% higher when compared to doped polysilicon nanowires of similar dimensions.

  15. Nanowire mesh solar fuels generator

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Peidong; Chan, Candace; Sun, Jianwei; Liu, Bin

    2016-05-24

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to a nanowire mesh solar fuels generator. In one aspect, a nanowire mesh solar fuels generator includes (1) a photoanode configured to perform water oxidation and (2) a photocathode configured to perform water reduction. The photocathode is in electrical contact with the photoanode. The photoanode may include a high surface area network of photoanode nanowires. The photocathode may include a high surface area network of photocathode nanowires. In some embodiments, the nanowire mesh solar fuels generator may include an ion conductive polymer infiltrating the photoanode and the photocathode in the region where the photocathode is in electrical contact with the photoanode.

  16. Research Update: Synthesis of sub-15-nm diameter silver nanowires through a water-based hydrothermal method: Fabrication of low-haze 2D conductive films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Hae-Won; Kim, Yong-Hoe; Lee, Ki-Wook; Kim, Yoon-Mi; Kim, Jin-Yeol

    2017-08-01

    We synthesized ultra-thin Ag nanowire (Ag NWs) with sub-15 nm diameters and aspect ratios of 1000 through a water-based high-pressure hydrothermal method in the presence of a tetrabutylammonium dichlorobromide organic salt and glucose reducing agent. In the crystal growth stage, the diameter of the NWs could be controlled by adjusting the pressure, and 15-nm diameter wires were obtained at a pressure of 190 psi. These 2D conductive Ag NW network films showed an excellent optical performance with low haze value of ≤1.0% and 94.5% transmittance at a low sheet resistance of 20 Ω/sq.

  17. Conduction mechanisms in P(VDF-TrFE)/gold nanowire composites: tunnelling and thermally-activated hopping process near the percolation threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramachandran, Laavanya; Lonjon, Antoine; Demont, Philippe; Dantras, Eric; Lacabanne, Colette

    2016-08-01

    High-aspect ratio gold nanowires were dispersed in a P(VDF-TrFE) matrix to form conducting polymer composites. The composites were found to follow a percolation law, with a low percolation threshold of 2.2%vol and attaining a conductivity value of 100 S m-1. The temperature and frequency dependence of the composites were studied using broadband dielectric spectroscopy. Tunnelling was found to be the main charge transport mechanism at temperatures below -100 °C and a thermally-activated hopping mechanism was determined to be responsible for conduction at temperatures above -100 °C. The correlated barrier hopping model was found to be the best fit to explain the conduction mechanisms in the composites.

  18. Silver Nanowires Binding with Sputtered ZnO to Fabricate Highly Conductive and Thermally Stable Transparent Electrode for Solar Cell Applications.

    PubMed

    Singh, Manjeet; Rana, Tanka R; Kim, SeongYeon; Kim, Kihwan; Yun, Jae Ho; Kim, JunHo

    2016-05-25

    Silver nanowire (AgNW) film has been demonstrated as excellent and low cost transparent electrode in organic solar cells as an alternative to replace scarce and expensive indium tin oxide (ITO). However, the low contact area and weak adhesion with low-lying surface as well as junction resistance between nanowires have limited the applications of AgNW film to thin film solar cells. To resolve this problem, we fabricated AgNW film as transparent conductive electrode (TCE) by binding with a thin layer of sputtered ZnO (40 nm) which not only increased contact area with low-lying surface in thin film solar cell but also improved conductivity by connecting AgNWs at the junction. The TCE thus fabricated exhibited transparency and sheet resistance of 92% and 20Ω/□, respectively. Conductive atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) study revealed the enhancement of current collection vertically and laterally through AgNWs after coating with ZnO thin film. The CuInGaSe2 solar cell with TCE of our AgNW(ZnO) demonstrated the maximum power conversion efficiency of 13.5% with improved parameters in comparison to solar cell fabricated with conventional ITO as TCE.

  19. Excess conductivity analysis in YBa2Cu3O7-d added with SiO2 nanoparticles and nanowires: Comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Otaibi, A. L.; Almessiere, M. A.; Salem, M. Ben; Azzouz, F. Ben

    2016-07-01

    The effect of nanosized silicon oxide nanoparticles (denoted NP-SiO2) and nanowires (denoted NW-SiO2) additions during the final processing stage on electrical fluctuation conductivity of polycrystalline YBa2Cu3Oy (Y-123 for brevity) in the mean field region has been reported. Series of samples were synthesized in air using a standard solid-state reaction technique by adding nanosized entities up to 0.5 wt.%. Phases, microstructure and superconductivity properties have been systematically investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electrical measurements. TEM investigations show the presence of inhomogeneities embedded in the superconducting matrix along with the presence of columnar defects in the case of SiO2 nanoparticles added samples, however nanowires tend to agglomerate by entangling with each other in the intergrain regions. The fluctuation conductivity was analyzed as a function of reduced temperature using the Aslamazov-Larkin model. Using the Lawrence-Doniach equations, the Ginzburg-Landau (GL) number (NG) and equations, the coherence length, the effective layer thickness, the lower critical field Bc1(0), the upper critical field Bc2(0) and the critical current density Jc(0) were estimated. It was found that the addition of an optimum concentration of SiO2 nanomaterials, that depends on the shape, effectively controlled the microstructure, the grains coupling and hence improved the physical properties of Y-123 compound.

  20. Flexible conductive polypyrrole nanocomposite membranes based on bacterial cellulose with amphiphobicity.

    PubMed

    Tang, Lian; Han, Jinlu; Jiang, Zhenlin; Chen, Shiyan; Wang, Huaping

    2015-03-06

    Flexible conductive polypyrrole nanocomposite membranes based on bacterial cellulose (BC) with amphiphobicity have been successfully prepared through in situ chemical synthesis and then infiltrated with polysiloxane solution. The results suggested that polypyrrole (PPy) nanoparticles deposited on the surface of BC formed a continuous core-shell structure by taking along the BC template. After modification with polysiloxane, the surface characteristics of the conductive BC membranes changed from highly hydrophilic to hydrophobic. The AFM images revealed that the roughness of samples after polysiloxane treatment increased along with the increase of pyrrole concentration. The contact angles (CAs) data revealed that the highest water contact angle and highest oil contact angle are 160.3° and 136.7°, respectively. The conductivity of the amphiphobic membranes with excellent flexibility reached 0.32 S/cm and demonstrated a good electromagnetic shielding effectiveness with an SE of 15 dB which could be applied in electromagnetic shielding materials with self-cleaning properties. It opened a new field of potential applications of BC materials. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Using Reactive Transport Modeling to Understand Changes in Electrical Conductivity Associated with Bacterial Growth and Respiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regberg, A. B.; Singha, K.; Picardal, F.; Brantley, S. L.

    2011-12-01

    Previous research has linked measured changes in the bulk electrical conductivity (σb) of water-saturated sediments to the respiration and growth of anaerobic bacteria. If the mechanism causing this signal is understood and characterized it could be used to identify and monitor zones of bacterial activity in the subsurface. The 1-D reactive transport model PHREEQC was used to understand σb signals by modeling chemical gradients within two column reactors and corresponding changes in effluent chemistry. The flow-through column reactors were packed with Fe(III)-bearing sediment from Oyster, VA and inoculated with an environmental consortia of microorganisms. Influent in the first reactor was amended with 1mM Na-acetate to encourage the growth of iron-reducing bacteria. Influent in the second reactor was amended with 0.1mM Na-Acetate and 2mM NaNO3 to encourage the growth of nitrate-reducing bacteria. While effluent concentrations of acetate, Fe(II), NO3-, NO2-, and NH4+ remained at steady state, we measured a 3-fold increase (0.055 S/m - 0.2 S/m) in σb in the iron-reducing column and a 10-fold increase in σb (0.07 S/m - 0.8 S/m) in the nitrate-reducing column over 198 days. The ionic strength in both reactors remained constant through time indicating that the measured increases in σb were not caused by changing effluent concentrations. PHREEQC successfully matched the measured changes in effluent concentrations for both columns when the reaction database was modified in the following manner. For the iron-reducing column, kinetic expressions governing the rate of iron reduction, the rate of bacterial growth, and the production of methane were added to the reaction database. Additionally, surface adsorption and cation exchange reactions were added so that the model was consistent with measured effluent chemistry. For the nitrate-reducing column, kinetic expressions governing nitrate reduction and bacterial growth were added to the reaction database. Additionally

  2. Ultrahigh Aspect Ratio Copper-Nanowire-Based Hybrid Transparent Conductive Electrodes with PEDOT:PSS and Reduced Graphene Oxide Exhibiting Reduced Surface Roughness and Improved Stability.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhaozhao; Mankowski, Trent; Balakrishnan, Kaushik; Shikoh, Ali Sehpar; Touati, Farid; Benammar, Mohieddine A; Mansuripur, Masud; Falco, Charles M

    2015-08-05

    Copper nanowires (CuNWs) with ultrahigh aspect ratio are synthesized with a solution process and spray-coated onto select substrates to fabricate transparent conductive electrodes (TCEs). Different annealing methods are investigated and compared for effectiveness and convenience. The CuNWs are subsequently combined with the conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate) ( PSS) or with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) platelets in order to reduce the surface roughness and improve the durability of the fabricated TCEs. Our best-performing PSS/CuNW films have optical transmittance T550 = 84.2% (at λ = 550 nm) and sheet resistance Rs = 25 Ω/sq, while our best CuNW/rGO films have T550 = 84% and Rs = 21.7 Ω/sq.

  3. Stable p-type conduction from Sb-decorated head-to-head basal plane inversion domain boundaries in ZnO nanowires.

    PubMed

    Yankovich, Andrew B; Puchala, Brian; Wang, Fei; Seo, Jung-Hun; Morgan, Dane; Wang, Xudong; Ma, Zhenqiang; Kvit, Alex V; Voyles, Paul M

    2012-03-14

    We report that Sb-decorated head-to-head (H-H) basal plane inversion domain boundaries (b-IDBs) lead to stable p-type conduction in Sb-doped ZnO nanowires (NWs) due to Sb and O codoping. Aberration-corrected Z-contrast scanning transmission electron microscopy shows that all of the Sb in the NWs is incorporated into H-H b-IDBs just under the (0001) NW growth surfaces and the (0001) bottom facets of interior voids. Density functional theory calculations show that the extra basal plane of O per H-H b-IDB makes them electron acceptors. NWs containing these defects exhibited stable p-type behavior in a single NW FET over 18 months. This new mechanism for p-type conduction in ZnO offers the potential of ZnO NW based p-n homojunction devices. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  4. Cr0.5Nb24.5O62 Nanowires with High Electronic Conductivity for High-Rate and Long-Life Lithium-Ion Storage.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chao; Yu, Shu; Lin, Chunfu; Lv, Fan; Wu, Shunqing; Yang, Yong; Wang, Wei; Zhu, Zi-Zhong; Li, Jianbao; Wang, Ning; Guo, Shaojun

    2017-04-03

    Intercalation-type TiNbxO2+2.5x (x = 2, 5, and 24) anode materials have recently become more interesting for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) due to their large theoretical capacities of 388-402 mAh g(-1). However, the Ti(4+)/Nb(5+) ions in TiNbxO2+2.5x with empty 3d/4d orbitals usually lead to extremely low electronic conductivity of <10(-9) S cm(-1), greatly restricting their practical capacity and rate capability. Herein, we report a class of highly conductive Cr0.5Nb24.5O62 nanowires as an intercalation-type anode material for high-performance LIBs. The as-made Cr0.5Nb24.5O62 nanowires show an open shear ReO3 crystal structure (C2 space group) with 4% tetrahedra and a conducting characteristic with ultrahigh electronic conductivity of 3.6 × 10(-2) S cm(-1) and a large Li(+)-ion diffusion coefficient of 2.19 × 10(-13) cm(2) s(-1). These important characteristics make them deliver outstanding electrochemical properties in term of the largest reversible capacity (344 mAh g(-1) at 0.1 C) in all the known niobium- and titanium-based anode materials, safe working potential (∼1.65 V vs Li/Li(+)), high first-cycle Coulombic efficiency (90.8%), superior rate capability (209 mAh g(-1) at 30 C), and excellent cycling stability, making them among the best for LIBs in niobium- and titanium-based anode materials.

  5. Switchable photoluminescence liquid crystal coated bacterial cellulose films with conductive response.

    PubMed

    Tercjak, Agnieszka; Gutierrez, Junkal; Barud, Hernane S; Ribeiro, Sidney J L

    2016-06-05

    Three different low molecular weight nematic liquid crystals (LCs) were used to impregnate bacterial cellulose (BC) film. This simple fabrication pathway allows to obtain highly transparent BC based films. The coating of BC film with different liquid crystals changed transmittance spectra in ultraviolet-visible region and allows to design UVC and UVB shielding materials. Atomic force microscopy results confirmed that liquid crystals coated BC films maintain highly interconnected three-dimensional network characteristic of BC film and simultaneously, transversal cross-section scanning electron microscopy images indicated penetration of liquid crystals through the three-dimensional network of BC nanofibers. Investigated BC films maintain nematic liquid crystal properties being switchable photoluminiscence as a function of temperature during repeatable heating/cooling cycles. Conductive response of the liquid crystal coated BC films was proved by tunneling atomic force microscopy measurement. Moreover, liquid crystal coated BC films maintain thermal stability and mechanical properties of the BC film. Designed thermoresponsive materials possessed interesting optical and conductive properties opening a novel simple pathway of fabrication liquid crystal coated BC films with tuneable properties.

  6. Composition, Reactivity and Regulation of Extracellular Metal-Reducing Structures (Bacterial Nanowires) Produced by Dissimilatory Metal - Reducing Bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Beveridge, Terrance J.

    2004-06-01

    Approach. Previously, using conventional and cryoTEM techniques, surface physicochemistry assays, NMR structural analysis, etc., we showed that the structure and composition of Shewanella's lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and capsular polysaccharide (PS) significantly determined overall cell surface physicochemistry. In our study a strong correlation between such macroscopic parameters as surface electronegativity, hydrophobicity or hydrophilicity, and bacterial adhesion to hematite was observed. Rough LPS strains exhibited more than an order higher affinity and maximal sorption capacity to hematite when compared to encapsulated strains. These general trends, however, characterize bacterial adhesion only as a bulk process, being unable to reveal finer mechanisms taking place at the level of an individual cell. Cell surface physicochemical and structural heterogeneity suggests much more complex interactions at the bacterial-mineral interface than predicted by such approaches operating within macroscopic parameters.

  7. Surface passivation of tellurium-doped GaAs nanowires by GaP: Effect on electrical conduction

    SciTech Connect

    Darbandi, A.; Salehzadeh, O.; Watkins, S. P.; Kuyanov, P.; LaPierre, R. R.

    2014-06-21

    We report on the surface passivation of Au-assisted Te-doped GaAs nanowires (NWs) grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy. The electrical properties of individual free standing NWs were assessed using a tungsten nano-probe inside a scanning electron microscope. The diameter independent apparent resistivity of both strained and relaxed passivated NWs suggests the unpinning of the Fermi level and reduction of sidewalls surface states density. Similar current-voltage properties were observed for partially axially relaxed GaAs/GaP NWs. This indicates a negligible contribution of misfit dislocations in the charge transport properties of the NWs. Low temperature micro-photoluminescence (μ-PL) measurements were also carried out for both uncapped and passivated GaAs NWs. The improvement of the integrated (μ-PL) intensity for GaAs/GaP NWs further confirms the effect of passivation.

  8. Are Microbial Nanowires Responsible for Geoelectrical Changes at Hydrocarbon Contaminated Sites?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hager, C.; Atekwana, E. A.; Gorby, Y. A.; Duris, J. W.; Allen, J. P.; Atekwana, E. A.; Ownby, C.; Rossbach, S.

    2007-05-01

    Significant advances in near-surface geophysics and biogeophysics in particular, have clearly established a link between geoelectrical response and the growth and enzymatic activities of microbes in geologic media. Recent studies from hydrocarbon contaminated sites suggest that the activities of distinct microbial populations, specifically syntrophic, sulfate reducing, and dissimilatory iron reducing microbial populations are a contributing factor to elevated sediment conductivity. However, a fundamental mechanistic understanding of the processes and sources resulting in the measured electrical response remains uncertain. The recent discovery of bacterial nanowires and their electron transport capabilities suggest that if bacterial nanowires permeate the subsurface, they may in part be responsible for the anomalous conductivity response. In this study we investigated the microbial population structure, the presence of nanowires, and microbial-induced alterations of a hydrocarbon contaminated environment and relate them to the sediments' geoelectrical response. Our results show that microbial communities varied substantially along the vertical gradient and at depths where hydrocarbons saturated the sediments, ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (RISA) revealed signatures of microbial communities adapted to hydrocarbon impact. In contrast, RISA profiles from a background location showed little community variations with depth. While all sites showed evidence of microbial activity, a scanning electron microscope (SEM) study of sediment from the contaminated location showed pervasive development of "nanowire-like structures" with morphologies consistent with nanowires from laboratory experiments. SEM analysis suggests extensive alteration of the sediments by microbial Activity. We conclude that, excess organic carbon (electron donor) but limited electron acceptors in these environments cause microorganisms to produce nanowires to shuttle the electrons as they seek for

  9. Effect of bacterial extracellular polymers on the saturated hydraulic conductivity of sand columns

    SciTech Connect

    Vandevivere, P.; Baveye, P. )

    1992-05-01

    Columns were packed with clean quartz sand, sterilized, and inoculated with different strains of bacteria, which multiplied within the sand at the expense of a continuous supply of fresh nutrient medium. The saturated hydraulic conductivity (HC[sub sat]) of the sand was monitored over time. Among the four bacterial strains tested, one formed a capsule, one produced slime layers, and two did not produce any detectable exopolymers. The last two strains were nonmucoid variants of the first two. Only one strain, the slime producer, had a large impact on the HC[sub sat]. The production of exopolymers had no effect on either cell multiplication within or movement through the sand columns. Therefore, the HC[sub sat] reduction observed with the slime producer was tentatively attributed to the obstruction of flow channels with slime. Compared with the results with Arthrobacter sp. strain AK19 used in a previous study, there was a 100-fold increase in detachment from the solid substratum and movement through the sand of the strains used in this study. All strains induced severe clogging when they colonized the inlet chamber of the columns. Under these conditions, the inlet end was covered by a confluent mat with an extremely low HC[sub sat].

  10. High performance of carbon nanotubes/silver nanowires-PET hybrid flexible transparent conductive films via facile pressing-transfer technique.

    PubMed

    Jing, Mao-Xiang; Han, Chong; Li, Min; Shen, Xiang-Qian

    2014-01-01

    To obtain low sheet resistance, high optical transmittance, small open spaces in conductive networks, and enhanced adhesion of flexible transparent conductive films, a carbon nanotube (CNT)/silver nanowire (AgNW)-PET hybrid film was fabricated by mechanical pressing-transfer process at room temperature. The morphology and structure were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM), the optical transmittance and sheet resistance were tested by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) spectrophotometer and four-point probe technique, and the adhesion was also measured by 3M sticky tape. The results indicate that in this hybrid nanostructure, AgNWs form the main conductive networks and CNTs as assistant conductive networks are filled in the open spaces of AgNWs networks. The sheet resistance of the hybrid films can reach approximately 20.9 to 53.9 Ω/□ with the optical transmittance of approximately 84% to 91%. The second mechanical pressing step can greatly reduce the surface roughness of the hybrid film and enhance the adhesion force between CNTs, AgNWs, and PET substrate. This process is hopeful for large-scale production of high-end flexible transparent conductive films.

  11. Reduced Joule heating in nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Léonard, François

    2011-03-01

    The temperature distribution in nanowires due to Joule heating is studied analytically using a continuum model and a Green's function approach. We show that the temperatures reached in nanowires can be much lower than that predicted by bulk models of Joule heating, due to heat loss at the nanowire surface that is important at nanoscopic dimensions, even when the thermal conductivity of the environment is relatively low. In addition, we find that the maximum temperature in the nanowire scales weakly with length, in contrast to the bulk system. A simple criterion is presented to assess the importance of these effects. The results have implications for the experimental measurements of nanowire thermal properties, for thermoelectric applications, and for controlling thermal effects in nanowire electronic devices.

  12. Electrochemically Grown Single Nanowire Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yun, Minhee; Lee, Choonsup; Vasquez, Richard P.; Penner, Reginald; Bangar, Mangesh; Mulchandani, Ashok; Myung, Nosang V.

