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Sample records for conducts proper elastogenesis

  1. Fibulin-4 conducts proper elastogenesis via interaction with cross-linking enzyme lysyl oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Horiguchi, Masahito; Inoue, Tadashi; Ohbayashi, Tetsuya; Hirai, Maretoshi; Noda, Kazuo; Marmorstein, Lihua Y.; Yabe, Daisuke; Takagi, Kyoko; Akama, Tomoya O.; Kita, Toru; Kimura, Takeshi; Nakamura, Tomoyuki

    2009-01-01

    Great arteries, as well as lungs and skin, contain elastic fibers as important components to maintain their physiological functions. Although recent studies have revealed that a glycoprotein fibulin-4 (FBLN4) is indispensable for the assembly of mature elastic fibers, it remains to be elucidated how FBLN4 takes part in elastogenesis. Here, we report a dose-dependent requirement for FBLN4 in the development of the elastic fibers in arteries, and a specific role of FBLN4 in recruiting the elastin-cross-linking enzyme, lysyl oxidase (LOX). Reduced expression of Fbln4, which was achieved with a smooth muscle-specific Cre-mediated gene deletion, caused arterial stiffness. Electron-microscopic examination revealed disorganized thick elastic laminae with aberrant deposition of elastin. Aneurysmal dilation of the ascending aorta was found when the Fbln4 expression level was reduced to an even lower level, whereas systemic Fbln4 null mice died perinatally from rupture of the diaphragm. We also found a specific interaction between FBLN4 and the propeptide of LOX, which efficiently promotes assembly of LOX onto tropoelastin. These data suggest a mechanism of elastogenesis, in which a sufficient amount of FBLN4 is essential for tethering LOX to tropoelastin to facilitate cross-linking. PMID:19855011

  2. Reduced elastogenesis: a clue to the arteriosclerosis and emphysematous changes in Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Arteriosclerosis and emphysema develop in individuals with Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia (SIOD), a multisystem disorder caused by biallelic mutations in SMARCAL1 (SWI/SNF-related, matrix-associated, actin-dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a-like 1). However, the mechanism by which the vascular and pulmonary disease arises in SIOD remains unknown. Methods We reviewed the records of 65 patients with SMARCAL1 mutations. Molecular and immunohistochemical analyses were conducted on autopsy tissue from 4 SIOD patients. Results Thirty-two of 63 patients had signs of arteriosclerosis and 3 of 51 had signs of emphysema. The arteriosclerosis was characterized by intimal and medial hyperplasia, smooth muscle cell hyperplasia and fragmented and disorganized elastin fibers, and the pulmonary disease was characterized by panlobular enlargement of air spaces. Consistent with a cell autonomous disorder, SMARCAL1 was expressed in arterial and lung tissue, and both the aorta and lung of SIOD patients had reduced expression of elastin and alterations in the expression of regulators of elastin gene expression. Conclusions This first comprehensive study of the vascular and pulmonary complications of SIOD shows that these commonly cause morbidity and mortality and might arise from impaired elastogenesis. Additionally, the effect of SMARCAL1 deficiency on elastin expression provides a model for understanding other features of SIOD. PMID:22998683

  3. [Ultrastructural characteristics of elastogenesis in the major arteries of the canine hindlimb during leg lengthening].

    PubMed

    Ilizarov, G A; Ir'ianov, Iu M; Migalkin, N S; Petrovskaia, N V

    1987-09-01

    In mature dogs ultrastructural peculiarities of elastogenesis in femoral and anterior tibial arteries have been studied at various stages of the bone elongation after Ilizarov method. From the end of the 1st week of distraction, metabolic activation of intimal smooth muscle cells is revealed, from the 2d week--in the middle tunic, and on the 5th-6th week--fibroblasts of adventitia of the arteries investigated, directed to biosynthesis of intracellular predecessors of elastin and microfibrils of the elastic fibers. This results in activation of elastogenic processes, elastic structures in all three tunics of the arteries are observed to newly form and rearrange. The factor that stimulates and maintains elastogenesis is strain of extension, that occurs in the vessels during the experiment. Elastogenesis in the major arteries, when the extremity is elongated, has much in common with development of elastic components in the vascular wall in animals during the process of physiological growth.

  4. Function of Ltbp-4L and fibulin-4 in survival and elastogenesis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Bultmann-Mellin, Insa; Essers, Jeroen; van Heijingen, Paula M.; von Melchner, Harald; Sengle, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT LTBP-4L and LTBP-4S are two isoforms of the extracellular matrix protein latent-transforming growth factor beta-binding protein 4 (LTBP-4). The mutational inactivation of both isoforms causes autosomal recessive cutis laxa type 1C (ARCL1C) in humans and an ARCL1C-like phenotype in Ltbp4−/− mice, both characterized by high postnatal mortality and severely affected elastogenesis. However, genetic data in mice suggest isoform-specific functions for Ltbp-4 because Ltbp4S−/− mice, solely expressing Ltbp-4L, survive to adulthood. This clearly suggests a requirement of Ltbp-4L for postnatal survival. A major difference between Ltbp4S−/− and Ltbp4−/− mice is the matrix incorporation of fibulin-4 (a key factor for elastogenesis; encoded by the Efemp2 gene), which is normal in Ltbp4S−/− mice, whereas it is defective in Ltbp4−/− mice, suggesting that the presence of Ltbp-4L might be required for this process. To investigate the existence of a functional interaction between Ltbp-4L and fibulin-4, we studied the consequences of fibulin-4 deficiency in mice only expressing Ltbp-4L. Resulting Ltbp4S−/−;Fibulin-4R/R mice showed a dramatically reduced lifespan compared to Ltbp4S−/− or Fibulin-4R/R mice, which survive to adulthood. This dramatic reduction in survival of Ltbp4S−/−;Fibulin-4R/R mice correlates with severely impaired elastogenesis resulting in defective alveolar septation and distal airspace enlargement in lung, and increased aortic wall thickness with severely fragmented elastic lamellae. Additionally, Ltbp4S−/−;Fibulin-4R/R mice suffer from aortic aneurysm formation combined with aortic tortuosity, in contrast to Ltbp4S−/− or Fibulin-4R/R mice. Together, in accordance with our previous biochemical findings of a physical interaction between Ltbp-4L and fibulin-4, these novel in vivo data clearly establish a functional link between Ltbp-4L and fibulin-4 as a crucial molecular requirement for survival and

  5. MTU America Inc., Agrees to Conduct Proper Testing to Ensure Engines Meet Air Pollution Standards

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON - MTU America Inc. (MTU), a subsidiary of Rolls-Royce Power Systems AG, will implement an auditing program to ensure proper emissions testing and compliance with federal emission standards for its heavy-duty diesel non-road engines as par

  6. Increase in dermal collagen fibril diameter and elastogenesis with UVB exposure: an optical and ultrastructural study in albino Balb/c mice.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Sueli Coelho; Cassia, Flavia de Freire; Pascarelli, Bernardo Miguel; Souza, Sonia Oliveira; Ramos-e-Silva, Marcia; Filgueira, Absalom Lima; Japiassu, Maria Augusta; Takiya, Christina Maeda

    2007-01-01

    Cutaneous aging is a complex biological phenomenon, dependent not only on the innate or intrinsic process ("biological clock"), but also on extrinsic elements, primarily chronic sun exposure (photoaging). In order to verify dermal morphological changes in the elastic fiber system and collagen associated with aged skin, we performed a light and electron microscopic study on exposed-shaved albino mice, which were exposed to UVB radiation. The experimental group consisted of 48 exposed animals, randomly distributed in three groups and submitted to different radiation doses (A, 28800 J/m2; B, 57600 J/m2; and C, 86400 J/m2) and studied 0, 30, 60 and 90 days of exposure discontinuation. Nonexposed-shaved and nonexposed-nonshaved animals were included as controls. From the day of exposure discontinuation and subsequently, the elastic system and collagen network were progressively modified. The increase in collagen fibril diameter was prominent in the 60 and 90 day groups (p<0.05), as noticed on electron microscopy. Elastic fiber density also increased after irradiation (p<0.05). On electron microscopy, elastogenesis was seen in the deep dermis. The comparative study among the groups disclosed clear relationship between doses and "elastotic changes". It also showed that chronological aging of mice skin was apparently intensified after UVB exposure. Skin elastogenesis seems to be a major consequence of UVB exposure, apart from elastolysis, and occurs not only in humans but also in hairless mice submitted to continuous, long-term UVB exposure.

  7. How to conduct a proper sensitivity analysis in life cycle assessment: taking into account correlations within LCI data and interactions within the LCA calculation model.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Larrey-Lassalle, Pyrene; Faure, Thierry; Dumoulin, Nicolas; Roux, Philippe; Mathias, Jean-Denis

    2015-01-06

    Sensitivity analysis (SA) is a significant tool for studying the robustness of results and their sensitivity to uncertainty factors in life cycle assessment (LCA). It highlights the most important set of model parameters to determine whether data quality needs to be improved, and to enhance interpretation of results. Interactions within the LCA calculation model and correlations within Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) input parameters are two main issues among the LCA calculation process. Here we propose a methodology for conducting a proper SA which takes into account the effects of these two issues. This study first presents the SA in an uncorrelated case, comparing local and independent global sensitivity analysis. Independent global sensitivity analysis aims to analyze the variability of results because of the variation of input parameters over the whole domain of uncertainty, together with interactions among input parameters. We then apply a dependent global sensitivity approach that makes minor modifications to traditional Sobol indices to address the correlation issue. Finally, we propose some guidelines for choosing the appropriate SA method depending on the characteristics of the model and the goals of the study. Our results clearly show that the choice of sensitivity methods should be made according to the magnitude of uncertainty and the degree of correlation.

  8. Commentary: the 1944 patulin trial: the first properly controlled multicentre trial conducted under the aegis of the British Medical Research Council.

    PubMed

    Chalmers, Iain; Clarke, Mike

    2004-04-01

    The 1948 report of the British Medical Research Council's randomized trial of streptomycin for pulmonary tuberculosis is widely regarded as marking the beginning of the modern history of controlled clinical trials. Four years earlier, however, a methodologically sophisticated multicentre trial conducted under the aegis of the Medical Research Council was reported, which assessed the effects of the antibiotic patulin on the course of common colds. Philip D'Arcy Hart and Joan Faulkner (later Joan Doll) were the secretary and assistant secretary, respectively, to the committee overseeing the trial, and they clearly recognized the importance of preventing foreknowledge of allocations from those admitting patients to the study. To do this and to 'muddle people up', they and Ruth D'Arcy Hart devised a scheme involving the use of two patulin groups and two placebo groups, allocating patients to one of these four groups using strict rotation. Philip D'Arcy Hart believes that this study has been overshadowed by the celebrated streptomycin trial (for which he was also secretary to the oversight committee) because no beneficial effect of patulin was detected, and because the report of the streptomycin trial referred to the use of random sampling numbers to generate the allocation schedule. This article makes clear why we agree with Philip D'Arcy Hart that the 1944 patulin trial deserves wider recognition as the first well controlled, multicentre clinical trial to have been conducted under the aegis of the British Medical Research Council. This status is reflected in the International Journal of Epidemiology's reproduction of the full text of the trial report in this issue of the journal.

  9. PROPER: Optical propagation routines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krist, John E.

    2014-05-01

    PROPER simulates the propagation of light through an optical system using Fourier transform algorithms (Fresnel, angular spectrum methods). Distributed as IDL source code, it includes routines to create complex apertures, aberrated wavefronts, and deformable mirrors. It is especially useful for the simulation of high contrast imaging telescopes (extrasolar planet imagers like TPF).

  10. PROMOTIONS: PROper MOTION Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caleb Wherry, John; Sahai, R.

    2009-05-01

    We report on the development of a software tool (PROMOTIONS) to streamline the process of measuring proper motions of material in expanding nebulae. Our tool makes use of IDL's widget programming capabilities to design a unique GUI that is used to compare images of the objects from two epochs. The software allows us to first orient and register the images to a common frame of reference and pixel scale, using field stars in each of the images. We then cross-correlate specific morphological features in order to determine their proper motions, which consist of the proper motion of the nebula as a whole (PM-neb), and expansion motions of the features relative to the center. If the central star is not visible (quite common in bipolar nebulae with dense dusty waists), point-symmetric expansion is assumed and we use the average motion of high-quality symmetric pairs of features on opposite sides of the nebular center to compute PM-neb. This is then subtracted out to determine the individual movements of these and additional features relative to the nebular center. PROMOTIONS should find wide applicability in measuring proper motions in astrophysical objects such as the expanding outflows/jets commonly seen around young and dying stars. We present first results from using PROMOTIONS to successfully measure proper motions in several pre-planetary nebulae (transition objects between the red giant and planetary nebula phases), using images taken 7-10 years apart with the WFPC2 and ACS instruments on board HST. The authors are grateful to NASA's Undergradute Scholars Research Program (USRP) for supporting this research.

  11. Reclaim spent catalysts properly

    SciTech Connect

    Lassner, J.A.; Lasher, L.B.; Koppel, R.L.; Hamilton, J.N.

    1994-08-01

    Treatment of spent catalysts and metallic by products has become increasingly more complex over the last couple of years, due to tightening environmental concerns. Three options are available: (1) Reclaiming the metals and either reusing them to make new catalyst or recycling them for other uses. This is now the preferred option. A reclaiming firm is generally employed to handle the task. (2) Regeneration and reuse. While this generally is the preferred option, few commercial catalysts can be regenerated effectively and economically. (3) Landfilling. This has been the traditional route. However, stricter environmental regulations have made landfilling unattractive. To maximize the reclamation both economically and environmentally, five factors should be addressed: (1) proper planning and physical handling; (2) transportation of materials; (3) environmental concerns; (4) end uses of the catalyst; and (5) choosing the proper reclamation partner. These factors are discussed.

  12. Characterizations of proper actions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biller, Harald

    2004-03-01

    Three kinds of proper actions of increasing strength are defined. We prove that the three definitions specialize to the definitions by Bourbaki, by Palais and by Baum, Connes and Higson in their respective settings. The third of these, which thus turns out to be the strongest, originally only concerns actions of second countable locally compact groups on metrizable spaces. In this situation, it is shown to coincide with the other two definitions if the total space locally has the Lindelöf property and the orbit space is regular.

  13. Mold Allergy: Proper Humidifier Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Training Home Conditions Allergy Allergy: Overview Allergy: Allergens Mold Allergy Proper Humidifier Care Proper Humidifier Care Make ... neglected humidifier can be a major source of mold and mold spores. Learn how to keep a ...

  14. Proper-time relativistic dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, Tepper L.; Zachary, W. W.; Lindesay, James

    1993-01-01

    Proper-time relativistic single-particle classical Hamiltonian mechanics is formulated using a transformation from observer time to system proper time which is a canonical contact transformation on extended phase space. It is shown that interaction induces a change in the symmetry structure of the system which can be analyzed in terms of a Lie-isotopic deformation of the algebra of observables.

  15. Proper Names: Reference and Attribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maumus, Michael Fletcher

    2012-01-01

    In the wake of Saul Kripke's landmark "Naming and Necessity," the claim that proper names are directly referential expressions devoid of descriptive content has come to verge on philosophical commonplace. Nevertheless, the return to a purely referential semantics for proper names has coincided with the resurgence of the very puzzles…

  16. The Meaning of Proper Names.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saka, Paul

    The two major schools of thought concerned with the meaning of proper names, i.e., the direct-reference or referrential/causal theory, and the description theory, are outlined, and new arguments are presented for a strong version of the second of these theories. The referential theory takes the meaning of the name as being the same as its…

  17. Proper Installation Improves Carpet Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grogan, Ralph

    1998-01-01

    Explains how proper carpet installation can add to carpet life; includes tips to consider before signing a carpet-installation purchasing agreement that can make the new carpet a better investment. Topics cover how color selection lengthens appearance life, the need for moisture testing, the importance of carpet seams in the purchasing process,…

  18. The Proper Study of Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Eleanor J.

    1997-01-01

    Reed believes the proper study of psychology is not mind or stimulus-response phenomena but ways animals (including humans) encounter the world. In this view, animals are seen in environmental and evolutionary contexts; a fundamental concept is not mind or behavior but affordance or what environments offer animals; and new topics, such as…

  19. Participation in "Handwashing University" Promotes Proper Handwashing Techniques for Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenton, Ginger; Radhakrishna, Rama; Cutter, Catherine Nettles

    2010-01-01

    A study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of the Handwashing University on teaching youth the benefits of proper handwashing. The Handwashing University is an interactive display with several successive stations through which participants move to learn necessary skills for proper handwashing. Upon completion of the Handwashing University,…

  20. 49 CFR 109.11 - Assistance of properly qualified personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS AND OIL TRANSPORTATION... conducted under this part if the agent is not properly qualified to perform a function that is essential...

  1. Lorentzian proper vertex amplitude: Asymptotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engle, Jonathan; Vilensky, Ilya; Zipfel, Antonia

    2016-09-01

    In previous work, the Lorentzian proper vertex amplitude for a spin-foam model of quantum gravity was derived. In the present work, the asymptotics of this amplitude are studied in the semiclassical limit. The starting point of the analysis is an expression for the amplitude as an action integral with action differing from that in the Engle-Pereira-Rovelli-Livine (EPRL) case by an extra "projector" term. This extra term scales linearly with spins only in the asymptotic limit, and is discontinuous on a (lower dimensional) submanifold of the integration domain in the sense that its value at each such point depends on the direction of approach. New tools are introduced to generalize stationary phase methods to this case. For the case of boundary data which can be glued to a nondegenerate Lorentzian 4-simplex, the asymptotic limit of the amplitude is shown to equal the single Feynman term, showing that the extra term in the asymptotics of the EPRL amplitude has been eliminated.

  2. Proper alignment of the microscope.

    PubMed

    Rottenfusser, Rudi

    2013-01-01

    The light microscope is merely the first element of an imaging system in a research facility. Such a system may include high-speed and/or high-resolution image acquisition capabilities, confocal technologies, and super-resolution methods of various types. Yet more than ever, the proverb "garbage in-garbage out" remains a fact. Image manipulations may be used to conceal a suboptimal microscope setup, but an artifact-free image can only be obtained when the microscope is optimally aligned, both mechanically and optically. Something else is often overlooked in the quest to get the best image out of the microscope: Proper sample preparation! The microscope optics can only do its job when its design criteria are matched to the specimen or vice versa. The specimen itself, the mounting medium, the cover slip, and the type of immersion medium (if applicable) are all part of the total optical makeup. To get the best results out of a microscope, understanding the functions of all of its variable components is important. Only then one knows how to optimize these components for the intended application. Different approaches might be chosen to discuss all of the microscope's components. We decided to follow the light path which starts with the light source and ends at the camera or the eyepieces. To add more transparency to this sequence, the section up to the microscope stage was called the "Illuminating Section", to be followed by the "Imaging Section" which starts with the microscope objective. After understanding the various components, we can start "working with the microscope." To get the best resolution and contrast from the microscope, the practice of "Koehler Illumination" should be understood and followed by every serious microscopist. Step-by-step instructions as well as illustrations of the beam path in an upright and inverted microscope are included in this chapter. A few practical considerations are listed in Section 3.

  3. Swirl technology: Proper design, application, and evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Field, R.; O`Connor, T.P.

    1995-10-01

    Swirl and vortex technologies have been with us for over thirty years now, ever since Bernard Smisson incorporated a cylindrical vortex-type combined sewer overflow (CSO) regulator/settleable-solids concentrator into the Bristol, England sewerage system back in the early 1960`s. In the early 1970`s the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted a series of projects to develop and demonstrate swirl flow regulator/settleable-solids concentrator (swirl) technology. These projects resulted in the EPA swirl and helical-bend flow regulators/settleable-solids concentrators and the swirl degritter. New generations of this technology emerged after the EPA versions were developed including the Fluidsep{trademark} and the Storm King{trademark} vortex-hydrodynamic separators. However, despite different designs and applications, the main intent of the technologies are the same, i.e., to use the forces that arise from a change in flow direction to enhance settleable-solids separation from the storm flow. A variety of opinions have developed regarding the application of these technologies varying from overwhelming support to detractions that question their effectiveness. This abstract will show that proper design and placement in the sewerage system results in effective use of swirl technology. Reliable swirl pollution control efficiency determination is principally dependent on proper sampling and suspended and settleable-solids analysis techniques of the influent and effluent. Simultaneous flowrate measurement is also important. Without the complete capture of heavy and stratified suspended solids (SS) across the influent flow channel or water column, the apparent performance of the swirl will be less than the actual. Particle-settleability tests which are presented, must be conducted before and after installation, but especially before in order to decide if the inertial characteristics of SS in the storm flow warrants the use of a swirl.

  4. 7 CFR 29.112 - Proper light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Proper light. 29.112 Section 29.112 Agriculture... INSPECTION Regulations Inspectors, Samplers, and Weighers § 29.112 Proper light. Tobacco shall not be inspected or sampled for the purposes of the Act except when displayed in proper light for...

  5. 7 CFR 29.112 - Proper light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Proper light. 29.112 Section 29.112 Agriculture... INSPECTION Regulations Inspectors, Samplers, and Weighers § 29.112 Proper light. Tobacco shall not be inspected or sampled for the purposes of the Act except when displayed in proper light for...

  6. 7 CFR 29.112 - Proper light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Proper light. 29.112 Section 29.112 Agriculture... INSPECTION Regulations Inspectors, Samplers, and Weighers § 29.112 Proper light. Tobacco shall not be inspected or sampled for the purposes of the Act except when displayed in proper light for...

  7. 7 CFR 29.112 - Proper light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Proper light. 29.112 Section 29.112 Agriculture... INSPECTION Regulations Inspectors, Samplers, and Weighers § 29.112 Proper light. Tobacco shall not be inspected or sampled for the purposes of the Act except when displayed in proper light for...

  8. 7 CFR 29.112 - Proper light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proper light. 29.112 Section 29.112 Agriculture... INSPECTION Regulations Inspectors, Samplers, and Weighers § 29.112 Proper light. Tobacco shall not be inspected or sampled for the purposes of the Act except when displayed in proper light for...

  9. Catch Us If You Can: Proper Motion Measurements with Chandra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Stefano, Rosanne

    2012-09-01

    The history of astronomy shows that the introduction of a new observational capability produces scientific advances. The angular resolution of Chandra provides a unique opportunity to regularly measure the proper motion of x-ray sources (XRSs), including nearby brown dwarfs and neutron stars. We plan to use optically identified high-proper-motion stars as a training set to test techniques that measure the proper motions of nearby XRSs. We will also conduct studies that can discover proper motions of XRSs, even if there is no known optical counterpart. We will make some interesting measurements this year, may discover optically dim, fast-moving XRSs, and will lay a foundation for future work by many researchers, with the potential for unexpected types of discoveries.

  10. Proper Names a Cognitive-Philosophical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Ramirez, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Proper Names appear at the heart of several debates in philosophy and the cognitive sciences. These include "reference", "intentionality", and the nature of "belief" as well as "language acquisition", "cognitive development", and "memory". This dissertation follows a cognitive approach to the philosophical problems posed by proper names. It puts…

  11. Spinfoam Cosmology with the Proper Vertex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilensky, Ilya

    2017-01-01

    A modification of the EPRL vertex amplitude in the spin-foam framework of quantum gravity - so-called ``proper vertex amplitude'' - has been developed to enable correct semi-classical behavior to conform to the classical Regge calculus. The proper vertex amplitude is defined by projecting to the single gravitational sector. The amplitude is recast into an exponentiated form and we derive the asymptotic form of the projector part of the action. This enables us to study the asymptotics of the proper vertex by applying extended stationary phase methods. We use the proper vertex amplitude to investigate transition amplitudes between coherent quantum boundary states of cosmological geometries. In particular, Hartle-Hawking no-boundary states are computed in the proper vertex framework. We confirm that in the classical limit the Hartle-Hawking wavefunction satisfies the Hamiltonian constraint. Partly supported by NSF grants PHY-1205968 and PHY-1505490.

  12. Asteroid family identifications and proper elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. G.

    1989-01-01

    This paper lists proper elements and family memberships for the first 2065 numbered asteroids plus 20 higher numbered objects. All proper elements were calculated using the Williams (1969) theory. The information contained in the 13 columns of the table is discussed in detail. It is noted that the proper elements and family assignments for the first 1796 numbered objects are mostly identical to those reported previously by Williams (1979). However, proper elements were recalculated for 68 objects in the earlier list, and entries were made for asteroids omitted from that list. Family identifications have changed for several objects as a result of the improvement of the osculating elements and a recalculation of the proper elements of asteroids which formerly had poor orbits.

  13. Selecting the Proper Pump Motor: Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streeter, J. Kenneth, Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Presented is information necessary to an electric utility company and electrical equipment manufacturer to ensure the proper combination of motor and starting equipment in a water-utility facility. (CS)

  14. Counseling patients on proper use of condoms.

    PubMed

    Vinson, R P; Epperly, T D

    1991-06-01

    The best condoms are made of latex, are lubricated and coated with a spermicide, and have a reservoir tip. Condoms can protect against conception and sexually transmitted diseases, including acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. When condoms are used properly and in combination with vaginal spermicidal foam, the contraceptive failure rate is as low as 1 percent. Failure is more often due to user error than product defect. Recommendations for the proper use of condoms are presented.

  15. Identifying Proper Names in Parallel Medical Terminologies

    PubMed Central

    Bodenreider, Olivier; Zweigenbaum, Pierre

    2006-01-01

    We propose several criteria to identify proper names in biomedical terminologies. Traditional, pattern-based methods that rely on the immediate context of a proper name are not applicable. However, the availability of translations of some terminologies supports methods based on invariant words instead. A combination of five criteria achieved 86% precision and 88% recall on the 16,401 word forms of the International Classification of Diseases. PMID:11187591

  16. Evaluation of proper height for squatting stool.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hwa S; Jung, Hyung-Shik

    2008-05-01

    Many jobs and activities in people's daily lives have them in squatting postures. Jobs such as housekeeping, farming and welding require various squatting activities. It is speculated that prolonged squatting without any type of supporting stool would gradually and eventually impose musculoskeletal injuries on workers. This study aims to examine the proper height of the stool according to the position of working materials for the squatting worker. A total of 40 male and female college students and 10 female farmers participated in the experiment to find the proper stool height. Student participants were asked to sit and work in three different positions: floor level of 50 mm; ankle level of 200 mm; and knee level of 400 mm. They were then provided with stools of various heights and asked to maintain a squatting work posture. For each working position, they were asked to write down their thoughts on a preferred stool height. A Likert summated rating method as well as pairwise ranking test was applied to evaluate user preference for provided stools under conditions of different working positions. Under a similar experimental procedure, female farmers were asked to indicate their body part discomfort (BPD) on a body chart before and after performing the work. Statistical analysis showed that comparable results were found from both evaluation measures. When working position is below 50 mm, the proper stool height is 100 or should not be higher than 150 mm. When working position is 200 mm, the proper stool height is 150 mm. When working position is 400 mm, the proper stool height is 200 mm. Thus, it is strongly recommended to use proper height of stools with corresponding working position. Moreover, a wearable chair prototype was designed so that workers in a squatting posture do not have to carry and move the stool from one place to another. This stool should ultimately help to relieve physical stress and hence promote the health of squatting workers. This study sought

  17. Considerations for proper selection of dental cements.

    PubMed

    Simon, James F; Darnell, Laura A

    2012-01-01

    Selecting the proper cement for sufficient bond strength has become progressively complicated as the number of different materials for indirect restorations has increased. The success of any restoration is highly dependent on the proper cement being chosen and used. The function of the cement is not only to seal the restoration on the tooth but also, in some cases, to support the retention of the restoration. This ability to strengthen retention varies by the cement chosen by the clinician; therefore, careful consideration must precede cement selection.

  18. Asteroid proper elements and secular resonances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knezevic, Zoran; Milani, Andrea

    1992-01-01

    In a series of papers (e.g., Knezevic, 1991; Milani and Knezevic, 1990; 1991) we reported on the progress we were making in computing asteroid proper elements, both as regards their accuracy and long-term stability. Additionally, we reported on the efficiency and 'intelligence' of our software. At the same time, we studied the associated problems of resonance effects, and we introduced the new class of 'nonlinear' secular resonances; we determined the locations of these secular resonances in proper-element phase space and analyzed their impact on the asteroid family classification. Here we would like to summarize the current status of our work and possible further developments.

  19. The Essentials of Proper Wine Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manago, Gary H.

    This instructional unit was designed to assist the food services instructor and/or the restaurant manager in training students and/or staff in the proper procedure for serving wines to guests. The lesson plans included in this unit focus on: (1) the different types of wine glasses and their uses; (2) the parts of a wine glass; (3) the proper…

  20. INTERNAL PROPER MOTIONS IN THE ESKIMO NEBULA

    SciTech Connect

    García-Díaz, Ma. T.; Gutiérrez, L.; Steffen, W.; López, J. A.; Beckman, J. E-mail: leonel@astro.unam.mx E-mail: jal@astro.unam.mx

    2015-01-10

    We present measurements of internal proper motions at more than 500 positions of NGC 2392, the Eskimo Nebula, based on images acquired with WFPC2 on board the Hubble Space Telescope at two epochs separated by 7.695 yr. Comparisons of the two observations clearly show the expansion of the nebula. We measured the amplitude and direction of the motion of local structures in the nebula by determining their relative shift during that interval. In order to assess the potential uncertainties in the determination of proper motions in this object, in general, the measurements were performed using two different methods, used previously in the literature. We compare the results from the two methods, and to perform the scientific analysis of the results we choose one, the cross-correlation method, because it is more reliable. We go on to perform a ''criss-cross'' mapping analysis on the proper motion vectors, which helps in the interpretation of the velocity pattern. By combining our results of the proper motions with radial velocity measurements obtained from high resolution spectroscopic observations, and employing an existing 3D model, we estimate the distance to the nebula to be 1.3 kpc.

  1. Improve Carpet Life with Proper Installation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grogan, Ralph

    1998-01-01

    Provides guidance on ways to extend carpet life in educational facilities by paying attention to the details of carpeting installation. Issues to consider include choosing carpeting to meet specific usage requirements, are fiber protectorants used, is the installation properly done by qualified installers, and is moisture testing done prior to…

  2. Family Therapy: A Very Proper Failure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Midlarsky, Elizabeth

    This first-person account of a case study on family therapy discusses two latency-age boys who were referred for treatment. The assessment was that in both cases it was the family itself that was disturbed and needed treatment. The therapist worked with the first boy and his family together. The therapy model used was the "proper" family…

  3. 32 CFR 842.140 - Proper claimants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proper claimants. 842.140 Section 842.140 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE CLAIMS AND LITIGATION ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS Civil Air Patrol Claims (5 U.S.C. 8101(1)(B), 8102(a), 8116(c), 8141; 10 U.S.C. 9441,...

  4. Strategy Guideline: Proper Water Heater Selection

    SciTech Connect

    Hoeschele, M.; Springer, D.; German, A.; Staller, J.; Zhang, Y.

    2015-04-01

    This Strategy Guideline on proper water heater selection was developed by the Building America team Alliance for Residential Building Innovation to provide step-by-step procedures for evaluating preferred cost-effective options for energy efficient water heater alternatives based on local utility rates, climate, and anticipated loads.

  5. Strategy Guideline. Proper Water Heater Selection

    SciTech Connect

    Hoeschele, M.; Springer, D.; German, A.; Staller, J.; Zhang, Y.

    2015-04-09

    This Strategy Guideline on proper water heater selection was developed by the Building America team Alliance for Residential Building Innovation to provide step-by-step procedures for evaluating preferred cost-effective options for energy efficient water heater alternatives based on local utility rates, climate, and anticipated loads.

  6. Joint moments of proper delay times

    SciTech Connect

    Martínez-Argüello, Angel M.; Martínez-Mares, Moisés; García, Julio C.

    2014-08-15

    We calculate negative moments of the N-dimensional Laguerre distribution for the orthogonal, unitary, and symplectic symmetries. These moments correspond to those of the proper delay times, which are needed to determine the statistical fluctuations of several transport properties through classically chaotic cavities, like quantum dots and microwave cavities with ideal coupling.

  7. Boltzmann babies in the proper time measure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bousso, Raphael; Freivogel, Ben; Yang, I.-Sheng

    2008-05-01

    After commenting briefly on the role of the typicality assumption in science, we advocate a phenomenological approach to the cosmological measure problem. Like any other theory, a measure should be simple, general, well defined, and consistent with observation. This allows us to proceed by elimination. As an example, we consider the proper time cutoff on a geodesic congruence. It predicts that typical observers are quantum fluctuations in the early universe, or Boltzmann babies. We sharpen this well-known youngness problem by taking into account the expansion and open spatial geometry of pocket universes. Moreover, we relate the youngness problem directly to the probability distribution for observables, such as the temperature of the cosmic background radiation. We consider a number of modifications of the proper time measure, but find none that would make it compatible with observation.

  8. Boltzmann babies in the proper time measure

    SciTech Connect

    Bousso, Raphael; Freivogel, Ben; Yang, I-S.

    2008-05-15

    After commenting briefly on the role of the typicality assumption in science, we advocate a phenomenological approach to the cosmological measure problem. Like any other theory, a measure should be simple, general, well defined, and consistent with observation. This allows us to proceed by elimination. As an example, we consider the proper time cutoff on a geodesic congruence. It predicts that typical observers are quantum fluctuations in the early universe, or Boltzmann babies. We sharpen this well-known youngness problem by taking into account the expansion and open spatial geometry of pocket universes. Moreover, we relate the youngness problem directly to the probability distribution for observables, such as the temperature of the cosmic background radiation. We consider a number of modifications of the proper time measure, but find none that would make it compatible with observation.

  9. Boltzmann babies in the proper time measure

    SciTech Connect

    Bousso, Raphael; Bousso, Raphael; Freivogel, Ben; Yang, I-Sheng

    2007-12-20

    After commenting briefly on the role of the typicality assumption in science, we advocate a phenomenological approach to the cosmological measure problem. Like any other theory, a measure should be simple, general, well defined, and consistent with observation. This allows us to proceed by elimination. As an example, we consider the proper time cutoff on a geodesic congruence. It predicts that typical observers are quantum fluctuations in the early universe, or Boltzmann babies. We sharpen this well-known youngness problem by taking into account the expansion and open spatial geometry of pocket universes. Moreover, we relate the youngness problem directly to the probability distribution for observables, such as the temperature of the cosmic background radiation. We consider a number of modifications of the proper time measure, but find none that would make it compatible with observation.

  10. Proper motion measurements of HH 224

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez Rivera, Erika F.; Ybarra, Jason E.; Barsony, Mary; Phelps, Randy L.; Román-Zuñíga, Carlos; Tapia, Mauricio; José Downes, Juan

    2015-01-01

    We measured the proper motion of the components of Herbig-Haro object HH 224 embedded in the rho Ophiuchi cloud core using two epochs of [S II] imaging with a 17-year baseline. Our analysis finds the direction of HH 224N to be consistent with the other components of HH 224S suggesting HH 224S and HH 224N are part of the same flow. We discuss possible driving sources. We acknowledge partial support from PAPPIT-IN101813.

  11. [Morphology of neurons of human subiculum proper].

    PubMed

    Stanković-Vulović, Maja; Zivanović-Macuzić, Ivana; Sazdanović, Predrag; Jeremić, Dejan; Tosevski, Jovo

    2010-01-01

    Subiculum proper is an archicortical structure of the subicular complex and presents the place of origin of great majority of axons of the whole hippocampal formation. In contrast to the hippocampus which has been intensively studied, the data about human subiculum proper are quite scarce. The aim of our study was to identify morphological characteristics of neurons of the human subiculum proper. The study was performed on 10 brains of both genders by using Golgi impregnation and Nissl staining. The subiculum has three layers: molecular, pyramidal and polymorphic layer. The dominant cell type in the pyramidal layer was the pyramidal neurons, which had pyramidal shaped soma, multiple basal dendrites and one apical dendrite. The nonpyramidal cells were scattered among the pyramidal cells of the pyramidal layer. The nonpyramidal cells were classified on: multipolar, bipolar and neurons with triangular-shaped soma. The neurons of the molecular layer of the human subiculum were divided into groups: bipolar and multipolar neurons. The most numerous cells of the polymorphic layer were bipolar and multipolar neurons.

  12. Fundamental Principles of Proper Space Kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, Sean

    It is desirable to understand the movement of both matter and energy in the universe based upon fundamental principles of space and time. Time dilation and length contraction are features of Special Relativity derived from the observed constancy of the speed of light. Quantum Mechanics asserts that motion in the universe is probabilistic and not deterministic. While the practicality of these dissimilar theories is well established through widespread application inconsistencies in their marriage persist, marring their utility, and preventing their full expression. After identifying an error in perspective the current theories are tested by modifying logical assumptions to eliminate paradoxical contradictions. Analysis of simultaneous frames of reference leads to a new formulation of space and time that predicts the motion of both kinds of particles. Proper Space is a real, three-dimensional space clocked by proper time that is undergoing a densification at the rate of c. Coordinate transformations to a familiar object space and a mathematical stationary space clarify the counterintuitive aspects of Special Relativity. These symmetries demonstrate that within the local universe stationary observers are a forbidden frame of reference; all is in motion. In lieu of Quantum Mechanics and Uncertainty the use of the imaginary number i is restricted for application to the labeling of mass as either material or immaterial. This material phase difference accounts for both the perceived constant velocity of light and its apparent statistical nature. The application of Proper Space Kinematics will advance more accurate representations of microscopic, oscopic, and cosmological processes and serve as a foundation for further study and reflection thereafter leading to greater insight.

  13. Proper selection of contemporary dental cements.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hao; Zheng, Ming; Chen, Run; Cheng, Hui

    2014-03-01

    Today proper selection of dental cements is a key factor to achieve a successful restoration and will greatly increase the chances of long-term success of the restoration. In recent years, many newly formulated dental cements have been developed with the claim of better performance compared to the traditional materials. Unfortunately, selection of suitable dental cement for a specific clinical application has become increasingly complicated, even for the most experienced dentists. The purpose of this article is to review the currently existing dental cements and to help the dentists choose the most suitable materials for clinical applications.

  14. A Proper Perspective on the Twin Deficits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-01

    the deficits may be imprudent. It would not be a disaster. Moreover, focusing on the deficits diverts attention from the economy’s more significant...toIC TILE Q tN I A PRlOPE l PERSPECTIVE ON THE TWIN DEFICITS Charles Wolf, Jr. May 1989 DTIC LECT I P-7565 • " ’ " ’ , v pcbc MwI I The RAND...Monies, CA 90406-2138 A PROPER PERSPECTIVE ON THE TWIN DEFICITS [1] by Charles Wolf, Jr. While it’s true that the deficit twins -- the budget deficit and

  15. Observations on the Proper Orthogonal Decomposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkooz, Gal

    1992-01-01

    The Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (P.O.D.), also known as the Karhunen-Loeve expansion, is a procedure for decomposing a stochastic field in an L(2) optimal sense. It is used in diverse disciplines from image processing to turbulence. Recently the P.O.D. is receiving much attention as a tool for studying dynamics of systems in infinite dimensional space. This paper reviews the mathematical fundamentals of this theory. Also included are results on the span of the eigenfunction basis, a geometric corollary due to Chebyshev's inequality and a relation between the P.O.D. symmetry and ergodicity.

  16. Proper Motion of Stars Near SGRA*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becklin, Eric

    1997-07-01

    Sgr A* may be a black hole with a mass close to a million solar masses. Radial velocity data suggest that a large unseen mass coincides with SgrA*, but uncertainties in the shapes of the stellar orbits and the possiblity of distributed forms of dark matter being present have limited our ability to determine a precise mass for SgrA*. Proper motions measured over the lifetime of NICMOS will yield an accurate mass for Sgr A* and hence settle the issue of its black hole character. The locations of the Galactic Center sources will be measured one per year. At several epochs, NGC 4147, a globular cluster with low velocity dispersion and lying at a distance where the same exposure pattern as on the Galactic Center can be used, will also be observed as a check on the fidelity of the proper motions. N.B. This program requires 1 orbit in cycle 10 and 2 in cycle 11. The phase I exposure list could not handle these entries.

  17. Planar factors of proper homogeneous Lorentz transformations

    SciTech Connect

    Fahnline, D.E.

    1985-02-01

    This article discusses two constructions factoring proper homogeneous Lorentz transformations H into the product of two planar transformations. A planar transformation is a proper homogeneous Lorentz transformation changing vectors in a two-flat through the origin, called the transformation two-flat, into new vectors in the same two-flat and which leaves unchanged vectors in the orthogonal two-flat, called the pointwise invariant two-flat. The first construction provides two planar factors such that a given timelike vector lies in the transformation two-flat of one and in the pointwise invariant two-flat of the other; it leads to several basic conditions on the trace of H and to necessary and sufficient conditions for H to be planar. The second construction yields explicit formulas for the orthogonal factors of H when they exist and are unique, where two planar transformations are orthogonal if the transformation two-flat of one is the pointwise invariant two-flat of the other.

  18. [Knowledge regarding Proper Use Guidelines for Benzodiazepines].

    PubMed

    Inada, Ken

    2016-01-01

      Benzodiazepines (BZs) work by agonising gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-BZ-receptor complex and thereby produce sedation and anti-anxiety effects. BZs are commonly used in several clinical areas as hypnotics or anti-anxiety drugs. However, these drugs once supplied by medical institutions often lead to abuse and dependence. Thus it is important for institutions to supply and manage BZs properly. At Tokyo Women's Medical University Hospital educational activities about proper use of BZs are performed by not only medical doctors but also pharmacists. We coordinate distribution of leaflets and run an educational workshop. As a result of these activities, the number of patients receiving BZ prescriptions was reduced. Performing these activities, pharmacists were required to work for patients, doctors, and nurses; they acquired knowledge about BZs such as action mechanisms, efficacy, adverse effects, problems about co-prescription, and methods of discontinuing BZs, as well as information on coping techniques other than medication. The most important point to attend the patients is to answer their anxieties.

  19. THE PROPER MOTION OF PALOMAR 5

    SciTech Connect

    Fritz, T. K.; Kallivayalil, N.

    2015-10-01

    Palomar 5 (Pal 5) is a faint halo globular cluster associated with narrow tidal tails. It is a useful system to understand the process of tidal dissolution, as well as to constrain the potential of the Milky Way. A well-determined orbit for Pal 5 would enable detailed study of these open questions. We present here the first CCD-based proper motion measurement of Pal 5 obtained using SDSS as a first epoch and new Large Binocular Telescope/Large Binocular Camera (LBC) images as a second, giving a baseline of 15 years. We perform relative astrometry, using SDSS as a distortion-free reference, and images of the cluster and also of the Pal 5 stream for the derivation of the distortion correction for LBC. The reference frame is made up of background galaxies. We correct for differential chromatic refraction using relations obtained from SDSS colors as well as from flux-calibrated spectra, finding that the correction relations for stars and for galaxies are different. We obtain μ{sub α} = −2.296 ± 0.186 mas yr{sup −1} and μ{sub δ} = −2.257 ± 0.181 mas yr{sup −1} for the proper motion of Pal 5. We use this motion, and the publicly available code galpy, to model the disruption of Pal 5 in different Milky Way models consisting of a bulge, a disk, and a spherical dark matter halo. Our fits to the observed stream properties (streak and radial velocity gradient) result in a preference for a relatively large Pal 5 distance of around 24 kpc. A slightly larger absolute proper motion than what we measure also results in better matches but the best solutions need a change in distance. We find that a spherical Milky Way model, with V{sub 0} = 220 km s{sup −1} and V{sub 20} {sub kpc}, i.e., approximately at the apocenter of Pal 5, of 218 km s{sup −1}, can match the data well, at least for our choice of disk and bulge parametrization.

  20. Tracking magnetogram proper motions by multiscale regularization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harrison P.

    1995-01-01

    Long uninterrupted sequences of solar magnetograms from the global oscillations network group (GONG) network and from the solar and heliospheric observatory (SOHO) satellite will provide the opportunity to study the proper motions of magnetic features. The possible use of multiscale regularization, a scale-recursive estimation technique which begins with a prior model of how state variables and their statistical properties propagate over scale. Short magnetogram sequences are analyzed with the multiscale regularization algorithm as applied to optical flow. This algorithm is found to be efficient, provides results for all the spatial scales spanned by the data and provides error estimates for the solutions. It is found that the algorithm is less sensitive to evolutionary changes than correlation tracking.

  1. SPM4: The Yale/San-Juan Southern Proper Motion survey: 100 million absolute proper motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Altena, W. F.; Girard, T. M.; Casetti, D. I.; Vieira, K.; López, C. E.; Castillo, D.; Monet, D.; Zacharias, N.; Korchagin, V. I.; Platais, I.; Lee, Y. S.; Beers, T. C.; Herrera, D.

    The Yale/San Juan Southern Proper Motion SPM4 Catalog is the culmi- nation of a highly successful 47-year collaboration between the National University of San Juan (UNSJ) and the Yale Southern Observatory (YSO). The SPM4 Catalog contains absolute proper motions, celestial coordinates, blue and visual passband photometry for 103,319,647 stars and galaxies be- tween the south celestial pole and -20 degrees declination. The Catalog is roughly complete to V=17.5 and the precision of its positions and absolute proper motions is approximately 30 to 150 mas and 2 to 10 mas/yr, respec- tively. It is based on photographic and CCD observations taken with the Yale Southern Observatory's double-astrograph at the Cesco Observatory in El Leoncito, Argentina.

  2. Aeroservoelastic modeling with proper orthogonal decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Henry A.; Verberg, Rolf; Harris, Charles A.

    2017-02-01

    A physics-based, reduced-order, aeroservoelastic model of an F-18 aircraft has been developed using the method of proper orthogonal decomposition (POD), introduced to the field of fluid mechanics by Lumley. The model is constructed with data from high-dimensional, high-fidelity aeroservoelastic computational fluid dynamics (CFD-ASE) simulations that couple equations of motion of the flow to a modal model of the aircraft structure. Through POD modes, the reduced-order model (ROM) predicts both the structural dynamics and the coupled flow dynamics, offering much more information than typically employed, low-dimensional models based on system identification are capable of providing. ROM accuracy is evaluated through direct comparisons between predictions of the flow and structural dynamics with predictions from the parent, the CFD-ASE model. The computational overhead of the ROM is six orders of magnitude lower than that of the CFD-ASE model—accurately predicting the coupled dynamics from simulations of an F-18 fighter aircraft undergoing flutter testing over a wide range of transonic and supersonic flight speeds on a single processor in 1.073 s.

  3. Pretransformation strain modulations in proper ferroelastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxena, A.; Barsch, G. R.

    1993-06-01

    Within the framework of the Landau-Ginzburg model for the O h-D 4 h proper ferroelastic transformation pretransformation structural modulations may arise as (possibly defect-stabilized) pseudo-critical fluctuations that can be described by an effective elastic ø 4 model. Here we show that the strain amplitude and temperature dependence of an intermediate tetragonal phase observed above and concurrently with the face-centered cubic to face-centered cubic to face-centered tetragonal transition in Fe 0.7Pd 0.3 can be understood semi-quantitatively in terms of the crossover behavior from the Ising to the displacive limit by applying the crossover phase diagram of Beale, Sarker and Krumhansl (obtained from a renormalization group study of structural phase transitions in 1D and 2D) to the effective ø 4 model. The fact that this type of pretransformation modulation has not been observed with X-rays for other ferroelastic transformations (e.g. InTl alloys) can be attributed to large values of the order parameter gradient coefficient in these cases

  4. Proper estimation of hydrological parameters from flood forecasting aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, Mamoru; Matsumoto, Kazuhiro; Tsuda, Morimasa; Yamakage, Yuzuru; Iwami, Yoichi; Yanami, Hitoshi; Anai, Hirokazu

    2016-04-01

    The hydrological parameters of a flood forecasting model are normally calibrated based on an entire hydrograph of past flood events by means of an error assessment function such as mean square error and relative error. However, the specific parts of a hydrograph, i.e., maximum discharge and rising parts, are particularly important for practical flood forecasting in the sense that underestimation may lead to a more dangerous situation due to delay in flood prevention and evacuation activities. We conducted numerical experiments to find the most proper parameter set for practical flood forecasting without underestimation in order to develop an error assessment method for calibration appropriate for flood forecasting. A distributed hydrological model developed in Public Works Research Institute (PWRI) in Japan was applied to fifteen past floods in the Gokase River basin of 1,820km2 in Japan. The model with gridded two-layer tanks for the entire target river basin included hydrological parameters, such as hydraulic conductivity, surface roughness and runoff coefficient, which were set according to land-use and soil-type distributions. Global data sets, e.g., Global Map and Digital Soil Map of the World (DSMW), were employed as input data for elevation, land use and soil type. The values of fourteen types of parameters were evenly sampled with 10,001 patterns of parameter sets determined by the Latin Hypercube Sampling within the search range of each parameter. Although the best reproduced case showed a high Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency of 0.9 for all flood events, the maximum discharge was underestimated in many flood cases. Therefore, two conditions, which were non-underestimation in the maximum discharge and rising parts of a hydrograph, were added in calibration as the flood forecasting aptitudes. The cases with non-underestimation in the maximum discharge and rising parts of the hydrograph also showed a high Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency of 0.9 except two flood cases

  5. Elastogenesis at the onset of human cardiac valve development

    PubMed Central

    Votteler, Miriam; Berrio, Daniel A. Carvajal; Horke, Alexander; Sabatier, Laetitia; Reinhardt, Dieter P.; Nsair, Ali; Aikawa, Elena; Schenke-Layland, Katja

    2013-01-01

    Semilunar valve leaflets have a well-described trilaminar histoarchitecture, with a sophisticated elastic fiber network. It was previously proposed that elastin-containing fibers play a subordinate role in early human cardiac valve development; however, this assumption was based on data obtained from mouse models and human second and third trimester tissues. Here, we systematically analyzed tissues from human fetal first (4-12 weeks) and second (13-18 weeks) trimester, adolescent (14-19 years) and adult (50-55 years) hearts to monitor the temporal and spatial distribution of elastic fibers, focusing on semilunar valves. Global expression analyses revealed that the transcription of genes essential for elastic fiber formation starts early within the first trimester. These data were confirmed by quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry employing antibodies that recognize fibronectin, fibrillin 1, 2 and 3, EMILIN1 and fibulin 4 and 5, which were all expressed at the onset of cardiac cushion formation (~week 4 of development). Tropoelastin/elastin protein expression was first detectable in leaflets of 7-week hearts. We revealed that immature elastic fibers are organized in early human cardiovascular development and that mature elastin-containing fibers first evolve in semilunar valves when blood pressure and heartbeat accelerate. Our findings provide a conceptual framework with the potential to offer novel insights into human cardiac valve development and disease. PMID:23637335

  6. GLIMPSE Proper: Mid-Infrared Observations of Proper Motion and Variability Towards Galactic Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benjamin, Robert; Babler, Brian; Churchwell, Ed; Clarkson, Will; Kirkpatrick, Davy; Meade, Marilyn; Whitney, Barbara

    2015-10-01

    We propose to re-image 43.4 square degrees of the Galactic center to measure the proper motions of over fifteen million sources within 5 degrees of Galactic center over the last decade. This stellar sample will be over 20 times larger than the previous optical ground-based measurements and will allow us to constrain the anisotropic stellar velocity dispersion as a function of direction and distance as well as test previous claims of streaming motions associated with the near/far side of the Galactic bar, the X-shaped bar, and the vertically thin extended Long Bar. Not only will this be the largest Galactic bulge proper motion survey to date, it will also be the most uniform as mid-infrared observations are minimally affected by extinction over most of the region. We also expect to find at least 150 high proper motion stars (>100 mas/yr) which could be substellar objects and possible microlensing candidates against the crowded Galactic bulge. We will put constraints on the current production rate of hyper-velocity stars thought to be formed in binary interactions with the supermassive black hole of the Galaxy. Finally, we will be able to identify many new variable stars, particularly in the central 2x1.5 degree region of the Galaxy which has only been observed in a single epoch with Spitzer; we expect to find 1000 new sources with variability amplitudes greater than 0.2 mag.

  7. Choice of the proper wavelength for photochemotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moan, Johan; Iani, Vladimir; Ma, LiWei

    1996-01-01

    All photosensitizers applied in experimental- and clinical-photochemotherapy (PCT) have broad absorption spectra stretching from the ultraviolet up to 6 - 700 nm. Light of wavelengths in the red part of the spectrum is chosen for PCT even though the extinction coefficients of the sensitizers are usually smaller in this wavelength region than at shorter wavelengths. Thus, if one wants to treat superficial tumors or skin disorders, this may be a wrong choice. Two pieces of information are needed in order to make a proper choice of wavelength to treat a lesion of a given depth: the wavelength dependence of the optical penetration depth into tissue, and the action spectrum for tumor destruction. Additionally, the skin photosensitivity induced by the drug should be considered. We have non-invasively measured the optical penetration spectra of human tissues in vivo and the fluorescence excitation spectra for several sensitizers, including protoporphyrin (PpIX), in cells. Assuming that the action spectrum for cell inactivation can be approximated by the fluorescence excitation spectrum of the sensitizer -- which is indeed the case for a number of sensitizers in cells in vitro -- we have considered the situation for 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced PpIX in human tissue. All the way down to about 2 mm below the surface light in the Soret band (-410 nm) would give the largest cell inactivation, while at depth exceeding 2 mm, the conventional 635 nm light would be optimal. Light at the argon laser wavelength 514.5 nm is more efficient than light at 635 nm down to 1 mm. From the surface and down to 6 mm, the 635 nm peak of the excitation spectrum of PpIX, as evaluated per photon incident on the skin surface, is redshifted by less than 2 nm. In some cases photosensitizing photoproducts are formed during PCT, such as photoprotoporphyrin during PCT with PpIX. In such cases it may be advantageous to apply a broad-band light source with a spectrum that covers also part of the action

  8. On Recognizing Proper Names: The Orthographic Cue Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peressotti, Francesca; Cubelli, Roberto; Job, Remo

    2003-01-01

    Five experiments investigated the recognition of proper names and common nouns using the lexical decision paradigm. In Experiments 1-3 the case of the initial letter of written stimuli was systematically varied. An advantage was consistently found for proper names written with the first letter in capital. Crucially, response times to proper names…

  9. Ingredients of proper wood fuel storage

    SciTech Connect

    White, M.S.

    1980-06-01

    This article deals with wood fuel storage and some of the problems arising out of long term storage. It was found that piles with steep sloping sides caused rainwater to be shed, while flat piles allowed rain water to percolate and become absorbed by the wood. After five months of storage, the outer one foot of cone-shaped piles gained moisture while the bulk of it was dried. Incidences of spontaneous fires increased with a pile height above 16 foot. The fires were commonly located in cracks near the surface of the pile which allowed oxygen to come in contact with the hot interior. Several preventative measures are put forward, these include the development of a first-in first-out storage and retrieval system, construction of piles on a non-combustible thermal conducting surface and removal of ice from the pile surface to allow heat to escape are suggested. The covering of green piles may decrease the average moisture content but should also be well ventilated to allow heat to escape.