    2004-01-01

    We report a fabrication technique that is potentially capable of producing arrays of individually addressable nanowire sensors with controlled dimensions, positions, alignments, and chemical compositions. The concept has been demonstrated with electrodeposition of palladium wires with 75 nm to 350 nm widths. We have also fabricated single and double conducting polymer nanowires (polyaniline and polypyrrole) with 100nm and 200nm widths using electrochemical direct growth. Using single Pd nanowires, we have also demonstrated hydrogen sensing. It is envisioned that these are the first steps towards nanowire sensor arrays capable of simultaneously detecting multiple chemical species.

  13. Superstable transparent conductive Cu@Cu4Ni nanowire elastomer composites against oxidation, bending, stretching, and twisting for flexible and stretchable optoelectronics.

    PubMed

    Song, Jizhong; Li, Jianhai; Xu, Jiayue; Zeng, Haibo

    2014-11-12

    Low cost and high conductivity make copper (Cu) nanowire (NW) electrodes an attractive material to construct flexible and stretchable electronic skins, displays, organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), solar cells, and electrochromic windows. However, the vulnerabilities that Cu NW electrodes have to oxidation, bending, and stretching still present great challenges. This work demonstrates a new Cu@Cu4Ni NW conductive elastomer composite with ultrahigh stability for the first time. Cu@Cu4Ni NWs, facilely synthesized through a one-pot method, have highly crystalline alloyed shells, clear and abrupt interfaces, lengths more than 50 μm, and smooth surfaces. These virtues provide the NW-elastomer composites with a low resistance of 62.4 ohm/sq at 80% transparency, which is even better than the commercial ITO/PET flexible electrodes. In addition, the fluctuation amplitude of resistance is within 2 ohm/sq within 30 days, meaning that at ΔR/R0 = 1, the actual lifetime is estimated to be more than 1200 days. Neither the conductivity nor the performances of OLED with elastomers as conductive circuits show evident degradation during 600 cycles of bending, stretching, and twisting tests. These high-performance and extremely stable NW elastomeric electrodes could endow great chances for transparent, flexible, stretchable, and wearable electronic and optoelectronic devices.

  14. Bacterial wetwood detection in Fagus grandifolia and Prunus serotina sapwood using a conducting polymer electronic-nose device

    Treesearch

    A.D. Wilson

    2014-01-01

    New electronic gas-detection methods were developed and tested for the diagnosis of bacterial wetwood disease in Fagus grandifolia (American beech) and Prunus serotina (black cherry) using a Conducting Polymer (CP)-type electronic nose (e-nose), the Aromascan A32S, based on detection of headspace...

  15. Sulfur Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvajal, Eliel; Santiago, Patricia; Escudero, Roberto; Mendoza, Doroteo

    2000-03-01

    We have synthetized sulfur nanowires by a template approach using nanoporous anodic alumina. High resolution electron microscopy shows that isolated sulfur nanowires (15 nanometers of diameter) present crystalline structure different to that observed in the stable bulk allotrope (orthorhombic alfa-sulfur). Melting behavior of the sulfur nanowires embedded into the nanoporous alumina matrix was studied by differential scanning calorimetry, showing again very different behavior of the nanowires compared to that of the bulk sulfur. On the other hand, in order to study the bonding configuration of the sulfur atoms in the nanowires, we will present infrared spectroscopy characterization of the nanowires confined into the nanoporous alumina. Finally, on the base of the experimental observations, we will present a structural model for the sulfur nanowires.

  16. Two-beam laser fabrication technique and the application for fabricating conductive silver nanowire on flexible substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Gui-Cang; Zheng, Mei-Ling; Dong, Xian-Zi; Liu, Jie; Duan, Xuan-Ming; Zhao, Zhen-Sheng

    2017-03-01

    In this study, a two-beam laser fabrication technique is proposed to fabricate silver nanowire (AgNW) on the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. The femtosecond pulse laser in the technique plays a role in generating Ag nanoparticles from the silver aqueous solution by multiphoton photoreduction. The continuous wave (CW) laser of the technique works as optical tweezers, and make the Ag nanoparticles gather to a continuous AgNW by the optical trapping force. The optical trapping force of the CW laser was calculated under our experimental condition. The flexibility and the resistance stability of the AgNW that fabricated by this technique are very excellent. Compared to the resistance of the AgNW without bending, the decreasing rate of the AgNW resistance is about 16% under compressed bending condition at the radius of 1 mm, and the increasing rate of the AgNW resistance is only 1.3% after the AgNW bended about 3500 times at the bending radius of 1 mm. The study indicates that the AgNW is promising for achieving flexible device and would promote the development of the flexible electronics.

  17. Rapid synthesis of ultra-long silver nanowires for tailor-made transparent conductive electrodes: proof of concept in organic solar cells.

    PubMed

    José Andrés, Luis; Fe Menéndez, María; Gómez, David; Luisa Martínez, Ana; Bristow, Noel; Paul Kettle, Jeffrey; Menéndez, Armando; Ruiz, Bernardino

    2015-07-03

    Rapid synthesis of ultralong silver nanowires (AgNWs) has been obtained using a one-pot polyol-mediated synthetic procedure. The AgNWs have been prepared from the base materials in less than one hour with nanowire lengths reaching 195 μm, which represents the quickest synthesis and one of the highest reported aspect ratios to date. These results have been achieved through a joint analysis of all reaction parameters, which represents a clear progress beyond the state of the art. Dispersions of the AgNWs have been used to prepare thin, flexible, transparent and conducting films using spray coating. Due to the higher aspect ratio, an improved electrical percolation network is observed. This allows a low sheet resistance (RS = 20.2 Ω/sq), whilst maintaining high optical film transparency (T = 94.7%), driving to the highest reported figure-of-merit (FoM = 338). Owing to the light-scattering influence of the AgNWs, the density of the AgNW network can also be varied to enable controllability of the optical haze through the sample. Based on the identification of the optimal haze value, organic photovoltaics (OPVs) have been fabricated using the AgNWs as the transparent electrode and have been benchmarked against indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes. Overall, the performance of OPVs made using AgNWs sees a small decrease in power conversion efficiency (PCE), primarily due to a fall in open-circuit voltage (50 mV). This work indicates that AgNWs can provide a low cost, rapid and roll-to-roll compatible alternative to ITO in OPVs, with only a small compromise in PCE needed.

  18. Rapid synthesis of ultra-long silver nanowires for tailor-made transparent conductive electrodes: proof of concept in organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    José Andrés, Luis; Menéndez, María Fe; Gómez, David; Martínez, Ana Luisa; Bristow, Noel; Kettle, Jeffrey Paul; Menéndez, Armando; Ruiz, Bernardino

    2015-07-01

    Rapid synthesis of ultralong silver nanowires (AgNWs) has been obtained using a one-pot polyol-mediated synthetic procedure. The AgNWs have been prepared from the base materials in less than one hour with nanowire lengths reaching 195 μm, which represents the quickest synthesis and one of the highest reported aspect ratios to date. These results have been achieved through a joint analysis of all reaction parameters, which represents a clear progress beyond the state of the art. Dispersions of the AgNWs have been used to prepare thin, flexible, transparent and conducting films using spray coating. Due to the higher aspect ratio, an improved electrical percolation network is observed. This allows a low sheet resistance (RS = 20.2 Ω/sq), whilst maintaining high optical film transparency (T = 94.7%), driving to the highest reported figure-of-merit (FoM = 338). Owing to the light-scattering influence of the AgNWs, the density of the AgNW network can also be varied to enable controllability of the optical haze through the sample. Based on the identification of the optimal haze value, organic photovoltaics (OPVs) have been fabricated using the AgNWs as the transparent electrode and have been benchmarked against indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes. Overall, the performance of OPVs made using AgNWs sees a small decrease in power conversion efficiency (PCE), primarily due to a fall in open-circuit voltage (50 mV). This work indicates that AgNWs can provide a low cost, rapid and roll-to-roll compatible alternative to ITO in OPVs, with only a small compromise in PCE needed.

  19. A silicon nanowire heater and thermometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xingyan; Dan, Yaping

    2017-07-01

    In the thermal conductivity measurements of thermoelectric materials, heaters and thermometers made of the same semiconducting materials under test, forming a homogeneous system, will significantly simplify fabrication and integration. In this work, we demonstrate a high-performance heater and thermometer made of single silicon nanowires (SiNWs). The SiNWs are patterned out of a silicon-on-insulator wafer by CMOS-compatible fabrication processes. The electronic properties of the nanowires are characterized by four-probe and low temperature Hall effect measurements. The I-V curves of the nanowires are linear at small voltage bias. The temperature dependence of the nanowire resistance allows the nanowire to be used as a highly sensitive thermometer. At high voltage bias, the I-V curves of the nanowire become nonlinear due to the effect of Joule heating. The temperature of the nanowire heater can be accurately monitored by the nanowire itself as a thermometer.

  20. Andreev bound states versus Majorana bound states in quantum dot-nanowire-superconductor hybrid structures: Trivial versus topological zero-bias conductance peaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chun-Xiao; Sau, Jay D.; Stanescu, Tudor D.; Das Sarma, S.

    2017-08-01

    Motivated by an important recent experiment [Deng et al., Science 354, 1557 (2016), 10.1126/science.aaf3961], we theoretically consider the interplay between Andreev and Majorana bound states in disorder-free quantum dot-nanowire semiconductor systems with proximity-induced superconductivity in the presence of spin-orbit coupling and Zeeman spin splitting (induced by an external magnetic field). The quantum dot induces Andreev bound states in the superconducting nanowire, which show complex behavior as a function of magnetic field and chemical potential, and the specific question is whether two such Andreev bound states can come together forming a robust zero-energy topological Majorana bound state. We find generically that the Andreev bound states indeed have a high probability of coalescing together producing near-zero-energy midgap states as Zeeman splitting and/or chemical potential are increased, but this mostly happens in the nontopological regime below the topological quantum phase transition, although there are situations where the Andreev bound states could indeed come together to form a zero-energy topological Majorana bound state. The two scenarios (two Andreev bound states coming together to form a nontopological almost-zero-energy Andreev bound state or to form a topological zero-energy Majorana bound state) are difficult to distinguish just by tunneling conductance spectroscopy, since they produce essentially the same tunneling transport signatures. We find that the "sticking together" propensity of Andreev bound states to produce an apparent stable zero-energy midgap state is generic in class D systems in the presence of superconductivity, spin-orbit coupling, and magnetic field, even in the absence of any disorder. We also find that the conductance associated with the coalesced zero-energy nontopological Andreev bound state is nonuniversal and could easily be 2 e2/h , mimicking the quantized topological Majorana zero-bias conductance value. We

  1. Highly Conductive and Uniform Alginate/Silver Nanowire Composite Transparent Electrode by Room Temperature Solution Processing for Organic Light Emitting Diode.

    PubMed

    Lian, Lu; Dong, Dan; Yang, Shuai; Wei, Bingwu; He, Gufeng

    2017-04-05

    A novel transparent electrode composed of alginate/silver nanowire (AgNW) with high conductivity and low roughness is fabricated via a solution process at room temperature. The sol-gel transition of the alginate triggered by CaCl2 solution bonds the AgNWs to the substrate tightly. Meanwhile, Cl(-) in the solution can renovate the cracks on the AgNW surfaces created during the mechanical pressing, resulting in a great increase of the electrical conductivity. The alginate/AgNW composite film can reach a sheet resistance of 2.3 Ω/sq with a transmittance of 83% at 550 nm. The conductivity of the composite film remains stable after bending and tape tests, demonstrating excellent flexibility and great adhesion of AgNWs to the substrate. Moreover, the composite film shows better stability to resist longtime storage than conventional annealed-AgNW film. The organic light emitting diode using such alginate/AgNW composite film as anode presents current densities and luminances comparable to those of indium tin oxide (ITO) anode, and higher efficiencies are obtained due to the better charge balance.

  2. Strikingly enhanced cooling performance for a micro-cooler using unique Cu nanowire array with high electrical conductivity and fast heat transfer behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Ming; Wang, Xiuzhen; Hao, Yanming; Deng, Yuan

    2017-06-01

    It was found that phonons/electrons are less scattered along (1 1 1)-preferred Cu nanowires than in ordinary structure films and that the interface of Cu nanowires electrode and thermoelectric materials are more compatible. Here highly ordered, high-crystal-quality, high-density Cu nanowire array was successfully fabricated by a magnetron sputtering method. The Cu nanowire array was successfully incorporated using mask-assisted deposition technology as electrodes for thin-film thermoelectric coolers, which would greatly improve electrical/thermal transport and enhance performance of micro-coolers. The cooling performance of the micro-cooler with Cu nanowire array electrode is over 200% higher than that of the cooler with ordinary film electrode.

  3. Enhanced photoelectrochemical biosensing performances for graphene (2D) - Titanium dioxide nanowire (1D) heterojunction polymer conductive nanosponges.

    PubMed

    Muthuchamy, N; Lee, K-P; Gopalan, A-I

    2017-03-15

    In this work, an efficient photoelectrochemical (PEC) biosensing platform has been designed and developed based on graphene (G) through modifying it into an electroconductive polymer nanosponge (EPNS) and with the incorporation of titanium dioxide nanowires (TiO2 NW) (designated as TiO2 (G) NW@EPNS). Functioning as an efficient immobilization matrix for immobilization of the enzyme Cytochrome C (Cyt C), TiO2 (G) NW@EPNS delivers features for an efficient PEC biosensor, such as fast kinetics of direct electron transfer (DET) to the electrode and effective separation of photogenerated holes and electrons. TiO2 (G) NW@EPNS exhibited DET to the electrode with a highly heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant of 6.29±0.002s(-1). The existence of TiO2, G and EPNS in conjunction facilitates DET between the electrode surface and the protein. The fabricated PEC nitrite ion (NO2(-)) biosensor showed superior analytical performances such as wide linear range (0.5-9000µM), lowest detection limit (0.225mM) and excellent specificity for NO2(-) in the presence other interferences at a very low bias potential (-0.11V). This study opens up the feasibility of fabricating a PEC biosensor for any analyte using a matrix comprising of G and a photoactive material and EPNS, because these components synergistically contribute to effective immobilization of on enzyme, DET to the electrode and simple read-out under the light. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Nanowire sensors and arrays for chemical/biomolecule detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yun, Minhee; Lee, Choonsup; Vasquez, Richard P.; Ramanathan, K.; Bangar, M. A.; Chen, W.; Mulchandan, A.; Myung, N. V.

    2005-01-01

    We report electrochemical growth of single nanowire based sensors using e-beam patterned electrolyte channels, potentially enabling the controlled fabrication of individually addressable high density arrays. The electrodeposition technique results in nanowires with controlled dimensions, positions, alignments, and chemical compositions. Using this technique, we have fabricated single palladium nanowires with diameters ranging between 75 nm and 300 nm and conducting polymer nanowires (polypyrrole and polyaniline) with diameters between 100 nm and 200 nm. Using these single nanowires, we have successfully demonstrated gas sensing with Pd nanowires and pH sensing with polypirrole nanowires.

  5. Nanowire sensors and arrays for chemical/biomolecule detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yun, Minhee; Lee, Choonsup; Vasquez, Richard P.; Ramanathan, K.; Bangar, M. A.; Chen, W.; Mulchandan, A.; Myung, N. V.

    2005-01-01

    We report electrochemical growth of single nanowire based sensors using e-beam patterned electrolyte channels, potentially enabling the controlled fabrication of individually addressable high density arrays. The electrodeposition technique results in nanowires with controlled dimensions, positions, alignments, and chemical compositions. Using this technique, we have fabricated single palladium nanowires with diameters ranging between 75 nm and 300 nm and conducting polymer nanowires (polypyrrole and polyaniline) with diameters between 100 nm and 200 nm. Using these single nanowires, we have successfully demonstrated gas sensing with Pd nanowires and pH sensing with polypirrole nanowires.

  6. Thermal conductivity measurements of single-crystalline bismuth nanowires by the four-point-probe 3-ω technique at low temperatures.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Yong; Kim, Gil-Sung; Lee, Mi-Ri; Lim, Hyuneui; Kim, Wan-Doo; Lee, Sang-Kwon

    2013-05-10

    We have successfully investigated the thermal conductivity (κ) of single-crystalline bismuth nanowires (BiNWs) with [110] growth direction, via a straightforward and powerful four-point-probe 3-ω technique in the temperature range 10-280 K. The BiNWs, which are well known as the most effective material for thermoelectric (TE) device applications, were synthesized by compressive thermal stress on a SiO2/Si substrate at 250-270 °C for 10 h. To understand the thermal transport mechanism of BiNWs, we present three kinds of experimental technique as follows, (i) a manipulation of a single BiNW by an Omni-probe in a focused ion beam (FIB), (ii) a suspended bridge structure integrating a four-point-probe chip by micro-fabrication to minimize the thermal loss to the substrate, and (iii) a simple 3-ω technique system setup. We found that the thermal transport of BiNWs is highly affected by boundary scattering of both phonons and electrons as the dominant heat carriers. The thermal conductivity of a single BiNW (d ~ 123 nm) was estimated to be ~2.9 W m(-1) K(-1) at 280 K, implying lower values compared to the thermal conductivity of the bulk (~11 W m(-1) K(-1) at 280 K). It was noted that this reduction in the thermal conductivity of the BiNWs could be due to strongly enhanced phonon-boundary scattering at the surface of the BiNWs. Furthermore, we present temperature-dependent (10-280 K) thermal conductivity of the BiNWs using the 3-ω technique.

  7. Plasticized Polymer Interlayer for Low Temperature Fabrication of a High-Quality Silver Nanowire-Based Flexible Transparent and Conductive Film.

    PubMed

    Jo, Wonhee; Kang, Hong Suk; Choi, Jaeho; Lee, Hongkyung; Kim, Hee-Tak

    2017-04-04

    Silver nanowires (AgNWs) are one of the most promising materials for flexible transparent conductive films (TCFs) to replace commercially available indium tin oxide (ITO); however, there are still numerous problems originating from poor AgNW junction formation and improper AgNW embedment into transparent substrates. To mitigate these problems, high temperature processes have been adopted; however, unwanted substrate deformation prevents the use of these processes for flexible TCFs. In this work, we present a novel poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) interlayer plasticized by dibutyl phthalate (DBP) to achieve a low temperature fabrication of AgNW-based TCF, which does not cause any substrate deformation. By exploiting the viscoelastic property of the plasticized interlayer near the lowered glass transition temperature, the monolithic junction of the AgNWs on the interlayer and embedment of the inter-connected AgNWs into the interlayer are achieved in a single-step pressing. The resulting AgNW TCFs are highly transparent (~92% at a wavelength of 550 nm), highly conductive (< 90 Ω/sq), and environmentally and mechanically robust. Therefore, the plasticized interlayer provides a simple and effective route to fabricate high quality AgNW-based TCFs.

  8. One-Step Process for High-Performance, Adhesive, Flexible Transparent Conductive Films Based on p-Type Reduced Graphene Oxides and Silver Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yi-Ting; Tai, Nyan-Hwa

    2015-08-26

    This work demonstrates a one-step process to synthesize uniformly dispersed hybrid nanomaterial containing silver nanowires (AgNWs) and p-type reduced graphene (p-rGO). The hybrid nanomaterial was coated onto a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate for preparing high-performance flexible transparent conductive films (TCFs). The p-rGO plays the role of bridging discrete AgNWs, providing more electron holes and lowering the resistance of the contacted AgNWs; therefore, enhancing the electrical conductivity without sacrificing too much transparence of the TCFs. Additionally, the p-rGO also improves the adhesion between AgNWs and substrate by covering the AgNWs on the substrate tightly. The study shows that coating of the hybrid nanomaterials on the PET substrate demonstrates exceptional optoelectronic properties with a transmittance of 94.68% (at a wavelength of 550 nm) and a sheet resistance of 25.0 ± 0.8 Ω/sq. No significant variation in electric resistance can be detected even when the film was subjected to a bend loading with a radius of curvature of 5.0 mm or the film was loaded with a reciprocal tension or compression for 1000 cycles. Furthermore, both chemical corrosion resistance and haze effect were improved when p-rGO was introduced. The study shows that the fabricated flexible TCFs have the potential to replace indium tin oxide film in the optoelectronic industry.

  9. Bacterial Etiologies of Five Core Syndromes: Laboratory-Based Syndromic Surveillance Conducted in Guangxi, China

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Baiqing; Liang, Dabin; Lin, Mei; Wang, Mingliu; Zeng, Jun; Liao, Hezhuang; Zhou, Lingyun; Huang, Jun; Wei, Xiaolin; Zou, Guanyang; Jing, Huaiqi

    2014-01-01

    Background Under the existing national surveillance system in China for selected infectious diseases, bacterial cultures are performed for only a small percentage of reported cases. We set up a laboratory-based syndromic surveillance system to elucidate bacterial etiologic spectrum and detect infection by rare etiologies (or serogroups) for five core syndromes in the given study area. Methods Patients presenting with one of five core syndromes at nine sentinel hospitals in Guagnxi, China were evaluated using laboratory-based syndrome surveillance to elucidate bacterial etiologies. We collected respiratory and stool specimens, as well as CSF, blood and other related samples for bacterial cultures and pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) assays. Results From February 2009 to December 2011, 2,964 patients were enrolled in the study. Etiologies were identified in 320 (10.08%) patients. Streptococcus pneumonia (37 strains, 24.18%), Klebsiella pneumonia (34, 22.22%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (19, 12.42%) and Haemophilus influenza (18, 11.76%) were the most frequent pathogens for fever and respiratory syndrome, while Salmonella (77, 81.05%) was most often seen in diarrhea syndrome cases. Salmonella paratyphi A (38, 86.36%) occurred in fever and rash syndrome, with Cryptococcus neoformans (20, 35.09%), Streptococcus pneumonia (5, 8.77%), Klebsiella pneumonia (5, 8.77%),streptococcus suis (3, 5.26%) and Neisseria meningitides group B (2, 3.51%) being the most frequently detected in encephalitis-meningitis syndrome. To date no pathogen was isolated from the specimens from fever and hemorrhage patients. Conclusions In addition to common bacterial pathogens, opportunistic pathogens and fungal infections require more attention. Our study contributes to the strengthening of the existing national surveillance system and provides references for other regions that are similar to the study area. PMID:25360596

  10. Microtubule-based gold nanowires and nanowire arrays.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jing C; Gao, Yao; Martinez-Molares, Alfredo A; Jing, Xiaoye; Yan, Dong; Lau, Joseph; Hamasaki, Toshikazu; Ozkan, Cengiz S; Ozkan, Mihrimah; Hu, Evelyn; Dunn, Bruce

    2008-09-01

    Biological structures are attractive as templates to form nanoscale architectures for electronics because of their dimensions and the ability to interact with inorganic materials. In this study, we report the fabrication and electrical properties of microtubule (MT)-templated Au nanowires, and methods for assembling Au nanowire arrays based on these templates. The adsorption of MTs on silicon substrates is an effective means for preserving the conformation of the MT and provides a convenient platform for electrical measurements. To improve the metallization of MTs, a photochemical route for gold reduction is adapted, which leads to continuous coverage. The conductivity values measured on micrometer-long nanowires are similar to those reported for other biotemplated gold nanowires. A protocol for fabricating arrays of MT-templated gold nanowires is demonstrated.

  11. Nanowire Thermoelectric Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borshchevsky, Alexander; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; Herman, Jennifer; Ryan, Margaret

    2005-01-01

    Nanowire thermoelectric devices, now under development, are intended to take miniaturization a step beyond the prior state of the art to exploit the potential advantages afforded by shrinking some device features to approximately molecular dimensions (of the order of 10 nm). The development of nanowire-based thermoelectric devices could lead to novel power-generating, cooling, and sensing devices that operate at relatively low currents and high voltages. Recent work on the theory of thermoelectric devices has led to the expectation that the performance of such a device could be enhanced if the diameter of the wires could be reduced to a point where quantum confinement effects increase charge-carrier mobility (thereby increasing the Seebeck coefficient) and reduce thermal conductivity. In addition, even in the absence of these effects, the large aspect ratios (length of the order of tens of microns diameter of the order of tens of nanometers) of nanowires would be conducive to the maintenance of large temperature differences at small heat fluxes. The predicted net effect of reducing diameters to the order of tens of nanometers would be to increase its efficiency by a factor of .3. Nanowires made of thermoelectric materials and devices that comprise arrays of such nanowires can be fabricated by electrochemical growth of the thermoelectric materials in templates that contain suitably dimensioned pores (10 to 100 nm in diameter and 1 to 100 microns long). The nanowires can then be contacted in bundles to form devices that look similar to conventional thermoelectric devices, except that a production version may contain nearly a billion elements (wires) per square centimeter, instead of fewer than a hundred as in a conventional bulk thermoelectric device or fewer than 100,000 as in a microdevice. It is not yet possible to form contacts with individual nanowires. Therefore, in fabricating a nanowire thermoelectric device, one forms contacts on nanowires in bundles of the

  12. Investigation of Ag-TiO2 Interfacial Reaction of Highly Stable Ag Nanowire Transparent Conductive Film with Conformal TiO2 Coating by Atomic Layer Deposition.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Ming-Hua; Chen, Po-Hsun; Yang, Yi-Ching; Chen, Guan-Hong; Chen, Hsueh-Shih

    2017-03-29

    The atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique is applied to coat Ag nanowires (NWs) with a highly uniform and conformal TiO2 layer to improve the stability and sustainability of Ag NW transparent conductive films (TCFs) at high temperatures. The TiO2 layer can be directly deposited on Ag NWs with a surface polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) coat that acts a bed for TiO2 seeding in the ALD process. The ALD TiO2 layer significantly enhances the thermal stability at least 100 fold when aged between 200-400 °C and also provides an extra function of violet-blue light filtration for Ag NW TCFs. Investigation into the interaction between TiO2 and Ag reveals that the conformal TiO2 shell could effectively prevent Ag from 1D-to-3D ripening. However, Ag could penetrate the conformal TiO2 shell and form nanocrystals on the TiO2 shell surface when it is aged at 400 °C. According to experimental data and thermodynamic evaluation, the Ag penetration leads to an interlayer composed of mixed Ag-Ag2O-amorphous carbon phases and TiO2-x at the Ag-TiO2 interface, which is thought to be caused by extremely high vapor pressure of Ag at the Ag-TiO2 interface at a higher temperature (e.g., 400 °C).

  13. Hybrid Copper-Nanowire-Reduced-Graphene-Oxide Coatings: A "Green Solution" Toward Highly Transparent, Highly Conductive, and Flexible Electrodes for (Opto)Electronics.

    PubMed

    Aliprandi, Alessandro; Moreira, Tiago; Anichini, Cosimo; Stoeckel, Marc-Antoine; Eredia, Matilde; Sassi, Ugo; Bruna, Matteo; Pinheiro, Carlos; Laia, César A T; Bonacchi, Sara; Samorì, Paolo

    2017-09-13

    This study reports a novel green chemistry approach to assemble copper-nanowires/reduced-graphene-oxide hybrid coatings onto inorganic and organic supports. Such films are robust and combine sheet resistances (<30 Ω sq(-1) ) and transparencies in the visible region (transmittance > 70%) that are rivalling those of indium-tin oxide. These electrodes are suitable for flexible electronic applications as they show a sheet resistance change of <4% after 10 000 bending cycles at a bending radius of 1.0 cm, when supported on polyethylene terephthalate foils. Significantly, the wet-chemistry method involves the preparation of dispersions in environmentally friendly solvents and avoids the use of harmful reagents. Such inks are processed at room temperature on a wide variety of surfaces by spray coating. As a proof-of-concept, this study demonstrates the successful use of such coatings as electrodes in high-performance electrochromic devices. The robustness of the electrodes is demonstrated by performing several tens of thousands of cycles of device operation. These unique conducting coatings hold potential for being exploited as transparent electrodes in numerous optoelectronic applications such as solar cells, light-emitting diodes, and displays. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Coaxial three-dimensional CoMoO4 nanowire arrays with conductive coating on carbon cloth for high-performance lithium ion battery anode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yaping; Liu, Borui; Jiang, Wei; Liu, Qi; Liu, Jingyuan; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Hongsen; Jing, Xiaoyan

    2015-12-01

    Nanostructured transition metal oxides have attracted considerable attentions for both high-capacity and high-rate, but great challenges remain to utilize them. In order to overcome these challenges, hierarchical three-dimensional CoMoO4/polypyrrole core-shell nanowire (NW) arrays on flexible and conductive carbon cloth (CC) have been successfully constructed through a facile two-step solution-based approach. The hybrid NWs electrode as a binder-free lithium ion batteries (LIBs) anode material exhibits a reversible capacity of around 1400-1450 mAh g-1 at a low current density of 100 mA g-1. The specific capacity retains at 753 mAh g-1 while featuring an excellent cycling properties with a capacity of 764 mAh g-1 after 1000 cycles under the current rate of 1200 mA g-1. Furthermore, full batteries have been fabricated and demonstrated characteristics of outstanding electrical stability and superior power output characteristics, which represents an efficient way for practical implementation.

  15. Organics filled one-dimensional TiO2 nanowires array ultraviolet detector with enhanced photo-conductivity and dark-resistivity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dezhong; Liu, Chunyu; Yin, Bo; Xu, Ruiliang; Zhou, Jingran; Zhang, Xindong; Ruan, Shengping

    2017-07-06

    A heterojunction photo-conductive ultraviolet (UV) detector was developed based on TiO2 nanowires array (NWA) surrounded by N,N'-bis-(1-naphthalenyl)-N,N'-bis-phenyl-(1,1'-biphenyl)-4,4'-diamine (NPB). The novel and effective two-step method of static infusion and dynamic solution-cleaning was employed to fill NPB into TiO2 NWA gaps and simultaneously remove the unwelcomed top NPB layer. The device fabricated via the two-step method exhibited optimal performance compared to TiO2/NPB device with top NPB layer and TiO2 NWA device. In dark conditions, the TiO2/NPB heterojunction device without top NPB was found to possess the capacity of depleting majority carriers, thereby providing improved dark-resistivity to limit the dark current (Id). Under UV illumination, the depleting effect could be eliminated by the dissociation and accumulation of photo-generated carriers between pn heterojunction, leading to increased carrier density and photo-conductivity. It cleared up the high barrier due to the removal of top NPB layer, which was beneficial for hot electron transport than the device with top NPB layer under illumination, thereby achieving an enhanced light current (Il) to Id ratio of 1.67 × 10(4). A simple technology is provided to prepare organic-inorganic hybrid one-dimensional array heterostructure, which plays a remarkable role in the working of the UV detector, enhancing photo-conductivity and dark-resistivity of the device.

  16. Microbial nanowires and methods of making and using

    DOEpatents

    Reguera, Gemma; Cologgi, Dena; Worden, Robert Mark; Castro-Forero, Angelines A.; Steidl, Rebecca

    2017-03-21

    Electrically conductive nanowires, and genetically or chemically modified production and use of such nanowires with altered conductive, adhesive, coupling or other properties are described. The disclosed nanowires are used as device or device components or may be adapted for soluble metal remediation.

  17. Soil pH and electrical conductivity are key edaphic factors shaping bacterial communities of greenhouse soils in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong Myeong; Roh, An-Sung; Choi, Seung-Chul; Kim, Eun-Jeong; Choi, Moon-Tae; Ahn, Byung-Koo; Kim, Sun-Kuk; Lee, Young-Han; Joa, Jae-Ho; Kang, Seong-Soo; Lee, Shin Ae; Ahn, Jae-Hyung; Song, Jaekyeong; Weon, Hang-Yeon

    2016-12-01

    Soil microorganisms play an essential role in soil ecosystem processes such as organic matter decomposition, nutrient cycling, and plant nutrient availability. The land use for greenhouse cultivation has been increasing continuously, which involves an intensive input of agricultural materials to enhance productivity; however, relatively little is known about bacterial communities in greenhouse soils. To assess the effects of environmental factors on the soil bacterial diversity and community composition, a total of 187 greenhouse soil samples collected across Korea were subjected to bacterial 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing analysis. A total of 11,865 operational taxonomic units at a 97% similarity cutoff level were detected from 847,560 sequences. Among nine soil factors evaluated; pH, electrical conductivity (EC), exchangeable cations (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Na(+), and K(+)), available P2O5, organic matter, and NO3-N, soil pH was most strongly correlated with bacterial richness (polynomial regression, pH: R(2) = 0.1683, P < 0.001) and diversity (pH: R(2) = 0.1765, P < 0.001). Community dissimilarities (Bray-Curtis distance) were positively correlated with Euclidean distance for pH and EC (Mantel test, pH: r = 0.2672, P < 0.001; EC: r = 0.1473, P < 0.001). Among dominant phyla (> 1%), the relative abundances of Proteobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, and Planctomycetes were also more strongly correlated with pH and EC values, compared with other soil cation contents, such as Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Na(+), and K(+). Our results suggest that, despite the heterogeneity of various environmental variables, the bacterial communities of the intensively cultivated greenhouse soils were particularly influenced by soil pH and EC. These findings therefore shed light on the soil microbial ecology of greenhouse cultivation, which should be helpful for devising effective management strategies to enhance soil microbial diversity and improving crop productivity.

  18. Sources of conductance changes during bacterial reduction of trimethylamine oxide to trimethylammonium in phosphate buffer.

    PubMed

    Owens, J D; Miskin, D R; Wacher-Viveros, M C; Benge, L C

    1985-06-01

    The sources of conductance changes during reduction of trimethylamine oxide to trimethylamine by Escherichia coli with formate as electron donor and in the presence of phosphate buffer were investigated. Theoretical considerations and experimental results suggest that the major source of conductance change is the conversion of dihydrogen phosphate to hydrogen phosphate. This transformation contributes almost twice as much to the total conductance change as does the conversion of uncharged trimethylamine oxide to charged trimethylammonium.

  19. Thermal and Thermoelectric Transport in Highly Resistive Single Sb2Se3 Nanowires and Nanowire Bundles.

    PubMed

    Ko, Ting-Yu; Shellaiah, Muthaiah; Sun, Kien Wen

    2016-10-07

    In this study, we measured the thermal conductivity and Seebeck coefficient of single Sb2Se3 nanowires and nanowire bundles with a high resistivity (σ ~ 4.37 × 10(-4) S/m). Microdevices consisting of two adjacent suspended silicon nitride membranes were fabricated to measure the thermal transport properties of the nanowires in vacuum. Single Sb2Se3 nanowires with different diameters and nanowire bundles were carefully placed on the device to bridge the two membranes. The relationship of temperature difference on each heating/sensing suspension membranes with joule heating was accurately determined. A single Sb2Se3 nanowire with a diameter of ~ 680 nm was found to have a thermal conductivity (kNW) of 0.037 ± 0.002 W/m·K. The thermal conductivity of the nanowires is more than an order of magnitude lower than that of bulk materials (k ~ 0.36-1.9 W/m·K) and highly conductive (σ ~ 3 × 10(4) S/m) Sb2Se3 single nanowires (k ~ 1 W/m·K). The measured Seebeck coefficient with a positive value of ~ 661 μV/K is comparable to that of highly conductive Sb2Se3 single nanowires (~ 750 μV/K). The thermal transport between wires with different diameters and nanowire bundles was compared and discussed.

  20. Thermal and Thermoelectric Transport in Highly Resistive Single Sb2Se3 Nanowires and Nanowire Bundles

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Ting-Yu; Shellaiah, Muthaiah; Sun, Kien Wen

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we measured the thermal conductivity and Seebeck coefficient of single Sb2Se3 nanowires and nanowire bundles with a high resistivity (σ ~ 4.37 × 10−4 S/m). Microdevices consisting of two adjacent suspended silicon nitride membranes were fabricated to measure the thermal transport properties of the nanowires in vacuum. Single Sb2Se3 nanowires with different diameters and nanowire bundles were carefully placed on the device to bridge the two membranes. The relationship of temperature difference on each heating/sensing suspension membranes with joule heating was accurately determined. A single Sb2Se3 nanowire with a diameter of ~ 680 nm was found to have a thermal conductivity (kNW) of 0.037 ± 0.002 W/m·K. The thermal conductivity of the nanowires is more than an order of magnitude lower than that of bulk materials (k ~ 0.36–1.9 W/m·K) and highly conductive (σ ~ 3 × 104 S/m) Sb2Se3 single nanowires (k ~ 1 W/m·K). The measured Seebeck coefficient with a positive value of ~ 661 μV/K is comparable to that of highly conductive Sb2Se3 single nanowires (~ 750 μV/K). The thermal transport between wires with different diameters and nanowire bundles was compared and discussed. PMID:27713527

  1. Thermal and Thermoelectric Transport in Highly Resistive Single Sb2Se3 Nanowires and Nanowire Bundles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Ting-Yu; Shellaiah, Muthaiah; Sun, Kien Wen

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we measured the thermal conductivity and Seebeck coefficient of single Sb2Se3 nanowires and nanowire bundles with a high resistivity (σ ~ 4.37 × 10‑4 S/m). Microdevices consisting of two adjacent suspended silicon nitride membranes were fabricated to measure the thermal transport properties of the nanowires in vacuum. Single Sb2Se3 nanowires with different diameters and nanowire bundles were carefully placed on the device to bridge the two membranes. The relationship of temperature difference on each heating/sensing suspension membranes with joule heating was accurately determined. A single Sb2Se3 nanowire with a diameter of ~ 680 nm was found to have a thermal conductivity (kNW) of 0.037 ± 0.002 W/m·K. The thermal conductivity of the nanowires is more than an order of magnitude lower than that of bulk materials (k ~ 0.36–1.9 W/m·K) and highly conductive (σ ~ 3 × 104 S/m) Sb2Se3 single nanowires (k ~ 1 W/m·K). The measured Seebeck coefficient with a positive value of ~ 661 μV/K is comparable to that of highly conductive Sb2Se3 single nanowires (~ 750 μV/K). The thermal transport between wires with different diameters and nanowire bundles was compared and discussed.

  2. Faradic redox active material of Cu7S4 nanowires with a high conductance for flexible solid state supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javed, Muhammad Sufyan; Dai, Shuge; Wang, Mingjun; Xi, Yi; Lang, Qiang; Guo, Donglin; Hu, Chenguo

    2015-08-01

    The exploration of high Faradic redox active materials with the advantages of low cost and low toxicity has been attracting great attention for producing high energy storage supercapacitors. Here, the high Faradic redox active material of Cu7S4-NWs coated on a carbon fiber fabric (CFF) is directly used as a binder-free electrode for a high performance flexible solid state supercapacitor. The Cu7S4-NW-CFF supercapacitor exhibits excellent electrochemical performance such as a high specific capacitance of 400 F g-1 at the scan rate of 10 mV s-1 and a high energy density of 35 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 200 W kg-1, with the advantages of a light weight, high flexibility and long term cycling stability by retaining 95% after 5000 charge-discharge cycles at a constant current of 10 mA. The high Faradic redox activity and high conductance behavior of the Cu7S4-NWs result in a high pseudocapacitive performance with a relatively high specific energy and specific power. Such a new type of pseudocapacitive material of Cu7S4-NWs with its low cost is very promising for actual application in supercapacitors.The exploration of high Faradic redox active materials with the advantages of low cost and low toxicity has been attracting great attention for producing high energy storage supercapacitors. Here, the high Faradic redox active material of Cu7S4-NWs coated on a carbon fiber fabric (CFF) is directly used as a binder-free electrode for a high performance flexible solid state supercapacitor. The Cu7S4-NW-CFF supercapacitor exhibits excellent electrochemical performance such as a high specific capacitance of 400 F g-1 at the scan rate of 10 mV s-1 and a high energy density of 35 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 200 W kg-1, with the advantages of a light weight, high flexibility and long term cycling stability by retaining 95% after 5000 charge-discharge cycles at a constant current of 10 mA. The high Faradic redox activity and high conductance behavior of the Cu7S4-NWs result in

  3. Synthesis and characterization of cadmium telluride nanowire.

    PubMed

    Kum, Maxwell C; Yoo, Bong Young; Rheem, Young Woo; Bozhilov, Krassimir N; Chen, Wilfred; Mulchandani, Ashok; Myung, Nosang V

    2008-08-13

    CdTe nanowires with controlled composition were cathodically electrodeposited using track-etched polycarbonate membrane as scaffolds and their material and electrical properties were systematically investigated. As-deposited CdTe nanowires show nanocrystalline cubic phase structures with grain sizes of up to 60 nm. The dark-field images of nanowires reveal that the crystallinity of nanowires was greatly improved from nanocrystalline to a few single crystals within nanowires upon annealing at 200 °C for 6 h in a reducing environment (5% H(2)+95% N(2)). For electrical characterization, a single CdTe nanowire was assembled across microfabricated gold electrodes using the drop-casting method. In addition to an increase in grain size, the electrical resistivity of an annealed single nanowire (a few 10(5) Ω cm) was one order of magnitude greater than in an as-deposited nanowire, indicating that crystallinity of nanowires improved and defects within nanowires were reduced during annealing. By controlling the dopants levels (e.g. Te content of nanowires), the resistivity of nanowires was varied from 10(4) to 10(0) Ω cm. Current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of nanowires indicated the presence of Schottky barriers at both ends of the Au/CdTe interface. Temperature-dependent I-V measurements show that the electron transport mode was determined by a thermally activated component at T>-50 °C and a temperature-independent component below -50 °C. Under optical illumination, the single CdTe nanowire exhibited enhanced conductance.

  4. Photocurrent induced by nonradiative energy transfer from nanocrystal quantum dots to adjacent silicon nanowire conducting channels: toward a new solar cell paradigm.