  10. 45 CFR 170.423 - Principles of proper conduct for ONC-ATCBs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... effective quality management system which addresses all requirements of ISO/IEC 17025:2005 (incorporated by...) Organization and management, including key testing and certification personnel; (3) Policies or procedures; (4... identification; (5) The clinical quality measures to which a Complete EHR or EHR Module has been tested...

  11. 45 CFR 170.423 - Principles of proper conduct for ONC-ATCBs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... effective quality management system which addresses all requirements of ISO/IEC 17025:2005 (incorporated by...) Organization and management, including key testing and certification personnel; (3) Policies or procedures; (4... identification; (5) The clinical quality measures to which a Complete EHR or EHR Module has been tested...

  12. 45 CFR 170.423 - Principles of proper conduct for ONC-ATCBs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... effective quality management system which addresses all requirements of ISO/IEC 17025:2005 (incorporated by...) Organization and management, including key testing and certification personnel; (3) Policies or procedures; (4... identification; (5) The clinical quality measures to which a Complete EHR or EHR Module has been tested...

  13. 45 CFR 170.423 - Principles of proper conduct for ONC-ATCBs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... effective quality management system which addresses all requirements of ISO/IEC 17025:2005 (incorporated by...) Organization and management, including key testing and certification personnel; (3) Policies or procedures; (4... identification; (5) The clinical quality measures to which a Complete EHR or EHR Module has been tested...

  14. 45 CFR 170.423 - Principles of proper conduct for ONC-ATCBs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... effective quality management system which addresses all requirements of ISO/IEC 17025:2005 (incorporated by...) Organization and management, including key testing and certification personnel; (3) Policies or procedures; (4... identification; (5) The clinical quality measures to which a Complete EHR or EHR Module has been tested...

  15. 45 CFR 170.523 - Principles of proper conduct for ONC-ACBs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Section 170.523 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS, IMPLEMENTATION SPECIFICATIONS, AND CERTIFICATION CRITERIA AND CERTIFICATION PROGRAMS FOR HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Permanent Certification Program for HIT §...

  16. 45 CFR 170.523 - Principles of proper conduct for ONC-ACBs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Section 170.523 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS, IMPLEMENTATION SPECIFICATIONS, AND CERTIFICATION CRITERIA AND CERTIFICATION PROGRAMS FOR HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ONC HIT Certification Program § 170.523 Principles...

  17. 45 CFR 170.523 - Principles of proper conduct for ONC-ACBs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Section 170.523 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS, IMPLEMENTATION SPECIFICATIONS, AND CERTIFICATION CRITERIA AND CERTIFICATION PROGRAMS FOR HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Permanent Certification Program for HIT §...

  18. 45 CFR 170.523 - Principles of proper conduct for ONC-ACBs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Section 170.523 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS, IMPLEMENTATION SPECIFICATIONS, AND CERTIFICATION CRITERIA AND CERTIFICATION PROGRAMS FOR HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ONC HIT Certification Program § 170.523 Principles...

  19. 49 CFR 109.11 - Assistance of properly qualified personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS AND OIL TRANSPORTATION... properly qualified to perform a function that is essential to the agent's exercise of authority under...

  20. Educating Children to Proper Eating Habits in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Marian

    A brief discussion of proper nutrition in general precedes an examination of proper nutrition for school children and the specification of nutrition education objectives for kindergarten or first grade students. The remainder of the paper delineates food projects by which objectives can be realized (for example, snack necklace, jack-o-lantern…

  1. Proper Names for Use in Beginning Reading Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronnell, Bruce

    A list of 500 proper names, primarily first names, is coded for spelling-to-sound correspondences and stress, and information is given on the type of name (first or last), sex of name, style (nickname or complete name), alternate spellings, pronunciations, and usages. The author points out that proper names comprise roughly 9 percent of the words…

  2. Second Language Listening and Unfamiliar Proper Names: Comprehension Barrier?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobeleva, Polina P.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines whether unfamiliar proper names affect English as a second language (ESL) learners' listening comprehension. A total of 110 intermediate to advanced ESL learners participated; comprehension of a short news text was tested under two conditions, Names Known (all proper names pre-taught in advance) and Names Unknown (all proper…

  3. 16 CFR 682.3 - Proper disposal of consumer information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Proper disposal of consumer information. 682... OF CONSUMER REPORT INFORMATION AND RECORDS § 682.3 Proper disposal of consumer information. (a) Standard. Any person who maintains or otherwise possesses consumer information for a business purpose...

  4. 32 CFR 536.27 - Identification of a proper claimant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Identification of a proper claimant. 536.27 Section 536.27 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Investigation and Processing of Claims § 536.27 Identification of a proper claimant. The following are...

  5. Lethal injection, autonomy and the proper ends of medicine.

    PubMed

    Silver, David

    2003-04-01

    Gerald Dworkin has argued that it is inconsistent with the proper ends of medicine for a physician to participate in an execution by lethal injection. He does this by proposing a principle by which we are to judge whether an action is consistent with the proper ends of medicine. I argue: (a) that this principle, if valid, does not show that it is inconsistent with the proper ends of medicine for a physician to participate in an execution by lethal injection; and (b) that this principle is not valid, and this is because it mistakenly views the promotion of patient autonomy as one of the proper ends of medicine. Rather, I propose, we should view respect for a patient's autonomy as a constraint on the pursuit of the proper ends of medicine, rather than as one of the proper ends itself. With this revised understanding of the proper ends of medicine, we can conclude that it is inconsistent with the proper ends of medicine for a physician to participate in an execution by lethal injection.

  6. 25 CFR 213.35 - Mines to be timbered properly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mines to be timbered properly. 213.35 Section 213.35 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF RESTRICTED... properly. In mining operations the lessee shall keep the mine well and sufficiently timbered at all...

  7. 16 CFR 682.3 - Proper disposal of consumer information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proper disposal of consumer information. 682... OF CONSUMER REPORT INFORMATION AND RECORDS § 682.3 Proper disposal of consumer information. (a) Standard. Any person who maintains or otherwise possesses consumer information for a business purpose...

  8. Indicators: Conductivity

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Conductivity is a measure of the ability of water to pass an electrical current. Because dissolved salts and other inorganic chemicals conduct electrical current, conductivity increases as salinity increases.

  9. THE SOUTHERN PROPER MOTION PROGRAM. IV. THE SPM4 CATALOG

    SciTech Connect

    Girard, Terrence M.; Van Altena, William F.; Vieira, Katherine; Casetti-Dinescu, Dana I. E-mail: william.vanaltena@yale.edu E-mail: dana.casetti@yale.edu

    2011-07-15

    We present the fourth installment of the Yale/San Juan Southern Proper Motion Catalog, SPM4. The SPM4 contains absolute proper motions, celestial coordinates, and B, V photometry for over 103 million stars and galaxies between the south celestial pole and -20{sup 0} declination. The catalog is roughly complete to V = 17.5 and is based on photographic and CCD observations taken with the Yale Southern Observatory's double astrograph at Cesco Observatory in El Leoncito, Argentina. The proper-motion precision, for well-measured stars, is estimated to be 2-3 mas yr{sup -1}, depending on the type of second-epoch material. At the bright end, proper motions are on the International Celestial Reference System by way of Hipparcos Catalog stars, while the faint end is anchored to the inertial system using external galaxies. Systematic uncertainties in the absolute proper motions are on the order of 1 mas yr{sup -1}.

  10. Disk Luminosity Function Based on the Lowell Proper Motion Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Mee-Jeong; Lee, Sang-Gak

    1991-12-01

    Disk stellar luminosity function has been derived with stars in the Lowell Proper Motion Survey which contains about 9000 stars with mu => 0.27" of arc/yr, 8 < m_pg < 17 and with bright stars in the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) Star Catalogue. Luminosity function has been obtained with stars within 20 pc by Luyten's mean absolute magnitudes method using Reduced Proper Motion Diagram to select disk stars. Magnitudes and colors, in the SAO Star Catalogue as well as in the Lowell Proper Motion Survey have been transformed to the UBV system from the published UBV data. It has been found that stars which have higher proper motion than the original limit of the proper motion survey are missed, when the relation between the absolute magnitude and reduced proper motion is applied to sample stars without considering the dispersion in magnitude. Correction factors for missing stars have been estimated according to their limits of proper motion which are dependent on the absolute magnitude. Resulting lumi- nosity function shows Wielen's dip at M_B ~ 10, and systematic enhancement of stars on the average of about delta log Phi(M_B) ~ 0.2 compared with Luyten's luminosity function.

  11. Searching for answers: proper prescribing of controlled prescription drugs.

    PubMed

    Brown, Martha E; Swiggart, William H; Dewey, Charlene M; Ghulyan, Marine V

    2012-01-01

    Prescription drug abuse is increasing at alarming rates in this country. Most often drugs are obtained through relatives or friends. An important step in addressing this problem is educating healthcare providers in the proper prescribing of scheduled drugs. Physicians and other healthcare workers receive little training in proper screening for substance abuse, proper prescribing of scheduled drugs, and referral for those needing treatment. Continuing medical education is one venue for addressing this problem. However, screening, brief intervention and referral for treatment (SBIRT) should be taught in medical school and residency.

  12. Proper Motions of Isolated Massive Stars Near the Galactic Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lennon, Daniel

    2012-10-01

    The Galactic Center is one of the most perplexing and unusual regions of the Galaxy. Not only is it home to the central massive black hole but it contains three very massive young star clusters within the central 30 pc; the Arches, Quintuplet and Central clusters. Furthermore, emission-line surveys have revealed the presence of what appears to be a diaspora of 40 very massive isolated Wolf-Rayet-like stars scattered throughout the region, outside of these massive clusters. Their origin is currently unkown but the suspected causes include such diverse and exotic mechanisms as ejection by dynamical interaction within the massive clusters, ejection by supernovae events within those clusters old enough to have SN, ejection by interaction with the central black hole, stellar mergers in the field, and in situ star formation of isolated massive stars. These processes however should all leave clear and distinct dynamical signatures on their products.We propose using WFC3/IR to conduct a survey of 150 square arcminutes the Galactic Center region to measure relative proper motions to an accuracy of 10 km/s for stars with masses as low as a few solar masses {late B-type}. Our objectives include determining which of the known isolated massive stars are runaways, estimating their probable places of origin, discovering less luminous runaways that are invisible to emission line surveys, characterizing the dynamical properties of runaway stars in all luminosty ranges, and searching for signs of tidally disrupted massive clusters. The survey will have lasting legacy value to those trying to unravel the physics of galactic centers and the environments around massive black holes.

  13. Proper Motions of Isolated Massive Stars Near the Galactic Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lennon, Daniel

    2014-10-01

    The Galactic Center is one of the most perplexing and unusual regions of the Galaxy. Not only is it home to the central massive black hole but it contains three very massive young star clusters within the central 30 pc; the Arches, Quintuplet and Central clusters. Furthermore, emission-line surveys have revealed the presence of what appears to be a diaspora of ~40 very massive isolated Wolf-Rayet-like stars scattered throughout the region, outside of these massive clusters. Their origin is currently unkown but the suspected causes include such diverse and exotic mechanisms as ejection by dynamical interaction within the massive clusters, ejection by supernovae events within those clusters old enough to have SN, ejection by interaction with the central black hole, stellar mergers in the field, and in situ star formation of isolated massive stars. These processes however should all leave clear and distinct dynamical signatures on their products.We propose using WFC3/IR to conduct a survey of ~150 square arcminutes the Galactic Center region to measure relative proper motions to an accuracy of 10 km/s for stars with masses as low as a few solar masses (late B-type). Our objectives include determining which of the known isolated massive stars are runaways, estimating their probable places of origin, discovering less luminous runaways that are invisible to emission line surveys, characterizing the dynamical properties of runaway stars in all luminosty ranges, and searching for signs of tidally disrupted massive clusters. The survey will have lasting legacy value to those trying to unravel the physics of galactic centers and the environments around massive black holes.

  14. A properly adjusted forage harvester can save time and money

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A properly adjusted forage harvester can save fuel and increase the realizable milk per ton of your silage. This article details the adjustments necessary to minimize energy while maximizing productivity and forage quality....

  15. 49 CFR 109.11 - Assistance of properly qualified personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS AND OIL TRANSPORTATION... this part if the agent is not properly qualified to perform a function that is essential to the...

  16. Cataclysmic variables in the SUPERBLINK proper motion survey

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, Julie N.; Thorstensen, John R.; Lépine, Sébastien

    2014-12-01

    We have discovered a new high proper motion cataclysmic variable (CV) in the SUPERBLINK proper motion survey, which is sensitive to stars with proper motions greater than 40 mas yr{sup −1}. This CV was selected for follow-up observations as part of a larger search for CVs selected based on proper motions and their near-UV−V and V−K{sub s} colors. We present spectroscopic observations from the 2.4 m Hiltner Telescope at MDM Observatory. The new CV's orbital period is near 96 minutes, its spectrum shows the double-peaked Balmer emission lines characteristic of quiescent dwarf novae, and its V magnitude is near 18.2. Additionally, we present a full list of known CVs in the SUPERBLINK catalog.

  17. 49 CFR 109.11 - Assistance of properly qualified personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS AND OIL TRANSPORTATION... this part if the agent is not properly qualified to perform a function that is essential to the...

  18. Weight Training: Do's and Don'ts of Proper Technique

    MedlinePlus

    ... training can help you lose fat, increase your strength and muscle tone, and improve your bone density. ... 12 repetitions with the proper weight can build strength efficiently and can be as effective as three ...

  19. Proper elements and family memberships of the asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. G.

    1979-01-01

    The proper elements tabulated are calculated according to the secular perturbation theory of Williams (1969); the free oscillations are referred to a zero value for the proper argument of perihelion. The secular theory for the planets is taken from Brouwer and van Woerkom (1950). Families with numbers smaller than 100 are reasonably close matches to families found by previous investigators. Families with numbers greater than 100 are new to this work. Guidelines for use of the table are given.

  20. A few thoughts on proper orthogonal decomposition in turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podvin, Bérengère; Fraigneau, Yann

    2017-02-01

    Proper orthogonal decomposition was originally introduced in turbulence to identify large-scale patterns in turbulent flows. Over the years, several extensions have been formulated in order to strengthen its model-predictive abilities, with limited success in the case of fully developed turbulence. We argue that physics-based insight obtained from the proper orthogonal decomposition structures and other turbulence analysis techniques could lead to significant developments in that respect. Numerical results from channel flow simulations are used to illustrate our conjectures.

  1. Electrical Conductivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Philip B.

    1979-01-01

    Examines Drude's classical (1900) theory of electrical conduction, details the objections to and successes of the 1900 theory, and investigates the Quantum (1928) theory of conduction, reviewing its successes and limitations. (BT)

  2. Proper motion survey with the forty-eight inch Schmidt telescope. 33: Proper motions for 3478 faint stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luyten, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    Data for the motions of 3478 stars are presented. The data were obtained with the automated-computerized plate scanner and measuring machine. Only data for those stars for which no earlier determination of proper motions are included.

  3. Compliance of proper safety helmet usage in motorcyclists.

    PubMed

    Kulanthayan, S; Umar, R S; Hariza, H A; Nasir, M T; Harwant, S

    2000-03-01

    Motorcyclists make up the largest group of fatalities on Malaysian roads, majority succumbing to head injuries despite the compulsory safety helmet laws in the country. One possible reason for this high fatality is improper usage of safety helmets. This study examines the compliance of proper safety helmet use in motorcyclists in a typical Malaysian town. Five hundred motorcyclists were studied. Only 54.4% of motorcyclists used helmets properly, 21.4% used them improperly; and 24.2% did not wear helmets. Six variables were found to be significant in improper safety helmet use. They were age, gender, race, formal education level, prior accident experience and type of license held. Marital status and riding experience were not significant. Efforts promoting proper use of safety helmets should focus on the young, male, less formally educated, unlicensed rider, who has had a prior accident.

  4. Proper motions, cluster membership and reddening in NGC 6611

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamp, L. W.

    1974-01-01

    Approaches used in reductions for proper motion are based on methods developed by Vasilevskis et al. (1965). Probabilities of cluster membership were determined by fitting the distribution of stars in the proper motion vector diagram with two bivariate Gaussian distributions for the field and the cluster stars. The spectroscopic data indicate that the stellar content of the cluster is not anomalous. The color-magnitude diagram is considered along with questions regarding member stars lying above the main sequence, the cluster age, and aspects of spatial structure.

  5. Correcting for systematic effects in ground-based photographic proper motions: The Southern Proper Motion Program as a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Altena, William F.; Girard, T. M.; Platais, I.; Kozhurina-Platais, V.; López, C. E.

    The derivation of accurate positions and proper motions from ground-based photographic materials requires the minimization of systematic errors due to inaccurate modeling of the telescopes' field-of-view and the magnitude equation. We describe the procedures that have been developed for the Southern Proper Motions Program (SPM) to deal with these important problems. The SPM is based on photographic plates taken at our Carlos Cesco Observatory at El Leoncito, Argentina and will yield absolute proper motions and positions to magnitude B approximately 19 for approximately 1 million stars south of declination -20 degrees. The SPM is a joint program between the Yale Southern Observatory and the Universidad Nacional de San Juan, Argentina. The SPM Catalog 2.0, which is the current version covering the -25 to -40 degree declination zones, provides positions, absolute proper motions, and photographic BV photometry for over 320,000 stars and galaxies. Stars cover the magnitude range 5 < V < 18.5. The standard errors for the best measured stars are: 20 mas for positions in each coordinate; 2 mas/yr for absolute proper motions and 0.05 mag in B and V bandpasses. In addition to the catalog, a list of 7783 stars in 150 CCD calibrating sequences in BV is provided. A new feature of the SPM Catalog is an extensive list of cross-identifications with external special catalogs, which include all major astrometric catalogs, and a large number of astrophysically interesting objects. The catalog is available on the WWW at http://www.astro.yale.edu/astrom/. Our web-side contains several useful plots showing the sky coverage, error distribution, a quick comparison with the Hipparcos proper motions, etc. We would appreciate your comments on the SPM 2.0 and our Web page.

  6. 32 CFR 842.29 - Who are not proper claimants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... LITIGATION ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS Personnel Claims (31 U.S.C. 3701, 3721) § 842.29 Who are not proper... claimants, including insurance companies. (b) Conditional vendors and lienholders. (c) Non-Air Force... active duty for summer training. (e) Active duty military personnel and civilian employees of a...

  7. 32 CFR 842.29 - Who are not proper claimants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... LITIGATION ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS Personnel Claims (31 U.S.C. 3701, 3721) § 842.29 Who are not proper... claimants, including insurance companies. (b) Conditional vendors and lienholders. (c) Non-Air Force... active duty for summer training. (e) Active duty military personnel and civilian employees of a...

  8. Δ μ binaries among stars with large proper motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khovritchev, M. Yu.; Kulikova, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    Based on observations performed with the Pulkovo normal astrograph in 2008-2015 and data from sky surveys (DSS, 2MASS, SDSS DR12, WISE), we have investigated the motions of 1308 stars with proper motions larger than 300 mas yr-1 down to magnitude 17. The main idea of our search for binary stars based on this material is reduced to comparing the quasi-mean (POSS2-POSS1; an epoch difference of ≈50 yr) and quasi-instantaneous (2МASS, SDSS, WISE, Pulkovo; an epoch difference of ≈10 yr) proper motions. If the difference is statistically significant compared to the proper motion errors, then the object may be considered as a Δ μ-binary candidate. One hundred and twenty one stars from among those included in the observational program satisfy this requirement. Additional confirmations of binarity for a number of stars have been obtained by comparing the calculated proper motions with the data from several programs of stellar trigonometric parallax determinations and by analyzing the asymmetry of stellar images on sky-survey CCD frames. Analysis of the highly accurate SDSS photometric data for four stars (J0656+3827, J0838+3940, J1229+5332, J2330+4639) allows us to reach a conclusion about the probability that these Δ μ binaries are white dwarf +Mdwarf pairs.

  9. Photometric calibration of the APM Proper Motion Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, D. W.

    1989-05-01

    Deep BVR photometry is presented in the magnitude range B = 11-21, obtained using a CCD camera. These magnitudes are used to calibrate the photographic photometry of the APM Proper Motion Project. Useful color-color relationships are also presented, calculated using the stellar spectra of Gunn and Stryker (1983).

  10. 49 CFR 236.526 - Roadway element not functioning properly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Roadway § 236.526 Roadway element not functioning properly. When a roadway element except track circuit of automatic train stop... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE...

  11. 49 CFR 236.526 - Roadway element not functioning properly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Roadway § 236.526 Roadway element not functioning properly. When a roadway element except track circuit of automatic train stop... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE...

  12. 49 CFR 236.526 - Roadway element not functioning properly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Roadway § 236.526 Roadway element not functioning properly. When a roadway element except track circuit of automatic train stop... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE...

  13. 49 CFR 236.526 - Roadway element not functioning properly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Roadway § 236.526 Roadway element not functioning properly. When a roadway element except track circuit of automatic train stop... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE...

  14. 49 CFR 236.526 - Roadway element not functioning properly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Roadway § 236.526 Roadway element not functioning properly. When a roadway element except track circuit of automatic train stop... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE...

  15. 17 CFR 230.401 - Requirements as to proper form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... be effective, shall conform to the applicable rules and forms as in effect on the date such stop... RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 General Requirements § 230.401 Requirements as to proper... applicable rules and forms as in effect on the initial filing date of such registration statement...

  16. Helping Students to Find the Proper Connective: Why the Difficulty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ching, Marvin K. L.

    Teachers are often baffled by the inability of a number of basic writing students to use the proper connective to show relationship between sentences or phrases for coherence. Most frustrating is the teacher's inadequacy in giving definitions or explanations beyond the student's textbook descriptions of the connectives. However, a cursory…

  17. The Proper Place of Theory in Educational History?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urban, Wayne J.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about the proper place of theory in educational history and shares his comments on the essays by Eileen Tamura, Carolyn Eick, and Roland Coloma. Eileen Tamura's positing of most educational historians as practitioners of narrative history is surely on the mark. She invites historians of education to investigate…

  18. Hiding in Plain Sight: Nearby Low Proper Motion Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riedel, Adric R.; Henry, T. J.; White, R. J.; Jensen, E. L. N.; Song, I.; Hambly, N. C.; RECONS

    2012-01-01

    Astronomers have always used high proper motion to locate the nearest stars, but a substantial fraction --- nearly 15% --- of all stars within 25 pc are expected to move more slowly than 180 milliarcseconds/yr, the canonical proper motion limit of classic surveys, such as Luyten's. Using the SuperCOSMOS Sky Survey BRI plate magnitudes, 2MASS photometry, and a variety of color-based selection criteria, we have completed a reconnaissance of the southern sky for nearby LOW proper motion objects --- those moving more slowly than 180 milliarcseconds/yr. The results are fascinating: We find genuinely nearby stars that have been hiding in plain sight, with the three nearest at 7.9, 9.4, and 10.5 parsecs, moving at only 120, 64, and 37 mas/yr, respectively. We have also uncovered a population of nearby pre-main-sequence and ZAMS (Hyades age and younger) dwarfs of M spectral type for which we are collecting parallaxes and proper motions, and in a few cases, mapping the orbits of newly discovered binaries. We use the new astrometric information to estimate ages and determine the kinematic associations of these stars. This effort is helping to reveal the supposed 'missing' M dwarf populations of nearby moving groups. This effort is supported by the NSF through grant AST-0908402 and via observations made possible by the SMARTS Consortium. Confirmation of binaries has been accomplished using HST's Fine Guidance Sensors.

  19. The Semantics of Proper Names and Other Bare Nominals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izumi, Yu

    2012-01-01

    This research proposes a unified approach to the semantics of the so-called bare nominals, which include proper names (e.g., "Mary"), mass and plural terms (e.g., "water," "cats"), and articleless noun phrases in Japanese. I argue that bare nominals themselves are monadic predicates applicable to more than one…

  20. Automated Photographic Proper Motions: Selected Fields and Whole Schmidt Plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacConnell, D. J.; Roberts, W. J.

    1993-12-01

    Scanning of the POSS R--band plates of the northern hemisphere, completed recently at the STScI, together with the scans of the ``Quick-V'' plates taken for the HST Guide Star Catalogue, make possible the determination of proper motions of large numbers of stars in selected--target or survey modes. In the first mode, we have been obtaining motions for stars of kinematic and astrophysical interest as requested by several collaborators (H. Jahreiß- ARI--Heidelberg: candidate nearby stars; J. Liebert - U. of Arizona: hot DAs from the Palomar-Green survey; M. Parthasarathy - Indian Inst. of Astroph.: low-mass, post-AGB stars; P. Green - CfA: high-latitude carbon stars; Rex Saffer: sdO stars). We report on a test of the derived motions for a set of the Naval Observatory parallax program stars and discuss the completeness of the Luyten Two--Tenths Survey. We have also searched for proper motions over entire POSS regions using an overlapping subplate technique. This method is very flexible in that it computes individual relative proper motions against several sets of reference stars, giving a thorough analysis of the errors and providing a check against spurious measuremts due to statistical fluctuations. The method is vulnerable to cosmetic and astrometric defects of the plates, and also fails for large proper motions. Using the existing plate archive it is possible to measure about one million previously unknown proper motions down to 0\\farcs035 and V=17.5. We present a comparison of our results for the region of the NGP with those of other work, and with another selected region near the galactic equator.

  1. The Yale/San Juan Southern Proper Motion Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Altena, W. F.; Girard, T. M.; Platais, I.; Kozhurina-Platais, V.; Ostheimer, J.; Lopez, C. E.; Mendez, R. A.

    1999-09-01

    The SPM is based on photographic plates taken at our observatory at El Leoncito, Argentina and will yield absolute proper motions and positions to magnitude B 19 for approximately 1 million stars south of declination -20 degrees. The SPM is a joint program between the Yale Southern Observatory and the Universidad Nacional de San Juan, Argentina. The SPM Catalog 2.0 provides positions, absolute proper motions, and photographic BV photometry for over 320,000 stars and galaxies. All objects contained in the SPM 1.0 Catalog (the South Galactic Pole region) are also included in this version. Note that SPM 1.0 has been replaced by SPM 1.1 which has slightly different astrometry (mostly proper motions) due to refinement of the magnitude equation correction in the SPM 2.0 Catalog. The Catalog covers an area of 3700 square degrees in an irregularly bounded band between declinations of -43 and -22 degrees, but excluding fields in the plane of the Milky Way. Stars cover the magnitude range 5 < V < 18.5. The standard errors for the best measured stars are as follows: 20 mas for positions in each coordinate; 2 mas/yr for absolute proper motions and 0.05 mag in B and V bandpasses. In addition to the Catalog, a list of CCD calibrating sequences in BV is provided. It contains 7783 stars. The new feature of the Catalog is an extensive list of cross-identifications with external special catalogs which include all major astrometric catalogs and a large number of astrophysically interesting objects. The Catalog is available on the WWW at http://www.astro.yale.edu/astrom/. Our web-site contains several useful plots showing the sky coverage, error distribution, a quick comparison with the Hipparcos proper motions, etc.

  2. Stellar Slowpokes: Nearby Stars with Tiny Proper Motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riedel, Adric R.; Henry, T. J.; Winters, J. G.; Hambly, N. C.; RECONS

    2009-01-01

    We present results of a novel search for nearby stars within 25 parsecs of the Sun, utilizing distance estimates based on SuperCOSMOS plates and 2MASS photometry. Most searches for undiscovered nearby stars, including previous SuperCOSMOS-RECONS (SCR) searches, have used proper motion as the primary selection criterion. This has worked well; only one star within 10 pc -- GJ 566AB, a naked-eye G8V/K5V binary -- is moving slower than the 0.18 arcsec/yr cutoff adopted by Luyten for his Luyten Two Tenths sample. Nearly all subsequent searches have focused on more thorough sky coverage or fainter magnitude limits, but this neglects the possibility of other GJ 566-alikes that lurk nearby, undiscovered because of tiny proper motions. Our search is unusual in that it is purely photometric, with no proper motion requirement. From our investigation of half of the southern sky, our TINYMO search yields a sample of 483 tiny proper motion objects potentially within 25 parsecs of the Sun. 77% of these have proper motions less than 0.18 arcsec/yr and 254 are new SCR discoveries, seven of which are predicted to be nearer than 10 pc. Somewhat surprising is that 12% of our sample show X-ray emission, which may indicate a nearby population of young stars. The most promising targets have been added to our long-term CTIO Parallax Investigation. This work is supported by NSF grant AST 05-07711, NASA's Space Interferometry Mission, and Georgia State University.

  3. Electrical Conductivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershey, David R.; Sand, Susan

    1993-01-01

    Explains how electrical conductivity (EC) can be used to measure ion concentration in solutions. Describes instrumentation for the measurement, temperature dependence and EC, and the EC of common substances. (PR)

  4. Analysis of a backward-facing step flow using extended proper orthogonal decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Ruyun; Fu, Song; Liu, Yingzheng

    2016-11-01

    In the present study, an improved delayed detached eddy simulation (IDDES) was conducted for a three-dimensional backward-facing step flow. The spanwise- and time-averaged reattachment location and the characteristic frequency in the relaxation region showed an excellent agreement with the experimental results. The time sequence of the simulated backward-facing step flow in the reattachment region was supplied for the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) analysis, while that in the region of the whole separation bubble was analyzed using extended proper orthogonal decomposition (EPOD). The EPOD technique was also applied to the region near the step and where vortex paring dominated. Spatial-temporally varying coherent structures were identified, e.g., K-H instability, vortex pairing, vortex shedding and flapping of the shear layer, which were inferred from the dominant POD modes and EPOD modes. We found that the vortex pairing and the flapping of the shear layer had an intimate connection with the shedding process.

  5. Public bioethics and public engagement: the politics of "proper talk".

    PubMed

    Moore, Alfred

    2010-03-01

    This article uses notions of "public talk" and "regulation as facilitation" to develop an account of public bioethics in the UK as a form of scientific governance, drawing on document analysis and expert interviews. First, this article will show the "ethical" problematization of scientific governance in the UK through the emergence of the Human Genetics Commission (HGC), Nuffield Council on Bioethics (NCB), and Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA). Second, it will argue that an "ethical" model has emerged alongside and partially displaced a "technical" model of expertise in scientific governance. The article will introduce the notion of "proper talk," a set of techniques for facilitating ethical debate, characterized by the active elicitation of public engagement and the inclusion of emotions and subjectivity. The article then questions whether the authority to categorize publics and identify "proper" ethical positions reintroduces problems of expertise in a new form.

  6. Organism and artifact: Proper functions in Paley organisms.

    PubMed

    Holm, Sune

    2013-12-01

    In this paper I assess the explanatory powers of theories of function in the context of products that may result from synthetic biology. The aim is not to develop a new theory of functions, but to assess existing theories of function in relation to a new kind of biological and artifactual entity that might be produced in the not-too-distant future by means of synthetic biology. The paper thus investigates how to conceive of the functional nature of living systems that are not the result of evolution by natural selection, or instantly generated by cosmic coincidence, but which are products of intelligent design. The paper argues that the aetiological theory of proper functions in organisms and artifacts is inadequate as an account of proper functions in such 'Paley organisms' and defends an alternative organisational approach. The paper ends by considering the implications of the discussion of biological function for questions about the interests and moral status of non-sentient organisms.

  7. Proper Motion of Components in 4C 39.25

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guirado, J. C.; Marcaide, J. M.; Alberdi, A.; Elosegui, P.; Ratner, M. I.; Shapiro, I. I.; Kilger, R.; Mantovani, F.; Venturi, T.; Rius, A.; Ros, E.; Trigilio, C.; Whitney, A. R.

    1995-01-01

    From a series of simultaneous 8.4 and 2.3 GHz VLBI observations of the quasar 4C 39.25 phase referenced to the radio source 0920+390, carried out in 1990-1992, we have measured the proper motion of component b in 4C 39.25: mu(sub alpha) = 90 +/- 43 (mu)as/yr, mu(sub beta) = 7 +/- 68 (mu)as/yr, where the quoted uncertainties account for the contribution of the statistical standard deviation and the errors assumed for the parameters related to the geometry of the interferometric array, the atmosphere, and the source structure. This proper motion is consistent with earlier interpretations of VLBI hybrid mapping results, which showed an internal motion of this component with respect to other structural components. Our differential astrometry analyses show component b to be the one in motion. Our results thus further constrain models of this quasar.

  8. Proper motions of embedded protostellar jets in Serpens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djupvik, A. A.; Liimets, T.; Zinnecker, H.; Barzdis, A.; Rastorgueva-Foi, E. A.; Petersen, L. R.

    2016-03-01

    Aims: We determine the proper motion of protostellar jets around Class 0 and Class I sources in an active star forming region in Serpens. Methods: Multi-epoch deep images in the 2.122 μm line of molecular hydrogen, v = 1-0 S(1), obtained with the near-infrared instrument NOTCam on a timescale of 10 years, are used to determine the proper motion of knots and jets. K-band spectroscopy of the brighter knots is used to supply radial velocities, estimate extinction, excitation temperature, and H2 column densities towards these knots. Results: We measure the proper motion of 31 knots on different timescales (2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 years). The typical tangential velocity is around 50 km s-1 for the 10-year baseline, but for shorter timescales, a maximum tangential velocity up to 300 km s-1 is found for a few knots. Based on morphology, velocity information, and the locations of known protostars, we argue for the existence of at least three partly overlapping and deeply embedded flows, one Class 0 flow and two Class I flows. The multi-epoch proper motion results indicate time-variable velocities of the knots, for the first time directly measured for a Class 0 jet. We find in general higher velocities for the Class 0 jet than for the two Class I jets. While the bolometric luminosites of the three driving sources are about equal, the derived mass flow rate Ṁout is two orders of magnitude higher in the Class 0 flow than in the two Class I flows. Based on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma jointly by Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias.

  9. Limited-memory adaptive snapshot selection for proper orthogonal decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    Oxberry, Geoffrey M.; Kostova-Vassilevska, Tanya; Arrighi, Bill; Chand, Kyle

    2015-04-02

    Reduced order models are useful for accelerating simulations in many-query contexts, such as optimization, uncertainty quantification, and sensitivity analysis. However, offline training of reduced order models can have prohibitively expensive memory and floating-point operation costs in high-performance computing applications, where memory per core is limited. To overcome this limitation for proper orthogonal decomposition, we propose a novel adaptive selection method for snapshots in time that limits offline training costs by selecting snapshots according an error control mechanism similar to that found in adaptive time-stepping ordinary differential equation solvers. The error estimator used in this work is related to theory bounding the approximation error in time of proper orthogonal decomposition-based reduced order models, and memory usage is minimized by computing the singular value decomposition using a single-pass incremental algorithm. Results for a viscous Burgers’ test problem demonstrate convergence in the limit as the algorithm error tolerances go to zero; in this limit, the full order model is recovered to within discretization error. The resulting method can be used on supercomputers to generate proper orthogonal decomposition-based reduced order models, or as a subroutine within hyperreduction algorithms that require taking snapshots in time, or within greedy algorithms for sampling parameter space.

  10. Hessian and graviton propagator of the proper vertex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaharsough Shirazi, Atousa; Engle, Jonathan; Vilensky, Ilya

    2016-10-01

    The proper spin-foam vertex amplitude is obtained from the EPRL vertex by projecting out all but a single gravitational sector, in order to achieve correct semi-classical behavior. In this paper we calculate the gravitational two-point function predicted by the proper spin-foam vertex to lowest order in the vertex expansion. We find the same answer as in the EPRL case in the ‘continuum spectrum’ limit, so that the theory is consistent with the predictions of linearized gravity in the regime of small curvature. The method for calculating the two-point function is similar to that used in prior works: we cast it in terms of an action integral and use stationary phase methods. Thus, the calculation of the Hessian matrix plays a key role. Once the Hessian is calculated, it is used not only to calculate the two-point function, but also to calculate the coefficient appearing in the semi-classical limit of the proper vertex amplitude itself. This coefficient is the effective discrete ‘measure factor’ encoded in the spin-foam model. Through a non-trivial cancellation of different factors, we find that this coefficient is the same as the coefficient in front of the term in the asymptotics of the EPRL vertex corresponding to the selected gravitational sector.

  11. HST high-precision proper motions of globular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellini, Andrea; Anderson, Jay; van der marel, roeland p.; piotto, gianpaolo; Watkins, Laura l.; Vesperini, Enrico; Milone, Antonino; Bedin, Luigi R.

    2015-08-01

    The stable environment of space makes HST an excellent astrometric tool. Its diffraction-limited resolution allows it to distinguish and measure positions and fluxes for stars all the way to the center of most globular clusters. There are now many clusters that have observations in the archive that span 13 years or more, and more observations are being taken all the time. We constructed high-precision proper-motion catalogs for over 20 clusters for which there exist two or more well-separated epochs in the archive, and we are extending the list to over 60 objects, thanks to the new observations taken within the ``HST UV Legacy Survey of Galactic Globular Clusters’’ treasury program. Each catalog contains astrometry and photometry for thousands of stars within two arcmin of the center. The catalogs are focused on the many stars within a few magnitudes of the turnoff and have typical proper-motion errors of 0.1 mas/yr, which translates to 2 km/s for the typical cluster. We are using proper motions to directly measure the clusters' anisotropy, equipartition and rotation on the plane of the sky, as well as to study internal kinematics of the different subpopulations and to probe the presence of an IMBH in their core.

  12. Proper Angle of Sono-guided Central Venous Line Insertion

    PubMed Central

    Barzegari, Hassan; Forouzan, Arash; Fahimi, Mohammad Ali; Zohrevandi, Behzad; Ghanavati, Mandana

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Determining the proper angle for inserting central venous catheter (CV line) is of great importance for decreasing the complications and increasing success rate. The present study was designed to determine the proper angle of needle insertion for internal jugular vein catheterization. Methods: In the present case series study, candidate patients for catheterization of the right internal jugular vein under guidance of ultrasonography were studied. At the time of proper placing of the catheter, photograph was taken and Auto Cad 2014 software was used to measure the angles of the needle in the sagittal and axial planes, as well as patient’s head rotation. Result: 114 patients with the mean age of 56.96 ± 14.71 years were evaluated (68.4% male). The most common indications of catheterization were hemodialysis (55.3%) and shock state (24.6%). The mean angles of needle insertion were 102.15 ± 6.80 for axial plane, 36.21 ± 3.12 for sagittal plane and the mean head rotation angle was 40.49 ± 5.09. Conclusion: Based on the results of the present study it seems that CV line insertion under the angles 102.15 ± 6.80 degrees in the axial plane, 36.21 ± 3.12 in the sagittal plane and 40.49 ± 5.09 head rotation yield satisfactory results. PMID:27299146

  13. Phantasies, neurotic-beliefs, and beliefs-proper.

    PubMed

    Brakel, L A

    2001-12-01

    This paper presents a philosophical analysis of three cognitive states familiar and important to psychoanalysts--phantasy, neurotic-belief, and belief-proper. It explores the differences among these three propositional attitudes and finds that the development of secondary process capacities of reality testing and truth directness out of earlier primary process operations (themselves prior to considerations of truth or falsity) plays a crucial role. Difficulties in the proper typing of cognitive states are discussed, as are the consequences of such confounds. This use of a philosophical method serves to sharpen the familiar psychoanalytic clinical concepts of phantasy and neurotic-belief. In addition, these same clinical concepts, once properly specified, have much to offer the philosophy of mind, where current understanding of representational cognitive states is restricted to those that are largely conscious and rational. When psychoanalytic concepts such as phantasy and neurotic-belief can be better integrated within the discipline of philosophy of mind, both philosophers and psychoanalysts will have a more complete and adequate theory of mind.

  14. UCAC5: New Proper Motions Using Gaia DR1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacharias, N.; Finch, C.; Frouard, J.

    2017-04-01

    New astrometric reductions of the US Naval Observatory CCD Astrograph Catalog (UCAC) all-sky observations were performed from first principles using the TGAS stars in the 8–11 mag range as the reference star catalog. Significant improvements in the astrometric solutions were obtained, and the UCAC5 catalog of mean positions at a mean epoch near 2001 was generated. By combining UCAC5 with Gaia DR1 data, new proper motions were obtained for over 107 million stars on the Gaia coordinate system, with typical accuracies of 1–2 mas yr‑1 (R = 11–15 mag) and about 5 mas yr‑1 at 16th mag. Proper motions of most TGAS stars are improved over their Gaia data and the precision level of TGAS proper motions is extended to many millions more, fainter stars. External comparisons were made using stellar cluster fields and extragalactic sources. The TGAS data allow us to derive the limiting precision of the UCAC x, y data, which is significantly better than1/100 pixel.

  15. Proper motions from Schmidt plates. II - The Hyades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Neill

    1992-07-01

    COSMOS scans of photographic plates taken by the Palomar Oschin Schmidt telescope and by the UK Schmidt telescope are used to obtain proper motions for about 450,000 stars within a 112-sq-deg region covering part of the Hyades luster. With epoch differences of 33 to 37 yr, proper motions accurate to 6-12 milliarcsec/yr are obtained, and 393 candidate Hyades to a limiting magnitude of about 15.5, including at least two new white dwarf candidates, are identified. The main-sequence luminosity function determined from this sample is similar to that defined by local field stars, with a broad maximum at about +12. Both the line-of-sight and surface density distributions show evidence for significant mass segregation; the overall proper motion distribution suggests a tight core centered within a much broader distribution. A total mass of 410-480 solar masses and a gravitational binding radius of about 10.5 pc are derived.

  16. Appropriate Conduct

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Lullo, Louis

    2004-01-01

    Many years ago when the author assumed the role of assistant principal for school climate, discipline, and attendance, he inherited many school policies and guidelines that were outdated, unfair, and without merit in the current school climate. Because the school conduct code had not been revised since the school opened in 1960, many of the…

  17. Conducting the Heat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Heat conduction plays an important role in the efficiency and life span of electronic components. To keep electronic components running efficiently and at a proper temperature, thermal management systems transfer heat generated from the components to thermal surfaces such as heat sinks, heat pipes, radiators, or heat spreaders. Thermal surfaces absorb the heat from the electrical components and dissipate it into the environment, preventing overheating. To ensure the best contact between electrical components and thermal surfaces, thermal interface materials are applied. In addition to having high conductivity, ideal thermal interface materials should be compliant to conform to the components, increasing the surface contact. While many different types of interface materials exist for varying purposes, Energy Science Laboratories, Inc. (ESLI), of San Diego, California, proposed using carbon velvets as thermal interface materials for general aerospace and electronics applications. NASA s Johnson Space Center granted ESLI a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract to develop thermal interface materials that are lightweight and compliant, and demonstrate high thermal conductance even for nonflat surfaces. Through Phase II SBIR work, ESLI created Vel-Therm for the commercial market. Vel-Therm is a soft, carbon fiber velvet consisting of numerous high thermal conductivity carbon fibers anchored in a thin layer of adhesive. The velvets are fabricated by precision cutting continuous carbon fiber tows and electrostatically flocking the fibers into uncured adhesive, using proprietary techniques.

  18. A Proper Motion Survey Using the First Sky Pass of NEOWISE-reactivation Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Adam C.; Greco, Jennifer; Cushing, Michael C.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Mainzer, Amy; Gelino, Christopher R.; Fajardo-Acosta, Sergio B.; Bauer, James

    2016-02-01

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) was reactivated in 2013 December (NEOWISE) to search for potentially hazardous near-Earth objects. We have conducted a survey using the first sky pass of NEOWISE data and the AllWISE catalog to identify nearby stars and brown dwarfs with large proper motions ({μ }{{total}} ≳ 250 mas yr-1). A total of 20,548 high proper motion objects were identified, 1006 of which are new discoveries. This survey has uncovered a significantly larger sample of fainter objects (W2 ≳ 13 mag) than the previous WISE motion surveys of Luhman and Kirkpatrick et al. Many of these objects are predicted to be new L and T dwarfs based on near- and mid-infrared colors. Using estimated spectral types along with distance estimates, we have identified several objects that likely belong to the nearby solar neighborhood (d < 25 pc). We have followed up 19 of these new discoveries with near-infrared or optical spectroscopy, focusing on potentially nearby objects, objects with the latest predicted spectral types, and potential late-type subdwarfs. This subset includes six M dwarfs, five of which are likely subdwarfs, as well as eight L dwarfs and five T dwarfs, many of which have blue near-infrared colors. As an additional supplement, we provide 2MASS and AllWISE positions and photometry for every object found in our search, as well as 2MASS/AllWISE calculated proper motions.

  19. Taxonomic and thematic organisation of proper name conceptual knowledge.

    PubMed

    Crutch, Sebastian J; Warrington, Elizabeth K

    2011-01-01

    We report the investigation of the organisation of proper names in two aphasic patients (NBC and FBI). The performance of both patients on spoken word to written word matching tasks was inconsistent, affected by presentation rate and semantic relatedness of the competing responses, all hallmarks of a refractory semantic access dysphasia. In a series of experiments we explored the semantic relatedness effects within their proper name vocabulary, including brand names and person names. First we demonstrated the interaction between very fine grain organisation and personal experience, with one patient with a special interest in the cinema demonstrating higher error rates when identifying the names of actors working in a similar film genre (e.g., action movies: Arnold Schwarzenegger, Bruce Willis, Sylvester Stallone, Mel Gibson) than those working in different genres (e.g., Arnold Schwarzenegger, Gregory Peck, Robin Williams, Gene Kelly). Second we compared directly two potential principles of semantic organisation - taxonomic and thematic. Furthermore we considered these principles of organisation in the context of the individuals' personal knowledge base. We selected topics matching the interests and experience of each patient, namely cinema and literature (NBC) and naval history (FBI). The stimulus items were arranged in taxonomic arrays (e.g., Jane Austen, Emily Bronte, Agatha Christie), thematic arrays (e.g., Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice, Mr Darcy), and unrelated arrays (e.g., Jane Austen, Wuthering Heights, Hercule Poirot). We documented that different patterns of taxonomic and thematic organisation were constrained by whether the individual has limited knowledge, moderate knowledge or detailed knowledge of a particular vocabulary. It is suggested that moderate proper name knowledge is primarily organised by taxonomy whereas extensive experience results in a more detailed knowledge base in which theme is a powerful organising principle.

  20. Relative Proper Motions in the Rho Ophiuchi Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilking, Bruce A.; Vrba, Frederick J.; Sullivan, Timothy

    2015-12-01

    Near-infrared images optimized for astrometry have been obtained for four fields in the high-density L 1688 cloud core over a 12 year period. The targeted regions include deeply embedded young stellar objects (YSOs) and very low luminosity objects too faint and/or heavily veiled for spectroscopy. Relative proper motions in R.A. and decl. were computed for 111 sources and again for a subset of 65 YSOs, resulting in a mean proper motion of (0,0) for each field. Assuming each field has the same mean proper motion, YSOs in the four fields were combined to yield estimates of the velocity dispersions in R.A. and decl. that are consistent with 1.0 km s-1. These values appear to be independent of the evolutionary state of the YSOs. The observed velocity dispersions are consistent with the dispersion in radial velocity derived for optically visible YSOs at the periphery of the cloud core and are consistent with virial equilibrium. The higher velocity dispersion of the YSOs in the plane of the sky relative to that of dense cores may be a consequence of stellar encounters due to dense cores and filaments fragmenting to form small groups of stars or the global collapse of the L 1688 cloud core. An analysis of the differential magnitudes of objects over the 12 year baseline has not only confirmed the near-infrared variability for 29 YSOs established by prior studies, but has also identified 18 new variability candidates. Four of these have not been previously identified as YSOs and may be newly identified cluster members.

  1. RELATIVE PROPER MOTIONS IN THE RHO OPHIUCHI CLUSTER

    SciTech Connect

    Wilking, Bruce A.; Sullivan, Timothy; Vrba, Frederick J. E-mail: tsullivan@umsl.edu

    2015-12-10

    Near-infrared images optimized for astrometry have been obtained for four fields in the high-density L 1688 cloud core over a 12 year period. The targeted regions include deeply embedded young stellar objects (YSOs) and very low luminosity objects too faint and/or heavily veiled for spectroscopy. Relative proper motions in R.A. and decl. were computed for 111 sources and again for a subset of 65 YSOs, resulting in a mean proper motion of (0,0) for each field. Assuming each field has the same mean proper motion, YSOs in the four fields were combined to yield estimates of the velocity dispersions in R.A. and decl. that are consistent with 1.0 km s{sup −1}. These values appear to be independent of the evolutionary state of the YSOs. The observed velocity dispersions are consistent with the dispersion in radial velocity derived for optically visible YSOs at the periphery of the cloud core and are consistent with virial equilibrium. The higher velocity dispersion of the YSOs in the plane of the sky relative to that of dense cores may be a consequence of stellar encounters due to dense cores and filaments fragmenting to form small groups of stars or the global collapse of the L 1688 cloud core. An analysis of the differential magnitudes of objects over the 12 year baseline has not only confirmed the near-infrared variability for 29 YSOs established by prior studies, but has also identified 18 new variability candidates. Four of these have not been previously identified as YSOs and may be newly identified cluster members.

  2. uvby photometry in McCormick proper motion fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degewij, J.

    1982-01-01

    The Danish 50 cm telescope at the European Southern Observatory was used to obtain high-precision uvby photometry for 50 F2 to G2 stars, with V values in the 9.4-12.3 mag range, which were selected in the southern galactic polar regions of the McCormick proper motion fields and measured on six different nights. The brighter stars are found to systematically exhibit smaller m(1) indices, of about 0.02 mag, upon comparison with the earlier data of Blaauw et al (1976). Single measurements are given for 98 stars in eight McCormick fields at intermediate southern galactic latitudes.

  3. Proper bibeta ROC model: algorithm, software, and performance evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Weijie; Hu, Nan

    2016-03-01

    Semi-parametric models are often used to fit data collected in receiver operating characteristic (ROC) experiments to obtain a smooth ROC curve and ROC parameters for statistical inference purposes. The proper bibeta model as recently proposed by Mossman and Peng enjoys several theoretical properties. In addition to having explicit density functions for the latent decision variable and an explicit functional form of the ROC curve, the two parameter bibeta model also has simple closed-form expressions for true-positive fraction (TPF), false-positive fraction (FPF), and the area under the ROC curve (AUC). In this work, we developed a computational algorithm and R package implementing this model for ROC curve fitting. Our algorithm can deal with any ordinal data (categorical or continuous). To improve accuracy, efficiency, and reliability of our software, we adopted several strategies in our computational algorithm including: (1) the LABROC4 categorization to obtain the true maximum likelihood estimation of the ROC parameters; (2) a principled approach to initializing parameters; (3) analytical first-order and second-order derivatives of the likelihood function; (4) an efficient optimization procedure (the L-BFGS algorithm in the R package "nlopt"); and (5) an analytical delta method to estimate the variance of the AUC. We evaluated the performance of our software with intensive simulation studies and compared with the conventional binormal and the proper binormal-likelihood-ratio models developed at the University of Chicago. Our simulation results indicate that our software is highly accurate, efficient, and reliable.

  4. Computing Role Assignments of Proper Interval Graphs in Polynomial Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heggernes, Pinar; van't Hof, Pim; Paulusma, Daniël

    A homomorphism from a graph G to a graph R is locally surjective if its restriction to the neighborhood of each vertex of G is surjective. Such a homomorphism is also called an R-role assignment of G. Role assignments have applications in distributed computing, social network theory, and topological graph theory. The Role Assignment problem has as input a pair of graphs (G,R) and asks whether G has an R-role assignment. This problem is NP-complete already on input pairs (G,R) where R is a path on three vertices. So far, the only known non-trivial tractable case consists of input pairs (G,R) where G is a tree. We present a polynomial time algorithm that solves Role Assignment on all input pairs (G,R) where G is a proper interval graph. Thus we identify the first graph class other than trees on which the problem is tractable. As a complementary result, we show that the problem is Graph Isomorphism-hard on chordal graphs, a superclass of proper interval graphs and trees.

  5. The EGFR Is Required for Proper Innervation to the Skin

    PubMed Central

    Maklad, Adel; Nicolai, Jodi R.; Bichsel, Kyle J.; Evenson, Jackie E.; Lee, Tang-Cheng; Threadgill, David W.; Hansen, Laura A.

    2008-01-01

    EGFR family members are essential for proper peripheral nervous system development. A role for EGFR itself in peripheral nervous system development in vivo, however, has not been reported. We investigated whether EGFR is required for cutaneous innervation using Egfr null and skin-targeted Egfr mutant mice. Neuronal markers; including PGP9.5, GAP-43, acetylated tubulin, and neurofilaments; revealed that Egfr null dorsal skin was hyperinnervated with a disorganized pattern of innervation. In addition, receptor subtypes such as lanceolate endings were disorganized and immature. To determine whether the hyperinnervation phenotype resulted from a target-derived effect of loss of EGFR, mice lacking EGFR expression in the cutaneous epithelium were examined. These mice retained other aspects of the cutaneous Egfr null phenotype but exhibited normal innervation. The sensory deficits in Egfr null dorsal skin were not associated with any abnormality in the morphology or density of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons or Schwann cells. However, explant and dissociated cell cultures of DRG revealed more extensive branching in Egfr null cultures. These data demonstrate that EGFR is required for proper cutaneous innervation during development and suggest that it limits axonal outgrowth and branching in a DRG-autonomous manner. PMID:18830272

  6. Structure identification in pipe flow using proper orthogonal decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellström, Leo H. O.; Smits, Alexander J.

    2017-03-01

    The energetic motions in direct numerical simulations of turbulent pipe flow at Reτ=685 are investigated using proper orthogonal decomposition. The procedure is extended such that a pressure component is identified in addition to the three-component velocity field for each mode. The pressure component of the modes is shown to align with the streamwise velocity component associated with the large-scale motions, where positive pressure coincides with positive streamwise velocity, and vice versa. The streamwise evolution of structures is then visualized using a conditional mode, which exhibit a strong similarity to the large-scale, low-momentum motions. A low-pressure region is present in the downstream section of the structure, and a high-pressure region is present in the upstream section.

  7. Search for high-proper motion objects with infrared excess

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodorani, Massimo

    2014-12-01

    The possibility of interstellar migration has been theorized during the past thirty years in the form of 'Dysonships' that, using non-relativistic propulsion systems, are able to colonize the Galaxy in a relatively short time compared to the age of the Galaxy and consequently penetrate inside our solar system too. Observational evidence of this can be potentially obtained using the present state of the art of telescopes and related sensors, by following aimed searches and an expanded SETI protocol. Some transient and unrepeated radio signals recorded during standard SETI observations might be due to the transit of high-proper motion artificial sources of extraterrestrial origin, which are expected to show a very weak optical emission, a strong infrared excess and occasional high-energy bursts in the X and Gamma-ray wavelength ranges. Such artificial sources might show an interest to Earth by sending probes to visit it: such a possibility can be investigated scientifically as well.