    PubMed

    Lu, Siyuan; Lingley, Zachary; Asano, Tetsuya; Harris, Daniel; Barwicz, Tymon; Guha, Supratik; Madhukar, Anupam

    2009-12-01

    We report the observation of photocurrent in silicon nanowires induced by nonradiative resonant energy transfer (NRET) from adjacent layers of lead sulfide nanocrystal quantum dots using time-resolved photocurrent measurements. This demonstration supports the feasibility of a new solar cell paradigm (Lu, S.; Madhukar, A. Nano Lett. 2007, 7, 3443-3451) that exploits NRET between efficient photon absorbers and adjacent nanowire/quantum well high-mobility charge transport channels and could offer a viable alternative to the limitations of carrier transport and collection faced by excitonic solar cells.

  5. Semiconductor nanowires: Controlled growth and thermal properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yiying

    This dissertation presents an experimental study of the controlled growth of semiconductor nanowires and their thermophysical properties. The synthesis of nanowires was based on the well-known Vapor-Liquid-Solid (VLS) mechanism in which the growth of nanowire is initiated by a nanosized liquid droplet. The prepared nanowires are single-crystalline with certain preferred growth direction. Nanowires with different compositions have been synthesized, including Si, Ge, boron and MgB2. The control of nanowire composition, diameter and orientation has also been achieved. In addition, a Pulsed Laser Ablation-Chemical Vapor Deposition (PLA-CVD) hybrid process was developed to synthesize Si/SiGe longitudinally superlattice nanowires. The thermal conductivity of individual pure Si nanowire and Si/SiGe nanowire was measured using a microfabricated suspended device over a temperature range of 20--320 K. The thermal conductivities of individual 22, 37, 56, and 115 nm diameter single crystalline intrinsic Si nanowires were much lower than the bulk value due to the strong phonon boundary scattering. Except for the 22 nm diameter nanowire, theoretical predictions using a modified Callaway model fit the experimental data very well. The data for the 22 nm diameter wire suggest that changes in phonon dispersion due to confinement can cause additional thermal conductivity reduction. The Si/SiGe superlattice nanowires with diameters of 83 run and 58 nm were also measured. Their thermal conductivities are smaller than pure Si nanowire with similar diameter, as well as Si/SiGe superlattice thin film with comparable period. Both the alloying scattering and the boundary scattering are believed to contribute to this reduction. Size dependent melting-recrystallization study of the carbon-sheathed semiconductor Ge nanowires was carried out in in-situ high temperature transmission electron microscope (TEM). Significant depression in melting temperature with decreasing size of the nanowires as

  6. Molecular Dynamic Study to Determine the Ammonia Conduction Mechanisms in Human RhCG and Bacterial Homoloques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akgun, Ugur

    2014-03-01

    The transport of Ammonia is provided by Amt/MEP/Rh protein superfamily. The x-ray structures of AmtB from Escherichia coli, Rh50 from Nitrosomonas europaea, and human RhCG show only few differences on periplasmic vestibules. After more than microsecond simulation on three models, we determined the striking difference on conduction mechanism between bacterial AmtB and Human RhCG proteins. In AmtB the backbone carbonyl groups at the periplasmic vestibule direct charged ammonia to the conserved aromatic cage at the bottom of the vestibule. Furthermore, two partially stacked phenyl rings of F107 and F215, separating the periplasmic vestibule from the hydrophobic lumen, flip open and closed simultaneouslywith a frequency of approximately 108 flipping events per second. During the passage from the phenyl gates charged ammonia releases its proton and becomes gas. However, the absence of an aromatic cage on Rh proteins and a strongly conserved E166 residue in the vicinity hints different conduction mechanism. Our studies confirm the conserved E166 emerges as a strong charged ammonia recruitment site for Human RhCG. The conserved phenyl gate behaves different for Rh proteins and the synchronized motion is not observed. These findings suggest a different deprotonation mechanism than bacterial AmtB.

  7. Energetic and Spatial Parameters for Gating of the Bacterial Large Conductance Mechanosensitive Channel, MscL

    PubMed Central

    Sukharev, Sergei I.; Sigurdson, Wade J.; Kung, Ching; Sachs, Frederick

    1999-01-01

    MscL is multimeric protein that forms a large conductance mechanosensitive channel in the inner membrane of Escherichia coli. Since MscL is gated by tension transmitted through the lipid bilayer, we have been able to measure its gating parameters as a function of absolute tension. Using purified MscL reconstituted in liposomes, we recorded single channel currents and varied the pressure gradient (P) to vary the tension (T). The tension was calculated from P and the radius of curvature was obtained using video microscopy of the patch. The probability of being open (Po) has a steep sigmoidal dependence on T, with a midpoint (T1/2) of 11.8 dyn/cm. The maximal slope sensitivity of Po/Pc was 0.63 dyn/cm per e-fold. Assuming a Boltzmann distribution, the energy difference between the closed and fully open states in the unstressed membrane was ΔE = 18.6 kBT. If the mechanosensitivity arises from tension acting on a change of in-plane area (ΔA), the free energy, TΔA, would correspond to ΔA = 6.5 nm2. MscL is not a binary channel, but has four conducting states and a closed state. Most transition rates are independent of tension, but the rate-limiting step to opening is the transition between the closed state and the lowest conductance substate. This transition thus involves the greatest ΔA. When summed over all transitions, the in-plane area change from closed to fully open was 6 nm2, agreeing with the value obtained in the two-state analysis. Assuming a cylindrical channel, the dimensions of the (fully open) pore were comparable to ΔA. Thus, the tension dependence of channel gating is primarily one of increasing the external channel area to accommodate the pore of the smallest conducting state. The higher conducting states appear to involve conformational changes internal to the channel that don't involve changes in area. PMID:10102934

  8. Energetic and spatial parameters for gating of the bacterial large conductance mechanosensitive channel, MscL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sukharev, S. I.; Sigurdson, W. J.; Kung, C.; Sachs, F.

    1999-01-01

    MscL is multimeric protein that forms a large conductance mechanosensitive channel in the inner membrane of Escherichia coli. Since MscL is gated by tension transmitted through the lipid bilayer, we have been able to measure its gating parameters as a function of absolute tension. Using purified MscL reconstituted in liposomes, we recorded single channel currents and varied the pressure gradient (P) to vary the tension (T). The tension was calculated from P and the radius of curvature was obtained using video microscopy of the patch. The probability of being open (Po) has a steep sigmoidal dependence on T, with a midpoint (T1/2) of 11.8 dyn/cm. The maximal slope sensitivity of Po/Pc was 0.63 dyn/cm per e-fold. Assuming a Boltzmann distribution, the energy difference between the closed and fully open states in the unstressed membrane was DeltaE = 18.6 kBT. If the mechanosensitivity arises from tension acting on a change of in-plane area (DeltaA), the free energy, TDeltaA, would correspond to DeltaA = 6.5 nm2. MscL is not a binary channel, but has four conducting states and a closed state. Most transition rates are independent of tension, but the rate-limiting step to opening is the transition between the closed state and the lowest conductance substate. This transition thus involves the greatest DeltaA. When summed over all transitions, the in-plane area change from closed to fully open was 6 nm2, agreeing with the value obtained in the two-state analysis. Assuming a cylindrical channel, the dimensions of the (fully open) pore were comparable to DeltaA. Thus, the tension dependence of channel gating is primarily one of increasing the external channel area to accommodate the pore of the smallest conducting state. The higher conducting states appear to involve conformational changes internal to the channel that don't involve changes in area.

  9. Synthesis of silver nanowires using hydrothermal technique for flexible transparent electrode application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijila, C. V. Mary; Rahman, K. K. Arsina; Parvathy, N. S.; Jayaraj, M. K.

    2016-05-01

    Transparent conducting films are becoming increasingly interesting because of their applications in electronics industry such as their use in solar energy applications. In this work silver nanowires were synthesized using solvothermal method by reducing silver nitrate and adding sodium chloride for assembling silver into nanowires. Absorption spectra of nanowires in the form of a dispersion in deionized water, AFM and SEM images confirm the nanowire formation. Solution of nanowire was coated over PET films to obtain transparent conducting films.

  10. Synthesis of silver nanowires using hydrothermal technique for flexible transparent electrode application

    SciTech Connect

    Vijila, C. V. Mary; Rahman, K. K. Arsina; Parvathy, N. S.; Jayaraj, M. K.

    2016-05-23

    Transparent conducting films are becoming increasingly interesting because of their applications in electronics industry such as their use in solar energy applications. In this work silver nanowires were synthesized using solvothermal method by reducing silver nitrate and adding sodium chloride for assembling silver into nanowires. Absorption spectra of nanowires in the form of a dispersion in deionized water, AFM and SEM images confirm the nanowire formation. Solution of nanowire was coated over PET films to obtain transparent conducting films.

  11. Improving Thermoelectric Properties of Nanowires Through Inhomogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, J. Eduardo; Sánchez, Vicenta; Wang, Chumin

    2016-10-01

    Inhomogeneity in nanowires can be present in the cross-section and/or by breaking the translational symmetry along the nanowire. In particular, the quasiperiodicity introduces an unusual class of electronic and phononic transport with a singular continuous eigenvalue spectrum and critically localized wave functions. In this work, the thermoelectricity in periodic and quasiperiodically segmented nanobelts and nanowires is addressed within the Boltzmann formalism by using a real-space renormalization plus convolution method developed for the Kubo-Greenwood formula, in which tight-binding and Born models are, respectively, used for the calculation of electric and lattice thermal conductivities. For periodic nanowires, we observe a maximum of the thermoelectric figure-of-merit (ZT) in the temperature space, as occurred in the carrier concentration space. This maximum ZT can be improved by introducing into nanowires periodically arranged segments and an inhomogeneous cross-section. Finally, the quasiperiodically segmented nanowires reveal an even larger ZT in comparison with the periodic ones.

  12. Improving Thermoelectric Properties of Nanowires Through Inhomogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, J. Eduardo; Sánchez, Vicenta; Wang, Chumin

    2017-05-01

    Inhomogeneity in nanowires can be present in the cross-section and/or by breaking the translational symmetry along the nanowire. In particular, the quasiperiodicity introduces an unusual class of electronic and phononic transport with a singular continuous eigenvalue spectrum and critically localized wave functions. In this work, the thermoelectricity in periodic and quasiperiodically segmented nanobelts and nanowires is addressed within the Boltzmann formalism by using a real-space renormalization plus convolution method developed for the Kubo-Greenwood formula, in which tight-binding and Born models are, respectively, used for the calculation of electric and lattice thermal conductivities. For periodic nanowires, we observe a maximum of the thermoelectric figure-of-merit ( ZT) in the temperature space, as occurred in the carrier concentration space. This maximum ZT can be improved by introducing into nanowires periodically arranged segments and an inhomogeneous cross-section. Finally, the quasiperiodically segmented nanowires reveal an even larger ZT in comparison with the periodic ones.

  13. Possible Dynamically Gated Conductance along Heme Wires in Bacterial Multiheme Cytochromes

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Dayle MA; Rosso, Kevin M.

    2014-07-24

    The staggered cross decaheme configuration of electron transfer co-factors in the outer-membrane cytochrome MtrF may serve as a prototype for conformationally-gated multi-heme electron transport. Derived from the bacterium Shewanella oneidensis, the staggered cross configuration reveals intersecting c-type octaheme and tetraheme “wires” containing thermodynamic “hills” and “valleys”, suggesting that the protein structure may include a dynamical mechanism for conductance and pathway switching depending on enzymatic functional need. Recent molecular simulations have established the pair-wise electronic couplings, redox potentials, and reorganization energies to predict the maximum conductance along the various heme wire pathways by sequential hopping of a single electron (PNAS (2014) 11,611-616). Here, we expand this information with classical molecular and statistical mechanics calculations of large-amplitude protein dynamics in MtrF, to address its potential to modulate pathway conductance, including assessment of the effect of the total charge state. Explicit solvent molecular dynamics simulations of fully oxidized and fully reduced MtrF employing ten independent 50-ns simulations at 300 K and 1 atm showed that reduced MtrF is more expanded and explores more conformational space than oxidized MtrF, and that heme reduction leads to increased heme solvent exposure. The slowest mode of collective decaheme motion is 90% similar between the oxidized and reduced states, and consists primarily of inter-heme separation with minor rotational contributions. The frequency of this motion is 1.7×107 s 1 for fully-oxidized and fully-reduced MtrF, respectively, slower than the downhill electron transfer rates between stacked heme pairs at the octaheme termini and faster than the electron transfer rates between parallel hemes in the tetraheme chain. This implies that MtrF uses slow conformational fluctuations to modulate electron flow along the octaheme pathway

  14. Metal nanowire-graphene composite transparent electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mankowski, Trent; Zhu, Zhaozhao; Balakrishnan, Kaushik; Shikoh, Ali Sehpar; Touati, Farid; Benammar, Mohieddine; Mansuripur, Masud; Falco, Charlies M.

    2014-10-01

    Silver nanowires with 40 nm diameter and copper nanowires with 150 nm diameter were synthesized using low-temperature routes, and deposited in combination with ultrathin graphene sheets for use as transparent conductors. A systematic and detailed analysis involving nature of capping agent for the metal nanowires, annealing of deposited films, and pre-treatment of substrates revealed critical conditions necessary for preparing high performance transparent conducting electrodes. The best electrodes show ~90% optical transmissivity and sheet resistance of ~10 Ω/□, already comparable to the best available transparent electrodes. The metal nanowire-graphene composite electrodes are therefore well suited for fabrication of opto-electronic and electronic devices.

  15. Possible dynamically gated conductance along heme wires in bacterial multiheme cytochromes.

    PubMed

    Smith, Dayle M A; Rosso, Kevin M

    2014-07-24

    The staggered cross decaheme configuration of electron transfer cofactors in the outer-membrane cytochrome MtrF serves as a prototype for conformationally gated multiheme electron transport. Derived from the bacterium Shewanella oneidensis, the staggered cross configuration reveals intersecting c-type octaheme and tetraheme "wires" containing thermodynamic "hills" and "valleys" (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 2014, 11, 611-616), suggesting that the protein structure may include a dynamical mechanism for conductance and pathway switching depending on enzymatic functional need. Here, we applied classical molecular and statistical mechanics calculations of large-amplitude protein dynamics in MtrF, to address its potential to modulate pathway conductance, including assessment of the effect of the total charge state. Explicit solvent molecular dynamics simulations of fully oxidized and fully reduced MtrF showed that the slowest mode of collective decaheme motion is 90% similar between the oxidized and reduced states and consists primarily of interheme separation with minor rotational contributions. The frequency of this motion is 1.7 × 10(7) s(-1), both for fully oxidized and fully reduced MtrF, slower than the downhill electron transfer rates between stacked heme pairs at the octaheme termini and faster than the electron transfer rates between parallel hemes in the tetraheme chain. This implies that MtrF uses slow conformational fluctuations to modulate electron flow along the octaheme pathway, apparently for the purpose of increasing the residence time of electrons on lowest potential hemes 4 and 9. This apparent gating mechanism should increase the success rate of electron transfer from MtrF to low potential environmental acceptors via these two solvent-exposed hemes.

  16. Effects of the interfacial charge injection properties of silver nanowire transparent conductive electrodes on the performance of organic light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin-Hoon; Triambulo, Ross E.; Park, Jin-Woo

    2017-03-01

    We investigated the charge injection properties of silver nanowire networks (AgNWs) in a composite-like structure with poly(2,3-dihydrothieno-1,4-dioxin)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). The composite films acted as the anodes and hole transport layers (HTLs) in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The current density (J)-voltage (V)-luminance (L) characteristics and power efficiency (ɛ) of the OLEDs were measured to determine their electrical and optical properties. The charge injection properties of the AgNWs in the OLEDs during operation were characterized via impedance spectroscopy (IS) by determining the variations in the capacitances (C) of the devices with respect to the applied V and the corresponding frequency (f). All measured results were compared with results for OLEDs fabricated on indium tin oxide (ITO) anodes. The OLEDs on AgNWs showed lower L and ɛ values than the OLEDs on ITO. It was also observed that AgNWs exhibit excellent charge injection properties and that the interfaces between the AgNWs and the HTL have very small charge injection barriers, resulting in an absence of charge carrier traps when charges move across these interfaces. However, in the AgNW-based OLED, there was a large mismatch in the number of injected holes and electrons. Furthermore, the highly conductive electrical paths of the AgNWs in the composite-like AgNW and PEDOT:PSS structure allowed a large leakage current of holes that did not participate in radiative recombination with the electrons; consequently, a lower ɛ was observed for the AgNW-based OLEDs than for the ITO-based OLEDs. To match the injection of electrons by the electron transport layer (ETL) in the AgNW-based OLED with that of holes by the AgNW/PEDOT:PSS composite anode, the electron injection barrier of the ETL was decreased by using the low work function polyethylenimine ethoxylated (PEIE) doped with n-type cesium carbonate (Cs2CO3). With the doped-PEIE, the performance of the AgNW-based OLED was

  17. Nanowire transformation and annealing by Joule heating.

    PubMed

    Hummelgård, Magnus; Zhang, Renyun; Carlberg, Torbjörn; Vengust, Damjan; Dvorsek, Damjan; Mihailovic, Dragan; Olin, Håkan

    2010-04-23

    Joule heating of bundles of Mo(6)S(3)I(6) nanowires, in real time, was studied using in situ TEM probing. TEM imaging, electron diffraction, and conductivity measurements showed a complete transformation of Mo(6)S(3)I(6) into Mo via thermal decomposition. The resulting Mo nanowires had a conductivity that was 2-3 orders higher than the starting material. The conductivity increased even further, up to 1.8 x 10(6) S m( - 1), when the Mo nanowires went through annealing phases. These results suggest that Joule heating might be a general way to transform or anneal nanowires, pointing to applications such as metal nanowire fabrication, novel memory elements based on material transformation, or in situ improvement of field emitters.

  18. Stoichiometry of the large conductance bacterial mechanosensitive channel of E. coli. A biochemical study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sukharev, S. I.; Schroeder, M. J.; McCaslin, D. R.

    1999-01-01

    both double and triple tandems form channels of normal conductance implies that the pentameric assembly is to some degree independent of the number of subunit repeats in the polypeptide precursor. The channel is thus a pentameric core with the 'extra' subunits left out of the functional complex. From sedimentation equilibrium and size-exclusion chromatography, we also conclude that MscL complexes are not in a dynamic equilibrium with monomers, but are pre-assembled; and thus, their gating properties must result from changes in the conformation of the entire complex induced by the mechanical stress.

  19. Stoichiometry of the large conductance bacterial mechanosensitive channel of E. coli. A biochemical study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sukharev, S. I.; Schroeder, M. J.; McCaslin, D. R.

    1999-01-01

    both double and triple tandems form channels of normal conductance implies that the pentameric assembly is to some degree independent of the number of subunit repeats in the polypeptide precursor. The channel is thus a pentameric core with the 'extra' subunits left out of the functional complex. From sedimentation equilibrium and size-exclusion chromatography, we also conclude that MscL complexes are not in a dynamic equilibrium with monomers, but are pre-assembled; and thus, their gating properties must result from changes in the conformation of the entire complex induced by the mechanical stress.

  20. DNA-templated gold nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadzadegan, Reza; Mohabatkar, Hassan; Sheikhi, Mohammad Hossein; Safavi, Afsaneh; Khajouee, Mahmood Barati

    2008-10-01

    We have developed simple methods of reproducibly creating deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-templated gold nanowires on silicon. First DNA nanowires were aligned on silicon surfaces. Briefly, modified silicon wafer was soaked in the DNA solution, and then the solution was removed using micropipettes; the surface tension at the moving air-solution interface is sufficient to align the DNA nanowires on the silicon wafer. In another attempt, an aqueous dispersion of sodium azide-stabilized gold nanoparticles was prepared. The nanoparticles aligned double-stranded λ-DNA to form a linear nanoparticle array. Continuous gold nanowires were obtained. The above nanowires were structurally characterized using scanning electron microscopy. The results of the characterizations show the wires to be 57-323 nm wide, to be continuous with a length of 2.8-9.5 μm. The use of DNA as a template for the self-assembly of conducting nanowires represents a potentially important approach in the fabrication of nanoscale interconnects.

  1. Bacterial cellulose composites: Synthetic strategies and multiple applications in bio-medical and electro-conductive fields.