  8. Contributions of pharmacists through the promotion of proper drug use.

    PubMed

    Ise, Yuya; Onda, Mitsuko; Miura, Yoshihiko; Shimazaki, Machiko; Kawada, Keiko; Hagiwara, Ken; Katayama, Shirou; Kikuchi, Arimichi; Kamei, Miwako; Kobayashi, Koji; Shiragami, Makoto

    2007-06-01

    The contents of pharmacist interventions, which were carried out by the ward pharmacists in their routine pharmacy service activities, were sorted and analyzed to evaluate the contributions of pharmacists. In the ward where pharmacists were stationed, there were a total of 196 cases of pharmacist intervention. The prescription was changed in 170 cases, giving a rate of prescription change of 86.7%. The breakdown of the pharmacist intervention was as follows: "efficacy/safety", 106 cases, followed by "dosage regimen" (48 cases) and "compliance" (10 cases). Cost savings achieved during the investigation period were calculated to be 440,639 yen, and cost avoidance was valued at 1,941,847-3,883,695 yen using the Diagnosis Procedure Combination (DPC). The results of the present investigation showed that pharmacists contribute to through not only their pharmacy services, but also through the promotion of proper drug use and risk management, thereby contributing to hospital management through cost savings and avoidance.

  9. Proper-Motion Based Kinematics Study of Galactic RR Lyraes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dambis, Andrei; Berdnikov, Leonid; Rastorguev, Alexei; Zabolotskikh, Marina

    2015-08-01

    We cross-match an extensive sample of almost 2000 RR Lyrae type stars located within ≈7 kpc from the Sun drawn from the lists of Torrealba et al. (2015) and Drake et al. (2013) with the US Naval Observatory CCD Astrograph Catalogue (UCAC4) and SDSS DR12 used as sources of proper motions and ALLWISE data release of the WISE infrared photometric catalog to analyze the kinematics of the RR Lyrae type star population in the extended solar neoghborhood. We find the mean velocities and the components of the velocity ellipsoid tensors of the halo and thick-disk subpopulations and the dependence of these parameters on Galactocentric distance and the height above the Galactic midplane.

  10. Proper Motions of Water Masers in Circumstellar Shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marvel, K. B.; Diamond, P. J.; Kemball, A. J.

    We present proper motion measurements of circumstellar water masers obtained with the VLBA. The objects observed include S Persei, VX Sagittarii, U Herculis, VY Canis Majoris, NML Cygni, IK Tauri and RX Bootis. Results of the observations and modeling indicate that the water masers exist in a kinematically complex region of the circumstellar envelope, which is not well fit by the standard model of a uniformly expanding spherical wind. Attempts at fitting an ellipsoidal geometric distribution with a variety of kinematic models are presented. Estimates for the distances of the stars are also discussed. A change in position of the maser spots as a function of velocity has been measured. This effect may be used to place limits on accelerations in the masing gas.

  11. Digital imaging for the education of proper surgical hand disinfection.

    PubMed

    Haidegger, Tamás; Nagy, Melinda; Lehotsky, Akos; Szilágyi, László

    2011-01-01

    Nosocomial infections are the undesirable result of a treatment in a hospital, or a health care service unit, not related to the patient's original condition. Despite the evolution of medicine, fundamental problems with hand hygiene remain existent, leading to the spread of nosocomial infections. Our group has been working on a generic solution to provide a method and apparatus to teach and verify proper hand disinfection. The general idea is to mark the skin surfaces that were sufficiently treated with alcoholic hand rub. Digital image processing is employed to determine the location of these areas and overlay it on the segmented hand, visualizing the results in an intuitive form. A non-disruptive ultraviolet marker is mixed to a commercially available hand rub, therefore leaving the original hand washing workflow intact. Digital images are taken in an enclosed device we developed for this purpose. First, robust hand contour segmentation is performed, then a histogram-based formulation of the fuzzy c-means algorithm is employed for the classification of clean versus dirty regions, minimizing the processing time of the images. The method and device have been tested in 3 hospitals in Hungary, Romania and Singapore, on surgeons, residents, medical students and nurses. A health care professional verified the results of the segmentation, since no gold standard is available for the recorded human cases. We were able to identify the hand boundaries correctly in 99.2% of the cases. The device can give objective feedback to medical students and staff to develop and maintain proper hand disinfection practice.

  12. Conducting a thermal conductivity survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, P. B.

    1985-01-01

    A physically transparent approximate theory of phonon decay rates is presented starting from a pair potential model of the interatomic forces in an insulator or semiconductor. The theory applies in the classical regime and relates the 3-phonon decay rate to the third derivative of the pair potential. Phonon dispersion relations do not need to be calculated, as sum rules relate all the needed quantities directly to the pair potential. The Brillouin zone averaged phonon lifetime turns out to involve a dimensionless measure of the anharmonicity multiplied by an effective density of states for 3-phonon decay. Results are given for rare gas and alkali halide crystals. For rare gases, the results are in good agreement with more elaborate perturbation calculations. Comparison to experimental data on phonon linewidths and thermal conductivity are made.

  13. Halley's Discovery of Stellar Proper Motion: The Aldebaran Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, John C.

    2009-01-01

    Halley (1717) compared contemporary positions of Arcturus, Sirius, and Aldebaran with the ancient positions recorded in the Almagest (Book VII 3) and attributed to Timocharis, Hipparcus, and Ptolemy. He found that these stars had apparently moved southward by more than 30 arc minutes and concluded that these stars had their own particular motions. Modern proper motion measurements are consistent with this conclusion for Arcturus and Sirius, but are not even close for Aldebaran. While some authors (Fomenko et al. 1993; Evans 1998) are aware of the problem, it generally is not mentioned in books on the history of astronomy (e.g., Clerke 1908; Pannekoek 1961; Neugebauer 1975) or in the major biographies of Halley (Armitage 1966; Ronan 1969; Lancaster-Brown 1985; Cook 1998). None of the possibilities for resolving this problem_errors in the ancient and/or the 17th-18th century positions; errors in Halley's calculations; or misidentification of the star--- seem plausible and final resolution may require locating the original calculations in Halley's papers.

  14. Modeling of transitional channel flow using balanced proper orthogonal decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilak, Miloš; Rowley, Clarence W.

    2008-03-01

    We study reduced-order models of three-dimensional perturbations in linearized channel flow using balanced proper orthogonal decomposition (BPOD). The models are obtained from three-dimensional simulations in physical space as opposed to the traditional single-wavenumber approach, and are therefore better able to capture the effects of localized disturbances or localized actuators. In order to assess the performance of the models, we consider the impulse response and frequency response, and variation of the Reynolds number as a model parameter. We show that the BPOD procedure yields models that capture the transient growth well at a low order, whereas standard POD does not capture the growth unless a considerably larger number of modes is included, and even then can be inaccurate. In the case of a localized actuator, we show that POD modes which are not energetically significant can be very important for capturing the energy growth. In addition, a comparison of the subspaces resulting from the two methods suggests that the use of a nonorthogonal projection with adjoint modes is most likely the main reason for the superior performance of BPOD. We also demonstrate that for single-wavenumber perturbations, low-order BPOD models reproduce the dominant eigenvalues of the full system better than POD models of the same order. These features indicate that the simple, yet accurate BPOD models are a good candidate for developing model-based controllers for channel flow.

  15. Proper Orthogonal Decomposition in Optimal Control of Fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ravindran, S. S.

    1999-01-01

    In this article, we present a reduced order modeling approach suitable for active control of fluid dynamical systems based on proper orthogonal decomposition (POD). The rationale behind the reduced order modeling is that numerical simulation of Navier-Stokes equations is still too costly for the purpose of optimization and control of unsteady flows. We examine the possibility of obtaining reduced order models that reduce computational complexity associated with the Navier-Stokes equations while capturing the essential dynamics by using the POD. The POD allows extraction of certain optimal set of basis functions, perhaps few, from a computational or experimental data-base through an eigenvalue analysis. The solution is then obtained as a linear combination of these optimal set of basis functions by means of Galerkin projection. This makes it attractive for optimal control and estimation of systems governed by partial differential equations. We here use it in active control of fluid flows governed by the Navier-Stokes equations. We show that the resulting reduced order model can be very efficient for the computations of optimization and control problems in unsteady flows. Finally, implementational issues and numerical experiments are presented for simulations and optimal control of fluid flow through channels.

  16. Proper ubiquitination effect on the fertilisation outcome post-ICSI.

    PubMed

    Eskandari-Shahraki, M; Tavalaee, M; Deemeh, M R; Jelodar, Gh A; Nasr-Esfahani, M H

    2013-06-01

    Ubiquitin is an 8.5-kDa protein that tags outlived proteins for degradation by the proteasome. It also marks defective spermatozoa during epididymal passage and has been proposed as a biomarker of sperm quality. This study evaluates the relationship between sperm ubiquitination, protamine deficiency, semen parameters and fertilisation rate in infertile individuals undergoing the intracytoplasmic sperm insemination (ICSI) procedure. Semen samples from 73 ICSI candidates were collected and analysed according to World Health Organization criteria. A portion of each sample was evaluated for sperm ubiquitination using the sperm ubiquitin tag immunoassay (SUTI) with flow cytometry, and protamine deficiency by chromomycin A3 (CMA3) staining. In addition, the relationship between the fertilisation rate and sperm ubiquitination was calculated in ICSI candidates. The intensity of ubiquitination showed a significant negative correlation with sperm concentration (r = -0.255, P = 0.032) and a positive correlation with fertilisation rate (r = 0.384, P = 0.013) post-ICSI. No correlation was observed between protamine deficiency and the percentage of ubiquitination or ubiquitination intensity. The results of this study suggest that sperm ubiquitination prior to capacitation may be considered as a marker of defective spermatozoon. Spermatozoa that undergo proper ubiquitination may have a higher chance for fertilisation, because they are made redundant by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in the epididymis compared to hypo-ubiquitinated spermatozoa.

  17. Achieving the Proper Balance Between Crew and Public Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gowan, John; Rosati, Paul; Silvestri, Ray; Stahl, Ben; Wilde, Paul

    2011-01-01

    A paramount objective of all human-rated launch and reentry vehicle developers is to ensure that the risks to both the crew onboard and the public are minimized within reasonable cost, schedule, and technical constraints. Past experience has shown that proper attention to range safety requirements necessary to ensure public safety must be given early in the design phase to avoid additional operational complexities or threats to the safety of people onboard. This paper will outline the policy considerations, technical issues, and operational impacts regarding launch and reentry vehicle failure scenarios where crew and public safety are intertwined and thus addressed optimally in an integrated manner. Historical examples and lessons learned from both the Space Shuttle and Constellation Programs will be presented. Using these examples as context, the paper will discuss some operational, design, and analysis approaches to mitigate and balance the risks to people onboard and in the public. Manned vehicle perspectives from the FAA and Air Force organizations that oversee public safety will also be summarized. Finally, the paper will emphasize the need to factor policy, operational, and analysis considerations into the early design trades of new vehicles to help ensure that both crew and public safety are maximized to the greatest extent possible.

  18. Proper Motions from the HST Guide Star System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacConnell, D. J.

    1992-05-01

    The Guide Star System for the Hubble Space Telescope is being used to determine proper motions now that the scans of the original POSS plates are becoming available. The typical epoch difference of 30 years north of delta = -30 is sufficient to determine motions down to about 0.05 as/yr. We measure an average of 24 reference stars within 5 arcmin of the target star using centering algorithms in the Guide Star System Astrometric Support Package (GASP), and the mean residual in each coordinate is about 0.15 pixel or 1/4 as. Stars on the measurement program include faint carbon stars at high galactic latitudes (collaborators: P.J. Green and B.H. Margon, U. Washington), recently- discovered M dwarfs with no known motions (collaborators: H. Jahreiss, ARI-Heidelberg and C.B. Stephenson, CWRU), and possible A-F degenerates found in the Case Low-Dispersion Northern Sky Survey (collaborators: P. Pesch, CWRU and T.D. Kinman, KPNO). The carbon star program has uncovered several dwarfs - see Green, Margon, and MacConnell ApJ Lett 380, L31, 1991. I will present a summary of the results for these groups to date.

  19. Aeroelastic System Development Using Proper Orthogonal Decomposition and Volterra Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucia, David J.; Beran, Philip S.; Silva, Walter A.

    2003-01-01

    This research combines Volterra theory and proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) into a hybrid methodology for reduced-order modeling of aeroelastic systems. The out-come of the method is a set of linear ordinary differential equations (ODEs) describing the modal amplitudes associated with both the structural modes and the POD basis functions for the uid. For this research, the structural modes are sine waves of varying frequency, and the Volterra-POD approach is applied to the fluid dynamics equations. The structural modes are treated as forcing terms which are impulsed as part of the uid model realization. Using this approach, structural and uid operators are coupled into a single aeroelastic operator. This coupling converts a free boundary uid problem into an initial value problem, while preserving the parameter (or parameters) of interest for sensitivity analysis. The approach is applied to an elastic panel in supersonic cross ow. The hybrid Volterra-POD approach provides a low-order uid model in state-space form. The linear uid model is tightly coupled with a nonlinear panel model using an implicit integration scheme. The resulting aeroelastic model provides correct limit-cycle oscillation prediction over a wide range of panel dynamic pressure values. Time integration of the reduced-order aeroelastic model is four orders of magnitude faster than the high-order solution procedure developed for this research using traditional uid and structural solvers.

  20. Mechanosensitive ATP Release Maintains Proper Mucus Hydration of Airways

    PubMed Central

    Button, Brian; Okada, Seiko F.; Frederick, Charles Brandon; Thelin, William R.; Boucher, Richard C.

    2013-01-01

    The clearance of mucus from the airways protects the lungs from inhaled noxious and infectious materials. Proper hydration of the mucus layer enables efficient mucus clearance through beating of cilia on airway epithelial cells, and reduced clearance of excessively concentrated mucus occurs in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cystic fibrosis. Key steps in the mucus transport process are airway epithelia sensing and responding to changes in mucus hydration. We reported that extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine were important luminal auto-crine and paracrine signals that regulated the hydration of the surface of human airway epithelial cultures through their action on apical membrane purinoceptors. Mucus hydration in human airway epithelial cultures was sensed by an interaction between cilia and the overlying mucus layer: Changes in mechanical strain, proportional to mucus hydration, regulated ATP release rates, adjusting fluid secretion to optimize mucus layer hydration. This system provided a feedback mechanism by which airways maintained mucus hydration in an optimum range for cilia propulsion. Understanding how airway epithelia can sense and respond to changes in mucus properties helps us to understand how the mucus clearance system protects the airways in health and how it fails in lung diseases such as cystic fibrosis. PMID:23757023

  1. Mechanosensitive ATP release maintains proper mucus hydration of airways.

    PubMed

    Button, Brian; Okada, Seiko F; Frederick, Charles Brandon; Thelin, William R; Boucher, Richard C

    2013-06-11

    The clearance of mucus from the airways protects the lungs from inhaled noxious and infectious materials. Proper hydration of the mucus layer enables efficient mucus clearance through beating of cilia on airway epithelial cells, and reduced clearance of excessively concentrated mucus occurs in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cystic fibrosis. Key steps in the mucus transport process are airway epithelia sensing and responding to changes in mucus hydration. We reported that extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine were important luminal autocrine and paracrine signals that regulated the hydration of the surface of human airway epithelial cultures through their action on apical membrane purinoceptors. Mucus hydration in human airway epithelial cultures was sensed by an interaction between cilia and the overlying mucus layer: Changes in mechanical strain, proportional to mucus hydration, regulated ATP release rates, adjusting fluid secretion to optimize mucus layer hydration. This system provided a feedback mechanism by which airways maintained mucus hydration in an optimum range for cilia propulsion. Understanding how airway epithelia can sense and respond to changes in mucus properties helps us to understand how the mucus clearance system protects the airways in health and how it fails in lung diseases such as cystic fibrosis.

  2. Minimizing liability by properly planning UST system upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    Kroon, D.H.; Baach, M.K.

    1995-12-31

    Existing underground storage tank (UST) systems containing regulated substances, including petroleum products, are defined by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as those installed prior to December 22, 1988. Under the federal regulations (40 CFR Parts 280 and 281), these systems must be upgraded to new standards by December 22, 1998 in the areas of spill and overfill prevention, corrosion protection, and leak detection. Properly planned UST system upgrades provide safety and environmental protection plus: compliance with federal regulations; minimum public liability; and reduced insurance premiums. Some modification to this program will be required where state and local regulations are more strict than the federal requirements. Minimizing liability at reduced costs is the key element of the upgrade program. Although the regulatory requirements must be satisfied, the paramount issue is to minimize exposure to public liability. The methodology presented has been demonstrated to economically achieve that very important goal. In a recent case history, a major operator of UST systems adopted this program and was rewarded by his insurance company with over a 50% reduction in premiums for pollution liability insurance. The upgrade program for existing UST systems consists of: general planning; site investigation; specific plan development; implementation; and monitoring and records.

  3. SIMP: A Near-Infrared Proper Motion Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artigau, Étienne; Lafrenière, David; Doyon, René; Albert, Loïc; Robert, Jasmin; Malo, Lison

    2009-02-01

    SIMP is a proper motion (PM) survey made with the Observatoire du Mont Mégantic (OMM) wide-field near-infrared camera CPAPIR at the CTIO 1.5 m and OMM 1.6 m telescopes. The SIMP observations were initiated in early 2005, are still ongoing and, to date, have covered 28% of the sky at high galactic latitudes. The PMs of the sources detected are determined by comparing their measured positions with those listed in the 2MASS point source catalog, giving a time baseline of 4 to 10 years. The 5 σ uncertainty on the relative SIMP and 2MASS astrometry is 1'', equivalent to a PM lower limit of 0.125-0.250''/yr, or a tangential velocity limit of 15-30 km/s at 25 pc. Up to the 2MASS magnitude limit (J~16.5), T dwarfs are found out to ~25 pc, while L dwarfs may be found as far as 100 pc away.

  4. Dynamics of hydrophobic organic contaminants in the Baltic proper pelagial

    SciTech Connect

    Axelman, J.; Broman, D.; Naef, C.; Pettersen, H.

    1995-12-31

    Hydrophobic organic contaminants occur in different forms in natural water. Apart from being truly dissolved in water they partition into dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and particles of different sizes including pelagic bacteria, phytoplankton and zooplankton. The distribution between the different forms is dependent on carbon turnover rates in and transport between the different compartments and on the physical and chemical properties of the compound in focus. The water phase, the DOC-phase and two particle size fractions, 0.2--2pm and 2--20 pm representing the base of the pelagic food web, were analyzed for their content of PCBs and PAHs during summer and winter conditions in the open sea in the Baltic proper. New methods for separating truly dissolved from DOC-bound compounds have been developed using a high capacity perfusion adsorbent and large scale gas sparging. The small particle size fraction was sampled using high volume tangential flow filtration. The possibility to separate between these four different compartments has given a more detailed picture of the short term dynamics of hydrophobic organic compounds in the important base of the pelagial food web.

  5. Knowing Our Neighbors: Four New Nearby High Proper Motion Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, Jennifer L.; Lurie, John C.; Ianna, Philip A.; Riedel, Adric R.; Finch, Charlie T.; Winters, Jennifer G.; Jao, Wei-Chun; Subasavage, John P.; Henry, Todd J.

    2017-01-01

    Obtaining a well-understood, volume-limited (and ultimately volume-complete) sample of stellar systems within 25 pc is essential for determining the stellar luminosity function, the mass-luminosity relationship, the stellar velocity distribution, and the stellar multiplicity fraction. Such a sample also provides insight into the local star formation history. Towards that end, the Research Consortium On Nearby Stars (RECONS) team measures trigonometric parallaxes to establish which systems truly lie within the 25-pc radius of the Solar Neighborhood. Recent astrometric measurements with the CTIO/SMARTS 0.9-m telescope establish three high proper motion systems as members (2MASS J02511490-0352459, 2MASS J15345704-1418486, and 2MASS J09211410-2104446) and confirm a fourth (2MASS J23062928-0502285). All four proper motions exceed 0.9”/yr. 2MA0251 travels 2.1497±0.0009”/yr in 149.20±0.05° at a distance of 11.0±0.4 pc. 2M2306 moves 1.0344±0.0007”/yr in 118.50±0.08° at a distance of 12.7±0.2 pc. 2MA1534 goes 0.9726±0.0004”/yr in 251.50 ±0.05° at a distance of 10.93±0.10 pc. 2MA0921 shifts 0.9489±0.0003”/yr in 164.70±0.04° at a distance of 12.3±0.2 pc. The corresponding tangential velocities are 112.4, 62.4, 50.4, and 55.5 km/s whereas the median for parallaxes previously published by RECONS is 53 km/s. With radial velocities in the literature of -75.5 to 80.53 km/s, none of these is a candidate member of any young moving groups.To characterize these late M-early L systems more fully, RECONS obtained VRI photometry; their I -band magnitudes range from 14.10 to 16.55. Over their astrometric baselines of 7.75 to 8.99 years, these demonstrated long-term I-band variability of 0.0135 mag. or less, indicating they may be older systems.With each new confirmation, we come closer to completing the census of the Solar Neighborhood.NSF grants AST 05-07711 and AST 09-08402, NASA-SIM, Georgia State University, the University of Virginia, Hampden-Sydney College

  6. Proposed proper Engle-Pereira-Rovelli-Livine vertex amplitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engle, Jonathan

    2013-04-01

    As established in a prior work of the author, the linear simplicity constraints used in the construction of the so-called “new” spin-foam models mix three of the five sectors of Plebanski theory as well as two dynamical orientations, and this is the reason for multiple terms in the asymptotics of the Engle-Pereira-Rovelli-Livine vertex amplitude as calculated by Barrett et al. Specifically, the term equal to the usual exponential of i times the Regge action corresponds to configurations either in sector (II+) with positive orientation or sector (II-) with negative orientation. The presence of the other terms beyond this cause problems in the semiclassical limit of the spin-foam model when considering multiple 4-simplices due to the fact that the different terms for different 4-simplices mix in the semiclassical limit, leading in general to a non-Regge action and hence non-Regge and nongravitational configurations persisting in the semiclassical limit. To correct this problem, we propose to modify the vertex so its asymptotics include only the one term of the form eiSRegge. To do this, an explicit classical discrete condition is derived that isolates the desired gravitational sector corresponding to this one term. This condition is quantized and used to modify the vertex amplitude, yielding what we call the “proper Engle-Pereira-Rovelli-Livine vertex amplitude.” This vertex still depends only on standard SU(2) spin-network data on the boundary, is SU(2) gauge-invariant, and is linear in the boundary state, as required. In addition, the asymptotics now consist in the single desired term of the form eiSRegge, and all degenerate configurations are exponentially suppressed. A natural generalization to the Lorentzian signature is also presented.

  7. Achieving the Proper Balance Between Crew and Public Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gowan, John; Silvestri, Ray; Stahl, Ben; Rosati, Paul; Wilde, Paul

    2011-01-01

    A paramount objective of all human-rated launch and reentry vehicle developers is to ensure that the risks to both the crew onboard and the public are minimized within reasonable cost, schedule, and technical constraints. Past experience has shown that proper attention to range safety requirements necessary to ensure public safety must be given early in the design phase to avoid additional operational complexities or threats to the safety of people onboard, and the design engineers must give these requirements the same consideration as crew safety requirements. For human spaceflight, the primary purpose and operational concept for any flight safety system is to protect the public while maximizing the likelihood of crew survival. This paper will outline the policy considerations, technical issues, and operational impacts regarding launch and reentry vehicle failure scenarios where crew and public safety are intertwined and thus addressed optimally in an integrated manner. An overview of existing range and crew safety policy requirements will be presented. Application of these requirements and lessons learned from both the Space Shuttle and Constellation Programs will also be discussed. Using these past programs as examples, the paper will detail operational, design, and analysis approaches to mitigate and balance the risks to people onboard and in the public. Manned vehicle perspectives from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and Air Force organizations that oversee public safety will be summarized as well. Finally, the paper will emphasize the need to factor policy, operational, and analysis considerations into the early design trades of new vehicles to help ensure that both crew and public safety are maximized to the greatest extent possible.

  8. Achieving the Proper Balance between Crew & Public Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilde, P.; Gowan, J.; Silvestri, R.; Stahl, B.; Rosati, P.

    2012-01-01

    A paramount objective of all human-rated launch and reentry vehicle developers is to ensure that the risks to both the crew onboard and the public are minimized within reasonable cost, schedule, and technical constraints. Past experience has shown that proper attention to range safety requirements necessary to ensure public safety must be given early in the design phase to avoid additional operational complexities or threats to the safety of people onboard, and the design engineers must give these requirements the same consideration as crew safety requirements. For human spaceflight, the primary purpose and operational concept for any flight safety system is to protect the public while maximizing the likelihood of crew survival. This paper will outline the policy considerations, technical issues, and operational impacts regarding launch and reentry vehicle failure scenarios where crew and public safety are intertwined and thus addressed optimally in an integrated manner. An overview of existing range and crew safety policy requirements will be presented. Application of these requirements and lessons learned from both the Space Shuttle and Constellation Programs will also be discussed. Using these past programs as examples, the paper will detail operational, design, and analysis approaches to mitigate and balance the risks to people onboard and in the public. Crewed vehicle perspectives from the Federal Aviation Administration and Air Force organizations that oversee public safety will be summarized as well. Finally, the paper will emphasize the need to factor policy, operational, and analysis considerations into the early design trades of new vehicles to help ensure that both crew and public safety are maximized to the greatest extent possible.

  9. A Proper Motions Study of the Globular Cluster NGC 3201

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sariya, Devesh P.; Jiang, Ing-Guey; Yadav, R. K. S.

    2017-03-01

    With a high value of heliocentric radial velocity, a retrograde orbit, and suspected to have an extragalactic origin, NGC 3201 is an interesting globular cluster for kinematical studies. Our purpose is to calculate the relative proper motions (PMs) and membership probability for the stars in the wide region of globular cluster NGC 3201. PM based membership probabilities are used to isolate the cluster sample from the field stars. The membership catalog will help address the question of chemical inhomogeneity in the cluster. Archive CCD data taken with a wide-field imager (WFI) mounted on the ESO 2.2 m telescope are reduced using the high-precision astrometric software developed by Anderson et al. for the WFI images. The epoch gap between the two observational runs is ∼14.3 years. To standardize the BVI photometry, Stetson’s secondary standard stars are used. The CCD data with an epoch gap of ∼14.3 years enables us to decontaminate the cluster stars from field stars efficiently. The median precision of PMs is better than ∼0.8 mas yr‑1 for stars having V< 18 mag that increases up to ∼1.5 mas yr‑1 for stars with 18< V< 20 mag. Kinematic membership probabilities are calculated using PMs for stars brighter than V∼ 20 mag. An electronic catalog of positions, relative PMs, BVI magnitudes, and membership probabilities in the ∼19.7 × 17 arcmin2 region of NGC 3201 is presented. We use our membership catalog to identify probable cluster members among the known variables and X-ray sources in the direction of NGC 3201. Based on observations with the MPG/ESO 2.2 m and ESO/VLT telescopes, located at La Silla and Paranal Observatory, Chile, under DDT programs 164.O-0561(F), 093.A-9028(A), and the archive material.

  10. Information Superiority generated through proper application of Geoinformatics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teichmann, F.

    2012-04-01

    Information Superiority generated through proper application of Geoinformatics Information management and especially geoscience information delivery is a very delicate task. If it is carried out successfully, geoscientific data will provide the main foundation of Information Superiority. However, improper implementation of geodata generation, assimilation, distribution or storage will not only waste valuable resources like manpower or money, but could also give rise to crucial deficiency in knowledge and might lead to potentially extremely harmful disasters or wrong decisions. Comprehensive Approach, Effect Based Operations and Network Enabled Capabilities are the current buzz terms in the security regime. However, they also apply to various interdisciplinary tasks like catastrophe relief missions, civil task operations or even in day to day business operations where geo-science data is used. Based on experience in the application of geoscience data for defence applications the following procedure or tool box for generating geodata should lead to the desired information superiority: 1. Understand and analyse the mission, the task and the environment for which the geodata is needed 2. Carry out a Information Exchange Requirement between the user or customer and the geodata provider 3. Implementation of current interoperability standards and a coherent metadata structure 4. Execute innovative data generation, data provision, data assimilation and data storage 5. Apply a cost-effective and reasonable data life cycle 6. Implement IT security by focusing of the three pillar concepts Integrity, Availability and Confidentiality of the critical data 7. Draft and execute a service level agreement or a memorandum of understanding between the involved parties 8. Execute a Continuous Improvement Cycle These ideas from the IT world should be transferred into the geoscience community and applied in a wide set of scenarios. A standardized approach of how to generate, provide

  11. Temporal extension of phase screen sequences using proper orthogonal decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henriksson, Markus; Sjöqvist, Lars; Tidström, Jonas

    2016-10-01

    For performance modelling of optical countermeasure systems simulation of turbulence effects is necessary. Physical optics numerical beam propagation using phase screens is an established method in this respect. In some cases a short sequence of temporally resolved phase screens is available from Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations or from wavefront sensor measurements. It is, however, seldom possible to provide enough sequences and sufficient sequence length for Monte Carlo simulations of system performance utilizing these methods. Therefore, we have investigated the possibility to generate an arbitrary number of longer temporal sequences of phase screens with the same statistical properties for simulation of turbulence, based on an available short phase screen sequence. The method apply Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD), a method used to generate orthogonal modes from a dataset. For discretely sampled sequences the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) algorithm is suitable to extract the set of POD modes. This scheme provides a separate temporal sequence of coefficients for each spatial mode. The next step is to generate new, longer temporal sequences of coefficients with the same statistical properties as those extracted by the SVD algorithm. Finally a new sequence of phase screens is generated by adding all spatial modes. The method is illustrated using data from CFD calculations of a down-scaled jet engine plume. The method is especially suitable for very strong localized turbulence as in aero optics and engine exhaust plumes, but may be useful also for extended turbulence. The use to generate Power-In-Bucket (PIB) sequences for evaluation of turbulence distortion effects is demonstrated. PIB is an important quantity when evaluating e.g. the performance of directed infrared countermeasure (DIRCM) systems.

  12. High-speed imaging of submerged jet: visualization analysis using proper orthogonality decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yingzheng; He, Chuangxin

    2016-11-01

    In the present study, the submerged jet at low Reynolds numbers was visualized using laser induced fluoresce and high-speed imaging in a water tank. Well-controlled calibration was made to determine linear dependency region of the fluoresce intensity on its concentration. Subsequently, the jet fluid issuing from a circular pipe was visualized using a high-speed camera. The animation sequence of the visualized jet flow field was supplied for the snapshot proper orthogonality decomposition (POD) analysis. Spatio-temporally varying structures superimposed in the unsteady fluid flow were identified, e.g., the axisymmetric mode and the helical mode, which were reflected from the dominant POD modes. The coefficients of the POD modes give strong indication of temporal and spectral features of the corresponding unsteady events. The reconstruction using the time-mean visualization and the selected POD modes was conducted to reveal the convective motion of the buried vortical structures. National Natural Science Foundation of China.

  13. Obtaining anisotropic velocity data for proper depth seismic imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Egerev, Sergey; Yushin, Victor; Ovchinnikov, Oleg; Dubinsky, Vladimir; Patterson, Doug

    2012-05-24

    The paper deals with the problem of obtaining anisotropic velocity data due to continuous acoustic impedance-based measurements while scanning in the axial direction along the walls of the borehole. Diagrams of full conductivity of the piezoceramic transducer were used to derive anisotropy parameters of the rock sample. The measurements are aimed to support accurate depth imaging of seismic data. Understanding these common anisotropy effects is important when interpreting data where it is present.

  14. ON-LINE TOOLS FOR PROPER VERTICAL POSITIONING OF VERTICAL SAMPLING INTERVALS DURING SITE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation presents on-line tools for proper vertical positioning of vertical sampling intervals during site assessment. Proper vertical sample interval selection is critical for generate data on the vertical distribution of contamination. Without vertical delineation, th...

  15. 7 CFR 701.31 - Maintenance and proper use of practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... proper use of the practice. Some practices have an established life span or minimum period of time during... properly maintained for the established life span, the participant may be required to refund all or part...

  16. DISCOVERIES FROM A NEAR-INFRARED PROPER MOTION SURVEY USING MULTI-EPOCH TWO MICRON ALL-SKY SURVEY DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Cutri, Roc M.; Looper, Dagny L.; Burgasser, Adam J.; Schurr, Steven D.; Cushing, Michael C.; Cruz, Kelle L.; Sweet, Anne C.; Knapp, Gillian R.; Barman, Travis S.; Bochanski, John J.; Roellig, Thomas L.; McLean, Ian S.; McGovern, Mark R.; Rice, Emily L.

    2010-09-15

    We have conducted a 4030 deg{sup 2} near-infrared proper motion survey using multi-epoch data from the Two Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS). We find 2778 proper motion candidates, 647 of which are not listed in SIMBAD. After comparison to Digitized Sky Survey images, we find that 107 of our proper motion candidates lack counterparts at B, R, and I bands and are thus 2MASS-only detections. We present results of spectroscopic follow-up of 188 targets that include the infrared-only sources along with selected optical-counterpart sources with faint reduced proper motions or interesting colors. We also establish a set of near-infrared spectroscopic standards with which to anchor near-infrared classifications for our objects. Among the discoveries are six young field brown dwarfs, five 'red L' dwarfs, three L-type subdwarfs, twelve M-type subdwarfs, eight 'blue L' dwarfs, and several T dwarfs. We further refine the definitions of these exotic classes to aid future identification of similar objects. We examine their kinematics and find that both the 'blue L' and 'red L' dwarfs appear to be drawn from a relatively old population. This survey provides a glimpse of the kinds of research that will be possible through time-domain infrared projects such as the UKIDSS Large Area Survey, various VISTA surveys, and WISE, and also through z- or y-band enabled, multi-epoch surveys such as Pan-STARRS and LSST.

  17. Discrete-time H(infinity) control problem with strictly proper measurement feedback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoorvogel, Anton A.; Saberi, Ali; Chen, Ben M.

    1993-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the discrete-time H(sub infinity) control problem with strictly proper measurement feedback. The authors derive necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of a strictly proper compensator which achieves a given H(sub infinity) norm bound. Note that contrary to the continuous time, in discrete time there might exist a suitable proper compensator but no suitable strictly proper compensator. Finally, they give an explicit formula for one controller which achieves this bound.

  18. 5 CFR 550.808 - Prohibition against setting aside proper promotions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Prohibition against setting aside proper... REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Back Pay § 550.808 Prohibition against setting aside proper... authorizing the setting aside of an otherwise proper promotion by a selecting official from a group...

  19. 20 CFR 658.415 - Transferring complaints to proper JS office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Transferring complaints to proper JS office... System State Agency Js Complaint System § 658.415 Transferring complaints to proper JS office. (a) Where a JS-related complaint deals with an employer, the proper office to handle the complaint...

  20. 20 CFR 658.415 - Transferring complaints to proper JS office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Transferring complaints to proper JS office... System State Agency Js Complaint System § 658.415 Transferring complaints to proper JS office. (a) Where a JS-related complaint deals with an employer, the proper office to handle the complaint...

  1. 20 CFR 658.415 - Transferring complaints to proper JS office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Transferring complaints to proper JS office... System State Agency Js Complaint System § 658.415 Transferring complaints to proper JS office. (a) Where a JS-related complaint deals with an employer, the proper office to handle the complaint...

  2. Accurate diagnosis of Giardia spp and proper fecal examination procedures.

    PubMed

    Dryden, M W; Payne, P A; Smith, V

    2006-01-01

    A series of investigations evaluated the ability of different testing methods - a swing-head centrifugation technique using two flotation solutions (1.18-specific gravity zinc sulfate and 1.27-specific gravity Sheather's sugar solution), a passive commercial flotation technique, and the SNAP Giardia Test Kit from IDEXX Laboratories - to identify Giardia-positive dogs and recover the eggs of other intestinal parasites. It was determined that the SNAP Giardia test can improve a practice's ability to identify Giardia-infected dogs. Because of its higher specific gravity, the sugar solution was better for recovering heavy parasite eggs, such as Taenia spp, and thus is the flotation solution of choice when conducting routine centrifugation fecal examinations.

  3. Heat conduction in conducting polyaniline nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, Chandrani; Kumar, A.; Syu, K.-Z.; Kuo, Y.-K.

    2013-09-01

    Thermal conductivity and specific heat of conducting polyaniline nanofibers are measured to identify the nature of heat carrying modes combined with their inhomogeneous structure. The low temperature thermal conductivity results reveal crystalline nature while the high temperature data confirm the amorphous nature of the material suggesting heterogeneous model for conducting polyaniline. Extended acoustic phonons dominate the low temperature (<100 K) heat conduction, while localized optical phonons hopping, assisted by the extended acoustic modes, account for the high temperature (>100 K) heat conduction.

  4. An All-Sky Search for Wide Binaries in the SUPERBLINK Proper Motion Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartman, Zachary; Lepine, Sebastien

    2017-01-01

    We present initial results from an all-sky search for Common Proper Motion (CPM) binaries in the SUPERBLINK all-sky proper motion catalog of 2.8 million stars with proper motions greater than 40 mas/yr, which has been recently enhanced with data from the GAIA mission. We initially search the SUPERBLINK catalog for pairs of stars with angular separations up to 1 degree and proper motion difference less than 40 mas/yr. In order to determine which of these pairs are real binaries, we develop a Bayesian analysis to calculate probabilities of true companionship based on a combination of proper motion magnitude, angular separation, and proper motion differences. The analysis reveals that the SUPERBLINK catalog most likely contains ~40,000 genuine common proper motion binaries. We provide initial estimates of the distances and projected physical separations of these wide binaries.

  5. Assessment of Proper Bonding Methods and Mechanical Characterization FPGA CQFPs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Milton C.

    2008-01-01

    This presentation discusses fractured leads on field-programmable gate array (FPGA) during flight vibration. Actions taken to determine root cause and resolution of the failure include finite element analysis (FEA) and vibration testing and scanning electron microscopy (with X-ray microanalysis) and energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM/EDS) failure assessment. Bonding methods for surface mount parts is assessed, including critical analysis and assessment of random fatigue damage. Regarding ceramic quad flat pack (CQFP) lead fracture, after disassembling the attitude control electronics (ACE) configuration, photographs showed six leads cracked on FPGA RTSX72SU-1 CQ208B package located on the RWIC card. An identical package (FPGA RTSX32SU-1 CQ208B) mounted on the RWIC did not results in cracked pins due to vibration. FPGA lead failure theories include workmanship issues in the lead-forming, material defect in the leads of the FPGA packages, and the insecure mounting of the board in the card guides, among other theories. Studies were conducted using simple calculations to determine the response and fatigue life of the package. Shorter packages exhibited more response when loaded by out-of-plane displacement of PCB while taller packages exhibit more response when loaded by in-plane acceleration of PCB. Additionally, under-fill did not contribute to reducing stress in leads due to out-of-plane PCB loading or from component twisting, as much as corner bonding. The combination of corner bond and under-fill is best to address mechanical and thermal S/C environment. Test results of bonded parts showed reduced (dampened) amplitude and slightly shifted peaks at the un-bonded natural frequency and an additional response at the bonded frequency. Stress due to PCBB out-of-plane loading was decreased on in the corners when only a corner bond was used. Future work may address CQFP fatigue assessment, including the investigation of discrepancy in predicted fatigue damage, as well as

  6. A technique to derive improved proper motions for Kepler objects of interest

    SciTech Connect

    Benedict, G. Fritz; Tanner, Angelle M.; Cargile, Phillip A.; Ciardi, David R.

    2014-12-01

    We outline an approach yielding proper motions with higher precision than exists in present catalogs for a sample of stars in the Kepler field. To increase proper-motion precision, we combine first-moment centroids of Kepler pixel data from a single season with existing catalog positions and proper motions. We use this astrometry to produce improved reduced-proper-motion diagrams, analogous to a Hertzsprung-Russell (H-R) diagram, for stars identified as Kepler objects of interest. The more precise the relative proper motions, the better the discrimination between stellar luminosity classes. Using UCAC4 and PPMXL epoch 2000 positions (and proper motions from those catalogs as quasi-Bayesian priors), astrometry for a single test Channel (21) and Season (0) spanning 2 yr yields proper motions with an average per-coordinate proper-motion error of 1.0 mas yr{sup –1}, which is over a factor of three better than existing catalogs. We apply a mapping between a reduced-proper-motion diagram and an H-R diagram, both constructed using Hubble Space Telescope parallaxes and proper motions, to estimate Kepler object of interest K-band absolute magnitudes. The techniques discussed apply to any future small-field astrometry as well as to the rest of the Kepler field.

  7. A Deep Proper Motion Catalog Within the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Footprint

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-13

    A DEEP PROPER MOTION CATALOG WITHIN THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY FOOTPRINT Jeffrey A. Munn1, Hugh C. Harris1, Ted von Hippel2, Mukremin Kilic3, James...material: color figures 1. INTRODUCTION Wide area, deep proper motion catalogs have wide applicability to studies of the structure and formation of our...control number. 1. REPORT DATE DEC 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Deep Proper Motion

  8. Improving dry carbon nanotube actuators by chemical modifications, material hybridization, and proper engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biso, Maurizio; Ansaldo, Alberto; Ricci, Davide

    2013-04-01

    Low voltage, dry electrochemical actuators can be prepared by using a gel made of carbon nanotubes and ionic liquid.1 Their performance can be significantly improved by combining physical and chemical modifications with a proper engineering. We demonstrated that multi walled carbon nanotubes can be effectively used for actuators preparation;2 we achieved interesting performance improvements by chemically cross linking carbon nanotubes using both aromatic and aliphatic diamines;3 we introduced a novel hybrid material, made by in-situ chemical polymerization of pyrrole on carbon nanotubes, that further boosts actuation by taking advantage of the peculiar properties of both materials in terms of maximum strain and conductivity;4 we investigated the influence of actuator thickness showing that the generated strain at high frequency is strongly enhanced when thickness is reduced. To overcome limitations set by bimorphs, we designed a novel actuator in which a metal spring, embedded in the solid electrolyte of a bimorph device, is used as a non-actuating counter plate resulting in a three electrode device capable of both linear and bending motion. Finally, we propose a way to model actuators performance in terms of purely material-dependent parameters instead of geometry-dependent ones.5

  9. Proper Brushing

    MedlinePlus

    ... bristles along the gumline at a 45-degree angle. Bristles should contact both the tooth surface and the gumline. Gently ... A rolling motion is when the brush makes contact with the gumline and ... a 45-degree angle with bristles contacting the tooth surface and gumline. ...

  10. Proper Flossing

    MedlinePlus

    ... zig-zag motion. Gently wrap floss around the side of the tooth. Slide floss up and down against the tooth surface and under the gumline. Floss each tooth thoroughly with a clean section of floss. --Illustrations adapted by and used courtesy of the John O. Butler Company--

  11. 1 CFR 51.9 - What is the proper language of incorporation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true What is the proper language of incorporation? 51... What is the proper language of incorporation? (a) The language incorporating a publication by reference... is intended and completed by the final rule document in which it appears. (b) The...

  12. 1 CFR 51.9 - What is the proper language of incorporation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What is the proper language of incorporation... What is the proper language of incorporation? (a) The language incorporating a publication by reference... is intended and completed by the final rule document in which it appears. (b) The...

  13. 1 CFR 51.9 - What is the proper language of incorporation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true What is the proper language of incorporation? 51... What is the proper language of incorporation? (a) The language incorporating a publication by reference... is intended and completed by the final rule document in which it appears. (b) The...

  14. 1 CFR 51.9 - What is the proper language of incorporation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What is the proper language of incorporation... What is the proper language of incorporation? (a) The language incorporating a publication by reference... is intended and completed by the final rule document in which it appears. (b) The...

  15. 1 CFR 51.9 - What is the proper language of incorporation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What is the proper language of incorporation... What is the proper language of incorporation? (a) The language incorporating a publication by reference... is intended and completed by the final rule document in which it appears. (b) The...

  16. Using Standardized Patients in Continuing Medical Education Courses on Proper Prescribing of Controlled Substances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swiggart, William H.; Ghulyan, Marine V.; Dewey, Charlene M.

    2012-01-01

    Controlled prescription drug (CPD) abuse is an increasing threat to patient safety and health care providers (HCPs) are not adequately prepared nor do they routinely employ proper screening techniques. Using standardized patients (SPs) as an instructional strategy, the trained physicians on proper prescribing practices and SBIRT (Screening, Brief…

  17. 16 CFR 23.15 - Misuse of the term “properly cut,” etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Misuse of the term âproperly cut,â etc. 23.15 Section 23.15 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR THE JEWELRY, PRECIOUS METALS, AND PEWTER INDUSTRIES § 23.15 Misuse of the term “properly cut,”...

  18. 16 CFR 23.15 - Misuse of the term “properly cut,” etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Misuse of the term âproperly cut,â etc. 23.15 Section 23.15 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR THE JEWELRY, PRECIOUS METALS, AND PEWTER INDUSTRIES § 23.15 Misuse of the term “properly cut,”...

  19. 16 CFR 23.15 - Misuse of the term “properly cut,” etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Misuse of the term âproperly cut,â etc. 23.15 Section 23.15 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR THE JEWELRY, PRECIOUS METALS, AND PEWTER INDUSTRIES § 23.15 Misuse of the term “properly cut,”...

  20. 16 CFR 23.15 - Misuse of the term “properly cut,” etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Misuse of the term âproperly cut,â etc. 23.15 Section 23.15 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR THE JEWELRY, PRECIOUS METALS, AND PEWTER INDUSTRIES § 23.15 Misuse of the term “properly cut,”...

  1. 16 CFR 23.15 - Misuse of the term “properly cut,” etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Misuse of the term âproperly cut,â etc. 23.15 Section 23.15 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR THE JEWELRY, PRECIOUS METALS, AND PEWTER INDUSTRIES § 23.15 Misuse of the term “properly cut,”...

  2. 49 CFR 40.235 - What are the requirements for proper use and care of ASDs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Testing Sites, Forms, Equipment and Supplies Used in Alcohol Testing § 40.235 What are the requirements for proper use and care of ASDs? (a) As... include directions on the proper use of the ASD, and, where applicable the time within which the...

  3. Enthalpy Costs of Making and Breaking Bonds: A Game of Generating Molecules with Proper Lewis Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Peter T.; Adkins, Alyssa D.; Gamble, Rex J.; Schultz, Linda D.

    2009-01-01

    "Enthalpy Costs" is a simple card game created to assist students in developing proper Lewis structure drawing skills. Score keeping is accomplished by tracking the enthalpy changes associated with bond-making and bond-breaking processes during formation of molecules represented by proper Lewis structures. Playing the game requires the student to…

  4. Treatment of Proper Name Retrieval Deficits in an Individual with Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minkina, Irene; Ojemann, Jeffrey G.; Grabowski, Thomas J.; Silkes, JoAnn P.; Phatak, Vaishali; Kendall, Diane L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Studies investigating language deficits in individuals with left temporal-lobe epilepsy have consistently demonstrated impairments in proper name retrieval. The aim of this Phase I rehabilitation study was to investigate the effects of a linguistically distributed word retrieval treatment on proper name retrieval in an individual with…

  5. 27 CFR 4.45 - Certificates of origin, identity and proper cellar treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., identity and proper cellar treatment. 4.45 Section 4.45 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Requirements for Withdrawal of Wine From Customs Custody § 4.45 Certificates of origin, identity and proper cellar treatment. (a) Origin and identity. Imported wine shall not be released from customs custody...

  6. 27 CFR 4.45 - Certificates of origin, identity and proper cellar treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., identity and proper cellar treatment. 4.45 Section 4.45 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Requirements for Withdrawal of Wine From Customs Custody § 4.45 Certificates of origin, identity and proper cellar treatment. (a) Origin and identity. Imported wine shall not be released from customs custody...

  7. 27 CFR 4.45 - Certificates of origin, identity and proper cellar treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., identity and proper cellar treatment. 4.45 Section 4.45 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Requirements for Withdrawal of Wine From Customs Custody § 4.45 Certificates of origin, identity and proper cellar treatment. (a) Origin and identity. Imported wine shall not be released from customs custody...

  8. 27 CFR 4.45 - Certificates of origin, identity and proper cellar treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., identity and proper cellar treatment. 4.45 Section 4.45 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Requirements for Withdrawal of Wine From Customs Custody § 4.45 Certificates of origin, identity and proper cellar treatment. (a) Origin and identity. Imported wine shall not be released from customs custody...

  9. 27 CFR 4.45 - Certificates of origin, identity and proper cellar treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., identity and proper cellar treatment. 4.45 Section 4.45 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Requirements for Withdrawal of Wine From Customs Custody § 4.45 Certificates of origin, identity and proper cellar treatment. (a) Origin and identity. Imported wine shall not be released from customs custody...

  10. 77 FR 70484 - Preoperational Testing of Onsite Electric Power Systems To Verify Proper Load Group Assignments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ... COMMISSION Preoperational Testing of Onsite Electric Power Systems To Verify Proper Load Group Assignments... Power Systems to Verify Proper Load Group Assignments, Electrical Separation, and Redundancy.'' DG-1294... regulations, techniques that the staff uses in evaluating specific problems or postulated accidents, and...

  11. 20 CFR 602.41 - Proper expenditure of Quality Control granted funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Proper expenditure of Quality Control granted... LABOR QUALITY CONTROL IN THE FEDERAL-STATE UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE SYSTEM Quality Control Grants to States § 602.41 Proper expenditure of Quality Control granted funds. The Secretary may, after...

  12. 20 CFR 602.41 - Proper expenditure of Quality Control granted funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Proper expenditure of Quality Control granted... LABOR QUALITY CONTROL IN THE FEDERAL-STATE UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE SYSTEM Quality Control Grants to States § 602.41 Proper expenditure of Quality Control granted funds. The Secretary may, after...

  13. 20 CFR 602.41 - Proper expenditure of Quality Control granted funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Proper expenditure of Quality Control granted... LABOR QUALITY CONTROL IN THE FEDERAL-STATE UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE SYSTEM Quality Control Grants to States § 602.41 Proper expenditure of Quality Control granted funds. The Secretary may, after...

  14. 21 CFR 610.62 - Proper name; package label; legible type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Proper name; package label; legible type. 610.62 Section 610.62 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... label; legible type. (a) Position. The proper name of the product on the package label shall be...

  15. 79 FR 19620 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Proper Labeling of Honey and Honey Products; Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2014-04-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry: Proper Labeling of Honey and Honey Products; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... industry entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Proper Labeling ] of Honey and Honey Products.'' FDA...

  16. 20 CFR 658.415 - Transferring complaints to proper JS office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Transferring complaints to proper JS office... Agency Js Complaint System § 658.415 Transferring complaints to proper JS office. (a) Where a JS-related... local office serving the area in which the employer is located. Where a JS-related complaint deals...

  17. Electrically conductive black optical paint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birnbaum, M. M.; Metzler, E. C.; Cleland, E. L.

    1983-01-01

    An electrically conductive flat black paint has been developed for use on the Galileo spacecraft which will orbit Jupiter in the late 1980s. The paint, designed for equipment operating in high-energy radiation fields, has multipurpose functions. Its electrical conductivity keeps differential charging of the spacecraft external surfaces and equipment to a minimum, preventing the buildup of electrostatic fields and arcing. Its flat black aspect minimizes the effects of stray light and unwanted reflectances, when used in optical instruments and on sunshades. Its blackness is suitable, also, for thermal control, when the paint is put on spacecraft surfaces. The paint has good adherence properties, as measured by tape tests, when applied properly to a surface. The electrically conductive paint which was developed has the following characteristics: an electrical resistivity of 5 x 10 to the 7th ohms per square; a visual light total reflectance of approximately 5 percent; an infrared reflectance of 0.13 measured over a spectrum from 10 to the (-5.5) power to 0.001 meter; a solar absorptivity, alpha-s, of 0.93, and a thermal emissivity, epsilon, of 0.87, resulting in an alpha-s/epsilon of 1.07. The formula for making the paint and the process for applying it are described.

  18. Proper Technique for Administration of ATX-101 (Deoxycholic Acid Injection): Insights From an Injection Practicum and Roundtable Discussion.

    PubMed

    Jones, Derek H; Kenkel, Jeffrey M; Fagien, Steven; Glaser, Dee Anna; Monheit, Gary D; Stauffer, Karen; Sykes, Jonathan M

    2016-11-01

    ATX-101 (deoxycholic acid injection; Kybella in the United States and Belkyra in Canada; Kythera Biopharmaceuticals, Inc., Westlake Village, CA [an affiliate of Allergan plc, Dublin, Ireland]) is the first aesthetic injectable approved for reduction of submental fat. In February 2014, an injection practicum was conducted in the anatomy laboratory at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center to explore the proper injection technique for ATX-101 and the importance of its appropriate, safe anatomical placement within the submental area. Subsequent to the injection practicum, a structured roundtable discussion was conducted in which potential implications of the various injection protocols evaluated during the practicum were reviewed. Furthermore, the faculty had the opportunity to provide additional perspectives based on their clinical experience with facial injectables and ATX-101 specifically. In this article, the findings from the injection practicum and roundtable discussion are reported.

  19. Global survey of star clusters in the Milky Way. IV. 63 new open clusters detected by proper motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholz, R.-D.; Kharchenko, N. V.; Piskunov, A. E.; Röser, S.; Schilbach, E.

    2015-09-01

    Context. The global Milky Way Star Clusters (MWSC) survey provided new cluster membership lists and mean cluster parameters for nearly 80% of all previously known Galactic clusters. The MWSC data reduction pipeline involved the catalogue of positions and proper motions (PPMXL) on the International Celestial Reference System (ICRS) and near-infrared photometry from the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS). Aims: In the first extension to the MWSC, photometric filters were applied to the 2MASS catalogue to find new cluster candidates that were subsequently confirmed or rejected by the MWSC pipeline. To further extend the MWSC census, particularly of nearby clusters, we aimed at discovering new clusters by conducting an almost global search in proper motion catalogues as a starting point. Methods: We first selected high-quality samples from the PPMXL and the Fourth US Naval Observatory CCD Astrograph Catalog (UCAC4) for comparison and verification of the proper motions. For 441 circular proper motion bins (radius 15 mas/yr) within ±50 mas/yr, the sky outside a thin Galactic plane zone (| b | < 5°) was binned in small areas ("sky pixels") of 0.25 × 0.25 deg2. Sky pixels with enhanced numbers of stars with a certain common proper motion in both catalogues were considered as cluster candidates. After visual inspection of the sky images, we built an automated procedure that combined these representations of the sky for neighbouring proper motion subsamples after a background correction. The 692 compact cluster candidates detected above a threshold that was equivalent to a minimum of 12 to 130 cluster stars in dependence on the Galactic latitude were then cross-checked with known star clusters and clusters of galaxies. New candidates served as input for the MWSC pipeline. Results: About half of our candidates overlapped with known clusters (46 globular and 68 open clusters in the Galaxy, about 150 known clusters of galaxies) or the Magellanic Clouds. About 10% of our

  20. Documenting Employee Conduct

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Jason

    2009-01-01

    One of the best ways for a child care program to lose an employment-related lawsuit is failure to document the performance of its employees. Documentation of an employee's performance can provide evidence of an employment-related decision such as discipline, promotion, or discharge. When properly implemented, documentation of employee performance…

  1. A Study of the SDSS White Dwarf Component in the LSPM Proper Motion Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darveau-Bernier, A.; Bergeron, P.; Lépine, S.