    PubMed

    Ul-Islam, Mazhar; Khan, Shaukat; Ullah, Muhammad Wajid; Park, Joong Kon

    2015-12-01

    Bacterial cellulose (BC), owing to its pure nature and impressive physicochemical properties, including high mechanical strength, crystallinity, porous fibrous structure, and liquid absorbing capabilities, has emerged as an advanced biomaterial. To match the market demand and economic values, BC has been produced through a number of synthetic routes, leading to slightly different structural features and physical appearance. Chemical nature, porous geometry, and 3D fibrous structure of BC make it an ideal material for composites synthesis that successfully overcome certain deficiencies of pure BC. In this review, we have focused various strategies developed for synthesizing BC and BC composites. Reinforcement materials including nanoparticles and polymers have enhanced the antimicrobial, conducting, magnetic, biocompatible, and mechanical properties of BC. Both pure BC and its composites have shown impressive applications in medical fields and in the development of optoelectronic devices. Herein, we have given a special attention to discuss its applications in the medical and electronic fields. In conclusion, BC and BC composites have realistic potential to be used in future development of medical devices, artificial organs and electronic and conducting materials. The contents discussed herein will provide an eye-catching theme to the researchers concerned with practical applications of BC and BC composites.

  2. Nanostructured bacterial cellulose-poly(4-styrene sulfonic acid) composite membranes with high storage modulus and protonic conductivity.

    PubMed

    Gadim, Tiago D O; Figueiredo, Andrea G P R; Rosero-Navarro, Nataly C; Vilela, Carla; Gamelas, José A F; Barros-Timmons, Ana; Neto, Carlos Pascoal; Silvestre, Armando J D; Freire, Carmen S R; Figueiredo, Filipe M L

    2014-05-28

    The present study reports the development of a new generation of bio-based nanocomposite proton exchange membranes based on bacterial cellulose (BC) and poly(4-styrene sulfonic acid) (PSSA), produced by in situ free radical polymerization of sodium 4-styrenesulfonate using poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) as cross-linker, followed by conversion of the ensuing polymer into the acidic form. The BC nanofibrilar network endows the composite membranes with excellent mechanical properties at least up to 140 °C, a temperature where either pure PSSA or Nafion are soft, as shown by dynamic mechanical analysis. The large concentration of sulfonic acid groups in PSSA is responsible for the high ionic exchange capacity of the composite membranes, reaching 2.25 mmol g(-1) for a composite with 83 wt % PSSA/PEGDA. The through-plane protonic conductivity of the best membrane is in excess of 0.1 S cm(-1) at 94 °C and 98% relative humidity (RH), decreasing to 0.042 S cm(-1) at 60% RH. These values are comparable or even higher than those of ionomers such as Nafion or polyelectrolytes such as PSSA. This combination of electric and viscoelastic properties with low cost underlines the potential of these nanocomposites as a bio-based alternative to other polymer membranes for application in fuel cells, redox flow batteries, or other devices requiring functional proton conducting elements, such as sensors and actuators.

  3. Nano-gold assisted highly conducting and biocompatible bacterial cellulose-PEDOT:PSS films for biology-device interface applications.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shaukat; Ul-Islam, Mazhar; Ullah, Muhammad Wajid; Israr, Muhammad; Jang, Jae Hyun; Park, Joong Kon

    2017-09-18

    This study reports the fabrication of highly conducting and biocompatible bacterial cellulose (BC)-gold nanoparticles (AuNPs)-poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) (BC-AuNPs-PEDOT:PSS) composites for biology-device interface applications. The composites were fabricated using ex situ incorporation of AuNPs and PEDOT:PSS into the BC matrix. Structural characterization, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, confirmed the uniform nature of the synthesized BC-AuNPs and BC-AuNPs-PEDOT:PSS composites. Four-point probe analysis indicated that the BC-AuNPs and BC-AuNPs-PEDOT:PSS films had high electrical conductivity. The composites were also tested for biocompatibility with animal osteoblasts (MC3T3-E1). The composite films supported adhesion, growth, and proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells, indicating that they are biocompatible and non-cytotoxic. AuNPs and PEDOT:PSS, imparted a voltage response, while BC imparted biocompatibility and bio-adhesion to the nanocomposites. Therefore, our BC-AuNPs-PEDOT:PSS composites are candidate materials for biology-device interfaces to produce implantable devices in regenerative medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Solution-processed copper-nickel nanowire anodes for organic solar cells.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Ian E; Rathmell, Aaron R; Yan, Liang; Ye, Shengrong; Flowers, Patrick F; You, Wei; Wiley, Benjamin J

    2014-06-07

    This work describes a process to make anodes for organic solar cells from copper-nickel nanowires with solution-phase processing. Copper nanowire films were coated from solution onto glass and made conductive by dipping them in acetic acid. Acetic acid removes the passivating oxide from the surface of copper nanowires, thereby reducing the contact resistance between nanowires to nearly the same extent as hydrogen annealing. Films of copper nanowires were made as oxidation resistant as silver nanowires under dry and humid conditions by dipping them in an electroless nickel plating solution. Organic solar cells utilizing these completely solution-processed copper-nickel nanowire films exhibited efficiencies of 4.9%.

  5. Ballistic superconductivity in semiconductor nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hao; Gül, Önder; Conesa-Boj, Sonia; Nowak, Michał P.; Wimmer, Michael; Zuo, Kun; Mourik, Vincent; de Vries, Folkert K.; van Veen, Jasper; de Moor, Michiel W. A.; Bommer, Jouri D. S.; van Woerkom, David J.; Car, Diana; Plissard, Sébastien R; Bakkers, Erik P.A.M.; Quintero-Pérez, Marina; Cassidy, Maja C.; Koelling, Sebastian; Goswami, Srijit; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Kouwenhoven, Leo P.

    2017-01-01

    Semiconductor nanowires have opened new research avenues in quantum transport owing to their confined geometry and electrostatic tunability. They have offered an exceptional testbed for superconductivity, leading to the realization of hybrid systems combining the macroscopic quantum properties of superconductors with the possibility to control charges down to a single electron. These advances brought semiconductor nanowires to the forefront of efforts to realize topological superconductivity and Majorana modes. A prime challenge to benefit from the topological properties of Majoranas is to reduce the disorder in hybrid nanowire devices. Here we show ballistic superconductivity in InSb semiconductor nanowires. Our structural and chemical analyses demonstrate a high-quality interface between the nanowire and a NbTiN superconductor that enables ballistic transport. This is manifested by a quantized conductance for normal carriers, a strongly enhanced conductance for Andreev-reflecting carriers, and an induced hard gap with a significantly reduced density of states. These results pave the way for disorder-free Majorana devices. PMID:28681843

  6. Ballistic superconductivity in semiconductor nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hao; Gül, Önder; Conesa-Boj, Sonia; Nowak, Michał P.; Wimmer, Michael; Zuo, Kun; Mourik, Vincent; de Vries, Folkert K.; van Veen, Jasper; de Moor, Michiel W. A.; Bommer, Jouri D. S.; van Woerkom, David J.; Car, Diana; Plissard, Sébastien R.; Bakkers, Erik P. A. M.; Quintero-Pérez, Marina; Cassidy, Maja C.; Koelling, Sebastian; Goswami, Srijit; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Kouwenhoven, Leo P.

    2017-07-01

    Semiconductor nanowires have opened new research avenues in quantum transport owing to their confined geometry and electrostatic tunability. They have offered an exceptional testbed for superconductivity, leading to the realization of hybrid systems combining the macroscopic quantum properties of superconductors with the possibility to control charges down to a single electron. These advances brought semiconductor nanowires to the forefront of efforts to realize topological superconductivity and Majorana modes. A prime challenge to benefit from the topological properties of Majoranas is to reduce the disorder in hybrid nanowire devices. Here we show ballistic superconductivity in InSb semiconductor nanowires. Our structural and chemical analyses demonstrate a high-quality interface between the nanowire and a NbTiN superconductor that enables ballistic transport. This is manifested by a quantized conductance for normal carriers, a strongly enhanced conductance for Andreev-reflecting carriers, and an induced hard gap with a significantly reduced density of states. These results pave the way for disorder-free Majorana devices.

  7. Ballistic superconductivity in semiconductor nanowires.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Gül, Önder; Conesa-Boj, Sonia; Nowak, Michał P; Wimmer, Michael; Zuo, Kun; Mourik, Vincent; de Vries, Folkert K; van Veen, Jasper; de Moor, Michiel W A; Bommer, Jouri D S; van Woerkom, David J; Car, Diana; Plissard, Sébastien R; Bakkers, Erik P A M; Quintero-Pérez, Marina; Cassidy, Maja C; Koelling, Sebastian; Goswami, Srijit; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Kouwenhoven, Leo P

    2017-07-06

    Semiconductor nanowires have opened new research avenues in quantum transport owing to their confined geometry and electrostatic tunability. They have offered an exceptional testbed for superconductivity, leading to the realization of hybrid systems combining the macroscopic quantum properties of superconductors with the possibility to control charges down to a single electron. These advances brought semiconductor nanowires to the forefront of efforts to realize topological superconductivity and Majorana modes. A prime challenge to benefit from the topological properties of Majoranas is to reduce the disorder in hybrid nanowire devices. Here we show ballistic superconductivity in InSb semiconductor nanowires. Our structural and chemical analyses demonstrate a high-quality interface between the nanowire and a NbTiN superconductor that enables ballistic transport. This is manifested by a quantized conductance for normal carriers, a strongly enhanced conductance for Andreev-reflecting carriers, and an induced hard gap with a significantly reduced density of states. These results pave the way for disorder-free Majorana devices.

  8. Enhanced photogenerated carrier collection in hybrid films of bio-templated gold nanowires and nanocrystalline CdSe.

    PubMed

    Haberer, Elaine D; Joo, John H; Hodelin, Juan F; Hu, Evelyn L

    2009-10-14

    Hybrid films of bio-templated gold nanowires and chemical bath deposited nanocrystalline CdSe were fabricated. The conductivity of the gold nanowires within the hybrid material was controlled by gold electroless deposition. Photocurrent measurements were taken on gold nanowire films, CdSe chemical bath deposited films, and hybrid films. The incorporation of gold nanowires within the hybrid material clearly increased the extraction of photogenerated carriers within the CdSe. Photocurrent showed a direct correlation with gold nanowire conductivity.

  9. Enhanced photogenerated carrier collection in hybrid films of bio-templated gold nanowires and nanocrystalline CdSe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haberer, Elaine D.; Joo, John H.; Hodelin, Juan F.; Hu, Evelyn L.

    2009-10-01

    Hybrid films of bio-templated gold nanowires and chemical bath deposited nanocrystalline CdSe were fabricated. The conductivity of the gold nanowires within the hybrid material was controlled by gold electroless deposition. Photocurrent measurements were taken on gold nanowire films, CdSe chemical bath deposited films, and hybrid films. The incorporation of gold nanowires within the hybrid material clearly increased the extraction of photogenerated carriers within the CdSe. Photocurrent showed a direct correlation with gold nanowire conductivity.

  10. Determination of transport properties in chromium disilicide nanowires via combined thermoelectric and structural characterizations.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Feng; Szczech, Jeannine; Pettes, Michael T; Moore, Arden L; Jin, Song; Shi, Li

    2007-06-01

    The Seebeck coefficient, electrical conductivity, and thermal conductivity of individual chromium disilicide nanowires were characterized using a suspended microdevice and correlated with the crystal structure and growth direction obtained by transmission electron microscopy on the same nanowires. The obtained thermoelectric figure of merit of the nanowires was comparable to the bulk values. We show that combined Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity measurements provide an effective approach to probing the Fermi Level, carrier concentration and mobility in nanowires.

  11. Superconductive silicon nanowires using gallium beam lithography.

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, Michael David; Jarecki, Robert Leo,

    2014-01-01

    This work was an early career LDRD investigating the idea of using a focused ion beam (FIB) to implant Ga into silicon to create embedded nanowires and/or fully suspended nanowires. The embedded Ga nanowires demonstrated electrical resistivity of 5 m-cm, conductivity down to 4 K, and acts as an Ohmic silicon contact. The suspended nanowires achieved dimensions down to 20 nm x 30 nm x 10 m with large sensitivity to pressure. These structures then performed well as Pirani gauges. Sputtered niobium was also developed in this research for use as a superconductive coating on the nanowire. Oxidation characteristics of Nb were detailed and a technique to place the Nb under tensile stress resulted in the Nb resisting bulk atmospheric oxidation for up to years.

  12. Electrodeposited germanium nanowires.

    PubMed

    Mahenderkar, Naveen K; Liu, Ying-Chau; Koza, Jakub A; Switzer, Jay A

    2014-09-23

    Germanium (Ge) is a group IV semiconductor with superior electronic properties compared with silicon, such as larger carrier mobilities and smaller effective masses. It is also a candidate anode material for lithium-ion batteries. Here, a simple, one-step method is introduced to electrodeposit dense arrays of Ge nanowires onto indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates from aqueous solution. The electrochemical reduction of ITO produces In nanoparticles that act as a reduction site for aqueous Ge(IV) species, and as a solvent for the crystallization of Ge nanowires. Nanowires deposited at 95 °C have an average diameter of 100 nm, whereas those deposited at room temperature have an average diameter of 35 nm. Both optical absorption and Raman spectroscopy suggest that the electrodeposited Ge is degenerate. The material has an indirect bandgap of 0.90-0.92 eV, compared with a value of 0.67 eV for bulk, intrinsic Ge. The blue shift is attributed to the Moss-Burstein effect, because the material is a p-type degenerate semiconductor. On the basis of the magnitude of the blue shift, the hole concentration is estimated to be 8 × 10(19) cm(-3). This corresponds to an In impurity concentration of about 0.2 atom %. The resistivity of the wires is estimated to be 4 × 10(-5) Ω·cm. The high conductivity of the wires should make them ideal for lithium-ion battery applications.

  13. Nanowire Optoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhihuan; Nabet, Bahram

    2015-12-01

    Semiconductor nanowires have been used in a variety of passive and active optoelectronic devices including waveguides, photodetectors, solar cells, light-emitting diodes (LEDs), lasers, sensors, and optical antennas. We review the optical properties of these nanowires in terms of absorption, guiding, and radiation of light, which may be termed light management. Analysis of the interaction of light with long cylindrical/hexagonal structures with subwavelength diameters identifies radial resonant modes, such as Leaky Mode Resonances, or Whispering Gallery modes. The two-dimensional treatment should incorporate axial variations in "volumetric modes,"which have so far been presented in terms of Fabry-Perot (FP), and helical resonance modes. We report on finite-difference timedomain (FDTD) simulations with the aim of identifying the dependence of these modes on geometry (length, width), tapering, shape (cylindrical, hexagonal), core-shell versus core-only, and dielectric cores with semiconductor shells. This demonstrates how nanowires (NWs) form excellent optical cavities without the need for top and bottommirrors. However, optically equivalent structures such as hexagonal and cylindrical wires can have very different optoelectronic properties meaning that light management alone does not sufficiently describe the observed enhancement in upward (absorption) and downward transitions (emission) of light inNWs; rather, the electronic transition rates should be considered. We discuss this "rate management" scheme showing its strong dimensional dependence, making a case for photonic integrated circuits (PICs) that can take advantage of the confluence of the desirable optical and electronic properties of these nanostructures.

  14. Electrical properties of nominally undoped silicon nanowires grown by molecular-beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Jan; Fleischer, Frank; Breitenstein, Otwin; Schubert, Luise; Werner, Peter; Gösele, Ulrich; Zacharias, Margit

    2007-01-01

    Single undoped Si nanowires were electrically characterized. The nanowires were grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on n+ silicon substrates and were contacted by platinum/iridium tips. I-V curves were measured and electron beam induced current investigations were performed on single nanowires. It was found that the nanowires have an apparent resistivity of 0.85Ωcm, which is much smaller than expected for undoped Si nanowires. The conductance is explained by hopping conductivity at the Si -SiO2 interface of the nanowire surface.

  15. EDITORIAL: Nanowires for energy Nanowires for energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaPierre, Ray; Sunkara, Mahendra

    2012-05-01

    This special issue of Nanotechnology focuses on studies illustrating the application of nanowires for energy including solar cells, efficient lighting and water splitting. Over the next three decades, nanotechnology will make significant contributions towards meeting the increased energy needs of the planet, now known as the TeraWatt challenge. Nanowires in particular are poised to contribute significantly in this development as presented in the review by Hiralal et al [1]. Nanowires exhibit light trapping properties that can act as a broadband anti-reflection coating to enhance the efficiency of solar cells. In this issue, Li et al [2] and Wang et al [3] present the optical properties of silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays. In addition to enhanced optical properties, core-shell nanowires also have the potential for efficient charge carrier collection across the nanowire diameter as presented in the contribution by Yu et al [4] for radial junction a-Si solar cells. Hybrid approaches that combine organic and inorganic materials also have potential for high efficiency photovoltaics. A Si-based hybrid solar cell is presented by Zhang et al [5] with a photoconversion efficiency of over 7%. The quintessential example of hybrid solar cells is the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) where an organic absorber (dye) coats an inorganic material (typically a ZnO nanostructure). Herman et al [6] present a method of enhancing the efficiency of a DSSC by increasing the hetero-interfacial area with a unique hierarchical weeping willow ZnO structure. The increased surface area allows for higher dye loading, light harvesting, and reduced charge recombination through direct conduction along the ZnO branches. Another unique ZnO growth method is presented by Calestani et al [7] using a solution-free and catalyst-free approach by pulsed electron deposition (PED). Nanowires can also make more efficient use of electrical power. Light emitting diodes, for example, will eventually become the

  16. Tunneling magnetoresistance in Si nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montes, E.; Rungger, I.; Sanvito, S.; Schwingenschlögl, U.

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the tunneling magnetoresistance of small diameter semiconducting Si nanowires attached to ferromagnetic Fe electrodes, using first principles density functional theory combined with the non-equilibrium Green’s functions method for quantum transport. Silicon nanowires represent an interesting platform for spin devices. They are compatible with mature silicon technology and their intrinsic electronic properties can be controlled by modifying the diameter and length. Here we systematically study the spin transport properties for neutral nanowires and both n and p doping conditions. We find a substantial low bias magnetoresistance for the neutral case, which halves for an applied voltage of about 0.35 V and persists up to 1 V. Doping in general decreases the magnetoresistance, as soon as the conductance is no longer dominated by tunneling.

  17. Reporting buckling strength and elastic properties of nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaat, M.; Abdelkefi, A.

    2016-12-01

    Nanocrystalline-nanowires have been incorporated in many micro-/nano-scale applications. To design nanowires-based nano-devices, studies should be conducted on the characterization of the elastic properties and the buckling strengths of nanowires. The challenge associated with detecting the properties of nanowires is that their properties are size-dependent. This motivated us to propose a model for the mechanics of nanocrystalline nanowires. In the context of this model, new measures are incorportated to account for the nanowire material structure and size effects and to reflect the experimental observations of nanomaterials-nanowires. This model is then harnessed to report the ranges of the buckling strength and the elastic properties of nanowires made of nanocrystalline diamond, Si, Al, Cu, Ag, Au, and Pt, for the first time. First, we report the range of the grain boundary Young's modulus for the various nanocrystalline materials. Depending on the contents of the grain boundary and the amount of impurities, the grain boundary Young's modulus is likely to be within the reported ranges. Second, for each grain size (from 200 nm to 2 nm), we report the range of Young's modulus, shear modulus, bulk modulus, and mass density of the aforementioned nanocrystalline nanomaterials. Third, we report the buckling strength and the equivalent Young's modulus of nanowires with different sizes accounting for the nanowire surface effects. The reported ranges of the buckling strength and the elastic properties of nanowires are experimentally validated.

  18. Multilevel correlations in the biological phosphorus removal process: From bacterial enrichment to conductivity-based metabolic batch tests and polyphosphatase assays.

    PubMed

    Weissbrodt, David G; Maillard, Julien; Brovelli, Alessandro; Chabrelie, Alexandre; May, Jonathan; Holliger, Christof

    2014-12-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) from wastewater relies on the preferential selection of active polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAO) in the underlying bacterial community continuum. Efficient management of the bacterial resource requires understanding of population dynamics as well as availability of bioanalytical methods for rapid and regular assessment of relative abundances of active PAOs and their glycogen-accumulating competitors (GAO). A systems approach was adopted here toward the investigation of multilevel correlations from the EBPR bioprocess to the bacterial community, metabolic, and enzymatic levels. Two anaerobic-aerobic sequencing-batch reactors were operated to enrich activated sludge in PAOs and GAOs affiliating with "Candidati Accumulibacter and Competibacter phosphates", respectively. Bacterial selection was optimized by dynamic control of the organic loading rate and the anaerobic contact time. The distinct core bacteriomes mainly comprised populations related to the classes Betaproteobacteria, Cytophagia, and Chloroflexi in the PAO enrichment and of Gammaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Sphingobacteria in the GAO enrichment. An anaerobic metabolic batch test based on electrical conductivity evolution and a polyphosphatase enzymatic assay were developed for rapid and low-cost assessment of the active PAO fraction and dephosphatation potential of activated sludge. Linear correlations were obtained between the PAO fraction, biomass specific rate of conductivity increase under anaerobic conditions, and polyphosphate-hydrolyzing activity of PAO/GAO mixtures. The correlations between PAO/GAO ratios, metabolic activities, and conductivity profiles were confirmed by simulations with a mathematical model developed in the aqueous geochemistry software PHREEQC. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. How Copper Nanowires Grow and How To Control Their Properties.