    2017-03-01

    We present a model atmosphere analysis of the white dwarfs identified in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey with proper motions measured in the LSPM proper motion survey of Lépine et al. We rely on reduced proper motion diagrams to build a sample of white dwarfs in the SDSS footprint, and cross correlate this sample with the SDSS spectroscopic database to understand the systematics related to completeness, contamination, WD+M dwarf binaries, reddening, etc. We then determine a white dwarf luminosity function for this sample using various methods.

  2. Report: EPA Did Not Properly Process a Hospital Disinfectant and Sanitizer Registration

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #2007-P-00018, March 29, 2007. EPA’s Office of Pesticides Program-Antimicrobials Division (OPP-AD) did not properly process registration for an antimicrobial pesticide that was the subject of our review.

  3. [Providing studies quality for pesticides risk evaluation in their use according to proper laboratory practice rules].

    PubMed

    Rakitskiy, V N; Bereznyak, I V

    2016-01-01

    The article covers experience of proper laboratory practice in hygienic studies examining air and workers' skin for assessment of exposure levels of pesticides in natural conditions of agricultural production.

  4. 7 CFR 701.31 - Maintenance and proper use of practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... span or minimum period of time during which they are expected to function as a conservation practice... of any practice. (b) If a practice is not properly maintained for the established life span,...

  5. 7 CFR 701.31 - Maintenance and proper use of practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... span or minimum period of time during which they are expected to function as a conservation practice... of any practice. (b) If a practice is not properly maintained for the established life span,...

  6. Hemispheric Asymmetry of Supplementary Motor Area Proper: A Functional Connectivity Study of the Motor Network.

    PubMed

    Dinomais, Mickael; Chinier, Eva; Richard, Isabelle; Ricalens, Emmanuel; Aubé, Christophe; N'Guyen The Tich, Sylvie; Ter Minassian, Aram

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral asymmetry is a common feature of human functions. However, there are discrepancies in the literature about functional hemispheric asymmetries in the supplementary motor area (SMA), specifically in the posterior part (SMA-proper). We used resting state functional connectivity MRI to investigate the left-right asymmetries of the functional networks associated with primary motor cortex (M1) and SMA-proper using a "seed"-based correlation analysis in 30 healthy right-handed subjects. We showed that left M1 was more connected with areas involved in the motor system than right M1, and that right SMA-proper had more functional connections than its left counterpart. Our results are in agreement with a leftward asymmetry for M1 connectivity, whereas there is a rightward asymmetry of the SMA-proper connectivity.

  7. 78 FR 33891 - Safety Advisory: Compressed Gas Cylinders That Have Not Been Tested Properly

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-05

    ... No: 2013-13222] DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration... Tested Properly AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION... may not have the structural integrity to contain hazardous materials safely under pressure...

  8. Review & Peer Review of “Parameters for Properly Designed and Operated Flares” Documents

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains two 2012 memoranda on the review of EPA's parameters for properly designed and operated flares. One details the process of peer review, and the other provides background information and specific charge questions to the panel.

  9. PROPER MOTIONS AND INTERNAL DYNAMICS IN THE CORE OF THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER M71

    SciTech Connect

    Samra, Raminder S.; Richer, Harvey B.; Heyl, Jeremy S.; Goldsbury, Ryan; Walker, Gordon; Woodley, Kristin A.; Thanjavur, Karun E-mail: richer@astro.ubc.ca E-mail: heyl@phas.ubc.ca E-mail: kwoodley@phas.ubc.ca

    2012-05-20

    We have used Gemini North together with the NIRI-ALTAIR adaptive optics imager in the H and K bands to explore the core of the Galactic globular cluster M71 (NGC 6838). We obtained proper motions for 217 stars and have resolved its internal proper motion dispersion. Using a 3.8 year baseline, the proper motion dispersion in the core is found to be 179 {+-} 17 {mu}as yr{sup -1}. We find no evidence of anisotropy in the motions and no radial variation in the proper motions with respect to distance from the cluster center. We also set an upper limit on any central black hole to be {approx}150 M{sub Sun} at 90% confidence level.

  10. Conducting compositions of matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viswanathan, Tito (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The invention provides conductive compositions of matter, as well as methods for the preparation of the conductive compositions of matter, solutions comprising the conductive compositions of matter, and methods of preparing fibers or fabrics having improved anti-static properties employing the conductive compositions of matter.

  11. Conducting Compositions of Matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viswanathan, Tito (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    The invention provides conductive compositions of matter, as well as methods for the preparation of the conductive compositions of matter, solutions comprising the conductive compositions of matter, and methods of preparing fibers or fabrics having improved anti-static properties employing the conductive compositions of matter.

  12. Proper-motion binaries in the Hipparcos catalogue. Comparison with radial velocity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankowski, A.; Jancart, S.; Jorissen, A.

    2007-03-01

    Context: This paper is the last in a series devoted to the analysis of the binary content of the Hipparcos Catalogue. Aims: The comparison of the proper motions constructed from positions spanning a short (Hipparcos) or long time (Tycho-2) makes it possible to uncover binaries with periods of the order of or somewhat larger than the short time span (in this case, the 3 yr duration of the Hipparcos mission), since the unrecognised orbital motion will then add to the proper motion. Methods: A list of candidate proper motion binaries is constructed from a carefully designed χ2 test evaluating the statistical significance of the difference between the Tycho-2 and Hipparcos proper motions for 103 134 stars in common between the two catalogues (excluding components of visual systems). Since similar lists of proper-motion binaries have already been constructed, the present paper focuses on the evaluation of the detection efficiency of proper-motion binaries, using different kinds of control data (mostly radial velocities). The detection rate for entries from the Ninth Catalogue of Spectroscopic Binary Orbits (S_B^9) is evaluated, as well as for stars like barium stars, which are known to be all binaries, and finally for spectroscopic binaries identified from radial velocity data in the Geneva-Copenhagen survey of F and G dwarfs in the solar neighbourhood. Results: Proper motion binaries are efficiently detected for systems with parallaxes in excess of ~20 mas, and periods in the range 1000-30 000 d. The shortest periods in this range (1000-2000 d, i.e., once to twice the duration of the Hipparcos mission) may appear only as DMSA/G binaries (accelerated proper motion in the Hipparcos Double and Multiple System Annex). Proper motion binaries detected among S_B9 systems having periods shorter than about 400 d hint at triple systems, the proper-motion binary involving a component with a longer orbital period. A list of 19 candidate triple systems is provided. Binaries

  13. Polyaniline Based Conductive Textiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teli, M.; Dash, S.; Desai, P.

    2014-12-01

    The conductive polymers were mixed with binder and coated on cotton, polyester and wool fabric, keeping conductive polymer concentration at 5 %. Conductive woven fabrics were obtained by pad-dry-cure coating technique. The surface and bulk conductivity behaviour of the coating paste with respect to temperature were studied using four probe and two probe technique. The conductivity studies show that the coated fabrics have good electrical conductivity in the range of 33.2 μS/cm-3281 μS/cm and there was an increase in conductivity with rise in temperature.

  14. The proper name of the neotropical tree boa often referred to as Corallus enhydris (Serpentes: Boidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDiarmid, Roy W.; Toure, T'Shaka; Savage, Jay M.

    1996-01-01

    Confusion regarding the application of the proper scientific name for the common Neotropical tree boa has existed since Linnaeus described Boa enydris and Boa hortulana in 1758. We review the nomenclatural history of the species and point out the misapplication of scientific names that have characterized this form. Our review indicates that the proper scientific name for this highly variable, wide-ranging arboreal boid is Corallus hortulanus, not Corallus enydris, as has been used so frequently in recent years.

  15. Conduction-coupled Tesla transformer.

    PubMed

    Reed, J L

    2015-03-01

    A proof-of-principle Tesla transformer circuit is introduced. The new transformer exhibits the high voltage-high power output signal of shock-excited transformers. The circuit, with specification of proper circuit element values, is capable of obtaining extreme oscillatory voltages. The primary and secondary portions of the circuit communicate solely by conduction. The destructive arcing between the primary and secondary inductors in electromagnetically coupled transformers is ubiquitous. Flashover is eliminated in the new transformer as the high-voltage inductors do not interpenetrate and so do not possess an annular volume of electric field. The inductors are remote from one another. The high voltage secondary inductor is isolated in space, except for a base feed conductor, and obtains earth by its self-capacitance to the surroundings. Governing equations, for the ideal case of no damping, are developed from first principles. Experimental, theoretical, and circuit simulator data are presented for the new transformer. Commercial high-temperature superconductors are discussed as a means to eliminate the counter-intuitive damping due to small primary inductances in both the electromagnetic-coupled and new conduction-coupled transformers.

  16. Regulation of Conduction Time along Axons

    PubMed Central

    Seidl, Armin H.

    2013-01-01

    Timely delivery of information is essential for proper function of the nervous system. Precise regulation of nerve conduction velocity is needed for correct exertion of motor skills, sensory integration and cognitive functions. In vertebrates, the rapid transmission of signals along nerve fibers is made possible by the myelination of axons and the resulting saltatory conduction in between nodes of Ranvier. Myelin is a specialization of glia cells and is provided by oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system. Myelination not only maximizes conduction velocity, but also provides a means to systematically regulate conduction times in the nervous system. Systematic regulation of conduction velocity along axons, and thus systematic regulation of conduction time in between neural areas, is a common occurrence in the nervous system. To date, little is understood about the mechanism that underlies systematic conduction velocity regulation and conduction time synchrony. Node assembly, internode distance (node spacing) and axon diameter - all parameters determining the speed of signal propagation along axons - are controlled by myelinating glia. Therefore, an interaction between glial cells and neurons has been suggested. This review summarizes examples of neural systems in which conduction velocity is regulated by anatomical variations along axons. While functional implications in these systems are not always clear, recent studies in the auditory system of birds and mammals present examples of conduction velocity regulation in systems with high temporal precision and a defined biological function. Together these findings suggest an active process that shapes the interaction between axons and myelinating glia to control conduction velocity along axons. Future studies involving these systems may provide further insight into how specific conduction times in the brain are established and maintained in development. Throughout the text, conduction velocity is used for the

  17. Regulation of conduction time along axons.

    PubMed

    Seidl, A H

    2014-09-12

    Timely delivery of information is essential for proper functioning of the nervous system. Precise regulation of nerve conduction velocity is needed for correct exertion of motor skills, sensory integration and cognitive functions. In vertebrates, the rapid transmission of signals along nerve fibers is made possible by the myelination of axons and the resulting saltatory conduction in between nodes of Ranvier. Myelin is a specialization of glia cells and is provided by oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system. Myelination not only maximizes conduction velocity, but also provides a means to systematically regulate conduction times in the nervous system. Systematic regulation of conduction velocity along axons, and thus systematic regulation of conduction time in between neural areas, is a common occurrence in the nervous system. To date, little is understood about the mechanism that underlies systematic conduction velocity regulation and conduction time synchrony. Node assembly, internode distance (node spacing) and axon diameter - all parameters determining the speed of signal propagation along axons - are controlled by myelinating glia. Therefore, an interaction between glial cells and neurons has been suggested. This review summarizes examples of neural systems in which conduction velocity is regulated by anatomical variations along axons. While functional implications in these systems are not always clear, recent studies on the auditory system of birds and mammals present examples of conduction velocity regulation in systems with high temporal precision and a defined biological function. Together these findings suggest an active process that shapes the interaction between axons and myelinating glia to control conduction velocity along axons. Future studies involving these systems may provide further insight into how specific conduction times in the brain are established and maintained in development. Throughout the text, conduction velocity is used for the

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Proper motions of open clusters from UCAC4 (Dias+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, W. S.; Monteiro, H.; Caetano, T. C.; Lepine, J. R. D.; Assafin, M.; Oliveira, A. F.

    2014-04-01

    We present a catalog of mean proper motions and membership probabilities of individual stars for optically visible open clusters, which have been determined using data from the UCAC4 catalog in a homogeneous way. The mean proper motion of the cluster and the membership probabilities of the stars in the region of each cluster were determined by applying the statistical method in a modified fashion. In this study, we applied a global optimization procedure to fit the observed distribution of proper motions with two overlapping normal bivariate frequency functions, which also take the individual proper motion errors into account. For 724 clusters, this is the first determination of proper motion, and for the whole sample, we present results with a much larger number of identified astrometric member stars. Furthermore, it was possible to estimate the mean radial velocity of 364 clusters (102 unpublished so far) with the stellar membership using published radial velocity catalogs. These results provide an increase of 30% and 19% in the sample of open clusters with a determined mean absolute proper motion and mean radial velocity, respectively. (5 data files).

  19. Proper motions of the optically visible open clusters based on the UCAC4 catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, W. S.; Monteiro, H.; Caetano, T. C.; Lépine, J. R. D.; Assafin, M.; Oliveira, A. F.

    2014-04-01

    We present a catalog of mean proper motions and membership probabilities of individual stars for optically visible open clusters, which have been determined using data from the UCAC4 catalog in a homogeneous way. The mean proper motion of the cluster and the membership probabilities of the stars in the region of each cluster were determined by applying the statistical method in a modified fashion. In this study, we applied a global optimization procedure to fit the observed distribution of proper motions with two overlapping normal bivariate frequency functions, which also take the individual proper motion errors into account. For 724 clusters, this is the first determination of proper motion, and for the whole sample, we present results with a much larger number of identified astrometric member stars. Furthermore, it was possible to estimate the mean radial velocity of 364 clusters (102 unpublished so far) with the stellar membership using published radial velocity catalogs. These results provide an increase of 30% and 19% in the sample of open clusters with a determined mean absolute proper motion and mean radial velocity, respectively. Tables 2 to 1809 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/564/A79

  20. Proper motions of ROSAT discovered isolated neutron stars measured with Chandra: First X-ray measurement of the large proper motion of RX J1308.6+2127/RBS 1223

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motch, C.; Pires, A. M.; Haberl, F.; Schwope, A.; Zavlin, V. E.

    2008-02-01

    The unprecedented spatial resolution of the Chandra observatory opens the possibility to detect with relatively high accuracy proper motions at X-ray wavelengths. We have conducted an astrometric study of three of the ``Magnificent Seven'', the thermally emitting radio quiet isolated neutron stars (INSs) discovered by ROSAT. These three INSs (RX J0420.0-5022, RX J0806.4-4123 and RX J1308.6+2127/RBS 1223) either lack an optical counterpart or have one too faint to be used for astrometric purposes. We obtained ACIS observations 3 to 5 years apart to constrain or measure the displacement of the sources on the X-ray sky using as reference the background of extragalactic or remote galactic X-ray sources. Upper limits of 138 mas/yr and 76 mas/yr on the proper motion of RX J0420.0-5022 and RX J0806.4-4123, respectively, have already been presented in [7]. Here we report the very significant measurement (~10 sigma) of the proper motion of the third INS of our program, RX J1308.6+2127/RBS 1223. Comparing observations obtained in 2002 and 2007 reveals a displacement of 1.1 arcsec implying a yearly proper motion of 223 mas, the second fastest measured for the ROSAT discovered INSs. The source is rapidly moving away from the galactic plane at a speed which precludes any significant accretion of matter from the interstellar medium. Its transverse velocity of ~740 (d/700 pc) km/s might be the largest of the ``Magnificent Seven'' and among the fastest recorded for neutron stars. RX J1308.6+2127/RBS 1223 is thus a young high velocity cooling neutron star. The source may have its origin in the closest part of the Scutum OB2 association about 0.8 Myr ago, an age consistent with that expected from cooling curves, but significantly younger than inferred from pulse timing measurements (1.5 Myr).

  1. PROPER-MOTION STUDY OF THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS USING SPM MATERIAL

    SciTech Connect

    Vieira, Katherine; Girard, Terrence M.; Van Altena, William F.; Casetti-Dinescu, Dana I.; Korchagin, Vladimir I.; Herrera, David E-mail: terry.girard@yale.ed

    2010-12-15

    Absolute proper motions are determined for stars and galaxies to V = 17.5 over a 450 deg{sup 2} area that encloses both Magellanic Clouds. The proper motions are based on photographic and CCD observations of the Yale/San Juan Southern Proper Motion program, which span a baseline of 40 years. Multiple, local relative proper-motion measures are combined in an overlap solution using photometrically selected Galactic disk stars to define a global relative system that is then transformed to absolute using external galaxies and Hipparcos stars to tie into the ICRS. The resulting catalog of 1.4 million objects is used to derive the mean absolute proper motions of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC); ({mu}{sub {alpha}}cos {delta}, {mu}{sub {delta}}){sub LMC} = (1.89, + 0.39) {+-} (0.27, 0.27) masyr{sup -1} and ({mu}{sub {alpha}}cos {delta}, {mu}{sub {delta}}){sub SMC} = (0.98, - 1.01) {+-} (0.30, 0.29) masyr{sup -1}. These mean motions are based on best-measured samples of 3822 LMC stars and 964 SMC stars. A dominant portion (0.25 mas yr{sup -1}) of the formal errors is due to the estimated uncertainty in the inertial system of the Hipparcos Catalog stars used to anchor the bright end of our proper motion measures. A more precise determination can be made for the proper motion of the SMC relative to the LMC; ({mu}{sub {alpha}cos {delta}}, {mu}{sub {delta}}){sub SMC-LMC} = (-0.91, - 1.49) {+-} (0.16, 0.15) masyr{sup -1}. This differential value is combined with measurements of the proper motion of the LMC taken from the literature to produce new absolute proper-motion determinations for the SMC, as well as an estimate of the total velocity difference of the two clouds to within {+-}54 km s{sup -1}. The absolute proper-motion results are consistent with the Clouds' orbits being marginally bound to the Milky Way, albeit on an elongated orbit. The inferred relative velocity between the Clouds places them near their binding energy limit and

  2. Proper motions of Hα filaments in the supernova remnant RCW 86

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helder, E. A.; Vink, J.; Bamba, A.; Bleeker, J. A. M.; Burrows, D. N.; Ghavamian, P.; Yamazaki, R.

    2013-10-01

    We present a proper motion study of the eastern shock-region of the supernova remnant RCW 86 (MSH 14-63, G315.4-2.3), based on optical observations carried out with Very Large Telescope/FOcal Reducer and low dispersion Spectrograph 2 in 2007 and 2010. For both the north-eastern and south-eastern regions, we measure an average proper motion of Hα filaments of 0.10 ± 0.02 arcsec yr-1, corresponding to 1200 ± 200 km s-1 at 2.5 kpc. There is substantial variation in the derived proper motions, indicating shock velocities ranging from just below 700 km s-1 to above 2200 km s-1. The optical proper motion is lower than the previously measured X-ray proper motion of north-eastern region. The new measurements are consistent with the previously measured proton temperature of 2.3 ± 0.3 keV, assuming no cosmic ray acceleration. However, within the uncertainties, moderately efficient (<27 per cent) shock acceleration is still possible. The combination of optical proper motion and proton temperature rule out the possibility that RCW 86 has a distance less than 1.5 kpc. The similarity of the proper motions in the north-east and south-east is peculiar, given the different densities and X-ray emission properties of the regions. The north-eastern region has lower densities and the X-ray emission is synchrotron dominated, suggesting that the shock velocities should be higher than in the south-eastern, thermal X-ray dominated, region. A possible solution is that the Hα emitting filaments are biased towards denser regions, with lower shock velocities. Alternatively, in the north-east the shock velocity may have decreased rapidly during the past 200 yr, and the X-ray synchrotron emission is an afterglow from a period when the shock velocity was higher.

  3. The Conductivity of Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayner-Canham, Geoff

    1993-01-01

    Presents historical background and modern explanations for the popular demonstration of showing conductivity of solutions through the insertion of a light-bulb conductivity tester into deionized water and water with salt in it. (PR)

  4. Fixing the Extragalactic Reference Frame For the Proper Motion of the Carina Dwarf Spheroidal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlin, Jeffrey L.; Majewski, Steven R.; Munoz, Ricardo R.

    2010-08-01

    The orbital shapes of Milky Way dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies provide specific constraints on CDM models of hierarchical structure formation on small scales and for late infalling subhalos. Furthermore, many physical properties of these dSph systems are shaped by tidal impulses, the magnitude of which depends on the orbit of the dSph. Unfortunately, the tangential (i.e., proper) motions of distant Milky Way dSphs are extremely difficult to measure, and thus remain poorly constrained (or in most cases unknown). We propose to remedy this for the Carina dSph, for which we have used a large, unique set of photographic plates spanning a 14 year baseline and covering large enough area to allow for a precise proper motion measurement. We have digitized these plates and derived precise (1-2 mas/yr per star) relative proper motions for 565 confirmed Carina members, and >1000 more likely members; these lead to a bulk relative proper motion for the system defined to 0.04 mas/yr. Despite this extreme precision, the absolute (relative to the ``fixed'' extragalactic background) proper motion of Carina is still poorly constrained, due to the paucity of identified QSOs (only 7) in the field of view to fix the reference frame. With our proposed search for QSOs among the ~2000 objects in our proper-motion catalog, we expect to discover ~50 QSOs, which will improve the accuracy of our proper motion zero point by a factor of 3 in each dimension, and likely more. This will allow for a precise determination of the orbit of the Carina dwarf galaxy, with an expected accuracy 2× better than the recent proper motion for this object, which disagrees with the proper motion expected from the direction of Carina's tidal tails. This is a resubmission of a proposal that was granted time in 2010A; the observing run in Feb. 2010 was beset by poor weather conditions and instrument trouble, yielding very little usable data.

  5. Surface Conductive Glass.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanaka, John; Suib, Steven L.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the properties of surface-conducting glass and the chemical nature of surface-conducting stannic (tin) oxide. Also provides the procedures necessary for the preparation of surface-conducting stannic oxide films on glass substrates. The experiment is suitable for the advanced inorganic chemistry laboratory. (JN)

  6. Proper motion of the Draco dwarf galaxy from Subaru Suprime-Cam data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casetti-Dinescu, Dana I.; Girard, Terrence M.

    2016-09-01

    We have measured the absolute proper motion of the Draco dwarf spheroidal galaxy using Subaru Suprime-Cam images taken at three epochs, with time baselines of 4.4 and 7 yr. The magnitude limit of the proper-motion study is i = 25, thus allowing for thousands of background galaxies and Draco stars to be used to perform extensive astrometric tests and to derive the correction to an inertial reference frame. The derived proper motion is (μα, μδ) = (-0.284 ± 0.047, -0.289 ± 0.041) mas yr-1. This motion implies an orbit that takes Draco to a pericentre of ˜20 kpc; a somewhat disruptive orbit suggesting that tides might account for the rising velocity-dispersion profile of Draco seen in line-of-sight velocity studies. The orbit is only marginally consistent with Draco's membership to the vast polar structure of Galactic satellites, in contrast to a recent Hubble Space Telescope proper-motion measurement that finds alignment very likely. Our study is a test case to demonstrate that deep imaging with mosaic cameras of appropriate resolution can be used for high-accuracy, ground-based proper-motion measurement. As a useful by-product of the study, we also identify two faint brown-dwarf candidates in the foreground field.

  7. Benthic conditions around a historic shipwreck: Vrouw Maria (1771) in the northern Baltic proper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruuskanen, A. T.; Kraufvelin, P.; Alvik, R.; Díaz, E. R.; Honkonen, J.; Kanerva, J.; Karell, K.; Kekäläinen, P.; Lappalainen, J.; Mikkola, R.; Mustasaari, T.; Nappu, N.; Nieminen, A.; Roininen, J.; Svahnbäck, K.

    2015-04-01

    Since her shipwreck in 1771, the wooden vessel Vrouw Maria has been lying on the seabed at 41 m depth on the border between the Archipelago Sea and the northern Baltic proper, off the southern coast of Finland. The wreck lies in an upward position in a right angle to the dominating bottom current, which is potentially affecting seabed topography, sediment characteristics and zoobenthic communities both upstream (NE) and downstream (SW) of the wreck. This multidisciplinary study attempts to clarify abiotic and biotic patterns and processes in the vicinity of the wreck by combining field investigations with physical simulation studies in the field and in the laboratory. Multibeam echo-sounder techniques were utilised to generate a map of the wreck area and sediment grab samples were taken to characterize the sediment type and its zoobenthic community. A medium-sized field experiment generated data on the accumulation of sediment organic matter in the presence and absence of a current and/or a barrier on the seafloor and a small-scaled laboratory study was conducted to simulate scour forming processes. The results showed that a deeper basin, scour area, with the dimensions 150×300 m, was present downstream of the wreck and there was also a smaller scour area upstream of the wreck. Similar traces on the bottom were simulated in the laboratory. The organic content (recent mud) and the proportion of finer sediment were more pronounced in areas closer to both sides of the wreck. These results were in turn imitated in a field experiment, where the accumulation of organic matter in the sediment increased significantly downstream, when a current was interrupted by a barrier. Regarding zoobenthos in the wreck area, 11 taxa and a mean total abundance of 773 individuals per m2 were registered. The dominant species were Macoma balthica and Marenzelleria sp., which together made up >80% of the total number of individuals. Multivariate data analyses showed significant differences

  8. Electrically conductive composite material

    DOEpatents

    Clough, R.L.; Sylwester, A.P.

    1988-06-20

    An electrically conductive composite material is disclosed which comprises a conductive open-celled, low density, microcellular carbon foam filled with a non-conductive polymer or resin. The composite material is prepared in a two-step process consisting of first preparing the microcellular carbon foam from a carbonizable polymer or copolymer using a phase separation process, then filling the carbon foam with the desired non-conductive polymer or resin. The electrically conductive composites of the present invention has a uniform and consistent pattern of filler distribution, and as a result is superior over prior art materials when used in battery components, electrodes, and the like. 2 figs.

  9. Electrically conductive composite material

    SciTech Connect

    Clough, R.L.; Sylwester, A.P.

    1989-05-23

    An electrically conductive composite material is disclosed which comprises a conductive open-celled, low density, microcellular carbon foam filled with a non-conductive polymer or resin. The composite material is prepared in a two-step process consisting of first preparing the microcellular carbon foam from a carbonizable polymer or copolymer using a phase separation process, then filling the carbon foam with the desired non-conductive polymer or resin. The electrically conductive composites of the present invention has a uniform and consistent pattern of filler distribution, and as a result is superior over prior art materials when used in battery components, electrodes, and the like. 2 figs.

  10. Electrically conductive composite material

    DOEpatents

    Clough, Roger L.; Sylwester, Alan P.

    1989-01-01

    An electrically conductive composite material is disclosed which comprises a conductive open-celled, low density, microcellular carbon foam filled with a non-conductive polymer or resin. The composite material is prepared in a two-step process consisting of first preparing the microcellular carbon foam from a carbonizable polymer or copolymer using a phase separation process, then filling the carbon foam with the desired non-conductive polymer or resin. The electrically conductive composites of the present invention has a uniform and consistant pattern of filler distribution, and as a result is superior over prior art materials when used in battery components, electrodes, and the like.

  11. Measuring the Distance of VX Sagittarii with SiO Maser Proper Motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xi; Shen, Zhi-Qiang; Xu, Ye

    2007-08-01

    We report on 43 GHz v=1, J=1--0 SiO maser proper motions in the circumstellar envelope of the M-type semi-regular variable star VX Sgr, observed by Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) at 3 epochs during 1999 April--May. Applying the statistical parallax analysis to these proper motions, we estimated a distance of VX Sgr of 1.57±0.27 kpc, which is consistent with that based on the proper motions of H2O masers, or on the assumption that VX Sgr belongs to the Sgr OB1 association. At this distance, VX Sgr can be classified as a red supergiant. Comparing the statistical parallax method with those of model fitting and annual parallax, we think that the statistical parallax method may be a good way of estimating SiO maser distances at present.

  12. Radio Measurements of the Stellar Proper Motions in the Core of the Orion Nebula Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzib, Sergio A.; Loinard, Laurent; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Gómez, Laura; Forbrich, Jan; Menten, Karl M.; Kounkel, Marina A.; Mioduszewski, Amy J.; Hartmann, Lee; Tobin, John J.; Rivera, Juana L.

    2017-01-01

    Using multi-epoch Very Large Array observations, covering a time baseline of 29.1 years, we have measured the proper motions of 88 young stars with compact radio emission in the core of the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC) and the neighboring BN/KL region. Our work increases the number of young stars with measured proper motion at radio frequencies by a factor of 2.5 and enables us to perform a better statistical analysis of the kinematics of the region than was previously possible. Most stars (79 out of 88) have proper motions consistent with a Gaussian distribution centered on \\overline{{μ }α \\cos δ }=1.07+/- 0.09 mas yr‑1, and \\overline{{μ }δ }=-0.84+/- 0.16 mas yr‑1, with velocity dispersions of {σ }α =1.08+/- 0.07 mas yr‑1, {σ }δ =1.27+/- 0.15 mas yr‑1. We looked for organized movements of these stars but found no clear indication of radial expansion/contraction or rotation. The remaining nine stars in our sample show peculiar proper motions that differ from the mean proper motions of the ONC by more than 3σ. One of these stars, V 1326 Ori, could have been expelled from the Orion Trapezium 7000 years ago. Two could be related to the multi-stellar disintegration in the BN/KL region, in addition to the previously known sources BN, I and n. The others either have high uncertainties (so their anomalous proper motions are not firmly established) or could be foreground objects.

  13. High resolution lung airway cast segmentation with proper topology suitable for computational fluid dynamic simulations.

    PubMed

    Carson, James P; Einstein, Daniel R; Minard, Kevin R; Fanucchi, Michelle V; Wallis, Christopher D; Corley, Richard A

    2010-10-01

    Developing detailed lung airway models is an important step towards understanding the respiratory system. While modern imaging and airway casting approaches have dramatically improved the potential detail of such models, challenges have arisen in image processing as the demand for greater detail pushes the image processing approaches to their limits. Airway segmentations with proper topology have neither loops nor invalid voxel-to-voxel connections. Here we describe a new technique for segmenting airways with proper topology and apply the approach to an image volume generated by magnetic resonance imaging of a silicone cast created from an excised monkey lung.

  14. Proper and dark heroes as DADS and CADS : Alternative mating strategies in British Romantic literature.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Daniel J; Fisher, Maryanne; Jobling, Ian

    2003-09-01

    Empirical tests described in this article support hypotheses derived from evolutionary theory on the perceptions of literary characters. The proper and dark heroes in British Romantic literature of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries respectively represent long-term and short-term mating strategies. Recent studies indicate that for long-term relationships, women seek partners with the ability and willingness to sustain paternal investment in extended relationships. For short-term relationships, women choose partners whose features indicate high genetic quality. In hypothetical scenarios, females preferred proper heroes for long-term relationships. The shorter the relationship under consideration, the more likely women were to choose dark heroes as partners.

  15. The dwarf spheroidal galaxy in Draco. III - Proper motion membership probabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stetson, P. B.

    1980-01-01

    PDS astrometry from photographic plates of the Draco dwarf galaxy is used to derive proper motion membership probabilities for stars measured in earlier photometric studies. It is found that removing probable foreground stars from the color-magnitude diagram of Draco tends to strengthen earlier conclusions about the structure of the giant and subgiant branches. The possible existence of an upper horizontal branch containing core helium-burning stars of more than one solar mass is still questionable. A reduced proper motion diagram for probable foreground stars is presented and discussed briefly.

  16. On the separations of common proper motion binaries containing white dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oswalt, T. D.; Sion, E. M.

    1989-01-01

    It is expected, on the basis of proper motion and estimated colors, that over 500 known common proper motion binaries (CPMBs) contain at least one white dwarf (WD) component, usually paired with a late type main sequence (MS) star. This paper examines 210 probable MS + MS and 26 probable WD + MS pairs from the LDS catalog to determine whether significant orbital expansion occurred as a consequence of the post-MS mass loss expected to accompany the formation of WDs in the CPMBs. It was found that, in the WD + MS pairs, the physical separation is nearly twice that in the MS + MS pairs.

  17. High conductance surge cable

    DOEpatents

    Murray, M.M.; Wilfong, D.H.; Lomax, R.E.

    1998-12-08

    An electrical cable for connecting transient voltage surge suppressors to electrical power panels. A strip of electrically conductive foil defines a longitudinal axis, with a length of an electrical conductor electrically attached to the metallic foil along the longitudinal axis. The strip of electrically conductive foil and the length of an electrical conductor are covered by an insulating material. For impedance matching purposes, triangular sections can be removed from the ends of the electrically conductive foil at the time of installation. 6 figs.

  18. High conductance surge cable

    DOEpatents

    Murray, Matthew M.; Wilfong, Dennis H.; Lomax, Ralph E.

    1998-01-01

    An electrical cable for connecting transient voltage surge suppressers to ectrical power panels. A strip of electrically conductive foil defines a longitudinal axis, with a length of an electrical conductor electrically attached to the metallic foil along the longitudinal axis. The strip of electrically conductive foil and the length of an electrical conductor are covered by an insulating material. For impedance matching purposes, triangular sections can be removed from the ends of the electrically conductive foil at the time of installation.

  19. How to conduct an emissions inventory

    SciTech Connect

    Topazio, R.J.

    1994-07-01

    An inventory will quantify emissions through source identification, extensive data gathering, research, process investigation, emission rate calculation and control equipment efficiency determination. For most facilities, a proper inventory will take six months to complete. Add that to the time it will take to prepare the permit application and it becomes evident that action needs to be taken now. Deadlines for submitting Title V operating permit applications to state agencies are right around the corner. This paper describes the process of conducting an emissions inventory.

  20. Electrically conductive cellulose composite

    DOEpatents

    Evans, Barbara R.; O'Neill, Hugh M.; Woodward, Jonathan

    2010-05-04

    An electrically conductive cellulose composite includes a cellulose matrix and an electrically conductive carbonaceous material incorporated into the cellulose matrix. The electrical conductivity of the cellulose composite is at least 10 .mu.S/cm at 25.degree. C. The composite can be made by incorporating the electrically conductive carbonaceous material into a culture medium with a cellulose-producing organism, such as Gluconoacetobacter hansenii. The composites can be used to form electrodes, such as for use in membrane electrode assemblies for fuel cells.

  1. Acquiring Proper Names for Familiar and Unfamiliar Animate Objects: Evidence from Two-Year-Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, D. Geoffrey

    Two studies addressed the relative strengths of object kind bias and syntactic knowledge in 2-year-olds' inductions of word meaning. The study looked at children's interpretations of novel proper names for familiar and unfamiliar objects. In each study, 10 children were assigned to each of 2 conditions (familiar and unfamiliar) and shown 2 cats…

  2. THE IMPORTANCE OF PROPER INTENSITY CALIBRATION FOR RAMAN ANALYSIS OF LOW-LEVEL ANALYTES IN WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modern dispersive Raman spectroscopy offers unique advantages for the analysis of low-concentration analytes in aqueous solution. However, we have found that proper intensity calibration is critical for obtaining these benefits. This is true not only for producing spectra with ...

  3. Extending the R Library PROPER to Enable Power Calculations for Isoform-Level Analysis with EBSeq

    PubMed Central

    Gaye, Amadou

    2017-01-01

    RNA-Sequencing (RNA-Seq) has become a routine technology for investigating gene expression differences in comparative transcriptomic studies. Differential expression (DE) analysis of the isoforms of genes is just emerging now that expression (read counts) can be estimated with higher accuracy at the isoform level. Estimating the statistical power that can be achieved with a specific number of repeats is a key step in RNA-Seq analysis. The R library proper was developed to provide realistic empirical power analysis. However, proper uses differential expression methods more suited for power calculation of gene-level expression data. We propose extensions to this tool that would allow for power analysis which takes into account the specificities of isoforms expression. This was achieved by enabling the use of EBSeq, a DE approach well-tailored for isoform-level expression, as an additional analysis method within PROPER. The new extensions and exemplar code for their usage are freely available online at: https://github.com/agaye/proper_extension PMID:28119735

  4. 32 CFR 725.7 - Contents of a proper request or demand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... testimony sought, including the current military service, status (active, separated, retired), social... litigation requests and participate in any discovery. (c) Response to deficient requests. A letter request... conditions set forth here, which were not anticipated in the course of proper pretrial planning and...

  5. 32 CFR 725.7 - Contents of a proper request or demand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... testimony sought, including the current military service, status (active, separated, retired), social... litigation requests and participate in any discovery. (c) Response to deficient requests. A letter request... conditions set forth here, which were not anticipated in the course of proper pretrial planning and...

  6. 32 CFR 725.7 - Contents of a proper request or demand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... testimony sought, including the current military service, status (active, separated, retired), social... litigation requests and participate in any discovery. (c) Response to deficient requests. A letter request... conditions set forth here, which were not anticipated in the course of proper pretrial planning and...

  7. Locating Proper Fractions on Number Lines: Effect of Length and Equivalence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Carol Novillis

    1980-01-01

    Compares student performance on fraction/number line tasks which varied length and equivalence. Associating proper fractions was easier on number lines of length one rather than length two; and where number of equivalent line segments in each unit segment was the same as the denominator, rather than twice that number. (CS)

  8. Extending the R Library PROPER to Enable Power Calculations for Isoform-Level Analysis with EBSeq.

    PubMed

    Gaye, Amadou

    2016-01-01

    RNA-Sequencing (RNA-Seq) has become a routine technology for investigating gene expression differences in comparative transcriptomic studies. Differential expression (DE) analysis of the isoforms of genes is just emerging now that expression (read counts) can be estimated with higher accuracy at the isoform level. Estimating the statistical power that can be achieved with a specific number of repeats is a key step in RNA-Seq analysis. The R library proper was developed to provide realistic empirical power analysis. However, proper uses differential expression methods more suited for power calculation of gene-level expression data. We propose extensions to this tool that would allow for power analysis which takes into account the specificities of isoforms expression. This was achieved by enabling the use of EBSeq, a DE approach well-tailored for isoform-level expression, as an additional analysis method within PROPER. The new extensions and exemplar code for their usage are freely available online at: https://github.com/agaye/proper_extension.

  9. 351 New Common Proper-Motion Pairs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caballero, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents 351 previously uncataloged pairs with separation under 100 arcseconds and proper motion over 70 milliseconds of arc/year. These pairs are the result of an extensive study that started with 96,205 candidate pairs from the Sloan Digital Survey (SDSS). Different criteria explained in the paper are applied to increase the probability of a physical bound between the components.

  10. Proper motion of the Large Magellanic Cloud and the mass of the galaxy. 1: Observational results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, B. F.; Klemola, A. R.; Lin, D. N. C.

    1994-04-01

    We have measured the proper motion of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) using 21 plates taken with the Cerro-Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) 4 m telescope and covering an epoch span of 14 yr. The plates were centered on the globular cluster NGC 2257, lying on the northeast periphery of the Cloud. Proper motions were determined for 251 LMC members, chosen on the basis of the photometry of Stryker (1984), using 92 galaxies as a reference frame. The measured mean absolute proper motion of the LMC stars in our region is mualpha = 0.120 sec +/- 0.028 sec century-1, mudelta=0.026 sec +/- 0.027 sec century-1. After correcting for the rotation of the LMC and the effects of solar motion, this proper motion combined with the radial velocity of the LMC implies a galactocentric coordinate radial velocity for the Cloud of 48 +/- 41 km s-1 and a total galactocentric transverse velocity of 215 +/- 48 km s-1.

  11. Condom Use: Slippage, Breakage, and Steps for Proper Use among Adolescents in Alternative School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyle, Karin K.; Franks, Heather M.; Glassman, Jill R.; Stanoff, Nicole M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: School-based human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted infection (STI), and pregnancy prevention programs often focus on consistent and correct condom use. Research on adolescents' experience using condoms, including condom slippage/breakage, is limited. This exploratory study examines proper condom use and the…

  12. The Pitfalls of Valenced Labels and the Benefits of Properly Calibrated Psychological Flexibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNulty, James K.; Fincham, Frank D.

    2012-01-01

    Replies to comments by Sonja Lyubomirsky (see record 2012-27130-008), Riva Guiseppe (see record 2012-27130-009), and Alan S. Waterman (see record 2012-27130-010) on the original article by McNulty and Fincham (see record 2011-15476-001) regarding the pitfalls of valenced labels and the benefits of properly calibrated psychological flexibility.

  13. 40 CFR 60.4355 - How do I establish and document a proper parameter monitoring plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I establish and document a proper parameter monitoring plan? 60.4355 Section 60.4355 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Standards of Performance for Stationary Combustion Turbines Monitoring § 60.4355 How do I establish...

  14. 40 CFR 60.4355 - How do I establish and document a proper parameter monitoring plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How do I establish and document a proper parameter monitoring plan? 60.4355 Section 60.4355 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Standards of Performance for Stationary Combustion Turbines Monitoring § 60.4355 How do I establish...

  15. 40 CFR 60.4355 - How do I establish and document a proper parameter monitoring plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How do I establish and document a proper parameter monitoring plan? 60.4355 Section 60.4355 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Standards of Performance for Stationary Combustion Turbines Monitoring § 60.4355 How do I establish...

  16. Reply to "Comment on `Controlling the spectral shape of nonlinear Thomson scattering with proper laser chirping'"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rykovanov, S. G.; Geddes, C. G. R.; Schroeder, C. B.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W. P.

    2016-09-01

    We reply to Terzic and Krafft's forgoing Comment [Phys. Rev. Accel. Beams, Comment on "Controlling the spectral shape of nonlinear Thomson scattering with proper laser chirping" 19 (2016)]. We disagree with the conclusion of the Comment regarding the novelty of solutions and the citations presented in our paper.

  17. Proper shielding for NaI(Tl) detectors in combined neutron-γ fields using MCNP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazdi, M. H. Hadizadeh; Mowlavi, A. A.; Thompson, M. N.; Hakimabad, H. Miri

    2004-04-01

    The importance of reducing the activation of NaI(Tl) detectors when used to detect γ-rays in the presence of an intense neutron environment is discussed. Monte-Carlo calculations are used to design proper shielding for these NaI(Tl) detectors. These results are compared with the experimental measurements.

  18. Actual use scene of Han-Character for proper name and coded character set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Tatsuo

    This article discusses the following two issues. One is overview of standardization of Han-Character in coded character set including Universal coded character set (ISO/IEC 10646), with the relation to Japanese language policy of the government. The other is the difference and particularity of Han-Character usage for proper name and difficulty to implement in ICT systems.

  19. Us and Them: Religious Education and the Role of Proper Communication in Conflict Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massoudi, Mehrdad

    2010-01-01

    The importance of proper language, in the context of multicultural education, and how it can be of help in conflict prevention is discussed. A brief discussion of what a model does and how a scientific model is constructed is provided. A circular model is developed where it is proposed that thought, language, and action, as the three most…

  20. A Study on How to Breathe Properly When Practicing Tai Chi Chuan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Hanchun

    2011-01-01

    When practicing Tai Chi Chuan, proper breath plays an important role in shaping Tai Chi Chuan's style and its fitness value. The paper aims to analyse the postures of Tai Chi Chuan and its breath characteristics. The paper also presents some new insights on how to co-ordinate breath with postures by case studies.

  1. Oral Medications: Proper Use and Administration. Book 1, Bosnian and Russian. Book 2, Nuer and Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anoka County Community Health and Environmental Services, Coon Rapids, MN.

    These two guides provide information in English, Bosnian, Russian, Nuer, and Spanish on the proper use and administration of oral medications. Topics covered include the reasons for taking medication, information on the prescription label, following special instructions, asking questions of the pharmacist, safe storage of medicine, child-proof…

  2. 5 CFR 550.808 - Prohibition against setting aside proper promotions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... promotions. 550.808 Section 550.808 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE... promotions. Nothing in section 5596 of title 5, United States Code, or this subpart shall be construed as authorizing the setting aside of an otherwise proper promotion by a selecting official from a group...

  3. How Students Learn from Multiple Contexts and Definitions: Proper Time as a Coordination Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levrini, Olivia; diSessa, Andrea A.

    2008-01-01

    This article provides an empirical analysis of a single classroom episode in which students reveal difficulties with the concept of proper time in special relativity but slowly make progress in improving their understanding. The theoretical framework used is "coordination class theory," which is an evolving model of concepts and conceptual change.…

  4. Young Children's Use of Contrast in Word Learning: The Case of Proper Names

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, D. Geoffrey; Rhemtulla, Mijke

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has established that contrast can exert a powerful effect on early word learning. This study examined the role of contrast in young children's ability to learn proper names. Preschoolers heard a novel word for an unfamiliar stuffed animal in the presence of a second stuffed animal of either the same or a different kind.…

  5. Translating Proper Nouns: A Case Study on English Translation of Hafez's Lyrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shirinzadeh, Seyed Alireza; Mahadi, Tengku Sepora Tengku

    2014-01-01

    Proper nouns are regarded so simple that they might be taken for granted in translation explorations. Some may believe that they should not be translated in transmitting source texts to target texts. But, it is not the case; if one looks at present translations, he will notice that different strategies might be applied for translating proper…

  6. Absolute Proper Motions and Chemical Abundances of Stars Along the Sagittarius Trailing Tidal Tail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlin, Jeffrey L.; Majewski, S. R.; Casetti-Dinescu, D. I.; Patterson, R. J.

    2010-01-01

    We show results from our deep proper-motion survey of Kapteyn's Selected Areas (SAs; Casetti-Dinescu et al. 2006, AJ,132,2082), with a focus on fields that intersect the Sagittarius (Sgr) trailing tidal stream. Our data set, derived from matched, deep photographic plate pairs taken nearly 100 years apart, provides a unique window on the motions of stars in these SA fields. We find the signature of a common-motion population among our accurate proper motions of stars in five of these fields, as well as corresponding stellar excesses which are identified as stellar debris from the disrupted Sgr dwarf. Spectroscopic follow-up confirms that these stars are Sgr members, and the resultant radial velocities and spectroscopic parallaxes are combined with proper motions to derive full space motions of 30-100 tidal stream members per field. These kinematical data are compared to the predictions of the Law et al. (2009, ApJL,703,67) models of Sgr disruption, which have thus far reproduced most observed features of the Sgr stream, and have also constrained the triaxial shape of the Milky Way's dark matter halo. We also derive low-resolution spectroscopic abundances along this stretch of the Sgr stream, and explore the stream metallicity gradient reported by Chou et al. (2007, ApJ,670,346). Majewski et al. (2006, ApJL,627,25) showed that because the Sgr debris plane is nearly coincident with the Galactic X-Z Cartesian plane, proper motions in the portion of the Sgr trailing tail in our study almost entirely reflect the solar motion, and can be used to make a direct measurement of the rotation speed at the Solar circle (the "Local Standard of Rest") almost completely independent of the Sun's distance from the Galactic center. Here, we report our derived constraints on the solar motion from absolute proper motions of Sgr debris in our SA fields.

  7. Improvement of Baltic proper water quality using large-scale ecological engineering.

    PubMed

    Stigebrandt, Anders; Gustafsson, Bo G

    2007-04-01

    Eutrophication of the Baltic proper has led to impaired water quality, demonstrated by, e.g., extensive blooming of cyanobacteria during the premium summer holiday season and severe oxygen deficit in the deepwater. Sustainable improvements in water quality by the reduction of phosphorus (P) supplies will take several decades before giving full effects because of large P storages both in soils in the watershed and in the water column and bottom sediments of the Baltic proper. In this article it is shown that drastically improved water quality may be obtained within a few years using large-scale ecological engineering methods. Natural variations in the Baltic proper during the last decades have demonstrated how rapid improvements may be achieved. The present article describes the basic dynamics of P, organic matter, and oxygen in the Baltic proper. It also briefly discusses the advantages and disadvantages of different classes of methods of ecological engineering aimed at restoring the Baltic proper from eutrophication effects. Preliminary computations show that the P content might be halved within a few years if about 100 kg O2 s(-1) are supplied to the upper deepwater. This would require 100 pump stations, each transporting about 100 m3 s(-1) of oxygen-rich so-called winter water from about 50 to 125 m depth where the water is released as a buoyant jet. Each pump station needs a power supply of 0.6 MW. Offshore wind power technology seems mature enough to provide the power needed by the pump stations. The cost to install 100 wind-powered pump stations, each with 0.6 MW power, at about 125-m depth is about 200 million Euros.

  8. Conduction in Polydiacetylene Bilayers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-04

    This indicates that the polymer backbone has little effect in the conduction machanism of a dark undoped sample but only comes into play upon...almost none to doping. This indicates that the polymer backbone has little effect in the conduction machanism of a dark undoped sample but only comes into

  9. Electrically conductive diamond electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Swain, Greg; Fischer, Anne ,; Bennett, Jason; Lowe, Michael

    2009-05-19

    An electrically conductive diamond electrode and process for preparation thereof is described. The electrode comprises diamond particles coated with electrically conductive doped diamond preferably by chemical vapor deposition which are held together with a binder. The electrodes are useful for oxidation reduction in gas, such as hydrogen generation by electrolysis.

  10. Conductive Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paetkau, Mark

    2007-01-01

    One of my goals as an instructor is to teach students critical thinking skills. This paper presents an example of a student-led discussion of heat conduction at the first-year level. Heat loss from a human head is calculated using conduction and radiation models. The results of these plausible (but wrong) models of heat transfer contradict what…

  11. Conductive fabric seal

    DOEpatents

    Livesay, Ronald Jason; Mason, Brandon William; Kuhn, Michael Joseph; Rowe, Nathan Carl

    2015-10-13

    Disclosed are several examples of a system and method for detecting if an article is being tampered with. Included is a covering made of a substrate that is coated with a layer of an electrically conductive material that forms an electrically conductive surface having an electrical resistance. The covering is configured to at least partially encapsulate the article such that the article cannot be tampered with, without modifying the electrical resistance of the electrically conductive surface of the covering. A sensing device is affixed to the electrically conductive surface of the covering and the sensing device monitors the condition of the covering by producing a signal that is indicative of the electrical resistance of the electrically conductive surface of the covering. A measured electrical resistance that differs from a nominal electrical resistance is indicative of a covering that is being tampered with and an alert is communicated to an observer.

  12. Conductive fabric seal

    DOEpatents

    Livesay, Ronald Jason; Mason, Brandon William; Kuhn, Michael Joseph; Rowe, Nathan Carl

    2017-04-04

    Disclosed are several examples of a system and method for detecting if an article is being tampered with. Included is a covering made of a substrate that is coated with a layer of an electrically conductive material that forms an electrically conductive surface having an electrical resistance. The covering is configured to at least partially encapsulate the article such that the article cannot be tampered with, without modifying the electrical resistance of the electrically conductive surface of the covering. A sensing device is affixed to the electrically conductive surface of the covering and the sensing device monitors the condition of the covering by producing a signal that is indicative of the electrical resistance of the electrically conductive surface of the covering. A measured electrical resistance that differs from a nominal electrical resistance is indicative of a covering that is being tampered with and an alert is communicated to an observer.

  13. PROPER MOTIONS OF YOUNG STELLAR OUTFLOWS IN THE MID-INFRARED WITH SPITZER (IRAC). I. THE NGC 1333 REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Raga, A. C.; Noriega-Crespo, A.; Carey, S. J.; Arce, H. G. E-mail: alberto@ipac.caltech.edu E-mail: hector.arce@yale.edu

    2013-02-01

    We use two 4.5 {mu}m Spitzer (IRAC) maps of the NGC 1333 region taken over a {approx}7 yr interval to determine proper motions of its associated outflows. This is a first successful attempt at obtaining proper motions of stellars' outflow from Spitzer observations. For the outflow formed by the Herbig-Haro objects HH7, 8, and 10, we find proper motions of {approx}9-13 km s{sup -1}, which are consistent with previously determined optical proper motions of these objects. We determine proper motions for a total of eight outflows, ranging from {approx}10 to 100 km s{sup -1}. The derived proper motions show that out of these eight outflows, three have tangential velocities {<=}20 km s{sup -1}. This result shows that a large fraction of the observed outflows have low intrinsic velocities and that the low proper motions are not merely a projection effect.

  14. Electrical Conductivity in Insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Anil Kumar

    2003-03-01

    ABSTRACT In insulating solid(Plastic Sheet)of 0.73mm thickness, the conduction process was ohmic at low D.C. electric feilds, but the feild strength increased the conductivity became feild dependent at high feilds and it exhibited some conductivity and the variation in conduction current was none-ohmic.The mechanism of electron transfer between two metallic electrodes separated by insulating material has received considerable attention. The electron transfer current was studied on 0.73mm plastic sheet and(I-V),(log I-log V),(log J-E^1/2)and (log o- 1/T) relations have been studied and the value of slope,electronic dielectric constant and activation energy for nature of conduction mechanism and process have been determined.The electrical conductivity measurements were carried out at room temperature (32.5 celcius)under high D.C. electric feilds of the order of 10^6 volt/meter.The sample of insulator(plastic sheet) was sandwiched between the aluminium electrodes of designed experimental cell,The effect of very high varying feilds at 32.5 celcius temperature,the electrical conduction has been proposed on the data obtained.The non-ohmic behavior in the sample seemed to start at an electric feild 3x10^6 volt/meter.In this case on data obtained it was concluded that "SCHOTTKY EMISSION MECHANISM" has been proposed. The activation energy was calculated by plotting(log o-1/T)characterstics at running temperature and it was found 0.325ev which is less than 1.0,It confirms predominance of Electronic Conduction. I=current in ampere V=volt T=temperature O=conductivity

  15. Proper motions and membership probabilities of stars in the region of globular cluster NGC 6366

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sariya, Devesh P.; Yadav, R. K. S.

    2015-12-01

    Context. NGC 6366 is a metal-rich globular cluster that is relatively unstudied. It is a kinematically interesting cluster, reported as belonging to the slowly rotating halo system, which is unusual given its metallicity and spatial location in the Galaxy. Aims: The purpose of this research is to determine the relative proper motion and membership probability of the stars in the region of globular cluster NGC 6366. To target cluster members reliably during spectroscopic surveys without including field stars, a good proper motion and membership probability catalogue of NGC 6366 is needed. Methods: To derive relative proper motions, the archival data from the Wide Field Imager mounted on the ESO 2.2 m telescope have been reduced using a high precision astrometric software. The images used are in the B,V, and I photometric bands with an epoch gap of ~3.2 yr. The calibrated BVI magnitudes have been determined using recent data for secondary standard stars. Results: We determined relative proper motions and cluster membership probabilities for 2530 stars in the field of globular cluster NGC 6366. The median proper motion rms errors for stars brighter than V ~ 18 mag is ~2 mas yr-1, which gradually increases to ~5 mas yr-1 for stars having magnitudes V ~ 20 mag. Based on the membership catalogue, we checked the membership status of the X-ray sources and variable stars of NGC 6366 mentioned in the literature. We also provide the astronomical community with an electronic catalogue that includes B, V, and I magnitudes; relative proper motions; and membership probabilities of the stars in the region of NGC 6366. Based on observations with the MPG/ESO 2.2 m and ESO/VLT telescopes, located at La Silla and Paranal Observatory, Chile, under DDT programs 164.O-0561(F), 71.D-0220(A) and the archive material.Full Table 4 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/584/A59

  16. Cardiac conduction system

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... cardiac muscle cells in the walls of the heart that send signals to the heart muscle causing it to contract. The main components ... the cardiac conduction system's electrical activity in the heart.

  17. Conductive open frameworks

    DOEpatents

    Yaghi, Omar M.; Wan, Shun; Doonan, Christian J.; Wang, Bo; Deng, Hexiang

    2016-02-23

    The disclosure relates generally to materials that comprise conductive covalent organic frameworks. The disclosure also relates to materials that are useful to store and separate gas molecules and sensors.

  18. Electrically conductive material

    DOEpatents

    Singh, Jitendra P.; Bosak, Andrea L.; McPheeters, Charles C.; Dees, Dennis W.

    1993-01-01

    An electrically conductive material for use in solid oxide fuel cells, electrochemical sensors for combustion exhaust, and various other applications possesses increased fracture toughness over available materials, while affording the same electrical conductivity. One embodiment of the sintered electrically conductive material consists essentially of cubic ZrO.sub.2 as a matrix and 6-19 wt. % monoclinic ZrO.sub.2 formed from particles having an average size equal to or greater than about 0.23 microns. Another embodiment of the electrically conductive material consists essentially at cubic ZrO.sub.2 as a matrix and 10-30 wt. % partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ) formed from particles having an average size of approximately 3 microns.

  19. Electrically conductive material

    DOEpatents

    Singh, J.P.; Bosak, A.L.; McPheeters, C.C.; Dees, D.W.

    1993-09-07

    An electrically conductive material is described for use in solid oxide fuel cells, electrochemical sensors for combustion exhaust, and various other applications possesses increased fracture toughness over available materials, while affording the same electrical conductivity. One embodiment of the sintered electrically conductive material consists essentially of cubic ZrO[sub 2] as a matrix and 6-19 wt. % monoclinic ZrO[sub 2] formed from particles having an average size equal to or greater than about 0.23 microns. Another embodiment of the electrically conductive material consists essentially at cubic ZrO[sub 2] as a matrix and 10-30 wt. % partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ) formed from particles having an average size of approximately 3 microns. 8 figures.

  20. Thermoelectric Properties of Conducting Polymers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-07-01

    polyphenylene sulfide , all of which are made conductive by addition of carbon. Polymers made conductive in this way do not have a high Seebeck...merit. KEYWORDS: Polyaniline, conducting polymer, conductive vinyl, conductive nylon, conductive polyphenylene sulfide , polyoctylthiophene, Schiff’s...directions. Polyphenylene sulfide (Ryton) A conductive form of this material, which is commercially available, is made conductive by the presence of carbon

  1. Nonequilibrium mesoscopic conductance fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, T.; Blanter, Ya. M.; Mirlin, A. D.

    2004-12-01

    We investigate the amplitude of mesoscopic fluctuations of the differential conductance of a metallic wire at arbitrary bias voltage V . For noninteracting electrons, the variance ⟨δg2⟩ increases with V . The asymptotic large- V behavior is ⟨δg2⟩˜V/Vc (where eVc=D/L2 is the Thouless energy), in agreement with the earlier prediction by Larkin and Khmelnitskii. We find, however, that this asymptotics has a very small numerical prefactor and sets in at very large V/Vc only, which strongly complicates its experimental observation. This high-voltage behavior is preceded by a crossover regime, V/Vc≲30 , where the conductance variance increases by a factor ˜3 as compared to its value in the regime of universal conductance fluctuations (i.e., at V→0 ). We further analyze the effect of dephasing due to the electron-electron scattering on ⟨δg2⟩ at high voltages. With the Coulomb interaction taken into account, the amplitude of conductance fluctuations becomes a nonmonotonic function of V . Specifically, ⟨δg2⟩ drops as 1/V for voltages V≫gVc , where g is the dimensionless conductance. In this regime, the conductance fluctuations are dominated by quantum-coherent regions of the wire adjacent to the reservoirs.

  2. Epithelial Conduction in Hydromedusae

    PubMed Central

    Mackie, G. O.; Passano, L. M.

    1968-01-01

    Sarsia, Euphysa, and other hydromedusae have been studied by electrophysiological techniques and are found to have nonnervous conducting epithelia resembling those described earlier for siphonophores. Simple, non-muscular epithelia fire singly or repetitively following brief electrical stimuli. The pulses recorded with suction electrodes are biphasic, initially positive, and show amplitudes of 0.75–2.0 mv, durations of 5–15 msec, and velocities of 15–35 cm/sec with short refractory periods. In the swimming muscle (myoepithelium) 2.0–4.0 mv composite events lasting 150–300 msec are associated with contraction waves. Propagation in nonnervous epithelia is typically all-or-none, nondecremental, and unpolarized. The subumbrellar endoderm lamella conducts independently of the adjacent ectoderm. The lower regions of the tentacles do not show propagated epithelial events. The spread of excitation in conducting epithelia and associated effector responses are described. Examples are given of interaction between events seemingly conducted in the nervous system and those in nonnervous epithelia. Either system may excite the other. Spontaneous activity, however, appears to originate in the nervous system. Conduction in nonnervous tissues is unaffected by excess Mg++ in concentrations suppressing presumed nervous activity, although this may not be a wholly adequate criterion for distinguishing components of the two systems. Evidence from old work by Romanes is considered in the light of these findings and the general significance of epithelial conduction is discussed. PMID:4386662

  3. Migration of founder epithelial cells drives proper molar tooth positioning and morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Prochazka, Jan; Prochazkova, Michaela; Du, Wen; Spoutil, Frantisek; Tureckova, Jolana; Hoch, Renee; Shimogori, Tomomi; Sedlacek, Radislav; Rubenstein, John L.; Wittmann, Torsten; Klein, Ophir D.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The proper positioning of organs during development is essential, yet little is known about the regulation of this process in mammals. Using murine tooth development as a model, we have found that cell migration plays a central role in positioning of the organ primordium. By combining lineage tracing, genetic cell ablation, and confocal live imaging, we identified a migratory population of Fgf8-expressing epithelial cells in the embryonic mandible. These Fgf8-expressing progenitors furnish the epithelial cells required for tooth development, and the progenitor population migrates toward a Shh-expressing region in the mandible, where the tooth placode will initiate. Inhibition of Fgf and Shh signaling disrupted the oriented migration of cells, leading to a failure of tooth development. These results demonstrate the importance of intraepithelial cell migration in proper positioning of an initiating organ. PMID:26702830

  4. Discovery of High Proper-Motion Ancient White Dwarfs: Nearby Massive Compact Halo Objects?

    PubMed

    Ibata; Irwin; Bienaymé; Scholz; Guibert

    2000-03-20

    We present the discovery and spectroscopic identification of two very high proper-motion ancient white dwarf stars, found in a systematic proper-motion survey. Their kinematics and apparent magnitude clearly indicate that they are halo members, while their optical spectra are almost identical to the recently identified cool halo white dwarf WD 0346+246. Canonical stellar halo models predict a white dwarf volume density that is 2 orders of magnitude less than the rho approximately 7x10-4 M middle dot in circle pc-3 inferred from this survey. With the caveat that the sample size is very small, it appears that a significant fraction, approximately 10%, of the local dark matter halo is in the form of very old, cool, white dwarfs.

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Proper motions of young stars in Chamaeleon (Lopez Marti+, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez Marti, B.; Jimenez-Esteban, F.; Bayo, A.; Barrado, D.; Solano, E.; Bouy, H.; Rodrigo, C.

    2013-07-01

    We present the results of a search for new candidate members of the Chamaeleon I and II star forming regions based on proper motions and multiwavelength photometry. Kinematic candidate members are initially selected in an area of 3 degrees around each cloud on the basis of proper motions and colours using the UCAC4 catalogue. The SEDs of the objects are constructed using photometry retrieved from the Virtual Observatory and other resources, and fitted to models of stellar photospheres in order to derive effective temperatures, gravity values and luminosities. Masses and ages are estimated by comparison with theoretical evolutionary tracks in a Hertzprung-Russell diagram. Objects with ages <=20Myr are selected as probable members of the moving groups. The properties of our candidates are compared with those of the previously known members of the clouds. (5 data files).

  6. What's in a name? Electrophysiological differences between spoken nouns, proper names and one's own name.

    PubMed

    Müller, H M; Kutas, M

    1996-12-20

    To investigate the neural processing of different word categories, we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) from 32 individuals listening to sentences, beginning either with a proper name (first name), the subject's own name, or a common noun. Names and nouns both elicited ERP waveforms with the same early componentry, but the N1 and P2 components were larger for proper names than common nouns. The ERPs to the subject's own name also had a large N1/P2 plus a prominent negativity at parieto-central site peaking around 400 ms and a late positivity between 500-800 ms over left lateral-frontal sites. These findings are consistent with differential processing of people's first names within the category of nouns.

  7. Optical BVRI photometry of common proper motion F/G/K+M wide separation binaries

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Ting; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Williams, Patrick; Chavez, Joy; Lépine, Sébastien

    2014-10-01

    We present optical (BVRI) photometric measurements of a sample of 76 common proper motion wide separation main-sequence binary pairs. The pairs are composed of a F-, G-, or K-type primary star and an M-type secondary. The sample is selected from the revised NLTT catalog and the LSPM catalog. The photometry is generally precise to 0.03 mag in all bands. We separate our sample into two groups, dwarf candidates and subdwarf candidates, using the reduced proper motion diagram constructed with our improved photometry. The M subdwarf candidates in general have larger V – R colors than the M dwarf candidates at a given V – I color. This is consistent with an average metallicity difference between the two groups, as predicted by the PHOENIX/BT-Settl models. The improved photometry will be used as input into a technique to determine the metallicities of the M-type stars.

  8. Affect of Early Life Oxygen Exposure on Proper Lung Development and Response to Respiratory Viral Infections

    PubMed Central

    Domm, William; Misra, Ravi S.; O’Reilly, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Children born preterm often exhibit reduced lung function and increased severity of response to respiratory viruses, suggesting that premature birth has compromised proper development of the respiratory epithelium and innate immune defenses. Increasing evidence suggests that premature birth promotes aberrant lung development likely due to the neonatal oxygen transition occurring before pulmonary development has matured. Given that preterm infants are born at a point of time where their immune system is also still developing, early life oxygen exposure may also be disrupting proper development of innate immunity. Here, we review current literature in hopes of stimulating research that enhances understanding of how the oxygen environment at birth influences lung development and host defense. This knowledge may help identify those children at risk for disease and ideally culminate in the development of novel therapies that improve their health. PMID:26322310

  9. Sororin pre-mRNA splicing is required for proper sister chromatid cohesion in human cells.

    PubMed

    Watrin, Erwan; Demidova, Maria; Watrin, Tanguy; Hu, Zheng; Prigent, Claude

    2014-09-01

    Sister chromatid cohesion, which depends on cohesin, is essential for the faithful segregation of replicated chromosomes. Here, we report that splicing complex Prp19 is essential for cohesion in both G2 and mitosis, and consequently for the proper progression of the cell through mitosis. Inactivation of splicing factors SF3a120 and U2AF65 induces similar cohesion defects to Prp19 complex inactivation. Our data indicate that these splicing factors are all required for the accumulation of cohesion factor Sororin, by facilitating the proper splicing of its pre-mRNA. Finally, we show that ectopic expression of Sororin corrects defective cohesion caused by Prp19 complex inactivation. We propose that the Prp19 complex and the splicing machinery contribute to the establishment of cohesion by promoting Sororin accumulation during S phase, and are, therefore, essential to the maintenance of genome stability.

  10. Proper Motions and Parallaxes of Very Low-Mass Stars using DCT Astrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, Julie N.; West, Andrew A.; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Muirhead, Philip Steven

    2017-01-01

    Very low-mass stars (VLMs) are the smallest, least luminous stars in our galaxy, but nonetheless form one of the dominant (baryonic) populations. Precise distances and kinematics of VLMs can provide constraints on the smallest extremes of star formation, as well as important boundary constraints on the star formation process in general. However, Gaia will only be ~70% complete at the faint magnitudes of these objects. We present preliminary results from a program to measure parallaxes and proper motions for a nearby sample of 85 VLMs using the Large Monolithic Imager at the 4.3m Discovery Channel Telescope. We present proper motions for the entire sample and preliminary parallaxes for a few sources. These measurements will complement Gaia observations and allow us to construct high quality luminosity and mass functions, which will help to distinguish between VLM formation scenarios.

  11. X-ray Proper Motions and Shock Speeds along the Northwest Rim of SN1006

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katsuda, Satoru; Long, Knox S.; Petre, Robert; Reynolds, Stephen P.; Williams, Brian J.; Winkler, P. Frank

    2012-01-01

    We report the results of an X-ray proper motion measurement for the NW rim of SN 1006, carried out by comparing Chandra observations from 2001 and 2012. The NW limb has predominantly thermal X-ray emission, and it is the only location in SN 1006 with signi cant optical emission: a thin, Balmer-dominated lament. For most of the NW rim, the proper motion is approximately equal to 0.30"yr(exp -1), essentially the same as has been measured from the H alpha lament. Isolated regions of the NW limb are dominated by nonthermal emission, and here the proper motion is much higher, 0:49"yr(exp -1), close to the value measured in X-rays along the much brighter NE limb, where the X-rays are overwhelmingly nonthermal. At the 2.2 kpc distance to SN 1006, the proper motions imply shock velocities of approximately 3000 kms(exp -1) and approximately 5000 kms(exp -1) in the thermal and nonthermal regions, respectively. A lower velocity behind the H alpha filament is consistent with the picture that SN 1006 is encountering denser gas in the NW, as is also suggested by its overall morphology. In the thermally-dominated portion of the X-ray shell, we also see an o set in the radial profiles at different energies; the 0.5-0.6 keV peak dominated by O VII is closer to the shock front than that of the 0.8-3 keV emission|due to the longer times for heavier elements to reach ionization states where they produce strong X-ray emission.

  12. How Two-Year-Old Children Interpret Proper and Common Names for Unfamiliar Objects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelman, Susan A.; Taylor, Marjorie

    1984-01-01

    Investigates the ability of 32 two-year-old children to use syntactic (i.e., form class) and semantic (i.e., type of referent) information to interpret the meaning of new nouns. Subjects were taught either a common noun or a proper noun for a block-like or animal-like object and then asked to select the named toy. (Author/CB)

  13. Astrometry with MCAO: HST-GeMS proper motions in the globular cluster NGC 6681

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massari, D.; Fiorentino, G.; McConnachie, A.; Bellini, A.; Tolstoy, E.; Turri, P.; Andersen, D.; Bono, G.; Stetson, P. B.; Veran, J.-P.

    2016-10-01

    Aims: For the first time the astrometric capabilities of the Gemini Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics System (GeMS) facility at the Gemini South Adaptive Optics Imager (GSAOI) camera on Gemini-South are tested to quantify the accuracy in determining stellar proper motions in the Galactic globular cluster NGC 6681. Methods: Proper motions from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) for a sample of its stars are already available, allowing us to construct a distortion-free reference at the epoch of GeMS observations that is used to measure and correct the temporally changing distortions for each GeMS exposure. In this way, we are able to compare the corrected GeMS images with a first-epoch of HST-Advanced Camera for Survey (ACS) images to recover the relative proper motion of the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy with respect to NGC 6681. Results: We find this to be (μαcosδ,μδ) = (4.09,-3.41)mas yr-1, which matches previous HST/ACS measurements with a very good accuracy of 0.03 mas yr-1 and with a comparable precision (rms of 0.43 mas yr-1). Conclusions: This study successfully demonstrates that high-quality proper motions can be measured for relatively large fields of view (85''× 85'') with MCAO-assisted, ground-based cameras and provides a first, successful test of the performances of GeMS on multi-epoch data. The final reduced data (FITS files) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/595/L2

  14. VLBI for Gravity Probe B. V. Proper Motion and Parallax of the Guide Star, IM Pegasi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratner, M. I.; Bartel, N.; Bietenholz, M. F.; Lebach, D. E.; Lestrade, J.-F.; Ransom, R. R.; Shapiro, I. I.

    2012-07-01

    We present the principal astrometric results of the very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) program undertaken in support of the Gravity Probe B (GP-B) relativity mission. VLBI observations of the GP-B guide star, the RS CVn binary IM Pegasi (HR 8703), yielded positions at 35 epochs between 1997 and 2005. We discuss the statistical assumptions behind these results and our methods for estimating the systematic errors. We find the proper motion of IM Peg in an extragalactic reference frame closely related to the International Celestial Reference Frame 2 (ICRF2) to be -20.83 ± 0.03 ± 0.09 mas yr-1 in right ascension and -27.27 ± 0.03 ± 0.09 mas yr-1 in declination. For each component, the first uncertainty is the statistical standard error and the second is the total standard error (SE) including plausible systematic errors. We also obtain a parallax of 10.37 ± 0.07 mas (distance: 96.4 ± 0.7 pc), for which there is no evidence of any significant contribution of systematic error. Our parameter estimates for the ~25 day period orbital motion of the stellar radio emission have SEs corresponding to ~0.10 mas on the sky in each coordinate. The total SE of our estimate of IM Peg's proper motion is ~30% smaller than the accuracy goal set by the GP-B project before launch: 0.14 mas yr-1 for each coordinate of IM Peg's proper motion. Our results ensure that the uncertainty in IM Peg's proper motion makes only a very small contribution to the uncertainty of the GP-B relativity tests.

  15. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency Properly Awarded Contracts for Disc-Rotor Research and Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-19

    Boeing. Contract Solicitation DARPA personnel properly issued BAA 06-15, “DARPA Tactical Technology Office ( TTO ),” to solicit proposals for advanced R...technology. The BAA 06-15 published on the Federal Business Opportunities website https://www.fedbizopps.gov, stated that DARPA TTO personnel would...submission. DARPA contracting personnel provided letters of “Discouraged” to 122 white papers submissions based on the relevance to the TTO mission

  16. X-RAY PROPER MOTIONS AND SHOCK SPEEDS ALONG THE NORTHWEST RIM OF SN 1006

    SciTech Connect

    Katsuda, Satoru; Long, Knox S.; Williams, Brian J.; Petre, Robert; Reynolds, Stephen P.; Winkler, P. Frank E-mail: long@stsci.edu E-mail: reynolds@ncsu.edu

    2013-02-15

    We report the results of an X-ray proper-motion measurement for the NW rim of SN 1006, carried out by comparing Chandra observations from 2001 to 2012. The NW limb has predominantly thermal X-ray emission, and it is the only location in SN 1006 with significant optical emission: a thin, Balmer-dominated filament. For most of the NW rim, the proper motion is Almost-Equal-To 0.''30 yr{sup -1}, essentially the same as has been measured from the H{alpha} filament. Isolated regions of the NW limb are dominated by nonthermal emission, and here the proper motion is much higher, 0.''49 yr{sup -1}, close to the value measured in X-rays along the much brighter NE limb, where the X-rays are overwhelmingly nonthermal. At the 2.2 kpc distance to SN 1006, the proper motions imply shock velocities of {approx}3000 km s{sup -1} and {approx}5000 km s{sup -1} in the thermal and nonthermal regions, respectively. A lower velocity behind the H{alpha} filament is consistent with the picture that SN 1006 is encountering denser gas in the NW, as is also suggested by its overall morphology. In the thermally dominated portion of the X-ray shell, we also see an offset in the radial profiles at different energies; the 0.5-0.6 keV peak dominated by O VII is closer to the shock front than that of the 0.8-3 keV emission-due to the longer times for heavier elements to reach ionization states where they produce strong X-ray emission.

  17. WATER MASERS IN THE ANDROMEDA GALAXY: THE FIRST STEP TOWARD PROPER MOTION

    SciTech Connect

    Darling, Jeremy

    2011-05-01

    We have detected and confirmed five water maser complexes in the Andromeda Galaxy (M31) using the Green Bank Telescope. These masers will provide the high brightness temperature point sources needed for proper motion studies of M31, enabling measurement of its full three-dimensional velocity vector and its geometric distance via proper rotation. The motion of M31 is the keystone of Local Group dynamics and a gateway to the dark matter profiles of galaxies in general. Our survey for water masers selected 206 luminous compact 24 {mu}m emitting regions in M31 and was sensitive enough to detect any maser useful for {approx}10 {mu}as yr{sup -1} astrometry. The newly discovered masers span the isotropic luminosity range (0.3-1.9) x 10{sup -3} L{sub sun} in single spectral components and are analogous to luminous Galactic masers. The masers are distributed around the molecular ring, including locations close to the major and minor axes, which is nearly ideal for proper motion studies. We find no correlation between 24 {mu}m luminosity and water maser luminosity, suggesting that while water masers arise in star-forming regions, the nonlinear amplification pathways and beamed nature of the water masers means that they are not predictable based on IR luminosity alone. This suggests that there are additional bright masers to be found in M31. We predict that the geometric distance and systemic proper motion of M31 can be measured in 2-3 years with current facilities. A 'moving cluster' observation of diverging masers as M31 approaches the Galaxy may be possible in the long term.

  18. Distance and proper motion measurement of water masers in sharpless 269 IRS 2w

    SciTech Connect

    Asaki, Y.; Imai, H.; Sobolev, A. M.; Parfenov, S. Yu. E-mail: hiroimai@sci.kagoshima-u.ac.jp E-mail: Sergey.Parfenov@urfu.ru

    2014-05-20

    We present astrometric analysis of archival data of water masers in the star-forming region Sharpless 269 (S269) IRS 2w, observed with the VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry. An annual parallax of one of the bright maser features in this region was previously reported to be 0.189 ± 0.008 milliarcsecond (mas) using part of the same archival data as we used. However, we found that this maser feature is not the best to represent the annual parallax to S269 IRS 2w because the morphology is remarkably elongated in the east-west direction. For this study we have selected another maser feature showing simpler morphology. This makes the new annual parallax estimate more credible. Our newly obtained annual parallax is 0.247 ± 0.034 mas, corresponding to 4.05{sub −0.49}{sup +0.65} kpc. This value is well consistent with the 3.7-3.8 kpc obtained using the kinematic distance estimates and photometric distance modulus. We considered two hypotheses for the water-maser spatial distribution, a bipolar outflow and an expanding ring, in a kinematic model fitting analysis with a radially expanding flow. At this stage, any conclusions about the systemic proper motion could not be drawn from the kinematic analysis. Alternatively, we evaluated the mean proper motion to be (0.39 ± 0.92, –1.27 ± 0.90) mas yr{sup –1} eastward and northward, respectively, from the obtained proper motions of the detected water-maser features. The newly obtained annual parallax and mean proper motion give the peculiar motion of S269 IRS 2w to be (U {sub s}, V {sub s}, W {sub s}) of (8 ± 6, –21 ± 17, 1 ± 18) km s{sup –1}.

  19. [Oral antacids and anti-ulcer drugs: each one at its proper time].

    PubMed

    Navarro Ferrer, F; Navarro Ferrer, M E; Prieto Peraita, M

    2000-01-01

    Considering that the means of administering a medication must always be absolutely effective that it should not condition its therapeutic effectiveness, the authors analyze the possibilities of administering oral medications, specifically antacids and anti-ulcer medications. Both are widely prescribed, in hospitals as well as primary health care centers; therefore, it is necessary that nurses know the characteristics of all of these medications well and the proper way to administer each one of them.

  20. A properly invariant theory of infinitesimal deformations of an elastic Cosserat point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Reilly, Oliver M.

    1996-03-01

    In the context of a mechanical theory of a Cosserat point developed by Green and Naghdi [1=Quart. J. Mech. and Appl. Math., 44, 335 355 (1991)], this paper establishes a properly invariant theory for infinitesimal deformations. The invariant theory is valid for an elastic Cosserat point with an arbitrary number of directors. Its construction is based on a method developed by Casey and Naghdi [2=Arch. Rational Mech. Anal., 76, 355 391 (1981)] for unconstrained non-polar elastic bodies.

  1. Lubricant oil production: The proper marriage of process and catalyst technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Everett, G.L.; Suchanek, A.

    1996-12-01

    As the industry moves into the next millennium, higher product quality demands to meet the higher performance needs of modern engine technology and rising costs of traditional good quality lube crudes are driving lubricant base oil manufacturers to select hydroprocessing options versus traditional solvent refining techniques. This paper discusses how to properly select the best economic hydroprocessing technology necessary to produce high quality lubricant base oils and waxes. The economic success of such operations depends on the proper combination of process and catalyst technologies that maximizes yields of high quality products with minimum consumption of hydrogen resources and process utilities. This is particular true on the extreme end of the quality spectrum, namely, Very High Viscosity Index (VHVI) base oils and food grade white oils and waxes where there is no room for marginal product quality. Multiplicity of operations is also becoming more important as refiners try to upgrade their facilities with as little capital expense as possible, while at the same time, broaden their high valued product slate to recoup these expenses in the shortest possible payback period. Lyondell Licensing and Criterion Catalyst have put together an effective alliance based on years of development and commercial experience in both the process and catalyst areas to assist lubricant oil manufacturers in meeting these future challenges using as much existing equipment and infrastructure as is practical. Their experience will permit the proper fitting of the chemistry of hydroprocessing to make lubricant base oils to existing or new operations.

  2. Recoil of the Stellar Remnant from the Puppis A Supernova: Proper-Motion Measurement from Chandra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petre, Robert; Winkler, P. F.

    2006-09-01

    A sequence of three Chandra X-ray Observatory High Resolution Camera images taken over a span of five years reveals arc-second-scale displacement of RX J0822--4300, the stellar remnant near the center of the Puppis A supernova remnant. We measure its proper motion to be 0.16±0.02 arcsec yr-1 toward the west-southwest. At a distance of 2 kpc, this corresponds to a transverse space velocity of 1500 km s-1. This is the first case of a compact X-ray source with a directly measured proper motion. The space velocity is consistent with the explosion center inferred from proper motions of the oxygen-rich optical filaments, and confirms the idea that Puppis A resulted from an asymmetric explosion accompanied by a kick that imparted on the order of 3x1049 ergs of kinetic energy (some 3 percent of the supernova kinetic energy) to the stellar remnant. We will summarize this measurement and discuss possible mechanisms for producing such a violent kick. This research has been supported by NASA grant GO4-5062X.

  3. On the properness condition for modal analysis of non-symmetric second-order systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouisse, Morvan; Foltête, Emmanuel

    2011-02-01

    Non-symmetric second-order systems can be found in several engineering contexts, including vibroacoustics, rotordynamics, or active control. In this paper, the notion of properness for complex modes is extended to the case of non-self-adjoint problems. The properness condition is related to the ability of a set of complex modes to represent in an exact way the behavior of a physical second-order system, meaning that the modes are the solutions of a quadratic eigenvalue problem whose matrices are those of a physical system. This property can be used to identify the damping matrices which may be difficult to obtain with mathematical modeling techniques. The first part of the paper demonstrates the properness condition for non symmetric systems in general. In the second part, the authors propose a methodology to enforce that condition in order to perform an optimal reconstruction of the "closest" physical system starting from a given basis complex modes. The last part is dedicated to numerical and experimental illustrations of the proposed methodology. A simulated academic test case is first used to investigate the numerical aspects of the method. A physical application is then considered in the context of rotordynamics. Finally, an experimental test case is presented using a structure with an active control feedback. An extension of the LSCF identification technique is also introduced to identify both left and right complex mode shapes from measured frequency response functions.

  4. Proper division plane orientation and mitotic progression together allow normal growth of maize

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Anding; Sylvester, Anne

    2017-01-01

    How growth, microtubule dynamics, and cell-cycle progression are coordinated is one of the unsolved mysteries of cell biology. A maize mutant, tangled1, with known defects in growth and proper division plane orientation, and a recently characterized cell-cycle delay identified by time-lapse imaging, was used to clarify the relationship between growth, cell cycle, and proper division plane orientation. The tangled1 mutant was fully rescued by introduction of cortical division site localized TANGLED1-YFP. A CYCLIN1B destruction box was fused to TANGLED1-YFP to generate a line that mostly rescued the division plane defect but still showed cell-cycle delays when expressed in the tangled1 mutant. Although an intermediate growth phenotype between wild-type and the tangled1 mutant was expected, these partially rescued plants grew as well as wild-type siblings, indicating that mitotic progression delays alone do not alter overall growth. These data indicate that division plane orientation, together with proper cell-cycle progression, is critical for plant growth. PMID:28202734

  5. Usp16 regulates kinetochore localization of Plk1 to promote proper chromosome alignment in mitosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhuo, Xiaolong; Guo, Xiao; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Jing, Guihua; Wang, Yao; Chen, Qiang; Jiang, Qing

    2015-01-01

    During the G2 to M phase transition, a portion of mitotic regulator Plk1 localizes to the kinetochores and regulates the initiation of kinetochore–microtubule attachments for proper chromosome alignment. Once kinetochore–microtubule attachment is achieved, this portion of Plk1 is removed from the kinetochores as a result of ubiquitination. However, the crucial molecular mechanism that promotes the localization and the maintenance of Plk1 on the kinetochores until metaphase is still unclear. We report that ubiquitin-specific peptidase 16 (Usp16) plays a key role during this process. Usp16 deubiquitinates Plk1, resulting in an enhanced interaction with kinetochore-localized proteins such as BubR1, and thereby retains Plk1 on the kinetochores to promote proper chromosome alignment in early mitosis. Down-regulation of Usp16 causes increased ubiquitination and decreased kinetochore localization of Plk1. Thus, our data unveil a unique mechanism by which Usp16 promotes the localization and maintenance of Plk1 on the kinetochores for proper chromosome alignment. PMID:26323689

  6. Proper Motions in the SNR RCW86 and the Guest Star of 185AD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamper, K. W.; van den Bergh, S.; Westerlund, B.

    1995-03-01

    The guest star, apparently in Centaurus, which was observed in China in the year 185AD has usually been identified with the SNR RCW86 (alias MSH 14-63). An alternative possibility (Thorsett, Nature 356, 690, 1992) is the pulsar PSR 1509-58 whose spin-down age of 1700 years is suggestively appropriate. On the other hand, the nebula, RCW89, which coincides with that pulsar shows no significant internal proper motion and so is unlikely to be a young object (van den Bergh and Kamper, ApJ 280, L51, 1984). We have now made a proper motion study of optically brightest region of the prime candidate RCW86 using plates from the Radcliff 1.9m taken in 1963 and the CTIO 4m taken in 1977 along with CCD frames from the UTSO 0.6m obtained in 1990 and 1993. The observed arc is some 1100 arc seconds from the center of symmetry of the radio source. If the nebula is in the Sedov adiabatic phase of expansion, the expected proper motion would be 0.24 arc sec yr(-1) . Our measured values are more than an order of magnitude smaller and thus contradict the hypothesis of youth for this SNR. Disappointingly, the 185AD object may indeed have been merely a comet (Chin and Huang, Nature 311, 29, 1994) unless it was indeed a supernova that produced a pulsar without producing a nebular remnant.

  7. Reduced-order models for nonlinear vibrations of cylindrical shells via the proper orthogonal decomposition method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amabili, M.; Sarkar, A.; Païdoussis, M. P.

    2003-09-01

    The nonlinear (large-amplitude) response of perfect and imperfect, simply supported circular cylindrical shells to harmonic excitation in the spectral neighbourhood of some of their lowest natural frequencies is investigated. The shell is assumed to be completely filled with an incompressible and inviscid fluid at rest. Donnell's nonlinear shallow-shell theory is used, and the solution is obtained by the Galerkin method. The proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) method is used to extract proper orthogonal modes that describe the system behaviour from time-series response data. These time series have been obtained via the conventional Galerkin approach (using normal modes as a projection basis) with an accurate model involving 16 degrees of freedom, validated in previous studies. The POD method, in conjunction with the Galerkin approach, permits a lower-dimensional model as compared to those obtainable via the conventional Galerkin approach. Different proper orthogonal modes computed from time series at different excitation frequencies are used and solutions are compared. Some of these sets of modes are capable of describing the system behaviour over the whole frequency range around the fundamental resonance with good accuracy and with only 3 degrees of freedom. They allow a drastic reduction in the computational effort, as compared to using the 16 degree-of-freedom model necessary when the conventional Galerkin approach is used.

  8. Characterization of high proper motion objects from the wide-field infrared survey explorer

    SciTech Connect

    Luhman, K. L.; Sheppard, Scott S.

    2014-06-01

    We present an analysis of high proper motion objects that we have found in a recent study and in this work with multi-epoch astrometry from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Using photometry and proper motions from the Two Micron All-Sky Survey and WISE, we have identified the members of this sample that are likely to be late-type, nearby, or metal-poor. We have performed optical and near-infrared spectroscopy on 41 objects, from which we measure spectral types that range from M4-T2.5. This sample includes 11 blue L dwarfs and 5 subdwarfs; the latter were also classified as such in the recent study by Kirkpatrick and coworkers. Based on their spectral types and photometry, several of our spectroscopic targets may have distances of <20 pc with the closest at ∼12 pc. The tangential velocities implied by the spectrophotometric distances and proper motions indicate that four of the five subdwarfs are probably members of the Galactic halo while several other objects, including the early-T dwarf WISE J210529.08–623558.7, may belong to the thick disk.

  9. Proper size of the visible Universe in FRW metrics with a constant spacetime curvature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melia, Fulvio

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, we continue to examine the fundamental basis for the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) metric and its application to cosmology, specifically addressing the question: What is the proper size of the visible universe? There are several ways of answering the question of size, though often with an incomplete understanding of how far light has actually traveled in reaching us today from the most remote sources. The difficulty usually arises from an inconsistent use of the coordinates or an over-interpretation of the physical meaning of quantities such as the so-called proper distance R(t) = a(t)r, written in terms of the (unchanging) co-moving radius r and the universal expansion factor a(t). In this paper, we prove for the five non-trivial FRW metrics with a constant spacetime curvature that, when the expansion began from an initial singularity, the visible universe today has a proper size equal to Rh(t0/2), i.e., the gravitational horizon at half its current age. The exceptions are de Sitter and Lanczos, whose contents had pre-existing positions away from the origin. In so doing, we confirm earlier results showing the same phenomenon in a broad range of cosmologies, including ΛCDM, based on the numerical integration of null geodesic equations through an FRW metric.

  10. Learning about Parallax and Proper Motion by Searching for Binary Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilachowski, Catherine A.; Hamper, R.; Morris, F.

    2010-01-01

    A new web-based, instructional module allows students to explore the Hipparcos catalog of stellar parallaxes and proper motions to determine whether close double stars are physical binaries or chance superpositions. Because the Hipparcos catalog spans the entire sky, the module guides students to manageable regions of sky. Students navigate to a constellation and grid within the constellation to search for possible binary stars systems. Students can then compare and assess proper motions, in terms of both speed and direction, as well as the distances of both stars, to determine whether the potential close pairs are true binary systems. Students must recognize that multiple lines of evidence (apparent proximity, similar distances, and similar proper motions) must converge to establish the reality of a binary pair. The module gives undergraduate students an opportunity to experience scientific research and discovery, engaging their critical thinking skills in the scientific process. The new module has been developed as part of a collaborative program between the University of Alaska at Anchorage and Indiana University to develop and study the effectiveness of research-based, educational (RBSE) curricula in astronomy for entry-level undergraduate courses. The program is funded through a CCLI award from the National Science Foundation. Further information and access to the web-based RBSE modules is available at www.astro.indiana.edu/catyp/rbseu.

  11. Yeast Pho85 kinase is required for proper gene expression during the diauxic shift.

    PubMed

    Nishizawa, Masafumi; Katou, Yuki; Shirahige, Katsuhiko; Toh-e, Akio

    2004-08-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae changes its gene expression profile when environmental nutritional conditions are changed. Protein kinases including cyclic AMP-dependent kinase, Snf1 and Tor kinases play important roles in this process. Pho85 kinase, a member of the yeast cyclin-dependent kinase family, is involved in the regulation of phosphate metabolism and reserve carbohydrates, and thus is implicated to function as a nutrient-sensing kinase. Upon depletion of glucose in the medium, yeast cells undergo a diauxic shift, accompanied by a carbon metabolic pathway shift, stimulation of mitochondrial function and downregulation of ribosome biogenesis and protein synthesis. We analysed the effect of a pho85Delta mutation on the expression profiles of the genes in this process to investigate whether Pho85 kinase participates in the yeast diauxy. We found that, in the absence of PHO85, a majority of mitochondrial genes were not properly induced, that proteasome-related and chaperonin genes were more repressed, and that, when glucose was still present in the medium, a certain class of genes involved in ribosome biogenesis (ribosomal protein and rRNA processing genes) was repressed, whereas those involved in gluconeogenesis and the glyoxylate cycle were induced. We also found that PHO85 is required for proper expression of several metal sensor genes and their regulatory genes. These results suggest that Pho85 is required for proper onset of changes in expression profiles of genes responsible for the diauxic shift.

  12. Event-related responses to pronoun and proper name anaphors in parallel and nonparallel discourse structures.

    PubMed

    Streb, J; Rösler, F; Hennighausen, E

    1999-11-01

    The present study investigated event-related potential (ERP) effects of pronoun and proper name anaphors in both parallel and nonparallel discourse structures. Thirty-seven students processed 400 semantically different text passages. Each trial consisted of two sentences and a comprehension question. The first sentence introduced a protagonist who was referred to by an anaphoric word in the second sentence. The anaphoric word was either a pronoun or a repetition of the proper name of the protagonist and had either the same or a different syntactic role as its antecedent (subject or object). The sentences were presented word by word as rapid serial visual display. Event-related potentials were recorded from 61 scalp electrodes. In agreement with the parallel function strategy, nonparallel discourse structures required longer decision times and exhibited higher error rates than parallel structures. The ERPs revealed two effects: First, pronoun anaphors evoked a more pronounced negativity than proper name anaphors between 270 and 420 ms latency over the frontal cortex electrodes. Another relative negativity occurred between 510 and 600 ms over the parietal cortex electrodes. Second, anaphors in nonparallel positions were accompanied by a more pronounced negativity over the parietal cortex. These data support the idea that an anaphor in nonparallel position triggers extra processing steps, probably search processes in working memory which integrate currently encountered information with previously activated representations.

  13. Proper Motions of Jets on the Kiloparsec Scale: New Results with HST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Eileen; Sparks, William; Georganopoulos, Markos; van der Marel, Roeland; Anderson, Jay; Sohn, Sangmo; Biretta, John; Norman, Colin; Chiaberge, Marco; Perlman, Eric

    2017-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope recently celebrated 25 years of operation. Some of the first images of extragalactic optical jets were taken by HST in the mid-1990s; with time baselines on the order of 20 years and state-of-the-art astrometry techniques, we are now able to reach accuracies in proper-motion measurements on the order of a tenth of a milliarcsecond per year. We present the results of a recent HST program to measure the kiloparsec-scale proper motions of eleven nearby optical jets with Hubble, the first sample of its kind. When paired with VLBI proper-motion measurements on the parsec scale, we are now able to map the full velocity profile of these jets from near the black hole to the final deceleration as they extend out into and beyond the host galaxy. We see convincing evidence that weak-flavor jets (i.e., FR Is) have a slowly increasing jet speed up to 100 pc from the core, where superluminal components are first seen.

  14. Proton conducting cerate ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Coffey, G.W.; Pederson, L.R.; Armstrong, T.R.; Bates, J.L.; Weber, W.J.

    1995-08-01

    Cerate perovskites of the general formula AM{sub x}Ce{sub 1-x}O{sub 3-{delta}}, where A = Sr or Ba and where M = Gd, Nd, Y, Yb or other rare earth dopant, are known to conduct a protonic current. Such materials may be useful as the electrolyte in a solid oxide fuel cell operating at intermediate temperatures, as an electrochemical hydrogen separation membrane, or as a hydrogen sensor. Conduction mechanisms in these materials were evaluated using dc cyclic voltammetry and mass spectrometry, allowing currents and activation energies for proton, electron, and oxygen ion contributions to the total current to be determined. For SrYb{sub 0.05}Ce{sub 0.95}O{sub 3-{delta}}, one of the best and most environmentally stable compositions, proton conduction followed two different mechanisms: a low temperature process, characterized by an activation energy of 0.42{+-}0.04 eV, and a high temperature process, characterized by an activation energy of 1.38{+-}0.13 eV. It is believed that the low temperature process is dominated by grain boundary conduction while bulk conduction is responsible for the high temperature process. The activation energy for oxygen ion conduction (0.97{+-}0.10 eV) agrees well with other oxygen conductors, while that for electronic conduction, 0.90{+-}0.09 eV, is affected by a temperature-dependent electron carrier concentration. Evaluated by direct measurement of mass flux through a dense ceramic with an applied dc field, oxygen ions were determined to be the majority charge carrier except at the lowest temperatures, followed by electrons and then protons.

  15. A FIRST MEASUREMENT OF THE PROPER MOTION OF THE LEO II DWARF SPHEROIDAL GALAXY

    SciTech Connect

    Lepine, Sebastien; Koch, Andreas; Rich, R. Michael; Kuijken, Konrad

    2011-11-10

    We use 14 year baseline images obtained with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) to derive a proper motion for one of the Milky Way's most distant dwarf spheroidal companions, Leo II, relative to an extragalactic background reference frame. Astrometric measurements are performed in the effective point-spread function formalism using our own developed code. An astrometric reference grid is defined using 3224 stars that are members of Leo II and brighter than a magnitude of 25 in the F814W band. We identify 17 compact extragalactic sources, for which we measure a systemic proper motion relative to this stellar reference grid. We derive a proper motion [{mu}{sub {alpha},{mu}{delta}}] = [+104 {+-}113,-33 {+-} 151] {mu}as yr{sup -1} for Leo II in the heliocentric reference frame. Though marginally detected, the proper motion yields constraints on the orbit of Leo II. Given a distance of d {approx_equal} 230 kpc and a heliocentric radial velocity v{sub r} = +79 km s{sup -1}, and after subtraction of the solar motion, our measurement indicates a total orbital motion v{sub G} = 266.1 {+-} 128.7 km s{sup -1} in the Galactocentric reference frame, with a radial component v{sub r{sub G}}=21.5{+-}4.3 km s{sup -1} and tangential component v{sub t{sub G}} = 265.2 {+-} 129.4 km s{sup -1}. The small radial component indicates that Leo II either has a low-eccentricity orbit or is currently close to perigalacticon or apogalacticon distance. We see evidence for systematic errors in the astrometry of the extragalactic sources which, while close to being point sources, are slightly resolved in the HST images. We argue that more extensive observations at later epochs will be necessary to better constrain the proper motion of Leo II. We provide a detailed catalog of the stellar and extragalactic sources identified in the HST data which should provide a solid early-epoch reference for future astrometric measurements.

  16. Proper motion of the Draco dwarf galaxy based on Hubble space telescope imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Pryor, Carlton; Piatek, Slawomir; Olszewski, Edward W. E-mail: piatek@physics.rutgers.edu

    2015-02-01

    We have measured the proper motion of the Draco dwarf galaxy using images at two epochs with a time baseline of about two years taken with the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys. Wide Field Channels 1 and 2 provide two adjacent fields, each containing a known QSO. The zero point for the proper motion is determined using both background galaxies and the QSOs and the two methods produce consistent measurements within each field. Averaging the results from the two fields gives a proper motion in the equatorial coordinate system of (μ{sub α},μ{sub δ})=(17.7±6.3,−22.1±6.3) mas century{sup −1} and in the Galactic coordinate system of (μ{sub ℓ},μ{sub b})=(−23.1±6.3,−16.3±6.3) mas century{sup −1}. Removing the contributions of the motion of the Sun and of the LSR to the measured proper motion yields a Galactic rest-frame proper motion of (μ{sub α}{sup Grf},μ{sub δ}{sup Grf})=(51.4±6.3,−18.7±6.3) mas century{sup −1} and (μ{sub ℓ}{sup Grf},μ{sub b}{sup Grf})=(−21.8±6.3,−50.1±6.3) mas century{sup −1}. The implied space velocity with respect to the Galactic center is (Π,Θ,Z)=(27±14,89±25,−212±20) km s{sup −1}. This velocity implies that the orbital inclination is 70{sup ∘}, with a 95% confidence interval of (59{sup ∘},80{sup ∘}), and that the plane of the orbit is consistent with that of the vast polar structure (VPOS) of Galactic satellite galaxies.

  17. Cartilage conduction hearing.

    PubMed

    Shimokura, Ryota; Hosoi, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Tadashi; Yamanaka, Toshiaki; Levitt, Harry

    2014-04-01

    Sound information is known to travel to the cochlea via either air or bone conduction. However, a vibration signal, delivered to the aural cartilage via a transducer, can also produce a clearly audible sound. This type of conduction has been termed "cartilage conduction." The aural cartilage forms the outer ear and is distributed around the exterior half of the external auditory canal. In cartilage conduction, the cartilage and transducer play the roles of a diaphragm and voice coil of a loudspeaker, respectively. There is a large gap between the impedances of cartilage and skull bone, such that cartilage vibrations are not easily transmitted through bone. Thus, these methods of conduction are distinct. In this study, force was used to apply a transducer to aural cartilage, and it was found that the sound in the auditory canal was amplified, especially for frequencies below 2 kHz. This effect was most pronounced at an application force of 1 N, which is low enough to ensure comfort in the design of hearing aids. The possibility of using force adjustments to vary amplification may also have applications for cell phone design.

  18. Proper motion survey and kinematic analysis of the ρ Ophiuchi embedded cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ducourant, C.; Teixeira, R.; Krone-Martins, A.; Bontemps, S.; Despois, D.; Galli, P. A. B.; Bouy, H.; Le Campion, J. F.; Rapaport, M.; Cuillandre, J. C.

    2017-01-01

    Context. The ρ Ophiuchi molecular complex and in particular the Lynds L1688 dark cloud is unique in its proximity ( 130 pc), in its richness in young stars and protostars, and in its youth (0.5 Myr). It is certainly one of the best targets currently accessible from the ground to study the early phases of star-formation. Proper motion analysis is a very efficient tool for separating members of clusters from field stars, but very few proper motions are available in the ρ Ophiuchi region since most of the young sources are deeply embedded in dust and gas. Aims: We aim at performing a kinematic census of young stellar objects (YSOs) in the ρ Ophiuchi F core and partially in the E core of the L1688 dark cloud. Methods: We run a proper motion program at the ESO New Technology Telescope (NTT) with the Son of ISAAC (SOFI) instrument over nine years in the near-infrared. We complemented these observations with various public image databases to enlarge the time base of observations and the field of investigation to 0.5° × 0.5°. We derived positions and proper motions for 2213 objects. From these, 607 proper motions were derived from SOFI observations with a 1.8 mas/yr accuracy while the remaining objects were measured only from auxiliary data with a mean precision of about 3 mas/yr. Results: We performed a kinematic analysis of the most accurate proper motions derived in this work, which allowed us to separate cluster members from field stars and to derive the mean properties of the cluster. From the kinematic analysis we derived a list of 68 members and 14 candidate members, comprising 26 new objects with a high membership probability. These new members are generally fainter than the known ones. We measured a mean proper motion of (μαcosδ, μδ) = (-8.2,-24.3) ± 0.8 mas/yr for the L1688 dark cloud. A supervised classification was applied to photometric data of members to allocate a spectral energy distribution (SED) classification to the unclassified members

  19. Improvement of Accuracy of Proper Motions of Hipparcos Catalogue Stars Using Optical Latitude Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damljanovic, G.

    2009-09-01

    Commission 19 (Earth Rotation) of the International Astronomical Union (IAU) established the Working Group on Earth Rotation in the Hipparcos Reference Frame (WG ERHRF) in 1995 to collect the optical observations of latitude and universal time variations, made during 1899.7 -- 1992.0 in line with the Earth orientation programmes (to derive Earth Orientation Parameters -- EOP), with Dr. Jan Vondrák (Astronomical Institute of Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague) as the head of WG ERHRF. We participated in this international project using Belgrade Visual Zenith -- Telescope (BLZ) latitude data for the period 1949.0 -- 1986.0, after a new reduction of BLZ data made in my MSc thesis, finished in 1997 at the Faculty of Mathematics of University of Belgrade. Dr. Vondrák collected 4.4 million optical observations of latitude/universal time variations made at 33 observatories. The data were used for the EOP investigations, Hipparcos satellite Catalogue -- radio sources connection, etc. Nowadays, it is customary to correct the positions and proper motions of stars of Hipparcos Catalogue (as an optical reference frame) using ground -- based observations of some Hipparcos stars. In this PhD thesis we use the latitude observations made with several types of classical astrometric instruments: visual (ZT) and floating zenith -- telescope (FZT), visual zenith tube (VZT) and photographic zenith tube (PZT); 26 different instruments located at many observatories all over the world (used in the programs of monitoring the Earth orientation during the 20th century). We received the data from Dr. Vondrák via private communication. The observatories and instruments are: International Latitude Service -- ILS (Carloforte -- CA ZT, Cincinnati -- CI ZT, Gaithersburg -- GT ZT, Kitab -- KZ ZT, Mizusawa -- MZZ ZT, Tschardjui -- TS ZT and Ukiah -- UK ZT), Belgrade (BLZ ZT), Blagoveschtschensk (BK ZT), Irkutsk (IRZ ZT), Poltava (POL ZT), Pulkovo (PU and PUZ ZT), Varsovie (VJZ ZT

  20. Quantum Conductivity of Nanosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozhar, Liudmila

    2004-03-01

    Quantum statistical mechanical method of Bogoliubov-Tyablikov two-time Green's functions (TTGFs) suggested by Zubarev and Tserkovnikov is generalized to include spatially inhomogeneous systems, such as small semiconductor quantum dots, artificial atoms, etc. The developed formalism is applied to derive a fundamental quantum theory of conductivity of spatially inhomogeneous systems in weak external electromagnetic fields. Conservation equations for the charge and current densities are derived and analyzed. Explicit expressions for the linear (in the field potentials) longitudal and transverse quantum conductivity, dielectric and magnetic susceptibilities are also derived in terms of the equilibrium/steady state charge density - charge density and microcurrent-microcurrent retarded TTGFs. The obtained results are used in conjunction with quantum computations of electronic energy spectra of small clusters of In, Ga and As atoms to predict the quantum conductivity of such clusters.

  1. Proliferating conduction by isomerism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Rupan Preet; Sawhney, Ravinder Singh; Engles, Derick

    2015-01-01

    The electrical conduction of isomers of anthracene molecule attached between two semi-infinite gold electrodes was simulated using extended Huckel theory (EHT)-based on semi-empirical model in this research work. The electron transport parameters were examined in two epochs by buffering anthracene and its isomer phenanthrene alternatively between gold electrodes using sulphur as an alligator clip, under variegated bias voltages. Differential NDR effect was observed in both the cases but phenanthrene exhibited more linear I-V curve than its counterpart, anthracene. The simulated results discovered phenanthrene as a better candidate than anthracene towards contributing to electrical conduction in molecular junctions. Phenanthrene reported maximum conductance of 0.74G0 whereas anthracene exhibited 0.03G0 at 0.8V.

  2. Electrical Conductivity in Textiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Copper is the most widely used electrical conductor. Like most metals, though, it has several drawbacks: it is heavy, expensive, and can break. Fibers that conduct electricity could be the solutions to these problems, and they are of great interest to NASA. Conductive fibers provide lightweight alternatives to heavy copper wiring in a variety of settings, including aerospace, where weight is always a chief concern. This is an area where NASA is always seeking improved materials. The fibers are also more cost-effective than metals. Expenditure is another area where NASA is always looking to make improvements. In the case of electronics that are confined to small spaces and subject to severe stress, copper is prone to breaking and losing connection over time. Flexible conductive fibers eliminate that problem. They are more supple and stronger than brittle copper and, thus, find good use in these and similar situations. While clearly a much-needed material, electrically conductive fibers are not readily available. The cost of new technology development, with all the pitfalls of troubleshooting production and the years of testing, and without the guarantee of an immediate market, is often too much of a financial hazard for companies to risk. NASA, however, saw the need for electrical fibers in its many projects and sought out a high-tech textile company that was already experimenting in this field, Syscom Technology, Inc., of Columbus, Ohio. Syscom was founded in 1993 to provide computer software engineering services and basic materials research in the areas of high-performance polymer fibers and films. In 1999, Syscom decided to focus its business and technical efforts on development of high-strength, high-performance, and electrically conductive polymer fibers. The company developed AmberStrand, an electrically conductive, low-weight, strong-yet-flexible hybrid metal-polymer YARN.

  3. Transparent Conductive Nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    2008-06-22

    The objectives of this program between UT-Battelle, LLC (the ''Contractor'') and (Battelle Memorial Institute) (the "Participant") were directed towards achieving significant improvement: in the electrical conductivity and optical/infrared transmission of single-wall carbon nanotube (SWNT)-based composite materials. These materials will be used in coating applications that range from aircraft canopies to display applications. The goal of the project was to obtain supported mats of SWNTs with sheet conductivities approaching 10 ohms/square combined with high optical transmission (>85% transmission at 550 nm), thereby permitting their application as a replacement for indium tin oxide (ITO) in a variety of applications such as flexible displays.

  4. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Angell, C.A.; Liu, C.

    1996-04-09

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described having exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100 C or lower, including room temperature, and comprising the lithium salts selected from the group consisting of the thiocyanate, iodide, bromide, chloride, perchlorate, acetate, tetrafluoroborate, perfluoromethane sulfonate, perfluoromethane sulfonamide, tetrahaloaluminate, and heptahaloaluminate salts of lithium, with or without a magnesium-salt selected from the group consisting of the perchlorate and acetate salts of magnesium. Certain of the latter embodiments may also contain molecular additives from the group of acetonitrile (CH{sub 3}CN), succinnonitrile (CH{sub 2}CN){sub 2}, and tetraglyme (CH{sub 3}--O--CH{sub 2}--CH{sub 2}--O--){sub 2} (or like solvents) solvated to a Mg{sup +2} cation to lower the freezing point of the electrolyte below room temperature. Other particularly useful embodiments contain up to about 40, but preferably not more than about 25, mol percent of a long chain polyether polymer dissolved in the lithium salts to provide an elastic or rubbery solid electrolyte of high ambient temperature conductivity and exceptional 100 C conductivity. Another embodiment contains up to about but not more than 10 mol percent of a molecular solvent such as acetone. 2 figs.