    PubMed

    Ye, Shengrong; Stewart, Ian E; Chen, Zuofeng; Li, Bo; Rathmell, Aaron R; Wiley, Benjamin J

    2016-03-15

    Scalable, solution-phase nanostructure synthesis has the promise to produce a wide variety of nanomaterials with novel properties at a cost that is low enough for these materials to be used to solve problems. For example, solution-synthesized metal nanowires are now being used to make low cost, flexible transparent electrodes in touch screens, organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), and solar cells. There has been a tremendous increase in the number of solution-phase syntheses that enable control over the assembly of atoms into nanowires in the last 15 years, but proposed mechanisms for nanowire formation are usually qualitative, and for many syntheses there is little consensus as to how nanowires form. It is often not clear what species is adding to a nanowire growing in solution or what mechanistic step limits its rate of growth. A deeper understanding of nanowire growth is important for efficiently directing the development of nanowire synthesis toward producing a wide variety of nanostructure morphologies for structure-property studies or producing precisely defined nanostructures for a specific application. This Account reviews our progress over the last five years toward understanding how copper nanowires form in solution, how to direct their growth into nanowires with dimensions ideally suited for use in transparent conducting films, and how to use copper nanowires as a template to grow core-shell nanowires. The key advance enabling a better understanding of copper nanowire growth is the first real-time visualization of nanowire growth in solution, enabling the acquisition of nanowire growth kinetics. By measuring the growth rate of individual nanowires as a function of concentration of the reactants and temperature, we show that a growing copper nanowire can be thought of as a microelectrode that is charged with electrons by hydrazine and grows through the diffusion-limited addition of Cu(OH)2(-). This deeper mechanistic understanding, coupled to an

  20. Inquisition of Microcystis aeruginosa and Synechocystis nanowires: characterization and modelling.

    PubMed

    Sure, Sandeep; Torriero, Angel A J; Gaur, Aditya; Li, Lu Hua; Chen, Ying; Tripathi, Chandrakant; Adholeya, Alok; Ackland, M Leigh; Kochar, Mandira

    2015-11-01

    Identification of extracellular conductive pilus-like structures (PLS) i.e. microbial nanowires has spurred great interest among scientists due to their potential applications in the fields of biogeochemistry, bioelectronics, bioremediation etc. Using conductive atomic force microscopy, we identified microbial nanowires in Microcystis aeruginosa PCC 7806 which is an aerobic, photosynthetic microorganism. We also confirmed the earlier finding that Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 produces microbial nanowires. In contrast to the use of highly instrumented continuous flow reactors for Synechocystis reported earlier, we identified simple and optimum culture conditions which allow increased production of nanowires in both test cyanobacteria. Production of these nanowires in Synechocystis and Microcystis were found to be sensitive to the availability of carbon source and light intensity. These structures seem to be proteinaceous in nature and their diameter was found to be 4.5-7 and 8.5-11 nm in Synechocystis and M. aeruginosa, respectively. Characterization of Synechocystis nanowires by transmission electron microscopy and biochemical techniques confirmed that they are type IV pili (TFP) while nanowires in M. aeruginosa were found to be similar to an unnamed protein (GenBank : CAO90693.1). Modelling studies of the Synechocystis TFP subunit i.e. PilA1 indicated that strategically placed aromatic amino acids may be involved in electron transfer through these nanowires. This study identifies PLS from Microcystis which can act as nanowires and supports the earlier hypothesis that microbial nanowires are widespread in nature and play diverse roles.

  1. Electrochromic nanostructures grown on a silicon nanowire template.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yuna; Baek, Jehoon; Kim, Myoung-Ha; Choi, Heon-Jin; Kim, Eunkyoung

    2008-09-01

    Vertically grown Si nanowires were prepared as a nanotemplate for conducting polymers. Electrochromic (EC) PEDOT (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)) layer was successfully grown on Si nanowires by electrochemical polymerization method to form PEDOT nanowires having average wall thickness of approximately 60 nm. As-prepared conductive nanowire electrode was applied to a low voltage working EC device by fabricating an all solid state EC device. The EC properties of the device were enhanced in the nanowire structure, showing reversible fast optical transition by applying +/-2 V. The response time (t(R)) of the EC device from the PEDOT grown on Si nanowires was approximately 0.7 s, which was much faster than that from PEDOT film coated on ITO glass electrochemically (t(R)=1.9 s).

  2. Synthesis and Characterization of Nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Musket, R.G.; Felter, T.; Quong, A.

    2000-03-01

    With the dimensions of components in microelectronic circuits shrinking, the phenomena associated with electronic conduction through wires and with device operation can be expected to change. For example, as the length of electrical conductors is reduced, ballistic transport will become the main mode of conduction. Sufficient reduction in the cross sectional area of conductors can lead to quantum confinement effects. Prior knowledge of the phenomena associated with decreasing size should help guide the designers of future, smaller devices in terms of geometry and materials. However, prior knowledge requires the availability of sufficiently small nanowires for experiments. To date, the smallest nanowires that have been fabricated and investigated had diameters of 8 nm. We propose to extend the investigation of these size-related phenomena by synthesizing, using a novel version of nuclear, or ion, track lithography and characterizing, physically and electrically, nanowires with diameters D of 1 to 5 nm and lengths L of 2 to 250 nm. Thus, by varying the dimensions of the nanowires, we will be able to determine experimentally when the ideas of macroscopic conductance break down and the conductance becomes dominated by quantum and ballistic effects. In our approach the nature of the small-diameter nanostructure formed can be controlled: Nanowires are formed when L/D is large, and quantum dots are formed when both L and D are small. Theoretical calculations will be performed to both guide and understand the experimental studies. We have examined several aspects of this challenging problem and generated some promising results, but the project was not extended for the second year as planned. Thus, we did not have sufficient resources to complete the proof of concept.

  3. Hybrid superconductor-quantum point contact devices using InSb nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, S. T.; Damasco, J.; Car, D.; Bakkers, E. P. A. M.; Mason, N.

    2016-12-01

    Proposals for studying topological superconductivity and Majorana bound states in a nanowire proximity coupled to superconductors require that transport in the nanowire is ballistic. Previous works on hybrid nanowire-superconductor systems have shown evidence for Majorana bound states, but these experiments were also marked by disorder, which disrupts ballistic transport. In this paper, we demonstrate ballistic transport in the InSb nanowires interfaced directly with superconducting Al by observing quantized conductance at zero-magnetic field. Additionally, we demonstrate that the nanowire is proximity coupled to the superconducting contacts by observing Andreev reflection. These results are important steps for robustly establishing topological superconductivity in the InSb nanowires.

  4. A spray-coating process for highly conductive silver nanowire networks as the transparent top-electrode for small molecule organic photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Selzer, Franz; Weiss, Nelli; Kneppe, David; Bormann, Ludwig; Sachse, Christoph; Gaponik, Nikolai; Eychmüller, Alexander; Leo, Karl; Müller-Meskamp, Lars

    2015-02-14

    We present a novel top-electrode spray-coating process for the solution-based deposition of silver nanowires (AgNWs) onto vacuum-processed small molecule organic electronic solar cells. The process is compatible with organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) and organic light emitting thin film transistors (OLETs) as well. By modifying commonly synthesized AgNWs with a perfluorinated methacrylate, we are able to disperse these wires in a highly fluorinated solvent. This solvent does not dissolve most organic materials, enabling a top spray-coating process for sensitive small molecule and polymer-based devices. The optimized preparation of the novel AgNW dispersion and spray-coating at only 30 °C leads to high performance electrodes directly after the deposition, exhibiting a sheet resistance of 10.0 Ω □(-1) at 87.4% transparency (80.0% with substrate). By spraying our novel AgNW dispersion in air onto the vacuum-processed organic p-i-n type solar cells, we obtain working solar cells with a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 1.23%, compared to the air exposed reference devices employing thermally evaporated thin metal layers as the top-electrode.

  5. Solar heating of GaAs nanowire solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Shao-Hua; Povinelli, Michelle L.

    2015-09-25

    We use a coupled thermal-optical approach to model the operating temperature rise in GaAs nanowire solar cells. Our findings show that despite more highly concentrated light absorption and lower thermal conductivity, the overall temperature rise in a nanowire structure is no higher than in a planar structure. Moreover, coating the nanowires with a transparent polymer can increase the radiative cooling power by 2.2 times, lowering the operating temperature by nearly 7 K.

  6. Solar heating of GaAs nanowire solar cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shao-Hua; Povinelli, Michelle L

    2015-11-30

    We use a coupled thermal-optical approach to model the operating temperature rise in GaAs nanowire solar cells. We find that despite more highly concentrated light absorption and lower thermal conductivity, the overall temperature rise in a nanowire structure is no higher than in a planar structure. Moreover, coating the nanowires with a transparent polymer can increase the radiative cooling power by 2.2 times, lowering the operating temperature by nearly 7 K.

  7. Tunneling and Transport in Nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, Allen M.

    2016-08-16

    The goal of this program was to study new physical phenomena that might be relevant to the performance of conductive devices and circuits of the smallest realizable feature sizes possible using physical rather than biological techniques. Although the initial scientific work supported involved the use of scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy to ascertain the statistics of the energy level distribution of randomly sized and randomly shaped quantum dots, or nano-crystals, the main focus was on the investigation of selected properties, including superconductivity, of conducting and superconducting nanowires prepared using electron-beam-lithography. We discovered a magnetic-field-restoration of superconductivity in out-of-equilibrium nanowires driven resistive by current. This phenomenon was explained by the existence of a state in which dissipation coexisted with nonvanishing superconducting order. We also produced ultra-small superconducting loops to study a predicted anomalous fluxoid quantization, but instead, found a magnetic-field-dependent, high-resistance state, rather than superconductivity. Finally, we developed a simple and controllable nanowire in an induced charged layer near the surface of a masked single-crystal insulator, SrTiO3. The layer was induced using an electric double layer transistor employing an ionic liquid (IL). The transport properties of the induced nanowire resembled those of collective electronic transport through an array of quantum dots.

  8. Epitaxy of advanced nanowire quantum devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazibegovic, Sasa; Car, Diana; Zhang, Hao; Balk, Stijn C.; Logan, John A.; de Moor, Michiel W. A.; Cassidy, Maja C.; Schmits, Rudi; Xu, Di; Wang, Guanzhong; Krogstrup, Peter; Op Het Veld, Roy L. M.; Zuo, Kun; Vos, Yoram; Shen, Jie; Bouman, Daniël; Shojaei, Borzoyeh; Pennachio, Daniel; Lee, Joon Sue; van Veldhoven, Petrus J.; Koelling, Sebastian; Verheijen, Marcel A.; Kouwenhoven, Leo P.; Palmstrøm, Chris J.; Bakkers, Erik P. A. M.

    2017-08-01

    Semiconductor nanowires are ideal for realizing various low-dimensional quantum devices. In particular, topological phases of matter hosting non-Abelian quasiparticles (such as anyons) can emerge when a semiconductor nanowire with strong spin-orbit coupling is brought into contact with a superconductor. To exploit the potential of non-Abelian anyons—which are key elements of topological quantum computing—fully, they need to be exchanged in a well-controlled braiding operation. Essential hardware for braiding is a network of crystalline nanowires coupled to superconducting islands. Here we demonstrate a technique for generic bottom-up synthesis of complex quantum devices with a special focus on nanowire networks with a predefined number of superconducting islands. Structural analysis confirms the high crystalline quality of the nanowire junctions, as well as an epitaxial superconductor-semiconductor interface. Quantum transport measurements of nanowire ‘hashtags’ reveal Aharonov-Bohm and weak-antilocalization effects, indicating a phase-coherent system with strong spin-orbit coupling. In addition, a proximity-induced hard superconducting gap (with vanishing sub-gap conductance) is demonstrated in these hybrid superconductor-semiconductor nanowires, highlighting the successful materials development necessary for a first braiding experiment. Our approach opens up new avenues for the realization of epitaxial three-dimensional quantum architectures which have the potential to become key components of various quantum devices.

  9. Epitaxy of advanced nanowire quantum devices.

    PubMed

    Gazibegovic, Sasa; Car, Diana; Zhang, Hao; Balk, Stijn C; Logan, John A; de Moor, Michiel W A; Cassidy, Maja C; Schmits, Rudi; Xu, Di; Wang, Guanzhong; Krogstrup, Peter; Op Het Veld, Roy L M; Zuo, Kun; Vos, Yoram; Shen, Jie; Bouman, Daniël; Shojaei, Borzoyeh; Pennachio, Daniel; Lee, Joon Sue; van Veldhoven, Petrus J; Koelling, Sebastian; Verheijen, Marcel A; Kouwenhoven, Leo P; Palmstrøm, Chris J; Bakkers, Erik P A M

    2017-08-23

    Semiconductor nanowires are ideal for realizing various low-dimensional quantum devices. In particular, topological phases of matter hosting non-Abelian quasiparticles (such as anyons) can emerge when a semiconductor nanowire with strong spin-orbit coupling is brought into contact with a superconductor. To exploit the potential of non-Abelian anyons-which are key elements of topological quantum computing-fully, they need to be exchanged in a well-controlled braiding operation. Essential hardware for braiding is a network of crystalline nanowires coupled to superconducting islands. Here we demonstrate a technique for generic bottom-up synthesis of complex quantum devices with a special focus on nanowire networks with a predefined number of superconducting islands. Structural analysis confirms the high crystalline quality of the nanowire junctions, as well as an epitaxial superconductor-semiconductor interface. Quantum transport measurements of nanowire 'hashtags' reveal Aharonov-Bohm and weak-antilocalization effects, indicating a phase-coherent system with strong spin-orbit coupling. In addition, a proximity-induced hard superconducting gap (with vanishing sub-gap conductance) is demonstrated in these hybrid superconductor-semiconductor nanowires, highlighting the successful materials development necessary for a first braiding experiment. Our approach opens up new avenues for the realization of epitaxial three-dimensional quantum architectures which have the potential to become key components of various quantum devices.

  10. Advanced Electrical Characterization of Semiconductor Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanal, Devesh Raj

    electrostatics modeling, is presented in Chapter 3 using InN nanowires as an example. The results indicate that the Fermi-level at the non-polar sidewalls of the nanowires is pinned to between 0.6 - 0.8 eV below the conduction band minimum, in good agreement with InN thin films. In Chapter 4, universal mobility analysis is used to determine the relative magnitude of individual scattering mechanisms on carrier mobility using only FET measurements and thorough calculations of the nanowire-gate electrostatics. The techniques of extracting Fermi level pinning position and free carrier scattering mechanisms in Chapter 3 and 4 can be applied to single nanowires, which has yet to be reported elsewhere in the literature. Finally, Chapter 5 includes a theoretical study of the doping limitations of ultra-small diameter nanowires where quantum confinement appreciably perturbs the density of states.

  11. Percolating silicon nanowire networks with highly reproducible electrical properties.

    PubMed

    Serre, Pauline; Mongillo, Massimo; Periwal, Priyanka; Baron, Thierry; Ternon, Céline

    2015-01-09

    Here, we report the morphological and electrical properties of self-assembled silicon nanowires networks, also called Si nanonets. At the macroscopic scale, the nanonets involve several millions of nanowires. So, the observed properties should result from large scale statistical averaging, minimizing thus the discrepancies that occur from one nanowire to another. Using a standard filtration procedure, the so-obtained Si nanonets are highly reproducible in terms of their morphology, with a Si nanowire density precisely controlled during the nanonet elaboration. In contrast to individual Si nanowires, the electrical properties of Si nanonets are highly consistent, as demonstrated here by the similar electrical properties obtained in hundreds of Si nanonet-based devices. The evolution of the Si nanonet conductance with Si nanowire density demonstrates that Si nanonets behave like standard percolating media despite the presence of numerous nanowire-nanowire intersecting junctions into the nanonets and the native oxide shell surrounding the Si nanowires. Moreover, when silicon oxidation is prevented or controlled, the electrical properties of Si nanonets are stable over many months. As a consequence, Si nanowire-based nanonets constitute a promising flexible material with stable and reproducible electrical properties at the macroscopic scale while being composed of nanoscale components, which confirms the Si nanonet potential for a wide range of applications including flexible electronic, sensing and photovoltaic applications.

  12. Laterally assembled nanowires for ultrathin broadband solar absorbers.

    PubMed

    Song, Kyung-Deok; Kempa, Thomas J; Park, Hong-Gyu; Kim, Sun-Kyung

    2014-05-05

    We studied optical resonances in laterally oriented Si nanowire arrays by conducting finite-difference time-domain simulations. Localized Fabry-Perot and whispering-gallery modes are supported within the cross section of each nanowire in the array and result in broadband light absorption. Comparison of a nanowire array with a single nanowire shows that the current density (J(SC)) is preserved for a range of nanowire morphologies. The J(SC) of a nanowire array depends on the spacing of its constituent nanowires, which indicates that both diffraction and optical antenna effects contribute to light absorption. Furthermore, a vertically stacked nanowire array exhibits significantly enhanced light absorption because of the emergence of coupled cavity-waveguide modes and the mitigation of a screening effect. With the assumption of unity internal quantum efficiency, the J(SC) of an 800-nm-thick cross-stacked nanowire array is 14.0 mA/cm², which yields a ~60% enhancement compared with an equivalent bulk film absorber. These numerical results underpin a rational design strategy for ultrathin solar absorbers based on assembled nanowire cavities.

  13. A spray-coating process for highly conductive silver nanowire networks as the transparent top-electrode for small molecule organic photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selzer, Franz; Weiß, Nelli; Kneppe, David; Bormann, Ludwig; Sachse, Christoph; Gaponik, Nikolai; Eychmüller, Alexander; Leo, Karl; Müller-Meskamp, Lars

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel top-electrode spray-coating process for the solution-based deposition of silver nanowires (AgNWs) onto vacuum-processed small molecule organic electronic solar cells. The process is compatible with organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) and organic light emitting thin film transistors (OLETs) as well. By modifying commonly synthesized AgNWs with a perfluorinated methacrylate, we are able to disperse these wires in a highly fluorinated solvent. This solvent does not dissolve most organic materials, enabling a top spray-coating process for sensitive small molecule and polymer-based devices. The optimized preparation of the novel AgNW dispersion and spray-coating at only 30 °C leads to high performance electrodes directly after the deposition, exhibiting a sheet resistance of 10.0 Ω □-1 at 87.4% transparency (80.0% with substrate). By spraying our novel AgNW dispersion in air onto the vacuum-processed organic p-i-n type solar cells, we obtain working solar cells with a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 1.23%, compared to the air exposed reference devices employing thermally evaporated thin metal layers as the top-electrode.We present a novel top-electrode spray-coating process for the solution-based deposition of silver nanowires (AgNWs) onto vacuum-processed small molecule organic electronic solar cells. The process is compatible with organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) and organic light emitting thin film transistors (OLETs) as well. By modifying commonly synthesized AgNWs with a perfluorinated methacrylate, we are able to disperse these wires in a highly fluorinated solvent. This solvent does not dissolve most organic materials, enabling a top spray-coating process for sensitive small molecule and polymer-based devices. The optimized preparation of the novel AgNW dispersion and spray-coating at only 30 °C leads to high performance electrodes directly after the deposition, exhibiting a sheet resistance of 10.0 Ω □-1 at 87

  14. A highly reliable copper nanowire/nanoparticle ink pattern with high conductivity on flexible substrate prepared via a flash light-sintering technique.

    PubMed

    Joo, Sung-Jun; Park, Sung-Hyeon; Moon, Chang-Jin; Kim, Hak-Sung

    2015-03-18

    In this work, copper nanowires (NWs) and Cu nanoparticles (NPs) were employed to increase the reliability of a printed electrode pattern under mechanical bending fatigue. The fabricated Cu NW/NP inks with different weight fractions of Cu NWs were printed on a polyimide substrate and flash light-sintered within a few milliseconds at room temperature under ambient conditions. Then, 1000 cycles of outer and inner bending fatigue tests were performed using a lab-made fatigue tester. The flash light-sintered Cu NW/NP ink film with 5 wt % Cu NWs prepared under the flash light-sintering conditions (12.5 J·cm–2 irradiation energy, 10 ms pulse duration, and one pulse) showed a lower resistivity (22.77 μΩ·cm) than those of the only Cu NPs and Cu NWs ink (94.01 μΩ·cm and 104.15 μΩ·cm, respectively). In addition, the resistance change (ΔR·R0(–1)) of the 5 wt % Cu NWs Cu NW/NP film was greatly enhanced to 4.19 compared to the 92.75 of the Cu NPs film obtained under mechanical fatigue conditions over 1000 cycles and an outer bending radius of 7 mm. These results were obtained by the densification and enhanced mechanical flexibility of flash light-sintered Cu NW/NP network, which resulted in prevention of crack initiation and propagation. To characterize the Cu NW/NP ink film, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were used.