  5. Conductive Education Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spivack, Frieda

    1995-01-01

    This article describes conductive education for children with neuromotor disabilities and identifies its major concepts, including orthofunction, rhythmic intention, and verbal regulation. Also addressed are the role of the conductor and the group and the training of conductors at the Peto Institute in Hungary. Research on the method's…

  6. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Angell, Charles Austen; Liu, Changle; Xu, Kang; Skotheim, Terje A.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates generally to highly conductive alkali-metal ion non-crystalline electrolyte systems, and more particularly to novel and unique molten (liquid), rubbery, and solid electrolyte systems which are especially well suited for use with high current density electrolytic cells such as primary and secondary batteries.

  7. Conductive elastomeric extensometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gause, F. L.; Glenn, C. G.

    1971-01-01

    Bridge circuit, in which conductive elastomeric material is the variable leg, precisely measures surface area changes in the human body. Circuits are used singularly, or in quantity by adding elements and amplifier circuits. Elastomeric strips can be located in a form-fitting garment.

  8. Conductance Steamflow relationship

    SciTech Connect

    Whitney Trainor-Guitton

    2015-04-01

    These histograms represent our calibration of conductance of a volcanic geothermal field (with a clay cap) and the observed steam flow rates. See the following paper for further description: Trainor-Guitton, Hoversten,Nordquist, Intani, Value of information analysis using geothermal field data: accounting for multiple interpretations & determining new drilling locations. SEG Abstracts 2015.

  9. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Angell, C. Austen; Liu, Changle

    1996-01-01

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte having exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100.degree. C. or lower, including room temperature, and comprising the lithium salts selected from the group consisting of the thiocyanate, iodide, bromide, chloride, perchlorate, acetate, tetrafluoroborate, perfluoromethane sulfonate, perfluoromethane sulfonamide, tetrahaloaluminate, and heptahaloaluminate salts of lithium, with or without a magnesium-salt selected from the group consisting of the perchlorate and acetate salts of magnesium. Certain of the latter embodiments may also contain molecular additives from the group of acetonitrile (CH.sub.3 CN) succinnonitrile (CH.sub.2 CN).sub.2, and tetraglyme (CH.sub.3 --O--CH.sub.2 --CH.sub.2 --O--).sub.2 (or like solvents) solvated to a Mg.sup.+2 cation to lower the freezing point of the electrolyte below room temperature. Other particularly useful embodiments contain up to about 40, but preferably not more than about 25, mol percent of a long chain polyether polymer dissolved in the lithium salts to provide an elastic or rubbery solid electrolyte of high ambient temperature conductivity and exceptional 100.degree. C. conductivity. Another embodiment contains up to about but not more than 10 mol percent of a molecular solvent such as acetone.

  10. Conducting Educational Design Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenney, Susan; Reeves, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Educational design research blends scientific investigation with systematic development and implementation of solutions to educational problems. Empirical investigation is conducted in real learning settings--not laboratories--to craft usable and effective solutions. At the same time, the research is carefully structured to produce theoretical…

  11. Benefits of Conducting Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Frances E.

    2001-01-01

    Metaphors for researchers, such as a crusader; a traveler; an explorer; a miner; an astronaut; a biblical Daniel; a Samurai; and an archaeologist are discussed. Benefits of conducting research are enumerated, including building the knowledge base for art therapy; increasing professional opportunities; improving client care; and advancing the…

  12. Thermally conductive support structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herzl, Alfred (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A structure for supporting and at least transferring heat energy away from at least a first heat source interconnected thereto is disclosed. In one embodiment, the structure includes a deck member having a plurality of layers of thermally conductive fibers packed within a matrix material. Fibers of at least a first layer are orientable to transfer heat energy toward at least a first sidewall of the deck member, and fibers of at least a second layer are orientable about .+-.45.degree. relative to the fibers of the first layer to enhance the structural strength of the deck member. In another embodiment, fibers of at least a first layer of thermally conductive fibers of the deck member are orientable to transfer heat energy from a first heat source to a second, cooler heat source, both of which are interconnectable to the deck member, such that the first and second heat sources operate at substantially uniform temperatures. In this embodiment, fibers of at least a second layer of thermally conductive fibers are orientable about .+-.45.degree. relative to the fibers of the first layer to enhance the structural strength of the deck member. Fibers of at least a third layer of thermally conductive fibers are orientable substantially orthogonally relative to the fibers of the first layer to transfer heat energy away from at least the first heat source to at least a first sidewall of the deck member.

  13. [How to plan and execute multinational clinical studies properly-management of ethnic differences, private information, and genetic testing].

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Masaru

    2010-05-01

    The need for multinational clinical studies in the oncology field has grown stronger not only for the purpose of registration but also the creation of scientific evidence for proper use of anti-cancer agents. Now almost all clinical study has been planned and executed under international collaboration, including Japan. Multinational study has several advantages to enhance faster accrual from more sites for patients with common malignancies and even with rare tumors, to provide scientific data for the approvals of participating countries, and to deliver meaningful information to medical sites in a broader range at reasonable cost. On the other hand, because of the close relationship between genetic variance and cancer occurrence, each region, US, EU, and Asia/Japan, has been showing differences in the prevalence of cancer, its management, and consequently the drug responses, both in terms of efficacy and safety. This phenomenon has been more commonly observed in clinical studies of recent molecular targeting agents. From the study management viewpoint, the regulations in each region may differ to some extent, although efforts of harmonization has been initiated. Therefore, at the study planning stage, the ethnic or regional differences and those in regulations should be taken into consideration in the preparation of study protocol, and several measures should be prepared and implemented for the smooth conduction of the study. It is also recommended that Japan be involved in the development activity at an earlier phase, so that appropriate alternatives, including Asian collaborative studies, could be considered when needed.

  14. THE EFFECT OF UNRESOLVED BINARIES ON GLOBULAR CLUSTER PROPER-MOTION DISPERSION PROFILES

    SciTech Connect

    Bianchini, P.; Norris, M. A.; Ven, G. van de; Schinnerer, E.; Bellini, A.; Marel, R. P. van der; Watkins, L. L.; Anderson, J.

    2016-03-20

    High-precision kinematic studies of globular clusters (GCs) require an accurate knowledge of all possible sources of contamination. Among other sources, binary stars can introduce systematic biases in the kinematics. Using a set of Monte Carlo cluster simulations with different concentrations and binary fractions, we investigate the effect of unresolved binaries on proper-motion dispersion profiles, treating the simulations like Hubble Space Telescope proper-motion samples. Since GCs evolve toward a state of partial energy equipartition, more-massive stars lose energy and decrease their velocity dispersion. As a consequence, on average, binaries have a lower velocity dispersion, since they are more-massive kinematic tracers. We show that, in the case of clusters with high binary fractions (initial binary fractions of 50%) and high concentrations (i.e., closer to energy equipartition), unresolved binaries introduce a color-dependent bias in the velocity dispersion of main-sequence stars of the order of 0.1–0.3 km s{sup −1} (corresponding to 1%−6% of the velocity dispersion), with the reddest stars having a lower velocity dispersion, due to the higher fraction of contaminating binaries. This bias depends on the ability to distinguish binaries from single stars, on the details of the color–magnitude diagram and the photometric errors. We apply our analysis to the HSTPROMO data set of NGC 7078 (M15) and show that no effect ascribable to binaries is observed, consistent with the low binary fraction of the cluster. Our work indicates that binaries do not significantly bias proper-motion velocity-dispersion profiles, but should be taken into account in the error budget of kinematic analyses.

  15. A SEARCH FOR HIGH PROPER MOTION T DWARFS WITH Pan-STARRS1 + 2MASS + WISE

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Michael C.; Deacon, Niall R.; Magnier, Eugene A.; Aller, Kimberly M.; Bowler, Brendan P.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Hodapp, K. W.; Kaiser, N.; Kudritzki, R.-P.; Morgan, J. S.; Tonry, J. L.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Dupuy, Trent J.; Redstone, Joshua; Goldman, Bertrand; Price, P. A.

    2011-10-20

    We have searched {approx}8200 deg{sup 2} for high proper motion ({approx}0.''5-2.''7 year{sup -1}) T dwarfs by combining first-epoch data from the Pan-STARRS1 (PS1) 3{pi} Survey, the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) All-Sky Point Source Catalog, and the WISE Preliminary Data Release. We identified two high proper motion objects with the very red (W1 - W2) colors characteristic of T dwarfs, one being the known T7.5 dwarf GJ 570D. Near-IR spectroscopy of the other object (PSO J043.5395+02.3995 {identical_to} WISEP J025409.45+022359.1) reveals a spectral type of T8, leading to a photometric distance of 7.2 {+-} 0.7 pc. The 2.''56 year{sup -1} proper motion of PSO J043.5+02 is the second highest among field T dwarfs, corresponding to a tangential velocity of 87 {+-} 8 km s{sup -1}. According to the Besancon galaxy model, this velocity indicates that its galactic membership is probably in the thin disk, with the thick disk an unlikely possibility. Such membership is in accord with the near-IR spectrum, which points to a surface gravity (age) and metallicity typical of the field population. We combine 2MASS, Sloan Digital Sky Survey, WISE, and PS1 astrometry to derive a preliminary parallax of 171 {+-} 45 mas (5.8{sup +2.0} {sub -1.2} pc), the first such measurement using PS1 data. The proximity and brightness of PSO J043.5+02 will facilitate future characterization of its atmosphere, variability, multiplicity, distance, and kinematics. The modest number of candidates from our search suggests that the immediate ({approx}10 pc) solar neighborhood does not contain a large reservoir of undiscovered T dwarfs earlier than about T8.

  16. Anomalous Stretchable Conductivity Using an Engineered Tricot Weave.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong-Hee; Kim, Yoonseob; Lee, Tae-Ik; Lee, Inhwa; Shin, Jaeho; Lee, Hyun Soo; Kim, Taek-Soo; Choi, Jang Wook

    2015-12-22

    Robust electric conduction under stretching motions is a key element in upcoming wearable electronic devices but is fundamentally very difficult to achieve because percolation pathways in conductive media are subject to collapse upon stretching. Here, we report that this fundamental challenge can be overcome by using a parameter uniquely available in textiles, namely a weaving structure. A textile structure alternately interwoven with inelastic and elastic yarns, achieved via a tricot weave, possesses excellent elasticity (strain up to 200%) in diagonal directions. When this textile is coated with conductive nanomaterials, proper textile engineering allows the textile to obtain an unprecedented 7-fold conductivity increase, with conductivity reaching 33,000 S cm(-1), even at 130% strain, due to enhanced interyarn contacts. The observed stretching conductivity can be described well using a modified 3D percolation theory that reflects the weaving effect and is also utilized for stretchable electronic interconnects and supercapacitors with high performance.

  17. The importance of a proper selection area to be biopsied in nodular leukoplakia: a case report.

    PubMed

    Pagin, Otávio; Santos, Paulo Sérgio da Silva; Del Neri, Nathalia Bigelli; Gustavo de Lima, Heliton; Lara, Vanessa Soares

    2014-03-01

    Nodular leukoplakia is a non-homogeneous type of oral leukoplakia presenting a white surface with verrucous, nodular, ulcerated or erythematous features with a greater risk of malignant transformation when compared to the homogeneous type. Common sites of involvement include lip commissures, buccal mucosa and soft palate. It is often associated with epithelial dysplasia or carcinoma and requires detailed microscopic assessment and regular follow-up. The importance of a proper selection of the area to be biopsied and the close teamwork between a dentist and oral pathologist is the basis of providing an accurate final diagnosis.

  18. A rapid non-iterative proper orthogonal decomposition based outlier detection and correction for PIV data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higham, J. E.; Brevis, W.; Keylock, C. J.

    2016-12-01

    The present work proposes a novel method of detection and estimation of outliers in particle image velocimetry measurements by the modification of the temporal coefficients associated with a proper orthogonal decomposition of an experimental time series. Using synthetic outliers applied to two sequences of vector fields, the method is benchmarked against state-of-the-art approaches recently proposed to remove the influence of outliers. Compared with these methods, the proposed approach offers an increase in accuracy and robustness for the detection of outliers and comparable accuracy for their estimation.

  19. [Clinical Practice Guideline for the proper use and cessation of hypnotics].

    PubMed

    Mishima, Kazuo

    2015-06-01

    "Clinical Practice Guideline for the proper use and cessation of hypnotics" has been developed by focusing on insomnia treatments with acceptable safety and effectiveness. In this guideline, forty clinical questions encountered in clinical practice starting from the initial treatment of insomnia, optimization of pharmacotherapy, sleep hygiene instruction and cognitive behavioral therapy, specific treatment for insomnia with various medical conditions, responding to chronic insomnia, goal setting of treatment and methods for cessation of hypnotics, have been set. Based on the existing evidence associated with the clinical questions, also on the basis of expert consensus if sufficient evidence does not exist, we set clinical recommendations for the physicians and accessible information for patients.

  20. Short communication: On recognizing the proper experimental unit in animal studies in the dairy sciences.

    PubMed

    Bello, Nora M; Kramer, Matthew; Tempelman, Robert J; Stroup, Walter W; St-Pierre, Normand R; Craig, Bruce A; Young, Linda J; Gbur, Edward E

    2016-11-01

    Sound design of experiments combined with proper implementation of appropriate statistical methods for data analysis are critical for producing meaningful scientific results that are both replicable and reproducible. This communication addresses specific aspects of design and analysis of experiments relevant to the dairy sciences and, in so doing, responds to recent concerns raised in a letter to the editor of the Journal of Dairy Science regarding journal policy for research publications on pen-based animal studies. We further elaborate on points raised, rectify interpretation of important concepts, and show how aspects of statistical inference and elicitation of research conclusions are affected.

  1. Proper determination of direct solar radiation in NWP and climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhian; Li, Jiangnan; He, Yongjian; Liu, Aixia; Li, Jiandong; Zhang, Feng

    2017-02-01

    An issue in the determination of the direct component of solar radiation involving the circumsolar contribution in numerical weather prediction and climate models is discussed. The direct flux determined using the delta-Eddington approximation is assessed against observations. The results show that errors due to the use of the delta-scaling are much larger than errors if the circumsolar contribution is ignored. In order to include the scattering contribution in the direct flux calculation properly, a simple parameterization for dust aerosol is developed which can be used to consider the scattering contribution due to the particular case of dust aerosol to the direct solar radiation within the circumsolar region.

  2. Local Group and Star Cluster Dynamics from HSTPROMO: The Hubble Space Telescope Proper Motion Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Marel, R. P.; Anderson, J.; Bellini, A.; Besla, G.; Bianchini, P.; Boylan-Kolchin, M.; Chaname, J.; Deason, A.; Do, T.; Guhathakurta, P.; Kallivayalil, N.; Lennon, D.; Massari, D.; Meyer, E.; Platais, I.; Sabbi, E.; Sohn, S. T.; Soto, M.; Trenti, M.; Watkins, L.

    2014-03-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) has proven to be uniquely suited for the measurement of proper motions (PMs) of stars and galaxies in the nearby Universe. Here we summarize the main results and ongoing studies of the HSTPROMO collaboration, which over the past decade has executed some two dozen observational and theoretical HST projects on this topic. This is continuing to revolutionize our dynamical understanding of many objects, including: globular clusters; young star clusters; stars and stellar streams in the Milky Way halo; Local Group galaxies, including dwarf satellite galaxies, the Magellanic Clouds, and the Andromeda galaxy; and AGN black hole Jets.

  3. Efficient proper orthogonal decomposition for parameter dependent problems with applications to hydraulic turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bistrian, Diana Alina; Susan-Resiga, Romeo F.

    2016-06-01

    A weighted proper orthogonal decomposition method (wPOD) is proposed for analyzing the evolution of the swirling flow exiting the hydraulic turbine runner, strongly influenced by the turbine discharge coefficient. Through orthogonal decomposition, the leading modes of the axial and circumferential velocity profiles can be identified with respect to a simple base flow. By applying the weighted POD on selected perturbation quantities the POD representation of the velocity field is achieved with a number of modes significantly lower comparing with different other techniques.

  4. Introduction to Starting Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy: Proper Insertion, Complete Observation, and Appropriate Photographing

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Diagnostic upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is the most basic of endoscopy procedures and is the technique that trainee doctors first learn. Mastering the basics of endoscopy is very important because when this process is imprecise or performed incorrectly, it can severely affect a patient's health or life. Although there are several guidelines and studies that consider these basics, there are still no standard recommendations for endoscopy in Korea. In this review, basic points, including proper endoscope insertion, precise observation without blind spots, and appropriate photographing, for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy will be discussed. PMID:26240799

  5. Palomar-Leiden minor planets - Proper elements, frequency distributions, belt boundaries, and family memberships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. G.; Hierath, J. E.

    1987-01-01

    Tabulations are presented for the proper elements of 1227 higher accuracy orbits of faint minor planets encompassing earth and deep Mars crossers, Trojans, and Hildas. The distribution of the closest approach distance to Mars drops off sharply near zero, while that for Jupiter vanishes near 1.1 AU; it is suggested that Mars and Jupiter have caused these boundaries, so that the asteroid belt must have been larger early in the solar system's history. Some 3.5 percent of the sample, primarily shallow crossers, can impact Mars; the fortuitous alignments required for impact occur with near-simultaneity for these objects, so that they will episodically bombard Mars.

  6. Detecting a proper patient with a help of medical data retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malecka-Massalska, Teresa; Maciejewski, Ryszard; Wasiewicz, Piotr; Zaluska, Wojciech; Ksiazek, Andrzej

    2009-06-01

    Electric bioimpedance is one of methods to assess the hydrate status in hemodialyzed patients. It is also being used for assessing the hydration level among peritoneal dialysed patients, diagnosed with neoplastic diseases, patients after organ transplantations and the ones infected with HIV virus. During measurements sets were obtained from two groups, which were named a control (healthy volunteers) and test group (hemodialyzed patients). Zscored, discretized data and data retrieval results were computed in R language environment in order to find a simple rule for recognizing health problems. The executed experiments affirm possibilities of creating good classifiers for detecting a proper patient with the help of medical data sets, but only with previous training.

  7. NEARBY YOUNG STARS SELECTED BY PROPER MOTION. I. FOUR NEW MEMBERS OF THE {beta} PICTORIS MOVING GROUP FROM THE TYCHO-2 CATALOG

    SciTech Connect

    Lepine, Sebastien; Simon, Michal E-mail: michal.simon@sunysb.edu

    2009-03-15

    We describe a procedure to identify stars from nearby moving groups and associations out of catalogs of stars with large proper motions. We show that from the mean motion vector of a known or suspected moving group, one can identify additional members of the group based on proper motion data and photometry in the optical and infrared, with minimal contamination from background field stars. We demonstrate this technique by conducting a search for low-mass members of the {beta} Pictoris moving group in the Tycho-2 catalog. All known members of the moving group are easily recovered, and a list of 51 possible candidates is generated. Moving group membership is evaluated for 33 candidates based on X-ray flux from ROSAT, H{alpha} line emission, and radial velocity measurement from high-resolution infrared spectra obtained at Infrared Telescope Facility. We confirm three of the candidates to be new members of the group: TYC 1186-706-1, TYC 7443-1102-1, and TYC 2211-1309-1 which are late-K and early-M dwarfs 45-60 pc from the Sun. We also identify a common proper motion companion to the known {beta} Pictoris Moving Group member TYC 7443-1102-1, at a 26.''3 separation; the new companion is associated with the X-ray source 1RXS J195602.8 - 320720. We argue that the present technique could be applied to other large proper motion catalogs to identify most of the elusive, low-mass members of known nearby moving groups and associations.

  8. Inverse heat conduction problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlande, Helcio Rangel Barreto

    We present the solution of the following inverse problems: (1) Inverse Problem of Estimating Interface Conductance Between Periodically Contacting Surfaces; (2) Inverse Problem of Estimating Interface Conductance During Solidification via Conjugate Gradient Method; (3) Determination of the Reaction Function in a Reaction-Diffusion Parabolic Problem; and (4) Simultaneous Estimation of Thermal Diffusivity and Relaxation Time with Hyperbolic Heat Conduction Model. Also, we present the solution of a direct problem entitled: Transient Thermal Constriction Resistance in a Finite Heat Flux Tube. The Conjugate Gradient Method with Adjoint Equation was used in chapters 1-3. The more general function estimation approach was treated in these chapters. In chapter 1, we solve the inverse problem of estimating the timewise variation of the interface conductance between periodically contacting solids, under quasi-steady-state conditions. The present method is found to be more accurate than the B-Spline approach for situations involving small periods, which are the most difficult on which to perform the inverse analysis. In chapter 2, we estimate the timewise variation of the interface conductance between casting and mold during the solidification of aluminum. The experimental apparatus used in this study is described. In chapter 3, we present the estimation of the reaction function in a one dimensional parabolic problem. A comparison of the present function estimation approach with the parameter estimation technique, wing B-Splines to approximate the reaction function, revealed that the use of function estimation reduces the computer time requirements. In chapter 4 we present a finite difference solution for the transient constriction resistance in a cylinder of finite length with a circular contact surface. A numerical grid generation scheme was used to concentrate grid points in the regions of high temperature gradients in order to reduce discretization errors. In chapter 6, we

  9. Nanostructured conductive polymeric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Saleh, Mohammed H.

    Conductive polymer composites (CPCs) are a suitable alternative to metals in many applications due to their light-weight, corrosion resistance, low cost, ease of processing and design flexibility. CPCs have been formulated using different types of conductive fillers. In this PhD thesis, the focus is on CPCs for electrostatic discharge (ESD) protection and electromagnetic interference (EMI) attenuation. Despite the versatility of conductive fillers, carbon black (CB) has been the dominant filler to make CPCs for ESD protection applications because CB/polymer composites have a cost advantage over all other CPCs. For EMI shielding, stainless steel fibres and metal coated fibers are the preferred fillers, however CPCs made of those fibers are not the dominant EMI shielding materials. Metal coated and polymer plated polymers are the most widely used EMI shielding options. The limited use of CPCs in the EMI shielding market is because the high filler loading required to formulate a composite with an adequate level of shielding remarkably increases the composite price. In order to increase the competitiveness of CPCs, percolation threshold should be minimized as much as possible and composites with high EMI shielding capabilities at low filler loading should be formulated because all conductive fillers are expensive compared to polymers. In this thesis, two different methodologies to reduce percolation threshold in CPCs have been successfully developed and a CPC with exceptional EMI shielding capability has been formulated using copper nanowires as conductive filler. The first percolation threshold reduction technique is based on the selective localization of CB at the interface of immiscible polymer blend. The technique requires adding a copolymer that prefers the blend's interface and for which CB nanoparticles has the highest affinity. The second method is based on producing a CPC powder and then using this powder as a conductive filler to produce composite by dry

  10. Oxygen ion conducting materials

    DOEpatents

    Vaughey, John; Krumpelt, Michael; Wang, Xiaoping; Carter, J. David

    2005-07-12

    An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

  11. Oxygen ion conducting materials

    DOEpatents

    Carter, J. David; Wang, Xiaoping; Vaughey, John; Krumpelt, Michael

    2004-11-23

    An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

  12. Super ionic conductive glass

    DOEpatents

    Susman, S.; Volin, K.J.

    Described is an ionically conducting glass for use as a solid electrolyte in a power or secondary cell containing an alkali metal-containing anode and a cathode separated by an alkali metal ion conducting glass having an ionic transference number of unity and the general formula: A/sub 1 + x/D/sub 2-x/3/Si/sub x/P/sub 3 - x/O/sub 12 - 2x/3/, wherein A is a network modifier for the glass and is an alkali metal of the anode, D is an intermediate for the glass and is selected from the class consisting of Zr, Ti, Ge, Al, Sb, Be, and Zn and X is in the range of from 2.25 to 3.0. Of the alkali metals, Na and Li are preferred and of the intermediate, Zr, Ti and Ge are preferred.

  13. Super ionic conductive glass

    DOEpatents

    Susman, Sherman; Volin, Kenneth J.

    1984-01-01

    An ionically conducting glass for use as a solid electrolyte in a power or secondary cell containing an alkali metal-containing anode and a cathode separated by an alkali metal ion conducting glass having an ionic transference number of unity and the general formula: A.sub.1+x D.sub.2-x/3 Si.sub.x P.sub.3-x O.sub.12-2x/3, wherein A is a network modifier for the glass and is an alkali metal of the anode, D is an intermediate for the glass and is selected from the class consisting of Zr, Ti, Ge, Al, Sb, Be, and Zn and X is in the range of from 2.25 to 3.0. Of the alkali metals, Na and Li are preferred and of the intermediate, Zr, Ti and Ge are preferred.

  14. Highly Thermal Conductive Nanocomposites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Ya-Ping (Inventor); Connell, John W. (Inventor); Veca, Lucia Monica (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Disclosed are methods for forming carbon-based fillers as may be utilized in forming highly thermal conductive nanocomposite materials. Formation methods include treatment of an expanded graphite with an alcohol/water mixture followed by further exfoliation of the graphite to form extremely thin carbon nanosheets that are on the order of between about 2 and about 10 nanometers in thickness. Disclosed carbon nanosheets can be functionalized and/or can be incorporated in nanocomposites with extremely high thermal conductivities. Disclosed methods and materials can prove highly valuable in many technological applications including, for instance, in formation of heat management materials for protective clothing and as may be useful in space exploration or in others that require efficient yet light-weight and flexible thermal management solutions.

  15. Conductance of Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Datta, Supriyo; Anatram, M. P.

    1998-01-01

    The recent report of quantized conductance in a 4 m long multiwalled nanotube (MWNT) raises the exciting possibility of ballistic transport at room temperature over relatively long distances. We argue that this is made possible by the special symmetry of the eigenstates of the lowest propagating modes in metallic nanotubes which suppresses backscattering. This unusual effect is absent for the higher propagating modes so that transport is not ballistic once the bias exceeds the cut-off energy for the higher modes, which is estimated to be approximately 75 meV for nanotubes of diameter approximately 15 nm. Also, we show that the symmetry of the eigenstates can significantly affect their coupling to the reservoir and hence the contact resistance. A simple model is presented that can be used to understand the observed conductance-voltage characteristics.

  16. Oxygen ion conducting materials

    DOEpatents

    Vaughey, John; Krumpelt, Michael; Wang, Xiaoping; Carter, J. David

    2003-01-01

    An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

  17. Conducting effective tailgate trainings.

    PubMed

    Harrington, David; Materna, Barbara; Vannoy, Jim; Scholz, Peter

    2009-07-01

    The California Department of Health Services' Occupational Health Branch and others have identified the construction industry as being at high risk for injuries, illnesses, and fatalities. Effective tailgate trainings (brief job site safety meetings) can be a powerful tool to promote hazard awareness and safe work practices. The authors found that many contractors and supervisors conducted ineffective tailgate trainings. They developed the BuildSafe California Project to assist contractors to have more effective programs by holding 25 training-of-trainers sessions reaching 1,525 participants. The needs assessment, intervention, and evaluation results from the first 18 trainings are presented. Eighty-six percent of the participants found the program "very helpful." Participants used the materials and made improvements in the quality and frequency of trainings. Supervisors must be skilled at conducting tailgate trainings as part of their responsibilities. There is a serious need to provide more culturally appropriate safety training in a workforce increasingly made up of Latino workers.

  18. Conduction cooled tube supports

    DOEpatents

    Worley, Arthur C.; Becht, IV, Charles

    1984-01-01

    In boilers, process tubes are suspended by means of support studs that are in thermal contact with and attached to the metal roof casing of the boiler and the upper bend portions of the process tubes. The support studs are sufficiently short that when the boiler is in use, the support studs are cooled by conduction of heat to the process tubes and the roof casing thereby maintaining the temperature of the stud so that it does not exceed 1400.degree. F.

  19. Thermally conductive polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrd, N. R.; Jenkins, R. K.; Lister, J. L. (Inventor)

    1971-01-01

    A thermally conductive polymer is provided having physical and chemical properties suited to use as a medium for potting electrical components. The polymer is prepared from hydroquinone, phenol, and formaldehyde, by conventional procedures employed for the preparation of phenol-formaldehyde resins. While the proportions of the monomers can be varied, a preferred polymer is formed from the monomers in a 1:1:2.4 molar or ratio of hydroquinone:phenol:formaldehyde.

  20. High conductivity composite metal

    DOEpatents

    Zhou, Ruoyi; Smith, James L.; Embury, John David

    1998-01-01

    Electrical conductors and methods of producing them, where the conductors possess both high strength and high conductivity. Conductors are comprised of carbon steel and a material chosen from a group consisting of copper, nickel, silver, and gold. Diffusion barriers are placed between these two materials. The components of a conductor are assembled and then the assembly is subjected to heat treating and mechanical deformation steps.

  1. High conductivity composite metal

    DOEpatents

    Zhou, R.; Smith, J.L.; Embury, J.D.

    1998-01-06

    Electrical conductors and methods of producing them are disclosed, where the conductors possess both high strength and high conductivity. Conductors are comprised of carbon steel and a material chosen from a group consisting of copper, nickel, silver, and gold. Diffusion barriers are placed between these two materials. The components of a conductor are assembled and then the assembly is subjected to heat treating and mechanical deformation steps. 10 figs.

  2. Conductive dense hydrogen.

    PubMed

    Eremets, M I; Troyan, I A

    2011-11-13

    Molecular hydrogen is expected to exhibit metallic properties under megabar pressures. This metal is predicted to be superconducting with a very high critical temperature, T(c), of 200-400 K, and it may acquire a new quantum state as a metallic superfluid and a superconducting superfluid. It may potentially be recovered metastably at ambient pressures. However, experiments carried out at low temperatures, T<100 K, showed that at record pressures of 300 GPa, hydrogen remains in the molecular insulating state. Here we report on the transformation of normal molecular hydrogen at room temperature (295 K) to a conductive and metallic state. At 200 GPa the Raman frequency of the molecular vibron strongly decreased and the spectral width increased, evidencing a strong interaction between molecules. Deuterium behaved similarly. Above 220 GPa, hydrogen became opaque and electrically conductive. At 260-270 GPa, hydrogen transformed into a metal as the conductance of hydrogen sharply increased and changed little on further pressurizing up to 300 GPa or cooling to at least 30 K; and the sample reflected light well. The metallic phase transformed back at 295 K into molecular hydrogen at 200 GPa. This significant hysteresis indicates that the transformation of molecular hydrogen into a metal is accompanied by a first-order structural transition presumably into a monatomic liquid state. Our findings open an avenue for detailed and comprehensive studies of metallic hydrogen.

  3. Canopy stomatal conductance

    SciTech Connect

    Baldocchi, D.D.; Luxmoore, R.J.; Hatfield, J.L.

    1989-07-14

    Stomata are major conduits for the diffusion of many trace gas species between leaves and the atmosphere. The role of the stomata on controlling gas exchange between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere at the landscape, meso- and global-scales has only recently been recognized. Further advances in modelling large-scale trace gas exchange will depend on our ability to understand and model stomatal mechanics at the scale of the pertinent sub-unit, which is typically that of the canopy. This paper describes two approaches for estimating canopy stomatal conductance. One approach is based on 'bottom-up' scaling. This approach computes canopy stomatal conductance by integrating detailed leaf-level and environmentally-driven, physiological processes with the use of a detailed canopy micrometeorology model. The other approach is based on 'top-down' scaling. It interprets the integrated canopy stomatal conductance from measured fluxes of trace gas exchange. Frameworks for extending these scaling approaches to non-idea conditions are given. 96 refs., 5 figs.

  4. Conduction heat transfer solutions

    SciTech Connect

    VanSant, J.H.

    1983-08-01

    This text is a collection of solutions to a variety of heat conduction problems found in numerous publications, such as textbooks, handbooks, journals, reports, etc. Its purpose is to assemble these solutions into one source that can facilitate the search for a particular problem solution. Generally, it is intended to be a handbook on the subject of heat conduction. There are twelve sections of solutions which correspond with the class of problems found in each. Geometry, state, boundary conditions, and other categories are used to classify the problems. Each problem is concisely described by geometry and condition statements, and many times a descriptive sketch is also included. The introduction presents a synopsis on the theory, differential equations, and boundary conditions for conduction heat transfer. Some discussion is given on the use and interpretation of solutions. Supplementary data such as mathematical functions, convection correlations, and thermal properties are included for aiding the user in computing numerical values from the solutions. 155 figs., 92 refs., 9 tabs.

  5. Conductive dense hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eremets, M. I.; Troyan, I. A.

    2011-12-01

    Molecular hydrogen is expected to exhibit metallic properties under megabar pressures. This metal is predicted to be superconducting with a very high critical temperature, Tc, of 200-400 K (ref. ), and it may acquire a new quantum state as a metallic superfluid and a superconducting superfluid. It may potentially be recovered metastably at ambient pressures. However, experiments carried out at low temperatures, T<100 K (refs , ), showed that at record pressures of 300 GPa, hydrogen remains in the molecular insulating state. Here we report on the transformation of normal molecular hydrogen at room temperature (295 K) to a conductive and metallic state. At 200 GPa the Raman frequency of the molecular vibron strongly decreased and the spectral width increased, evidencing a strong interaction between molecules. Deuterium behaved similarly. Above 220 GPa, hydrogen became opaque and electrically conductive. At 260-270 GPa, hydrogen transformed into a metal as the conductance of hydrogen sharply increased and changed little on further pressurizing up to 300 GPa or cooling to at least 30 K and the sample reflected light well. The metallic phase transformed back at 295 K into molecular hydrogen at 200 GPa. This significant hysteresis indicates that the transformation of molecular hydrogen into a metal is accompanied by a first-order structural transition presumably into a monatomic liquid state. Our findings open an avenue for detailed and comprehensive studies of metallic hydrogen.

  6. Transparent conductive coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashok, S.

    1983-01-01

    Thin film transparent conductors are discussed. Materials with electrical conductivity and optical transparency are highly desirable in many optoelectronic applications including photovoltaics. Certain binary oxide semiconductors such as tin oxide (SnO2) and indium oxide (In2O3) offer much better performance tradeoff in optoelectronics as well as better mechanical and chemical stability than thin semitransparent films. These thin-film transparent conductors (TC) are essentially wide-bandgap degenerate semiconductors - invariably n-type - and hence are transparent to sub-bandgap (visible) radiation while affording high electrical conductivity due to the large free electron concentration. The principal performance characteristics of TC's are, of course, electrical conductivity and optical transmission. The TC's have a refractive index of around 2.0 and hence act as very efficient antireflection coatings. For using TC's in surface barrier solar cells, the photovoltaic barrier is of utmost importance and so the work function or electron affinity of the TC is also a very important material parameter. Fabrication processes are discussed.

  7. COMMON PROPER-MOTION WIDE WHITE DWARF BINARIES SELECTED FROM THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, Jeff J.; Agueeros, Marcel A.; Belczynski, Krzysztof; Dhital, Saurav; Kleinman, S. J.; West, Andrew A.

    2012-10-01

    Wide binaries made up of two white dwarfs (WDs) receive far less attention than their tight counterparts. However, our tests using the binary population synthesis code StarTrack indicate that, for any set of reasonable initial conditions, there exists a significant observable population of double white dwarfs (WDWDs) with orbital separations of 10{sup 2}-10{sup 5} AU. We adapt the technique of Dhital et al. to search for candidate common proper-motion WD companions separated by <10' around the >12,000 spectroscopically confirmed hydrogen-atmosphere WDs recently identified in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Using two techniques to separate random alignments from high-confidence pairs, we find nine new high-probability wide WDWDs and confirm three previously identified candidate wide WDWDs. This brings the number of known wide WDWDs to 45; our new pairs are a significant addition to the sample, especially at small proper motions (<200 mas yr{sup -1}) and large angular separations (>10''). Spectroscopic follow-up and an extension of this method to a larger, photometrically selected set of SDSS WDs may eventually produce a large enough dataset for WDWDs to realize their full potential as testbeds for theories of stellar evolution.

  8. Proper Motion of the Leo II Dwarf Galaxy Based On Hubble Space Telescope Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piatek, Slawomir; Pryor, Carlton; Olszewski, Edward W.

    2016-12-01

    This article reports a measurement of the proper motion of Leo II, a dwarf galaxy that is a likely satellite of the Milky Way, based on imaging with the Hubble Space Telescope and Wide Field Camera 3. The measurement uses compact background galaxies as standards of rest in both channels of the camera for two distinct pointings of the telescope, as well as a QSO in one channel for each pointing, resulting in the weighted average of six measurements. The measured proper motion in the the equatorial coordinate system is (μ α ,μ δ )=(-6.9+/- 3.7,-8.7+/- 3.9) mas century-1 and in the Galactic coordinate system it is (μ ℓ,μ b)=(6.2+/- 3.9,-9.2+/- 3.7) mas century-1. The implied space velocity with respect to the Galactic center is (Π,Θ,Z) =(-37+/- 38,117+/- 43,40+/- 16) km s-1 or, expressed in Galactocentric radial and tangential components, (Vr,Vtan )=(21.9+/- 1.5,127+/- 42) km s-1. The space velocity implies that the instantaneous orbital inclination is 68°, with a 95% confidence interval of (66°,80°). The measured motion supports the hypothesis that Leo II, Leo IV, Leo V, Crater 2, and the globular cluster Crater fell into the Milky Way as a group.

  9. The importance of proper administration and interpretation of neuropsychological baseline and postconcussion computerized testing.

    PubMed

    Moser, Rosemarie Scolaro; Schatz, Philip; Lichtenstein, Jonathan D

    2015-01-01

    Media coverage, litigation, and new legislation have resulted in a heightened awareness of the prevalence of sports concussion in both adult and youth athletes. Baseline and postconcussion testing is now commonly used for the assessment and management of sports-related concussion in schools and in youth sports leagues. With increased use of computerized neurocognitive sports concussion testing, there is a need for standards for proper administration and interpretation. To date, there has been a lack of standardized procedures by which assessments are administered. More specifically, individuals who are not properly trained often interpret test results, and their methods of interpretation vary considerably. The purpose of this article is to outline factors affecting the validity of test results, to provide examples of misuse and misinterpretation of test results, and to communicate the need to administer testing in the most effective and useful manner. An increase in the quality of test administration and application may serve to decrease the prevalence of invalid test results and increase the accuracy and utility of baseline test results if an athlete sustains a concussion. Standards for test use should model the American Psychological Association and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines, as well as the recent findings of the joint position paper on computerized neuropsychological assessment devices.

  10. The Importance of Properly Compensating for Head Movements During MEG Acquisition Across Different Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Larson, Eric; Taulu, Samu

    2017-03-01

    Unlike EEG sensors, which are attached to the head, MEG sensors are located outside the head surface on a fixed external device. Subject head movements during acquisition thus distort the magnetic field distributions measured by the sensors. Previous studies have looked at the effect of head movements, but no study has comprehensively looked at the effect of head movements across age groups, particularly in infants. Using MEG recordings from subjects ranging in age from 3 months through adults, here we first quantify the variability in head position as a function of age group. We then combine these measured head movements with brain activity simulations to determine how head movements bias source localization from sensor magnetic fields measured during movement. We find that large amounts of head movement, especially common in infant age groups, can result in large localization errors. We then show that proper application of head movement compensation techniques can restore localization accuracy to pre-movement levels. We also find that proper noise covariance estimation (e.g., during the baseline period) is important to minimize localization bias following head movement compensation. Our findings suggest that head position measurement during acquisition and compensation during analysis is recommended for researchers working with subject populations or age groups that could have substantial head movements. This is especially important in infant MEG studies.

  11. The Internal Proper Motions of Stars in the Open Cluster M35

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, Bernard J.; Harrison, Thomas E.; McArthur, Barbara E.; Benedict, G. Fritz

    2011-08-01

    Relative proper motions, based on 108 orbits of Hubble Space Telescope Fine Guidance Sensor data extending from 1992 to 2006, are reported for 74 stars in the open cluster M35 (NGC 2168). A subset of 22 of these objects are then used to compute the cluster's internal proper motion dispersions in both right ascension and declination. We find that these dispersions are equal to within their measurement errors. The average one-dimensional dispersion is 0.018 ± 0.002 arcsec century-1. When combined with the M35 radial velocity dispersion of 0.65 ± 0.10 km s-1 found by Geller et al., this produces a cluster distance of 762 ± 145 pc. Using isochrone fits to the cluster main sequence, this distance suggests that M35 has an age of about 133 Myr. Although this age is consistent with that typically found for M35, the formal error in the dynamical distance of ±19% can accommodate ages between 65 Myr and 201 Myr.

  12. Maintaining the proper connection between the centrioles and the pericentriolar matrix requires Drosophila centrosomin.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Eliana P; Raff, Jordan W

    2007-08-27

    Centrosomes consist of two centrioles surrounded by an amorphous pericentriolar matrix (PCM), but it is unknown how centrioles and PCM are connected. We show that the centrioles in Drosophila embryos that lack the centrosomal protein Centrosomin (Cnn) can recruit PCM components but cannot maintain a proper attachment to the PCM. As a result, the centrioles "rocket" around in the embryo and often lose their connection to the nucleus in interphase and to the spindle poles in mitosis. This leads to severe mitotic defects in embryos and to errors in centriole segregation in somatic cells. The Cnn-related protein CDK5RAP2 is linked to microcephaly in humans, but cnn mutant brains are of normal size, and we observe only subtle defects in the asymmetric divisions of mutant neuroblasts. We conclude that Cnn maintains the proper connection between the centrioles and the PCM; this connection is required for accurate centriole segregation in somatic cells but is not essential for the asymmetric division of neuroblasts.

  13. Maintaining the proper connection between the centrioles and the pericentriolar matrix requires Drosophila Centrosomin

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, Eliana P.; Raff, Jordan W.

    2007-01-01

    Centrosomes consist of two centrioles surrounded by an amorphous pericentriolar matrix (PCM), but it is unknown how centrioles and PCM are connected. We show that the centrioles in Drosophila embryos that lack the centrosomal protein Centrosomin (Cnn) can recruit PCM components but cannot maintain a proper attachment to the PCM. As a result, the centrioles “rocket” around in the embryo and often lose their connection to the nucleus in interphase and to the spindle poles in mitosis. This leads to severe mitotic defects in embryos and to errors in centriole segregation in somatic cells. The Cnn-related protein CDK5RAP2 is linked to microcephaly in humans, but cnn mutant brains are of normal size, and we observe only subtle defects in the asymmetric divisions of mutant neuroblasts. We conclude that Cnn maintains the proper connection between the centrioles and the PCM; this connection is required for accurate centriole segregation in somatic cells but is not essential for the asymmetric division of neuroblasts. PMID:17709428

  14. A kinematic and proper-motion survey of the Cygnus Loop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shull, Peter, Jr.; Hippelein, Hans

    1991-01-01

    H-alpha radial velocities, line widths, and line intensities based on 71 Fabry-Perot interferometer scans of 61 fields in the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant SNR are reported. Also, measurements of proper motions at 39 locations within the Cygnus Loop are summarized. These results show that the remnant is expanding asymmetrically into the ambient interstellar medium, with rest-frame velocities as high as 380 km/s in the near half and 150 km/s in the far half. This can plausibly be interpreted as the result of the progenitor's evolution near a density discontinuity, the consequent formation of a cavity and partial shell, and the SN's interaction with that shell. The remnant's optically observed filamentary structure results from line-of-sight effects as shock waves advance into the irregular inner surface of the shell. In this context, the derived expansion velocities and proper motions give a formal distance to the Cygnus Loop of roughly 600 pc, with 1-sigma limits of 300 and 1200 pc.

  15. Proper oxygen use can help save lives in initial medical emergency response.

    PubMed

    Starr, L M

    1993-03-01

    For many people who deal with medical emergencies--some human resource managers, emergency team administrators, CPR and first aid instructors, EMTs, nurses and physicians--the topic of oxygen use by nonmedical responders at the workplace is poorly understood. Workplace emergency response administrators may find it helpful to become familiar with the current emergency medical literature and learn that the previous literature may no longer apply. Furthermore, fear that use of emergency oxygen by nonmedical responders is "playing doctor," and will lead to some imagined uncontrollable catastrophe is based on statistically and medically unfounded misinformation. As is the case with many uncertain events, the perception of risk is unrelated to the actual risk. Refusing to allow appropriately trained nonmedical responders to use reliable emergency oxygen when it is available is a potentially grave error and makes emergency care in the workplace less efficient and valuable. There are many cases of workplace injury or illness in which oxygen use is not only appropriate but may help save a patient's life. Ensuring that the proper emergency oxygen equipment is available where appropriate and properly training personnel are responsible for first aid can, in some cases, lessen the severity of workplace illness and injury incidents.

  16. Enhancing propulsive efficiency through proper design of bending patterns of a flexible pitching foil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeyghami, Samane; Akoz, Emre; Moored, Keith

    2016-11-01

    Many aquatic animals propel themselves efficiently through water by oscillating flexible fins. These fins are, however, not homogeneously flexible, but instead their flexural rigidity varies along their chord and span. To detail the flow structures and propulsive performance of these functionally-graded propulsors a simple model of an unsteady pitching airfoil with a flexible hinge of varying location is examined. This acts as a first-order model of a functionally-graded fin by varying both the flexibility and bending pattern of the propulsor. Recent experiments have shown that adding a flexible 'tail' with the proper stiffness to a rigid pitching foil can effectively delay/suppress the formation of a deflected wake thereby enhancing the cycle-averaged wake momentum in the swimming direction. To extend these observations, we investigate the dependency of the wake pattern of a hinged pitching airfoil to the location and flexibility of the hinge by employing a fast boundary element method solver that is strongly coupled with a torsional spring structural model. The observed wake patterns are further connected to the thrust production and propulsive efficiency with the goal of determining the proper combinations of parameters that yields the maximum gain in efficiency. Supported by the Office of Naval Research under Program Director Dr. Bob Brizzolara, MURI Grant Number N00014-14-1-0533.

  17. The negatively charged carboxy-terminal tail of β-tubulin promotes proper chromosome segregation

    PubMed Central

    Fees, Colby P.; Aiken, Jayne; O’Toole, Eileen T.; Giddings, Thomas H.; Moore, Jeffrey K.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the broadly conserved role of microtubules in chromosome segregation, we have a limited understanding of how molecular features of tubulin proteins contribute to the underlying mechanisms. Here we investigate the negatively charged carboxy-terminal tail domains (CTTs) of α- and β-tubulins, using a series of mutants that alter or ablate CTTs in budding yeast. We find that ablating β-CTT causes elevated rates of chromosome loss and cell cycle delay. Complementary live-cell imaging and electron tomography show that β-CTT is necessary to properly position kinetochores and organize microtubules within the assembling spindle. We identify a minimal region of negatively charged amino acids that is necessary and sufficient for proper chromosome segregation and provide evidence that this function may be conserved across species. Our results provide the first in vivo evidence of a specific role for tubulin CTTs in chromosome segregation. We propose that β-CTT promotes the ordered segregation of chromosomes by stabilizing the spindle and contributing to forces that move chromosomes toward the spindle poles. PMID:27053662

  18. An HST Proper-motion Study of the Large-scale Jet of 3C273

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Eileen T.; Sparks, William B.; Georganopoulos, Markos; Anderson, Jay; van der Marel, Roeland; Biretta, John; Sohn, Sangmo Tony; Chiaberge, Marco; Perlman, Eric; Norman, Colin

    2016-02-01

    The radio galaxy 3C 273 hosts one of the nearest and best-studied powerful quasar jets. Having been imaged repeatedly by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) over the past twenty years, it was chosen for an HST program to measure proper motions in the kiloparsec-scale resolved jets of nearby radio-loud active galaxies. The jet in 3C 273 is highly relativistic on sub-parsec scales, with apparent proper motions up to 15c observed by very long baseline interferometry. In contrast, we find that the kiloparsec-scale knots are compatible with being stationary, with a mean speed of -0.2 ± 0.5c over the whole jet. Assuming the knots are packets of moving plasma, an upper limit of 1c implies a bulk Lorentz factor Γ < 2.9. This suggests that the jet has either decelerated significantly by the time it reaches the kiloparsec scale, or that the knots in the jet are standing shock features. The second scenario is incompatible with the inverse Compton off the Cosmic Microwave Background (IC/CMB) model for the X-ray emission of these knots, which requires the knots to be in motion, but IC/CMB is also disfavored in the first scenario due to energetic considerations, in agreement with the recent finding of Meyer & Georganopoulos which ruled out the IC/CMB model for the X-ray emission of 3C 273 via gamma-ray upper limits.

  19. Functional dissociation of pre-SMA and SMA-proper in temporal processing.

    PubMed

    Schwartze, Michael; Rothermich, Kathrin; Kotz, Sonja A

    2012-03-01

    The ability to assess temporal structure is crucial in order to adapt to an ever-changing environment. Increasing evidence suggests that the supplementary motor area (SMA) is involved in both sensory and sensorimotor processing of temporal structure. However, it is not entirely clear whether the structural differentiation of the SMA translates into functional specialization, and how the SMA relates to other systems that engage in temporal processing, namely the cerebellum and cortico-striatal circuits. Anatomically, the SMA comprises at least two subareas, the rostral pre-SMA and the caudal SMA-proper. Each displays a characteristic pattern of connections to motor and non-motor structures. Crucially, these connections establish a potential hub among cerebellar and cortico-striatal systems, possibly forming a dedicated subcortico-cortical temporal processing network. To further explore the functional role of each SMA subarea, we performed a meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies by contrasting activations according to whether they linked with either sensory, sensorimotor, sequential, non-sequential, explicit, non-explicit, subsecond, or suprasecond temporal processing. This procedure yielded a set of functional differences, which mirror the rostro-caudal anatomical dimension. Activations associated with sensory, non-sequential, and suprasecond temporal processing tend to locate to the rostral SMA, while the opposite is true for the caudal SMA. These findings confirm a functional dissociation of pre-SMA and SMA-proper in temporal processing.

  20. Second Epoch Hubble Space Telescope Observations of Kepler's Supernova Remnant: The Proper Motions of Balmer Filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankrit, Ravi; Raymond, John C.; Blair, William P.; Long, Knox S.; Williams, Brian J.; Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Patnaude, Daniel J.; Reynolds, Stephen P.

    2016-01-01

    We report on the proper motions of Balmer-dominated filaments in Kepler’s supernova remnant using high resolution images obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope at two epochs separated by about 10 years. We use the improved proper motion measurements and revised values of shock velocities to derive a distance to Kepler of {5.1}-0.7+0.8 kpc. The main shock around the northern rim of the remnant has a typical speed of 1690 km s-1 and is encountering material with densities of about 8 cm-3. We find evidence for the variation of shock properties over small spatial scales, including differences in the driving pressures as the shock wraps around a curved cloud surface. We find that the Balmer filaments ahead of the ejecta knot on the northwest boundary of the remnant are becoming fainter and more diffuse. We also find that the Balmer filaments associated with circumstellar material in the interior regions of the remnant are due to shocks with significantly lower velocities and that the brightness variations among these filaments trace the density distribution of the material, which may have a disk-like geometry. Based on observations made with the Hubble Space Telescope.

  1. Proper Sterol Distribution Is Required for Candida albicans Hyphal Formation and Virulence

    PubMed Central

    McCourt, Paula; Liu, Hsing-Yin; Parker, Josie E.; Gallo-Ebert, Christina; Donigan, Melissa; Bata, Adam; Giordano, Caroline; Kelly, Steven L.; Nickels, Joseph T.

    2016-01-01

    Candida albicans is an opportunistic fungus responsible for the majority of systemic fungal infections. Multiple factors contribute to C. albicans pathogenicity. C. albicans strains lacking CaArv1 are avirulent. Arv1 has a conserved Arv1 homology domain (AHD) that has a zinc-binding domain containing two cysteine clusters. Here, we explored the role of the CaAHD and zinc-binding motif in CaArv1-dependent virulence. Overall, we found that the CaAHD was necessary but not sufficient for cells to be virulent, whereas the zinc-binding domain was essential, as Caarv1/Caarv1 cells expressing the full-length zinc-binding domain mutants, Caarv1C3S and Caarv1C28S, were avirulent. Phenotypically, we found a direct correlation between the avirulence of Caarv1/Caarv1, Caarrv1AHD, Caarv1C3S, and Caarv1C28S cells and defects in bud site selection, septa formation and localization, and hyphal formation and elongation. Importantly, all avirulent mutant strains lacked the ability to maintain proper sterol distribution. Overall, our results have established the importance of the AHD and zinc-binding domain in fungal invasion, and have correlated an avirulent phenotype with the inability to maintain proper sterol distribution. PMID:27587298

  2. Relativistic time transfer for a Mars lander: from proper time to Areocentric Coordinate Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, De-Wang; Yu, Qing-Shan; Xie, Yi

    2016-10-01

    As the first step in relativistic time transfer for a Mars lander from its proper time to the time scale at the ground station, we investigate the transformation between proper time and Areocentric Coordinate Time (TCA) in the framework of IAU Resolutions. TCA is a local time scale for Mars, which is analogous to the Geocentric Coordinate Time (TCG) for Earth. This transformation contains two contributions: internal and external. The internal contribution comes from the gravitational potential and the rotation of Mars. The external contribution is due to the gravitational fields of other bodies (except Mars) in the Solar System. When the (in)stability of an onboard clock is assumed to be at the level of 10-13, we find that the internal contribution is dominated by the gravitational potential of spherical Mars with necessary corrections associated with the height of the lander on the areoid, the dynamic form factor of Mars, the flattening of the areoid and the spin rate of Mars. For the external contribution, we find the gravitational effects from other bodies in the Solar System can be safely neglected in this case after calculating their maximum values.

  3. Structure-based drug design: exploring the proper filling of apolar pockets at enzyme active sites.

    PubMed

    Zürcher, Martina; Diederich, François

    2008-06-20

    The proper filling of apolar pockets at enzyme active sites is central for increasing binding activity and selectivity of hits and leads in medicinal chemistry. In our structure-based design approach toward the generation of potent enzyme inhibitors, we encountered a variety of challenges in gaining suitable binding affinity from the occupation of such pockets. We summarize them here for the first time. A fluorine scan of tricyclic thrombin inhibitors led to the discovery of favorable orthogonal dipolar C-F...CO interactions. Efficient cation-pi interactions were established in the S4 pocket of factor Xa, another serine protease from the blood coagulation cascade. Changing from mono- to bisubstrate inhibitors of catechol O-methyltransferase, a target in the L-Dopa-based treatment of Parkinson's disease, enabled the full exploitation of a previously unexplored hydrophobic pocket. Conformational preorganization of a pocket at an enzyme active site is crucial for harvesting binding affinity. This is demonstrated for two enzymes from the nonmevalonate pathway of isoprenoid biosynthesis, IspE and IspF, which are pursued as antimalarial targets. Disrupting crystallographically defined water networks on the way into a pocket might cost all of the binding free enthalpy gained from its occupation, as revealed in studies with tRNA-guanine transglycosylase, a target against shigellosis. Investigations of the active site of plasmepsin II, another antimalarial target, showed that principles for proper apolar cavity filling, originally developed for synthetic host-guest systems, are also applicable to enzyme environments.