  15. Electrospinning synthesis of superconducting BSCCO nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Edgar A.; Quintero, Pedro A.; Meisel, Mark W.; Nino, Juan C.

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents the synthesis and characterization of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x superconducting nanowires. Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x nanowires with a Tc = 78.7 K are synthesized using the electrospinning process employing sol-gel precursors. A sol-gel methodology is used to obtain a homogeneous PVP solution containing Bi, Sr, Ca, and Cu acetates. Mats of randomly oriented nanowires and aligned nanowires are also collected. After a heat treatment at 850 °C in ambient atmosphere using heating rates of 100 and 400 °C/h, fully crystallized Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x nanowires are obtained. The morphology, microstructure, and crystal structure of these nanowires are then examined to reveal a rectangular morphology having typical wire thickness in the range of 150-250 nm, and a wire width between 400 and 600 nm. DC magnetization studies are conducted to investigate the critical transition temperature (Tc) of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x nanowires and to compare their magnetic properties to those of bulk Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x powder. The Tc for the commercial powder is observed at 78.6 K, and that of the obtained nanowires at 78.7 K. These results point to the superconducting nature of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x nanowires, and the potential of the electrospinning process for the synthesis of this superconductor material.

  16. Growth and optical properties of phosphorus-doped ZnO nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, D. S.; Fallert, J.; Lotnyk, A.; Scholz, R.; Pippel, E.; Senz, S.; Kalt, H.; Gösele, U.; Zacharias, M.

    2007-09-01

    Single-crystal phosphorus-doped ZnO nanowires were synthesized by using a single-source precursor-based vapor transport method. The photoluminescence spectra of phosphorus-doped ZnO nanowires and undoped nanowires are compared. While both show several shallow bound exciton complexes, the phosphorus-doped nanowires reveal an additional distinct emission feature at 3.316 eV. Additionally, the time-resolved PL measurements were conducted to characterize the recombination dynamics.

  17. Mechanical characterization of magnetic nanowire-polydimethylsiloxane composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keshoju, K.; Sun, L.

    2009-01-01

    One-dimensional magnetic nanowires have been introduced into polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to form polymer based nanocomposites. In contrast to the conventional nanofillers such as carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibers, nanoparticles, and layer-structured materials, these well-defined anisotropic metallic nanowires are highly conductive and have much weaker van der Waals interactions. Moreover, composition modulation can be introduced along the wire axis to achieve multifunctionalities. Incorporation of magnetic segment(s) to the nanowire makes it possible to use external magnetic field to manipulate the distribution and alignment of nanowires when they are suspended in liquids. To characterize the mechanical responses of the nanowire-elastomer composite, an approach using microscale rulers has been developed to improve the resolution of strain measurement. Mechanical strengthening effects in PDMS composites with randomly and aligned nickel nanowires have been investigated.

  18. Core-shell nanowire serves as heat cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yue-Yang; Zhou, Wu-Xing; Tang, Li-Ming; Chen, Ke-Qiu

    2013-12-01

    To analyze the thermal transport properties in core-shell nanowires, we calculate systematically the distributions of heat flux in InAs/GaAs and GaAs/InAs core-shell nanowires by using nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. The results show that for InAs/GaAs core-shell nanowires, the heat current tends to transport in the shell, while for GaAs/InAs core-shell nanowires the heat current tends to transport through the core. Moreover, a simple equation is presented to describe the relationship of the thermal conductance among the core, the tubular shell, and core-shell nanowire. It is suggested that the core-shell nanowires can be served as heat cable.

  19. Role of dissipation in realistic Majorana nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chun-Xiao; Sau, Jay D.; Das Sarma, S.

    2017-02-01

    We carry out a realistic simulation of Majorana nanowires in order to understand the latest high-quality experimental data [H. Zhang et al., arXiv:1603.04069 (2016)] and, in the process, develop a comprehensive picture for what physical mechanisms may be operational in realistic nanowires leading to discrepancies between minimal theory and experimental observations (e.g., weakness and broadening of the zero-bias peak and breaking of particle-hole symmetry). Our focus is on understanding specific intriguing features in the data, and our goal is to establish matters of principle controlling the physics of the best possible nanowires available in current experiments. We identify dissipation, finite temperature, multi-sub-band effects, and the finite tunnel barrier as the four most important physical mechanisms controlling the zero-bias conductance peak. Our theoretical results including these realistic effects agree well with the best available experimental data in ballistic nanowires.

  20. Electrospun metallic nanowires: Synthesis, characterization, and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalil, Abdullah; Singh Lalia, Boor; Hashaikeh, Raed; Khraisheh, Marwan

    2013-11-01

    Metals are known to have unique thermal, mechanical, electrical, and catalytic properties. On the other hand, metallic nanowires are promising materials for variety of applications such as transparent conductive film for photovoltaic devices, electrodes for batteries, as well as nano-reinforcement for composite materials. Whereas varieties of methods have been explored to synthesize metal nanowires with different characteristics, electrospinning has also been found to be successful for that purpose. Even though electrospinning of polymeric nanofibers is a well-established field, there are several challenges that need to be overcome to use the electrospinning technique for the fabrication of metallic nanowires. These challenges are mainly related to the multi-steps fabrication process and its relation to the structure evolution of the nanowires. In addition to reviewing the literature, this article identifies promising avenues for further research in this area with particular emphasis on the applications that nonwoven metal wires confined in a nano-scale can open.

  1. Periodic nanowire array at the crystal interface.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Atsutomo; Mizoguchi, Teruyasu; Matsunaga, Katsuyuki; Yamamoto, Takahisa; Shibata, Naoya; Ikuhara, Yuichi

    2013-07-23

    A dislocation in a crystalline material has dangling bonds at its core and a strong strain field in its vicinity. Consequently, the dislocation attracts solute atoms and forms a so-called Cottrell atmosphere along the dislocation. A crystalline dislocation can be used as a template to produce nanowires by selectively doping foreign atoms along the dislocation. However, control of the configuration, spacing, and density of the formed periodic nanowire array has heretofore been extremely difficult. Here we show a method for fabricating ordered, electrically conductive nanowire arrays using periodic dislocations at crystal interfaces. As a demonstration, we fabricated arrays of titanium nanowires arranged at intervals of either 13 or 90 nm and then confirmed by scanning probe microscopy that they exhibit electrical conductivity inside an insulating aluminum oxide. Significantly, we were able to precisely control nanowire periodicity by the choice of crystal orientation and/or crystal planes at the crystal interface. This simple method for the fabrication of periodic nanowire arrays of highly controlled density should be widely applicable to electrical, magnetic, and optical devices.

  2. Fabrication of multilayer nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Kaur, Jasveer Singh, Avtar; Kumar, Davinder; Thakur, Anup; Kaur, Raminder

    2016-05-06

    Multilayer nanowires were fabricated by potentiostate ectrodeposition template synthesis method into the pores of polycarbonate membrane. In present work layer by layer deposition of two different metals Ni and Cu in polycarbonate membrane having pore size of 600 nm were carried out. It is found that the growth of nanowires is not constant, it varies with deposition time. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is used to study the morphology of fabricated multilayer nanowires. An energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) results confirm the composition of multilayer nanowires. The result shows that multilayer nanowires formed is dense.

  3. On-surface formation of metal nanowire transparent top electrodes on CdSe nanowire array-based photoconductive devices.

    PubMed

    Azulai, Daniel; Givan, Uri; Shpaisman, Nava; Belenkova, Tatyana Levi; Gilon, Hagit; Patolsky, Fernando; Markovich, Gil

    2012-06-27

    A simple wet chemical approach was developed for a unique on-surface synthesis of transparent conductive films consisting of ultrathin gold/silver nanowires directly grown on top of CdSe nanowire array photoconductive devices enclosed in polycarbonate membranes. The metal nanowire film formed an ohmic contact to the semiconductor nanowires without additional treatment. The sheet resistance and transparency of the metal nanowire arrays could be controlled by the number of metal nanowire layers deposited, ranging from ∼98-99% transmission through the visible range and several kOhm/sq sheet resistance for a single layer, to 80-85% transmission and ∼100 Ohm/sq sheet resistance for 4 layers.

  4. Boron carbide nanowires: Synthesis and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Zhe

    Bulk boron carbide has been widely used in ballistic armored vest and the property characterization has been heavily focused on mechanical properties. Even though boron carbides have also been projected as a promising class of high temperature thermoelectric materials for energy harvesting, the research has been limited in this field. Since the thermal conductivity of bulk boron carbide is still relatively high, there is a great opportunity to take advantage of the nano effect to further reduce it for better thermoelectric performance. This dissertation work aims to explore whether improved thermoelectric performance can be found in boron carbide nanowires compared with their bulk counterparts. This dissertation work consists of four main parts. (1) Synthesis of boron carbide nanowires. Boron carbide nanowires were synthesized by co-pyrolysis of diborane and methane at low temperatures (with 879 °C as the lowest) in a home-built low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) system. The CVD-based method is energy efficient and cost effective. The as-synthesized nanowires were characterized by electron microscopy extensively. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results show the nanowires are single crystalline with planar defects. Depending on the geometrical relationship between the preferred growth direction of the nanowire and the orientation of the defects, the as-synthesized nanowires could be further divided into two categories: transverse fault (TF) nanowires grow normal to the defect plane, while axial fault (AF) ones grow within the defect plane. (2) Understanding the growth mechanism of as-synthesized boron carbide nanowires. The growth mechanism can be generally considered as the famous vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism. TF and AF nanowires were found to be guided by Ni-B catalysts of two phases. A TF nanowire is lead by a hexagonal phase catalyst, which was proved to be in a liquid state during reaction. While an AF nanowires is catalyzed by a

  5. Managing Phonon Transport by Core/Shell Nanowires

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-28

    core-shell nanowires, The Journal of Chemical Physics , 135, 104508, 14 September 2011. 2. J. Chen, G Zhang, and B Li, A universal gauge for thermal...conductivity of silicon nanowires with different cross sectional geometries, The Journal of Chemical Physics , 135, 204705, 29 November 2011. 3. J

  6. TOPICAL REVIEW: DNA nanowire fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Qun; Cheng, Chuanding; Gonela, Ravikanth; Suryanarayanan, Shivashankar; Anabathula, Sathish; Dai, Kun; Haynie, Donald T.

    2006-01-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) has been a key building block in nanotechnology since the earliest work on what is now called DNA-templated self-assembly (Alivisatos et al 1996 Nature 382 609; Mirkin et al 1996 Nature 382 607; Braun et al 1998 Nature 391 775). A range of different nanoparticles and nanoclusters have been assembled on single DNA molecules for a variety of purposes (Braun et al 1998 Nature 391 775; Richter et al 2001 Appl. Phys. Lett. 78 536; Park et al 2002 Science 295 1503; Mirkin 2000 Inorg. Chem. 39 2258; Keren et al 2003 Science 302 1380). Electrically conductive silver (Braun et al 1998 Nature 391 775) and palladium (Richter et al 2001 Appl. Phys. Lett. 78 536) nanowires, for example, have been fabricated by DNA templating for the development of interconnection of nanoelectric elements, and field effect transistors have been built by assembly of a single carbon nanotube and DNA-templated nanowires (Keren et al 2003 Science 302 1380). DNA is well suited for nanowire assembly because of its size, well organized structure, and exquisite molecular-recognition-ability-specific base pairing. This property has been used to detect nucleic acids (Park et al 2002 Science 295 1503) and anthrax (Mirkin 2000 Inorg. Chem. 39 2258) with high sensitivity and specificity. Molecular recognition can also be used to localize nanowires in electronics. Various methods, for example molecular combing, electrophoretic stretching, and hydrodynamic stretching, have been developed to orient DNA molecules on a solid support. This review focuses on methods used to manipulate and metallize DNA in nanowire fabrication. A novel approach based on a single-stranded DNA template and molecular recognition is also discussed.

  7. Electron beam tuning of carrier concentrations in oxide nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Hyunjin; Choi, Jaewan; Cho, Youngseung; Hwang, In-Sung; Kim, Sun-Jung; Lee, Jong-Heun; Roth, Siegmar; Kim, Gyu-Tae

    2011-07-01

    In spite of the attractive electrical properties of metal oxide nanowires, it is difficult to tune their surface states, notably the ionic adsorbents and oxygen vacancies, both of which can cause instability, degradation, and the irreproducibility or unrepeatable changes of the electrical characteristics. In order to control the surface states of the nanowires, electron beams were locally irradiated onto the channels of metal oxide nanowire field effect transistors. This high energy electron beam irradiation changed the electrical properties of the individual metal oxide nanowires, due to the removal of the negative adsorbents (O2-, O-). The detachment of the ionic adsorbents changes the charge states of the nanowires, resulting in the enhancement of the electrical conductance in n-type nanowires (ZnO, SnO2) and the degradation of the conductance in p-type nanowires (CuO). By investigating the changes in the electrical properties of nanowire devices in air or vacuum, with or without exposure to electron beams, the roles of the physisorbed water molecules or chemisorbed oxygen molecules can be independently understood. Unlike the electron beam irradiation, the vacuum enhanced the conductance of both n-type (ZnO, SnO2) and p-type (CuO) nanowires, due to the release of charges caused by the detachment of the polarized water molecules that were screening them from the surface of the nanowires, irrespective of the major carrier type. The electron beam irradiation technique has the potential to locally modulate the charge carriers in electronic nanowire devices, and the changes could be maintained with proper passivation for the long-term preservation of the device characteristics.

  8. Electron beam tuning of carrier concentrations in oxide nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Hyunjin; Choi, Jaewan; Roth, Siegmar; Kim, Gyu-Tae; Cho, Youngseung; Hwang, In-Sung; Kim, Sun-Jung; Lee, Jong-Heun

    2011-07-01

    In spite of the attractive electrical properties of metal oxide nanowires, it is difficult to tune their surface states, notably the ionic adsorbents and oxygen vacancies, both of which can cause instability, degradation, and the irreproducibility or unrepeatable changes of the electrical characteristics. In order to control the surface states of the nanowires, electron beams were locally irradiated onto the channels of metal oxide nanowire field effect transistors. This high energy electron beam irradiation changed the electrical properties of the individual metal oxide nanowires, due to the removal of the negative adsorbents (O{sub 2}{sup -}, O{sup -}). The detachment of the ionic adsorbents changes the charge states of the nanowires, resulting in the enhancement of the electrical conductance in n-type nanowires (ZnO, SnO{sub 2}) and the degradation of the conductance in p-type nanowires (CuO). By investigating the changes in the electrical properties of nanowire devices in air or vacuum, with or without exposure to electron beams, the roles of the physisorbed water molecules or chemisorbed oxygen molecules can be independently understood. Unlike the electron beam irradiation, the vacuum enhanced the conductance of both n-type (ZnO, SnO{sub 2}) and p-type (CuO) nanowires, due to the release of charges caused by the detachment of the polarized water molecules that were screening them from the surface of the nanowires, irrespective of the major carrier type. The electron beam irradiation technique has the potential to locally modulate the charge carriers in electronic nanowire devices, and the changes could be maintained with proper passivation for the long-term preservation of the device characteristics.

  9. Multiphase separation of copper nanowires.

    PubMed

    Qian, Fang; Lan, Pui Ching; Olson, Tammy; Zhu, Cheng; Duoss, Eric B; Spadaccini, Christopher M; Han, T Yong-Jin

    2016-09-22

    This communication reports a new method to purify copper nanowires with nearly 100% yield from undesired copper nanoparticle side-products formed during batch processes of copper nanowire synthesis. This simple separation method can yield large quantities of long, uniform, high-purity copper nanowires to meet the requirements of nanoelectronics applications as well as provide an avenue for purifying copper nanowires in the industrial scale synthesis of copper nanowires, a key step for commercialization and application of nanowires.

  10. Multiphase separation of copper nanowires

    DOE PAGES

    Qian, Fang; Lan, Pui Ching; Olson, Tammy; ...

    2016-01-01

    This communication reports a new method to purify copper nanowires with nearly 100% yield from undesired copper nanoparticle side-products formed during batch processes of copper nanowire synthesis. This simple separation method can yield large quantities of long, uniform, high-purity copper nanowires to meet the requirements of nanoelectronics applications as well as provide an avenue for purifying copper nanowires in the industrial scale synthesis of copper nanowires, a key step for commercialization and application of nanowires.

  11. Multiphase separation of copper nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, Fang; Lan, Pui Ching; Olson, Tammy; Zhu, Cheng; Duoss, Eric B.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.; Han, T. Yong-Jin

    2016-09-01

    Here, this communication reports a new method to purify copper nanowires with nearly 100% yield from undesired copper nanoparticle side-products formed during batch processes of copper nanowire synthesis. Also, this simple separation method can yield large quantities of long, uniform, high-purity copper nanowires to meet the requirements of nanoelectronics applications as well as provide an avenue for purifying copper nanowires in the industrial scale synthesis of copper nanowires, a key step for commercialization and application of nanowires.

  12. Nonlocal optical response of plasmonic nanowire metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, Brian Michael

    Nanowire metamaterials are a class of composite photonic media formed by an array of aligned plasmonic nanowires embedded in a dielectric matrix. Depending on exact composition, geometry, and excitation wavelength, nanowire structures are known to exhibit elliptical, hyperbolic, or epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) responses. In the ENZ regime, optical response of the composite becomes strongly nonlocal. Excitation of an additional wave, caused by nonlocality, has been experimentally demonstrated in nanowire-based metamaterials. In this thesis, a computational study of the nonlocal optical response in plasmonic nanowire arrays has been conducted to better understand such materials. The results of this computational study were used to develop an analytical technique that provides an adequate description of the optical response of wire based metamaterials. This formalism combines the local and nonlocal effective-medium theories often used to describe the optics of nanowire composites. It provides insight into the origin of the additional wave and allows implementation of additional boundary conditions. This approach can be straightforwardly extended to describe the optics for numerious plasmonic structures.

  13. The impact of nanocontact on nanowire based nanoelectronics.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yen-Fu; Jian, Wen-Bin

    2008-10-01

    Nanowire-based nanoelectronic devices will be innovative electronic building blocks from bottom up. The reduced nanocontact area of nanowire devices magnifies the contribution of contact electrical properties. Although a lot of two-contact-based ZnO nanoelectronics have been demonstrated, the electrical properties bringing either from the nanocontacts or from the nanowires have not been considered yet. High quality ZnO nanowires with a small deviation and an average diameter of 38 nm were synthesized to fabricate more than thirty nanowire devices. According to temperature behaviors of current-voltage curves and resistances, the devices could be grouped into three types. Type I devices expose thermally activated transport in ZnO nanowires and they could be considered as two Ohmic nanocontacts of the Ti electrode contacting directly on the nanowire. For those nanowire devices having a high resistance at room temperatures, they can be fitted accurately with the thermionic-emission theory and classified into type II and III devices according to their rectifying and symmetrical current-voltage behaviors. The type II device has only one deteriorated nanocontact and the other one Ohmic contact on single ZnO nanowire. An insulating oxide layer with thickness less than 20 nm should be introduced to describe electron hopping in the nanocontacts, so as to signalize one- and high-dimensional hopping conduction in type II and III devices.

  14. Electrical and Optical Characterization of Nanowire based Semiconductor Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayvazian, Talin

    (KPFM) was utilized to understand mechanism of light emission in CdSe nanowires. Arrays of CdTe nanowires were electrodeposited using LPNE process where the elec- trodeposition of pc-CdTe was carried out at two temperatures: 20 °C (cold) and 55 °C (hot). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) re- sults revealed higher crystallinity, larger grain size and presence of Te for nanowires prepared at 55°C compared to nanowires deposited at 20°C. Nanowires prepared at 55°C showed higher electrical conductivity and enhanced electroluminescence proper- ties, including higher light emission intensity and improved External Quantum Efficiency (EQE). Electrical conduction mechanism also investigated for CdTe nanowires. Thermionic emission over schottky barrier height was identified as the dominant charge transport mechanism in pc-CdTe nanowires.°C x 1h enhanced grain growth confirmed by structural characterization including X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman Spectroscopy. Correspondingly the light emission intensity and EQE improved due to this grain growth. Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) was utilized to understand mechanism of light emission in CdSe nanowires. Arrays of CdTe nanowires were electrodeposited using LPNE process where the electrodeposition of pc-CdTe was carried out at two temperatures: 20 °C (cold) and 55 °C (hot). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) re- sults revealed higher crystallinity, larger grain size and presence of Te for nanowires prepared at 55°C compared to nanowires deposited at 20°C. Nanowires prepared at 55°C showed higher electrical conductivity and enhanced electroluminescence properties, including higher light emission intensity and improved External Quantum Efficiency (EQE). Electrical conduction mechanism also investigated for CdTe nanowires. Thermionic emission over schottky barrier height was identified as the dominant charge transport

  15. Stoichiometry dependent electron transport and gas sensing properties of indium oxide nanowires.

    PubMed

    Gali, Pradeep; Sapkota, Gopal; Syllaios, A J; Littler, Chris; Philipose, U

    2013-06-07

    The effect of stoichiometry of single crystalline In2O3 nanowires on electrical transport and gas sensing was investigated. The nanowires were synthesized by vapor phase transport and had diameters ranging from 80 to 100 nm and lengths between 10 and 20 μm, with a growth direction of [001]. Transport measurements revealed n-type conduction, attributed to the presence of oxygen vacancies in the crystal lattice. As-grown In2O3 nanowires were shown to have a carrier concentration of ≈5 × 10(17) cm(-3), while nanowires that were annealed in wet O2 showed a reduced carrier concentration of less than 10(16) cm(-3). Temperature dependent conductivity measurements on the as-grown nanowires and analysis of the thermally activated Arrhenius conduction for the temperature range of 77-350 K yielded an activation energy of 0.12 eV. This is explained on the basis of carrier exchange that occurs between the surface states and the bulk of the nanowire, resulting in a depleted surface layer of thickness of the order of the Debye length (LD), estimated to be about 3-4 nm for the as-grown nanowires and about 10 times higher for the more stoichiometric nanowires. Significant changes in the electrical conductance of individual In2O3 nanowires were also observed within several seconds of exposure to NH3 and O2 gas molecules at room temperature, thus demonstrating the potential use of In2O3 nanowires as efficient miniaturized chemical sensors. The sensing mechanism is dominated by the nanowire channel conductance, and a simple energy band diagram is used to explain the change in conductivity when gas molecules adsorbed on the nanowire surface influence its electrical properties. Less stoichiometric nanowires were found to be more sensitive to oxidizing gases while more stoichiometric nanowires showed significantly enhanced response to reducing gases.

  16. Growth of silver nanowires on GaAs wafers.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yugang

    2011-05-01

    Silver (Ag) nanowires with chemically clean surfaces have been directly grown on semi-insulating gallium arsenide (GaAs) wafers through a simple solution/solid interfacial reaction (SSIR) between the GaAs wafers themselves and aqueous solutions of silver nitrate (AgNO(3)) at room temperature. The success in synthesis of Ag nanowires mainly benefits from the low concentration of surface electrons in the semi-insulating GaAs wafers that can lead to the formation of a low-density of nuclei that facilitate their anisotropic growth into nanowires. The resulting Ag nanowires exhibit rough surfaces and reasonably good electric conductivity. These characteristics are beneficial to sensing applications based on single-nanowire surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and possible surface-adsorption-induced conductivity variation.

  17. Silicon nanowire fabric as a lithium ion battery electrode material.

    PubMed

    Chockla, Aaron M; Harris, Justin T; Akhavan, Vahid A; Bogart, Timothy D; Holmberg, Vincent C; Steinhagen, Chet; Mullins, C Buddie; Stevenson, Keith J; Korgel, Brian A

    2011-12-28

    A nonwoven fabric with paperlike qualities composed of silicon nanowires is reported. The nanowires, made by the supercritical-fluid-liquid-solid process, are crystalline, range in diameter from 10 to 50 nm with an average length of >100 μm, and are coated with a thin chemisorbed polyphenylsilane shell. About 90% of the nanowire fabric volume is void space. Thermal annealing of the nanowire fabric in a reducing environment converts the polyphenylsilane coating to a carbonaceous layer that significantly increases the electrical conductivity of the material. This makes the nanowire fabric useful as a self-supporting, mechanically flexible, high-energy-storage anode material in a lithium ion battery. Anode capacities of more than 800 mA h g(-1) were achieved without the addition of conductive carbon or binder. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  18. Semiconductor Nanowires and Nanotubes for Energy Conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fardy, Melissa Anne

    In recent years semiconductor nanowires and nanotubes have garnered increased attention for their unique properties. With their nanoscale dimensions comes high surface area and quantum confinement, promising enhancements in a wide range of applications. 1-dimensional nanostructures are especially attractive for energy conversion applications where photons, phonons, and electrons come into play. Since the bohr exciton radius and phonon and electron mean free paths are on the same length scales as nanowire diameters, optical, thermal, and electrical properties can be tuned by simple nanowire size adjustments. In addition, the high surface area inherent to nanowires and nanotubes lends them towards efficient charge separation and superior catalytic performance. In thermoelectric power generation, the nanoscale wire diameter can effectively scatter phonons, promoting reductions in thermal conductivity and enhancements in the thermoelectric figure of merit. To that end, single-crystalline arrays of PbS, PbSe, and PbTe nanowires have been synthesized by a chemical vapor transport approach. The electrical and thermal transport properties of the nanowires were characterized to investigate their potential as thermoelectric materials. Compared to bulk, the lead chalcogenide nanowires exhibit reduced thermal conductivity below 100 K by up to 3 orders of magnitude, suggesting that they may be promising thermoelectric materials. Smaller diameters and increased surface roughness are expected to give additional enhancements. The solution-phase synthesis of PbSe nanowires via oriented attachment of nanoparticles enables facile surface engineering and diameter control. Branched PbSe nanowires synthesized by this approach showed near degenerately doped charge carrier concentrations. Compared to the bulk, the PbSe nanowires exhibited a similar Seebeck coefficient and a significant reduction in thermal conductivity in the temperature range 20 K to 300 K. Thermal annealing of the Pb

  19. Advances in nanowire bioelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wei; Dai, Xiaochuan; Lieber, Charles M.

    2017-01-01

    Semiconductor nanowires represent powerful building blocks for next generation bioelectronics given their attractive properties, including nanometer-scale footprint comparable to subcellular structures and bio-molecules, configurable in nonstandard device geometries readily interfaced with biological systems, high surface-to-volume ratios, fast signal responses, and minimum consumption of energy. In this review article, we summarize recent progress in the field of nanowire bioelectronics with a focus primarily on silicon nanowire field-effect transistor biosensors. First, the synthesis and assembly of semiconductor nanowires will be described, including the basics of nanowire FETs crucial to their configuration as biosensors. Second, we will introduce and review recent results in nanowire bioelectronics for biomedical applications ranging from label-free sensing of biomolecules, to extracellular and intracellular electrophysiological recording.

  20. Multicolored Vertical Silicon Nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, Kwanyong; Wober, Munib; Steinvurzel, P.; Schonbrun, E.; Dan, Yaping; Ellenbogen, T.; Crozier, K. B.

    2011-04-13

    We demonstrate that vertical silicon nanowires take on a surprising variety of colors covering the entire visible spectrum, in marked contrast to the gray color of bulk silicon. This effect is readily observable by bright-field microscopy, or even to the naked eye. The reflection spectra of the nanowires each show a dip whose position depends on the nanowire radii. We compare the experimental data to the results of finite difference time domain simulations to elucidate the physical mechanisms behind the phenomena we observe. The nanowires are fabricated as arrays, but the vivid colors arise not from scattering or diffractive effects of the array, but from the guided mode properties of the individual nanowires. Each nanowire can thus define its own color, allowing for complex spatial patterning. We anticipate that the color filter effect we demonstrate could be employed in nanoscale image sensor devices.

  1. Thermoelectric properties of large-scale Zn3P2 nanowire assemblies.

    PubMed

    Brockway, Lance; Vasiraju, Venkata; Asayesh-Ardakani, Hasti; Shahbazian-Yassar, Reza; Vaddiraju, Sreeram

    2014-04-11

    Gram quantities of both unfunctionalized and 1,4-benzenedithiol (BDT) functionalized zinc phosphide (Zn3P2) nanowire powders, synthesized using direct reaction of zinc and phosphorus, were hot-pressed into highly dense pellets (≥98% of the theoretical density) for the determination of their thermoelectric performance. It was deduced that mechanical flexibility of the nanowires is essential for consolidating them in randomly oriented fashion into dense pellets, without making any major changes to their morphologies. Electrical and thermal transport measurements indicated that the enhanced thermoelectric performance expected of individual Zn3P2 nanowires is still retained within large-scale nanowire assemblies. A maximum reduction of 28% in the thermal conductivity of Zn3P2 resulted from nanostructuring. Use of nanowire morphology also led to enhanced electrical conductivity in Zn3P2. Interface engineering of the nanowires in the pellets, accomplished by hot-pressing BDT functionalized nanowires, resulted in an increase on both the Seebeck coefficient and the electrical conductivity of the nanowire pellets. It is believed that filtering of low energy carriers resulting from the variation of the chemical compositions at the nanowire interfaces is responsible for this phenomenon. Overall, this study indicated that mechanical properties of the nanowires along with the chemical compositions of their surfaces play a hitherto unknown, but vital, role in realizing highly efficient bulk thermoelectric modules based on nanowires.

  2. Thermoelectric properties of large-scale Zn3 P2 nanowire assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brockway, Lance; Vasiraju, Venkata; Asayesh-Ardakani, Hasti; Shahbazian-Yassar, Reza; Vaddiraju, Sreeram

    2014-04-01

    Gram quantities of both unfunctionalized and 1,4-benzenedithiol (BDT) functionalized zinc phosphide (Zn3P2) nanowire powders, synthesized using direct reaction of zinc and phosphorus, were hot-pressed into highly dense pellets (≥98% of the theoretical density) for the determination of their thermoelectric performance. It was deduced that mechanical flexibility of the nanowires is essential for consolidating them in randomly oriented fashion into dense pellets, without making any major changes to their morphologies. Electrical and thermal transport measurements indicated that the enhanced thermoelectric performance expected of individual Zn3P2 nanowires is still retained within large-scale nanowire assemblies. A maximum reduction of 28% in the thermal conductivity of Zn3P2 resulted from nanostructuring. Use of nanowire morphology also led to enhanced electrical conductivity in Zn3P2. Interface engineering of the nanowires in the pellets, accomplished by hot-pressing BDT functionalized nanowires, resulted in an increase on both the Seebeck coefficient and the electrical conductivity of the nanowire pellets. It is believed that filtering of low energy carriers resulting from the variation of the chemical compositions at the nanowire interfaces is responsible for this phenomenon. Overall, this study indicated that mechanical properties of the nanowires along with the chemical compositions of their surfaces play a hitherto unknown, but vital, role in realizing highly efficient bulk thermoelectric modules based on nanowires.

  3. Direct electrical transport measurement on a single thermoelectric nanowire embedded in an alumina template.

    PubMed

    Ben Khedim, Meriam; Cagnon, Laurent; Garagnon, Christophe; Serradeil, Valerie; Bourgault, Daniel

    2016-04-28

    Electrical conductivity is a key parameter to increase the performance of thermoelectric materials. However, the measurement of such performance remains complex for 1D structures, involving tedious processing. In this study, we present a non-destructive, rapid and easy approach for the characterization of electrical conductivity of Bi2Te3 based single nanowires. By controlling the nanowire overgrowth, each nanowire emerges in the form of a micrometric hemisphere constituting a unique contact zone for direct nanoprobing. As nanowires need no preliminary preparation and remain in their template during measurement, we avoid oxidation effects and time-consuming processing. Electrical transport results show a low nanowire resistivity for compact nanowires obtained at low overpotential. Such values are comparable to bulk materials and thin films. This method not only confirmed its reliability, but it could also be adopted for other semiconducting or metallic electrodeposited nanowires.

  4. Joule heating in nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fangohr, Hans; Chernyshenko, Dmitri S.; Franchin, Matteo; Fischbacher, Thomas; Meier, Guido

    2011-08-01

    We study the effect of Joule heating from electric currents flowing through ferromagnetic nanowires on the temperature of the nanowires and on the temperature of the substrate on which the nanowires are grown. The spatial current density distribution, the associated heat generation, and diffusion of heat are simulated within the nanowire and the substrate. We study several different nanowire and constriction geometries as well as different substrates: (thin) silicon nitride membranes, (thick) silicon wafers, and (thick) diamond wafers. The spatially resolved increase in temperature as a function of time is computed. For effectively three-dimensional substrates (where the substrate thickness greatly exceeds the nanowire length), we identify three different regimes of heat propagation through the substrate: regime (i), where the nanowire temperature increases approximately logarithmically as a function of time. In this regime, the nanowire temperature is well described analytically by You [Appl. Phys. Lett.APPLAB0003-695110.1063/1.2399441 89, 222513 (2006)]. We provide an analytical expression for the time tc that marks the upper applicability limit of the You model. After tc, the heat flow enters regime (ii), where the nanowire temperature stays constant while a hemispherical heat front carries the heat away from the wire and into the substrate. As the heat front reaches the boundary of the substrate, regime (iii) is entered, where the nanowire and substrate temperature start to increase rapidly. For effectively two-dimensional substrates (where the nanowire length greatly exceeds the substrate thickness), there is only one regime in which the temperature increases logarithmically with time for large times, before the heat front reaches the substrate boundary. We provide an analytical expression, valid for all pulse durations, that allows one to accurately compute this temperature increase in the nanowire on thin substrates.

  5. Phonons in Ge nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peelaers, H.; Partoens, B.; Peeters, F. M.

    2009-09-01

    The phonon spectra of thin freestanding, hydrogen passivated, Ge nanowires are calculated by ab initio techniques. The effect of confinement on the phonon modes as caused by the small diameters of the wires is investigated. Confinement causes a hardening of the optical modes and a softening of the longitudinal acoustic modes. The stability of the nanowires, undoped or doped with B or P atoms, is investigated using the obtained phonon spectra. All considered wires were stable, except for highly doped, very thin nanowires.

  6. The Joule heating problem in silver nanowire transparent electrodes.

    PubMed

    Khaligh, H H; Xu, L; Khosropour, A; Madeira, A; Romano, M; Pradére, C; Tréguer-Delapierre, M; Servant, L; Pope, M A; Goldthorpe, I A

    2017-10-20

    Silver nanowire transparent electrodes have shown considerable potential to replace conventional transparent conductive materials. However, in this report we show that Joule heating is a unique and serious problem with these electrodes. When conducting current densities encountered in organic solar cells, the average surface temperature of indium tin oxide (ITO) and silver nanowire electrodes, both with sheet resistances of 60 ohms/square, remains below 35 °C. However, in contrast to ITO, the temperature in the nanowire electrode is very non-uniform, with some localized points reaching temperatures above 250 °C. These hotspots accelerate nanowire degradation, leading to electrode failure after 5 days of continuous current flow. We show that graphene, a commonly used passivation layer for these electrodes, slows nanowire degradation and creates a more uniform surface temperature under current flow. However, the graphene does not prevent Joule heating in the nanowires and local points of high temperature ultimately shift the failure mechanism from nanowire degradation to melting of the underlying plastic substrate. In this paper, surface temperature mapping, lifetime testing under current flow, post-mortem analysis, and modelling illuminate the behaviour and failure mechanisms of nanowires under extended current flow and provide guidelines for managing Joule heating.

  7. The Joule heating problem in silver nanowire transparent electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaligh, H. H.; Xu, L.; Khosropour, A.; Madeira, A.; Romano, M.; Pradére, C.; Tréguer-Delapierre, M.; Servant, L.; Pope, M. A.; Goldthorpe, I. A.

    2017-10-01

    Silver nanowire transparent electrodes have shown considerable potential to replace conventional transparent conductive materials. However, in this report we show that Joule heating is a unique and serious problem with these electrodes. When conducting current densities encountered in organic solar cells, the average surface temperature of indium tin oxide (ITO) and silver nanowire electrodes, both with sheet resistances of 60 ohms/square, remains below 35 °C. However, in contrast to ITO, the temperature in the nanowire electrode is very non-uniform, with some localized points reaching temperatures above 250 °C. These hotspots accelerate nanowire degradation, leading to electrode failure after 5 days of continuous current flow. We show that graphene, a commonly used passivation layer for these electrodes, slows nanowire degradation and creates a more uniform surface temperature under current flow. However, the graphene does not prevent Joule heating in the nanowires and local points of high temperature ultimately shift the failure mechanism from nanowire degradation to melting of the underlying plastic substrate. In this paper, surface temperature mapping, lifetime testing under current flow, post-mortem analysis, and modelling illuminate the behaviour and failure mechanisms of nanowires under extended current flow and provide guidelines for managing Joule heating.

  8. First-principles study of structural & electronic properties of pyramidal silicon nanowire

    SciTech Connect

    Jariwala, Pinank; Thakor, P. B.; Singh, Deobrat; Sonvane, Y. A.; Gupta, Sanjeev K.

    2016-05-23

    We have investigated the stable structural and electronic properties of Silicon (Si) nanowires having different cross-sections with 5-7 Si atoms per unit cell. These properties of the studied Si nanowires were significantly changed from those of diamond bulk Si structure. The binding energy increases as increasing atoms number per unit cell in different SiNWs structures. All the nanowires structures are behave like metallic rather than semiconductor in bulk systems. In general, the number of conduction channels increases when the nanowire becomes thicker. The density of charge revealed delocalized metallic bonding for all studied Si nanowires.

  9. Superconducting qubits with semiconductor nanowire Josephson junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersson, K. D.; Larsen, T. W.; Kuemmeth, F.; Jespersen, T. S.; Krogstrup, P.; Nygård, J.; Marcus, C. M.

    2015-03-01

    Superconducting transmon qubits are a promising basis for a scalable quantum information processor. The recent development of semiconducting InAs nanowires with in situ molecular beam epitaxy-grown Al contacts presents new possibilities for building hybrid superconductor/semiconductor devices using precise bottom up fabrication techniques. Here, we take advantage of these high quality materials to develop superconducting qubits with superconductor-normal-superconductor Josephson junctions (JJs) where the normal element is an InAs semiconductor nanowire. We have fabricated transmon qubits in which the conventional Al-Al2O3-Al JJs are replaced by a single gate-tunable nanowire JJ. Using spectroscopy to probe the qubit we observe fluctuations in its level splitting with gate voltage that are consistent with universal conductance fluctuations in the nanowire's normal state conductance. Our gate-tunable nanowire transmons may enable new means of control for large scale qubit architectures and hybrid topological quantum computing schemes. Research supported by Microsoft Station Q, Danish National Research Foundation, Villum Foundation, Lundbeck Foundation and the European Commission.

  10. Efficient Capture and Isolation of Tumor-Related Circulating Cell-Free DNA from Cancer Patients Using Electroactive Conducting Polymer Nanowire Platforms

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, SeungHyun; Lee, HyungJae; Bae, Kieun; Yoon, Kyong-Ah; Lee, Eun Sook; Cho, Youngnam

    2016-01-01

    Circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) is currently recognized as a key non-invasive biomarker for cancer diagnosis and progression and therapeutic efficacy monitoring. Because cfDNA has been detected in patients with diverse types of cancers, the use of efficient strategies to isolate cfDNA not only provides valuable insights into tumour biology, but also offers the potential for developing new cancer-specific targets. However, the challenges associated with conventional cfDNA extraction methods prevent their further clinical applications. Here, we developed a nanostructured conductive polymer platform for the efficient capture and release of circulating cfDNA and demonstrated its potential clinical utility using unprocessed plasma samples from patients with breast and lung cancers. Our results confirmed that the platform's enhanced efficiency allows tumor-specific circulating cfDNA to be recovered at high yield and purity. PMID:27162553

  11. Performance evaluation of a low conductive growth medium (LCGM) for growth of healthy and stressed Listeria monocytogenes and other common bacterial species.

    PubMed

    Banada, Padmapriya P; Liu, Yi-Shao; Yang, Liju; Bashir, Rashid; Bhunia, Arun K

    2006-08-15

    The performance of a low conductive growth medium (LCGM) (conductivity of <1300 microS) was evaluated for its ability to support growth of food borne bacterial pathogens including Listeria monocytogenes and to determine the expression of the two key virulence proteins in L. monocytogenes for possible applications in an impedance-based microfluidic biochip detection platform. Growth of Listeria was monitored spectrophotometrically and the lag phase, generation time, growth rate and maximum population density were determined using the Gompertz equation. LCGM had a lag phase of 2.3 h and showed a higher cell density compared to Luria Bertini (LB) broth. Length of lag phase was highly dependent on initial inoculum concentrations. The changes in conductivity with respect to growth in the low conductive medium were monitored using a conductivity probe. L. monocytogenes growth could be det