  4. A deep proper motion catalog within the Sloan digital sky survey footprint

    SciTech Connect

    Munn, Jeffrey A.; Harris, Hugh C.; Tilleman, Trudy M.; Hippel, Ted von; Kilic, Mukremin; Liebert, James W.; Williams, Kurtis A.; DeGenarro, Steven; Jeffery, Elizabeth E-mail: hch@nofs.navy.mil E-mail: ted.vonhippel@erau.edu E-mail: jamesliebert@gmail.com E-mail: studiofortytwo@yahoo.com

    2014-12-01

    A new proper motion catalog is presented, combining the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) with second epoch observations in the r band within a portion of the SDSS imaging footprint. The new observations were obtained with the 90prime camera on the Steward Observatory Bok 90 inch telescope, and the Array Camera on the U.S. Naval Observatory, Flagstaff Station, 1.3 m telescope. The catalog covers 1098 square degrees to r = 22.0, an additional 1521 square degrees to r = 20.9, plus a further 488 square degrees of lesser quality data. Statistical errors in the proper motions range from 5 mas year{sup −1} at the bright end to 15 mas year{sup −1} at the faint end, for a typical epoch difference of six years. Systematic errors are estimated to be roughly 1 mas year{sup −1} for the Array Camera data, and as much as 2–4 mas year{sup −1} for the 90prime data (though typically less). The catalog also includes a second epoch of r band photometry.

  5. On the systematics in apparent proper motions of radio sources observed by VLBI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raposo-Pulido, V.; Lambert, S.; Capitaine, N.; Nilsson, T.; Heinkelmann, R.; Schuh, H.

    2015-08-01

    For about twenty years, several authors have been investigating the systematics in the apparent proper motions of radio source positions. In some cases, the theoretical work developed (Pyne et al., 1996) could not be assessed due to the few number of VLBI observations. In other cases, the effects attributed to apparent proper motion could not be related successfully because there were no significant evidences from a statistical point of view (MacMillan, 2005). In this work we provide considerations about the estimation of the coefficients of spherical harmonics, based on a three-step procedure used by Titov et al. (2011) and Titov and Lambert (2013). The early stage of this work has been to compare step by step the computations and estimation processes between the Calc/Solve (http://gemini.gsfc.nasa.gov/solve/) and VieVS software (Böhm et al., 2012). To achieve this, the results were analyzed and compared with the previous study done by Titov and Lambert (2013).

  6. A SUBSTELLAR COMMON PROPER-MOTION COMPANION TO THE PLEIAD H II 1348

    SciTech Connect

    Geissler, Kerstin; Metchev, Stanimir A.; Pham, Alfonse; Larkin, James E.; McElwain, Michael; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.

    2012-02-10

    We announce the identification of a proper-motion companion to the star H II 1348, a K5 V member of the Pleiades open cluster. The existence of a faint point source 1.''1 away from H II 1348 was previously known from adaptive optics imaging by Bouvier et al. However, because of a high likelihood of background star contamination and in the absence of follow-up astrometry, Bouvier et al. tentatively concluded that the candidate companion was not physically associated with H II 1348. We establish the proper-motion association of the pair from adaptive optics imaging with the Palomar 5 m telescope. Adaptive optics spectroscopy with the integral field spectrograph OSIRIS on the Keck 10 m telescope reveals that the companion has a spectral type of M8 {+-} 1. According to substellar evolution models, the M8 spectral type resides within the substellar mass regime at the age of the Pleiades. The primary itself is a known double-lined spectroscopic binary, which makes the resolved companion, H II 1348B, the least massive and widest component of this hierarchical triple system and the first substellar companion to a stellar primary in the Pleiades.

  7. Qiang-Dong proper quantization rule and its applications to exactly solvable quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrano, F. A.; Gu, Xiao-Yan; Dong, Shi-Hai

    2010-08-01

    We propose proper quantization rule, ∫x_Ax_B k(x)dx-∫x0Ax0Bk0(x)dx=nπ, where k(x )=√2M[E -V(x)] /ℏ. The xA and xB are two turning points determined by E =V(x), and n is the number of the nodes of wave function ψ(x ). We carry out the exact solutions of solvable quantum systems by this rule and find that the energy spectra of solvable systems can be determined only from its ground state energy. The previous complicated and tedious integral calculations involved in exact quantization rule are greatly simplified. The beauty and simplicity of the rule come from its meaning—whenever the number of the nodes of ϕ(x ) or the number of the nodes of the wave function ψ(x ) increases by 1, the momentum integral ∫xAxBk(x )dx will increase by π. We apply this proper quantization rule to carry out solvable quantum systems such as the one-dimensional harmonic oscillator, the Morse potential and its generalization, the Hulthén potential, the Scarf II potential, the asymmetric trigonometric Rosen-Morse potential, the Pöschl-Teller type potentials, the Rosen-Morse potential, the Eckart potential, the harmonic oscillator in three dimensions, the hydrogen atom, and the Manning-Rosen potential in D dimensions.

  8. Duct heights inferred from radar sea clutter using proper orthogonal bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fountoulakis, Vasileios; Earls, Christopher

    2016-10-01

    Maritime electromagnetic (EM)-based communication and detection systems are strongly influenced by meteorological conditions, as they can cause anomalous electromagnetic propagation within the surface layer. To predict the performance of such systems, detailed knowledge of the refractivity profile is required. In recent years, refractivity from clutter (RFC) methods has been developed to estimate this refractivity profile by measuring radar clutter return from the rough ocean surface. The current work proposes an RFC framework that utilizes a novel surrogate model for EM propagation. The surrogate model is based on an offline created library of sparsely sampled field data of clutter returns, compressed into proper orthogonal bases, and indexed on specific surface layer refractive parameters. By exploiting the Riemannian manifold structure of the space that proper orthogonal bases occur in, we are able to interpolate among them. This, then, enables us to use the surrogate model in an inverse problem setting, whose goal is to uncover in situ maritime EM propagation conditions efficiently. We demonstrate the feasibility of our proposed surrogate model-based RFC approach for evaporation duct by testing it with field data obtained from an experimental campaign.

  9. Proper projective symmetry in the most general non-static spherically symmetric four-dimensional Lorentzian manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabbir, Ghulam; Mahomed, F. M.; Qureshi, M. A.

    2016-11-01

    A study of proper projective symmetry in the most general form of non-static spherically symmetric space-time is given using direct integration and algebraic techniques. In this study, we show that when the above space-time admits proper projective symmetry it becomes a very special class of static spherically symmetric space-times.

  10. "A Thousand Names They Called Him" Naming and Proper Names in the Work of S. Y. Agnon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadad, Shira

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation offers a study of proper names and naming as a conceptual and thematic anchor in the work of S.Y. Agnon. Proper names, I argue, constitute an underexplored and highly fruitful prism through which to read literature, and specifically Agnon's fiction. My study consists of a series of readings in several of Agnon's major…

  11. 20 CFR 1002.307 - What is the proper venue in an action against a State or private employer?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is the proper venue in an action against a State or private employer? 1002.307 Section 1002.307 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT... Enforcement of Rights and Benefits Against A State Or Private Employer § 1002.307 What is the proper venue...

  12. Conductance fluctuations in nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ningjia

    1997-12-01

    In this Ph.D thesis the conductance fluctuations of different physical origins in semi-conductor nanostructures were studied using both diagrammatic analytical methods and large scale numerical techniques. In the "mixed" transport regime where both mesoscopic and ballistic features play a role, for the first time I have analytically calculated the non-universal conductance fluctuations. This mixed regime is reached when impurities are distributed near the walls of a quantum wire, leaving the center region ballistic. I have discovered that the existence of a ballistic region destroys the universal conductance fluctuations. The crossover behavior of the fluctuation amplitude from the usual quasi-1D situation to that of the mixed regime is clearly revealed, and the role of various length scales are identified. My analytical predictions were confirmed by a direct numerical simulation by evaluating the Landauer formula. In another direction, I have made several studies of conductance or resistance oscillations and fluctuations in systems with artificial impurities in the ballistic regime. My calculation gave explanations of all the experimental results concerning the classical focusing peaks of the resistance versus magnetic field, the weak localization peak in a Sinai billiard system, the formation of a chaotic billiard, and predicted certain transport features which were indeed found experimentally. I have further extended the calculation to study the Hall resistance in a four-terminal quantum dot in which there is an antidot array. From my numerical data I analyzed the classical paths of electron motion and its quantum oscillations. The results compare well with recent experimental studies on similar systems. Since these billiard systems could provide quantum chaotic dynamics, I have made a detailed study of the consequence of such dynamics. In particular I have investigated the resonant transmission of electrons in these chaotic systems, and found that the level

  13. INVESTIGATION OF THE ERRORS IN SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY PROPER-MOTION MEASUREMENTS USING SAMPLES OF QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Dong Ruobing; Gunn, James; Knapp, Gillian; Rockosi, Constance

    2011-10-15

    We investigate in detail the probability distribution function (pdf) of the proper-motion measurement errors in the SDSS+USNO-B proper-motion catalog of Munn et al. using clean quasar samples. The pdf of the errors is well represented by a Gaussian core with extended wings, plus a very small fraction (<0.1%) of 'outliers'. We find that while formally the pdf could be well fit by a five-parameter fitting function, for many purposes it is also adequate to represent the pdf with a one-parameter approximation to this function. We apply this pdf to the calculation of the confidence intervals on the true proper motion for an SDSS+USNO-B proper-motion measurement, and discuss several scientific applications of the SDSS proper-motion catalog. Our results have various applications in studies of the galactic structure and stellar kinematics. Specifically, they are crucial for searching hyper-velocity stars in the Galaxy.

  14. Infrared transparent conductive oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Linda F.; Moran, Mark B.

    2001-09-01

    A novel class of complex metal oxides that have potential as transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) for the electromagnetic-interference (EMI) shielding on IR-seeker windows and missile domes has been identified. These complex metal oxides exhibit the rhombohedral (R3m) crystalline structure of naturally occurring delafossite, CuFeO2. The general chemical formula is ABO2 where A is a monovalent metal (Me+1 such as Cu, Ag, Au, Pt or Pd, and B is a trivalent metal (Me3+) such as Al,Ti,Cr,Co,Fe,Ni,Cs,Rh,Ga,Sn,In,Y,La,Pr,Nd,Sm or Eu. By adjusting the oxygen content, the conductivity can be varied over a wide range so that the delafossites behave as insulators, semiconductors or metals. This paper presents results for films of p-type CuxAlyOz and n-type CuxCryOz deposited by reactive magnetron co-sputtering from high-purity-metal targets. Films have been deposited using conventional RF- and DC-power supplies, and a new asymmetric-bipolar-pulsed- DC-power supply. Similar to the high-temperature-copper- oxide superconductors, the presence of Cu-O bonds is critical for the unique properties. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA) are used to understand the relationship between the optoelectornic properties and the molecular structure of the films. For example, FTIR absorption bands at 1470 and 1395cm-1 are present only in CuxAlyOz films that exhibit enhanced electrical conductivity. When these bands are absent, the CuxAlyOz films have high values of resistivity. In addition to the 1470 and 1395cm-1 bands observed in CuxAlyOz films, another pair of bands at 1040 and 970cm-1 is present in CuxCryOz films.

  15. Electrically Conductive Porous Membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Kenneth Alan (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to an electrically conductive membrane that can be configured to be used in fuel cell systems to act as a hydrophilic water separator internal to the fuel cell, or as a water separator used with water vapor fed electrolysis cells, or as a water separator used with water vapor fed electrolysis cells, or as a capillary structure in a thin head pipe evaporator, or as a hydrophobic gas diffusion layer covering the fuel cell electrode surface in a fuel cell.

  16. Conducting polymer ultracapacitor

    DOEpatents

    Shi, Steven Z.; Davey, John R.; Gottesfeld, Shimshon; Ren, Xiaoming

    2002-01-01

    A sealed ultracapacitor assembly is formed with first and second electrodes of first and second conducting polymers electrodeposited on porous carbon paper substrates, where the first and second electrodes each define first and second exterior surfaces and first and second opposing surfaces. First and second current collector plates are bonded to the first and second exterior surfaces, respectively. A porous membrane separates the first and second opposing surfaces, with a liquid electrolyte impregnating the insulating membrane. A gasket formed of a thermoplastic material surrounds the first and second electrodes and seals between the first and second current collector plates for containing the liquid electrolyte.

  17. 40 CFR 60.4355 - How do I establish and document a proper parameter monitoring plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... correlated. Using this assumption, testing can be divided into two cases: (i) All indicators are significant...) it is only important to insure a minimum temperature, not a maximum). In this case, you may conduct your study so that each parameter is at the significant limit of its range while you conduct...

  18. 40 CFR 60.4355 - How do I establish and document a proper parameter monitoring plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... correlated. Using this assumption, testing can be divided into two cases: (i) All indicators are significant...) it is only important to insure a minimum temperature, not a maximum). In this case, you may conduct your study so that each parameter is at the significant limit of its range while you conduct...

  19. Gaia Data Release 1. Astrometry: one billion positions, two million proper motions and parallaxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindegren, L.; Lammers, U.; Bastian, U.; Hernández, J.; Klioner, S.; Hobbs, D.; Bombrun, A.; Michalik, D.; Ramos-Lerate, M.; Butkevich, A.; Comoretto, G.; Joliet, E.; Holl, B.; Hutton, A.; Parsons, P.; Steidelmüller, H.; Abbas, U.; Altmann, M.; Andrei, A.; Anton, S.; Bach, N.; Barache, C.; Becciani, U.; Berthier, J.; Bianchi, L.; Biermann, M.; Bouquillon, S.; Bourda, G.; Brüsemeister, T.; Bucciarelli, B.; Busonero, D.; Carlucci, T.; Castañeda, J.; Charlot, P.; Clotet, M.; Crosta, M.; Davidson, M.; de Felice, F.; Drimmel, R.; Fabricius, C.; Fienga, A.; Figueras, F.; Fraile, E.; Gai, M.; Garralda, N.; Geyer, R.; González-Vidal, J. J.; Guerra, R.; Hambly, N. C.; Hauser, M.; Jordan, S.; Lattanzi, M. G.; Lenhardt, H.; Liao, S.; Löffler, W.; McMillan, P. J.; Mignard, F.; Mora, A.; Morbidelli, R.; Portell, J.; Riva, A.; Sarasso, M.; Serraller, I.; Siddiqui, H.; Smart, R.; Spagna, A.; Stampa, U.; Steele, I.; Taris, F.; Torra, J.; van Reeven, W.; Vecchiato, A.; Zschocke, S.; de Bruijne, J.; Gracia, G.; Raison, F.; Lister, T.; Marchant, J.; Messineo, R.; Soffel, M.; Osorio, J.; de Torres, A.; O'Mullane, W.

    2016-11-01

    Context. Gaia Data Release 1 (DR1) contains astrometric results for more than 1 billion stars brighter than magnitude 20.7 based on observations collected by the Gaia satellite during the first 14 months of its operational phase. Aims: We give a brief overview of the astrometric content of the data release and of the model assumptions, data processing, and validation of the results. Methods: For stars in common with the Hipparcos and Tycho-2 catalogues, complete astrometric single-star solutions are obtained by incorporating positional information from the earlier catalogues. For other stars only their positions are obtained, essentially by neglecting their proper motions and parallaxes. The results are validated by an analysis of the residuals, through special validation runs, and by comparison with external data. Results: For about two million of the brighter stars (down to magnitude 11.5) we obtain positions, parallaxes, and proper motions to Hipparcos-type precision or better. For these stars, systematic errors depending for example on position and colour are at a level of ± 0.3 milliarcsecond (mas). For the remaining stars we obtain positions at epoch J2015.0 accurate to 10 mas. Positions and proper motions are given in a reference frame that is aligned with the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) to better than 0.1 mas at epoch J2015.0, and non-rotating with respect to ICRF to within 0.03 mas yr-1. The Hipparcos reference frame is found to rotate with respect to the Gaia DR1 frame at a rate of 0.24 mas yr-1. Conclusions: Based on less than a quarter of the nominal mission length and on very provisional and incomplete calibrations, the quality and completeness of the astrometric data in Gaia DR1 are far from what is expected for the final mission products. The present results nevertheless represent a huge improvement in the available fundamental stellar data and practical definition of the optical reference frame.

  20. Conduction heat transfer solutions

    SciTech Connect

    VanSant, James H.

    1980-03-01

    This text is a collection of solutions to a variety of heat conduction problems found in numerous publications, such as textbooks, handbooks, journals, reports, etc. Its purpose is to assemble these solutions into one source that can facilitate the search for a particular problem solution. Generally, it is intended to be a handbook on the subject of heat conduction. This material is useful for engineers, scientists, technologists, and designers of all disciplines, particularly those who design thermal systems or estimate temperatures and heat transfer rates in structures. More than 500 problem solutions and relevant data are tabulated for easy retrieval. There are twelve sections of solutions which correspond with the class of problems found in each. Geometry, state, boundary conditions, and other categories are used to classify the problems. A case number is assigned to each problem for cross-referencing, and also for future reference. Each problem is concisely described by geometry and condition statements, and many times a descriptive sketch is also included. At least one source reference is given so that the user can review the methods used to derive the solutions. Problem solutions are given in the form of equations, graphs, and tables of data, all of which are also identified by problem case numbers and source references.

  1. Radiative thermal conduction fronts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Balbus, Steven A.; Fristrom, Carl C.

    1990-07-01

    The discovery of the O VI interstellar absorption lines in our Galaxy by the Copernicus observatory was a turning point in our understanding of the Interstellar Medium (ISM). It implied the presence of widespread hot (approx. 10 to the 6th power K) gas in disk galaxies. The detection of highly ionized species in quasi-stellar objects' absorption spectra may be the first indirect observation of this hot phase in external disk galaxies. Previous efforts to understand extensive O VI absorption line data from our Galaxy were not very successful in locating the regions where this absorption originates. The location at interfaces between evaporating ISM clouds and hot gas was favored, but recent studies of steady-state conduction fronts in spherical clouds by Ballet, Arnaud, and Rothenflug (1986) and Bohringer and Hartquist (1987) rejected evaporative fronts as the absorption sites. Researchers report here on time-dependent nonequilibrium calculations of planar conductive fronts whose properties match well with observations, and suggest reasons for the difference between the researchers' results and the above. They included magnetic fields in additional models, not reported here, and the conclusions are not affected by their presence.

  2. Radiative thermal conduction fronts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Balbus, Steven A.; Fristrom, Carl C.

    1990-01-01

    The discovery of the O VI interstellar absorption lines in our Galaxy by the Copernicus observatory was a turning point in our understanding of the Interstellar Medium (ISM). It implied the presence of widespread hot (approx. 10 to the 6th power K) gas in disk galaxies. The detection of highly ionized species in quasi-stellar objects' absorption spectra may be the first indirect observation of this hot phase in external disk galaxies. Previous efforts to understand extensive O VI absorption line data from our Galaxy were not very successful in locating the regions where this absorption originates. The location at interfaces between evaporating ISM clouds and hot gas was favored, but recent studies of steady-state conduction fronts in spherical clouds by Ballet, Arnaud, and Rothenflug (1986) and Bohringer and Hartquist (1987) rejected evaporative fronts as the absorption sites. Researchers report here on time-dependent nonequilibrium calculations of planar conductive fronts whose properties match well with observations, and suggest reasons for the difference between the researchers' results and the above. They included magnetic fields in additional models, not reported here, and the conclusions are not affected by their presence.

  3. On the Proper Use of the Reduced Speed of Light Approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnedin, Nickolay Y.

    2016-12-01

    I show that the reduced speed of light (RSL) approximation, when used properly (i.e., as originally designed—only for local sources but not for the cosmic background), remains a highly accurate numerical method for modeling cosmic reionization. Simulated ionization and star formation histories from the “Cosmic Reionization on Computers” project are insensitive to the adopted value of the RSL for as long as that value does not fall below about 10% of the true speed of light. A recent claim of the failure of the RSL approximation in the Illustris reionization model appears to be due to the effective speed of light being reduced in the equation for the cosmic background too and hence illustrates the importance of maintaining the correct speed of light in modeling the cosmic background.

  4. X-ray analysis of the proper motion and PWN for PSR J1741-2054

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auchettl, Katie

    2014-11-01

    We report on the X-ray analysis of PSR J1741-2054 carried out as a part of the Chandra XVP program (6 ACIS-S observations, totalling ~300 ks over 5 months). By registering this new epoch of observations using X-ray point sources in the field of view to an archival observation taken 3.2 years earlier, we are able to measure the proper motion of the pulsar with > 3 σ significance. We also investigate the spatial and spectral properties of the pulsar, its compact nebula and extended tail. We find that the compact nebula can be well described with an absorbed power-law with photon index of Γ=1.6+/-0.2, while the tail shows no evidence of variation in the spectral index with the distance from the pulsar. We have also investigated the X-ray spectrum of the neutron star.

  5. Off-cycle exhaust emissions from modern passenger cars with properly-functioning emissions controls

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwin, R.W.; Ross, M.H.

    1996-09-01

    Real-world tailpipe emissions from properly-functioning, model year 1991--94 conventional gasoline-fueled cars associated with vehicle operations not emphasized in the FTP are analyzed. Tailpipe emissions are expressed as the product of three factors: fuel rate, engine-out emissions index, and catalyst pass fraction, which are modeled using empirical data from the FTP-Revision Project and applied to in-use driving survey data to estimate real-world emissions. Average tailpipe emissions due to fuel enrichment in warmed-up vehicles are estimated to be 8 g/mile for CO, and 0.3 g/mile for HC. For NO{sub x}, the contribution due to incremental loads on the engine (i.e. air conditioner, grade, high acceleration, and high speed) that are not accounted for in the FTP but are encountered in real-world driving are estimated to be roughly 0.3 g/mile.

  6. [Microorganism test systems and antibiograms useful for the proper use of antibacterial agents].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Shunji

    2010-07-01

    Antimicrobial agents are used for the accurate diagnosis of infectious diseases and effective implementation of antibacterial chemotherapy. The role of microbiological technologists is to provide data from microorganism tests useful for rapid infection treatment. Gram strain can be used to observe microorganisms and neutrophils from specimens of a patient. It is also possible to estimate the kinds of microorganism. If bacterial infectious disease is negative, there is no need for antibacterial chemotherapy. The applied dose of antibacterial agents is different in every hospital. Also, there is a difference in the percentage antibacterial agent susceptibility of isolates. Antibiograms must be created to investigate local factors. For empiric therapy, antibiograms are useful when choosing antibacterial agents showing marked efficacy against the clinical isolate. Microorganism test systems which are useful for the proper use of antibacterial agents are necessary to facilitate safe antibacterial chemotherapy and prevent the development of resistant bacteria. We report a microorganism test system employed at the Sapporo City General Hospital.

  7. Get Ready for Gaia: Cool White Dwarfs in Common Proper Motion with Tycho Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hambly, N.; Rowell, N.; Lam, M.

    2017-03-01

    We discuss the Gaia Data Release 1 (September 2016) and preliminary work on maximising the benefit for cool white dwarf (WD) science in advance of the full parallax catalogue which will appear around one year later in DR2. The Tycho catalogue is used in conjunction with the all–sky ground based astrometric/ photometric SuperCOSMOS Sky Survey in order to identify candidate faint common proper motion objects to the Tycho stars. Gaia DR1 is supplemented by the Tycho–Gaia Astrometric Solution catalogue containing some 2 million parallaxes with Hipparcos–like precision for Tycho stars. While hotter, brighter WDs are present in Tycho, cooler examples are much rarer (if present at all) and CPM offers one method to infer precision distances for a statistically useful sample of these very faint WDs.

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: NEOWISE/AllWISE high proper motion objects (Schneider+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, A. C.; Greco, J.; Cushing, M. C.; Kirkpatrick, J. D.; Mainzer, A.; Gelino, C. R.; Fajardo-Acosta, S. B.; Bauer, J.

    2016-04-01

    The NEOWISE reactivation mission was carried out using the W1 (3.4um) and W2 (4.6um) passbands of the WISE telescope. Considering the ~4 year time baseline between the first sky pass of NEOWISE and the first WISE epochs, our 1" search radius gives us a nominal minimum proper motion limit of ~250mas/yr (see section 2). Low-resolution (R=75-120) spectra were acquired for several sources with the upgraded SpeX spectrograph at the 3m NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) on Mauna Kea. A summary of all IRTF/SpeX observations is given in Table 11. Three targets were observed with the Double Spectrograph on the Hale 5m telescope on the night of UT 2015 September 07. (3 data files).

  9. Disk or halo white dwarfs?. Kinematic analysis of high proper motion surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spagna, A.; Carollo, D.; Lattanzi, M. G.; Bucciarelli, B.

    2004-12-01

    We present an alternative method for the kinematic analysis of high proper motion surveys and discuss its application to the survey of Oppenheimer et al. (2001) for the selection of reliable halo white dwarfs (WDs). The local WD space density we estimate is ρWD ≃ 1/2 × 10-5 M⊙ pc-3, which is about an order of magnitude smaller than the value derived in Oppenheimer et al. (2001), and is consistent with the values obtained from recent reanalyses of the same data. Our result, which corresponds to a fraction of 0.1% / 0.2% of the local dark matter, does not support the scenario suggested by microlensing experiments that ancient cool WDs could contribute significantly to the dark halo of the Milky Way.

  10. Adequate connexin-mediated coupling is required for proper insulin production

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    To assess whether connexin (Cx) expression contributes to insulin secretion, we have investigated normal and tumoral insulin-producing cells for connexins, gap junctions, and coupling. We have found that the glucose-sensitive cells of pancreatic islets and of a rat insulinoma are functionally coupled by gap junctions made of Cx43. In contrast, cells of several lines secreting insulin abnormally do not express Cx43, gap junctions, and coupling. After correction of these defects by stable transfection of Cx43 cDNA, cells expressing modest levels of Cx43 and coupling, as observed in native beta-cells, showed an expression of the insulin gene and an insulin content that were markedly elevated, compared with those observed in both wild-type (uncoupled) cells and in transfected cells overexpressing Cx43. These findings indicate that adequate levels of Cx-mediated coupling are required for proper insulin production and storage. PMID:8522612

  11. A Common Proper Motion Stellar Companion to HAT-P-7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, Carol A.; McElwain, Michael W.; Narita, Norio; Takahashi, Yasuhiro H.; Kuzuhara, Masayuki; Hirano, Teruyuki; Suenaga, Takuya

    2012-01-01

    We report that HAT-P-7 has a common proper motion stellar companion. The companion is located at approx. 3.9 arcsec to the east and estimated as an M5.5V dwarf based on its colors. We also confirm the presence of the third companion, which was first reported by Winn et al. (2009), based on long-term radial velocity measurements. We revisit the migration mechanism of HAT-P-7b given the presence of those companions, and propose sequential Kozai migration as a likely scenario in this system. This scenario may explain the reason for an outlier in the discussion of the spin-orbit alignment timescale for HAT-P-7b by Albrecht et al. (2012).

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Proper motions and BV photometry in NGC 1513 (Frolov+, 2002)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frolov, V. N.; Jilinski, E. G.; Ananjevskaja, J. K.; Poljakov, E. V.; Bronnikova, N. M.; Gorshanov, D. L.

    2002-10-01

    The results of astrometric and photometric investigations of the poorly studied open cluster NGC 1513 are presented. The proper motions of 333 stars with a root-mean-square error of 1.9mas/yr were obtained by means of the automated measuring complex "Fantasy". Eight astrometric plates covering the time interval of 101 years were measured and a total of 141 astrometric cluster members identified. BV CCD-photometry was obtained for stars in an area 17'x17' centered on the cluster. Altogether 33 stars with high reliability were considered to be cluster members by two criteria. The estimated age of NGC 1513 is 2.54E+08 years. (2 data files).

  13. Models for Turbulent Plane Couette Flow Using the Proper Orthogonal Decomposition: Moderate Aspect Ratio Domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moehlis, Jeff; Smith, Troy; Holmes, Philip; Faisst, Holger

    2002-11-01

    We model turbulent plane Couette flow for a moderate aspect ratio domain by expanding the velocity field as a sum of optimal modes calculated via the proper orthogonal decomposition from numerical data. Ordinary differential equations are obtained by Galerkin projection of the Navier-Stokes equations onto these modes. For a minimal truncation including only the most energetic modes having no streamwise variation, we show under quite general conditions the existence of linearly stable nontrivial fixed points, corresponding to a state in which the mean flow is coupled to streamwise vortices and their associated streaks. When the two next most energetic modes, still lacking streamwise variations, are included, chaos and heteroclinic cycles associated with the fixed points are found. The attractors involve repeated visits near unstable fixed points and periodic orbits corresponding to steady and periodically varying vortices, and account for a self-sustaining process in which vortices interact with the mean flow.

  14. Trigonometric distance and proper motions of H2O maser bowshocks in AFGL 5142

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, R. A.; Handa, T.; Imai, H.; Nagayama, T.; Omodaka, T.; Hirota, T.; Motogi, K.; van Langevelde, H. J.; Baan, W. A.

    2017-01-01

    We present the results of multi-epoch VLBI observations of water masers in the AGFL 5142 massive star forming region. We measure an annual parallax of π = 0.467 ± 0.010 mas, corresponding to a source distance of D=2.14^{+0.051}_{-0.049} kpc. Proper motion and line of sight velocities reveal the 3D kinematics of masers in this region, most of which associate with millimeter sources from the literature. In particular we find remarkable bipolar bowshocks expanding from the most massive member, AFGL 5142 MM1, which are used to investigate the physical properties of its protostellar jet. We attempt to link the known outflows in this region to possible progenitors by considering a precessing jet scenario and we discuss the episodic nature of ejections in AFGL 5142.

  15. The proper combination of lift loadings for least drag on a supersonic wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, Frederick C

    1956-01-01

    Lagrange's method of undetermined multipliers is applied to the problem of properly combining lift loadings for the least drag at a given lift on supersonic wings. The method shows the interference drag between the optimum loading and any loading at the same lift coefficient to be constant. This is an integral form of the criterion established by Robert T. Jones for optimum loadings. The best combination of four loadings on a delta wing with subsonic leading edges is calculated as a numerical example. The loadings considered have finite pressures everywhere on the plan form. Through the sweepback range the optimum combination of the four nonsingular loadings has about the same drag coefficient as a flat plate with leading-edge thrust.

  16. Proper orthogonal decomposition methods for noise reduction in particle-based transport calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del-Castillo-Negrete, D.; Spong, D. A.; Hirshman, S. P.

    2008-09-01

    Proper orthogonal decomposition techniques to reduce noise in the reconstruction of the distribution function in particle-based transport calculations are explored. For two-dimensional steady-state problems, the method is based on low rank truncations of the singular value decomposition of a coarse-grained representation of the particle distribution function. For time-dependent two-dimensional problems or three-dimensional time-independent problems, the use of a generalized low-rank approximation of matrices technique is proposed. The methods are illustrated and tested with Monte Carlo particle simulation data of plasma collisional relaxation and guiding-center transport with collisions in a magnetically confined plasma in toroidal geometry. It is observed that the proposed noise reduction methods achieve high levels of smoothness in the particle distribution function by using significantly fewer particles in the computations.

  17. Mouse B-Type Lamins Are Required for Proper Organogenesis But Not by Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Youngjo; Sharov, Alexei A.; McDole, Katie; Cheng, Melody; Hao, Haiping; Fan, Chen-Ming; Gaiano, Nicholas; Ko, Minoru S. H.; Zheng, Yixian

    2012-01-01

    B-type lamins, the major components of the nuclear lamina, are believed to be essential for cell proliferation and survival. We found that mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) do not need any lamins for self-renewal and pluripotency. Although genome-wide lamin-B binding profiles correlate with reduced gene expression, such binding is not directly required for gene silencing in ESCs or trophectoderm cells. However, B-type lamins are required for proper organogenesis. Defects in spindle orientation in neural progenitor cells and migration of neurons probably cause brain disorganizations found in lamin-B null mice. Thus, our studies not only disprove several prevailing views of lamin-Bs but also establish a foundation for redefining the function of the nuclear lamina in the context of tissue building and homeostasis. PMID:22116031

  18. Kinematics of the galaxy from Cepheids with proper motions from the Gaia DR1 catalogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobylev, V. V.

    2017-03-01

    A sample of classical Cepheids with known distances and line-of-sight velocities has been supplemented with proper motions from the Gaia DR1 catalogue. Based on the velocities of 260 stars, we have found the components of the peculiar solar velocity vector ( U, V, W)⊙ = (7.90, 11.73, 7.39) ± (0.65, 0.77, 0.62) km s-1 and the following parameters of the Galactic rotation curve: Ω0 = 28.84 ± 0.33 km s-1 kpc-1, Ω'0 = -4.05 ± 0.10 km s-1 kpc-2, and Ω″0 = 0.805 ± 0.067 km s-1 kpc-3 for the adopted solar Galactocentric distance R 0 = 8 kpc; the linear rotation velocity of the local standard of rest is V 0 = 231 ± 6 km s-1.

  19. Denitrification Rates in the Low-Oxygen Waters of the Stratified Baltic Proper

    PubMed Central

    Rönner, Ulf; Sörensson, Fred

    1985-01-01

    Denitrification activity was shown in the deep, low-oxygen waters of the Baltic proper by both in vitro and in situ methods. The vertical distribution of NO3− in the water column showed nitrate consumption and NO2− and N2O maxima in the deep waters when O2 was below 0.2 ml liter−1, which is suggestive evidence for denitrification. Direct in situ evidence for denitrification was obtained by finding an N2 saturation of up to 108% in the deep waters. When these waters were incubated with 15NO3−, 15N2 was produced. Quantification of the denitrification rate done by the addition of C2H2 to water samples from the active depths showed a rate of about 0.10 μmol liter−1 day−1. PMID:16346913

  20. rough deal: a gene required for proper mitotic segregation in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    We describe a genetic locus rough deal (rod) in Drosophila melanogaster, identified by mutations that interfere with the faithful transmission of chromosomes to daughter cells during mitosis. Five mutant alleles were isolated, each associated with a similar set of mitotic abnormalities in the dividing neuroblasts of homozygous mutant larvae: high frequencies of aneuploid cells and abnormal anaphase figures, in which chromatids may lag, form bridges, or completely fail to separate. Surviving homozygous adults are sterile, and show cuticular defects associated with cell death, i.e., roughened eyes, sparse abdominal bristles, and notched wing margins. The morphological process of spermatogenesis is largely unaffected and motile sperm are produced, but meiocyte aneuploidy is common. The nature of the observed abnormalities in mitotic cells suggests that the reduced fidelity of chromosome transmission to the daughter cells is due to a failure in a mechanism involved in assuring the proper release of sister chromatids. PMID:2512302

  1. Determining proper strategies for health, safety, security and environmental (HSSE) management system.

    PubMed

    Zaeimdar, Mojgan; Nasiri, Parvin; Taghdisi, Mohammadhoseyn; Abbaspour, Majid; Arjmandi, Reza; Kalatipor, Omid

    2013-01-01

    Today, managing an organization is concerned with many problems. Adopting proper strategies can promote an organization's survival. This study aimed at developing an appropriate HSSE Strategy for regional operation associated companies of Iran National Gas Company (INGS) using SWOT analysis. The analysis of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of HSSE was carried out and according to the results suitable strategies were recommended. In this regard, senior and junior managers, supervisors, and experts active in regional operation associated companies of Iran National Gas Company participated in SWOT analysis from HSSE angle. Then, they selected the most applicable SWOT factors pertaining to the organization. In the next step, these factors were weighted and scored. Based on the results four categories of strategies were developed including SO, WO, ST, and WT. Further examination showed that SO Strategies were the most applicable for the organization.

  2. Tissue-specific DNA demethylation is required for proper B-cell differentiation and function

    PubMed Central

    Orlanski, Shari; Labi, Verena; Reizel, Yitzhak; Spiro, Adam; Lichtenstein, Michal; Levin-Klein, Rena; Koralov, Sergei B.; Skversky, Yael; Rajewsky, Klaus; Cedar, Howard; Bergman, Yehudit

    2016-01-01

    There is ample evidence that somatic cell differentiation during development is accompanied by extensive DNA demethylation of specific sites that vary between cell types. Although the mechanism of this process has not yet been elucidated, it is likely to involve the conversion of 5mC to 5hmC by Tet enzymes. We show that a Tet2/Tet3 conditional knockout at early stages of B-cell development largely prevents lineage-specific programmed demethylation events. This lack of demethylation affects the expression of nearby B-cell lineage genes by impairing enhancer activity, thus causing defects in B-cell differentiation and function. Thus, tissue-specific DNA demethylation appears to be necessary for proper somatic cell development in vivo. PMID:27091986

  3. On the proper use of the reduced speed of light approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Gnedin, Nickolay Y.

    2016-12-07

    I show that the Reduced Speed of Light (RSL) approximation, when used properly (i.e. as originally designed - only for the local sources but not for the cosmic background), remains a highly accurate numerical method for modeling cosmic reionization. Simulated ionization and star formation histories from the "Cosmic Reionization On Computers" (CROC) project are insensitive to the adopted value of the reduced speed of light for as long as that value does not fall below about 10% of the true speed of light. Here, a recent claim of the failure of the RSL approximation in the Illustris reionization model appears to be due to the effective speed of light being reduced in the equation for the cosmic background too, and, hence, illustrates the importance of maintaining the correct speed of light in modeling the cosmic background.

  4. On the proper use of the reduced speed of light approximation

    DOE PAGES

    Gnedin, Nickolay Y.

    2016-12-07

    I show that the Reduced Speed of Light (RSL) approximation, when used properly (i.e. as originally designed - only for the local sources but not for the cosmic background), remains a highly accurate numerical method for modeling cosmic reionization. Simulated ionization and star formation histories from the "Cosmic Reionization On Computers" (CROC) project are insensitive to the adopted value of the reduced speed of light for as long as that value does not fall below about 10% of the true speed of light. Here, a recent claim of the failure of the RSL approximation in the Illustris reionization model appearsmore » to be due to the effective speed of light being reduced in the equation for the cosmic background too, and, hence, illustrates the importance of maintaining the correct speed of light in modeling the cosmic background.« less

  5. Investigating Coherent Structures in the Standard Turbulence Models using Proper Orthogonal Decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliassen, Lene; Andersen, Søren

    2016-09-01

    The wind turbine design standards recommend two different methods to generate turbulent wind for design load analysis, the Kaimal spectra combined with an exponential coherence function and the Mann turbulence model. The two turbulence models can give very different estimates of fatigue life, especially for offshore floating wind turbines. In this study the spatial distributions of the two turbulence models are investigated using Proper Orthogonal Decomposition, which is used to characterize large coherent structures. The main focus has been on the structures that contain the most energy, which are the lowest POD modes. The Mann turbulence model generates coherent structures that stretches in the horizontal direction for the longitudinal component, while the structures found in the Kaimal model are more random in their shape. These differences in the coherent structures at lower frequencies for the two turbulence models can be the reason for differences in fatigue life estimates for wind turbines.

  6. Proper name retrieval in temporal lobe epilepsy: naming of famous faces and landmarks.

    PubMed

    Benke, Thomas; Kuen, Eva; Schwarz, Michael; Walser, Gerald

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this study was to further explore proper name (PN) retrieval and conceptual knowledge in patients with left and right temporal lobe epilepsy (69 patients with LTLE and 62 patients with RTLE) using a refined assessment procedure. Based on the performance of a large group of age- and education-matched normals, a new test of famous faces and famous landmarks was designed. Recognition, naming, and semantic knowledge were assessed consecutively, allowing for a better characterization of deficient levels in the naming system. Impairment in PN retrieval was common in the cohort with TLE. Furthermore, side of seizure onset impaired stages of name retrieval differently: LTLE impaired the lexico-phonological processing, whereas RTLE mainly impaired the perceptual-semantic stage of object recognition. In addition to deficient PN retrieval, patients with TLE had reduced conceptual knowledge regarding famous persons and landmarks.

  7. Listening to food workers: Factors that impact proper health and hygiene practice in food service

    PubMed Central

    Clegg Smith, Katherine; Neff, Roni A.; Pollack, Keshia M.; Ensminger, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Background Foodborne disease is a significant problem worldwide. Research exploring sources of outbreaks indicates a pronounced role for food workers' improper health and hygiene practice. Objective To investigate food workers' perceptions of factors that impact proper food safety practice. Method Interviews with food service workers in Baltimore, MD, USA discussing food safety practices and factors that impact implementation in the workplace. A social ecological model organizes multiple levels of influence on health and hygiene behavior. Results Issues raised by interviewees include factors across the five levels of the social ecological model, and confirm findings from previous work. Interviews also reveal many factors not highlighted in prior work, including issues with food service policies and procedures, working conditions (e.g., pay and benefits), community resources, and state and federal policies. Conclusion Food safety interventions should adopt an ecological orientation that accounts for factors at multiple levels, including workers' social and structural context, that impact food safety practice. PMID:26243248

  8. A Common Proper Motion Stellar Companion to HAT-P-7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narita, Norio; Takahashi, Yasuhiro H.; Kuzuhara, Masayuki; Hirano, Teruyuki; Suenaga, Takuya; Kandori, Ryo; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Sato, Bun'ei; Suzuki, Ryuji; Ida, Shigeru; Nagasawa, Makiko; Abe, Lyu; Brandner, Wolfgang; Brandt, Timothy D.; Carson, Joseph; Egner, Sebastian E.; Feldt, Markus; Goto, Miwa; Grady, Carol A.; Guyon, Olivier; Hashimoto, Jun; Hayano, Yutaka; Hayashi, Masahiko; Hayashi, Saeko S.; Henning, Thomas; Hodapp, Klaus W.; Ishii, Miki; Iye, Masanori; Janson, Markus; Knapp, Gillian R.; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Kwon, Jungmi; Matsuo, Taro; Mayama, Satoshi; McElwain, Michael W.; Miyama, Shoken M.; Morino, Jun-Ichi; Moro-Martin, Amaya; Nishimura, Tetsuo; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Serabyn, Eugene; Suto, Hiroshi; Takami, Michihiro; Takato, Naruhisa; Terada, Hiroshi; Thalmann, Christian; Tomono, Daigo; Turner, Edwin L.; Watanabe, Makoto; Wisniewski, John P.; Yamada, Toru; Takami, Hideki; Usuda, Tomonori; Tamura, Motohide

    2012-12-01

    We report that HAT-P-7 has a common proper motion stellar companion. The companion is located at ˜3."9 to the east and estimated to be an M5.5V dwarf based on its colors. We also confirm the presence of a third companion, which was first reported by Winn et al. (2009, ApJ, 703, L99), based on long-term radial velocity measurements. We revisit the migration mechanism of HAT-P-7b given to the presence of those companions, and propose the sequential Kozai migration as a likely scenario in this system. This scenario may explain the reason for an outlier in the discussion of the spin-orbit alignment timescale for HAT-P-7b by Albrecht et al. (2012, ApJ, 757, 18).

  9. Posttraumatic carotid-cavernous fistula: Pathogenetic mechanisms, diagnostic management and proper treatment. A case report

    PubMed Central

    Marín-Fernández, Ana-Belén; Román-Ramos, María; Fernandez-Solis, José; Martínez-Lara, Ildefonso

    2016-01-01

    Carotid-cavernous fistulas are an uncommon diseases characterized by abnormal communications between arteries and veins located in the cavernous sinus. According with Barrow´s classification they could be divided in two groups: direct and indirect. The typical symptoms showed by theses pathologies are: pulsating exophthalmos and orbital blow. The present study describes a case of direct posttraumatic carotid-cavernous fistula in a 26 years old man. Furthermore, we present the images that we used to make the diagnosis. In this light, we decided to treat this case with endovascular approach after considering several therapeutic options. The aim of the present report is twofold. First, we examine the importance of the proper management of the direct posttraumatic carotid-cavernous fistula. Second, we describe this rare syndrome with the goal of proposing suitable treatments. Key words:Carotid cavernous fistulas, pulsating exophthalmos, orbital blow, endovascular approach, Barrow´s classification. PMID:27034767

  10. Microarcsecond proper motions of extragalactic water vapor masers in M33

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhill, L. J.; Moran, J. M.; Reid, M. J.; Menten, K. M.; Hirabayashi, H.

    1993-01-01

    A second-epoch spectral line VLBI synthesis map of the H2O maser associated with the H II region IC 133 in the galaxy M33 is presented. Thirty-two spatially distinct maser features were identified, and a second center of maser activity within the IC 133 complex, IC 133 West, which is displaced about 0.3 arcsec from IC 133 Main, was discovered. A comparison of the two available maps of IC 133 is used to estimate the right ascension components of proper motion over a period of 479 d for five maser features to accuracies of between 7 and 16 micro-as. The dispersions in transverse and radial velocities for the maser features are consistent with the accepted distance to M33 of 720 kpc, where the data admit a fractional uncertainty in distance of 50 percent.

  11. How name descriptiveness impacts proper name learning in young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Fogler, Kethera A; James, Lori E; Crandall, Elizabeth A

    2010-09-01

    To elucidate the impact of name descriptiveness and aging on learning new names, 26 young and 26 healthy older participants learned visibly-descriptive (e.g., Lengthy for a giraffe), psychologically-descriptive (e.g., Classy), and non-descriptive (e.g., Sam) proper names for previously-unknown cartoon characters. More visibly-descriptive names were learned than psychologically- or non-descriptive names, which did not differ from each other. There was also a differential benefit for older adults when the name was visibly-descriptive of the referent, such that older adults learned visibly-descriptive names as well as young adults but there were substantial age-related deficits in learning psychologically- and non-descriptive names.

  12. How Name Descriptiveness Impacts Proper Name Learning in Young and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Fogler, Kethera A.; James, Lori E.; Crandall, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    To elucidate the impact of name descriptiveness and aging on learning new names, 26 young and 26 healthy older participants learned visibly-descriptive (e.g., Lengthy for a giraffe), psychologically-descriptive (e.g., Classy), and non-descriptive (e.g., Sam) proper names for previously-unknown cartoon characters. More visibly-descriptive names were learned than psychologically- or non-descriptive names, which did not differ from each other. There was also a differential benefit for older adults when the name was visibly-descriptive of the referent, such that older adults learned visibly-descriptive names as well as young adults but there were substantial age-related deficits in learning psychologically- and non-descriptive names. PMID:20349368

  13. Beyond Compassion: Replacing a Blame Culture With Proper Emotional Support and Management

    PubMed Central

    Gabriel, Yiannis

    2015-01-01

    The absence of compassion, argues the author, is not the cause of healthcare failures but rather a symptom of deeper systemic failures. The clinical encounter arouses strong emotions of anxiety, fear, and anger in patients which are often projected onto the clinicians. Attempts to protect clinicians through various bureaucratic devices and depersonalization of the patient, constitute as Menzies noted in her classic work, social defences, aimed at containing the anxieties of clinicians but ending up in reinforcing these anxieties. Instead of placing additional burdens on clinicians by bureaucratizing and benchmarking compassion, the author argues that proper emotional management and support is a precondition for a healthcare system that offers humane and effective treatment to patients and a humane working environment for those who work in it. PMID:26340493

  14. AN HST PROPER-MOTION STUDY OF THE LARGE-SCALE JET OF 3C273

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Eileen T.; Georganopoulos, Markos; Sparks, William B.; Anderson, Jay; Marel, Roeland van der; Biretta, John; Chiaberge, Marco; Norman, Colin; Tony Sohn, Sangmo; Perlman, Eric

    2016-02-20

    The radio galaxy 3C 273 hosts one of the nearest and best-studied powerful quasar jets. Having been imaged repeatedly by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) over the past twenty years, it was chosen for an HST program to measure proper motions in the kiloparsec-scale resolved jets of nearby radio-loud active galaxies. The jet in 3C 273 is highly relativistic on sub-parsec scales, with apparent proper motions up to 15c observed by very long baseline interferometry. In contrast, we find that the kiloparsec-scale knots are compatible with being stationary, with a mean speed of −0.2 ± 0.5c over the whole jet. Assuming the knots are packets of moving plasma, an upper limit of 1c implies a bulk Lorentz factor Γ < 2.9. This suggests that the jet has either decelerated significantly by the time it reaches the kiloparsec scale, or that the knots in the jet are standing shock features. The second scenario is incompatible with the inverse Compton off the Cosmic Microwave Background (IC/CMB) model for the X-ray emission of these knots, which requires the knots to be in motion, but IC/CMB is also disfavored in the first scenario due to energetic considerations, in agreement with the recent finding of Meyer and Georganopoulos which ruled out the IC/CMB model for the X-ray emission of 3C 273 via gamma-ray upper limits.

  15. USING RUNNING DIFFERENCE IMAGES TO TRACK PROPER MOTIONS OF XUV CORONAL INTENSITY ON THE SUN

    SciTech Connect

    Sheeley, N. R. Jr.; Warren, H. P.; Lee, J. E-mail: harry.warren@nrl.navy.mil; Chung, S.; Katz, J.; Namkung, M

    2014-12-20

    We have developed a procedure for observing and tracking proper motions of faint XUV coronal intensity on the Sun and have applied this procedure to study the collective motions of cellular plumes and the shorter-period waves in sunspots. Our space/time maps of cellular plumes show a series of tracks with the same 5-8 minute repetition times and ∼100 km s{sup –1} sky-plane speeds found previously in active-region fans and in coronal hole plumes. By synchronizing movies and space/time maps, we find that the tracks are produced by elongated ejections from the unipolar flux concentrations at the bases of the cellular plumes and that the phases of these ejections are uncorrelated from cell to cell. Thus, the large-scale motion is not a continuous flow, but is more like a system of independent conveyor belts all moving in the same direction along the magnetic field. In contrast, the proper motions in sunspots are clearly waves resulting from periodic disturbances in the sunspot umbras. The periods are ∼2.6 minutes, but the sky-plane speeds and wavelengths depend on the heights of the waves above the sunspot. In the chromosphere, the waves decelerate from 35-45 km s{sup –1} in the umbra to 7-8 km s{sup –1} toward the outer edge of the penumbra, but in the corona, the waves accelerate to ∼60-100 km s{sup –1}. Because chromospheric and coronal tracks originate from the same space/time locations, the coronal waves must emerge from the same umbral flashes that produce the chromospheric waves.

  16. ProperCAD: A portable object-oriented parallel environment for VLSI CAD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramkumar, Balkrishna; Banerjee, Prithviraj

    1993-01-01

    Most parallel algorithms for VLSI CAD proposed to date have one important drawback: they work efficiently only on machines that they were designed for. As a result, algorithms designed to date are dependent on the architecture for which they are developed and do not port easily to other parallel architectures. A new project under way to address this problem is described. A Portable object-oriented parallel environment for CAD algorithms (ProperCAD) is being developed. The objectives of this research are (1) to develop new parallel algorithms that run in a portable object-oriented environment (CAD algorithms using a general purpose platform for portable parallel programming called CARM is being developed and a C++ environment that is truly object-oriented and specialized for CAD applications is also being developed); and (2) to design the parallel algorithms around a good sequential algorithm with a well-defined parallel-sequential interface (permitting the parallel algorithm to benefit from future developments in sequential algorithms). One CAD application that has been implemented as part of the ProperCAD project, flat VLSI circuit extraction, is described. The algorithm, its implementation, and its performance on a range of parallel machines are discussed in detail. It currently runs on an Encore Multimax, a Sequent Symmetry, Intel iPSC/2 and i860 hypercubes, a NCUBE 2 hypercube, and a network of Sun Sparc workstations. Performance data for other applications that were developed are provided: namely test pattern generation for sequential circuits, parallel logic synthesis, and standard cell placement.

  17. Gaia reference frame amid quasar variability and proper motion patterns in the data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachchan, R. K.; Hobbs, D.; Lindegren, L.

    2016-05-01

    Context. Gaia's very accurate astrometric measurements will allow the optical realisation of the International Celestial Reference System to be improved by a few orders of magnitude. Several sets of quasars are used to define a kinematically stable non-rotating reference frame with the barycentre of the solar system as its origin. Gaia will also observe a large number of galaxies. Although they are not point-like, it may be possible to determine accurate positions and proper motions for some of their compact bright features. Aims: The optical stability of the quasars is critical, and we investigate how accurately the reference frame can be recovered. Various proper motion patterns are also present in the data, the best known is caused by the acceleration of the solar system barycentre, presumably, towards the Galactic centre. We review some other less well-known effects that are not part of standard astrometric models. Methods: We modelled quasars and galaxies using realistic sky distributions, magnitudes, and redshifts. Position variability was introduced using a Markov chain model. The reference frame was determined using the algorithm developed for the Gaia mission, which also determines the acceleration of the solar system. We also tested a method for measuring the velocity of the solar system barycentre in a cosmological frame. Results: We simulated the recovery of the reference frame and the acceleration of the solar system and conclude that they are not significantly disturbed by quasar variability, which is statistically averaged. However, the effect of a non-uniform sky distribution of the quasars can result in a correlation between the parameters describing the spin components of the reference frame and the acceleration components, which degrades the solution. Our results suggest that an attempt should be made to astrometrically determine the redshift-dependent apparent drift of galaxies that is due to our velocity relative to the cosmic microwave

  18. PG1258+593 and its common proper motion magnetic white dwarf counterpart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girven, J.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Külebi, B.; Steeghs, D.; Jordan, S.; Marsh, T. R.; Koester, D.

    2010-05-01

    We confirm SDSSJ130033.48+590407.0 as a common proper motion companion to the well-studied hydrogen-atmosphere (DA) white dwarf PG1258+593 (GD322). The system lies at a distance of 68 +/- 3pc, where the angular separation of 16.1 +/- 0.1arcsec corresponds to a minimum binary separation of 1091 +/- 7au. SDSSJ1300+5904 is a cool (Teff = 6300 +/- 300K) magnetic white dwarf (B ~= 6mG). PG1258+593 is a DA white dwarf with Teff = 14790 +/- 77K and logg = 7.87 +/- 0.02. Using the white dwarf mass-radius relation implies the masses of SDSSJ1300+5904 and PG1258+593 are 0.54 +/- 0.06 and 0.54 +/- 0.01Msolar, respectively, and therefore a cooling age difference of 1.67 +/- 0.05Gyr. Adopting main-sequence lifetimes from stellar models, we derive an upper limit of 2.2Msolar for the mass of the progenitor of PG1258+593. A plausible range of initial masses is 1.4-1.8 Msolar for PG1258+593 and 2-3 Msolar for SDSSJ1300+5904. Our analysis shows that white dwarf common proper motion binaries can potentially constrain the white dwarf initial mass-final mass relation and the formation mechanism for magnetic white dwarfs. The magnetic field of SDSSJ1300+5904 is consistent with an Ap progenitor star. A common envelope origin of the system cannot be excluded, but requires a triple system as progenitor.

  19. Hydroxytyrosol restores proper insulin signaling in an astrocytic model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Crespo, M Carmen; Tomé-Carneiro, Joao; Pintado, Cristina; Dávalos, Alberto; Visioli, Francesco; Burgos-Ramos, Emma

    2017-03-20

    Recent epidemiological evidence demonstrated that diabetes is a risk factor for AD onset and development. Indeed, meta-analyses of longitudinal epidemiologic studies show that diabetes increases AD risk by 50-100%, being insulin resistance (IR) the main binding link between diabetes and AD. Astrocytes are the foremost cerebral macroglial cells and are responsible for converting glucose into lactate and transfer it to neurons that use it as fuel, but Aβ(1-42) impairs insulin signaling and glycogen storage. Recent prospective studies showed that the Mediterranean diet is associated with lower incidence of AD. We hypothesized that hydroxytyrosol (HT, the preeminent polyphenol of olives and olive oil) could exert beneficial effects on IR associated with AD and investigated it mechanisms of action in an astrocytic model of AD. The astrocytic cell line C6 was exposed to Aβ(25-35) and co-incubated with HT for different periods. After treatment with Aβ(25-35), astrocytes' viability was significantly decreased as compared with controls; however, both pre- and post-treatment with HT prevented this effect. Mechanistically, we found that the preventive role of HT on Aβ(25-35)- induced cytotoxicity in astrocytes is moderated by an increased HT-induced activation of Akt, which is mediated by the insulin signaling pathway. In addition, we report that HT prevented the pronounced activation of mTOR, thereby restoring proper insulin signaling. In conclusion, we demonstrate that HT protects Aβ(25-35)-treated astrocytes by improving insulin sensitivity and restoring proper insulin-signaling. These data provide some mechanistic insight on the observed inverse association between olive oil consumption and prevalence of cognitive impairment. © 2017 BioFactors, 2017.

  20. The Velocity Anisotropy of Distant Milky Way Halo Stars from Hubble Space Telescope Proper Motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deason, A. J.; Van der Marel, R. P.; Guhathakurta, P.; Sohn, S. T.; Brown, T. M.

    2013-03-01

    Based on long baseline (5-7 years) multi-epoch HST/ACS photometry, used previously to measure the proper motion of M31, we present the proper motions (PMs) of 13 main-sequence Milky Way halo stars. The sample lies at an average distance of r ~= 24 kpc from the Galactic center, with a root-mean-square spread of 6 kpc. At this distance, the median PM accuracy is 5 km s-1. We devise a maximum likelihood routine to determine the tangential velocity ellipsoid of the stellar halo. The velocity second moments in the directions of the Galactic (l, b) system are < v^2_l > ^{1/2} = 123^{+29}_{-23} km s-1, and < v^2_b > ^{1/2} = 83^{+24}_{-16} km s-1. We combine these results with the known line-of-sight second moment, < v^2_los > ^{1/2} = 105 +/- 5 km s-1, at this langrrang to study the velocity anisotropy of the halo. We find approximate isotropy between the radial and tangential velocity distributions, with anisotropy parameter β = 0.0^{+0.2}_{-0.4}. Our results suggest that the stellar halo velocity anisotropy out to r ~ 30 kpc is less radially biased than solar neighborhood measurements. This is opposite to what is expected from violent relaxation, and may indicate the presence of a shell-type structure at r ~ 24 kpc. With additional multi-epoch HST data, the method presented here has the ability to measure the transverse kinematics of the halo for more stars, and to larger distances. This can yield new improved constraints on the stellar halo formation mechanism, and the mass of the Milky Way.

  1. A PROPER MOTION STUDY OF THE HARO 6-10 OUTFLOW: EVIDENCE FOR A SUBARCSECOND BINARY

    SciTech Connect

    Wilking, Bruce A.; Gerling, Bradley M.; Gibb, Erika; Marvel, Kevin B.; Claussen, Mark J.; Wootten, Alwyn E-mail: bmg5333@truman.edu E-mail: marvel@aas.org E-mail: awootten@nrao.edu

    2012-07-10

    We present single-dish and very long baseline interferometry observations of an outburst of water maser emission from the young binary system Haro 6-10. Haro 6-10 lies in the Taurus molecular cloud and contains a visible T Tauri star with an infrared companion 1.''3 north. Using the Very Long Baseline Array, we obtained five observations spanning three months and derived absolute positions for 20 distinct maser spots. Three of the masers can be traced over three or more epochs, enabling us to extract absolute proper motions and tangential velocities. We deduce that the masers represent one side of a bipolar outflow that lies nearly in the plane of the sky with an opening angle of {approx}45 Degree-Sign . They are located within 50 mas of the southern component of the binary, the visible T Tauri star Haro 6-10S. The mean position angle on the sky of the maser proper motions ({approx}220 Degree-Sign ) suggests they are related to the previously observed giant Herbig-Haro (HH) flow which includes HH 410, HH 411, HH 412, and HH 184A-E. A previously observed HH jet and extended radio continuum emission (mean position angle of {approx}190 Degree-Sign ) must also originate in the vicinity of Haro 6-10S and represent a second, distinct outflow in this region. We propose that a yet unobserved companion within 150 mas of Haro 6-10S is responsible for the giant HH/maser outflow while the visible star is associated with the HH jet. Despite the presence of H{sub 2} emission in the spectrum of the northern component of the binary, Haro 6-10N, none of outflows/jets can be tied directly to this young stellar object.

  2. Qiang-Dong proper quantization rule and its applications to exactly solvable quantum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Serrano, F. A.; Gu Xiaoyan; Dong, Shi-Hai

    2010-08-15

    We propose proper quantization rule, x{sub A}(x{sub B})k(x)dx-x{sub 0A}(x{sub 0B})k{sub 0}(x)dx=n{pi}, where k(x)={radical}(2M[E-V(x)])/({h_bar}/2{pi}). The x{sub A} and x{sub B} are two turning points determined by E=V(x), and n is the number of the nodes of wave function {psi}(x). We carry out the exact solutions of solvable quantum systems by this rule and find that the energy spectra of solvable systems can be determined only from its ground state energy. The previous complicated and tedious integral calculations involved in exact quantization rule are greatly simplified. The beauty and simplicity of the rule come from its meaning--whenever the number of the nodes of {phi}(x) or the number of the nodes of the wave function {psi}(x) increases by 1, the momentum integral x{sub A}(x{sub B})k(x)dx will increase by {pi}. We apply this proper quantization rule to carry out solvable quantum systems such as the one-dimensional harmonic oscillator, the Morse potential and its generalization, the Hulthen potential, the Scarf II potential, the asymmetric trigonometric Rosen-Morse potential, the Poeschl-Teller type potentials, the Rosen-Morse potential, the Eckart potential, the harmonic oscillator in three dimensions, the hydrogen atom, and the Manning-Rosen potential in D dimensions.

  3. Ion-conducting membranes

    DOEpatents

    Masel, Richard I.; Chen, Qingmei; Liu, Zengcai; Kutz, Robert

    2017-02-28

    An ion conducting polymeric composition mixture comprises a copolymer of styrene and vinylbenzyl-R.sub.s. R.sub.s is selected from the group consisting of imidazoliums, pyridiniums, pyrazoliums, pyrrolidiniums, pyrroliums, pyrimidiums, piperidiniums, indoliums, and triaziniums. The composition contains 10%-90% by weight of vinylbenzyl-R.sub.s. The composition can further comprise a polyolefin comprising substituted polyolefins, a polymer comprising cyclic amine groups, a polymer comprising at least one of a phenylene group and a phenyl group, a polyamide, and/or the reaction product of a constituent having two carbon-carbon double bonds. The composition can be in the form of a membrane. In a preferred embodiment, the membrane is a Helper Membrane that increases the faradaic efficiency of an electrochemical cell into which the membrane is incorporated, and also allows product formation at lower voltages than in cells without the Helper Membrane.

  4. Ion-conducting membranes

    DOEpatents

    Masel, Richard L.; Chen, Qingmei; Liu, Zengcai; Kutz, Robert

    2016-06-21

    An ion conducting polymeric composition mixture comprises a copolymer of styrene and vinylbenzyl-R.sub.s. R.sub.s is selected from the group consisting of imidazoliums and pyridiniums. The composition contains 10%-90% by weight of vinylbenzyl-R.sub.s. The composition can further comprise a polyolefin comprising substituted polyolefins, a polymer comprising cyclic amine groups, a polymer comprising at least one of a phenylene group and a phenyl group, a polyamide, and/or the reaction product of a constituent having two carbon-carbon double bonds. The composition can be in the form of a membrane. In a preferred embodiment, the membrane is a Helper Membrane that increases the faradaic efficiency of an electrochemical cell into which the membrane is incorporated, and also allows product formation at lower voltages than in cells without the Helper Membrane.

  5. Lateral conduction infrared photodetector

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Jin K.; Carroll, Malcolm S.

    2011-09-20

    A photodetector for detecting infrared light in a wavelength range of 3-25 .mu.m is disclosed. The photodetector has a mesa structure formed from semiconductor layers which include a type-II superlattice formed of alternating layers of InAs and In.sub.xGa.sub.1-xSb with 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5. Impurity doped regions are formed on sidewalls of the mesa structure to provide for a lateral conduction of photo-generated carriers which can provide an increased carrier mobility and a reduced surface recombination. An optional bias electrode can be used in the photodetector to control and vary a cut-off wavelength or a depletion width therein. The photodetector can be formed as a single-color or multi-color device, and can also be used to form a focal plane array which is compatible with conventional read-out integrated circuits.

  6. Normal Conducting CLIC Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Erk

    2006-01-03

    The CLIC (Compact Linear Collider) multi-lateral study group based at CERN is studying the technology for an electron-positron linear collider with a centre-of-mass energy up to 5 TeV. In contrast to the International Linear Collider (ILC) study which has chosen to use super-conducting cavities with accelerating gradients in the range of 30-40 MV/m to obtain centre-of-mass collision energies of 0.5-1 TeV, the CLIC study aims to use a normal-conducting system based on two-beam technology with gradients of 150 MV/m. It is generally accepted that this change in technology is not only necessary but the only viable choice for a cost-effective multi-TeV collider. The CLIC study group is studying the technology issues of such a machine, and is in particular developing state-of-the-art 30 GHz molybdenum-iris accelerating structures and power extraction and transfer structures (PETS). The accelerating structure has a new geometry which includes fully-profiled RF surfaces optimised to minimize surface fields, and hybrid damping using both iris slots and radial waveguides. A newly-developed structure-optimisation procedure has been used to simultaneously balance surface fields, power flow, short and long-range transverse wakefields, RF-to-beam efficiency and the ratio of luminosity to input power. The slotted irises allow a simple structure fabrication by high-precision high-speed 3D milling of just four pieces, and an even easier bolted assembly in a vacuum chamber.

  7. Electrical and Thermal Conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventura, Guglielmo; Perfetti, Mauro

    After a Sect. 1.1 devoted to electrical conductivity and a section that deals with magnetic and dielectric losses ( 1.2 ), this chapter explores the theory of thermal conduction in solids. The examined categories of solids are: metals Sect. 1.3.2 , Dielectrics Sects. 1.3.3 and 1.3.4 and Nanocomposites Sect. 1.3.5 . In Sect. 1.3.6 the problem of thermal and electrical contact between materials is considered because contact resistance occurring at conductor joints in magnets or other high power applications can lead to undesirable electrical losses. At low temperature, thermal contact is also critical in the mounting of temperature sensors, where bad contacts can lead to erroneous results, in particular when superconductivity phenomena are involved.

  8. Normal Conducting CLIC Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Erk

    2006-01-01

    The CLIC (Compact Linear Collider) multi-lateral study group based at CERN is studying the technology for an electron-positron linear collider with a centre-of-mass energy up to 5 TeV. In contrast to the International Linear Collider (ILC) study which has chosen to use super-conducting cavities with accelerating gradients in the range of 30-40 MV/m to obtain centre-of-mass collision energies of 0.5-1 TeV, the CLIC study aims to use a normal-conducting system based on two-beam technology with gradients of 150 MV/m. It is generally accepted that this change in technology is not only necessary but the only viable choice for a cost-effective multi-TeV collider. The CLIC study group is studying the technology issues of such a machine, and is in particular developing state-of-the-art 30 GHz molybdenum-iris accelerating structures and power extraction and transfer structures (PETS). The accelerating structure has a new geometry which includes fully-profiled RF surfaces optimised to minimize surface fields, and hybrid damping using both iris slots and radial waveguides. A newly-developed structure-optimisation procedure has been used to simultaneously balance surface fields, power flow, short and long-range transverse wakefields, RF-to-beam efficiency and the ratio of luminosity to input power. The slotted irises allow a simple structure fabrication by high-precision high-speed 3D milling of just four pieces, and an even easier bolted assembly in a vacuum chamber.

  9. Conductive dense hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eremets, M.; Troyan, I.

    2012-12-01

    Hydrogen at ambient pressures and low temperatures forms a molecular crystal which is expected to display metallic properties under megabar pressures. This metal is predicted to be superconducting with a very high critical temperature Tc of 200-400 K. The superconductor may potentially be recovered metastably at ambient pressures, and it may acquire a new quantum state as a metallic superfluid and a superconducting superfluid. Recent experiments performed at low temperatures T < 100 K showed that at record pressures of 300 GPa, hydrogen remains in the molecular state and is an insulator with a band gap of appr 2 eV. Given our current experimental and theoretical understanding, hydrogen is expected to become metallic at pressures of 400-500 GPa, beyond the current limits of static pressures achievable using diamond anvil cells. We found that at room temperature and pressure > 220 GPa, new Raman modes arose, providing evidence for the transformation to a new opaque and electrically conductive phase IV. Above 260 GPa, in the next phase V, hydrogen reflected light well. Its resistance was nearly temperature-independent over a wide temperature range, down to 30 K, indicating that the hydrogen was metallic. Releasing the pressure induced the metallic phase to transform directly into molecular hydrogen with significant hysteresis at 200 GPa and 295 K. These data were published in our paper: M. I. Eremets and I. A. Troyan "Conductive dense hydrogen." Nature Materials 10: 927-931. We will present also new results on hydrogen: phase diagram with phases IV and V determined in P,T domain up to 300 GPa and 350 K. We will also discuss possible structures of phase IV based on our Raman and infrared measurements up to 300 GPa.

  10. Protein conducting nanopores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harsman, Anke; Krüger, Vivien; Bartsch, Philipp; Honigmann, Alf; Schmidt, Oliver; Rao, Sanjana; Meisinger, Christof; Wagner, Richard

    2010-11-01

    About 50% of the cellular proteins have to be transported into or across cellular membranes. This transport is an essential step in the protein biosynthesis. In eukaryotic cells secretory proteins are transported into the endoplasmic reticulum before they are transported in vesicles to the plasma membrane. Almost all proteins of the endosymbiotic organelles chloroplasts and mitochondria are synthesized on cytosolic ribosomes and posttranslationally imported. Genetic, biochemical and biophysical approaches led to rather detailed knowledge on the composition of the translocon-complexes which catalyze the membrane transport of the preproteins. Comprehensive concepts on the targeting and membrane transport of polypeptides emerged, however little detail on the molecular nature and mechanisms of the protein translocation channels comprising nanopores has been achieved. In this paper we will highlight recent developments of the diverse protein translocation systems and focus particularly on the common biophysical properties and functions of the protein conducting nanopores. We also provide a first analysis of the interaction between the genuine protein conducting nanopore Tom40SC as well as a mutant Tom40SC (\\mathrm {S}_{54} \\to E ) containing an additional negative charge at the channel vestibule and one of its native substrates, CoxIV, a mitochondrial targeting peptide. The polypeptide induced a voltage-dependent increase in the frequency of channel closure of Tom40SC corresponding to a voltage-dependent association rate, which was even more pronounced for the Tom40SC S54E mutant. The corresponding dwelltime reflecting association/transport of the peptide could be determined with \\bar {t}_{\\mathrm {off}} \\cong 1.1 ms for the wildtype, whereas the mutant Tom40SC S54E displayed a biphasic dwelltime distribution (\\bar {t}_{\\mathrm {off}}^1 \\cong 0.4 ms \\bar {t}_{\\mathrm {off}}^2 \\cong 4.6 ms).

  11. Proper selection of 1 g controls in simulated microgravity research as illustrated with clinorotated plant cell suspension cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamal, Khaled Y.; Hemmersbach, Ruth; Medina, F. Javier; Herranz, Raúl

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the physical and biological effects of the absence of gravity is necessary to conduct operations on space environments. It has been previously shown that the microgravity environment induces the dissociation of cell proliferation from cell growth in young seedling root meristems, but this source material is limited to few cells in each row of meristematic layers. Plant cell cultures, composed by a large and homogeneous population of proliferating cells, are an ideal model to study the effects of altered gravity on cellular mechanisms regulating cell proliferation and associated cell growth. Cell suspension cultures of Arabidopsis thaliana cell line (MM2d) were exposed to 2D-clinorotation in a pipette clinostat for 3.5 or 14 h, respectively, and were then processed either by quick freezing, to be used in flow cytometry, or by chemical fixation, for microscopy techniques. After long-term clinorotation, the proportion of cells in G1 phase was increased and the nucleolus area, as revealed by immunofluorescence staining with anti-nucleolin, was decreased. Despite the compatibility of these results with those obtained in real microgravity on seedling meristems, we provide a technical discussion in the context of clinorotation and proper 1 g controls with respect to suspension cultures. Standard 1 g procedure of sustaining the cell suspension is achieved by continuously shaking. Thus, we compare the mechanical forces acting on cells in clinorotated samples, in a control static sample and in the standard 1 g conditions of suspension cultures in order to define the conditions of a complete and reliable experiment in simulated microgravity with corresponding 1 g controls.

  12. Sentinel events, disruptive behavior, and medical staff codes of conduct.

    PubMed

    Leiker, Michelle

    2009-09-01

    Regardless of physician concerns, hospitals and other organizations accredited by the Joint Commission are required to comply with the new leadership standard and define acceptable, disruptive, and inappropriate behaviors in a code of conduct. The new standard also requires them to implement a process for managing disruptive and inappropriate behaviors. Rules and standards can be very effective ways to promote safety and quality, but at the same time may be subject to abuse if not properly monitored. As a result, physicians should continue to monitor how hospitals have implemented the new leadership standard and raise concerns about any vague definitions, encroachment on physician rights, and misuse of the code of conduct.

  13. Conducting Wall Hall Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goebel, Dan M.; Hofer, Richard R.; Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira; Polk, James E.; Dotson, Brandon

    2013-01-01

    A unique configuration of the magnetic field near the wall of Hall thrusters, called Magnetic Shielding, has recently demonstrated the ability to significantly reduce the erosion of the boron nitride (BN) walls and extend the life of Hall thrusters by orders of magnitude. The ability of magnetic shielding to minimize interactions between the plasma and the discharge chamber walls has for the first time enabled the replacement of insulating walls with conducting materials without loss in thruster performance. The boron nitride rings in the 6 kW H6 Hall thruster were replaced with graphite that self-biased to near the anode potential. The thruster efficiency remained over 60% (within two percent of the baseline BN configuration) with a small decrease in thrust and increase in Isp typical of magnetically shielded Hall thrusters. The graphite wall temperatures decreased significantly compared to both shielded and unshielded BN configurations, leading to the potential for higher power operation. Eliminating ceramic walls makes it simpler and less expensive to fabricate a thruster to survive launch loads, and the graphite discharge chamber radiates more efficiently which increases the power capability of the thruster compared to conventional Hall thruster designs.

  14. Thermal Contact Conductance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salerno, Louis J.; Kittel, Peter

    1997-01-01

    The performance of cryogenic instruments is often a function of their operating temperature. Thus, designers of cryogenic instruments often are required to predict the operating temperature of each instrument they design. This requires accurate thermal models of cryogenic components which include the properties of the materials and assembly techniques used. When components are bolted or otherwise pressed together, a knowledge of the thermal performance of such joints are also needed. In some cases, the temperature drop across these joints represents a significant fraction of the total temperature difference between the instrument and its cooler. While extensive databases exist on the thermal properties of bulk materials, similar databases for pressed contacts do not. This has often lead to instrument designs that avoid pressed contacts or to the over-design of such joints at unnecessary expense. Although many people have made measurements of contact conductances at cryogenic temperatures, this data is often very narrow in scope and even more often it has not been published in an easily retrievable fashion, if published at all. This paper presents a summary of the limited pressed contact data available in the literature.

  15. Blue straggler star populations in globular clusters - II. Proper-motion cleaned HST catalogues of BSSs in 38 Galactic GCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simunovic, Mirko; Puzia, Thomas H.

    2016-11-01

    We present new blue straggler star (BSS) catalogues in 38 Milky Way globular clusters (GCs) based on multipassband and multi-epoch treasury survey data from the Hubble Space Telescope. We measure precise astrometry and relative proper motions of stars in all target clusters and performed a subsequent cluster membership selection. We study the accuracy of our proper-motion measurements using estimates of central velocity dispersions and find very good agreement with previous studies in the literature. Finally, we present a homogeneous BSS selection method, that expands the classic BSS selection parameter space to more evolved BSS evolutionary stages. We apply this method to the proper-motion cleaned GC star catalogues in order to define proper-motion cleaned BSS catalogues in all 38 GCs, which we make publicly available to enable further study and follow-up observations.

  16. Report: Policies Needed for Proper Use and Management of Cost-Reimbursement Contracts Based on Duncan Hunter Act

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #12-P-0320, March 6, 2012. EPA did not comply with several key revisions to the FAR as amended by the interim rule, Proper Use and Management of Cost Reimbursement Contracts (FAR Case 2008-030).

  17. Kinematics of the galaxy from OB stars with proper motions from the Gaia DR1 catalogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobylev, V. V.; Bajkova, A. T.

    2017-03-01

    We consider two samples of OB stars with different distance scales that we have studied previously. The first and second samples consist of massive spectroscopic binaries with photometric distances and distances determined from interstellar calcium lines, respectively. The OB stars are located at heliocentric distances up to 7 kpc. We have identified them with the Gaia DR1 catalogue. Using the proper motions taken from the Gaia DR1 catalogue is shown to reduce the random errors in the Galactic rotation parameters compared to the previously known results. By analyzing the proper motions and parallaxes of 208 OB stars from the Gaia DR1 catalogue with a relative parallax error of less than 200%, we have found the following kinematic parameters: ( U, V)⊙ = (8.67, 6.63)± (0.88, 0.98) km s-1, Ω0 = 27.35 ± 0.77 km s-1 kpc-1, Ω'0 = -4.13 ± 0.13 km s-1 kpc-2, and Ω″0 = 0.672 ± 0.070 km s-1 kpc-3, the Oort constants are A = -16.53 ± 0.52 km s-1 kpc-1 and B = 10.82 ± 0.93 km s-1 kpc-1, and the linear circular rotation velocity of the local standard of rest around the Galactic rotation axis is V 0 = 219 ± 8 km s-1 for the adopted R 0 = 8.0 ± 0.2 kpc. Based on the same stars, we have derived the rotation parameters only from their line-of-sight velocities. By comparing the estimated values of Ω'0, we have found the distance scale factor for the Gaia DR1 catalogue to be close to unity: 0.96. Based on 238 OB stars of the combined sample with photometric distances for the stars of the first sample and distances in the calcium distance scale for the stars of the second sample, line-of-sight velocities, and proper motions from the Gaia DR1 catalogue, we have found the following kinematic parameters: ( U, V, W)⊙ = (8.19, 9.28, 8.79)± (0.74, 0.92, 0.74) km s-1, Ω0 = 31.53 ± 0.54 km s-1 kpc-1, Ω'0 = -4.44 ± 0.12 km s-1 kpc-2, and Ω″0 = 0.706 ± 0.100 km s-1 kpc-3; here, A = -17.77 ± 0.46 km s-1 kpc-1, B = 13.76 ± 0.71 km s-1 kpc-1, and V 0 = 252 ± 8 km s-1.

  18. Discovery of new companions to high proper motion stars from the VVV Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Valentin D.; Minniti, Dante; Hempel, Maren; Kurtev, Radostin; Toledo, Ignacio; Saito, Roberto K.; Alonso-García, Javier; Beamín, Juan Carlos; Borissova, Jura; Catelan, Márcio; Chené, André-Nicolas; Emerson, Jim; González, Óscar A.; Lucas, Phillip W.; Martín, Eduardo L.; Rejkuba, Marina; Gromadzki, Mariusz

    2013-12-01

    Context. The severe crowding in the direction of the inner Milky Way suggests that the census of stars within a few tens of parsecs in that direction may not be complete. Aims: We searched for new nearby object companions of known high proper motion (HPM) stars located towards the densest regions of the southern Milky Way where the background contamination presented a major problem to previous observations. Methods: The common proper motion (PM) method was used. We inspected the area around 167 known HPM (≥200 mas yr-1) stars: 67 in the disk and 100 in the bulge. Multi-epoch images were provided by the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) and the VISTA Variables in Via Lactea (VVV). The VVV is a new on-going ZYJHKS plus multi-epoch KS survey of ~562 deg2 of the Milky Way bulge and inner southern disk. Results: Seven new co-moving companions were discovered around known HPM stars (L 149-77, LHS 2881, L 200-41, LHS 3188, LP 487-4, LHS 5333, and LP 922-16); six known co-moving pairs were recovered (LTT 5140 A + LTT 5140 B, L 412-3 + L 412-4, LP 920-25 + LP 920-26, LTT 6990 A + LTT 6990 B, M 124.22158.2900 + M 124.22158.2910, and GJ 2136 A + GJ 2136 B); a pair of stars that was thought to be co-moving was found to have different proper motions (LTT 7318, LTT 7319); published HPMs of eight stars were not confirmed (C* 1925, C* 1930, C* 1936, CD-60 4613, LP 866-17, OGLE BUL-SC20 625107, OGLE BUL-SC21 298351, and OGLE BUL-SC32 388121); last but not least, spectral types ranging from G8V to M5V were derived from new infrared spectroscopy for seventeen stars, members of the co-moving pairs. Conclusions: The seven newly discovered stars constitute ~4% of the nearby HPM star list, but this is not a firm limit on the HPM star incompleteness because our starting point - the HPM list assembled from the literature - is incomplete itself, missing many nearby HPM M- and L-type objects, and it is contaminated with non-HPM stars. We have demonstrated that the superior sub

  19. Hubble Space Telescope Proper Motion (HSTPROMO) Catalogs of Galactic Globular Cluster. II. Kinematic Profiles and Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, Laura L.; van der Marel, Roeland P.; Bellini, Andrea; Anderson, Jay

    2015-04-01

    We present kinematical analyses of 22 Galactic globular clusters using the Hubble Space Telescope proper motion catalogs recently presented in Bellini et al. For most clusters, this is the first proper-motion study ever performed, and, for many, this is the most detailed kinematic study of any kind. We use cleaned samples of bright stars to determine binned velocity-dispersion and velocity-anisotropy radial profiles and two-dimensional velocity-dispersion spatial maps. Using these profiles, we search for correlations between cluster kinematics and structural properties. We find the following: (1) more centrally concentrated clusters have steeper radial velocity-dispersion profiles; (2) on average, at 1σ confidence in two dimensions, the photometric and kinematic centers of globular clusters agree to within ˜1″, with a cluster-to-cluster rms of 4″(including observational uncertainties); (3) on average, the cores of globular clusters have isotropic velocity distributions to within 1% ({{σ }t}/{{σ }r}=0.992+/- 0.005), with a cluster-to-cluster rms of 2% (including observational uncertainties); (4) clusters generally have mildly radially anisotropic velocity distributions ({{σ }t}/{{σ }r}≈ 0.8-1.0) near the half-mass-radius, with bigger deviations from isotropy for clusters with longer relaxation times; and (5) there is a relation between {{σ }minor}/{{σ }major} and ellipticity, such that the more flattened clusters in the sample tend to be more anisotropic, with {{σ }minor}/{{σ }major}≈ 0.9-1.0. Aside from these general results and correlations, the profiles and maps presented here can provide a basis for detailed dynamical modeling of individual globular clusters. Given the quality of the data, this is likely to provide new insights into a range of topics concerning globular cluster mass profiles, structure, and dynamics. Based on proprietary and archival observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science

  20. THE SPACE MOTION OF LEO I: HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE PROPER MOTION AND IMPLIED ORBIT

    SciTech Connect

    Sohn, Sangmo Tony; Van der Marel, Roeland P.; Besla, Gurtina; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael; Bullock, James S.; Majewski, Steven R.

    2013-05-10

    We present the first absolute proper motion measurement of Leo I, based on two epochs of Hubble Space Telescope ACS/WFC images separated by {approx}5 years in time. The average shift of Leo I stars with respect to {approx}100 background galaxies implies a proper motion of ({mu}{sub W}, {mu}{sub N}) = (0.1140 {+-} 0.0295, -0.1256 {+-} 0.0293) mas yr{sup -1}. The implied Galactocentric velocity vector, corrected for the reflex motion of the Sun, has radial and tangential components V{sub rad} = 167.9 {+-} 2.8 km s{sup -1} and V{sub tan} = 101.0 {+-} 34.4 km s{sup -1}, respectively. We study the detailed orbital history of Leo I by solving its equations of motion backward in time for a range of plausible mass models for the Milky Way (MW) and its surrounding galaxies. Leo I entered the MW virial radius 2.33 {+-} 0.21 Gyr ago, most likely on its first infall. It had a pericentric approach 1.05 {+-} 0.09 Gyr ago at a Galactocentric distance of 91 {+-} 36 kpc. We associate these timescales with characteristic timescales in Leo I's star formation history, which shows an enhanced star formation activity {approx}2 Gyr ago and quenching {approx}1 Gyr ago. There is no indication from our calculations that other galaxies have significantly influenced Leo I's orbit, although there is a small probability that it may have interacted with either Ursa Minor or Leo II within the last {approx}1 Gyr. For most plausible MW masses, the observed velocity implies that Leo I is bound to the MW. However, it may not be appropriate to include it in models of the MW satellite population that assume dynamical equilibrium, given its recent infall. Solution of the complete (non-radial) timing equations for the Leo I orbit implies an MW mass M{sub MW,vir} = 3.15{sub -1.36}{sup +1.58} x 10{sup 12} M{sub Sun }, with the large uncertainty dominated by cosmic scatter. In a companion paper, we compare the new observations to the properties of Leo I subhalo analogs extracted from cosmological

  1. Moments of the transmission eigenvalues, proper delay times and random matrix theory II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezzadri, F.; Simm, N. J.

    2012-05-01

    We systematically study the first three terms in the asymptotic expansions of the moments of the transmission eigenvalues and proper delay times as the number of quantum channels n in the leads goes to infinity. The computations are based on the assumption that the Landauer-Büttiker scattering matrix for chaotic ballistic cavities can be modelled by the circular ensembles of random matrix theory. The starting points are the finite-n formulae that we recently discovered [F. Mezzadri and N. J. Simm, "Moments of the transmission eigenvalues, proper delay times and random matrix theory," J. Math. Phys. 52, 103511 (2011)], 10.1063/1.3644378. Our analysis includes all the symmetry classes β ∈ {1, 2, 4}; in addition, it applies to the transmission eigenvalues of Andreev billiards, whose symmetry classes were classified by Zirnbauer ["Riemannian symmetric superspaces and their origin in random-matrix theory," J. Math. Phys. 37(10), 4986 (1996)], 10.1063/1.531675 and Altland and Zirnbauer ["Random matrix theory of a chaotic Andreev quantum dot," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76(18), 3420 (1996), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.76.3420; Altland and Zirnbauer "Nonstandard symmetry classes in mesoscopic normal-superconducting hybrid structures," Phys. Rev. B 55(2), 1142 (1997)], 10.1103/PhysRevB.55.1142. Where applicable, our results are in complete agreement with the semiclassical theory of mesoscopic systems developed by Berkolaiko et al. ["Full counting statistics of chaotic cavities from classical action correlations," J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 41(36), 365102 (2008)], 10.1088/1751-8113/41/36/365102 and Berkolaiko and Kuipers ["Moments of the Wigner delay times," J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 43(3), 035101 (2010), 10.1088/1751-8113/43/3/035101; Berkolaiko and Kuipers "Transport moments beyond the leading order," New J. Phys. 13(6), 063020 (2011)], 10.1088/1367-2630/13/6/063020. Our approach also applies to the Selberg-like integrals. We calculate the first two terms in their asymptotic expansion

  2. Proper Control of Caulobacter crescentus Cell Surface Adhesion Requires the General Protein Chaperone DnaK

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, Daniel S.; Crosson, Sean

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Growth in a surface-attached bacterial community, or biofilm, confers a number of advantages. However, as a biofilm matures, high-density growth imposes stresses on individual cells, and it can become less advantageous for progeny to remain in the community. Thus, bacteria employ a variety of mechanisms to control attachment to and dispersal from surfaces in response to the state of the environment. The freshwater oligotroph Caulobacter crescentus can elaborate a polysaccharide-rich polar organelle, known as the holdfast, which enables permanent surface attachment. Holdfast development is strongly inhibited by the small protein HfiA; mechanisms that control HfiA levels in the cell are not well understood. We have discovered a connection between the essential general protein chaperone, DnaK, and control of C. crescentus holdfast development. C. crescentus mutants partially or completely lacking the C-terminal substrate binding “lid” domain of DnaK exhibit enhanced bulk surface attachment. Partial or complete truncation of the DnaK lid domain increases the probability that any single cell will develop a holdfast by 3- to 10-fold. These results are consistent with the observation that steady-state levels of an HfiA fusion protein are significantly diminished in strains that lack the entire lid domain of DnaK. While dispensable for growth, the lid domain of C. crescentus DnaK is required for proper chaperone function, as evidenced by observed dysregulation of HfiA and holdfast development in strains expressing lidless DnaK mutants. We conclude that DnaK is an important molecular determinant of HfiA stability and surface adhesion control. IMPORTANCE Regulatory control of cell adhesion ensures that bacterial cells can transition between free-living and surface-attached states. We define a role for the essential protein chaperone, DnaK, in the control of Caulobacter crescentus cell adhesion. C. crescentus surface adhesion is mediated by an envelope

  3. Lowell proper motion survey: Southern Hemisphere (Giclas, Burnham, and Thomas 1978). Documentation for the machine-readable version

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, Wayne H., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The machine-readable version of the catalog, as it is currently being distributed from the Astronomical Data Center, is described. The catalog is a summary compilation of the Lowell Proper Motion Survey for the Southern Hemisphere, as completed to mid-1978 and published in the Lowell Observatory Bulletins. This summary catalog serves as a Southern Hemisphere companion to the Lowell Proper Motion Survey, Northern Hemisphere.

  4. Estimation on the self recovery behavior of low-conductivity layer in landfill final cover by laboratory conductivity tests.

    PubMed

    Kwon, O; Park, J

    2006-11-01

    This study examined the application of a Self Recovering Sustainable Layer (SRSL) as a landfill final cover. Low-conductivity layers in landfill covers are known to have problems associated with cracking as a result of the differential settlement or climatic changes. A SRSL is defined as a layer with chemical properties that reduces the increased hydraulic conductivity resulting from cracking by forming low-conductivity precipitates of chemicals contained in the layer. In this study, the formation of precipitates was confirmed using a batch test, spectroscopic analysis and mineralogical speciation tests. The possibility of secondary contamination due to the chemicals used for recovery was evaluated using a leaching test. A laboratory conductivity test was performed on a single layer composed of each chemical as well as on a 2-layer system. The recovery performance of the SRSL was estimated by developing artificial cracks in the specimens and observing the change in hydraulic conductivity as a function of time. In the laboratory conductivity test, the hydraulic conductivity of a 2-layer system as well as those of the individual layers that comprise the 2-layer system was estimated. In addition sodium ash was found to enhance the reduction in conductivity. A significant increase in conductivity was observed after the cracks developed but this was reduced with time, which indicated that the SRSL has a proper recovering performance. In conclusion, a SRSL can be used as a landfill final cover that could maintain low-conductivity even after the serious damages due to settlement.

  5. VERY LONG BASELINE INTERFEROMETRY MEASURED PROPER MOTION AND PARALLAX OF THE γ-RAY MILLISECOND PULSAR PSR J0218+4232

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Yuanjie; Chen, Ding; Yang, Jun; Campbell, Robert M.; Janssen, Gemma; Stappers, Ben

    2014-02-20

    PSR J0218+4232 is a millisecond pulsar (MSP) with a flux density ∼0.9 mJy at 1.4 GHz. It is very bright in the high-energy X-ray and γ-ray domains. We conducted an astrometric program using the European VLBI Network (EVN) at 1.6 GHz to measure its proper motion and parallax. A model-independent distance would also help constrain its γ-ray luminosity. We achieved a detection of signal-to-noise ratio S/N >37 for the weak pulsar in all five epochs. Using an extragalactic radio source lying 20 arcmin away from the pulsar, we estimate the pulsar's proper motion to be μ{sub α}cos δ = 5.35 ± 0.05 mas yr{sup –1} and μ{sub δ} = –3.74 ± 0.12 mas yr{sup –1}, and a parallax of π = 0.16 ± 0.09 mas. The very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) proper motion has significantly improved upon the estimates from long-term pulsar timing observations. The VLBI parallax provides the first model-independent distance constraints: d=6.3{sub −2.3}{sup +8.0} kpc, with a corresponding 3σ lower-limit of d = 2.3 kpc. This is the first pulsar trigonometric parallax measurement based solely on EVN observations. Using the derived distance, we believe that PSR J0218+4232 is the most energetic γ-ray MSP known to date. The luminosity based on even our 3σ lower-limit distance is high enough to pose challenges to the conventional outer gap and slot gap models.

  6. Rank defect analysis and the realization of proper singularity in normal equations of geodetic networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotsakis, C.; Chatzinikos, M.

    2017-01-01

    The singularity of input normal equations (NEQ) is a crucial element for their optimal handling in the context of terrestrial reference frame (TRF) estimation under the minimal-constraint framework. However, this element is often missing in the recovered NEQ from SINEX files after the usual deconstraining based on the stated information for the stored solutions. The same setback also occurs with the original NEQ that are formed by the least-squares processing of space geodetic data due to the datum information which is carried by various modeling choices and/or software-dependent procedures. In the absence of this datum-related singularity, it is not possible to obtain genuine minimally constrained solutions because of the interference between the input NEQ's content and the external datum conditions, a fact that may alter the geometrical information of the original measurements and can cause unwanted distortions in the estimated solution. The main goal of this paper is the formulation of a filtering scheme to enforce the proper (or desired) singularity in the input NEQ with regard to datum parameters that will be handled by the minimal-constraint setting in TRF estimation problems. The importance of this task is extensively discussed and justified with the help of several numerical examples in different GNSS networks.

  7. X-ray analysis of the proper motion and PWN for PSR J1741-2054

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auchettl, Katie; Slane, Patrick O.; Romani, Roger W.; Kargaltsev, Oleg; Pavlov, George G.

    2015-01-01

    We report on the X-ray analysis of PSR J1741-2054 carried out as a part of the Chandra XVP program (6 ACIS-S observations, totalling ~300 ks over 5 months). By registering this new epoch of observations using X-ray point sources in the field of view to an archival observation taken 3.2 years earlier, we are able to measure the proper motion of the pulsar with >3σ significance. We also investigate the spatial and spectral properties of the pulsar, its compact nebula and extended tail. We find that the compact nebula can be well described with an absorbed power-law with photon index of Γ=1.6+/-0.2, while the tail shows no evidence of variation in the spectral index with the distance from the pulsar. We have also investigated the X-ray spectrum of the neutron star. We find non thermal emission accompanied by a significant thermal component and will provide constraints on the overall nature of the emission.

  8. Proper Orthogonal Decomposition on Experimental Multi-phase Flow in a Pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viggiano, Bianca; Tutkun, Murat; Cal, Raúl Bayoán

    2016-11-01

    Multi-phase flow in a 10 cm diameter pipe is analyzed using proper orthogonal decomposition. The data were obtained using X-ray computed tomography in the Well Flow Loop at the Institute for Energy Technology in Kjeller, Norway. The system consists of two sources and two detectors; one camera records the vertical beams and one camera records the horizontal beams. The X-ray system allows measurement of phase holdup, cross-sectional phase distributions and gas-liquid interface characteristics within the pipe. The mathematical framework in the context of multi-phase flows is developed. Phase fractions of a two-phase (gas-liquid) flow are analyzed and a reduced order description of the flow is generated. Experimental data deepens the complexity of the analysis with limited known quantities for reconstruction. Comparison between the reconstructed fields and the full data set allows observation of the important features. The mathematical description obtained from the decomposition will deepen the understanding of multi-phase flow characteristics and is applicable to fluidized beds, hydroelectric power and nuclear processes to name a few.

  9. [Improved culturability of soil bacteria using proper combination with various culturing medium].

    PubMed

    Hu, Yuan-Sen; Li, Cui-Xiang; Sun, Fu-Lin; Wu, Kun; Jia, Xin-Cheng

    2007-10-01

    To isolate more unique and previously unrecognized bacteria in soil samples, the culture difference under three incubation modes was investigated by using trophic, low-nutrient broth and soil extract as growth medium. Plate count proved that the oligotrophic medium resulted in a slow growth and consecutive colony formation over the course of incubation. On the 5th day, the most number of colony-forming unit was found on trophic LB and low-nutrient R2A, which was approximate 5 times as many as that isolated on 0.1 x LB. Of the 7 media, LB broth harvested the maximum bacterial communities, and novel species could be isolated as the nutrient was diluted to appropriate extent. The DGGE patterns of oligotrophic and rich nutrient culture collection displayed low similarity, however, the bands at various lanes exhibited complementary effect. When cultivated with static flask, LB and R2A media obtained more bacterial species, which concluded most species isolated by the other five media. Under the test tube incubation mode, the most species was also found in LB medium except some appeared only on R2A and TSB. Apparent bacterial communities difference could be detected between R2A, LB and TSB media. The experiment data may contribute much to the special medium design as well as improvement of bacterial culturability by using proper medium.

  10. [Is amalgam stained dentin a proper substrate for bonding resin composite?].

    PubMed

    Scholtanus, J D

    2016-06-01

    After the removal of amalgam restorations, black staining of dentin is often observed, which is attributed to the penetration of corrosion products from amalgam. A study was carried out to determine whether this amalgam stained dentin is a proper substrate for bonding resin composites. A literature study and an in vitro study showed that Sn and Zn in particular are found in amalgam stained dentin, and this was the case only in demineralised dentin. In vitro, demineralised dentin acted as porte d'entrÈe for amalgam corrosion products. Bond strength tests with 5 adhesive strategies showed no differences between bond strengths to amalgam stained and to sound dentin, but did show different failure types. A clinical study showed good survival of extensive cusp replacing resin composite restorations. No failures were attributed to inadequate adhesion. It is concluded that staining of dentin by amalgam corrosion products has no negative effect upon bond strength of resin composite. It is suggested that Sn and Zn may have a beneficial effect upon dentin, thus compensating the effects of previous carious attacks, preparation trauma and physico-chemical challenges during clinical lifetime.

  11. HST Data suggest proper motion for the optical counterpart of GRB 970228.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caraveo, P. A.; Mignani, R. P.; Tavani, M.; Bignami, G. F.

    1997-10-01

    After a quarter of a century of γ-ray burst (GRB) astronomy, the Italian-Dutch satellite BeppoSAX on Feb 28^th^, 1997 detected a soft X-ray afterglow from GRB 970228 and positioned it accurately. This made possible the successful detection of an optical transient. Two public Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images of the GRB/optical transient region were taken on March 26^th^ and April 7^th^, 1997. They are analyzed here, with the purpose of understanding the nature of GRB 970228. We find that the position of the faint point-like object (m_v_~26) seen at the transient location changed by 0.40+/-0.10pixels in 12 days, corresponding to a proper motion of ~550mas/year. By comparison, four adjacent sources in the same field do not show any significant displacement, with astrometric residuals close to zero and average absolute displacements less than 0.09pixels. If confirmed, this result would strongly support the galactic nature of GRB 970228.

  12. Photometric and Proper Motion Study of the Neglected Open Cluster NGC 2215

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzgerald, M. T.; Inwood, L.; McKinnon, D. H.; Dias, W. S.; Sacchi, M.; Scott, B.; Zolinski, M.; Danaia, L.; Edwards, R.

    2015-06-01

    Optical UBVRI photometric measurements using the Faulkes Telescope North were taken in early 2011 and combined with 2MASS JHKs and WISE infrared photometry as well as UCAC4 proper motion data in order to estimate the main parameters of the galactic open cluster NGC 2215 of which large uncertainty exists in the current literature. Fitting a King model we estimate a core radius of 1.‧12 ± 0.‧04 (0.24 ± 0.01 pc) and a limiting radius of 4.‧3 ± 0.‧5 (0.94 ± 0.11 pc) for the cluster. The results of isochrone fits indicates an age of log (t)=8.85+/- 0.10 with a distance of d=790+/- 90 pc, a metallicity of [Fe/H]=-0.40+/- 0.10 dex, and a reddening of E(B-V)=0.26+/- 0.04. A proportion of the work in this study was undertaken by Australian and Canadian upper secondary school students involved in the Space to Grow astronomy education project, and is the first scientific publication to have utilized our star cluster photometry curriculum materials.

  13. Transcriptional enhancement of Smn levels in motoneurons is crucial for proper axon morphology in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Spiró, Zoltán; Koh, Angela; Tay, Shermaine; See, Kelvin; Winkler, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    An unresolved mystery in the field of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is why a reduction of the ubiquitously expressed Smn protein causes defects mostly in motoneurons. We addressed the possibility that this restricted vulnerability stems from elevated Smn expression in motoneurons. To explore this, we established an ex vivo zebrafish culture system of GFP-marked motoneurons to quantitatively measure Smn protein and smn mRNA levels as well as promoter activity in motoneurons versus other cell types. Importantly, we uncovered that Smn levels are elevated in motoneurons by means of transcriptional activation. In addition, we identified the ETS family transcription factor Etv5b to be responsible for increased smn transcription in motoneurons. Moreover, we established that the additional supply of Smn protein in motoneurons is necessary for proper axonogenesis in a cell-autonomous manner. These findings demonstrate the reliance of motoneurons on more Smn, thereby adding a novel piece of evidence for their increased vulnerability under SMA conditions. PMID:27273160

  14. What is the role of the uncinate fasciculus? Surgical removal and proper name retrieval.

    PubMed

    Papagno, Costanza; Miracapillo, Christiano; Casarotti, Alessandra; Romero Lauro, Leonor J; Castellano, Antonella; Falini, Andrea; Casaceli, Giuseppe; Fava, Enrica; Bello, Lorenzo

    2011-02-01

    The functional role of the uncinate fasciculus is still a matter of debate. We examined 44 patients submitted to awake surgery for removal of a left frontal or temporal glioma. In 18 patients, the removal included the uncinate fasciculus. We compared patients with or without removal on a series of neuropsychological tasks, performed at different time intervals: pre-surgery, in the first week after surgery and 3 months after surgery. Functional magnetic resonance and diffusion tensor imaging, fibre-tracking techniques were performed before surgery. At the last examination, patients with uncinate removal were significantly impaired in naming of famous faces and objects as compared with patients without removal. We further divided patients according to the site of the tumour (either frontal or temporal). At the follow-up, patients with a temporal glioma who underwent uncinate removal had the worst loss of performance in famous face naming. In addition, on the same task, the group with a frontal glioma that underwent resection of the frontal part of the uncinate performed significantly worse than the group with a frontal glioma but without uncinate removal. In conclusion, the resection of the uncinate fasciculus, in its frontal or temporal part, has long-lasting consequences for famous face naming. We suggest that this fibre tract is part of a circuitry involved in the retrieval of word form for proper names. Retrieval of conceptual knowledge was intact.

  15. St. Helena, Edmond Halley, the discovery of stellar proper motion, and the mystery of Aldebaran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, John C.

    2010-07-01

    St. Helena was the location of Halley's observatory in 1677-1678. The site has been identified and I report on a visit in November 2006. The principal use of the observatory was to accurately map the stars of the southern sky. In the summary of his work, the Catalogus Stellarum Australium, Halley noted evidence for the "... mutability of the fixed Stars." He would not return to this subject until much later in his career. Halley later compared contemporary positions of Arcturus, Sirius, and Aldebaran with the ancient positions recorded in the Almagest. He found that these stars had apparently moved southward by >30' and concluded that they had their own particular motions. Modern proper motion measurements are consistent with this conclusion for Arcturus and Sirius, but are not even close for Aldebaran. While some authors are aware of the problem, it generally is not mentioned in books on the history of astronomy or in biographical works on Halley. Errors in the Almagest positions can be ruled out; an error of 30' in the early eighteenth century position is highly unlikely; a misidentification of the star is implausible; and, we are left with the conclusion that there is most likely an error in Halley's calculations.

  16. On the use and interpretation of proper orthogonal decomposition of in-cylinder engine flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hao; Reuss, David L.; Sick, Volker

    2012-08-01

    The proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) has found increasing application for the comparison of measured and computed data as well as the identification of instantaneous and time varying flow structures, particularly cyclic variability in reciprocating internal combustion engines. The patterns observed in the basis functions or modes are sometimes interpreted as coherent structures, though justification of this is not obvious from the mathematical derivations. Similarly, there is no consensus about whether or not the ensemble mean should be subtracted prior to performing POD on a data set. Synthetic flow fields are used here to reveal POD properties otherwise ambiguous in real stochastic flow data. In particular, each POD mode includes elements of all flow structures from all input snapshots and in general, several modes are needed to reconstruct physical flow structures. POD analysis of two experimental in-cylinder engine data is done: one flow condition where every cycle resembles the ensemble-averaged flow pattern, and the other with large cyclic variability such that no cycles resemble the ensemble average. The energy and flow patterns of the POD modes, derived with and without first subtracting the mean, are compared to each other and to the Reynolds decomposed flow to reveal properties of the POD modes.

  17. The proper treatment of language acquisition and change in a population setting

    PubMed Central

    Niyogi, Partha; Berwick, Robert C.

    2009-01-01

    Language acquisition maps linguistic experience, primary linguistic data (PLD), onto linguistic knowledge, a grammar. Classically, computational models of language acquisition assume a single target grammar and one PLD source, the central question being whether the target grammar can be acquired from the PLD. However, real-world learners confront populations with variation, i.e., multiple target grammars and PLDs. Removing this idealization has inspired a new class of population-based language acquisition models. This paper contrasts 2 such models. In the first, iterated learning (IL), each learner receives PLD from one target grammar but different learners can have different targets. In the second, social learning (SL), each learner receives PLD from possibly multiple targets, e.g., from 2 parents. We demonstrate that these 2 models have radically different evolutionary consequences. The IL model is dynamically deficient in 2 key respects. First, the IL model admits only linear dynamics and so cannot describe phase transitions, attested rapid changes in languages over time. Second, the IL model cannot properly describe the stability of languages over time. In contrast, the SL model leads to nonlinear dynamics, bifurcations, and possibly multiple equilibria and so suffices to model both the case of stable language populations, mixtures of more than 1 language, as well as rapid language change. The 2 models also make distinct, empirically testable predictions about language change. Using historical data, we show that the SL model more faithfully replicates the dynamics of the evolution of Middle English. PMID:19497883

  18. Proper Motions of New Dust in the Colliding Wind Binary WR 140

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monnier, J. D.; Tuthill, P. G.; Danchi, W. C.

    2002-03-01

    The eccentric W-R + O binary system WR 140 produces dust for a few months at intervals of 7.94 yr coincident with periastron passage. We present the first resolved images of this dust shell, at binary phases φ~0.039 and ~0.055, using aperture masking techniques on the Keck I telescope to achieve diffraction-limited resolution. Proper motions of approximately 1.1 mas per day were detected, implying a distance <~1.5 kpc from the known wind speed. The dust plume observed is not as simple as the ``pinwheel'' nebulae seen around other W-R colliding wind binaries, indicating the orbital plane is highly inclined to our line of sight and/or the dust formation is very clumpy. Follow-up imaging in the mid-infrared and with adaptive optics is urgently required to track the dust motion further, necessary for unambiguously determining the orbital geometry, which we only partially constrain here. With full knowledge of the orbital elements, these infrared images can be used to reconstruct the dust distribution along the colliding wind interface, providing a unique tool for probing the postshock physical conditions of violent astrophysical flows.

  19. Proper orthogonal decomposition and wavelet methods for noise reduction in particle-based transport calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen van Ye, Romain; Del-Castillo-Negrete, Diego; Spong, D.; Hirshman, S.; Farge, M.

    2008-11-01

    A limitation of particle-based transport calculations is the noise due to limited statistical sampling. Thus, a key element for the success of these calculations is the development of efficient denoising methods. Here we discuss denoising techniques based on Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) and Wavelet Decomposition (WD). The goal is the reconstruction of smooth (denoised) particle distribution functions from discrete particle data obtained from Monte Carlo simulations. In 2-D, the POD method is based on low rank truncations of the singular value decomposition of the data. For 3-D we propose the use of a generalized low rank approximation of matrices technique. The WD denoising is based on the thresholding of empirical wavelet coefficients [Donoho et al., 1996]. The methods are illustrated and tested with Monte-Carlo particle simulation data of plasma collisional relaxation including pitch angle and energy scattering. As an application we consider guiding-center transport with collisions in a magnetically confined plasma in toroidal geometry. The proposed noise reduction methods allow to achieve high levels of smoothness in the particle distribution function using significantly less particles in the computations.

  20. Dexterity test data contribute to proper glovebox over-glove use

    SciTech Connect

    Cournoyer, Michael E; Lawton, Cindy M; Castro, Amanda M; Costigan, Stephen A; Apel, D M; Neal, G E; Castro, J M; Michelotti, R A

    2010-01-21

    Programmatic operations at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility (TA-55) involve working with various amounts of plutonium and other highly toxic, alpha-emitting materials. The spread of radiological contamination on surfaces, airborne contamination, and excursions of contaminants into the operator's breathing zone are prevented through the use of a variety of gloveboxes (the glovebox, coupled with an adequate negative pressure gradient, provides primary confinement). The glovebox gloves are the weakest part of this engineering control. The Glovebox Glove Integrity Program, which controls glovebox gloves from procurement to disposal at TA-55, manages this vulnerability. A key element of this program is to consider measures that lower the overall risk of glovebox operations. Proper selection of over-gloves is one of these measures. Line management owning glovebox processes have the responsibility to approve the appropriate personal protective equipment/glovebox glove/over-glove combination. As low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) considerations to prevent unplanned glovebox glove openings must be balanced with glove durability and worker dexterity, both of which affect the final overall risk to the worker. In this study, the causes of unplanned glovebox glove openings, the benefits of over-glove features, the effect of over-gloves on task performance using standard dexterity tests, the pollution prevention benefits, and the recommended over-gloves for a task are presented.